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Title: Special Report on Diseases of Cattle
Author: United States. Bureau of Animal Industry, Pearson, Leonard, 1868-1909, Mohler, John R. (John Robbins), 1875-1952, Atkinson, V. T. (Vickers T.), -1891, Dickson, Dr. (William), -1891, Eichhorn, A. (Adolph), 1875-1956, Hickman, Richard W. (Richard West), 1852-1926, Law, James, 1838-1921, Lowe, Dr. (William Herbert), 1862-1933, Marsh, C. Dwight (Charles Dwight), 1855-1932, Murray, A. J. (Alexander James), Ransom, Brayton Howard, 1879-1925, Trumbower, M. R. (Milton R.), Woodward, Dr. (Benjamin Tilghman), 1881-
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,

BUREAU OF ANIMAL INDUSTRY.

J. R. MOHLER, CHIEF OF BUREAU.

     *       *       *       *       *

SPECIAL REPORT

ON

DISEASES OF CATTLE.

BY

Drs. ATKINSON, DICKSON, EICHHORN, HICKMAN, LAW, LOWE,
       MARSH, MOHLER, MURRAY, PEARSON, RANSOM,
       TRUMBOWER, and WOODWARD.

     *       *       *       *       *

REVISED EDITION, 1923.

  [Illustration: USDA seal]

WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1923.

     *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's note: Minor typos have been corrected, tables have been
modified where necessary to fit within the constraints of a text file, and
footnotes have been moved to the ends of the sections. Inconsistencies in
spelling (e.g., D'Arboval/D'Arborval) and hyphenation (e.g.,
postmortem/post-mortem) have been resolved in all cases where it was
possible to divine the author's intent with a reasonable degree of
certainty. The occasional error which could not be resolved was marked
[sic]. Italicized letters and words are enclosed by _underscores_.
Subscripts are represented by an underscore and curly braces: _{2}
(for example, SiO_{2}). Ligatures which cannot be reproduced in the Latin-1
character set are enclosed in [brackets] (for example, C[oe]nurus).

     *       *       *       *       *

[Extract from "An act making appropriations for the Department of
Agriculture for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1924, and for other
purposes," approved February 26, 1923. Public--No. 446.]

For printing, binding, and distribution of the publications entitled
"Diseases of the Horse" and "Diseases of Cattle," $200,000:
_Provided_, That said publications shall be deposited one-third in
the folding room of the Senate and two-thirds in the folding room of
the House of Representatives, and said documents shall be distributed
by Members of the Senate and House of Representatives.



  CONTENTS.
                                                                     Page.

  Administration of medicines. By LEONARD PEARSON                       7

  Diseases of the digestive organs. By A. J. MURRAY                    12

  Poisons and poisoning. By V. T. ATKINSON                             51

  Diseases of the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatics.
    By W. H. HARBAUGH                                                  73

  Noncontagious diseases of the organs of respiration.
    By WILLIAM HERBERT LOWE                                            87

  Diseases of the nervous system. By W. H. HARBAUGH                   101

  Diseases of the urinary organs. By JAMES LAW                        113

  Diseases of the generative organs. By JAMES LAW                     147

  Diseases following parturition. By JAMES LAW                        214

  Diseases of young calves. By JAMES LAW                              247

  Bones: Diseases and accidents. By V. T. ATKINSON                    264

  Surgical operations. By WILLIAM DICKSON and WILLIAM HERBERT LOWE    289

  Tumors affecting cattle. By JOHN R. MOHLER                          303

  Diseases of the skin. By M. R. TRUMBOWER                            320

  Diseases of the foot. By M. R. TRUMBOWER                            335

  Diseases of the eye and its appendages. By M. R. TRUMBOWER          340

  Diseases of the ear. By M. R. TRUMBOWER                             355

  Infectious diseases of cattle. Revised by JOHN R. MOHLER            358

  The animal parasites of cattle. By B. H. RANSOM                     502

  Mycotic stomatitis of cattle. By JOHN R. MOHLER                     532

  Index                                                               538


  ILLUSTRATIONS.

  PLATES.
                                                                     Page.
  PLATE
  I. Position of the first stomach (rumen or paunch)                   48

  II. Stomachs of ruminants                                            48

  III. Instruments used in treating diseases of digestive organs       48

  IV. Microscopic anatomy of the liver                                 48

  V. Ergot in hay                                                      48

  VI. Ergotism                                                         48

  VII. Diagram of the circulation of the blood                         86

  VIII. Position of the lung                                           90

  IX. Kidney and male generative and urinary organs                   145

  X. Microscopic anatomy of the kidney                                145

  XI. Calculi of kidney and bladder                                   146

  XII. Fetal calf within its membranes                                210

  XIII. Pregnant uterus with cotyledons                               210

  XIV. Vessels of umbilical cord                                      211

  XV. Normal position of calf in utero                                211

  XVI. Abnormal positions of calf in utero                            211

  XVII. Abnormal positions of calf in utero                           211

  XVIII. Abnormal positions of calf in utero; surgical instruments
           and sutures                                                212

  XIX. Monstrosities                                                  212

  XX. Instruments used in difficult labor                             212

  XXI. Instruments used in difficult labor                            213

  XXII. Supports for prolapsed uterus                                 246

  XXIII. Supports for prolapsed uterus                                246

  XXIV. Instruments used in diseases following parturition            246

  XXV. Skeleton of the cow                                            282

  XXVI. Devices for casting cattle                                    302

  XXVII. Surgical instruments and sutures                             302

  XXVIII. Various bacteria which produce disease in cattle            360

  XXIX. Upper or dorsal surface of the lungs of the ox                368

  XXX. Broncho-pneumonia                                              368

  XXXI. Contagious pleuro-pneumonia                                   368

  XXXII. Contagious pleuro-pneumonia                                  368

  XXXIII. Foot-and-mouth disease                                      384

  XXXIV. Tuberculosis of the lungs of cattle                          416

  XXXV. Tuberculosis of the liver                                     416

  XXXVI. Tuberculosis of lymph gland and of omentum (caul)            416

  XXXVII. Fig. 1.--Tuberculosis of sirloin and porterhouse cuts
        of beef. Fig. 2.--Tuberculosis of pleura of cow,
            so-called "pearly disease"                                416

  XXXVIII. Tuberculosis of cow's udder                                416

  XXXIX. Actinomycosis                                                450

  XL. Actinomycosis of the jaw                                        450

  XLI. Actinomycosis of the lungs                                     450

  XLII. Section of muscle from a blackleg swelling                    464

  XLIII. Necrotic stomatitis (calf diphtheria)                        464

  XLIV. Normal spleen and spleen affected by Texas fever              504

  XLV. Texas fever                                                    504

  XLVI. The cattle tick (_Margaropus annulatus_), the carrier of
      Texas fever                                                     504

  XLVII. The cattle tick (_Margaropus annulatus_)                     504

  XLVIII. Portion of a steer's hide showing the Texas fever tick
        (_Margaropus annulatus_)                                      504

  XLIX. Fig. 1.--Tick-infested steer. Fig. 2.--Dipping cattle
      to kill ticks                                                   504

  L. Facsimile of poster comparing ticky and tick-free cattle         504


  TEXT FIGURES.

  FIG.
  1. Hornfly (_Hæmatobia serrata_) in resting position                504

  2. Hornflies (_Hæmatobia serrata_) on cow horn                      505

  3. Buffalo gnat                                                     506

  4. Screw worm (larva of _Chrysomyia macellaria_)                    506

  5. Screw-worm fly (_Chrysomyia macellaria_)                         507

  6. The warble fly (_Hypoderma lineata_)                             508

  7. Short-nosed blue louse (_Hæmatopinus eurysternus_) of cattle     512

  8. Long-nosed blue louse (_Hæmatopinus vituli_) of cattle           512

  9. Red louse (_Trichodectes scalaris_) of cattle                    513

  10. Egg of short-nosed blue louse (_Hæmatopinus eurysternus_)
        attached to a hair                                            513

  11. Mite which causes psoroptic scab of sheep                       514

  12. Portion of the wall of the first stomach with conical flukes
        (_Paramphistomum cervi_) attached                             519

  13. Twisted stomach worms (_Hæmonchus contortus_)                   519

  14. Twisted stomach worms (_Hæmonchus contortus_) enlarged          520

  15. Embryo of twisted stomach worm (_Hæmonchus contortus_)
        coiled on tip of grass blade                                  521

  16. A drenching tube made from an ordinary tin funnel, a piece of
        rubber hose, and a piece of brass pipe                        522

  17. Piece of lining of fourth stomach showing cysts of the encysted
        stomach worm (_Ostertatia ostertagi_)                         523

  18. A tapeworm (_Moniezia planissima_) which infests cattle         524

  19. The common liver fluke (_Fasciola hepatica_)                    526

  20. The large American fluke (_Fasciola magna_)                     526

  21. Portion of grass stalk bearing three encysted cercariæ of the
        common liver fluke (_Fasciola hepatica_)                      527

  22. Hydatids (_Echinococcus granulosus_) in portion of hog's liver  528

  23. Thin-necked bladder worm (_Tænia hydatigena_) from abdominal
        cavity of a steer                                             529

  24. Lung worms (_Dictyocaulus viviparus_) of cattle                 530



SPECIAL REPORT

ON

DISEASES OF CATTLE



ADMINISTRATION OF MEDICINES.

By LEONARD PEARSON, B. S., V. M. D.


Medicines may be administered to cattle in many ways. The channel and
method of administration depend on whether a general or local effect is
desired, the condition of the animal, and the nature of the medicine that
is to be given. The easiest method, and therefore the most common, is to
give ordinary remedies by the mouth with the food, with drink, or
separately. There, are, however, some conditions in which medicines
administered in this way will not act promptly enough, or wherein a desired
effect of the medicine on a distant part of the body is wholly lacking
unless it is applied in some other way.

The various methods of administering medicines to cattle will be considered
below.

BY THE MOUTH.--The simplest way to give medicines by the mouth is to mix
them with the food or water. This can be done when the medicine is in the
form of a powder or fluid, if but a small quantity is to be given, if it
does not have a taste that is disagreeable to the animal and is not so
irritant as to injure the lining membranes of the mouth and throat.

The usual method of administering bulky or unpalatable doses is to mix them
with a fluid vehicle, such as water, milk, molasses, or broth, and give
from a bottle. A dose given in this way is known as a "drench." In
administering a drench the head of the animal should be elevated a little
by an assistant. This is best accomplished when standing on the left side
of the cow's head and by grasping the nose with the thumb and fingers of
the right hand inserted in the nostrils; with the left hand beneath the
chin the head is further raised and supported. If the animal is unruly, it
may be tied in a stall or placed in a stanchion. The medicine can now be
poured into the mouth by inserting the neck of the bottle between the lips
on the right side. Care must be taken to avoid getting the bottle between
the back teeth. The mouth of the bottle should be inserted as far as the
middle of the tongue and the contents poured slowly. If the cow coughs, the
head must at once be lowered to permit the fluid to escape from the larynx.
If medicine is given during coughing, some of the dose may pass down the
windpipe to the lungs and cause a severe or a fatal pneumonia. This is
especially to be guarded against when the throat is partly paralyzed or
insensitive, as in parturient paresis (milk fever). In this disease it has
often happened that drenches have been poured into the lungs, thus killing
the cow.

The quantity of fluid to be given in a drench depends upon the effect
desired and the nature of the medicine. In impactions of the stomach very
large quantities of fluid may be given--as much as a gallon or several
gallons at a time. Usually, however, it is not customary or desirable to
give more than from 1 to 2 quarts at a dose, and not more than a pint
unless it is necessary on account of the irritant quality of the drug that
has to be shielded with a large quantity of the vehicle.

Soluble medicines should be completely dissolved before they are given;
insoluble ones should be finely divided by powdering or by shaking, and
should be well agitated and mixed immediately before they are given. In the
latter case a menstruum with considerable body, such as molasses or
flaxseed tea or milk, will help to hold solids or oils in suspension until
swallowed.

_Balls_ are large pills adapted for the larger animals. Powders or gums are
sometimes mixed with an adhesive substance and rolled into balls for the
purpose of convenience of administration. Balls are not used so much and
are not so well adapted to the medication of cattle as of horses. The
process of solution is slower in the paunch of a cow than in the stomach of
a horse; if the cow is so sick as to have stopped ruminating, a ball may
get covered up and lost in the mass of material in the paunch and so lie
for days, producing no effect whatever.

_Capsules_ are shells or envelopes made of soluble gelatin in which powders
or liquids may be inclosed. Capsules and balls are administered by being
placed on the tongue well back in the mouth while the tongue is drawn
forward and the mouth is held open by a block of wood between the back
teeth. The ball should be dropped, the tongue released, and the block
removed as nearly simultaneously as possible, so that the backward carriage
of the tongue will throw the ball into the throat and lead to its being
swallowed. In introducing the ball care must be taken to avoid having the
hand cut or crushed. After a little experience it is possible to do away
with the block of wood.

BY THE STOMACH.--Medicines are introduced directly into the first stomach
by the use of an esophageal tube or through the cannula of a trocar passed
into the paunch through the side. This method is used in the treatment of
diseases of digestion.

BY THE RECTUM.--Medicines are usually administered by the rectum for the
purpose of controlling the bowels and for the treatment of local diseases.
Sometimes, however, medicines that have a general effect are given in this
way when, for any reason, it is not possible or convenient to give them
through the mouth. Only drugs that are readily absorbed should be given per
rectum for a general effect and in somewhat larger dose or more frequently
than when given by the mouth. Such stimulants as ether, alcohol, or the
aromatic spirits of ammonia, diluted with from four to six times their bulk
of warm water, may be used in this way.

Rectal injections, or enemata, are used in the treatment of constipation.
If it is the purpose of the injection to soften hardened fecal masses, the
water should be comfortably warm and may have a little clean soap in it. If
it is the purpose of the injection to stimulate sluggish bowels to
contraction, the water may be cold.

In giving rectal injections a rectal syringe may be used, or, better, a
piece of one-half to three-quarter inch rubber hose 5 feet long with a tin
funnel attached to one end. The hose is soaped or oiled and introduced
slowly and gently into the rectum 2 or 3 feet. The fluid is then slowly
poured into the funnel and allowed to gravitate into the rectum. The same
apparatus may be used for feeding by the rectum.

BY THE VAGINA.--Medicines are inserted into the vagina, and through the
vagina into the womb, in a manner similar to that of rectal administration.
Most of the medication made use of in this way is for the local treatment
of these organs. Following calving, during outbreaks of abortion, and in an
infectious disease of the vagina, such injections become necessary.

BY THE UDDER.--Injections into the udder are now regularly made in the
treatment of parturient paresis (milk fever). For this purpose a 1 per cent
solution of iodid of potassium is commonly employed, although some other
solutions and oxygen gas are also used. In making this injection so many
precautions are necessary in relation to the sterilization of the apparatus
and the teats and skin that this work should be left to a skilled
veterinarian. The introduction of even a minute quantity of infectious dirt
may cause the loss of the udder. For making this injection one may use one
of the prepared sets of apparatus or a milking tube and funnel connected by
a piece of small rubber hose. The apparatus should be boiled and kept
wrapped in a clean towel until needed. The udder and teats and the hands of
the operator must be well disinfected, and the solution must be freshly
made with recently boiled water kept in a sterile bottle. The udder should
be emptied of milk before the injection is made. After all these
precautions have been observed the milking tube may be inserted and through
it one-half pint of solution introduced by gravity air pressure or by
syringe. There is practically no danger in this mode of treatment if it is
properly carried out.

Injections into the udder are sometimes made in the treatment of garget,
but so far with indifferent success.

BY THE NOSTRILS.--An animal may be caused to inhale medicine in the form of
gas or vapor or to snuff up a fine powder. Sometimes, for the purpose of
local treatment, fluids are injected into the nose.

A medicine inhaled may have either a local or a general effect.

Medicated steam, carrying the volatile products of compound cresol
solution, carbolic acid, balsam of Peru, compound tincture of benzoin,
tincture of iodin, etc., may be liberated beneath the nostrils of a cow so
that she must inhale these soothing vapors; but such treatment is not so
common for cattle as for horses. In producing general anesthesia, or
insensibility to pain, the vapor of chloroform or ether is administered by
the nostrils. As a preliminary to this it is necessary to cast and confine
the animal. Great care is necessary to avoid complete stoppage of the heart
or breathing.

BY THE TRACHEA.--Medicines are injected into the trachea, or windpipe, in
the treatment of some forms of diseases of the lungs, and especially in
that form of bronchitis or pneumonia that is caused by lungworms. For this
injection a large hypodermic syringe, fitted with a very thick, strong
needle, is used. The needle is to be inserted about the middle of the neck
and between the cartilaginous rings of the trachea.

BY THE SKIN.--Although a number of drugs, notably mercury, are so readily
absorbed by the skin of cattle as to render poisoning easy, medicines are
not given in this way for their general or constitutional but only for
their local effect.

Diseases of the skin and superficial parasites are treated or destroyed by
applications in the forms of washes, ointments, dips, and powders.
Liniments and lotions are applied to the skin for the relief of some
near-lying part, such as a muscle, tendon, or joint. Blisters are applied
to the skin for the purpose of obtaining the effect of counterirritation
upon a neighboring region or organ. Cold water may be applied to the skin
to reduce the temperature and to diminish congestion or inflammation in a
superficial area or to reduce the temperature of the whole body. High fever
and heat strokes are treated in this way.

BY THE TISSUE BENEATH THE SKIN.--Hypodermic or subcutaneous injections are
often made for the purpose of introducing a drug, reagent, or vaccine
directly into the connecting tissue beneath the skin. Introduced in this
way, the substance is quickly absorbed, none of it is lost, and its whole
effect is obtained, often within a few minutes.

There are numerous precautions necessary in making a subcutaneous
injection, most of which have to do with cleansing and sterilization. It is
also important to select a proper site for the injection, so that blood
vessels, joints, and superficial nerves, organs, or cavities may all be
avoided. With due regard for the necessary precautions, there is
practically no danger in such an injection, but it should be attempted only
by those who are able to carry it through in a surgically clean way. Only
certain drugs can be given subcutaneously, and dosage must be accurately
graduated.

BY THE VEINS.--Certain medicines act most promptly and surely when
introduced directly into the blood by injecting them into a vein, usually
the jugular. Some vaccines and antitoxins are administered in this way.
Intravenous injection should be practiced only by experienced
veterinarians.



DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS.

By A. J. MURRAY, M. R. C. V. S.

[Revised by R.W. HICKMAN, V. M. D.]


CHARACTER OF FEEDS AND FEEDING.

Diseases of the digestive organs are very common among cattle, and may
often be traced to defects in feeding. The first three stomachs of the
larger ruminants hold the feed for a long time, during which period it is
subjected to macerating, mixing, and straining processes in preparation for
entrance into the fourth or true stomach. The straining is accomplished
through the medium of the manyplies or book, while the paunch, or rumen,
with its adjunct, the waterbag, is concerned in the macerating, kneading,
and mixing, as well as in regurgitation for rumination or the chewing of
the cud. The action of the first three stomachs is merely preparatory to
digestion. Thus it would seem that as a result of their complex anatomical
and functional arrangement the feed of the ox, when of good quality and
wholesome, is in the most favorable condition possible for the digestive
process when it reaches the fourth stomach, where true digestion first
takes place. The location and arrangement of the stomachs are shown in
Plates I and II.

If the feed is of improper character, or is so given that it can not be
cared for by the animal in a normal way, false fermentations arise, causing
indigestion, and possibly, later, organic disease. In feeding cattle there
are a number of important considerations apart from the economy of the
ration, and some of these are noted below.

Feeds must not be damaged by exposure to the weather, by frost, by molds,
or by deleterious fermentations.

Damaged feeds retard or prevent digestion, and sometimes they contain or
cause to be generated substances that irritate the digestive tract, or are
distinctly poisonous to the animal. For example, hay that was rained on
severely during curing has not only lost a part of its nutritive value
through a washing-out process, but what remains is not so readily available
as in good hay. Roots that have been frozen are likely to irritate and
injure the digestive tract. Grass eaten with frost on it may cause severe
indigestion. All moldy feeds are not injurious, for some molds appear to
have no influence on the process of digestion, but those of other species
may not only retard digestion and cause local injury to the digestive
organs, but may cause general poisoning of a severe and fatal type.

The following molds have been shown (Dammann) to be dangerous in respect to
the production of the morbid conditions enumerated:

_Tilletia caries_ grows chiefly in wheat and may be found with the grain,
thus appearing in the bran or meal. It causes paralysis of the throat and
spinal cord and irritation of the digestive tract. The rusts, such as
_Puccinia graminis_, _P. straminis_, _P. Coronata_, and _P. arudinacea_,
cause colic and diarrhea, and in some cases partial paralysis of the
throat. The rusts that occur on clovers, beans, and peas cause very severe
irritation of the lining membrane of the mouth and throat, resulting
sometimes in gangrene of this tissue.

_Polydesmus exitans_ grows on the leaves of rape and turnips, appearing in
early summer. This fungus is very irritating to the mouths and feet of
cattle, causing severe inflammation and the formation of a false membrane.
In some instances this condition has been mistaken for foot-and-mouth
disease, but it can be differentiated by the absence of the blister that
is characteristic of that disease and by the further fact that it is
nontransmissible.

_Polytrincium trifolii_, which grows on clover, causing it to become black,
causes severe irritation of the stomach and intestines of cattle feeding
upon it.

Feeds must not contain too large a proportion of woody fiber or of
indigestible substances. If the dry matter ingested or the bulk of the feed
is very great on account of the small proportion of digestible matter, it
is impossible for the great mass to be moistened properly with and attacked
by the digestive juices. In consequence of this, abnormal fermentations
arise, causing indigestion and irritation of the digestive organs. On the
other hand, a ration too concentrated, and especially too rich in protein,
is not suitable, because, after a meal, the animal must have a certain
feeling of fullness in order to be comfortable and quiet, and the digestive
organs require a relatively large volume of contents to fill them to the
point where secretion is properly stimulated and their activity is most
efficient. If too much protein is in the ration there is a waste of
expensive feed, and the tendency is for the animal to become thin. It is
evident that a cow can not thrive on concentrated feeds alone, even though
these contain in assimilable form all the nutritive materials needed for
perfect support. It is because bulk is necessary that the standard of about
25 pounds of dry matter per cow per day has been reached by experimenters.
There is no objection to feeding grain or meal separately to a cow,
provided enough bulky feed is fed at another time in the day to keep the
digestive tract sufficiently distended.

In changing the ration, and especially in making radical changes, as at the
beginning and the end of the pasturing season, the change should be made
gradually, so that the digestive organs may accommodate themselves to it.
After the digestive organs and juices have from long practice become
adjusted to the digestion of a certain feed, which is then suddenly
withheld and another of quite different character and properties is
substituted, the second feed is not well digested; it may even irritate the
digestive canal. It is often observed that cattle lose from 25 to 100
pounds when turned on pasture from dry stable feed. This loss can readily
be prevented by not shocking the digestive organs by a sudden change of
diet.

Regularity in feeding has much to do with the utilization of the ration,
and gross irregularity may cause indigestion and serious disease.

Water for live stock should be as free from contamination and as nearly
pure as that used for household purposes. When practicable it is well to
warm the water in the winter to about 50° F. and allow cattle to drink
often.


DISEASES OF THE MOUTH.

WOUNDS AND CONTUSIONS OF THE LIPS, AND SNAKE BITE.

The lips may become inflamed from contusions, which are sometimes produced
by a blow from the horns of another animal, or, in the case of working
oxen, by a blow from the driver. While cattle are grazing, more especially
when they are in woods, they may be bitten in the lips by insects or
serpents.

_Symptoms._--As a result of a contusion the lips become thick and swollen,
and if treatment is neglected the swelling may become hard and indurated,
or an abscess may form. This condition renders it difficult for the animal
to get food into its mouth, on account of the lips having lost their
natural flexibility. In such cases an ox will use his tongue more in the
prehension of food to make up for the incapacity of the lips. In cases of
snake bite the swelling is soft or puffy and its limits are not well
defined.

_Treatment._--When we have to deal with a bruise, the affected part should
be bathed with hot water two or three times daily. In recent cases no other
treatment will be required, but if the swelling is not recent and has
become hard or indurated, then the swollen part should be treated each day
by painting it with tincture of iodin. In snake bite a straight incision
penetrating into the flesh or muscle should be made across the center of
the swelling and in the direction of the long axis of the face. After this
has been done a small wad of cotton batting should be pressed against the
wounds until the bleeding has almost stopped. Afterwards the following
lotion may be applied to the wounds several times a day: Permanganate of
potassium, half a dram; distilled water, 1 pint. As snake bites are usually
attended with considerable depression, which may terminate in stupor, it is
advisable to give a stimulant. One ounce of aromatic spirits of ammonia
mixed with a pint of water should be given, and the dose should be repeated
in half an hour if the animal is sinking into a stupefied and unconscious
condition. The repetition of the dose must depend on the symptoms which the
animal shows. It must be borne in mind that the object of treatment is to
ward off the stupor, which is one of the results of snake bite. The
swelling from an insect bite should be bathed with ammonia water as soon as
noticed and then treated with frequent applications of hot water.


SALIVATION.

Salivation is a symptom of some general or local disorder. It may be a
symptom of a general disease, such as rabies or foot-and-mouth disease, or
it may be a purely local trouble, as when copious secretion of the salivary
glands is produced by the eating of irritating plants, such as wild
mustard. When saliva is observed to dribble from the mouth, that part
should be carefully examined by introducing into the mouth an instrument
like a balling iron, or, if one is not at hand, by grasping the tongue and
partially withdrawing it from the mouth, and by placing a block of wood
between the back teeth, while all parts of the mouth are exposed to a good
light, so that the presence of any foreign substance may be detected. The
cause is sometimes found to be a short piece of wood becoming fixed on the
palate, its two ends resting on the upper molar teeth of each side; or it
may be a needle, thorn, or splinter of wood embedded in the tongue.
Sometimes a sharp piece of tin or other metal may become partially embedded
in the inner surface of the cheek. Hay occasionally possesses some quality,
usually dependent upon its having heated in the mow or having become moldy,
which produces salivation. Second-crop clover and some irritant weeds in
the pasture or forage may cause salivation. Cattle rubbed with mercurial
ointment may swallow enough mercury in licking themselves to bring about
the same result. (See "Mercury poisoning," p. 57.) Such cases, of course,
arise from the constitutional action of mercury, and, on account of the
common habit which the animals have of licking themselves, indicate the
danger of using such preparation externally. Mercury is also readily
absorbed through the skin, and as cattle are very susceptible to its action
it is thus easy for them to be poisoned by it even without licking it from
the surface. Cases of mercurial poisoning sometimes follow disinfection of
cattle stables with the usual 1 to 1,000 solution of mercuric chlorid.

_Treatment._--If salivation depends on the irritation and inflammation set
up by the ingestion of acrid plants, or forage possessing some peculiar
stimulating property, the feed must be changed, and a lotion composed of an
ounce of powdered alum dissolved in a quart of water may be syringed into
the mouth twice a day, using half a pint of the solution each time. If,
however, the salivation is due to the presence of a thorn, splinter of
wood, or any other foreign substance embedded in the cheek or tongue, the
offending object should be removed and the mouth washed occasionally with a
weak solution (2 per cent) of carbolic acid and tepid water. When
salivation is produced by mercurial poisoning or by foot-and-mouth disease,
the treatment appropriate to those general conditions of the system, as
well as the local treatment should be applied. (For information about
foot-and-mouth disease see p. 383.)


IRREGULARITIES OF THE TEETH.

Irregularities of the teeth may be occasioned by the unequal wearing of
some of the teeth or by some of the incisors being broken, which may happen
when cattle are pastured on sandy or gravelly soil. The molar teeth may
also show irregular wear from similar causes, or from a disease or
malformation of the jaw. Their edges may become sharp, or it may happen
that a molar tooth has been accidentally fractured. It may also occur that
a supernumerary tooth has developed in an unusual position, and that it
interferes with the natural and regular mastication of the feed.

_Treatment._--The mouth may be examined by grasping the animal's tongue
with one hand and partially withdrawing it from the mouth, so as to expose
the incisor and molar teeth to inspection. When it is desired, however, to
examine the molar teeth with the fingers, so as to obtain a better idea of
their condition, an instrument like the balling iron which is used for the
horse should be introduced into the mouth, so as to separate the jaws and
keep them apart while the examination is being made. Any sharp edges of the
molars must be removed by the tooth rasp, such as is used for horses. Any
supernumerary tooth which interferes with mastication or any tooth which is
fractured or loose should be extracted. In performing such operations it is
desirable to throw, or cast, the animal, and to have its head held
securely, so as to enable the operator to do what is necessary without
difficulty.


CARIES OR DECAY OF THE TEETH.

The presence of caries may be suspected if the mouth exhales a bad odor and
if the animal during mastication occasionally stops as if it were in pain.
The existence of caries in a molar tooth may be ascertained by examining
the mouth in the manner already described. If one of the molars is found to
be carious, it should be extracted. When the crown of the tooth has been
destroyed and only the stump or root is left, extraction is impracticable.
In case the animal has special value the root stumps may be removed by a
veterinarian by the operation of trephining; otherwise, it is best to sell
the animal to the butcher.


ACTINOMYCOSIS OF THE JAWBONES (BIG JAW OR LUMPY JAW).

[See Actinomycosis, p. 440.]


INFLAMMATION OF MUCOUS MEMBRANE OF MOUTH (STOMATITIS).

The membrane of the mouth may become inflamed by eating some irritating
substance or plant, or little vesicles may form in the mouths of calves
when they are affected with indigestion, constituting what is termed
aphtha.

_Symptoms._--The saliva dribbles from the mouth, and when the mouth is
examined the surface of the tongue and other parts appear red and inflamed.
When young animals are affected with the form of disease termed aphtha,
small red elevations are observed on the tongue and other parts of the
mouth, having little white points on their centers, which consist of the
epithelium of the mucous membrane raised into vesicles. These white patches
are succeeded by ulcerated surfaces, which are caused by the shedding of
the white patches of epithelium.

_Treatment._--When there is merely a reddened and inflamed condition of the
mucous membrane of the mouth, it will suffice to syringe it out several
times a day with 4 ounces of the following solution: Alum, 1 ounce; water,
2 pints. When the edges of the tongue and other parts of the mouth are
studded with ulcers, they should be painted over once a day with the
following solution until the affected surface is healed: Permanganate of
potassium, 20 grains; water, 1 ounce. When indigestion is associated with
an ulcerated condition of the mouth, separate treatment is required.


ULCERATIVE STOMATITIS (OR ULCERS IN THE MOUTHS OF YOUNG CALVES).

[See Necrotic stomatitis, p. 464.]


MYCOTIC STOMATITIS (SORE MOUTH).

[See p. 532.]


INDURATION OF THE TONGUE (ACTINOMYCOSIS).

[See Actinomycosis, p. 440.]


DISEASES OF THE PHARYNX AND GULLET.


PHARYNGITIS (SORE THROAT).

Pharyngitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the pharynx.
It is frequently associated with inflammatory diseases of the respiratory
tract, such as laryngitis and bronchitis or pleurisy.

_Symptoms._--The muzzle is dry and the saliva dribbles from the corners of
the mouth; the animal swallows with difficulty or not at all, and holds its
neck in a stiff, straight position, moving it as little as possible. The
eyelids are half closed, the white of the eye is bloodshot, and the animal
occasionally grinds its teeth. After masticating the feed the animal drops
it out of its mouth as if to avoid the pain of swallowing, and also evinces
pain when pressure is applied externally on the pharynx and tries to
prevent the pressure from being applied.

_Causes._--Pharyngitis may be produced by a sudden cooling of the surface
of the body, as when cattle are exposed to a cold wind or a cold rain; or
by swallowing irritant substances.

_Treatment._--The throat should be syringed three times a day with an ounce
of the following solution: Nitrate of silver, 1-1/2 drams; distilled water,
1 pint. Bland and soothing drinks, such as linseed tea or oatmeal and water
should occasionally be offered. Diet should consist of soft food, such as
bran mashes with a little linseed meal mixed in them. Dry hay and fodder
should not be given. Fresh, green grass or sound ensilage may be fed in
small quantities. The upper part of the throat and the space between the
jaws should be well rubbed once a day with the following liniment: Liquor
ammonia fortior, 4 ounces; oil of turpentine, 4 ounces; olive oil, 4
ounces; mix. When evidence of blistering appears the application of the
liniment should be stopped and the skin anointed with vaseline. Under the
treatment described above the inflammation of the throat will gradually
subside and the animal will be able to swallow as usual in five or six
days. We need hardly say that during its treatment the sick animal should
be kept in a comfortable stable.


PAROTITIS.

Inflammation of the parotid gland may arise from the inflammation extending
to it when an ox is affected with pharyngitis or laryngitis, or the
inflammation may commence in the salivary ducts and may depend on some
influence the nature of which is unknown. Parotitis sometimes arises from a
blow or contusion severe enough to set up inflammation in the structure of
the gland. Tuberculosis and actinomycosis may infrequently be characterized
by the lodgment of their parasitic causes in the parotid glands, in which
case parotitis may be a symptom of either of these diseases.

_Symptoms._--There is an elongated, painful swelling, beginning at the base
of the ear and passing downward along the posterior margin of the lower
jaw. The swelling is sometimes limited to one side, and when both are
swollen it is generally larger on one side than on the other. The secretion
of saliva is increased, the appetite is poor, the neck is stiff, so that it
is painful to raise the head, and feed is swallowed with difficulty. In
many cases the swelling of the glands, when submitted to proper treatment,
disappears in a comparatively short time. In other cases, however, they
remain enlarged, even after the animal recovers its appetite. In
tuberculosis, lymphatic glands beneath the parotid glands are sometimes
enlarged, thus causing the appearance of enlarged parotid glands.

_Treatment._--A warm bran poultice, made by mixing bran with a hot 2 per
cent compound cresol solution in water, should be applied on the swollen
gland and kept in place by means of a bandage. Whenever the poultice has
cooled it should be replaced by a new one. This treatment should be
continued until the pain is less and the swelling is reduced or until there
is evidence of pus formation, which may be ascertained by examining the
surface of the gland with the fingers; and when, on pressing any part of
the surface, it is found to fluctuate or "give," then we may conclude that
there is a collection of pus at that place. It is well not to open the
abscess until the fluctuation is well marked, as at this stage the pus or
matter is near the surface and there is less trouble in healing the wound
than if the pus is deep seated. The abscess should be opened with a clean,
sharp knife. The poulticing should then be continued for two or three days,
but the form of the poultice should be changed, by replacing the bran with
absorbent cotton and pouring the compound cresol solution on the cotton. At
all times the wound should be kept clean and the cavity injected once or
twice daily with a solution of 1 dram of carbolic acid in 8 ounces of
water. Under this treatment the pus may cease and the wound heal without
complications. Saliva may issue from the orifice and result in the
formation of a salivary fistula. This requires operative treatment by a
qualified veterinarian. When poulticing fails to reduce the swelling or
produce softening, the inflamed area may be rubbed once daily with
camphorated oil, compound iodin ointment, or painted twice daily with
Lugol's solution of iodin. The diet should be as recommended under
Pharyngitis (p. 17).


PHARYNGEAL POLYPI.

Tumors form not infrequently in the pharynx, and may give rise to a train
of symptoms varying according to their size and location. The tumor may be
so situated that by shifting its position a little it may partially
obstruct the posterior nares (nostrils), when, of course, it will render
nasal breathing very noisy and labored. In another situation its partial
displacement may impede the entrance of air into the larynx. In almost any
part of the pharynx, but especially near the entrance of the gullet, tumors
interfere with the act of swallowing. As they are frequently attached to
the wall of the pharynx by a pedicel or stalk, it will be seen that they
may readily be displaced in different directions so as to produce the
symptoms before described. Enlarged postpharyngeal lymphatic glands are not
rare in tuberculosis, and by pressing upon the wall of the pharynx and
restricting the lumen of this organ they cause difficulty in both breathing
and swallowing. Such enlarged glands may be differentiated from tumors by
passing the hand into the cow's throat after the jaws are separated by a
suitable speculum or gag.

_Treatment._--The method of treatment in such cases is to separate the
animal's jaws with an instrument termed a gag, and then, after drawing the
tongue partially forward, to pass the hand into the pharynx and to twist
the tumor gently from its attachment. One veterinarian who has had
considerable practice in treating this form of disease scrapes through the
attachment of the tumor gradually with his thumb nail. When the attachment
is too strong to be severed in this way an instrument like a thimble, but
possessing a sharp edge at the end, may be used to effect the same purpose,
or the base of the tumor may be severed by the use of a crushing instrument
known as an écraseur.


CHOKING.

Choking usually happens from attempting to swallow too large an object,
such as a turnip, potato, beet, apple, or pear, though in rare cases it may
occur from bran, chaff, or some other finely divided feed lodging in and
filling up a portion of the gullet. This latter form of the accident is
most likely to occur in animals that are greedy feeders.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms vary somewhat according to the part of the gullet
or throat in which the obstruction is. In most cases there is a discharge
of saliva from the mouth; the animal coughs frequently, and when it drinks
the water is soon ejected. The cow stops eating and stands back from the
trough, the expression is troubled, breathing is accelerated, and
oftentimes there is bloating as a result of the retention of gas in the
paunch. These symptoms, however, are not always present, for if the
obstacle does not completely close the throat or gullet, gas and water may
pass, thus ameliorating the discomfort. If the obstruction is in the neck
portion of the gullet, it may be felt as a lump in the left jugular gutter.

_Treatment._--If the object is in the throat, it is advisable to put a gag
in the animal's mouth, and, while the head is held in a horizontal
direction by two assistants, to pass the hand into the pharynx, grasp the
foreign body, and withdraw it gradually and steadily. When the substance is
lodged in the upper part of the gullet, pressure should be made by an
assistant in an upward direction against the object while the operator
passes his hand into the pharynx, and if the assistant can not by pressure
dislodge the substance from the gullet, the operator may by passing his
middle finger above and partly behind the substance gradually slide it into
the pharynx and then withdraw it by the mouth.

The presence of an obstructing substance in the cervical (neck) portion of
the gullet may be ascertained by passing the hand along the left side of
the neck, when a hard and painless swelling will be found to indicate the
presence of the foreign body. In such cases we must endeavor by gentle and
persevering pressure with the thumb and next two fingers to slide the
obstructing substance gradually upward to the pharynx. To facilitate this
it is well to give the animal a half pint of raw linseed or olive oil
before the manipulations described are commenced. When the substance has
been brought into or nearly into the pharynx, then the mouth gag should be
used, the tongue drawn partially forward with the left hand, and the right
should be passed backward into the pharynx to withdraw the obstruction.

When bran or chaff causes the trouble it is best to give a small quantity
of oil to lubricate the walls of the gullet, and then by gentle and
persevering pressure, to endeavor to separate and divide the mass and to
work it downward toward the stomach. This will be assisted by pouring small
quantities of oil and water down the animal's throat. It is not advisable
to use the probang to push down any soft material, such as oats or chaff,
as this generally condenses and renders firmer the obstructing substance by
pressing its particles or elements together, so that it forms a solid,
resisting mass which can not be moved.

In some cases the foreign body, either because it is in the chest portion
of the esophagus, and so beyond reach, or because too firmly seated, can
not be dislodged from the neck by pressing and manipulating that part
externally. In such event we must resort to the use of the probang. (Pl.
III, figs. 2 and 3.) A probang is a flexible instrument and adapts itself
to the natural curvature of the gullet, and if used cautiously there is not
much risk of injury. Before passing the probang, a gag which has an
aperture at each end, from which straps pass to be buckled at the back of
the head below the horns, is introduced into the mouth. (Pl. III, fig. 4.)
The probang should then be oiled, and, the head and neck being held in a
straight line by two assistants, the tongue must be partly drawn out of the
mouth, the probang cautiously passed along the roof of the mouth into the
pharynx and thence into the gullet, through which it is passed down. If
resistance is met, gentle and continuous pressure must be used, under the
influence of which the object will generally in a short time pass into the
stomach. One must be careful not to pass the probang into the larynx and
thence into the windpipe, as an animal may readily be killed in this way.
This accident is indicated by efforts to cough and by violently disturbed
breathing. If such symptoms arise the probang must be withdrawn at once. To
avoid a wrong passage, the end of the tube should be pressed very slowly
through the throat until its presence in the esophagus is assured. After it
is once in the esophagus care is still necessary, because the walls of this
tube may easily be torn.

Some writers have advised that when the obstruction is lodged in the
cervical (neck) portion of the gullet it should be struck with a mallet, to
crush it and thus alter its shape, so that it may easily slip down into the
stomach. If the obstructing substance is hard, this will be a dangerous
operation, but if soft--as in the case of a ripe pear, for example--this
procedure may be safely adopted.

In all cases, if pressure applied on the neck fails to move the obstruction
and the probang also fails to move it, it may be divided by a subcutaneous
operation, or the gullet may be opened and the obstructing substance
removed through the wound. In such cases the assistance of a veterinarian
or a surgeon must be obtained.


WOUNDS AND INJURIES OF THE GULLET.

Sometimes the walls of the gullet may be more or less lacerated or abraded
by the rash and too forcible use of the probang, and the animal
consequently swallows with pain and difficulty. In such cases dry feed must
be withheld for five or six days, so as to allow the injured parts to heal,
and the diet must be limited to linseed tea, hay tea, and thin oatmeal
gruel and molasses. The same kind of diet must be fed after the operation
of cutting into the gullet has been performed.

Sometimes the gullet is ruptured and lacerated to such an extent that
treatment of any kind is hopeless. This has been known to occur when the
handle of a pitchfork or buggy whip has been pushed down a cow's throat to
remove an obstruction. When such treatment has been applied it is best to
slaughter the animal without delay, as the flesh may be utilized so long as
there is no fever or general disease, and remedial treatment would be
hopeless. In this connection it may be mentioned that whatever substitute
may be used for a probang, which sometimes is not at hand, it should be
flexible and should possess a smooth surface. A piece of new rope, with the
end closely wrapped and waxed and then oiled, or a piece of thin garden
hose, or a well-wrapped twisted wire may be used in emergencies.


DISEASES OF THE STOMACHS.

ACUTE TYMPANITES (HOVEN, OR BLOATING).

Tympanites is a distention of the rumen or paunch with gases of
fermentation, and is manifested outwardly by swelling in the region of the
left flank.

_Causes._--Tympanites may be caused by any kind of feed which produces
indigestion. When cattle are first turned into young clover they eat so
greedily of it that tympanites frequently results. Turnips, potatoes,
cabbage, or the discarded pulp from sugar-beet factories may also cause it.
Middlings and corn meal also frequently give rise to it.

Care is necessary in turning animals into fields of clover or stubble
fields in which there is a strong growth of volunteer grain. It is always
better to keep them from such pasturage while it is wet with dew, and they
should be taken out when they have eaten a moderate quantity. When cattle
are fed upon pulp from sugar beets, germinated malt, etc., they should be
fed in moderate amounts until they have become accustomed to it, as any of
these feeds may give rise to severe bloating.

An excessive quantity of any of the before-mentioned feeds may bring on
this disorder, or it may not be caused by excess, but to eating too
hastily. Sometimes the quality of the feed is at fault. Grass or clover
when wet by dew or rain frequently disorders digestion and brings on
tympanites; frozen roots or pastures covered with hoar frost should also be
regarded as dangerous. When feed has been eaten too hastily, or when it is
cold and wet, the digestive process is imperfectly performed, and the feed
contained in the paunch ferments, during which process large quantities of
gas are formed. The same result may follow when a cow is choked, as the
obstruction in the gullet prevents the eructation or passing up of gas from
the stomach, so that the gas continues to accumulate until tympanites
results.

_Symptoms._--The swelling of the left flank is very characteristic, as in
well-marked cases the flank at its upper part rises above the level of the
backbone, and when struck with the tips of the fingers emits a drum-like
sound. The animal has an anxious expression, moves uneasily, and is
evidently distressed. If relief is not obtained in time, it breathes with
difficulty, reels in walking or in standing, and in a short time falls and
dies from suffocation. The distention of the stomach may become so great as
to prevent the animal from breathing, and in some instances the case may be
complicated by rupture of the stomach.

_Treatment._--If the case is not extreme, it may be sufficient to drive the
animal at a walk for a quarter or half an hour; or cold water by the
bucketful may be thrown against the cow's sides. In some cases the
following simple treatment is successful: A rope or a twisted straw band is
coated with pine tar, wagon grease, or other unsavory substance and is
placed in the cow's mouth as a bit, being secured by tying behind the
horns. The efforts of the animal to dislodge this object result in
movements of the tongue, jaws, and throat that stimulate the secretion of
saliva and swallowing, thus opening the esophagus, which permits the exit
of gas and at the same time peristalsis is stimulated reflexly.

In urgent cases the gas must be allowed to escape without delay, and this
is best accomplished by the use of the trocar. The trocar is a
sharp-pointed instrument incased in a cannula or sheath, which leaves the
sharp point of the trocar free. (See Pl. III, figs. _5a_ and _5b._) In
selecting the point for using the trocar a spot on the left side equally
distant from the last rib, the hip bone, and the transverse processes of
the lumbar vertebræ must be chosen. Here an incision about three-fourths
of an inch long should be made with a knife through the skin, and then the
sharp point of the trocar, being directed downward, inward, and slightly
forward, is thrust into the paunch. (Pl. I.) The cannula or sheath of the
trocar should be left in the paunch so long as any gas continues to issue
from it. If the cannula is removed while gas is still forming in the paunch
and the left flank becomes considerably swollen, it may be necessary to
insert it again. It is well, accordingly, to observe the cannula closely,
and if gas is found to be issuing from it, it should not be removed. When
gas issues from it in considerable quantities the sound accompanying its
escape renders the exact condition obvious. It is occasionally necessary to
keep the cannula in the stomach for several hours. When this is necessary a
piece of stout cord should be passed round the neck of the cannula
immediately below the projecting rim and then be passed round the animal's
body and tied in a secure knot, and a careful attendant must remain with
the cow during the entire period that the instrument is in place. The rim
surrounding the mouth of the cannula should be in contact with the skin.
Whenever the person in charge of the cow is convinced that gas has ceased
to issue from the cannula the instrument should be removed.

The trocar is to be used only in extreme or urgent cases, though everyone
who has had experience in treating indigestion in cattle realizes that he
has saved the lives of many animals by its prompt application.

When the tympanitic animal is not distressed and the swelling of the flank
is not great, or when the most distressing condition has been removed by
the use of the trocar, it is best to use internal medicine. Two ounces of
aromatic spirits of ammonia should be given every half hour in a quart of
cold water; or half an ounce of chlorid of lime may be dissolved in a pint
of tepid water and the dose repeated every half hour until the bloating has
subsided; or 1 ounce of creolin in 2 quarts of tepid water may be given at
one dose or carefully injected through the cannula directly into the paunch
to stop fermentation and the consequent formation of gas. It is generally
necessary to give a moderate dose of purgative medicine after bloating has
subsided, as animals frequently show symptoms of constipation after attacks
of indigestion. For this purpose 1 pound of Glauber's salt may be used.

The animal should be fed carefully upon easily digested food for several
days after the bloating has subsided, so that all fermenting matter may
pass out of the stomach.


CHRONIC TYMPANITES.

Cattle, especially those that have been kept in the stable all winter, are
liable to suffer from chronic tympanites. In this form they bloat up after
feeding, but seldom swell so much as to cause any alarm. The chronic form
of indigestion may also follow an acute attack like that previously
described. This is also a symptom of tuberculosis when the lymphatic glands
lying between the lungs are so enlarged as to press upon and partly occlude
the esophagus. It may develop in calves as a result of the formation of
hair balls in the stomach.

_Treatment._--Treatment should be preceded by a moderate dose of purgative
medicine: 1 pound of sulphate of magnesia (Epsom salt) or sulphate of soda
(Glauber's salt), half an ounce of powdered Barbados aloes, 1 ounce of
powdered ginger, 1 pint of molasses. The salts and aloes should be
dissolved by stirring for a few minutes in 2 quarts of lukewarm water, then
the molasses should be added, and after all the ingredients have been
stirred together for about 10 minutes the dose should be administered.
After the operation of the purgative it is generally necessary to give some
tonic and antacid preparation to promote digestion, which is imperfectly
performed in such cases. The following may be used: Powdered gentian, 3
ounces; powdered bicarbonate of potash, 3 ounces; powdered ginger, 3
ounces; powdered capsicum, 1 ounce. Mix and divide into 12 powders, one of
which should be given three times a day before feeding, shaken up with a
pint and a half of water. It is also advantageous in such cases to give two
heaped teaspoonsfuls of wood charcoal, mixed with the animal's feed three
times a day. The animal should also go out during the day, as want of
exercise favors the continuance of this form of indigestion. If the dung is
hard, the constipation should be overcome by feeding a little flaxseed
twice daily or by giving a handful of Glauber's salt in the feed once or
twice daily, as may be necessary. Roots, silage, and other succulent feeds
are useful in this connection. If tuberculosis is suspected as the cause of
chronic bloating, a skilled veterinarian should make a diagnosis, using the
tuberculin test if necessary. Until it is settled that the cow has not
tuberculosis, she should be kept apart from the other members of the herd.


DISTENTION OF RUMEN OR PAUNCH WITH FEED.

This form of indigestion is caused by the animal gorging itself with feed,
and arises more from the animal's voracious appetite than from any defect
in the quality of the feed supplied to it. The condition is, however, more
severe if the feed consumed is especially concentrated or difficult of
digestion. In cases of this kind there is comparatively no great formation
of gas, and the gas which is formed is diffused through the stomach instead
of accumulating in a layer in its upper part. On pressing the flank with
the closed fist the indent of the hand remains for a short time in the
flank, as if the rumen were filled with a soft, doughy mass.

This form of indigestion should be treated by stimulants, such as aromatic
spirits of ammonia.

If the formation of gas is not great and the distention with solid material
is somewhat limited, the animal may be drenched through a piece of ordinary
garden hose, one end inserted in the mouth, and the other end fitted with a
funnel, giving 1-1/2 pounds of Epsom salt or Glauber's salt dissolved in 2
gallons of water, at a single dose. Immediately after this treatment the
left side of the animal, extending below the median line of the abdomen,
should be powerfully kneaded with the fist, so that the impacted food mass
will be broken, allowing the water to separate it into small portions which
can be carried downward for the process of digestion. But if the treatment
fails and the impacted or overloaded condition of the rumen continues, it
may become necessary to make an incision with a sharp, long-bladed knife in
the left flank, commencing at the point where it is usual to puncture the
stomach of an ox, and prolong the incision in a downward direction until it
is long enough to admit the hand. When the point of the knife is thrust
into the flank and the blade cuts downward, the wall of the stomach, the
muscle, and the skin should all be cut through at the same time. Two
assistants should hold the edges of the wound together so as to prevent any
food from slipping between the flank and the wall of the stomach, and then
the operator should remove two-third [sic] of the contents of the rumen.
This having been done, the edges of the wound should be sponged with a
little carbolized warm water, and, the lips of the wound in the rumen being
turned inward, they should be brought together with catgut stitches. The
wound penetrating the muscle and the skin may then be brought together by
silk stitches, which should pass through the entire thickness of the muscle
and should be about 1 inch apart. The wound should afterwards be dressed
once a day with a lotion and the animal covered with a tight linen sheet,
to protect the wound from insects and dirt. The lotion to be used in such
case is made up as follows: Sulphate of zinc, 1 dram; carbolic acid, 2
drams; glycerin, 2 ounces; water, 14 ounces; mix. It is clear that this
operation requires special skill and it should be attempted only by those
who are competent.


IMAGINARY DISEASES (HOLLOW HORN; LOSS OF CUD; WOLF IN THE TAIL).

It would appear quite in place here, in connection with the diseases of the
stomach and bowels of cattle, to consider the three old fallacies or
superstitions known by the above names, since these names, whenever and
wherever used, seem to be invariably applied to some form of digestive
derangement or disease having its origin in the stomach and bowels.

HOLLOW HORN.--In the first place it should be noted that the horns of all
animals of the ox tribe are hollow. The horn cores are elongations of the
frontal bones of the skull, and the frontal sinuses, which are the larger
of the air spaces of the head, are prolonged into the horn cores. When a
cow is sick, if the horns are hot it is an evidence of fever; if they are
cold it indicates impaired circulation of the blood; but these
manifestations of sickness are to be regarded as symptoms of some
constitutional disorder and do not in themselves require treatment. The
treatment should be applied to the disease which causes the abnormal
temperature of the horns. The usual treatment for the supposed hollow horn,
which consists in boring the horns with a gimlet and pouring turpentine
into the openings thus made, is not only useless and cruel, but is liable
to set up an acute inflammation and result in an abscess of the sinus.

LOSS OF CUD.--The so-called loss of cud is simply a cessation of
rumination, frequently one of the first indications of some form of
disease, since ruminants stop chewing the cud when they feel sick. Loss of
cud is a symptom of a great many diseases, and when it is detected it
should lead the observer to try to discover other symptoms upon which to
base a correct opinion as to the nature of the disease from which the
animal suffers. No local treatment is required.

WOLF IN THE TAIL.--This term also seems to be vaguely applied to various
disturbances of the digestive function, or to some disease which is in
reality in the stomach or bowels.


VOMITING.

Vomiting is not to be confounded with rumination, though some writers have
advanced the opinion that it is merely a disordered and irregular
rumination. It is not of common occurrence in cattle.

_Symptoms._--Animals which vomit are frequently in poor condition. After
having eaten tranquilly for some time the animal suddenly becomes uneasy,
arches the back, stretches the neck and head, and then suddenly ejects 10
to 12 pounds of the contents of the rumen. After having done this the
uneasiness subsides and in a short time the animal resumes eating as if
nothing had happened.

_Cause._--The cause of this disordered state of the digestive system in
cattle is usually obscure, but has in some cases been traced to a partial
closure of the opening into the second stomach or to a distention of the
esophagus. It has been found to occur when there was cancerous disease of
the fourth stomach, and experimentally it has been shown that a suspension
of digestion or great derangement of this stomach produces considerable
nervous disorder of the rumen and sometimes vomiting or attempts to vomit.

TREATMENT.--Easily digested feed and plenty of water should be given. Fear
and excitement, chasing, or hurrying animals after they have eaten heartily
are liable to bring on this result. In order to overcome irritation which
may produce vomiting the following draft should be given: Hydrate of
chloral, half an ounce; water, 1 pint. The dose must be repeated when the
condition of the animal seems to require it. As a rule, treatment is not
successful.


DEPRAVED APPETITE (PICA).

Cattle suffering from this disease have a capricious and variable appetite
as regards their ordinary feed but evince a strong desire to lick and eat
substances for which healthy cattle show no inclination. Alkaline and
saline-tasting substances are especially attractive to cattle having a
depraved appetite and they frequently lick lime, earth, coal, gravel, and
even the dung of other cattle. Cows in calf and young cattle are especially
liable to develop these symptoms. Animals affected in this way lose
condition, their coat is staring, gait slow, and small vesicles containing
yellow liquid form under the tongue; the milk given by such cows is thin
and watery. Such animals become restless and uneasy, as is indicated by
frequent bellowing. The disease may last for months, the animal ultimately
dying emaciated and exhausted. Depraved appetite frequently precedes the
condition in which the bones of cattle become brittle and fracture easily,
which is known as osteomalacia.

_Cause._--From the fact that this disease is largely one of regions, it is
generally believed that some condition of the soil and water and of the
local vegetation is responsible for it. It is more prevalent some years
than others, and is most common in old countries, where the soil is more or
less depleted. Cattle pastured on low, swampy land become predisposed to
it. It occasionally happens, however, that one individual in a herd suffers
though all are fed alike; in such cases the disease must arise from the
affected animal's imperfect assimilation of the nutritive elements of the
feed which is supplied to it.

_Treatment._--The aim in such cases must be to improve the process of
digestion and to supply the animal with a sufficiency of sound and
wholesome feed. The following should be given to the cow three times a day,
a heaping tablespoonful constituting a dose: Carbonate of iron, 4 ounces;
finely ground bone or "bone flour," 1 pound; powdered gentian, 4 ounces;
common salt, 8 ounces; powdered fenugreek, 4 ounces; mix. In addition to
this, 3 tablespoonfuls of powdered charcoal may be mixed with the feed
three times a day, and a piece of rock salt should be placed where the
animal can lick it at will. German veterinarians have had brilliant results
from the treatment of this disease with subcutaneous injections of
apomorphin in doses of 1-1/2 to 5 grains for three or four days.


HAIR CONCRETIONS.

Hair concretions, or hair balls, result from the habit which some cattle
have of licking themselves or other animals. As a result the hairs which
are swallowed are carried around by the contractions of the stomach and
gradually assume the form of a small pellet or ball. This increases in size
as fresh quantities of hair are introduced into the stomach and adhere to
the surface of the ball. These balls are found most frequently in the
reticulum or second stomach (Pl. II, B), though sometimes in the rumen. In
calves hair balls are generally found in the fourth stomach. There are no
certain symptoms by which we can determine the presence of hair balls in
the stomach, and therefore no treatment can be recommended for such cases.
In making post-mortem examinations of cattle we have sometimes found the
walls of the reticulum transfixed with nails or pieces of wire, and yet the
animal had not shown any symptoms of indigestion, but had died from
maladies not involving the second stomach.


INDIGESTION (DYSPEPSIA, OR GASTROINTESTINAL CATARRH).

Tympanites, already described, is a form of indigestion in which the chief
symptom and most threatening condition is the collection of gas in the
paunch. This symptom does not always accompany indigestion, so it is well
here to consider other forms under a separate head. If indigestion is long
continued, the irritant abnormal products developed cause catarrh of the
stomach and intestines--gastrointestinal catarrh. On the other hand,
however, irritant substances ingested may cause gastrointestinal catarrh,
which, in turn, will cause indigestion; hence, it results that these
several conditions are usually found existing together.

_Causes._--Irritant feed, damaged feed, overloading of the stomach, or
sudden changes of diet may cause this disease. Want of exercise predisposes
to it, or feed which is coarse and indigestible may after a time produce
it. Feed which possesses astringent properties and tends to check secretion
may also act as an exciting cause. Feed in excessive quantity may lead to
disorder of digestion and to this disease. It is very likely to appear
toward the end of protracted seasons of drought; therefore a deficiency of
water must be regarded as one of the conditions which favor its
development.

_Symptoms._--Diminished appetite, rumination irregular, tongue coated,
mouth slimy, dung passed apparently not well digested and smelling bad,
dullness, and fullness of the flanks. The disease may in some cases assume
a chronic character, and in addition to the foregoing symptoms slight
bloating or tympanites of the left flank may be observed; the animal
breathes with effort and each respiration may be accompanied with a grunt,
the ears and horns are alternately hot and cold, rumination ceases, the
usual rumbling sound in the stomach is not audible, the passage of dung is
almost entirely suspended, and the animal passes only a little mucus
occasionally. Sometimes there is alternating constipation and diarrhea.
There is low fever in many cases.

The disease continues a few days or a week in the mild cases, while the
severe cases may last several weeks. In the latter form the emaciation and
loss of strength may be very great. There is no appetite, no rumination,
nor peristalsis. The mouth is hot and sticky, the eyes have receded in
their sockets, and milk secretion has ceased. In such cases the outlook for
recovery is unfavorable. The patient falls away in flesh and becomes
weaker, as is shown by the fact that one frequently finds it lying down.

On examining animals which have died of this disease it is found that the
lining membrane of the fourth stomach and the intestines, particularly the
small intestine, is red, swollen, streaked with deeper red or bluish lines,
or spotted. The lining of the first three stomachs is more or less
softened, and may easily be peeled off. The third stomach (psalter)
contains dry feed in hard masses closely adherent to its walls.

In some cases the brain appears to become disordered, probably from the
pain and weakness and from the absorption of toxins generated in the
digestive canal. In such cases there is weakness and an unsteady gait, the
animal does not appear to take notice of and will consequently run against
obstacles; after a time it falls and gives up to violent and disordered
movements. This delirious condition is succeeded by coma or stupor, and
death ensues.

_Treatment._--Small quantities of roots, sweet silage, or selected grass or
hay should be offered several times daily. Very little feed should be
allowed. Aromatic and demulcent drafts may be given to produce a soothing
effect on the mucous lining of the stomachs and to promote digestion. Two
ounces of camomile flowers should be boiled for 20 minutes in a quart of
water and the infusion on cooling should be given to the affected animal.
This may be repeated three or four times a day. When constipation is
present the following purgative may be administered: One pound of Glauber's
salt dissolved in a quart of linseed tea and a pint of molasses. After this
purgative has acted, if there is a lack of appetite and the animal does not
ruminate regularly, the powder mentioned in remarks on the treatment of
chronic tympanites may be given according to directions. The diet must be
rather laxative and of an easily digestible character after an attack of
this form of indigestion. Feed should be given in moderate quantities, as
excess by overtaxing the digestive functions may bring on a relapse.
Ice-cold water should be avoided.


INDIGESTION FROM DRINKING COLD WATER (COLIC).

This disorder is produced by drinking copiously of cold water, which
arrests digestion and produces cramp of the fourth stomach, probably of the
other stomachs, and also of the bowels.

_Causes._---It is not customary for the ox to drink much water at once. In
fact, he usually drinks slowly and as if he were merely tasting the water,
letting some fall out at the corners of his mouth at every mouthful. It
would therefore seem to be contrary to the habits of the ox to drink
copiously; but we find that during hot weather, when he has been working
and is consequently very thirsty, if he drinks a large quantity of cold
water he may be immediately taken with a very severe colic. Cows which are
fed largely on dry hay drink copiously, like the working ox, and become
affected in precisely the same manner. In such cases they are seized with a
chill or fit of trembling before the cramps come on.

_Symptoms._--There is some distension of the abdomen, but no accumulation
of gas. As the distension and pain occur immediately after the animal has
drunk the water, there can be no doubt as to the exciting cause.

_Treatment._--Walk the animal about for 10 minutes before administering
medicine, and this allows time for a portion of the contents of the stomach
to pass into the bowel, and renders it safer to give medicine. In many
cases the walking exercise and the diarrhea bring about a spontaneous cure
of this disorder, but as in some instances the cramps and pains of the
stomachs persist, one may give 1 ounce of sulphuric ether and 1 ounce of
tincture of opium, shaken up with a pint of warm water, and repeat the dose
in half an hour if the animal is not relieved. In an emergency when the
medicine is not to be had, a tablespoonful of powdered ginger may be
administered in a pint of warm water.


INDIGESTION IN CALVES (GASTROINTESTINAL CATARRH, DIARRHEA, OR SCOUR).

Calves are subject to a form of diarrhea to which the foregoing
designations have been applied.

_Causes._--Calves that suck their dams are not frequently affected with
this disease, though it may be occasioned by their sucking at long
intervals and thus overloading the stomach and bringing on indigestion,
or from improper feeding of the dam on soft, watery, or damaged feeds.
Suckling the calf at irregular times may also cause it. Exposure to damp
and cold is a potent predisposing cause. Calves separated from their dams
and fed considerable quantities of cold milk at long intervals are liable
to contract this form of indigestion. Calves fed on artificial feed, used
as a substitute for milk, frequently contract it. Damaged feed, sour or
rotten milk, milk from dirty cans, skim milk from a dirty creamery
skim-milk vat, skim milk hauled warm, exposed to the sun and fed from
unclean buckets may all cause this disease.

_Symptoms._--The calf is depressed; appetite is poor; sometimes there is
fever; the extremities are cold. The dung becomes gradually softer and
lighter in color until it is cream colored and little thicker than milk. It
has a most offensive odor and may contain clumps of curd. Later it contains
mucus and gas bubbles. It sticks to the hair of the tail and buttocks,
causing the hair to drop off and the skin to become irritated. There may be
pain on passing dung and also abdominal or colicky pain. The calf stands
about with the back arched and belly contracted. There may be tympanites.
Great weakness ensues in severe cases, and without prompt and successful
treatment death soon follows.

_Treatment._--Remove the cause. Give appropriate feed of best quality in
small quantities. Make sure that the cow furnishing the milk is healthy and
is properly fed. Clean all milk vessels. Clean and disinfect the stalls.
For the diarrhea give two raw eggs or a cup of strong coffee. If the case
is severe, give 1 ounce of castor oil with a teaspoonful of creolin and 20
grains of subnitrate of bismuth. Repeat the bismuth and creolin with
flaxseed tea every four hours. Tannopin may be used in doses of 15 to 30
grains.

Calves artificially fed on whole or skim milk should receive only such milk
as is sweet and has been handled in a sanitary manner. Milk should always
be warmed to the temperature of the body before feeding. When calves
artificially milk-fed develop diarrhea, the use of the following treatment
has given excellent results in many cases: Immediately after milking, or
the separation of the skim milk from the cream, formalin in the proportion
of 1 to 4,000 should be added to the milk which is used for feeding; this
may be closely approximated by adding four drops of formalin to each quart
of milk. This medicated milk should be fed to the calf in the usual
quantity. When the diarrhea is not controlled in three or four days by this
treatment, the additional use of some of the agents recommended above may
assist in a recovery.


INFECTIOUS DIARRHEA; WHITE SCOUR.

[See chapter on Diseases of young calves, p. 247.]


GASTROENTERITIS.

This consists of an inflammation of the walls of the stomachs and of the
bowel.

Gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the walls of the stomachs and
intestines, follows upon irritations more severe or longer continued than
those that produce gastrointestinal catarrh.

_Causes._--Severe indigestion may be followed by gastroenteritis, or it may
be caused by swallowing irritant poisons, such as arsenic or corrosive
sublimate or irritant plants. Exposure to cold or inclement weather may
produce the disease, especially in debilitated animals or animals fed
improperly. It is asserted that if cattle feed on vegetation infested with
some kinds of caterpillars this disease may result.

_Symptoms._--Dullness; drooping of the ears; dryness of the muzzle; dry
skin; staring coat; loins morbidly sensitive to pressure; fullness of the
left flank, which is caused by the distention of the fourth stomach by gas.
The pulse is small, the gait is feeble and staggering; each step taken is
accompanied with a grunt, and this symptom is especially marked if the
animal walks in a downward direction. There is loss of appetite, and
rumination is suspended. The passages at first are few in number, hard, and
are sometimes coated with mucus or with blood. Later a severe diarrhea sets
in, when the passages contain mucus and blood and have an offensive odor.
There is evidence of colicky pain, and the abdomen is sensitive to
pressure. Pain may be continuous. There is fever and acceleration of pulse
rate and respirations. Mental depression and even insensibility occur
before death. The disease is always severe and often fatal.

_Post-mortem appearances._--The mucous membrane of the fourth stomach has a
well-marked red color and sometimes presents ulcerations. The wall is
thickened and softened, and similar conditions are found in the walls of
the intestines. The red discoloration extends in spots or large areas quite
through the wall, showing on the outside.

_Treatment._--Very small quantities of carefully selected feed must be
given and the appetite must not be forced. Protect the animal well from
cold and dampness. Internally, give linseed tea, boiled milk, boiled
oatmeal gruel, or rice water. These protectives may carry the medicine.
Tannopin in doses of 30 to 60 grains is good. Subnitrate of bismuth in
doses of 1 to 2 drams may be given. Pulverized opium may be used, if the
diarrhea is severe, in 1 to 2 dram doses. If the bowel movements are not
free, one may give from a pint to a quart of castor or raw linseed oil.


TRAUMATIC INFLAMMATION OF THE STOMACH.

This disease results from the presence of a foreign body. This condition is
not rare in cattle, because these animals have the habit of swallowing
their feed without careful chewing, and so nails, screws, hairpins, ends of
wire, and other metal objects may be swallowed unconsciously. Such objects
gravitate to the second stomach, where they may be caught in the folds of
the lining mucous membrane, and in some instances the wall of this organ is
perforated. From this accident, chronic indigestion results. The symptoms,
more or less characteristic, are pain when getting up or lying down;
grunting and pain upon sudden motion, especially downhill; coughing; pain
on pressure over the second stomach, which lies immediately above the
cartilaginous prolongation of the sternum. If the presence of such a
foreign body is recognized, it may be removed by a difficult surgical
operation, or, as is usually most economical, the animal may be killed for
beef, if there is no fever.


DISEASES OF THE BOWELS.

DIARRHEA AND DYSENTERY.

[See also Gastrointestinal catarrh, p. 32.]

The word "dysentery," as it is commonly used in relation to the diseases of
animals, signifies a severe form of diarrhea.

_Causes._--Diarrhea is a symptom of irritation of the intestines, resulting
in increased secretion or increased muscular contractions, or both. The
irritation is sometimes the result of chilling from exposure, improper
feeding, irritant feeds, indigestion, organic diseases of the intestines,
or parasites.

_Symptoms._--Passages from the bowels are frequent, at first consisting of
thin dung, but as the disease continues they become watery and offensive
smelling, and may be even streaked with blood. At first the animal shows no
constitutional disturbance, but later it becomes weak and may exhibit
evidence of abdominal pain by looking around to the side, drawing the feet
together, lying down, or moving restlessly. Sometimes this malady is
accompanied with fever, great depression, loss of strength, rapid loss of
flesh, and it may terminate in death.

_Treatment._--When the disease depends on irritating properties of the feed
which has been supplied to the animal, it is advisable to give a mild
purgative, such as a pint of castor or linseed oil. When the secretions of
the bowels are irritating, an ounce of carbonate of magnesia and half an
ounce of tincture of opium should be shaken up in a quart of linseed tea
and given to the animal three times a day until the passages present a
natural appearance. When there is debility, want of appetite, no fever, but
a continuance of the watery discharges from the bowels, then an astringent
may be given. For such cases the following is serviceable: Tannic acid, 1
ounce; powdered gentian, 2 ounces; mix and divide into 12 powders, one
powder to be given three times a day until the passages present a natural
appearance. Each powder may be mixed with a pint and a half of water.
Tannopin is a new remedy that is most useful in such cases. The dose is
from 30 grains to 2 drams. Useful household remedies are raw eggs, strong
coffee, parched rye flour, or decoction of oak bark. In all cases the food
must be given sparingly, and it should be carefully selected to insure good
quality. Complete rest in a box stall is desirable. When diarrhea is a
symptom of a malady characterized by the presence of a blood poison, the
treatment appropriate to such disease must be applied.


SIMPLE ENTERITIS.

[See Gastroenteritis, p. 33.]


CROUPOUS ENTERITIS.

Under certain conditions, severe irritation of the digestive canal may, in
cattle, cause a form of inflammation of the intestines (enteritis) that is
characterized by the formation of a false membrane upon the surface of the
lining membrane of the intestines, particularly the large ones.

_Symptoms._--There is fever, depression, loss of appetite, diarrhea, and in
the fecal masses shreds of leathery false membrane may be found. These
shreds are sometimes mistaken for parasites or for portions of the wall of
the intestine.

_Treatment._--Give a pound of Glauber's salt, followed by bicarbonate of
soda in doses of 2 ounces four times daily.

ENTERITIS (OBSTRUCTION RESULTING FROM INVAGINATION, OR INTUSSUSCEPTION,
TWISTING, AND KNOTTING OF THE BOWELS).

Inflammation may arise from a knot forming on some part of the small
intestine from the portion of the bowel becoming twisted on itself, or from
one part of the bowel slipping into another, which is termed invagination.
This form of enteritis occurs occasionally in animals of the bovine
species.

_Causes._--The small intestine, which in the ox rests on the right side of
the rumen, is, from the position which it occupies, predisposed to this
accident. It has been ascertained that animals which have shown symptoms of
this malady have trotted, galloped, or made other violent exertions in
coming from drinking, or that they have been chased by dogs or by animals
of their own species while at pasture. The accident is most likely to occur
among cattle on very hilly pastures. The danger of jumping or running is
greatest when the rumen is distended with food.

_Symptoms._--This form of enteritis or obstruction is manifested by severe
colicky pains; the ox scrapes and strikes the ground with his front and
hind feet alternately; keeps lying down and getting up again; he keeps his
tail constantly raised and turns his nose frequently to his right flank; he
is frequently bloated, or tympanitic, on that side. He refuses feed and
does not ruminate, and for some hours suffers severe pains. At first he
frequently passes thin dung, and also urinates frequently, but passes only
a little urine at a time. On the second day the pains have become less
acute; the animal remains lying down; moans occasionally; his pulse is
small and quick; he still refuses feed and does not ruminate. At this stage
he does not pass any dung, though sometimes a small quantity of bloody
mucus may be passed. The animal passes very little urine. This condition
may continue for a considerable time, as cattle so affected may live for 15
or even 20 days.

_Post-mortem appearance._--At death the bowels are found to be misplaced or
obstructed, as mentioned above, and inflamed, the inflammation always
originating at the point where the intestine has been invaginated, twisted,
or knotted. Sometimes the part is gangrenous, the compression of the blood
vessels preventing circulation, and thus causing the death of the tissues.

_Treatment._--Purgatives, anodynes, and other remedies are of no service in
such cases, and bleeding also fails to produce any benefit. Indeed, it is
usually true that in such cases treatment is useless. Some cases are
recorded in which an incision has been made in the flank, so as to enable
the operator to restore the intestine to its normal position or to remove
the kink.


CONSTIPATION.

Constipation is to be regarded rather as a symptom of disease or of faults
in feeding than as a disease in itself. It occurs in almost all general
fevers unless the bowels are involved in local disease, in obstructions of
all kinds, from feeding on dry, bulky feed, etc. In order to remove the
constipation the treatment must be applied to remove the causes which give
rise to it. Calves sometimes suffer from constipation immediately after
birth when the meconium that accumulates in the bowels before birth is not
passed. In such cases, give a rectal injection of warm water and an ounce
of castor oil shaken up with an ounce of new milk. The mother's milk is the
best food to prevent constipation in the new-born calf, as it contains a
large amount of fatty matter which renders it laxative in its effects.

It is usually better to treat habitual constipation by a change of diet
than by medicine. Flaxseed is a good feed laxative. If the constipation has
lasted long, repeated small doses of purgatives are better than a single
large dose.


INTESTINAL WORMS.

[See chapter on "The animal parasites of cattle," p. 502.]


RUPTURES (VENTRAL HERNIA).

Ventral hernia, or rupture, is an escape of some one of the abdominal
organs through a rupture in the abdominal muscles, the skin remaining
intact. The rumen, the small intestine, or part of the large intestine, and
the fourth stomach are the parts which usually form a ventral hernia in
bovine animals.

_Causes._--Hernia is frequently produced by blows of the horns, kicks, and
falls. In old cows hernia may sometimes occur without any direct injury.

HERNIA OF THE RUMEN.--Hernia of the rumen is generally situated on the left
side of the abdomen, on account of the situation of the rumen. In
exceptional cases it may take place on the right side, and in such cases it
also generally happens that some folds of the intestine pass into the
hernial sac. Hernias have been classified into simple or complicated,
recent or old, traumatic (from mechanical injury) or spontaneous.

In recent traumatic hernia there is swelling on the left side of the lower
part of the abdomen. The swelling is greatest in the cases of hernia which
are situated on the lower part of the abdomen. Unless an examination is
made immediately after the injury has been inflicted it is difficult, and
sometimes impossible, to ascertain the exact extent of the rupture, owing
to the swelling which subsequently takes place. Frequently there is no loss
of appetite, fever, or other general symptoms attending the injury. From
the twelfth to the fifteenth day the swelling has generally subsided to
such an extent that it is possible by an examination to determine the
extent of the rupture.

In old cows what is termed spontaneous hernia may sometimes take place
without any direct injury. The occurrence of this form of hernia is
explained by the increase in the size of the abdomen, which takes place in
an advanced stage of pregnancy, causing a thinning and stretching of the
muscular fibers, which at last may rupture, or give way. Such hernias
frequently occur about the end of the period of gestation, and in some
instances have contained the right sac of the rumen, the omentum, the small
and large intestines, a portion of the liver, and the pregnant uterus.

In old hernias the swelling is soft and elastic, and if they have not
contracted adhesions to the sides of the laceration, they can be made to
disappear by pressure carefully applied. Sometimes this accident is
complicated by a rupture of the rumen, constituting a complicated hernia.
If a portion of the contents of the rumen escape into the abdomen, the case
will be aggravated by the occurrence of peritonitis.

HERNIA OF THE BOWEL.--When the intestines (Pl. III, fig. 6) form the
contents of the hernia, it will be situated at the right side of the
abdomen. In an intestinal hernia the swelling is usually not painful, of a
doughy consistence or elastic, according as the intestine does or does not
contain alimentary matter. This swelling can generally be made to disappear
by pressure, and when it has been reduced one can easily recognize the
direction and extent of the hernial opening. Hernias of the bowel which are
situated at the upper and right side of the abdomen are usually formed by
the small intestine. They are less easily reduced than a hernia in a lower
situation, but when reduction has been effected they are less readily
reproduced than those occurring lower. In hernias of the small intestine,
adhesion of the protruding parts to the walls of the opening, or
strangulation, are complications which sometimes take place. If adhesion
has taken place the hernia can not be reduced by pressure, and when
strangulation has occurred the animal shows symptoms of pain--is restless,
turns its nose to the painful part, and shows those symptoms which are
usually collectively designated under the term colic. If relief is not
afforded, the animal will die.

HERNIA OF THE RENNET, OR FOURTH STOMACH.--This disease occasionally occurs
in calves and is usually caused by a blow from a cow's horn on the right
flank of the calf. After such an accident a swelling forms on the right
flank near the last rib. This swelling may be neither hot nor painful, even
at first, and is soft to the touch. It can be made to disappear by careful
pressure, when the sides of the aperture through which it has passed can be
felt. The application of pressure so as to cause the disappearance of the
hernia is best made immediately after the occurrence of the accident, or
when the edema which accompanies the swelling has disappeared.

_Treatment._--When a hernia is reducible--that is, can be pushed back into
the abdomen--then, if it is of recent occurrence, it is advisable to
maintain the natural position of the parts by bandaging and to allow the
walls of the laceration to grow together. The bowels should be kept
reasonably empty by avoiding the use of bulky feed, and the animal must be
kept quiet.

The following method of bandaging is recommended by Bouley:

First prepare a bandage (must be of strong material), about 10 yards long
and between 3 and 4 inches broad, and a flexible and solid piece of
pasteboard adapted in size to the surface of the hernia. The protruding
organ must then be replaced in the abdomen and maintained in that position
during the application of the bandage. This being done, a layer of melted
pitch and turpentine is quickly spread on the skin covering the seat of the
hernia, so as to extend somewhat beyond that space. This adhesive layer is
then covered with a layer of fine tow, then a new layer of pitch and
turpentine is spread on the tow, and the piece of pasteboard is applied on
the layer of pitch, its outer surface being covered with the same
preparation. Lastly, the bandage, adhering to the piece of pasteboard, to
the skin, and to the different turns which it makes around the body, is
carefully applied so as to form an immovable, rigid, and solid bandage,
which will retain the hernia long enough for the wound in the abdominal
walls to heal permanently.

If the hernia is old and small it may be treated by injecting a strong
solution of common salt about the edges of the tear. This causes swelling
and inflammation, which, respectively, forces the protruded organ back and
closes the opening. There is some risk attached to this method of
treatment.

In small, old, ventral hernias the method of compressing and sloughing off
the skin has been used successfully. If the hernia is large a radical
operation will be necessary, and this is also true when the symptoms
indicate that a hernia is strangulated. This operation is performed by
cutting down on the hernia, restoring the organ to the abdominal cavity,
and then closing the wound with two sets of stitches; the inner stitches,
in the muscular wall, should be made with catgut and the outer stitches, in
the skin, may be made with silk or silver wire. The strictest surgical
cleanliness must be observed. Bleeding vessels should be tied. Then a
compress composed of ten or twelve folds of cloth must be placed smoothly
over the seat of injury and a bandage applied around the body, the two ends
being fastened at the back. In the smaller kinds of hernia, nitric acid may
sometimes be applied with success. This treatment should not be applied
until the swelling and inflammation attending the appearance of the hernia
have subsided; then, the contents of the hernia having been returned, the
surface of skin corresponding to it is sponged over with a solution
composed of 1 part of nitric acid to 2 of water. This treatment acts by
exciting considerable inflammation, which has the effect of causing
swelling, and thus frequently closing the hernial opening and preventing
the contents of the sac from returning. A second application should not be
made until the inflammation excited by the first has subsided. In what is
termed spontaneous hernia it is useless to apply any kind of treatment.

UMBILICAL HERNIA.--The umbilicus, or navel, is the aperture through which
the blood vessels pass from the mother to the fetus, and naturally the
sides of this aperture ought to adhere or unite after birth. In very young
animals, and sometimes in newborn calves, this aperture in the abdominal
muscles remains open and a part of the bowel or a portion of the mesentery
may slip through the opening, constituting what is called umbilical hernia.
The wall of the sac is formed by the skin, which is covered on the inner
surface by a layer of cellular tissue, and within this there is sometimes,
but not always, a layer of peritoneum. The contents of the hernia may be
formed by a part of the bowel, by a portion of the peritoneum, or may
contain portions of both peritoneum and bowel. When the sac contains only
the peritoneum it has a doughy feel, but when it is formed by a portion of
the bowel it is more elastic on pressure.

_Causes._--In the new-born animal the opening of the navel is generally
large, and may sometimes give way to the pressure of the bowel on account
of the weak and relaxed condition of the abdominal muscles. This defective
and abnormal condition of the umbilicus is frequently hereditary. It may be
occasioned by roughly pulling away the umbilical cord; through kicks or
blows on the belly; through any severe straining by which the sides of the
navel are stretched apart. We may mention in this connection that it is
best in new-born calves to tie the umbilical cord tightly about 2 inches
from the navel, and then to leave it alone, when in most cases it will drop
off in a few days, leaving the navel closed.

_Treatment._--It is well to bear in mind that many, and especially the
smaller, umbilical hernias heal spontaneously; that is, nature effects a
cure. As the animal gets older the abdominal muscles get stronger and
possess more power of resistance to pressure, the bowels become larger and
do not pass so readily through a small opening, so that from a combination
of causes there is a gradual growing together or adhesion of the sides of
the navel. In cases of umbilical hernia in which there are no indications
that a spontaneous cure will take place, the calf should be laid on its
back; immediately on this being done the hernia will often disappear into
the abdomen. If it does not, its reduction may be brought about by gentle
handling, endeavoring, if need be, to empty the organs forming the hernia
before returning them into the abdomen. After the hernia has been returned,
the hair should be clipped from the skin covering it and a compress
composed of 10 or 12 folds of linen or cotton should be applied, first
smearing the skin with pitch and then a bandage about 3 inches wide should
be passed round the body so as to retain the compress in position. The
lower part of the compress should be smeared with pitch, and also those
portions of the bandage which pass over it, so as to keep it solid and
prevent it from shifting. In some cases it will be found that the contents
of the sac can not be returned into the abdomen, and this generally arises
from the fact that some part of the contents of the sac has grown to or
become adherent to the edges of the umbilical opening. In such a case the
skin must be carefully laid open in the long direction, the adhesions of
the protruding organs carefully separated from the umbilicus, and after the
protruding parts have been returned into the abdomen, the sides of the
umbilicus must be freshened if necessary by paring, and then the edges of
the opening brought together by catgut stitches; the wound in the skin must
then also be brought together by stitches. The wound must be carefully
dressed every day and a bandage passed round the body so as to cover and
protect the part operated on.

In small hernias nitric acid has been used successfully in the same manner
as has been described in the treatment of ventral hernia. Sulphuric acid
has also been used for a similar purpose, diluting it to the extent of 1
part of acid to 3 or 5 of water. In thin-skinned animals the weaker
preparations ought to be preferred, and caution must be exercised in using
such preparations so as not to destroy the tissues on which they are
applied.

Another method of treatment is, after the contents of the sac have been
returned into the abdomen, to tie a piece of strong waxed cord round the
pendulous portion which formed the outer covering of the hernia. The string
is apt to slacken after two or three days, when a new piece of cord should
be applied above the first one. The constriction of the skin sets up
inflammation, which generally extends to the umbilicus and causes the edges
to adhere together, and by the time the portion of skin below the ligature
has lost its vitality and dropped off, the umbilicus is closed and there is
no danger of the abdominal organs protruding through it. This is what takes
place when this method has a favorable result, though if the umbilicus does
not become adherent and the skin sloughs, the bowels will protrude through
the opening.

GUT-TIE (PERITONEAL HERNIA).--In peritoneal hernia of the ox a loop or
knuckle of intestine enters from the abdomen into a rent in that part of
the peritoneum which is situated at the margin of the hip bone or it passes
under the remains of the spermatic cord, the end of which may be grown fast
to the inner inguinal ring. The onward pressure of the bowel, as well as
the occasional turning of the latter round the spermatic cord, is the cause
of the cord exercising considerable pressure on the bowel, which occasions
irritation, obstructs the passage of excrement, and excites inflammation,
which terminates in gangrene and death.

The rent in the peritoneum is situated at the upper and front part of the
pelvis, nearer to the sacrum than the pubes.

_Causes._--Among the causes of peritoneal hernia considerable importance is
attached to a method of castration which is practiced in certain districts,
viz, the tearing or rupturing of the spermatic cord by main force instead
of dividing it at a proper distance above the testicle in a surgical
manner. After this violent and rough method of operating, the cord retracts
into the abdomen and its stump becomes adherent to some part of the
peritoneum, or it may wind around the bowel and then the stump becomes
adherent, so that strangulation of the bowel results. The rough dragging on
the cord may also cause a tear in the peritoneum, the result of which need
not be described. The severe exertion of ascending hills and mountains,
drawing heavy loads, or the straining which oxen undergo while fighting
each other may also give rise to peritoneal hernia.

_Symptoms._--The ox suddenly becomes very restless, stamps with his feet,
moves backward and forward, hurriedly lies down, rises, moves his tail
uneasily, and kicks at his belly with the foot of the affected side. The
pain evinced may diminish but soon returns again. In the early stage there
are frequent passages of dung, but after the lapse of 18 or 24 hours this
ceases, the bowel apparently being emptied to the point of strangulation,
and the passages now consist only of a little mucus mixed with blood. When
injections are given at this time the water passes out of the bowel without
even being colored. The animal lies down on the side where the hernia
exists and stretches out his hind feet in a backward direction. These two
particular symptoms serve to distinguish this affection from enteritis and
invagination of the bowel. As time passes the animal becomes quieter, but
this cessation of pain may indicate that gangrene of the bowel has set in,
and may, therefore, under certain circumstances, be considered a precursor
of death. Gangrene may take place in from four to six days, when
perforation of the bowel may occur and death result in a short time.

_Treatment._--In the first place the ox should be examined by passing the
oiled hand and arm into the rectum; the hand should be passed along the
margin of the pelvis, beginning at the sacrum and continuing downward
toward the inguinal ring, when a soft, painful swelling will be felt, which
may vary from the size of an apple to that of the two fists. This swelling
will be felt to be tightly compressed by the spermatic cord. It very rarely
happens that there is any similar swelling on the left side, though in such
cases it is best to make a thorough examination. The bowel has sometimes
been released from its position by driving the ox down a hill; by causing
him to jump from a height of 2 feet to the ground; the expedient of
trotting him also has been resorted to with the hope that the jolting
movement might bring about a release of the bowel. If the simple expedients
mentioned have been tried and failed, then the hand being passed into the
rectum should be pressed gently on the swelling in an upward and forward
direction, so as to endeavor to push the imprisoned portion of the bowel
back into the abdomen. While this is being done the ox's hind feet should
stand on higher ground than the front, so as to favor the slipping out of
the bowel by its own weight, and at the same time an assistant should
squeeze the animal's loins, so as to cause it to bend downward and so relax
the band formed by the spermatic cord. If the imprisoned portion of gut is
freed, which may be ascertained by the disappearance of the swelling, the
usual sounds produced by the bowels moving in the abdomen will be heard,
and in a few hours the feces and urine will be passed as usual. If the
means mentioned fail to release the imprisoned portion of the gut, then
an incision about 4 inches long must be made in the right flank in a
downward direction, the hand introduced into the abdomen, the situation
and condition of swelling exactly ascertained, and then a probe-pointed
knife inserted between the imprisoned bowel and band compressing it, and
turned outward against the band, the latter being then cautiously divided
and the imprisoned gut allowed to escape, or, if necessary, the bowel
should be drawn gently from its position into the abdomen. The wound in the
flank must be brought together in the same way as in the case of the wound
made in operating for impaction of the rumen.


WOUNDS OF THE ABDOMEN.

A wound of the abdomen may merely penetrate the skin; but as such cases are
not attended with much danger, nor their treatment with much difficulty, we
will consider here merely those wounds which penetrate the entire thickness
of the abdominal walls and expose to a greater or less extent the organs
contained in that cavity.

_Causes._--Such accidents may be occasioned by falling on fragments of
broken glass or other sharp objects. A blow from the horn of another animal
may penetrate the abdomen. Exposure and protrusion of some of the abdominal
organs may also be occasioned by the incautious use of caustics in the
treatment of umbilical or ventral hernia. The parts which generally escape
through an abdominal wound are the small intestine and floating colon.

_Symptoms._--When the abdominal wound is small, the bowel exposed presents
the appearance of a small round tumor, but in a few moments a loop of
intestine may emerge from the opening. The animal then shows symptoms of
severe pain by pawing with his feet, which has the effect of accelerating
the passage of new loops of intestine through the wound, so that the mass
which they form may even touch the ground. The pain becomes so great that
the ox now not only paws but lies down and rolls, thus tearing and crushing
his bowels. In such cases it is best to slaughter the animal at once; but
in the case of a valuable animal in which tearing and crushing of the
bowels has not taken place the bowels should be washed with freshly boiled
water reduced to the temperature of the body and returned and the wounds in
the muscle and skin brought together in a manner somewhat similar to that
described in speaking of ventral hernia.


DISEASES OF THE LIVER AND SPLEEN.

JAUNDICE (THE YELLOWS, OR CONGESTION OF THE LIVER).

When jaundice exists, there is a yellow appearance of the white of the eyes
and of the mucous membrane of the mouth. A similar aspect of the skin may
also be observed in animals which are either partly or altogether covered
with white hair. Jaundice is then merely a symptom of disease and ought to
direct attention to ascertaining, if possible, the cause or causes which
have given rise to it. A swollen condition of the mucous membrane of that
part of the bowel called the duodenum may produce jaundice, as that
mechanically closes the orifice of the biliary duct. In constipation there
is an inactive or torpid condition of the bowel, and the bile which passes
into the intestine may be absorbed and cause the yellow staining of
jaundice. Jaundice is one of the symptoms of Texas fever. It may also arise
from the presence of parasites or gallstones in the ducts, forming a
mechanical obstruction to the onward flow of bile. The conditions under
which jaundice most commonly calls for treatment are when cattle have been
highly fed and kept in a state of inactivity. At such time there is an
excess of nutritive elements carried into the blood, which is associated
with increased fullness of the portal vein and hepatic artery. When
continued high feeding has produced this congested state of the liver, the
functions of that organ become disordered, so that a considerable portion
of the bile, instead of being excreted and passing into the intestine, is
absorbed by the hepatic veins.

The structure of the liver is shown in Plate IV.

_Symptoms._--This disease, although rare, occurs most frequently among
stall-fed cattle. Pressure along the margin of the short ribs on the right
side produces pain; the appetite is poor and the animal shows hardly any
inclination to drink; the mucous membranes of the eye and mouth are yellow,
the urine has a yellow or brown appearance, the animal lies down much and
moves with reluctance, moans occasionally, and has a tottering gait. The
ears and horns are alternately hot and cold; in cows the secretion of milk
is much diminished, and that which is secreted has a bitter taste;
sometimes the animal has a dry, painful cough and presents a dull,
stupefied appearance.

_Treatment._--In such cases it is advisable to produce a free action of the
bowels, so as to remove the usually congested condition of the portal vein
and liver. For this purpose the administration of the following dose is
recommended: Sulphate of soda, 16 ounces; molasses, 1 pint; warm water, 1
quart. The sulphate of soda is dissolved by stirring it up in tepid water.
Following this the animal should have a heaping tablespoonful of artificial
Carlsbad salt in the feed three times daily. This treatment may be assisted
by giving occasional injections of warm water and soap. The diet should be
laxative and moderate in quantity and may consist of coarse bran mash,
pulped roots, grass in the season, and hay in moderate quantity.


HEPATITIS (INFLAMMATION OF THE LIVER).

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and usually occurs as a
complication of some infectious disease. It may also occur as a
complication of gastrointestinal catarrh or in hot weather from overheating
or damaged (putrid or fermented) feeds.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms are sometimes obscure and their real significance
is frequently overlooked. The most prominent symptoms are yellowness of the
white of the eye and of the membrane lining the mouth; the appetite is
poor, the body presents an emaciated appearance, the feces are light
colored, while the urine is likely to be unusually dark; there is thirst,
and pain is caused by pressing over the liver. The gait is weak and the
animal lies down more than usual, and while doing so frequently rests its
head on the side of its chest.

_Treatment._--Give a purge of Glauber's salt and after it has operated give
artificial Carlsbad salts in each feed, as advised under "Jaundice." Give
green feed and plenty of water. Oil of turpentine should be rubbed in well
once a day over the region of the liver. The skin on which it should be
applied extends from the false ribs on the right side to 6 inches in front
of the last one, and from the backbone to 12 inches on the right side of
it.


FLUKE DISEASE.

[See chapter on "The animal parasites of cattle," p. 502.]


SPLENITIS (INFLAMMATION OF THE SPLEEN).

This disease occurs almost solely as a result of the existence of some
infectious disease, and the symptoms caused by it merge with the symptoms
of the accompanying causative disease. The spleen is seriously involved and
becomes enlarged and soft in Texas fever, anthrax, and blood poisoning.


DISEASES OF THE PERITONEUM.

PERITONITIS.

Peritonitis consists of an inflammation of the peritoneum, which is the
thin, delicate membrane that lines the abdomen and covers the abdominal
organs.

_Causes._--Wounds are the usual cause in cattle. The wound may be of the
abdominal wall or of the intestines, stomach, or uterus; or inflammation
may extend from one of the organs of the abdominal cavity to the
peritoneum; so this disease may complicate enteritis or inflamed womb. A
sharp metal body may perforate the second stomach and allow the gastric
contents to escape, irritating the peritoneum. This disease may follow
castration or operation for hernia.

_Symptoms._--A continuous or occasional shivering; the animal lies down,
but appears uneasy; it frequently turns its head toward its belly and lows
plaintively; pressure on the flanks produces pain; has no appetite; muzzle
is dry and no rumination; while standing, its legs are placed well under
its body; pulse small and hard. The evacuations from the bowels are dry and
hard. If this disease is complicated by the presence of inflammation of the
bowels, the pain is more severe and the animal is more restless. The skin
is cold and dry in the early stage of this disease, but in a more advanced
stage this condition may be succeeded by heat of the skin and quick
breathing. The fits of trembling, uneasiness, small and hard pulse, and
tension of the left flank are symptoms the presence of which would enable
one to reach the conclusion that peritonitis exists.

_Post-mortem appearance._--The membrane lining the abdomen and covering the
surface of the bowels is reddened to a greater or less extent, and there is
usually considerable serous, or watery, fluid collected in the abdomen.

_Treatment._--When we have to do with the form of peritonitis resulting
from an injury, as when the horn of another animal has been thrust through
the abdominal walls, this lesion must be treated in accordance with
directions before given, but the general treatment must be similar to that
which follows. Peritonitis resulting from castration or from parturient
fever must also be treated in connection with the special conditions which
give rise to it, as the general treatment of this disease must be modified
to some extent by the exciting cause.

The aim must be to discover and remove the cause. The cause must be treated
according to its nature. Harms strongly recommends borax in the treatment
of peritonitis. He gives 6 ounces in the first 24 hours, divided into three
doses, and afterwards he gives 6 drams three times daily. Opium in doses of
2 to 3 drams may be given. To bring on evacuations of the bowels it is
better to give rectal injections than to administer purges. The strength
may be sustained by coffee or camphor.

The body should be warmly clothed, and it is advisable, when practicable,
to have a blanket which has been wrung out of hot water placed over the
abdomen, then covered by several dry blankets, which are maintained in
position by straps or ropes passing round the body. The wet blanket must be
changed as it cools--the object of treatment being to warm the surface of
the body and to determine as much blood to the skin as possible. The diet
should consist of laxative food and drinks, such as linseed tea. If
peritonitis assumes chronic form the diet should be nutritious, such as
selected clover hay, linseed cake, grass, etc., and iodid of potassium
should be given three times a day in gram doses dissolved in a pint of
water.


DROPSY OF THE ABDOMEN (ASCITES).

In this disease there is a serous, or watery, effusion in the cavity of the
abdomen.

_Causes._--When old animals are fed on innutritious feed or when reduced by
disease, they become anemic; in other words, their blood becomes
impoverished and dropsy may follow. An innutritious and insufficient diet
produces the same effect in young animals. It is one of the results of
peritonitis, and may also arise from acute or chronic inflammation of the
liver, such as is of common occurrence when flukes are present in the liver
in large numbers. Heart disease and chronic lung disease may be followed by
ascites. It is sometimes, in calves, a symptom of infestation with worms.

_Symptoms._--A gradual increase in the size of the abdomen at its lower
part, while the flanks becomes hollow; pallor of the mucous membrane of the
mouth and eye; weak and sluggish gait; want of appetite, and irregularity
in ruminating. On percussion or tapping the surface of the abdomen with the
fingers, a dull sound is produced. If the hand and arm are oiled and passed
into the rectum as far as possible, on moving the hand from one side to the
other the fluctuation caused by the presence of fluid in the abdomen may be
felt.

_Treatment._--If possible the cause must be discovered and removed. The
diet should be nutritious, and in those cases in which we have merely to
deal with anemia (the bloodless state) arising from insufficient diet, the
use of tonics and diuretics, at the same time keeping the skin warm, may
bring about a gradual absorption of the fluid contained in the abdomen. One
of the following powders may be mixed with the animal's feed three times a
day; or, if there is any uncertainty as to its being taken in that way, it
should be mixed with sirup, so as to form a paste, and smeared well back on
the animal's tongue with a flat wooden spoon: Carbonate of iron, 3 ounces;
powdered gentian, 3 ounces; powdered nitrate of potassium, 3 ounces; mix
and divide into 12 powders. The administration of purgatives which promote
a watery discharge from the mucous surface of the bowels also tends, by
diminishing the serum of the blood, to bring about absorption and a gradual
removal of the fluid contained in the abdomen. Large doses should not be
given, but moderate ones should be administered morning and night, so as to
produce a laxative effect on the bowels for several days. To attain this
end the following may be used: Sulphate of soda, 8 ounces; powdered ginger,
half an ounce; to be mixed in 2 quarts of tepid water and given at one
dose.

     *       *       *       *       *

DISEASES OF THE DIGESTIVE ORGANS.

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.

PLATE I. Position of the first stomach (rumen or paunch) on the left side.
The area inclosed by heavy dotted lines represents the rumen; the
elongated, shaded organ is the spleen resting upon it. The skin and muscles
have been removed from the ribs to show the position of the lungs and their
relation to the paunch.

PLATE II. Stomach of ruminants.

Fig. 1. Stomach of a full-grown sheep, 1/5 natural size (after Thanhoffer,
from R. Meade Smith's Physiology of Domestic Animals): _a_, rumen, or first
stomach; _b_, reticulum, or second stomach; _c_, omasum, or third stomach;
_d_, abomasum, or fourth stomach; _e_, esophagus, or gullet, opening into
the first and second stomachs; _f_, opening of fourth stomach into small
intestine; _g_, opening of second stomach into third; _h_, opening of third
stomach into fourth.

The lines indicate the course of the food in the stomachs. The incompletely
masticated food passes down the esophagus, or gullet, into the first and
second stomachs, in which a churning motion is kept up, carrying the food
from side to side and from stomach to stomach. From the first stomach
regurgitation takes place; that is, the food is returned through the gullet
to the mouth to be more thoroughly chewed, and this constitutes what is
known as "chewing the cud." From the second stomach the food passes into
the third, and from the third into the fourth, or true, stomach, and from
there into the intestines.

Fig. 2. Stomach of ox (after Colin, from R. Meade Smith's Physiology of
Domestic Animals): _a_, rumen; _b_, reticulum; _c_, omasum; _d_, abomasum;
_e_, esophagus; _f_, opening of fourth stomach into small intestine.

Fürstenberg calculated that in an ox of 1,400 pounds weight the capacity of
the stomach is as follows:

                       Per cent.
Rumen, 149.25 quarts, liquid measure          62.4
Reticulum, 23.77 quarts                       10
Omasum, 36.98 quarts                          15
Abomasum, 29.05 quarts                        12.6

According to Colon--                         Quarts.

The capacity of a beef's stomach is          266.81
Small intestine                               69.74
Cecum                                          9.51
Colon and rectum                              25.58

Fig. 1. Clinical thermometer, 4/5 natural size. This is used to determine
the temperature of the animal body. The thermometer is passed into the
rectum after having been moistened with a little saliva from the mouth, or
after having had a little oil or lard rubbed upon it to facilitate its
passage. There it is allowed to remain two or three minutes, then
withdrawn, and the temperature read as in any ordinary thermometer. The
clinical thermometer is made self-registering; that is, the mercury in the
stem remains at the height to which it was forced by the heat of the body
until it is shaken back into the bulb by taking hold of the upper portion
of the instrument and giving it a short, sharp swing. The normal
temperature of cattle varies from 100° to 103° F. In young animals it is
somewhat higher than in old. The thermometer is a very useful instrument
and frequently is the means by which disease is detected before the
appearance of any external sign.

  [Illustration: PLATE I. SHOWING THE POSITION OF THE RUMEN.]

  [Illustration: PLATE II. STOMACH OF RUMINANTS.]

  [Illustration: PLATE III. INSTRUMENTS USED IN TREATING DISEASES OF
                              DIGESTIVE ORGANS.]

  [Illustration: PLATE IV. MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THE LIVER.]

  [Illustration: PLATE V. ERGOT IN HAY.]

  [Illustration: PLATE VI. ERGOTISM.]

Fig. 2. Simple probang, used to dislodge foreign bodies, like apples,
potatoes, eggs, etc., which have become fastened or stuck in the esophagus
or gullet.

Fig. 3. Grasping or forceps probang. This instrument, also intended to
remove obstructions from the gullet, has a spring forceps at one end in the
place of the cup-like arrangement at the end of the simple probang. The
forceps are closed while the probang is being introduced; their blades are
regulated by a screw in the handle of the instrument. This probang is used
to grasp and withdraw an article which may have lodged in the gullet and
can not be forced into the stomach by use of the simple probang.

Fig. 4. Wooden gag, used when the probang is to be passed. The gag is a
piece of wood which fits in the animal's mouth; a cord passes over the head
to hold it in place. The central opening in the wood is intended for the
passage of the probang.

Figs. 5_a_ and 5_b._ Trocar and cannula; 5_a_ shows the trocar covered by
the cannula; 5_b_, the cannula from which the trocar has been withdrawn.
This instrument is used when the rumen or first stomach becomes distended
with gas. The trocar covered by the cannula is forced into the rumen, the
trocar withdrawn, and the cannula allowed to remain until the gas has
escaped.

