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´╗┐Title: The 1996 CIA World Factbook
Author: United States. Central Intelligence Agency
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The 1996 CIA World Factbook" ***

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THE 1996 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK


[Transcriber's note: At the time of the preparation of this
file (December 2008), the various supplementary sections
of the 1996 Factbook (Appendixes, Notes and Definitions,
History, etc.) were no longer available.  Users of this
of the 1995 and 1997 Factbooks for those sections.  Note
that there may be changes in this material from year to year.]



A

Afghanistan
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan


B

The Bahamas
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bassas da India
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi


C

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic


D

Denmark
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic


E

Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Europa Island


F

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands


G

Gabon
The Gambia
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Glorioso Islands
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guadeloupe
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana


H

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary


I

Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Israel
Italy


J

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan
Juan de Nova Island


K

Kazakstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan


L

Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg


M

Macau
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Man, Isle of
Marshall Islands
Martinique
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique


N

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway


O

Oman


P

Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico


Q

Qatar


R

Reunion
Romania
Russia
Rwanda


S

Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia and Montenegro
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria


T

Taiwan
Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tromelin Island
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu


U

Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan


V

Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands


W

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara
Western Samoa
World


Y

Yemen


Z

Zaire
Zambia
Zimbabwe



=====================================================================



@Afghanistan
-----------



Map
---


Location: 33 00 N, 65 00 E -- Southern Asia, north of Pakistan



Flag
----


Description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
  and black with a gold emblem centered on the three bands; the emblem
  features a temple-like structure with Islamic inscriptions above and
  below, encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bolder
  Islamic inscription above, all of which are encircled by two crossed
  scimitars



Geography
---------


Location: Southern Asia, north of Pakistan

Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
  total area: 647,500 sq km
  land area: 647,500 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,529 km
  border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km,
  Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: periodic disputes with Iran over Helmand
  water rights; Iran supports clients in country, private Pakistani
  and Saudi sources also are active; power struggles among various
  groups for control of Kabul, regional rivalries among emerging
  warlords, traditional tribal disputes continue; support to Islamic
  fighters in Tajikistan's civil war; border dispute with Pakistan
  (Durand Line); support to Islamic militants worldwide by some
  factions

Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest
  lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
  highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc,
  barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and
  semiprecious stones

Land use:
  arable land: 12%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 46%
  forest and woodland: 3%
  other: 39%

Irrigated land: 26,600 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much
  of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building
  materials); desertification
  natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains;
  flooding
  international agreements: party to - Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban;
  signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life
  Conservation

Geographic note: landlocked



People
------


Population: 22,664,136 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43% (male 4,972,469; female 4,784,900)
  15-64 years: 54% (male 6,377,231; female 5,916,954)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 325,808; female 286,774) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 4.78% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 43.03 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 18.16 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 22.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.14 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.06 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 149.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 45.85 years
  male: 46.43 years
  female: 45.24 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.14 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Afghan(s)
  adjective: Afghan

Ethnic divisions: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Uzbek 6%, Hazara 19%,
  minor ethnic groups (Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Baloch, and others)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 84%, Shi'a Muslim 15%, other 1%

Languages: Pashtu 35%, Afghan Persian (Dari) 50%, Turkic languages
  (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily
  Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 31.5%
  male: 47.2%
  female: 15%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Islamic State of Afghanistan
  conventional short form: Afghanistan
  local long form: Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan
  local short form: Afghanestan
  former: Republic of Afghanistan

Data code: AF

Type of government: transitional government

Capital: Kabul

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces (velayat, singular -
  velayat); Badakhshan, Badghis, Baghlan, Balkh, Bamian, Farah,
  Faryab, Ghazni, Ghowr, Helmand, Herat, Jowzjan, Kabol, Kandahar,
  Kapisa, Konar, Kondoz, Laghman, Lowgar, Nangarhar, Nimruz, Oruzgan,
  Paktia, Paktika, Parvan, Samangan, Sar-e Pol, Takhar, Vardak, Zabol
  note: there may be two new provinces of Nurestan (Nuristan) and
  Khowst

Independence: 19 August 1919 (from UK)

National holiday: Victory of the Muslim Nation, 28 April;
  Remembrance Day for Martyrs and Disabled, 4 May; Independence Day,
  19 August

Constitution: none

Legal system: a new legal system has not been adopted but the
  transitional government has declared it will follow Islamic law
  (Shari'a)

Suffrage: undetermined; previously males 15-50 years of age

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Burhanuddin RABBANI (interim president
  July-December 1992, president since 2 January 1993) was elected to a
  two-year term (later amended by multi-party agreement to 18 months)
  by a national shura (council); election last held 31 December 1992
  (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote NA; Vice President
  Mohammad NABI MOHAMMADI (since NA) was appointed by the president;
  note - in June 1994 failure to agree on a transfer mechanism
  resulted in RABBANI's extending his term to 28 December 1994;
  following the expiration of the term and while negotiations on the
  formation of a new government go on, RABBANI continues in office
  head of government: Prime Minister Ahmad Shah AHMADZAI (since NA)
  was appointed by President RABBANI as de facto prime minister, but
  does not have any real authority; First Deputy Prime Minister
  Qutbuddin HELAL (since 17 March 1993) and Deputy Prime Minister
  Arsala RAHMANI (since 17 March 1993)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers; note - term of present government
  expired 28 December 1994; factional fighting since 1 January 1994
  has kept government officers from actually occupying ministries and
  discharging government responsibilities; the government's authority
  to remove cabinet members, including the prime minister, following
  the expiration of their term is questionable

Legislative branch: a unicameral parliament consisting of 205
  members was chosen by a national shura (council) in January 1993;
  non-functioning as of June 1993

Judicial branch: an interim Chief Justice of the Supreme Court has
  been appointed by the president in consultation with the prime
  minister, but a new court system has not yet been organized

Political parties and leaders: current political organizations
  include Jamiat-i-Islami (Islamic Society), Burhanuddin RABBANI,
  Ahmad Shah MASOOD; Hizbi Islami-Gulbuddin (Islamic Party), Gulbuddin
  HIKMATYAR faction; Hizbi Islami-Khalis (Islamic Party), Yunis KHALIS
  faction; Ittihad-i-Islami Barai Azadi Afghanistan (Islamic Union for
  the Liberation of Afghanistan), Abdul Rasul SAYYAF;
  Harakat-Inqilab-i-Islami (Islamic Revolutionary Movement), Mohammad
  Nabi MOHAMMADI; Jabha-i-Najat-i-Milli Afghanistan (Afghanistan
  National Liberation Front), Sibghatullah MOJADDEDI;
  Mahaz-i-Milli-Islami (National Islamic Front), Sayed Ahamad GAILANI;
  Hizbi Wahdat-Khalili faction (Islamic Unity Party), Abdul Karim
  KHALILI; Hizbi Wahdat-Akbari faction (Islamic Unity Party), Mohammad
  Akbar AKBARI; Harakat-i-Islami (Islamic Movement), Mohammed Asif
  MOHSENI; Jumbesh-i-Milli Islami (National Islamic Movement), Abdul
  Rashid DOSTAM; Taliban (Religious Students Movement), Mohammad OMAR
  note: the former ruling Watan Party has been disbanded

Other political or pressure groups: the former resistance
  commanders are the major power brokers in the countryside and their
  shuras (councils) are now administering most cities outside Kabul;
  tribal elders and religious students are trying to wrest control
  from them; ulema (religious scholars); tribal elders; religious
  students (talib)

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ECO, ESCAP,
  FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
  IMF, Intelsat, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Abdul RAHIM
  chancery: 2341 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 234-3770, 3771
  FAX: [1] (202) 328-3516
  consulate(s) general: New York
  consulate(s): Washington, DC

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in
  Afghanistan (embassy closed January 1989)

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and
  black with a gold emblem centered on the three bands; the emblem
  features a temple-like structure with Islamic inscriptions above and
  below, encircled by a wreath on the left and right and by a bolder
  Islamic inscription above, all of which are encircled by two crossed
  scimitars



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Afghanistan is an extremely poor, landlocked
  country, highly dependent on farming (wheat especially) and
  livestock raising (sheep and goats). Economic considerations have
  played second fiddle to political and military upheavals during more
  than 16 years of war, including the nearly 10-year Soviet military
  occupation (which ended 15 February 1989). Over the past decade,
  one-third of the population fled the country, with Pakistan and Iran
  sheltering more than 6 million refugees. Now, only 1.0 million
  Afghan refugees remain in Pakistan and about 1.3 million in Iran.
  Another 1 million probably moved into and around urban areas within
  Afghanistan. Gross domestic product has fallen substantially over
  the past 15 years because of the loss of labor and capital and the
  disruption of trade and transport. Millions of people continue to
  suffer from insufficient food, clothing, housing, and lack of
  medical care. Numerical data are extremely shaky.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $600 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 65%
  industry: 15%
  services: 20%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 4.98 million
  by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 67.8%, industry
  10.2%, construction 6.3%, commerce 5.0%, services and other 10.7%
  (1980 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: small-scale production of textiles, soap, furniture,
  shoes, fertilizer, and cement; handwoven carpets; natural gas, oil,
  coal, copper

Electricity:
  capacity: 480,000 kW
  production: 550 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 39 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, fruits, nuts, karakul pelts; wool, mutton

Illicit drugs: an illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis
  for the international drug trade; world's second-largest opium
  producer after Burma (1,250 metric tons in 1995) and a major source
  of hashish

Exports: $188.2 million (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities: fruits and nuts, handwoven carpets, wool, cotton, hides
  and pelts, precious and semi-precious gems
  partners: FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Germany, India, UK,
  Belgium, Luxembourg, Czechoslovakia

Imports: $616.4 million (c.i.f., 1991)
  commodities: food and petroleum products; most consumer goods
  partners: FSU countries, Pakistan, Iran, Japan, Singapore, India,
  South Korea, Germany

External debt: $2.3 billion (March 1991 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA
  note: US provided $450 million assistance (1985-93); the UN provides
  assistance in the form of food aid, immunization, land mine removal,
  and a wide range of aid to refugees and displaced persons

Currency: 1 afghani (AF) = 100 puls

Exchange rates: afghanis (Af) per US$1 - 7,000 (January 1995),
  1,900 (January 1994), 1,019 (March 1993), 850 (1991); note - these
  rates reflect the free market exchange rates rather than the
  official exchange rate, which is a fixed rate of 50.600 afghanis to
  the dollar

Fiscal year: 21 March - 20 March



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 24.6 km
  broad gauge: 9.6 km 1.524-m gauge from Gushgy (Turkmenistan) to
  Towraghondi; 15 km 1,524-m gauge from Termiz (Uzbekistan) to
  Kheyrabad transshipment point on south bank of Amu Darya

Highways:
  total: 21,000 km
  paved: 2,800 km
  unpaved: 18,200 km (1984 est.)

Waterways: 1,200 km; chiefly Amu Darya, which handles vessels up
  to about 500 DWT

Pipelines: petroleum products - Uzbekistan to Bagram and
  Turkmenistan to Shindand; natural gas 180 km

Ports: Kheyrabad, Shir Khan

Airports:
  total: 35
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 3
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 4
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2
  with paved runways under 914 m: 7
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 13
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 31,200 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: very limited telephone and telegraph service; 1 public
  telephone in Kabul
  international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
  linked only to Iran and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 0, shortwave 2

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA
  note: several television stations run by factions and local councils
  which provide intermittent service

Televisions: 100,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: NA; note - the military still does not exist on a
  national scale; some elements of the former Army, Air and Air
  Defense Forces, National Guard, Border Guard Forces, National Police
  Force (Sarandoi), and tribal militias still exist but are
  factionalized among the various mujahedin and former regime leaders

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 5,549,602
  males fit for military service: 2,976,741
  males reach military age (22) annually: 220,532 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Albania
-------



Map
---


Location: 41 00 N, 20 00 E -- Southeastern Europe, bordering the
  Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro



Flag
----


Description: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center



Geography
---------


Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and
  Ionian Sea, between Greece and Serbia and Montenegro

Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 28,750 sq km
  land area: 27,400 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 720 km
  border countries: Greece 282 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
  Macedonia 151 km, Serbia and Montenegro 287 km (114 km with Serbia,
  173 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: the Albanian Government supports
  protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders;
  Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks independence from Serbian
  Republic; Albanians in Macedonia claim discrimination in education,
  access to public-sector jobs and representation in government;
  Albania is involved in negotiations with Greece over border
  demarcation, the treatment of Albania's ethnic Greek minority, and
  migrant Albanian workers in Greece

Climate: mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear,
  dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maja e Korabit 2,753 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
  timber, nickel

Land use:
  arable land: 21%
  permanent crops: 4%
  meadows and pastures: 15%
  forest and woodland: 38%
  other: 22%

Irrigated land: 4,230 sq km (1989)

Environment:
  current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from
  industrial and domestic effluents
  natural hazards: destructive earthquakes; tsunami occur along
  southwestern coast
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change

Geographic note: strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links
  Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)



People
------


Population: 3,249,136 (July 1996 est.)
  note: the IMF, working with Albanian government figures, estimates
  that the population was 3,120,000 in 1993 and that it has fallen
  since 1990