Fig. 6. Section at right angles through the abdominal wall, showing a
hernia or rupture. (Taken from D'Arboval. Dictionnaire de Médecine, de
Chirurgie de Hygiene): _a a_, The abdominal muscles cut across; _v_,
opening in the abdominal wall permitting the intestines _i i_ to pass
through and outward between the abdominal wall and the skin; _p p_,
peritoneum, or membrane lining the abdominal cavity, carried through the
opening _o_ by the loop of intestine and forming the sac S, the outer walls
of which are marked _b f b._

PLATE IV. Microscopic anatomy of the liver. The liver is composed of
innumerable small lobules, from 1/20 to 1/10 inch in diameter. The lobules
are held together by a small amount of fibrous tissue, in which the bile
ducts and larger blood vessels are lodged.

Fig. 1 Illustrates the structure of a lobule; _v v_, interlobular veins or
the veins between the lobules. These are branches of the portal vein, which
carries blood from the stomach and intestines to the liver; _c c_,
capillaries, or very fine blood vessels, extending as a very fine network
between the groups of liver cells from the interlobular vein to the center
of the lobule and emptying there into the intralobular vein to the center
of the lobule; _v c_, intralobular vein, or the vein within the lobule.
This vessel passes out of the lobule and there becomes the sublobular vein;
_v s_, sublobular vein. This joins other similar veins and helps to form
the hepatic vein, through which the blood leaves the liver; _d d_, the
position of the liver cells between the meshes of the capillaries; _A A_,
branches of the hepatic artery to the interlobular connective tissue and
the walls of the large veins and large bile ducts. These branches are seen
at _r r_ and form the vena vascularis; _v v_, vena vascularis; _i i_,
branches of the hepatic artery entering the substance of the lobule and
connecting with capillaries from the interlobular vein. The use of the
hepatic artery is to nourish the liver, while the other vessels carry blood
to be modified by the liver cells in certain important directions; _g_,
branches of the bile ducts, carrying bile from the various lobules into the
gall bladder and into the intestines; _x x_, intralobular bile capillaries
between the liver cells. These form a network of very minute tubes
surrounding each ultimate cell, which receives the bile as it is formed by
the liver cells and carried outward as described.

Fig. 2. Isolated liver cells: _c_, blood capillary; _a_, fine bile
capillary channel.

PLATE V. Ergot in hay: 1, bluegrass; 2, timothy; 3, wild rye; 4, redtop.
Ergot is a fungus which may affect any member of the grass family. The
spore of the fungus, by some means brought in contact with the undeveloped
seed of the grass, grows, obliterates the seed, and practically takes its
place. When hay affected with ergot is fed to animals it is productive of a
characteristic and serious affection or poisoning known as ergotism.

PLATE VI. Ergotism, or the effects of ergot. The lower part of the limb of
a cow, showing the loss of skin and flesh in a narrow ring around the
pastern bone and the exposure of the bone itself.

     *       *       *       *       *



POISONS AND POISONING.

By V. T. ATKINSON, V. S.

[Revised by C. DWIGHT MARSH, Ph. D.]


DEFINITION OF A POISON.

To define clearly the meaning of the word "poison" is somewhat difficult.
Even in law the word has never been defined, and when a definition is
attempted we are apt to include either too much or too little. The
following definition given by Husemann is perhaps the best: "Poisons are
those substances, inorganic or organic, existing in the organism or
introduced from the outside, produced artificially or formed as natural
products, which, through their chemical nature, under definite conditions,
so affect some organ of a living organism that the health or well-being of
the organism is temporarily or chronically injured." The common conception
of a poison is any substance which, in small quantity, will destroy life,
except such as act by purely mechanical means, as, for example, powdered
glass.

Some substances that are not usually looked upon as poisons may destroy
life if given in large doses, such as common salt. Other substances which
are perfectly harmless when taken into the body in the usual way are
poisons if injected into the circulation, such as distilled water, milk, or
glycerin. Living organisms are not "chemical substances," and are not
considered in this connection.


SOURCES OF POISONING.

Poisoning may come from many causes, among the chief of which are the
following:

(1) _Errors in medication._--By using the wrong substance or too large dose
an animal may be poisoned.

(2) _The exposure of poisons used for horticultural, technical, or other
legitimate purposes._--Poisons used for spraying plants, disinfecting,
poisoning vermin, dipping cattle or sheep, painting, smelting, dyeing, or
other purposes may be so handled as to come within the reach of animals.

(3) _Damaged food._--Food that has undergone putrefaction or certain kinds
of fermentation or heating, may have become poisonous, producing forage
poisoning, meat poisoning, cheese poisoning, etc.

(4) _Poisonous plants in the pasture or forage._

(5) _The bite or sting of a poisonous insect or the bite of an animal._

(6) _Malicious poisoning._


THE ACTION OF POISONS.

The action of poisons may be either local, and exerted directly on the
tissues with which they come in contact, or remote, acting through the
circulation or the nervous system; or both local and remote action may be
exerted by the same drug. Poisons which act locally generally either
destroy by corrosion the tissues with which they come in contact or by
inhalation set up acute inflammation. When any corrosive agent is taken
into the stomach in poisonous quantities, a group of symptoms is developed
which is common to all. The tissues with which the agent comes in contact
are destroyed, sloughing and acute inflammation of the surrounding
structures take place; intense pain in the abdomen and death ensue. In a
like manner, but with less rapidity, the same result is reached if the
agent used be not of a sufficiently corrosive nature to destroy the
tissues, but sufficiently irritating to set up acute inflammation of the
mucous membrane of the digestive tract. If the poison exerts a remote
influence alone, the action is quite different, little or no local effect
being produced upon the digestive organs.

To produce an effect on some part of the body distant from the channel of
entrance, a poison must have been absorbed and carried in the blood to the
central nervous system or other region involved. The poisonous effect of
any substance is modified by the quantity used; by its chemical
combinations; by the part of the animal structure with which it comes in
contact; by the physical condition of the subject; and also by the rapidity
with which the poison is excreted. As an illustration, opium may be given
with safety in much larger doses to an animal suffering from acute pain
than to one free from pain, and to an adult animal with greater safety than
to a young one. The rapidity with which the poison is absorbed, owing to
the part of the body with which it is brought in contact, is also an
important factor. So marked is this quality that some agents which have the
power of destroying life with almost absolute certainty when introduced
beneath the skin, may be taken into the stomach without causing
inconvenience, as curara, the arrow poisons, or the venomous secretion of
snakes. Other agents in chemical combination may tend to intensify, lessen,
or wholly neutralize the poisonous effect. For example, arsenic in itself
has well-marked poisonous properties, but when brought in contact with
dialyzed iron it forms an insoluble compound and becomes innocuous.
Idiosyncrasies are not so noticeable in cattle practice as in practice
among human beings, but the uncertainty with which some drugs exert their
influence would lead us to believe that well-marked differences in
susceptibility exist. Even in some cases a tolerance for poison is
engendered, so that in a herd of animals equally exposed injurious or fatal
effects do not appear with uniformity. For example, among cattle that are
compelled to drink water holding in solution a salt of lead the effects of
the poisoning will be found varying all the way from fatality to
imperceptibility.


GENERAL SYMPTOMS OF POISONING.

It is not always easy to differentiate between poisoning and some disease.
Indeed, examination during the life of the animal is sometimes wholly
inadequate to the formation of an opinion as to whether the case is one of
poisoning or, if it is, as to what the poison may be. A chemical and
physical examination after the death of the animal may be necessary to
clear up the doubt. On the other hand, the symptoms may be of such a nature
as to point unmistakably to poisoning with a certain agent. In general, the
following classes of symptoms may be regarded as indicative of poisoning:
Sudden onset of the disease without visible cause, a number of animals
being similarly affected at once, with severe gastrointestinal disorder or
derangement of the nervous system, or both; sudden alteration of heart
action in relation to frequency, force, or rhythm; local irritation,
dyspnea, or change in the urine or urination.

After death, lesions of the greatest variety may be found, and it is
necessary for one to be skilled in anatomy and pathology in order to
determine their significance. Oftentimes the stomach and intestines are
red, have thick walls, and contain blood. This signifies a severe irritant,
such as arsenic or corrosive sublimate. Other alterations sometimes found
are inflammation of the kidneys or bladder, points of hemorrhage in various
organs, changes in the blood, congestion of the lungs, and certain
microscopic changes.


GENERAL TREATMENT.

The treatment of animals suffering from poison must vary according to the
nature of the toxic agent. There are a few general plans of action,
however, which should be followed so far as possible. In man and in some of
the smaller animals it is possible to eliminate unabsorbed poison by the
use of the stomach pump or by causing vomiting. These proceedings are
impracticable in cattle. It is well, therefore, in many cases to endeavor
to expel the unabsorbed poison by emptying the digestive tract, so far as
may be, with a nonirritating purge. Castor oil in doses of 1 pint to 2
quarts is adapted to this purpose. If the poison is known to be
nonirritant--as a narcotic plant--from 10 to 20 drops of croton oil may be
given with a quart of castor oil. When poisons are somewhat prolonged in
their effect, Epsom salt in doses of 1 pound can be given advantageously.
To protect the mucous membrane from the action of strong irritants, one may
give flaxseed tea, barley water, the whites of eggs, milk, butter, olive
oil, or fresh lard. Chemical antidotes may sometimes be used for special
poisons, as advised below. In general, if an acid has been taken it may be
neutralized with an alkali, such as chalk, magnesia, bicarbonate of soda
(baking soda), ammonia (diluted), or soap. If the poison is an alkali, such
as caustic soda or potash (lye), or ammonia, an acid, such as diluted (1
per cent) sulphuric acid or vinegar, may be administered. Special
treatments and antidotes are considered below.

A poisonous agent may be so gradually introduced into the system as to
slowly develop the power of resistance against its own action. In other
cases where the poison is introduced slowly the poisonous action becomes
accumulative, and, although there is no increase in the quantity taken,
violent symptoms are suddenly developed, as if the whole amount, the
consumption of which may have extended over a considerable period, had been
given in one dose. Other agents, poisonous in their nature, tend to
deteriorate some of the important organs, and, interfering with their
natural functions, are productive of conditions of ill health which,
although not necessarily fatal, are important. Such might properly be
called chronic poisons. Poisons of themselves dangerous when administered
in large doses are used medicinally for curative purposes, and a very large
percentage of the pharmaceutical preparations used in the practice of
medicine if given in excessive quantities may produce serious results. In
the administration of medicines, therefore, care should be exercised not
only that the animal is not poisoned by the administration of an excessive
dose but that injury is not done by continued treatment with medicines the
administration of which is not called for.


MINERAL POISONS.

ARSENIC POISONING.

Of the common irritant and corrosive poisons, arsenic, especially one of
its compounds (Paris green), is likely to be the most dangerous to our
class of patients. The common practice of using Paris green and other
compounds of arsenic as insecticides for the destruction of potato beetle
and other insect enemies of the farmer and fruit grower has had the effect
of introducing it into almost all farming establishments. White arsenic is
also a principal ingredient in some popular dipping preparations, and
poisoning from this source occasionally takes place when, after dipping,
animals are allowed to run in a yard in which there is loose fodder. The
drippings from the animals falling on the fodder render it poisonous and
dangerous to animal life if eaten. Familiarity with its use has in many
instances tended to breed contempt for its potency as a poison. Rat poisons
often contain arsenic. The excessive use of arsenic as a tonic, or of
"condition powders" containing arsenic, has been the means of poisoning
many animals. This is the common poison used by malicious persons with
criminal intent. The poison may also be absorbed through wounds or through
the skin if used as a dip or bath.

If a large dose is given, at once acute poisoning is produced; if repeated
small doses are given, chronic poisoning may result. The poisonous dose for
an ox is from 3 drams to 1 ounce.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms of acute poisoning first appear as those of
colic; the animal is restless, stamping with the feet, lying down and
getting up. There is tenderness on pressure over the abdomen. The acute
symptoms increase; in a few hours violent diarrhea is developed; in many
cases blood and shreds of detached mucous membrane are mixed with the
evacuations. There is irregular and feeble pulse and respiration, and death
is likely to supervene between the eighteenth hour and the third day. If
the latter period is passed, there is a reasonable hope of recovery.

In chronic poisoning the symptoms are similar to those of chronic
gastrointestinal catarrh, with indigestion, diarrhea, and general weakness
and loss of condition.

_Treatment._--The antidote for arsenic is a solution of hydrated oxid of
iron in water. It should be prepared fresh by mixing a solution of sulphate
of iron, made by dissolving 4 ounces of sulphate of iron in one-half pint
water, with a suspension of 1 ounce of magnesia in one-half pint water.
This quantity is sufficient for one dose for a cow and may be repeated in
an hour, if much arsenic was taken. A solution of calcined magnesia or
powdered iron or iron filings or iron scale from a blacksmith's forge may
be given in the absence of other remedies. Powdered sulphur is of some
value as an antidote. One must also administer protectives, such as linseed
tea, barley water, whites of eggs, etc.


LEAD POISONING.

Lead poisoning of cattle sometimes comes from their having licked freshly
painted surfaces and thus swallowed compounds containing white lead. In
several instances cattle have been poisoned by silage from a silo painted
inside with lead paint shortly before filling. Sometimes cattle eat dried
paint scrapings with apparent relish and are poisoned. Cattle grazing on
rifle ranges have been poisoned by lead from the bullets. Sugar of lead has
been administered by mistake for Glauber's salt. Lead poisoning may be
acute or chronic. The fatal dose of sugar of lead is from 1 to 4 ounces.
Water drawn from lead pipes or held in a lead-lined tank may cause
poisoning.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms are generally dullness, lying down with the head
turned toward the flank, colic, rumbling in the abdomen, loss of control of
the limbs when walking, twitching, champing of the jaws, moving in a
circle, convulsions, delirium, violent bellowing, followed by stupor and
death. The symptoms generally extend over considerable time but may end in
death after 24 hours.

_Chronic lead poisoning_ occasionally occurs in districts where lead mining
is the principal industry. The waste products of the mine thrown into
streams contaminate the water supply, so that the mineral is taken into the
system gradually, and a very small per cent of any of the salts taken into
the system in this way is pernicious. Water which contains any salt of lead
to the extent of more than one-tenth of a grain to the gallon is unfit to
drink. Such water when used continually is likely to produce colic from the
resulting intestinal irritation, and in aggravated cases paralysis more or
less severe is likely to be developed. A blue line on the margin of the
gums, the last symptom, is regarded as diagnostic and its presence as
conclusive evidence of the nature of the disorder.

_Treatment._--The treatment should first be directed toward removing the
cause. A large dose of purgative medicine should be given, and the brain
symptoms be relieved by giving bromid of potassium in half-ounce doses
every 4 or 5 hours and by the application of cold water to the head. Dilute
sulphuric acid in half-ounce doses should be given with the purgative
medicine. In this case sulphate of magnesia (Epsom salt) is the best
purgative, and it may be given in doses of from 1 to 2 pounds dissolved in
warm water. After the acute symptoms have abated, iodid of potassium may be
given, in doses of 2 drams each, three times a day for a week.

No treatment is likely to be of avail until the cause is removed.


COPPER POISONING.

The soluble salts of copper, though used as a tonic in the medicinal
treatment of cattle, are poisonous when taken in large quantities. Like
lead and arsenic, they have an irritant effect upon the mucous membrane
with which they come in contact in a concentrated form. Cattle are not very
likely to be poisoned from this cause unless through carelessness. Sulphate
of copper, commonly called blue vitriol, is occasionally used for
disinfecting and cleansing stables, where it might inadvertently be mixed
with the feed. It is also used largely for making the Bordeaux mixture used
in spraying fruit trees. The general symptoms produced are those of
intestinal irritation, short breathing, stamping, and tender abdomen.

_Treatment._--Give powdered iron, or iron reduced by hydrogen, or calcined
magnesia. Sulphur may be used. This should be followed by a liberal supply
of demulcents, linseed infusion, boiled starch, whites of eggs, etc.


ZINC POISONING.

Several of the soluble salts of zinc are irritant poisons. The chlorid and
sulphate are those in most common use. In animals which have power to vomit
they are emetic in their action. In others, when retained in the stomach,
they set up more or less irritation of the mucous membrane and abdominal
pain, producing symptoms already described in the action of other poisons
which produce the same result.

_Treatment._--The treatment should be the same as for copper poisoning.


PHOSPHORUS POISONING.

Only one of the forms of phosphorus in common use--the ordinary yellow--is
poisonous. Phosphorus in this form is used for the destruction of rats and
mice and other vermin, and has been largely used in the manufacture of
matches.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms are loss of appetite, colic, diarrhea, irritation
of the mouth and throat, and paralysis of the throat. There is also
weakness, difficult breathing, and rapid pulse. The course of the poisoning
is usually rapid, terminating in either recovery or death within three
days. The toxic dose for cattle is from 5 to 30 grains. If taken in large
quantities the excreta are occasionally noticed to be luminous when
examined in the dark.

_Treatment._--Turpentine is given in an emulsion with flaxseed tea in a
single dose of from 2 to 8 ounces. Permanganate of potassium may be given
in a one-fourth of 1 per cent solution. Stimulants, such as alcohol and
ether, should be administered. Oils and milk must not be given.


MERCURY POISONING.

Mercury poisoning is not rare in cattle from the fact that these animals
have a special susceptibility to the action of this substance. Antiseptic
washes or injections containing the bichlorid of mercury (corrosive
sublimate) must be used on cattle with great care. Mercurial disinfecting
solutions or salves must be used cautiously. Calomel can not be given
freely to cattle.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms are salivation, sore mouth, indigestion,
diarrhea, skin eruption, paralysis of local groups of muscles, and
nephritis.

_Treatment._--The treatment consists in administering sulphur in large
doses (2 to 4 ounces) or iron powder. Both make insoluble compounds with
mercury. Follow with the whites of eggs mixed with water and with linseed
tea. If the case does not terminate promptly, give iodid of potash in
1-dram doses twice daily.


POISONING BY ACIDS.

MINERAL ACIDS.--The mineral acids--nitric, sulphuric, hydrochloric, etc.--
when used in a concentrated form destroy the animal tissues with which they
come in contact, and in this respect differ from most of the poisons
previously described. When taken into the stomach the mucous membrane of
the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and stomach is apt to be more or less
completely destroyed. If taken in large quantities death is likely to
result so speedily that nothing can be done to relieve the patient, and
even if time is allowed and the action of the acid can be arrested it can
not be done until considerable and, perhaps, irreparable damage has been
done. The mucous membrane with which the acid has come in contact in the
esophagus may be destroyed by its corrosive action and carried away,
leaving the muscular tissues exposed. The raw surface heals irregularly,
the cicatrice contracting causes stricture, and an animal so injured is
likely to die of starvation. In the stomach even greater damage is likely
to be done. The peristaltic action of the esophagus carries the irritant
along quickly, but here it remains quiet in contact with one surface,
destroying it. It is likely to perforate the organ and, coming in contact
with the abdominal lining or other organs of digestion, soon sets up a
condition that is beyond repair. In a less concentrated form, when this is
not sufficiently strong to be corrosive, it exerts an irritant effect. In
this form it may not do much harm unless taken in considerable quantity.
When thus the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines becomes
inflamed pain and diarrhea are likely to result.

_Treatment._--Any of the alkalies may be used as an antidote. Most
convenient of these are chalk, baking soda, marble dust, magnesia, lime,
soap, or plaster from a wall. Mucilaginous drinks should be given in large
quantities.

VEGETABLE ACIDS.--Oxalic acid in particular is corrosive in its action when
taken in concentrated solution, losing its corrosive effect and becoming
irritant when more dilute. It also exerts a specific effect on the heart,
frequently causing death from syncope. Taken in the form either of the
crystals or solution it is likely to cause death in a very short time.
Failure of heart action and the attendant small pulse, weakness,
staggering, and convulsions are the more noticeable symptoms. Acetic acid
is irritant to the gastrointestinal tract, and may cause sudden paralysis
of the heart.

_Treatment._--The action of the acid should be counteracted by the use of
alkalies, as advised above, by limewater or lime or plaster given promptly,
by protectives to the digestive tract, and by stimulants.


POISONING BY ALKALIES.

The carbonates of potash and soda and the alkalies themselves in
concentrated form cause symptoms of intestinal irritation similar to those
produced by mineral acids. Ammonia, caustic soda, and caustic potash (lye)
are those to which animals are most exposed. The degree of their caustic
irritant effects depends on their degree of concentration. When they reach
the stomach the symptoms are nearly as well marked as in the case of the
acids. The irritation is even more noticeable, and purgation is likely to
be a more prominent symptom. If death is not caused soon, the irritation of
the gastrointestinal tract and malnutrition will last for a long time.

_Treatment._--Treatment consists in neutralizing the alkali by an acid,
such as dilute sulphuric acid (1 per cent) or strong vinegar. The
administration of such an antidote and its action must be carefully watched
during administration. In the chemical change which takes place when the
acid and alkali are combined, carbonic-acid gas is liberated, which may be
to an extent sufficient to cause considerable distention of the abdomen,
and even to produce asphyxia from pressure forward on the diaphragm. Should
this danger present itself, it may be averted by opening the flank,
permitting the gas to escape. (See "Acute tympanites, or Bloating," p. 22.)
Flaxseed or slippery-elm decoction must be given to sooth the inflamed
mucous surface. Opium may be used to allay pain.


COAL-OIL POISONING.

Coal oil is sometimes administered empirically as a treatment for
intestinal parasites. If given in large doses it produces poisonous
effects, which are likely to be manifested some time after the
administration. It acts as an irritant to the digestive tract, causing
dribbling of ropy saliva from the mouth, diarrhea, tenesmus, and loss of
appetite, with increased temperature and cold extremities. Visible mucous
membranes are injected, pupils of the eyes are contracted, and there is a
watery discharge from the eyes and nostrils. Remotely it exerts a
depressing influence on the functions of the brain and slight coma, and
occasionally convulsions, from which the animal is easily aroused. The
kidneys also suffer. The urine is dark colored and has the characteristic
odor of coal oil. Death may result from gastroenteritis or convulsions.

_Treatment._--The patient's strength should be fostered by the frequent
administration of mild stimulants, of which aromatic spirits of ammonia is
perhaps the best. The animal should be encouraged to eat soft feed and
given mucilaginous drinks.

Crude coal oil is sometimes applied to the skin to kill parasites. If too
much is used, especially in hot weather, great weakness and depression may
be caused and in some cases death may result.


CARBOLIC-ACID POISONING.

Although one of the most valuable antiseptic remedies, carbolic acid in a
concentrated form, when taken internally or used over a large surface
externally, is likely to produce poisonous effects. It causes whitening,
shrinking, and numbness of the structures with which it comes in contact,
and, besides its irritant effect, exerts a powerful influence on the
nervous system. Being readily absorbed, it produces its effect whether
swallowed, injected into the rectum, inhaled, or applied to wounds, or even
to a large tract of unbroken skin. Used extensively as a dressing, it may
produce nausea, dizziness, and smoky or blackish colored urine. The last
symptom is nearly always noticeable where the poisonous effect is produced.
In more concentrated form, or used in larger quantities, convulsions,
followed by fatal coma, are likely to take place. Even in smaller
quantities, dullness, trembling, and disinclination for food often continue
for several days. In a tolerably concentrated solution it coagulates
albumen and acts as an astringent.

_Treatment._--As an antidote internally, a solution of sulphate of soda or
sulphate of magnesia (Glauber's or Epsom salt) may be given. The white of
egg is also useful. Stimulants may be given if needed. When the poisoning
occurs through too extensive applications to wounds or the skin, as in
treatment of mange, cold water should be freely applied so as to wash off
any of the acid that may still remain unabsorbed. As a surgical dressing a
3 per cent solution is strong enough for ordinary purposes. Water will not
hold more than 5 per cent in permanent solution. No preparation stronger
than the saturated solution should be used medicinally under any
circumstances.


SALTPETER POISONING.

Both nitrate of soda and nitrate of potassium are poisonous to cattle.
These substances are used for manure and for preserving meats. They may be
administered in a drench by error in place of Glauber's salt, or they may
be exposed within reach of cattle and thus be eaten. The toxic dose depends
upon the condition of fullness of the stomach. If in solution and given on
an empty stomach, as little as 3 ounces of saltpeter (nitrate of potassium)
may be fatal to a cow. More of the Chile saltpeter (nitrate of soda) is
required to cause serious trouble.

_Symptoms._--Severe gastroenteritis, colic, tympanites, diarrhea, excessive
urination, weakness, trembling, convulsions, collapse.

_Treatment._--Same as for poisoning by common salt.


POISONING BY COMMON SALT.

A few pounds (3 to 5) of common salt will produce well-marked signs of
poisoning in cattle. So much salt as this will not be taken by cattle
except under unusual conditions. If the feed is poor in salt, and if no
salt has been given for a long time, an intense "salt hunger" may occur
that may lead an animal to eat a poisonous quantity, or an overdose of salt
may be given by error as a drench. In order to prevent overeating of salt,
it is doubtless better in salting cattle to use rock salt rather than that
in more or less finely divided form.

Herring and mackerel brine and pork pickle are also poisonous, and are
especially dangerous for hogs. In these substances there are, in addition
to salt, certain products extracted from the fish or meat which undergo
change and add to the toxicity of the solution. Sometimes saltpeter is
present in such brines.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms are great thirst, abdominal pain, diarrhea, poor
appetite, redness and dryness of the mouth, increased urination, paralysis
of the hind legs, weak pulse, general paralysis, coma, and death in from
six to eight hours.

_Treatment._--Allow as much warm water as the animal will drink; give
protectives, such as linseed tea, etc. Linseed or olive oil may be given.
To keep up the heart action give ether, alcohol, camphor, digitalis, or
coffee. To allay pain, give opium.


VEGETABLE POISONS.

Vegetable poisons may be divided into two classes--those that are likely to
be administered to the animal as medicine, and such as may be taken in the
feed, either in the shape of poisonous plants or as plants or feeds of
vegetable origin that have been damaged by fungi or by bacteria which have
produced fermentation or putrefaction.


VEGETABLE POISONS USED AS MEDICINE.

OPIUM (MORPHIN, LAUDANUM) POISONING.

Opium and its alkaloid, morphia, are so commonly used in the practice of
medicine that the poisonous result of an overdose is not uncommon. The
common preparations are gum opium, the inspissated juice of the poppy;
powdered opium, made from the gum; tincture of opium, commonly called
laudanum; and the alkaloid or active principle, morphia. Laudanum has about
one-eighth the strength of the gum or powder. Morphia is present in good
opium to the extent of about 10 per cent. In medicine it is a most useful
agent in allaying pain. It first produces a stimulating action, which is
followed by drowsiness, a disposition to sleep or complete anesthesia,
depending on the quantity of the drug used. In poisonous doses a state of
exhilaration is well marked at first. This is particularly noticeable in
cattle and in horses. The animal becomes much excited, and this stage does
not pass into insensibility unless an enormous dose has been given. If the
dose is large enough, a second stage sometimes supervenes, in which the
symptoms are those of congestion of the brain. The visible membranes have a
bluish tint (cyanotic) from interference with the air supply. The breathing
is slow, labored, and later stertorous; the pupils of the eyes are very
much contracted; the skin dry and warm. Gas accumulates in the stomach, so
that tympanites is a prominent symptom. The patient may be aroused by great
noise or the infliction of sharp pain, when the breathing becomes more
natural. A lapse into the comatose condition takes place when the
excitement ceases. Later, there is perfect coma and the patient can no
longer be aroused from the insensible condition. The contraction of the
pupil becomes more marked, the breathing intermittent and slower, there is
perspiration, the pulse more feeble and rapid, till death takes place.
Poisoning of cattle with opium or its products rarely goes beyond the stage
of excitement, because the quantity of the drug required for the later
effects is so great. Seventy-five grains of morphia administered
subcutaneously has sufficed merely to excite for 12 hours.

_Treatment._--Give strong coffee, 1 to 4 quarts, aromatic spirits of
ammonia or carbonate of ammonia. Atropia is the physiological antidote.


STRYCHNIN POISONING.

Strychnin is a very concentrated poison and produces its effect very
quickly, usually only a few minutes being necessary if given in sufficient
dose and in such a way that it will be at once absorbed. When employed as a
medicine, as a rule, minimum doses should be used, as cattle are quite
susceptible to its effects and may be killed by the maximum doses given in
the common manuals of veterinary medicine. The first noticeable symptom is
evidence of unrest or mental excitement; at the same time the muscles over
the shoulder and croup may be seen to quiver or twitch, and later there
occurs a more or less well-marked convulsion; the head is jerked back, the
back arched and leg extended, the eyes drawn. The spasm continues for only
a few minutes, when it relaxes and another occurs in a short time. The
return is hastened by excitement and in a short time again disappears,
continuing to disappear and reappear until death results. As the poisonous
effect advances the intervals between the spasms become shorter and less
marked and the spasms more severe until the animal dies in violent
struggles.

_Treatment._--The best method is to put the patient under the influence of
chloral, chloroform, or ether, and keep it there continuously until the
effect of the poison has passed off. Alcohol may be given in large doses.


ACONITE POISONING.

In recent years tincture of aconite has become a popular stable remedy. If
an animal is ailing, aconite is given whether indicated or not. Fortunately
the dose used is generally small, and for this reason the damage done is
much less than it would otherwise be. Aconite is one of the most deadly
poisons known. It produces paralysis of motion and sensation, depresses the
heart's action, and causes death by paralysis of respiration. In large
doses it causes profuse salivation, champing of the jaws, and attempts at
swallowing. If not sufficient to cause death, there is impaired appetite
with more or less nausea for some time after. In poisonous doses it causes
the animal to tremble violently, to lose power to support itself, and
brings on slight convulsions, with perspiration. The pulse is depressed,
irregular, and afterwards intermittent.

_Treatment._--The chemical antidote is tannic acid, which forms an
insoluble compound with the aconitin. The depressing effect on the heart
should be counteracted by the use of ammonia, digitalis, alcohol, camphor,
or other diffusible stimulants, which have a physiological effect opposite
to aconite.


POISONOUS PLANTS.

An important group of poisons may be classed under this head. In most cases
it is poison naturally belonging in the plant; in other cases the poisonous
principle is developed in what would otherwise be harmless plants as a
plant disease, or as a fermentation or putrefaction due to bacterial growth
and observed in forage, grain, or meal that has become heated, damaged, or
"spoilt."

The subject of poisonous plants is an important one and is of especial
interest to those using the western stock ranges, for it is probable that
there is no other single cause producing so many fatalities. In this
article only a few of the more important plants are treated in a brief way,
for an extended treatise would be necessary if the subject were to be
handled adequately. Further information should be sought in the more
elaborate publications. Many of the American poisonous plants have been
treated in bulletins issued by the United States Department of Agriculture.

_Treatment for plant poisoning._--Remedies given by the mouth in most cases
fail to give relief to cattle affected by poisonous plants. The material of
the poisonous plants in the first stomach is not very largely affected by a
remedy given as a drench. If any beneficial result is effected, it must be
on the material which has already passed into the fourth stomach, so that
to get any real antidotal result the remedy must be given repeatedly in
order to meet the alkaloid poisons as they are passing through the fourth
stomach. While certain substances like tannic acid and potassium
permanganate are the logical antidotes for plant poisons, in practical
application they are very disappointing in the treatment of ruminant
animals. Reliance must be mainly on prevention and upon such remedies as
will increase elimination. A laxative or purgative is always helpful, and
for this purpose Epsom salt may be given in pound doses, or linseed oil in
doses of 1 or 2 pints. In some few cases special remedies can be given as
is indicated below.

It is well to bear in mind that cattle while grazing freely in good pasture
are not likely to eat poisonous plants to any extent. If these same plants
are gathered and thrown in a pile, the animals, through a kind of
pernicious curiosity, may eat them with disastrous results. This has
frequently happened when freshly cut branches of cherry, yew, oleander, and
other plants have been thrown where dairy cattle could get at them.


OAKS.

The foliage of oaks is a valuable constituent of the forage on many ranges
and pastures. It has been shown, however, that when this is eaten without
some admixture of other food, cattle frequently sicken and die. Many cases
of the poisoning of cattle by acorns have been reported in England and
Germany, and there have been some complaints in the United States. Harmful
results from eating acorns do not seem likely to occur except as they are
eaten in considerable quantities.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms of oak poisoning are constipation, mucus and
blood in the feces, emaciation, and edema. The symptoms of acorn poisoning
are much the same.

_Treatment._--Change of pasture or an addition of other food material.


HORSE CHESTNUT--BUCKEYE.

All the species of _Æsculus,_ popularly known as horse chestnut or buckeye,
are considered poisonous. The bark, leaves, and fruit are injurious. It is
said that if the fruit is boiled or roasted and washed out it becomes
harmless and even is a desirable addition to the feed of cattle. The
Indians in time of scarcity of food have used the fruit after preparing it
in this way. The buckeyes are said to have a specific effect in producing
abortion in cattle and goats.


DEATH CAMAS (SPECIES OF ZYGADENUS).

The death-camas plants, which are commonly known in the Pacific States as
"lobelia," are especially destructive of sheep, but cattle sometimes eat
them and are poisoned. Cases of cattle poisoning are not likely to result
fatally.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms are salivation, nausea accompanied by vomiting,
great weakness, and lowered temperature.

_Treatment._--There is no effective treatment for death-camas poisoning.


FLY POISON (CHROSPERMA MUSCÆTORIUM).

This plant, which is closely related to the death-camas plants, is
sometimes known as "stagger grass" and causes a considerable loss in the
Southern States. It grows earlier than the grasses, and on this account is
more likely to be eaten. Like death camas, it produces pronounced nausea,
resulting in vomiting and weakness, and in cases which recover the effects
may continue for several days. Apparently the injurious effects are more
common in the case of cattle than in other domestic animals. There is no
known way of treating these animals, though doubtless purgatives would be
beneficial.


YEW (TAXUS BACCATA).

The European yew has long been known as a very poisonous plant. It is
cultivated in America, and while cases of poisoning have not been common,
it is well to recognize its dangerous character. A comparatively small dose
is poisonous and ordinarily acts with great rapidity. It causes respiratory
paralysis and the animal dies in convulsions.


LAUREL.

The laurels, including the broad-leafed laurel, _Kalmia latifolia_, the
narrow-leafed laurel, _Kalmia angustifolia_, the rhododendrons, and other
closely related plants are poisonous and cause considerable losses. It is
dangerous to let cattle graze where these plants are abundant at times when
other forage is scarce. The symptoms are salivation, nausea and vomiting,
spasms, dizziness, stupor, and death.


FERN.

The common brake or bracken fern, _Pteris aquilina_, has been considered
responsible for the poisoning of many horses and cattle. Many cases have
been reported in England and Germany, and some well-authenticated cases in
the United States. Very little has been learned experimentally of fern
poisoning, but there seems to be little question that it has been the cause
of many deaths. The symptoms are said to be temperature higher than normal,
loss of appetite, bloody discharges from mouth, nose, and bowels, and great
depression followed by coma and death. Some authors say that the urine is
colored by blood. It is thought by some that the disease known as "red
water" in the northwestern United States and Canada is caused by eating
ferns.


SORGHUM POISONING.

Under certain conditions sorghum contains enough hydrocyanic acid to make
it exceedingly dangerous to cattle. These cases of poisoning most commonly
occur when cattle are pastured upon the young plant or upon a field where
the crop has been cut and is making a second growth. Conditions of drought
make the sorghum especially dangerous. There is some reason to think that
the frosted second growth is particularly rich in hydrocyanic acid. The
cases of poisoning occur when animals are grazed upon the plant, but not
from the harvested crop or from silage. If cattle are grazed on sorghum or
sorghum stubble they should at first be under constant observation and
should be removed as soon as any signs of illness appear. Similar
precautions should be used in grazing kafir.


CORNSTALK DISEASE.

Considerable losses of cattle have occurred when they were turned upon
cornfields in the fall. Deaths come very suddenly and there is no
opportunity to apply remedies. It has been thought that these fatalities,
like those from sorghum, were caused by hydrocyanic acid, but there is good
reason to think that this is not true, and at the present time there is no
accepted explanation of this disease, although there seems to be no doubt
that it is connected in some way with the condition of the corn. Whether a
given field is poisonous or not can only be determined by experiment, and
the wise farmer will keep his cattle under close observation when they are
first turned into a cornfield.


WATER HEMLOCK (CICUTA).

This plant, growing in wet places by ditches and along creeks, is the most
poisonous of North American plants. The root is the poisonous part, and
cattle generally get it when it is plowed up or washed out by high water.
Sometimes they pull it up, for the plant occasionally grows out into
ditches so that the whole plant will be taken in grazing. The most marked
symptoms of Cicuta poisoning are the violent convulsions, which remind one
of the effect of strychnin.

_Treatment._--Little can be done in the way of treatment. The logical thing
is to attempt to control the convulsions by means of morphia, but in view
of the fact that the stomach can not be emptied, the prognosis is not good,
and most cases die.


LARKSPURS.

The larkspurs are a source of heavy loss to cattle owners in the higher
ranges of the West. There are a number of species, growing at altitudes
from 4,000 feet to timber line, and all are poisonous. A few cases of
poisoning by larkspurs have been reported in the eastern United States, but
most of the losses are confined to the West, both because larkspurs grow
there in greater profusion and because cattle are grazed in that region on
the open ranges. The losses are confined to cattle, for sheep and horses
can graze on larkspur with no resulting harm. Most of the larkspur losses
occur in the spring and early summer, as the plants lose their toxicity
after maturing.

_Symptoms._--Larkspur poisoning is accompanied by a definite line of
symptoms. In range animals the first symptom noted is generally the sudden
falling of the animal and consequent inability to rise. After a while it
may rise, only to fall again. This may happen repeatedly. In severe cases
the animal lies prone and exhibits nausea, accompanied by vomiting. It dies
of respiratory paralysis, death many times being hastened by the asphyxia
following the vomiting.

_Treatment._--The animal, if found down, should be turned so that its head
is uphill in order to relieve the lungs. Many cases will recover with no
further treatment. Nearly all cases will recover if a hypodermic injection
is given immediately of physostigmin salicylate 1 grain, pilocarpin
hydrochlorid 2 grains, strychnin sulphate 1/2 grain.


LOCO.

The loco plants have caused especially heavy losses of cattle, horses, and
sheep. They grow in the semiarid regions of the West and sometimes in great
luxuriance. The best known are the "blue loco," the "woolly loco" or
"purple loco," and the "white loco" or "rattle-weed." The blue loco is
common in parts of New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah. It affects both horses
and cattle. The purple loco, _Astragalus mollissimus_, is common in Texas
and the adjoining States and extends north as far as Nebraska and Colorado.
It is especially destructive to horses. The white loco, _Oxytropis
lamberti_, is still more widely distributed, being found in the plains
region from Alaska to Mexico and west of the Rocky Mountains to central
Utah. The white loco is much more important than the purple loco, for it
affects not only horses but cattle and sheep. These plants belong to the
pea family, and there are a number of other species of this family that are
loco plants and produce the same symptoms.

_Symptoms._--Loco poisoning is a chronic condition and symptoms are shown
only after somewhat prolonged feeding. The condition is one of cumulative
poisoning, and animals sometimes decline very rapidly after the first
symptoms appear. In many cases animals acquire a habit of eating loco and
prefer it to any other feed. The poison affects the central nervous system.
There is a lack of muscular coordination and the animal performs very
erratic movements. In the later stages the animal becomes emaciated and
eventually dies of starvation.

_Treatment._--Locoed animals are badly constipated, and it is important
that this condition should be remedied at the start. Any purgative can be
used, but Epsom salt has been found especially effective. If locoed animals
can be turned into a field of alfalfa, a large proportion of them will
recover with no further treatment. Recovery may be aided by giving cattle,
hypodermically, daily doses of three-twentieths to four-twentieths of a
grain of strychnin. By this treatment cattle can be cured and put in
condition for market.


WHITE SNAKEROOT (EUPATORIUM URTICÆFOLIUM).

White snakeroot, frequently known as "rich weed," is a plant growing in
great abundance in some of the eastern and central regions of the United
States. It is particularly abundant in parts of Ohio, Indiana, and
Illinois, and in western North Carolina. It is responsible for most, if not
all, of the cases of a disease which is commonly known as "milk sickness."

_Symptoms._--The animals are constipated, sometimes have bloody feces,
become weak, and exhibit muscular trembling. This trembling is very
characteristic, so that the disease is sometimes known as "the trembles."

_Remedy._--There are no remedies which will work very efficiently. It is
desirable to give the animals purgatives like Epsom salt and, of course, to
remove them from fields where this plant is abundant.


RAYLESS GOLDENROD (ISOCOMA WRIGHTII).

The rayless goldenrod is a plant growing in especial abundance in parts of
the Pecos Valley in New Mexico and Arizona, and there produces a disease so
much like that produced in the East by white snakeroot that it is sometimes
called milk sickness. More generally this disease goes under the name of
"alkali disease." The plant has produced heavy losses in the regions where
it grows abundantly.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms are much like those produced by the white
snakeroot. The animals are constipated, sometimes have bloody feces, become
weak, and exhibit muscular trembling. There is good reason to think, too,
that the milk of cows eating this plant is more or less injurious.

_Treatment._--A purgative like Epsom salt will aid an animal in recovering,
but most important is to remove the cattle from pastures where the plant is
abundant and give them an abundance of good forage. Under such conditions
they are almost certain to recover.


MILKWEEDS.

Many of the milkweeds have long been known to have more or less poisonous
properties. Within the last few years it has been discovered that certain
of the milkweeds going under the popular name of whorled milkweeds are
especially toxic. There are at least four species of whorled milkweeds, but
two of them are particularly important from the standpoint of people
handling livestock. One, known scientifically as _Asclepias galioides_, is
harmful in Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico, while another, known as
_Asclepias mexicana_, has produced losses, especially in California and
Nevada. These whorled milkweeds are distasteful to all animals and are
eaten only when the stock is closely confined to pastures where there is
little else in the way of forage.

_Symptoms._--The most prominent symptoms are weakness, producing
staggering, and this is followed in acute cases by violent spasms.

_Treatment._--There is no treatment which will effectively antidote the
effect of the poison. In practically all cases, however, poisoning may be
avoided if care is taken to prevent animals from being closely confined
where this plant is abundant, as they never eat the plant by choice.


CHERRY.

In the leaves of the cherries more or less hydrocyanic acid is produced,
and when these leaves are eaten in any considerable quantity cases of
poisoning are likely to arise. It is popularly supposed that these cases
arise from eating wilted cherry leaves, but there is every reason to think
that the fresh leaves will produce the same results. These cases are easily
prevented, because no harm results from eating a small quantity of the
leaves, and if the fact is recognized that poisoning may result from eating
a large quantity, it is not difficult to care for the animals so as to
prevent poisoning.


ERGOTISM.

The poisonous effects of ergot (Pls. V, VI) appear chiefly in the winter
and spring of the year and among cattle. It is developed among grasses
grown on rich soil in hot, damp seasons. Rye seems more liable to ergot
than any of our other crops. Of the grasses which enter into the
composition of hay, bluegrass is the most likely to become affected. Ergot
may also affect redtop, oats, grasses, and grains. On the plant the fungus
manifests itself on the seeds, where it is easily recognized when the hay
is examined in the mow. The ergotized seeds are several times larger than
the natural seeds--hard, black, and generally curved in shape.

The effect of the protracted use of ergot in the feed is pretty well
understood to be that of producing a degeneration and obstruction of the
smaller arterial branches. The result is to shut off the blood supply to
the distal parts of the body, where the circulation is weakest, and thus to
produce a mummification or dry gangrene of the extremities, as the ears,
tail, feet, etc. Cattle seem to be more susceptible than other animals to
the influence of ergot, possibly on account of the slowness of the heart's
action. When the effect of the poison has become sufficient to entirely
arrest the circulation in any part, the structures soon die. The disorder
manifests itself as lameness in one or more limbs; swelling about the ankle
which may result in only a small slough or the loss of a toe, but it may
circumscribe the limb at any point below the knee or hock by an indented
ring below which the tissues become dead. The indentation soon changes to a
crack, which extends completely around the limb, forming the line of
separation between the dead and living structures. The crack deepens till
the parts below drop off without loss of blood, and frequently with very
little pus. Ergot may cause serious irritation of the digestive tract, or
by acting upon the nervous system it may cause lethargy or paralysis. It
also operates to cause contraction of the uterus, and may thus cause
abortion.

_Treatment._--Regarding the treatment, change of feed and local antiseptics
are, of course, indicated. The former may be useful as a preventive, but
when the symptoms have appeared the animal is necessarily so completely
saturated that recovery is likely to be tedious. Tannin may be given
internally in doses of one-half dram twice daily for a few days to
neutralize the unabsorbed alkaloids of the ergot. At the same time give
castor oil. To dilate the blood vessels give chloral hydrate. Bathe the
affected parts with hot water. If sloughing has gone far, amputation must
be resorted to.


OTHER POISONOUS FUNGI.

Many other fungi poison herbivora. In some instances, however, where fungi
are blamed for causing disease their presence on the feedstuff or herbage
is but coincidental with some other and more potent disease-producing
factor. For example, if the conditions are favorable to the growth of fungi
they are also favorable to the growth of bacteria, and bacteria may produce
poisons in feeds. In general it may be said that any feed that is moldy,
musty, or putrid is possibly dangerous. Silage, properly cured, does not
belong to this class, because the curing of silage is not a bacterial
process. But spoiled silage and silage matted with mold is dangerous and
should not be fed.


POISONING BY ANIMAL PRODUCTS.

SNAKE BITES.

The poison contained in the tooth glands of certain venomous reptiles,
particularly some of the snakes, which is injected into or under the skin
of an animal bitten by the reptile, is a very powerful agent. It is likely
to produce a serious local irritation, and in the case of the more
poisonous snakes serious constitutional disturbances, even to causing
death, which it may do in either of two ways: First, when very strong, by
exerting a narcotic influence similar to that of some of the powerful
poisons, checking heart action. Second, by diffused inflammation of the
areolar tissue, gangrene, and extensive sloughing.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms of snake bite are a local swelling caused by an
intense local inflammation, pricks showing where the fangs penetrated,
depression, weakness, feeble pulse, difficult breathing, bluish
discoloration of the visible mucous membranes, stupor, or convulsions. If
the poison is not powerful or plentiful enough to produce death, it is, at
any rate, likely to cause severe local abscesses or sloughs.

_Treatment._--The treatment may be divided into local and general. Locally
every effort should be made to prevent absorption of the poison. If
discovered at once the bitten part had better be excised. If that is
impracticable and a ligature can be applied, as in the case of a bite to
one of the limbs, no time should be lost in applying it above the injury.
It should be made sufficiently tight to so far as possible arrest
circulation in the bitten part. The wound should be freely incised, so that
it will bleed freely, and the poison should be extracted by cupping, or
pressed out by squeezing with the fingers. Permanganate of potassium in 5
per cent solution should be applied to and injected into the wound. The
depressing effect of the poison on the general system should be
counteracted by hypodermic injections of strychnin, or by liberal drenching
with stimulants, such as coffee, digitalis, or the aromatic spirits or
carbonate of ammonia. In animal practice the alcoholic stimulants and local
treatment above described are likely to meet with best success. A special
antitoxin for use in treating snake bite is now prepared and may be had
from the leading druggists. It is quite effective if used promptly.


WASP AND BEE STINGS.

Wasps and bees secrete a poisonous substance which they are able to insert
through the skin of an animal by the aid of their sharp stings. This poison
is a severe local irritant and may even cause local gangrene. It also has a
depressing effect upon the central nervous system and destroys the
red-blood corpuscles. To produce these general effects it must be
introduced in very large quantities, as when an animal is stung by a swarm
of bees or wasps.

_Treatment._--The treatment is to wash the parts with diluted ammonia or
permanganate of potassium solution and to give stimulants internally. If
there is so much swelling about the head and nostrils as to interfere with
breathing, tracheotomy may be necessary.


POISONING WITH SPANISH FLY.

Spanish fly, in the form of powdered cantharides, may be given in an
overdose, or when applied as a blister to too large a surface of skin
enough may be absorbed to poison. If given by the mouth, it causes severe
irritation of the gastrointestinal tract, shown by salivation, sore throat,
colic, bloody diarrhea, etc. It also produces, whether given by the mouth
or absorbed through the skin, irritation of the urinary tract, as shown by
frequent and painful urination. If death results, it is due to respiratory
paralysis.

_Treatment._--Give protectives and the white of egg, with opium. Do not
give oils or alcohol.



DISEASES OF THE HEART, BLOOD VESSELS, AND
LYMPHATICS.

By W. H. HARBAUGH, V. S.

[Revised by Leonard Pearson, B. S., V. M. D.]


THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM.

In cattle, as in human beings, the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatics may
be described as the circulatory apparatus.

The heart is in the thoracic cavity (chest). It is conical in form, with
the base or large part uppermost, while the apex, or point, rests just
above the sternum (breastbone). It is situated between the right and left
lungs, the apex inclining to the left, and owing to this the heart beats
are best felt on the left side of the chest, behind the elbow. The heart
may be considered as a hollow muscle, containing four compartments, two on
each side. The upper compartments are called auricles and the lower ones
ventricles. The right auricle and ventricle are completely separated from
the left auricle and ventricle by a thick septum or wall, so that there is
no communication between the right and left sides of the organ.

At the bottom of each auricle is the auriculo-ventricular opening, each
provided with a valve to close it when the heart contracts to force the
blood into the arteries. In the interval between the contractions these
valves hang down into the ventricles.

The muscular tissue of the heart belongs to that class known as
involuntary, because its action is not controlled by the will.

The cavities of the heart are lined by a serous membrane, called the
endocardium, which may be considered as a continuation of the veins and the
arteries, forming their internal lining. The walls of the ventricles are
thicker than those of the auricles, and the walls of the left ventricle are
much thicker than those of the right.

The heart is enveloped by a fibrous sac (or bag), called the pericardium,
which assumes much of the general shape of the outer surface of the heart.

The action of the heart is similar to that of a pump and its function is to
keep the blood in circulation. The auricles may be considered as the
reservoirs or receivers of the blood and the ventricles as the pump
chambers. During the interval between contractions, the heart being in
momentary repose, the blood pours into the auricles from the veins; the
auriculo-ventricular orifices being widely open, the ventricles also
receive blood; the auricles contract and the ventricles are filled;
contraction of the ventricles follows; the auriculo-ventricular valves are
forced up by the pressure of the blood and close the auriculo-ventricular
openings and prevent the return of blood into the auricles; the contraction
of the ventricles forces the blood from the right ventricle into the lungs
through the pulmonary artery and its branches, and from the left ventricle
into the aorta, thence through the arteries to all parts of the body. After
the contraction of the ventricles the heart is again in momentary repose
and is being filled with blood, while the valves in the aorta and pulmonary
artery close to prevent the return of blood into the ventricles. (See Pl.
VII.)

The average weight of the heart of an ox is said to be from 3-1/2 to 5
pounds; but, of course, owing to the many breeds and sizes of cattle, it
must vary in different animals.

The vessels that convey the blood from the heart to all parts of the body
are called arteries; those which return the blood to the heart are called
veins. The arteries divide and subdivide (like the branches of a tree),
become smaller and smaller, and ultimately ramify into every part of the
body. Between the ultimate ramifications of the arteries and the beginning
of the veins there is an intermediate system of very minute vessels called
capillaries, which connect the arterial with the venous system of the
circulation. The walls of the arteries are possessed of a certain amount of
rigidity, sufficient to keep the tubes open when they are empty.

The blood leaves the left ventricle through a single vessel, the common
aorta, consisting of the anterior and posterior aortas, which give off the
large arteries.

The veins take the blood from the capillaries in all parts of the body.
They begin in very small tubes, which unite to become larger in size and
less in number as they approach the heart.

In its course an artery is usually accompanied with a vein and in many
situations with a nerve. The more important arteries are placed deep within
the body; when they are superficial, however, they are generally found
where least exposed to injury, as, for example, on the inner side of the
legs. Arteries are less numerous than veins, and their total capacity is
much less than that of the veins. A great number of veins are in the tissue
immediately beneath the skin and do not generally accompany arteries.

The blood, throughout its course in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and
veins, is inclosed within these vessels. Except where the large lymphatics
empty into the venous blood, there is no opening into the course of the
blood.

All the arteries except the pulmonary and its branches carry bright-red
blood, and all the veins, except the pulmonary veins, carry dark-red blood.
The impure dark-red blood is collected from the capillary vessels and
carried to the right auricle by the veins; it passes down into the right
ventricle, and thence into the pulmonary artery and through its branches to
the capillaries of the lungs, where the carbonic-acid gas and other
impurities are given up to the air in the air cells of the lungs (through
the thin walls between the capillaries and the air cells), and where it
also absorbs from the air the oxygen gas necessary to sustain life. This
gas changes it to the bright-red, pure blood. It passes from the
capillaries to the branches of the pulmonary veins, which convey it to the
left auricle of the heart; it then passes through the auriculo-ventricular
opening into the left ventricle, the contraction of which forces it through
the common aorta into the posterior and anterior aortas, and through all
the arteries of the body into the capillaries, where it parts with its
oxygen and nutritive elements and where it absorbs carbonic-acid gas and
becomes dark colored. (See theoretical diagram of the circulation, Pl.
VII.)

The branches of certain arteries in different parts unite again after
subdividing. This reuniting is called anastomosing, and assures a quota of
blood to a part if one of the anastomosing arteries should be tied in case
of hemorrhage, or should be destroyed by accident or operation.


THE BLOOD.

The various kinds of food, after being digested in the alimentary canal,
are absorbed and carried into the blood by the lymphatics, and by the blood
to the places where nutrition is required. The blood takes from all parts
of the body all that is no longer required, and carries it to the different
organs through which it is eliminated from the body. It contains within
itself all the elements which nourish the body.

The blood may be considered as a fluid holding in solution certain
inorganic elements and having certain bodies suspended in it. To facilitate
description, the blood may be considered as made up of the corpuscles and
the liquor sanguinis. The corpuscles are of two kinds, the red and the
white, the red being the more numerous. The color of the blood is caused by
the coloring matter in the red corpuscles, which are the oxygen carriers.
Both kinds are very minute bodies, which require the aid of the microscope
to recognize them. The liquor sanguinis is composed of water containing in
solution salts, albumen, and the elements of fibrin.

The lymphatics, or absorbents, are the vessels which carry the lymph and
chyle in the blood. They begin as capillaries in all parts of the body,
gradually uniting to form larger trunks. Placed along the course of the
lymphatic vessels are glands, in some situations collected into groups; for
example, in the groin. These glands are often involved in inflammation
arising from the absorption of deleterious matter.

Absorption is the function of the lymphatics. The liquor sanguinis passes
from the blood capillaries to supply nutrition to the tissues. All of the
liquor sanguinis that is not required is absorbed by the lymphatic vessels
and conveyed back to the blood by the lymphatic ducts. The lymphatics which
proceed from the intestines convey the chyle into the blood during
digestion. As a rule, the lymphatic vessels follow the course of the veins.
All the absorbent vessels convey their contents to the thoracic duct and
right great lymphatic vein, which empty into the anterior vena cava, where
the lymph and chyle mix with the venous blood, and thus maintain the supply
of nutritive elements in the blood.


THE PULSE.

As fully explained, the heart pumps the blood throughout the arterial
system. The arteries are always full and each contraction of the ventricle
pumps more blood into them; this distends their elastic walls and sends
along them a wave which gradually becomes less perceptible as it nears the
very small arteries. This wave constitutes the pulse, and is lost before
the capillaries are reached. The sensation or impression given to the
finger when placed upon the artery shows the force exerted by the heart and
some important facts concerning the condition of the circulation. In adult
cattle the average number of pulsations in a minute is from 50 to 60. The
pulse is faster than normal after exercise, excitement, on hot days, from
pain, and as a result of fullness of the stomach. In old animals it is
slower than in the young and in males slightly slower than in females. In
fevers and inflammations and in local diseases of the heart the pulse rate
is increased. If the rate is greater than 100 or 110 to the minute the
outlook for recovery is not good.

Other variations of the pulse are known as infrequent pulse, which means
that the number of pulsations in a given time is less than normal. The
irregular or the intermittent pulse is when the pulsations do not follow in
regular order. The large pulse and the small pulse refer to the volume of
the pulse, which may be larger or smaller than usual. The strong pulse and
the feeble pulse refer to the strength or weakness of the pulsation. The
pulse is said to be hard when the vessel feels hard and incompressible, the
soft pulse being the opposite. By dicrotic pulse is meant that kind of
pulsation which makes each beat seem double, and therefore it is generally
called the double pulse.

The venous or "jugular pulse" is the pulsation so frequently observed in
the jugular vein of cattle and is particularly noticeable while they are
ruminating--"chewing the cud." It is not always associated with disease,
but may be a symptom of some disease of the heart; in such cases the
jugular pulse is continuous.

The place selected for feeling the pulse in cattle is where the
submaxillary artery winds around the lower jawbones, just at the lower edge
of the flat muscle on the side of the cheek; or, if the cow is lying down,
the metacarpal artery on the back part of the fore fetlock is very
convenient for the purpose.


THE EXAMINATION OF THE HEART.

Corresponding to the beats of the heart two sounds are emitted which are of
a definite type in healthy animals. The first is produced by the
contraction of the heart and the flow of blood out of it; the second is
caused by the rebound of blood in the aorta and the closure of the valves
that prevent it from flowing backward into the heart, whence it came. The
first sound is the longer and louder of the two, though of low pitch. The
second sound is sharper and shorter, and is not always easy to hear. There
is a brief interval between them.

To distinguish these sounds, the ear is placed against the left side of the
chest, a little above the point where the elbow rests when the animal is
standing in a natural position, and about opposite the sixth rib. Both
heart sounds are reduced in intensity when the animal is weak or when the
heart is forced away from the chest wall by collections of fluid or by
tubercular or other growths. Nonrhythmical heart sound is often caused by
pericarditis or by disease of the valves. It may also be attributable to
overfilling of the heart upon the right side, as occurs in severe
congestion of the lungs and in some febrile diseases.

In pericarditis, sounds like scraping, rubbing, or splashing may be heard,
entirely apart from the two normal sounds above described.

The impulse of the heart, as felt by placing the hand against the chest, is
of some consequence in reaching a conclusion in respect to disease of the
heart; but it must be remembered that the impulse may be very much
increased by diseases other than those of the heart, as, for example,
inflammation of various organs, severe pains, etc. The impulse may be
increased also (when disease does not exist) by work, exercise, fright, or
any cause of excitement, or, in general, by anything that causes
acceleration of the pulse.

The impulse of the heart may be felt and the sounds may be heard fairly
well in lean cattle, but in fat ones it is difficult and often impossible
to detect either impulse or sound with any degree of satisfaction.


PALPITATION.

When the impulse of the heart is excessive--that is, when it beats more or
less tumultuously--the familiar expression "palpitation of the heart" is
applied; by many it is called "thumps." The hand or ear placed against the
chest easily detects the unnatural beating. In some cases it is so violent
that the motion may be seen at a distance. Palpitation is but a symptom,
and in many instances not connected with disease of the structure of the
heart or its membranes. A badly frightened animal may have palpitation.
When it comes on suddenly and soon passes away, it depends on some cause
other than diseases of the heart; when it is gradually manifested, however,
and becomes constant, although more pronounced at one time than another,
heart disease may be suspected, especially if other symptoms of heart
disease are present.


INJURY TO THE HEART BY FOREIGN BODIES.

Cattle are addicted to the habit of chewing and swallowing many objects not
intended as articles of food. Every veterinarian of experience has met with
instances to remind him of this, and it is well known to butchers. Among
the great variety of things that have thus found their way into the
stomachs of cattle the following have been noticed: Finger rings, knitting
needles, old shoes, table knives, wood, pieces of leather, pieces of wire,
buttons, hairpins, brushes, nails, coins, etc. The more sharply pointed
objects sometimes penetrate the wall of the stomach, in some cases causing
gastric irritation enough to produce indigestion, gradually work their way
through the diaphragm toward the heart, pierce the pericardium (bag
inclosing the heart), wound the heart, and thus prove fatal to the animal.
Cases are recorded in which the foreign body has actually worked its way
into one of the cavities of the heart. Instances are known, however, in
which the object took a different course, and finally worked its way toward
the surface and was extracted from the wall of the chest. While it is
possible that the foreign body may pierce the wall at different parts of
the alimentary canal, as it frequently does that of the rumen (paunch), it
is thought that in most cases it passes through the wall of the reticulum
(smaller honeycombed compartment, or second stomach) and is drawn toward
the heart by the suctionlike action of the chest. Post-mortem examinations
have demonstrated the course it pursued, as adhesions and other results of
the inflammation it caused were plainly to be seen. All manner of symptoms
may precede those showing involvement of the heart, depending upon the
location of the foreign body and the extent of inflammation caused by it.
Severe indigestion may occur; stiffness and difficulty in moving about
owing to the prods of the sharp body following muscular contraction; pain
on pressure over the front, lower, or right side of the abdomen; coughing
and difficult, quick breathing. In most cases the foreign body does not
penetrate to the heart, nor even to the pericardium.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms are as follows: The animal is disinclined to move
actively, the step is restricted and cautious, sudden motion causes
grunting, the attitude is constrained, the feet are drawn somewhat
together, the back is arched, the face has an anxious expression. If the
disease is of several days' standing, there is likely to be soft swelling
(edema) beneath the neck, in the dewlap, and under the chest, between the
fore legs. Breathing is short and difficult; it may clearly be painful. The
pulse is rapid, 80 to 120 per minute. The muscles quiver as though the
animal were cold. Rumination and appetite are depressed or checked. The
dung is hard, and to void it appears to cause pain. These symptoms usually
develop gradually, and, of course, they vary considerably in different
animals, depending upon the size and location of the foreign body and the
irritation it causes.

As a matter of course, in such cases treatment is useless, but when it is
possible to diagnose correctly the animal could be turned over to the
butcher before the flesh becomes unfit for use; that is, before there is
more than a little suppuration and before there is fever. Knowing that
cattle are prone to swallow such objects, ordinary care may be taken in
keeping their surroundings as free of them as possible.


PERICARDITIS.

Inflammation of the pericardium (heart bag) is often associated with
pneumonia and pleurisy, rheumatism, and other constitutional diseases, or
with an injury. It also occurs as an independent affection, owing to causes
similar to those of other chest affections, as exposure to cold or dampness
and changes of the weather.

_Symptoms._--It may be ushered in with a chill, followed by fever, of more
or less severity; the animal stands still and dull, with head hanging low,
and anxiety expressed in its countenance. The pulse may be large, perhaps
hard; there is also a venous pulse. The hand against the chest will feel
the beating of the heart, which is often irregular, sometimes violent, and
in other instances weak, depending in part upon the quantity of fluid that
has transuded into the pericardial sac. The legs are cold, the breathing
quickened and usually abdominal; if the left side of the chest is pressed
on or struck, the animal evinces pain. There may be spasms of the muscles
in the region of the breast, neck, or hind legs. After a variable time
swelling may also appear in the legs and under the chest and brisket.

In those animals in which the heart sounds may be heard somewhat
distinctly, the ear applied against the chest will detect a to-and-fro
friction sound, corresponding to the beats of the heart. This sound is
produced by the rubbing of the internal surface of the heart bag against
the external surface of the heart. During the first stages of the
inflammation these surfaces are dry, and the rubbing of one against the
other during the contraction and relaxation of the heart produces this
sound. The dry stage is followed by the exudation of fluid into the heart
sac, and the friction is not heard until the fluid is absorbed sufficiently
to allow the surfaces to come in contact again. But during the time the
friction sound is lost a sound which has been called a "churning noise" may
take its place.

The friction sound of pericarditis can not be mistaken for the friction
sound of pleurisy if the examination is a careful one, because in the heart
affection the sound is made in connection with the heart beats, while in
the pleuritic affection the sound is synchronous with each respiration or
breath of air taken in and expelled from the lungs.

_Treatment._--When pericarditis is complicated with rheumatism or other
diseases the latter must be treated as directed in the description of them.
The animal must be kept in a quiet, comfortable place, where it will be
free from excitement. Warm clothing should be applied to the body, and the
legs should be hand-rubbed until the circulation in them is reestablished,
and then they should be snugly bandaged. The food should be nutritive and
in moderate quantity. Bleeding should not be performed unless the case is
in the hands of an expert.

At the beginning give as a purgative Epsom salt--1 pound to an
average-sized cow--dissolved in about a quart of warm water and
administered as a drench. When there is much pain 2 ounces of laudanum,
diluted with a pint of water, may be given every three hours until the
animal is better. Do not give the laudanum unless demanded by the severity
of the pain, as it tends to constipate. Give one-half ounce of nitrate of
potassium (saltpeter), dissolved in drinking water, four or five times a
day. After the attack has abated mustard mixed with water may be rubbed
well over the left side of the chest to stimulate the absorption of the
fluid within the pericardium. The other medicines may be discontinued and
the following administered: Sulphate of iron, 2 ounces; powdered gentian,
6 ounces; mix and make 8 powders. Give one powder every day at noon, mixed
with feed, if the animal will eat it, or shaken up with water in a bottle
as a drench. Also the following: Iodid of potassium, 2 ounces; nitrate of
potassium, 8 ounces; mix and make 16 powders. Give one in drinking water
or in drench every morning and evening. The last two prescriptions may be
continued for several weeks if necessary.

In extreme cases tapping the pericardium with a trocar and cannula to draw
off the fluid is resorted to, but the operation requires exact anatomical
knowledge.

After death from pericarditis there is always more or less fluid found in
the pericardium; the surfaces are rough and covered with a yellow-colored
exudate. There are also in many cases adhesions to a greater or less extent
between the heart and pericardium.


MYOCARDITIS.

Inflammation of the muscular structure of the heart occurs in limited,
circumscribed areas, as evidenced by post-mortem examination, and it is
probably always somewhat involved in connection with pericarditis and
endocarditis. It may readily be inferred that if the whole organ were
inflamed death would ensue immediately. Usually myocarditis results from
the preexistence of blood poisoning or of some infectious febrile disease.

_Symptoms._--The chief symptoms are those of heart weakness. The heart beat
is fast, weak, and often irregular. Respiration is difficult and rapid.
There is great general weakness and depression. Death comes suddenly.

_Treatment._--Treatment consists in supporting the animal by the use of
stimulants, such as ammonia, coffee, digitalis, camphor, etc. Complete
quiet must be provided, and the general care should be as in pericarditis.


ENDOCARDITIS.

When the membrane which lines the cavities of the heart--the endocardium--
suffers inflammation, the disease is called endocarditis. The cause is
another disease, during which substances that irritate the lining of the
heart are produced and admitted into the circulation. These substances are
usually living organisms, or it is possible that in some cases they are
chemical irritants. Endocarditis occurs as a complication of or sequel to
pneumonia, blood poisoning, inflammation of the womb, rheumatism, or severe
wounds or abscesses. The symptoms are much the same as those of
pericarditis, and it is difficult to discriminate between the two
affections. There is a jugular pulse, the legs may become dropsical, and
there is a tendency to faint if the head is elevated suddenly. The
bellowslike sound is more distinct than it is in pericarditis. It is the
most fatal of heart diseases, because of the liability of the formation of
clots, which may adhere to the valves, change in the structure of the
valves, and often a complication with an abnormal condition of the blood.
Clots may be formed in the heart, and, being carried to other parts, prove
fatal by interrupting the circulation in some vital organ.

Treatment similar to that advised for myocarditis may be followed in this
disease.


VALVES OF THE HEART.

The valves are subject to abnormal growths and structural changes in
chronic endocarditis or as a result of acute endocarditis. Sometimes valves
are torn by sudden, extreme muscular effort or a congenital abnormality.
Cases are also reported in which they have been found ruptured.

_Symptoms._--The general symptoms are those of heart weakness, accompanied
with edema and congestion of the lungs.

_Treatment._--Relief is sometimes afforded, but usually only temporarily,
by the use of stimulants, especially digitalis.


RUPTURE OF THE HEART.

Sudden effort, blows, or disease may lead to rupture of the heart of the
ox. The first cause does not operate so often in cattle as in horses.
Tuberculosis or ulceration from other causes, such as a foreign body, is
the most common source of this accident. Rupture is shown by sudden
fainting, followed very shortly by death.


HYPERTROPHY AND DILATATION OF THE HEART.

This is an enlargement of the heart, and may consist of the thickening of
the walls alone, or at the same time the cavities may be either enlarged or
diminished. Dilatation of the cavities has been noticed as existing
independently of thickened walls. In hypertrophy the sounds of the heart
are loud and pronounced, may be heard on both sides of the chest
distinctly, and palpitation occurs to a greater or less extent. Fortunately
both conditions are very rare in cattle.


ATROPHY.

Atrophy is the technical term for wasting of the muscular tissue. Atrophy
of the heart is very rare among cattle, and is usually a result of other
diseases.


FATTY DEGENERATION OF THE HEART.

This condition of the heart is met with in some very fat cattle, but it
must be understood that the accumulation of fat around the heart is not
referred to by this designation. In fatty degeneration the elements of the
muscular tissue are replaced by fatty or oily granules. The muscle becomes
weak, the heart contractions are insufficient, and heart weakness is shown
by general weakness, shortness of breath, and weak, rapid pulse.


CYANOSIS.

Owing to the most prominent symptoms, cyanosis is also called "blue
disease," and is seen occasionally in new-born calves. It is recognized by
the blue color of the mucous membrane (easily seen by looking within the
mouth and nostrils), the coldness of the surface of the body, and rapid,
labored breathing. It is caused by non-closure of the foramen ovale,
connecting the right with the left side of the heart, and the consequent
mixing of the venous with the arterial blood. Calves so affected live but a
short time.


MISPLACEMENT OF THE HEART.

Cases are recorded in which the heart has been found out of its natural
position, sometimes even outside the chest. This is a congenital condition
for which there is no remedy. A heifer calf with the heart entirely outside
the thoracic cavity and beneath the skin in the lower part of the neck was
kept for two years at the veterinary hospital of the University of
Pennsylvania, during which time it grew to be a well-developed cow.


WOUNDS OF ARTERIES AND VEINS.

When a blood vessel is opened a glance will tell whether it is an artery or
a vein by simply remembering that bright-red blood comes from arteries and
dark-red from veins. When a vein or a very small artery is severed the
blood flows from the vessel in a continuous and even stream, but when one
of the larger arteries is severed the blood comes in intermitting jets or
spurts corresponding to the beats of the heart. It is well to call
attention to the fact that the dark-red blood which flows or oozes from a
wound soon becomes bright red, because it gives up its carbonic-acid gas to
the air, and absorbs oxygen gas from the air, which is exactly the change
it undergoes in the capillaries of the lungs.

The general treatment of wounds will be found in another section; here it
is necessary only to refer briefly to some of the most practical methods
used to arrest hemorrhages, as instances occur in which an animal may lose
much strength from the loss of blood, or even bleed to death unless action
is prompt.


BLEEDING (HEMORRHAGE).

The severity of a hemorrhage depends upon the size of the vessel from which
the blood escapes, though it may be stated that it is more serious when
arteries are severed. If the wound in an artery is in the direction of its
length, the blood escapes more freely than if the vessel is completely
severed, because in the latter instance the severed ends retract, curl in,
and may aid very much in arresting the flow. When the blood merely oozes
from the wound, and even when it flows in a small stream, the forming of
the clot arrests the hemorrhage in a comparatively short time.

Slight hemorrhages may be checked by the continuous application of cold
water, ice, or snow, to the wound, as cold causes contraction of the small
vessels. Water from a hose may be thrown on a wound, or dashed on it from
the hand or a cup, or folds of cotton cloths may be held on it and kept
wet. Ice or snow may be held against the wound, or they may be put into a
bag and conveniently secured in position.

Hot water of an average temperature of 115° to 120° F. injected into the
vagina or womb is often efficient in arresting hemorrhages from those
organs. Tow, raw cotton, lint, or sponges may be forced into a wound and
held or bound there with bandages. This is an excellent method of checking
the flow of blood until the arrival of an expert. If the flow persists,
these articles may be saturated with tincture of iron, but it is not
advisable to use it unless necessary, as it is a caustic and retards
healing by causing a slough. In cases of necessity, the articles may be
saturated with vinegar, or tannic acid or alum dissolved in water may be
used instead. Whatever article is used should be left in the wound
sufficiently long to make sure that its removal will not be followed by a
renewal of the hemorrhage. Sometimes it must remain there one or two days.

An iron heated white and then pressed on the bleeding vessel for three or
four seconds is occasionally used. It should not be applied longer, or else
the charred tissue will come away with the iron and thus defeat the purpose
of its application.

Compression may be applied in different ways, but only the most convenient
will be mentioned. To many wounds bandages may easily be applied. The
bandages may be made of linen, muslin, etc., sufficiently wide and long,
according to the nature of the wound and the region to be bandaged. Bed
sheets torn in strips the full length make excellent bandages for this
purpose. Cotton batting, tow, or a piece of sponge may be placed on the
wound and firmly bound there with the bandages.

Many cases require ligating, which is almost entirely confined to arteries.
A ligature is a piece of thread or string tied around the vessel. Veins are
not ligated unless very large (and even then only when other means are not
available) on account of the danger of causing phlebitis, or inflammation
of a vein. The ligature is tied around the end of the artery, but in some
instances this is difficult and it is necessary to include some of the
adjacent tissue, although care should be taken not to include a nerve. To
apply a ligature, it is necessary to have artery forceps (tweezers or small
pincers may suffice) by which to draw out the artery in order to tie the
string around it. To grasp the vessel it may be necessary to sponge the
blood from the wound so that the end will be exposed. In case the end of
the bleeding artery has retracted, a sharp-pointed hook, called a
tenaculum, is used to draw it out far enough to tie. The ligature should be
drawn tightly, so that the middle and internal coats will be cut through.

Another method of checking hemorrhage is called torsion. It consists in
catching the end of the bleeding vessel, drawing it out a little, and then
twisting it around a few times with the forceps, which lacerates the
internal coats so that a check is effected. This is very effectual in small
vessels, and is to be preferred to ligatures, because it leaves no foreign
body in the wound. A needle or pin may be stuck through the edges of the
wound and a string passed around between the free ends and the skin (Pl.
XXVII, fig. 10), or it may be passed around in the form of a figure 8, as
is often done in the operation of bleeding from the jugular vein.


ANEURISM.

A circumscribed dilatation of an artery, constituting a tumor which
pulsates synchronously with the beats of the heart, is called aneurism. It
is caused by disease and rupture of one or two of the arterial coats. The
true aneurism communicates with the interior of the artery and contains
coagulated blood. It is so deeply seated in cattle that treatment is out of
the question. Such abnormalities are ascribable to severe exertion, to old
age, to fatty or calcareous degeneration, or to parasites in the blood
vessels. Death is sudden when caused by the rupture of an aneurism of a
large artery, owing to internal hemorrhage. Sometimes spontaneous recovery
occurs. As a rule no symptoms are caused in cattle by the presence of
deep-seated aneurisms, and their presence is not known until after death.

A false aneurism results from blood escaping from a wounded artery into the
adjacent tissue, where it clots, and the wound, remaining open in the
artery, causes pulsation in the tumor.


THROMBOSIS (OBSTRUCTION) OF THE ARTERIES.

Arteries become obstructed as a result of wounds and other injuries to
them, as those caused by the formation of an abscess or the extension of
inflammation from surrounding structures to the coats of an artery.
Arteries are also obstructed by the breaking off of particles of a plug or
clot, partly obstructing the aorta or other large artery. These small
pieces (emboli) are floated to an artery that is too small to permit them
to pass and are there securely held, producing obstruction. These
obstructions are shown by loss of power in the muscles supplied by the
obstructed artery and by excitation of the heart and by respiration after
exercise. The loss of power may not come into evidence until after
exercise.

_Symptoms._--While standing still or when walking slowly the animal may
appear to be normal, but after more active exercise a group of muscles, a
leg, or both hind legs, may be handled with difficulty, causing lameness,
and later there is practically a local paralysis. These symptoms disappear
with rest. In some cases the collateral circulation develops in time, so
that the parts receive sufficient blood and the symptoms disappear.


INFLAMMATION OF VEINS (PHLEBITIS).

When bleeding is performed without proper care or with an unclean lancet,
inflammation of the vein may result, or it may be caused by the animal
rubbing the wound against some object. When inflammation follows the
operation, the coats of the vein become so much enlarged that the vessel
may be felt hard and knotted beneath the skin, and pressure produces pain.
A thin, watery discharge, tinged with blood, issues from the wound. The
blood becomes coagulated in the vessel. In inflammation of the jugular the
coagulation extends from the wound upward to the first large branch.
Abscesses may form along the course of the vein. The inflammation is
followed by obliteration of that part in which coagulation exists. This is
of small import, as cattle have an accessory jugular vein which gradually
enlarges and accommodates itself to the increased quantity of blood it must
carry.

_Treatment._--The treatment for inflammation of the vein is to clip the
hair from along the course of the affected vessel and apply a blister, the
cerate of cantharides. Abscesses should be opened as soon as they form,
because there is a possibility of the pus getting into the circulation.

In the operation of bleeding the instruments should be clean and free from
rust. If the skin is not sufficiently opened, or when closing the wound the
skin is drawn out too much, blood may accumulate in the tissue, and if it
does it should be removed by pressing absorbent cotton or a sponge on the
part. Care should also be used in opening the vein, so that the instrument
may not pass entirely through both sides of the vein and open the artery
beneath it.

     *       *       *       *       *

DISEASES OF THE HEART, BLOOD VESSELS, AND LYMPHATICS.

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE.

PLATE VII:

Diagram illustrating the circulation of the blood. The arrows indicate the
direction in which the blood flows. The valves of the heart, situated
between the right auricle and ventricle, and left auricle and ventricle,
and between the ventricles and large arteries, are represented by curved
lines. These valves are intended to prevent the flow of blood in a
direction contrary to that indicated by the arrows.

  [Illustration: PLATE VII. DIAGRAM OF THE CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD.]

     *       *       *       *       *



NONCONTAGIOUS DISEASES OF THE ORGANS
OF RESPIRATION.

By WILLIAM HERBERT LOWE, D. V. S.


DIAGNOSIS.

In the determination of disease in the human being the physician, in making
his diagnosis, is aided by both subjective and objective symptoms, but the
veterinary physician, in a very large majority of cases, is obliged to rely
almost solely upon objective symptoms, and perhaps in no class of diseases
is this more true than in the exploration of those under consideration.
This condition of affairs has a strong tendency to develop observation and
discernment in the veterinarian, and not infrequently do we find that the
successful veterinary practitioner is a very accurate diagnostician. In
order to make a differential diagnosis, however, it is not only necessary
to know the structure and functions of the organs in health, but to adopt a
rigid system of details of examination, without which successful results
can not be reached.

_History._--The history of a case should always be ascertained so far as
possible. The information obtained is sometimes unsatisfactory and not to
be depended upon, but even when this is the case it is advisable to weigh
the evidence from every point of view.

In connection with the history of every case it is always of primary
importance to ascertain the cause of illness. A knowledge of the origin and
development of a disease is important, both in making a diagnosis and in
formulating the treatment. Exposure to cold and dampness is frequently the
exciting cause of affections of the organs of respiration.

The experienced practitioner is always sure to ascertain whether the
particular animal he is called on to attend is the only one in the stable
or on the premises that is similarly affected. If several animals are
similarly affected, the disease may have a common cause, which may or may
not be of an infectious nature.

Another thing that the experienced practitioner ascertains is what previous
treatment, if any, the animal has had. Medicine given in excessive doses
sometimes produces symptoms resembling those of disease.

The hygienic and sanitary conditions must always be considered in
connection with the cause as well as the treatment of disease. Much of the
disease which occurs in large dairies and elsewhere could be prevented if
owners and those in charge of animals had proper regard for the fundamental
laws of animal hygiene and modern sanitation. Disregard for these laws is
the cause of most of the diseases under consideration in this chapter.

_Attitude and general condition._--The feeling of pain in animals suffering
from serious affections of the organs of respiration is expressed to the
close observer in no uncertain language--by their flinching when the
painful part is touched; by the care with which they move or lie down; by
walking or standing to "favor" the part; by the general attitude and
expression of the eye; by the distress and suffering apparent in the face;
and by other evidences.

The general physical condition and attitude of the sick animal tell the
careful observer much that aids him in making a diagnosis and prognosis.
Cows suffering from affections of the organs of respiration usually assume
a position or attitude that is characteristic, well known to experienced
stockmen, as well as to veterinarians. When an animal has a fever or is
suffering from an inflammation, the skin is one of the first parts to
undergo a change that is apparent to the average observer, for it soon
loses its elasticity and tone, and the hair becomes dry and staring.

From the general condition or state of nutrition one is able to judge the
effect that the disease has already had upon the animal and to estimate the
strength remaining available for its restoration to health; from the degree
of emaciation one can approximate the length of time the animal has been
ill. The age and breed of the animal, as well as its constitution and
temperament, are among the things that have to be taken into account in
making a diagnosis and in overcoming the disease.

_The mucous membrane._--The mucous membrane should in all cases be
examined. It can be readily seen by everting the eyelids or by an
inspection of the lining membrane of the nostrils.

Paleness of the mucous membrane indicates weak circulation or poor blood
and may result from disease, hemorrhage, or from inappropriate feed.

In healthy animals increased redness of the mucous membrane occurs from
pain, excitement, or severe exertion, and in such instances is always
transitory. In certain pathological conditions, such as fevers and
inflammation, this condition of the mucous membrane will also be found. The
increased redness of the mucous membrane lasts during the duration of the
fever or inflammation.

A bluish or blue mucous membrane indicates that the blood is imperfectly
oxidized and contains an excess of carbon dioxid, and is seen in serious
diseases of the respiratory tract, such as pneumonia, and in heart failure.

_The secretions._--The secretions may be diminished, increased, or
perverted. In the early stage of an inflammation of a secretory organ its
secretion is diminished. In the early stage of pleurisy the serous membrane
is dry, and as the disease advances the membrane becomes unnaturally moist.
The products of secretion are sometimes greatly changed in character from
the secretion in health, becoming excessively irritant and yielding
evidence of chemical and other alterations in the character of the
secretion.

_Cough._--Cough depends upon a reflex nervous action and may be primary
when the irritation exists in the lungs or air passages, or secondary when
caused by irritation of the stomach, intestines, or other parts having
nervous communications with the respiratory apparatus. A cough is said to
be dry, moist, harsh, hollow, difficult, paroxysmal, suppressed,
sympathetic, etc., according to its character. It is a very important
symptom, often being diagnostic in diseases of the respiratory organs, but
this is a subject, however, which can be more satisfactorily treated in
connection with the special diseases of the organs in question.

_Respiration._--In making an examination of an animal observe the depth,
frequency, quickness, facility, and the nature of the respiratory
movements. They may be quick or slow, frequent or infrequent, deep or
imperfect, labored, unequal, irregular, etc., each of which indications has
its significance to the experienced veterinarian.

Sleep, rumination, pregnancy in cows, etc., modify the respiratory
movements even in health. Respiration consists of two acts--inspiration and
expiration. The function of respiration is to take in oxygen from the
atmospheric air, which is essential for the maintenance of life, and to
exhale the deleterious gas known as "carbon dioxid."

The frequency of the respiratory movements is determined by observing the
motions of the nostrils or of the flanks. The normal rate of respiration
for a healthy animal of the bovine species is from 15 to 18 times a minute.
The extent of the respiratory system renders it liable to become affected
by contiguity to many parts and its nervous connections are very important.

Rapid, irregular, or difficult breathing is known as dyspnea, and in all
such cases the animal has difficulty in obtaining as much oxygen as it
requires. Among the conditions that give rise to dyspnea may be mentioned
restricted area of active lung tissue, owing to the filling of portions of
the lungs with inflammatory exudate, as in pneumonia; painful movements of
the chest, as in rheumatism or pleurisy; fluid in the chest cavity, as in
hydrothorax; adhesions between the lungs and chest walls; compression of
the lungs or loss of elasticity; excess of carbon dioxid in the blood;
weakness of the respiratory passages; tumors of the nose and paralysis of
the throat; swellings of the throat; foreign bodies and constriction of the
air passages leading to the lungs; fevers, etc.

As already stated, it is only the careful and constant examination of
animals in health that will enable one properly to appreciate abnormal
conditions. One must become familiar with the frequency and character of
the pulse and of the respirations and know the temperature of the animal in
health, before changes in abnormal conditions can be properly appreciated.

_Temperature._--The temperature should be taken in all cases of sickness.
Experienced practitioners can approximate the patient's temperature with
remarkable accuracy, but I strongly recommend the use of the
self-registering clinical thermometer, which is a most valuable instrument
in diagnosing diseases. (See Pl. III, fig. 1.) It is advisable to get a
tested instrument, as some thermometers in the market are inaccurate and
misleading. The proper place to insert the thermometer is in the rectum,
where the instrument should be rested against the walls of the cavity for
about three minutes. The normal temperature of the bovine is 101° to 102°
F., which is higher than that of the horse. A cow breathes faster, her
heart beats faster, and her internal temperature is higher than that of
the horse. Ordinary physiological influences--such as exercise, digestion,
etc.--give rise to slight variations of internal temperature; but if the
temperature rises two or three degrees above the normal some diseased
condition is indicated.

_Pulse._--The pulse in a grown animal of the bovine species in a state of
good health beats from 45 to 55 times a minute. Exercise, fright, fear,
excitement, overfeeding, pregnancy, and other conditions aside from disease
may affect the frequency and character of the pulse. It assumes various
characters according to its rapidity of beat, frequency of occurrence,
resistance to pressure, regularity, and perceptibility. Thus we have the
quick or slow, frequent or infrequent, hard or soft, full or imperceptible,
large or small pulse, the character of each of which may be determined from
its name; also that known as the intermittent, either regular or irregular.
We may have a dicrotic, or double, pulse; a thready pulse, which is
extremely small and scarcely perceptible; the venous, or jugular, pulse;
the "running down" pulse, and so on. (See p. 76.)

In cattle the pulse is conveniently felt over the submaxillary artery where
it winds around the lower jawbone, just at the lower edge of the flat
muscle on the side of the cheek. If the cow is lying down the pulse may be
taken from the metacarpal artery on the back part of the fore fetlock. The
pulsations can be felt from any superficial artery, but in order to
ascertain the peculiarities it is necessary to select an artery that may be
pressed against a bone.

  [Illustration: PLATE VIII. Position of the Lung.]

There is a marked difference in the normal or physiological pulse of the
horse and that of the cow, that of the horse being full and rather tense,
while in the cow it is soft and rolling. The pulse is faster in young or
old cattle than it is in those of middle age.

_Auscultation._--Auscultation and percussion are the chief methods used to
determine the various pathological changes that occur in the respiratory
organs. Auscultation is the act of listening, and may be either mediate or
immediate. Mediate auscultation is accomplished by aid of an instrument
known as the stethoscope, one extremity of which is applied to the ear and
the other to the chest of the animal. In immediate auscultation the ear is
applied directly to the part. Immediate auscultation will answer in a large
majority of cases. Auscultation is resorted to in cardiac and certain
abdominal diseases, but it is mainly employed for determining the condition
of the lungs and air passages. Animals can not give the various phases of
respiration, as can the patients of the human practitioner. The organs
themselves are less accessible than in man, owing to the greater bulk of
tissue surrounding them and the pectoral position of the fore extremities,
all of which render it more difficult in determining pathological
conditions. (See Pl. VIII.)

The air going in and out of the lungs makes a certain soft, rustling sound,
known as the vesicular murmur, which can be heard distinctly in a healthy
state of the animal, especially upon inspiration. Exercise accelerates the
rate of respiration and intensifies this sound. The vesicular murmur is
heard only where the lung contains air and its function is active. The
vesicular murmur is weakened as inflammatory infiltration takes place and
when the lungs are compressed by fluids in the thoracic cavity, and
disappears when the lung becomes solidified in pneumonia or the chest
cavity filled with fluid as in hydrothorax. The bronchial murmur is a
harsh, blowing sound, heard in normal conditions by applying the ear over
the lower part of the trachea, and may be heard to a limited extent in the
anterior portions of the lungs after severe exercise. The bronchial murmur
when heard over other portions of the lungs generally signifies that the
lung tissue has become more or less solidified or that fluid has collected
in the chest cavity.

Other sounds, known as mucous râles, are heard in the lungs in pneumonia
after the solidified parts begin to break down at the end of the disease
and in bronchitis where there is an excess of secretion, as well as in
other conditions. Mucous râles are of a gargling or bubbling nature. They
are caused by air rushing through tubes containing secretions or pus. They
are said to be large or small as they are distinct or indistinct, depending
upon the quantity of fluid that is present and the size of the tubes in
which the sound is produced. According to their character they are divided
into dry and moist. The friction sound is produced by the rubbing together
of roughened surfaces and is characteristic of pleurisy.

_Percussion._--Percussion is that mode of examination by which we elicit
sounds by striking or tapping over the part. It may be direct or indirect.
If the middle finger of the left hand is placed firmly on the chest and
smartly tapped or struck with the ends of the first three fingers of the
right hand, the sound will be noticed to be more resonant and clear than
when the same procedure is practiced on a solid part of the body. This is
because the lungs are not solid, but are always, in health, well expanded
with air. In certain pulmonary diseases, however, as in pneumonia, they
fill up and become solid, when percussion produces a dull sound, like that
on any other solid part of the animal. When fluid has collected in the
lower part of the chest cavity the sound will also be dull on percussion.
Where there is an excess of air in the chest cavity, as in emphysema or in
pneumothorax, the percussion sound becomes abnormally loud and clear. By
practice on healthy animals the character and boundaries of the sounds can
be so well determined that any variation from them will be readily
detected, and will sometimes disclose the presence of a diseased condition
when nothing else will.

Percussion is sometimes practiced with the aid of a special percussion
hammer and an object known as a pleximeter to strike upon. A percussion
hammer is made of rubber or has a rubber tip, so that when the pleximeter,
which is placed against the side of the animal, is struck the impact will
not be accompanied with a noise. A percussion hammer and pleximeter may be
purchased from any veterinary instrument maker.


CATARRH (COLD IN THE HEAD).

Nasal catarrh is an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nostrils
and upper air passages. Simple catarrh is not a serious disease in itself,
but if neglected is liable to be complicated with laryngitis, bronchitis,
pneumonia, plurisy, or other serious and sometimes fatal diseases of the
respiratory organs. Catarrh is a common disease among cattle. It is often
caused by sudden exposure to wet and cold after they have been accustomed
to shelter. It may arise from inhalation of irritating gases. It is also
sometimes produced by certain specific atmospheric conditions, and may
assume an enzoötic form. It is very debilitating, and requires prompt and
judicious treatment.

_Symptoms._--Redness of the mucous membranes of the nose and redness and
watering of the eyes are symptoms of nasal catarrh. The mucous membrane
first becomes dry; afterwards a watery discharge appears, and later, in
severe cases, the discharge becomes mucopurulent. In mild cases there is
little or no fever, but in severe ones it may run high. The animal becomes
dull, languid, and is not inclined to move about, and the appetite may
become impaired; there is also variable temperature of the horns and ears.
If in a cow giving milk the secretion diminishes, the mucus from the eyes
and nose becomes thicker and yellower. Afterwards, as the symptoms increase
in severity, the discharge becomes mucopurulent.

_Treatment._--The animal should be housed in a well-ventilated place, with
good hygienic surroundings. In cold and damp weather it should be kept warm
with blanketing, and, in severe cases, hot, medicated inhalations given. If
the fever is high, it may be reduced by giving nitrate of potassium, from 1
to 2 ounces, in the drinking water, three times daily. Diffusible
stimulants are beneficial in most cases. Too much importance can not be
attached to good nursing. There is no necessity to resort to the old system
of bleeding, purging, or the use of powerful sedatives.


EPISTAXIS (BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE).

Bleeding from the nostrils is rather rare in cattle. It may arise from any
one of a variety of causes, but usually results from disease or injury to
the mucous membranes or to violent exertions in coughing and sneezing. It
is seldom serious. It generally occurs in drops from one nostril only,
accompanied with sneezing, and without frothing. Bleeding from the lungs
comes from both nostrils, is bright red, frothy, and accompanied with a
cough.

_Treatment._--In many cases the bleeding will cease spontaneously and all
that is necessary is to keep the animal quiet and bathe the head and
nostrils with cold water. The cause of the bleeding should be learned and
governed accordingly in the treatment. In severe and exceptional cases,
when the hemorrhage is persistent and long continued, the animal's head
should be tied to a high rack or beam and cold water or ice applied, or
recourse to styptic injections taken. If the hemorrhage is profuse and
persistent, either a drench composed of 1-1/2 drams of acetate of lead
dissolved in a pint of water or 1-1/2 drams of gallic acid dissolved in a
pint of water should be given.


LARYNGITIS (SORE THROAT).

An inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the larynx is known as
laryngitis. It may be either a primary or a secondary disease, complicated
or uncomplicated. In the majority of cases it is attributable to some form
of exposure, a sudden change from warm to cold surroundings, or exposure to
cold storms. It may also result from inhaling irritating gases or from
external violence. In an acute attack of laryngitis there is an elevation
of temperature, pain on pressure over the region of the larynx, violent
paroxysms of coughing, difficult and noisy respiration. The nostrils are
dilated, the nose extended, and the animal has a frightened expression.
There is marked difficulty in swallowing.

_Treatment._--Treatment consists of fomentations and hot applications over
the throat. Stimulating liniments, mustard mixed with cold water and well
rubbed in with a stiff brush, or other forms of counterirritation may be
applied in severe cases. Hot inhalations should be frequently resorted to,
and often afford much relief to the suffering animal. In this disease
medicines should be given so far as possible in the form of electuaries
(soft solid) on account of the difficulty of deglutition. Large drafts of
medicines have a tendency to produce violent spells of coughing, and in
this way retard recovery. The subjoined formula for an electuary will be
found to answer the purpose in ordinary cases: Chlorate of potassium,
pulverized, 8 ounces; fluid extract of belladonna, 2 ounces; powdered
opium, 1 ounce; powdered licorice root, 8 ounces; sirup, sufficient
quantity; mix. Place a small tablespoonful of the mixture frequently on the
tongue or back teeth. Or the following may be used instead: Aloes, powdered
opium, and gum camphor in equal parts; mix. Rub an ounce on the molar teeth
every four or five hours. The bowels should be kept open and the diet
should be such as the patient can easily swallow. Warm, sloppy mashes,
boiled oatmeal gruel, linseed tea, and the like are the most suitable
substances. If suffocation be threatened during the course of the disease,
tracheotomy should be performed without delay. The details of the operation
are fully described under the head of "Surgical operations." (See p. 289.)

When the disease assumes a chronic form, strong counterirritation is
indicated. A cantharides blister may be applied, or the following ointment
used: Biniodid of mercury 1 part, lard 6 parts; mix. In some cases it will
be found necessary to repeat the application.


BRONCHITIS.

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial
tubes. When a primary disease, it is generally the result of what is
commonly known as "catching cold." It may be secondary to or complicated
with many of the diseases of the respiratory system. It may also be caused
by breathing irritating gases, or by the introduction of foreign bodies
into the bronchial tubes, which sometimes results from injudicious and
careless drenching when the larynx is temporarily relaxed. It may be acute
or chronic, and is divided, according to the seat of the inflammation, into
bronchitis proper when the large tubes are affected, or capillary
bronchitis when the trouble is in the smaller ones.

_Symptoms._--Loss of appetite, elevation of temperature, generally 104° or
105° F. The inspiration is incomplete, short, and painful, and the
expiration is prolonged. The pulse is increased in frequency and is hard. A
characteristic, painful cough is present, but it is paroxysmal and
incomplete. Auscultation and percussion greatly aid us in a diagnosis. A
normal sound is given on percussion. On auscultation, in the early stages,
rhonchus râles are detected if the larger tubes are affected, and sibilant
râles if the smaller ones are affected. Later mucous râles are noted, and
sometimes all sounds in certain parts are absent, owing to the plugging up
of the tubes. This plugging, if extensive enough, is sometimes the cause of
death, or death may result from extension of the disease to the lungs or
pleura.

_Treatment._--The animal should be placed in a light, well-ventilated box,
and the bowels kept in a soft condition by enemas, etc. Violent purgatives
should not be used. The body should be kept warm by blanketing. In the
early stages a draft composed as follows should be given three times daily:
Extract of belladonna, 2 drams; solution of acetate of ammonium, 4 fluid
ounces; water, one-half pint. In the later stage of the disease the
following formula may be substituted and given twice daily: Carbonate of
ammonium, 3 drams; liquor hydrochlorate of strychnin, 2 fluid drams;
spirits of nitrous ether, 1 fluid ounce; water, one-half pint.

In some cases the following is preferable to either of the above, and may
be given in a pint of linseed tea every four hours: Spirits of nitrous
ether, 1-1/2 ounces; aromatic spirits of ammonia, 2 ounces; powdered
camphor, 2 drams. The feed should be light and nutritious.

Bronchitis is liable to become chronic if not properly treated in the
earliest stage. In this case remedial treatment is of little value.


PLEURISY.

Pleurisy is an inflammation of the serous membrane lining the chest cavity
and enveloping the lungs. It is somewhat rare as an independent disease,
but it often complicates pneumonia; indeed, it is often caused by the same
germ that causes pneumonia--pneumococcus. It may arise from exposure to
cold or wet or from external violence, and is usually present in some
degree in cases in which the ribs have been fractured with or without a
penetrated wound.

_Symptoms._--In the first stage there is great pain aggravated by movement,
and the animal is usually stiff as though foundered, the pulse is quick and
hard, the breathing abdominal, the chest being fixed so far as possible,
the inspiration short and jerky, the expiration longer. The pain is caused
by the friction of the dry, inflamed pleural surfaces of the lung and chest
on each other. At this stage the ear detects a dry friction murmur,
resembling somewhat the sound made by rubbing two pieces of sole leather
together. Pressure between the ribs gives pain and usually causes the
animal to flinch and grunt. The muzzle is hot and dry, the mouth slimy, and
the secretions scanty. After a day or two the severity of the symptoms is
much lessened, the temperature, which during the first days may have been
as high as 106° F., falls to 103° or 104°, the pain decreases, the
stiffness disappears, and the patient eats a little. The pulse softens, but
remains quicker than normal. Now, day by day the patient loses a little
strength, the friction sound disappears as the exudation moistens the
pleural surfaces; percussion now shows a horizontal line of dullness, which
day by day rises higher in the chest, the respiration grows more frequent
and labored, the countenance is anxious and haggard, the eyes sink somewhat
in their sockets, and in unfavorable cases death occurs during the second
or third week, from either asphyxia or heart failure.

In pleurisy, as in pneumonia, the elbows are usually turned outward. Care
must be taken to differentiate pleurisy from traumatic pericarditis (which
see). In the latter condition the area of dullness of the heart is much
increased, and usually a splashing sound is heard at each beat of the
heart. Another diagnostic symptom of value is that in traumatic
pericarditis respiration is painful, not difficult, and the respiratory
rate is very much increased on movement. In both conditions a considerable
swelling of the dewlap may be noticed in the later stages.

_Treatment._--Give the same general care as recommended in bronchitis or
pneumonia. In the early stages give a febrifuge to reduce the fever, as
directed for pneumonia. For relief of the cough give electuary formula,
which will be found in the treatment of laryngitis. The bowels must be kept
relaxed and the kidneys secreting freely. In the stage of effusion the
following should be given three times daily: Digitalis tincture, 1 ounce;
iodid of potassium, 30 to 60 grains; mix. Apply strong counterirritant to
chest and put seton in dewlap. (See "Setoning," p. 293.) If collapse of the
lung is threatened, a surgical operation, termed paracentesis thoracis, is
sometimes performed; this consists in puncturing the chest cavity and
drawing off a part of the fluid. The instruments used are a small trocar
and cannula, which are introduced between the eighth and ninth ribs. The
skin should be drawn forward so that the external wound may not correspond
to the puncture of the chest, to prevent the entrance of air. Only a
portion of the fluid should be removed. The animal gets immediate relief,
but it is generally only temporary, as the fluid has a tendency to
accumulate again.


PNEUMONIA.

Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung substance, and is divided into
three forms, viz, croupous, catarrhal, and interstitial. These various
forms, however, can be differentiated only by the expert, and it is
therefore deemed necessary for the purpose of the present work to treat the
subject under the general head of pneumonia.

The causes of pneumonia in general are the same as those of the various
other inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. The germ is known as
a pneumococcus. The disease mostly follows congestion of the lungs, but may
in rare cases have a parasitic origin.

_Symptoms._--In the first stage, that of congestion, the disease is usually
ushered in by a chill, although this may not always be observed by the
attendant. This is followed by an elevation of temperature, usually 105° to
106° F., or it may be even higher. The respirations are quick and shallow;
the nostrils are dilated; the pulse is full and hard. Cough may or may not
appear in this stage. The nose is hot and dry; the tongue sometimes
protrudes and is slimy; the coat is staring, and the skin dry and harsh.
The urine is usually diminished in quantity, high colored, and the bowels
constipated. The animal stands with the forelegs wide apart to facilitate
respiration. On auscultation crepitation will be observed over the portion
of the lung affected. The sounds elicited on percussion are practically
normal in this stage.

In the second stage the temperature generally drops one or two degrees, and
respiration is performed with much difficulty. The cough is frequent and
painful. The animal still stands with the forelegs wide apart and the
elbows turned outward. If it assumes the recumbent position it rests on the
sternum. All secretions are more or less suspended, particularly the milk
in cows. The animal has a haggard appearance, and the pulse becomes small
and wiry at this period. The extremities are hot and cold alternately; the
crepitation which was present in the first stage is now absent, and no
sound on auscultation is heard, unless it is a slight wheezing or whistling
noise. On percussion dullness over the diseased lung is manifested,
indicating consolidation. The lung has now assumed a characteristic
liverlike appearance.

In the third stage, if the disease is to terminate favorably, the cough
becomes loose, the animal improves, the appetite returns, and the symptoms
above detailed rapidly subside; if, on the other hand, resolution is not
progressing, the lung substance degenerates, becomes clogged up, and ceases
to function. In fatal cases the breath has a peculiar, fetid, cadaverous
odor, and is taken in short gasps; the horns, ears, and extremities become
cold and clammy, and the pulse is imperceptible. On auscultation, when
suppuration is taking place and the lung structure is breaking down, a
bubbling or gurgling crepitation, caused by the passage of air through pus,
is heard.

_Treatment._--Good hygienic surroundings and good nursing are essential in
connection with the medical treatment. The probability of recovery depends
largely on the extent of the lung tissue involved, as well as on the
intensity of the inflammatory process. In the early stage, when the fever
is high, febrifuges should be given. If the pulse be strong and full,
aconite (Fleming's tincture, 1 to 2 drams, every four or five hours) may be
given for a short time, but should be discontinued as soon as the fever
begins to abate. Aconite is a valuable drug in the hands of the intelligent
practitioner, but my experience leads me to believe that not infrequently
animals are lost by its injudicious use, for in many febrile conditions it
is positively contraindicated, owing to its action upon the heart. In a
plethoric animal, with a strong, bounding pulse, bleeding may be resorted
to instead of administering aconite. If the bowels are constipated,
calomel, 1 to 3 drams, which acts as a cathartic and a febrifuge, is
advisable. In the second stage diffusible stimulants are required, viz:
Spirits of nitrous ether, 2 ounces; aromatic spirits of ammonia, 1 ounce;
mix, and give in gruel three times daily. In some cases carbonate of
ammonia, 2 to 5 drams, has been found beneficial. Most practitioners apply
counterirritants, such as mustard plasters, turpentine, and ammonia
liniment, or cantharides.