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 34% (male 570,978; female 529,147)
  15-64 years: 60% (male 910,873; female 1,049,662)
  65 years and over: 6% (male 77,799; female 110,677) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.34% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 22.21 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.64 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.92 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 49.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 67.92 years
  male: 64.91 years
  female: 71.17 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.65 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Albanian(s)
  adjective: Albanian

Ethnic divisions: Albanian 95%, Greeks 3%, other 2% (Vlachs,
  Gypsies, Serbs, and Bulgarians) (1989 est.)
  note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from
  1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions: Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
  note: all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious
  observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing
  private religious practice

Languages: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect), Greek

Literacy: age 9 and over can read and write (1955 est.)
  total population: 72%
  male: 80%
  female: 63%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Albania
  conventional short form: Albania
  local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
  local short form: Shqiperia
  former: People's Socialist Republic of Albania

Data code: AL

Type of government: emerging democracy

Capital: Tirane

Administrative divisions: 26 districts (rrethe, singular - rreth);
  Berat, Dibre, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Gramsh, Kolonje,
  Korce, Kruje, Kukes, Lezhe, Librazhd, Lushnje, Mat, Mirdite, Permet,
  Pogradec, Puke, Sarande, Shkoder, Skrapar, Tepelene, Tirane,
  Tropoje, Vlore; note - some new administrative units may have been
  created

Independence: 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution: an interim basic law was approved by the People's
  Assembly on 29 April 1991; a draft constitution was rejected by
  popular referendum in the fall of 1994 and a new draft is pending

Legal system: has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President of the Republic Sali BERISHA (since 9
  April 1992) was elected for a five-year term by the People's Assembly
  head of government: Prime Minister of the Council of Ministers
  Aleksander Gabriel MEKSI (since 10 April 1992) was appointed by the
  president
  cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
  People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor): elections last held 22 March
  1992; results - DP 62.29%, ASP 25.57%, SDP 4.33%, RP 3.15%, UHP
  2.92%, other 1.74%; seats - (140 total) DP 92, ASP 38, SDP 7, RP 1,
  UHP 2
  note: six members of the Democratic Party defected, making the
  present seating in the Assembly DP 86, ASP 38, SDP 7, DAP 6, RP 1,
  UHP 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman of the Supreme Court is
  elected by the People's Assembly

Political parties and leaders: there are at least 28 political
  parties; most prominent are the Albanian Socialist Party (ASP;
  formerly the Albania Workers Party), Fatos NANO, first secretary;
  Democratic Party (DP); Albanian Republican Party (RP), Sabri GODO;
  Omonia (Greek minority party), Sotir QIRJAZATI, first secretary;
  Social Democratic Party (SDP), Skender GJINUSHI; Democratic Alliance
  Party (DAP), Neritan CEKA, chairman; Unity for Human Rights Party
  (UHP), Vasil MELO, chairman; Ecology Party (EP), Namik HOTI, chairman

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CE, EBRD,
  ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, OIC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UNOMIG, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lublin DILJA
  chancery: Suite 1000, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
  telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942, 8187
  FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph E. LAKE
  embassy: Rruga E. Labinoti 103, Tirane
  mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100 (A), APO AE 09624
  telephone: [355] (42) 328-75, 335-20
  FAX: [355] (42) 322-22

Flag: red with a black two-headed eagle in the center



Economy
-------


Economic overview: An extremely poor country by European
  standards, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more
  open-market economy. The economy rebounded in 1993-95 after a severe
  depression accompanying the collapse of the previous centrally
  planned system in 1990 and 1991. Stabilization policies - including
  a strict monetary policy, public sector layoffs, and reduced social
  services - have improved the government's fiscal situation and
  reduced inflation. The recovery has been spurred by the remittances
  of some 20% of the labor force which works abroad, mostly in Greece
  and Italy. These remittances supplement GDP and help offset the
  large foreign trade deficit. Foreign assistance and humanitarian aid
  also supported the recovery. Most agricultural land was privatized
  in 1992, substantially improving peasant incomes. Albania's
  industrial sector ended its five-year, 78% decline in 1995,
  recording roughly 6% growth. A sharp fall in chromium prices has
  reduced hard currency receipts from the mining sector. Large
  segments of the population, especially those living in urban areas,
  continue to depend on humanitarian aid to meet basic food
  requirements. Unemployment remains a severe problem accounting for
  approximately one-fifth of the work force. Now that sanctions on
  Serbia have been suspended, the falloff in hard currency earnings
  from smuggling will aggravate unemployment problems. Growth is
  expected to continue in 1996, but could falter if workers'
  remittances from Greece are reduced or foreign assistance declines.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.1 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,210 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 55%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 1.692 million (1994 est.) (including 352,000 emigrant
  workers and 261,000 domestically unemployed)
  by occupation (of those domestically employed): agriculture (nearly
  all private) 49.5%, private sector 22.2%, state (nonfarm) sector
  28.3% (including state-owned industry 7.8%)

Unemployment rate: 19% (1994 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $486.3 million
  expenditures: $550.4 million, including capital expenditures of $124
  million (1994)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil,
  cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 1,662,000 kW
  production: 3.9 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 1,219 kWh (1994 est.)

Agriculture: wide range of temperate-zone crops and livestock

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
  transiting the Balkan route and cocaine from South America destined
  for Western Europe; limited opium production

Exports: $141 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: asphalt, metals and metallic ores, electricity, crude
  oil, vegetables, fruits, tobacco
  partners: Italy, US, Greece, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
  Macedonia

Imports: $601 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
  commodities: machinery, consumer goods, grains
  partners: Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, The Former Yugoslav
  Republic of Macedonia

External debt: $977 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 lek (L) = 100 qintars

Exchange rates: leke (L) per US$1 - 95.65 (January 1996), 100.00
  (January 1995), 99.00 (January 1994), 97.00 (January 1993), 50.00
  (January 1992), 25.00 (September 1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 670 km
  standard gauge: 670 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
  total: 18,450 km
  paved: 17,450 km
  unpaved: 1,000 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake
  Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1990)

Pipelines: crude oil 145 km; petroleum products 55 km; natural gas
  64 km (1991)

Ports: Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Merchant marine:
  total: 11 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 52,967 GRT/76,887
  DWT (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 11
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2
  with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 (1994 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 55,000

Telephone system:
  domestic: obsolete wire system; no longer provides a telephone for
  every village; in 1992, following the fall of the communist
  government, peasants cut the wire to about 1,000 villages and used
  it to build fences
  international: inadequate; international traffic carried by
  microwave radio relay from the Tirane exchange to Italy and Greece

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 577,000 (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 300,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Interior
  Ministry Troops, Border Guards

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 723,231
  males fit for military service: 588,304
  males reach military age (19) annually: 29,340 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $45 million, 2.5%
  of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Algeria
-------



Map
---


Location: 28 00 N, 3 00 E -- Northern Africa, bordering the
  Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia



Flag
----


Description: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and
  white with a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent; the
  crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam
  (the state religion)



Geography
---------


Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea,
  between Morocco and Tunisia

Geographic coordinates: 28 00 N, 3 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 2,381,740 sq km
  land area: 2,381,740 sq km
  comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,343 km
  border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km,
  Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km

Coastline: 998 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: part of southeastern region claimed by
  Libya; land boundary dispute with Tunisia settled in 1993

Climate: arid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers
  along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high
  plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in
  summer

Terrain: mostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow,
  discontinuous coastal plain
  lowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
  highest point: Tahat 3,003 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
  uranium, lead, zinc

Land use:
  arable land: 3%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 13%
  forest and woodland: 2%
  other: 82%

Irrigated land: 3,360 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming
  practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum
  refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the
  pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in
  particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and
  fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
  natural hazards: mountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes;
  mud slides
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
  Desertification, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geographic note: second-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)



People
------


Population: 29,183,032 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 40% (male 5,910,543; female 5,701,647)
  15-64 years: 56% (male 8,319,650; female 8,162,816)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 510,308; female 578,068) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.21% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 28.51 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.9 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 48.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.31 years
  male: 67.22 years
  female: 69.46 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.59 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Algerian(s)
  adjective: Algerian

Ethnic divisions: Arab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%

Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish
  1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 61.6%
  male: 73.9%
  female: 49%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
  conventional short form: Algeria
  local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza'iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash
  Shabiyah
  local short form: Al Jaza'ir

Data code: AG

Type of government: republic

Capital: Algiers

Administrative divisions: 48 provinces (wilayas, singular -
  wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna,
  Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira,
  Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf,
  Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara,
  Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el
  Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras,
  Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi
  Ouzou, Tlemcen

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 November (1954)

Constitution: 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976;
  revised 3 November 1988 and 23 February 1989

Legal system: socialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial
  review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed
  of various public officials, including several Supreme Court
  justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Liamine ZEROUAL (appointed president 31
  January 1994, elected president 16 November 1995) was elected for a
  five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 16 November
  1995 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote NA
  head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed OUYAHIA (since 31 December
  1995) was appointed by the president
  cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral; note - suspended since 1992
  National People's Assembly (Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani):
  first-round elections held 26 December 1991; second round canceled
  by the military after President BENDJEDID resigned 11 January 1992,
  effectively suspending the assembly (next election promised by late
  1996 or early 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
  (281 total) the fundamentalist FIS won 188 of the 231 seats
  contested in the first round

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Islamic Salvation Front (FIS,
  outlawed April 1992), Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR
  (self-exile in Germany); National Liberation Front (FLN), Boualem
  BENHAMOUDA, secretary general; Socialist Forces Front (FFS), Hocine
  Ait AHMED, secretary general (self-exile in Switzerland); Hamas,
  Mahfoud NAHNAH, chairman; Rally for Culture and Democracy (RCD),
  Said SAADI, secretary general; Algerian Renewal Party (PRA),
  Noureddine BOUKROUH, chairman
  note: the government established a multiparty system in September
  1989 and, as of 31 December 1990, over 50 legal parties existed

International organization participation: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL,
  AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol,
  IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OPEC, OSCE
  (partner), UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU,
  WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Osmane BENCHERIF
  chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald E. NEUMANN
  embassy: 4 Chemin Cheikh Bachir El-Ibrahimi, Algiers
  mailing address: B. P. Box 549, Alger-Gare, 16000 Algiers
  telephone: [213] (2) 69-11-86, 69-18-54, 69-38-75, 69-12-55
  FAX: [213] (2) 69-39-79

Flag: two equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white
  with a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent; the crescent,
  star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state
  religion)



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the
  economy, accounting for roughly 57% of government revenues, 25% of
  GDP, and almost all export earnings; Algeria has the fifth-largest
  reserves of natural gas in the world and ranks fourteenth for oil.
  Algiers' efforts to reform one of the most centrally planned
  economies in the Arab world began after the 1986 collapse of world
  oil prices plunged the country into a severe recession. In 1989, the
  government launched a comprehensive, IMF-supported program to
  achieve economic stabilization and to introduce market mechanisms
  into the economy. Despite substantial progress toward economic
  adjustment, in 1992 the reform drive stalled as Algiers became
  embroiled in political turmoil. In September 1993, a new government
  was formed, and one priority was the resumption and acceleration of
  the structural adjustment process. Buffeted by the slump in world
  oil prices and burdened with a heavy foreign debt, Algiers concluded
  a one-year standby arrangement with the IMF in April 1994. Following
  a Paris Club debt rescheduling in 1995 and a robust harvest, the
  economy experienced a strong recovery and key economic improvements.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $108.7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,800 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 12%
  industry: 50%
  services: 38%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 28% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 6.2 million (1992 est.)
  by occupation: government 29.5%, agriculture 22%, construction and
  public works 16.2%, industry 13.6%, commerce and services 13.5%,
  transportation and communication 5.2% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $14.3 billion
  expenditures: $17.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining,
  electrical, petrochemical, food processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 5,370,000 kW
  production: 18.3 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 587 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits;
  sheep, cattle

Exports: $9.5 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: petroleum and natural gas 97%
  partners: Italy 21%, France 16%, US 14%, Germany 13%, Spain 9%

Imports: $10.6 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: capital goods 39.7%, food and beverages 21.7%, consumer
  goods 11.8% (1990)
  partners: France 29%, Italy 14%, Spain 9%, US 9%, Germany 7%

External debt: $26 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $316 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Algerian dinar (DA) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Algerian dinars (DA) per US$1 - 53.003 (January
  1996), 47.663 (1995), 35.059 (1994), 23.345 (1993), 21.836 (1992),
  18.473 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 4,772 km
  standard gauge: 3,616 km 1.435-m gauge (301 km electrified; 215 km
  double track)
  narrow gauge: 1,156 km 1.055-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 95,576 km
  paved: 63,080 km (including 400 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 32,496 km (1992 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 6,612 km; petroleum products 298 km; natural
  gas 2,948 km

Ports: Algiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Beni Saf, Dellys,
  Djendjene, Ghazaouet, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda, Tenes

Merchant marine:
  total: 77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 916,701 GRT/1,086,324
  DWT
  ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 27, chemical tanker 7, liquefied gas
  tanker 10, oil tanker 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13, short-sea
  passenger 5, specialized tanker 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 119
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 8
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 24
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 13
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4
  with paved runways under 914 m: 17
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 19
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 31 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 862,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: excellent service in north but sparse in south; domestic
  satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic
  earth stations are planned)
  international: 5 submarine cables; microwave radio relay to Italy,
  France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and
  Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik, and
  1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 26, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 6 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 2 million (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: National Popular Army, Navy, Air Force, Territorial Air
  Defense, National Gendarmerie