EMPHYSEMA (HEAVES).

Emphysema is a rupture of the minute air vesicles of the lung substance,
and may be either interlobular or vesicular. There is an extreme
interference with respiration, inspiration being short and expiration
prolonged. It is a nonfebrile condition, in which the appetite is not
decreased and the milk secretion is kept up. It may be caused by an attack
of asthma or may result from chronic bronchitis. The disease can be
diagnosed by the marked interference with respiration. The animal, as a
rule, is emaciated, has a staring coat, and is hidebound. If percussion is
resorted to, the animal's chest will give a tympanic, drumlike sound. The
normal resonant sound is exaggerated.

_Treatment._--The disease is incurable, and only a palliative form of
treatment can be carried out. The destruction of the animal is often
advisable, from a humane as well as from a financial point of view.


PULMONARY CONGESTION.

Cattle that are overdriven or overworked are liable to pulmonary congestion
in an acute form, and sometimes to pulmonary apoplexy. In such cases they
should be allowed to rest, and if the weather is hot, they should be put in
a shady place. Give stimulants internally, unload the venous side of the
heart by bleeding, and apply stimulating applications to the legs, and
bandage.


HEMOPTYSIS.

Hemoptysis is a term used to signify bleeding from the lungs. The trouble
may result from a previous congestion of the lungs or from a breaking down
of the lung substance, or from specific disorders.

Bleeding from the lungs comes from both nostrils and from the mouth. The
blood is bright red, frothy, and accompanied with a cough, the flow being
somewhat profuse and intermingled with mucus. It may cease of its own
accord. Internally hemostatics are indicated, and locally over the sides
cold applications have a tendency to check the hemorrhage. A drench of
1-1/2 drams of gallic acid dissolved in a pint of water should be given.


ABSCESS OF THE LUNG.

Abscesses of the lung sometimes form during the course of or subsequent to
tuberculosis or other diseases. An animal affected with abscess of the lung
usually has a protracted, feeble cough and a general appearance of
emaciation and anemia. The pulse is feeble and the breath foul. An
offensive discharge from the lungs frequently occurs. Percussion and
auscultation aid in making a diagnosis in this condition. The appetite is
poor. Such animals go from bad to worse, and their prompt destruction
would, as a rule, be to the interest of the owner.


HYDROTHORAX.

Hydrothorax, or dropsy of the chest, is not a disease in itself, but is
simply a condition in which an effusion takes place in the chest cavity,
and is the result or effect of some disease, mostly pleurisy. It can be
easily diagnosed by physical signs. A loss of the respiratory murmur will
be noticed on auscultation, and on percussion dullness or flatness on a
line as high as the effusion has taken place. When a large amount of
effusion is present, tapping with the trocar and cannula is generally
resorted to. The proper method of performing this operation will be found
under the head of "Pleurisy."


PNEUMOTHORAX.

An accumulation of gas in the pleural sac is known as pneumothorax. The
presence of air may result from either an injury of the lung or a wound
communicating from the exterior. The indications for treatment are to
remove any foreign body that may have penetrated, to exclude the further
entrance of the air into the cavity by the closure of the external opening,
and to employ antiseptics and adhesive dressings. The air already in the
cavity will in most cases be absorbed.


VERMINOUS BRONCHITIS.

This is a disease that sometimes attacks young cattle when pastured in
low-lying meadows near rivers subject to flood. It is caused by a small
worm, _Strongylus micrurus_, which lodges in large numbers in the trachea
and bronchial tubes, giving rise to considerable irritation of the air
passages and inflammation. Sometimes the strongyles lodge in large numbers
in the windpipe, forming themselves into a ball, and thus choke the animal
to death.

_Symptoms._--It is liable to attack a number of animals at once, and the
weakest are the first to give way. The animal has a remarkably forcible
cough, distressing, and of a special hacking and paroxysmal character. A
stringy mucus is sometimes expelled during the spells of coughing. This
mucus contains the _Strongylus micrurus_, which can be detected, or their
ova observed, under a low power of the microscope. The attack has a
subacute character and is very exhausting. The parasites, by becoming
entwined in balls, seriously impede respiration, which is always remarkably
labored in this disease.

_Treatment._--The affected calves should be placed in a dry stable,
protected from dampness, and subjected to fumigations of sulphurous
anhydrid or chlorin gas. The liberation of chlorin gas is brought about by
the action of sulphuric acid, either on a mixture of chlorid of sodium and
black oxid of manganese or on bleaching powder. Sulphurous anhydrid may be
procured by burning sulphur. Some practitioners prescribe small doses of
spirits of turpentine in linseed oil. The system requires good support, and
the diet should therefore be liberal and nutritious. Equal parts of
sulphate of iron, gentian, and ginger make an excellent tonic.

_Prevention._--Avoid pastures notorious for generating verminous
bronchitis.


PLEURODYNIA.

Pleurodynia is a term applied to rheumatism of the intercostal muscles, the
apparent symptoms being very similar to those of pleurisy. The animal is
stiff, is not inclined to turn around, and the ribs are kept in a fixed
state as much as possible. Pleurodynia may be distinguished from pleurisy
by the coexistence of rheumatism in other parts and by the comparative
absence of fever, cough, the friction sound, and the effusion into the
chest. The treatment for this affection is the same as that for rheumatism
affecting other parts.



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.

By W. H. HARBAUGH, V. S.

[Revised by John E. Mohler, V. M. D.]


THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.

The nervous system is the distinguishing feature of animal life. Without it
there can be no intelligence, no instinct, no sensibility, no perception;
in fact, existence would be nothing more than vegetable life.

The senses--touch, taste, sight, hearing, smell--all depend on the nervous
system. Motion depends on it. A muscle can not contract without receiving
the stimulus from the nervous system. For example, if a nerve passing from
a nerve center to a muscle is severed, the particular muscle that is
supplied by the cut nerve is paralyzed.

The nervous system is often studied in two divisions--the cerebrospinal
division and the sympathetic division.

The cerebrospinal division consists of the brain and spinal cord, nerves,
and ganglia. The nerves of this division convey the impulses of motion and
sensation and supply all parts which are under the control of the will. For
example, the voluntary muscular tissue includes all the muscles which act
as the will directs. Another example: If anything comes in contact with any
part of the skin, the impression is immediately perceived. All the special
senses belong to this division.

The sympathetic division consists of nerves and ganglia. The muscular
tissue, which acts independently of the will--as, for example, the stomach,
intestines, womb, blood vessels, ducts, etc.--is called involuntary
muscular tissue, and receives nervous stimulus from the sympathetic
division.

The brain, spinal cord, and the ganglia are the central organs of the
nervous system. The nerves conduct the nervous influence. The nerves
terminate differently according to their function. The terminations are
called end organs. The terminal end organs in the skin and other parts
endowed with sensation receive the impressions, which are conveyed to the
brain, where they are appreciated. They are so sensitive that the most
gentle zephyr is perceived. They are so abundant that the point of the
finest needle can not pierce the skin without coming in contact with them,
and the sensation of pain is instantly conveyed to the brain. The terminal
end organs of the nerves that supply the muscles are different, as they
give the impulse which is conveyed by the motor nerves to the elements
which constitute the muscle, and this impulse is the excitation which
causes the muscle to contract. The terminal end organs of the special
senses of taste, smell, etc., receive their special impressions, and their
respective nerves carry the impressions to the brain.

There are two divisions of nerves, the afferent and efferent.

The afferent nerves are those which convey the impression to the nerve
centers. All the sensory nerves belong to this division.

The efferent nerves are those which convey the nervous impulse outward from
the nerve centers, and they are further classified according to the
function of their respective centers. For example: Motor fibers carry the
impulse from the nerve center to a muscle to cause contraction. Vasomotor
fibers carry the impulse to the muscular tissue in the blood vessels, which
regulates their caliber. The secretory fibers convey the impulse to the
cells of the glands and excite the activity of the gland, and its
particular product is secreted or evolved, as, for instance, milk in the
mammary gland. Inhibitory fibers control or inhibit the action of the organ
to which they are distributed, as, for instance, the heart.

Nerve centers may be considered as a collection or group of nerve cells.
Both the cerebrospinal and the sympathetic divisions have nerve centers.
The centers derive their special names from their functions. The brain is
the great center of the nervous system, as it is the center of intelligence
and perception. The centers of all the special senses, as well as the
centers of various functions, are located in different parts of the brain.
Nerve centers also exist in the spinal cord and in connection with the
sympathetic system.

A nerve is a cord consisting of a certain number of fibers of nerve tissue,
inclosed in a sheath of connective tissue. Nerves divide and subdivide,
sending off branches, which ramify in all parts of the body, and, as they
near their terminations, they contain but one or two fibers.

The brain and spinal cord are contained within a bony canal, which forms a
protective covering for them.

The spinal cord, or spinal marrow, lodged within the spinal canal, or
hollow of the backbone, is continuous with the brain anteriorly, and
terminates in a point in the sacrum (that part of the spinal column which
immediately precedes the tail). The spinal cord gives off branches at each
of the spaces between the segments of the backbone. These branches form
nerve trunks which carry both sensory and motor impressions and impulses.
The spinal cord is a grand nerve trunk to carry messages to or from the
brain and to and from the reflex centers contained within itself.

The brain is contained within the cavity of the skull and is continuous
with the spinal cord; there is nothing to mark the place where one leaves
off and the other begins. The brain is the seat of reason and intelligence.
Voluntary effort originates from the brain. Coordination, or harmony of
movement, is controlled by the rear portion of the brain, known as the
cerebellum.

The meninges are the membranes, three in number, which envelop the brain
and spinal cord, and separate them from the bones which form the walls of
the cranial cavity and spinal canal.

The sympathetic, also called the ganglionic, division of the nervous system
consists of two chains of ganglia, reaching from the head to the tail,
situated beneath the spinal column, one on either side. The presence of the
ganglia or enlargements on the cords give them their chainlike appearance.

The sympathetic nerves are closely connected with the cerebrospinal
nerves, but are not under the control of the will.


INFLAMMATION OF THE BRAIN AND ITS MEMBRANES (STAGGERS).

Inflammation of the brain is technically termed encephalitis and of its
membranes cerebral-meningitis, but as both conditions usually occur
together, and since it is practically impossible to distinguish one from
the other by the symptoms shown by the diseased animal, they may as well be
considered together here as varieties of the same disease. Staggers, coma,
frenzy, etc., are terms that are sometimes applied to this disease in its
different forms or stages.

_Causes._--Severe blows on the head with a hard object, or the head coming
violently in contact with the ground or other hard substance in a fall, may
be followed by encephalitis. Irritation caused by tumors in the brain may
produce inflammation. Feed containing deleterious matters--for example,
ergot (see Pl. V) and other fungi which contain a narcotic principle--is
the most frequent cause of this affection, and hence it is often called
"grass staggers" and "stomach staggers." Highly nitrogenous feeds are
blamed for causing this disease. Parasites, mineral and narcotic poisons,
hot weather, and severe exertion or excessive excitement may cause this
condition. Inflammation of the brain may occur as a complication of some
infectious disease or may follow some forms of indigestion. In many
localities certain plants have the reputation of causing staggers.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms vary much, but a careful observer will detect a
trouble connected with the nervous system without much uncertainty. The
first signs may be those of frenzy, but generally at the start the animal
is dull and sleepy, with little or no inclination to move about; the head
may be pressed against the wall or fence and the legs kept moving, as if
the animal were endeavoring to walk through the obstruction; the body,
especially the hind part, may be leaned against the side of the stall or
stable, as if for support. The bowels are constipated; the urine, when
passed, is small in quantity and darker in color than natural. There may be
trembling and even spasms of muscles in different parts. In the dull stage
the animal may breathe less frequently than is natural, and each breath may
be accompanied with a snoring-like sound. The pulse may be large and less
frequent than normal. If suddenly aroused from the drowsy state, the animal
appears startled and stares wildly. When moving about it may stagger, the
hind quarters swaying from side to side.

If delirium ensues, the cow is commonly said to be mad. She may bellow,
stamp her feet, run about wildly, grate the teeth, froth at the mouth. If
she is confined in the stable, she rears and plunges; the convulsions are
so violent in many instances that it is really dangerous for one to attempt
to render aid. The body may be covered with perspiration. She may fall; the
muscles twitch and jerk; often the head is raised and then dashed against
the ground until blood issues from the nose and mouth; the eyes may be
bloodshot and sightless; the limbs stiff and outstretched, or they may be
kicked about recklessly; the head may be drawn back and the tail drawn up;
the urine may be squirted out in spurts; often the "washer" (membrane
nictitans) is forced over the eye. When the convulsions cease they may be
followed by a period of quiet unconsciousness (coma) which is more or less
prolonged, when the animal may gradually regain consciousness, get up on
its feet, and perhaps quietly partake of food, if there be any within
reach, while at other times it arises with much difficulty and staggers
blindly about the stall or field.

It must be remembered that all the foregoing symptoms are not always seen
in the same case. In those cases usually designated "sleepy staggers" the
general symptoms of drowsiness are presented, while in other cases the
symptoms of frenzy cause the affection to be called "mad staggers." In
other cases there are symptoms of paralysis, swaying of the hind quarters,
inability to rise, etc., and sometimes these symptoms of paralysis are the
most striking manifestations and continue until death. Acute cases are
accompanied by fever.

It is well to remark that when the disease follows injuries to the head the
symptoms may not be manifested until two or three days (or longer) after
the accident.

_Treatment._--Recoveries are rare in spite of careful attention. To be of
any service whatever the treatment must be prompt and begin with the
disease. In the early stage, when the pulse is large, most cases will admit
of bleeding. Eight or 9 quarts of blood should be taken from the jugular
vein. This should be followed immediately by a purgative, the following for
a cow of average size: Epsom salt, 24 ounces; pulverized gamboge, one-half
ounce; croton oil, 20 drops; warm water, 3 quarts; mix all together and
give at once as a drench. About 2 quarts of warm water or warm soapsuds
should be injected with a syringe into the rectum every three or four
hours. It is best to keep the animal in a quiet, sheltered place, where it
will be free from noise or other cause of excitement. All the cold water
the animal will drink should be allowed, but feed must be withheld, except
bran slops occasionally in small quantities, or grass, if in season, which
may be cut and carried fresh to the patient.

The skull must be examined, and if sign of injury is found, appropriate
surgical treatment should be given.

During the convulsions all possible efforts should be made to prevent the
animal injuring itself. The head should be held down on the ground and
straw kept under it. Cold water may be continuously poured on the head, or
bags filled with ice broken in small pieces may be applied to the head.
Different authors recommend different remedies to allay the convulsions,
but for two reasons it will be found extremely difficult to administer
medicines during the convulsions: (1) While the animal is unconscious the
power to swallow is lost, and therefore the medicine is more liable to go
down the windpipe to the lungs than it is to go to the paunch; (2) the
convulsions are often so violent that it would be utterly useless to
attempt to drench the animal; and furthermore it must be borne in mind that
during this stage the functions of digestion and absorption are suspended,
and as a consequence the medicine (provided it finds its way to the paunch)
is likely to remain there unabsorbed and therefore useless.

A blistering compound, composed of mustard, 1 ounce; pulverized
cantharides, one-half ounce; hot water, 4 ounces, well mixed together, may
be rubbed in over the loins, along the spine, and back of the head on each
side of the neck. This is occasionally attended with beneficial effect, and
especially so in those cases when paralysis is present.

If the purgative acts and the animal shows signs of improvement in the
course of two or three days, 2 drams of iodid of potassium may be given
every night and morning, dissolved in a half bucketful of drinking water,
if the animal will drink it, or it may be dissolved in a half pint of water
and given as a drench. Great care must be observed in regard to the food,
which should be nutritive, but not coarse, and at first in small
quantities, gradually increased as the patient improves. After some
progress is made toward recovery 1-1/2 drams of pulverized nux vomica may
be given twice a day, added to the iodid of potassium drench. This should
be administered so long as a staggering gait continues.

In those rare cases when recovery takes place it is only partial as a rule,
as there is generally a sequel which remains, such as partial paralysis.
However, this is but a slight drawback in cattle, because when it is seen
to persist the medicine should be stopped and the animal fattened for
butchering.

Post-mortem examinations discover congestion of the brain and its
membranes. In those cases which have exhibited much paralysis of the hind
legs before death the cord may be congested in the lumbar region (loins).
When the disease has been caused by injury to the head, the congestion and
extravasated blood may be found inside of the cavity in the location
corresponding to the place where the injury was inflicted externally. In
some cases pus is also discovered. It remains to be said that in all
animals that have died from this affection the lungs are found very much
congested. This may lead the superficial observer to suppose that the
disease was a lung affection, but in fact it is only a natural consequence
when death ensues from brain disease.


APOPLEXY.

That form of congestion of the brain known as parturient apoplexy, or
parturient paresis, which is so frequently associated with the period of
calving is described in another part of this work. (See "Milk fever," p.
226.)

Cerebral apoplexy, not connected with parturition, is a rare disease among
cattle. However, it may be due to degeneration and consequent rupture of a
blood vessel in the brain.

The attack is sudden, the animal in most cases falling as if it had
received a blow on the head. It may stagger and reel some time before going
down. After falling, there are convulsive movements of the legs or the
animal sinks into insensibility. There may be remissions in the severity of
the symptoms, but the pressure from the continued escape of blood soon
causes death. Rest, quiet, friction to the legs and surface, frequent
turning of the animal and cold to the head are to be practiced, if
treatment is attempted.


CONGESTION OF THE BRAIN.

There is a form of congestive apoplexy affecting cattle which are in a
plethoric condition. The congestion, or overfilling with blood, causes
pressure on the brain substance and disorganizes its function. It occurs
mostly in hot weather. In this disease the symptoms are somewhat similar to
those exhibited when the animal has encephalitis, but the onset is more
sudden, the duration is shorter, and there is less fever. There may be
frenzy or coma, or alternations one with the other. The intelligence is
diminished, staring eyes, bracing with the legs, pressing against the stall
partition or manger, red mucous membranes. This condition usually
terminates in recovery.

In such cases bleeding should be resorted to immediately, and when the
power of swallowing is not lost purgatives should be administered. Cold
applications to the head and the general treatment recommended for
encephalitis are indicated.


CONCUSSION OF THE BRAIN.

Severe blows on the head, striking the head against some hard object while
running, or falling on the head may cause concussion of the brain. The
injury may fracture bones of the cranium and produce compression of the
brain.

_Symptoms and treatment._--The symptoms and the treatment that is indicated
differ very little from what has been said under congestion of the brain
and under encephalitis. In some cases it may be necessary to operate to
remove a piece of bone that is pressing on the brain or to remove a clot of
blood under the area which received the blow.


EPILEPSY.

This affection is characterized by the occurrence of sudden convulsions.
The animal may appear to be in a fair state of health usually, but at any
time, in the stable or in the field, it may have a convulsion in which it
will fall and lose consciousness. Epilepsy must not be confounded with
vertigo--the fainting which is an effect of heart troubles.

The exact cause of epilepsy in the majority of cases is unknown.
Post-mortem examinations in many instances have failed to discover any
lesion in connection with the brain or nervous system, while in other
instances disease of the brain has been found in the form of thickening
of the membranes, abscesses, and tumors, and in some cases the affection
has been manifested in connection with a diseased condition of the blood.
The cause has also been traced to reflex irritation, due to teething,
worms, and chronic indigestion.

_Treatment._--When the affection is due to the last-named causes treatment
may be successful if the cause is removed. If there are symptoms of worms
or of indigestion, follow the general treatment advised for those troubles
under their proper heads. If due to irritation caused by teething, the
inflamed gums must be lanced. Examination of the mouth often develops the
fact that one of the temporary teeth causes much irritation by remaining
unshed, and thereby interfering with the growth of a permanent tooth. The
offending tooth should be extracted. When the cause of epilepsy can not be
discovered, it must be confessed that there is no prospect of a cure.
However, some benefit may be expected from the occasional administration of
a purgative dose of medicine. A pound of Epsom salt dissolved in a quart of
warm water, for a cow of average size, may be given as a drench once or
twice a month. In addition to the purgative, 4 drams of bromid of
potassium, dissolved in the drinking water, three times a day, has proved
very beneficial in some cases.


SUNSTROKE (PROSTRATION FROM HEAT).

Owing to the fact that cattle are seldom put to work at which they would
have to undergo severe exertion, especially in collars, they are not
frequently prostrated by the extreme heat of the summer months. When at
pasture they select the coolest places in the shade of trees, in water,
etc., when the heat becomes oppressive, and thereby avoid, as much as
possible, the effects of it.

It does happen, however, that cattle that have been kept up for the purpose
of fattening, when driven some distance in very hot weather, are sometimes
prostrated, but it must be remembered that it is not really necessary for
the animal to be exposed to the rays of the sun, as those confined in hot,
close places may suffer. This often happens in shipping, when they are
crowded together in cars.

_Symptoms._--The premonitory signs are those of exhaustion--dullness,
panting, frothing at the mouth, tongue hanging out, irregular gait,
uneasiness, palpitation--when, if the circumstances which tend to the
prostration are not mitigated, the animal staggers or sways from side to
side, falls, struggles for a while, and then gradually becomes quiet, or
the struggles may continue, with repeated but ineffectual efforts to regain
a standing position. In serious cases the attack may be very sudden,
unconsciousness occurring without continued or distressing premonitory
symptoms.

_Treatment._--At first, when not very serious, removal to a quiet,
sheltered place, with a few days on a reduced diet, is all that need be
done. When the animal has fallen, apply cold water or ice to the head; rub
the body and limbs with cloths or wisps of straw and continue the rubbing
for a considerable time. If the power of swallowing is not lost (which may
be ascertained by pouring a little cold water into the mouth), give 3 drams
of stronger liquor ammonia, diluted with a quart of cold water. Be very
careful in drenching the animal when lying down. Repeat the drench in a
half hour and an hour after the first one has been given. Instead of the
ammonia, a drench composed of 3 ounces of spirits of nitrous ether in a
pint of water may be given, if more convenient, but the ammonia drench is
preferable. If unconsciousness continues, so that a drench can not be
administered, the same quantity of ammonia and water may be injected with a
syringe into the rectum. The popular aqua ammonia, commonly called
"hartshorn," will do as well as the stronger liquor ammonia, but as it is
weaker than the latter the dose for a cow is about 1-1/2 ounces, which
should be diluted with a quart of water before it is given to the animal,
either as a drench or an enema. When ammonia can not be obtained, an ounce
of tincture of digitalis may be given.

As soon as the animal is able to rise it should be assisted and moved to
the nearest shelter. All the cold water it will drink should be allowed.
The ammonia or spirits of nitrous ether drench should be administered every
three hours so long as there is much failure of strength. The diet should
be limited for several days--bran slops and a little grass. When signs of
returning strength are presented, 12 ounces of Epsom salt dissolved in a
quart of warm water may be given in those cases which have been down and
unconscious, but do not give it while much weakness remains, which may be
for several days after the attack. The flesh of an animal that is suffering
from heat stroke should not be prepared for use as food. On account of the
fever with which the animal suffers, the flesh contains toxins that may
render it poisonous to the consumer.


INJURIES TO THE SPINAL CORD.

The spinal cord is liable to concussion from blows and falls, and
paralysis, to a greater or less extent, may be the result. Fracture, with
displacement of the bones (vertebræ) which form the spinal column, by
compressing the spinal cord, produces paralysis, which varies in its effect
according to the part of the cord that is compressed. If the fracture is
above the middle of the neck, death soon follows, as communication between
the brain and diaphragm (the essential muscle of inspiration) is stopped.
When the fracture is farther down in the neck, posterior to the origin of
the phrenic nerve, the breathing continues, but there is paralysis in all
parts posterior to the fracture, including the fore and hind legs. When the
fracture is in the region of the loins the hind legs are paralyzed, but the
fore legs are not. If the fracture is in the sacrum (the division of the
spinal column between the loins and the tail), the tail alone is paralyzed.

As a matter of course, when the back is broken there is no remedy; the
animal should be killed at once.


PARALYSIS.

Paralysis, or loss of motion in a part, may be due to a lesion of the
brain, of the spinal cord, or of a nerve. It may also be caused by reflex
irritation. When the paralysis affects both sides of the body, posterior to
a point, it is further designated by the name paraplegia. When one side of
the body (a lateral half) is paralyzed, the term hemiplegia is applied to
the affection. When paralysis is caused by a lesion of a nerve, the
paralysis is confined to the particular part supplied by the affected
nerve.

As already pointed out, paralysis may be due to concussion of the spine,
fracture of a bone of the spinal column with consequent compression of the
spinal cord, concussion of the brain, or compression of the brain. An
injury to one side of the brain may produce paralysis of the same side of
the head and of the opposite side of the body (hemiplegia). Paralysis may
occur in connection with parturient apoplexy, lead poisoning, ergotism,
etc.


CONGESTION OF THE SPINAL CORD.

Paraplegia, or paralysis of the rear part of the body, is the dominant
symptom in congestion or inflammation of the spinal cord. The cause is not
known, but the disease is probably due to chilling. It is thought by some
that some toxic influence (poison) may be responsible for its development.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms usually appear suddenly and consist in inability
to stand. Sometimes this is preceded by a period of excitement. The animal
usually lies quietly, but sometimes it groans and tosses its head about in
a way that indicates pain. Cows heavy with calf are sometimes affected with
a form of paraplegia, which usually attacks them from about a month to a
few days before calving. Apparently they are in good health in every
respect except the inability to stand up on account of the paralysis of the
hind quarters. This form is generally attributed to feeding on feeds
containing insufficient protein and ash. It is most likely to occur in cows
that are weak and thin. With good care and feed recovery usually occurs.

_Treatment._--The animal must be given a soft, dry bed under shelter and in
a quiet, airy place. It is well to apply mustard along the spine. The
action of the mustard may be intensified by rubbing the skin with ammonia
or turpentine. Internally give a purge of Glauber's salt. Nux vomica or
strychnia (1 to 2 grain doses) may be given. Turn the cow two to four times
daily and rub the legs well each time.

There are instances when cows will persist in lying down (in spite of all
efforts that are made to compel them to stand up), when it can not really
be said that they are paralyzed. They have sensation in all parts; they can
move all their feet; they can change their position; and in fact every
function seems to be normally performed, but they obstinately refuse to
rise or even make an effort to do so. Cases of this kind have been killed,
as it was an utter impossibility to get the animal on its feet. However,
there are instances when a cow, after refusing to rise when all other means
had been tried, quickly jumped to her feet and showed fright upon the
appearance of a dog or other terrifying object.


RABIES (HYDROPHOBIA).

[See discussion of this disease in chapter on "Infectious diseases," p.
358.]


LIGHTNING STROKE (ASPHYXIA ELECTRICA).

When an animal is struck by lightning the shock is instantaneously expended
on the nervous system, and as a rule death occurs immediately; but when the
shock is not fatal animation is suspended to a greater or less extent, as
evidenced by prostration, unconsciousness, and paralysis.

_Symptoms._--When not fatal, the symptoms vary much, according to the
severity of the shock. The animal usually falls, as from an apoplectic
attack, and, as a matter of course, the symptoms are such as are generally
manifested in connection with concussion of the brain. The muscular system
may be completely relaxed; the legs limber; the muscles flabby and soft to
the touch; or there may be convulsions, spasms, and twitching of the
muscles. The breathing is generally labored, irregular, or interrupted, and
slower than normal. In most instances the electrical fluid leaves its mark
by singeing the hair, or by inflicting wounds, burns, or blisters.

_Treatment._--So long as the beating of the heart is perceptible the
endeavor to resuscitate the animal should be continued. Dash cold water
over the head and body; rub the body and legs; smartly whip the body with
wet towels or switches. Mustard, mixed with water, should be well rubbed
over the legs and back of the head on each side of the neck. Inject into
the rectum 4 drams of stronger liquor ammonia, or 1-1/2 ounces of hartshorn
diluted with a quart of warm water. Cautiously hold an uncorked bottle of
hartshorn to the nostrils, so that some of it is inhaled, but care should
be taken that too much is not suddenly inhaled. If the animal is
unconscious, hypodermic injections of stimulants are indicated, such as 6
drams of camphorated oil in one dose, subcutaneously, or 20 grains of
caffein or 1/2 grain of strychnin, also subcutaneously.

When the animal revives sufficiently to be able to swallow, 4 drams of the
stronger liquor ammonia, diluted with a quart of cold water, should be
given as a drench, and the dose should be repeated in an hour. One and
one-half ounces of ordinary hartshorn may be used instead of the stronger
liquor ammonia, but, like the latter, it should be diluted with a quart or
more of water, and even then care should be exercised in drenching.

In cases where the shock has not caused complete insensibility recovery may
be hastened by the ammonia and water drench, or 4 ounces of brandy diluted
with a quart of water, or 8 ounces of whisky diluted with a quart of water.
These doses may be given every three or four hours if necessary. After
recovery from the more serious symptoms 2 drams of sulphate of quinin
should be given twice a day until health is restored. If any paralysis
remains 1-1/2 drams of pulverized nux vomica should be given twice a day
with the quinin.

The foregoing treatment is also applicable when the electrical shock is
given by telephone, electric car, or electric-light wires, etc. The wounds,
burns, or blisters should be treated according to the antiseptic method of
treating wounds.


TUMORS IN THE BRAIN, ETC.

Tumors of different kinds have been found within the cranial cavity, and in
many cases there have been no well-marked symptoms exhibited during the
life of the animal to lead one to suspect their existence. Cases are
recorded where bony tumors have been found in the brain of cattle that died
suddenly, but during life no signs of disease were manifested. Post-mortem
examinations have disclosed tubercles in the membranes of the brain. (See
"Tuberculosis," p. 407.) Abscesses, usually the result of inflammation of
the brain, have been found post-mortem. For the description of
hydrocephalus, or dropsy of the brain, of calves the reader is referred to
the section on parturition. (See "Water in the head," p. 179.)

Chorea, constant twitching and irregular spasmodic movements of the
muscles, has been noticed in connection with or as a sequel to other
affections, as, for example, parturient apoplexy.

Various diseases, the description of which will be found in other sections
of this work, affect the nervous system to a greater or less extent--for
example, ergotism, lead poisoning, uremia, parturient apoplexy, colic, and
other affections associated with cramps, or spasms, etc. Disease of the
ovaries or of the spinal cord, by reflex irritation, may cause estromania
(see "Excess of venereal desire," p. 148, constant desire for the bull).



DISEASES OF THE URINARY ORGANS.

By JAMES LAW, F. R. C. V. S.,

_Formerly Professor of Veterinary Science, etc., in Cornell University._


Of the materials that have served their purpose in building up the animal
body or in sustaining the body temperature, and that are now to be thrown
out as waste, the greater part is expelled from the system through the
lungs and the kidneys, but the agents that pass out by either of these two
channels differ in the main from those passing by the other. Thus from the
lungs in the form of dioxid of carbon--the same gas that comes from burning
of coal or oil--there escapes most of the waste material resulting from the
destruction in the system of fats, sugars, starch, and such other foods as
are wanting in the element nitrogen, and do not form fibrous tissues, but
go mainly to support animal heat or maintain functional activity. From the
kidneys, on the other hand, are thrown out the waste products resulting
from the destruction of the foods and tissues containing nitrogen--of, for
instance, albumin, fibrin, gluten, casein, gelatin, woody tissue, etc.
While much of the waste material containing nitrogen leaves the body by the
bowels, this is virtually only such of the albuminoid food as has failed to
be fully digested and absorbed; this has never formed a true constituent
part of the body itself or of the blood, but is so much waste food, like
that which has come to the table and again carried away unused. If the
albuminoid food element has entered the blood, whether or not it has been
built up into a constituent part of the structure of the body, its waste
products, which contain nitrogen, are in the main expelled through the
kidneys, so that the latter become the principal channels for the expulsion
of all nitrogen-containing waste.

It would be an error, however, to infer that all nitrogenous food, when
once digested and absorbed into the blood, must necessarily leave the
system in the urine. On the contrary, in the young and growing animal, all
increase of the fibrous structures of the body is gained through the
building up of those flesh-forming constituents into their substance; in
the pregnant animal the growth of the offspring and its envelopes has a
similar origin, and in the dairy cow the casein or curd of the milk is a
means of constant elimination of these nitrogen-containing agents. Thus, in
the breeding cow and, above all, in the milking cow, the womb or udder
carries on a work in one sense equivalent to that otherwise performed by
the kidneys. Not only are these organs alike channels for the excretion of
albuminous products, but they are also related to each other structurally
and by nervous sympathy, so that suffering in the one is liable to induce
some measure of disorder in the other.

As in the case of other mammals, this nitrogenous waste matter is mainly
present in the urine of cattle in the form of urea, but also, to some
extent, as hippuric acid, a derivative of vegetable food which, in the
herbivora, replaces the uric acid found in the urine of man and carnivora.
Uric acid is, however, found in the urine of sucking calves which have
practically an animal diet, and it may also appear in the adult in case of
absolute, prolonged starvation, and in diseases attended with complete loss
of appetite and rapid wasting of the body. In such cases the animal lives
on its own substance, and the product is that of the wasting flesh.

The other products containing nitrogen are present in only small quantities
and need not be specially referred to. The urine of cattle contains much
less of carbonates than that of the horse, and effervesces less on the
addition of an acid. As the carbonates form a large proportion of the solid
deposits (gravel, stone) from the horse's urine, the ox may thus be held
less liable, yet even in the ox the carbonates become abundant or scanty,
according to the nature of the feed, and therefore gravel, formed by
carbonate of lime, is not infrequent in cattle. When fed on beets, clover
hay, or bean straw carbonates are present in large quantities, these
aliments being rich in organic acids and alkaline carbonates; whereas upon
oat straw, barley straw, and, above all, wheat straw, they are in small
amount. In calves fed on milk alone no carbonates are found in the urine.

Phosphates, usually in combination with lime, are, as a rule, present only
in traces in the urine of cattle; however, on a dietary of wheat, bran, or
other aliment rich in phosphates, these may be present in large amount, so
that they render the liquid cloudy or are deposited in solid crystals. The
liquid is rendered transparent by nitric acid.

The cow's urine, on a diet of hay and potatoes, contained:

                                       Parts.
  Urea                                  18.5
  Potassic hippurate                    16.5
  Alkaline lactates                     17.2
  Potassium bicarbonate                 16.1
  Magnesium carbonate                    4.7
  Lime carbonate                         0.6
  Potassium sulphate                     3.6
  Common salt                            1.5
  Silica                               Trace
  Phosphates                             0.0
  Water and undetermined substances    921.3
                                     _______
  Total                              1,000.0


The following table after Tereg[1] gives the different conditions of the
urine, and especially the amount of urea and hippuric acid under different
rations. The subjects were two oxen, weighing, respectively, 1,260 pounds
and 1,060 pounds:

  --------------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+------+-----+-----+----
   Food per day.|Water.
   (pounds)     |      |Urine
                |      |Passed.
                |      |     |Density.
                |      |     |     |Solids
                |      |     |     |in urine.
                |      |     |     |     |Hippuric
                |      |     |     |     |acid.
                |      |     |     |     |     |Urea.
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |Nitrogen
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |in hippuric
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |acid and
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |urea.
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |Total
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |nitrogen.
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |Urea
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |per day.
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |Hip-
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |puric
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |acid
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |per
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |week
  --------------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----
                |_Lbs._|_Lbs_|     |_Pct_|_Pct_|_Pct_|_Pct_|_Pct_|_Ozs_|_Ozs_
  16.90 wheat   |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  straw, and    | 46.46| 7.40|1,036| 8.41| 2.66| 1.33| 0.83| 0.94| 1.63|3.23
  1.30 bean     |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  meal          |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  14.70 oat     |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  straw, and    | 61.10|15.26|1,039| 6.93| 2.09| 0.84| 0.55| 0.49| 2.2 |5.3
  2.30 bean     |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  meal          |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  10.4 wheat    |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  straw, 10.4   | 71.76|12.36|1,043| 8.05| 0.95| 1.85| 0.93| 0.94| 3.83|1.96
  clover hay,   |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  0.6 bean      |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  meal, and     |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  2.6 starch    |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  10.4 wheat    |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  straw, 10.4   | 80.54|12.46|1,044| 8.29| 8.07| 2.41| 1.19| 1.11| 5.8 |2.1
  clover hay,   |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  2.7 bean      |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  meal, 1.4     |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  starch, and   |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  0.8 sugar     |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  10.4 wheat    |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  straw, 10.4   | 78.96|17.62|1,043| 8.41| 0.74| 3.12| 1.45| 1.24| 9.17|2.17
  clover hay,   |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  5 bean meal,  |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  and 0.8 sugar |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  10 wheat      |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  straw, 10     |110.12|25.86|1,038| 7.00| 0.31| 2.49| 1.19| 1.25|10.9 |1.33
  clover hay,   |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  6.4 bean      |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  meal, 1.7     |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  starch, 4     |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  sugar, and    |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  0.4 rape oil  |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  10 wheat      |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  straw, 10     |101.80|27.04|1,037| 7.14| 0.20| 2.95| 1.39| 1.58|13.3 |0.9
  clover hay,   |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  9.4 bean      |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  meal, 3.1     |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  sugar, and    |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  0.4 rape oil  |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  10 wheat      |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  straw, 10     |119.00|23.20|1,038| 7.74| 0.21| 4.06| 1.91| 1.69|15.4 |0.8
  clover hay,   |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  11.7 bean     |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  meal, 2.8     |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  starch, and   |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  0.5 rape oil  |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  17.86 bean    |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  straw, and    | 54.84|12.60|1,043| 7.06| 0.40| 2.53| 1.21| 1.15| 5.3 |0.83
  1.6 bean meal |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  14.88 bean    |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  straw         | 55.76|16.34|1,036| 5.45| 0.11| 1.41| 0.67| 0.64| 3.83|0.3
                |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  16.90 meadow  |      |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  hay           | 36.26|15.14|1,042| 7.91| 1.30| 1.73| 0.91| 0.92| 4.37|3.3
  --------------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----

The varying quantity of urea (from 1.6 to 15.4 ounces) is most suggestive
as to the action of the more or less nitrogenous feed and the resulting
concentration of the urine and blood. Hippuric acid, on the other hand, is
most abundant when the animal is fed on hay and straw.

The specific gravity of the urine of cattle varies from 1,030 to 1,060 in
health, water being 1,000. It is transparent, with a yellowish tinge, and
has a characteristic, musky smell. The chemical reaction is alkaline,
turning red litmus paper blue. The quantity passed in twenty-four hours
varies greatly, increasing not only with the water drunk, but with the
albuminoids taken in with the feed and the urea produced. If a solution of
urea is injected into the veins the secretion of urine is greatly
augmented. Similarly the excess of salts like carbonate of potash in the
feed, or of sugar, increases the action of the kidneys. Only about 20 per
cent of the water swallowed escapes in the urine, the remaining 80 per cent
passing mostly from the lungs, and to a slight extent by the bowels. The
skin of the ox does not perspire so readily nor so freely as that of the
horse; hence the kidneys and lungs are called upon for extra work. The
influence of an excess of water in the feed is most remarkable in swill-fed
distillery cattle, which urinate profusely and frequently, yet thrive and
fatten rapidly.

Among the other conditions that increase the flow of urine is overfilling
of (internal pressure in) the blood vessels of the kidneys; hence the
contraction of the blood vessels of the skin by cold drives the blood
inward, tends to dilate the blood vessels of the kidneys, and to increase
the secretion of urine. Nervous disorders, such as excitement, fear,
congestions, or structural injuries to the back part of the base of the
brain, have a similar result, hence, doubtless, the action of certain fungi
growing in musty hay or oats in producing profuse flow of urine, whereas
other forms of musty fodder cause stupor, delirium, or paralysis. Bacteria
and their products are mainly expelled by the kidneys, and become sources
of local infection, irritation, and disease.

The quantity of urine passed daily by an ox on dry feeding averages 7 to 12
pints, but this may be increased enormously on a watery diet.

The mutual influence of the kidneys and other important organs tends to
explain the way in which disease in one part supervenes on preexisting
disorder in another. The introduction of albuminoids in excess into the
blood means the formation of an excess of urea, and a more profuse
secretion of urine, of a higher specific gravity, and with a greater
tendency to deposit its solid constituents, as gravel, in the kidneys or
bladder. A torpid action of the liver, leaving the albuminoids in
transition forms, less soluble than the urea into which they should have
been changed, favors the onset of rheumatism or of nervous disorder, the
deposit of such albuminoid products in the kidneys, the formation of a
deep-brown or reddish urine, and congestion of the kidneys. Any abnormal
activity of the liver in the production of sugar--more than can be burned
up in the circulation--overstimulates the kidneys and produces increased
flow of a heavy urine with a sweetish taste. This increased production of
sugar may be primarily due to disease of the brain, which, in its turn,
determines the disorder of the liver. Disease of the right side of the
heart or of the lungs, by obstructing the onward flow of blood from the
veins, increases the blood pressure in the kidneys and produces disorder
and excessive secretion. Inactivity of the kidneys determines an increase
in the blood of waste products, which become irritating to different parts,
producing skin eruptions, itching, dropsies, and nervous disorders. Sprains
of the loins produce bleeding from the kidneys and disease of the spinal
cord, and sometimes determine albuminous or milky looking urine.

The kidney of the ox (Pl. IX, fig. 1) is a compound organ made up of 15 to
25 separate lobules like so many separate kidneys, but all pouring their
secretion into one common pouch (pelvis) situated in an excavation in the
center of the lower surface. While the ox is the only domesticated
quadruped which maintains this divided condition of the kidney after birth,
this condition is common to all while at an early stage of development in
the womb. The cluster of lobules making up a single kidney forms an ovoid
mass flattened from above downward, and extending from the last rib
backward beneath the loins and to one side of the solid chain of the
backbone. The right is more firmly attached to the loins and extends
farther backward than the left. Deeply covered in a mass of suet, each
kidney has a strong outer, white, fibrous covering, and inside this two
successive layers of kidney substance, of which the outer is that in which
the urine is mainly separated from the blood and poured into the fine,
microscopic urinary ducts. (Pl. X, fig. 1) These latter, together with
blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves, make up the second, or internal,
layer. The outer layer is mainly composed of minute globular clusters of
microscopic, intercommunicating blood vessels (Malpighian bodies), each of
which is furnished with a fibrous capsule that is nothing else than the
dilated commencement of a urine tube. These practically microscopic tubes
follow at first a winding course through the outer layer (Ferrein's tubes),
then form a long loop (doubling on itself) in the inner layer (Henle's
loop), and finally pass back through the inner layer (Bellini's tubes) to
open through a conical process into the common pouch (pelvis) on the lower
surface of the organ. (Pl. X, figs. 1, 2, 3.)

The tube that conveys the urine from the kidney to the bladder is like a
white, round cord, about the size of a goose quill, prolonged from the
pouch on the lower surface of the kidney backward beneath the loins, then
inward, supported by a fold of thin membrane, to open into the bladder just
in front of its neck. The canal passes first through the middle (muscular)
coat of the bladder, and then advances perceptibly between that and the
internal (mucous) coat, through which it finally opens. By this arrangement
in overfilling the bladder this opening is closed like a valve by the
pressure of the urine, and the return of liquid to the kidney is prevented.
The bladder (Pl. IX, fig. 2) is a dilatable, egg-shaped pouch, closed
behind by a strong ring of muscular fibers encircling its neck, and
enveloped by looped, muscular fibers extending on all sides around its body
and closed anterior end. Stimulated by the presence of urine, these last
contract and expel contents through the neck into the urethra. This last is
the tube leading backward along the floor of the pelvic bones and downward
through the penis. In the bull this canal of the urethra is remarkable for
its small caliber and for the S-shaped bend which it describes in the space
between the thighs and just above the scrotum. This bend is attributable to
the fact that the retractor muscles are attached to the penis at this
point, and in withdrawing that organ within its sheath they double it upon
itself. The small size of the canal and this S-shaped bend are serious
obstacles to the passing of a catheter to draw the urine, yet by extending
the penis out of its sheath the bend is effaced, and a small, gum-elastic
catheter, not more than one-fourth of an inch in diameter, may with care be
passed into the bladder. In the cow the urethra is very short, opening in
the median line on the floor of the vulva about 4 inches in front of its
external orifice. Even in her, however, the passing of a catheter is a
matter of no little difficulty, the opening of the urethra being very
narrow and encircled by the projecting membranous and rigid margins, and on
each side of the opening is a blind pouch (canal of Gärtner) into which the
catheter will almost invariably find its way. In both male and female,
therefore, the passing of a catheter is an operation which demands special
skill.

_General symptoms of urinary disorders._--These are not so prominent in
cattle as in horses, yet they are of a similar kind. There is a stiff or
straddling gait with the hind legs and some difficulty in turning or in
lying down and rising, the act causing a groan. The frequent passage of
urine in driblets, its continuous escape in drops, the sudden arrest of the
flow when in full stream, the rhythmic contraction of the muscles under the
anus without any flow resulting, the swelling of the sheath, the collection
of hard, gritty masses on the hair surrounding the orifice of the sheath,
the occurrence of dropsies in the limbs under the chest or belly, or in
either of these cavities, and finally the appearance of nervous stupor, may
indicate serious disorder of the urinary organs. The condition of the urine
passed may likewise lead to suspicion. It may be white, from crystallized
carbonate of lime; brown, red, or even black, from the presence of blood or
blood-coloring matter; yellow, from biliary coloring matter; frothy, from
contained albumin; cloudy, from phosphates; glairy, from pus; it may also
show gritty masses from gravel. In many cases of urinary disorder in the
ox, however, the symptoms are by no means prominent, and unless special
examination is made of the loins, the bladder, and the urine the true
nature of the malady may be overlooked.


DIURESIS (POLYURIA, DIABETES INSIPIDUS, EXCESSIVE SECRETION OF URINE).

A secretion of urine in excess of the normal amount may be looked on as
disease, even if the result does not lead to immediate loss of condition.
Cattle fed on distillery swill are striking examples of such excess caused
by the enormous consumption of a liquid feed, which nourishes and fattens
in spite of the diuresis; the condition is unwholesome, and cattle that
have passed four or five months in a swill stable have fatty livers and
kidneys, and never again do well on ordinary feed. Diuresis may further
occur from increase of blood pressure in the kidneys (diseases of the heart
or lungs which hinder the onward passage of the blood, the eating of
digitalis, English broom, the contraction of the blood vessels on the
surface of the body in cold weather, etc.); also from acrid or diuretic
plants taken with the feed (dandelion, burdock, colchicum, digitalis,
savin, resinous shoots, etc.); from excess of sugar in the feed (beets,
turnips, ripe sorghum); also from the use of frozen feed (frosted turnip
tops and other vegetables), and from the growths of certain molds in fodder
(musty hay, mow-burnt hay, moldy oats, moldy bread, etc.). Finally,
alkaline waters and alkaline incrustations on the soil may be active
causes. In some of these cases the result is beneficial rather than
injurious, as when cattle affected with gravel in the kidneys are entirely
freed from this condition by a run at grass, or by an exclusive diet of
roots or swill. In other cases, however, the health and condition suffer,
and even inflammation of the kidneys may occur.

_Treatment._--The treatment is mainly in the change of diet to a more solid
aliment destitute of the special, offensive ingredient. Boiled flaxseed is
often the best diet or addition to the wholesome dry food, and, by way of
medicine, doses of 2 drams each of sulphate of iron and iodid of potassium
may be given twice daily. In obstinate cases 2 drams ergot of rye or of
catechu may be added.


BLOODY URINE (RED WATER, MOOR ILL, WOOD ILL, HEMATURIA, HEMAGLOBINURIA).

This is a common affection among cattle in certain localities, above all on
damp, undrained lands and under a backward agriculture. It is simply bloody
urine or hematuria when the blood is found in clots, or when under the
microscope the blood globules can be detected as distinctly rounded,
flattened disks. It is smoky urine--hemaglobinuria--when neither such
distinct clots nor blood disks can be found, but merely a general browning,
reddening, or blackening of the urine by the presence of dissolved,
blood-coloring matter. The bloody urine is the more direct result of
structural disease of the kidneys or urinary passages (inflammation, stone,
gravel, tumors, hydatids, kidney worms, sprains of the loins), while the
stained urine (hemaglobinuria) is usually the result of some general or
more distinct disorder in which the globules are destroyed in the
circulating blood and the coloring matter dissolved in and diffused through
the whole mass of the blood and of the urine secreted from it. As in the
two forms, blood and the elements of blood escape into the urine, albumin
is always present, so that there is albuminuria with blood-coloring matter
superadded. If from stone or gravel, gritty particles are usually passed,
and may be detected in the bottom of a dish in which the liquid is caught.
If from fracture or severe sprain of the loins, it is liable to be
associated not only with some loss of control of the hind limbs and with
staggering behind but also with a more or less perfect paralysis of the
tail. The bloodstained urine without red globules results from specific
diseases--Texas fever (Pl. XLVII, fig. 3), anthrax, spirillosis, and from
eating irritant plants (broom, savin, mercury, hellebore, ranunculus,
convolvulus, colchicum, oak shoots, ash privet, hazel, hornbeam, and other
astringent, acrid, or resinous plants, etc.). The Maybug or Spanish fly
taken with the feed or spread over a great extent of skin as a blister has
a similar action. Frosted turnips or other roots will bring on the
affection in some subjects. Among conditions which act by the direct
destruction of the globules in the circulating blood may be named an excess
of water in that fluid; the use of water from soils rich in decomposing
vegetable matter and containing alkaline salts, particularly nitrites; and
the presence in the water and feed of the ptomaines of bacteria growth;
hence the prevalence of "red water" in marshy districts and on clayey and
other impervious soils, and the occurrence of bloody urine in the advanced
stages of several contagious diseases. Some mineral poisons--such as iodin,
arsenic, and phosphorus taken to excess--may cause hematuria, and finally
the symptoms may be merely the result of a constitutional predisposition of
the individual or family to bleeding. In some predisposed subjects,
exposure of the body to cold or wet will cause the affection.

The specific symptom of bloody or smoky water is a very patent one. It may
or may not be associated with fever, with the presence or absence of
abdominal tenderness on pressure, with a very frothy state of the milk or
even a reddish tinge, with or without marked paleness of the mucous
membranes, and general weakness. When direct injury to the kidneys is the
immediate cause of the disease the urine will be passed often, in small
quantity at a time, and with much straining. When there is bloodlessness (a
watery blood) from insufficient nourishment, fever is absent and the red
water is at first the only symptom. When the active cause has been irritant
plants, abdominal tenderness, colics, and other signs of bowel inflammation
are marked features.

_Treatment._--Treatment varies according as the cause has been a direct
irritant operating on a subject in vigorous health or a microbian poison
acting on an animal deficient in blood and vigor. In the first form of red
water a smart purgative (1 pound to 1-1/2 pounds Glauber's salt) will clear
away the irritants from the bowels and allay the coexistent high fever. It
will also serve to divert to the bowels much of the irritant products
already absorbed into the blood and will thus protect the kidneys. In many
such cases a liberal supply of wholesome, easily digestible feed will be
all the additional treatment required. In this connection demulcent feed
(boiled flaxseed, wheat bran) is especially good. If much blood has been
lost, bitters (gentian, one-half ounce) and iron (sulphate of iron, 2
drams) should be given for a week.

For cases in which excess of diuretic plants has been taken, it may be well
to replace the salts by 1 to 2 pints of olive oil, adding 1 ounce of
laudanum and 2 drams of gum camphor; also to apply fomentations or a fresh
sheepskin over the loins. Buttermilk or vinegar, one-half pint, or
sulphuric acid, 60 drops in a pint of water, may also be used frequently as
injections. In cases caused by sprained or fractured loins, inflamed
kidneys, stone or gravel, the treatment will be as for the particular
disease in question.

In hematuria from anemia (watery blood), whether from insufficient or badly
adjusted rations or from the poisonous products of fermentations in
impervious or marshy soils, the treatment must be essentially tonic and
stimulating. Rich, abundant, and easily digestible feed must be furnished.
The different grains (oats, barley, wheat, bran, rye) and seeds (rape,
linseed, cotton seed) are especially called for and may be given either
ground or boiled. As a bitter, sulphate of quinin, one-half dram, and
tincture of chlorid of iron, 2 drams, may be given in a pint of water
thrice a day. In some cases 1 or 2 teaspoonfuls of oil of turpentine twice
daily in milk will act favorably.

In this anemic variety prevention is the great need. The drainage and
cultivation of the dangerous soils is the main object. Until this can be
accomplished young and newly purchased cattle not yet inured to the poisons
must be kept from the dangerous fields and turned on only those which are
already drained naturally or artificially. Further, they should have an
abundant ration in which the local product of grass, hay, etc., is
supplemented by grain or other seeds. Another point to be guarded against
is the supply of water that has drained from marshes or impervious soils,
rich in organic matter, as such water is charged with nitrites, ptomaines,
etc., which directly conduce to the disorder. Fence out from all such
waters and supply from living springs or deep wells only.


ALBUMIN IN THE URINE (ALBUMINURIA).

In bloody urine albumin is always present as an important constituent of
the blood, and in congested and inflamed kidneys it is present as a part of
the inflammatory exudate. Apart from these, albumin in the urine represents
in different cases a variety of diseased conditions of the kidneys or of
distant organs. Among the additional causes of albuminuria may be named:
(1) An excess of albumin in the blood (after easy calving with little loss
of blood and before the secretion of milk has been established, or in cases
of sudden suppression of the secretion of milk); (2) under increase of
blood pressure (after deep drinking, after doses of digitalis or broom,
after transfusion of blood from one animal to another, or in disease of the
heart or lungs causing obstruction to the flow of blood from the veins);
(3) after cutting (or disease) of the motor nerves of the vessels going to
the kidneys, causing congestion of these organs; (4) violent exertion,
hence long drives; the same happens with violent, muscular spasms, as from
strychnia poisoning, lockjaw, epilepsy, and convulsions; (5) in most fevers
and extensive inflammations of important organs, like the lungs or liver,
the escape of the albumin being variously attributed to the high
temperature of the body and disorder of the nerves, and to resulting
congestion and disorder of the secreting cells of the kidneys; (6) in burns
and some other congested states of the skin; (7) under the action of
certain poisons (strong acids, phosphorous, arsenic, Spanish flies,
carbolic acid, and those inducing bloody urine); (8) in certain conditions
of weakness or congestion of the secreting cells of the kidneys, so that
they allow this element of the blood to escape; (9) when the feed is
entirely wanting in common salt, albumin may appear in the urine
temporarily after a full meal containing an excess of albumin. It can also
be produced experimentally by puncturing the back part of the base of the
brain (the floor of the fourth ventricle close to the point the injury to
which causes sugary urine). In abscess, tumor, or inflammation of the
bladder, ureter, or urethra the urine is albuminous.

It follows, therefore, that albumin in the urine does not indicate the
existence of any one specific disease, and except when from weakness or
loss of function of the kidney cells, it must be looked on as an attendant
on another disease, the true nature of which we must try to find out. These
affections we must exclude one by one until we are left to assume the
noninflammatory disorder of the secreting cells of the kidney. It is
especially important to exclude inflammation of the kidney, and to do this
may require a microscopic examination of the sediment of the urine and the
demonstration of the entire absence of casts of the uriniferous tubes. (See
"Nephritis," p. 123.)

To detect albumin in the urine, the suspected and frothy liquid must be
rendered sour by adding a few drops of nitric acid and then boiled in a
test tube. If a solid precipitate forms, then a few more drops of nitric
acid should be added, and if the liquid does not clear it up it is albumin.
A precipitate thrown down by boiling and redissolved by nitric acid is
probably phosphate of lime.

_Treatment._--Treatment is usually directed to the disease on which it is
dependent. In the absence of any other recognizable disease, mucilaginous
drinks of boiled flaxseed, slippery elm, or gum may be given, tannic acid,
one-half dram twice daily, and fomentations or even mustard poultices over
the loins. When the disease is chronic and there is no attendant fever
(elevation of temperature), tonics (hydrochloric acid, 6 drops in a pint of
water; phosphate of iron, 2 drams, or sulphate of quinin, 2 drams, repeated
twice daily) may be used. In all cases the patient should be kept carefully
from cold and wet, a warm, dry shed, or in warm weather a dry, sunny yard
or pasture being especially desirable.


SUGAR IN URINE (DIABETES MELLITUS).

This is a frequent condition of the urine in parturition fever, but as a
specific disease, associated with deranged liver or brain, it is
practically unknown in cattle. As a mere attendant on another disease it
demands no special notice here.


INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEYS (NEPHRITIS).

This has been divided according as it affects the different parts of the
kidneys, as: (1) Its fibrous covering (perinephritis); (2) the secreting
tissue of its outer portion (parenchymatous); (3) the connective tissue
(interstitial); (4) the lining membrane of its ducts (catarrhal); and (5)
its pelvis or sac receiving the urine (pyelitis). It has also been
distinguished according to the changes that take place in the kidney,
especially as seen after death, according to the quantity of albumin in the
urine, and according as the affection is acute or chronic. For the purpose
of this work it will be convenient to consider these as one inflammatory
disease, making a distinction merely between the acute and the chronic or
of long standing.

The _causes_ are in the main like those causing bloody urine, such as
irritant and diuretic plants, Spanish flies applied as a blister or
otherwise, exposure to cold and wet, the presence of stone or gravel in the
kidneys, injuries to the back or loins, as by riding one another, the
drinking of alkaline or selenitic water, the use of putrid, stagnant water,
of that containing bacteria and their products, the consumption of musty
fodder, etc. (See "Hematuria," p. 119.)

The length of the loins in cattle predisposes these parts to mechanical
injury, and in the lean and especially in the thin, working ox the kidney
is very liable to suffer. In the absence of an abundance of loose,
connective tissue and of fat, the kidneys lie in close contact with the
muscles of the loins, and any injury to them may tend to stretch the kidney
and its vessels, or to cause its inflammation by direct extension of the
disease from the injured muscle to the adjacent kidney. Thus, under
unusually heavy draft, under slips or falls on slippery ground, under
sudden unexpected drooping or twisting of the loins from missteps or from
the feet sinking into holes, under the loading and jarring of the loins
when animals ride one another in cases of "heat," the kidneys are subject
to injury and inflammation. A hard run, as when chased by a dog, may be the
occasion of such an attack. A fodder rich in nitrogenous or flesh-forming
elements (beans, peas, vetches (_Vicia sativa_), and other leguminous
plants) has been charged with irritating the kidneys through the excess of
urea, hippuric acid, and allied products eliminated through these organs
and the tendency to the formation of gravel. It seems, however, that these
feeds are most dangerous when partially ripened and yet not fully matured,
a stage of growth at which they are liable to contain ingredients
irritating to the stomach and poisonous to the brain, as seen in their
inducing so-called "stomach staggers." Even in the poisoning by the seeds
of ripened but only partially cured rye grass (_Lolium perenne_), and
darnel (_Lolium temulentum_), the kidneys are found violently congested
with black blood; also, in the indigestions that result from the eating of
partially ripened corn or millet some congestion of the kidneys is an
attendant phenomenon.

Cruzel says that the disease as occurring locally is usually not alone from
the acrid and resinous plants charged with inducing hematuria, but also
from stinking camomile (_Anthemis cotula_) and field poppy when used in the
fresh, succulent condition; also from the great prevalence of dead
caterpillars on the pasture, or from dead Spanish flies in the stagnant
pools of water. The fresh plants are believed to be injurious only by
reason of a volatile oil which is dissipated in drying. In the case of the
stagnant water it may be questioned whether the chemical products of the
contained ferments (bacteria) are not more frequently the cause of the evil
than the alleged Spanish flies, though the latter are hurtful enough when
present.

Inflammation of the kidneys may further be a form or an extension of a
specific contagious disease, such as erysipelas, rinderpest, septicemia, or
even of poisoning by the spores of fungi. Rivolta reports the case of a cow
with spots of local congestion and blood staining in the kidney, the
affected parts being loaded with bacteria. Unfortunately he neither
cultivated the bacteria nor inoculated them, and thus the case stands
without positive demonstration that they were the cause of disease.

In certain cases the _symptoms_ of nephritis are very manifest, and in
others so hidden that the existence of the affection can be certainly
recognized only by a microscopic examination of the urine. In violent cases
there is high fever, increase of the body temperature to 103° F. and
upward; hurried breathing, with a catching inspiration; accelerated pulse;
dry, hot muzzle; burning of the roots of the horns and ears; loss of
appetite; suspended rumination; and indications of extreme sensitiveness in
the loins. The patient stands with back arched and hind legs extended
backward and outward, and passes water frequently, in driblets, of a high
color and specific gravity, containing albumin and microscopic casts. (Pl.
XI, fig. 5.) When made to move, the patient does so with hesitation and
groaning, especially if turned in a narrow circle; when pinched on the
flank just beneath the lateral bony processes of the loins, especially on
that side on which the disease predominates, it flinches and groans. If the
examination is made with oiled hand introduced through the last gut
(rectum), the pressure upward on the kidneys gives rise to great pain and
to efforts to escape by moving away and by active contractions of the
rectum for the expulsion of the hand. Sometimes there is a distinct
swelling over the loins or quarter on one or both sides. In uncastrated
males the testicle on the affected side is drawn up, or is alternately
raised and dropped. In all there is a liability to tremors of the thigh on
the side affected.

In some severe cases colicky pains are as violent as in the worst forms of
indigestion and spasms of the bowels. The animal frequently shifts from one
hind foot to the other, stamps, kicks at the belly, frequently looks
anxiously at its flank, moans plaintively, lies down and quickly gets up
again, grinds its teeth, twists its tail, and keeps the back habitually
arched and rigid and the hind feet advanced under the belly. The bowels may
be costive and the feces glistening with a coat of mucus, or they may be
loose and irritable, and the paunch or even the bowels may become distended
with gas (bloating) as the result of indigestion and fermentation. In some
animals, male and female alike, the rigid, arched condition of the back
will give way to such undulating movements as are sometimes seen in the act
of coition.

The disease does not always appear in its full severity; for a day, or even
two, however, there may be merely loss of appetite, impaired rumination, a
disposition to remain lying down, yet when the patient is raised it
manifests suffering by anxiously looking at the flanks, shifting or
stamping of the hind feet, shaking of the tail, and attempts to urinate,
which are either fruitless or lead to the discharge of a small quantity of
high-colored or perhaps bloody urine.

In some recent slight cases, and in many chronic ones, these symptoms may
be absent or unobserved, and an examination of the urine is necessary to
reach a safe conclusion. The urine may contain blood, or it may be cloudy
from contained albumin, which coagulates on heating with nitric acid (see
"Albuminuria," p. 121); it may be slightly glairy from pus, or gritty
particles may be detected in it. In seeking for casts of the uriniferous
tubes, a drop may be taken with a fine tube from the bottom of the liquid
after standing, and examined under a power magnifying 50 diameters. If the
fine, cylindroid filaments are seen they may then be examined with a power
of 200 or 250 diameters. (Pl. XI, fig. 5.) The appearance of the casts
gives some clue to the condition of the kidneys. If made up of large,
rounded or slightly columnar cells, with a single nucleus in each cell
(epithelial), they imply comparatively slight and recent disease of the
kidney tubes, the detachment of the epithelium being like what is seen in
any inflamed mucous surface. If made up largely of the small, disk-shaped
and nonnucleated red blood globules, they imply escape of blood, and
usually a recent injury or congestion of the kidney--it may be from
sprains, blows, or the ingestion of acrid or diuretic poisons. If the casts
are made of a clear, waxy, homogeneous substance (hyaline), without any
admixture of opaque particles, they imply an inflammation of longer
standing, in which the inflamed kidney tubules have been already stripped
of their cellular (epithelial) lining. If the casts are rendered opaque by
the presence of minute, spherical granular cells, like white blood
globules, it betokens active suppuration of the kidney tubes. In other
cases the casts are rendered opaque by entangled earthy granules (carbonate
of lime), or crystals of some other urinary salts. In still other cases the
casts entangle clear, refrangent globules of oil or fat, which may imply
fatty degeneration of the kidneys or injury to the spinal cord. The
presence of free pus giving a glairy, flocculent appearance to the urine is
suggestive of inflammation of the urinary pouch at the commencement of the
excretory duct (pelvis of kidney) (Pl. IX, fig. 1), especially if
complicated with gritty particles of earthy salts. This condition is known
as pyelitis. In the chronic cases swelling of the legs or along the lower
surface of chest or abdomen, or within these respective cavities, is a
common symptom. So, also, stupor or coma, or even convulsions, may
supervene from the poisonous action of urea and other waste or morbid
products retained in the blood.

_Treatment._--In the treatment of acute nephritis the first consideration
is the removal of the cause. Acrid or diuretic plants in the feed must be
removed, and what of this kind is present in the stomach or bowels may be
cleared away by a moderate dose of castor or olive oil; extensive surfaces
of inflammation that have been blistered by Spanish flies must be washed
clean with soapsuds; sprains of the back or loins must be treated by
soothing fomentations or poultices or by a fresh sheepskin with its fleshy
side applied on the loins, and the patient must be kept in a narrow stall
in which it can not turn even its head. The patient must be kept in a warm,
dry building, so that the skin may be kept active rather than the kidneys.
Warm blanketing is equally important, or even mustard poultices over the
loins will be useful. Blisters of Spanish flies, turpentine, or other agent
which may be absorbed and irritate the kidneys must be avoided. The active
fever may be checked by 15 drops tincture of aconite every four hours or by
one-third ounce of acetanilid. If pain is very acute, 1 ounce of laudanum
or 2 drams of solid extract of belladonna will serve to relieve. When the
severity of the disease has passed, a course of tonics (quinin, 2 drams, or
gentian powder, 4 drams, daily) may be given. Diuretics, too, may be given
cautiously at this advanced stage to relieve dropsy and give tone to the
kidneys and general system (oil of turpentine, 2 teaspoonfuls; bicarbonate
of soda, 1 teaspoonful, repeated twice a day). Pure water is essential, and
it should not be given chilled; warm drinks are preferable.

In the chronic forms of kidney inflammation the same protection against
cold and similar general treatment are demanded. Tonics, however, are
important to improve the general health (phosphate of iron, 2 drams;
powdered nux vomica, 20 grains; powdered gentian root, 4 drams, daily). In
some instances the mineral acids (nitric acid, 60 drops, or
nitrohydrochloric acid, 60 drops, daily) may be used with the bitters.
Mustard applied to the loins in the form of a thin pulp made with water and
covered for an hour with paper or other impervious envelope, or water
hotter than the hand can bear, or cupping, may be resorted to as a
counterirritant. In cupping, shave the loins, smear them with lard, then
take a narrow-mouthed glass, expand the air within by smearing its interior
with a few drops of alcohol, setting it on fire and instantly pressing the
mouth of the vessel to the oiled portion of the skin. As the air within the
vessel cools it contracts, tending to form a partial vacuum, and the skin,
charged with blood, is strongly drawn up within it. Several of these being
applied at once, a strong derivation from the affected kidneys is obtained.
In no case of inflamed or irritable kidney should Spanish flies or oil of
turpentine be used upon the skin.


PARASITES OF THE KIDNEY.

As the kidney is the visual channel by which the bacteria leave the system,
this organ is liable to be implicated when microphytes exist in the blood,
and congestions and blood extravasions are produced. In anthrax, southern
cattle fever (Texas fever), and other such affections bloody urine is the
consequence. Of the larger parasites attacking the kidney may be specially
named the cystic form of the echinococcus tapeworm of the dog, the cystic
form of the unarmed or beef tapeworm of man, the diving bladderworm--the
cystic form of the marginate tapeworm of the dog, and the giant strongyle--
the largest of the roundworms. These give rise to general symptoms of
kidney disease, but the true source of the trouble is likely to be detected
only if the heads or hooklets of the tapeworm or the eggs of the roundworm
are found on microscopical examination of the urine.


TUMORS OF THE KIDNEY (HYPERTROPHY OR ATROPHY).

The kidney may be the seat of cancerous or simple tumors, and it may be
unnaturally enlarged or reduced in size, but though there may be signs of
urinary disorder the true nature of the disease is seldom manifest until
after death. The passing of blood and of large multi-nucleated cells in
the urine (to be detected under the microscope) may betray the existence of
an ulcerated cancer of the kidney. The presence of cancerous enlargement of
(superficial) lymphatic glands may further assist and confirm the decision.


RETENTION OF URINE.

Inability to pass urine may come from any one of three conditions--first,
spasm of the neck of the bladder; second, paralysis of the body of the
bladder; third, obstruction of the channel of outlet by a stone (calculus)
(see Pl. XI) or other obstacle.

In _spasm of the neck of the bladder_ the male animal may stand with the
tail slightly raised and making rhythmical contractions of the muscle
beneath the anus (accelerator urinæ) (see Pl. IX, fig. 2), but without
passing a drop of liquid. In the female the hind legs are extended, widely
parted, and the back is arched as if to urinate, but the effort is vain. If
the oiled hand is introduced into the rectum or vagina in the early stages
of the affection, the bladder may be felt beneath partially filled, but not
overdistended with liquid, and its neck or mouth firm and rigid. In the
more advanced stages of the affection the organ is felt as a great, tense,
elastic bag, extending forward into the abdomen. In this condition the
overdistended muscular coat of the bladder has lost its power of
contraction, so that true paralysis has set in, the muscle closing the
mouth of the sac alone retaining its contractile power.

In _paralysis of the body of the bladder_ attention is rarely drawn to the
urinary disorder until the bladder has been distended to full repletion and
is almost ready to give way by rupture and to allow the escape of the
contained liquid into the abdomen. Overdistention is the most common cause
of the paralysis, yet it may occur from inflammation of the muscular wall
of the bladder, or even from injury to the terminal part of the spinal
marrow. In this last condition, however, the tail is liable to be
powerless, and the neck of the bladder may also be paralyzed, so that the
urine dribbles away continuously.

_Causes._--Among the causes of spasm of the neck of the bladder may be
named the lodgment of small stones or gravel, the feeding on irritant
diuretics (see "Bloody urine," p. 119, or "Nephritis," p. 123), the
enforced retention of urine while at work or during a painful or difficult
parturition. The irritation attendant on inflammation of the mucous
membrane of the bladder may be a further cause of spasms of the neck, as
may also be inflammation of the channel (urethra) back of the neck.
Extensive applications of Spanish flies to the skin, the abuse of
diuretics, and the occurrence of indigestion and spasms of the bowels are
further causes. So long as spasmodic colic is unrelieved, retention of
water from spasm of the neck of the bladder usually persists.

_Treatment._--Treatment depends largely on the cause. In indigestion the
irritant contents of the bowels must be got rid of by laxatives and
injections of warm water; Spanish-fly blisters must be washed from the
surface; a prolonged and too active exertion must be intermitted. The spasm
may be relaxed by injecting one-half ounce of solid extract of belladonna
in water into the rectum or by a solution of tobacco. Chloroform or ether
may be given by inhalation, or chloral hydrate (1 ounce) may be given in
water by the mouth. Fomentations of warm water may be made over the loins
and between the thighs, and the oiled hand inserted into the rectum may
press moderately on the anterior part of the bladder, which can be felt as
an elastic fluctuating bag of an oval shape just beneath.

All other measures failing, the liquid must be drawn off through a tube
(catheter). This is, however, exceedingly difficult, alike in male and
female, and we can not expect an amateur to succeed in accomplishing it. In
the cow the opening into the bladder is found in the median line of the
floor of the generative entrance, about 4 inches in front of the external
opening, but it is flanked on either side by a blind pouch, into which the
catheter will pass, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, in the hands of
any but the most skilled operator. In the bull or steer the penis, when
retracted into its sheath, is bent upon itself like the letter S, just
above the scrotum and testicles (see Pl. IX, fig. 2), and unless this bend
is effaced by extending the organ forward out of its sheath it is quite
impossible to pass a catheter beyond this point. When, however, by the
presentation of a female, the animal can be tempted to protrude the penis,
so that it can be seized and extended, or when it can be manipulated
forward out of the sheath, it becomes possible to pass a catheter of small
caliber (one-third inch or under) onward into the bladder. Youatt advised
laying open the sheath so as to reach and extend the penis, and others have
advocated opening the urethra in the space between the thighs or just
beneath the anus, but such formidable operations are beyond the stock
owner. The incision of the narrow urethra through the great thickness of
muscular and erectile bleeding tissue just beneath the anus is especially
an operation of extreme delicacy and difficulty. Drawing the liquid through
the tube of an aspirator is another possible resort for the professional
man. The delicate needle of the aspirator is inserted in such cases through
the floor of the vagina and upper wall of the bladder in the female, or
through the floor of the rectum (last gut) and roof of the bladder in the
male, or finally through the lower and back part of the abdominal wall,
just in front of the bones of the pelvis (pubic bones), thence through the
lower and anterior part of the bladder near its blind anterior end. After
relief has been obtained the administration of belladonna in 2-dram doses
daily for several days will tend to prevent a recurrence of the retention.

When the body of the bladder has become benumbed or paralyzed by
overdistention, we may seek to restore its tone by doses of one-half a dram
of powdered nux vomica repeated daily, and by mustard plaster applied over
the loins, on the back part of the belly inferiorly, or between the thighs.
Small doses (2 drams) of balsam of copaiba are sometimes useful in
imparting tone to the partly paralyzed organ.


INCONTINENCE OF URINE (PALSY OF THE NECK OF THE BLADDER).

This may occur from disease or injury to the posterior part of the spinal
cord or from broken back, and in these cases the tail, and perhaps the hind
limbs, are liable to be paralyzed. In this case the urine dribbles away
constantly, and the oiled hand in the vagina or rectum will feel the
half-filled and flaccid bladder beneath and may easily empty it by
pressure.

_Treatment._--Treatment is only successful when the cause of the trouble
can be remedied. After these (sprains of the back, etc.) have recovered,
blisters (mustard) on the loins, the lower part of the abdomen, or between
the thighs may be resorted to with success. Two drams of copaiba or of
solid extract of belladonna or 2 grains Spanish flies daily may serve to
restore the lost tone. These failing, the use of electric currents may
still prove successful.


URINARY CALCULI (STONE OR GRAVEL).

Stone or gravel consists of hard bodies mainly made up of the solid earthy
constituents of the urine which have crystallized out of that liquid at
some part of the urinary passage, and have remained as small particles
(gravel), or have concreted into large masses (stone, calculus). (See Pl.
XI, figs. 1, 2, 3.) In cattle it is no uncommon thing to find them
distending the practically microscopic tubes in the red substance of the
kidney, having been deposited from the urine in the solid form almost as
soon as that liquid has been separated from the blood. These stones appear
as white objects on the red ground formed by cutting sections of the
kidney, and are essentially products of the dry feed of winter, and are
most common in working oxen, which are called upon to exhale more water
from the lungs and skin than are the slop-fed and inactive cows. Little
water being introduced into the body with the feed and considerable being
expelled with the breath and perspiration in connection with the active
life, the urine becomes small in amount, but having to carry out all waste
material from the tissues and the tissue-forming feed it becomes so charged
with solids that it is ready to deposit them on the slightest disturbance.
If, therefore, a little of the water of such concentrated urine is
reabsorbed at any point of the urinary passages the remainder is no longer
able to hold the solids in solution, and they are at once precipitated in
the solid form as gravel or commencing stone. In cattle, on the other hand,
which are kept at pasture in summer, or which are fed liberally on roots,
potatoes, pumpkins, apples, or ensilage in winter, this concentrated
condition of the urine is not induced, and under such circumstances,
therefore, the formation of stone is practically unknown. Nothing more need
be said to show the controlling influence of dry feeding in producing
gravel and of a watery ration in preventing it. Calculus in cattle is
essentially a disease of winter and of such cattle as are denied succulent
feed and are confined to dry fodder as their exclusive ration. While there
are exceptions, they are so rare that they do not invalidate this general
rule. It is true that stone in the kidney or bladder is often found in the
summer or in animals feeding at the time on a more or less succulent
ration, yet such masses usually date back to a former period when the
animals were restricted to a dry ration.

In this connection is should be noted that a great drain of water from the
system by any other channel than the kidneys predisposes to the production
of gravel or stone. In case of profuse diarrhea, for example, or of
excessive secretion of milk, there is a corresponding diminution of the
water of the blood, and as the whole quantity of the blood is thus
decreased and as the urine secreted is largely influenced by the fullness
of the blood vessels and the pressure exerted upon their walls from within,
it follows that with this decrease of the mass of the blood and the
lessening of its pressure outward there will be a corresponding decrease of
urine. The waste of the tissues, however, goes on as before, and if the
waste matter is passed out through the kidneys it must be in a more
concentrated solution, and the more concentrated the urine the greater the
danger that the solids will be deposited as small crystals or calculi.

Again, the concentrated condition of the urine which predisposes to such
deposits is favored by the quantity of lime salts that may be present in
the water drunk by the animal. Water that contains 20 or 30 grains of
carbonate or sulphate of lime to the gallon must contribute a large
addition of solids to the blood and urine as compared with soft waters from
which lime is absent. In this connection it is a remarkable fact that stone
and gravel in the domesticated herbivora are notoriously prevalent on many
limestone soils, as on the limestone formations of central and western New
York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan; on the calcareous formations of
Norfolk, Suffolk, Derbyshire, Shropshire, and Gloucestershire, in England;
in Landes in France, and around Munich in Bavaria. It does not follow that
the abundance of lime in the water and fodder is the main cause of the
calculi, as other poisons which are operative in the same districts in
causing goiter in both man and animal probably contribute to the trouble,
yet the excess of earthy salts in the drinking water can hardly fail to add
to the saturation of both blood and urine, and thereby to favor the
precipitation of the urinary solids from their state of solution.

The known results of feeding cattle a generous or forcing ration in which
phosphate of lime is present to excess adds additional force to the view
just advanced. In the writer's experience, the Second Duke of Oneida, a
magnificent product of his world-famed family, died as the result of a too
liberal allowance of wheat bran, fed with the view of still further
improving the bone and general form of the Duchess strain of Shorthorns.
Lithotomy was performed and a number of stones removed from the bladder and
urethra, but the patient succumbed to an inflammation of the bowels,
induced by the violent purgatives given before the writer arrived, under
the mistaken idea that the straining had been caused by intestinal
impaction. In this case not only the Second Duke of Oneida, but the other
males of the herd as well, had the tufts of hairs at the outlet of the
sheath encased in hard, cylindroid sheaths of urinary salts, precipitated
from the liquid as it ran over them. The tufts were in reality resolved
into a series of hard, rollerlike bodies, more or less constricted at
intervals, as if beaded.

When it is stated that the ash of the whole grain of wheat is but 3 per
cent, while the ash of wheat bran is 7.3 per cent, and that in the case of
the former 46.38 per cent of the ash is phosphoric acid, and in that of the
latter 50 per cent, it can easily be understood how a too liberal use of
wheat bran should prove dangerous if fed dry. The following table shows the
relative proportion of ash and phosphoric acid in wheat bran and in some
common farm seeds:

  _Ash and phosphoric acid in bran and some common farm seeds._

  --------------------+----------+-------------+---------------
  Kind of grain.      |    Ash.  | Phosphoric  |  Phosphoric
                      |          |acid in ash. |  acid in the
                      |          |             |  entire feed.
  --------------------+----------+-------------+---------------
                      |_Per cent_| _Per cent_  |  _Per cent_
  Wheat bran          |    7.3   |     50      |      3.65
  Wheat, grain        |    3     |     46.38   |      1.3914
  Oats, grain         |    2.50  |     26.5    |       .6625
  Barley, grain       |    3.10  |     39.6    |      1.2276
  Bean, grain         |    3.10  |     31.9    |       .9864
  Peas, grain         |    2.75  |     34.8    |       .957
  Tare, grain         |    3     |     36.2    |      1.086
  Indian corn, grain. |    1.5   |      --     |       --
  Rye, grain          |    1.6   |     39.9    |       .6384
  --------------------+----------+-------------+---------------

Wheat bran, it will be observed, contains three times as much phosphoric
acid as is found in any of the other grains, and four times as much as
oats, beans, peas, or rye; so that if fed in excess it will readily
overcharge the urine with phosphates.

There is another point to be considered, however, in estimating this
danger. Wheat bran contains a far greater quantity of albuminoids and other
nitrogen-containing constituents than the common grains (these being made
up mainly of starch, which contains no nitrogen); and, all nitrogen-bearing
products contained in the blood and tissues being expelled from the body
mainly through the kidneys in the form of urea and (in cattle) hippuric
acid, it follows that the excess of urea formed when such feed is consumed
must load the urine with solids and bring it constantly nearer to the point
of saturation, when such solids (or the least soluble of them) must be
deposited.

The following table will show the relative amounts of the nitrogen-bearing
products in wheat bran and some of our common grains:

  _Nitrogenous matter in wheat bran and some common farm grains._

  -----------------+---------------+----------------+----------------------
  Kind of grain.   |  Albuminoids  |  Woody fiber   | Total nitrogenous-
                   | (nitrogenous).| (nitrogenous.) | bearing constituents.
  -----------------+---------------+----------------+----------------------
                   |  _Per cent_   |   _Per cent_   |  _Per cent_
  Wheat bran.      |     16.1      |      8         |     24.1
  Wheat, grain     |     12.5      |      1.8       |     14.3
  Barley, grain    |     12.4      |      2.7       |     15.1
  Oats, grain      |     11.8      |      9.5       |     21.3
  Rye, grain       |     10.6      |      1.7       |     12.3
  Indian corn      |     10.1      |      1.7       |     11.8
  -----------------+---------------+----------------+----------------------

It will be observed that, with the exception of oats, none of the grains
contain more than two-thirds of the nitrogenous material present in the
wheat bran, while in the case of rye and maize there is practically but
one-half. Even in the case of oats the albuminoids, which are the more
digestible principles, and therefore those that are the most easily and
speedily converted into urea, are present only to the amount of two-thirds
of that which exists in the wheat bran. With such an excess of ash, of
phosphates, and of nitrogenous (urea-forming) constituents in wheat bran,
its tendency to favor the formation of calculi is fully explained. It must
not, however, be inferred that wheat bran is not a valuable feedstuff. The
inference is only that it should be fed with an abundance of water, as a
sloppy mash, or in combination with an abundance of roots, potatoes,
pumpkins, or other succulent aliment.

In this connection the presence of magnesia in the feed or water must be
named as favoring calculous formations in the urinary passages. The
explanation is that while the phosphate of magnesia thrown out in the urine
is soluble in water, the compound phosphate of ammonia and magnesia is
insoluble, and, accordingly, if at any time ammonia is introduced into
urine containing the phosphate of magnesia there is instantly formed the
ammonio-magnesium phosphate, which is as promptly deposited in the solid
form. The common source of ammonia in such cases is from decomposition of
the urea in fermenting urine. In order to produce this a ferment is
necessary, however, and therefore, as an additional prerequisite, the
presence of bacteria, or fungi, in the urine is essential. These ferments
may make their way from without along the urinary passage (urethra), and
their propagation in the bladder is greatly favored by the prolonged
retention of urine, as in case of spasm of the neck of the bladder or
obstruction by an already existing stone. Another mode of entrance of the
ferment is an unclean catheter used to draw the urine. Still another is the
elimination through the kidneys of the bacteria of infectious diseases, or
of such as, without producing a general infection, yet determine
fermentation in the urine. The precipitation is favored not only by the
production of ammonia, but also by the formation of viscid (colloid)
products of fermentation. In this sense bacteria are most important factors
in causing gritty deposits in the urine.

Another insoluble salt which enters largely into the composition of many
urinary calculi of the ox is carbonate of lime. This is derived mainly from
the lime in the feed and water and from the carbon dioxid formed by the
oxidation of the organic acids in the fodder. These organic acids, being
composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (without nitrogen), are resolved
by the addition of oxygen into carbon dioxid (CO_{2}) and water (H_{2}O).
The carbon dioxid unites with the lime in the blood to form carbonate of
lime, and in this state passes into the urine. Now, carbonate of lime is
soluble in water containing free or uncombined carbon dioxid, but is
precipitated whenever the latter is withdrawn. It is only necessary,
therefore, to have in the urine sufficient lime or other available base to
unite with all the free carbon dioxid in order to bring about the
precipitation of the dissolved carbonate of lime in the solid, crystallized
form; hence it is that, of all sediments in the urine of herbivora, this is
the most frequent and usually the most abundant.

A less common constituent of urinary calculi is the insoluble oxalate of
lime. In this case the lime is derived as before from the feed or water, or
both, while the oxalic acid is a product of the oxidation of organic acids
of the feed, less oxygen having been used than in the formation of carbon
dioxid. The final product of the complete oxidation of these acids is
carbon dioxid, but when less oxygen is furnished, owing to some disease of
the lungs or a disease of the nerve centers, which lessens the activity of
the breathing, then oxalic acid may be produced. If this oxalic acid comes
into contact with lime, it is instantly precipitated as crystals of oxalate
of lime.

Another inorganic substance at times found in urinary calculi is silica
(SiO_{2}). This contributes largely to giving stiffness to the stems of
growing plants, and in most of our cereals and grasses makes up a large
proportion of the ashes of the burned plant. It is found in the soluble
form in combination as silicate of potash, but at times is displaced by
oxalic or other acid and then appears as gritty, sandy particles in the
stem. This gritty, insoluble silica is especially noticeable among the
horsetails (_Equisetacæceæ_), bamboos, and sedges. The per cent of silica
in the ash of several common fodder plants is given below:

  _Silica in ash of various fodder plants._

  Ash of--            Silica.
                    _Per cent._

  Wheat straw         67.6
  Oats and husk       38.6
  Oat straw           35.4
  Barley straw        73.1
  Rye straw           64.4
  Rye-grass hay       64.57
  Wheat chaff         81.2
  Oat chaff           59.9
  Barley awn          70.7

It is only soluble silica that is taken up into the system, and it is in
this form (usually as silicate of potash or soda) that it enters the urine,
but all that is wanted to precipitate it in crystalline form as a gritty
sand is the presence of oxalic or other acid having a stronger affinity for
its base (potash or soda).

Other conditions, however, enter largely into the causation of stone, or
gravel. A high density of urine resulting from a highly saturated condition
is often present for a length of time without any precipitation of solid
materials. Urea and carbonates may be present in excess, the feed may be
given dry, and drinking water may be deficient in quantity without any
deposition of stone or gravel. In such cases, the presence of
noncrystalline organic matter in the urine becomes an exciting cause.
Rainey and Ord have shown experimentally that colloid (noncrystallizable)
bodies like mucus, epithelial cells, albumin, pus, blood, hyaline casts of
the kidney tubes, etc., not only determine the precipitation of
crystallizable salts from a strong solution, but they determine the
precipitation in the form of globular masses, or minute spheres, which, by
further similar accessions, become stones, or calculi, of various sizes.
The salts that are deposited by mere chemical reaction without the
intervention of colloids appear in the form of sharply defined angular
crystals, and hence the rough, jagged crystals of oxalate of lime or
ammonia-magnesium phosphate. Heat intensifies the action of the colloids in
causing precipitation of the dissolved salts, so that the temperatures of
the kidneys and bladder constitute favorable conditions. Colloids that are
undergoing decomposition are also specially powerful, so that the presence
of bacteria or fungi causing fermentation is an important factor.

In looking, therefore, for the immediate causes of urinary calculi we must
accord a high place to all those conditions which determine the presence of
excess of mucus, albumin, pus, blood, kidney casts, blood-coloring matter,
etc., in the urine. A catarrhal inflammation of the pelvis of the kidney,
of the ureter, or of the bladder, generating excess of mucus or pus;
inflammation of the kidneys, causing the discharge of blood, albumin, or
hyaline casts into the urinary passages; inflammation of the liver, lungs,
or other distant organ, resulting in the escape of albumin in the urine;
disorders of the liver or of the blood-forming functions, resulting in
hematuria or hemoglobinuria; sprains or other injuries to the back, or
disease of the spinal marrow, which cause the escape of blood with the
urine; the presence in the bladder of a bacterial ferment, which determines
the decomposition of the mucus and urea, the evolution of ammonia and the
consequent destruction of the protecting cellular (epithelia) lining of the
bladder, or the irritation caused by the presence of an already formed
calculus, may produce the colloid or uncrystallizable body that proves so
effective in the precipitation of stone or gravel. It has long been known
that calculi almost invariably form around any foreign body introduced into
the kidney or bladder, and I have seen a large, calculous mass surrounding
a splinter of an arrow that had penetrated and broken off in the body of a
deer. The explanation is now satisfactory--the foreign body carries in with
it bacteria, which act as ferments upon the urine and mucus in addition to
the mechanical injury caused by its presence. If such a body has been
introduced through the solid tissues, there is, in addition, the presence
of the blood and lymph derived from the wounded structures.


CLASSIFICATION OF URINARY CALCULI.

Urinary calculi are most conveniently divided according to the locality in
which they are found. Thus we find first renal calculi, formed in the
kidney (Pl. XI, fig. 1), and which for cattle must be again divided into
calculi of the uriniferous tubes and calculi of the pelvis. The second
class are named ureteral calculi because they are found in the duct leading
from the kidney to the bladder (ureter). The third class are the vesical
calculi, from the bladder or vesicle in which they are found. The fourth
class are the urethral calculi, and are found in the duct leading outward
from the bladder through the penis (urethra). The fifth and last class are
the preputial calculi, since they are found within the sheath of the penis
(prepuce).

Calculi may also be classed according to their chemical composition and
this has the advantage of suggesting the special cause of each as found in
the feed, water, soil, or general conditions of health. This classification
affords no guide to their location or symptoms, as calculi of the same
chemical composition may be formed at any part of the urinary passages, as
those formed in the kidney may pass on through all the various passages
outward, unless it is found at any point of their progress that they have
grown so large that the passage will not admit them. The following are
among the concretions found in the various parts:

(1) _Coralline calculi._--These are of a dull-white color and irregular
surface, like coral. They are made up of hard and resistant layers evenly
deposited around a central nucleus. (Pl. XI, fig. 3.) Their specific
gravity is 1,760, water being 1,000, and they contain 74 per cent of
carbonate of lime with some carbonate of magnesia, organic matter, and a
trace of carbonate of iron. Yellowish-white, smooth, round calculi of the
same chemical composition are met with.

(2) _Pearly calculi._--These are more frequent than the first-named
variety. They are very hard and smooth on the surface, reflecting a play of
various colors after the fashion of a pearl. This peculiarity appears to be
caused by the thinness and semitransparency of the supposed layers. They
have a specific gravity of 2,109 to 2,351, and nearly the same chemical
composition as the coralline variety. Golding Bird found a specimen of this
kind formed of carbonate of lime and organic matter only.

(3) _Green calculi_ (_metalloid calculi_).--These are usually small and
numerous, as they are exceedingly common. They are of a very hard
consistency, and have a clear-polished, greenish surface of almost metallic
brilliancy. They have a specific gravity of 2.301 and a composition almost
identical with the second variety.

(4) _White calculi._--Pure white, smooth, lustrous calculi are rare. They
have a specific gravity of 2.307, and contain as much as 92 per cent of
carbonate of lime with carbonate of magnesia and organic matter.

(5) _Ammonio-magnesium calculi._--These are of a grayish color and a very
rough, crystalline surface, which proves very irritating to the mucous
membrane. They have a specific gravity of 1.109 to 1.637, and are composed
chiefly of ammonio-magnesium phosphate, oxalate of lime, and organic
matter, with a little carbonate of lime and magnesia.

(6) _Siliceous calculi._--These are clear, smooth, and hard, and usually
spherical. They have a specific gravity of 1.265 to 1.376, and contain 57
per cent of silica with carbonates of iron and magnesia, organic matter,
and traces of iron. In other specimens of siliceous calculi there was a
specific gravity of 3.122, and there was 79 to 85 per cent of carbonate of
lime together with carbonate of magnesia, and iron, silica, and organic
matter. Others are almost exclusively made of silica.

(7) _Oxalate of lime calculi_ (_mulberry calculi_) (Pl. XI, fig. 2).--
These are characterized by their extremely rough, angular surface, formed
by the octahedral crystals of oxalate of lime. Their specific gravity may
be 3.441, and they contain oxalate of lime to the extent of 81 per cent,
together with carbonates of lime and magnesia and organic matter.

(8) _Gravel_ (_pultaceous deposits_).--Simple crystals may be met with at
any point from the kidneys to the external opening at the end of the
prepuce (sheath), and they may appear singly, as crystals, or they may
accumulate in masses of fine spherical crystals almost like dirty powdered
chalk suspended in water. In the ox this is especially common as a
collection in the sheath, distending that into a soft, doughy swelling.


FORMS OF CALCULI IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS.

Apart from the rough crystalline surfaces of the calculi of oxalate of lime
and ammonio-magnesium phosphate, the general tendency is to a smooth, round
outline. At times, however, they show more or less flattening with rounded
angular edges, caused by the contact and mutual friction of two calculi.
Sometimes two or more stones lying together become united into one by a new
external deposit, and the resulting mass then shows rounded swellings on
opposite sides. The large calculi occupying the pelvis of the kidneys
usually show a central part having the outline of the main cavity of the
pelvis and two or more projections that have been molded into the
corresponding branches or channels which lead to corresponding lobes of the
kidney. In winter and spring small concretions in the form of plates are
often met with in the branches of the pelvis, having been formed and molded
in the confined space between the projecting papilla and the surrounding
cuplike branch of the pelvis. Finally, the pulplike deposits in the sheath
and elsewhere are made up of globular masses, individually so small as to
be often practically microscopic.


STONE IN THE KIDNEY (RENAL CALCULI).

[Pl. XI, fig. 1.]

In an animal leading the quiet, uneventful life of the ox, stones of
large size may be present in the kidney without producing any disorder
appreciable to the people about him. In cattle fattened on dry feed in
winter, on the magnesian limestone of New York, it is exceptional to find
the substance of the kidney free from calculi about the size of a grain of
wheat or less, and standing out as white objects in the general red of the
cut surface of the organ. Similarly around the papillæ in the cuplike arms
of the pelvis we find minute, flattened or more or less rounded,
yellowish-white concretions. Even the large concretions may prove
apparently harmless. I have a calculus several ounces in weight which
filled the entire pelvis of the kidney, that was found by accident in a
fat carcass while being dressed. In work oxen, however, such concretions
may give rise to symptoms of kidney disease, such as stiffness of the
loins, shown especially in the acts of rising or turning, weakness of the
hind parts when set to pull a heavy load, an irritability of the kidneys,
shown by the frequent passage of urine in small quantity, tenderness of
the loins, shown when they are pinched or lightly struck, and it may be
the passage of blood or minute gritty masses with the urine. If the attack
is severe, what is called "renal colic" (kidney colic) may be shown by
frequent uneasy shifting of the hind limbs, shaking or twisting of the
tail, looking around at the flanks, and lying down and rising again at
short intervals without apparent cause. The frequent passage of urine,
the blood or gritty masses contained in it, and perhaps the hard, stony
cylinders around the tufts of hair of the sheath, show that the source
of the suffering is the urinary organs. In bad cases active inflammation
of the kidneys may set in. (See "Nephritis," p. 123.)


URETERAL CALCULI.

These are small stones which have passed from the pelvis of the kidney into
the canal (ureter) leading from the kidney to the bladder, but, being too
large to pass on easily, have blocked that canal and forced the urine back
upon the kidney. The result is the production of symptoms more violent than
in renal calculi, though not varying, save in intensity, from those of
renal colic. In case of complete and unrelieved obstruction, the secretion
of the kidney on that side is entirely abolished, and it becomes the seat
of passive congestion, and it may even be absorbed in greater part or as a
whole, leaving only a fibrous sac containing fluid with a urinous odor. In
small cattle, in which the oiled hand introduced into the last gut may
reach the affected part, the distended ureter may be felt as a tense,
elastic cord, extending forward from the point of obstruction on the
lateral wall of the pelvis and beneath the loins toward the kidney. If
relief is obtained by the onward passage of the stone a free flow of urine
usually follows, in the midst of which may often be found gritty masses. If
the outlets from both kidneys are similarly blocked the animal becomes
poisoned by the retention in the blood of the elements of the urine, and by
their reabsorption after secretion.

_Treatment of renal and ureteral calculi._--Treatment is not very
successful, as only the smallest calculi can pass through the ureter and
enter the bladder, and even if they should do so they are liable to a
progressive increase there, so that later they may cause the symptoms of
stone in the bladder. Fortunately, ordinary dairy, growing, or fattening
cattle rarely show evident symptoms of illness, and even though they do so
they can usually be fattened and slaughtered before the health is seriously
impaired. In work oxen the case is different, and acute symptoms may
develop, but even then the animal may often be fitted for the butcher. When
treatment is demanded it is primarily soothing and antispasmodic.
Fomentations with warm water over the loins should be persisted in without
intermission until relief has been secured. The soothing effect on the
kidney will often relieve inflammation and irritation, should the stone be
in that situation, while if in the ureter the warm fomentations will at
once soothe irritation, relax spasm of the muscular coat of the canal, and
favor an abundant secretion from the kidney, which, pressing on the
obstructing stone, may slowly push it on into the bladder. Large doses of
laudanum (2 ounces) or of solid extract of belladonna (2 drams) will not
only soothe the pain but relax the spasm and favor the onward passage of
the calculus. The animal should be encouraged to drink large quantities of
cool water to favor the free secretion of a very watery urine, which will
not only serve to obviate irritation and continued deposit caused by a
highly concentrated urine, but will press the stone onward toward the
bladder, and even in certain cases will tend to disintegrate it by solution
of some of its elements, and thus to favor its crumbling and expulsion.
This is a principle which must never be lost sight of in the treatment of
calculi. The immersion of the stone in a liquid of a lower specific gravity
than that in which it has formed and grown tends to dissolve out the more
soluble of its component parts, and thus to destroy its density and
cohesion at all points, and thereby to favor its complete disintegration
and expulsion. This explains why cattle taken from a herd on magnesian
limestone in spring, after the long, dry feeding of winter, usually have
renal calculi, while cattle from the same herd in the fall, after a
summer's run on a succulent pasture, are almost always free from
concretions. The abundance of liquid taken in the green feed and expelled
through the kidneys and the low density or watery nature of the urine have
so opened the texture and destroyed the density of the smaller stones and
gravel that they have all been disintegrated and removed. This, too, is the
main reason why benefit is derived from a prolonged stay at mineral springs
by the human victims of gravel. If they had swallowed the same number of
quarts of pure water at home and distributed it at suitable times each day,
they would have benefited largely without a visit to the springs.

It follows from what has been just said that a succulent diet, including a
large quantity of water (gruels, sloppy mashes, turnips, beets, potatoes,
apples, pumpkins, ensilage, succulent grasses), is an important factor in
the relief of the milder forms of stone and gravel.

_Prevention._--Prevention of calculus especially demands this supply of
water and watery rations on all soils and in all conditions in which there
is a predisposition to the disease. It must also be sought by attempts to
obviate all those conditions mentioned above as causative of the malady.
Sometimes good rain water can be furnished in limestone districts, but
putrid or bad-smelling rain water is to be avoided as probably more
injurious than that from the limestone. Unsuccessful attempts have been
made to dissolve calculi by alkaline salts and mineral acids, respectively,
but their failure as a remedy does not necessarily condemn them as
preventives. One dram of caustic potash or of hydrochloric acid may be
given daily in the drinking water. In diametrically opposite ways these
attack and decompose the less soluble salts and form new ones which are
more soluble and therefore little disposed to precipitate in the solid
form. Both are beneficial as increasing the secretion of urine. In cases in
which the diet has been too highly charged with phosphates (wheat bran,
etc.), these aliments must be restricted and water allowed ad libitum. If
the crystals passed with the urine are the sharp angular (octahedral) ones
of oxalate of lime, then the breathing should be made more active by
exercise, and any disease of the lungs subjected to appropriate treatment.
If the crystals are triangular prisms of ammonia-magnesium phosphate or
starlike forms with feathery rays, the indications are to withhold the feed
or water that abounds in magnesia and check the fermentation in the urine
by attempts to destroy its bacteria. In the latter direction plenty of
pure-water diuretics, and a daily dose of oil of turpentine in milk, or a
dose thrice a day of a solution containing one-tenth grain each of biniodid
of mercury and iodid of potassium would be indicated.

In considering the subject of prevention, it must never be forgotten that
any disease of a distant organ which determines the passage from the blood
into the urine of albumin or any other colloid (uncrystallizable) body is
strongly provocative of calculus, and should, if possible, be corrected.
Apart from cases from geological formation, faulty feeding, and other
causes, the grand preventive of calculus is a long, summer's pasturage of
succulent grasses, or in winter a diet of ensilage or other succulent feed.

The calculi formed in part of silica demand special notice. This agent is
secreted in the urine in the form of silicate of potash and is thrown down
as insoluble silica when a stronger acid displaces it by combining with the
potash to its exclusion. In cases of siliceous calculi, accordingly, the
appropriate chemical prevention is caustic potash, which being present in
the free state would attract to itself any free acid and leave the silica
in its soluble condition as silicate of potash.


STONE IN THE BLADDER (VESICAL CALCULUS, OR URETHRAL CALCULUS).

Stone in the bladder may be of any size, but in the ox does not usually
exceed half an inch in diameter. There may, however, be a number of small
calculi; indeed, they are sometimes so small and numerous as to form a
small, pulpy magma by which the bladder is considerably distended.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms of stone in the bladder may be absent until one
of the masses escapes into the urethra, but when this occurs the escape of
urine is prevented, or it is allowed to pass in drops or driblets only, and
the effect of such obstruction becomes manifest. The point of obstruction
is not always the same, but it is most frequently at the S-shaped curve of
the penis, just above the testicles or scrotum. In cows and heifers the
urethra is so short and becomes so widely dilated during the urination that
the calculi easily escape in the flow of liquid and dangerous symptoms
practically never appear.

Even in the male the signs of illness are at first very slight. A close
observer may notice the cylinders of hard, earthy materials encircling the
tufts of hair at the opening of the prepuce. It may further be observed
that the stall remains dry and that the animal has not been seen to pass
water when out of doors. The tail may at times be gently raised and
contractions of the muscle (accelerator urinæ) beneath the anus (Pl. IX,
fig. 2) may take place in a rhythmical or pulsating manner. As a rule,
however, no symptom is noticed for two days, only the animal is lacking in
his usual spirits. By this time the constantly accumulating urine has
distended the bladder beyond its power of resistance and a rupture occurs,
allowing the urine to escape into the cavity of the abdomen. Then dullness
increases; the animal lies down most of his time; he becomes stupid and
sometimes drowsy, with reddish-brown congestion of the lining membrane of
the eyelids; pressure on the abdomen causes pain, flinching, and perhaps
groaning, and the lowest part of the belly fluctuates more and more as the
escaping urine accumulates in greater and greater amount. If at this stage
the oiled hand is introduced into the rectum (last gut), the animal
flinches when pressure is made downward on the floor of the pelvis, and no
round, distended bladder is felt. If the same examination is made prior to
the rupture, the rounded, tense, elastic bladder is felt extending forward
into the abdomen, containing one or two gallons of liquid. There may be
uneasy shifting of the hind limbs and twisting of the tail, also frequent
lying down and rising, but these symptoms are exceptional.

When the obstruction is low down between the thighs (at the S-shaped
flexure), the line of the pulsating urethra from the anus downward may be
felt distended with liquid, and though, by the hard swelling of the
urethra, it is seldom easy to distinguish the exact seat of the stone, yet
there is usually tenderness at the point of obstruction, and from this it
may be accurately located.