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 7,391,946
  males fit for military service: 4,534,267
  males reach military age (19) annually: 326,229 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.3 billion,
  2.7% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@American Samoa
--------------


(territory of the US)

Map
---


Location: 14 20 S, 170 00 W -- Oceania, group of islands in the
  South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New
  Zealand



Flag
----


Description: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based
  on the outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white
  American bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two
  traditional Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club



Geography
---------


Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean,
  about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 14 20 S, 170 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
  total area: 199 sq km
  land area: 199 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC
  note: includes Rose Island and Swains Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 116 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine, moderated by southeast trade winds;
  annual rainfall averages 124 inches; rainy season from November to
  April, dry season from May to October; little seasonal temperature
  variation

Terrain: five volcanic islands with rugged peaks and limited
  coastal plains, two coral atolls (Rose Island, Swains Island)
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Lata 966 m

Natural resources: pumice, pumicite

Land use:
  arable land: 10%
  permanent crops: 5%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 75%
  other: 10%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; in many areas
  of the island, water supplies come from roof catchments
  natural hazards: typhoons common from December to March
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: Pago Pago has one of the best natural deepwater
  harbors in the South Pacific Ocean, sheltered by shape from rough
  seas and protected by peripheral mountains from high winds;
  strategic location in the South Pacific Ocean



People
------


Population: 59,566 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 3.77% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 35.75 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.01 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: NA male(s)/female
  under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
  15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
  65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
  all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 18.78 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.91 years
  male: 71.03 years
  female: 74.85 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.24 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: American Samoan(s)
  adjective: American Samoan

Ethnic divisions: Samoan (Polynesian) 89%, Caucasian 2%, Tongan
  4%, other 5%

Religions: Christian Congregationalist 50%, Roman Catholic 20%,
  Protestant denominations and other 30%

Languages: Samoan (closely related to Hawaiian and other
  Polynesian languages), English
  note: most people are bilingual

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
  total population: 97%
  male: 98%
  female: 97%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Territory of American Samoa
  conventional short form: American Samoa
  abbreviation: AS

Data code: AQ

Type of government: unincorporated and unorganized territory of
  the US; administered by the US Department of Interior, Office of
  Territorial and International Affairs

Capital: Pago Pago

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

Independence: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Territorial Flag Day, 17 April (1900)

Constitution: ratified 1966, in effect 1967

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President (of the US) William Jefferson CLINTON
  (since 20 January 1993) and Vice President Albert GORE, Jr. (since
  20 January 1993) are popularly elected by the citizens of the US
  head of government: Governor A. P. LUTALI (since 3 January 1993) and
  Lieutenant Governor Tauese P. SUNIA (since 3 January 1993) were
  elected for a four-year term by popular vote; election last held 3
  November 1992 (next to be held NA November 1996); results - A. P.
  LUTALI (Democrat) 53%, Peter Tali COLEMAN (Republican) 36%

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono)
  House of Representatives: elections last held 8 November 1994 (next
  to be held NA November 1996); results - representatives popularly
  elected from 17 house districts; percent of vote by party NA; seats
  - (21 total, 20 elected, and 1 nonvoting delegate from Swains
  Island); number of seats by party NA
  Senate: elections last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA
  November 1996); results - senators elected by village chiefs from 12
  senate districts; percent of vote by party NA; seats - (18 total)
  number of seats by party NA
  US House of Representatives: elections last held 8 November 1994
  (next to be held NA November 1996); results - Eni R. F. H.
  FALEOMAVAEGA reelected as delegate

Judicial branch: High Court, chief justice and associate justices
  are appointed by the US Secretary of the Interior

Political parties and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate),
  Interpol (subbureau), IOC, SPC

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of the US)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: blue with a white triangle edged in red that is based on the
  outer side and extends to the hoist side; a brown and white American
  bald eagle flying toward the hoist side is carrying two traditional
  Samoan symbols of authority, a staff and a war club



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Economic activity is strongly linked to the US,
  with which American Samoa conducts 80%-90% of its foreign trade.
  Tuna fishing and tuna processing plants are the backbone of the
  private sector, with canned tuna the primary export. The tuna
  canneries and the government are by far the two largest employers.
  Other economic activities include a slowly developing tourist
  industry. Transfers from the US Government add substantially to
  American Samoa's economic well-being.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $128 million (1991 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $2,600 (1991 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA

Labor force: 14,400 (1990)
  by occupation: government 33%, tuna canneries 34%, other 33% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1991)

Budget:
  revenues: $97 million ($43 million in local revenue and $54 million
  in grant revenue)
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90/91)

Industries: tuna canneries (largely dependent on foreign fishing
  vessels), meat canning, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 30,000 kW
  production: 90 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 1,505 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, coconuts, vegetables, taro, breadfruit,
  yams, copra, pineapples, papayas; dairy farming

Exports: $306 million (f.o.b., 1989)
  commodities: canned tuna 93%
  partners: US 99.6%

Imports: $360.3 million (c.i.f., 1989)
  commodities: materials for canneries 56%, food 8%, petroleum
  products 7%, machinery and parts 6%
  partners: US 62%, Japan 9%, NZ 7%, Australia 11%, Fiji 4%, other 7%

External debt: $NA

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA
  note: $21 million in operational funds and $1.2 million in
  construction funds for capital improvement projects from the US
  Department of Interior (1991)

Currency: 1 US dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 350 km
  paved: 150 km
  unpaved: 200 km

Ports: Aanu'u (new construction), Auasi, Faleosao, Ofu, Pago Pago,
  Ta'u

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 3
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 2
  note: small airstrips on Fituita and Ofu (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 8,399

Telephone system:
  domestic: good telex, telegraph, and facsimile services; domestic
  satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 8,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US



======================================================================



@Andorra
-------



Map
---


Location: 42 30 N, 1 30 E -- Southwestern Europe, between France
  and Spain



Flag
----


Description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
  yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the
  yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar
  to the flags of Chad and Romania that do not have a national coat of
  arms in the center



Geography
---------


Location: Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 450 sq km
  land area: 450 sq km
  comparative area: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  total: 125 km
  border countries: France 60 km, Spain 65 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain: rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
  lowest point: Riu Valira 840 m
  highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources: hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore,
  lead

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 56%
  forest and woodland: 22%
  other: 20%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows
  contributes to soil erosion
  natural hazards: snowslides, avalanches
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: landlocked