_Treatment._--The treatment of stone in the bladder or urethra consists in
the removal of the stone by incision and the use of forceps. (Pl. XI, fig.
4.) When the stone has been arrested at the S-shaped flexure just above the
scrotum, the patient being lean, the thickened tender part of the penis may
be seized between the fingers and thumb of the left hand, while the
calculus is exposed by a free incision with the knife held in the right. If
there is no other obstruction between this point and the bladder, and if
the latter has not yet ruptured, a flow of urine should take place from the
opening. If there is no escape of liquid, a catheter or sound, one-fourth
of an inch in diameter, must be passed up through the canal (urethra) until
it is arrested by the next stone, on which a similar incision should then
be made to effect its extraction. In case the stone has been arrested in
the portion of the urethra which is in front of the arch of the hip bone
and inside the pelvis, it can be reached only by making an opening into the
urethra beneath the anus and over the arch of the hip bone, and from this
orifice exploring the urethra with fine forceps to the neck of the bladder
or until the stone has been reached and extracted. Owing to the small size
of the canal (urethra) to be opened and the great thickness of erectile
tissue to be cut through, the operation requires a very accurate knowledge
of the parts, while the free flow of blood is blinding to the operator. A
staff should always be passed up through the urethra from the lower wound,
if such has been made, or, in case of its absence, through the whole length
of the penis, that organ having been drawn out of its sheath until the
S-shaped curve has been effaced and the course of the canal rendered
straight. Upon the end of this staff the incision can be made with far more
confidence and certainty. The operation can be undertaken only by a skilled
veterinary anatomist, but the hints given above may be valuable in showing
the stock owner when he is being properly served in such a case.

In outlying districts, where no skilled operator can be had, a transverse
incision may be made with a clean, sharp knife through the root of the
penis, just over the arch of the hip bone, when the urine will flow out in
a full stream. The attendant bleeding may be ignored, or if profuse it may
be checked by packing the wound firmly with cotton wool for several hours.
The urine will continue to escape by the wound, and the ox should be
fattened for the butcher.

The immediate relief is not to be looked upon as a permanent cure, as the
calculi in the affected ox are usually numerous, and later attacks are
therefore to be looked for. Hence it is desirable to fatten and kill such
cases after a successful operation. If a breeding animal is too valuable to
be killed, he should be subjected to preventive measures, as laid down
under "Stone in the kidney," page 139.

It should be added that when the bladder is filled with a soft magma a
catheter may be introduced through the whole length of the urethra to be
used in pumping water into the bladder. This water is extracted through the
same channel when it has been charged with the suspended solids by
manipulations of the bladder with the oiled hand introduced through the
rectum.


CALCULI, OR GRAVEL, IN THE PREPUCE, OR SHEATH.

This is usually a collection of gravel, or a soft, puttylike material which
causes distinct swelling of the sheath and gives it a soft, doughy feeling
when handled. It may be removed in part by the oiled fingers introduced
into the cavity, assisted by manipulation from without, or a tube may be
inserted until the end extends behind the collection and water pumped in
until the whole mass has been evacuated. Should even this fail of success,
the sheath may be slit open from its orifice back in the median line below
until the offending matter can be reached and removed. In all such cases
the interior of the sheath should be finally lubricated with sweet oil or
vaseline. It is unnecessary to stitch up the wound made in the sheath. (See
"Inflammation of the sheath," p. 155.)

  [Illustration: PLATE IX.
  KIDNEY AND MALE GENERATIVE AND URINARY ORGANS.]

  [Illustration: PLATE X.
  MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THE KIDNEY.]

     *       *       *       *       *

DISEASES OF THE URINARY ORGANS.
DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.

PLATE IX. Kidney and male generative and urinary organs.

Fig. 1. Kidney of the ox. (From Handbuch des Vergleichenden Anatomie des
Haus Säugethiere, vol. 7, 1890.) A, renal artery carrying blood into the
kidney; V, renal vein carrying blood from the kidney back to the heart; H,
ureter, the tube carrying the urine from kidney to bladder. It is formed by
the union of a number of branches which begin as cups (calices), each
inclosing the tip of a conical mass of tissue from which the urine
excludes.

Fig. 2. Genital and urinary organs of the bull. (From Leisering, Mueller,
and Ellenberger, Handbuch des Verg. Anat. des Haus Säugethiere.) the serous
membrane enveloping the testicles; 3, the right testicle, outer view; 3',
left testicle, inner view; 4, epididymis, or the beginning of the excretory
canal of the testicle; 4', globus major, or the head of the epididymis;
4'', globus minor, or the tail of the epididymis; 5, vas deferens, the duct
through which the seminal fluid reaches the ejaculatory ducts; 5', pelvic
dilation of the vas deferens; 6, vesicula seminalis. The vesiculæ seminalis
are two oval pouches, which, in addition to their own secretions, receive
the semen conveyed by the seminal ducts and hold it in reserve until
copulation; 7, membranous or intrapelvic portion of the urethral canal
covered by Wilson's muscle; 8, part of the prostate gland, covered by
Wilson's muscle; 9, Cowper's gland. This gland, like the prostate gland,
secretes a fluid which is thrown into the urethal canal in abundance
immediately before ejaculation; by this means the expulsion of the semen is
facilitated; 10, ejaculator seminis, or accelerator urinæ muscle; 11,
penis; 11', cut portion of same; 12, cut suspensory ligaments of penis; 13,
sheath, or prepuce laid open; 14, retractor muscles of sheath; 15,
cremaster muscle cut at superior extremity; 16, duplicature of peritoneum;
17, ureters carrying urine from the kidneys to the bladder.

PLATE X. Microscopic anatomy of the kidney.

Fig. 1. In this figure the minute apparatus for the secretion, collection,
and discharge of the urine into the pelvis of the kidney (see preceding
plate) is shown. The course is as follows: The urine is secreted from the
blood vessels in the little round bodies called glomeruli (12), and by the
minute cells in the curved tubes (11, 9, 10, 8), and passes through the
convoluted and straight tubes (7, 6) into the larger tube (1), and then out
into the pelvis, thence through the ureters into the bladder. The fluid and
salts dissolved in the urine are taken from the blood, and the minute blood
vessels are therefore very abundant in the kidneys, as is shown by the
branches and network on the left of the figure. The blood passes into the
kidney in the artery (13), which then divides into branches which pass into
the glomeruli (12) and also forms network around the secreting tubules (11,
9). The urine and salts pass from these vessels through the cells lining
the tubules into the latter, and are discharged as described above. The
blood is again collected in veins drawn black in the figure.

Fig. 2 illustrates the manner in which the blood is distributed in the
glomerulus (_f_), and also to the secreting tubules (_e_).

Fig. 3 shows the relation between the blood vessel in the glomerulus (_e_)
the tubule which conducts the urine therein secreted from the blood vessel;
(_c_) represents a glomerulus from which the urinary tubule has been
removed.

PLATE XI. Calculi of kidney and bladder.

Fig. 1. Calculus, or stone, from the kidney. These are in the pelvis or
portion of the ureter receiving the urine. The prolongations are casts of
the branches of the pelvis. See the plates of the kidney for further
description.

Fig. 2. Calculus made up of oxalate of lime magnified 215 times.

Fig. 3. Phosphatic calculus containing a nucleus of uric acid, sawed
through to show concentric layers.

Fig. 4. Straight forceps used in removing stones from the bladder.

Fig. 5. Casts of the minute tubules of the kidney found in the urine in
various kinds of kidney disease. Highly magnified.

     *       *       *       *       *

  [Illustration: Plate XI.

  CALCULI OF KIDNEY AND BLADDER.]


FOOTNOTES:

[1] Encyklop. der Thierheilk., Vol. IV, p. 208.



DISEASES OF THE GENERATIVE ORGANS.

By JAMES LAW, F. R. C. V. S.,

_Formerly Professor of Veterinary Science, etc., in Cornell University._

[Revised by Adolph Eichhorn, D. V. S.]


GENERAL DISCUSSION.

Diseases of the generative organs are practically confined to animals which
are kept for reproduction and the dairy. The castration of the bull
condemns these organs to inactivity and protects them from the many causes
of injury attendant on the engorged blood vessels in the frequent periods
of sexual excitement, on the exposure to mechanical violence, and on the
exposure to infective inoculation. In three respects the castrated male is
especially subject to disease: (1) To inflammation and tumefaction of the
cut end of the cord that supported the testicle and of the loose connective
tissue of the scrotum; (2) to inflammation of the sheath and penis from the
accumulation of gravel in the former, from which the penis is not usually
protruded in passing water; and (3) to bruising, abrasion, and inflammation
of the sheath and penis during suspension in the stocks for the purpose of
shoeing. Apart from these the ox is practically almost exempt from the
inflammations and injuries of the genital organs. The same applies to the
castrated heifer. Inflammation may occur in the broad ligament of the womb
whence the ovary has been removed or infective inflammation in the
abdominal cavity (peritonitis) in case the operation has been performed
through the flank, as it usually is in the young heifer. Apart from these,
the castrated heifer is practically immune from any trouble of the
generative apparatus. Even the virgin heifer is little subject to such
troubles, though she is not exempt from inflammations, and above all, from
morbid growths in the ovaries which are well developed and functionally
very active after the first year, or in precocious animals after the first
few months of life. The breeding cow, on the other hand, is subjected to
all the disturbances attendant on the gradual enlargement of the womb, the
diversion of a large mass of blood to its walls, the constant drain of
nutrient materials of all kinds for the nourishment of the fetus, the risks
attendant and consequent on abortion and parturition, the dangers of
infection from the bull, the risks of sympathetic disturbance in case of
serious diseases of other organs, but preeminently of the urinary organs
and the udder, and finally the sudden extreme derangements of the
circulation and of the nervous functions which attend on the sudden
revulsion of a great mass of blood from the walls of the contracting womb
into the body at large immediately after calving.

In reviewing this class of diseases, therefore, we have to note, first,
that they are almost exclusively restricted to breeding animals, and
secondly that in keeping with the absolute difference of the organs in the
male and female we find two essentially distinct lists of diseases
affecting the two sexes.


EXCESS OF VENEREAL DESIRE (SATYRIASIS IN MALE, OR NYMPHOMANIA IN FEMALE).

This may occur in the male from too frequent sexual intercourse, or from
injury and congestion of the base of the brain (vasodilator center in the
medulla), or of the posterior end of the spinal cord, or it may be kept up
by congestion or inflammation of the testicles or of the mucous membrane
covering the penis. It may be manifested by a constant or frequent
erection, by attempts at sexual connection, and sometimes by the discharge
of semen without connection. In bad cases the feverishness and restlessness
lead to loss of flesh, emaciation, and physical weakness.

It is, however, in the female especially that this morbid desire is most
noticeable and injurious. It may be excited by the stimulating quality of
the blood in cows fed to excess on highly nitrogenous feed, as the seeds of
the bean, pea, vetch, and tare, and as wheat bran, middlings, cotton seed,
gluten meal, etc., especially in the case of such as have no free exercise
in the fields, and are subject to constant association with a vigorous
young bull. A more frequent cause is the excitation or congestion of some
part of the genital organs. Disease of the ovaries is preeminently the
cause, and this may be by the formation of cysts (sacs containing liquid)
or of solid tumors or degenerations, or, more commonly than all, the
formation of tubercle. Indeed, in case of tuberculosis attacking the
abdominal organs of cows, the ovaries or the serous membranes that support
and cover them (the broad ligaments of the womb) are peculiarly subject to
attack, and the animal has constant sexual excitement, incessantly riding
or being ridden by other cattle, having no leisure to eat or chew the cud,
but moving restlessly, wearing the flesh off its bones, and gradually
wasting. In some localities these cows are known as "bullers," because they
are nearly always disposed to take the bull, but they do not conceive, or,
if they do, they are subject to early abortions. They are, therefore,
useless alike for the dairy and for the feeder, unless the removal of the
ovaries subdues the sexual excitement, when, in the absence of tuberculous
disease elsewhere, they may be fattened for the butcher.

Among the other sources of irritation charged with causing nymphomania are
tumors and cancers of the womb, rigid closure of the neck of the womb so
that conception can not occur and the frequent services by the male which
stimulate the unsatisfied appetite, inflammation, and a purulent discharge
from the womb or vagina.

_Treatment._--The treatment in each case will vary with the cause and is
most satisfactory when that cause is a removable one. Overfeeding on richly
nitrogenous feed can be stopped, exercise in the open field given, diseased
ovaries may be removed (see "Castration," p. 299), catarrhs of the womb and
passages overcome by antiseptic, astringent injections (see "Leucorrhea,"
p. 224), and tumors of the womb may often be detached and extracted, the
mouth of that organ having been first dilated by sponge tents or otherwise.
The rubber dilator (impregnator), sometimes helpful in the mare, is rarely
available for the cow, owing to the different condition of the mouth of the
womb.


DIMINUTION OR LOSS OF VENEREAL DESIRE (ANAPHRODISIA).

This occurs in either sex from low condition and ill health. Longstanding,
chronic diseases of important internal organs, leading to emaciation and
weakness, or a prolonged semistarvation in winter may be sufficient cause.
It is, however, much more common as the result of degeneration or extensive
and destructive disease of the secreting organs (testicles, ovaries) which
elaborate the male and female sexual products, respectively. Such diseases
are, therefore, a common cause of sterility in both sexes. The old bull,
fat and lazy, becomes sluggish and unreliable in serving, and finally gets
to be useless for breeding purposes. This is not attributable to his weight
and clumsiness alone, but largely to the fatty degeneration of his
testicles and their excretory ducts, which prevents the due formation and
maturation of the semen. If he has been kept in extra high condition for
exhibition in the show ring, this disqualification comes upon him sooner
and becomes more irremediable.

Similarly the overfed, inactive cow, and above all the show cow, fails to
come in heat at the usual times, shows little disposition to take the bull,
and fails to conceive when served. Her trouble is the same in kind, namely,
fatty degeneration of the ovaries and of their excretory ducts (Fallopian
tubes), which prevents the formation or maturation of the ovum or, when it
has formed, hinders its passage into the womb. Another common defect in
such old, fat cows is a rigid closure of the mouth of the womb, which
prevents conception, even if the ovum reaches the interior of that organ
and even if the semen is discharged into the vagina.

_Preventive._--The true preventive of such conditions is to be found in a
sound hygiene. The breeding animal should be of adult age, neither overfed
nor underfed, but well fed and moderately exercised; in other words, the
most vigorous health should be sought, not only that a strong race may be
propagated, but that the whole herd, or nearly so, may breed with
certainty. Fleming gives 79 per cent as the general average of cows that
are found to breed in one year. Here more than a fifth of the progeny is
sacrificed and a fifth of the product of the dairy. With careful management
the proportion of breeders should approach 100 per cent. The various local
and general obstacles to conception should be carefully investigated and
removed. The vigorous health which comes from a sufficiently liberal diet
and abundant exercise should be solicited, and the comparative
bloodlessness and weakness which advance with undue fattening should be
sedulously avoided. In bull or cow which is becoming unduly fat and showing
indications of sexual indifference, the treatment must be active. Turning
out on a short pasture where it must work hard for a living will often
suffice. The bull which can not be turned out to pasture may sometimes be
utilized in the yoke or tread power, or he may be kept a part of his time
in a field or paddock chained by the ring in his nose to a strong wire
extending from one side of the lot to the other and attached securely to
two trees or posts. The wire should be higher than the back of the bull,
which will move frequently from end to end. If he is indisposed to take
sufficient exercise in this way he may be safely driven. An instance of the
value of the exercise in these incipient cases of fatty degeneration is
often quoted. The cow Dodona, condemned as barren at Earl Spencer's, was
sold cheap to Jonas Webb, who had her driven by a road a distance of 120
miles to his farm at Wilbraham, soon after which she became pregnant. In
advanced cases, however, in which the fatty degeneration is complete,
recovery is impossible.

In case of rigid closure of the mouth of the womb the only resort is
dilatation. This is far more difficult and uncertain in the cow than in the
mare. The neck of the womb is longer, is often tortuous in its course, and
its walls so approximated to each other and so rigid that it may be all but
impossible to follow it, and there is always danger of perforating its
walls and opening into the cavity of the abdomen, or, short of that, of
causing inflammation and a new, rigid, fibrous formation which on healing
leaves matters worse than before. The opening must be carefully made with
the finger, and when that has entered the womb further dilatation may be
effected by inserting a sponge tent or by careful stretching with a
mechanical dilator. (Pl. XX, fig. 6.)


STERILITY FROM OTHER CAUSES.

The questions as to whether a bull is a sure stock getter and whether a cow
is a breeder are so important that it would be wrong to pass over other
prominent causes of sterility. Breeding at too early an age is a common
source of increasing weakness of constitution which has existed in certain
breeds. Jerseys have especially been made the victims of this mistake, the
object being to establish the highest milking powers in the smallest
obtainable body which will demand the least material and outlay for its
constant repair of waste. With success in this line there has been the
counterbalancing disadvantage of impaired vigor, with too often lessened
fertility as well as increased predisposition to disease. When the heifers
of the race have for generation after generation been bred under a year
old, the demand for the nourishment of the fetus is too great a drain on
the immature animal, which accordingly remains small and stunted. As it
fails to develop in size, so every organ fails to be nourished to
perfection. Similarly with the immature bull put to too many cows; he fails
to develop his full size, vigor, or stamina, and transfers his acquired
weakness to his progeny. An increasing number of barren females and an
increasing proclivity to abortions are the necessary results of both
courses. When this early breeding has occurred accidentally it is well to
dry up the dam just after calving, and to avoid having her served again
until full grown.

Some highly fed and plethoric females seem to escape conception by the very
intensity of the generative ardor. The frequent passage of urine,
accompanied by contractions of the womb and vagina and a profuse secretion
from their surfaces, leads to the expulsion of the semen after it has been
lodged in the genital passages. This may be remedied somewhat by giving
1-1/2 pounds of Epsom salt a day or two before she comes in heat, and
subjecting her at the same time to a spare diet. Should the excessive ardor
of the cow not be controllable in this way, she may be shut up for a day or
two, until the heat is passing off, when under the lessened excitement the
semen is more likely to be retained.

The various diseases of the ovaries, their tubes, the womb, the testicles
and their excretory ducts, as referred to under "Excess of venereal
desire," are causes of barrenness. In this connection it may be said that
the discharges consequent on calving are fatal to the vitality of semen
introduced before these have ceased to flow; hence service too soon after
calving, or that of a cow which has had the womb or genital passages
injured so as to keep up a mucopurulent flow until the animal comes in
heat, is liable to fail of conception. Any such discharge should be first
arrested by repeated injections as for leucorrhea, after which the male may
be admitted.

Feeding on a very saccharine diet, which greatly favors the deposition of
fat, seems to have an even more direct effect in preventing conception
during such regimen. Among other causes of barrenness are all those that
favor abortion, ergoted grasses, smutty wheat or corn, laxative or diuretic
drinking water, and any improper or musty feed that causes indigestions,
colics, and diseases of the urinary organs, notably gravel; also savin,
rue, cantharides, and all other irritants of the bowels or kidneys.

Hermaphrodites are barren, of course, as their sexual organs are not
distinctively either male or female. The heifer born as a twin with a bull
is usually hermaphrodite and barren, but the animals of either sex in which
development of the organs is arrested before they are fully matured remain
as in the male or female prior to puberty, and are barren. Bulls with both
testicles retained within the abdomen may go through the form of serving a
cow, but the service is unfruitful; the spermatozoa are not fully
elaborated. So I have examined a heifer with a properly formed but very
small womb and an extremely narrow vagina and vulva, the walls of which
were very muscular, that could never be made to conceive. A post-mortem
examination would probably have disclosed an imperfectly formed ovary
incapable of bringing ova to maturity.

A bull and cow that have been too closely inbred in the same line for
generations may prove sexually incompatible and unable to generate
together, though both are abundantly prolific when coupled with animals of
other strains.

Finally, a bull may prove unable to get stock, not from any lack of sexual
development, but from disease of other organs (back, loins, hind limbs),
which renders him unable to mount with the energy requisite to the perfect
service.


CONGESTION AND INFLAMMATION OF THE TESTICLES (ORCHITIS).

This visually results from blows or other direct injuries, but may be the
result of excessive service or of the formation of some new growth (tumor)
in the gland tissue. The bull moves stiffly, with straddling gait, and the
right or left half of the scrotum in which the affected testicle lies is
swollen, red, and tender, and the gland is drawn up within the sac and
dropped again at frequent intervals. It may be treated by rest; by 1-1/2
pounds Epsom salt given in 4 quarts of water; by a restricted diet of some
succulent feed; by continued fomentations with warm water by means of
sponges or rags sustained by a sling passed around the loins and back
between the hind legs. The pain may be allayed by smearing with a solution
of opium or of extract of belladonna. Should a soft point appear,
indicating the formation of matter, it may be opened with a sharp lancet
and the wound treated daily with a solution of a teaspoonful of carbolic
acid in a half pint of water. Usually, however, when the inflammation has
proceeded to this extent, the gland will be ruined for purposes of
procreation and must be cut out. (See "Castration," p. 299.)


INFLAMMATION OF THE SHEATH.

While this may occur in bulls from infection during copulation and from
bruises, blows, and other mechanical injuries, the condition is more common
in the ox in connection with the comparative inactivity of the parts. The
sheath has a very small external opening, the mucous membrane of which is
studded with sebaceous glands secreting a thick, unctuous matter of a
strong, heavy odor. Behind this orifice is a distinct pouch, in which this
unctuous matter is liable to accumulate when the penis is habitually drawn
back. Moreover, the sheath has two muscles (protractors) which lengthen it,
passing into it from the region of the navel, and two (retractors) that
shorten it, passing into it from the lower surface of the pelvic bones
above. (Pl. IX, fig. 2.) The protractors keep the sheath stretched, so that
it habitually covers the penis, while the retractors shorten it up in the
act of service, so that the penis can project to its full extent. In stud
bulls the frequent protrusion of the erect and enlarged penis and the
retraction and dilation of the opening of the sheath serve to empty the
pouch and prevent any accumulation of sebaceous matter or urine. In the ox,
on the other hand, the undeveloped and inactive penis is usually drawn back
so as to leave the anterior preputial pouch empty, so that the sebaceous
matter has space to accumulate and is never expelled by the active
retraction of the sheath and protrusion of the erect penis in service.
Again, the ox rarely protrudes the tip of the penis in urination, the urine
is discharged into the preputial pouch and lodges and decomposes there, so
that there is a great liability to the precipitation of its earthy salts in
the form of gravel. The decomposing ammoniacal urine, the gritty crystals
precipitated from it, and the fetid, rancid, sebaceous matter set up
inflammation in the delicate mucous membrane lining the passage. The
membrane is thickened, reddened, rendered friable, and ultimately
ulcerated, and the now narrowed sheath is blocked by the increasing mass of
sebaceous and urinous material and the decomposing mucus and pus. The penis
can no longer be protruded, the urine escapes in a small stream through the
narrowing sheath, and finally the outlet is completely blocked and the
urine distends the back part of the sheath. This will fluctuate on being
handled, and soon the unhealthy inflammation extends on each side of it,
causing a thick, doughy, tender swelling under the belly and between the
thighs. The next step in the morbid course is overdistention of the
bladder, with the occurrence of colicky pains, looking at the flanks,
uneasy movements of the hind limbs, raising or twisting of the tail,
pulsatory contractions of the urethra under the anus, and finally a false
appearance of relief, which is caused by rupture of the bladder. Before
rupture takes place the distended bladder may press on the rectum and
obstruct the passage of the bowel dejections. Two mistakes are therefore
probable--first, that the bowels alone are to be relieved, and, second,
that the trouble is obstruction of the urethra by a stone. Hence the need
of examining the sheath and pushing the finger into its opening to see that
there is no obstruction there, in all cases of retention of urine,
overdistended bladder, or blocked rectum in the ox. The disease may be
acute or chronic--the first by reason of acute, adhesive inflammation
blocking the outlet, the second by gradual thickening and ulceration of the
sheath and blocking by the sebaceous and calculous accretion.

_Treatment._--The treatment of this affection depends on the stage. If
recent and without instant danger of rupture of the bladder, the narrow
opening of the sheath should be freely cut open in the median line below,
and the sac emptied out with a finger or spoon, after which it should be
thoroughly washed with tepid water. To make the cleansing more thorough a
catheter or a small, rubber tube may be inserted well back into the sheath,
and water may be forced through it from a syringe or a funnel inserted into
the other end of the tube and considerably elevated. A fountain syringe,
which should be in every house, answers admirably. The sheath may be daily
washed out with tepid water, with a suds made with Castile soap, or with a
weak solution of sulphate of zinc (one-half dram to a quart of water). If
these attentions are impossible, most cases, after cleansing, will do well
if merely driven through clean water up to the belly once a day.

In case the disease has progressed to absolute obstruction, with the
bladder ready to rupture any moment, no time must be lost in opening into
the urethra with a sharp knife over the bony arch under the anus, where the
pulsations are seen in urinating. This incision is best made in the median
line from above downward, but in the absence of a skillful operator a
transverse incision with a sharp knife over the bone in the median line
until the urine flows with a gush is better than to let the patient die.
Considerable blood will be lost and the wound will heal tardily, but the ox
will be preserved. Then the slitting and cleansing of the sheath can be
done at leisure, as described above. If the bladder is ruptured, the case
is hopeless.


INFLAMMATION OF THE SHEATH AND PENIS FROM BRUISING.

This also is an affection of work oxen, caused by the pressure and friction
of the sling when the animals are held in stocks for shoeing. This crushing
of both sheath and penis for half an hour or more leads to the development,
some hours later, of a hard, hot, and painful swelling, extending from the
scrotum as far as the opening of the sheath. Fever sets in, with dry
muzzle, red eyes, hard, full, rapid pulse, accelerated breathing, and
elevated temperature. The ox stands obstinately with his hind legs drawn
apart and urine falling drop by drop from the sheath. Appetite and
rumination are suspended. In twenty-four hours there may be indications of
advancing gangrene (mortification), the swelling becomes cold, soft, and
doughy; it may even crack slightly from the presence of gas; a reddish
brown, fetid liquid oozes from the swelling, especially around the edges,
and if the animal survives it is only with a great loss of substance of the
sheath and penis.

_Prevention._--The prevention of such an injury is easy. It is only
necessary to see that the slings do not press upon the posterior part of
the abdomen. They must be kept in front of the sheath.

_Treatment._--Treatment, to be effective, must be prompt and judicious. Put
around the patient a strap with soft pads in contact with the affected
parts, constantly soaked in cold water for at least 24 hours. A pound or
two of Epsom salt in 4 quarts of hot water should also be given. The second
day the parts may be washed with 1 quart of witch-hazel (extract), 2 drams
sugar of lead, and 1 ounce laudanum, or the cold-water irrigations may be
continued if the active inflammation persists. In case the swelling
continues hard and resistant, it may be pricked at the most prominent
points to the depth of one-third of an inch with a lancet first dipped in
dilute carbolic acid, and the whole surface should be washed frequently
with some antiseptic solution.

When softening occurs in the center of a hard mass and fluctuation can be
felt between two fingers pressed on different parts of such softening, it
should be freely opened to let out the putrid pus, and the cavity should be
syringed often with antiseptic solution.

In bad cases extensive sloughs of dead skin, of the whole wall of the
sheath, and even of the penis, may take place, which will require careful
antiseptic treatment. The soaking of the urine into the inflamed and
softened tissue and the setting up of putrefactive action not only endanger
great destruction of the tissues from putrid inflammation, but even
threaten life itself from a general blood poisoning (septicemia). Every
case should have skillful treatment to meet its various phases, but in the
severe ones this is most urgently demanded.


INFLAMMATION OF THE URETHRA.

Like other males, the bull sometimes suffers from inflammation of the canal
which conveys the urine through the penis, and a whitish mucopurulent
discharge forms in consequence. It may have originated in gravel, the
excitement of too frequent service, infection from a cow with leucorrhea,
or from extension of inflammation from the sheath. Besides the oozing of
the whitish liquid from the end of the penis and sheath, there is
tenderness and pain when handled, and while there is no actual arrest of
the urine, its flow is subject to frequent voluntary checks, as the
scalding liquid irritates the tender surface.

_Treatment._--If recognized before the discharge sets in, a dose of 1-1/2
pounds of Epsom salt and local, warm fomentations would be appropriate.
After the onset of the whitish discharge a daily injection of a solution of
20 grains of permanganate of potassium in a pint of water into the penis
will be beneficial.


WARTS AND PAPILLARY GROWTHS ON THE PENIS.

These are not frequent in bull or ox. They may interfere with the
protrusion of the organ from its sheath or with service, and always give
rise to a bad-smelling discharge.

_Treatment._--They may be twisted off with a pair of small tweezers or cut
off with a pair of scissors, and the seat burned with a pencil of lunar
caustic. To get hold of the penis in the bull, bring him up to a cow. In
the ox it will be necessary to push it out by manipulation through the
sheath. In difficult cases the narrow opening of the sheath may be slit
open.


WOUNDS OF THE PENIS.

The most common wounds are those sustained by blows of horns, sticks, etc.
The blood vessels and sacs are ruptured to a greater or less extent and
considerable swellings filled with coagulated blood and inflammatory
products occur, leading to distortion of the organ, and it may be to the
impossibility of protruding it.

_Treatment._--A lotion of a dram of alum in a quart of water may be applied
(injected into the sheath, if necessary), and a large sponge constantly
irrigated by a stream of cold water may be kept applied by means of a
surcingle to the outer side of the sheath. Incisions are rarely applicable
to an organ of this kind, but in case of the existence of an extensive clot
which is unlikely to be absorbed the lancet may be resorted to. If the
injury leads to paralysis of the penis and hanging out of its sheath, it
should be supported in a sling and astringents used freely until
inflammation subsides. Then the restoration of power may be sought by a
blister between the thighs, by the use of electricity, or by the careful
use of nerve stimulants, such as strychnin, 1 grain twice daily.


ULCERS ON THE PENIS.

Sores on the penis of the bull may result from gravel or sebaceous masses
in the sheath or from having served a cow having leucorrhea.

_Treatment._--These may be treated by frequent injections into the sheath
of a lotion made with 1 dram sugar of lead, 60 drops carbolic acid, and 1
quart water.


POLYPUS OF THE VAGINA OR UTERUS.

A polypus is a tumor growing from the mucous membrane, and often connected
to it by a narrow neck. A definite cause can not always be assigned. If
growing in the vagina, a polypus may project as a reddish, rounded tumor
from the vulva, especially during the act of passing water. It can be
distinguished from descent of the womb by the absence of the orifice of
that cavity, which can be felt by the oiled hand beyond the tumor in the
depth of the vagina. From a vaginal hernia caused by the protrusion of some
abdominal organ enveloped by the relaxed wall of the vagina it may be
distinguished by its persistence, its firm substance, and the impossibility
of returning it into the abdomen by pressure. A hernia containing a portion
of bowel gurgles when handled and can be completely effaced by pressure,
the gut passing into the abdomen.

A polypus in the womb is less easily recognized. At the time of calving it
may be felt through the open mouth of the womb and recognized by the
educated touch (it must be carefully distinguished from the mushroom-formed
cotyledons (Pl. XIII, fig. 2), to which in ruminants the fetal membranes
are attached). At other times, unless the womb is opened in the effort to
expel it, the polypus can be detected only by examining the womb with the
oiled hand introduced through the rectum.

Polypi may cause a mucopurulent discharge or they may only be suspected
when they prove an obstacle to parturition. The best way to remove them is
to put the chain of an écraseur around the neck, or pedicle, of the tumor
and tear it through; or the narrow neck may be torn through by the
emasculator, or in an emergency it may be twisted through by rotating the
tumor on its axis. The removal of the tumor will allow calving to proceed;
after this the sore may be treated by a daily injection of one-half dram
sulphate of zinc, 1 dram carbolic acid, and 1 quart milk-warm water.


SIGNS OF PREGNANCY.

If a cow remains for three or four weeks after service without showing
signs of heat (bulling), she is probably pregnant. There are very
exceptional cases in which the well-fed cow will accept the bull weeks or
months after actual conception, and others equally exceptional in which the
well-thriven but unimpregnated female will refuse the male persistently,
but these in no way invalidate the general rule.

The bull, no matter how vigorous or how ardent his sexual instinct, can not
be made to pay any attention to a cow which is not in heat; hence
indications of pregnancy can be had from both the male and female side.
When she has conceived, the cow usually becomes more quiet and docile, and
lays on flesh and fat more rapidly, especially during the first four months
of gestation. The stimulus to digestion and nutrition created by the
demands of the growing fetus, added to the quieter and more uneventful
life, contributes to this result. Some feeders avail themselves of this
disposition to prepare heifers and cows speedily for the butcher.

The enlargement of the abdomen, and its dropping so that it bulges below
and to each side, while it falls in at the flank, between the outer angle
of the hip bone and the last rib, are significant features which, though
they may be caused by abdominal tumor or dropsy, are usually marks of
pregnancy. From the same increasing weight of the abdomen the spine in the
region of the loins sinks so that the bones of the croup seem to rise,
especially back toward the root of the tail. In the early stages of
pregnancy the udder develops slowly, and toward its completion quite
rapidly. For a long time there is merely a sense of greater fullness when
handled; the wrinkles in the skin become shallower and are effaced, and the
teats are materially enlarged. Beginning a few weeks after conception, this
tends to a steady development, though slight alternations in the sense of
successive growth and shrinkage are not uncommon. In milking cows this does
not hold, as the milk usually tends to a steady diminution and the udder
shrinks slowly until near the completion of the period, when it undergoes
its sudden, remarkable development, and yields at first a serous liquid and
then the yellow colostrum, which coagulates when heated. As pregnancy
advances the mucous membrane lining the vulva becomes swollen and of a
darker, bluish-red hue; the mucous secretion also increases, becoming very
abundant just before calving. When the feeding has not been altered or
restricted, a steady diminution of the salts of lime excreted in the urine
is an attendant on pregnancy, the lime being demanded for the growing body
of the fetus.

After the fifth month the movements of the calf may often be observed in
the right flank, nearly in front of the stifle, when the cow is drinking
cold water. The sensation of cold on the side of the first stomach, which
lies to the left and directly below the womb (Pl. I), stimulates the calf
to active movements, which are detected on the sudden jerking outward of
the abdominal wall as if from blows delivered from within. In a loose,
pendent abdomen in the latter months of gestation the skin may often be
seen pushed out at a sharp angle, irrespective of the period of drinking.

Another mode of examination through the flank is by touch. The palm of the
hand is pressed strongly inward, about 8 inches in front of the stifle and
a little below, several times in succession, and is then brought to rest
with the pressure maintained. Presently there are felt distinct and
characteristic movements of the fetus, which has been disturbed and roused
to action. Another mode is to press the closed fist strongly inward in the
same situation and hold it so, forming a deep indentation in the abdominal
wall. Presently the knuckles are felt to be struck by a solid body, which
is no other than the fetus that has been displaced to the left by the push
of the hand, and now floats back in its liquid covering (amniotic fluid;
see Pl. XII) downward and to the right.

Of all the modes of examination by touch, that done through the rectum
gives the earliest satisfactory indications. The hand and arm, well oiled,
are introduced, and the excrement having been removed if necessary, the
palm of the hand is turned downward and the floor of the pelvis carefully
examined. There will be felt in the median line the pear-shaped outline of
the bladder, more or less full, rounded or tense, according to the quantity
of urine it contains. Between this and the hand will be felt a soft,
somewhat rounded tubular body, which divides in front into two smaller
tubes or branches, extending to the right and left into the abdomen. This
is the womb, which in its virgin, or unimpregnated, condition is of nearly
uniform size from before backward, the main part or body being from 1-1/2
to 2 inches across, and the two anterior branches or horns being
individually little over an inch wide. Immediately after conception the
body and one of the horns begin to enlarge, the vacant horn remaining
disproportionately small, and the enlargement will be most marked at one
point, where a solid, rounded mass indicates the presence of the growing
embryo. In case of twins, both horns are enlarged. At a more advanced
stage, when the embryo begins to assume the form of the future animal, the
rounded form gives place to a more or less irregular nodular mass, while
later still the head, limbs, and body of the fetus may be distinctly made
out. The chief source of fallacy is found in the very pendent abdomen of
certain cows, into which in advanced gestation the fetus has dropped so low
that it can not be felt by the hand in the rectum. The absence of the
distinct outline of the vacant womb, however, and the clear indications
obtained on external examination through the right flank will serve to
prevent any mistake. The fetus may still be felt through the rectum if the
abdomen is raised by a sheet passed from side to side beneath it.

Still another sign is the beating of the fetal heart, which may be heard in
the latter half of pregnancy when the ear is pressed on the flank in front
of the right stifle or from that downward to the udder. The beats, which
are best heard in the absence of rumbling, are about 120 a minute and
easily distinguished from any bowel sounds by their perfect regularity.


DURATION OF PREGNANCY.

From extended statistics it is found that the average duration of pregnancy
in the cow is 285 days. A calf born at the two hundred and fortieth day may
live, and Dietrichs reported a case of a calf born on the three hundred and
thirty-fifth day, and another was reported by the American Journal of
Medical Science as having been born on the three hundred and thirty-sixth
day. It is the general observation that in most cases of prolonged
pregnancies the offspring are males. Lord Spencer found a preponderance of
males between the two hundred and ninetieth and the three hundredth days,
but strangely enough all born after the three hundredth day under his
observation were females. It may be reasonably inferred that while the
prevailing tendency is to carry the males overtime, yet that the smaller
and comparatively much less developed female sometimes fails to stimulate
the womb to contraction until very far beyond the regular date.


HYGIENE OF THE PREGNANT COW.

Among domestic animals considerations of hygiene must be made subservient
to profit, and therefore the first consideration is not to obtain the most
robust health, but such a measure of vigor and stamina as is compatible
with the most profitable utilization of the animal. The breeding cow must
carry a calf every year, and this notwithstanding that she is at the same
time suckling another large, growing calf. The dairy cow must breed every
year, and at the same time must furnish a generous flow of milk from nine
to eleven months yearly. If her health is lowered thereby or her life
shortened, the question of profit must still hold sway, and, when
disqualified, she must yield her place to another. There are exceptions, of
course, but this rule generally holds.

There are certain points, however, in which the interests of hygiene may be
considered. The pregnant cow should have exercise, and as regards both
exercise and feed, nothing is better than a run on a smooth pasture. She
should be withheld from all violent excitement, hunting with dogs, riding
or being ridden by cows in heat, driving in herd rapidly through narrow
gateways, causing to jump ditches or fences, subjecting to blows with the
horns of pugnacious cattle, driving on icy or otherwise slippery ground,
carrying in railroad cars, kicking by vicious attendants, and fastening or
throwing down for operations. The diet should be good, not of a kind to
fatten, but with a generous quantity of nitrogenous constituents which will
favor both the yield of milk and the nourishment of the fetus. Aliments
like wheat bran, middlings, etc., which are rich in lime and phosphates,
can be used to advantage, as there is a constant drain of earthy salts for
the building of the body of the calf, and thereby the danger of undue
concentration of the urine is lessened. Hard, innutritious, and
indigestible aliments, musty grain or hay, partially ripened rye grass,
millet, Hungarian grass, vetches, peas, or maize are objectionable, as they
are liable to cause indigestion or even paralysis; and corn or hay affected
by smut or ergot, or that has been spoiled by wet, overripened, and
rendered fibrous and innutritious, is equally objectionable. In the main
the feed should be laxative, as costiveness and straining are liable to
cause abortion. Roots and green feed that have been frosted are
objectionable, as being liable to cause indigestion, though in their fresh
condition most wholesome and desirable. Ice-cold water should be avoided,
as calculated to check the flow of milk, to derange digestion, and to cause
abortion. A good temperature for the drink of the dairy cow is 55° F.

In the case of plethoric and heavy-milking cows of mature age and in the
prime of life, the hitherto liberal diet must be changed at the last week
for the scantiest possible fare, and the bowels must be kept open by
laxatives, if need be, if the owner would avoid milk fever. Her stall
should not incline downward from shoulder to croup, lest the pressure of
the abdominal organs should produce protrusion or abortion. She should be
kept aloof from all causes of acute diseases, and all existing diseases
should be remedied speedily and with as little excitement of the abdominal
organs as possible. Strong purgatives and diuretics are to be especially
avoided, unless it is in the very last days of gestation in very plethoric
cows.


PROTRUSION OF THE VAGINA (PROLAPSUS VAGINÆ).

During pregnancy this is common from chronic relaxation of the vaginal
walls and from lying in stalls that are lower behind than in front. The
protrusion is of a rounded form and smooth, and if it embraces both sides
of the canal it is double, with a passage between. It may sometimes be
remedied by raising the hind part of the stall higher than the front part.
This failing, a truss may be applied as for eversion of the womb, and worn
until the period of calving approaches. (Pls. XXII, XXIII.)


HERNIA (BREACH) OF THE UTERUS.

In advanced pregnancy this occurs usually from a gradual relaxation and
distention of the lower wall of the abdomen in the region of the udder, so
that the latter is displaced downward, and in the sac above and in front of
it may be felt the form and movements of the fetus. In other cases the womb
escapes through a great laceration of the abdominal muscles to one side of
the udder, and the hernial mass extends down to one side of that organ.
However unsightly, this often allows the animal to complete its pregnancy
naturally, and a broad, supporting bandage placed around the abdomen is
about all that can be recommended. After calving it is best to fatten the
cow.


CRAMPS OF THE HIND LIMBS.

The compression of the nerves by the womb and fetus passing through the
pelvis sometimes causes cramp and inability to move the limb, but it
disappears under friction and motion and is never seen after calving.


DROPSY OF THE HIND LIMBS AND BETWEEN THE THIGHS.

In the latter months of pregnancy the hind legs may swell beneath the
hocks, or a soft swelling which pits on pressure with the finger appears
from the vulva down between the thighs to the udder and in front. It is
mainly ascribable to the pressure of the enlarged womb on the blood
vessels, is not dangerous, and disappears after calving.


DROPSY OF THE MEMBRANES OF THE FETUS (DROPSY OF THE WOMB).

The unimpregnated womb may be filled with a dropsical fluid, but the
pregnant womb is more liable to become overdistended by an excess of fluid
in the inner water bag in which the fetus floats. (Pl. XII.) From an
unhealthy state of this membrane or of blood of the fetus (water blood)
this liquid may go on accumulating until the cow seems almost as broad as
she is long. If the trouble has not originated in the ill health of the
cow, the result is still to draw on her system, overtax her strength, and
derange her digestion, so that the result may prove fatal to both mother
and offspring. On the other hand, I have known extreme cases that came to
the natural term without help and produced a living calf, after which the
dam did well. The natural resort is to draw off a portion of the fluid
through a hollow needle passed through the neck of the womb or through its
tense wall adjacent. This may be repeated several times, as demanded, to
relieve the cow from the injurious distention.


PARALYSIS OF THE HIND PARTS.

In ill-fed, weak, unthrifty cows palsy of the hind limbs and tail may
appear in the last weeks of pregnancy. The anus and rectum may participate
in the palsy so far as to prevent defecation, and the rectum is more or
less completely impacted. Exposure to wet and cold are often accessory
causes, though the low condition, general weakness, and the pressure on the
nerves going to the hind limbs are not to be forgotten. Something may be
done for these cases by a warm, dry bed, an abundant diet fed warm,
frictions with straw wisps or with a liniment of equal parts of oil of
turpentine and sweet oil on the loins, croup, and limbs, by the daily use
of ginger and gentian, by the cautious administration of strychnia (1 grain
twice daily), and by sending a current of electricity daily from the loins
through the various groups of muscles in the hind limbs. The case becomes
increasingly hopeful after calving, though some days may still elapse
before the animal can support herself upon her limbs.


EXTRAUTERINE GESTATION (FETUS DEVELOPING OUTSIDE THE WOMB).

These curious cases are rare and are usually divided into three types: (1)
That in which the fetus is formed in or on the ovary (ovarian gestation);
(2) that in which it is lodged in the Fallopian tube, or canal between the
ovary and womb (tubal gestation); and (3) that in which it is lodged in the
abdominal cavity and attached to one or more of its contents from which it
draws its nourishment (abdominal gestation). Undoubted cases of the first
and last varieties are recorded as occurring in the cow. The explanation of
such cases is to be found in the fact that the actively moving sperm cells
(spermatozoa) thrown into the womb have made their way through the
Fallopian tubes to the ovary. If they met and impregnated an ovum in the
tube, and if the consequent growth of that ovum prevented its descent and
caused its imprisonment within the tube, it developed there, getting
attached to and drawing nourishment from the mucous walls. Such product has
its development arrested by compression by the undilatable tube, or,
bursting through the walls of the tube, it escapes into the abdomen and
perishes. If, on the contrary, the spermatozoa only meet and impregnate the
ovum on or in the ovary, the development may take place in the substance of
the ovary, from which the fetus draws its nourishment, or the impregnated
ovum, escaping between the ovary and the open end of the tube, falls into
the abdominal cavity and becomes adherent to and draws nourishment from
some of the abdominal organs (womb, bowel, liver, stomach, etc.).

_Symptoms._--The symptoms are those of pregnancy, which may be suddenly
complicated by inflammation (peritonitis), owing to rupture of the sac
containing the fetus; or at full term signs of calving appear, but no
progress is made; an examination with the oiled hand in the vagina or
rectum finds the womb empty and its mouth closed. Further examination will
disclose the fetal sac attached in some part of the abdominal cavity and
containing the more or less perfectly developed body of a calf. In the most
hopeful cases the fetus perishes at an early stage of gestation, becomes
inclosed in a fibrous sac, and is slowly absorbed, its soft parts becoming
liquefied and removed and the bones remaining encysted. In some cases the
bones have finally sloughed into the rectum or through an artificial
opening in the side of the belly.

_Treatment._--Little can be done in such cases except to quiet pain and
excitement by anodynes (opium, chloral, etc.) and leave the rest to nature.
A fistula discharging bones may be dilated and the bones extracted, the sac
being then washed out with a solution of 10 grains bichlorid of mercury in
a quart of water. In certain cases with a live calf a skillful operator may
be justified in cutting into the abdomen and extracting the calf with its
membranes, using the lotion just named as an antiseptic.


PROLONGED RETENTION OF THE FETUS.

Even when the fetus has developed within the womb it may fail to be
delivered at the proper time; labor pains have quickly subsided and the cow
resumed her usual health. In such cases the calf dies, and its soft parts
are gradually liquefied and absorbed, while its bones remain for years in
the womb inclosed in the remains of the fetal membranes. These may be
expelled at any time through the natural channels, or they may remain
indefinitely in the womb, not interfering with the general health, but
preventing conception.

If the true condition of things is recognized at the time of the subsidence
of the labor pains, the mouth of the womb may be dilated by the fingers, by
the insertion of sponge tents, or by a mechanical dilator (Pl. XX, fig. 6),
the fetal membranes may be ruptured and the calf extracted. After the
removal of the calf and its membranes the danger of putrid poisoning may be
obviated by injecting the antiseptic solution advised in the paragraph
above.


ABORTION (SLINKING THE CALF).

Technically, abortion is the term used for the expulsion of the offspring
before it can live out of the womb. Its expulsion before the normal time,
but after it is capable of an independent existence, is premature
parturition. In the cow this may be after seven and one-half months of
pregnancy. Earl Spencer failed to raise any calf born before the two
hundred and forty-second day. Dairymen use the term abortion for the
expulsion of the product of conception at any time before the completion of
the full period of a normal pregnancy, and in this sense it will be used in
this article.

Abortion in cows is either contagious or noncontagious. It does not follow
that the contagium is the sole cause in every case in which it is present.
We know that the organized germs (microbes) of contagion vary much in
potency at different times, and that the animal system also varies in
susceptibility to their attack. The germ may therefore be present in a herd
without any manifest injury, its disease-producing power having for the
time abated considerably, or the whole herd being in a condition of
comparative insusceptibility. At other times the same germ may have become
so virulent that almost all pregnant cows succumb to its force, or the herd
may have been subjected to other causes of abortion which, though of
themselves powerless to actually cause abortion, may yet so predispose the
animals that even the weaker germ will operate with destructive effect. In
dealing with this disease, therefore, it is the part of wisdom not to rest
satisfied with the discovery and removal of one specific cause, but rather
to try to find every existent cause and to obtain a remedy by correcting
all the harmful conditions.


NONCONTAGIOUS ABORTION.

As abortion most frequently occurs at those three-week intervals at which
the cow would have been in heat if nonpregnant, we may assume a
predisposition at such times owing to a periodicity in the nervous system
and functions. Poor condition, weakness, and a too watery state of the
blood is often a predisposing cause. This in its turn may result from poor
or insufficient feed, from the excessive drain upon the udder while bearing
the calf, from the use of feed deficient in certain essential elements,
like the nitrogenous constituents or albuminoids, from chronic, wasting
diseases, from roundworms or tapeworms in the bowels, from flat-worms
(flukes, trematodes) in the liver, from worms in the lungs, from dark,
damp, unhealthful buildings, etc. In some such cases the nourishment is so
deficient that the fetus dies in the womb and is expelled in consequence.
Excessive loss of blood, attended as it usually is with shock, becomes a
direct cause of abortion.

Acute inflammations of important organs are notorious causes of abortion,
and in most contagious fevers (lung plague, rinderpest, foot-and-mouth
disease) it is a common result. Affections of the chest which prevent due
aeration of the blood induce contractions of the womb, as shown
experimentally by Brown-Sequard. Pregnant women suffocated in smoke aborted
in many cases. (Retoul.)

Ergoted grasses have long been known as a cause of widespread abortion in
cows. The ergot is familiar as the dark purple or black, hard, spurlike
growths which protrude from the seeds of the grasses at the period of their
ripening. (Pl. V.) It is especially common, in damp localities and cloudy
seasons on meadows shaded by trees and protected against the free sweep of
the winds. The same is to a large extent true of smut; hence, wet years
have been often remarkable for the great prevalence of abortions. Abortions
have greatly increased in New Zealand among cows since the introduction of
rye grass, which is specially subject to ergot. As abortion is more
prevalent in old dairying districts, the ergot may not be the sole cause in
this instance.

The riding of one another by cows is attended by such severe muscular
exertion, jars, jolts, mental excitement, and gravitation of the womb and
abdominal organs backward that it may easily cause abortion in a
predisposed animal.

Keeping in stalls that slope too much behind (more than 2 inches) acts in
the same way, the compression from lying and the gravitation backward
proving more than a predisposed cow can safely bear.

Deep gutters behind the stalls, into which one or both hind limbs slip
unexpectedly, strain the loins and jar the body and womb most injuriously.
Slippery stalls in which the flooring boards are laid longitudinally in
place of transversely, and on which there is no device to give a firm
foothold, are almost equally dangerous. Driving on icy ground, or through a
narrow doorway where the abdomen is liable to be jammed, are other common
causes. Aborting cows often fail to expel the afterbirth, and if this
remains hanging in a putrid condition it is most injurious to pregnant cows
in the near vicinity. So with retained afterbirth in other cows after
calving. That some cows kept in filthy stables or with slaughterhouses near
by may become inured to the odors and escape the evil results is no
disproof of the injurious effects so often seen in such cases.

The excitement, jarring, and jolting of a railroad journey often cause
abortion, especially as the cow nears the period of calving, and the terror
or injury of railway or other accidents proves incomparably worse.

All irritant poisons cause abortions by the disorder and inflammation of
the digestive organs, and if such agents act also on the kidneys or womb,
the effect is materially enhanced. Powerful purgatives or diuretics should
never be administered to the pregnant cow.

Among other causes of abortion must be named the death or the various
illnesses of the fetus, which are about as numerous as those of the adult;
the slipping of a young fetus through a loop in the navel string so as to
tie a knot which will tighten later and interrupt the flow of blood with
fatal effect, and the twisting of the navel string by the turning of the
fetus until little or no blood can flow through the contorted cord. There
is in addition a series of diseases of the mucous membrane of the womb, and
of the fetal membranes (inflammation, effusion of blood, detachment of the
membranes from the womb, fatty or other degenerations, etc.), which
interfere with the supply of blood to the fetus or change its quality so
that death is the natural result, followed by abortion.

_Treatment._--Although the first symptoms of abortion have appeared, it
does not follow that it will go on to completion. So long as the fetus has
not perished, if the waters have not been discharged, nor the water bags
presented, attempts should be made to check its progress. Every appreciable
and removable cause should be done away with, the cow should be placed in a
quiet stall alone, and agents given to check the excitement of the labor
pains. Laudanum in doses of 1 ounce for a small cow or 2 ounces for a large
one should be promptly administered, and repeated in three or four hours
should the labor pains recur. This may be kept up for days or even weeks if
necessary, though that is rarely required, as the trouble either subsides
or abortion occurs. If the laudanum seems to lack permanency of action, use
bromid of potassium, or, better, extract of _Viburnum prunifolium_ (black
haw), 40 grains, at intervals of two or three hours until five or six doses
have been given.


CONTAGIOUS ABORTION.

Contagious abortion (also known as epizootic abortion, enzootic abortion,
and slinking of calves) is a disease affecting chiefly cattle and to a
lesser degree other domestic animals, and characterized by an inflammatory
condition of the female reproductive organs, which results in the expulsion
of the immature young.

_History._--This disease has been known in England and continental Europe
for many years, and descriptions of it are mentioned in the writings of
Mascal, Lafoose, Skellet, Lawrence, St. Cyr, Zündel, and Youatt. In the
early part of the eighteenth century British veterinarians recognized its
contagiousness, but it remained for Franck (1876), Lehnert (1878), and
Bräuer (1880) to produce the disease in healthy, pregnant cows by the
introduction of exudate and material from aborting animals. Nocard (1888)
isolated from the exudate between the mucous membrane of the uterus and
fetal membranes a micrococcus and a short bacillus which were found
continually in contagious abortion, but he failed to reproduce the disease
by inoculations of pure cultures of these organisms into healthy, pregnant
animals. In 1897 Bang, assisted by Stribolt, published their findings
regarding infectious abortion of cattle, in which they incriminated Bang's
bacillus of abortion as the causative agent. With pure cultures of this
bacillus they were able to produce the disease artificially and to recover
the same organism from the experimental cases. Since that time many noted
investigators, both in this country and in Europe, have confirmed these
findings.

_Cause._--The _Bacterium abortus_ of Bang is now generally recognized as
the causative agent of the disease of cattle. Formerly it was thought that
abortion was due to injury, such as blows, horn thrusts, falls, etc., or
the eating of spoiled feed and certain plants, and while this may be true
in a limited number of cases, careful investigations have demonstrated
these claims to be largely unfounded. It is now generally recognized that
when abortion occurs in herds from time to time, it is safe to assume that
the disorder is of an infectious nature and should be so treated.

_Natural mode of infection._--This phase of the disease is of greatest
importance for a clear understanding of the methods of prevention. Many
investigators have demonstrated that the infection is transmitted through
the digestive tract, through contaminated feed and water. The germs are
taken up by the body from the intestines with the liquid nourishment, reach
the blood, and are carried to the genital organs, where they find
conditions best suited to their development. Some assert that calves are
infected in this manner by suckling infected mothers, the germs being
present in the milk, or the teats having been contaminated by coming in
contact with infective discharges. It is claimed that infection contracted
in this manner remains dormant in the body of the calf until pregnancy
begins, and then the organism, finding conditions suitable for its
development, produces the disease.

Abortion may occasionally be transmitted from cow to cow by direct contact.
The discharges from diseased cows, swarming with the germs, soil the
external genitals, tail, and hind quarters, and then a susceptible animal,
by contact, gets the infective material upon the vulva, the infection
traveling up the genital canal and directly infecting the uterus.

The belief long entertained that the female acquires the disease at the
time of copulation as a result of transference of the infection from
affected to healthy females on the genital organs of the bull has failed to
receive the support of experimental evidence. The view that the disease is
spread to any great degree in this way has been largely discredited. Cows
of all ages are more or less susceptible, but young ones in first or second
pregnancy most frequently abort. A second abortion is not unusual, and a
third may occasionally occur, after which the cow usually becomes immune
and thereafter carries her calf to maturity. Heifers from aborting mothers
sometimes seem to be less susceptible than others.

_Symptoms._--Contagious abortion is a very insidious disease, developing
very slowly through several months of the gestation period, and resulting
finally in the expulsion of the immature young, this act being simply an
indication of the presence of the disease and not the disease itself.
Because of this slow development and the fact that the health of the animal
is not noticeably influenced, the presence of the disease may not be
suspected until it has gained a firm foothold in the herd. The symptoms of
approaching abortion are those preceding normal calving. In addition, there
may be observed, a few days previous to abortion, a sticky, sometimes
purulent, rusty, and odorless discharge. Abortion occurs most frequently
from the third to the seventh month, according to the number of abortions,
occurring early in first abortion, and later in each succeeding abortion
until the calf is carried to full term and the mother has become immune. It
happens frequently that calves are carried almost to full term, and are
born alive, but are sickly, and soon die. Following abortion there is a
dirty, yellowish-gray mucopurulent discharge which persists for two or more
weeks. If abortion occurs early, the fetus is passed surrounded by its
membranes, but if late in the period of pregnancy, the membranes are
retained, decomposition sets in and blood poisoning, which may cause the
death of the animal, or sterility may result.

_Lesions._--The most characteristic change is found in the uterus where a
dark-brown fluid, purulent or even gluey in consistency, and containing
grayish-white flakes separates the material membranes from those of the
fetus, preventing that intimate contact between the two which is so
necessary for the interchange of fluids and gases by which the fetus is
nourished and by which it obtains its oxygen. These being cut off, the
fetus must of course die. The germs producing the disease are found in
greatest numbers at this point. In addition there may be inflammatory
changes, first in the walls of the uterus and then in the tissues of the
fetus. These inflammatory changes seem most intense in the cotyledons and
result in the destruction of the minute structure of those bodies, and they
appear swollen, pale, and soft. The membrane of the uterus between the
cotyledons also may show inflamed and necrotic patches.

_Complications._--Serious results sometimes follow abortion, and this is
particularly the case when there is retained afterbirth. The retained
membranes decompose, the poisonous products of decomposition and the
organisms of decomposition themselves are absorbed, blood poisoning
results, and the animal dies. Sometimes, when the animal is able to resist
the effects of this decomposition, the uterus becomes the seat of such
severe changes that sterility results. The walls of that organ become
thickened and hard, the lining membranes become eroded, and conception can
not take place. At other times the ovaries, where the reproductive cells
originate, become affected and lose their function. Abortion does not
invariably follow infection, but the calf is carried to full term. In these
cases, however, retained afterbirth is a common occurrence, even to the
extent that frequent retention of afterbirth in a herd may be taken as an
indication of the presence of the disease. Very often suppurative processes
persist for a long time, preventing conception, or sterility may result
without apparent cause. A sterile cow is valueless, of course, for any
purpose except for beef. Such animals are a source of infection for the
others and should not be allowed to remain in the herd.

_Diagnosis._--The diagnosis of infectious abortion is made from the changes
occurring in the fetal membranes and in the expelled fetus. This, however,
is substantiated with certainty only by microscopic demonstration of the
germ of abortion. The fact that repeated abortions are observed in a herd
is also evidence of the presence of the disease. In consideration, however,
of the fact that animals may be affected with the disease and disseminate
the germs, even though they carry the fetus to full time, a diagnosis in
such instances is only possible by laboratory methods. For this purpose the
agglutination and also the complement-fixation tests are being used with
splendid results, and by the aid of these biological tests it is possible
to determine all infected animals in a herd. The tests are carried out with
the serum from animals to be examined, only a teaspoonful of serum being
necessary for the execution of both of these tests. It, however, has to be
confined to laboratories which are properly equipped for such work.

_Treatment and prevention._--It may be said in general that treatment is
without avail and all efforts should be directed toward prevention. Various
medicinal agents, such as carbolic acid administered subcutaneously and
methylene blue fed in large quantities, have been recommended, but have
failed to stand the tests of scientific investigation and practical use.
Serums and vaccines have also been prepared and sold as cures and
preventives, but the work is still considered in the experimental stage.

Bacterial vaccines are at present extensively used in the control of this
disease, and while numerous reports indicate beneficial results from their
administration, in other instances total failures have been recorded. It
appears that the experiments in this line have not progressed sufficiently
to justify definite conclusions.

The spread of the disease can be controlled to a great degree by the
practice of sanitary measures directed toward the disinfection of premises
and the isolation of animals at time of calving and aborting. For methods
of disinfection of premises see page 363.

Make frequent observations of the animals of affected herds for symptoms of
aborting, such as swelling of vulva or udder enlargement, and upon the
discovery of an animal showing these symptoms place her immediately in a
stall which is somewhat remote from healthy stock as a means of confining
the products of abortion as much as possible should the act occur. If an
animal aborts unexpectedly she should be removed to separate quarters and
given proper attention as promptly as possible. The fetus, afterbirth,
provided it has been expelled, and all litter that has been contaminated
with them and uterine discharges should be gathered up and destroyed either
by burning or burying. Clean and thoroughly disinfect the floor, gutters,
and manger in the vicinity of the aborting animal.

Daily irrigations of the uterus with nonirritating antiseptic solutions,
such as 0.5 per cent solution of cresol or compound solution of cresol, at
body temperature have a tendency to prevent the multiplication of
microorganisms in the uterus and in this way promote recovery. Douching of
the uterus should be continued until the discharge ceases. In addition, the
external genitals, root of the tail, escutcheon, etc., should be sponged
daily with the antiseptic solution.

Aim to place all pregnant animals in disinfected individual pens or stalls
a few days before they are expected to calve, and confine them to these
quarters for three or four weeks following the delivery of the calf, or as
long thereafter as uterine discharges are observed. Avoid carrying
infection from the maternity stalls to other portions of stable, on shoes
or otherwise. This may be prevented to some degree by the use of
disinfectant solutions on shoes after the stalls have been entered or by
wearing rubbers while in the maternity stalls, removing them after the
isolated animals have been attended to. The isolation of cows at time of
calving and the aborting animal is based upon the knowledge that the fetus,
afterbirth, and uterine discharges of an affected animal at these times
very frequently contain myriads of the abortion bacteria, and that unless
these substances are confined and promptly destroyed an abundant
opportunity is provided for the contamination of the food substances of the
healthy animals and their contraction of the disease.

Refrain from breeding fresh cows for a period of six weeks to two months
following calving. The aborting animal should be isolated for a period of
six weeks to two months and under no consideration be permitted to mingle
with the rest of the herd as long as uterine discharges are observed.

Douching of the external genitals of the bull, a practice formerly regarded
as highly important for preventing the spread of the disease, is now
recognized as being of doubtful value. The bull is protected from abortion
infection to a great degree by permitting him to serve only such animals as
have calved or aborted from six weeks to two months previously.
Investigational work has indicated that when the bull is affected with the
disease the organs of his generative system commonly involved are not
reached by the antiseptic solutions. A more rational method for the
prevention of the spread of the disease by the bull consists in keeping him
in an inclosure separate from the females and in having all services take
place on neutral ground.

Great care should be used in purchasing cattle, and cows not known to be
free from the disease should be kept in separate quarters until this point
is determined.


GRANULAR VENEREAL DISEASE (INFECTIOUS GRANULAR VAGINITIS).

The affection to which the foregoing names have been given is a chronic,
mild, and apparently contagious disease of cattle, characterized by an
inflammatory condition of the mucous membrane of the vagina and the
development of nodules upon its surface.

This disease is very widely spread, but from an economic point of view it
does not appear to have great significance. Williams, who investigated it,
asserts that it is difficult to find a single herd in this country which is
free of this disease. He considers it of great importance, claiming that
granular vaginitis has a vital relation to abortion. This view, however, is
not substantiated by other investigators, it being now generally accepted
that the disease is only rarely responsible for abortion, and further, that
it exerts no apparent ill effects on the health of the animal and that it
has no effect on the milk yield.

_Symptoms._--Natural infection may take place either by direct contact of
animals or at the time of service. Most of the cows in the affected herd
contract the disease, but the bulls are rarely or very mildly affected. The
inflamed condition of the membranes of the vagina results in a catarrhal
exudate, and this discharge, which soils the external genitals and the
tail, and the uneasiness and sometimes the straining of the animal, are the
first and most prominent symptoms observed. Upon examination, small, hard,
grayish nodules can be seen and felt upon the inflamed membranes. This
acute stage may last for three or four weeks, then it gradually subsides
and assumes the chronic form, only to flare up again as the animal comes in
heat.

These nodules are sometimes found on the membranes of the uterus, and some
investigators have argued from this fact that it was responsible for
abortion and sterility. Others, however, deny this and point out that the
bacillus of abortion can be demonstrated in nearly every case. The
importance of the disease is therefore in dispute and the decision must be
left to future investigation.

_Treatment._--The exaggerated importance which has been attached to this
disease resulted in the exploitation of the most varied kinds of remedies
for its treatment. It is true that with a protracted and laborious
treatment it is possible to effect cures in from one to three months, but
with our present knowledge of this disorder it is advisable to limit the
treatment to animals which show an acute inflammatory condition of the
vagina and vulva with a discharge as a result of the granular affection.
The treatment should be local and confined to the application of antiseptic
washes in the form of irrigations. For this purpose a 0.5 per cent solution
of the compound solution of cresol or of Lugol's solution has been found
satisfactory.


PARTURITION (CALVING).

SYMPTOMS OF CALVING.

In the cow the premonitions of calving are the enlargement of the udder,
which becomes firm and resistant to the touch, with more or less swelling
in front, and yields a serous, milky fluid; the enlargement and swelling of
the vulva, which discharges an abundant, stringy mucus; the drooping of the
belly, and the falling in of the muscles at each side of the root of the
tail, so as to leave deep hollows. When this last symptom is seen, calving
may be counted on in 24 hours or in 2 or 3 days. When the act is imminent,
the cow becomes uneasy, moves restlessly, leaves off eating, in the field
leaves the herd, lies down and rises again as if in pain, shifts upon her
hind feet, moves the tail, and may bellow or moan. When labor pains come on
the back is arched, the croup drooped, the belly is drawn up, and straining
is more or less violent and continuous. Meanwhile blood may have appeared
on the vulva and tail, and soon the clear water bags protrude between the
lips of the vulva. They increase rapidly, hanging down toward the hocks,
and the fore or hind feet can be detected within them. With the rupture of
the bags and escape of the waters the womb contracts on the solid, angular
body of the fetus and is at once stimulated to more violent contractions,
so that the work proceeds with redoubled energy to the complete expulsion.
This is why it is wrong to rupture the water bags if the presentation is
normal, as they furnish a soft, uniform pressure for the preliminary
dilation of the mouth of the womb and passages, in anticipation of the
severe strain put upon them as the solid body of the calf passes.

The cow often calves standing, in which case the navel string is broken as
the calf falls to the ground. If, however, she is recumbent, this cord is
torn through as she rises. The afterpains come on 3 or 4 hours later and
expel the membranes, which should never be left longer than 24 hours.


NATURAL PRESENTATION.

When there is but one calf the natural presentation is that of the fore
feet with the front of the hoofs and knees turned upward toward the tail of
the dam and the nose lying between the knees. (Pl. XV.) If there are twins
the natural position of the second is that of the hind feet, the heels and
hocks turned upward toward the cow's tail. (Pl. XVIII, fig. 1.) In both of
these natural positions the curvature of the body of the calf--the back
arched upward--is the same with the curvature of the passages, which
descend anteriorly into the womb, ascend over the brim of the pelvis, and
descend again toward the external opening (vulva). Any presentation
differing from the above is abnormal.


OBSTACLES TO PARTURITION.

With a well-formed cow and calf and a natural presentation as above,
calving is usually prompt and easy. Obstacles may, however, come from
failure of the mouth of the womb to dilate; from twisting of the neck of
the womb; from tumors in the vagina; from dropsy in the womb or abdomen;
from overdistention of the rectum or bladder; from undue narrowing of the
passages; from excess of fat in the walls of the pelvis; from the
disturbance of a nervous cow by noises; from stone or urine in the bladder;
from wrong presentation of the calf, its back being turned downward or to
one side in place of upward toward the spine of the dam; from the bending
backward of one or more limbs or of the head into the body of the womb;
from presentation of the back, shoulder, or croup, all four limbs being
turned back; from presentation of all four feet at once; from obstruction
caused by an extra head or extra limbs, or double body on the part of the
offspring (Pl. XIX); from dropsy or other disease of the calf; from
excessive or imperfect development of the calf; from the impaction of twins
into the passages at the same time; or at times it may be from the mere
excessive volume of the fetus.


GENERAL MAXIMS FOR THE ASSISTANT CONCERNING DIFFICULT PARTURITION.

Do not interfere too soon. "Meddlesome midwifery is bad" with animals as
with women. After labor pains set in, give a reasonable time for the water
bags to protrude and burst spontaneously, and only interfere when delay
suggests some mechanical obstruction. If there is no mechanical
obstruction, let the calf be expelled slowly by the unaided efforts of the
cow. Bruises and lacerations of the passages and flooding from the
uncontracted womb may come from the too speedy extraction of the calf. When
assistance is necessary, the operator should dress in a thick flannel shirt
from which the sleeves have been cut off clear to the shoulders. This
avoids danger of exposure and yet leaves the whole arm free and
untrammeled. Before inserting the hand it and the arm should be smeared
with oil, lard, or vaseline, care being taken that the oil or lard is
fresh, neither salted nor rancid, and that it has been purified by boiling
or rendered antiseptic by the addition of a teaspoonful of carbolic acid to
the pound. This is a valuable precaution against infecting the cow by
introducing putrid ferments into the passages and against poisoning of the
arm by decomposing discharges in case the calving is unduly protracted.
When labor pains have lasted some time without any signs of the water bags,
the dropping in at the sides of the rump, and the other preparations for
calving being accomplished, the hand should be introduced to examine. When
the water bags have burst and neither feet nor head appear for some time,
examination should be made. When one fore foot only and the head appear, or
both fore feet without the head, or the head without the fore feet,
examine. If one hind foot appears without the other, make examination. The
presenting limb or head should be secured by a rope with a running noose,
so that it may not pass back into the womb and get lost during the
subsequent manipulations, but may be retained in the vagina or brought up
again easily. In searching for a missing member it is usually better to
turn the head of the cow downhill, so that the gravitation of the fetus and
abdominal organs forward into the belly of the cow may give more room in
which to bring up the missing limb or head. If the cow is lying down, turn
her on the side opposite to that on which the limb is missing, so that
there may be more room for bringing the latter up. Even if a missing limb
is reached, it is vain to attempt to bring it up during a labor pain. Wait
until the pain has ceased and attempt to straighten out the limb before the
next pain comes on. If the pains are violent and continuous, they may be
checked by pinching the back or by putting a tight surcingle around the
body in front of the udder. These failing, 1 ounce or 1-1/2 ounces of
chloral hydrate in a quart of water may be given to check the pains. If the
passages have dried up or lost their natural, lubricating liquid, smear the
interior of the passages and womb and the surface of the calf, so far as it
can be reached, with pure fresh lard; or pure sweet oil may be run into the
womb through a rubber tube (fountain syringe). In dragging upon the fetus
apply strong traction only while the mother is straining, and drag downward
toward the hocks as well as backward. The natural curvature of both fetus
and passages is thus followed and the extraction rendered easier.


LABOR PAINS BEFORE RELAXATION OF THE PASSAGES.

Any of the various causes of abortion may bring on labor pains before the
time. Straining comes on days or weeks before the time, and there is not
the usual enlargement, swelling, and mucous discharge from the vulva. There
is little or no falling in by the sides of the root of the tail; the
abdomen has not dropped to the usual extent, and the udder is less
developed and yields little or no milk. In spite of the pains no water bags
appear, and the oiled hand cautiously introduced into the vagina finds the
neck of the womb firmly closed, rigid, and undilatable. If it is known that
the cow has not reached her proper time of calving, the examination through
the vagina should be omitted and the animal should be placed in a dark,
quiet place by herself, and be given 1 to 2 ounces laudanum. _Viburnum
prunifolium_ (black haw), 1 ounce, may be added, if necessary, and repeated
in three hours. The pains will usually subside.

In some instances the external parts are relaxed and duly prepared, but the
neck of the womb remains rigidly closed. In such case the solid extract of
belladonna should be smeared around the constricted opening and the animal
left quiet until it relaxes.


DISEASED INDURATION OF THE MOUTH OF THE WOMB.

From previous lacerations or other injuries the neck of the womb may have
become the seat of fibrous hardening and constriction, so as to prevent its
dilatation, when all other parts are fully prepared for calving. The
enlarged, flabby vulva, the sinking at each side of the rump, the full
udder, and drooping abdomen indicate the proper time for calving, but the
labor pains effect no progress in the dilatation of the mouth of the womb,
and the oiled hand introduced detects the rigid, hard, and, in some cases,
nodular feeling of the margins of the closed orifice which no application
of belladonna or other antispasmodic suffices to relax. Sponge tents may be
inserted or the mechanical dilator (Pl. XX, fig. 6) may be used if there is
opening enough to admit it, and if not, a narrow-bladed, probe-pointed
knife (Pl. XXIV, fig. 2) may be passed through the orifice and turned
upward, downward, and to each side, cutting to a depth not exceeding a
quarter of an inch in each case. This done, a finger may be inserted, then
two, three, and four, and finally all four fingers and thumb brought
together in the form of a cone and made to push in with rotary motion until
the whole hand can be introduced. After this the labor pains will induce
further dilation, and finally the presenting members of the calf will
complete the process.


TWISTING OF THE NECK OF THE WOMB.

This is not very uncommon in the cow, the length of the body of the womb
and the looseness of the broad ligaments that attach it to the walls of the
pelvis favoring the twisting. It is as if one were to take a long sack
rather loosely filled at the neck and turn over its closed end, so that its
twisting should occur in the neck. The twist may be one-quarter round, so
that the upper surface would come to look to one side, or it may be half
round, so that what was the upper surface becomes the lower. The relation
of the womb of the cow to the upper and right side of the paunch favors the
twisting. The paunch occupies the whole left side of the abdomen and
extends across its floor to the right side. Its upper surface thus forms an
inclined plane, sloping from the left downward and to the right, and on
this sloping surface lies the pregnant womb.

It is easy to see how, in the constant movements of the paunch upon its
contents and the frequent changes of position of the growing fetus within
the womb, to say nothing of the contractions of the adjacent bowels and the
more or less active movements of the cow, the womb should roll downward to
the right. Yet in many cases the twist is toward the left, showing that it
is not the result of a simple rolling downward over the paunch, but rather
of other disturbances. The condition may be suspected when labor pains have
continued for some time without any sign of the water bags, and it is
confirmed when the oiled hand, introduced through the vagina, finds the
mouth of the womb soft and yielding, but furnished with internal folds
running forward in a spiral manner. If the folds on the upper wall of the
orifice run toward the right, the womb is twisted to the right; if, on the
contrary, they turn toward the left, it indicates that the womb is turned
over in that direction. The direction of the twist must be known before
treatment can be undertaken. Then, if the twist is toward the right, the
cow is laid upon her right side with her head downhill, the hand of the
operator is introduced through the spirally constricted neck of the womb,
and a limb or other portion of the body of the calf is seized and pressed
firmly against the wall of the womb. Meanwhile two or three assistants roll
the cow from her right side over on her back to her left side. The object
is to hold the womb and calf still while the body of the cow rolls over. If
successful, the twist is undone, its grasp on the wrist is slackened, and
the water bags and calf press into the now open passage. If the first
attempt does not succeed, it is to be repeated until success has been
attained. If the spiral folds on the upper wall of the opening turn toward
the left, the cow is laid on her left side and rolled over on her back and
on to the right side, the hand being, as before, within the womb and
holding the fetus, so that all may not rotate with the cow. In introducing
the hand it will usually be found needful to perforate the membranes, so
that a limb of the calf may be seized direct and firmly held. Among my
occasional causes of failure with these cases have been, first, the
previous death and decomposition of the fetus, leading to such
overdistention of the womb that it could not be made to rotate within the
abdomen, and, second, the occurrence of inflammation and an exudate on the
twisted neck of the womb, which hindered it from untwisting.

In obstinate cases, in which the hand can be made to pass through the neck
of the womb easily, additional help may be had from the use of the
instrument shown in Plate XX, figure 5. Two cords, with running nooses, are
successively introduced and made fast on two limbs of the calf; the cords
are then passed through the two rings on the end of the instrument, which
is passed into the womb and the cords drawn tight and fixed round the
handle. Then, using the handle as a lever, it is turned in the direction
opposite to the twist. The hand should meanwhile be introduced into the
womb and the snared limbs seized and pressed against its walls so as to
secure the rotation of the uterus along with the body of the fetus. The
relaxation of the constriction and the effacement of the spiral folds will
show when success has been gained, and the different members at one end of
the body should then be brought up so as to secure a natural presentation.


NARROW PELVIS FROM FRACTURE OR DISEASE.

In a small cow the pelvis may be too narrow to pass a calf sired by a bull
of a large breed, but this is exceptional, as the fetus usually
accommodates itself to the size of the dam and makes its extra growth after
birth. When the pelvic bones have been fractured repair takes place with
the formation of a large permanent callus, which, projecting internally,
may be a serious obstacle to calving. Worse still, if the edge of the
broken bone projects internally as a sharp spike or ridge, the vaginal
walls are cut upon it during the passage of the calf, with serious or fatal
result. In other cases, where the cow has suffered from fragility of bone
(fragilitas ossium) the thickening of the bone causes narrowing of the long
passage of the pelvis and the crumbling fractures poorly repaired, with an
excess of brittle new material, may form an insuperable obstacle to
parturition. Cows affected in any of these ways should never again be bred,
but if they do get pregnant and reach full time a careful examination will
be necessary to determine whether natural parturition can take place or if
the calf must be extracted in pieces. (See "Embryotomy," p. 202.)


OBSTRUCTION BY MASSES OF FAT.

This is not unknown in old cows of the beef breeds, the enormous masses of
fat upon and within the pelvis being associated with weakness or fatty
degeneration of the muscles. If the presentation is natural, little more is
wanted than a judicious traction upon the fetus to compress and overcome
the soft resisting masses.


OBSTRUCTION BY A FULL BLADDER OR RECTUM OR BY STONE.

In all cases of delayed or tardy parturition the evacuation of rectum and
bladder is important, and it is no less so in all difficult parturitions.
Stone in the bladder is fortunately rare in the cow, but when present it
should be removed to obviate crushing and perhaps perforation of the organ
during calving.


CALVING RETARDED BY NERVOUSNESS.

In a public fair ground I have seen labor pains begin early in the day and
keep up in a weak and insufficient manner for many hours, until the stall
was thoroughly closed in and the cow secluded from the constant stream of
visitors and the incessant noise, when at once the pains became strong and
effective and the calf was soon born.


COAGULATED BLOOD UNDER THE VAGINAL WALLS.

This is common after calving, but sometimes occurs before, as the result of
accidental injury. The mass may be recognized by its dark hue and the
doughy sensation to the touch. It may be cut into and the mass turned out
with the fingers, after which it should be washed frequently with an
antiseptic lotion (carbolic acid 1 dram in 1 quart of water).


CONSTRICTION OF A MEMBER BY THE NAVEL STRING.

In early fetal life the winding of the navel string around a limb may cause
the latter to be slowly cut off by absorption under the constricting cord.
So at calving the cord wound round a presenting member may retard progress
somewhat, and though the calf may still be born tardily by the unaided
efforts of the mother, it is liable to come still-born, because the
circulation in the cord is interrupted by compression before the offspring
can reach the open air and commence to breathe. If, therefore, it is
possible to anticipate and prevent this displacement and compression of the
navel string it should be done, but if this is no longer possible, then the
extraction of the calf should be effected as rapidly as possible, and if
breathing is not at once attempted it should be started by artificial
means.


WATER IN THE HEAD OF THE CALF (HYDROCEPHALUS).

This is an enormous distention of the cavity holding the brain, by reason
of the accumulation of liquid in the internal cavities (ventricles) of the
brain substance. The head back of the eyes rises into a great rounded ball
(Pl. XIX, figs. 4 and 5), which proves an insuperable obstacle to
parturition. The fore feet and nose being the parts presented, no progress
can be made, and even if the feet are pulled upon the nose can not by any
means be made to appear. The oiled hand introduced into the passages will
feel the nose presenting between the fore limbs, and on passing the hand
back over the face the hard rounded mass of the cranium is met with. A
sharp-pointed knife or a cannula and trocar should be introduced in the
palm of the hand and pushed into the center of the rounded mass so as to
evacuate the water. The hand is now used to press together the hitherto
distended but thin and fragile walls, and the calf may be delivered in the
natural way. If the enlarged head is turned backward it must still be
reached and punctured, after which it must be brought up into position and
the calf delivered.

If the hind feet present first, all may go well until the body and
shoulders have passed out, when further progress is suddenly arrested by
the great bulk of the head. If possible, the hand, armed with a knife or
trocar, must be passed along the side of the shoulder or neck so as to
reach and puncture the distended head. Failing in this, the body may be
skinned up from the belly and cut in two at the shoulder or neck, after
which the head can easily be reached and punctured. If in such case the
fore limbs have been left in the womb, they may now be brought up into the
passage, and when dragged upon the collapsed head will follow.

If the distention is not sufficient to have rendered the bony walls of the
cranium thin and fragile, so that they can be compressed with the hand
after puncture, a special method may be necessary. A long incision should
be made from behind forward in the median line of the cranium with an
embryotomy knife (Pl. XXI, fig. 1) or with a long embryotome (Pl. XX, fig.
3). By this means the bones on the one side are completely separated from
those on the other and may be made to overlap and perhaps to flatten down.
If this fails they may be cut from the head all around the base of the
rounded cranial swelling by means of a guarded chisel (Pl. XX, fig. 8) and
mallet, after which there will be no difficulty in causing them to
collapse.


DROPSY OF THE ABDOMEN OF THE CALF (ASCITES).

This is less frequent than hydrocephalus, but no less difficult to deal
with. With an anterior presentation the fore limbs and head may come away
easily enough, but no effort will advance the calf beyond the shoulders.
The first thought should be dropsy of the belly, and the oiled hand
introduced by the side of the chest will detect the soft and fluctuating
yet tense sac of the abdomen. If there is space to allow of the
introduction of an embryotomy knife, the abdomen may be freely cut with
this, when the fluid will escape into the womb and parturition may proceed
naturally. If this can not be effected, a long trocar and cannula may be
passed between the first two ribs and straight on beneath the spine until
it punctures the abdomen. (Pl. XVIII, fig. 2.) Then the trocar is to be
withdrawn and the liquid will flow through the cannula and will be hastened
by traction on the fore limbs. In the absence of the trocar and cannula,
two or three of the first ribs may be cut from the breastbone, so that the
hand may be introduced through the chest to puncture the diaphragm with an
embryotomy knife and allow an escape of the water. In some slighter cases a
tardy delivery may take place without puncture, the liquid bulging forward
into the chest as the abdomen is compressed in the pelvic passages. With a
posterior presentation the abdomen may be punctured more easily either in
the flank or with a trocar and cannula through the anus.


GENERAL DROPSY OF THE CALF.

This occurs from watery blood or disease of some internal organ, like the
liver or kidney, and is recognized by the general puffed-up and rounded
condition of the body, which pits everywhere on pressure but without
crackling. If not too extreme a case, the calf may be extracted after it
has been very generally punctured over the body, but usually the only
resort is to extract it in pieces. (See "Embryotomy," p. 202.)


SWELLING OF THE CALF WITH GAS.

This is usually the result of the death and decomposition of the fetus when
extraction has been delayed for a day or more after the escape of the
waters. It is impossible to extract it whole, owing to its large size and
the dry state of the skin of the calf, the membranes, and the wall of the
womb. These dry surfaces stick with such tenacity that no attempt at
traction leads to any advance of the calf out of the womb or into the
passages. When the fetus is advanced the adherent womb advances with it,
and when the strain is relaxed both recede to where they were at first. The
condition may be helped somewhat by the free injection of oil into the
womb, but it remains impossible to extract the enormously bloated body, and
the only resort is to cut it in pieces and extract it by degrees. (See
"Embryotomy," p. 202.)


RIGID CONTRACTIONS OF MUSCLES.

In the development of the calf, as in after life, the muscles are subject
to cramps, and in certain cases given groups of muscles remain unnaturally
short, so that even the bones grow in a twisted and distorted way. In one
case the head and neck are drawn round to one side and can not be
straightened out, even the bones of the face and the nose being curved
around to that side. In other cases the flexor muscles of the fore legs are
so shortened that the knees are kept constantly bent and can not be
extended by force. The bent neck may sometimes be sufficiently straightened
for extraction by cutting across the muscles on the side to which it is
turned, and the bent knees by cutting the cords on the back of the shank
bones just below the knees. If this fails, there remains the resort of
cutting off the distorted limbs or head. (See "Embryotomy," p. 202.)


TUMORS OF THE CALF (INCLOSED OVUM).

Tumors or new growths grow on the unborn calf as on the mature animal, and
by increasing the diameter of the body render its progress through the
passage of the pelvis impossible. In my experience with large, fleshy
tumors of the abdomen, I have cut open the chest, removed the lungs and
heart, cut through the diaphragm with the knife, and removed the tumor
piecemeal by alternate tearing and cutting until the volume of the body was
sufficiently reduced to pass through. Where this failed it would remain to
cut off the anterior part of the body, removing as much of the chest as
possible, and cutting freely through the diaphragm; then, pushing back the
remainder of the body, the hind limbs may be seized and brought into the
passages and the residue thus extracted. The tumor, unless very large, will
get displaced backward so as not to prove an insuperable obstacle.

In many cases the apparent tumor is a blighted ovum which has failed to
develop, but has grafted itself on its more fortunate twin and from it has
drawn its nourishment. These are usually sacs containing hair, skin,
muscle, bone, or other natural tissues, and only exceptionally do they show
the distinct outline of the animal.


MONSTROSITY IN THE CALF.

As a monstrous development in the calf may hinder calving, it is well to
consider shortly the different directions in which these deviations from
the natural form appear. Their origin and significance will be rendered
clearer if we divide them according to the fault of development in
individual cases. Monsters are such--

(1) From absence of parts--absence of head, limb, or other organ--arrested
development.

(2) From some organ being unnaturally small, as a dwarfed head, limb,
trunk, etc.--arrested development.

(3) From unnatural division of parts--cleft lips, palate, head, trunk,
limbs, etc.--abnormal growth.

(4) From the absence of natural divisions--absence of mouth, nose, eye,
anus; the cloven foot of ox or pig becomes solid, like that of the horse,
etc.--confluence of parts which are rightfully separate.

(5) From the fusion of parts--both eyes replaced by central one, both
nostrils merged into one central opening, etc.--confluence of parts.

(6) From unnatural position or form of parts--curved nose, neck, back,
limbs, etc.--lack of balance in the growth of muscles during development.

(7) From excessive growth of one or more organs--enormous size of head,
double penis, superfluous digits, etc.--redundancy of growth at given
points.

(8) From imperfect differentiation of the sexual organs--hermaphrodites
(organs intermediate between male and female), male organs with certain
feminine characters, female organs with certain well-marked male
characters.

(9) From the doubling of parts or of the entire body--double monsters,
doubled heads, doubled bodies, extra limbs, etc.--redundant development.
(Pl. XIX, figs. 1, 2, 3.)

_Causes._--The causes of monstrosities are varied. Some, like extra digits,
lack of horns, etc., run in families, which produce them with absolute
certainty when bred in the direct line, although they were originally
acquired peculiarities which have merely been fixed by long habit in
successive generations. The earliest horse had five toes, and even the most
recent fossil horse had three toes, of which the two lateral ones are still
represented in the modern animal by the two splint bones. Yet if our horse
develops an extra toe it is pronounced a monstrosity. A more genuine
monstrosity is the solid-hoofed pig, in which two toes have been merged
into one. Another of the same kind is the solid shank bone of the ox, which
consists of two bones united into one, but which are still found apart in
the early fetus. Though originally acquired peculiarities, they now breed
as invariably as color or form.

Other monstrosities seem to have begun in too close breeding, by which the
powers of symmetrical development are impaired, just as the procreative
power weakens under continuous breeding from the closest blood relations. A
monstrosity consisting in the absence of an organ often depends on a simple
lack of development, the result of disease or injury, as a young bone is
permanently shortened by being broken across the soft part between the
shaft and the end, the only part where increase in length can take place.
As the result of the injury the soft, growing layer becomes prematurely
hard and all increase in length at that end of the bone ceases. This will
account for some cases of absence of eye, limb, or other organ.

Sometimes a monstrosity is owing to the inclosure of one ovum in another
while the latter is still but a soft mass of cells and can easily close
around the first. Here each ovum has an independent life; they develop
simultaneously, only the outer one having direct connection with the womb
and being furnished with abundant nourishment advances most rapidly and
perfectly, while the inclosed and starved ovum is dwarfed and imperfect
often to the last degree.

In many cases of excess of parts the extra part or member is manifestly
derived from the same ovum, and even the same part of the ovum, being
merely the effect of a redundancy and vagary of growth. Such cases include
most instances of extra digits or other organs, and even of double
monsters, as manifested by the fact that such extra organs grow from the
normal identical organs. Hence the extra digit is attached to the normal
digit, the extra head to the one neck, the extra tail to the croup, extra
teeth to the existing teeth, and even two similarly formed bodies are
attached by some point common to both, as the navels, breastbones, backs,
etc. (Pl. XIX, figs. 1, 2, 3.) This shows that both have been derived from
the same primitive layer of the embryo, which possessed the plastic power
of building up a given structure or set of organs. An inclosed ovum, on the
other hand, has no such identity or similarity of structure to the part
with which it is connected, showing an evident primary independence of both
life and the power of building tissues and organs. The power of determining
extra growth along a given natural line is very highly developed in the
early embryo and is equally manifest in the mature examples of some of the
lower forms of animal life. Thus a newt will grow a new tail when that
member has been cut off, and a starfish will develop as many new starfishes
as the pieces made by cutting up the original one. This power of growth in
the embryo and in the lower form of animals is comparable to the branching
out again of a tree at the places from which branches have been lopped. The
presence of this vegetablelike power of growth in the embryo accounts for
most double monsters.

The influence of disease in modifying growth in the early embryo,
increasing, decreasing, distorting, etc., is well illustrated in the
experiments of St. Hilaire and Valentine in varnishing, shaking, or
otherwise disturbing the connections of eggs and thereby producing
monstrosities. One can easily understand how inflammations and other causes
of disturbed circulation in the womb, fetal membranes, or fetus would cause
similar distortions and variations in the growing fetus. It is doubtless
largely in the same way that certain mental disturbances of a very
susceptible dam affect the appearance of the progeny. The monstrosities
which seriously interfere with calving are mainly such as consist in extra
members or head, which can not be admitted into the passages at the same
time, where some organ of the body has attained extra size, where a
blighted ovum has been inclosed in the body of a more perfect one, or where
the body or limbs are so contracted or twisted that the calf must enter the
passages doubled up.

_Treatment._--Extraction is sometimes possible by straightening the
distorted members by the force of traction; in other cases the muscles or
tendons must be cut across on the side to which the body or limbs are bent
to allow of such straightening. Thus, the muscles on the concave side of a
wry neck or the cords behind the shank bones of a contracted limb may be
cut to allow of these parts being brought into the passages, and there will
still be wanting the methods demanded for bringing up missing limbs or
head, for which see paragraphs below. In most cases of monstrosity by
excess of overgrowth it becomes necessary to cut off the supernumerary or
overdeveloped parts, and the same general principles must be followed as
laid down in "Embryotomy" (p. 202).


  WRONG PRESENTATIONS OF THE CALF.

  The following is a list of abnormal presentations of the calf:

  Simultaneous presentation of twins.

  A   {          {Limbs curved at the knee. Flexor tendons shortened.
  n   {Fore Limbs{Limb crossed over the back of the neck.
  t   {          {Limb bent back at the knee.
  e   {          {Limb bent back from the shoulder.
  r   {
  i   {          {Head bent downward on the neck.
  o P {          {Head and neck turned downward beneath the breast.
  r r {Head      {Head turned to one side upon the side of the neck.
    e {          {Head and neck turned back on the side of the chest and
    s {          {  abdomen.
    e {          {Head turned upward and backward on the back.
    n {
    t {          {Hind limbs rotated outward. Toes and stifles turned
    a {          {  outward.
    t {Hind Limbs{Hind limbs bent forward, their feet resting in the pelvis.
    i {
    o {Transverse{Back of the calf turned to the right or left side.
    n {
    s {Inverted  {Back of the calf turned to the floor of the pelvis and
    {          {  udder.


  P P {
  o r {          {Hind limb bent on itself at the hock. Hock and buttocks
  s e {Hind Limbs{  present.
  t s {          {Hind limb bent at the hips. Buttocks present.
  e e {
  r n {Transverse{Back of calf turned to the right or left side.
  i t {
  o a {Inverted  {Back of calf turned to the floor of the pelvis and udder.
  r t {
    i {
    o {
    n {
                         {Head up toward the spine, croup
           {Position of calf vertical  {  toward udder.
  T   {          {                           {Head down toward udder, croup
  r   {Back      {                           {  toward spine.
  u P {and       {
  n r {loins     {                           {Head toward the right side,
  k e {presented.{Position of calf transverse{  croup toward the left.
    s {          {
    e {          {                           {Head toward the left side,
    n {          {                           {  croup toward the right.
    t {          {
    a {          {
    t {Breast    {                           {Head toward right side, croup
    i {and       {Position of calf transverse{  toward left.
    o {abdomen   {                           {Head toward left side, croup
    n {presented.{                           {  toward right.
    s {

These include all general presentations, yet other subsidiary ones will at
once occur to the attentive reader. Thus, in each anterior or posterior
presentation, with the back of the calf turned downward or to one side, the
case may be complicated by the bending back of one or more members as a
whole or at the joint just above the shank bones (knee or hock). So also in
such anterior presentation the head may be turned back.

_Head and fore feet presented--Back turned to one side._--The calf has a
greater diameter from above down (spine to breastbone) than it has from
side to side, and the same is true of the passage of the pelvis of the cow,
which measures, on an average, 8-7/10 inches from above downward and 7-9/10
inches from side to side. Hence the calf passes most easily with its back
upward, and when turned with its back to one side calving is always tardy
and may be difficult or impossible. The obvious remedy is to rotate the
calf on its own axis until its spine turns toward the spine of the cow. The
operation is not difficult if the body of the calf is not yet fixed in the
passages. The presenting feet are twisted over each other in the direction
desired, and this is continued until the head and spine have assumed their
proper place. If the body is firmly engaged in the passages the skin of the
whole engaged portion should be freely lubricated with lard, and the limbs
and head twisted over each other as above. The limbs may be twisted by an
assistant when the head is manipulated by the operator, who drags on the
rope turned halfway round the limbs and assists in the rotation with his
other hand in the passages.

_Head and fore feet presented--Back turned down toward the udder._--This
position (Pl. XVI, fig. 6) is unnatural, and the parturition is difficult
for two reasons: First, the natural curvature of the fetus is opposed to
the natural curvature of the passages; and, second, the thickest part of
the body of the calf (the upper) is engaged in the narrowest part of the
passage of the pelvis (the lower). Yet unless the calf is especially large
and the pelvis of the cow narrow, parturition may usually be accomplished
in this way spontaneously or with very little assistance in the way of
traction on the limbs. If this can not be accomplished, two courses are
open: First, to rotate the calf as when the back is turned to one side;
second, to push back the presenting fore limbs and head and search for and
bring up the hind limbs, when the presentation will be a natural, posterior
one.

_Presentation of the hind feet with the back turned to one side or
downward._--These are the exact counterparts of the two conditions last
described, are beset with similar drawbacks, and are to be dealt with on
the same general principles. (Pl. XVII, fig. 4.) With the back turned to
one side the body should be rotated until the back turns toward the spine
of the dam, and with the back turned down it must be extracted in that
position (care being taken that the feet do not perforate the roof of the
vagina) or it must be rotated on its own axis until the back turns upward,
or the hind limbs must be pushed back and the fore limbs and head advanced,
when the presentation will be a natural anterior one.

_Impaction of twins in the passage._--It is very rare to have twins enter
the passages together so as to become firmly impacted. As a rule, each of
the twins has its own separate membranes, and as the water bags of one will
naturally first enter and be the first to burst, so the calf which occupied
those membranes will be the first to enter the passage and the other will
be thereby excluded. When the membranes of both have burst without either
calf having become engaged in the pelvis, it becomes possible for the fore
legs of one and the hind legs of the other to enter at one time, and if the
straining is very violent they may become firmly impacted. (Pl. XVIII, fig.
1.) The condition may be recognized by the fact that two of the presenting
feet have their fronts turned forward, while the two others have their
fronts turned backward. If the four feet belonged to one natural calf, they
would all have the same direction. By means of this difference in direction
we can easily select the two feet of one calf, place running nooses upon
them just above the hoofs or fetlocks, and have an assistant drag upon the
ropes while the feet of the other calf are pushed back. In selecting one of
the twins to come first several considerations should have weight. The one
that is most advanced in the passage is, of course, the first choice.
Though the fore feet of one are presented, yet if the head is not in place
the calf presenting by its hind feet is to be chosen as being less liable
to obstruct. Again, if for either calf one limb only is presented and the
other missing, the one presenting two feet should be selected to come
first. As soon as one calf has been advanced so as to occupy the pelvis the
other will be crowded back so that it will not seriously obstruct.

_Fore limbs curved at the knee--Limbs sprawling outward._--In this case not
only are the knees somewhat bent in a curve, but the calf has a position as
if it rested on its breastbone, while the legs were drawn apart and
directed to the right and left. The shoulder blades being drawn outward
from the chest and the elbows turned out, the muscles extending from the
trunk to the limb are unduly stretched and keep the knees bent and the feet
directed outward so as to press on the sides of the passages. They become
retarded in their progress as compared with the more rapidly advancing
head, and may bruise or even lacerate the walls of the vagina. It would
seem easy to rectify this by extending the legs, but the already tense and
overstretched muscles operate against extension in the present position,
and it is not easy to rotate the limbs so as to apply the shoulder flat
against the side of the chest. Under these circumstances a repeller (Pl.
XX, fig. 7) may be planted in the breast and the body of the calf pushed
backward into the womb, when the limbs will extend easily under traction
and the presentation becomes at once natural.

_Fore limbs curved at knee--Flexor tendons shortening._--In this case the
feet will press against the floor of the pelvis though the limb has no
outward direction, and the shoulder meanwhile presses against the roof of
the same passage. Unless the knees can be sufficiently straightened by
force a knife must be used to cut across the cords behind the knee, when
the limbs may be straightened sufficiently.

_Fore limbs flexed at knee--Flexor tendons unshortened._--This is mostly
seen in cases in which the body of the calf is in the proper position, its
back being turned up toward the back of the dam, and in cows with a
drooping abdomen. The feet have been supposed to catch beneath the brim of
the pelvis, and being retarded while the head advances into the passages,
they get bent at the knee and the nose and knees present. (Pl. XVI, fig.
2.) The calf, however, is not an inanimate body advanced by the mere
contraction of the womb, but it moves its limbs freely under the stimulus
of the unwonted compression, and in moving the feet as they are advanced
they slip down over the pelvic brim and finding no other firm support they
bend back until, under the impulsion, they can no longer straighten out
again. The knees, therefore, advance with the neck and head, but the feet
remain bent back. The result is that the upper part of the limb is also
flexed, and the shoulder blade and arm bone with their masses of investing
muscles are carried backward and applied on the side of the chest, greatly
increasing the bulk of this already bulky part. As the elbow is carried
back on the side of the chest, the forearm from elbow to knee further
increases the superadded masses of the shoulder and renders it difficult or
impossible to drag the mass through the passages. When the fore limbs are
fully extended, on the contrary, the shoulder blade is extended forward on
the smallest and narrowest part of the chest, the arm bone with its muscles
is in great part applied against the side of the back part of the neck, and
the forearm is continued forward by the side of the head so that the nose
lies between the knees. In this natural presentation the presenting body of
the calf forms a long wedge or cone, the increase of which is slow and
gradual until it reaches the middle of the chest.

The difficulty of extending the fore limbs will be in proportion to the
advance of the head through the pelvic cavity. In the early stage all that
is necessary may be to introduce the oiled hand, the left one for the right
leg or the right one for the left, and passing the hand from the knee on to
the foot to seize the foot in the palm, bend it forcibly on the fetlock,
and lift it up over the brim of the pelvis, the knee being, of course,
pressed upward against the spine. As soon as the foot has been raised above
the brim of the pelvis (into the passage) the limb can be straightened out
with the greatest ease.

When, however, the shoulders are already engaging in the pelvis the feet
can not thus be lifted up, and to gain room a repeller (Pl. XX, fig. 7)
must be used to push back the body of the calf. This is an instrument with
a long, straight stem, divided at the end into two short branches (2 to 3
inches long) united to the stem by hinges so that they can be brought into
a line with the stem for introduction into the womb and then spread to be
implanted in the breast. In the absence of a repeller a smooth, round, fork
handle may be used, the prongs having been removed from the other end. A
third device is to have an assistant strip his arm to the shoulder and,
standing back to back with the operator, to introduce his right arm into
the passages along with the operator's left (or vice versa) and push back
the body of the calf while the operator seeks to bring up a limb. The
repeller or staff having been planted safely in the breast of the calf, an
assistant pushes upon it in a direction either forward or slightly upward,
so as not only to follow the natural curve of the body and favor its
turning in the line of that curve within the womb, but also to carry the
shoulders upward toward the spine and obtain more room for bringing up the
missing feet. It is good policy, first, to put a halter (Pl. XXI, figs.
4_a_ and 4_b_) on the head or a noose (Pl. XXI, fig. 3) on the lower jaw
and a rope round each limb at the knee, so as to provide against the loss
of any of these parts when the body is pushed back into the womb. This
offers the further advantage that by dragging upon these ropes the body can
be advanced in the passage until the foot is reached, when the rope must be
slackened and the repeller used to get room for bringing up the foot. If
the cow is lying, the operator should first secure the foot on the upper
side and then, if necessary, turn the cow on its opposite side so as to
bring up the other.

In using the instruments some precautions are demanded. They must be
invariably warmed before they are introduced, and they should be smeared
with lard or oil to make them pass easily and without friction. The
assistant who is pushing on the instrument must be warned to stop if at any
time resistance gives way. This may mean the turning of the fetus, in which
case the object of repulsion has been accomplished, but much more probably
it implies the displacement of the instrument from the body of the fetus,
and unguarded pressure may drive it through the walls of the womb.

When the calf enters the passage with its back turned down toward the belly
and udder, the bending back of the fore limbs is rare, probably because the
feet can find a straighter and more nearly uniform surface of resistance in
the upper wall of the womb and the backbone, and do not slide over a crest
into an open cavity, as they do over the brim of the pelvis. The weight of
the calf, too, gravitating downward, leaves more room for the straightening
of the bent limbs, so that the desired relief is much more easily secured.
The manipulation is the same in principle, only one must add the precaution
of a steady traction on the feet in extraction, lest, owing to the adverse
curvature of the fetus, the hoofs are suddenly forced through the roof of
the vagina, and, perhaps, the rectum as well, during a specially powerful
labor pain.