People
------


Population: 72,766 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 16% (male 5,829; female 5,851)
  15-64 years: 73% (male 28,724; female 24,757)
  65 years and over: 11% (male 3,718; female 3,887) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.96% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 10.2 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 2.9 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 22.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 0.96 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.16 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.11 male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 90.94 years
  male: 86.47 years
  female: 95.2 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.14 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Andorran(s)
  adjective: Andorran

Ethnic divisions: Spanish 61%, Andorran 30%, French 6%, other 3%

Religions: Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages: Catalan (official), French, Castilian

Literacy: NA



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
  conventional short form: Andorra
  local long form: Principat d'Andorra
  local short form: Andorra

Data code: AN

Type of government: parliamentary democracy (since March 1993)
  that retains as its heads of state a coprincipality; the two princes
  are the president of France and Spanish bishop of Seo de Urgel, who
  are represented locally by officials called veguers

Capital: Andorra la Vella

Administrative divisions: 7 parishes (parroquies, singular -
  parroquia); Andorra, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Les Escaldes,
  Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence: 1,278

National holiday: Mare de Deu de Meritxell, 8 September

Constitution: Andorra's first written constitution was drafted in
  1991; adopted 14 March 1993

Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial
  review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chiefs of state: French Coprince Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995)
  and Spanish Episcopal Coprince Monseigneur Juan MARTI Alanis (since
  31 January 1971); each coprince is represented by a veguer (current
  names NA)
  head of government: Executive Council President Marc FORNE Molne
  (since 21 December 1994) was elected by the General Council and
  formally appointed by the coprinces
  cabinet: Executive Council was designated by the executive council
  president

Legislative branch: unicameral
  General Council of the Valleys (Consell General de las Valls:
  elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA 1997);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total) AND 8, UL
  5, ND 5, CNA 2, IDN 2, other 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan (France)
  for civil cases, two civil judges appointed by the veguers, one
  appeals judge appointed by the co-princes alternately;
  Ecclesiastical Court of the Bishop of Seo de Urgel (Spain) for civil
  cases; Tribunal of the Courts (Tribunal des Cortes) for criminal
  cases, presided over by the two civil judges, one appeals judge, the
  veguers, and two members of the General Council

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Group (AND),
  Oscar RIBAS Reig and Jordi FARRAS; Liberal Union (UL), Francesc
  CERQUEDA; New Democracy (ND), Jaume BARTOMEU; Andorran National
  Coalition (CNA), Antoni CERQUEDA; National Democratic Initiative
  (IDN), Vincenc MATEU; Liberal Union (UL), Marc FORNE
  note: there are two other small parties

International organization participation: CE, ECE, IFRCS,
  Interpol, IOC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Juli MINOVES-TRIQUELL (also Permanent
  Representative to the UN)
  embassy: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
  telephone: (212) 750-8064
  FAX: (212) 750-6630

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in
  Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate
  General's office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina
  Elisenda, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: (343) 280-2227;
  FAX: (343) 205-7705; note - Consul General Maurice S. PARKER makes
  periodic visits to Andorra

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
  red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the
  coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of
  Chad and Romania that do not have a national coat of arms in the
  center



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Tourism, the mainstay of Andorra's tiny,
  well-to-do economy, accounts for roughly 80% of GDP. An estimated 13
  million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorra's duty-free
  status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorra's comparative
  advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France
  and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of
  goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its "tax haven"
  status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural
  production is limited by a scarcity of arable land, and most food
  has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep
  raising. Manufacturing consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and
  furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is
  treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs)
  and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1 billion (1993 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $16,200 (1993 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget:
  revenues: $138 million
  expenditures: $177 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1993)

Industries: tourism (particularly skiing), sheep, timber, tobacco,
  banking

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 35,000 kW
  production: 140 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 2,570 kWh (1992)

Agriculture: small quantities of tobacco, rye, wheat, barley,
  oats, vegetables; sheep raising

Exports: $46.2 million (f.o.b., 1993)
  commodities: electricity, tobacco products, furniture
  partners: France 35%, Spain 59%

Imports: $920.2 million (1993)
  commodities: consumer goods, food
  partners: France, Spain, US 2.6% (1992)

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes; 1 peseta (Pta) = 100
  centimos; the French and Spanish currencies are used

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.0056 (January
  1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992),
  5.6421 (1991); Spanish pesetas (Ptas) per US$1 - 123.19 (January
  1996), 124.69 (1995), 133.96 (1994), 127.26 (1993), 102.38 (1992),
  103.91 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 269 km
  paved: 198 km
  unpaved: 71 km (1991 est.)

Ports: none

Airports: none



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 21,258 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections
  between exchanges
  international: landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 10,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France and Spain



======================================================================



@Angola
------


Civil war has been the norm since independence from Portugal on 11
November 1975; a cease-fire lasted from 31 May 1991 until October
1992 when the insurgent National Union for the Total Independence of
Angola (UNITA) refused to accept its defeat in internationally
monitored elections and fighting resumed throughout much of the
countryside. The two sides signed another peace accord on 20
November 1994; the cease-fire is generally holding, but most
provisions of the accord remain to be implemented.

Map
---


Location: 12 30 S, 18 30 E -- Southern Africa, bordering the South
  Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Zaire



Flag
----


Description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black
  with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star
  within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a
  hammer and sickle)



Geography
---------


Location: Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
  between Namibia and Zaire

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 1,246,700 sq km
  land area: 1,246,700 sq km
  comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,198 km
  border countries: Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zaire 2,511 km,
  Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline: 1,600 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 20 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has
  cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to
  April)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior
  plateau
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Moro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates,
  copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 23%
  forest and woodland: 43%
  other: 32%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: population pressures contributing to overuse of
  pastures and subsequent soil erosion; desertification; deforestation
  of tropical rain forest attributable to the international demand for
  tropical timber and domestic use as a fuel; deforestation
  contributing to loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to
  water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate
  supplies of potable water
  natural hazards: locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on
  the plateau
  international agreements: party to - Law of the Sea; signed, but not
  ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification

Geographic note: Cabinda is separated from rest of country by Zaire



People
------


Population: 10,342,899 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 45% (male 2,340,804; female 2,275,689)
  15-64 years: 53% (male 2,748,417; female 2,706,295)
  65 years and over: 2% (male 128,067; female 143,627) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.68% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 44.58 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 17.66 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 138.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 46.8 years
  male: 44.65 years
  female: 49.06 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.35 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Angolan(s)
  adjective: Angolan

Ethnic divisions: Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%,
  mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other
  22%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant
  15% (est.)

Languages: Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
  total population: 42%
  male: 56%
  female: 28%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Angola
  conventional short form: Angola
  local long form: Republica de Angola
  local short form: Angola
  former: People's Republic of Angola

Data code: AO

Type of government: transitional government nominally a multiparty
  democracy with a strong presidential system

Capital: Luanda

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (provincias, singular -
  provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza
  Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda
  Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence: 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution: 11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August
  1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary
  law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and
  increased use of free markets

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21
  September 1979) was originally elected without opposition under a
  one party system and stood for election in Angola's first multiparty
  elections on 29-30 September 1992; DOS SANTOS received 49.6% of the
  total vote, making a run-off election necessary between him and
  second-place Jonas SAVIMBI; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's
  National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) disputed
  the results of the first election; the civil war was resumed
  head of government: Prime Minister Marcolino Jose Carlos MOCO (since
  2 December 1992) was appointed by the president and is answerable to
  the Assembly
  cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional): elections last held 29-30
  September 1992 (next to be held NA); results (disputed) - percentage
  of vote by party NA; seats (223 total) - seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal da Relacao), judges of
  the Supreme Court are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Popular Movement for the Liberation
  of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, is the ruling
  party and has been in power since 1975; National Union for the Total
  Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, is a legal
  party despite its history of armed resistance to the government;
  five minor parties have small numbers of seats in the National
  Assembly

Other political or pressure groups: Front for the Liberation of
  the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC), N'ZITA Tiago, leader of largest
  faction (FLEC-FAC)
  note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed
  struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEEAC
  (observer), ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, NAM, OAS
  (observer), OAU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Antonio dos Santos FRANCA "N'dalu"
  embassy: 1819 L Street NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036
  telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
  FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Donald K. STEINBERG
  embassy: No. 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne, Miramar, Luanda
  mailing address: C.P. 6484, Luanda; American Embassy, Luanda,
  Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2550 (pouch)
  telephone: [244] (2) 345-481, 346-418
  FAX: [244] (2) 346-924

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a
  centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half
  a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Angola is an economy in disarray. Despite its
  abundant natural resources, output per capita is among the world's
  lowest. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for
  80%-90% of the population but accounts for less than 15% of GDP. Oil
  production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy,
  contributing about 50% to GDP. Despite the signing of a peace accord
  in November 1994 between the Angola Government and the UNITA
  insurgents, sporadic fighting continues and many farmers remain
  reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the
  country's food must still be imported. To take advantage of its rich
  resources - notably gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic
  fisheries, and arable land, in addition to its large oil deposits -
  Angola will need to observe the cease-fire, implement the peace
  agreement, and reform government policies.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $700 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 12%
  industry: 56%
  services: 32% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% monthly average (1994 est.)

Labor force: 2.783 million economically active
  by occupation: agriculture 85%, industry 15% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 24% with extensive underemployment (1993 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $928 million
  expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963
  million (1992 est.)

Industries: petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar,
  bauxite, uranium, and gold; fish processing; food processing;
  brewing; tobacco; sugar; textiles; cement; basic metal products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 620,000 kW
  production: 1.9 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 189 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton,
  manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest
  products; fish

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for
  cocaine and heroin destined for Western Europe and other African
  states

Exports: $3 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
  commodities: oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee,
  sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
  partners: US, France, Germany, Netherlands, Brazil

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
  commodities: capital equipment (machinery and electrical equipment),
  food, vehicles and spare parts, textiles and clothing, medicines,
  substantial military deliveries
  partners: Portugal, Brazil, US, France, Spain

External debt: $12 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $189 million (1993)

Currency: 1 new kwanza (NKz) = 100 lwei

Exchange rates: new kwanza (NKz) per US$1 - 900,000 (official rate
  25 April 1995), 1,900,000 (black market rate 6 April 1995), 600,000
  (official rate 10 January 1995), 90,000 (official rate 1 June 1994),
  180,000 (black market rate 1 June 1994); 7,000 (official rate 16
  December 1993), 50,000 (black market rate 16 December 1993); 3,884
  (July 1993); 550 (April 1992); 90 (November 1991); 60 (October 1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 2,952 km (1995 est.); note - limited trackage in use because
  of landmines still in place from the civil war
  narrow gauge: 2,798 km 1.067-m gauge; 154 km 0.600-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 72,626 km
  paved: 18,157 km
  unpaved: 54,469 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 179 km

Ports: Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malogo, Namibe, Porto
  Amboim, Soyo

Merchant marine:
  total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 63,776 GRT/99,863 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 11, oil tanker 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 143
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 3
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 8
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 11
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4
  with paved runways under 914 m: 40
  with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 4
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 24
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 48 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 78,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telephone service limited mostly to government
  and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military
  links
  domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and
  tropospheric scatter
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 17, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 50,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Police
  Force

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,373,087
  males fit for military service: 1,195,176
  males reach military age (18) annually: 106,456 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 31%
  of GDP (1993)



======================================================================



@Anguilla
--------


(dependent territory of the UK)

Map
---


Location: 18 15 N, 63 10 W -- Caribbean, island in the Caribbean
  Sea, east of Puerto Rico



Flag
----


Description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half
  of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an
  interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy
  water below



Geography
---------


Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto
  Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 15 N, 63 10 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total area: 91 sq km
  land area: 91 sq km
  comparative area: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Crocus Hill 65 m

Natural resources: salt, fish, lobster

Land use:
  arable land: NA%
  permanent crops: NA%
  meadows and pastures: NA%
  forest and woodland: NA%
  other: NA% (mostly rock with sparse scrub oak, few trees, some
  commercial salt ponds)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet
  increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system
  natural hazards: frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July
  to October)
  international agreements: NA



People
------


Population: 10,424 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28% (male 1,491; female 1,450)
  15-64 years: 64% (male 3,418; female 3,275)
  65 years and over: 8% (male 342; female 448) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.45% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 17.84 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.66 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 22.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.7 years
  male: 73.75 years
  female: 79.74 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.04 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Anguillan(s)
  adjective: Anguillan

Ethnic divisions: black African

Religions: Anglican 40%, Methodist 33%, Seventh-Day Adventist 7%,
  Baptist 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, other 12%

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: age 12 and over can read and write (1984 est.)
  total population: 95%
  male: 95%
  female: 95%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Anguilla

Data code: AV

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Constitution: Anguilla Constitutional Order 1 April 1982; amended
  1990

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) is a
  hereditary monarch; represented by Governor Alan HOOLE (since 1
  November 1995)
  head of government: Chief Minister Hubert HUGHES (since 16 March
  1994) was appointed by the governor from members of the House of
  Assembly
  cabinet: Executive Council was appointed by the governor from among
  the elected members of the House of Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
  House of Assembly: elections last held 16 March 1994 (next to be
  held March 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (11
  total, 7 elected) ANA 2, AUP 2, ADP 2, independent 1