When the back of the calf is turned to the right side or the left the main
difference is that in addition to straightening the limbs the fetus must be
rotated to turn its back upward before extraction is attempted. In this
case, too, it may be difficult to bring up and straighten the lower of the
two limbs until the body has been rotated into its proper position. Cord
the upper straightened limb and head, then rotate the body and search for
the second missing limb.

_Fore limbs bent back from the shoulders._--This is an exaggeration of the
condition just named, and is much more difficult to remedy, owing to the
distance and inaccessibility of the missing limb. It usually happens with
the proper position of the body, the back of the calf being turned toward
the back of the mother. The head presents in the passage and may even
protrude from the vulva during an active labor pain, but it starts back
like a spring when the straining ceases. Examination with the oiled hands
in the intervals between the pains fails to detect the missing limbs. (Pl.
XVI, fig. 1.) If, however, the hand can be introduced during a pain it may
be possible to reach the elbow or upper part of the forearm. In the absence
of a pain a halter or noose on the head may be used to advance the whole
body until the forearm can be seized just below the elbow. This being
firmly held and the head or body pushed back into the womb, room may be
obtained for bringing up the knee. The forearm is used as a lever, its
upper part being strongly forced back while its lower part is pressed
forward. If a pain supervenes the hold must be retained, and whatever gain
has been made must be held if possible. Then during the next pain, by
pushing back the body and continuing to operate the forearm as a lever, a
still further advance may be made. As the knee is brought up in this way,
the hand is slid down from the elbow toward the knee, which is finally
brought up over the brim of the pelvis and into the passage. It is now
corded at the knee, and the subsequent procedure is as described in the
last article. In a large, roomy cow with a small calf the latter may pass
with one or both forelegs bent back, but this is a very exceptional case,
and, as early assistance is the most successful, there should never be
delay in hope of such a result.

_One fore limb crossed over the back of the neck._--This is a rare obstacle
to calving, but one that not altogether unknown. The hand introduced into
the passage feels the head and one forefoot, and farther back on the same
side of the other foot, from which the womb can be traced obliquely across
the back of the neck. (Pl. XVI, fig. 3.) This foot, projecting
transversely, is liable to bruise or tear the vagina. If still deeply
engaged in the vagina, it may be seized and pushed across to the opposite
side of the neck, when the presentation will be natural.

_Head bent down beneath the neck._--In this case, with drooping belly and
womb allowing the brim of the pelvis to form a ridge, the advancing calf,
having unduly depressed its nose, strikes it on the brim of the pelvis, and
the neck advancing, the head is bent back and the poll and ears either
enter the pelvis or strike against its brim. The two forefeet present, but
they make no progress, and the oiled hand introduced can detect no head
until the poll is felt at the entrance of the pelvis, between the forearms.
The two forefeet must be fixed with running nooses and dragged on
moderately while the oiled hand seeks to bring up the head. The hand is
slid down over the forehead and brim of the pelvis until the nose is
reached, when it is passed into the mouth, the muzzle resting in the palm
of the hand. The legs are now pushed upon, and in the space thus gained the
muzzle is drawn up so as to enter it into the pelvis. In doing this the
operator must carefully see that the mouth does not drop open so that the
sharp, front teeth cut through the floor of the womb. Should this danger
threaten, the hand should be made to cover the lower jaw as well. The
lessened security of the hold is more than compensated by the safety of the
procedure. With the nose in the pelvis, it has only to be drawn forward and
the parturition is natural.

_Head bent down beneath the breast._--This is an exaggerated condition of
that last named. The head, arrested by the brim of the pelvis and already
bent back on the neck, is pressed farther with each successive throe until
it has passed between the forelegs and lodges beneath the breast bone. (Pl.
XVI, fig. 4.) On examination, the narrow upper border of the neck is felt
between the forearms, but as a rule the head is out of reach below. Keeping
the hand on the neck and dragging on the feet by the aid of ropes, the hand
may come to touch and seize the ear, or, still better, one or two fingers
may be inserted into the orbit of the eye.

Then in pushing back upon the limbs, with or without the aid of a repeller
applied against the shoulder, space may be obtained to draw the head into a
vertical position, and even to slip the hand down so as to seize the nose.
Should it prove impossible to draw the head up with the unassisted fingers,
a blunt hook (Pl. XXI, fig. 6) may be inserted into the orbit, on which an
assistant may drag while another pushes upon the limbs or repeller.
Meanwhile the operator may secure an opportunity of reaching and seizing
the nose or of passing a blunt hook into the angle of the mouth. Success
will be better assured if two hooks (Pl. XXI, fig. 7) are inserted in the
two orbits, so as to draw up the head more evenly. In other cases a noose
may be placed on the upper jaw, or even around both jaws, and traction made
upon this and on the hooks in the orbits while the legs are pushed back,
and while the operator pushes back on the poll or forehead. In still more
difficult cases, in which even the orbits can not be reached, a sharp hook
on the end of a straight iron rod (Pl. XX, fig. 2) may be inserted over the
lower jaw as far forward as it can be reached, and by dragging upon this
while the body is pushed back the head will be brought up sufficiently to
allow the operator to reach the orbit or nose. If even the jaw can not be
reached, the hook may be inserted in the neck as near to the head as
possible and traction employed so as to bring the head within reach.

In all such cases the cow's head should be turned downhill, and in case of
special difficulty she should be turned on her back and held there until
the head is secured. In old-standing cases, with the womb closely clasping
the body of the calf, relaxation may be sought by the use of chloroform or
a full dose of chloral hydrate--2 ounces; the free injection of warm water
into the womb will also be useful.

_Head turned back on the shoulder._--With a natural, anterior presentation
this may happen because of the imperfect dilation of the mouth of the womb.
Under the throes of the mother the forefeet pass through the narrow opening
into the vagina, while the nose, striking against it and unable to enter,
is pressed backward into the womb and turns aside on the right or left
shoulder. The broad muzzle of the calf forms an especial obstacle to
entrance and favors this deviation of the head. The worst form of this
deviation is the old-standing one with shortening of the muscles of the
neck on that side, and oftentimes distortion of the face and neck bones, as
noticed under "Monstrosities" (p. 182).

When the head is bent on the shoulder the feet appear in the natural way,
but no progress is made, and examination reveals the absence of the nose
from between the knees, and farther back, from above and between the
elbows, a smooth rounded mass is felt extending to the right or left, which
further examination will identify with the neck. Following the upper border
of this the hand reaches the crown of the head with the ears, and still
further the eyes, or even, in a small calf, the nose.

As the bulky head of the calf can not be extracted along with the
shoulders, it becomes necessary to push the body of the fetus back and
straighten out the head and neck. The cow should be laid with her head
downhill and with that side up toward which the head is turned. If the
throes are very violent, or the womb strongly contracted on the calf, it
may be best to seek relaxation by giving chloroform, or 2 ounces of
laudanum, or 2 ounces of chloral hydrate. If the calf or the passages are
dry, sweet oil may be injected, or the whole may be liberally smeared with
fresh lard. In the absence of these, warm water rendered slightly slippery
by Castile soap may be injected into the womb in quantity. Ropes with
running nooses are placed on the presenting feet and the oiled hand
introduced to find the head. If, now, the fingers can be passed inside the
lower jawbone, and drag the head upward and toward the passage, it unwinds
the spiral turn given to the neck in bending back, and greatly improves the
chances of bringing forward the nose. If, at first, or if now, the lower
jaw can be reached, a noose should be placed around it behind the incisor
teeth and traction made upon this, so that the head may continue to be
turned, forehead up, toward the spine and jaws down, thereby continuing to
undo the screwlike curve of the neck. If, on the contrary, the nose is
dragged upon by a cord passing over the upper border of the neck, the
screwlike twist is increased and the resistance of the bones and joints of
the neck prevents any straightening of the head. As soon as the lower jaw
has been seized by the hand or noose, a repeller (Pl. XX, fig. 7), planted
on the inside of the elbow or shoulder most distant from the head, should
be used to push back the body and turn it in the womb, so that the head may
be brought nearer to the outlet. In this way the head can usually be
brought into position and the further course of delivery will be natural.

Sometimes, however, the lower jaw can not be reached with the hand, and
then the orbit or, less desirably, the ear, may be availed of. The ear may
be pulled by the hand, and by the aid of the repeller on the other shoulder
the calf may be so turned that the lower jaw may be reached and availed of.
Better still, a clamp (Pl. XVIII, figs. 3 and 4) is firmly fixed on the ear
and pulled by a rope, while the repeller is used on the opposite shoulder,
and the hand of the operator pulls on the lower border of the neck and
lifts it toward the other side. To pull on the upper border of the neck is
to increase the spiral twist, while to raise the lower border is to undo
it. If the outer orbit can be reached, the fingers may be inserted into it
so as to employ traction, or a blunt finger hook (Pl. XXI, fig. 8) may be
used, or a hook with a rope attached, or, finally, a hook on the end of a
long staff. Then, with the assistance of the repeller, the body may be so
turned and the head advanced that the lower jaw may be reached and availed
of.

In case neither the ears nor the orbit can be reached, a cord should be
passed around the neck of the calf as near the head as possible, and
traction made upon that while the opposite shoulder is pushed toward the
opposite side by the repeller, assisted by the hand dragging on the lower
border of the neck. To aid the hand in passing a rope around the neck a
cord carrier (Pl. XXI, fig. 5) is in use. It fails, however, to help us in
the most difficult part of the operation--the passing of the cord down on
the deep or farthest side of the neck--and to remedy this I have devised a
cord carrier, furnished with a ring at the end, a joint 6 or 8 inches from
the end, and another ring on the handle, close to this joint. (Pl. XX, fig.
4.) A cord is passed through both rings and a knot tied on its end, just
back of the terminal ring. The instrument, straightened out, is inserted
until it reaches just beyond the upper border of the neck, when, by
dragging on the cord, the movable segment is bent down on the farther side
of the neck, and is pushed on until it can be felt at its lower border. The
hand now seizes the knotted end of the cord beneath the lower border of the
neck and pulls it through while the carrier is withdrawn, the cord sliding
through its rings. The cord, pushed up as near to the head as possible, is
furnished with a running noose by tying the knotted end round the other,
or, better, the two ends are twisted around each other so as to give a firm
hold on the neck without dangerously compressing the blood vessels. By
pushing on the opposite shoulder with the repeller, and, assisting with the
hand on shoulder, breastbone, or lower border of the neck, such a change of
position will be secured as will speedily bring the head within reach.
Afterwards proceed as described above.

These cases are always trying, but it is very rarely necessary to resort to
embryotomy. When absolutely required, first remove one fore limb, and then,
if still unsuccessful, the other, after which the head can easily be
secured. (See "Embryotomy," p. 202.)

_Head turned upward and backward._--In this case the face rests upon the
spine; the forefeet appear alone in the passage, but fail to advance, and
on examination the rounded, inferior border of the neck can be felt,
extending upward and backward beneath the spine of the dam, and if the calf
is not too large the hand may reach the lower jaw or even the muzzle. (Pl.
XVI, fig. 5.) A repeller is planted in the breast and the body of the calf
pushed backward and downward so as to make room and bring the head nearer
to the passage; or in some cases the body may be pushed back sufficiently
by the use of the fore limbs alone. Meanwhile the head is seized by the ear
or the eye socket, or, if it can be reached, by the lower jaw, and pulled
downward into position as space is obtained for it. If the hand alone is
insufficient, the blunt hooks may be inserted in the orbits or in the angle
of the mouth, or a noose may be placed on the lower paw, and by traction
the head will be easily advanced. In case of a large fetus, the head of
which is beyond reach, even when traction is made on the limbs, a rope may
be passed around the neck and pulled, while the breastbone is pressed
downward and backward by the repeller, and soon the change of position will
bring the orbit or lower jaw within reach. With the above-described
position the standing position is most favorable for success, but if the
calf is placed with its back down toward the udder, and if the head is bent
down under the brim of the pelvis, the best position for the cow is on her
back, with her head downhill.

In neglected cases, with death and putrefaction of the fetus and dryness of
the passages, it may be necessary to extract in pieces. (See "Embryotomy,"
p. 202.)

_Outward direction of the stifles_--_Abduction of hind limbs._--As an
obstacle to parturition, this is rare in cows. It is most liable to take
place in cows with narrow hip bones, and when the service has been made by
a bull having great breadth across the quarter. The calf, taking after the
sire, presents an obstacle to calving in the breadth of its quarters, and
if at the same time the toes and stifles are turned excessively outward and
the hocks inward the combined breadth of the hip bones above and the
stifles below may be so great that the pelvis will not easily admit them.
After the forefeet, head, and shoulders have all passed out through the
vulva, further progress suddenly and unaccountably ceases, and some
dragging on the parts already delivered does not serve to bring away the
hind parts. The oiled hand introduced along the side of the calf will
discover the obstacle in the stifle joints turned directly outward and
projecting on each side beyond the bones which circumscribe laterally the
front entrance of the pelvis. The evident need is to turn the stifles
inward; this may be attempted by the hand introduced by the side of the
calf, which is meanwhile rotated gently on its own axis to favor the change
of position. To correct the deviation of the hind limb is, however, very
difficult, as the limbs themselves are out of reach and can not be used as
levers to assist. If nothing can be done by pushing the body of the calf
back and rotating it and by pressure by the hand in the passages, the only
resort appears to be to skin the calf from the shoulder back, cut it in two
as far back as can be reached, then push the buttocks well forward into the
womb, bring up the hind feet, and so deliver.

_Hind limbs excessively bent on the body and engaged in the pelvis._--In
this case the presentation is apparently a normal, anterior one; fore limbs
and head advanced naturally and the parturition proceeds until half the
chest has passed through the external passages, when suddenly progress
ceases and no force will effect farther advance. An examination with the
oiled hand detects the presence, in the passages, of the hind feet and
usually the hind legs up to above the hocks. (Pl. XVII, fig. 1.)

The indications for treatment are to return the hind limbs into the body of
the womb. If they have not advanced too far into the pelvis, this may be
done as follows: A rope with running noose is passed over each hind foot
and drawn tight around the lower part of the hock; the ropes are then
passed through the two rings in the small end of the rotating instrument
(Pl. XX, fig. 5) which is slid into the passages until it reaches the
hocks, when the ropes, drawn tight, are tied around the handle of the
instrument. Then in the intervals between the pains the hocks are pushed
forcibly back into the womb. If by this means flexion can be effected in
hocks and stifles, success will follow; the hind feet will pass into the
womb and clear of the brim of the pelvis and the body may now be advanced
without hindrance, the hind limbs falling into place when the hip joints
are extended. At the same time the pressure upon hind limbs must not be
relaxed until the buttocks are engaged in the pelvis, as otherwise the feet
may again get over the brim and arrest the progress of delivery.

When the hind limbs are already so jammed into the pelvis that it is
impossible to return them, the calf must be sacrificed to save the mother.
Cords with running nooses are first put on the two hind feet. The body must
be skinned from the shoulders back as far as can be reached, and is to be
then cut in two, if possible, back of the last rib. The remainder of the
trunk is now pushed back into the body of the womb and by traction upon the
cords the hind feet are brought up into the passages and the extraction
will be comparatively easy.

_Hind presentation with one or both legs bent at the hock._--After the
bursting of the water bags, though labor pains continue, no part of the
fetus appears at the vulva unless it be the end of the tail. On examination
the buttocks are felt wedged against the spine at the entrance of the
pelvis and beneath them the bent hock joints resting on the brim of the
pelvis below. (Pl. XVII, fig. 3.) The calf has been caught by the labor
pains while the limb was bent beneath it and has been jammed into or
against the rim of the pelvis, so that extension of the limb became
impossible. With the thigh bent on the flank, the leg on the thigh, and the
shank on the leg, and all at once wedged into the passage, delivery is
practically impossible.

The obvious remedy is to push the croup upward and forward and extend the
hind legs, and in the early stages this can usually be accomplished in the
cow. A repeller (Pl. XX, fig. 7) is planted across the thighs and pointed
upward toward the spine of the cow and pushed forcibly in this direction
during the intervals between labor pains. Meanwhile the oiled hand seizes
the shank just below the hock and uses it as a lever, pushing the body back
and drawing the foot forward, thus effectually seconding the action of the
repeller. Soon a distinct gain is manifest, and as soon as the foot can be
reached it is bent back strongly at the fetlock, held in the palm of the
hand, and pulled up, while the repeller, pressing on the buttocks, assists
to make room for it. In this way the foot may be brought safely and easily
over the brim of the pelvis without any risk of laceration of the womb of
the foot. After the foot has been lifted over the brim, the whole limb can
be promptly and easily extended. In cases presenting special difficulty in
raising the foot over the brim, help may be had by traction on a rope
passed around in front of the hock, and later still by a rope with a noose
fastened to the pastern. In the worst cases, with the buttocks and hocks
wedged deeply into the passages, it may prove difficult or impossible to
push the buttocks back into the abdomen, and in such case the extension of
the hind limb is practically impossible without mutilation. In some roomy
cows a calf may be dragged through the passages by ropes attached to the
bent hocks, but even when this is possible there is great risk of
laceration of the floor of the vagina by the feet. The next resort is to
cut the hamstring just above the point of the hock and the tendon on the
front of the limb (flexor metatarsi) just above the hock, and even the
sinews behind the shank bone just below the hock. This allows the stifle
and hock to move independently of each other, the one undergoing extension
without entailing the extension of the other; it also allows both joints to
flex completely, so that the impacted mass can pass through a narrower
channel. If now, by dragging on the hocks and operating with the repeller
on the buttocks, the latter can be tilted forward sufficiently to allow of
the extension of the stifle, the jam will be at once overcome, and the calf
may be extracted with the hock bent, but the stifle extended. If even this
can not be accomplished, it may now be possible to extract the whole mass
with both hocks and stifles fully bent. To attempt this, traction may be
made on the rope around the hocks and on a sharp hook (Pl. XX, fig. 2)
passed forward between the thighs and hooked on to the brim of the pelvis.
Everything else failing, the offending limb or limbs may be cut off at the
hip joint and extracted, after which extraction may proceed by dragging on
the remaining limb, or by hooks on the hip bones. Very little is to be
gained by cutting off the limb at the hock, and the stifle is less
accessible than the hip, and amputation of the stifle gives much poorer
results.

_Hind limbs bent forward from the hip_--_Breech presentation._--This is an
exaggeration of the condition last described, only the hocks and stifles
are fully extended and the whole limb carried forward beneath the belly.
(Pl. XVII, fig. 2.) The water bags appear and burst, but nothing presents
unless it may be the tail. Examination in this case detects the outline of
the buttocks, with the tail and anus at its upper part.

The remedy, as in the case last described, consists in pushing the buttock
upward and forward with a repeller, the cow being kept standing and headed
downhill until the thigh bone can be reached and used as a lever. Its upper
end is pushed forward and its lower end raised until, the joints becoming
fully flexed, the point of the hock can be raised above the brim of the
pelvis. If necessary a noose may be passed around the leg as far down
toward the hock as possible and pulled on forcibly, while the hand presses
forward strongly on the back of the leg above. When both hocks have been
lodged above the brim of the pelvis the further procedure is as described
under the last heading.

If, however, the case is advanced and the buttocks wedged firmly into the
passages, it may be impossible safely to push the fetus back into the womb,
and the calf must either be dragged through the passage as it is or the
limbs or the pelvis must be cut off. To extract successfully with a breech
presentation the cow must be large and roomy and the calf not too large.
The first step in this case is to separate the pelvic bones on the two
sides by cutting from before backward, exactly in the median line below and
where the thighs come together above. This may be done with a strong
embryotomy knife, but is most easily accomplished with the long embryotome
(Pl. XX, fig. 3). The form which I have designed (Pl. XX, fig. 1), with a
short cutting branch jointed to the main stem, is to be preferred, as the
short cutting piece may be folded on the main stem so that its cutting edge
will be covered, and it can be introduced and extracted without danger.
This is pushed forward beneath the calf's belly, and the cutting arm
opened, inserted in front of the brim of the pelvis and pulled forcibly
back through the whole length of the pelvic bones. The divided edges are
now made to overlap each other and the breadth of the haunch is materially
reduced. One end of the cord may then be passed forward by means of a cord
carrier (Pl. XXI, fig. 5) on the inner side of one thigh until it can be
seized at the stifle by the hand passed forward on the outer side of that
thigh. This end is now pulled back through the vagina, the other end passed
through the cord carrier and passed forward on the inner side of the other
thigh until it can be seized at the stifle by the hand passed forward
outside that thigh. This end is drawn back through the vagina like the
first, and is tied around the other so as to form a running noose. The rope
is now drawn through the ring until it forms a tight loop, encircling the
belly just in front of the hind limbs. On this strong traction can be made
without interfering with the full flexion of the limbs on the body, and if
the case is a suitable one, and the body of the fetus and the passages are
both well lubricated with oil or lard, a successful parturition may be
accomplished. A less desirable method is to put a rope around one thigh or
a rope around each and drag upon these, but manifestly the strain is not so
directly on the spine, and the limbs may be somewhat hampered in flexion.

This method being inapplicable, the next resort is to cut off one or both
hind limbs at the hip joint. Free incisions are made on the side of the
haunch so as to expose the hip joint, and the muscles are cut away from the
head of the thigh bone down to its narrow neck, around which a rope is
passed and firmly fixed with a running noose. The joint is now cut into all
around, and while traction is made on the cord the knife is inserted into
the inner side of the joint and the round ligament severed. The cord may
now be dragged upon forcibly, and the muscles and other parts cut through
as they are drawn tense, until finally the whole member has been extracted.
Traction on the rope round the other thigh will now suffice to extract, in
most cases, but if it should fail the other limb may be cut off in the same
manner, and then hooks inserted in front of the brim of the pelvis or in
the openings in the bones of its floor (obturator foramina) will give
sufficient purchase for extraction. Another method is to insert a knife
between the bone of the rump (sacrum) and the hip bone and sever their
connections; then cut through the joint (symphysis) between the two hip
bones in the median line of the floor of the pelvis, and then with a hook
in the opening on the pelvic bones (obturator foramen) drag upon the limb
and cut the tense soft parts until the limb is freed and extracted.

_Presentation of the back._--In this presentation straining may be active,
but after the rupture of the water bags no progress is made, and the hand
introduced will recognize the back with its row of spinous processes and
the springing ribs at each side pressed against the entrance to the pelvis.
(Pl. XVII, fig. 6.) The presence or absence of the ribs will show whether
it is the region of the chest or the loins. By feeling along the line of
spines until the ribs are met with we shall learn that the head lies in
that direction. If, on the contrary, we follow the ribs until they
disappear, and a blank space is succeeded by hip bones, it shows that we
are approaching the tail. The head may be turned upward, downward, to the
right side, or to the left.

The object must be to turn the fetus so that one extremity or the other can
enter the passage, and the choice of which end to bring forward will depend
on various considerations. If one end is much nearer the outlet than the
other, that would naturally be selected for extraction, but if they are
equidistant the choice would fall on the hind end, as having only the two
limbs to deal with without any risk of complication from the head. When the
head is turned upward and forward it will usually be preferable to bring up
the hind limb, as, owing to the drooping of the womb into the abdomen,
rotation of the fetus will usually be easier in that direction, and if
successful the resulting position will be a natural posterior presentation,
with the back of the calf turned toward the rump of the cow. Similarly with
the croup turned upward and forward, that should be pushed on forward, and
if the forefeet and head can be secured it will be a natural anterior
presentation, with the back of the calf turned upward toward the rump of
the cow.

The womb should be injected with warm water or oil, and the turning of the
calf will demand the combined action of the repeller and the hand, but in
all such cases the operator has an advantage that the body of the fetus is
wholly within the body of the womb, and therefore movable with comparative
ease. No part is wedged into the pelvic passages as a complication. The
general principles are the same as in faulty presentation fore and hind,
and no time should be lost in making the manipulations necessary to bring
the feet into the pelvis, lest they get inbent or otherwise displaced and
add unnecessary complications.

With a transverse direction of the calf, the head being turned to one side,
the pressure must be directed laterally, so that the body will glide around
on one side of the womb, and the extremities when reached must be promptly
seized and brought into the passages. Sometimes a fortunate struggle of a
live fetus will greatly aid in rectifying the position.

_Breast and abdomen presented._--All four feet in the passages._--In this
form the calf lies across the womb with its roached back turned forward and
its belly toward the pelvis. All four feet may be extended and engaged in
the passages, or one or more may be bent on themselves so as to lie in
front of the pelvis. The head, too, may usually be felt on the right side
or the left, and if detected it serves to identify the exact position of
the fetus. The position may further be decided upon by examination of the
feet and limbs. With the limbs extended the front of the hoofs and the
convex aspect of the bent pasterns and fetlocks will look toward that flank
in which lie the head and shoulders. On examination still higher the
smooth, even outline of the knee and its bend, looking toward the hind
parts, characterize the fore limb, while the sharp prominence of the point
of the hock and the bend on the opposite side of the joint, looking toward
the head, indicate the hind limb. (Pl. XVII, fig. 5.)

The remedy of this condition is to be sought in repelling into the womb
those limbs that are least eligible for extraction, and bringing into the
passages the most eligible extremities. The most eligible will usually be
those which project farthest into the passages, indicating the nearer
proximity of that end of the calf. An exception may, however, be made in
favor of that extremity which will give the most natural presentation. Thus
if, owing to obliquity in the position of the fetus, the hind extremities
promised a presentation with the back of the fetus turned down toward the
udder, and the anterior extremities one with the back turned up toward the
spine, the latter should be selected. Again, if the choice for the two
extremities is evenly balanced, the hind may be chosen as offering less
risk of complication, there being no head to get displaced.

The first step in the treatment is to place a running noose on each of the
four feet, marking those of the fore limbs to distinguish them from those
of the hind ones. In case it is proposed to bring the anterior extremities
into the passage, a noose should also be placed on the lower jaw. Then run
the ropes attached to the two feet that are to be pushed back through the
ring of a cord carrier (Pl. XXI, fig. 5), passing the rings down to the
feet, and by the aid of the carrier push them well back into the womb and
hold them there. Meanwhile drag upon the ropes attached to the two other
feet so as to bring them into the passage (or, in case of the anterior
extremity, on the two foot ropes and the head one). The other feet must be
pushed back into the womb until the body of the calf is fully engaged in
the passages. After this they can no longer find an entrance, but must
follow as the body escapes.


NEGLECTED AND AGGRAVATED CASES.

In laying down the foregoing rules for giving assistance in critical cases
of calving it is not intimated that all cases and stages can be
successfully dealt with. Too often assistance is not sought for many hours
or even days after labor pains, and the escape of the waters intimate the
danger of delay. Not seldom the long delay has been filled up with
unintelligent and injurious attempts at rendering assistance, violent
pulling when resistance is insurmountable without change of position,
injuries to the vagina and womb by ill-considered but too forcibly executed
attempts to change the position, the repeated and long-continued contact
with rough hands and rougher ropes and hooks, the gashes with knives and
lacerations with instruments in ignorant hands, the infecting material
introduced on filthy hands and instruments, and the septic inflammations
started in the now dry and tender passages and womb. Not infrequently the
death, putrefaction, and bloating of the calf in the womb render the case
extremely unpromising and make it impossible to apply successfully many of
the measures above recommended. The labor pains of the cow may have
practically ceased from exhaustion; the passages of the vagina may be so
dry, tender, friable, red, and swollen that it requires considerable effort
even to pass the oiled hand through them, and the extraction of the calf or
any portion of it through such a channel seems a hopeless task; the womb
may be equally dry, inflamed and swollen, so that its lining membrane or
even its entire thickness is easily torn; the fetal membranes have lost
their natural, unctuous and slippery character, and cling firmly to the dry
walls of the womb, to the dry skin of the calf, or to the hands of the
operator; the dead and putrefying calf may be so bloated with gases that
the womb has been overdistended by its presence, and the two adhere so
closely that the motion of the one on the other is practically impossible.
In other cases reckless attempts to cut the calf in pieces have left raw
surfaces with projecting bones which dangerously scratch and tear the womb
and passages.

In many cases the extreme resort must be had of cutting the fetus to pieces
(embryotomy), or the still more redoubtable one of Cæsarean section
(extraction through the flank).


DISSECTION OF THE UNBORN CALF (EMBRYOTOMY).

In some cases the dissection of the calf is the only feasible means of
delivering it through the natural passages; and while it is especially
applicable to the dead calf, it is also on occasion called for in the case
of the living. As a rule, the living calf should be preserved, if possible,
but if this threatens to entail the death of the cow it is only in the case
of offspring of rare value that its preservation is to be preferred. To
those acquainted with the toil, fatigue, and discomfort of embryotomy, no
discussion is necessary so long as there is a prospect of success from the
simple and generally easier method of rectifying the faulty position of the
calf. When the correction of the position is manifestly impossible,
however, when distortions and monstrosities of the fetus successfully
obstruct delivery, when the pelvic passages are seriously contracted by
fractures and bony growths, when the passages are virtually almost closed
by swelling, or when the calf is dead and excessively swollen, no other
resort may be available. In many cases of distortion and displacement the
dismemberment of the entire calf is unnecessary, the removal of the
offending member being all that is required. It will be convenient,
therefore, to describe the various suboperations one by one and in the
order in which they are usually demanded.

_Amputation of the fore limb._--In cutting off a fore limb it is the one
presenting that should be selected, since it is much more easily operated
on, and its complete removal from the side of the chest affords so much
more space for manipulation that it often makes it easy to bring the other
missing limb or the head into position. The first consideration is to skin
the limb from the fetlock up and leave the skin attached to the body. The
reasons for this are: (_a_) That the skin is the most resistant structure
of the limb, and when it has been removed the entire limb can be easily
detached; (_b_) the tough skin left from the amputated limb may be used as
a cord in subsequent traction on the body of the calf; (_c_) the dissection
and separation of the limb are far more safely accomplished under the
protection of the enveloping skin than if the operator's hands and
instruments were in direct contact with the walls of the passages or womb;
(_d_) the dissection can be much more easily effected while the skin is
stretched by the left hand, so as to form a comparatively firmer resistant
point for the knife, than when it is attempted to cut the soft, yielding,
and elastic tissues which naturally offer little solid resistance, but
constantly recede before the cutting edge of the instrument. The
preservation of the skin is therefore a cardinal principle in the
amputation of all parts in which it is at all feasible.

The presenting foot is inclosed in a noose and drawn well out of the
passages. Then a circular incision through the skin is made around the limb
just above the fetlock. From this the skin is slit up on the inner side of
the limb to the breast. Then the projecting part of the limb is skinned up
to the vulva, traction being made on the foot by an assistant so as to
expose as much as possible. The embryotomy knife may now be taken (Pl. XXI,
fig. 2), and a small hole having been cut in the free end of the detached
portion of skin, that is seized by the left hand and extended while its
firm connections with the deeper structures are cut through. The looser
connections can be more quickly torn through with the closed fist or the
tips of the four fingers held firmly together in a line or with the spud,
of which there are several kinds. Much of the upper part of the limb can be
skinned more speedily without the knife, but that must be resorted to to
cut across tough bands whenever these interrupt the progress. The skinning
should be carried upward on the outer side of the shoulder blade to the
spine or nearly so. Then with the knife the muscles attaching the elbow and
shoulder to the breastbone are cut across, together with those on the inner
side of the shoulder joint and in front and behind it as far as these can
be reached. Steady traction is now made upon the foot, the remaining
muscles attaching the shoulder blade to the trunk are torn through with a
cracking noise, and the whole limb, including the shoulder blade and its
investing muscles, comes away. If the shoulder blade is left the bulk of
the chest is not diminished, and nothing has been gained. Before going
further it is well to see whether the great additional space thus secured
in the passages will allow of the missing limb or head to be brought into
position. If not, the other presenting part, limb or head, is to be
amputated and extracted. For the limb the procedure is a repetition of that
just described.

_Amputation of the head._--The head is first seized and drawn well forward,
or even outside the vulva, by a rope with a running noose placed around the
lower jaw just behind the incisor teeth, by a sharp hook inserted in the
arch of the lower jaw behind the union of its two branches and back of the
incisor teeth, or by hooks inserted in the orbits, or, finally, in case the
whole head protrudes, by a halter. (Pl. XXI, figs 4_a_ and 4_b._) In case
the whole head protrudes, a circular incision through the skin is made just
back of the ear, and the cut edge being held firmly by the left hand, the
neck is skinned as far as it can be reached. Then the great ligamentous
cord above the spine is cut across at the farthest available point,
together with the muscles above and below the spine. Strong traction on the
head will then detach it at this point and bring it away, but should there
still be too much resistance the knife is inserted between the bodies of
two vertebræ just behind one of the prominent points felt in the median
line below, and their connecting fibrous cartilage is cut through, after
which comparatively moderate pulling will bring it away. The detached neck
and body at once slip back into the womb, and if the fore limbs are now
brought up and pulled they are advanced so far upon the chest that the
transverse diameter of that is greatly diminished and delivery
correspondingly facilitated.

If the head is still inclosed in the vagina two methods are available: (1)
The removal of the lower jaw and subsequent separation of the head from the
neck; (2) the skinning of the whole head and its separation from the neck.

To remove the lower jaw the skin is dissected away from it until the throat
is reached. Then the muscles of the cheeks and side of the jaw (masseters)
are cut through and those connecting the jaw with the neck. When traction
is made on the rope around the lower jaw it will usually come away with
little trouble. Should it resist, its posterior extremity on each side
(behind the grinding teeth) may be cut through with bone forceps or with a
guarded bone chisel. (Pl. XX, fig. 8.) After the removal of the lower jaw
the way will be open to separate the head from the neck, the knife being
used to cut into the first or second joint from below, or the bone forceps
or chisel being employed to cut through the bones of the neck. Then
traction is made on the head by means of hooks in the orbits, and the hand,
armed with an embryotomy knife, is introduced to cut through the tense
resisting ligament, and muscles above the bones. The skin and the strong
ligamentous cord attached to the poll are the essential things to cut, as
the muscles can easily be torn across. Unless there are great difficulties
in the way it is well to skin the head from the eyes back, and on reaching
the poll to cut through the ligament and then bring the head away by
pulling.

If it is decided to remove the entire head at once, it may be skinned from
the front of the eyes back to behind the lower jaw below and the poll
above, then cut through the muscles and ligaments around the first joint
and pull the head away, assisting, if need be, in the separation of the
head by using the knife on the ligament of the joint.

If the calf is a double-headed monster, the skinning of the head must be
carried backward until the point has been reached where both heads branch
from the single neck, and the separation must be made at that point. The
muscles and ligaments are first to be cut through; and if the part can not
then be detached by pulling, the bodies of the vertebræ may be separated by
passing the knife through the joint. The second head may now be secured by
a noose around the lower jaw or hooks in the orbits and brought up into
place, the body being pushed back toward the other side by a repeller, so
as to make room.

It should be added that, except in the case of a double-headed monster, or
in case of the head protruding or nearly so, and one or both fore limbs
presenting, it is rarely desirable to undertake amputation of the head. The
space desirable in the passages can usually be obtained by the much simpler
and easier procedure of removing one or both fore limbs.

_Amputation of the hind limbs._--This is sometimes demanded on the one
extended limb when the other can not be brought up and delivery can not be
effected; also in case of monsters having extra hind limbs; when the calf
is dead, putrid, and bloated with gas; and in some cases of breech
presentation, as described under that head.

When the limb is extended the guiding principles are as in the case of the
fore limbs. The skin is cut through circularly above the fetlock and slit
up to beneath the pelvic bones on the inner side of the thigh. It is then
dissected from the other parts as high as it has been slit on the inner
side and to above the prominence (_trochanter major_) on the upper end of
the thigh bone on the outer side of the joint. In this procedure the hands
and spud can do much, but owing to the firmer connections the knife will be
more frequently required than in the case of the fore limb. The muscles are
now cut through all around the hip joint, and strong traction is made by
two or three men on the limb. If there is still too much resistance, a
knife is inserted into the joint on the inner side and its round ligament
cut through, after which extraction will be comparatively easy. This
accomplished, it will often be possible to extract the fetus with the other
leg turned forward into the womb. If the calf is bloated with gas, it may
be necessary to remove the other leg in the same way, and even to cut open
the chest and abdomen and remove their contents before extraction can be
effected. In the case of extra limbs it may be possible to bring them up
into the passages after the presenting hind limbs have been removed. If
this is not practicable, they may be detached by cutting them through at
the hip joint, as described under "Breech presentation," page 197.

Another method of removing the hind limb is, after having skinned it over
the quarter, to cut through the pelvic bones from before backward, in the
median line below, by knife, saw, or long embryotome (Pl. XX, fig. 1), and
then disjoint the bones of the spine (sacrum) and the hip bone (ilium) on
that side with embryotome, knife, or saw, and then drag away the entire
limb, along with all the hip bones on that side. This has the advantage of
securing more room and thereby facilitating subsequent operations. Both
limbs may be removed in this way, but on the removal of the second the
operator is without any solid point to drag upon in bringing away the
remainder of the fetus.

_Division across the middle of the body._--In cases of extra size,
monstrosity, or distortion of one end of the body it may be requisite to
cut the body in two and return the half from the passages into womb, even
after one-half has been born. The presenting members are dragged upon
forcibly by assistants to bring as much of the body as possible outside.
Then cut through the skin around the body at some distance from the vulva,
and with hand, knife, and spud detach it from the trunk as far back into
the passages as can be reached. Next cut across the body at the point
reached, beginning at the lower part (breast, belly) and proceeding up
toward the spine. This greatly favors the separation of the backbone when
reached, and further allows of its being extended so that it can be divided
higher up. When the backbone is reached, the knife is passed between the
two bones, the prominent ridges across their ends acting as guides, and by
dragging and twisting the one is easily detached from the other. With an
anterior presentation the separation should, if possible, be made behind
the last rib, while with a posterior presentation as many of the ribs
should be brought away as can be accomplished. Having removed one half of
the body, the remaining half is to be pushed back into the womb, the feet
sought and secured with nooses, and the second half removed in one piece if
possible; and if not, then after the removal of the extra limb or other
cause of obstruction.

_Removed of the contents of chest or abdomen._--If the body of the calf
sticks fast in the passages by reason of the mere dryness of its skin and
of the passages, the obstacle may be removed by injecting sweet oil past
the fetus into the womb through a rubber or other tube, and smearing the
passages freely with lard. When the obstruction depends on excess of size
of the chest or abdomen or thickening of the body from distorted spine,
much advantage may be derived from the removal of the contents of these
great cavities of the trunk. We have already seen how the haunches may be
narrowed by cutting the bones apart in the median line below and causing
their free edges to overlap each other. The abdomen can be cut open by the
embryotomy knife or the long embryotome in the median line, or at any
point, and the contents pulled out with the hand, the knife being used in
any case when especial resistance is encountered. If the abdomen is so
firmly impacted that it can not be dealt within this way, one hind limb and
the hip bone on the same side may be removed as described under "Amputation
of the hind limbs," page 205. This will allow the introduction of the hand
into the abdomen from behind, so as to pull out the contents. By
introducing an embryotomy knife in the palm of the hand and cutting through
the muscle of the diaphragm the interior of the chest can be reached in the
same way and the heart and lungs removed.

When, in dealing with an anterior presentation, it becomes necessary to
remove the contents of the chest, the usual course is to cut through the
connections of the ribs with the breastbone (the costal cartilages) close
to the breastbone on each side, and from the abdomen forward to the neck.
Then cut through the muscles connecting the front of the breastbone with
the neck and its hinder end with the belly, and pull out the entire
breastbone. Having torn out the heart and lungs with the hand, make the rib
cartilages on the one side overlap those on the other, so as to lessen the
thickness of the chest, and proceed to extract the body. If it seems
needful to empty the abdomen as well, it is easy to reach it by cutting
through the diaphragm, which separates it from the chest.

_Delivery through the flank_ (_Cæsarean section, or laparotomy_).--This is
sometimes demanded, when the distortion and narrowing of the hip bones are
such as to forbid the passage of the calf, or when inflammation has
practically closed the natural passages and the progeny is more valuable
and worthy of being saved than the dam; also in cases in which the cow has
been fatally injured, or is ill beyond possibility of recovery and yet
carries a living calf. It is too often a last resort after long and
fruitless efforts to deliver by the natural channels, and in such cases the
saving of the calf is all that can be expected, the exhausted cow, already
the subject of active inflammation and too often also of putrid poisoning,
is virtually beyond hope. The hope of saving the dam is greatest if she is
in good health and not fatigued, in cases, for example, in which the
operation is resorted to on account of broken hip bones or abnormally
narrow passages.

The stock owner will not attempt such a serious operation as this. Yet, if
the mother has just died or is to be immediately sacrificed, no one should
hesitate to resort to it in order to save the calf. If alive, it is
important to have the cow perfectly still. Her left fore leg being bent at
the knee by one person, another may seize the left horn and nose and turn
the head to the right until the nose rests on the spine just above the
shoulder. The cow will sink down gently on her left side without shock or
struggle. One may now hold the head firmly to the ground, while a second,
carrying the end of the tail from behind forward on the inside of the right
thigh, pulls upon it so as to keep the right hind limb well raised from the
ground. If time presses she may be operated on in this position, or if the
cow is to be sacrificed a blow on the head with an ax will produce
quietude. Then the prompt cutting into the abdomen and womb and the
extraction of the calf requires no skill. If, however, the cow is to be
preserved, her two forefeet and the lower hind one should be safely
fastened together and the upper hind one drawn back. Two ounces chloral
hydrate, given by injection, should induce sleep in 20 minutes, and the
operation may proceed. In case the cow is to be preserved, wash the right
flank and apply a solution of 4 grains of corrosive sublimate in a pint of
water.

Then, with an ordinary scalpel or knife, dipped in the above-mentioned
solution, make an incision from 2 inches below and in front of the outer
angle of the hip bone in a direction downward and slightly forward to a
distance of 12 inches. Cut through the muscles, and more carefully through
the transparent lining membrane of the abdomen (peritoneum), letting the
point of the knife lie in the groove between the first two fingers of the
left hand as they are slid down inside the membrane and with their back to
the intestines. An assistant, whose hands, like those of the operator, have
been dipped in the sublimate solution, may press his hands on the wound
behind the knife to prevent the protrusion of the intestines. The operator
now feels for and brings up to the wound the gravid womb, allowing it to
bulge well through the abdominal wound, so as to keep back the bowels and
prevent any escape of water into the abdomen. This is seconded by two
assistants, who press the lips of the wound against the womb. Then an
incision 12 inches long is made into the womb at its most prominent point,
deep enough to penetrate its walls, but not so as to cut into the water
bags. In cutting, carefully avoid the cotyledons, which may be felt as hard
masses inside. By pressure the water bags may be made to bulge out as in
natural parturition, and this projecting portion may be torn or cut so as
to let the liquid flow down outside of the belly. The operator now plunges
his hand into the womb, seizes the fore or hind limbs, and quickly extracts
the calf and gives it to an attendant to convey to a safe place. The womb
may be drawn out, but not until all the liquid has flowed out, and the
fetal membranes must be separated from the natural cotyledons, one by one,
and the membranes removed. The womb is now emptied with a sponge, which has
been boiled or squeezed out of a sublimate solution, and if any liquid has
fallen into the abdomen it may be removed in the same way. A few stitches
are now placed in the wound in the womb, using carbolized catgut. They need
not be very close together, as the wound will diminish greatly when the
womb contracts. Should the womb not contract at once it may have applied
against it a sponge squeezed out of a cold sublimate solution, or it may be
drawn out of the abdominal wound and exposed to the cold air until it
contracts. Its contraction is necessary to prevent bleeding from its
enormous network of veins. When contracted, the womb is returned into the
abdomen and the abdominal wound sewed up. One set of stitches, to be placed
at intervals of 2 inches, is passed through the entire thickness of skin
and muscles and tied around two quills or little rollers resting on the
skin. (Pl. XXVII, fig. 7.) These should be of silver, and may be cut at one
end and pulled out after the wound has healed. The superficial stitches are
put in every half inch and passed through the skin only. They, too, may be
of silver, or pins may be inserted through the lips and a fine cord twisted
round their ends like a figure 8. (Pl. XXVII, fig. 9.) The points of the
pins may be snipped off with pliers. The edges may be still further held
together by the application of Venice turpentine, melted so as to become
firmly adherent, and covered with a layer of sterilized cotton wool. Then
the whole should be supported by a bandage fixed around the loins and
abdomen.

     *       *       *       *       *

DISEASES OF THE GENERATIVE ORGANS.
DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.

PLATE XII. Fetal calf within its membranes (at mid term). The uterus is
opened on the left side. In the uterus the fetus is surrounded by several
membranes which are known as the amnion or inner layer, the allantois or
central layer, and the chorion or outer layer. The amnion is nearest the
fetus and forms a closed sac around it filled with a fluid known as liquor
amnii, in which the fetus floats. The allantois is composed of two layers,
which form a closed sac in connection with the urachus, or the tube which
extends from the fetal bladder through the umbilical cord. The one layer of
the allantois is spread over the outer surface of the amnion and the other
over the inner surface of chorion. The allantois also contains a fluid
which is known as the allantoid liquid. The chorion is the outer envelope
or membrane of the fetus, completely inclosing the fetus with its other
membranes. On the outer surface of this membrane are found the fetal
placentulæ, or cotyledons, which, through their attachment to the maternal
cotyledons, furnish the fetus with the means of sustaining life. The
relation of the fetal and maternal cotyledons to each other is illustrated
on the following plate.

PLATE XIII. Pregnant uterus with cotyledons.

Fig. 1. Uterus of the cow during pregnancy, laid open to show the
cotyledons (_d_) on the internal surface of uterus (_c_). The ovary (_a_)
is shown cut across, and the two halves are laid open to show the position
of the discharged ovum at _a_'.

Fig. 2 illustrates the relation of the fetal and maternal parts of a
cotyledon. A portion of the uterus (_A_) is shown with the maternal
cotyledon (_BB_) attached to it. The fetal portion (_D_) consists of a mass
of very minute hairlike processes on the chorion (_E_), which fit into
corresponding depressions or pits of the maternal portion. Each portion is
abundantly supplied with blood vessels, so that a ready interchange of
nutritive fluid may take place between mother and fetus.

PLATE XIV. Vessels of umbilical cord.

Fig. 1. Fetal calf with a portion of the wall of the abdominal cavity of
the right side and the stomach and intestines removed to illustrate the
nature of the umbilical or navel cord. It consists of a tube (1-1') into
which pass the two umbilical arteries (3) carrying blood to the placenta in
the uterus or womb and the umbilical vein (4) bringing the blood back and
carrying it into the liver. The cord also contains the urachus (2') which
carries urine from the bladder (2) through the cord. These vessels are all
obliterated at birth. 5, liver; 5', lobe of same, known as the lobus
Spigelii; 5'', gall bladder; 6, right kidney; 6', left kidney; 6'',
ureters, or the tubes conducting the urine from the kidneys to the bladder;
7, rectum, where it has been severed in removing the intestines; 8, uterus
of the fetus, cut off at the anterior extremity; 9, aorta; 10, posterior
vena cava. (From _Fürstenberg-Leisering, Anatomie und Physiologie des
Rindes._)

Fig. 2. Blood vessels passing through the umbilical cord in a human fetus.
(From Quain's Anatomy, vol. 2.) _L_, liver; _K_, kidney; _I_, intestines;
_U C_, umbilical cord; _Ua_, umbilical arteries. The posterior aorta coming
from the heart passes backward and gives rise to the internal iliac
arteries, and of these the umbilical arteries are branches. _Uv_, umbilical
vein; this joins the portal vein, passes onward to the liver, breaks up
into smaller vessels, which reunite in the hepatic vein; this empties into
the posterior vena cava, which carries the blood back to the heart.

     *       *       *       *       *

  [Illustration: PLATE XII.
   FETAL CALF WITHIN ITS MEMBRANES.]

  [Illustration: PLATE XIII.
   PREGNANT UTERUS WITH COTYLEDONS.]

  [Illustration: PLATE XIV.
   VESSELS OF UMBILICAL CORD.]

  [Illustration: PLATE XV.]

  [Illustration: PLATE XVI.]

  [Illustration: PLATE XV.
   NORMAL POSITION OF CALF IN UTERO.]

  [Illustration: PLATE XVI.
   ABNORMAL POSITIONS OF CALF IN UTERO.]

  [Illustration: PLATE XVII.
   ABNORMAL POSITIONS OF CALF IN UTERO.]

     *       *       *       *       *

PLATE XV. Normal position of calf in utero. This is the most favorable
position of the calf or fetus in the womb at birth, and the position in
which it is most frequently found. This is known as the normal anterior
position. The back of the fetus is directly toward that of the mother, the
forelegs are extended back toward the vulva of the mother, and the head
rests between them. The birth of the calf in this position usually takes
place without artificial assistance.

PLATE XVI. Abnormal positions of calf in utero. (Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 5 from
Fleming's Veterinary Obstetrics; fig. 4 after St. Cyr, from Hill's Bovine
Medicine and Surgery; fig. 6 from D'Arboval, Dictionaire de Médecine et de
Chirurgie.)

Fig. 1. Anterior presentation; one fore limb completely retained. The
retained limb must be reached if possible and brought forward joint by
joint and the fetus then extracted.

Fig. 2. Anterior presentation; fore limbs bent at knee. The limbs must be
extended before delivery can be accomplished.

Fig. 3. Anterior presentation; fore limb crossed over neck. The leg should
be grasped a little above the fetlock, raised, drawn to its proper side,
and extended in genital canal.

Fig. 4. Anterior presentation; downward deviation of head. The head must be
brought into position seen in Plate XV before delivery can take place.

Fig. 5. Anterior presentation; deviation of the head upward and backward.
Retropulsion is the first indication, and will often bring the head into
its normal position.

Fig. 6. Anterior presentation; head presented with back down. The fetus
should be turned by pushing back the fore parts and bringing up the hind so
as to make a posterior presentation.

PLATE XVII. Abnormal positions of calf in utero. (Figs. 2 and 3 from
Fleming; figs. 4, 5, and 6 from D'Arboval.)

Fig. 1. Anterior presentation, with hind feet engaged in pelvis. A very
serious malpresentation, in which it is generally impossible to save the
fetus if delivery is far advanced. The indications are to force back the
hind feet.

Fig. 2. Thigh and croup presentation, showing the fetus corded. The cord
has a ring or noose at one end. The two ends of the cord are passed between
the thighs, brought out at the flanks, and the plain end passed through the
noose at the top of the back and brought outside the vulva. The fetus must
be pushed back and an attempt made to bring the limbs properly into the
genital passage.

Fig. 3. Croup and hock presentation. The indications in this abnormal
presentation are the same as described for Fig. 2.

Fig. 4. Posterior presentation; the fetus on its back. Turn the fetus so as
to make a normal anterior presentation.

Fig. 5. Sterno-abdominal presentation. The fetus is on its side with limbs
crossing and presenting. The limbs least eligible for extraction should be
forced back into the uterus.

Fig. 6. Dorso-lumbar presentation; the back presenting. The fetus must be
turned so that one or the other extremity can enter the passage.

PLATE XVIII. Abnormal positions of the calf in utero. Surgical instruments
and sutures.

Fig. 1. Twin pregnancy, showing the normal anterior and posterior
presentations. (From Fleming.)

Fig. 2. Abdominal dropsy of the fetus; normal presentation; fore limbs
corded. (After Armatage.) The drawing illustrates the method of puncturing
the abdomen through the chest with a long trocar and cannula. The fluid is
represented escaping from the cannula after the withdrawal of the trocar.

Fig. 3. Tallich's short, bent, crotchet forceps. The forceps have bent and
toothed jaws, which are intended to take hold of the fetus where neither
cords nor hooks can be applied, as the ear, nose, or skin of cheek.

Fig. 4. Clamp for ear, skin, etc.: 1-1, blades with hooks and corresponding
holes; 2, ring to close the blades; 3, stem with female screw for handle;
4, handle, which may be either straight or jointed and flexible.

PLATE XIX. Monstrosities. This plate illustrates various malformations and
diseases of the fetus which act as the cause of difficult parturition.

Figs. 1, 2, 3. Fetuses with portions of their bodies double. Fig. 1 (from
Fleming), double head, neck, and fore limbs. Fig. 2 (from Encyclop. der
Gesam. Thierheilkunde, 1886), double head, neck, fore limbs, and body. Fig.
3 (from Fleming), double faced.

Fig. 4. Fetus with head very much enlarged. (From Fleming.) This affection
is known as hydrocephalus, or dropsy of the brain, and is due to a more or
less considerable quantity of fluid in the cranial cavity of the fetus.

Fig. 5. Skull of the calf represented in Fig. 4. The roof of the skull is
absent. (From Fleming.)

PLATE XX. Instruments used in difficult labor.

Fig. 1. Long embryotome with joint.

Fig. 2. Long, sharp hook. This instrument is about 3 feet in length,
including the handle. Hooks of this kind, both blunt and sharp, are applied
directly to the fetus to assist in delivery.

Fig. 3. Günther's long-handled embryotome. This instrument and that
represented in Fig. 1 are of special value in cutting through muscular
tissue and in separating the limbs from the trunk when the fetus can not be
removed entire. These embryotomes are usually 30 inches long, but may be
made either longer or shorter.

Fig. 4. Jointed cord-carrier, used in difficult parturition to carry a cord
into regions which can not be reached by the arm.

Fig. 5. Instrument used to rotate or turn the fetus, known as a rotator.

Fig. 6. Dilator of the neck of the womb, used when conception can not take
place owing to a contracted condition of the neck of the womb.

Fig. 7. Repeller. An instrument from 2 to 3 feet long, used to force the
fetus forward into the womb. This operation is generally necessary when the
presentation is abnormal and the fetus has advanced too far into the narrow
inlet to the uterus to be moved.

Fig. 8. Cartwright's bone chisel. Including the handle, this instrument is
about 32 inches in length; the chisel portion is a little more than 2
inches long and 1 to 1-1/2 broad. Only the middle portion is sharp, the
projecting corners are blunt, and the sides rounded. This instrument is
used for slitting up the skin of a limb and as a bone chisel when it is
necessary to mutilate the fetus in order to effect delivery.

     *       *       *       *       *

  [Illustration: PLATE XVIII.
   ABNORMAL POSITION OF CALF IN UTERO.
   SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS AND SUTURES.]

  [Illustration: PLATE XIX.
   MONSTROSITIES.]

  [Illustration: PLATE XX.
   INSTRUMENTS USED IN DIFFICULT LABOR.]

  [Illustration: PLATE XXI.
   INSTRUMENTS USED IN DIFFICULT LABOR.]

     *       *       *       *       *

PLATE XXI. Instruments used in difficult labor.

Fig. 1. Embryotome, an instrument used when it is necessary to reduce the
size of the fetus by cutting away certain parts before birth can be
effected. This instrument may be long or short, straight or curved.

Fig. 2. Also an embryotome. The blade can be made to slide out of or into
the handle. The instrument can thus be introduced into or withdrawn from
the genital passage without risk of injury to the mother.

Fig. 3. Schaack's traction cord. This is merely a cord with a running noose
at one end and a piece of wood at the other, to offer a better hold for the
hand.

Figs. 4_a_ and 4_b._ Reuff's head collar for securing the head of the
fetus.

Fig. 5. Curved cord-carrier, used in difficult parturition to carry a cord
into regions which can not be reached by the arm.

Fig. 6. Blunt hook, used in difficult parturition.

Fig. 7. Short hook forceps, used in difficult parturition.

Fig. 8. Blunt finger hook.

     *       *       *       *       *



DISEASES FOLLOWING PARTURITION.

By James Law, F. R. C. V. S.,

_Formerly Professor of Veterinary Science, etc., in Cornell University._


FLOODING (BLEEDING FROM THE WOMB).

Though not so common in the cow as in the human female, flooding is
sufficiently frequent to demand attention. It may depend on a too rapid
calving and a consequent failure of the womb to contract when the calf has
been removed. The pregnant womb is extraordinarily rich in blood vessels,
especially in large and tortuous veins, which become compressed and almost
obliterated under contraction, but remain overfilled and often bleed into
the cavity of the womb should no contraction take place. Cox records cases
in which the labor pains had detached and expelled the fetal membranes,
while the calf, owing to large size or wrong presentation, was detained in
the womb, and the continued dilatation of the womb in the absence of the
fetal membranes led to a flow of blood which accumulated in clots around
the calf. Other causes are laceration of the cotyledons of the womb, or
from an antecedent inflammation of the placenta, and the unnatural adhesion
of the membranes to the womb, which bleeds when the two are torn apart.
Weakness of the womb from overdistention, as in dropsy, twins, etc., is not
without its influence. Finally, eversion of the womb (casting the withers)
is an occasional cause of flooding. The trouble is only too evident when
the blood flows from the external passages in drops or in a fine stream.
When it is retained in the cavity of the womb, however, it may remain
unsuspected until it has rendered the animal almost bloodless. The symptoms
in such case are paleness of the eyes, nose, mouth, and of the lips of the
vulva, a weak, rapid pulse, violent and perhaps loud beating of the heart
(palpitations), sunken, staring eyes, coldness of the skin, ears, horns,
and limbs, perspiration, weakness in standing, staggering gait, and,
finally, inability to rise, and death in convulsions. If these symptoms are
seen, the oiled hand should be introduced into the womb, which will be
found open and flaccid and containing large blood clots.

_Treatment._--Treatment consists in the removal of the fetal membranes and
blood clots from the womb (which will not contract while they are present),
the dashing of cold water on the loins, right flank, and vulva, and if
these measures fail, the injection of cold water into the womb through a
rubber tube furnished with a funnel. In obstinate cases a good-sized sponge
soaked in tincture of muriate of iron should be introduced into the womb
and firmly squeezed, so as to bring the iron into contact with the bleeding
surface. This is at once an astringent and a coagulant for the blood,
besides stimulating the womb to contraction. In the absence of this agent
astringents (solution of copperas, alum, tannic acid, or acetate of lead)
may be thrown into the womb, and one-half-dram doses of acetate of lead may
be given by the mouth, or 1 ounce powdered ergot of rye may be given in
gruel. When nothing else is at hand, an injection of oil of turpentine will
sometimes promptly check the bleeding.


EVERSION OF THE WOMB (CASTING THE WITHERS).

Like flooding, this is the result of failure of the womb to contract after
calving. If that organ contracts naturally, the afterbirth is expelled, the
internal cavity of the womb is nearly closed, and the mouth of the organ
becomes so narrow that the hand can not be forced through, much less the
whole mass of the matrix. When, however, it fails to contract, the closed
end of one of the horns may fall into its open internal cavity, and under
the compression of the adjacent intestines, and the straining and
contraction of the abdominal walls, it is forced farther and farther, until
the whole organ is turned outside in, slides back through the vagina, and
hangs from the vulva. The womb can be instantly distinguished from the
protruding vagina or bladder by the presence, over its whole surface, of 50
to 100 mushroomlike bodies (cotyledons), each 2 to 3 inches in diameter,
and attached by a narrow neck. (Pls. XII, XIII.) When fully everted, it is
further recognizable by a large, undivided body hanging from the vulva, and
two horns or divisions which hang down toward the hocks. In the imperfect
eversions the body of the womb may be present with two depressions leading
into the two horns. In the cases of some standing the organ has become
inflamed and gorged with blood until it is as large as a bushel basket, its
surface has a dark-red, bloodlike hue, and tears and bleeds on the
slightest touch. Still later lacerations, raw sores, and even gangrene are
shown in the mass. At the moment of protrusion the general health is not
altered, but soon the inflammation and fever with the violent and continued
straining induce exhaustion, and the cow lies down, making no attempt to
rise.

_Treatment._--Treatment varies somewhat, according to the degree of the
eversion. In partial eversion, with the womb protruding only slightly from
the vulva and the cow standing, let an assistant pinch the back to prevent
straining while the operator pushes his closed fist into the center of the
mass and carries it back through the vagina, assisting in returning the
surrounding parts by the other hand. In more complete eversion, but with
the womb as yet of its natural bulk and consistency and the cow standing,
straining being checked by pinching the back, a sheet is held by two men so
as to sustain the everted womb and raise it to the level of the vulva. It
is now sponged clean with cold water, the cold being useful in driving out
the blood and reducing the bulk, and finally it may be sponged over with
laudanum or with a weak solution of carbolic acid (1 dram to 1 quart
water).

The closed fist may now be planted in the rounded end of the largest horn
and pushed on so as to turn it back within itself and carry it on through
the vagina, the other hand being used meanwhile to assist in the inversion
and in pushing the different masses in succession within the lips of the
vulva. In case of failure, resort should be had at once to a plan which I
have successfully followed for many years. Take a long linen or cotton
bandage, 5 or 6 inches wide, and wind it around the protruding womb as
tightly as it can be drawn, beginning at the free end and gradually
covering the entire mass up to the vulva. By this means the greater part of
the blood will be forced out of the organ and its bulk greatly reduced, so
that its reduction is much facilitated. An additional advantage is found in
the protection given to the womb by its investing bandage while it is being
pushed forward into the vagina and abdomen. In manipulating the exposed
womb there is always danger of laceration, but when the organ is covered
with a sheet it is next to impossible to tear it. The subsequent
manipulation is as in the other case, by pushing the blind end forward
within itself with the closed fist and carrying this on through the vagina
into the abdomen with the constant assistance of the other hand. Often it
will be found convenient to use the edge of the left hand to push the outer
part of the protruding mass inside the lips of the vulva, while the right
hand and arm are carrying the central portions forward through the vagina.
An intelligent assistant, pushing with the palms of both hands on the outer
portion of the mass, will also afford material assistance. As the womb is
turned within itself the wrapping bandage will gradually loosen, but once
the great mass has entered the passages it is easy to compel the rest to
follow, and the compression by the bandage is no longer so important. When
the womb is fully replaced the bandage is left in its interior in a series
of loose folds, and can be easily withdrawn. It is well to move the hand
from side to side to insure that the two horns of the womb are fully
extended and on about the same level before withdrawing the arm and
applying a truss.

When the womb has been long everted and is gorged with blood, inflamed, and
friable there is often the additional disadvantage that the animal is
unable or unwilling to rise. When lying down the straining can not be
controlled so effectually, and, even in the absence of straining, the
compression of the belly is so great as to prove a serious obstacle to
reduction. The straining may be checked by 2 or 3 ounces of laudanum or 2
ounces of chloral hydrate, or by inhalation of chloroform to insensibility,
and then by raising the hind parts on straw bundles the gravitation of the
abdominal organs forward may be made to lessen the resistance. If not
successful in this way, the cow may be further turned on her back, and if
return is still impossible, the hind limbs may be tied together and drawn
up to a beam overhead by the aid of a pulley. In this position, in place of
the pressure backward of the bowels proving a hindrance, their gravitation
forward proves a most material help to reduction. In seeking to return the
womb the sponging with ice-cold water, raising on a sheet, and wrapping in
a tight bandage should be resorted to. Another method which is especially
commendable in these inflamed conditions of the womb is to bring a piece of
linen sheet, 30 by 36 inches, under the womb, with its anterior border
close up to the vulva, then turn the posterior border upward and forward
over the organ, and cross the two ends over this and over each other above.
The ends of the sheet are steadily drawn, so as to tighten its hold on the
womb, which is thus held on the level of the vulva or above, and cold water
is constantly poured upon the mass. The reduction is further sought by
compression of the mass with the palms applied outside the sheet. Fifteen
or twenty minutes are usually sufficient to cause the return of the womb,
provided straining is prevented by pinching the back, or otherwise.

In old and aggravated cases, with the womb torn, bruised, or even
gangrenous, the only resort is to amputate the entire mass. This is done by
tying a strong, waxed cord around the protruding mass close to the vulva,
winding the cord around pieces of wood, so as to draw it as tightly as
possible, cutting off the organ below this ligature, tying a thread on any
artery that may still bleed, and returning the stump well into the vagina.

Retention of the returned womb is the next point, and is most easily
accomplished by a rope truss. Take two ropes, each about 18 feet long and
an inch in thickness. Double each rope at its middle, and lay the one above
the other at the bend, so as to form an ovoid of about 8 inches in its long
diameter. Twist each end of the one rope twice around the other, so that
this ovoid will remain when they are drawn tight. (Pls. XXII and XXIII.)
Tie a strap or rope around the back part of the neck and a surcingle around
the body. Place the rope truss on the animal so that the ovoid ring will
surround the vulva, the two ascending ropes on the right and left of the
tail and the two descending ones down inside the thighs on the right and
left of the udder. These descending ropes are carried forward on the sides
of the body and tied to the surcingle and to the neck collar. The ascending
ropes proceed forward on the middle of the back, twisting over each other,
and are tied to the surcingle and collar. The upper and lower ropes are
drawn so tightly that the rope ring is made to press firmly all around the
vulva without risk of displacement. This should be worn for several days,
until the womb shall have closed and all risk of further eversion is at an
end. Variations of this device are found in the use of a narrow triangle of
iron applied around the vulva and fixed by a similar arrangement of ropes,
surcingle, and collar (Pl. XXIII, fig. 3), a common crupper similarly held
around the vulva (Pl. XXII, fig. 1), stitches through the vulva, and wire
inserted through the skin on the two hips (Pl. XXIII, fig. 2), so that they
will cross behind the vulva; also pessaries of various kinds should be
inserted into the vagina. None of these devices, however, present any
advantage over the simple and comparatively painless rope truss described
above. Such additional precautions as keeping the cow in a stall higher
behind than in front, and seeing that the diet is slightly laxative and
nonstimulating may be named. If straining is persistent, ounce doses of
laudanum may be used twice a day, and the same may be injected into the
vagina.

If the womb has been cut off, injections of a solution of a teaspoonful of
carbolic acid in a quart of water should be used daily, or more frequently,
until the discharge ceases.


EVERSION OF THE BLADDER.

A genuine eversion of the bladder is almost unknown in the cow, owing to
the extreme narrowness of its mouth. The protrusion of the bladder,
however, through a laceration sustained in calving, in the floor of the
vagina and its subsequent protrusion through the vulva, is sometimes met
with. In this case the protruding bladder contains urine; this can never be
the case in a real eversion, in which the inner surface of the bladder and
the openings of the ureters are both exposed outside the vulva. The
presence of a bag containing water, which is connected with the floor of
the vagina, will serve to identify this condition. If the position of the
bladder in the vulva renders it impracticable to pass a catheter to draw
off the urine, pierce the organ with the nozzle of a hypodermic syringe, or
even a very small trocar and cannula, and draw off the water, when it will
be found an easy matter to return the bladder to its place. The rent in the
vagina can be stitched up, but as there would be risk in any subsequent
calving it is best to prepare the cow for the butcher.


RUPTURE OF THE BLADDER.

This has been known to occur in protracted parturition when the fetus
finally passed while the bladder was full. The symptoms are those of
complete suppression of urine and tenderness of the abdomen, with a steady
accumulation of liquid, and fluctuation on handling its lower part. If the
hand is introduced into the vagina it is felt to be hot and tender, and
perhaps slightly swollen along its floor. As a final test, if the lower,
fluctuating part of the abdomen is punctured with a hypodermic needle, a
straw-colored liquid of a urinous odor flows out. The condition has been
considered as past hope. The only chance for recovery would be in opening
the abdomen, evacuating the liquid, and stitching up the rent in the
bladder, but at such a season, and with inflammation already started, there
would be little to hope for.


RUPTURE OF THE WOMB.

When the womb has been rendered friable by disease rupture may occur in the
course of the labor, but much more frequently it occurs from violence
sustained in attempting assistance in difficult parturition. It is also
liable to occur during eversion of the organ through efforts to replace it.

If it happens while the calf is still in the womb, it will usually bleed
freely and continuously until the fetus has been extracted, so that the
womb can contract on itself and expel its excess of blood. Another danger
is that in case of a large rent the calf may escape into the cavity of the
abdomen and parturition become impossible. Still another danger is that of
the introduction of septic germs and the setting up of a fatal inflammation
of the lining membrane of the belly (peritoneum). Still another is the
escape of the small intestine through the rent and on through the vagina
and vulva, so as to protrude externally and receive perhaps fatal injuries.
In case of rupture before calving, that act should be completed as rapidly
and carefully as possible, the fetal membranes removed, and the contraction
of the womb sought by dashing cold water on the loins, the right flank, or
the vulva. If the calf has escaped into the abdomen and can not be brought
through the natural channels, it may be permissible to fix the animal and
extract it through the side, as in the Cæsarian section. If the laceration
has happened during eversion of the womb it is usually less redoubtable,
because the womb contracts more readily under the stimulus of the cold air
so recently applied. In case the abdomen has been laid open it is well to
stitch up the rent, but if not, it should be left to nature, and will often
heal satisfactorily, the cow even breeding successfully in after years.

Rupture of the floor of the vagina has been already referred to as allowing
the protrusion of the bladder. Laceration of the roof of this passage is
also met with as the result of deviations of the hind limbs and feet upward
when the calf lies on its back. In some such cases the opening passes clear
into the rectum, or the foot may even pass out through the anus, so that
that opening and the vulva are laid open into one.

Simple, superficial lacerations of the vaginal walls are not usually
serious, and heal readily unless septic inflammation sets in, in which case
the cow is liable to perish. They may be treated with soothing and
antiseptic injections, such as carbolic acid, 1 dram; water, 1 quart.

The more serious injuries depend on the complications. Rupture of the
anterior part of the canal, close to the mouth of the womb, may lead to the
introduction of infecting germs into the cavity of the abdomen, or
protrusion of the bowel through the rent and externally, either of which
may prove fatal. If both these conditions are escaped the wound may heal
spontaneously. Rupture into the bladder may lead to nothing worse than a
constant dribbling of the urine from the vulva. The cow should be fattened
if she survives. Rupture into the rectum will entail a constant escape of
feces through the vulva, and, of course, the same condition exists when the
anus as well has been torn open. I have successfully sewed up an opening of
this kind in the mare, but in the case of the cow it is probably better to
prepare her for the butcher.


CLOTS OF BLOOD IN THE WALLS OF THE VAGINA.

During calving the vagina may be bruised so as to cause escape of blood
beneath the mucous membrane and its coagulation into large bulging clots.
The vulva may appear swollen, and on separating its lips the mucous
membrane of the vagina is seen to be raised into irregular rounded
swellings of a dark-blue or black color, and which pit on pressure of the
finger. If the accumulation of blood is not extensive it may be reabsorbed,
but if abundant it may lead to irritation and dangerous inflammation, and
should be incised with a lancet and the clots cleared out. The wounds may
then be sponged twice a day with a lotion made with 1 dram sulphate of
zinc, 1 dram carbolic acid, and 1 quart water.


RETAINED AFTERBIRTH.

The cow, of all our domestic animals, is especially subject to this
accident. This may be partly accounted for by the firm connections
established through the fifty to one hundred cotyledons (Pl. XIII, fig. 2)
in which the fetal membranes dovetail with the follicles of the womb. It is
also most liable to occur after abortion, in which preparation has not been
made by fatty degeneration for the severance of these close connections. In
the occurrence of inflammation, causing the formation of new tissue between
the membranes and the womb, we find the occasion of unnaturally firm
adhesions which prevent the spontaneous detachment of the membranes. Again,
in low conditions of health and an imperfect power of contraction we find a
potent cause of retention, the general debility showing particularly in the
indisposition of the womb to contract, after calving, with sufficient
energy to expel the afterbirth. Hence we find the condition common with
insufficient or innutritious feed, and in years or localities in which the
fodder has suffered from weather. Ergoted, smutty, or musty fodder (Pl. V),
by causing abortion, is a frequent cause of retention. Old cows are more
subject than young ones, probably because of diminishing vigor. A temporary
retention is sometimes owing to a too rapid closure of the neck of the womb
after calving, causing strangulation and imprisonment of the membranes.
Conditions favoring this are the drinking of cold (iced) water, the eating
of cold feed (frosted roots), and (through sympathy between udder and womb)
a too prompt sucking by the calf or milking by the attendant.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms of retention of the afterbirth are usually only
too evident, as the membranes hang from the vulva and rot away gradually,
causing the most offensive odor throughout the building. When retained
within the womb by closure of its mouth and similarly in cases in which the
protruded part has rotted off, the decomposition continues and the fetid
products escaping by the vulva appear in offensively smelling pools on the
floor and mat together the hairs near the root of the tail. The septic
materials retained in the womb cause inflammation of its lining membrane,
and this, together with the absorption into the blood of the products of
putrefaction, leads to ill health, emaciation, and drying up of the milk.

_Treatment._--Treatment varies according to the conditions. When the cow is
in low condition, or when retention is connected with drinking iced water
or eating frozen feed, hot drinks and hot mashes of wheat bran or other
aliment may be sufficient. If along with the above conditions, the bowels
are somewhat confined, an ounce of ground ginger, or half an ounce of black
pepper, given with a quart of sweet oil, or 1-1/2 pounds of Glauber's salt
in at least 4 quarts of warm water, will often prove effectual. A bottle or
two of flaxseed tea, made by prolonged boiling, should also be given at
frequent intervals. Other stimulants, like rue, savin, laurel, and
carminatives like anise, cumin, and coriander, are preferred by some, but
with very questionable reason, the more so that the first three are not
without danger. Ergot of rye, 1 ounce, or its extract, 1 dram, may be
resorted to to induce contraction of the womb. The mechanical extraction of
the membranes is, however, often called for; of this there are several
methods. The simplest is to hang a weight of 1 or 2 pounds to the hanging
portion, and allow this, by its constant dragging and by its jerking effect
when the cow moves, to pull the membranes from their attachments and to
stimulate the womb to expulsive contractions. It frequently happens that
the afterbirth is only loosely adherent to the womb and its removal is
effected if but a slight amount of traction on it is exerted. This can be
determined by seizing the dependent part of the afterbirth between two
sticks and rolling it up on them until they lie against the vulva; then, by
careful traction, accompanied with slight jerking movements from side to
side, the womb is stimulated to expulsive contractions and the afterbirth
is wound up more and more on the sticks until finally its last connections
with the womb are severed and the remainder is expelled suddenly en masse.
It is quite evident that neglected cases with putrid membranes are poor
subjects for this method, as the afterbirth is liable to tear across,
leaving a mass in the womb. During the progress of the work any indication
of tearing is the signal to stop and proceed with greater caution or
altogether abandon the attempt in this way.

The following method (that with the skilled hand) is the most promptly and
certainly successful. For this the operator had better dress as for a
parturition case. Again, the operation should be undertaken within
twenty-four hours after calving, since later the mouth of the womb may be
so closed that it becomes difficult to introduce the hand. The operator
should smear his arms with carbolized lard or vaseline to protect them
against infection, and particularly in delayed cases with putrid membranes.
An assistant holds the tail to one side, the operator seizes the hanging
afterbirth with the left hand, while he introduces the other along the
right side of the vagina and womb, letting the membranes slide through his
palm until he reaches the first cotyledon to which they remain adherent. In
case no such connection is within reach, with the left hand gentle traction
is made on the membranes until the deeper parts of the womb are brought
within reach and the attachments to the cotyledons can be reached. Then the
soft projection of the membrane, which is attached to the firm
fungus-shaped cotyledon on the inner surface of the womb, is seized by the
little finger, and the other fingers and thumb are closed on it so as to
tear it out from its connections. To explain this, it is necessary only to
say that the projection from the membrane is covered by soft, conical
processes, which are received into cavities of a corresponding size on the
summit of the firm, mushroom-shaped cotyledon growing from the inner
surface of the womb. To draw upon the former, therefore, is to extract
its soft, villous processes from within the follicles or cavities of the
other. (Pl. XIII, fig. 2.) If at times it is difficult to start this
extraction it may be necessary to get the finger nail inserted between the
two, and once started the finger may be pushed on, lifting all the villi,
in turn, out of their cavities. This process of separating the cotyledons
must be carefully conducted, one after another, until the last has been
detached and the afterbirth comes freely out of the passages. I have never
found any evil result from the removal of the whole mass at one operation,
but Shaack mentions the eversion of the womb as the possible result of the
necessary traction, and in cases in which those in the most distant part of
the horn of the womb can not be easily reached, he advises to attach a cord
to the membranes inside the vulva, letting it hang out behind, and to cut
off the membranes below the cord. Then, after two or three days' delay, he
extracts the remainder, now softened and easily detached. If carefully
conducted, so as not to tear the cotyledons of the womb, the operation is
eminently successful; the cow suffers little, and the straining roused by
the manipulations soon subsides. Keeping in a quiet, dark place, or driving
a short distance at a walking pace, will serve to quiet these. When the
membranes have been withdrawn, the hand, half closed, may be used to draw
out of the womb the offensive liquid that has collected. If the case is a
neglected one, and the discharge is very offensive, the womb must be
injected as for leucorrhea.


INFLAMMATION OF THE VAGINA (VAGINITIS).

This may occur independently of inflammation of the womb, and usually as
the result of bruises, lacerations, or other injuries sustained during
calving. It will be shown by swelling of the lips of the vulva, which,
together with their lining membrane, become of a dark-red or leaden hue,
and the mucous discharge increases and becomes whitish or purulent, and it
may be fetid. Slight cases recover spontaneously, or under warm
fomentations or mild astringent injections (a teaspoonful of carbolic acid
in a quart of water), but severe cases may go on to the formation of large
sores (ulcers), or considerable portions of the mucous membrane may die and
slough off. Baumeister records two cases of diphtheritic vaginitis, the
second case in a cow four weeks calved, contracted from the first in a
newly calved cow. Both proved fatal, with formation of false membranes as
far as the interior of the womb. In all severe cases the antiseptic
injections must be applied most assiduously. The carbolic acid may be
increased to one-half ounce to a quart, or chlorin water, or peroxid of
hydrogen solution may be injected at least three times a day. Hyposulphite
of soda, 1 ounce to a quart of water, is an excellent application, and the
same amount may be given by the mouth.


LEUCORRHEA (MUCOPURULENT DISCHARGE FROM THE PASSAGES).

This is from a continued or chronic inflammation of the womb, or the
vagina, or both. It usually results from injuries sustained in calving or
from irritation by putrid matters in connection with retained afterbirth,
or from the use of some object in the vagina (pessary) to prevent eversion
of the womb. Exposure to cold or other cause of disturbance of the health
may affect an organ so susceptible as this at the time of parturition so as
to cause inflammation.

_Symptoms._--The main symptom is the glairy, white discharge flowing
constantly or intermittently (when the cow lies down), soiling the tail and
matting its hairs and those of the vulva. When the lips of the vulva are
drawn apart the mucous membrane is seen to be red, with minute elevations,
or pale and smooth. The health may not suffer at first, but if the
discharge continues and is putrid the health fails, the milk shrinks, and
flesh is lost. If the womb is involved the hand introduced into the vagina
may detect the mouth of the womb slightly open and the liquid collected
within its cavity. Examination with the oiled hand in the rectum may detect
the outline of the womb beneath, somewhat enlarged, and fluctuating under
the touch from contained fluid. In some cases heat is more frequent or
intense than natural, but the animal rarely conceives when served, and, if
she does, is liable to abort.

_Treatment._--Treatment with the injections advised for vaginitis is
successful in mild or recent cases. In obstinate ones stronger solutions
may be used after the womb has been washed out by a stream of tepid water
until it comes clear. A rubber tube is inserted into the womb, a funnel
placed in its raised end, and the water, and afterwards the solution,
poured slowly through it. If the neck of the womb is so close that the
liquid can not escape, a second tube may be inserted to drain it off. As
injections may be used chlorid of zinc, one-half dram to the quart of
water, or sulphate of iron, 1 dram to the quart. Three drams of sulphate of
iron and one-half ounce ground ginger may also be given in the feed daily.


INFLAMMATION OF THE WOMB (METRITIS, INFLAMMATION OF WOMB AND ABDOMEN, OR
METROPERITONITIS).

Inflammation of the womb may be slight or violent, simple or associated
with putrefaction of its liquid contents and general poisoning, or it may
extend so that the inflammation affects the lining membrane of the whole
abdominal cavity. In the last two cases the malady is a very grave one.

_Causes._--The causes are largely the same as those causing inflammation of
the vagina. Greater importance must, however, be attached to exposure to
cold and wet and to septic infection.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms appear two or three days after calving, when the
cow may be seen to shiver, or the hair stands erect, especially along the
spine, and the horns, ears, and limbs are cold. The temperature in the
rectum is elevated by one or two degrees, the pulse is small, hard, and
rapid (70 to 100), appetite is lost, rumination ceases, and the milk
shrinks in quantity or is entirely arrested, and the breathing is hurried.
The hind limbs may shift uneasily, the tail be twisted, the head and eyes
turn to the right flank, and the teeth are ground. With the flush of heat
to the horns and other extremities, there is redness of the eyes, nose, and
mouth, and usually a dark redness about the vulva. Pressure on the right
flank gives manifest pain, causing moaning or grunting, and the hind limbs
are moved stiffly, extremely so if the general lining of the abdomen is
involved. In severe cases the cow lies down and can not be made to rise.
There is usually marked thirst, the bowels are costive, and dung is passed
with pain and effort. The hand inserted into the vagina perceives the
increased heat, and when the neck of the womb is touched the cow winces.
Examination through the rectum detects enlargement and tenderness of the
womb. The discharge from the vulva is at first watery, but becomes thick,
yellow, and finally red or brown, with a heavy or fetid odor. Some cases
recover speedily and may be almost well in two days; a large proportion
perish within two days of the attack, and some merge into the chronic form,
terminating in leucorrhea. In the worst cases there is local septic
infection and ulceration, or even gangrene of the parts, or there is
general septicemia, or the inflammation involving the veins of the womb
causes coagulation of the blood contained in them, and the washing out of
the clots to the right heart and lung leads to the blocking of the vessels
in the latter and complicating pneumonia. Inflammation of the womb and
passages after calving are always liable to these complications, and
consequently to a fatal issue. Franck records three instances of rapidly
fatal metritis in cows, all of which had been poisoned from an adjacent cow
with retained and putrid afterbirth. Others have had similar cases.

_Treatment._--Treatment in the slight cases of simple inflammation does not
differ much from that adopted for vaginitis, only care must be taken that
the astringent and antiseptic injections are made to penetrate into the
womb. After having washed out the womb a solution of chlorid of lime or
permanganate of potassium (one-half ounce to 1 quart of water), with an
ounce each of glycerin and laudanum to render it more soothing, will often
answer every purpose. It is usually desirable to open the bowels with 1-1/2
pounds of Glauber's salt and 1 ounce of ginger in 4 quarts of warm water,
and to apply fomentation of warm water or even mustard poultices or
turpentine to the right flank.

In the violent attacks with high temperature and much prostration, besides
the salts agents must be given to lower the temperature and counteract
septic poisoning. Salicylate of soda one-half ounce, or quinia 2 drams
every four hours will help in both ways, or ounce doses of hyposulphite of
soda or dram doses of carbolic acid may be given as often until six doses
have been taken. Tincture of aconite has often been used in 20-drop doses
every six hours. If the temperature rises to 106° or 107° F., it must be
met by the direct application of cold or iced water to the surface. The
animal may be covered with wet sheets and cold water poured on them
frequently until the temperature in the rectum is lowered to 102° F. In
summer the cow may be allowed to dry spontaneously, while in winter it
should be rubbed dry and blanketed. Even in the absence of high temperature
much good may be obtained from the soothing influence of a wet sheet
covering the loins and flanks and well covered at all points by a dry one.
This may be followed next day by a free application of mustard and oil of
turpentine. When the animal shows extreme prostration, carbonate of ammonia
(1 ounce) may be given to tide over the danger, but such cases usually
perish.

In this disease, even more than in difficult and protracted parturition or
retained placenta, the attendants must carefully guard against the
infection of their hands and arms from the diseased parts. The hand and arm
before entering the passages should always be well smeared with lard
impregnated with carbolic acid.


MILK FEVER (PARTURITION FEVER, PARTURIENT APOPLEXY, OR PARTURIENT
COLLAPSE).

This disease is not only peculiar to the cow, but it may be said to be
virtually confined to the improved and plethoric cow. It further occurs
only at or near the time of calving. Indeed, these two factors, calving and
plethora, may be set apart as preeminently the causes of this disease. It
is the disease of cows that have been improved in the direction of early
maturity, power of rapid fattening, or a heavy yield of milk, and hence it
is characteristic of those having great appetites and extraordinary power
of digestion. The heavy milking breeds are especially its victims, as in
them the demand for the daily yield of 50 to 100 pounds of milk means even
more than a daily increase of 2 to 3 pounds of body weight, mainly fat. The
victims are not always fat when attacked, but they are cows having enormous
powers of digestion, and which have been fed heavily at the time. Hence the
stall-fed, city-dairy cow, and the farm cow on a rich clover pasture in
June or July are especially subject. The condition of the blood globules in
the suffering cow attests the extreme richness and density of the blood,
yet this peculiarity appears to have entirely escaped the notice of
veterinary writers. I have never examined the blood of a victim of this
disease without finding the red-blood globules reduced to little more than
one-half their usual size. Now, these globules expand or contract according
to the density of the liquid in which they float. If we dilute the blood
with water they will expand until they burst, whereas if solids, such as
salt or albumin, are added they shrink to a large extent. Their small size,
therefore, in parturition fever indicates the extreme richness of the
blood, or, in other words, plethora.

Confinement in the stall is an accessory cause, partly because stabled
cattle are highly fed, partly because the air is hotter and fouler, and
partly because there is no expenditure by exercise of the rich products of
digestion.

High temperature is conducive to the malady, though the extreme colds of
winter are no protection against it. Heat, however, conduces to fever, and
fever means lessened secretion, which means a plethoric state of the
circulation. The heats of summer are, however, often only a coincidence of
the real cause, the mature rich pastures, and especially the clover ones,
being the greater.

Electrical disturbances have an influence of a similar kind, disturbing the
functions of the body and favoring sudden variations in the circulation. A
succession of cases of the malady often accompany or precede a change of
weather from dry to wet, from a low to a high barometric pressure.

Costiveness, which is the usual concomitant of fever, may in a case of this
kind become an accessory cause, the retention in the blood of what should
have passed off by the bowels tending to increase the fullness of the blood
vessels and the density of the blood.

Mature age is a very strong accessory cause. The disease never occurs with
the first parturition, and rarely with the second. It appears with the
third, fourth, fifth, or sixth--after the growth of the cow has ceased and
when all her powers are devoted to the production of milk.

Calving is an essential condition, as the disturbance of the circulation
consequent on the contraction of the womb and the expulsion into the
general circulation of the enormous mass of blood hitherto circulating in
the walls of the womb fills to repletion the vessels of the rest of the
body and very greatly intensifies the already existing plethora. If this is
not speedily counterbalanced by a free secretion from the udder, kidneys,
bowels, and other excretory organs, the most dire results may ensue.
Calving may thus be held to be an exciting cause, and yet the labor and
fatigue of the act are not active factors. It is after the easy calving,
when there has been little expenditure of muscular or nervous energy and no
loss of blood, that the malady is seen. Difficult parturitions may be
followed by metritis, but they are rarely connected with parturition fever.

All these factors coincide in intensifying the one condition of plethora
and point to that as a most essential cause of the affection. It is
needless to enter here into the much-debated question as to the mode in
which the plethora brings about the characteristic symptoms and results. As
the results show disorder or suspension of the nervous functions mainly, it
may suffice to say that this condition of the blood and blood vessels is
incompatible with the normal functional activity of the nerve centers. How
much is due to congestion of the brain and how much to bloodlessness may
well be debated, yet in a closed box like the cranium, in which the
absolute contents can not be appreciably increased or diminished, it is
evident that, apart from dropsical effusion or inflammatory exudation,
there can be only a given amount of blood; therefore, if one portion of the
brain is congested, another must be proportionately bloodless; and as
congestion of the eyes and head generally and great heat of the head are
most prominent features of the disease, congestion of the brain must be
accepted. This, of course, implies a lack of blood in certain other parts
or blood vessels.

The latest developments of treatment indicate very clearly that the main
cause is the production of poisonous, metabolic products (leucomains and
toxins) by secreting cells of the follicles of the udder, acting on the
susceptible nerve centers of the plethoric, calving cow. Less fatal
examples of udder poisons are found in the first milk (colostrum), which is
distinctly irritant and purgative, and in the toxic qualities of the first
milk drawn from an animal which has been subjected to violent overexertion
or excitement. Still more conclusive as to the production of such poisons
is the fact that the full distention of the milk ducts and follicles, and
the consequent driving of the blood out of the udder and arrest of the
formation of depraved products, determines a speedy and complete recovery
from the disease. This does not exclude the other causes above named, nor
the influence of a reflex nervous derangement proceeding from the udder to
the brain.

_Symptoms._--It may be said that there are two extreme types of this
disease, with intervening grades. In both forms there is the characteristic
plethora and more or less sudden loss of voluntary movement and sensation,
indicating a sudden collapse of nervous power; in one, however, there is
such prominent evidence of congestion of head and brain that it may be
called the congestive form par excellence, without thereby intimating that
the torpid form is independent of congestion.

In the congestive form there is sudden dullness, languor, hanging back in
the stall, or drooping the head, uneasy movements of the hind limbs or
tail; if the cow is moved, she steps unsteadily, or even staggers; she no
longer notices her calf or her feed; the eyes appear red and their pupils
dilated; the weakness increases and the cow lies down or falls and after
that is unable to rise. At this time the pulse is usually full, bounding,
and the temperature raised, though not invariably so, the head, horns, and
ears being especially hot and the veins of the head full, while the visible
mucous membranes of nose and eyes are deeply congested.

The cow may lie on her breastbone with her feet beneath the body and her
head turned sleepily round, with the nose resting on the right flank; or,
if worse, she may be stretched full on her side, with even the head
extended, though at times it is suddenly raised and again dashed back on
the ground. At such times the legs, fore and hind, struggle convulsively,
evidently through unconscious nervous spasm. By this time the
unconsciousness is usually complete; the eyes are glazed, their pupils
widely dilated, and their lids are not moved when the ball of the eye is
touched with the finger. Pricking the skin with a pin also fails to bring
any wincing or other response. The pulse, at first from 50 to 70 a minute,
becomes weaker and more accelerated as the disease advances. The breathing
is quickened, becoming more and more so with the violence of the symptoms,
and at first associated with moaning (in exceptional cases, bellowing), it
may, before death, become slow, deep, sighing, or rattling (stertorous).
The temperature, at first usually raised, tends to become lower as stupor
and utter insensibility and coma supervene. The bowels, which may have
moved at the onset of the attack, become torpid or completely paralyzed,
and, unless in case of improvement, they are not likely to operate again.
Yet this is the result of paralysis and not of induration of the feces, as
often shown by the semiliquid, pultaceous condition of the contents after
death. The bladder, too, is paralyzed and fails to expel its contents. A
free action of either bladder or bowels, or of both, is always a favorable
symptom. The urine contains sugar, in quantity proportionate to the
severity of the attack.

In nearly all cases the torpor of the digestive organs results in gastric
disorder; the paunch becomes the seat of fermentation, producing gas, which
causes it to bloat like a drum. There are frequent eructations of gas and
liquid and solid feed, which, reaching the paralyzed throat, pass in part
into the windpipe and cause inflammations of the air passages and lungs.

In the torpid form of the disease there is much less indication of fever or
violence. There may be no special heat about the horns, ears, or forehead,
nor any marked redness or congestion of the eyes or nose, nor engorgement
of the veins of the head. The attack comes on more slowly, with apparent
weakness of the hind limbs, dullness, drowsiness, suspension of rumination
and appetite, and a general indifference to surrounding objects. Soon the
cow lies down, or falls and is unable to rise, but for one or two days she
may rest on the breastbone and hold the head in the flank without showing
any disorderly movements. Meanwhile there is not only loss of muscular
power and inability to stand, but also considerable dullness of sensation,
pricking the skin producing no quick response, and even touching the edge
of the eyelids causing no very prompt winking. Unless she gets relief,
however, the case develops all the advanced symptoms of the more violent
form, and the animal perishes.

In advanced and fatal cases of either form the insensibility becomes
complete; no irritation of skin or eye meets any response; the eye becomes
more dull and glassy; the head rests on the ground or other object; unless
prevented the cow lies stretched fully on her side; the pulse is small,
rapid, and finally imperceptible; the breathing is slow, deep, stertorous,
and the expirations accompanied with puffing is slow, the cheeks, and death
comes quietly or with accompanying struggles.

_Prevention._--For such fatal disease prevention is of far more consequence
than treatment. Among the most efficient preventives may be named a spare
diet (amounting to actual starvation in very plethoric, heavy-milking cows)
for a week before calving and at least four days after. A free access to
salt and water is most important, as the salt favors drinking and the water
serves to dilute the rich and dense blood. Iced water, however, is
undesirable, as a chill may favor the onset of fever. A dose of Epsom salt
(1 to 2 pounds) should be given 12 to 24 hours before calving is due, so
that it may operate at or just before that act. In case calving has
occurred unexpectedly in the heavy milker, no time should be lost in giving
the purgative thereafter. A most important precaution in the fleshy,
plethoric cow, or in one that has been attacked at a previous calving, is
to avoid drawing any milk from the bag for 12 or 24 hours after calving.
Breeders on the island of Jersey have found that this alone has almost
abolished the mortality from milk fever. If Epsom salt is not at hand,
saltpeter (1 ounce) should be used for several days. Daily exercise is also
of importance, and, excepting in midsummer, when the heat of the sun may be
injurious, the value of open air is unquestionable. Even in summer an open
shed or shady grove is incomparably better than a close, stuffy stall. A
rich pasture (clover especially), in May, June, or July, when at its best,
is to be carefully avoided. It is better to keep the cow indoors on dry
straw with plenty of salt and water than to have access to such pastures.

_Treatment._--Treatment of milk fever has been completely revolutionized,
with the result that a former mortality of 50 to 70 per cent has been
practically abolished. Formerly the most vigorous treatment was practiced
by bleeding, purging, the increase of peristalsis by eserin or pilocarpin,
enemas, cold in the head, counterirritants, aconite, tartar emetic,
sponging, wet-sheet packing, etc. The gross mortality, however, was not
materially reduced, and nearly all that were attacked within the first two
days after calving perished.

The first step in the modern treatment was made in 1897, when J. Schmidt
published his successful treatment by the injection of the teats and milk
ducts with a solution of iodid of potassium (1-1/2 drams to 1 quart of
water). This reduced the mortality to 17 per cent. Others followed this
lead by the injection of other antiseptics (lysol, creolin, creosol,
chinosol, common salt, etherized air, oxygen). These succeeded as well as
the iodid solution. With the injection of gases, however, a fuller
distention of the udder was usually secured, and virtually every case
recovered. This suggested the full distention of the udder with common
atmospheric air filtered and sterilized, and this with the most perfect
success. With sterile air Schmidt-Kolding claimed 96.7 per cent recoveries
in 914 cases.

In America the full distention of the udder, whether with oxygen or
filtered air, has proved invariably successful in all kinds of cases,
including the violent ones that set in within a few hours after calving. In
1 or 2 hours after the injection the cow has got up, had free passages from
the bowels and bladder, bright expression of countenance, and some return
of appetite. In my cases which had made no response for 8 hours to the
iodid injection, the injection of the udder to full repletion with the gas
(oxygen or air) has had immediately beneficial results. A similar full
distention of the bag with a common-salt solution (0.5 to 100), or even
with well-boiled water, is equally effective, but in these cases the weight
of the liquid causes dragging upon the udder and a measure of discomfort
which is escaped under the treatment with gas.

The value of each method depends on the fullness of distention of the udder
and the arrest in larger part of the circulation and chemical changes in
its tissues. This distention acts like magic, and seems hardly to admit of
failure in securing a successful outcome.

It can not, however, be recommended as absolutely devoid of dangers and
serious complications. To get the best results it should be applied only by
one who has been trained in the careful antiseptic methods of the
bacteriological laboratory. Some readers will recall the case of the
injection of the udders of show cows at Toronto to impose upon the judges.
The cows treated in this way had the udders infected and ruined, and
several lost their lives. There is no better culture medium for septic and
other germs than the first milk (colostrum) charged with albumin and
retained in the warm udder. Already in the hands of veterinarians even the
Schmidt treatment has produced a small proportion of cases of infective
mammitis. How many more such cases will develop if this treatment becomes a
popular domestic resort, applied by the dairyman himself in all sorts of
surroundings and with little or no antiseptic precautions? Even then,
however, the losses will by no means approach the past mortality of 50 to
70 per cent, so that the economy will be immeasurable under even the worst
conditions. A fair test and judgment of this treatment, however, can be
obtained only when the administrator is trustworthy and painstaking, well
acquainted with bacteriological antisepsis and with the general and special
pathology of the bovine animal.

The necessary precautions may be summarized as follows:

(1) Provide an elastic rubber ball and tubes furnished with valves to
direct the current of air, as in a common Davidson syringe.

(2) Fill the delivery tube for a short distance with cotton sterilized by
prolonged heating in a water bath.

(3) In the free end of the delivery tube fit a milking tube to be inserted
into the teat.

(4) Sterilize the entire apparatus by boiling for 30 minutes, and, without
touching the milking tube, wrap it in a towel that has been sterilized in a
water bath or in live steam and dried.

(5) Avoid drawing any milk from the teats; wash them and the udder
thoroughly with warm soapsuds; rinse off with well-boiled and cooled water,
and apply to the teats, and especially to their tips, a 5 per cent solution
of carbolic acid or lysol, taking care that the teats are not allowed to
touch any other body from the time they are cleansed until the teat tube is
inserted. It is well to rest the cleansed and disinfected udder on a
sterilized pad of cotton or a boiled towel.

(6) The injecting apparatus is unwrapped; the teat tube, seized by its
attached end and kept from contact with any other body, is inserted into
the teat, while an assistant working the rubber pump fills the quarter as
full as it will hold. The tube is now withdrawn and a broad tape is tied
around the free end of the teat to prevent escape of the air.

(7) The teat tube, which has been carefully preserved from possible contact
with other bodies, is dipped in the carbolic acid solution and inserted in
a second teat, and the second quarter is inflated, and so with the third
and fourth.

(8) The recumbent cow is kept resting on her breastbone, with the head
elevated, even if it should be necessary to pack around her with straw
bundles or to suspend the head by a halter. When lying on her side she is
liable to develop fatal bloating and to have belching of gas and liquids,
which, passing down the windpipe, cause fatal broncho-pneumonia.

(9) If in 2 hours the cow is not on her feet, if there is no brighter or
more intelligent expression, if she has passed no manure or urine, and if
the air has become absorbed, leaving the udder less tense, the injection of
the bag may be repeated, under the same scrupulous and rigid precautions as
at first. In all cases, but especially in severe ones, it is well to keep
watch of the patient, and to repeat the distention on the first indication
of relapse. Should there not be a free discharge of feces and urine after
rising, indicating a natural resumption of the nervous functions, the case
should be all the more carefully watched, so that the treatment may be
repeated if necessary.

Accessory treatment may still be used, but is rarely necessary. A dose of
purgative medicine (1-1/2 pounds of Epsom salt) in warm water may be given
in the early stages, while as yet there is no danger of its passing into
the lungs through paralysis of the throat. Eserin or pilocarpin (1-1/2
grains) may be given under the skin to stimulate the movements of the
bowels. Sponging the skin, and especially the udder, with cool water, may
be resorted to in hot weather.

Bloating may demand puncture of the paunch, in the left flank, with a
cannula and trocar, the evacuation of the gas, and the introduction through
the tube of a tablespoonful of strong liquid ammonia in a quart of cold
water or other antiferment.

The economic value of the new treatment of milk fever is enormous. The
United States has more than 22,000,000 milk cows. If we could raise their
quality by preserving and breeding from the largest producers of both milk
and butterfat, in place of losing the best by milk fever, as in the past,
and if we could thus obtain an average increase of 2 quarts a day, the
proceeds at 3 cents a quart would amount to $130,000,000 a year.


PALSY AFTER CALVING (DROPPING AFTER CALVING).

This consists in a more or less complete loss of control of the hind limbs
occurring after calving, and caused by low condition, weakness, and
exposure to cold or to injurious compression of the nerves of the hind
limbs by a large calf passing through the pelvis. Its symptoms do not
differ from those of palsy of the hind limbs, occurring at other times, and
it may be treated in the same way, except so far as bruises of the vagina
may demand special smoothing treatment.


CONGESTION OF THE UDDER (GARGET).

In heavy milkers, before and just after calving, it is the rule that the
mammary gland is enlarged, hot, tense, and tender, and that a slight
exudation or pasty swelling extends forward from the gland on the lower
surface of the abdomen. This physiological congestion is looked upon as a
matter of course, and disappears in two or three days when the secretion of
milk has been fully established. This breaking up of the bag may be greatly
hastened by the sucking of a hungry calf and the kneading it gives the
udder with its nose, by stripping the glands clean thrice daily, and by
active rubbing at each milking with the palm of the hand, with or without
lard or, better, with camphorated ointment.

The congestion may be at times aggravated by standing in a draft of cold
air or by neglect to milk for an entire day or more (overstocking, hefting)
with the view of making a great show of udder for purposes of sale. In such
cases the surface of the bag pits on pressure, and the milk has a reddish
tinge or even streaks of blood, or it is partially or fully clotted and is
drawn with difficulty, mixed, it may be, with a yellowish serum (whey)
which has separated from the casein. This should be treated like the above,
though it may sometimes demand fomentations with warm water to ward off
inflammation, and it may be a week before the natural condition of the
gland is restored.


INFLAMMATION OF THE UDDER (SIMPLE MAMMITIS).

Congestion may merge into active inflammation, or it may arise direct, in
connection with exposure to cold or wet, with standing in a cold draft,
with blows on the udder with clubs, stones, horns, or feet, with injury
from a sharp or cold stone, or the projecting edge of a board or end of a
nail in the floor, with sudden and extreme changes of weather, with
overfeeding on rich albuminous feed like cotton seed, beans, or peas, with
indigestions, with sores on the teats, or with insufficient stripping of
the udder in milking. In the period of full milk the organ is so
susceptible that any serious disturbance of the general health is liable to
fall upon the udder.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms and mode of onset vary in different cases. When
following exposure there is usually a violent shivering fit, with cold
horns, ears, tail, and limbs, and general erection of the hair. This is
succeeded by a flush of heat (reaction) in which the horns, ears, and limbs
become unnaturally warm and the gland swells up and becomes firm and solid
in one, two, three, or all four quarters. There is hot dry muzzle, elevated
temperature, full, accelerated pulse, and excited breathing, impaired or
suspended appetite and rumination, with more or less costiveness,
suppression of urine, and a lessened yield of milk, which may be entirely
suppressed in the affected quarter.

In other cases the shivering escapes notice, the general disorder of the
system is little marked or comes on late, and the first observed sign of
illness is the firm swelling, heat, and tenderness of the bag. As the
inflammation increases and extends, the hot, tender udder causes the animal
to straddle with its hind limbs, and, when walking, to halt on the limb on
that side. If the cow lies down it is on the unaffected side. With the
increase in intensity and the extension of the inflammation the general
fever manifests itself more prominently. In some instances the connective
tissue beneath the skin and between the lobules of the gland is affected,
then the swelling is uniformly rounded and of nearly the same consistency,
pitting everywhere on pressure. In other cases it primarily attacks the
secreting tissue of the gland, then the swelling is more localized and
appears as hard, nodular masses in the interior of the gland. This last is
the usual form of inflammation occurring from infection entering by the
teats.

In all cases, but especially in the last-named form, the milk is suppressed
and replaced by a watery fluid colored with blood (sometimes deeply) and
mingled with masses of clotted casein. Later it becomes white and purulent,
and in many cases of an offensive odor.

The course of the disease is sometimes so rapid and at others so slow that
no definite rule can be laid down. In two or three days, or from that to
the end of the week, the bag may soften, lose its heat and tenderness, and
subside into the healthy condition, even resuming the secretion of milk.
The longer the inflammatory hardness continues the greater the probability
that its complete restoration will not be effected. When a portion of the
gland fails to be restored in this way, and has its secretion arrested, it
usually shrinks to a smaller size. More commonly a greater quantity of the
inflammatory product remains in the gland and develops into a solid,
fibrous mass, causing permanent hardening (induration). In other cases, in
place of the product of inflammation developing into a fibrous mass, it
softens and breaks down into white, creamy, liquid pus (abscess). This
abscess may make its way to the surface and escape externally, or it may
burst into a milk duct and discharge through the teat. It may break into
both and establish a channel for the escape of milk (fistula). In the worst
types of the disease gangrene may ensue, a quarter or half or even the
whole udder, losing its vitality, and sloughing off if the cow can bear up
against the depressing influence. These gangrenous cases are probably
always the result of infection and sometimes run a very rapidly fatal
course. I remember one to which I was called as soon as the owner noticed
it, yet I found one-quarter dark blue, cold, and showing a tendency to the
formation of blebs containing a bloody secretion. The cow, which had waded
through a depth of semiliquid manure to reach her stall, died within 24
hours.

_Treatment._--Treatment varies with the type and the stage of the disease.
If the case is seen in the shivering fit, every effort should be made to
cut it short, as the inflammation may be thereby greatly moderated, if not
checked. Copious drinks of warm water thrown in from horn or bottle;
equally copious warm injections; the application of heat in some form to
the surface of the body (by a rug wrung out of hot water; by hanging over
the back and loins bags loosely filled with bran, sand, salt, chaff, or
other agent previously heated in a stove; by the use of a flatiron or the
warming of the surface by a hot-air bath), or by active friction with straw
wisps by two or more persons; the administration of 1 ounce of ground
ginger may serve to shorten the attack. After half an hour's sweat the
animal should be rubbed and covered with a dry blanket.

If, on the other hand, there is little or no fever, and only a slight
inflammation, rub well with camphorated ointment or a weak iodin ointment,
and milk three, four, or six times a day, rubbing the bag thoroughly each
time. Milking must be done with great gentleness, squeezing the teat in
place of pulling and stripping it, and if this causes too much pain, the
teat tube (Pl. XXIV, fig. 4) or the spring teat dilator (Pl. XXIV, fig. 3)
may be employed. Antiseptic injections of the teats and udder are often
useful, and iodoform in water has been especially recommended. It may be
replaced by one of the injections advised for parturition fever, used with
the same careful precautions.

In cases in which the fever has set in and the inflammation is more
advanced, a dose of laxative medicine is desirable (Epsom salt, 1 to 2
pounds; ginger, 1 ounce), which may be followed, after the purging has
ceased, by daily doses of saltpeter, 1 ounce. Many rely on cooling and
astringent applications to the inflamed quarter (vinegar, sugar-of-lead
lotion, cold water, ice, etc.), but a safer and better resort is continued
fomentation with warm water. A bucket of warm water, replenished as it
cools, may be set beneath the udder, and two persons can raise a rug cut of
this and hold it against the udder, dipping it anew whenever the
temperature is somewhat lowered. A sheet may be passed around the body,
with holes cut for the teats, soft rags packed between it and the udder,
and kept warm by pouring water on every 10 or 15 minutes, as warm as the
hand can bear. When this has been kept up for an hour or two, the bag may
be dried, well rubbed with soap, and left thus with a soapy coating. If the
pain is great, extract of belladonna may be applied along with the soap,
and a dry suspensory bandage with holes for the teats may be applied.
Strong, mercurial ointment is very useful in relieving pain and softening
the bag. This is especially valuable when the disease is protracted and
induration threatens. It may be mixed with an equal quantity of soap and
half as much extract of belladonna. In cases of threatened induration
excellent results are sometimes obtained from a weak-induction current of
electricity sent through the gland daily for 10 minutes.

If _abscess_ threatens, it may be favored by fomentation and opened as soon
as fluctuation from finger to finger shows the formation of matter at a
point formerly hard. The wound may bleed freely, and there is a risk of
opening a milk duct, yet relief will be obtained; also a dressing twice
daily with a lotion of carbolic acid 1 part, water 20 parts, and glycerin 1
part will suffice to keep the wound clean and healthy.

_Gangrene_ of the affected part is often fatal. It demands antiseptics
(chlorid of zinc, 1 dram to 1 quart water) applied frequently to the part,
or, if the case can not be attended, smear the affected quarter with Venice
turpentine, melted, or even wood tar. Antiseptic tonics (tincture of
chlorid of iron, 4 drams) may also be given four times daily in a quart of
water.


CONTAGIOUS MAMMITIS (CONTAGIOUS INFLAMMATION OF THE UDDER).

As stated in the last article, that form of inflammation of the udder which
attacks the gland ducts and follicles, causing deep-seated, hard, nodular
swellings, is often contagious. Franck has demonstrated this by injecting
into the milk ducts in different cows (milking and dry) the pus from the
bags of cows affected with mammitis, or the liquids of putrid flesh, or
putrid blood, and in every case he produced acute inflammation of the gland
tissue within twenty-four hours. He thinks that in ordinary conditions the
septic germ gains access by propagating itself through the milk, filling
the milk canal and oozing from the external orifice. He points to this as a
reason why dry cows escape the malady, though mingling freely with the
sufferers, and why such dry cows do not suffer from inflammation of the
gland tissue when attacked with foot-and-mouth disease. In this last case
it is evident that it is not simply the inoculation with the milker's hand
that is lacking, for the skin of the bag is attacked, but not its
secreting, glandular parts. Now that in any case of abscess we look for the
cause in the chain forms of globular bacteria (_Streptococcus pyogenes_),
in the cluster form of white, globular bacteria (_Staphylococcus pyogenes
albus_), and in the golden and citron-yellow forms of clustered globular
bacteria (_Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus_ and _Staphylococcus pyogenes
citreus_), the formation of pus gives presumptive evidence of the action of
one or more of these germs. So in cases of mortification of the bag; in the
very occurrence there is fair circumstantial evidence of the presence of
erysipelas micrococcus or other germ which kills the local tissues. Again,
in tuberculosis affecting the bag (a not uncommon condition), the active
local cause is without doubt the tubercle bacillus.

It has been found that false membranes have formed in certain cases of
mammitis in the cow, and Klein, after inoculating the diphtheria of man on
the cow, found an ulcerous sore in the seat of inoculation and blisters on
the teats and udder, in which he found what he believed to be the bacillus
of diphtheria. The results are doubtful, even in the absence of false
membranes. Löffler, too, in the diphtheria of calves, found that the germ
was longer and more delicate than that of man, and that its pathogenesis
for rodents was less, guinea pigs having only a nonfatal abscess. The
presence of false membranes in one form of mammitis in cows does not
necessarily imply its communicability to man.

It has been asserted that scarlet fever has been transmitted from the cow
to man, and it can not be denied that in many cases the infection has been
spread by means of the milk. The facts, however, when brought out fully
have shown that in almost every case the milk had first come into contact
with a person suffering or recovering from scarlet fever, so that the milk
was infected after it left the cow. The alleged exceptional cases at Hendon
and Dover, England, are not conclusive. In the Hendon outbreak inoculations
were made on calves from the slight eruption on the cow's teats, and they
had a slight eruption on the lips and a form of inflammation of the
kidneys, which Dr. Klein thought resembled that of scarlatina. The cows
that had brought the disease to the Hendon dairies were traced back to
Wiltshire, where cows were found suffering from a similar malady, but no
sign of scarlet fever resulted. In the Dover outbreak the dairyman first
denied any disease in his cows, and brought a certificate of a veterinarian
to prove that they were sound at the time of the investigation; then later
he confessed that the cows had had foot-and-mouth disease some time
before, and consequent eruption on the teats. So the question remains
whether the man who denied sickness in the cows to begin with, and adduced
professional evidence of it, did not later acknowledge the foot-and-mouth
disease as a blind to hide the real source of the trouble in scarlatina in
his own family or in the family of an employee.

In America Dr. Stickler said that he had produced scarlatina in children by
inoculation with imported virus of foot-and-mouth disease, but his
contention is negatived by the facts that with foot-and-mouth disease
constantly present in Europe scarlatina does not accompany it, and that in
America, with scarlatina constantly prevailing at some point,
foot-and-mouth disease is unknown locally except at long intervals and as
the result of the importation of infected animals or their products. Man is
susceptible to foot-and-mouth disease, but it never appears during the
frequent epidemics of scarlatina.

Among other contagious forms of mammitis I may name one which I have
encountered in large dairies, starting as a sore and slight swelling at the
opening of the teat and extending up along the milk duct to the gland
structure in the bag, all of which become indurated, nodular, and painful.
The milk is entirely suppressed in that quarter of the bag, and from that
it may extend to the others as it does from cow to cow through the milker's
hands.

Another form almost universally prevalent in this district of central New
York in 1889 broke out on the teats and udders as blisters strongly
resembling cowpox, but which were not propagated when inoculated on calves.
It was only exceptionally that this extended through the teat to the gland
tissue, yet in some instances the bag was lost from this cause. Scarlatina
in man was very prevalent at the time (many schools were closed in
consequence), but no definite connection seemed to exist between this and
the cow disease, and on different dairy farms there were families of young
children that had never had scarlet fever and who did not at that time
contract it.

The most common cause of contagious mammitis in cattle is a spherical
bacterium in chain form (_Streptococcus_) (Moore, Ward). Yet it is clear
that contagious mammitis is not a single affection, but a group of diseases
which have this in common, that they attack the udder.

_Prevention._--Prevention is to be especially sought in all such cases. In
purchasing new cows see that they come from a herd where the teats and
udder are sound. If a new cow with unknown antecedents comes from a public
market, let her be milked for a week by a person who does not milk any
other cows. Keep her in a separate stall from others, so that there may be
no infection from litter or flooring. Wash the udder with soap and water,
and wet with a solution of two teaspoonfuls of carbolic acid in a pint of
water before letting the regular milker of the other cows take her. If any
cow in the herd shows the indurated end of the teat or the inflammation and
nodular tender character of the gland, sequestrate her at once and give her
a separate milker. If another cow is to be put into the stall she occupied,
first clean and scrape it, and wet it with a strong solution of bluestone,
5 ounces in a gallon of water. The milk may be drawn off with a teat tube,
or spring teat dilator (Pl. XXIV, figs. 3 and 4), and the milk ducts
injected frequently with a solution of peroxid of hydrogen or iodoform. I
have had little success in checking the upward progress of the disease
through the teat with carbolic acid or boric-acid solutions. Used on the
outside of the other teats, however, they may serve to prevent them from
becoming infected. In the absence of peroxid of hydrogen the affected teat
may be injected with a solution of 1 grain corrosive sublimate in a pint of
water, and the same may be used on the other teats, provided it is washed
off every time before milking.

As additional precautions, no cow with a retained afterbirth or unhealthy
discharge from the womb should be left with the other cows. Such cows
doubtless infect their own udders and those of the cows next them by
lashing with the soiled tail. If milkers handle retained afterbirth or
vaginal discharge, or unhealthy wounds, or assist in a difficult and
protracted parturition, they should wash the hands and arms thoroughly with
soap and warm water and then rub them with the corrosive-sublimate
solution, or if not, at least with one of carbolic acid. Clothes stained
with such offensive products should be thoroughly washed.

The general treatment of contagious mammitis does not differ from that of
the simple form, except that antiseptics should be given by the mouth as
well as applied locally (hyposulphite of soda, one-half ounce daily).


COWPOX.

This is another form of contagious inflammation of the udder which does not
spread readily from animal to animal except by the hands of the milker. It
is held to occur spontaneously in the cow, but this is altogether
improbable, and so-called spontaneous cases are rather to be looked on as
instances in which the germs have been preserved dry in the buildings or
introduced in some unknown manner. It is not uncommon in the horse,
attacking the heels, the lips, or some other inoculated part of the body,
and is then easily transferred to the cow, if the same man grooms and
dresses the horse and milks the cow. It may also appear in the cow by
infection, more or less direct, from a person who has been successfully
vaccinated. Many believe that it is only a form of the smallpox of man
modified by passing through the system of cow or horse. It is, however,
unreasonable to suppose that this alleged modified smallpox could have been
transmitted from child to child (the most susceptible of the human race)
for 90 years, under all possible conditions, without once reverting to its
original type of smallpox. Chauveau's experiments on both cattle and horses
with the virus of smallpox and its inoculation back on the human subject go
far to show that in the climate of western Europe, at least, no such
transformation takes place. Smallpox remains smallpox and cowpox, cowpox.
Again, smallpox is communicable to a person who visits the patient in his
room but avoids touching him, while cowpox is never thus transferred
through the air unless deliberately diffused in the form of spray.

The disease in the cow is ushered in by a slight fever, which, however, is
usually overlooked, and the first sign is tenderness of the teats.
Examined, these may be redder and hotter than normal, and at the end of two
days there appear little nodules, like small peas, of a pale-red color, and
increasing so that by the seventh day they may measure three-fourths of an
inch to 1 inch in diameter. The yield of milk diminishes, and when heated
it coagulates slightly. From the seventh to the tenth day the eruption
forms into a blister, with raised margins and a depression in the center,
and from which the whole of the liquid can not be drawn by a single
puncture. The blister, in other words, is chambered, and each chamber must
be opened to evacuate the whole of the contents. If the pock forms on a
surface where there is thick hair it does not rise as a blister, but oozes
out a straw-colored fluid which concretes on the hairs in an amber-colored
mass. In one or two days after the pock is full it becomes yellow from
contained pus and then dries into a brownish-yellow scab, which finally
falls, leaving one or more distinct pits in the skin. Upon the teats,
however, this regular course is rarely seen; the vesicles are burst by the
hands of the milker as soon as liquid is formed, and as they continue to
suffer at each milking they form raw, angry sores, scabbing more or less at
intervals, but are slow to undergo healing.

The only treatment required is to heal the sores. As milking is the main
cause of their persistence, that must be done as gently as possible, or
even with the teat tube or dilator. (Pl. XXIV, figs. 3 and 4.) It is
essential to check the propagation of the germ, and for this purpose the
sore teats may be washed frequently with a solution of half an ounce
hyposulphite of soda in a pint of water. This will usually check the
inflammation and cut short the malady.


SUPPRESSION OF MILK.

The absence of milk in the udder may result from ill health, debility,
emaciation, chronic disease of the bag, wasting of the gland from previous
disease, or insufficient feed, but sometimes it will occur suddenly without
any appreciable cause. The treatment consists in removing the cause of the
disease, giving rich albuminoid feed made into warm mashes, and
administering ounce doses of aromatic carminatives, like anise seed, fennel
seed, etc. Rubbing and stripping the udder are useful; the application of
oil of lavender or of turpentine, or even a blister of Spanish flies, will
sometimes succeed.


BLOODY MILK.

Blood may escape with the milk when the udder has been injured by blows;
also when it is congested or inflamed, when the circulation through it has
been suddenly increased by richer and more abundant feed, or when the cow
is under the excitement of heat. The milk frothing up and assuming a pink
tinge is often the first sign of red water, and it may result from eating
acrid or irritant plants, like the Ranunculaceæ, resinous plants, etc.
Deposits of tubercle or tumors in the udder, or induration of the gland,
may be efficient causes, the irritation caused by milking contributing to
draw the blood. Finally, there may be a reddish tinge or sediment when
madder or logwood has been eaten.

In milk which becomes red after it is drawn it may be from the presence in
it of the _Bacillus prodigiosus._ This also grows on bread, and is the
explanation of the supposed miracle of the "bleeding host."

The treatment will vary with the cause. In congested glands give 1 pound of
Epsom salt, and daily thereafter one-half ounce saltpeter, with a dram of
chlorate of potassium; the bag should be bathed with hot or cold water, and
rubbed with camphorated lard. If the feed is too rich or abundant it must
be reduced. If from acrid plants, they must be removed from pasture or
fodder. Induration of the udder may be met by rubbing with a combination of
iodin ointment 1 part, soft soap 2 parts; mercurial ointment and soap also
may be used. Careful milking is imperative.


BLUE MILK.

Watery milk is blue, but the presence of a germ (_Bacillus cyanogenes_)
causes a distinct blue shade even in rich milk and cream. It may reach the
milk after it has been drawn, or it may find its way into the opening of
the milk ducts and enter the milk as it is drawn. In the latter case
frequent milking and the injection of a solution of 2 drams of hyposulphite
of soda in a pint of water into the teats will serve to destroy the germs.


STRINGY MILK.

This may be caused by fungi developing in the liquid, and that the spores
are present in the system of the cow may be safely inferred from the fact
that in a large herd two or three cows only will yield such milk at a time,
and that after a run of 10 days or a fortnight they will recover and others
will be attacked. I have found that such affected cows had the temperature
raised one or two degrees above the others. Like most other fungi this does
not grow out into filaments within the body of the cow, but in five or six
hours after milking the surface layers are found to be one dense network of
filaments. If a needle is dipped in this and lifted the liquid is drawn out
into a long thread. In one case which I investigated near Ithaca, N. Y.,
the contamination was manifestly from a spring which oozed out of a bank of
black-muck soil and stood in pools mixed with the dejections of the
animals. Inoculation of pure milk with the water as it flowed out of this
bank developed in it the fungus and the stringy characters. By fencing the
spring in and giving the affected cows each 2 drams bisulphite of soda
daily, the trouble was arrested promptly and permanently.


CHAPPED TEATS.

These may be caused by anything which irritates them. The powerful sucking
of the calf; the sudden chilling of the teat in winter after the calf has
just let it go or after the completion of milking with a wet hand; contact
with cold water or stagnant, putrid water, or with filth or irritants when
lying down; slight congestions of the skin in connection with overstocking;
indeed, any source of local irritation may cause chapping. This may be
slight or extend into great, gaping sores and induce retention of milk or
even mammitis. Soothing applications of vaseline or a combination of equal
parts of spermaceti and oil of sweet almonds may be applied. If healing is
tardy, add 10 grains balsam of Peru to the ounce of ointment. If the
irritation is very great, wash first with a solution of 1 dram sugar of
lead in 1 pint of water and then apply benzoated zinc-oxid ointment.


WARTS ON THE TEATS.

These are often very troublesome, yet they may be greatly benefited or
entirely removed by smearing them thickly with pure olive oil after each
milking. If they persist they may be cut off with a pair of sharp scissors
and the sore touched with a stick of lunar caustic. They may now be oiled
and the caustic repeated as demanded to prevent their renewed growth.

_Scabby teats_ may be smeared with vaseline containing carbolic acid enough
to give it an odor.


TEAT BLOCKED BY CONCRETION OF CASEIN.

Under unhealthy conditions of the gland or milk ducts clots of casein form
which, pressed clear of most of their liquid and rolled into rounded
masses, may block the passage. They can be moved up and down by
manipulation of the teat, and if they can not be pressed out they may be
extracted by using the spring teat dilator (Pl. XXIV, fig. 3), being held
surrounded by its three limbs. Before extraction is attempted an ounce of
almond oil, boiled, should be injected into the teat.


TEAT BLOCKED BY CALCULUS.

When the calcareous matter of the milk has been precipitated in the form of
a smooth, rounded stone, a rough, conglomerated concretion, or a fine,
sandlike débris, it may cause obstruction and irritation. These bodies are
felt to be much harder than those formed by casein, and the milk usually
contains gritty particles. Extraction may be attempted, in the case of the
finely divided gritty matter, by simple milking or with the spring dilator
(Pl. XXIV, fig. 3) in the case of the larger masses. Should this fail the
teat may be laid open with the knife and sewed up again or closed with
collodion, but such an operation is best deferred until the cow is dry.


TEAT BLOCKED BY A WARTY OR OTHER GROWTH INSIDE.

In this case the obstruction may be near the orifice of the teat or farther
up, and the solid mass is not movable up and down with the same freedom as
are concretions and calculi. The movement is limited by the elasticity of
the inner membrane of the teat from which it grows, and is somewhat freer
in certain cases because the growth has become loose and hangs by a narrow
neck. In the case of the looser growths they may be snared by a fine,
spring wire passed as a loop through a fine tube (like a teat tube open at
each end) and introduced into the teat. When this can not be done, the only
resort is to cut in and excise it while the cow is dry.


THICKENING OF THE MUCOUS MEMBRANE AND CLOSURE OF THE
MILK DUCT.

As a result of inflammation extending from without inward, a gradual
narrowing of the milk duct may occur from thickening and narrowing of its
lining membrane. This may be limited to a small area near the lower end, or
it may extend through the whole length of the teat. The stream of milk
becomes finer and finer until it finally ceases altogether, and a firm cord
is felt running through the teat. If the constriction is only at the
outlet, the teat may be seized and distended by pressing the milk down into
it from above, and an incision may be made with a sharp penknife in two
directions at right angles to each other and directly in the original
opening. The knife should be first cleansed in boiling water. The opening
may be kept from closing by a dumb-bell shaped bougie of gutta-percha (Pl.
XXIV, fig. 5) or by the spring dilator. If the obstruction is more extended
it may be perforated by Lüthi's perforating sound. (Pl. XXIV, fig. 1A and
1B.) This is a steel wire with a ring at one end, and at the other is
screwed on to the wire a conical cap with sharp cutting edges at the base,
which scrapes away the thickened masses of cells as it is drawn back. This
may be passed again and again to enlarge the passages sufficiently, and
then the passage may be kept open by wearing a long, dumb-bell bougie, a
thick piece of carbolized catgut, or a spring dilator. If the passage can
not be sufficiently opened with the sound it may be incised by the hidden
bistoury. (Pl. XXIV, fig. 2.) This is a knife lying alongside a flattened
protector with smooth, rounded edges, but which can be projected to any
required distance by a lever on the handle. The incisions are made in four
directions, as deep as may be necessary, and the walls then can be held
apart by the spring dilator until they heal. In case the constriction and
thickening of the canal extend the whole length of the teat, it is
practically beyond remedy, as the gland is usually involved so as to render
it useless.


CLOSURE OF THE MILK DUCT BY A MEMBRANE.

In this form the duct of the teat is closed by the constriction of its
lining membrane at one point, usually without thickening. The closure
usually takes place while the cow is dry; otherwise its progress is
gradual, and for a time the milk may still be pressed through slowly. In
such case, if left at rest, the lower part of the teat fills up and the
milk flows in a full stream at the first pressure, but after this it will
not fill up again without sufficient time for it to filter through. This is
to be cut open by the hidden bistoury (Pl. XXIV, fig. 2), which may be
first passed through the opening of the membrane, if such exists. If not it
may be bored through, or it may be pressed up against the membrane at one
side of the teat and opened toward the center, so as to cut its way
through. Incisions should be made in at least two opposite directions, and
the edges then may be held apart by wearing the spring dilator until
healing has been completed.

In all cases of operations on the teats the instruments must be thoroughly
disinfected with hot water, or by dipping in carbolic acid and then in
water that has been boiled.


OPENING IN THE SIDE OF THE TEAT (MILK FISTULA).

This may occur from wounds penetrating the milk duct and failing to close,
or it may be congenital, and then very often it leads to a distinct milk
duct and an independent portion of the gland. In the first form it is
necessary only to dissect away the skin leading into the opening for some
distance down, to close the orifice with stitches, and to cover the whole
with collodion. A teat tube or spring dilator may be worn to drain the milk
off and prevent distention and reopening of the orifice. In case of an
independent milk duct and gland one of two courses may be selected--to open
the one duct into the other by incision and then close the offending
opening, or to inject the superfluous gland through its duct with a caustic
solution, so as to destroy its secreting power. In both cases it is
desirable to wait until the cow goes dry.

     *       *       *       *       *

DISEASES FOLLOWING PARTURITION.
DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.

PLATES XXII, XXIII. Supports for prolapsed uterus. These illustrations show
various appliances used in prolapse or inversion of the uterus. The uterus
should first be returned to its proper situation and then some apparatus
applied to prevent a recurrence of the inversion or protrusion.

PLATE XXII:

Fig. 1. Crupper, strap truss. (From Hill's Bovine Medicine and Surgery.)

Fig. 2. Renault's rope truss. The rope for this truss should be from 25 to
30 feet long and about the thickness of the little finger.

PLATE XXIII:

Fig. 1. Cow to which Delwart's rope truss has been applied.

Fig. 1_a_ shows the loop of Delwart's truss.

Fig. 2. Zundel's labial sutures. These consist of two wires passed through
the lips of the vulva in a horizontal direction, and two additional wires
passed through the loops at the ends of the horizontal wires in order to
hold them in place.

Fig. 3. Iron truss for holding the vagina or uterus in place after calving.
The cords are passed through the eyes at the corners of the triangular
iron; the base of the triangle fits under the tail. The truss is from 5 to
7 inches long and about 2-1/2 inches wide.

PLATE XXIV. Instruments used in diseases following parturition.

Fig. 1. Lüthi's perforating sound, for opening the milk canal through the
teat when this has become occluded; A, the sound one-half the natural size;
B, section of head of sound, natural size, showing cutting edge.

Fig. 2. Bistouri caché. A blade hidden in its sheath which by pressure of
the finger may be made to protrude a certain distance. This distance is
regulated by the screw near the handle. The instrument is used to open the
milk canal when closed up. It is introduced into the milk canal with its
blade in the sheath and withdrawn with the blade protruding.

Fig. 3. Spring teat dilator, about one-half natural size, for dilating the
milk canal.

Fig. 4. Ring teat syphon, for withdrawing milk when the teat is sore or
injured.

Fig. 5. Gutta-percha bougie, for dilating the opening of the teat.

Fig. 6. Truss applied to calf for umbilical or navel hernia. (From
Fleming's Veterinary Obstetrics.)

Fig. 7. Armatage's iron clamp for umbilical or navel hernia. When this
clamp is applied care must be taken not to include a portion of the bowel.

     *       *       *       *       *

  [Illustration: PLATE XXII.

  SUPPORTS FOR PROLAPSED UTERUS.]

  [Illustration: PLATE XXIII.

  SUPPORTS FOR PROLAPSED UTERUS.]

  [Illustration: PLATE XXIV.

  INSTRUMENTS USED IN DISEASES FOLLOWING PARTURITION.]



DISEASES OF YOUNG CALVES.


By JAMES LAW, F. R. C. V. S.,

_Formerly Professor of Veterinary Science, etc., in Cornell University._


SUSPENDED BREATHING.

The moment the circulation through the navel string is stopped the blood of
the calf begins to become overcharged with carbon dioxid (CO_{2}), and
unless breathing is speedily established death promptly follows.
Fortunately the desire to breathe, roused by the circulation of the venous
blood and the reflex action from the wet and chilling skin, usually starts
the contractions of the diaphragm at once and life is insured. Among the
obstacles to breathing may be named suffocation before or during birth from
compression of the navel cord and the arrest of its circulation; the
detachment of the fetal membranes from the womb before the calf is born; a
too free communication between the two auricles (foramen ovale) of the
heart by which the nonaerated blood has mixed too abundantly with the
aerated and induced debility and profound weakness; a condition of ill
health and debility of the calf as a result of semistarvation, overwork, or
disease of the cow; fainting in the debilitated calf when calving has been
difficult and prolonged; the birth of the calf with its head enveloped in
the fetal membranes, so that it has been unable to breathe, and the
presence of tenacious phlegm in the mouth and nose, acting in the same
manner.

Besides the importance of proper care and feeding of the cow as a
preventive measure, attention should be given at once to relieve the
newborn calf of its investing membrane and of any mucus that has collected
in mouth or nostrils. Wiping out the nose deeply with a finger or feather
excites to sneezing, hence to breathing. Blowing into the nose has a
similar effect. Sucking the nostril through a tube applied to it is even
more effective. Slapping the chest with the palm of the hand or with a
towel dipped in cold water, compression and relaxation alternately of the
walls of the chest, may start the action, and ammonia or even tobacco smoke
blown into the nose may suffice. Every second is precious, however, and if
possible the lungs should be dilated by forcibly introducing air from a
bellows or from the human lungs. As the air is blown in through bellows or
a tube the upper end of the windpipe must be pressed back against the
gullet, as otherwise the air will go to the stomach. In a large dairy a
piece of elastic tubing one-third of an inch in bore should be kept at hand
for sucking and blowing in such cases.


BLEEDING FROM THE NAVEL.

This may occur in two conditions--when the cord is cut off too close to the
navel and left untied and when it tears off at the navel. (Pl. XIV.) It may
also bleed when torn across naturally, if it is sucked by the dam or
another calf. In an animal with little plasticity to its blood it will flow
under almost any circumstances. When any cord is left it is always safe to
tie it, and it is only when it is swollen and may possibly contain a loop
of the bowel that there is danger in doing so. By pressing upward any bulky
contents such danger is avoided. If torn or cut too close to be tied the
bleeding may be checked by applying alum, copperas, or for a fraction of a
second the end of an iron rod at a dull-red heat. If much blood has been
lost it may be requisite to transfuse several ounces of blood or of a weak,
common-salt solution into the open, umbilical vein.


URINE DISCHARGED THROUGH THE NAVEL (PERSISTENT URACHUS).

Before birth the urine passes from the bladder by a special tube through
the navel and navel string into the outer water bag (allantois). (Pl. XII.)
This closes at birth, and the tube shrinks into a fine cord up to the
bladder. It is only in the bull calf that it is liable to remain open,
doubtless because of the long, narrow channel through which the urine must
otherwise escape. The urethra, too, is sometimes abnormally narrow, or even
closed, in the male. If part of the cord remains, it should be tied and the
whole allowed to wither up naturally. If the cord has been removed and the
tube (urachus) protrudes, discharging the urine, that alone must be tied.
If there is nothing pendent the urachus must be seized, covered by the
skin, and a curved needle being passed through the skin and above the duct,
it may be tied along with this skin. A blister of Spanish flies, causing
swelling of the skin, will often close the orifice--so with the hot iron.
If the urethra of the male is impervious it can rarely be remedied.


INFLAMMATION OF THE URACHUS (NAVEL URINE DUCT).

This may originate in direct, mechanical injury to the navel in calving, or
shortly after, with or without the lodgment of irritant or septic matter on
its lacerated or cut end. The mere contact with healthy urine, hitherto
harmless, can now be looked on as becoming suddenly irritating. The
affection is usually marked by the presence of redness and swelling at the
posterior part of the navel and the escape of urine and a few drops of
whitish, serous pus from the orifice of the urachus. In those cases in
which urine is not discharged a tender swelling, like a thick cord
extending upward and backward from the navel into the abdomen, may be
identified. The navel enlargement may be considerable, but it is solid,
does not gurgle on handling, and can not be done away with by pressing it
back into the abdomen, as in a case of hernia.

In cases at first closed the pus may burst out later, coming from the back
part of the navel and the swelling extending backward. In other cases
whitish pus may pass with the urine by the ordinary channel, showing that
it has opened back into the bladder. In other cases the umbilical veins
become involved, in which case the swelling extends forward as well as
backward. Thus the disease may result in destructive disorders of the
liver, lungs, and, above all, of the joints.

The disease may usually be warded off or rendered simple and comparatively
harmless by applying antiseptics to the navel string at birth (carbolic
acid 1 part, water and glycerin 5 parts each, or wood tar). Later,
antiseptics may be freely used (hyposulphite of soda 4 drams, water 1
quart) as an application to the surface and as an injection into the
urachus, or even into the bladder if the two still communicate. If they no
longer communicate, a stronger injection may be used (tincture of chlorid
of iron 60 drops, alcohol 1 ounce). Several weeks will be required for
complete recovery.


ABSCESS OF THE NAVEL.

As the result of irritation at calving or by the withered cord, or by
licking with the rough tongue of the cow, inflammation may attack the loose
connective tissue of the navel to the exclusion of the urachus and veins,
and go on to the formation of matter. In this case a firm swelling appears
as large as the fist, which softens in the center and may finally burst and
discharge. The opening, however, is usually small and may close
prematurely, so that abscess after abscess is formed. It is distinguished
from hernia by the fact that it can not be returned into the abdomen, and
from inflammations of the veins and urachus by the absence of swellings
forward and backward along the lines of these canals.

Treatment consists in an early opening of the abscess by a free incision
and the injection twice a day of an astringent antiseptic (chlorid of zinc
one-half dram, water 1 pint).


INFLAMMATION OF THE NAVEL VEINS (UMBILICAL PHLEBITIS).

In this affection of the navel the inflammation may start directly from
mechanical injury, as in either of the two forms just described, but on
this are inoculated infective microbes, derived from a retained and
putrefying afterbirth, an abortion, a metritis, a fetid discharge from the
womb, an unhealthy open sore, a case of erysipelas, from overcrowding, from
filthy floor or bedding, or from an offensive accumulation of manure, solid
or liquid. As the microbes vary in different cases, given outbreaks will
differ materially in their nature. One is erysipelatoid; another purulent
infection with the tendency to secondary abscesses in the joints, liver,
lungs, etc.; another is from a septic germ and is associated with fetid
discharge from the navel and general putrid blood poisoning. In estimating
the causes of the disease we must not omit debility of the calf when the
mother has been underfed or badly housed or when either she or the fetus
has been diseased.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms vary. With the chain-form germs (streptococci)
the navel becomes intensely red, with a very firm, painful swelling, ending
abruptly at the edges in sound skin and extending forward along the
umbilical veins. The secondary diseases are circumscribed, black
engorgements (infarctions) or abscesses of the liver, lungs, kidneys,
bowels, or other internal organs, and sometimes disease of the joints.

With the ordinary pus-producing germs (_Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus_ and
_Streptococcus pyogenes_) the local inflammation in the navel causes a hot,
painful swelling, which rapidly advances to the formation of matter (pus),
and the raw, exposed surface, at first bright red, becomes dark red or
black, soft, friable, and pultaceous. If the pus is white, creamy, and
comparatively inoffensive in odor, the secondary formations in internal
organs and joints are mainly of the same purulent character (secondary
abscesses).

If, on the other hand, the discharge is very offensive and the pus more
serous, watery, or bloody, there is reason to suspect the presence of some
of the septic bacteria, and the results on the general system are a high
fever and softening of the liver and spleen and no tendency to abscesses of
the internal organs. Diarrhea is a common symptom, and death ensues early,
the blood after death being found unclotted.

Complicated cases are common, and in all alike the umbilical veins usually
remain open and can be explored by a probe passed at first upward and then
forward toward the liver.

Prevention is sought by applying a lotion of carbolic acid or iodin
solution to the navel string at birth, or it may be smeared with common
wood tar, which is at once antiseptic and a protective covering against
germs. In the absence of either a strong decoction of oak bark may be used.

_Local treatment_ consists in the application of antiseptic to the surface
and their injection into the vein. As a lotion carbolic acid, 1 ounce in a
quart of strong decoction of oak bark, should be used, or salicylic acid or
salol may be sprinkled on the surface. The interior of the vein should be
swabbed out with a probe wrapped around with cotton wool and dipped in
boracic salicylic acid.

If complications have extended to the liver or other internal organs, or
the joints, other treatment will be demanded. In acute cases of general
infection an early fatal result is to be expected.


PYEMIC AND SEPTICEMIC INFLAMMATION OF JOINTS IN CALVES
(JOINT ILL).

This occurs in young calves within the first month after birth. It persists
in the joints when once attacked, and is usually connected with disease of
the navel. Rheumatism, on the other hand, rarely occurs in a calf under a
month old. It tends to shift from joint to joint, and is independent of any
navel disease. Again, it affects the fibrous structures of the joints, and
rarely results in the formation of white matter, while the affection before
named attacks the structures outside as well as inside the joints and,
above all, the ends of the bones, and tends to the destruction and
crumbling of their tissue, and even to the formation of open sores, through
which the fragile bones are exposed. The microbes from the unhealthy and
infected wound in the navel pass into the system through the veins, or
lymphatics, and form colonies and local inflammations and abscesses in and
around the joints.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms are the swelling of one or more joints, which are
very hot and tender. The calf is stiff and lame, lies down constantly, and
does not care to suck. There is very high fever, accelerated breathing and
pulse, and there is swelling and purulent discharge (often fetid) from the
navel. There may be added symptoms of disease of the liver, lungs, heart,
or bowels, on which we need not here delay. The important point is to
determine the condition of the navel in all such cases of diseased and
swollen joints beginning in the first month of life, and in all cases of
general stiffness, for besides the diseases of the internal organs there
may be abscesses formed among the muscles of the trunk, though the joints
appear sound. Cases of this kind, if they do not speedily die, tend to
become emaciated and perish later in a state of weakness and exhaustion.

_Prevention._--Prevention must begin with the purity of the buildings and
the navel, as noted in the last article.

_Treatment._--Treatment is in the main antiseptic. The slighter forms may
be painted daily with tincture of iodin, or an ointment of biniodid of
mercury (1 dram) and lard (2 ounces) may be rubbed on the affected joints
daily until they are blistered. In case of swellings containing matter,
this may be drawn through the nozzle of a hypodermic syringe and the
following solution injected: Compound tincture of iodin, 1 dram; distilled
(or boiled) water, 2 ounces. Internally the calf may take 5 grains quinin
twice daily and 15 grains hyposulphite of soda, or 20 grains salicylate of
soda three times a day.


UMBILICAL HERNIA (BREACH AT THE NAVEL).

This may exist at birth from imperfect closure of the muscles around the
opening; it may even extend backward for a distance, from the two sides
failing to come together. Apart from this, the trouble rarely appears after
the calf has been some time on solid feed, as the paunch then extends down
to the right immediately over the navel, and thus forms an internal pad,
preventing the protrusion of intestine.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms of umbilical hernia are a soft swelling at the
navel, with contents that usually gurgle on handling, and can be entirely
returned into the abdomen by pressure. The diseases of the navel hitherto
considered have no gurgling contents and can not be completely returned
into the abdomen. The only exception in the case of the hernia is when the
walls of the sac have become greatly thickened. These will, of course,
remain as a swelling after the bowel has been returned; and when the
protruding bowel has contracted permanent adhesion to the sac, it is
impossible to return it fully without first severing that connection.

_Treatment._--Treatment is not always necessary. A small hernia, like an
egg, in a new-born calf, usually recovers of itself as the animal changes
its diet to solid feed and has the paunch fully developed as an internal
pad.

In other cases apply a leather pad 8 inches square attached around the body
by two elastic bands connected with its four corners, and an elastic band
passing from its front border to a collar encircling the neck, and two
other elastic bands from the neck collar along the two sides of the body to
the two bands passing up over the back. (Pl. XXIV, fig. 6.)

For small hernias nitric acid may be used to destroy the skin and cause
such swelling as to close the orifice before the skin is separated. For a
mass like a large goose egg one-half ounce of the acid may be rubbed in for
three minutes. No more must be applied for 15 days. For large masses this
is inapplicable, and with too much loss of skin the orifice may fail to
close and the bowels may escape.

The application of a clamp like those used in castration is a most
effective method, but great care must be taken to see that all the contents
of the sac are returned so that none may be inclosed in the clamp. (Pl.
XXIV, fig. 7.)

Another most effective resort is to make a saturated solution of common
salt, filter and boil it, and when cool inject under the skin (not into the
sac) on each side of the hernia a dram of the fluid. A bandage may then be
put around the body. In 10 hours an enormous swelling will have taken
place, pressing back the bowel into the abdomen. When this subsides the
wound will have closed.


DROPSY OF THE NAVEL.

A sac formed at the navel, by contained liquid accumulated by reason of
sucking by other calves, is unsightly and sometimes injurious. After making
sure that it is simply a dropsical collection it may be deeply punctured at
various points with a large-sized lancet or knife, fomented with hot water,
and then daily treated with a strong decoction of white-oak bark.


BLUE DISEASE (CYANOSIS).

This appearing in the calf at birth is due to the orifice between the two
auricles of the heart (foramen ovale) remaining too open, allowing the
nonaerated (venous) blood to mix with the aerated (arterial) blood, and it
is beyond the reach of treatment. It is recognized by the blueness of the
eyes, nose, mouth, and other mucous membranes, the coldness of the surface,
and the extreme sensitiveness to cold.


CONSTIPATION.

At birth the bowels of the calf contain the meconium, a tenacious, gluey,
brownish-yellow material largely derived from the liver, which must be
expelled before they can start their functions normally. The first milk of
the cow (colostrum, beestings), rich in albumin and salts, is nature's
laxative to expel this now offensive material and should never be withheld
from the calf. If, for lack of this, from the dry feeding of the cow, or
from any other cause, the calf is costive, straining violently without
passage, lying down and rising as in colic, and failing in appetite, no
time should be lost in giving relief by an ounce dose of castor oil,
assisting its action by injections of soapsuds or oil. Whatever meconium is
within reach of the finger should be carefully removed. It is also
important to give the cow a sloppy, laxative diet.


INDIGESTION.

This may occur from many different causes, as costiveness; a too liberal
supply of milk; milk too rich; the furnishing of the milk of a cow long
after calving to a very young calf; allowing a calf to suck the first milk
of a cow that has been hunted, driven by road, shipped by rail, or
otherwise violently excited; allowing the calf too long time between meals,
so that impelled by hunger it quickly overloads and clogs the stomach;
feeding from the pail milk that has been held over in unwashed (unscalded)
buckets, so that it is fermented and spoiled; feeding the milk of cows kept
on unwholesome feed; keeping the calves in cold, damp, dark, filthy, or
bad-smelling pens; feeding the calves on artificial mixtures containing too
much starchy matter; or overfeeding the calves on artificial feed that may
be appropriate enough in smaller quantity. The licking of hair from
themselves or others and its formation into balls in the stomach will cause
obstinate indigestion in the calf.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms are dullness, indisposition to move, uneasiness,
eructations of gas from the stomach, sour breath, entire loss of appetite,
lying down and rising as if in pain, fullness of the abdomen, which gives
out a drumlike sound when tapped with the fingers.

The costiveness may be marked at first, but soon it gives place to
diarrhea, by which the offensive matters may be carried off and health
restored. In other cases it becomes aggravated, merges into inflammation of
the bowels, fever sets in, and the calf gradually sinks.

_Prevention._--Prevention consists in avoiding the causes enumerated above
or any others that may be detected.

_Treatment._--Treatment consists in first clearing away the irritant
present in the bowels. For this purpose 1 or 2 ounces of castor oil with 20
drops of laudanum may be given, and if the sour eructations are marked a
tablespoonful of limewater or one-fourth ounce calcined magnesia may be
given and repeated two or three times a day. If the disorder continues
after the removal of the irritant, a large tablespoonful of rennet, or 30
grains of pepsin, may be given at each meal along with a teaspoonful of
tincture of gentian. Any return of constipation must be treated by
injections of warm water and soap, while the persistence of diarrhea must
be met as advised under the discussion following this. In case of the
formation of loose hair balls inclosing milk undergoing putrid
fermentation, temporary benefit may be obtained by giving a tablespoonful
of vegetable charcoal three or four times a day, but the only real remedy
is to cut the paunch open and extract them. At this early age they may be
found in the third or even the fourth stomach; in the adult they are
confined to the first two and are comparatively harmless.


DIARRHEA (SCOURING) IN CALVES (SIMPLE AND CONTAGIOUS).

As stated in the last article, scouring is a common result of indigestion,
and at first may be nothing more than an attempt of nature to relieve the
stomach and bowels of offensive and irritating contents. As the indigestion
persists, however, the fermentations going on in the undigested masses
become steadily more complex and active, and what was at first the mere
result of irritation or suspended digestion comes to be a genuine
contagious disease, in which the organized ferments (bacteria) propagate
the affection from animal to animal and from herd to herd. More than once I
have seen such epizootic diarrhea start on the headwaters of a creek and,
traveling along that stream, follow the watershed and attack the herds
supplied with water from the contaminated channel. In the same way the
disease, once started in a cow stable, is liable to persist for years, or
until the building has been thoroughly cleansed and disinfected. It may be
carried into a healthy stable by the introduction of a cow brought from an
infected stable when she is closely approaching calving. Another method of
its introduction is by the purchase of a calf from a herd where the
infection exists.

In enumerating the other causes of this disease we may refer to those noted
above as inducing indigestion. As a primary consideration any condition
which lowers the vitality or vigor of the calf must be accorded a prominent
place among factors which, apart from contagion, contribute to start the
disease de novo. Other things being equal, the strong, vigorous races are
the least predisposed to the malady, and in this respect the compact form,
the healthy coat, the clear eye, and the bold, active carriage are
desirable. Even the color of the hair is not unimportant, as in the same
herd I have found a far greater number of victims among the light colors
(light yellow, light brown) than among those of a darker tint. This
constitutional predisposition to indigestion and diarrhea is sometimes
fostered by too close breeding, without taking due account of the
maintenance of a robust constitution; hence animals that are very much
inbred need to be especially observed and cared for unless their inherent
vigor has been thoroughly attested.

The surroundings of the calf are powerful influences. Calves kept indoors
suffer to a greater extent than those running in the open air and having
the invigorating influences of sunshine, pure air, and exercise; close,
crowded, filthy, bad-smelling buildings are especially causative of the
complaint. The presence in the air of carbon dioxid, the product of
breathing, and of the fetid, gaseous products of decomposing dung and urine
diminish by about one-fourth of their volume the life-giving oxygen and in
the same ratio hinder the aeration of the blood and the maintenance of
vigorous health. Worse than this, such fetid gases are usually direct
poisons to the animal breathing them; for example, sulphureted hydrogen
(hydrogen sulphid 2 SH_{2}) and various alkaloids (ptomaines) and toxins
(neutral poisonous principles) produced in the filth fermentations. These
lower the general health and stamina, impair digestion, and by leading to
the accumulation in stomach and bowels of undigested materials they lay the
foundation for offensive fermentations within these organs and consequent
irritation, poisoning, and diarrhea. They further weaken the system so that
it can no longer resist and overcome the trouble.

The condition of the nursing cow and her milk is another potent cause of
trouble. The feed of the cow is important. The influence of this is shown
in the following tables:

  _Influence of feed on milk._ (_From Becquerel and Vernois._)

  +--------------------------+--------+----------+--------+--------+--------+
  |                          |        |  Casein  |        |        |
  |Character of feed.        | Water. |   and    |  Milk  |        |
  |                          |        |extractive| sugar. | Butter.| Salts.
  |                          |        |  matter. |        |        |
  +--------------------------+--------+----------+--------+--------+--------+
  |                          |_Parts  |_Parts    |_Parts  |_Parts  |_Parts
  |                          |in 1,000_ in 1,000_|in 1,000_in 1,000_in 1,000_
  |Cows on winter feed:      |        |          |        |        |
  |  Trefoil or lucern, 12-13|        |          |        |        |
  |  pounds; oat straw, 9-10 |        |          |        |        |
  |  pounds; beets, 7 pounds;|        |          |        |        |
  |  water, 2 buckets        | 871.26 |  47.81   | 33.47  |  42.07 |  5.34
  |Cows on summer feed:      |        |          |        |        |
  |  Green trefoil, lucern,  |        |          |        |        |
  |  maize, barley, grass,   |        |          |        |        |
  |  2 buckets water         | 859.56 |  54.70   | 36.38  |  42.76 |  6.80
  |Goat's milk on different  |        |          |        |        |
  |  feed:                   |        |          |        |        |
  |    On straw and trefoil  | 858.68 |  47.38   | 35.47  |  52.54 |  5.93
  |    On beets              | 888.77 |  33.81   | 38.02  |  33.68 |  5.72
  |Normal mean               | 844.90 |  35.14   | 36.90  |  56.87 |  6.18
  |                          |        |          |        |        |
  +--------------------------+--------+----------+--------+--------+--------+

In these examples the deterioration of the milk in casein on the less
nutritious winter feeding is very marked, although the relative quantity of
butter remains almost unchanged. In the case of the goat the result is even
more striking, the beet diet giving a very large decrease of both casein
and butter and an increase of milk sugar.

The second table following, condensed from the Iowa Agricultural Experiment
Station Bulletin, gives the results in butter and total solids when the
same cows were fed on different rations in succession. Each cow was fed a
daily ration of 12 pounds corn fodder and 4 pounds clover hay, besides the
test diet of (1) 12-1/4 pounds corn-and-cob meal, and (2) 10 pounds sugar
meal--a product of the glucose manufacture. This special feed was given
seven days before the commencement of each test period to obviate the
effects of transition. The analyses of the special rations are given below:

  _Analyses of special rations._

  ------------------------------+--------------+-----------+
  Constituents.                 | Corn-and-cob | Sugar     |
                                |  meal.       | meal.     |
  ------------------------------+--------------+-----------+
                                | _Per cent._  |_Per cent._|
  Moisture                      |       13.37  |      6.10 |
  Salts                         |        1.43  |      1.17 |
  Fat                           |        2.81  |     11.16 |
  Carbohydrates (heat formers). |       65.99  |     52.66 |
  Woody fiber                   |        8.03  |      8.64 |
  Proteids (flesh formers)      |        8.37  |     20.27 |
  ------------------------------+--------------+-----------+

The great excess of fat and nitrogenous or flesh-forming principles in the
sugar meal is very evident.

  _Influence of feed on milk._ (_Iowa station._)

  ------------------------+-------+----+-------+------+-------+------------
                          |       |    |       |      |       |Ratio of fat
       Animal.            | Milk. |Fat.|Solids.| Fat. |Solids.|to solids
                          |       |    |       |      |       |not fat.
  ------------------------+-------+----+-------+------+-------+------------
                          _Pounds__Pct_| _Pct_ _Pounds_Pounds_|
  Grade Shorthorn cow:    |       |    |       |      |       |
    First period, 21 days,|       |    |       |      |       |
    corn-and-cob meal     | 631.25|3.43| 11.57 |21.67 | 73.02 |422.0:1,000
    Second period, 21 days|       |    |       |      |       |
    sugar meal            | 641.50|4.04| 12.53 |25.93 | 83.38 |476.2:1,000
    Third period, 21 days,|       |    |       |      |       |
    corn-and-cob meal     | 559.00|3.22| 11.86 |17.97 | 66.32 |371.7:1,000
  Grade Shorthorn cow:    |       |    |       |      |       |
    First period, 21 days,|       |    |       |      |       |
    corn-and-cob meal     | 604.75|3.57| 11.95 |21.56 | 72.28 |425.1:1,000
    Second period, 21 days|       |    |       |      |       |
    sugar meal            | 582.00|3.91| 12.37 |22.74 | 72.57 |456.3:1,000
    Third period, 21 days,|       |    |       |      |       |
    corn-and-cob meal     | 527.00|3.37| 12.05 |17.78 | 63.48 |389.1:1,000
  Grade Shorthorn cow:    |       |    |       |      |       |
    First period, 21 days,|       |    |       |      |       |
    sugar meal            | 753.50|3.97| 12.43 |29.94 | 93.67 |469.8:1,000
    Second period, 21 days|       |    |       |      |       |
    corn-and-cob meal     | 601.50|3.15| 11.45 |18.97 | 68.89 |380.0:1,000
    Third period, 21 days,|       |    |       |      |       |
    sugar meal            | 560.50|3.85| 12.16 |21.58 | 68.16 |463.3:1,000
  Grade Holstein cow:     |       |    |       |      |       |
    First period, 21 days,|       |    |       |      |       |
    sugar meal            | 487.50|4.15| 13.27 |20.25 | 64.69 |455.6:1,000
    Second period, 21 days|       |    |       |      |       |
    corn-and-cob meal     | 379.00|3.51| 12.69 |13.30 | 48.09 |382.3:1,000
    Third period, 21 days,|       |    |       |      |       |
    sugar meal            | 374.50|3.72| 13.01 |13.95 | 48.74 |401.0:1,000
  ------------------------+-------+----+-------+------+-------+------------

Here we see in every instance a marked relative increase of the butter, and
to a less extent of the other milk solids whenever the sugar meal--rich in
fat and albuminoids--was furnished. The opposite theory having been largely
taught, it becomes needful thus to sustain the old and well-founded belief
of the dairymen.

Not only does the richness of the milk vary with the nature of the food,
but it varies also according to the time of the day when it is drawn, the
morning milk giving 7-1/2 per cent of cream and the evening milk 9-1/2 per
cent (Hassall). Boedecker found that the morning milk had 10 per cent of
solids, while the evening milk had 13 per cent. Again, the milk first drawn
at any milking is always poorer than the last drawn. The first may have
only one-half, or in extreme cases one-fourth, the cream of the last. Once
more, when the cow is in heat the milk becomes richer in solids (casein and
butter), and contains granular and white blood cells like the colostrum,
and often disagrees with the young animal living on it. Now, while these
various modifications in the amount of solid matters may prove harmless to
a strong and vigorous calf, they can easily be the occasion of intestinal
disorder in a weaker one, or in one with health already somewhat impaired
by sickness, exposure, or unwholesome buildings. The casein of the cow's
milk coagulates in one solid mass, and is much less easily penetrated by
the digesting fluids than the fine, flaky coagula of woman's or mare's
milk. An excess of casein, therefore, thrown on an already overtaxed
stomach can all the more readily induce disorder. So it is with butter fat.
While a most important element in nutrition, it may be present in the
stomach in such quantity as to interfere with the action of the gastric
juice on the casein, and with the interruption of the natural stomach
digestion the fats themselves undergo decomposition with the production of
offensive and irritating fatty acids.

The milk of the very young cow is usually more watery than that of the
mature animal, and that of the old cow has a greater liability to become
acid. It varies much with the breed, the Channel Island cattle being
notorious for the relatively large quantity of cream, while the Holsteins,
Ayrshires, and Shorthorns are remarkable rather for the quantity of casein.
The milk of cows fed on potatoes and grass is very poor and watery; that
from cows fed on cabbage or Swedish turnips has a disagreeable taste and
odor (from the former an offensive liquid has been distilled).

Cows fed on overkept, fermented, and soured rations have acid milk, which
readily turns and coagulates. Thus old, long-kept brewer's grains, swill,
the refuse of glucose factories, and ensilage which has been put up too
green all act in this way. The same may come from disease in the cow's
udder, or any general disease of the cow with attendant fever, and in all
such cases the tendency is to rapid change and unwholesomeness. If the milk
is drawn and fed from a pail, there is the added danger of all sorts of
poisonous ferments getting into it and multiplying; it may be from the
imperfect cleansing and scalding of the pail; from rinsing the pails with
water that is impure; from the entrance of bacterial ferments floating in
the filthy atmosphere of the stable, or from the entrance of the volatile
chemical products of fermentation.

In addition to the dangers coming through the milk, the calf suffers in its
digestive powers from any temporary illness, and among others from the
excitement attendant on the cutting of teeth, and impaired digestion means
fermentations in the undigested masses and the excessive production of
poisonous ptomaines and toxins.

Whatever may be the starting or predisposing cause of this malady, when
once established it is liable to perpetuate itself by contagion and to
prove a veritable plague in a herd or a district.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms of a diarrhea may appear so promptly after birth
as to lead to the idea that the cause already existed in the body of the
calf, and it usually shows itself before the end of the second week. It may
be preceded by constipation, as in retained meconium, or by fetid
eructations and colicky pains, as in acute indigestion. The tail is stained
by the liquid dejections, which are at first simply soft and mixed with
mucus with a sour odor, accompanied with a peculiar and characteristic
fetor (suggesting rotten cheese), which continually grows worse. The
quantity of water and mucus steadily increases, the normal predominance of
fatty matters becoming modified by the presence of considerable undigested
casein, which is not present in the normal feces, and in acute cases death
may result in one or two days from the combined drain on the system and the
poisoning by the absorbed products of the decomposition in the stomach and
bowels. When the case is prolonged the passages, at first 5 or 6 a day,
increase to 15 or 20, and pass with more and more straining, so that they
are projected from the animal in a liquid stream. The color of the feces,
at first yellow, becomes a lighter grayish yellow or a dirty white (hence
the name white scour), and the fetor becomes intolerable.

At first the calf retains its appetite, but as the severity of the disease
increases the animal shows less and less disposition to suck, and has lost
all vivacity, lying dull and listless, and, when raised, walking weakly and
unsteadily. Flesh is lost rapidly, the hair stands erect, the skin gets dry
and scurfy, the nose is dry and hot, or this condition alternates with a
moist and cool one. By this time the mouth and skin, as well as the breath
and dung, exhale the peculiar, penetrating, sour, offensive odor, and the
poor calf has become an object of disgust to all that approach it. At
first, and unless inflammation of the stomach and bowels supervenes (and
unless the affection has started in indigestion and colic), the belly is
not bloated or painful on pressure, symptoms of acute colicky pains are
absent, and the bowels do not rumble; neither are bubbles of gas mingled
with the feces. The irritant products of the intestinal fermentations may,
however, irritate and excoriate the skin around the anus, which becomes
red, raw, and broken out in sores for some distance. Similarly the rectum,
exposed by reason of the relaxed condition of the anus, or temporarily in
straining to pass the liquid dejection, is of a more or less deep red, and
it may be ulcerated. Fever, with rapid pulse and increased breathing and
temperature, usually comes on with the very fetid character of the feces
and is more pronounced as the bowels become inflamed, the abdomen sore to
the touch and tucked up, and the feces more watery and even mixed with
blood.

_Prevention._--The prevention of these cases is the prevention of
constipation and indigestion, with all their varied causes as above
enumerated, the selection of a strong, vigorous stock, and, above all, the
combating of contagion, especially in the separation of the sick from the
healthy, and in the thorough purification and disinfection of the
buildings. The cleansing and sweetening of all drains, the removal of dung
heaps, and the washing and scraping of floors and walls, followed by a
liberal application of chlorid of lime (bleaching powder), 4 ounces to the
gallon, are indicated. Great care must be exercised in the feeding of the
cow to have sound and wholesome feed and water, so apportioned as to make
the milk neither too rich nor too poor, and to her health, so that the calf
may be saved from the evil consequences of poisonous principles that may be
produced in the body of the cow. The calves should be carefully kept apart
from all calving cows and their discharges. Similarly each calf must have
special attention to see that its nurse gives milk which agrees with it,
and that this is furnished at suitable times. If allowed to suck, it should
either be left with the cow or be fed three times a day. If it becomes
hungry twice a day, it is more liable to overload and derange the stomach,
and if left too long hungry it is tempted to take in unsuitable and
unwholesome feed, for which its stomach is as yet unprepared. So, if fed
from the pail, it is safer to do so three times daily than twice. There
should be the utmost cleanliness of feeding dishes, and the feeder must be
ever on the alert to prevent the strong and hungry from drinking the milk
of the weaker in addition to their own. In case the cow nurse has been
subjected to any great excitement by reason of travel, hunting, or
carrying, the first milk she yields thereafter should be used for some
other purpose and only the second allowed to the calf. Indeed, one and all
of the conditions indicated above as causes should be judiciously guarded
against.

_Treatment._--Treatment varies according to the nature and stage of the
disease. When the disease is not widespread, but isolated cases only occur,
it may be assumed to be a simple diarrhea and is easily dealt with. The
first object is to remove the irritant matter from stomach and bowels, and
for this 1 or 2 ounces of castor oil may be given, according to the size of
the calf. Reduce the milk by one-half or two-thirds. If the stools smell
particularly sour, the milk may be replaced by 1 ounce calcined magnesia,
and in any case a tablespoonful or two of limewater must be given with each
meal. Great harm is often done by giving opium and astringents at the
outset. These serve merely to bind up the bowels and retain the irritant
source of the trouble; literally, "to shut up the wolf in the sheep-fold."
When the offending agents have been expelled in this way, carminatives and
demulcent agents may be given--1 dram of anise water, 1 dram nitrate of
bismuth, and 1 dram of gum arabic, three times a day. Under such course the
consistency of the stools should increase until in a day or two they become
natural.

If, however, the outbreak is more general and evidently the result of
contagion, the first consideration is to remove all sources of such
contamination. Test the milk of the cow with blue litmus paper; if it
reddens, reject the milk until by sound, dry feeding, with perhaps a course
of hyposulphite of soda and gentian root, the milk is made alkaline. The
castor oil or magnesia will be demanded to clear away the (now infecting)
irritants, but they should be combined with antiseptics, and, while the
limewater and the carminative mixture may still be used, a most valuable
addition will be found in the following: Calomel, 10 grains; prepared
chalk, 1 ounce; creosote, 1 teaspoonful; mix, divide into 10 parts, and
give one four times a day. Or the following may be given four times a day:
One dram Dover's powder, 6 grains powdered ipecacuanha; mix, divide into 10
equal parts. Injections of solutions of gum arabic are often useful, and if
the anus is red and excoriated, one-half dram of copperas may be added to
each pint of the gummy solution. All the milk given must be boiled, and if
that does not agree, eggs made into an emulsion with barley water may be
substituted. As the feces lose their watery character and become more
consistent, tincture of gentian in doses of 2 teaspoonfuls may be given
three or four times a day. Counter-irritants, such as mustard, ammonia, or
oil of turpentine, may be rubbed on the abdomen when it becomes tender to
the touch.


ACUTE CONTAGIOUS SCOURING IN THE NEWBORN.

The most violent and deadly form of diarrhea in the newborn calf deserves a
special mention. This may appear immediately after birth, and shows itself
almost invariably within the first or second day. The most intense symptoms
of white scour are complicated by great dullness, weakness, and
prostration, sunken eyes, retracted belly, short, hurried breathing, and
very low temperature, the calf lying on its side, with the head resting on
the ground, lethargic and unconscious or regardless of all around it. The
bowel discharges are profuse, yellowish white, and very offensive. As a
rule death ensues within 24 to 36 hours.

A marked characteristic of this form of illness is that it attacks almost
every calf born in the herd, or in the building, rather, and if the calf
escapes an attack in the first two or three days of its life it usually
survives. Those that recover from an attack, however, are liable one or two
weeks later to suffer from an infective inflammation of the lungs. The
infection clings to a stable for years, in many cases rendering it
impossible to preserve and raise the calves. It has frequently coincided
with abortions and failures to conceive in the same herd, so that it has
been thought that the same infective germ produces one type of abortion. On
the other hand, the removal of the calving cow from the herd to calve in a
separate building, hitherto unused and therefore uninfected, usually
effects the escape and survival of the offspring.

The disease has been traced by Nocard and Lignières to a small bacillus
having the general characters of those that produce hemorrhagic septicemia,
which is usually combined with a variety of others, but is in some cases
alone and in pure culture, especially in the joints. The theory of
Lignières is that this bacillus is the primary offender, and that once
introduced it so depresses the vital powers of the system and tissue cells
that the healthy resistance to other bacteria is impaired or suspended, and
hence the general and deadly invasion of the latter.

Inoculations with this bacillus killed guinea pigs or rabbits in 6 to 18
hours, and calves in 30 hours, with symptoms and lesions of hemorrhagic
septicemia, including profuse fetid diarrhea.

The predominance of the early and deadly lesions in the alimentary tract
would seem to imply infection through the feed, and the promptitude of the
attack after birth, together with the frequent coincidence of contagious
abortion in the herd, suggest the presence of the germ in the cow; yet the
escape of the calf when the cow calves in a fresh building is equally
suggestive of the infection through germs laid up in the building. This
conclusion is further sustained by the observation that the bacillus
evidently enters by the raw, unhealed navel, that it is diffused in the
blood, and that a very careful preservation of the navel against infection
gives immunity from attack.

_Prevention._--The disease is so certainly and speedily fatal that it is
hopeless to expect recovery, and therefore prevention is the rational
resort.

When a herd is small, the removal of the dam to a clean, unused stable a
few days before calving and her retention there for a week usually
succeeds. It is in the large herd that the disease is mainly to be dreaded,
however, and in this it is impossible to furnish new and pure stables for
each successive group of two or three calving cows. The thorough
disinfection of the general stable ought to succeed, yet I have seen the
cleanest and purest stable repeatedly disinfected with corrosive sublimate
without stopping the malady. It would appear as if the germ lodged on the
surface or in the bowels of the cow and tided the infection over the period
of stable disinfection. Though insufficient of themselves, the supply of
separate calving boxes and the frequent thorough cleaning and disinfection
of both these and the stables should not be neglected. The most important
measure, however, is the disinfection of the navel.

The cow should be furnished with abundance of dry, clean bedding, sprinkled
with a solution of carbolic acid. As soon as calving sets in the tail and
hips and anus and vulva should be sponged with a carbolic-acid solution
(one-half ounce to the quart), and the vagina injected with a weaker
solution (2 drams to the quart). Fresh carbolized bedding should be
constantly supplied, so that the calf may be dropped on that and not on
soaked litter nor manure. The navel string should be at once tied with a
cord that has been taken from a strong solution of carbolic acid. The stump
of the cord and the adjacent skin should then be washed with the following
solution: Iodin, one-half dram; iodid of potassium, one-half dram; water, 1
quart. When dry it may be covered with a coating of collodion or tar, each
containing 1 per cent of iodin.

Whenever a calf shows any sign of scouring it should be instantly removed
to another pen and building, and the vacated one should be thoroughly
cleaned and disinfected. Different attendants should take care of the sound
calves and the infected ones, and all utensils, litter, etc., kept
scrupulously apart.

After one week the healthy calves may usually be safely herded together, or
they may be safely placed in the cow stable.


OTHER AILMENTS OF THE CALF.

Among these may be named several congenital imperfections, such as
imperforate anus, vulva, or prepuce, which are to be recognized by the
inability to pass dung or urine, in spite of straining, and the formation
of swellings in the anus, vulva, or sheath. Each must be carefully incised
with the knife, taking care not to injure the muscles which circumscribe
the respective openings; also tongue-tie, in which the thin, flaccid,
mucous membrane passing from the median line of the lower surface of the
tongue binds the latter too closely to the floor of the mouth and renders
the tongue unfit for gathering in the food in after life. This must be cut
with knife or scissors, so as to give the tongue a reasonable degree of
liberty.

APHTHA, or THRUSH, is another trouble of the sucking calf, showing itself
as a white, curdy elevation on the tongue, lips, cheeks, or gums, and when
detached leaving a raw, red, angry surface. It is due to the growth of a
vegetable parasite long recognized as the _Oïdium albicans_ (_Saccharomyces
albicans_). It is easily removed by rubbing with powdered borax, but
inasmuch as other colonies are liable to start either in the mouth or in
the pharynx, gullet, or stomach, it is well to give a dose of one-half dram
of hyposulphite of soda in water day by day for several days.

RICKETS is not a common disease in calves, and comes on, if at all, later
than those we have been considering. It consists in softening and
friability of the bones from a deficiency of lime salts, and appears to be
mainly connected with an inherited weakness of constitution, unsuitable
feeding, cold, close, damp buildings, microbian infection, and other
conditions inimical to health. The prevention and treatment of rickets
consists essentially in the improvement of the digestion and general
health; hence sunshine, open air, exercise, nourishing food, and tonics are
indicated. (See p. 267.)



BONES: DISEASES AND ACCIDENTS.

By V. T. ATKINSON, V. S.

[Revised by John R. Mohler, V. M. D.]


Some knowledge of the skeleton is advisable to facilitate the study of
diseases of bones and the accidental injuries to which they are exposed.
The skeleton of the adult ox is made up of the following number of bones:

  Spinal column   45
  Head            28
  Chest           27
  Shoulder         2-- 1 on each side.
  Arm              2-- 1 on each side.
  Forearm          4-- 2 on each side.
  Forefoot        40--20 on each side.
  Pelvis           2-- 1 on each side.
  Thigh            2-- 1 on each side.
  Leg              6-- 3 on each side.
  Hind foot       38--19 on each side.
                 ----
  Total          196

Without attempting to burden the reader with the technical names and a
scientific classification of each, it appears desirable to describe some of
the characteristics of forms in general and of a few classes into which
they may be divided, leaving the special study of individual bones to the
illustrations of the skeleton (Pl. XXV), which will serve better than a
great deal of writing to fix in the mind of the reader the location,
relation, and function of each one. In early fetal life the place of bone
is supplied by temporary cartilage, which gradually changes to bone. For
convenience of study, bones may be said to be composed of a form of dense
connective tissue impregnated with lime salts and to contain two elementary
constituents--the organic or animal and the inorganic or earthy. In young
animals the former predominates; with increasing years the relative
proportions of the two change, so that when advanced age is reached the
proportion of inorganic far exceeds the organic. The gradual change with
advancing years from organic to inorganic has the effect of rendering the
bone harder and more brittle, and though it is stronger, the reparative
process is slower when injury does occur.

The bones are nourished in two ways: First, from the outside through their
covering, called the periosteum--the thin, strong membrane that covers
every part of the bone except the articular surface of the joints; and,
second, from within through the minute branches of blood vessels which pass
into the bones through holes (foramina) on their surface and are
distributed in the soft structure (medulla) of the inside. The structure of
the bone is divided into two parts--the compact or hard material of the
outside, which gives strength and is more abundant in the shafts of long
bones, and the cancellated, softer tissue of the inside, which affords
accommodation to the blood vessels necessary for the nourishment of that
part of the structure.

In shape, bones are divided into three classes--long, flat, and short. The
long bones are the ribs and those mostly found in the limbs; the flat bones
are found in the head, the shoulder, and the pelvis; the short bones in the
spinal column and in the lower portions of the limbs.

With this little introduction, which seems almost indispensable, we will
proceed at once to the consideration of diseases of bones, for they undergo
disease processes like any other living tissue.


OSTEITIS.

Inflammation of the compact structure of bones (osteitis) may be either
acute or chronic, and may involve the whole extent of the bone affected or
may be confined to only a portion of it. This inflammation results from
injury, such as concussion, laceration, or a crushing bruise; also from
specific influences, as in actinomycosis (lumpy jaw) or cases of foul foot.
The latter affection frequently involves the bones, and for this reason the
pastern is the most frequent seat of osteitis. There is dull pain on
pressure and a painful swelling of bone when pus is present. Suppuration
may involve the overlying soft tissues, causing an abscess, which may
finally break through the skin. The inflammatory condition sometimes
assumes an ulcerated form (caries) or from interrupted nutrition of the
part deprived of the blood necessary to its nourishment may cause death of
a large section of bone (necrosis); this dead fragment (sequestrum),
becoming separated from the main portion of bone, acts as a foreign body.

_Treatment._--This consists in resting the affected part and in giving vent
at the earliest possible moment to whatever pus may be present. Free
drainage should then be maintained. Apply dressings of lactic acid or
inject with 5 per cent zinc-chlorid solution and pack with tampons of
cotton soaked in antiseptic solutions. A laxative to keep the bowels moving
freely is the only internal treatment necessary.


PERIOSTITIS.

This disease is an inflammation of the external covering of bone
(periosteum) and is usually produced by wounds, pressure, or crushing the
part. The periosteum is well supplied with sensitive nerve endings and when
inflamed is very sensitive to pressure and may cause lameness. This
condition is often difficult to determine, and even an acute observer may
fail to locate the point of its existence. There are three forms of
periostitis--aseptic, purulent, and fibrous.

ASEPTIC PERIOSTITIS when it becomes chronic causes such a bony enlargement
(exostosis) as is seen in the callous formation following the fracture of a
bone. The formation of such a tumor or enlargement on the surface of a bone
is liable to occur in any part of the bone covered with periosteum, and
when found near a joint involving two or more bones it is liable to result
in their union (anchylosis).

_Treatment._--Applications of cold water to check the inflammatory
processes is indicated for the first few days in aseptic periostitis,
followed by hot fomentations to hurry resorption of fluids. Massage should
then be given with camphor ointment, mercurial ointment, soap liniment, or
Lugol's solution. In the chronic form point firing or a biniodid-of-mercury
blister will be found beneficial.

PURULENT PERIOSTITIS follows wounds which reach the periosteum and become
infected, as observed in compound fractures, or it may result from
advancing purulent conditions in neighboring structures, as in foul foot.
It may also occur in the course of an infectious disease, when small
abscesses are formed under the periosteum (subperiosteal abscess). It may
lead to necrosis of the bone or a fistulous tract from the bone to the
surface. There is usually much pain and fever, and the odor from the wound
is offensive.

_Treatment._--In this form of periostitis the periosteum should be freely
incised, followed either by continuous irrigation or frequent injection of
the wound with antiseptic solutions.

FIBROUS PERIOSTITIS.--This form of the disease consists in the thickening
of the outer layer of the periosteum from the inflammation reaching it from
neighboring structures. This newly formed fibrous tissue may become
ossified or may transmit the inflammation to the deeper bony structures. It
is frequently seen in cases in which there has been an intense inflammation
of the skin close to an underlying bone.

_Treatment._--The treatment should be the same as that recommended for
aseptic periostitis.


OSTEOMYELITIS.

This term refers to an inflammation of the bone marrow, which is most
commonly seen following the bacterial infection of a compound fracture and
usually results in pus formation. The bone is melted away and pus escapes
from the bone under the periosteum, involving the soft tissues. It is
principally confined to the long bones and seldom affects more than one.

_Treatment._--The bone should be opened for the purpose of curetting out
the diseased portion of the marrow cavity and removing all the necrotic
pieces of bone. This should be undertaken only by a competent veterinarian.
The after-treatment consists in tamponing the wound with pledgets of
iodoform gauze or a mixture of iodoform 1 part and glycerin 4 parts. The
wound in the soft tissue should be kept open until the cavity in the bone
has filled with granulation tissue.


RICKETS.

This disease, also called "rachitis," is an inflammatory affection of
young, growing bones, and mostly involves the ribs and long bones of the
legs. It consists in a failure of the organism to deposit lime salts in
bone, and for this reason the bones do not ossify so rapidly as they
should. The cartilaginous ends of the bones grow rapidly, but ossification
does not keep pace with it. The bones become long and their ends bend at
the joints, the legs become crooked, and the joints are large and
irregular. All the bones affected with this disease are thicker than
normal, and the gait of the animal is stiff and painful. A row of bony
enlargements may be found where the ribs articulate with the cartilages
connecting them with the breastbone and is called the "beaded line." A
catarrhal condition of the digestive tract is usually observed. The disease
may result from an inherited weakness of constitution, poor hygienic
surroundings, or improper diet. Calves and foals are less frequently
affected with rickets than dogs and pigs.

_Treatment._--The affected animal should have nourishing feed containing a
proper quantity of lime salts. Outdoor exercise and plenty of fresh air are
indispensable. Limewater should be given once daily for drinking purposes
and ground bone meal mixed with the food. Phosphorus, one-fortieth of a
grain, and calcium phosphate, 1 dram, given twice daily to a 2-month-old
calf, and proportionally increased for older animals, has proved
efficacious in this disease. In some cases the long bones of the limbs are
too weak at birth to support the weight of the animal, and temporary
splints, carefully padded and wrapped on with some soft bandages, become
necessary.


OSTEOMALACIA (CREEPS).

This is a condition of bone brittleness or softening of bone found usually
in adult life. It consists in the decalcification of mature bone, with the
advancing diminution of the compact portion of bone by absorption. The
periosteum strips very easily from the bone. This disease is seen in milch
cows during the period of heavy lactation or in the later stages of
pregnancy, and the greater the yield of milk the more rapid the progress of
the disease. Heifers with their first calves are frequently affected, as
these animals require a considerable quantity of mineral salts for their
own growth and for the nourishment of their offspring.

_Symptoms._--In marked cases there is a gradual emaciation and symptoms of
gastrointestinal catarrh, with depraved appetite, the animal eating manure,
decayed wood, dirt, leather, etc. Muscular weakness is prominent, together
with muscle tremors, which simulate chills, but are not accompanied with
any rise of temperature. The animal has a stiff, laborious gait; there is
pain and swelling of the joints, and constant shifting of the weight from
one leg to another. The restricted movements of the joints are frequently
accompanied with a crackling sound, which has caused the name of "creeps"
to be applied to the disease. The coat is dull and rough and the skin dry
and hidebound. The animal is subject to frequent sprains or fracture of
bones without apparent cause, as in lying down or turning around, and when
such fractures occur they are difficult to unite. The bones principally
involved are the upper bones of the legs, the haunch bone, and the middle
bones of the spinal column. The disease in this country is confined to
localized areas in the Southwest, known as the "alkali districts," and in
the old dairy sections of New York State. The cause of this affection is
the insufficiency of lime salts in the food, also to feeding hay of low,
damp pastures, kitchen slops, and potatoes, or to overstocking lands. It
occurs on old, worn-out soil poor in lime salts, and has also been observed
to follow a dry season.

_Treatment._--This should consist in a change of feed and the artificial
feeding of lime salts, such as magnesium and sodium phosphate. Feed rich in
mineral salts may be given, such as beans, cowpeas, oats, cottonseed meal,
or wheat bran. Cottonseed meal is one of the best feeds for this purpose,
but it should be fed carefully, as too large quantities of it are injurious
to cows. Phosphorus may also be given in one-fourth grain doses twice
daily, together with a tablespoonful of powdered bone meal or crude calcium
phosphate at each meal. Ordinary lime dissolved in drinking water
(limewater) will also be found efficacious in combating this disease, and
can be provided at slight expense. A change of pasture to a locality where
the disease is unknown and a free supply of common salt and bone meal will
be the most convenient method of treating range cattle.


SPRAINS.

The most common accident occurring to bones and joints is a sprain of the
ligaments uniting the bones, or the tendons uniting the muscles and bones.
A sprain is the result of a sudden forcing of a joint in an unnatural
direction, or, if in a natural direction, beyond the power of the ligament
or tendon to restrain it properly, so that part of the fibers of either are
ruptured. When such an accident occurs pain is immediately inflicted,
varying in degree with the extent of the injury, which is soon followed by
swelling, with more or less heat and tenderness. If the seat of the injury
be in any of the limbs, lameness is likely to result. Of the causes of
sprain, slipping on ice or a wet floor, playing, and fighting with another
animal are the most common.

SPRAIN OF THE SHOULDER JOINT.--This is liable to occur from any of the
causes mentioned above or from the animal slipping suddenly into a rut or
hole. When such an accident occurs, sudden lameness will attract attention.
The animal will be noticed to drag the leg when walking and to carry it in
a circular direction, outward and forward, at each step. The leg should be
carefully examined, pressure over the joint causing the animal to evince
pain. If the person making the examination is in doubt, it is well to make
a comparison between the shoulders by pressing first on one and then the
other. After such an accident the animal should be tied up so as to limit
so far as possible the use of the injured joint.

Soft feed should be given with a view of keeping the bowels acting freely.

_Treatment._--During the first three days the treatment should consist of
cold-water irrigation to check the inflammation and relieve the pain. Hot
fomentations may then be applied to hasten the absorption of the
inflammatory fluids. When the pain has somewhat abated, equal parts of
mercurial ointment and green soap may be rubbed into the swollen tissue.
Should lameness continue after the tenth day, good results will be obtained
from the application of a blister. This may be done by carefully clipping
off the hair over the joint, including a surface of 4 or 5 inches in
circumference, and rubbing in the following preparation:

  Powdered cantharides   dram   1
  Biniodid of mercury     do    1
  Vaseline              ounce   1

The animal's head should be carefully tied until the third day, to prevent
its licking the blister. The blistered surface should then be smeared with
lard or vaseline every other day until the scabs fall off. Gentle exercise
should be allowed after the fourth or fifth day from the application of the
blister. If the lameness still remains the blister may be repeated in three
weeks or a month.

SPRAIN OF THE FETLOCK.--This may occur from misstep when the animal is
moving rapidly, and the twisting or wrenching of the foot is sufficient to
rupture partially the ligaments which bind the bones together at that part.
Such an accident also frequently occurs by the foot getting fastened in a
hole in the floor; the wrenching is the result of the animal's attempt to
liberate it. Lameness, followed by swelling of the joint and pain when it
is handled, or when the animal moves the joint, and heat, are the more
noticeable symptoms. If the sprain is very severe, the animal occasionally
does not bear its weight on the limb.

_Treatment._--The most important consideration in the treatment of this
affection is rest, which is best enforced by keeping the animal in the
stall and placing strong, muslin bandages about the inflamed joint. As in
the sprain of the shoulder, cold water in the form of douches, continuous
irrigation with hose or soaking tub, or finely chopped ice poultices are
indicated for the first three days. Following this apply a Priessnitz
bandage[2] moderately tight about the joint, which not only conduces to
rest, but also favors absorption. Massage with stimulating liniments, such
as soap or camphor, may later be applied to the affected parts.

If the lameness has not disappeared by the tenth day, the blister advised
for the sprain of the shoulder should be applied and the same precautions
observed as to tying the animal's head and subsequent smearing with
vaseline. When a blister is applied in this locality, the back part of the
heel should be first filled with lard or vaseline, and care taken to
prevent any of the blistering preparation from coming in contact with the
skin of that part. If this precaution is not observed, scratches may ensue
and prove troublesome.

SPRAIN OF THE HIP.--This is liable to result from the animal's slipping in
such way as to spread the hind feet wide apart. The patient goes stiff in
the hind legs, or lame in one hind leg, walking with a straddling gait and
swinging the leg outward as it is carried forward. Tenderness may
occasionally be detected on pressure, but owing to the heavy covering of
muscles outside the joint this test is not always reliable.

In the acute cases give rest and cold local applications. After the fourth
or fifth day the blister mentioned for sprain of the shoulder may be
applied with advantage, and if this proves insufficient, as a last resort
we may fire in points over the joint.

SPRAIN OF THE BACK.--Sprain of the back, particularly in the region of the
loins, is not an uncommon accident among cattle. It is liable to occur from
the animals slipping with both hind feet sidewise so as to twist the back,
or from slipping violently backward so that great stress is thrown on the
loins. The patient moves with difficulty, using the hind parts in a guarded
manner, as if afraid of causing severe pain. Occasionally, if the sprain is
severe, the animal will rise with difficulty. Pressure on the back in the
immediate region of the loins causes pain. Such cases may be mistaken for
paralysis, and, in fact, in severe cases, during the early stages of the
injury, although the nerve supply is not interfered with, the injury to the
muscles and resulting pain is so great that the condition is almost equal
to paralysis, although liable to be attended with more favorable results.
Hot applications, such as blankets wrung out of hot water and changed
often, will be likely to afford relief during the earlier stages.
Afterwards the blister mentioned for sprain of the shoulder may be applied
with advantage.


FRACTURES (BROKEN BONES).

Bones may be accidentally broken in many ways and from different causes.
Fractures in general are liable to be produced by external force suddenly
and violently applied, either directly to the part or at a distance, the
force being transmitted through the stronger bones until it expends itself
by breaking a weaker one remote from the seat of the injury. Occasionally
violent contraction of muscles is sufficient to break a bone. Certain
bones, those of the limbs in particular, owing to their exposed position,
are more liable to fracture than others. Owing to certain predisposing
causes, such as age, habit, or hereditary constitutional weakness, the
bones of some animals are more easily fractured than those of others. The
bones of an animal advanced in years are more subject to fracture because
of the preponderance of inorganic matter rendering them more brittle. They
are also occasionally rendered liable to fracture by a previously existing
diseased condition. Fractures are divided into four classes--partial,
simple, compound, and comminuted.

PARTIAL FRACTURES.--Partial fractures are those which are liable to occur
in a young animal in which the preponderance of animal matter or the
semicartilaginous condition of the bone renders it tough, so that even when
considerable force is applied the bone bends, breaking on the side opposite
that to which the force was applied, after the manner in which a green
stick bends and breaks.

SIMPLE FRACTURES. Simple fracture is one in which the bone is severed in
two parts, transversely, longitudinally, or obliquely, without serious
injury to the adjoining structures.

COMPOUND FRACTURES.--Compound fracture is one in which there is an open
wound permitting the air to communicate with the ends of the broken bones.

COMMINUTED FRACTURES.--Comminuted fracture is one in which the bone is
shattered or divided into a number of fragments.

COMPLICATED FRACTURES.--Complicated fracture is one in which other
structures surrounding the bones are injured.

GENERAL SYMPTOMS OF FRACTURE.--When a fracture of one or more of the large
bones of a limb occurs, symptoms are sure to be well marked. After the
accident the animal refuses to touch the foot to the ground and, if
compelled to move, does so with great pain and reluctance. There is more or
less shortening of the limb, with trembling of the muscles in the vicinity
of the injury; deformity, and increased mobility, so that, instead of the
natural joints of the limb and the natural, muscular control of their
motion, a new joint, over which the animal has no control, is formed where
the fracture occurred. As the leg, shortened by the ends of the bones being
forced past one another from the muscular contraction which invariably
takes place, hangs dependent from the body it swings in an awkward and
unnatural manner, permitting the toe and foot to assume positions in their
relations to other parts of the body which otherwise would be impossible.
If the fractured bone is so situated that the parts may be moved one upon
another, a grating sound, known as crepitus, will be heard.

GENERAL TREATMENT OF FRACTURES.--When a fracture occurs, the advisability
of attempting treatment must first be determined. If the animal is young,
valuable, and of reasonably quiet temperament, and the fracture is not too
great in extent, the chances of recovery are fair. On the other hand, if
the animal should be of little value, irritable, advanced in years, and the
fracture is a serious compound or comminuted one, the wiser course would
generally be to put the creature out of its misery.

Having determined to attempt treatment, no time should be lost in restoring
the parts as nearly as possible to their natural position and retaining
them there. If the ends of the bones have been drawn one past the other,
they should be drawn out by firm and continuous tension, until they again
assume the position in which they were before the accident. All this can
better be done before the swelling (which is sure to result) takes place.
If the swelling has occurred before the injury is noticed, do not attempt
to treat it, but proceed at once to treat the fracture as though the
swelling were not present, for no step can be taken toward recovery until
the ends of the bone have been restored to their proper position. When that
is done and proper appliances have been used to prevent them from being
again misplaced, the swelling, which is the result of irritation, will be
relieved. In selecting the appliances to be used in the treatment of
fracture the judgment and ingenuity of the operator are of much importance.
Splints, made of wood shaped to fit the limb and padded with soft material
where they come in contact with bony prominences, and held in position by
means of bandages, are the oldest method, and with some are still most
popular. The fracture pads used in human surgery, and for sale in surgical
depots, are very convenient. After being dipped in water they may be molded
to fit the limb and be retained by means of bandages. Heavy sole leather
is also used after being soaked in warm water and molded to the shape of
the limb and holes cut in it to fit over any sharp irregularities in the
natural shape of the bones. Gutta-percha sheets are also used and answer
well. They are prepared and used in the same way as the leather.

Another and perhaps the simplest of all methods is the application of a
plaster-of-Paris bandage, which is made as follows: Strips of thin
cheesecloth 3 inches wide and 8 or 9 feet long are laid flat on a board and
on them is spread a layer of plaster of Paris about one-eighth of an inch
thick; then, starting at one end, roll carefully so as to gather the
plaster in between the layers of the bandage. It is of course important
that the cloth be thin and the plaster of Paris fresh and active. After
preparing four or five of such bandages the operator is ready to dress the
fracture, which, after the parts have been brought into position, should be
done by covering all that part of the limb to which the plaster-of-Paris
bandage is to be applied with a single layer of the dry bandage, letting it
extend both above and below the part to which the plaster bandage is to be
applied and including under the folds of the dry bandage at each end a
layer of absorbent cotton, which is intended to form a pad to prevent the
ends of the plaster bandage from chafing the skin beneath. When this is
done one of the plaster bandages should be placed in a vessel of water and
allowed to remain till the air bubbles have ceased to rise from it, which
will generally indicate that it is soaked through. Then, taking it in the
hand, wind it carefully around and around the limb, unrolling the bandage
as it is wound around the limb, occasionally smoothing down the plaster of
Paris. Should it form roughly or in ridges the hand may be dipped in water
to impart increased moisture to it. When about finished with one bandage,
place another one in the water, so that the winding operation may be
continued without delay. The bandages should be applied till the cast is
from one-half to three-quarters of an inch thick, then gently restrain the
animal for one-half or three-quarters of an hour till the plaster is
hardened. Any of the appliances used should be so manipulated as to prevent
absolutely any motion of the detached parts. If the fracture is near a
joint, it is generally best to include the joint in the appliance. The part
of the limb below the bandage should be carefully and firmly wrapped with
an ordinary cotton bandage all the way from the plaster bandage down to the
hoof. This last bandage will tend to prevent swelling, which is liable to
occur, the result of the dependent position in which the animal is forced
by nature to keep the injured limb.

When plaster-of-Paris bandages are applied to a compound fracture the
injured part may be previously dressed with a small, thick pad of cotton
immediately over the wound. In applying the bandage the operator may with a
little care so arrange it as to keep the folds of the bandages off the
cotton, or have only a thin layer over it, which may be easily cut out and
the cotton removed, leaving a convenient opening through which to dress the
wound without removing the bandage. The ends of the bandage or other
appliance should be carefully watched to see that the skin does not become
chafed, particularly at the lower end. If the bandage should become weak or
broken at any part, it may be strengthened without removal by applying
other bandages immediately over it. If swelling has taken place before the
bandage has been applied, there is liable to be some loosening as it
disappears, and even without the swelling there may be a tendency of the
bandage to slide downward. This may be overcome by fastening it to a
suspender attached to a surcingle or passed over the body and attached to
the opposite leg. If the looseness can not be overcome in this way, the
space may be filled by pouring in a thin paste of plaster of Paris. A
better method, however, is to remove the bandage and apply another. Owing
to the hardness of the bandage it will be removed with some difficulty. A
deep groove should be cut down completely through it on the opposite sides.
This may be done with a chisel and a small hammer if the bandage is
carefully held by an assistant so that the concussion of the blows is not
transmitted to the injured bones. The patient should have a roomy stall,
and should be tied by the head to prevent any attempts to move around. In
some cases slings have been used. Ordinarily, however, they are not
satisfactory in cattle practice, and if applied should be for only a few
days at a time, and with a view to lessen the animal's disposition to lie
down, rather than to prevent it. When they are used continuously the
pressure on the abdomen may interfere with digestion and the general health
of the animal.

_Modes of union._--The animal should be kept as quiet as possible and given
such feed as will have a tendency to keep the bowels slightly relaxed. The
success of the operation depends chiefly on the skill of the operator, but
not alone in the selection and use of the appliances, for as much attention
must be given to subsequent management. The patients are restless, and a
single awkward motion may undo the work of weeks so far as the union of the
parts of the bone is concerned. Union takes place after the same process
and, if the conditions are favorable, with greater rapidity than in the
human being. The injury that caused the fracture is almost sure to have
extended to some of the adjacent tissues, and even though the fracture may
be of the simplest type there is almost sure to be considerable hemorrhage
around the ends of the broken bone. This, however, is unimportant if the
skin remains intact, unless a very large vessel should be injured, or the
fracture should open some of the important cavities of the body, in which
case a fatal hemorrhage may result. If, on the other hand, the fracture is
compound the external opening furnishes a fertile field for the lodgment of
disease-producing germs.

Unless great care is taken in such cases, a suppurative process is liable
to be established which will seriously interfere with, if not entirely
arrest, the process of union between the bones; or it may become so serious
as to endanger the general health of the animal and even be attended with
fatal results. This last danger is greater if the injury has occurred to
the bones of the arm or thigh. In such cases, owing to the dense covering
of fascia which ensheathes the muscular covering pus is liable to be
imprisoned, and, burrowing downward, saturate the whole structure, not only
endangering the limb, but, by absorption, may set up blood poisoning and
seriously interfere with the general health of the patient, even to causing
death. In order so far as possible to prevent such an unfortunate
complication, the wound should be carefully cleansed with a mild solution
of carbolic acid, then dusted over with iodoform before the bandages are
applied, and cleansed and dressed daily in the same way. After dressing,
always cover with absorbent cotton. In the early process of union an
exudation of lymph takes place, which is at first fluid, gradually becoming
thicker and firmer till it forms a callus, known as the external or
ensheathing callus, in the shape of a ring or ferrule surrounding the
detached portions of the bone. It occasionally happens that this callus
forms only at the ends of the bones, filling the spaces that exist between
them, when it is known as the intermediate callus. The process of union may
be divided into five stages. In the first stage, including the first eight
days, the detached portions of the bone and the sharp projections that are
not sufficiently nourished are absorbed; the blood which escaped into the
surrounding tissues, the result of the injury, is gradually absorbed, and
the effused lymph, which is ultimately to constitute the temporary
cartilage, takes it place. In the second stage, from the tenth to the
twentieth day, the tumor or callus is formed and fibrocartilage is
developed inside and around the exposed end of the bone. In the third
stage, extending from the twentieth to the fortieth or fiftieth day,
according to the age and strength of the animal, the fibrocartilaginous
structure undergoes a change and is gradually converted into bone, forming
a ferrule on the outside and a plug on the inside, which serve to hold the
part in position. In the fourth stage, extending to about the sixth month,
the whole of the new structure is converted into bone. In the fifth stage,
extending to the end of the first year, the callus is absorbed, being no
longer necessary, and the connection between the cavities of the two bones
is again established.

_Common complications._--The process of union just described is healthy and
normal. Diseased conditions may at any time supervene during the treatment
and render the operation unsuccessful. In the case of compound fracture,
the open wound communicating with the ends of the bones, a septic condition
is liable to arise which may become so serious as to endanger the animal's
life and bring about conditions which in human surgery would indicate
amputation. Although that operation is not a general one in veterinary
practice, there is no reason why it should not be attempted as a last
resort, particularly if the animal is valuable or is one whose existence is
necessary in order to perpetuate some valuable strain. Even in the simplest
form of fracture, if the splints or bandages are improperly applied and the
fractured bone left so loosely guarded that the broken ends move one upon
another, the formation of the calluses previously described is liable to be
interfered with, and in place of a strong, rigid, and healthy union a
formation of elastic cartilage is the result. This false structure unites
the broken ends of the bones in such way that they move one upon another,
depriving the bone of its stability and usefulness. When once the healthy
process of union is interrupted in the manner just described, it is again
established with great difficulty. It no longer does any good to continue
the restraining power; in fact, the change of the temporary cartilage into
bone is more liable to be reestablished if the parts move violently upon
each other for a short time so as to set up and renew the process of
inflammation. Then if the restraint is again applied there is some chance
of union. In order so far as possible to avoid this danger, care should be
taken to see that the bandage fits closely and that it is kept on till
there is no longer any danger but that a perfect union has taken place. It
is impossible to say at just what time the splints or bandages can safely
be removed. In a young and healthy animal of quiet temperament, if the
parts have been firmly held in position throughout the whole time, from 30
to 40 days may be regarded as reasonably safe. Under more unfavorable
conditions as to age, vitality, and restraint, the period would better be
extended to 60 days, if the general condition of the animal is such as to
permit of so long a continuance. After the appliance has been removed the
animal should be allowed to stand quiet for a few days, then be given very
gentle exercise, gradually increased for a week or 10 days, by which time
the patient will be so far recovered as to be placed in pasture. It should,
however, be alone for a time, so as not to take any chance of injury from
fighting or other accidents that association with other animals might
involve.


SPECIAL FRACTURES.

FRACTURE OF THE HORNS.--Of the special fractures liable to occur, that of
the horn is perhaps the most common. It is always the result of violent
mechanical means, such as blows, injury occurring while fighting, or from
the animal getting its head locked in some manner while feeding from a
rack. When it occurs there are two ways in which the injury may affect the
animal. First and most common, the horny crust is liable to be stripped
from the bony projection which it covers. Second, the crust and bone may
both be broken or bent down, the fracture occurring in that case at the
root of the horn and involving part of the bones of the head in the
immediate vicinity. In the first case, if the horny covering is knocked
off, little attention is necessary. The animal may be relieved from
suffering if the stump is smeared with pine tar and wrapped in cloth. If
the core is much lacerated, perhaps it would be better to amputate. The
necessity for such operation must be determined by the condition of the
injury, influenced to some extent by the owner's ideas on the subject. When
the operation is performed, it should be done with a sharp, fine-toothed
saw, and by sawing the horn off close enough to include a little of the
skin and hair around its base. The practice of dehorning has grown popular
in many parts of the country. It is a simple operation, and, although
attended with some immediate suffering, does not produce serious
constitutional disturbance. The advisability of performing the operation on
all cattle is a question of expediency and must be justified by the
expectation of benefit on the part of the feeder. If the horn should be
broken so that the core and crust are bent out of shape without the
detachment of one from the other, it may be restored to its normal position
and retained there by means of a splint made to fit across the back of the
head, so as to be laced to both horns, the sound horn serving to hold the
broken one in position. Such a splint may be fastened on by means of either
a wire or cord and allowed to remain six weeks or two months.

If both the horn and core have been broken off, bleeding is usually severe
and should be checked by astringents, such as alum, or by pressure. After
the hemorrhage has ceased the exposed portion of the fracture should be
covered with pine tar, with or without a bandage. An imperfect growth of
horn will in due time cover the exposed bone.

FRACTURES OF THE BONES OF THE FACE.--These occasionally occur, and when
over the cavities of the nose produce depression, disfigurement, and
impeded respiration, owing to the lessening of the caliber of the nasal
passages.

When such accident occurs, the depressed bone should be gently forced back
to place by introducing the finger in the nostril, or if the fracture is
too far up for this, a probe may be passed and the parts retained by
placing immediately over it a plaster of thin leather or strong canvas
smeared with tar, extending out to the sound surroundings, taking care to
embed the hair over the fractured portion in the tar of the plaster, so
that it will be firmly held and prevented from again becoming depressed. If
only one nostril is involved, the depressed portion may be held in position
by packing that nostril with absorbent cotton. This practice, however, has
the objection of giving the animal great discomfort and in some cases a
disposition to aggravate the injury.

FRACTURE OF THE SKULL (CRANIUM).--Fractures of the bones forming the cavity
in which the brain is situated are, owing to their strength, comparatively
rare among cattle. Such an accident can only be the result of external
violence, and it is hardly possible that it could occur without some
fragment of the broken bone pressing upon the brain so as to cause coma or
other severe nervous derangement, or even death.

If the animal survives the first shock, the efforts should be directed
toward relieving the pressure, which may be done by making an opening in
the bone (trephining), and with a hook drawing the depressed part outward.
Interference is not so liable to be attended with good results as to be
warranted in all cases. The effects of a very severe shock which may not
have produced a fracture, although the symptoms were alarming, will in many
cases pass off, leaving the animal in a better condition than if an
operation had been performed.

FRACTURE OF THE LOWER JAW.--This occasionally occurs, and is more liable to
result from the kick of a horse than from any other cause. The front part
of the jaw may be split or shattered in any direction in which the force
may have been applied. Bloody discharges from the mouth and failure to eat
or ruminate are symptoms most likely to attract attention.

The treatment is simple and consists in first removing detached pieces of
bone, then drawing the parts together and retaining them by means of pieces
of copper wire fastened around the teeth, and feeding the animal on sloppy
feed until recovery takes place. The wound should be dressed once or twice
a day with a 3 per cent solution of carbolic acid, forced gently in with a
syringe, so as to remove any feed which may have become impacted and
interfere with the healing process.

FRACTURE OF THE VERTEBRA (SPINAL COLUMN).--This is not so common among
cattle as other animals. If the fracture should be through the body of the
bone, there may be pressure on or laceration of the spinal cord, causing
paralysis of all parts posterior to the seat of injury. Fractures of the
prominences on a vertebra occasionally occur without interfering with the
canal in which the spinal cord is situated. Such accidents are liable to
pass unnoticed, for, although the animal may suffer considerable pain, it
may not be manifested in such way as to attract attention, and the deep
covering of muscles serves effectually to conceal the injury. When the
fracture occurs in the upper part of the neck, paralysis of the muscles
used in respiration must result, and death from asphyxia very shortly
ensues. The more common accident is to the loins, and when a fracture of
the body of a vertebra occurs in this region so as to produce pressure on
the spinal cord, paralysis of the hind legs and quarters is the result.
Diagnosis of such an accident is more difficult than in the case of any
other fracture. The parts can not be moved one upon another so that
crepitus is noticeable. The heavy coating of muscles conceals
irregularities of shape, which otherwise may attract attention. About the
only reliable symptom is paralysis or loss of use and sensation of the
parts posterior to the injury. Careful examination may reveal the seat of
the injury. If it was the result of a blow, there may be some abrasion of
the skin. The diagnosis is only important as an aid in determining the
proper course to pursue.

If paralysis is present and a depression or irregularity of the spinal
column is so apparent as to leave no doubt of the existence of a fracture,
the only alternative is to destroy the animal, for of recovery there can be
no hope. If, on the other hand, the paralysis is incomplete and there is no
depression or irregularity of the spinal column or other evidence of
fracture, the patient should be made as comfortable as possible by being
placed in a well-bedded box stall and a few days permitted to elapse before
the case is abandoned. The symptoms last described may possibly be the
result of a severe strain of the muscles of the loins, in which case an
improvement will soon be noticeable.

FRACTURES OF THE PELVIS.--The pelvis, or bony framework which gives shape
to the posterior part of the body, is liable to fracture in many ways. A
common one is by a separation of the two bones which constitute the whole
pelvis along the bottom and center line (symphysis pubis). In early life
the two bones are separate and distinct. The union between them, which is
at first cartilaginous, undergoes a change and is converted into bone, so
that in adult life the whole pelvis is practically one bone. The point on
which the two bones are united is weaker than the adjoining parts of the
bone. When an animal slips violently, spreading the legs wide apart, the
weaker materials give way and the bones are divided. If the accident is
noticed when it occurs, it is likely to throw light on the nature of the
injury. The animal will immediately go stiff behind, the legs being spread
apart. Further examination may be made by introducing the hand, previously
carefully oiled, into the rectum or vagina and pressing down along the
central line, which will cause the patient to evince acute pain. In this
case no appliance can be used to advantage. The animal should be tied in a
stall until the parts become reunited and the lameness disappears.

Fracture of the posterior parts of the bone (ischium), which forms the
point of the buttocks occasionally occurs. The buttock on the injured side
will be less prominent than the other. Careful manipulation will generally
move the parts so that crepitus may be recognized. If the fracture is
through the posterior part of the bone, it is unimportant and deserving of
no more attention than placing the animal in such position as to insure it
against subsequent injury until the bones are united. Some distortion may
result, but not sufficient to warrant interference.

Fracture through the body of the bone on a line with the hip joint
(acetabulum) occasionally, though rarely, occurs, and is nearly always
associated with dislocation of the hip joint and the forcing of the head of
the upper bone of the leg (femur) upward, far out of its place. The violent
contraction of the powerful muscles of the hip renders it impossible to
reduce the dislocation, and even if it were possible the fractured pelvis
could not be held in position, so that the case becomes at once hopeless.
It may be recognized by the animal's standing on three legs, the leg on the
injured side seeming shorter than its fellow and hanging pendulous, the
muscles of the hip violently contracted and hard to the touch. The animal
evinces great pain when the limb is moved. There is liable to be some
apparent distortion in the relations between the point of the hip and the
point of the buttock. This will be more readily noticed by comparing the
injured side with the other. The parts may be moved so as to produce
crepitus. The examination may be completed by introducing the oiled hand
into the vagina or rectum, when the two sides of the pelvis will reveal
well-marked differences.

FRACTURE OF THE POINT OF THE HIP.--The anterior and external part of the
pelvis (ilium), commonly known as the point of the hip, is liable to
fracture, which stock owners describe as "hipping," or being "hipped," or
having the hip "knocked down." This accident may be the result of crowding
while passing through a narrow door, of falling violently on the point of
the hip, or from a violent blow directed downward and forward against it.
The lesion generally extends across the flat surface of the bone from its
outer and posterior edge forward and inward. Distortion is liable to be the
only noticeable symptom. The detached portion varies in size in different
cases and with it the resulting deformity. The animal is noticed to be
slightly lame, but this symptom soon disappears. The detached portion of
the bone is drawn downward and away from the main part by the action of the
muscles below, which are so powerful as to render return impossible. The
bones therefore remain permanently separated, union taking place by fibrous
callus. The animal suffers very little inconvenience, and for practical use
may be as serviceable as before the accident, though the distorted
appearance depreciates its value.

FRACTURE OF THE RIBS.--Such an occurrence can take place only as the result
of a direct injury, as from blows or crowding. The posterior ribs, being
more exposed, are more liable to fracture. Pain in moving, slight swelling
over the seat of injury, and difficult breathing are obvious symptoms. If
the fracture is complete, crepitation may be occasionally noticed by
placing the hand flat over the injured part, carefully observing the motion
as the chest contracts and expands during respiration. This symptom is more
noticeable when the animal coughs. Unless the point of the broken bone
penetrates the cavity of the chest the fracture is usually unimportant and
calls for no treatment other than quiet. If the breathing is very labored
and attended with much pain, motion may be limited by applying a wide
bandage firmly around the chest. The animal should be restricted in the
amount of feed and water for a few days, the stomach being kept as nearly
empty as possible. Sloppy feed should be given to encourage, as much as
possible, free action of the diaphragm in breathing.

FRACTURE OF BONES OF THE LIMBS.--On this subject much has been said in the
preceding remarks on general fractures. As a rule, fracture through one of
the large bones of the shoulder (scapula) or thigh (femur) is very
difficult to manage. The powerful contraction of the muscles and the
changing shape of the limb resulting from their action renders it
impossible to retain the detached parts of the bone in proper position.
Therefore, though the union should take place, there is almost sure to be
considerable deformity and more or less lameness. Fracture of the arm
(humerus) or leg (tibia) is likely to be attended with better results. The
muscular covering is not so thick, the sheath in which they are held is
more tense, and the change in the shape of the limb from muscular action
not so noticeable, the muscular force not so great, all of which facilitate
replacing the dislodged ends and retaining them.

FRACTURE OF THE KNEE (CARPUS) AND HOCK (TARSUS).--This seldom occurs unless
it is the result of a very violent injury, and is generally associated with
other injury and serious complications. Displacement does not generally
occur to any considerable extent. The treatment, of course, consists in
holding the limb perfectly quiet in a natural position, which may be done
by the application of long, wooden splints retained by bandages, or a
plaster-of-Paris bandage.

FRACTURES BELOW THE KNEE.--Fracture of the long bone below the knee
(metacarpus) and hock (metatarsus) is more common. In young animals of
quiet temperament the treatment of simple fractures here is likely to be
attended with good results. On the other hand, a compound fracture in this
region becomes a serious matter. The structures which surround the bones
are so thin that a very small degree of sloughing will expose parts of the
bones and be liable to lead to serious complications and probably fatal
results.

FRACTURES OF BONES BELOW THE FETLOCK.--These fractures are comparatively
unimportant unless associated with other serious injury. The parts can
generally be held in position without much difficulty, and union generally
takes place quite rapidly.

APPLIANCES.--Of the appliances used in the treatment of the fracture of
limbs above the knee, splints made of wood or iron strips and bandages are
likely to serve best. Below the knee plaster-of-Paris bandages are
preferable. The writer is well aware that many of the standard authors
deprecate the use of the latter, but an extensive experience leads me to
believe that they have many advantages over any of the other appliances
when used alone, and in many ways they may be used with advantage in
combination with others.


DISLOCATIONS.

Luxation, or displacement without fracture of the bones forming a joint, is
comparatively rare among cattle. It most frequently occurs in the stifle
joint, where dislocation of the kneepan (patella) takes place. A glance at
the skeleton (Pl. XXV) will show the relations better than they can be
described. It will be observed that the small, irregularly shaped bone
(patella) plays on the anterior rounded part of the lower edge of the thigh
bone (femur) and between it and the upper end of the shank bone (tibia).
The outer ridge on the lower end of the thigh bone is less prominent than
the inner one, so that displacement, when it does take place, is by
slipping outward. Such an accident may occur from direct injury or external
force, as a blow, or from slipping. When it does occur the symptoms
produced are somewhat alarming. The animal is unable to draw the leg
forward, and either stands with it thrown back with the toe pointing
downward, or, if it should succeed in getting its weight upon it, holds it
firmly on the ground, fearing to move it. Examination of the outside of the
joint will disclose the situation of the patella outside its proper place.
If the operator is not familiar with the normal appearance of the joint, it
is well to make a comparison between the injured and the sound one. If
compelled to move, the animal does so with great difficulty, jerking the
leg which it is unable to bring forward, hopping with the other, and
partially dragging the injured one.

  [Illustration: PLATE XXV. SKELETON OF THE COW.]

_Treatment._--The treatment is simple. A rope 20 feet long should be
applied around the fetlock of the affected leg, passed forward between the
front legs and up over the opposite side of the neck, back over the
withers, and wrapped once behind the elbow around that portion of the rope
which passes between the front legs. The leg is then drawn away from the
body and forcibly pushed forward by an assistant, while another person
tightens up the slack in the rope until the affected leg is off the ground
in front of the supporting leg. The rope is then drawn taut and the
assistant grasps the tail and pulls the cow toward the affected side. The
animal makes a lurch to keep from falling, contracts the muscles, and the
patella slips into place with a sharp click, and the animal walks off as if
nothing had happened. If the animal resists this method of handling, it may
suffice to manipulate the dislocated kneepan by shoving it inward and
forward with the heel of the hand while the affected leg is drawn well
forward. Unless some precaution is taken the accident is liable to recur,
as the ligaments have been stretched by the dislocation till they no longer
hold the bone with that firmness necessary to retain it. The animal should
be tied and the foot fastened forward, so that the patient can just stand
on it comfortably, by means of a rope or strap around the fetlock carried
forward between the front legs, around the neck, and tied on the breast.

Should this accident occur more than once it is a good practice to apply a
blister around the joint, as in the formula recommended for sprain of
shoulder, and observe the precautions as to restraint and subsequent
treatment there recommended. With this one exception dislocations in the ox
occurring independently of other complications are rare.

Dislocation with fracture may occur in any of the joints, and if one is
suspected or discovered, examination should always be made for the other
before treatment is applied. When a fracture occurs near a joint the force
sufficient to rend the bone is liable to be partly exerted on the immediate
tissues, and when the bone gives way the structures of the joints may be
seriously injured. It occasionally happens that the injury to the joint
becomes the most important complication in the treatment of a fracture. In
order clearly to understand the reason for this a few words are necessary
in relation to the structure of joints.

The different pieces constituting the skeleton of the animal body are
united in such manner as to admit of more or less motion one upon another.
In some of the more simple joints the bones fitting one into another are
held together by the dense structures around them, admitting of very little
or no movement at all, as the bones of the head. In other joints the bones
are bound together by dense, cartilaginous structures, admitting of only
limited motion, such as the union of the small bones at the back part of
the knee and hock (metacarpal and metatarsal). In the more nearly perfect
form of joint the power of motion becomes complete and the structures are
more complex. The substance of the bone on its articular surface is not
covered with periosteum, but is sheathed in a dense, thin layer of
cartilage, shaped to fit the other surfaces with which it comes in contact
(articular). This layer is thickest toward its center when covering bony
eminences, and is elastic, of a pearly whiteness, and resisting, though
soft enough to be easily cut. The bones forming an articulation are bound
together by numerous ligaments attached to bony prominences. The whole
joint is sealed in by a band or ribbonlike ligament (capsular ligament)
extending around the joint and attached at the outer edge of the articular
surface, uniting the bones and hermetically sealing the cavities of the
articulation. This structure and the articular surface of the bone is
covered by a thin, delicate membrane, known as the "synovial membrane,"
which secretes the joint oil (synovia). This fluid is viscid and colorless,
or slightly yellow, and although it does not possess a large quantity of
fat, its character somewhat resembles oil, and it serves the same purpose
in lubricating the joints that oil does to the friction surface of an
engine. Although the tissues of the joint when used in a natural way are
able to withstand the effect of great exertion, when unnaturally used, as
they are very delicate and complex, they are liable to inflammatory and
other changes of a very serious nature. The synovial membrane, and in fact
the whole structure of the joint, is susceptible to injury and serious
inflammatory derangement, and the capsular ligament is liable to be
distended from excessive secretion of synovia. The latter process may be
almost noninflammatory, and attended with little inconvenience or
importance other than a blemish to the animal, which in cattle is not
serious. It may occur on the back part of the leg above the fetlock or on
the inner and fore part of the hock, corresponding in its location to
windgalls and bog spavin of the horse. Continuous support by bandages will
generally force reabsorption, and as the limb is not subjected to violent
action, as in the case of the horse, the affection is not so liable to
recur.


SPAVIN.

Occasionally working oxen that are used in the lumber woods and made to
pull heavily, with bad footing, are afflicted with this condition. When it
occurs lameness is the first symptom. During the early stages of the
disease the lameness is most severe in the morning, and disappears after
the animal is exercised; it gradually becomes more severe as the disease
advances, so that when the disease is well established the animal is lame
continuously. Shortly after the lameness appears a bunch (exostosis) will
be noticed on the inner and fore part of the affected joint. This bunch
differs from bog spavin in that it is hard, while bog spavin is soft. It
increases in size as the disease advances till the animal is too lame to be
used for labor. As the disease is always attended with considerable pain
there is more or less loss of flesh. In the most advanced stage the animal
will step with difficulty, frequently holding the foot from the ground, or,
if forced to take a few steps, stands with it elevated, twitching with
pain. In the earlier stages of the disease only a small portion of the fore
part of the lower, or second, articulation is involved, but the
inflammatory process gradually extends over the whole surface of the lower
joints of the hock. The structures of the joint are broken down and the
bones are united (anchylosis). This process may include any or all of the
three lower joints of the hock. The joint of motion which is situated on
the lower end of the leg bone is seldom involved.

_Treatment._--Treatment of spavin in the ox, as in the horse, is likely to
be tedious, and not always resulting in perfect cure. Usually it is best to
fatten the animal for slaughter. If, however, treatment is decided upon, it
should consist of complete rest and counterirritation of the part either
by sharp blisters or the firing iron. It is advisable to try the effect of
blistering first, and for this purpose the following mixture is
recommended:

  Powdered cantharides            drams     2
  Biniodid of mercury              do       2
  Vaseline                        ounces    1-1/2

Clip the hair off and apply over the inner and fore part of the joint,
covering the surface an inch and a half in every direction from the
enlargement, or over an area 3 to 4 inches across. Fasten the animal's head
so that it can not reach the part to lick it; after the third day grease
with lard every other day until the scabs come off. This blister may be
repeated three or four times at intervals of three weeks. The lameness will
generally begin to disappear about the third or fourth month if the
above-described treatment proves beneficial. Should lameness persist,
firing in points by a qualified veterinarian may effect the desired result
and should be tried as a last resort.

In a case of spavin the cure is not effected by restoring the diseased
parts to their natural condition, but by uniting the bones and obliterating
the joints. If this union extends over the whole articular surface of the
joints affected and is sufficiently strong to prevent any motion of the
bones, the animal will again go sound. The joints that are obliterated, not
being those of motion, are not important, so that the animal suffers no
inconvenience in their loss.


RHEUMATISM.

Rheumatism is a constitutional disease from a specific condition of the
blood and characterized by inflammation of the fibrous structures of the
body. It is usually accompanied with stiffness, lameness, and fever. The
parts affected are usually swollen, but swelling may be lacking. The
inflammation may be transitory; that is, it changes from place to place.
The parts usually affected are the fibrous structures of the joints,
tendons, ligaments, and muscles. The serous membranes and heart may also be
affected. According to its location, rheumatism is specified as articular
or muscular. According to its course, it is designated as acute or chronic.

_Cause._--Among the factors which are actively causative of rheumatism may
be mentioned exposure to dampness and cold, especially while the animal is
perspiring or fatigued after severe physical exertion. Among other causes
often mentioned are acidity of the blood, nervous derangement, microbes,
and injuries. It occasionally follows another disease, such as pleurisy.
The influence of age and heredity may be considered as secondary or
predisposing causes. Sometimes the disease appears without any apparent
cause. On the whole, it may be said that any of the above-mentioned factors
may have more or less influence on the production of rheumatism, but the
specific cause is as yet unknown.

_Symptoms of articular rheumatism._--The symptoms appear suddenly and with
varying degrees of severity. The animal presents a downcast appearance,
with staring coat, horns and ears cold, and the mouth and muzzle hot and
dry. Appetite and rumination may be impaired and followed later or be
accompanied at the same time by constipation. Constipation may be followed
by impaction of the stomach or bowels. Thirst is increased, but the amount
of urine voided is scanty. Respiration and pulse are accelerated, and there
is usually a fever, rising sometimes as high as 108° F. The animal prefers
to lie down, and when forced to rise stands with its back arched. The
movements are stiff and lame and cause great pain. The disease may attack
one or more joints at the same time; in fact, it is often symmetrical. One
joint may improve while another becomes affected, thus showing the shifting
tendency of the inflammation. The affected joints, including their tendons,
ligaments, and synovial membranes, may be swollen, hot, and distended with
liquid. They are very tender, and, if treated carelessly or injured, may
become infected, thus leading to suppuration. While rheumatism attacks
perhaps more frequently the knees and fetlocks, it has no special affinity
for any joint and may attack the stifle, hip, shoulder, or elbow joint. In
mild cases of articular rheumatism, the animal may fully recover in a few
days.

In chronic articular rheumatism there is less tendency of the disease to
shift about, but there is a greater liability of structural change in the
affected joints. This change may consist of induration, exostosis, or even
anchylosis. These structural changes about the joints may lead to permanent
deformity, such as the bending of the neck. Fever is not so constant in the
chronic form as in the acute, and the latter may lapse into the former.

_Symptoms of muscular rheumatism._--This form of rheumatism may appear
under the same general conditions as the articular form. The general
appearance of the animal is the same in both forms. The cow usually assumes
a recumbent position, and all the movements made are stiff and lame. The
method of rising or of locomotion indicates pain in certain muscles or
groups of muscles, as of the croup, shoulder, or neck. As in the case of
articular rheumatism, the tendons, ligaments, and synovial membranes may
become involved. The constitutional symptoms in both articular and muscular
rheumatism are similar, so that it is often perplexing to differentiate
between the two forms.

_Prevention._--It is somewhat difficult to procure preventive treatment for
cattle, especially when there are large numbers with little or no shelter.
In general, it is advisable to protect the animals so far as possible from
inclement weather conditions, such as cold rains, heavy dews, and frosts.
This is more particularly necessary for animals in poor condition, or those
which are perspiring or fatigued after long physical exertion. Careful
feeding is also essential.

_Treatment._--In attempting to treat cattle for rheumatism the first step
is to procure proper shelter and environment. The animal should be
quartered in a large, clean, dry stall, with plenty of light and fresh air,
but protected from strong drafts. There should be an abundance of clean,
dry bedding. The feed should be soft, easily digestible, and slightly
laxative, and the animal should have access to clean, pure, cool water.

For general or constitutional treatment of acute rheumatism, sodium
salicylate is indicated. In order to gain the best results from this drug,
it should be administered with the idea of rapidly saturating the system.
To cattle it may be given in doses of one-half ounce every two hours for
ten hours or until immediate relief is obtained. This drug should not be
continued indefinitely, but may be given once a day after immediate relief
has been obtained, and this single dose continued daily until permanent
relief ensues, when it should be stopped. The use of sodium salicylate in
chronic rheumatism is not advisable on account of the danger of depressing
the heart, whose action is already somewhat impaired by the lesions which
have attacked it. In this case one-half ounce doses of potassium nitrate or
bicarbonate may be given three times a day. Besides the constitutional
treatment, it may be necessary to give special attention to the bowels in
order to relieve constipation. Cattle may be given saline laxatives at the
outset, such as 1 pound of Epsom salt for an ordinary-sized cow, and the
bowels kept regular by an occasional smaller dose.

In chronic rheumatism the best course of treatment is to give tonics and
local treatment. Local treatment may also be advisable in acute rheumatism
in addition to the constitutional treatment already prescribed.

External treatment depends solely on the local conditions and should be
applied judiciously. Among the various remedies may be mentioned hot or
cold moist packs, hot air and vapor baths, friction, etc. Anodynes are
often applied locally with good results. Blisters are occasionally
indicated. As anodynes may be mentioned liniments and ointments containing
salicylic acid or sodium salicylate in combination with laudanum, aconite,
or chloral hydrate. Camphorated spirit, soap liniment, and essential oils
also afford some relief when applied locally. Of blisters, those containing
cantharides are most effective.


FOOTNOTES:

[2] A Priessnitz bandage is a dressing which combines the three properties
of keeping a part warm, moist, and subjecting it to uniform pressure. It
consists of three layers of material. The inner layer is composed of
absorbent cotton or some other material which is capable of holding
moisture. This is soaked in water and wrapped around the part. The second
layer consists of a substance which is impervious to moisture, as oiled
silk or oiled paper, and is applied about the inner layer to prevent
evaporation. The third or outside layer is composed of a flannel or woolen
bandage to prevent the radiation of heat and thus keep the moist inner
layer at the temperature of the body.



SURGICAL OPERATIONS.

By WILLIAM DICKSON and WILLIAM HERBERT LOWE, D. V. S.

[Revised by B. T. Woodward, V. M. D.]


Surgery is both a science and an art. The success of surgical operations
depends on the judgment, skill, and dexterity, as well as upon the
knowledge of the operator. The same fundamental principles underlie and
govern animal and human surgery, although their applications have a wide
range and are very different in many essential particulars. We must not
lose sight of the fact that hygiene and sanitation are essential to the
best results in veterinary as well as in human surgery.

Asepsis is an ideal condition which, although not always possible in animal
surgery, is highly important in connection with the mechanical details of
all surgical operations in proportion to the nature and seriousness of the
same.

Aseptic surgery is considered to be the performance of operations with
sterile instruments with the hands of the operator and the site of
operation being rendered as nearly sterile as possible, and the wound
treated during operation with sterile solutions and protected following the
operation with sterile bandage material. In other words, it is the
preservation of the highest degree of cleanliness in connection with
operations.

Local or general anesthesia should be resorted to in painful and serious
surgical operations, as operations upon all living creatures should be
humanely performed and all unnecessary pain and suffering avoided.
Anesthesia is necessary where absolute immobility of the patient is
essential and where entire muscular relaxation is indispensable. The
anesthetic condition is also favorable for the adjustment of displaced
organs.

Large animals have to be cast and secured before an anesthetic is
administered. For complete anesthesia inhalations of chloroform are
generally employed; sometimes of both ether and chloroform. The quantity of
chloroform required to produce insensibility to external impressions varies
much in different cases and must be regulated, as well as the admixture of
air, by a competent assistant.

If the probability of the success of an operation is remote and the animal
is in healthy physical condition, so that its flesh is good for human food,
it is more advisable to butcher the animal than to attempt a surgical
operation that offers little encouragement to the owner. The best judgment
has to be exercised in determining a matter of this kind, for no animal
suffering from inflammation or that is in a feverish condition is fit for
human food.

All cases of major operative surgery require the skill and dexterity of the
experienced veterinary surgeon, and no one else should attempt such an
operation, for unnecessary suffering must be prevented. Nevertheless, the
more knowledge and understanding an owner of animals has of the principles
of surgical operations and manipulations, the better for all concerned. In
the first place, such an owner will appreciate more fully the skill of the
qualified veterinarian, and, in the second place, he will be the better
prepared and equipped to render assistance to his suffering dumb dependents
where no practitioner is accessible and in cases of emergency. There are,
moreover, some minor operations upon cattle, some of which can hardly be
classed as surgical, that the stockman and farmer should be able to perform
himself.

In the performance of any operation upon an animal of the size and strength
of the bull or cow, the first consideration is to secure the animal in such
a manner as to preclude the possibility of its injuring either itself or
those taking any part in the operation. The nature and time likely to be
occupied by an operation must, of course, largely determine the method to
be adopted.

The majority of operations with which the present chapter is concerned are
usually performed on the animal in a standing position. A bull should
always be held by a staff attached to the ring in his nose. To secure the
cow in a standing position, grasp the nose, the finger and thumb being
introduced into the nostrils, and press against the cartilage which makes a
division between them. If she has horns, grasp one of them with the
disengaged hand. If this is insufficient the animal should be secured to a
post, along the side of a fence, or put into a stanchion. An excellent
method of restraint is to tie a long rope in a slip noose over the horns,
pass it around the chest just behind the forelegs, taking a half hitch on
itself, taking another half hitch in front of the hind limbs, passing the
free end under the tail, bringing it forward and making it fast either to
the head or one of the hitches. The head should be raised to the level of
the back before the final knot is tied, so as to render it too serious and
painful a matter for her to repeat the first attempt she makes to lower it.
Should the nature or extent of the operation be likely to take up
considerable time, it is invariably the best plan to throw the animal. In
the case of the ox this is very easily done, either by use of horse
hobbles, should they be at hand, or by the application of a simple rope. If
the horse hobbles are used, they should be fastened on the leg just above
the fetlocks (ankle joints), as in that position they are less liable to
come off than if placed around the pastern.

Of the many ways of applying the rope for this purpose we will describe
only two, which we consider the best and simplest:

First. Take a long, strong rope (one which has been used a few times is
more flexible), double it, and at 2 or 3 feet from the doubled end,
according to the size of the animal, make a knot and pass the collar thus
formed over the animal's head, allowing it to rest on what would be the
collar place in a horse. Now, pass the ends of the rope between the
forelegs, carry one around each hind leg just above the fetlock joint, from
outside in, under itself once, and bring the free ends forward, passing
each through the collar loop on its own side and bringing the slack back
toward and beyond the hind quarters. (Pl. XXVI, fig. 2.) Two or three men
should then take hold of each rope and at a given signal pull. The animal's
hind legs being drawn forward, the balance is lost, and if the animal does
not fall or lie down he can be readily pushed over on his side and secured
in the desired position.

Second. The three half hitches. Take a rope 30 or more feet long, make a
slip noose at the end and pass it over the animal's horns, leaving the knot
in the loop between the horns; then pass the rope backward along the neck
to the withers, just in front of which take a half hitch on it, passing it
along the back, take one half hitch just behind the forelegs and a second
in front of the hind limbs round the flank. (Pl. XXVI, fig. 1.) The free
end of the rope is taken hold of by one or two assistants while another
holds the animal's head. By pulling firmly on the rope, or inducing the
animal to make a step or two forward while steady traction is made on the
rope, the beast will lie down, when his feet can be secured in the way most
convenient for the operator.

There are numerous other methods, involving more or less complete
restraint, which may be equally efficacious, but one or other of the ways
indicated will doubtless be found to meet fully all ordinary cases.


RINGING THE BULL.

This is usually and ought always to be done before the calf has attained
sufficient weight or strength to make his restraint a matter of serious
difficulty. An ordinary halter is usually all that is required, the strap
being secured to a tree or post. A jointed steel or copper ring is
ordinarily used. Those made of the latter metal are preferable.

The common method of punching a round piece out of the nasal septum for the
introduction of the ring is, I think, open to objection, as portions of the
fine nervous filaments are destroyed. The sensibility of the parts is thus
lessened and the object of ringing to some extent defeated. The insertion
of the ring by means of a trocar and cannula is preferable, as the method
is not open to this objection.

For some years we have used a little instrument, which can be made by any
worker in metal, consisting of a steel point riveted into a short cannula
made to fit on one end of the ring while open. (Pl. XXVII, fig. 11.) When
attached to the ring it is easily and quickly passed through the septum,
the half of the ring following as a matter of course. It can then be
removed and the ends of the ring brought together and fastened by means of
the screw for that purpose.


DEHORNING.

In the wild state the utility of the horns of cattle as weapons of offense
and defense is apparent, but with domestication of cattle and their
confinement the presence of horns constitutes a menace to the safety of
their companions. Horned cattle frequently inflict with their horns painful
and serious injuries to others. Deaths as a result of such injuries are not
unusual. The operation of dehorning would therefore be indicated as a
matter of general safety.

On farms where breeding is conducted, the most desirable method is to
prevent the horns from growing on the young calves. This action results in
a more symmetrical appearance of the poll and eliminates the dangers which
would result from the presence of horns on the young cattle prior to their
operative removal at a later age. A calf should be treated not later than
one week after it is born--preferably when it is from 3 to 5 days old. The
agent to be used may be either caustic soda or potash in the form of sticks
about the thickness of an ordinary lead pencil. These caustics must be
handled with care, as they dissolve the cuticle and may make the hands or
fingers sore. The preparation of the calf first consists in clipping the
hair from the parts, washing clean with soap or warm water, and thoroughly
drying with a cloth or towel. The stick of caustic should be wrapped in a
piece of paper to protect the hands and fingers, leaving one end of the
stick uncovered. Moisten the uncovered end slightly and rub it on the horn
buttons or little points which may be felt on the calf's head--first on
one, then on the other--two or three times, allowing the caustic to dry
after each application. Be careful to apply the caustic to the horn button
only, for if it is brought in contact with the surrounding skin it will
cause pain. Too much moisture on the stick of caustic will allow the
application to spread to the surrounding skin. After treatment keep the
calf protected from rain, as water on the head after application of the
caustic will cause it to run down over the face.

Dehorning of adult animals is usually performed after the age of 2 years,
as after that age there is less probability of the horns again growing. The
horns should be severed from the head from a quarter to a half-inch below
where the skin joins the base of the horn, cutting from the back toward the
front if a saw is used. If the horn is not cut close enough to the head, an
irregular, gnarly growth of horn is liable to follow.

Before attempting to dehorn the animal, it should be securely controlled by
ropes in a stanchion or by casting. Upon the range the cattle are usually
controlled by casting or by placing them in a "squeezer" connected with a
corral. A clean, sharp meat saw or a miter saw with a rigid back may be
used. Various types of dehorning shears or clippers are in general use. One
type of dehorner has a stationary knife edge with its cutting edge shaped
like a very wide V, and opposing this, another knife of similar shape
moving in a slide, so that the cutting edges act upon the horn from all
four sides at once, all the edges passing the center at the same time.
Another type has a movable knife, with one oblique or one curved edge, and
the cutting is done in one direction only. The power for cutting with these
instruments is supplied by pulling together two long handles which, in
order to transmit a greater force, are generally so constructed that they
act through the medium of a series of cogs. In dehorning with these
instruments the cutting edges should be slipped down over the horn and the
knives closed, so that their edges set firmly against the horn in such
position that the cut will be made in the right place and in the right
direction. The handles should then be drawn together with a quick, firm,
strong pull so that the horn will be completely severed by the first act
and without twisting.

Dehorning should, when possible, be performed in cool weather when the
flies are not plentiful. The loss of blood from the operation is not
sufficient, as a rule, to be of consequence, and after care being taken to
prevent substances from getting into the openings left after the removal of
the horns it is not usual to apply any dressing. Pine tar or a mixture of
pine tar and tannic acid may be applied, particularly if the weather is
warm.


SETONING.

The ordinary use of a seton is to keep up constant drainage from a cavity
containing matter or to act as a stimulant or counterirritant. To insert a
seton, the place of entrance and exit having been decided on, with the
finger and thumb make a small fold of the skin transversely to the
direction the seton is to be inserted, and cut it through, either with a
sharp knife or a pair of scissors (this should be done at both the entrance
and exit); then with a steady pressure and slight lateral movement insert
the seton by means of a seton needle. (Pl. XXVII, figs. 1 and 2.) The seton
should consist of a piece of strong tape, varying in breadth according to
circumstances, and should be kept in place either by a knot on each end or
by tying the ends together.

Setons should be gently moved once a day after suppuration is set up, and
they should not be allowed to remain in over three weeks, or a month at the
outside.


TRACHEOTOMY.

This operation consists in making an opening in the trachea, or windpipe.
It is indicated whenever there is an obstruction from any cause in the
upper part of the respiratory tract which threatens the death of the animal
by asphyxia (suffocation). The mode of procedure is as follows: Have an
assistant extend the animal's head as far as possible to make the trachea
tense and prominent; make a longitudinal incision about 2 to 2-1/2 inches
long through the skin and deeper tissues and trachea at the most prominent
part of the trachea, which is about the middle or upper third, and then
insert the tracheotomy tube. The latter should be removed once or twice
daily and cleansed, and the wound dressed antiseptically. To ascertain when
it is time to discontinue the use of the tube and to allow the wound to
close, the hand should be held over the opening, which will require the
animal to use its natural passages in breathing. Observe whether it is
performed in a natural manner, and if so, remove the tube and allow the
wound to close. Often the operation has to be performed in great haste
without the proper instruments and under great disadvantages, the operator
having to cut down quickly, open the trachea and spread the parts, using
some instrument improvised by him at the time. This operation only gives
the animal relief in breathing, and therefore the proper remedial treatment
should be adopted at the onset of the attack and continued until the cause
(the disease) has been overcome.


RUMENOTOMY.

The opening of the paunch, or rumen, in cattle and the removal of a part or
the whole of the ingesta through said opening is termed rumenotomy. The
operation should be performed in severe cases only, where the rumen is
excessively overloaded and distended. The animal is placed with its right
side against a wall and firmly held in position by strong assistants. The
incision is made in the same place that the trocar is inserted for
puncturing that organ in cases of hoven. The opening is increased in size
until the operator's hand can be inserted into the rumen. Before any of the
contents are removed from that organ a linen cloth should be placed from
the outer wound into the rumen in order to prevent any of the ingesta from
getting into the abdominal cavity. Some practitioners, after removing a
portion of the contents of the rumen, introduce such medicine as may be
indicated before closing the wound. Clean the wound and close the opening
in the rumen with uninterrupted (Pl. XXVII, fig. 8) carbolized catgut
sutures. Next close the external wound, consisting of the integument,
muscle, and peritoneum, with stout, interrupted (Pl. XXVII, fig. 6)
metallic sutures. No feed should be given for several hours after the
operation, and then gruels only. (See "Distention of rumen or paunch with
feed," p. 26.)


TREATMENT OF ABSCESSES.

An abscess may be detected, if situated externally, by heat, pain, redness,
and swelling in the early stages, and, if further developed, by the
fluctuation which is present. When any of these symptoms are absent, the
suppuration should be encouraged by the means of hot fomentations and
poultices. Care must be taken that the abscess is not opened too soon, or
to some extent it may cause it to scatter, and the escape of pus will be
lessened. The time to open an abscess is just before it is ready to break,
and should be done with a sharp lance, a crucial incision sometimes being
necessary. The cavity should be syringed out with an antiseptic solution.
Care should be taken not to allow the wound to close too rapidly, to
prevent which a tent of lint or oakum should be introduced.


WOUNDS.

For the purposes of the present work wounds may be divided into three
classes: (1) Incised; (2) punctured; (3) lacerated or contused. In any
wound all that the most suitable applications can accomplish is, in the
first place, to prevent the access of those poisonous germs which exist in
the animal's surroundings, such as the soil and the manure, and, in the
second place, when the process of repair is for some reason temporarily
inactive or altogether arrested, to incite that curative inflammation that
is the invariable method by which the cure is effected.

INCISED WOUND.--This is one with clean-cut edges, and may be either
superficial or deep. In wounds of all descriptions there is necessarily
more or less bleeding, and this is especially liable to be the case in
incised wounds, particularly when they penetrate to a considerable depth,
or when inflicted on a part where blood vessels of any considerable size
approach the surface. To arrest the hemorrhage must therefore be the first
consideration. If slight, a generous use of cold water is all that is
necessary, but if one or more vessels of any size have been wounded or
entirely severed, they should be taken up and ligated. If the blood flows
continuously and is dark in color, it proceeds from a vein, but if
bright-colored and jerky in its flow, it is arterial.

The taking up of an artery simply means the tying up of the bleeding
vessel, which should be accomplished as follows: To discover the bleeding
artery take a piece of clean absorbent cotton, dip it in cold water, and by
gentle pressure on the wound clear it of the accumulated blood. The jet of
fresh blood reveals the end of the vessel, which is readily recognized by
its whitish-yellow or buff color. It should be seized with a forceps or
pincers and slightly drawn clear of the surrounding tissues. Now take the
thread and place the middle of it under the artery, take up the ends, tie
one simple knot tightly, pressing the thread down with the forefinger so as
not to include the forceps, then a second one over it and cut off the ends.
The bleeding being arrested, the operator can now carefully clean and
inspect the wound, taking care to remove all blood and foreign matters and
clip the hair around the edges before proceeding to stitch it up. If the
wound is superficial, the lips may be brought together by a series of
independent stitches (Pl. XXVII, fig. 6) about one-half of an inch to
three-fourths of an inch apart. The stitches should not be drawn tightly;
it is sufficient to bring the edges of the wound in apposition.

If the wound is deep, the needle should be introduced perpendicularly at as
great a distance from the lip of the wound as the depth it is to be
inserted, so as to give the thread sufficient hold. All the stitches should
be as nearly as possible at equal distances from the border of the wound,
to prevent unequal strain, and the knots should be made at the side, not
over the wound. (Pl. XXVII, fig. 6.) When the wound is large and deep, care
should be taken to have an opening in the lowest part to allow for the
escape of the discharges.

In deep wounds which run crosswise of a limb or muscle it is often
advisable to use what is technically known as the "quilled suture," which
is most readily understood by reference to Plate XXVII, figure 7. To
accomplish this method a curved needle with an eye in the point and a
strong double thread should be used. The needle thus threaded is introduced
perpendicularly at least an inch from the wound on one side, carried across
below and brought out the same distance from the border of the cut on the
opposite side, the thread being seized and held in position while the
needle is withdrawn, leaving a loop of thread protruding on one side and
two loose ends on the other side of each stitch. When enough stitches have
been made, take a light piece of wood about the size of a lead pencil,
corresponding in length to the size of the wound or slightly longer, and
insert it through each of the loops, drawing up the free ends of the
threads, which should in turn be tied securely on a similar piece of wood
on that side.

PUNCTURED WOUNDS.--Owing to the uncertainty of their depth and the
structures they may involve, punctured wounds are by far the most dangerous
and difficult to treat. Not only is the extent of the damage hidden from
view, but the very character of the injury, as can be readily understood,
implies at least the possibility of deep-seated inflammation and
consequent discharge of pus (matter), which, when formed, is kept pent up
until it has accumulated to such an extent that it burrows by simple
gravity, as no other exit is possible. In this way foreign matters, such as
a broken piece of the stake or snag, or whatever caused the wound, may be
carried to an indefinite depth, or the cavity of a joint may be invaded and
very serious, if not fatal, consequences occur.

The danger is especially marked when the injury is inflicted on parts
liable to frequent and extensive motion, but all cases of punctured wounds
should receive unusual care, as no judgment can be accurately formed from
the external appearance of the wound. While a probe can ascertain the
depth, it throws but little light on the extent or exact nature of the
internal injury. For this reason all punctured wounds should invariably be
carefully searched by means of a probe or some substitute devised for the
occasion, such as a piece of wire with a smooth blunt end, or a piece of
hard wood shaped for the purpose. Stitching is not admissible in the case
of punctured wounds. After thoroughly cleansing the opening of the wound
and its surroundings, tincture of iodin should be injected directly into
the wound.

If a punctured wound is not very deep, and when the bruising and laceration
are slight, it is possible for healing to take place by adhesion, and this
should always be encouraged, as the process of repair by this method is far
superior to that by granulation, which will be referred to later. With this
object in view, the animal should be kept as quiet as possible. A dose of
physic, such as a pound of Glauber's or Epsom salt, should be administered,
and warm antiseptic fomentations or poultices, when this is practicable,
applied frequently to the surface of the wound.

In wounds of this description the process of repair may be complicated by
the appearance of exuberant granulations, popularly known as "proud flesh,"
which is really an overgrowth of new tissue--granulation tissue; but these
should not be interfered with unless they continue after the acute stage of
inflammation has been subdued. If, after this, they persist, they may be
treated with a 10 per cent solution of sulphate of copper (bluestone) or
nitrate of silver (lunar caustic) in water.

CONTUSED OR LACERATED WOUNDS.--These are usually caused by a blow with some
blunt instrument or by falls. The seriousness depends largely on the depth
of the injury, and treatment should be directed to allaying the
inflammation and preventing the consequent tendency to sloughing. To this
end soothing applications, such as antiseptic fomentations and poultices,
are plainly indicated.

METHODS OF HEALING.--Technically these may be divided into a number of
distinct processes, but practically we may speak of them as two only,
namely, by primary union, or adhesion, and by granulation. As suppuration
is not so liable to occur in cattle as in horses, healing by the former and
more speedy process is much more common in the first-named species, more
particularly in clean-cut or incised wounds, provided they have been
stitched within 12 hours from the time the injury which caused them was
inflicted, that they have been kept antiseptically clean, and that the
patient by some means has been kept fairly still. This latter stipulation
is probably hardest to comply with. Quiet is an important factor in the
process of repair among the lower animals.

The second method of healing, namely, by granulation, which is, however,
the manner in which most wounds in animals heal, takes much longer. In
punctured wounds of any depth healing necessarily takes place in this way
only, and the treatment should be directed largely to alleviating pain and
moderating inflammation.

AFTER-TREATMENT AND DRESSING OF WOUNDS.--The dressing of wounds is one of
the most important branches of veterinary surgery, and one of the most
constant difficulties that the practicing veterinarian has to contend with
lies in the lack of cooperation on the part of owners in the care and
attention in the after-treatment of wounds.

In summarizing the treatment of wounds, the following recommendations
should be observed: wounds must be cleansed and kept clean, using
antiseptic solutions which do not produce irritation, and applying the
solutions with a syringe or with clean pieces of absorbent cotton. Bleeding
should be stopped before the closing of the wound by sutures or bandages.
An opening at the bottom of all wounds except small superficial wounds
should be provided as a drainage outlet for the escape of wound secretions
or pus if it should form. The edges of wounds and the muscles involved in
the wound should be kept as quiet as possible during the process of
healing. Every wound should be protected by a sterile or antiseptic
dressing whenever it is possible to retain a dressing in place. Dressings
should be changed when it is apparent that they have become drenched with
wound secretions or pus, or have become disarranged or too loose,
permitting dirt to enter between them and the skin. If swelling appears
beyond the edges of a bandage, it is an indication that it is too tight and
it should then be removed and again applied.

The hands of the operator and all instruments and dressings coming in
contact with a wound at any time should be made as clean as possible by the
use of antiseptics.

BARBED-WIRE CUTS.--We have specified these simply because in some sections
of the country there is a fixed idea that there is a specific poison in
barbed wire, causing injuries which require treatment differing from that
which is applicable to ordinary wounds. Barbed-wire cuts differ from
ordinary wounds only in the parts being often lacerated and torn, and the
treatment already indicated for wounds of that description is applicable to
them.


CASTRATION.

Castration consists in the removal of the essential organs of generation,
and is performed upon both the male and the female. In the male the organs
removed are the testicles and in the female the ovaries.


CASTRATION OF THE MALE.

Castration in the male is performed for several different purposes. It may
be necessary, as is the case in certain diseased conditions of the
testicles and in strangulated hernia, but the usual object of the operation
is to enhance the general value of the animal. For example, if the animal
is intended for burden, the operation will better fit him for his work by
so modifying his temperament and physical condition that he may easily be
controlled by his master. Again, if he is merely to be used for beef
purposes, the operation will improve the quality of the flesh and cause an
added development of the most valuable portions of the dressed carcass.

The operation upon the female may be performed on account of diseased
conditions, but we may say that the chief object of the operation is to
make the animal one of more profit to its owner by lessening the lacteal
secretion and also improving the physical condition from the point of view
of beef production. When the cow is spayed, it does away with all trouble
attending estrum, or heat, gestation, and parturition with its accidents
and ailments. The flesh of the spayed cow is more tender and juicy than
that of the natural animal.

The operation upon the male may be either the uncovered or the covered. In
the former the incision is made down to the testicle proper, and in the
latter the cut is made through the scrotum or the outside covering and
through the dartos, or the next coat, care being taken to cut no deeper
tissues or coats. The age at which the operation is performed varies, but
usually it is performed between the second and third month. If done in
early life, there is less danger of complications, the organs being in a
latent condition and not fully developed. There are many different methods
of operating, the principal ones of which we shall mention.   In the
uncovered operation a good free incision should be made, exposing the
testicle completely. Now it may be removed by simply cutting it off. The
only danger of doing this is that hemorrhage is liable to follow. To
obviate this, before the division of the spermatic cord it should be
twisted several times in the following manner: Take hold of the cord with
the left hand, having it between the thumb and the index finger. Now twist
the free portion several times with the right hand, all the time being
careful to push with the left hand toward the body of the animal. In this
way the danger of injury to the cord during the animal's struggles will be
overcome. There will be no hemorrhage, or very little, if it has been done
properly. This is the most simple manner of torsion. There are forceps and
other instruments made to perform the operation in this manner. The actual
cautery is an old method, but we shall not describe it, as we consider that
we have better methods now. The next method with the clamps, although
extensively used upon the horse, is not practiced to so great an extent
upon the bovine at the present time. It is a very old method, and is
considered very safe. Clamps are used in the covered and uncovered
operations.

More modern methods are by the use of special instruments known as the
emasculator and the écraseur.

The operation of "mulling" or crushing the spermatic cord is an
unscientific and barbarous procedure, causing unnecessary pain and
suffering.

The methods described above apply only to the animal in a normal condition.
Before operating everything should be examined to see that it is as it
should be. If otherwise, a special operative procedure will be necessary.
Whichever mode of operation is adopted from a practical standpoint, the
principal precautions to be taken in order to attain success are as
follows: First, thorough cleanliness under strict aseptic and antiseptic
precautions; second, a free and boldly made incision; third, the avoidance
of undue pulling or tension upon the spermatic cord; fourth, free drainage,
which can be maintained, provided the original incision has been properly
made.

The operation of castration of the male is by no means a serious one, and
when properly performed there is little danger from complications. Although
the danger is trifling, the complications which may arise are sometimes of
a serious nature. Hemorrhage, either primary or secondary, tetanus (or
lockjaw), abscesses, hernia (or rupture), gangrene, and peritonitis are the
most serious complications that follow castration. Whichever complication
arises will require its own special treatment, which we will not go into
here, as it will be fully dealt with under another heading. We would add,
however, that, generally speaking, the animal, after being castrated,
should either be regularly exercised or be allowed freedom so that it can
exercise itself. Sudden changes of the temperature are dangerous. The
animal should be fed moderately, but of a diet easily digestible.


CASTRATION OF THE FEMALE.

The operation of ovariotomy (spaying) should be performed when the heifer
is in her prime and in moderate condition not too plethoric and not in heat
or pregnant. This operation may be performed in one of two ways--namely, by
the flank or by the vagina--each operation having its special advantages.
In the flank operation the animal may be operated upon either while
standing or while in the recumbent position. If standing, she should be
placed against a wall or a partition and her head held by a strong
assistant. The legs also must be secured to prevent the animal from
kicking. A vertical incision should be made in the left flank, about the
middle of the upper portion, care being taken not to make the opening too
far down, in order to avoid the division of the circumflex artery which
traverses that region. The operator should now make an opening through the
peritoneum, which is best done with the fingers. Next the hand and arm
should be introduced into the abdominal cavity and the hand directed
backward toward the pelvis, searching for the horns of the uterus; if
followed up the ovaries will easily be found. They should then be drawn
outward and may be removed either by the écraseur or by torsion. Closing
and suturing the wound will complete the operation. An adhesive plaster
bandage can be beneficially applied.

The operation by the vagina is more complicated and requires special and
expensive instruments. The mode of procedure in brief is as follows: A
speculum is introduced into the vagina, and an incision is made into the
superior wall of that passage about 2 inches from the neck of the uterus,
cutting from below upward and from before backward. An incision which
should not exceed 3-1/2 inches in length should be made. The next step is
to get possession of the ovaries. They are situated in a fold of the broad
ligament and should be drawn carefully through the incision into the
vagina. Now take the long-handled scissors, specially made for this
purpose, with which the thick border of the broad ligament is divided. The
torsion forceps are introduced and applied to the broad ligament above the
ovary. The left hand is then introduced, and the thumb and the index finger
grasp hold of the broad ligament above the forceps. With the right hand
torsion is applied and the ovary removed. The other ovary may be removed in
the same manner.

What has been said with regard to complications and aftertreatment in the
case of the male also applies to the female.


OTHER SURGICAL OPERATIONS.

Descriptions of other surgical operations not given in this chapter may be
found in other parts of this work by reference to the index.

     *       *       *       *       *

SURGICAL OPERATIONS.

DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.

Plate XXVI. Devices for casting cattle. (From Fleming.)

  Fig. 1. Reuff's method of throwing or casting the ox.

  Fig. 2. Miles's method of throwing or casting the ox.

Plate XXVII. Surgical instruments and sutures. (After Reynders and
Fleming.)

Figs. 1 and 2. Seton needles. These may be either long or short, straight
or curved, according to the locality in which a seton is to be inserted.

Fig. 3. Various forms of surgical needles.

Fig. 4. Suture forceps or needle holder, for passing needles through thick
and dense tissues.

Fig. 5. Knot properly tied.

Figs. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. Various forms of sutures. Fig. 6, interrupted suture;
7, quilled suture; 8, uninterrupted suture; 9, twisted suture, made by
passing suture pins through the parts to be held together and winding the
thread about them so as to represent the figure 8; 10, single-pin suture.

Fig. 11. Appliance for ringing the bull, one-fourth natural size.

Fig. 12. Nose clamp, with spring and keeper.

  [Illustration: PLATE XXVI. DEVICES FOR CASTING CATTLE.]

  [Illustration: PLATE XXVII. SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS AND SUTURES.]

     *       *       *       *       *



TUMORS AFFECTING CATTLE.

By JOHN R. MOHLER, V. M. D.,

_Chief, Bureau of Animal Industry._


[_Synonyms:_ New growth, neoplasm, neoformation, pseudoplasm, swelling, and
hyperplasia.]

_Definition._--Tumors[3] are abnormal masses of tissue, noninflammatory and
independent in character, arising, without obvious cause, from cells of
preexistent tissue, possessing no physiologic function, and
characteristically unrestrained in growth and structure.

Tumors are abnormal masses of tissue. The application of the term "tumor"
is directly connected with the fact that they produce local enlargement.

They are noninflammatory; that is, the process of inflammation is not
directly the cause or accompaniment of them. An inflammatory new growth
tends to disappear upon the subsidence of the inflammatory process, while
spontaneous disappearance of a tumor is comparatively rare.

Tumors are independent. For instance, their nutrition bears no relation to
the nutrition of the body. A lipoma, or fatty tumor, in the subcutaneous
tissue, may go on increasing to huge bulk while the body is steadily
emaciating. Again, the tissues of the aged gradually undergo atrophy, yet
cancers arise at this time and grow rapidly.

Tumors are unrestrained in growth and structure. In the development of an
animal we know at what period of its existence the mass of tissue called
liver will develop--what its site, structure, and size will be. We know
that it will remain only in that locality, and not, as it were, colonize
throughout the system. With tumors it is different; there are no laws by
which we can forecast the time, place, nature, or size of development of
them. There is no cartilage in the kidney or parotid gland, yet a
chondroma, or cartilage tumor, may develop in either.   Even when a new
growth of tissue is started by an injury and consequent inflammation--as,
for instance, proud flesh--there is a limitation of its size, but the
controlling influences which govern the size of an organ or normal mass of
tissue and limit the extent of an inflammatory overgrowth are all absent in
the case of tumors. They are unrestrained, lawless.

Metastasis expresses the lawlessness of tumors as regards being limited to
the original site of development. Small particles of tumors enter the blood
vessels or lymph streams and are carried to distant parts of the body,
where they lodge and start new tumor formations. Expansion by colonization
in this manner is a rule with many tumors, and, since they exercise no
function of use to the organism, this dissemination of actively growing
particles becomes a menace to the system by numerically increasing the
body's burden, opening new channels of drain upon the system and adding new
centers for the absorption of putrefactive materials when the secondary
tumors shall have degenerated. It is this which makes metastasis such an
important element in the malignancy of tumors.

Tumors possess no physiological function. They are absolutely useless.
Fibrous tumors bind no parts of the organism together; bony tumors add
nothing to the supporting framework of the body; the tissue of fatty tumors
never serves as a storehouse of feed and energy; the cells of an adenoma,
or gland tumor, furnish no secretion; a tumor composed of muscle tissue
produces no increase to the strength of the individual--its muscle cells
are not contractile.

Tumors arise from cells of preexistent tissue. Tumor tissue is not a new
variety. Whatever the structure of a tumor, its counterpart is found among
the tissues of the body, the lawlessness of the tumor, however, showing
itself in more or less departure from the normal type. This departure is
usually a reversion to a more elementary or embryonic stage, so that the
tumor tissues may be said to be structurally immature.

Tumors arise without obvious cause. Concerning the ultimate cause of tumor
formation we are absolutely ignorant. Various theories have been advanced
from time to time, but none of them have been applicable to more than a
limited number of cases. The most important theories may be briefly
mentioned.

(1) _The theory of tumor diathesis._--Bilroth taught that tumors are caused
by a peculiar predisposition consisting of a diseased state of the fluids
of the body. This constitutional taint might be acquired, but, having been
acquired, is also hereditary. This theory is known also as the heredity
hypothesis, but, while it is true that heredity appears to play some role
in the causation of certain neoplasms, its application is too limited to
make it of value.

(2) _The mechanical or irritant theory._--Virchow assumed that tumors arise
as the result of previous irritation of the part. This has been noticed
particularly in the case of certain cancers. They frequently develop on the
edges of old ulcers, thus being dependent apparently on chronic irritation.
Cancer of the lip in pipe smokers is a case in point. Cancerous tumors of
the skin often develop on the arms of workers in paraffin, tar, or soot,
the chemical irritation of these substances being the cause. On the
contrary, the proportion of those thus affected among the exposed is very
small and forces the conclusion that if the real cause were in the
irritation vastly more cases would occur.

(3) _The theory of nervous influence._--That is based upon (_a_) the
observed fact that tumors occur more frequently in man and the higher
animals than in those lower in the scale, among which the nervous system is
less highly developed; (_b_) that certain formations seem to be directly
connected with nerve distribution, while others have been associated with
alternations in neighboring nerve trunks.

(4) _The embryonal theory._--This is known also as Cohnheim's hypothesis.
In early fetal life there occurs a production of cells in excess of those
required for the construction of the various parts of the body, so that a
certain number of them are left over in the fully developed tissue or
become misplaced during the sorting of cells for future development of
tissues and organs. These cells lie dormant until favorable conditions
arise or until some sufficient stimulus is applied, when, released from
their inactivity, they begin to reproduce and grow. Not being normally
related to their site, they lack the controlling and limiting influences of
the part, and, their embryonic character enduing them with a most potent
proliferating power, they develop in a lawless and unrestrained manner.
There are tumors whose existence can be explained only on these grounds.
Still, this theory falls far short of answering the question as to the
origin of tumors.

(5) _The parasitic theory._--This is not only one of the latest, but,
merely as a hypothesis, it is the most attractive and plausible of all. The
serious objections to it, however, are the almost uniform failure that has
met the attempts to transplant these tumors from one animal to another and
the absence of any constant variety of organism in them. Several forms of
parasites have been found in certain tumors, but nothing definite has been
shown with reference to the relation they bear to the causation of the
neoplasm.


CLASSIFICATION OF TUMORS.

In Senn's work on tumors occurs the following: "A uniform system of
classification of tumors is one of the great wants of modern pathology, and
all attempts in this direction have proved failures." It would be folly,
therefore, to burden the pages of a work of this kind with one or several
of the proposed systems which have, admittedly, at some important point,
failed of their purpose. Since the value of this chapter depends chiefly
upon its practical character, which in turn is measured by its aid in
diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, the old but important clinical
division is here adopted.

Tumors are either malignant or benign. The essential difference between the
two classes is that while _benign tumors depend for their ill effects
entirely upon their situation, malignant neoplasms wherever located
inevitably destroy life._ The clinical features of each group are in many
cases sufficiently marked to distinguish them.


MALIGNANT TUMORS.

(1) These are invariably pernicious, and from the beginning tend to destroy
life.

(2) The cellular element predominates; therefore they grow rapidly.

(3) Possessing no capsule, they infiltrate surrounding tissues.

(4) They infect adjacent lymph glands.

(5) They recur even after complete removal.

(6) They give metastasis; that is, they become disseminated in different
organs.

(7) Their presence develops a progressive emaciation.


BENIGN TUMORS.

(1) These in and of themselves do not tend to produce death.

(2) As the cellular element is not liable to predominate, they grow slowly.

(3) They are encapsulated, and when diffuse do not infiltrate surrounding
tissues.

(4) They do not infect adjacent lymph glands.

(5) They do not recur after complete removal.

(6) They do not manifest metastasis.

Benign tumors, though harmless, may, by the accident of their location,
indirectly produce death. Mere pressure on the brain substance of an
otherwise innocent tumor, compression of the blood supply for vital organs,
growth in such manner as to cause obstruction in the alimentary tract or
pressure upon nerves, may cause death, or, prior to death, so combine the
effects of anemia (deficiency of blood), starvation, and pain, with its
consequent restlessness, as to produce a veritable cachexia (condition of
general ill health).

On the other hand, a malignant tumor in its primary growth may so implicate
a vital organ as to destroy life before metastasis can occur or even before
cachexia can develop. Thus, to the untrained observer, environment may so
operate as to cause these two classes of new growths to simulate each
other. The boundary lines may seem to overlap. It is here that the
microscope, as the court of last appeal, adjudicates positively in the
diagnosis between these two clearly marked divisions.

It may almost be asserted that a true classification of tumors can not be
made until we know more about the cause of them. The arrangement here
presented is offered to meet the practical needs of the veterinarian,
student, and farmer rather than of the pathologist.

We may roughly divide the tissues of the body into structural and lining
tissues. The structural tissues are composed of the tissues of special
function and simple connective tissues. The lining or covering tissues,
both internal and external, are known as epithelium.

Section A of the table below contains the true tumors or proper neoplasms.

Section B includes the cysts, some of which are true tumors, while others
are false ones, but the latter are added because of their gross resemblance
to the true and the consequent necessity of considering them at the same
time.


  TUMORS AND CYSTS.

  A.--Tumors.

  BENIGN.

  I.--_Tumors composed of tissues resembling those of special function._

  1. Type of muscle tissue                                         Myoma.
  2. Type of nerve tissue                                        Neuroma.
  3. Type of vascular tissue                                     Angioma.
  4. Type of gland tissue                                        Adenoma.

  II.--_Tumors composed of fully developed connective tissue._

  1. Type of fibrous tissue                                      Fibroma.
  2. Type of adipose, or fat, tissue                              Lipoma.
  3. Type of cartilage tissue                                  Chondroma.
  4. Type of osseous, or bone, tissue                            Osteoma.
  5. Type of neuroglia, or nerve, sheath                          Glioma.
  6. Type of mucoid, or mucous, tissue                            Myxoma.

  MALIGNANT.

  III.--_Tumors composed of embryonic or immature connective tissues._

  1. Type of immature connective tissue                          Sarcoma.
  2. Type of endothelial tissue                             Endothelioma.

  IV.--_Tumors in which epithelial elements predominate._

  1. Type of various epithelial cells and associated tissues   Carcinoma.

  B.--CYSTS.

  I.--_Cysts which develop in preexisting cavities._

  1                                                      Retention cysts.
  2                                                  Proliferation cysts.

  II.--_Cysts which are of congenital origin and are true tumors._

  1                                                        Dermoid cysts.

  III.--_Cysts which originate independently as the result of pathological
  changes and are nontumorous._

  1. Cysts formed by the softening and disintegration of
  lesions                                                Softening cysts.
  2. Cysts formed around parasites                       Parasitic cysts.
  3. Cysts formed by an outpouring of blood and lymph
     into the tissue spaces with subsequent
     encapsulation of the fluid                    Extravasation cysts.

TERMINOLOGY.--The principle of naming tumors is quite simple. The Greek
word "oma" (plural "omata") means tumor. This word "oma" is added to the
stem of the word ordinarily used to designate the kind of tissue of which
the tumor is composed. Thus a tumor formed after the type of fibrous tissue
is a fibroma. The only exception to this is in the naming of the two large
classes of malignant neoplasms. There the names were formed from the
fleshlike appearance of the one and the crablike proliferations of the
other--namely, Sarcoma (sarks=flesh), carcinoma (karkinos=crab).

DIAGNOSIS.--In the diagnosis of tumors note is taken of (1) clinical
history and (2) examination of the tumor.

(1) _Clinical history._--Circumstances connected with the origin of the
tumor and its rapidity of growth may point to an inflammatory swelling
rather than a tumor. The location of the tumor at its commencement is
important, as, for instance, in diagnosing between lipoma and carcinoma,
the former being more or less movable under the skin, while a carcinoma
develops in the skin. While tenderness on pressure may be caused by
compression of a sensitive nerve by a tumor or by tumors of the nerve or
nerve sheaths, as a rule this symptom is indicative of inflammatory
swelling rather than of the existence of a tumor.

(2) _Direct examination of the tumor._--In the application of this
diagnosis the trained observer will note color, size, shape, and surface
structure, transmission of light, movableness, consistence, resistance,
pulsation, and crepitation. Percussion, auscultation, and exploration are
also available methods. Finally, microscopic examination of the growing
portions of the tumor by a pathologist will be found most satisfactory.


GENERAL TREATMENT OF TUMORS.

For benign tumors treatment is required only when it damages the animal's
value or when merely for sake of appearance. When it is possible, the
removal of the tumor by an operation is indicated. If the tumor has a
small, constricted base, remove by torsion, ligation, or with an écraseur.
Ligation following the incision of the skin with a knife avoids the pain of
pressing on the sensitive nerves of the skin and is suitable for tumors of
broad base and small bodies. A firing iron, such as is used in line or
feather firing, may also be used in removing tumors with small attachments.
This not only stops the bleeding but forms a firm scab, under which healing
may occur rapidly. Those tumors that can not be removed by the above
methods may be treated with caustics or acids, such as sulphuric acid,
hydrochloric acid, caustic potash, arsenic, silver nitrate, or chromic
acid, but it is difficult to limit the action of these drugs. The
injection, into the tumor, of such chemicals as anilin dyes, alcohol,
acetic acid, citric acid, or ergotin, is of doubtful value, as is also the
injection of the germs of erysipelas--thought by some to be a specific.
Certain specific tumors, such as actinomycosis and botryomycosis, may be
successfully treated by the internal administration of potassium iodid,
together with the injection into the tumor or the painting of its surface
with either Lugol's solution or the tincture of iodin. The most reliable
means of treating tumors is by extirpation with cutting instruments.
Dissect the tumor from the surrounding tissue, ligating all the larger
blood vessels, and tearing the tissues with the fingers rather than cutting
with a knife. The bleeding may be stopped with a hot iron. The after
treatment is the same as for any ordinary wound of similar size.


DESCRIPTION OF INDIVIDUAL TUMORS.

Although a full list of the tumors that may be found in bovines has been
given above, there are a number that warrant a detailed description, and
the following mention will be made of the most important of them:


MYOMA.

These tumors are after the type of muscle. They are sharply circumscribed
and, as a rule, are very hard, a condition owing usually to combination
with fibroma and are then known as fibromyoma. In fact, the clinical
differentiation between myoma and fibroma is almost impossible. Myomas are
found in the uterus, vagina, stomach, intestines, gullet, and bladder of a
bovine animal. They grow very large, but, as a rule, are benign. Treatment
should consist of their removal.


NEUROFIBROMA.

A true neuroma built up of nerve fibers and nerve cells is infrequent, if
it ever occurs, in cattle. False neuromas, or neurofibromas, are knotty,
spreading tumors of the size of a large potato, which are developed within
the nerve sheaths and composed of nerve fibers and connective tissue bands
interlaced. The commingling of these varied fibers is often so intricate
that separation is practically impossible. This tumor is most frequently
found upon the shoulder of cattle. Treatment is surgical.


ANGIOMA.

The angiomas are tumors composed mainly of blood vessels or blood spaces
and are observed on the skin of man, where they are called "birthmarks" or
"mother marks." Cavernous angiomas are seen in cattle, affecting the liver
and the mucous membrane of the nasal septum. In the liver they appear as
smooth, flat, nonprojecting tumors of a dark-red or purple color and of
about the size of a silver 10-cent piece. They are somewhat softer in
consistency than the adjoining liver substance into which they are
gradually fused. These tumors are frequently observed by meat inspectors in
livers of slaughtered cattle. Treatment of angioma is unnecessary.


ADENOMA.

The structure of this tumor is after the type of gland tissue. It is rarely
seen in cattle except in combination with cancer or sarcoma. A growth which
occurs more frequently in bovines, especially calves, and which in some
instances bears a striking resemblance to an adenoma is the so-called
goiter.


GOITER (STRUMA).

This is a noninflammatory enlargement or a hyperplasia of the thyroid
gland. While it can not be definitely classed among tumors, yet, owing to
its resemblance to the latter, it will be discussed at this time. The cause
of goiter has never been definitely ascertained. Among the most probable
causes may be mentioned heredity, insufficient and improper diet, close
confinement, unhygienic surroundings, and an unknown toxic substance which
is supposed to obtain in those localities rich in magnesium and lime salts.
Certain organisms found in goiter have been suspected of producing this
trouble, but their relation to the disease has not been satisfactorily
proved. A goiter may consist of (1) simple enlargement of the follicles
which are filled with albuminous matter (follicular goiter); (2) an
increase of connective tissues between the follicles, causing the swelling
to be dense and resistant (fibrous goiter); (3) a great increase in size of
one or more follicles, forming a cyst (cystic goiter); (4) great dilatation
of the blood vessels in the gland accompanied with pulsation with each
heart beat (vascular goiter).

_Symptoms._--Goiter may be observed at the side of the throat, reaching the
size of a fist or even larger, or it may hang down below the windpipe. In
cattle the two thyroid glands are close together, and when the disease
affects both there may be but one uniform swelling placed in front of the
windpipe below the angle of the jaw. This swelling may be hard, soft, or
doughy in consistence, and with each beat of the heart it may pulsate like
an artery. It may cause labored breathing by pressure on the windpipe, and
death may result from pressure on this structure, on the gullet, or on the
adjoining large vessels.

_Treatment._--In young animals the treatment is usually satisfactory, and
consists in giving the animal a complete change of feed and plenty of
exercise in the open air. If the condition appears enzootic in the
district, remove the animal to another location when possible. Iodin,
either in the form of ointment or the tincture, should be applied to the
swelling. Injections of iodin solution, 5 grains of iodin in 1 dram of 25
per cent alcohol, may also be made into the substance of the gland. When
the swelling which follows this injection has subsided it may be repeated.
Potassium iodid should be given internally in 1-1/2 dram doses twice daily
for a cow, or in 20-grain doses twice a day for a calf. Extirpation of all
but a small section of the swelling may be successfully accomplished by a
qualified veterinarian, but if it should be entirely removed, myxedema and
death follow.


FIBROMA.

Fibromas are tumors made up chiefly of connective tissue and are usually
confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Indurative fibromas of the
skin appear as tumors of gelatinous connective tissue or as firm, white
vascular connective tissue growths, which are more or less sharply
outlined, move readily over the underlying tissues in company with the
skin, and owe their origin to mechanical injuries, perforating wounds,
repeated abrasions, or the invasion of pus cocci or botryomyces into the
tissues.

These tumors in cattle are frequently found upon the dewlap as solid lumps,
hard as stone to the touch, lying loosely between the layers of skin, and
gradually losing themselves in the softer tissues of the neck above, or as
smooth, hard tumors of glistening white substance with interlacing lines of
softer tissue. They may also be found in the region of the knee or at the
elbow. The skin over the growths, in accordance with the originating cause,
will be found chafed, covered with scabs, or even ulcerated and accompanied
with collateral edema.

These connective tissue tumors grow slowly but reach enormous size. They
sometimes follow injuries to the region of the throat and form there as
hard, firm growth, even reaching the size of a child's head.

A fibroma upon the larynx is not an infrequent occurrence in the ox. These
tumors are always sharply outlined and have a roughened surface. They may
be differentiated from actinomycotic tumors (see chapter on "Infectious
diseases of cattle," p. 358) in the same location by their firm, fibrous
structure and by the absence of pus from the interior.

A tumor is sometimes seen upon the muzzle of cattle, which assumes a
diameter equaling the width of the muzzle. It is a voluminous
connective-tissue formation known by the name of "fibroma diffusum."

Another form is sometimes observed upon the tongue. It grows upon a broad,
spreading base, becoming very hard. It is almost lacking in blood vessels,
although the few that are present are plainly in view, and in consequence
is poorly supplied with fluids. It is of a smooth contour, white or whitish
yellow in color, is sharply limited from the normal substance of the
tongue, may be covered with mucous membrane, on which prominent papillæ are
located, or only by a thin, delicate layer of epithelium, and is usually
found in the middle part of the tongue, where it may reach the size of two
fists.

Pedunculate or stemmed fibrous tumors are frequently noticed growing upon
or near the extremity of the tails of cows. They are apparently of
traumatic origin, such as tying the tail fast while milking or shaving it
too closely while trimming for show purposes, and usually contain bloody or
gelatinous material within, or, again, they may be strongly edematous
throughout.

_Treatment._--The treatment of large fibromas is surgical and consists of
the operative removal of the tumor, followed by suturing of the wound.
Small external tumors may be painted with zinc chlorid, chromic acid, or a
concentrated solution of bichlorid of mercury.


PAPILLOMA (WART).

When fibromas develop from the lining or covering tissues they frequently
form papillary growths, more or less thickly covered with epithelium, and
are then called papillomas, or warts.

Papillomas consist of villouslike projections, resulting from a
proliferation of the outer layer (epithelium) of the skin or mucous
membrane. These growths are also called "angle berries," and may assume a
variety of forms. Sometimes there is a preponderance of epidermis in the
formation, and the tumor then appears as a hard, dense, insensitive,
clublike growth, or wart. Again the swelling is chiefly in the derm, or
true skin, and we have what is known as a flesh wart (verucca carnea). In
other cases the growth of papillar bodies projects in great cauliflowerlike
tumors with deeply furrowed and lobulated surface, over which a covering of
epidermis may or may not be present. These are usually much softer and are
well supplied with blood vessels. It is not uncommon for them to be
pedunculate or stemmed, and in this case considerable rotary motion or
twisting is possible. Their color is cloudy gray or grayish red, with white
bands of connective tissue radiating from the center. Their consistence
varies. Upon their surfaces and within their clefts and fissures they
undergo retrogressive changes, softening, bleeding, or ulcerations.

A favorite location for the papilloma in cattle is the udder and teats,
where they may develop in such numbers as to cover the entire surface and
make the animal troublesome to milk. The sides of the head, neck, and
shoulders also afford satisfactory conditions for their growth, and are
frequently seen to be affected by them.

_Treatment._--Warts may be removed with the scissors, twisted off with the
fingers, or ligatured by means of a rubber band or horsehair. The roots
should then be cauterized with tincture of iron, glacial acetic acid, or
lunar caustic. Acids should never be used in removing warts about the eyes
or in the mouth. Papillomas of the eyelids sometimes change to cancers and
should be removed by taking out a wedge-shaped section of the eyelid. Young
cattle should be given arsenic internally in the form of Fowler's solution,
1 tablespoonful twice a day for a 6-months-old calf.


POLYPS.

Polyps are usually fibromas or myxomas, occurring on the mucous membrane of
the nasal passages or genital tract. They grow upon a narrow stem, bleed
readily when injured, and often contain a center of thin, limpid fluid. A
bloody discharge is sometimes seen coming from the affected nostril, but
this is not always easy of detection in cattle, owing to the pliancy of
their tongues and to their habit of licking an irritated nostril. Usually
these tumors grow downward and may project from the nostril, causing
snoring sounds and uneasy breathing. They may occasionally force themselves
backward into the throat, where they interfere seriously with respiration,
the patient being obliged to breathe with an effort, and even forced to
cough in order to dislodge temporarily the obstruction from the larynx.
Such tumors, when near the nostril, may easily be removed by the use of
forceps or a loop made of bailing wire. Serious bleeding is not liable to
follow their removal, but an astringent wash, such as a solution of the
perchlorid of iron, if applied to the cut surface, will be found very
beneficial. In case the tumor is not within easy reach, the services of a
qualified veterinarian should be obtained to perform the necessary
operation.


LIPOMA.

This is a tumor consisting chiefly of fat cells. The growth is irregularly
rounded and distinctly lobulated, very soft, and almost fluctuating. It is
insensitive, grows slowly, and is always inclosed in a distinct fibrous
capsule, from which it can be easily shelled out. It may become very large
and often hangs pendulous from a long, elastic pedicle. In cattle this
tumor may be found in the subcutaneous tissues, especially of the back and
shoulders, uterus, and intestines, and in the latter position it may cause
strangulation, or "gut tie," by winding around a loop of the intestine.

_Treatment._--When found on the skin the tumor may be readily removed with
a knife or by a ligature. Caustics and the cautery produce wounds that heal
slowly and can not be recommended in the treatment of this tumor.


CHONDROMA.

This tumor formation is composed of cartilage cells. It is a rounded and
very often unevenly nodular and sharply described tumor. It is very hard,
dense, elastic, and painless and develops principally where we find normal
cartilage cells. It is rare in cattle, but has been found in the
subcutaneous tissues and nasal cavities.

_Treatment._--Extirpation.


OSTEOMA (BONY TUMOR).

Bones may occasionally grow in such a profuse and irregular manner that the
product, or osteophyte, assumes the character of a tumor. The bone tissue
may possess either spongy or compact properties and grow either from the
periphery of the bone or within its interior. These tumors most frequently
appear about the head of the animal, either upon the jawbones, within the
nasal passages, or in connection with the horns. They are usually of bony
hardness, painless, benign, and sharply outlined.

_Treatment._--The treatment consists in either removing them with a saw,
chisel, or trephine, or preventing their further development by
counterirritation with blisters or firing iron.


MYXOMA.

Characteristic myxomas are mucoid tumors which chiefly originate from the
mucous membrane and are especially to be found within the nasal passages
and uteri of cattle. They can reach a size of three fists, are smooth or
velvetlike, or may be lobulated, broad at the base, and consist of a
glassy-looking mass of connective tissue, which usually shows a distinctive
yellowish color. Being homogeneous and elastic, the moist, jellylike tissue
composing the tumor may be easily destroyed or crushed. When cut through,
these tumors soon collapse from the loss of their fluids. They sometimes
inclose elliptical cavities filled with slimy, gelatinous masses.

_Treatment._--Extirpation.


SARCOMA.

This is a malignant tumor after the type of embryonal tissue, and consists
of several varieties, such as the round cell, spindle cell, giant cell,
alveolar, and melanosarcoma. They grow by preference in connective tissue
and are quite vascular. Sarcomas appear either as single or multiple
nodules, varying in size from a hempseed to a hazelnut, or else as a
moderate number of tumors of the size of hen eggs. Their surface, at first
smooth, later becomes lumpy and tuberous from internal degeneration.
Secondary nodules may appear near the primary tumor. The outer skin is not
involved so soon as in cancer, nor does ulceration follow so rapidly.
Sarcoma is about the most frequent and dangerous tumor that is found in
cattle. It occurs in young animals, and is found on the serous membranes,
in the glandular organs, and on the outer skin, especially of the neck and
shoulders--in fact, in nearly every tissue and in almost every part of the
body. This tumor is often found in places exposed to traumatisms and at
seats of scars, or of irritations from pressure and inflammation.

_Treatment._--Treatment should consist in early and complete removal by the
knife, including one-half or three-quarters of an inch of the sound tissue
adjoining the tumor. If there is a possibility that sarcomatous tissue
still remains, either cauterize the wound with a hot iron or powder the
walls of the cavity with arsenious acid.


CANCER (CARCINOMA).

Cancers are tumors of epithelial tissues and are malignant. There are
several varieties of cancers, such as hard, soft, and colloid, but only
those growing on the surface will be mentioned here. These malignant tumors
of the superficial organs develop primarily from the epidermis or from the
glands of the skin. They appear secondarily as spreading infections from
milk glands, thyroids, anal glands, or as embolisms. In such cases their
sole character depends wholly upon the kind of cancer from which they have
sprung. The infiltrating cancer begins as an elevation of the skin, which
progresses until it becomes rough and nodular. The surface later becomes
attacked, and an ulcer results whose edges are outlined by a hard, firm
zone.

The ulcerations may remain limited by cicatricial tissue, but it is more
likely that the infiltration and destruction of tissue will spread out
wider and deeper until a rodent ulcer (so called) is formed. One of the
most frequent sites of cancer in cattle is in the eye, where they are
called fungus hematodes, but they also occur on the skin, on the genitals,
in the stomach, and within the organs.

_Fungus hematodes._--This starts at the inner corner of the eye as a
papillary elevation or as small nodules which become fused. They grow
larger and become papillomatous, with superficial ulcerations and a
tendency toward hemorrhage. In some cases the eye is displaced by the
growing tumor or is attacked by the cancer cells and entirely destroyed.

Cancerous growths upon the external genitals and the anus usually present a
rough, irregular surface from which there is a constant sloughing of
decomposed tissue accompanied with a penetrating disagreeable odor.

The diagnosis of cancer may be made clinically by noting the simultaneous
infection of the lymph glands which surround the primary lesion. Deeply
burrowing and infiltrating forms which appear as lumps and ulcerations
cause marked disfiguration of the affected part. The surface becomes a
soft, greasy mass; later it cracks open and from the fissures blood-colored
pus exudes, being continually formed by the moist degeneration of the
tissues beneath. At first the general health of the animal does not appear
affected, but later the cancer nodules spread to important organs and give
rise to marasmus and progressive emaciation. Cancer is not a frequent tumor
of cows. Fröhner states that of 75 cases of tumors in cattle which came
under his observation 2, or 2.6 per cent, were found to be cancers, while
20, or 26.6 per cent, were sarcomas.

_Treatment._--Treatment consists in the early and complete removal of the
tumor, taking care to include a wide border of healthy tissue. This has
been most successful in such superficial cancers as those of the eye,
penis, anus, testicle, vulva, and sheath. If the disease has advanced too
far, this treatment may not prove efficacious, owing to the great
malignancy of the cancer and its tendency to recur. In such cases the
animal may be slaughtered, but the flesh should be used for food only after
inspection by a competent veterinarian.


CYSTS.

Cysts may be true or false tumors and consist of a capsule containing a
fluid or semisolid content. Among the most important cysts, which have been
briefly referred to in a previous table, the following are probably the
most noteworthy, owing to the frequency with which they are found in
bovines:


SOFTENING CYSTS.

Softening cysts, which result from the degenerative liquefaction of normal
or diseased tissues, especially of tumors of different kinds, followed by
the encapsulation of the fluid.


PARASITIC CYSTS.

Parasitic or foreign-body cysts, from the inflammatory reaction induced by
such parasites as the echinococcus (hydatid cyst) or by the presence of
various kinds of foreign bodies.


EXTRAVASATION CYSTS.

Extravasation cysts, caused by injuries which rupture blood vessels,
followed by an increase of fibrous tissue which forms a capsule about the
fluid. The hygromata in front of the knee in cattle, so-called tumor of the
knee, and serous cysts belong to this variety.

HYGROMATA, OR TUMORS OF THE KNEE.--These consist in the simplest form of a
collection of serous fluid mixed with fibrin within a distended bursa. The
walls surrounding the fluid become firm, smooth, and dense.

Outwardly the tumor appears fluctuating, though tense, while the skin which
covers it may be normal, denuded of hair, or covered with hard epidermal
scales, possibly half an inch in thickness, forming a hard, horny plate.
The cavity which contains the fluid may have the dimensions of a hen's egg,
an apple, or a child's head. Its walls are formed by the diseased secreting
membrane of the bursal sac, and are readily detachable from the subcutis of
the skin. Their internal surfaces are often uneven or supplied with
projections or tufted growths which support a fibrous network within the
tumor.

Tumors of the knee may also assume a granular type, as the result of
chronic inflammation or following operative or spontaneous evacuation of
pus from the part. They are either firmly connected with the skin or are
detachable from it, and when laid open disclose a whitish-red, porklike
tissue surrounding a central nucleus of pus, or a fistulous tract leading
to the outer surface. They are caused by the chronic inflammation which
follows the bruises received by cattle in lying down and in rising, or they
may be due to falls on uneven, hard ground.

_Treatment for hygromata._--When the swelling first appears cold water
should be applied, followed later by bandaging with cloths wrung out of
warm water. If the swelling is soft, it should be punctured at the lowest
point, and afterwards the cavity should be syringed with Lugol's solution.
If the tumor is hard and nonfluctuating, a mercurial blister may cause
absorption and at the same time prevent further injury to the part by
making it more painful, thus sparing it.

SEROUS CYSTS.--These swellings are another variety of extravasation cysts,
and are caused by such injuries as butting, running against hard objects,
and shipping bruises, which are followed by an outpouring of blood and
lymph into the tissue spaces. These cysts develop rapidly and may reach the
size of a man's head or even larger. They are soft, edematous, and hot at
first and contain a serous or blood-tinged fluid. Later, partially
organized clots and shreds of a fibrinous nature and of a gelatinous
consistence are formed within, and the temperature of the swelling is
reduced. They appear on the surface of the body, especially on the belly
and flank of cattle.

_Treatment of serous cysts._--Treatment consists in opening the cyst at the
most dependent point with a sharp knife. The cavity should be washed out
twice daily with a 5 per cent solution of carbolic acid, and drainage
encouraged by keeping the incision open.


DERMOID CYSTS.

These cysts have a wall which is almost an exact duplicate of the structure
of the skin, and frequently contain epidermal structures, such as hair and
teeth, which, in the development of the embryo, have been misplaced. Thus
we may find in an ovary or testicle a dermoid cyst, containing a tooth or a
ball of hair. Dental cysts are included in the class above.

DENTAL CYSTS.--It happens occasionally that the teeth of cattle, instead of
developing normally within strong supporting alveolæ, remain inclosed
within a cystic membrane, which assumes a tumorlike character. One tooth
may be included alone in the cyst or a number may be inclosed together.
However this may be, the malformation progresses, especially if confined to
the incisor teeth, until the remaining teeth that began to develop normally
are crowded out of position and rendered useless. The tumor may reach the
size of a man's fist. It appears to be fleshy and dents upon pressure, but
it may also appear on closer examination as though it contained irregular
sections of thin bone. The outer surface is always smooth, and no
indication of purulence, softening, or scab formation is ever exhibited.
Upon being laid open with the knife the tumor is seen to be surrounded by a
firm, smooth membrane which limits it completely from the adjoining
tissues. It is filled with material which possesses partly edematous,
partly fleshy, and partly bony properties. It is supposed that this mass is
composed of rudiments of the jawbone or of the alveolar walls which,
becoming spongy, lose themselves in the soft, fleshy mass contained within
the capsule of the tumor. It occasionally happens that the tumor is hollow
and that the cavity extends back into the body of the lower jaw for a
considerable distance.

Tumors of this kind, being of congenital origin, are very naturally
observed most frequently in young cattle, but they may continue to expand
for a period of several months after the birth of the calf, even until they
become troublesome and unsightly.

_Treatment for dental cysts._--Treatment consists in the complete
extirpation of the cyst and the destruction of the lining pouch by
curetting.


RETENTION CYSTS.

Retention cysts arise from the retention of normal secretions, owing to
obstruction of a duct leading from a gland. The mucous cysts found in the
mouth, udder, and vestibule of cows are samples of this form.

MUCOUS CYSTS.--Saclike dependent tumors, caused by retention of the
secretions from the mucous glands, sometimes develop in the mouth, nose,
pharynx, and vulva of cattle. They are called "mucous cysts." These are of
sizes varying from peas to pigeon eggs, are roundish and translucent, and
surrounded by a delicate, vascular membrane. They contain a siruplike
substance more or less thick and transparent and whitish yellow in color.

Treatment consists in the puncturing of the swelling, if accessible, and
the destruction of the cyst walls by the injection of Lugol's solution.


PROLIFERATION CYSTS.

These are found especially in the ovaries of cows, called "cystic ovaries,"
and may produce nymphomania (chronic bulling).

The treatment indicated in this case is the removal of the diseased
ovaries.


FOOTNOTES:

[3] The term "tumor" literally means a swelling, and thus has been applied
to the prominence caused by an overdistended bladder, to the enlargement of
pregnancy, to the swelling produced by an abscess, to the overgrowth of
tissue (hyperplasia) associated with injury and consequent inflammation,
and to numerous other phases of tissue enlargement directly connected with
recognized disease processes. For this reason it is becoming more common
for scientists to apply the word "neoplasm" to the new growths described in
this chapter. Because of the still popular use of the word "tumor," it is
retained in this chapter for the designation of those new growths to which
the sevenfold characterization of our descriptive definition applies.



DISEASES OF THE SKIN.

By M. R. TRUMBOWER, D. V. S.

[Revised by John R. Mohler, V. M. D.]


GENERAL DISCUSSION.

The skin consists of two parts--a superficial layer, the epidermis, or
cuticle, and the deep, or true, skin, the dermis, cutis vera, or corium.

The epidermis, cuticle, or scarf skin, is an epithelial structure, forming
a protective covering to the corium. It varies in thickness, is quite
insensible and nonvascular, and consists of a sheet of cells.

The epidermis is divided into a firm and transparent superficial and a
deep, soft layer. The latter is the rete mucosum, whose cells contain the
pigment which gives color to the skin. The deep surface of the epidermis is
accurately molded on the papillary layer of the true skin, and, when
removed by maceration, presents depressions which correspond to the
elevations on the dermis. From the cuticle tubular prolongations pass into
the sebaceous and sudorific glands; thus the entire surface of the body is
inclosed by the cuticle.

The dermis, or true skin, is vascular and highly sensitive, containing the
tactile ends of the nerves of touch. It is covered by epidermis and
attached to the underlying parts by a layer of areolar tissue, which
usually contains fat. The cutis consists of a fibro-areolar tissue and
vessels of supply. It is divided into two layers, the deep, or true, corium
and the upper, or papillary. The corium consists of strong interlacing
fibrous bands, chiefly white; its meshes are larger and more open toward
the attached surface, giving lodgment to the sweat glands and fat. The
papillary, or superficial, layer is formed of a series of small conical
eminences or papillæ, which are highly sensitive, and consists of a
homogenous, transparent tissue. The blood vessels form dense capillary
plexuses in the corium, terminating by loops in the papillæ. The papillary
nerves run in a waving manner, usually terminating in loops.

Hair is an appendage of the skin and forms its external covering. It is a
special modification of epidermis, having the same essential structure, and
consists of a root, shaft, and point. The root has a bulbous extremity, is
lighter and softer than the stem, and is lodged in a recess or hair
follicle, which may either be in the corium or subcutaneous areolæ. The
follicle is dilated at the bottom to correspond to the root bulb, and the
ducts of one or more sebaceous glands open into it. At the bottom of each
follicle is a conical, vascular papilla, similar in every respect to those
on the surface of the dermis; this papilla fits into a corresponding
depression in the root of the hair. The shaft consists of a center, or
medulla, a surrounding fibrous portion, and an external coating, or cortex.
The medulla consists of cells containing pigment or fat, is opaque, and
deeply colored. All kinds of hair do not have this medulla. The fibrous
portion occupies the bulk of the stem, and the cortex is merely a single
layer of thin, flat, imbricated (shinglelike) scales.

The sebaceous glands, lodged in the corium, are most abundant in parts
exposed to friction. They generally open into the hair follicles,
occasionally on the surface of the body. Each gland consists of a small
duct which terminates in a lobulated recess. These lobules vary, and are,
as is the duct, lined with epithelium. They are filled with sebaceous
matter which, as it is secreted, is detached into the sacs.   They are very
plentiful between the claws of cattle.

The sudorific glands, or sweat glands, are situated in the subcutaneous
areolar tissue, surrounded by a quantity of fat. They are small, round,
reddish bodies, each of which consists of one or more fine tubes coiled
into a ball, the free end of the tube being continued up through the true
skin and cuticle, and opening on the surface. Each sweat gland is supplied
with a cluster of capillary blood vessels which vary in size, being very
large when perspiration is excessive. The contents of the smaller ones are
fluid, and of the larger, semifluid.

The skin may be regarded as an organ supplementary in its action to the
lungs and kidneys, since by its secretion it is capable of removing a
considerable quantity of water from the blood; it also removes small
quantities of carbon dioxid, salts, and in certain instances during
suppression of the renal secretions a small quantity of urea. The skin is
also the chief organ for the regulation of animal heat, by or through
conduction, radiation, and evaporation of water, permitting of loss of
heat, while it also, through other mechanisms, is able to regulate the heat
lost. The hair furnishes protection against extreme and sudden variations
of temperature by reason of the fact that hairs are poor conductors of
heat, and inclose between them a still layer of air, itself a nonconductor.
The hairs are also furnished with an apparatus by which the loss of heat
may be regulated; thus, in cold weather, through the contraction of
unstriped muscular fibers of the skin, the hairs become erect and the
external coat becomes thicker. Cold, too, acts as a stimulus to the growth
of hair, and we find, in consequence, a thicker coat in winter than in
summer. The hairs also furnish protection against wet, as they are always
more or less oily from the secretion of sebaceous glands, and thus shed
water. Through their elasticity they furnish mechanical protection, and
through the thickness of the coat, to a certain degree, resist the attacks
of insects.   Finally, the hairs assist the sense of touch.

The sweat glands are constantly discharging a watery secretion in the form
of insensible perspiration, and by their influence act as regulators of the
temperature of the body; hence, in warm weather, the secretion of the skin
is increased, which tends to prevent overheating. Sweating, in addition to
regulating heat, is also an active agent in removing effete material from
the blood; therefore this secretion can not be checked without danger. If
the skin is covered with an impermeable coating of grease or tar, death
results from blood poisoning, owing to the retention of materials destined
to be excreted by the skin.

All secretion poured out by the skin is not only modified by the condition
of the atmosphere but also by the character and quantity of the food, by
the amount of exercise, and especially by the quantity of fluid taken.

The sebaceous secretion is intended to lubricate the skin and hairs. It
consists of soft, fatty material suspended in water, and is characterized
by an odor peculiar to the animal by which it is secreted.

I will not attempt to classify the various diseases of the skin, for in a
work of this kind it would serve only to confuse the reader.

We shall first consider a class of diseases which are of an inflammatory
type; next, those caused by faulty secretion and abnormal growth; then,
diseases of parasitic origin; lastly, local injuries of the skin.


PRURITIS (ITCHING).

We shall consider pruritis first as a distinct subject. It is not a
disease, only a sensation, and therefore a symptom. It is one of the
symptoms accompanying the majority of the diseases which we will consider
in this chapter. It is, then, a functional affection produced by slight
irritation from without or by an internal cause acting upon the sensory
nerves of the skin. Nothing characteristic is seen except the secondary
lesions, produced mechanically by scratching or rubbing.

There are various forms of itching, the result of specific skin diseases,
where the pruritis is a secondary symptom. In such cases it should not be
regarded as an independent affection.

_Causes._--Many causes may induce the condition which we recognize here as
pruritis. The most common one is dirt on the skin, resulting from
insufficient care. If the ceiling of the stable is open, so that dust and
straw may fall, the skin is irritated and pruritis results. It also occurs
in some forms of indigestion.

The parts of the body most exposed to this condition are the croup, the
back, the top of the neck, and the root of the tail.

Another cause is found in affections of the liver and of the kidneys, when
an increase of effete material has to be thrown off by the skin. Morbid
materials circulating in the blood may produce a tickling or smarting
sensation of the skin in their passage from the blood to the free surface
of the skin. Certain irritating substances when eaten may be excreted by
the skin, and coming thus in direct contact with the sensory nerves produce
itching, or may go further and cause distinct inflammation of the skin. In
another class of cases the pruritis may be ascribable to an atrophy,
contraction, or hardening of the skin, when the nerves become irritated by
the pressure. These conditions may be so slightly marked in a thick skin
like that of the ox that they can not be recognized. It is frequently
noticed that cattle rub themselves as soon as they pass from the stable
into the open air--changing from a warm to a cold atmosphere. Again, we may
find one that does all its rubbing in the stall. We may look for lice, but
fail to find them. These conditions are generally attributable to high
feeding and to too close confinement. They may be associated with
inflammatory irritation or not; certainly we fail to discover any morbid
changes in the skin. There is to some extent a delightful sensation
produced by rubbing, and it may partly become a habit of pleasure.

_Treatment._--We must place our chief reliance upon a change of food,
plenty of exercise, and in most cases the administration of an active
cathartic--1 to 1-1/2 pounds of Epsom salt, a handful of common salt, a
tablespoonful of ginger or pepper, mixed with 2 quarts of water, all of
which is to be given at one dose. Afterwards half an ounce of hyposulphite
of soda mixed with the feed may be given twice a day for a week. For an
external application, when the skin is abraded or thickened from rubbing, a
solution of borax, 4 ounces to the quart of water, may be used. Carbolic
acid, 1/2 ounce to a quart of water, will give relief in some cases.


INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE SKIN.

ERYTHEMA.

This is the simplest form of inflammation of the skin. It consists of an
increased redness, which may occur in patches or involve considerable
surface. The red coloration disappears when pressed by the finger, but soon
returns after the pressure is removed. There is seldom much swelling of the
affected part, though often there is a glutinous discharge which dries and
mats the hair or forms a thin scale upon the skin. In simple erythema the
epidermis alone is affected; when it becomes chronic, fissures form and
extend into the corium, or true skin.

_Causes._--Simple erythema, consisting of an inflammatory irritation, is
seen in very young calves, in which the navels leak. The discharge being
urine, it causes an irritation of the surrounding skin. Chafing, which is
another form of erythema, is occasionally seen on the udders of cows from
rubbing by the legs; chafing between the legs is not uncommon among fat
steers. Chronic erythema is found in the form of chapped teats of cows and
chapped lips in sucking calves. It frequently occurs in cows when they are
turned out in winter directly after milking, and in others from chafing by
the sucking calf. Some cows are peculiarly subject to sore teats. The
fissures when neglected in the early stage of formation become deep, very
painful, often bleeding at the slightest touch, and when milked in that
condition cause the animal to become a kicker. Occasionally the lower
portions of the legs become irritated and chapped when cattle are fed in a
muddy or wet yard in winter, or if they are compelled to wade through water
in frosty weather. Another form of erythema occurs in young cattle highly
fed and closely stabled for a long winter. The erythema appears in patches,
and as it is most common near the end of the winter it is known as the
"spring eruption" or "spring itch."

_Treatment._--In ordinary cases of erythema the removal of the cause and
the application of benzoated oxid of zinc ointment, carbolized cosmoline,
or ichthyol ointment applied a few times, will restore the skin to a
healthy condition.

When there are fissures the zinc ointment is the best. If at the teats, a
milk siphon (Pl. XXIV, fig. 4) should be used instead of milking by hand,
and the calf, if one is suckled, should be taken away. The calf should be
fed by hand if its mouth is affected. When the legs are irritated or
chapped, dry stabling for a few days and the application of tar ointment
will soon heal them.


URTICARIA (NETTLE RASH, OR SURFEIT).

This is a mild, inflammatory affection of the skin, characterized by sudden
development of patches of various sizes, from that of a nickel to one as
large as the hand. The patches of raised skin are marked by an abrupt
border and are irregular in form. All the swelling may disappear in a few
hours, or it may go away in one place and reappear on another part of the
body. It is always accompanied with a great desire to rub the affected
part. In its simplest type, as just described, it is never followed by any
serous exudation or eruptions, unless the surface of the skin becomes
abraded from scratching or rubbing.

_Causes._--Digestive derangements caused by overloading the stomach when
the animal is turned out to graze in the spring, certain feed constituents,
high feeding of fattening stock, functional derangement of the kidneys,
spinal and other nervous affections, are the most common sources of nettle
rash.

The disease consists in paralysis of the nerve ends that control the volume
of the capillary vessels in certain areas of skin, thus permitting the
vessels to expand, their contents in part to exude, and thus produce a
soft, circumscribed swelling.

_Treatment._--Administer a full dose of Epsom salt. Give soft, easily
digested feed, and wash the affected parts with a solution of bicarbonate
of soda (common baking soda), 8 ounces to the gallon of water twice a day,
or diluted glycerin may be applied to the skin. If it assumes a persistent
tendency, give a tablespoonful of the following powder in the feed three
times a day: Cream of tartar, sulphur, and nitrate of potassium, equal
parts by weight; mix.


ECZEMA.

Eczema is a noncontagious inflammation of the skin, characterized by any or
all of the results of inflammation at once or in succession, such as
erythema, vesicles, or pustules, accompanied with more or less infiltration
and itching, terminating in a watery discharge, with the formation of
crusts or in scaling off. The disease may run an acute course and then
disappear, or it may become chronic; therefore two varieties are
recognized, vesicular (or pustular) and chronic eczema.

_Causes._--Eczema is not so common among cattle as in horses and in dogs,
in which it is the most common of all skin diseases. Among cattle it is
occasionally observed under systems of bad hygiene, filthiness, lousiness,
overcrowding, overfeeding, excessively damp or too warm stables. It is
found to develop now and then in cattle that are fed upon sour substances,
distillery swill, house or garden garbage, etc. Localized eczema may be
caused by irritant substances applied to the skin--turpentine, ammonia, the
essential oils, mustard, Spanish-fly ointment, etc. Occasionally an
eruption with vesiculation of the skin has been induced by the excessive
use of mercurial preparations for the destruction of lice. It is evident
that eczema may arise from local irritation to the skin or from an
autointoxication. Cattle fed on the refuse from potato-starch factories
develop a most obstinate and widespread eczema, beginning on the legs.

_Symptoms._--In accordance with the variety of symptoms during the progress
of the disease we may divide it into different stages or periods: (1)
Swelling and increased heat of the skin; the formation of vesicles, which
are circumscribed, rounded elevations of the epidermis, varying in size
from a pinhead to a split pea, containing a clear, watery fluid; (2)
exudation of a watery, glutinous fluid, formation of crusts, and sometimes
suppuration, or the formation of vesicles containing pus (pustules); (3)
scaling off (desquamation), with redness, and thickening of the skin. From
the very beginning of the disease the animal commences to rub the affected
parts; hence the various stages may not always be easily recognized, as the
rubbing produces more or less abrasion, thus leaving the skin raw--
sometimes bleeding. Neither do these symptoms always occur in regular
succession, for in some cases the exudation is most prominent, being very
profuse, and serve to spread the disorder over a large surface. In other
cases the formation of incrustations, or rawness of the skin, is the most
striking feature. The disease may be limited to certain small areas, or it
may be diffused over the greater part of the body; the vesicles, or
pustules, may be scattered in small clusters, or a large number run
together. The chronic form is really only a prolongation of the disease,
successive crops of pustules appearing on various portions of the body,
frequently invading fresh sections of the skin, while the older surfaces
form scabs, or crusts, upon the raw, indurated skin.

In old, standing cases the skin breaks, forming fissures, especially on
portions of the body that bend--the neck and limbs. Thus the disease may be
prolonged indefinitely. When eczema reaches its latest period, either acute
or chronic, desquamation of the affected parts is the most prominent
feature. The formation and shedding of these successive crops of scales
constitute the character of the disease frequently denominated psoriasis.

_Treatment._--The treatment of eczema is often anything but a pleasant
task. There is no one method of treatment which always proves successful,
no matter how early it is begun or how small an area is involved. We must
endeavor to remove the cause by giving attention to the general health of
the animal and to its environment. Feeding should be moderate in quantity
and not too stimulating in character--green feed, bran mashes, ground oats,
clean hay, plenty of salt. If the animal has been fed too high, give an
active purgative--Epsom salt preferred--once a week, if necessary, and
half an ounce of acetate or nitrate of potassium may be given in the feed
twice a day. If the animal is in poor condition and debilitated, give a
tablespoonful of the following mixture in feed twice a day: Powdered
copperas, gentian, sulphur, and sassafras bark, equal parts by weight. If
the animal is lousy, the parasite must be destroyed before the eczema can
be cured. The external treatment must vary with the character of the
lesions; no irritating application is to be made while the disease is in
its acute vesicular, or pustular, stage, and, in the chronic stage, active
stimulants must be used. Much washing is harmful, yet crusts and scales
must be removed in order to obtain satisfactory results from the external
applications. Both objects, however, can be attained by judiciously
combining the curative agents with such substances as will at the same time
cleanse the parts.

In the vesicular stage, when the skin is feverish and the epidermis peeling
off, thus exposing the exuding dermis, an application of boric-acid
solution, 2 drams of the acid to 8 ounces of water, often relieves the
smarting or itching, and also serves to check the exudation and dry the
surface. If this fails to have the desired effect compound cresol, 1 ounce
to 2 quarts of water, should be used as a wash. Either of these washes may
be used several times a day until incrustation is well established. Then
compound cresol, 1 ounce to 2 quarts of sweet oil, or the benzoated oxid of
zinc ointment, giving the affected surfaces a thorough application once a
day, will be efficacious. When the eczema is not the result of an external
irritant, it takes usually from one to two weeks to heal.

In chronic eczema, when there is a succession of scabs or scales, indolent
sores or fissures, the white precipitate ointment, nitrate of mercury
ointment, or blue ointment, mixed with equal parts of cosmoline or fresh
lard, may be applied every second day, taking care to protect the parts so
that the animal can not lick it off.

The internal administration of arsenic often yields excellent results in
chronic eczema. Dissolve 1 dram of arsenic and 1 dram of carbonate of
potassium in 1 pint of boiling water, and give 1 ounce of this twice a day
in water, after feeding. An alkali internally may be of service. As such,
one may give 2 ounces of bicarbonate of soda twice daily. Sublimed sulphur
may also be tried in ounce doses twice daily.


PUSTULES (IMPETIGO).

Impetigo is an inflammatory disease of the skin, characterized by the
formation of distinct pustules, about the size of a pea or a bean, without
itching. The pustules develop from the papular layer of the skin, and
contain a yellowish-white pus. After reaching maturity they remain
stationary for a few days, then they disappear by absorption and dry up
into crusts, which later drop off, leaving upon the skin a red spot that
soon disappears. Occasionally the crusts remain firmly adherent for a long
time, or they may be raised and loosened by the formation of matter
underneath. The dry crusts usually have a brown or black appearance.

_Causes._--Impetigo affects sucking calves, in which the disease appears
upon the lips, nostrils, and face. It is attributed to some irritant
substance contained in the mother's milk. Impetigo is also witnessed among
grazing animals, regardless of age, and it especially attacks animals with
white hair and skin. The mouth, face, and limbs become covered with
pustules, which may rupture in a few hours, followed by rapid and
successive incrustations; the scabs frequently coalesce, covering a large
surface; pus may form under them, and thus the whole thickness of the skin
become involved in the morbid process. This form of the disease is
attributed to the local irritant properties of such plants in the pasture
as St. John's wort (_Hypericum perforatum_), smartweed (_Polygonum
hydropiper_), vetches, honeydew, etc. Buckwheat, at the time the seeds
become ripe, is said to have caused it; also bedding with buckwheat straw.

_Treatment._--Sucking calves should be removed from the mother, and a
purgative given to the latter to divert the poisonous substance secreted
with the milk. When the more formidable disease among grazing cattle
appears, the pasturage should be changed and the affected parts of the
animal thoroughly anointed once a day with sweet oil containing 2 drams of
carbolic acid to the pint. This should be continued until the crusts soften
and begin to drop off, then the parts may be cleansed thoroughly with warm
water and soap. Subsequently the white precipitate ointment or carbolized
cosmoline should be applied daily until the parts are healed.


PEMPHIGUS (WATER BLISTERS).

This is an inflammatory disease of the skin, characterized by successive
formations of rounded, irregularly shaped water blisters, varying in size
from a pea to a hen's egg.

_Causes._--Obscure.

_Symptoms._--The formation of a blister is preceded by a congestion or
swelling of the skin. Yellowish-colored water collects beneath the cuticle,
which raises the latter from its bed in the form of a blister. The blisters
appear in a succession of crops; as soon as one crop disappears another
forms. They usually occur in clusters, each one being distinct, or they may
coalesce. Each crop usually runs its course in a week. The disease is
attended with itching or burning sensations which cause the animal to rub,
thereby frequently producing excoriations and formation of crust on the
affected region.

_Treatment._--Give a tablespoonful of the following-described mixture in
feed twice a day: Saltpeter, cream of tartar, and sulphur, equal parts by
weight. The blisters should be opened as soon as formed, to allow the
escape of the serum, followed by a wash composed of chlorid of zinc, 1 dram
to 15 ounces of water. When there is any formation of crusts, carbolized
cosmoline should be applied.


FURUNCULUS (BOILS).

This is an acute affection of the skin, usually involving its whole
thickness, characterized by the formation of one or more abscesses,
originating generally in a sebaceous gland, sweat gland, or hair follicle.
They usually terminate by absorption, or by the formation of a central
core, which sloughs out, leaving a deep, round cavity that soon heals.

_Causes._--Impoverished state of blood, the result of kidney diseases or of
local friction or contusions, with the entrance of pus cocci through the
damaged skin or through a hair follicle or a sebaceous gland.

_Symptoms._--Boils in cattle usually appear singly, not in clusters; they
may attain the size of a hen's egg. The abscess begins as a small round
nodule, painful on pressure, gradually increases in size until death of the
central portion takes place, then the surface of the skin gives way to
internal pressure and the core is released and expelled. Constitutional
symptoms are generally absent, unless the boils occur in considerable
numbers, or by their size involve a great deal of tissue.

_Treatment._--Poulticing to ripen the abscess. If this can not be done,
apply camphorated oil two or three times a day until the core is formed. As
soon as the central or most prominent part becomes soft, the abscess should
be opened to release the core. Then use carbolized cosmoline once a day
until the healing is completed. If the animal is in poor condition, give
tonics--copperas, gentian, ginger, and sulphur, equal parts by weight, 1
tablespoonful twice a day. If the animal manifests a feverish condition of
the system, give half an ounce of saltpeter twice a day, continuing it
several days or a week.


FAULTY SECRETIONS AND ABNORMAL GROWTHS OF THE SKIN.

PITYRIASIS (SEBORRHEA, DANDRUFF, OR SCURF).

This is a condition characterized by an excessive secretion of sebaceous
matter, forming upon the skin in small crusts or scales.

_Causes._--It is ascribable to a functional derangement of the sebaceous
glands, usually accompanied with dryness and loss of pliancy of the skin.
The animal is hidebound, as it is commonly termed, thin in flesh, inclined
to rub, and very frequently lousy. The condition is observed most often
toward the spring of the year. Animals that are continually housed, and the
skins of which receive no cleaning, generally present a coat filled with
fine scales, composed of epithelium from the epidermis and dried sebaceous
matter. This, however, is a physiological condition and compatible with
perfect health.

_Symptoms._--Pityriasis may affect the greater portion of the body, though
usually only certain parts are affected--the ears, neck, rump, etc. The
skin becomes scurfy, the hairy coat filled with branlike gray or whitish
scales.

_Treatment._--Nutritious feed, such as oil-cake meal, bran, ground oats,
and clean hay. In the spring the disease generally disappears after the
animal is turned out to pasture. When lice are present they should be
destroyed.


ELEPHANTIASIS (SCLERODERMA).

This condition consists in a chronic thickening of the skin, which may
affect one or more limbs or involve the whole integument. It is
characterized by recurrent attacks of swelling of the skin and subcutaneous
areolar tissue. After each attack the affected parts remain infiltrated to
a larger extent than before, until finally the skin may attain a thickness
of an inch, becoming wrinkled and fissured. In cattle this disease is
confined to hot climates. The predisposing cause is unknown.


EDEMA (ANASARCA OF THE SKIN).

This is a dropsical condition of the skin and subcutaneous areolar tissue,
characterized by pitting under pressure, the fingers leaving a dent which
remains a short time.

_Causes._--Edema generally results from a weakened state of the system
arising from previous disease. It may also be dependent upon a functional
derangement of the kidneys, upon weak circulation, or obstruction to the
flow of blood through the lungs. In debilitated animals and in some animals
highly infested with parasites there is swelling of the dewlap or of the
fold of the skin between the jaws.

_Symptoms._--Painless swelling of a limb, udder, lower surface of abdomen,
or lower jaw becomes apparent. This may increase in dimensions for several
days or may attain its maximum in less than 24 hours. Unless complicated
with some acute disease of a specific character, there is not much, if any,
constitutional disturbance. The deep layer of the skin is infiltrated with
serum, which gives it the characteristic condition of pitting under
pressure.

_Treatment._--When the cause can be ascertained and removed we may expect
to see the edema disappear. When no direct specific cause can be discovered
and the animal is debilitated, give general tonic. If, on the contrary, it
is in good flesh, give a purgative, followed by half an ounce of acetate of
potassium twice a day. External applications are useless.

Edema may be distinguished from erysipelas or anthrax by the absence of
pain and fever.


DERMOID AND SEBACEOUS CYSTS (WENS).

A dermoid cyst is formed by an involution of the skin with a growth of hair
on the inner wall of the sac. It may become embedded deeply in the
subcutaneous tissues or may just penetrate the thickness of the skin, where
it is movable and painless. They are generally found within the ear or at
its base, although they may form on any part of the body. Usually they have
a small opening, from which a thick, cheesy matter can be squeezed out. The
rational treatment is to dissect them out.

Sebaceous cysts appear not unlike the former. They are formed by a
dilatation of the hair follicle and sebaceous duct within the skin, and
contain a gray or yellowish sebaceous mass. The tumor may attain the size
of a cherry stone or a walnut. Generally they are round, movable, and
painless, soft or doughy in consistency, and covered with skin and hair.
They develop slowly. The best treatment is to dissect out the sac with
contents entire.


VERRUCA (WARTS).

Cattle are affected with two varieties of warts. One, the verruca vulgaris,
is composed of a cluster of enlarged papillæ, covered with a thickened
epidermis, the number of papillæ determining the breadth and their length
its height. They are generally circular in figure, slightly roughened on
the surface, and spring from the skin by a broad base. Occasionally large
numbers of very thin, long, pedunculated warts grow from the skin of the
ear, lips, about the eyes, and vulva. Another variety, the verruca
acuminata, sometimes erroneously denominated epithelial cancers, are
irregularly shaped elevations, tufted or club shaped, occasionally existing
as thick, short, fleshy excrescences, giving the growth the appearance of
granulation tissue. Their color is red or purplish, and oftentimes by
friction they become raw and bleeding, emitting then a very offensive odor.
They usually grow in clusters and their development is rapid.

_Causes._--An abnormal nutrition of the skin, determined by increased
energy of growth operating upon a healthy skin; at other times, upon a weak
or impoverished skin.

_Treatment._--When they are small and pedunculated, they may be snipped off
with shears and the stump touched with nitrate of silver. When they are
broad and flattened, they may be dissected out and the wound cauterized if
necessary. If they are large and very vascular, they may be ligated, one by
one, by taking a strong cord and tying it as firmly around the base as
possible. They will then shrivel, die, and drop off. If there is a tendency
to grow again, apply a red-hot iron or nitric acid with a glass rod. Very
often warts quickly disappear if they are kept soft by daily applications
of sweet or olive oil.


KELIS.

Kelis is an irregularly shaped flat tumor of the skin, resulting from
hypertrophy--increased growth of the fibrous tissue of the corium,
producing absorption of the papillary layer.

_Causes._--It may arise spontaneously or follow a scar after an injury.

_Symptoms._--Kelis generally appears below the knee or hock, and may occur
singly or in numbers. There are no constitutional symptoms. Its growth is
very slow and seldom causes any inconvenience. It appears as a flattened,
irregular, or spreading growth within the substance of the skin, is hard to
the touch, and is especially characterized by divergent branches or roots,
resembling the claws of a crab; hence the name. Occasionally some part of
it may soften and result in an abscess. It may grow several inches in
length and encircle the whole limb.

_Treatment._--So long as it causes the animal no inconvenience it is best
not to meddle with it; when it does the animal ought to be fattened for
beef, the meat being perfectly harmless to the consumer.


PARASITIC DISEASES OF THE SKIN.

RINGWORM (TINEA TONSURANS AND TINEA FAVOSA).

Ringworm is an affection of the skin, caused by a vegetable parasite.

The form known as tinea tonsurans is produced by the presence of a minute
or microscopic fungus--the _Trichophyton tonsurans_, which affects the hair
and the epidermic layer of the skin, and is highly contagious, being
readily transmitted from one animal to another. This fungus consists of
spores and filaments. The spores, being the most numerous, are round and
seldom vary much in size. They are very abundant in the hair follicle. The
filaments are articulated, waving, and contain granules. This disease is
productive of changes in the root and shaft of the hair, rendering it
brittle and easily broken off.

This disease becomes manifest by the formation of circular patches on the
skin, which soon becomes denuded of hair. The cuticular layer of the skin
in slightly inflamed, and vesication with exudation occurs, followed by the
formation of scaly, brittle crusts. The patches appear silvery gray when
incrusted, and are mostly confined to the head and neck. It is a common
disease among young cattle in the winter and spring. Very early in the
development of the patches the hairs split, twist, and break off close to
the skin. This disease is attended with more or less itching. It is
communicable to man.

Tinea favosa comes from another fungus, the _Achorion schönleinii._ This
enters the hair follicle and involves the cuticle surrounding it, small
crusts form which increase in diameter and thickness and then become
elevated at their margin, forming a cup-shaped scab, the favus cup, which
gives the disease its distinctive character. The number of these cups
varies from a few to many hundreds. The hairs involved become brittle and
broken, fall off with the crusts, leaving small bald patches. The crusts
are of a pale or sulphur-yellow color at first; as they grow older they
turn darker, or to a brown color. This form of ringworm has a peculiar
odor, resembling that of mice or musty straw. It is occasionally
communicated to cattle by man, mice, cats, etc., all being subject to it.

_Treatment._--Remove all crusts by washing with soap and water, then apply
acetic acid, sulphur ointment, tincture of iodin or nitrate of mercury
ointment once a day. Cleanse the stable and whitewash it to destroy the
spores scattered by the crusts.


OTHER PARASITES AND PARASITIC DISEASES OF THE SKIN.

For discussion of mange, itch, scab, lousiness, warbles (grub in the skin),
buffalo gnats, hornfly (_Hoematobia serrata_), ticks, flies, etc., see the
chapter on "The animal parasites of cattle," page 502.


WOUNDS OF THE SKIN.


SNAKE BITES AND VENOMOUS STINGS.

[See discussion of these subjects in chapter on "Poisons and poisoning."]


BURNS AND SCALDS.

This is a rare accident among cattle, yet in cases of fire it may occur.
The application of heat, whether dry or moist, unless sufficient instantly
to destroy the life of a part, is always followed by the development of
vesicles or blisters, which contain a thin, watery fluid. The blisters may
be isolated and not very large, or one blister may cover a very large
surface. When the burn is very severe the skin may be wholly devitalized,
or the injury may extend into the deeper structures of the skin. Then
sloughs will occur, followed by a contraction of the parts in healing; if
on a limb, this may render the animal stiff. When the burn or scald has
been a severe one, the resulting pain is great and the constitutional
disturbance very marked.

_Treatment._--For a superficial burn use a mixture of equal parts of
limewater and linseed oil, or common white paint--white lead ground in
oil--to exclude the atmosphere and protect the inflamed skin. If it is not
convenient to get anything else, chimney soot, flour, or starch may be
spread on the wound (dry), and covered with cotton batting and light
bandage. The blisters should be opened to let the contained fluid escape,
but do not pull off the thin cuticle which has been raised by the blister.
When the burn is extensive and deep sloughing occurs, the parts should be
treated, like other deep wounds, by poulticing, astringent washes, etc.
When the system has sustained much shock, the animal may require internal
stimulants, such as 2 drams of carbonate of ammonia every hour until it
rallies. When the pain is very great, hypodermic injections of 6 grains of
morphia may be administered every six hours.

_Frostbite_ on any portion of the body may be treated as recommended in the
article on diseases of the ears.


EMPHYSEMA (AIR OR GAS UNDER THE SKIN).

Emphysema of the skin is not a true disease of the skin, but it is
mentioned as a pathological condition. It is characterized by a distention
of the skin with air or gas contained in the subcutaneous areolar tissue.
It may depend upon a septic condition of the blood, as in anthrax or
blackleg, or air may be forced under the skin about the head, neck, and
shoulders, as a result of rupture of the windpipe. It occurs in the region
of the chest and shoulders from penetrating wounds of the chest and lung,
and occasionally follows puncture of the rumen when the escaping gas is
retained under the skin.

_Symptoms._--The skin is enormously distended over a greater or less
portion of the body; thus any region of the body may lose its natural
contour and appear like a monstrosity. There is a peculiar crackling
beneath the skin when the hand is passed over it, and on tapping it with
the fingers a resonant, drumlike sound is elicited.

_Treatment._--Puncture the distended skin with a clean, broad-bladed knife
and press the air out. Further treatment must be directed with a view to
the removal of the cause.



DISEASES OF THE FOOT.

By M. R. TRUMBOWER, D. V. S.

[Revised by Leonard Pearson, B. S., V. M. D.]


LAMINITIS (FOUNDER).

Laminitis denotes an active inflammation of the sensitive structures within
the wall of the hoof, which in severe cases may result in suppuration and
the loss of one or more claws. Owing to the simplicity of the structure of
the foot of an ox compared with that of the horse, this disease is rarely
seen in an acute form, but a mild form, commonly called "foot soreness," is
not of infrequent occurrence.

_Causes._--Laminitis in cattle may be caused by overfeeding, overheating,
continued standing without exercise on a stone or cement floor without
sufficient bedding, or by driving long distances over rough or stony soil.

_Symptoms._--An unwillingness to maintain the standing position; the animal
persists in lying down. The feet will be found unnaturally hot, and
frequently some swelling may be noticed above the hoof. Pressure upon the
hoof with blacksmith's hoof pincers causes pain and flinching. The general
body temperature is increased and the breathing accelerated. Ordinarily the
animal eats and drinks as usual. When it is made to move excessive
tenderness of the feet becomes manifest, as is shown by reluctance to walk
and by the very short, hesitating step. Founder affects the hind as well as
the fore feet, although the front feet are more often exposed.

_Treatment._--Cold packs to the feet, or if the animal can be made to stand
in a stream of water, having a soft bottom, the inflammation is often
relieved without the necessity of any additional treatment. It may be well,
however, to give a full dose of Epsom salt, 1 to 1-1/2 pounds, followed by
half-ounce doses of saltpeter two or three times a day.


SORENESS (FOOT SORENESS).

Cattle that have been stabled or pastured on soft ground and are driven
over stony roads soon wear down the soles of their feet and become lame
from foot soreness. Draft oxen, for this reason, require to be shod. When
the soreness is excessive it may develop into an active inflammation of all
the sensitive structures of the foot--laminitis, or into a local bruise
commonly called a "corn."

_Treatment._--Rest, poulticing the feet with moistened clay, followed by
astringent washes--strong white-oak bark or alum water.

If the pain and heat last several days, it is probable that pus has formed
beneath the wall of the hoof. In this case it is necessary to cut through
the wall, usually at the most prominent part of the sole, to allow the
accumulation to drain out. The animal should then stand for several hours
daily in a tub containing a 3 per cent solution of some good milky coal-tar
disinfectant. When not in the disinfecting solution the foot should be
dressed with pine tar and cotton and bandaged with bagging.


LOSS OF HOOF.

Cattle sometimes become fastened between planks or otherwise and pull off
the wall of one or both claws in the effort to extricate themselves. The
claws of one or more feet may be shed as the result of acute laminitis.

_Treatment._--Wash the bleeding surface with an antiseptic and then with an
astringent, such as a weak solution of alum, then apply a thick coating of
pine tar; cover this with a layer of oakum or absorbent cotton; apply
another coat of tar over this, and then bandage closely and firmly. This
may remain without disturbance until the new growing wall becomes
sufficiently strong to sustain the pressure and weight of the animal. If,
however, at any time oozing or bad smell indicates that pus is forming
under this dressing, the bandage should be removed and the suppurating
surface freshly cleaned and dressed. This may have to be repeated every few
days and should be continued so long as there is any pus formation. If the
loss of hoof is owing to suppurative laminitis, the parts denuded of the
horny covering must be thoroughly cleansed and disinfected with carbolic
acid, lysol, or other antiseptic. Then apply a moderately thick layer of
absorbent cotton and over this apply the tar and bandage. After this the
antiseptic solution may be poured in daily at the top of the dressing. It
will thus soak in and saturate the dressing and inflamed tissue. It may
become necessary to remove all the dressing at daily or longer intervals to
give the parts a fresh cleaning, and then to reapply it.


FOUL IN FOOT (FOOT ROT).

A variety of causes may produce inflammation of the foot between the claws
or toes. It may be on account of overgrowth of the claws and inward
pressure, as in ingrowing nail of man, or it may be caused by the
irritation of stable filth by impaction and hardening of soil between the
claws, or by other foreign substances becoming wedged in, causing
inflammation and softening or ulceration of the skin in the interdigital
space. Under some conditions several cattle in the same herd become
affected, which has led some to think that the disease may be contagious.
Occurrences have been reported in which foot rot of cattle has appeared
within a short time among a large proportion of the cattle in a farming
district. This disease is most frequently seen in the hind feet, though all
four feet may become affected.

_Symptoms._--The animal is observed to limp. On examination of the foot we
discover heat and swelling above the hoof and of the soft parts between the
claws which frequently spreads the claws apart to a considerable extent, or
the inflammation may have advanced to softening and sloughing of the
interdigital membrane. If the disease is neglected at this stage, deep
abscesses may form and the pus burrow under the horny wall, or the joint
within the hoof may become inflamed and the articular attachments
destroyed, in which case the treatment will be difficult and recovery will
be very tedious.

_Treatment._--In the earlier stages of the disease, before pus burrows
beneath the horn, a thorough cleansing and an application of a
carbolic-acid solution--1 ounce to a pint of water--clean stabling,
and laxative food will usually remedy the evil. Compound solution of
cresol is an excellent remedy at this stage. It should be applied, in
its pure or undiluted state, to the suppurating and putrefying tissue
between the claws. It is best applied by means of a cotton swab on a
thin stick. Care must be taken to keep it from contact with the skin
about the coronary band or heels. If deep sloughing has taken place the
carbolic solution should be used, and a wad of oakum or cotton smeared
with pine tar should be secured firmly in the cleft. This can be done
by taking a strip of strong cloth, 2 inches wide, passing the middle
between the claws, then tying the ends after winding them in opposite
directions above the hoof. Sometimes warm poulticing with flaxseed meal
or bran is necessary to relieve excessive fever and pain. If the pus
burrows under the horn, its channel must be followed by paring away the
horn until the bottom is reached. The aftertreatment is the same as that
already recommended. If the joint becomes diseased an amputation of that
toe is the quickest and surest method to relieve the suffering of the
animal, and offers the best chance for an early recovery.


ULCERATION OF THE HEEL.

Occasionally we find ulcers at the junction of the hair with the hoof at
the heel, which present an elevated, raw, or ragged surface, and cause
considerable lameness. This is generally caused by a bruise of the fibrous
cushion of the back part of the foot. Subsequent sloughing or necrosis may
occur, or pus may form deep within the wall and gain an exit at the margin
of the heel. Sometimes, from no visible cause, large pieces of skin slough
from the heel and pastern. This condition is caused by an infection with
certain microorganisms (streptococci, necrosis bacilli) and may be
contagious.

_Treatment._--If there is a deep opening, inject carbolic solution once a
day until it closes. If the ulcer is only superficial, wash with carbolic
solution and apply a mixture of equal parts of blue vitriol and alum in dry
powder.


FISSURE OF THE WALL (SPLIT HOOF).

This is rarely seen among cattle. It may occur in weak walls, in heavily
bodied cattle, caused by stepping on an uneven surface, especially when the
point of the toe is grown out long. One may find the point of the toe
broken and the wall split almost up to the hair.

_Treatment._--The divided sections may be brought into approximation and
held in place by drilling a small hole from one side into and through the
other, commencing half an inch back of the fissure on each side; then drive
a light horseshoe nail through the hole and clinch it.   Pare the injured
claw as short as it will bear.


INTERDIGITAL FIBROMA.

Hard, nodular, fibrous tumors sometimes grow in the cleft of the foot, and
cause inconvenience, lameness, absorption, or ulceration of the contiguous
parts.

_Treatment._--They should be dissected out and the wound dressed with
carbolic-acid lotion and pine tar once a day until healing is completed.


DEFORMITIES.

Deformities in the feet of cattle usually consist in overgrowth of horn,
generally from want of wear in animals which are stabled. The hoof may turn
inward, outward, or upward, and may give rise to lameness, inability to
walk, foul foot, etc. Bulls which are continually stabled and dairy cows
very frequently have misshapen feet from want of an occasional trimming,
and this deformity may eventually lead to permanent injury.

_Treatment._--Cut the superabundant growth of horn down with saw, knife, or
rasp, until the foot assumes its natural form.


PRICKS AND WOUNDS.

If an animal suffers with a penetrating wound from prick of fork or nail,
the orifice of the wound should be enlarged to permit a free discharge of
pus; then the foot should be soaked in a cresol compound solution (3 per
cent) in a tub, or a flaxseed poultice applied, changing it three times a
day until the fever has abated. The foot should be kept bandaged and
dressed with pine tar and oakum; the animal must also be kept on a clean
floor until the wound is closed and all or nearly all lameness has
disappeared.

If an animal is cut in the foot with barbed wire, piece of glass, or any
other substance, the wound, after proper cleansing, should be dressed with
carbolic-acid solution, 1 ounce of the acid to 20 of water. If any uneven
edges of horn, skin, or lacerated flesh project, trim them off, and in all
cases when it can be done a tarred bandage should be applied. This will
serve to sustain the cut surfaces in their place, exclude dirt, and protect
against flies, maggots, etc.

When the wound has extended into a joint, surgical treatment, which will
require the services of an educated veterinarian, may be necessary.

Occasionally an animal gets caught by the foot in a crevice and sustains
severe bruising, wrenching, or fracture of some part of the foot. In such
cases cold-water packs to the injured member are of service until the fever
and swelling disappear. Afterwards the animal should rest until the
usefulness of the foot is restored. Sometimes such an accident, causing
fracture, renders necessary plaster bandages or amputation.



DISEASES OF THE EYE AND ITS APPENDAGES.

By M. R. TRUMBOWER, D. V. S.

[Revised by Leonard Pearson, B. S., V. M. D.]


DESCRIPTION.

For the sake of gaining a clear comprehension of the diseases of the eye it
becomes necessary to review the anatomy of this important organ. The
essential organ of vision, or globe of the eye, will be first described,
then its receptacle or orbital cavity, the muscles that move it, the
protective membranes, or eyelids, the membrana nictitans, or accessory
eyelids, and, lastly, the lacrimal apparatus.

The globe or ball of the eye is almost spherical in form. On closer
inspection, however, it appears to be made up of two combined portions from
spheres of different sizes. The posterior portion, forming about
five-sixths of the ball, is a sphere of comparatively large size with a
small segment cut off it in front, and at this point there is applied to it
the anterior portion, which, being a segment of a smaller sphere, projects
at the front of the ball with a greater convexity than the posterior
portion.

The eyeball consists of concentrically arranged coats and of refracting
media inclosed in them. The coats are three in number, namely, (1) an
external protective tunic made up of the sclerotic and cornea; (2) a middle
vascular and pigmentary tunic, the choroid; (3) an internal nervous layer,
the retina. The sclerotic is the white, opaque part of the outer tunic, of
which it forms about the posterior five-sixths, being coextensive with the
larger sphere already mentioned. The cornea forms the remaining one-sixth
of the outer tunic, being coextensive with the segment of the smaller
sphere. It is distinguished from the sclerotic by being colorless and
transparent. The choroid coat will be recognized as the black layer lying
subjacent to the sclerotic. It does not line the cornea, but terminates
behind the line of junction of that coat with the sclerotic by a thickened
edge--the ciliary processes. At the line of junction of the sclerotic and
cornea the iris passes across the interior of the eye. This (which may be
viewed as a dependency of the choroid) is a muscular curtain perforated by
an aperture termed the pupil. The retina will be recognized as a delicate,
glassy layer, lining the greater part of the choroid.

The refracting media of the eye are three in number, namely (1) the aqueous
humor, a watery fluid inclosed in a chamber behind the cornea; (2) the
crystalline lens and its capsule, a transparent, soft solid of a biconvex
form, and placed behind the iris; (3) the vitreous humor, a transparent
material with a consistence like thin jelly, and occupying as much of the
interior of the eye as is subjacent to the choroid.

The sclerotic is a strong, opaque, fibrous membrane, which, in a great
measure, maintains the form of the eyeball and protects the more delicate
structures within it. Its interior portion, which is covered by the ocular
conjunctiva, is commonly known as the "white of the eye." In form it is
bell-shaped, and the optic nerve pierces it behind like a handle, the
perforation being a little to its inner side. In front, the rim of the bell
becomes continuous with the cornea. The outer surface of the membrane
receives the insertion of the muscles of the eyeball. The coat is thickest
over the posterior part of the eyeball, and is thinnest a little behind its
junction with the cornea.

The cornea is the anterior transparent portion of the outer coat of the
eyeball. It may be viewed as a part of the sclerotic specially modified to
permit the passage of light into the interior of the eye. Its outline is
elliptical, nearly circular, and its greatest diameter is transverse. At
its periphery it joins the sclerotic by continuity of tissue, and as the
edge of the cornea is slightly beveled and has the fibrous sclerotic
carried for a little distance forward on its outward surface, the cornea is
generally said to be fitted into the sclerotic like a watch glass into its
rim. The venous canal of Schlemm runs circularly around the eyeball at the
line of junction of the sclerotic and cornea. The anterior surface of the
cornea is exquisitely smooth, and is kept moist by the lacrimal secretions.
Its posterior surface forms the anterior boundary of the chamber in which
the aqueous humor is contained. The cornea is of uniform thickness and is
of a dense, almost horny, consistence. Save a few capillary loops of blood
vessels at its margin the cornea is without vessels. Its structure is
comprised of five distinct layers.

The aqueous humor occupies a chamber which is bounded in front by the
posterior surface of the cornea and behind by the capsule and suspensory
ligament of the lens and by the ends of the ciliary processes. It is across
this chamber that the iris extends. The aqueous humor is composed of water,
with a small proportion of common salt in solution.

The iris is a muscular, pigmented curtain extending across the interior of
the eye and having about its center an aperture termed the pupil. By
variations in the size of this aperture the amount of light transmitted to
the retina is regulated. It varies somewhat in color, but is most
frequently of a yellowish-brown tint. Its anterior face is bathed by the
aqueous humor. The greater part of the posterior surface is in contact with
the capsule of the lens and glides on it during the movements of the
curtain. The circumferential border is attached within the junction of the
sclerotic cornea. The inner border circumscribes the pupil, which varies in
outline according to its size. When much contracted the pupil is a very
elongated ellipse, the long axis of which is in the line joining the nasal
and temporal angles of the eyelids. It contains muscular tissue, which, by
contracting or relaxing, lessens or dilates the pupillary opening.

The choroid coat is a bell-shaped, dark membrane which lines the sclerotic.
Its outer surface has a shaggy appearance, caused by the tunica fusca,
which unites the two coats. Between the two the ciliary vessels and nerves
pass forward. Behind it is pierced by the optic nerve; in front it is
continued as the ciliary processes, which form, as it were, the rim of the
bell. The ciliary processes form a fringe around the slightly inverted rim
of the choroid.

The retina is the most delicate of the coats of the eyeball. It is formed
by the expansion of the optic nerve on the inner surface of the choroid,
and, like that coat, it is bell-shaped. Its inner surface is molded on the
vitreous humor. The nervous structures of the retina terminate at a wavy
line, the ora serrata, behind the ciliary processes. Ten distinct layers
are described as composing the thickness of the retina.

The lens is situated behind the pupil and is contained within a capsule of
its own.

The capsule is a close-fitting, firm, transparent membrane. The anterior
surface forms the posterior boundary of the cavity containing the aqueous
humor, and the iris in its movement glides on it. The posterior surface is
in contact with the vitreous humor.

The vitreous humor occupies four-fifths of the interior of the eyeball. It
is globular in form, with a depression in front for the lodgment of the
lens. It is colorless, transparent, and of a consistency like thin jelly.
It is enveloped by a delicate capsule--the hyaloid membrane--which is
connected in front with the suspensory ligament of the lens, and ends by
joining the capsule behind the lens.

The orbital cavity, at the side of the head, is circumscribed by a bony
margin; posteriorly, however, there are no bony walls, and the cavity is
often confounded with the depression above and behind the orbit--the
temporal fossa. A fibrous membrane completes this cavity and keeps it
distinct from the temporal fossa. This membrane--the ocular sheath or
periorbita--is attached posteriorly around the opening in the back part of
the orbital cavity (the orbital hiatus) and anteriorly to its inner face;
then it becomes prolonged beyond the margin to form the fibrous membrane of
the eyelids. When complete the orbital cavity has the form of a regular
hollow cone, open at its base and closed at the apex. The opening of this
cone is directed forward, downward, and outward. Independently of the globe
of the eye, this cavity lodges the muscles that move it, the membrana
nictitans, and the lacrimal gland.

The muscles of the eye are seven in number--one retractor, four straight,
and two oblique. The retractor oculi envelops the optic nerve between the
brain and the ball of the eye and becomes attached upon the external face
of the sclerotic tunic. When this muscle contracts, it draws the globe back
into the orbit, away from the light. The superior, inferior, external, and
internal recti or straight muscles are attached to the back part of the
orbital sheath and spread forward in four bundles over the globe of the
eye, where they are inserted by a fibrous expansion into the sclerotic at
the margin of the cornea. When they act singly, they turn the globe either
upward, downward, inward, or outward. The great oblique, by its action,
pivots the eye inward and upward in the orbit. The small oblique turns the
eye outward and downward.

The eyelids are two movable curtains, superior and inferior, which cover
and protect the eye in front. They are attached to the circumference of the
orbit and have a convex external face formed by the skin and a concave
internal face molded on the anterior surface of the eye and are lined by
the conjunctiva, which is reflected above and below on the eyeball. The
border of each lid is slightly beveled on the inner side and shows the
openings of the Meibomian glands. These glands secrete an unctuous fluid,
which is thrown out on the border of the lids, the function of which is to
facilitate their movements and enable them to retain the tears in the
ocular cavity. The eyelid is composed of a fibrous inner membrane ending in
a stiff arch near the border, a muscle to close the lid, another to open
it, the skin externally, and the conjunctival mucous membrane internally.
The border of each lid is covered and protected by long hairs to prevent
floating particles of matter in the atmosphere from gaining entrance to the
eye.

The membrana nictitans, which is also named the third eyelid, winking
eyelid, haw, etc., is placed at the inner angle of the eye, whence it
extends over the eyeball to relieve it from foreign bodies which may fall
upon it. It has for its framework a fibro-cartilage, irregular in shape,
thick, nearly prismatic at its base, and thin anteriorly where it is
covered by the conjunctiva; behind, it is loosely attached to a fatty
cushion.

The lacrimal gland is situated between the orbital process and the upper
part of the eyeball. It secretes the tears destined to lubricate the
anterior surface of the eye. This fluid escapes upon the organ at the outer
angle of the lids and is carried between them and the eyeball toward the
inner angle.

The caruncula lacrimalis is a small round body, frequently entirely or
partially black, situated in the inner angle of the eye, and is designed to
direct the tears toward the puncta lacrimalia.

The puncta lacrimalia are two little openings, situated one in each eyelid,
a short distance from the inner corner, which admit the tears into the
lacrimal ducts leading to the lacrimal canal, whence they are emptied into
the nasal passages.


CONJUNCTIVITIS (SIMPLE OPHTHALMIA).

This is an inflammation of the conjunctival mucous membrane of the eyeball
and lids; in severe cases the deeper coats of the eye are involved,
seriously complicating the attack.

_Causes._--It may result from a bruise of the eyelid; from the introduction
of foreign matters into the eye, as chaff, hayseed, dust, gnats, etc.; from
exposure to cold; poisonous or irritating vapors arising from filthiness of
stable. Dust, cinders, or sand blown into the eyes during transportation
frequently cause conjunctivitis.

_Symptoms._--A profuse flow of tears, closure of the eyelids from
intolerance of light, retraction of the eyeball and corresponding
protrusion of the haw, disinclination to move, diminution of milk
secretion, etc. On parting the lids the lining membrane is found injected
with an excess of blood, giving it a red and swollen appearance; the
sclerotic, or white of the eye, is bloodshot and the cornea may be cloudy.
If the disease advances, keratitis results, with its train of unfavorable
symptoms.

_Treatment._--Careful examination should be made to discover particles of
chaff, etc., which may have lodged in the eye, and upon the discovery of
such a cause prompt removal is indicated. This may be accomplished by
flushing the eye with warm water by means of a syringe, or, if the foreign
substance is adherent to the eyeball or lid, it may be scooped out with the
handle of a teaspoon or some other blunt instrument. To relieve the
congestion and local irritation, a wash composed of boracic acid in freshly
boiled water, 20 grains to the ounce, or acetate of zinc, 5 grains to the
ounce of pure soft water, may be used, to which may be added 20 drops of
laudanum. A few drops of this should be placed in the eye with a
camel's-hair pencil or soft feather three or four times daily. The animal
should be placed in a cool, darkened stable; then a cloth folded into
several thicknesses should be fastened to the horns in such manner as to
reach below the eyes. This should be kept wet with cold water during the
day and removed at night. If there is much fever and constitutional
disturbance, it becomes advisable to administer 1 pound of Epsom salt
dissolved in 1 quart of water.


INFECTIOUS CATARRHAL CONJUNCTIVITIS (SPECIFIC
OPHTHALMIA).

This generally appears in an enzootic or epizootic form and affects a
considerable number in the herd. It is distinctly a contagious disease and
may be brought into a previously healthy herd by one infected animal. It
may continue in a herd for a season or for several years, affecting all
newly purchased animals. It is seldom seen in the winter months. It affects
old and young animals alike.

_Symptoms._--This form of catarrh conjunctivitis is characterized chiefly
by a mucopurulent discharge from the eyes, an intense degree of
inflammation of the mucous membrane, accompanied with swelling of the
eyelids and an early opacity of the cornea. The flow of tears is mixed with
pus, sometimes streaked with blood, and the skin of the face is kept moist
and soiled. The eyes are kept continually closed. The implication of the
cornea in the disease frequently blinds the animal for a time, and
occasionally suppurative keratitis, ulcers of the cornea, or staphyloma
supervene. The attack is marked from the onset by fever, partial loss of
appetite, partial loss of milk, suspended rumination, and separation from
the herd.

_Treatment._--The animal should be housed in a cool, dark stable, supplied
with plenty of fresh water to drink and soft, succulent feed. Administer 1
pound of Epsom salt--if a very large animal, use 1-1/2 pounds--dissolved in
2 or 3 pints of water. For an eyewash, take boracic acid, 1 dram, and pour
4 ounces of boiling water over it. Use this as often as is convenient,
applying it directly to the eye. In the majority of cases improvement
becomes manifest in a few days, and the eye becomes clear and free from
inflammation in 10 days or 2 weeks. Where the disease develops ulceration
of the cornea, or well-marked, deep-seated keratitis, the treatment
recommended for those conditions should be adopted.

_Prevention._--Whenever this affection appears in a herd all the unaffected
animals should be moved to fields which possess a different character of
soil and feed. The water should also be changed, especially if they have
been obtaining it from a stagnant pond.


KERATITIS (CORNEITIS).

This is an inflammation of the cornea proper, although the sclerotic at the
corneal border becomes involved to some extent. It may be divided into
diffuse and suppurative.

_Causes._--The cornea constitutes the most prominent portion of the
eyeball, hence it is subject to a variety of injuries--scratches, pricks,
contusions, lacerations, etc. Inflammation of the cornea may also be due to
the extension of catarrhal conjunctivitis or intraocular disease, and it
may occasionally occur without any perceptible cause.

_Symptoms._--Diffuse keratitis is characterized by an exudation into and an
opacity of the cornea. The swelling of the anterior part of the eyeball may
be of an irregular form, in points resembling small bladders, or it may
commence at the periphery of the cornea by an abrupt thickening, which
gradually diminishes as it approaches the center. If the whole cornea is
affected, it has a uniform gray or grayish-white appearance. The flow of
tears is not so marked as in conjunctivitis, nor is the suffering so acute,
though both conditions often exist together. Both eyes usually become
affected, unless it is caused by an external injury.

In favorable cases the exudate within the cornea begins to disappear within
a week or 10 days, the eye becomes clearer and regains its transparency,
until it eventually is fully restored. In unfavorable cases blood vessels
form and are seen to traverse the affected part from periphery to center,
vision becomes entirely lost, and permanent opacity (albugo or leucoma)
remains. When it arises from constitutional causes recurrence is frequent,
leaving the corneal membrane more cloudy after each attack, until the sight
is permanently lost.

Suppurative keratitis may be a sequel of diffuse keratitis; more commonly,
however, it abruptly becomes manifest by a raised swelling on or near the
center of the cornea that very soon assumes a yellow, turbid color, while
the periphery of the swelling fades into an opaque ring. Suppurative
keratitis is seldom noticed for the first day or two--not until distinct
pus formation has occurred. When it is the result of diffuse keratitis,
ulceration and the escape of the contained pus is inevitable; otherwise the
pus may be absorbed. When the deeper membranes covering the anterior
chamber of the eye become involved, the contents of this chamber may be
evacuated and the sight permanently lost.

_Treatment._--Place the animal in a darkened stable, give green or sloppy
feed, and administer 4 ounces of Glauber's salt (sulphate of soda)
dissolved in a quart of water once a day. If the animal is debilitated a
tablespoonful of tonic powder should be mixed with the feed three times a
day. This may be composed of equal parts by weight of powdered copperas
(sulphate of iron), gentian, and ginger. As an application for the eye,
nitrate of silver, 3 grains to the ounce of soft water, with the addition
of 1 grain sulphate of morphia, may be used several times a day. If
ulceration occurs, it is well to dust powdered calomel into the eye twice
daily, or apply to the eyelids a salve of yellow oxid of mercury, 5 per
cent in lanolin. Some of this may go on to the cornea and beneath the lids.
Apply twice daily. (See "Ulcers of the cornea.")

To remove opacity, after the inflammation has subsided, apply a few drops
of the following solution twice a day: Iodid of potassium, 15 grains;
tincture sanguinaria, 20 drops; distilled water, 2 ounces; mix.

Sometimes keratitis exists in a herd as a transmissible disease, spreading
like infectious conjunctivitis. Calomel, applied to the eye, is especially
useful in such cases.


ULCERS OF THE CORNEA.

An ulcer comes from erosion or is the consequence of the bursting of a
small abscess, which may have formed beneath the delicate layer of the
conjunctiva, continued over the cornea; or, in the very substance of the
cornea itself, after violent keratitis, or catarrhal conjunctivitis. At
other times it is produced by bruises, scratches, or other direct injury of
the cornea.

_Symptoms._--The ulcer is generally at first of a pale gray color, with its
edges high and irregular, discharges instead of pus an acrid, watery
substance, and has a tendency to spread widely and deeply. If it spreads
superficially upon the cornea, the transparency of this membrane is lost;
if it proceeds deeply and penetrates the anterior chamber of the aqueous
humor, this fluid escapes, the iris may prolapse, and the lens and the
vitreous humor become expelled, thus producing destruction of the whole
organ.

_Treatment._--It is of the greatest importance, as soon as an ulcer appears
upon the cornea, to prevent its growing larger. The corroding process must
be converted into a healthy one. For this purpose nothing is more reliable
than the use of solid nitrate of silver. A stick of this medicine should be
scraped to a point; the animal's head should be firmly secured; an
assistant should part the lids; if necessary, the haw must be secured
within the corner of the eye and then all parts of the ulcer should be
lightly touched with the silver. After waiting a few minutes the eye should
be thoroughly washed out with a very weak solution of common salt. This
operation generally has to be repeated at the end of three or four days. If
healthy action succeeds, the ulcer assumes a delicate fleshy tint, and the
former redness around the ulcer disappears in proportion as the ulcer
heals.

In superficial abrasions of the cornea, where there is no distinct
excavation, this caustic treatment is not needed. The eye should be bathed
several times a day with sulphate of zinc, 30 grains to half a pint of soft
water, and protected against exposure to cold air and sunlight. Excessive
ulceration sometimes assumes the form of fungous excrescence upon the
cornea, appearing to derive its nourishment from loops of blood vessels of
the conjunctiva. Under these circumstances the fungoid mass must be cut
away and the wound cauterized with the nitrate of silver, or else the eye
will soon be destroyed. When ulcers of the cornea appear indolent, with a
tendency to slough, in addition to the treatment already prescribed, tonic
powders of copperas, gentian, and ginger, equal parts by weight, should be
given twice a day, mixed with the feed; dose, one tablespoonful.


STAPHYLOMA.

This is a disease of the eyeball, in which the cornea loses its
transparency, rises above the level of the eye, and even projects beyond
the eyelids in the form of an elongated, whitish, or pearl-colored tumor,
which is sometimes smooth, at other times uneven.

_Causes._--Inflammation is the only known cause, although it may not occur
immediately; it frequently follows catarrhal conjunctivitis and keratitis
as a sequela.

_Treatment._--In a few cases restoration of sight may be effected by
puncturing the projecting tumor and treating it afterwards with nitrate of
silver in the same manner as prescribed for ulceration of the cornea. In
some cases spontaneous rupture has occurred, and healing without any
treatment at all.


CATARACT.

In cataract the crystalline lens becomes opaque and loses its transparency,
the power of refraction is lost--the animal can not see.

_Causes._--Cataract generally arises from a diminution (atrophy) or other
change in the nutrition of the lens; it may occur as a result of
inflammation of the deep structures of the eye. Cataract may be simple, or
complicated with amaurosis, adhesions, etc.

_Symptoms._--It is known by the whiteness or loss of transparency of the
lens, although the pupil dilates and contracts. Sight may be totally lost;
however, evidence is usually manifested that the animal distinguishes light
when brought out of a darkened stable. For the most part the formation of
cataract takes place slowly, the cases in which it originates very quickly
being but few.

_Treatment._--There is only one method for the treatment of cataract--a
surgical operation for the removal of the lens; but this is not advisable,
for the sight can not be perfectly restored, and objects would be seen
imperfectly without the aid of glasses.


AMAUROSIS.

This is a paralysis of the nerve of sight or the expansion of the retina.

_Causes._--This is the result of concussion from a blow upon the forehead,
fracture of bone over the eye (causing downward pressure), rheumatic
inflammation of the optic nerve, or from extension of deep inflammation of
the eye involving the retina. It sometimes occurs as the result of
excessive loss of blood or of great debility.

_Symptoms._--In this disease observation is seldom made until the animal in
its gait and by its action indicates blindness. Generally both eyes are
affected. The eyeball remains clear, and the pupil is permanently dilated.
No response to light is manifested.

_Treatment._--If caused by debility, loss of blood, or associated with
rheumatism, general blood tonics may be given in the feed, namely, powdered
sulphate of iron, 1 dram; gentian, 2 drams; nux vomica, one-half dram; to
be given twice a day. In cases of rheumatism, one-half ounce of saltpeter
may be added.


FILARIA OCULI (WORM IN THE EYE).

_Filaria oculi_ (provisionally taken as the larva of _F. cervina_) is a
small white worm, found swimming in the aqueous fluid in the anterior
chamber. It may be apparently harmless for a long time, but will eventually
induce keratitis with inflammatory exudations.

_Treatment._--The cornea may be punctured at its upper and outer margin,
and the worm squeezed out with the aqueous humor. The latter will be formed
again. This operation results disastrously unless the greatest care and
skill are employed.


CORNEAL DERMATOMA (HAIRY TUMOR ON THE EYEBALL).

In a few instances this has been seen as a congenital growth. The tumor
arises from the cornea or the sclerotic, covered by its respective
membrane, with a growth of hair upon its surface. These tumors may be quite
prominent or flattened, and are dark in color; the hair may protrude
between the eyelids, giving the animal the appearance of having a double
eyelid.

_Treatment._--A surgical operation becomes necessary for their removal--
one requiring a skilled operator.


STRABISMUS (SQUINTING).

This is a very rare affection among cattle. Strabismus may be either single
or double--affecting one eye or both. It is caused by a paralysis, or a
weakening of one of the straight muscles of the eyeball. Generally it is a
congenital defect, and the squinting is toward the nose--strabismus
convergens. It is best not to attempt to remedy the defect, as the risk in
an operation is greater than the chances of success warrant.


PTERYGIUM.

This term is applied to a flesh-colored membrane, triangular in form, which
most frequently grows from the inner angle of the eye and extends over the
cornea, thus interfering with vision. It may grow from the outer angle, or
even from either the superior or inferior hemisphere of the eyeball. The
figure is invariably that of a triangle, with its base on the white of the
eye and its apex more or less advanced over the cornea toward its center.

The distinguishing characteristics are the constancy of the triangular
form, and the facility with which the whole of it may be taken hold of with
a pair of forceps and raised into a fold on the cornea. Every other kind of
excrescence attached to this membrane continues firmly adherent to it, and
can not be folded and raised from the surface of the cornea in any manner
whatever.

_Treatment._--Raise the fold and dissect it away from all points of
attachment.


TRICHIASIS (INVERSION OF THE EYELASHES).

In the simplest form the eyelashes bend inwardly, touching the eyeball,
causing irritation and simple conjunctivitis. It may be also associated
with entropion.

_Treatment._--The offending eyelashes should be cut off or pulled out. In
case the natural growth of the eyelashes is directed inward, an operation
similar to that for entropion becomes necessary.


ENTROPION (INVERSION OF THE EYELID).

In inversion of the eyelid the eyelashes soon irritate the anterior face of
the cornea and produce more or less inflammation and opacity. The inversion
may be due to the growth of a tumor within or without the lid, to abscess,
laceration, or injury, causing the lid to lose its natural conformity to
the eyeball, ulcerations, etc. Surgical interference in either case becomes
necessary to restore the lid to its natural direction.


ECTROPION (EVERSION OF THE EYELID).

This serves to injure the eye by permitting dust or other foreign
substances to enter the eye and interferes with the natural removal of
them.

_Treatment._--A delicate surgical operation--the removal of an elliptic
section of the palpæbral conjunctiva--may remedy the defect.


TUMORS OF THE EYELIDS.

Occasionally tumors form upon or within the substance of the eyelid. They
may be of a fibroid nature and arise from the follicles of the hair as
sebaceous tumors or may be in the form of an abscess. In debilitating
diseases the lids sometimes become swollen and puffy, a condition which may
possibly be taken for the growth of a tumor. This generally disappears with
the improvement of the health of the animal. Warts not uncommonly appear on
or about the eyelids of cattle.

_Treatment._--The removal of a tumor in the vicinity of so delicate an
organ as the eye should not be attempted by anyone not qualified to perform
the operation.


LACERATION OF THE EYELID.

This accident is not uncommon where cattle are fenced in by barbed wire; an
animal may be caught under the eyelid by the horn of another, or the
laceration may occur in the stable by means of a projecting nail or
splinter of wood.

_Treatment._--The edges of the wound should be brought together closely and
correctly, by means of pins pushed through very nearly the whole thickness
of the lid, extending through each lip of the torn part; then a waxed silk
or linen thread must be wound over each end of the pin, crossing the torn
line in the form of the figure 8 (Pl. XXVII, fig. 9); the pins should be
placed about three-eighths of an inch apart. The projecting ends of the
pins should be cut off close to the ligature, and the parts kept anointed
with vaseline, to which 2 per cent of compound cresol has been added. In
place of a pin suture, silver wire, catgut, or strong linen thread may be
used in the way of an ordinary suture.


FOREIGN BODIES IN THE EYE.

Splinters of wood, hedge thorns, pieces of cornstalk or leaves, stems of
hay or straw, twigs of trees, or weeds may penetrate into the eye, break
off, and remain, causing inflammation, blindness, abscess, etc. These
substances may penetrate the eyeball, but more frequently they glide off
and enter between the eye and the ocular sheath.

_Treatment._--Their removal becomes often a very difficult task, from the
fact that the organ is so extremely sensitive, and the retracting power so
strong as to necessitate casting the animal, or even the administration of
sufficient chloroform to render it completely insensible. The removal,
however, is of paramount importance, and the after treatment depends upon
the extent and location of the injury--cold water compress over the injured
eye, the application of mild astringent and cooling washes, such as acetate
or sulphate of zinc, 5 grains to the ounce of water. When there is extreme
suffering from pain a solution of atropia or morphia, 5 grains to the ounce
of water, may be dropped into the eye, alternating with the cooling wash
several times a day. When abscesses form within the orbit a free opening
must be maintained for the discharge of pus. In deep penetrating wounds of
the eye there is a great tendency to the formation of a fungous growth,
which often necessitates the enucleation of the whole eyeball.


ORBITAL AND PERIORBITAL ABSCESS.

Orbital abscess may form outside the globe and within the orbital sheath,
as the result of a previous wound of the parts or from fracture of the bony
orbit, etc. Periorbital abscess commences outside the ocular sheath,
beneath the periosteal membrane covering the bone, and is usually the
result of a disease or fractured bone which enters into the formation of
the orbital cavity.

_Symptoms._--Orbital abscess is manifested by a pushing forward of the
eyeball (exophthalmos), a swelling of the conjunctiva and eyelids. The
bulging out of the eye is in proportion to the size of the abscess; the
movement of the eye is fixed, due to the painfulness of any voluntary
movement of the eyeball. Periorbital abscess generally pushes the eye to
one side; otherwise the symptoms are similar to the foregoing. The pain
generally is very great; paralysis of the nerve of sight may occur, and
death may be caused by the abscess extending to the brain.

_Treatment._--The treatment for either orbital or periorbital abscess is
the same as that for abscess occurring in any other part of the body--a
free opening for the escape of imprisoned pus. This should be made as soon
as the true nature of the disease is recognized. Afterwards antiseptic
injections may be needed to stimulate healthy granulation and to prevent
septic infection of the ocular membranes. For this purpose a saturated
solution of boric acid or listerine 1 part to 10 of water may be used. When
the fever runs high, Glauber's salt (sulphate of soda) may be given in
4-ounce doses once a day. The animal should be kept in a darkened stable,
on soft or green feed.


FRACTURE OF THE ORBIT.

This accident occasionally occurs among belligerent animals, or as the
result of blows delivered by brutal attendants. The orbital process above
the eye may be entirely crushed in, pressing down upon the eyeball. In such
an event the depressed bone should be elevated into its proper place, and
if it fails to unite it may have to be removed with saw or chisel. The
margin of the orbit may be crushed at any point and cause periorbital
abscess, or necrosis may result from the presence of a splinter of bone or
the excessive destruction of bone. In all cases of fracture the animal
should be kept by itself until the injured part heals.


NECROSIS OF THE BONY ORBIT.

As the result of fracture of the margin of the orbit a part of the injured
bone may become necrosed (dead), and periostitis and periorbital abscess
will follow as a consequence. The discovery of this disease will at first
resemble abscess, but on making an examination with a probe after the
abscess is open we find the bone rough and brittle at the point of disease.
The discharge has a peculiar fetid odor, and is often mixed with blood.

_Treatment._--The affected bone must be laid bare and all diseased portions
removed by scraping or, if necessary, with saw or chisel, disregarding the
extent of the injury or the size of the wound necessary to be inflicted. A
large portion of the bony orbit may be removed without serious danger to
the eye, provided the eyeball itself has not been previously affected by
the disease or involved in the original injury.


TUMORS OF THE ORBIT.

A fungous tumor of the eyeball or orbit occasionally appears, which is
designated fungus hæmatodes. This may arise without any appreciable cause,
or as the result of a wound. It frequently commences within the eyeball as
a small, red mass, eventually bursts through, and pushes its way outside
the orbit as a large, dark-red mass, bleeding at the slightest touch. It
has a peculiar, fetid odor, and early in its appearance destroys sight,
involving all the contents of the orbit, not infrequently the bony wall
itself.

Unless the tumor is totally removed in its early stage of growth, together
with the eyeball, the disease will eventually cause emaciation and death of
the animal. The enucleation of the eyeball should not be undertaken by
anyone unacquainted with the anatomical structures involved in such an
operation. When the operation is performed early enough the result is
generally satisfactory.

Bony tumors of the orbit, the result of bruises, fractures, etc., are
occasionally present in cattle. They may encroach upon the contents of the
orbit, causing paralysis of the optic nerve--the condition known as
amaurosis--or by pressure upon the posterior surface of the eyeball force
it forward, or produce atrophy (shrinking). They may displace the eye in
any direction, with or without disturbing vision.

Fibrous tumors growing within the orbit will produce symptoms similar to
those of bony tumors.

_Treatment._--When the outlines of the tumor, whether fungoid, bony, or
fibrous, can be detected, an operation for its removal should be undertaken
as soon as the sight of the eye is in any manner disturbed.


DISLOCATION OF THE EYEBALL.

The eyeball may be torn out of its socket by the horns of another animal,
or it may be crowded out with the blunt end of a club, cane, or probe in
the hands of a brutal attendant.

_Treatment._--When the optic nerve is not lacerated and the retractor
muscles at the back of the eye are intact, an attempt at reduction is
advisable. This, however, must follow very soon after the injury--before
swelling takes place. Divide the outer corner of the eyelid to enlarge the
orifice, then by pressure with the fingers of both hands placed upon the
sides of the eye the ball may be put into its place. Apply a firm compress
over the injured eye and keep it constantly wet with cold water containing
1 dram of sugar of lead to each quart.

If the attempt at reduction proves unsuccessful the artery at the back of
the eye should be ligated, and then the whole mass cut off as deep within
the orbit as possible. The orbital cavity, after washing it out with a 3
per cent solution of carbolic acid or compound cresol, should be packed
daily with fresh absorbent cotton.


INFLAMMATION AND ENLARGEMENT OF THE HAW.

The haw, or membrana nictitans, is subject to inflammation and swelling
from the extension of conjunctivitis, or direct injury by foreign
substances. It presents a red, swollen appearance, accompanied with
considerable pain and a profuse flow of tears. A slight scarification with
a sharp knife and the application of a cooling lotion, such as is
recommended for conjunctivitis, will soon reduce the swelling and restore
it to its normal function.

There is, however, a tendency for an inflammation of this membrane to take
on a chronic character, which may eventually result in a permanent
enlargement, resembling a tumor. When it attains sufficient size to
protrude itself permanently over the eye, or project between the lids so as
to obstruct the sight, its removal may become necessary. A threaded needle
is passed through the body of the enlarged mass, by which the membrane is
drawn out as far as possible, then with a blunt pair of scissors it may be
dissected away from its attachments. The eye is afterwards treated with
simple cooling lotions.



DISEASES OF THE EAR.

By M. R. TRUMBOWER, D. V. S.

[Revised by Leonard Pearson, B. S., V. M. D.]


Diseases of the ears of cattle are not very common, for the reasons
probably that they are not subjected to the brutality of drivers so much as
horses and that the horns to a great extent protect them against external
violence.


OTITIS (INFLAMMATION OF THE INTERNAL EAR).

Inflammation of the deep part of the ear is often difficult to recognize in
cattle. It may be caused by disease of bone in that region, from blows
inflicted by drivers, or from injury by other cattle. Occasionally the ear
becomes involved in actinomycosis (lumpy jaw), or the inflammation may be
the result of a tuberculous affection.

_Symptoms._--The animal will hold its head to one side, or shake it, while
the ear itself is held immovable. The movement of the jaws in eating
usually gives rise to a manifestation of pain; the base of the ear may be
feverish and swollen, and very sensitive to the touch. If the inflammation
has advanced to a suppurative stage, offensive matter will flow from the
ear.

_Treatment._--At first, hot fomentations to reduce pain and fever, followed
by a sharp blister below the ear. Laudanum, 1 part to 10 of sweet oil, may
be injected into the ear to relieve pain and to soften the secretions. If
there is a discharge from the ear, it should be thoroughly washed out by
injecting warm soapsuds until all the matter has been washed away; then
inject the following mixture twice a day: Sulphate of morphia, 20 grains;
water, 1 pint; glycerin, 4 ounces.


ABSCESS.

Abscesses, caused by contusions, sometimes form about the base of the ear,
either inside or outside. A serous cyst is found occasionally between the
cartilage and the skin on the base of the ear, which may be from a similar
cause.

_Treatment._--With the knife make a free incision into the most prominent
part of the abscess or cyst, then, with a syringe, wash out the sac with
carbolized water. If the abscess recurs, open it again, wash it out, and
inject tincture of iodin, or fill it with iodoform.


FUNGOID GROWTHS.

As a result of laceration or wound of any kind, fungous growths,
characterized by a raw, bleeding, granulating surface, with a tendency to
become pendulous, may develop on the ear.

_Treatment._--The whole tumor or diseased structure should be cut away, and
the wound treated daily with a dressing of carbolized cosmoline or
turpentine and sweet oil, 1 part of the former to 4 of the latter.


FOREIGN BODIES IN THE EAR.

Bugs have been known to gain entrance into the ears of animals. I once
removed an acorn from the ear of a cow that had been roaming in the woods;
also pieces of wood from a stanchion may be lodged accidentally in the ear.

_Symptoms._--There is usually a continuous uneasiness or frequent shaking
of the head, occasionally the manifestation of exceedingly great pain. The
animal may rub the head and ear against trees or other objects in an
endeavor to dislodge the offending body.

_Treatment._--A careful examination reveals the cause, which may be removed
with a pair of forceps or scraped out with a hairpin or piece of wire bent
at one end. If much inflammation exists, the ear may be swollen so that the
foreign substance is hidden from sight; then a probe may be inserted to
feel for the object, which, when found, should be removed, even if it
becomes necessary to split the ear at the base. Afterwards treat the ear
with frequent warm water fomentations and the injection of soapy water or
oil and water.


SCURFY EARS.

Cattle are subject to scurfy ears, which may be owing to a generally morbid
condition of the skin, or may be confined to the ears alone. The affected
animal shows an inclination to rub the ear; thick scales, which sometimes
have the appearance of hard, dry, horny scales, of scurf collect on it.
This condition is chiefly caused by a faulty secretion of the sebaceous
glands of the ear. Thoroughly clean the ear with a stiff brush, then anoint
it, so far as affected, with vaseline 4 parts to 1 part of white
precipitate ointment. If the scurfy ears are only a part of a general
scurfiness of the skin, the condition of the animal needs attention. (See
"Pityriasis," p. 329.)


FROSTBITE.

It is not uncommon among young cattle which are poorly nourished and
exposed outdoors to storms and extreme cold to suffer frostbite of the ear,
which may constitute actual freezing of the part.

_Symptoms._--Frostbite presents naturally every degree of severity from the
mere chilling of the tip of the ear to positive freezing and death of a
portion. In a day or two after the freezing has occurred the ear becomes
swollen and very painful; the dead part remains cold and begins to shrivel;
a line of separation then forms between the inflamed and the dead or dying
portion, and finally the piece destroyed drops off, leaving a raw healing
surface. When the ear is only slightly affected by the cold, an excoriation
or peeling off of superficial skin takes place, accompanied with some pain
and itching.

_Treatment._--A good liniment for frozen ears is a mixture of turpentine,
ammonia, and chloroform, of each 1 part, added to 6 parts of sweet oil. Rub
this on the ear several times a day. It will relieve pain and stimulate the
circulation, thus favoring a recovery of the injured structures.


LACERATIONS OF THE EAR.

Aggressive dogs are the most frequent cause of lacerated ear, generally
leaving a torn, ragged edge and bruised cartilage.

If the wound is extensive, a trimming of the ragged edges becomes
necessary; then the edges should be fastened together with silver wire,
catgut, or strong, thick, linen thread, taking a deep hold, and pine tar
applied.


DISEASE OF THE CARTILAGE AND NECROSIS.

Occasionally the cartilages of the ear become affected, usually the result
of a deep bruise; pus forms, burrows under the skin, and may find a
discharge from any part of the ear more or less distant from the seat of
the disease. When the cartilage has been extensively injured, pieces of it
may become dead (necrosed) and dissolve, to be carried away with the pus,
or it may lead to extensive sloughing and the formation of numerous running
sores. In the disease of the cartilage there is seldom much swelling or
great pain. The discharge is usually very offensive, and occasionally
streaked with blood. Whenever there is a long-continued, persistent
discharge from one or more openings in the ear, disease of the cartilage
may be suspected.

_Treatment._--The sinus formed by the passage of matter should be probed
and searched to the bottom for the presence of a foreign substance or the
evidence of decaying cartilage. When the probe touches necrosed cartilage
it will feel like a piece of dry leather or partially softened wood. A
counter opening must then be made at this place, and all diseased cartilage
cut away with the knife. The subsequent treatment consists in keeping the
artificial wound open for the discharge of pus, and the injection of
chlorid of zinc, 5 grains to the ounce of water, once or twice a day, until
the wound is healed.


ENCHONDROMA OF THE EAR.

This is an excessive growth of cartilage, found at the base of the ear in
the form of a hard, painless tumor, firmly attached to the movable ear. The
only recourse for its removal is the knife in the hands of one acquainted
with the anatomy of the part involved in the operation.



INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF CATTLE.

Revised by JOHN R. MOHLER, A. M., V. M. D.,

_Chief, Bureau of Animal Industry._


GENERAL INTRODUCTION.

The importance, to the farmer and stock raiser, of a general knowledge of
the nature of infectious diseases need not be insisted on, as it must be
evident to all who have charge of farm animals. The growing facilities for
intercourse between one section of a country and another, and between
different countries, cause a wide distribution of the infectious diseases
once restricted to a definite locality. Not only the animals themselves,
but the cars, vessels, or other conveyances in which they are carried may
become agents for the dissemination of disease. The growing tendency of
specialization in agriculture, which leads to the maintenance of large
herds of cattle, sheep, and hogs, makes infectious diseases more common and
more dangerous. Fresh animals are being continually introduced which may be
the carriers of disease from other herds, and when disease is once brought
into a large herd the losses become very high, because it is difficult, if
not impossible, to check it after it has once obtained a foothold.

These considerations make it plain that only by the most careful
supervision by intelligent men who understand the nature of infectious
diseases and their causes in a general way can these be kept away. We must
likewise consider how incomplete our knowledge concerning many diseases is,
and probably will be for some time to come. The suggestions and
recommendations offered by investigators, therefore, may not always be
correct, and may require frequent modification as our information grows
more comprehensive and exact.

An infectious disease may be defined as any malady caused by the
introduction, into the body, of minute organisms of a vegetable or animal
nature which have the power of indefinite multiplication and of setting
free certain peculiar poisons which are chiefly responsible for the morbid
changes.

This definition might include diseases caused by certain animal parasites,
such as trichinæ, for example, which multiply in the digestive tract, but
whose progeny is limited to a single generation. By common consent the term
"infectious" is restricted to those diseases caused by the invasion and
multiplication of certain very minute unicellular organisms included under
the general classes of bacteria and protozoa. Nearly all the diseases of
cattle for which a definite cause has been traced are from bacteria. Among
these are tuberculosis, anthrax, blackleg, and tetanus (or lockjaw). Some
diseases, such as Texas fever and nagana, are traceable to protozoa, while
others, like actinomycosis and aspergillosis, are caused by fungi. Those
diseases of which the cause is unknown or imperfectly worked out are
pleuropneumonia, rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, rabies, cowpox,
malignant catarrh, and dysentery.

Bacteria may be defined as very minute, unicellular organisms of a
plantlike character. Their form is very simple, as may be seen from an
inspection of the various species depicted on Plate XXVIII. The description
of these figures will be found on page 360. The magnification there given
will furnish the reader some idea of their very minute size. They multiply
in two ways. The bacterium elongates and then divides in the middle to form
2 daughter cells. These go through the same process at once, and thus 4
cells are produced. The division of these leads to 8, the division of 8 to
16, and so on indefinitely. The rapidity with which this multiplication
takes place depends upon the nature of the bacterium. The bacillus of
tuberculosis multiplies very slowly, while that of anthrax does so with
great rapidity, provided both are in the most favorable condition. Another
mode of reproduction, limited to certain classes of bacteria, consists in
the formation of a spore within the body of the bacterium. Spore formation
usually takes place when the conditions pertaining to the growth of the
bacteria become unfavorable. The spores are much more resistant to
destructive agents than the bacteria which produced them. The anthrax spore
may live several years in a dried state, but the anthrax bacillus perishes
in a few days under like conditions. This matter will be referred to again
when we come to discuss the subject of disinfection.

Of the protozoa which cause disease very little is at present known. One
which produces Texas fever is pictured on Plate XLV, in figs. 4 and 5.
These parasites have a more complex life history than bacteria; and as they
can not be grown in artificial media, their thorough investigation is at
present hampered with great difficulties.

The differences in the symptoms and lesions of the various infectious
diseases are due to differences in the respective organisms causing them.
Similarly the great differences observed in the sources from which animals
become infected and the manner in which infection takes place are due to
differences in the life history of these minute organisms. Much discussion
has taken place of late years concerning the precise meaning of the words
"infection" and "contagion."

     *       *       *       *       *

VARIOUS BACTERIA WHICH PRODUCE DISEASE IN CATTLE.
DESCRIPTION OF PLATE XXVIII.

The bacteria on this plate are partly from tissues, partly from cultures,
and stained artificially with aniline colors (fuchsin or methylene blue).
Figs 6 and 7 are copied from Fränkel and Pfeiffer's atlas. All but fig. 7
are magnified 1,000 times; fig. 7, 500 times.

Fig. 1. Bacteria from pneumonia in cattle. These are also the cause of
hemorrhagic septicemia and are closely related to swine-plague bacteria.
These bacteria were drawn from a piece of spleen pulp (rabbit).

Fig. 2. Micrococci (streptococcus) which produce inflammation of the lining
membranes of the abdomen, thorax, heart, brain, and joints. Frequently
associated with the preceding bacteria in abscesses.

Fig. 3. Micrococci (staphylococcus) which produce inflammation and
suppuration; also pyemia.

Fig. 4. Bacilli of blackleg. The pale oval bodies as well as the light
spots in one end of the bacilli represent spores.

Fig. 5. Bacilli which produce tetanus or lockjaw. The light spot in the
enlarged end of each rod represents a spore.

Fig. 6. Bacilli of tuberculosis. Microscopic sections of a pearly nodule
from the lining membrane of the chest cavity. The bacilli are stained red
and appear as small straight rods within the cells of the nodule or
tubercle.

Fig. 7. Bacilli of anthrax. Bacilli from the spleen of a mouse inoculated
with a culture. The bacilli were obtained from the blood of a cow which
died of anthrax in Mississippi. The bacilli appear as rods stained blue.
The round bodies are blood corpuscles, also stained artificially.

  [Illustration: PLATE XXVIII.
   Haines del.       ZEESE-WILKINSON CO., INC., N.Y.
   VARIOUS BACTERIA WHICH PRODUCE DISEASE IN CATTLE.]

     *       *       *       *       *

These words, however, are now wholly inadequate to express the complex
processes of infection, and it may be said that each species of bacterium
or protozoon has its own peculiar way of invading the animal body,
differing more or less from all the rest. There are, however, a few broad
distinctions which may be expressed with the help of these old terms.
Infection, as laid down above, refers at present in a comprehensive way to
all microorganisms capable of setting up disease in the body. Some
microorganisms are transmitted directly from one animal to another, and the
diseases produced may be called contagious. Among these are included
pleuropneumonia, rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, rabies, cowpox, and
tuberculosis. Again, certain organisms are perhaps never transmitted from
one animal to another, but may come from the soil. Among these are tetanus,
blackleg, anthrax to a large extent, and perhaps actinomycosis in part.
These diseases, according to some authorities, may be called miasmatic.
There is a third class of infectious diseases, the specific bacteria of
which are transmitted from one animal to another, as with the contagious
diseases, but the bacteria may, under certain favorable conditions, find
food enough in the soil and in the surroundings of animals to multiply to
some extent after they have left the sick animal and before they gain
entrance into a healthy one.

This general classification is subject to change if we take other
characteristics into consideration. Thus tuberculosis, because of its
insidious beginning and slow course, would not by many be considered
contagious in the sense that foot-and-mouth disease is; yet, in either
case, the bacillus must come from preexisting disease. The disease of
rabies, or hydrophobia, is not contagious in the sense that rinderpest is,
because the virus of rabies must be inoculated into a wound before it can
take effect; yet, in both cases, the virus passes without modification from
one animal to another, though in different ways.

Again, all the diseases under the second group, which seem to come from the
soil and from pastures, are in one sense contagious in that the virus may
be taken from a sick animal and inoculated directly, with positive results,
into a healthy animal. Other illustrations may be cited which show that
these old terms are not in themselves satisfactory. There are so many
conditions which enter into the process of infection that no single
classification will give a sufficiently correct or comprehensive idea of
it. These statements will be easily understood if the different infectious
diseases in the following pages are studied with reference to the way or
ways in which each disease may be contracted. Enough has been said,
therefore, to show that if we wish to make ourselves acquainted with the
dangers of any given disease, we must study it and not rely upon any single
work to tell the whole story.

Infectious diseases have, as a general rule, a period of incubation, which
comprises the time elapsing between the exposure to the infection and the
actual appearance of the disease. This period varies with the malady. The
most common symptom of this class of diseases is fever. The severity of the
fever is measured by the temperature of the animal; this is readily and
accurately ascertainable by the clinical thermometer. (See Pl. III, fig.
1.) The other symptoms are variable and depend upon the particular organ or
organs most implicated. Loss of appetite, cessation of rumination and milk
secretion, and general dullness are symptoms quite invariably present in
most infectious diseases.

During the course of infectious diseases secondary diseases or
complications may arise which are largely caused by bacteria other than
those producing the original malady. These complications are often so
severe as to become fatal. In general it may be stated that they are due to
filthy surroundings, and hence cleanliness may become an important aid to
recovery.

The treatment of infectious diseases is given under each malady so far as
this is allowable or advisable. These diseases are not, as a rule, amenable
to treatment. When the symptoms have once appeared the disease is liable to
run its course in spite of treatment, and if it is one from which animals
usually recover, all that can be done is to put them into the most
favorable surroundings. Many infectious diseases lead sooner or later to
death, treatment is useless so far as the sick are concerned, and it may be
worse than useless for those not yet infected. All animals suffering with
infectious diseases are more or less directly a menace to all others. They
represent for the time being manufactories of disease germs, and they are
giving them off more or less abundantly during the period of disease. They
may infect others directly or they may scatter the virus about, and the
surroundings may become a future source of infection for healthy animals.
This leads us to the subject of prevention as the most important of all
which claim our attention. In this place only a few general remarks will
suffice to bring the subject before the reader.

The most important thing is to keep disease away from a herd or farm. To do
this all sick or suspicious animals should be avoided. A grave form of
disease may be introduced by apparently mild or trivial cases brought in
from without. It is generally conceded that continual change and movement
of animals are the most potent means by which infectious diseases are
disseminated.

With some cattle diseases, such as anthrax, rinderpest, and
pleuropneumonia, preventive inoculation is resorted to in some countries.
This may be desirable when certain diseases have become established in any
locality so that eradication is impossible. It should not be practiced in
territories where a given disease may still be extirpated by ordinary
precautions. Preventive inoculation is applicable to only a few maladies,
and therefore its aid in the control of diseases is limited.

When an infectious disease has gained foothold in a herd the course to be
pursued will depend upon the nature of the malady. A good rule is to kill
diseased animals, especially when the disease is liable to run a chronic
course, as in tuberculosis. The next important step is to separate the well
from the sick by placing the former on fresh ground. This is rarely
possible; hence the destruction or removal of the sick, with thorough
disinfection of the infected locality, is the next thing to be done. As to
the disinfectants to be used, special directions are given under the
various diseases, to which the reader is referred. Here we will simply call
attention briefly to the general subject.


DISINFECTION AND DISINFECTANTS.

Disinfection consists in the use of certain substances which possess the
power to destroy bacteria or their spores, or both. Those which are
cheapest and most available for animal diseases are ordinary freshly slaked
lime or unslaked in powder, chlorid of lime, crude carbolic acid, corrosive
sublimate, formaldehyde gas, formalin, and compound cresol solution.

(1) Slaked lime is perhaps the most easily procured, but its disinfecting
power is limited.   While it is capable of destroying all bacteria in their
vegetative state, it is unable to destroy such spores as those of anthrax
and blackleg. It is probable, however, that in incrusting spores it may
destroy their vitality sooner or later. It is regarded as safe practice to
use only spore-destroying substances for the virus of those diseases of
which we have no definite knowledge. Nevertheless, in the absence of other
disinfectants, lime is very useful. It may be employed as a whitewash on
wood and stone and sprinkled as a dilute wash or in powder over yards,
manure heaps, and over carcasses before they are buried, and over the
ground on which they have lain to prevent other animals from carrying the
infection away.

(2) Chlorid of lime is more efficient than simple slaked or unslaked lime,
as it destroys spores. It is the ordinary bleaching powder of commerce and
is quite unstable, hence old preparations, unless sealed, are of little
value. A 5 per cent solution is sufficiently strong for all spore-bearing
bacteria (3 ounces in 2 quarts of water). It may be efficiently applied to
the walls and floor of an infected stable by mixing with limewash in the
proportion of 6 ounces of the lime to each gallon of limewash. The ceilings
and those portions of the walls which can not be reached should be
disinfected by means of chlorin gas liberated from the chlorid of lime by
crude carbolic acid. This is accomplished by making a cone of 5 or 6 pounds
of chlorid of lime, in the top of which a deep crater is made for the
placement of from 1 to 2 pints of crude acid. The edge of the crater is
thereupon pushed into the fluid, when a lively reaction follows. The fumes
of chlorin are strongly irritating to the respiratory tract and therefore
all live stock should be removed before the work is started. Owing to the
heat generated, it is advisable to place the lime in an iron crucible and
to have nothing inflammable within a radius of 2 feet. The number and
location of these cones of chlorid of lime depend on the size and structure
of the building to be disinfected. As a rule, it may be stated that chlorin
gas liberated from the above-sized cone will be sufficient for disinfecting
5,200 cubic feet of air space.

(3) Crude carbolic acid. The ordinary purified carbolic acid is too
expensive to be used on a large scale, and the crude produce is a very good
substitute. This is made more powerful by mixing with it an equal volume
of commercial sulphuric acid. While the sulphuric acid is being added to
the crude carbolic acid much heat is evolved, and if the glass jar in which
the two are mixed is placed in cold water the resulting product is said to
have a higher disinfecting power. The mixture is added to water enough to
make a 5 per cent solution (about 7 ounces to 4 quarts of water). This is
strong enough for all purposes. It may be kept in wood or glass, but not
in metal, owing to the corroding action of the acid. It should be used
freely on woodwork and on infected floors, and a force pump of the kind
used by orchardists is very convenient as a means of applying the
disinfectant. If the solution is warm when applied, it will penetrate the
woodwork better than when cold, especially if the spraying is done during
cold weather. The addition of air-slaked lime in any quantity that will
dissolve in water to the above solution (say 1-1/2 pounds of lime to 7
ounces of crude carbolic acid to each gallon of water) is preferred by
many, as it makes any neglected places at once visible and leaves cleaner
and better air within the buildings. In most cases in which its
application becomes desirable--and this rule should apply to all
disinfections--the disinfected stables, stalls, etc., should remain vacant
as long as possible before cattle are again stabled therein.

(4) Mercuric chlorid, or corrosive sublimate, is a powerful disinfectant,
but it is likewise very poisonous; hence its uses are limited. Cattle are
especially susceptible to its action and caution must be used in its
application. A solution of one-tenth of 1 per cent is usually sufficient
(1 ounce to 8 gallons of water). It should not be placed in wooden pails,
which would form the tannate of mercury, a weak antiseptic; nor, owing to
its corrosive action, should expensive metal pails be used. Agate vessels
or tin pails are to be preferred. All solutions should be labeled "poison,"
and to avoid accidents none should be kept on hand.

(5) Formalin and formaldehyde gas have been found very efficacious as
sanitary agents. Formalin is the commercial name for the 40 per cent
solution of formaldehyde gas in water, and is one of the most powerful
antiseptic and disinfectants that we possess. Solutions of this strength
are manufactured by different commercial houses and sold by the drug trade
under the name of "formalose" and "formal." In this connection it should be
mentioned that while the 40 per cent solution of formaldehyde gas and
formalin are exactly the same thing, the former can be purchased at 33-1/3
to 64 per cent less than the latter. Formalin, diluted with water in the
proportion of 1 pint to 30 parts of water, or 4 ounces to each gallon of
water, may be applied, and it may thus be used as a wash or as a spray on
all paints, metals, and woodwork, as well as on clothing and other fabrics,
without injuring them. It may also be applied to floors, walls, and
woodwork in whitewash by mixing 1 part to 30 parts of limewash, or 4 ounces
to each gallon of limewash. Formalin has the appearance of water and in the
strong solution is poisonous, but when diluted as recommended above it is
not dangerous. The fumes given off by it, however, are very disagreeable
and irritating to the eyes and nasal mucous membranes. One and one-half
ounces of formalin added to 1 gallon of water is a valuable agent for the
disinfection of the skin or septic wounds, but is somewhat painful and
irritating to raw surfaces.

Formaldehyde is a gas which is soluble in 2-1/2 parts of water (40 parts of
formaldehyde gas to 100 parts of water); this solution constitutes the
formalin of commerce. The use of formaldehyde gas is in most cases
impracticable for stable disinfection. In case the stable is not too large
and can be made almost air-tight the generation of formaldehyde gas, after
removing all the animals, will be found very serviceable. It penetrates all
parts of the stable--the walls, crevices, floors, ceiling--and is probably
the best fumigating disinfectant that we have.

Probably one of the most simple and practical methods of liberating this
gas is by means of the chemical reaction which takes place when formalin is
poured upon permanganate of potassium. For each 1,000 cubic feet of air
space, 16-2/3 ounces of crystallized or powdered permanganate of potassium
is placed in a wide-surfaced pan; 20 ounces of formalin is then poured upon
it, and the stable immediately closed for a period of 12 hours or longer.
This method is efficient only when it is possible to seal tightly the place
to be disinfected, and should be used only by experienced persons.

(6) Some coal-tar products are cheap, effective, and easily applied
disinfectants, their action being due to the carbolic acid and creosote in
their composition. They may be used in 3 to 5 per cent solution. As a rule
they form a milky solution in water.

(7) Compound solution of cresol (liquor cresolis compositus), now
recognized as an official preparation, is composed of equal parts of cresol
and linseed-oil-potash soap. The mixture is a thick, dark, amber-colored
fluid which mixes readily with water in all proportions to form a clear,
soap solution. It is an efficient disinfectant in a 3 or 4 per cent
solution, and in this strength it may be applied in the same manner as a 5
per cent solution of carbolic acid.

When it is desired to apply one of these above-mentioned agents to the
stable or barnyard, a preliminary cleaning up of all débris and litter is
advisable, together with the scraping of the floor, mangers, and walls of
the stable with hoes; also the removal of all dust and filth. This should
be followed by the burning of all such accumulations, inasmuch as this
material likewise contains the infectious principle and is best destroyed
by heat. Heat may be applied to the surface of the affected pen, byre, or
barnyard by means of a cyclone burner, which consists of a tank, pump,
hose, and cyclone nozzle for spraying with paraffin (gas oil). The latter
is ejected in the form of spray, which when ignited gives a very hot and
effective flame to be applied to the infected ground. Where such burning is
impracticable the surface soil of the yard and surroundings should be
removed to a depth of 5 or 6 inches and then placed in a heap and
thoroughly mixed with air-slaked lime. The fresh surface of the soil thus
exposed may then be sprinkled with the disinfectant.

In addition to these artificial substances there are several natural
sanitary agents of great importance as destroyers of virus. These are
cleanliness, ventilation, drying, and sunshine. All virus, excepting such
as may live in the soil, is killed sooner or later by drying and sunshine,
and the importance of these factors in the daily life of animals need not
be insisted on here. Finally, all sanitary measures which contribute to the
healthfulness of animal surroundings are directly or indirectly inimical to
disease germs, and all carelessness in the keeping of animals may be
regarded as an ally of these destructive organisms.


CONTAGIOUS PLEUROPNEUMONIA.

[Pls. XXIX-XXXII.]

_Definition and history._--This disease has been eradicated from the United
States, and it is not probable that it will ever be seen in this country
again. As, however, much interest was manifested in regard to it for a
number of years, and as our cattle are still prohibited from some foreign
markets on account of its previous existence here, the subject is treated
at greater length than would otherwise be necessary.

The contagious pleuropneumonia of cattle is a specific, epizootic disease
which affects bovine animals, and from which other species are exempt. It
is characterized, when the disease results from exposure in the usual
manner, by an inflammation of the lungs and pleuræ, which is generally
extensive, and which has a tendency to invade portions of these organs not
primarily affected and to cause death of the diseased portion of the lung.
This disease is frequently called the lung plague, which corresponds to its
German name of Lungenseuche. In French it is spoken of as the péripneumonie
contagieuse.

The history of the contagious pleuropneumonia of cattle can not be traced
with any certainty to a period earlier than the beginning of the eighteenth
century. No doubt it existed and ravaged the herds of Europe for many years
and perhaps centuries before that time, but veterinary knowledge was so
limited that the descriptions of the symptoms and post-mortem appearance
are too vague and too limited to admit of the identification of the
maladies to which they refer. It has been supposed by some writers that
certain passages in the writings of Aristotle, Livy, and Virgil show the
existence of pleuropneumonia at the time that their works were composed,
but their references are too indefinite to be seriously accepted as
indicating this rather than some other disease.

It seems quite plain that as early as 1713 and 1714 pleuropneumonia existed
in Swabia and several Cantons of Switzerland. There are even clearer
accounts of its prevalence in Switzerland in 1732, 1743, and 1765. In 1769
a disease called murie was investigated in Franche-Comté by Bourgelat which
undoubtedly was identical with the pleuropneumonia of to-day. From that
period we have frequent and well-authenticated accounts of its existence in
various parts of Europe. During the period from 1790 to 1812 it was spread
throughout a large portion of the Continent of Europe by the cattle driven
for the subsistence of the armies, which marched and countermarched in all
directions. It was generally prevalent in Italy in 1800. It appears to have
been unknown, however, in the Department of the Nord, France, until 1826,
but during the years from 1820 to 1840 it penetrated into most parts of
that country. During the same period it was introduced into and allowed to
spread over Belgium and Holland.

This contagion is said to have been carried to Ireland from Holland in
1839, and is reported as existing in England in 1842. The disease was
brought to the United States at several different times. Probably its first
introduction was with a diseased cow sold in Brooklyn, N. Y., in 1843. It
came to New Jersey by importing affected animals in 1847. Massachusetts was
infected in the same way in 1859.

South Africa was infected by a bull brought from Holland in 1854, and
Australia likewise received the contagion with an English cow in 1858. It
is also reported as existing in various parts of the Continent of Asia, but
the time of its first appearance and the extent of its distribution are
very uncertain.

Some countries, such as Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, which had been
infected for only a short time, have succeeded in eradicating the disease
without much difficulty by slaughtering all affected and exposed animals.
Other countries long infected and in which the contagion was thoroughly
established, like Australia, South Africa, Italy, France, Belgium, and
parts of Germany, have labored long, in some cases making no progress and
in others being only partially successful. Holland was one of the first of
the thoroughly infected countries to free itself from the contagion.

In the United States, Massachusetts eradicated pleuropneumonia during the
period from 1860 to 1866. New York and New Jersey made an attempt to
eradicate it in 1879, but were not successful. Late in 1883 the contagion
was carried to Ohio, probably by Jersey cattle purchased in the vicinity of
Baltimore, Md., to which place it had extended before 1868. From the herd
then infected it was spread by the sale of cattle during 1884 to a limited
number of herds in Illinois, to one herd in Missouri, and to two in
Kentucky. The alarm caused among the stock owners of the United States by
this widespread dissemination of a disease so much dreaded led to the
adoption of active measures for its control and eradication. By cooperation
between the United States Department of Agriculture and the authorities of
the affected States it was found possible to prevent the further spread of
the contagion and to eradicate it after a few months' delay.

In 1886 pleuropneumonia was discovered in some of the large distillery
stables of Chicago and among cows on neighboring lots. This led to renewed
efforts for the complete extirpation of this disease from the country.
Congress in 1887 enlarged the appropriation available for this purpose and
gave more extended authority. During the same year the disease was stamped
out of Chicago, and has not since appeared in any district west of the
Allegheny Mountains.

The work of eradication was at the same time commenced in all the infected
States. Before the end of the year 1889 Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland,
the District of Columbia, and Virginia had been freed from the disease.
More difficulties, however, were encountered in the States of New York and
New Jersey, on account of the larger territory infected and the density of
the population. The long struggle was successful, however, and the last
animal in which the disease appeared in the State of New York was
slaughtered early in 1891, and the last one affected in New Jersey met the
same fate early in the spring of 1892.


  [Illustration: PLATE XXIX.
   Haines del.     ZEESE-WILKINSON CO., INC., N.Y.
   UPPER OR DORSAL SURFACE OF THE LUNGS OF THE OX.
   (ONE-TWELFTH NATURAL SIZE.)]

  [Illustration: PLATE XXX.
   Haines del.     ZEESE-WILKINSON CO., INC., N.Y.
   BRONCHOPNEUMONIA.]

  [Illustration: Plate XXXI.
   Fig. 1
   Fig. 2
   Haines del.     ZEESE-WILKINSON CO., INC., N.Y.
   CONTAGIOUS PLEUROPNEUMONIA.]

  [Illustration: PLATE XXXII.
   Haines del.     ZEESE-WILKINSON CO., INC., N.Y.
   CONTAGIOUS PLEUROPNEUMONIA.]


During these same years a supreme effort had been made to stamp out this
lung plague from Great Britain. From the official reports it appears that
the number of infected districts and of diseased animals had rapidly
diminished, but it was not until 1898 that the infection was finally
eradicated.

The other infected European countries, though they maintain a veterinary
sanitary service, are not making satisfactory progress in eradicating the
disease. This is owing partly to delays in carrying out the provisions of
the laws and partly to mistaken ideas as to the measures which are
necessary to accomplish the object. The United States was the last of the
countries having old infected districts which undertook to stamp out this
contagion, and, except Holland, it was the first to reach success.

_The cause (etiology) of pleuropneumonia._--This is a contagious disease,
and arises only by contagion from a previously affected animal;
consequently it can never be seen here except as the result of importing
affected animals from the Old World. When thoroughly stamped out it does
not reappear; and if imported animals continue to be properly inspected and
quarantined, we have every reason to believe that pleuropneumonia will
never again be seen in this country.

The exact nature of the virus or contagion of lung plague has never been
determined. Various investigators have from time to time claimed the
discovery of the specific organism of the disease, but it was not until
1898 that Nocard and Roux, by an ingenious method of cultivation, succeeded
in obtaining a very feeble growth of an exceedingly minute microorganism.
With these cultures the disease was produced in cattle.

Some investigators and writers are of the opinion that the disease can be
contracted only by an animal coming near enough to a living diseased one to
receive the contagion directly from it. They hold that the contagion is
expired with the air from the affected lungs, and that it must be almost
immediately inspired by another animal in order to produce the disease.
Some experimental attempts to infect animals by placing them in stables
where diseased animals have been, and by placing the diseased lungs of
slaughtered animals in their feeding troughs have failed, and,
consequently, apparently confirm this view.

     *       *       *       *       *

CONTAGIOUS PLEUROPNEUMONIA.
DESCRIPTION OF PLATES.

PLATE XXIX. Upper or dorsal surface of the lungs of the ox, reduced to
one-twelfth of the natural size: _a_, _a'_, the right and left principal
lobes. These are the largest and are situated posteriorly, resting upon
the diaphragm; _b_, _b'_, the ventral lobes, situated between the principal
lobes; and _c_, _c'_, _c''_ the most anterior, or cephalic, lobes. The
right anterior is divided into two lobes (_c_, _c'_), the left is single
(_c''_); _d_, trachea, or windpipe.

In the majority of the lungs examined in the laboratory of the bureau which
were affected with contagious pleuropneumonia the principal lobes (_a_,
_a'_) were primarily affected.

PLATE XXX. Bronchopneumonia. The ventral or middle lobe of the right lung
affected with collapse and beginning bronchopneumonia. The light yellowish
portions represent healthy lung tissue; the red represents the disease. It
will be noticed that the lines between the lobules are quite faint,
indicating little or no inflammation of the connective tissue between the
lobules. The healthy lung tissue is seen to be raised above the level of
the diseased portion. In contagious pleuropneumonia the exact reverse is
the case, the diseased portions being very much larger than the healthy.

PLATE XXXI. Contagious pleuropneumonia. Appearance of a cow's lung affected
with contagious pleuropneumonia when sections or slices are made of it and
cut surfaces examined.

Fig. 1. Transverse section through the right principal lobe in a case of
acute pleuropneumonia. The area drawn includes the air tubes, veins, and
arteries, and illustrates the great thickening of the interlobular
connective tissue into broad whitish bands and of the walls of the air
tubes, veins, and arteries: _a_, air tube cut obliquely; _a'_, air tube cut
directly across; _b_, arteries cut across; _c_, large vein completely
occluded by a thrombus or plug formed during life. The great thickening of
the walls of the artery and vein in this disease is especially brought out
by stating that in the healthy lung they are so thin as to be easily
overlooked.

Fig. 2. Transverse section of the principal lobe in a case of acute
pleuropneumonia, illustrating the different kinds of hepatization or
consolidation of the lung. These are indicated by the different colors from
dark red to reddish yellow. This variation of color is regarded by some as
the real marbling characteristic of pleuropneumonia, while the whitish
bands penetrating the lung tissue in all directions constitute the true
marbling according to other observers.

PLATE XXXII. Contagious pleuropneumonia. This illustrates what are called
infarctions. The right half of the figure shows nearly normal lung tissue.
The left represents a blackish mass, in which the lung tissue is filled
with blood and solidified. This is caused by the plugging of the vein
carrying away the blood from this portion. The heart forces the blood
through the artery into the tissue at considerable pressure, but owing to
the fact that its return is prevented, the minute blood vessels rupture and
the air vesicles become distended with blood, which coagulates and causes
the firmness of the tissue.

     *       *       *       *       *

On the other hand, it is known that the serum from affected lungs retains
its virulence and may be used successfully for inoculation weeks or months
after the death of the animal from which it was taken. This is
particularly the case when this liquid is hermetically sealed in glass
tubes. Other investigators state that they have successfully infected
cattle by placing, in the nostrils, sponges or pledgets of cotton saturated
with such serum. Cattle have also, according to the best evidence
obtainable, been infected from the clothing of attendants, from horns used
in drenching, and from smelling about wagons which have been used to
transport affected carcasses. In the work of eradicating pleuropneumonia
from the United States many stables were found in which the disease would
appear and reappear after the slaughter of affected herds, and in spite of
any precautions which were adopted. These were always old stables, with
woodwork in a decaying condition and with floors underlaid with filth which
could not be thoroughly removed or disinfected. In every one of these cases
the destruction of the stable, the burning of the lumber of which it was
constructed, the removal of the accumulations beneath the floors, and
thorough disinfection, prevented the recurrence of the plague in new
stables built upon the same premises. This experience conclusively shows
that under certain conditions, at least, stables may retain the infection
for a considerable time, and that when restocked the disease may break out
again from such infection.

As a rule, however, the disease is acquired by a healthy animal being near
an affected one and receiving the contagion direct. Affected animals may
give off the contagion in the early stages of the disease before the
symptoms are apparent to the observer; also, they may retain this
infectious character, if they survive the attack, for six months and
probably for a year after all symptoms of the disease have disappeared.

_Incubation._--The time which elapses between exposure to the contagion of
pleuropneumonia and the first appearance of the symptoms of this disease
varies greatly with different individuals and with different outbreaks of
the disease. Ordinarily the symptoms of disease make their appearance
within three to six weeks after exposure; they may be observed, however,
within two weeks or they may not become apparent until nearly or quite
three months. It is this long period of incubation and the great length of
time that an animal may disseminate the contagion after apparent recovery
which give the plague that insidious character so often spoken of, and
which greatly increase the difficulties of eradication.

_Symptoms._--The symptoms are such as would be expected with inflammation
of the lungs and pleuræ, but they vary considerably, according to the type
which the disease manifests. If the attack is an acute one, as is
frequently seen in hot weather, the symptoms appear suddenly; the breathing
becomes rapid and difficult, the animal grunts or moans with each
expiration, the shoulders stand out from the chest, the head is extended on
the neck, the back is arched, the temperature is 104° to 107° F., the milk
secretion is suspended, there is no appetite, rumination is stopped, the
animal may bloat and later be affected with a severe diarrhea. Such cases
are generally fatal in 7 to 20 days.

Very often the attack comes on slowly and the symptoms are much less clear.
In the mildest cases there is a cough for a week or two, but no appreciable
loss of appetite or elevation of temperature. The lungs are but slightly
affected and recovery soon follows. Such animals may disseminate the
contagion for a long time without being suspected, and for that reason are
the most dangerous of all.

A more severe type of the plague is the most frequently seen. In these
cases the cough is frequent, more or less painful, the back somewhat
arched, and the milk secretion diminished. The prominence of these symptoms
increases, the appetite is affected, the animal loses flesh, the breathing
becomes more rapid, the cough more painful, pressure of the fingers between
the ribs shows tenderness, the hair loses its gloss and stands erect, the
skin becomes adherent, little, if any, milk is secreted, and the
temperature rises, varying in different animals from 103° to 107° F.
Animals thus affected may continue to grow worse and die in from three to
eight weeks, or they may after a time begin to improve and make an apparent
recovery. The inflammation of the lung does not, as a rule, subside and the
organ return to its normal condition, as is the case in ordinary pneumonia,
but with this disease the life of the affected portion of the lung is
destroyed, the tissue dies, and a fibrous wall is formed around it to shut
it away from the living parts. The tissue, thus encysted, gradually
softens, becomes disintegrated, and breaks down into pus. The recovery,
therefore, is not complete; it is only apparent and partial.

To those accustomed to examining the lungs of cattle, other and extremely
important symptoms may be apparent during the course of the disease. By
applying the ear over the walls of the chest an area of a certain extent
may be found in which the natural breathing sound is diminished or entirely
lost. This represents the diseased portion of the lungs. In other cases a
loud blowing sound may be heard, quite different from any sound produced
when the lung is in a healthy condition. In some cases crepitation is heard
near the border line of the diseased area and friction sounds produced by
the roughened pleura; these can be appreciated, however, only by those
whose ears have been trained to distinguish between the different sounds
which reach the ear when applied to the chest wall. By percussion--that is,
by pressing the fingers of the left hand firmly against the wall of the
chest and tapping upon the middle finger with the ends of the fingers of
the right hand--an area of dullness may be discovered corresponding to the
portion from which the respiratory murmur has disappeared. This loss of
respiration detected by auscultation, and the dullness brought out by
percussion, are the most important evidences of an inflamed or consolidated
lung.

Seriously affected animals remain standing if they have sufficient
strength, but those which lie down always lie on the affected side.

The proportion of animals which become affected after being exposed varies
according to the virulence of the outbreak, the susceptibility of the
animals, and the length of time during which exposure is continued.
Sometimes not more than 15, 20, or 30 per cent will contract the disease
when a large herd is exposed; on the other hand, however, 80 or 90 per cent
may be affected. The proportion of cases in which the disease proves fatal
also varies greatly--it may not exceed 10 and it may reach 50 per cent. In
general, it may be said that about 40 per cent of the exposed animals will
contract the disease and about one-half of these cases will prove fatal.

_Post-mortem appearances._--Owing to the complexity of the structure of the
lung tissue, its ramifications of bronchial tubes and blood vessels, and
its abundant supply of lymphatics, the pathological changes in
pleuropneumonia are interpreted with great difficulty. Furthermore, there
are certain kinds of pneumonia which present some resemblances to
pleuropneumonia and which may therefore be confused with it in some of its
phases.

If we kill an animal affected with acute pleuropneumonia and examine the
cavity of the chest and lungs, the following appearances will be noted:

The thorax may contain more or less serum, which may be clear or clouded.
There may be firm adhesions of different parts of the lungs to the chest
wall, the extent of which depends on the stage and severity of the disease.
The diseased lobes are unusually large and exceedingly firm to the touch.
The weight of a single large lobe may reach 40 pounds. Usually only one
side is affected, often but a single lobe, and this most commonly the large
or principal lobe. The pleura may be covered with one or more layers of a
firm, elastic, grayish membrane, which varies in thickness and which
sometimes may be pulled away entirely. Sometimes it is absent. The pleura,
however, is opaque and apparently very much thickened. This is owing to the
diseased condition of the connective tissue beneath the pleura, as will be
explained later. When an affected lobe is cut through at right angles to
its long diameter, the cut surface presents a variety of interesting
changes. In the first place the spaces between the small subdivisions of
the lung (the lobules), which in the healthy lung are barely visible, are
distended with a yellowish-white, usually quite firm, substance, which is
coagulated fibrin. The cut surface thus appears divided into small fields
by yellowish-white bands of varying thickness running in various directions
through the lung tissue and beneath the pleura. (Pl. XXXI.) These bands may
appear honeycombed and the spaces filled with yellowish fluid (serum) or
they may be uniformly solid. It will also be noticed that the space
immediately outside of and around the artery, vein, and air tube is
similarly broadened by fibrinous deposits. Some authorities look upon these
bands as constituting the so-called "marbling" of pleuropneumonia.

In addition to these changes which have taken place in the connective
tissue between the lobules, the lung tissue itself may be markedly altered.
Certain areas of the cut surface may be very firm in texture and of a
brownish-red color. The cut surface is granular or roughened, not smooth to
the eye. Other areas equally firm may be more grayish yellow and still
others may be blackish. (Pl. XXXII.) Besides these areas which represent
solidified (hepatized) lung tissue there may be others which approach the
normal lung tissue in color, are soft, and float in water. From these a
milky, purulent fluid may often be expressed. These different shades are
represented in Plate XXXI, fig. 2, within a small compass. Some authorities
are inclined to consider these variations in color on the same cut surface
as the so-called marbling of pleuropneumonia. It matters not whether we
regard the bands between the lobules or the varying shades of the lobules
themselves as the marbling, provided either or both are peculiar to
contagious pleuropneumonia. If we examine the blood vessels appearing on
such cut surface they will usually be found plugged within the firmly
hepatized regions. The artery contains a dark, soft, removable clot, the
vein a grayish-pink, granular, fragile plug (thrombus), which adheres
firmly to the wall of the vein, and if this is slit open, indications of a
diseased condition of the inner coat will be readily detected. When large
regions of the lung tissues are hepatized, the main air tube and its
branches are usually filled with grayish, cylindrical branched masses of
fibrin that are easily removed, as they do not adhere to the mucous
membrane.

The views of pathologists differ as to the nature of the earliest changes
in pleuropneumonia, and it is not within the scope of this work to present
controverted or imperfectly developed theories. In the foregoing
description we have taken as a type the acute pleuropneumonia in its fully
developed phase, which can scarcely be mistaken for any other disease. We
have seen that there is an inflammatory condition of the connective tissue
between the lobules, resulting in the exudation of coagulable lymph. This
inflammation is equally marked around the blood vessels and air tubes. It
leads to inflammatory changes in the inner wall of the veins, and these
cause the deposition of thrombi or plugs in the vessels, which prevent the
return of the blood. The blood pumped into the lung tissue through the
artery, but unable to get out by way of the vein, leaves the mesh-work of
capillaries around the air vesicles, enters the latter, and produces the
firm, hepatized condition so characteristic of this disease. If we bear in
mind that the veins in different parts of the lung tissue are plugged at
different times, and that, therefore, the affected regions are in different
stages of disease, it will be easily understood how the different shades of
color from dark red to grayish or yellowish red are produced.

The complete plugging of the veins may lead to the death of circumscribed
masses of lung tissue. A line of separation forms between the living and
the dead tissue and a thick cyst wall of fibrous tissue forms around the
latter. The dead tissue for a time preserves the appearance of lung tissue,
then undergoes disintegration and liquefaction. The softened mass is
finally absorbed, and the walls of the cyst, or capsule around it,
gradually collapse and form a cicatrix. This favorable termination takes
place only when the dead mass is not too large. It may, however, involve
over half of one of the large lobes. Under such circumstances recovery is
improbable. A more favorable termination is the abundant growth of fibrous
tissue around and into the hepatized masses. The formation of fibrous
tissue may extend to the pleura, or lung covering, and cause firm adhesion
of the lungs to the chest wall and to the pericardium, or heart case.

The same peculiar, inflammatory changes which take place between the
lobules of the lung and around the bronchi and vessels may invade the
pleural cavity, cause extensive membranous and spongy deposits on the
pleura and firm deposits around the heart and large arteries, the gullet,
and windpipe.

These are the main features of the lung disease caused by contagious
pleuropneumonia. In the typical, acute cases there are a sufficient
number of peculiarities to enable us to make a positive diagnosis. There
are, however, many cases in which the disease is restricted to small areas,
or to the interlobular tissue, or in which the changes are still
imperfectly developed, or else so far advanced that doubts may arise as to
the true nature of the affection. In such cases all obtainable facts,
including the history of the case, the symptoms during life, and the
pathological changes observed on post-mortem examination must be taken into
consideration. Only one who has made a careful study of the disease is
fitted to decide in such cases.

Other kinds of lung disease, because of certain features common to most
lung diseases of cattle, may be confounded with pleuropneumonia. The
inflammation of the connective tissue between the lobules is not
infrequently observed in so-called interstitial pneumonia and may lead to
the formation of whitish bands intersecting the lung tissues in various
directions. On the cut surface these bands may give rise to a decidedly
marbled appearance. Again, in traumatic pneumonia, caused, as its name
implies, by the entrance of foreign bodies into the lung tissue, generally
from the paunch, the connective tissue around the place of disease becomes
inflamed and thickened, and the disease itself may simulate pleuropneumonia
in its retrogressive stages when it is confined to a small portion of lung
tissue. The filling up of the interlobular spaces with fibrin and
connective tissue of inflammatory origin is not thus limited to
pleuropneumonia, but may appear in a marked degree in other lung diseases.
It must not be inferred from this statement that these interlobular changes
are necessarily the same as those in pleuropneumonia, although to the naked
eye they may appear the same. We simply note their presence without
discussing their nature.

In general, the distinction between pleuropneumonia and bronchopneumonia is
not difficult to make. In the latter disease the pneumonia generally
invades certain lobes. The disease attacks the smaller lobes in their
lowest portions first and gradually extends upward, i. e., toward the root
of the lung or the back of the animal and backward into the large principal
lobes. Again, both lungs in advanced cases are often symmetrically
affected. In contagious pleuropneumonia the large principal lobe of one
side is most frequently affected, and a symmetrical disease of both lungs
is very rare, if, in fact, it has ever been observed. The lung tissue in
bronchopneumonia is not enlarged, but rather more contracted than the
normal tissue around it. This is well illustrated in Plate XXX. Normal,
air-containing lobules may be scattered among and around the hepatized
portion in an irregular manner. In pleuropneumonia the diseased and healthy
portions are either sharply divided off, one from the other, or else they
shade into each other by intermediate stages.

The hepatized lung tissue in bronchopneumonia when the cut surface is
examined is visually of a more or less dark flesh color with paler
grayish-yellow dots regularly interspersed, giving it a peculiar, mottled
appearance. In the more advanced stages it becomes more firm, and may
contain nodular and firmer masses disseminated through it. The air tubes
usually contain more or less soft, creamy, or cheesy pus or a turbid fluid
quite different from the loose, fibrinous casts of acute pleuropneumonia.
The interlobular tissue may or may not be affected. It sometimes contains
loose, fibrinous plugs, or it may be greatly distended with air, especially
in the still normal portions of the lung. The pleura is seldom seriously
diseased. If we contrast with these features the firm dark-red
hepatizations, the plugging of the veins, the extensive interlobular
deposits, and the well-marked pleuritis in pleuropneumonia, there is little
chance for confusion between well-developed cases of these two lung
diseases.

It should not be forgotten, however, that the lesions of the disease known
as contagious pleuropneumonia may be confined to the serous membranes of
the thorax, or they may be confined to the parenchyma of the lungs; they
may affect a whole lobe, or only a small portion of it; they may or may not
cause the so-called marbled appearance. In the same way bronchopneumonia
may vary as to the parts of the lung affected, the extent of the lesions,
the degree and kind of pathological changes in the interlobular tissue, the
color of the lung on cross section and the amount of hepatization. In
individual cases, therefore, it is often necessary to take into account the
history of the animal, the course of the disease, and the communicability
of the affection before a diagnosis can be made between the two diseases.

_Prevention and treatment._--The prevention of pleuropneumonia, as of other
contagious diseases, consists in keeping animals so that they will not be
exposed to the contagion. As the disease arises only by contagion, there is
no possibility of an animal becoming affected with it unless it has been
exposed. If, therefore, pleuropneumonia exists in a locality the owner of
healthy cattle should make every effort to keep his animals from coming
near affected ones or which have been exposed. He should be equally
particular not to allow persons who have been on the infected premises to
visit his own pastures, stables, or cattle.

If pleuropneumonia breaks out in a herd, every animal in it should be
slaughtered, the stables thoroughly cleaned and disinfected, and no other
cattle allowed on the premises until a period of 90 days has elapsed.

Medical treatment of affected animals is unavailing and should not be
attempted. No matter how valuable the diseased animals may have been before
they contracted the disease, they should at once be destroyed and the
contagion eradicated. This is the best policy for the individual as well as
for the community.

The eradication of this disease by local or National Governments can be
successful only when the same principles are adopted and carried out as
here recommended for individual stables. It is then a difficult
undertaking, simply because the contagion is generally widely disseminated
before any measures are adopted, and because a great majority of cattle
owners will never report the existence of the disease. Regulations must
therefore be enforced which will insure the prompt discovery of every herd
in which the disease appears, as well as the destruction of all diseased
and exposed animals and the thorough disinfection of the premises.

To discover pleuropneumonia sufficiently early for this purpose, the
district supposed to be infected should be clearly defined and inspectors
should be constantly employed to inspect every herd in it at least once in
two weeks, or, better, once a week. No bovine animal should be allowed to
go out of the defined district alive, and all which enter it should be
carefully inspected to insure their freedom from disease. As an assistance
to the discovery of diseased herds, every animal which, from any cause,
dies in the infected district and every animal which is slaughtered, even
if apparently in good health, should be the subject of a careful
post-mortem examination. Many affected herds will be found in this way.

In addition to these measures it is also necessary to guard against the
removal of animals from one stable to another and the mixing of herds upon
comm