Judicial branch: High Court, judge provided by Eastern Caribbean
  Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance (ANA),
  David CARFY; Anguilla United Party (AUP), Hubert HUGHES; Anguilla
  Democratic Party (ADP), Victor BANKS

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB,
  Interpol (subbureau), OECS (associate)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the
  UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half
  of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an
  interlocking circular design on a white background with blue wavy
  water below



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the
  economy depends heavily on tourism, offshore banking, lobster
  fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Output growth has averaged
  about 7% in recent years, mainly as a result of boom in tourism
  thanks to economic expansion in North America and the UK. The
  economy, and especially the tourism sector, suffered a setback in
  late 1995 due to the effects of Hurricane Luis in September.
  Agricultural output had only just begun to recover from a drought in
  1994 when Luis hit. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort
  into developing the offshore financing sector. A comprehensive
  package of financial services legislation was enacted in late 1994.
  In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend on the
  tourism sector and, therefore, on continuing income growth in the
  industrialized nations.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $53 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.5% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $7,600 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1994)

Labor force: 4,400 (1992)
  by occupation: commerce 36%, services 29%, construction 18%,
  transportation and utilities 10%, manufacturing 3%,
  agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining 4%

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $13.5 million (1993)
  expenditures: $17.6 million, including capital expenditures of
  $740,000 (1995 est.)

Industries: tourism, boat building, offshore financial services

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 2,000 kW
  production: 6 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 862 kWh (1992)

Agriculture: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes; sheep, goats,
  pigs, cattle, poultry; fishing (including lobster)

Exports: $556,000 (f.o.b., 1992)
  commodities: lobster and salt
  partners: NA

Imports: $33.5 million (f.o.b., 1992)
  commodities: NA
  partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70
  (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 105 km
  paved: 65 km
  unpaved: 40 km (1992 est.)

Ports: Blowing Point, Road Bay

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 2
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 890

Telephone system:
  domestic: modern internal telephone system
  international: microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin
  (Guadeloupe and Netherlands Antilles)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 2,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@Antarctica
----------



Map
---


Location: 90 00 S, 0 00 E -- continent mostly south of the
  Antarctic Circle



Geography
---------


Location: continent mostly south of the Antarctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 S, 0 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
  total area: 14 million sq km (est.)
  land area: 14 million sq km (est.)
  comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US
  note: second-smallest continent (after Australia)

Land boundaries: 0 km
  note: see entry on International disputes

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: none, but see entry on International disputes

International disputes: Antarctic Treaty defers claims (see
  Antarctic Treaty Summary below); sections (some overlapping) claimed
  by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land), New Zealand
  (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; the US and most
  other nations do not recognize the territorial claims of other
  nations and have made no claims themselves (the US reserves the
  right to do so); no formal claims have been made in the sector
  between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation,
  and distance from the ocean; East Antarctica is colder than West
  Antarctica because of its higher elevation; Antarctic Peninsula has
  the most moderate climate; higher temperatures occur in January
  along the coast and average slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet and 2% barren rock,
  with average elevations between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain
  ranges up to about 5,000 meters; ice-free coastal areas include
  parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land, the Antarctic
  Peninsula area, and parts of Ross Island on McMurdo Sound; glaciers
  form ice shelves along about half of the coastline, and floating ice
  shelves constitute 11% of the area of the continent
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Vinson Massif 5,140 m

Natural resources: none presently exploited; iron ore, chromium,
  copper, gold, nickel, platinum and other minerals, and coal and
  hydrocarbons have been found in small, uncommercial quantities

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (ice 98%, barren rock 2%)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
  current issues: in October 1991 it was reported that the ozone
  shield, which protects the Earth's surface from harmful ultraviolet
  radiation, had dwindled to the lowest level recorded over Antarctica
  since 1975 when measurements were first taken
  natural hazards: katabatic (gravity-driven) winds blow coastward
  from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the
  plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise
  along the coast; volcanism on Deception Island and isolated areas of
  West Antarctica; other seismic activity rare and weak
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: the coldest, windiest, highest, and driest
  continent; during summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface
  at the South Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent
  period; mostly uninhabitable



People
------


Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are seasonally
  staffed research stations
  Summer (January) population: over 4,115 total; Argentina 207,
  Australia 268, Belgium 13, Brazil 80, Chile 256, China NA, Ecuador
  NA, Finland 11, France 78, Germany 32, Greenpeace 12, India 60,
  Italy 210, Japan 59, South Korea 14, Netherlands 10, NZ 264, Norway
  23, Peru 39, Poland NA, South Africa 79, Spain 43, Sweden 10, UK
  116, Uruguay NA, US 1,666, former USSR 565 (1989-90)
  Winter (July) population: over 1,046 total; Argentina 150, Australia
  71, Brazil 12, Chile 73, China NA, France 33, Germany 19, Greenpeace
  5, India 1, Japan 38, South Korea 14, NZ 11, Poland NA, South Africa
  12, UK 69, Uruguay NA, US 225, former USSR 313 (1989-90)
  Year-round stations: 42 total; Argentina 6, Australia 3, Brazil 1,
  Chile 3, China 2, Finland 1, France 1, Germany 1, India 1, Japan 2,
  South Korea 1, NZ 1, Poland 1, South Africa 3, UK 5, Uruguay 1, US
  3, former USSR 6 (1990-91)
  Summer-only stations: over 38 total; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Chile
  5, Germany 3, India 1, Italy 1, Japan 4, NZ 2, Norway 1, Peru 1,
  South Africa 1, Spain 1, Sweden 2, UK 1, US numerous, former USSR 5
  (1989-90); note - the disintegration of the former USSR has placed
  the status and future of its Antarctic facilities in doubt; stations
  may be subject to closings at any time because of ongoing economic
  difficulties



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Antarctica

Data code: AY

Type of government:
  Antarctic Treaty Summary: The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December
  1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal
  framework for the management of Antarctica. Administration is
  carried out through consultative member meetings - the 18th
  Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting was in Japan in April 1993.
  Currently, there are 42 treaty member nations: 26 consultative and
  16 acceding. Consultative (voting) members include the seven nations
  that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory (some claims
  overlap) and 19 nonclaimant nations. The US and some other nations
  that have made no claims have reserved the right to do so. The US
  does not recognize the claims of others. The year in parentheses
  indicates when an acceding nation was voted to full consultative
  (voting) status, while no date indicates the country was an original
  1959 treaty signatory. Claimant nations are - Argentina, Australia,
  Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant
  consultative nations are - Belgium, Brazil (1983), China (1985),
  Ecuador (1990), Finland (1989), Germany (1981), India (1983), Italy
  (1987), Japan, South Korea (1989), Netherlands (1990), Peru (1989),
  Poland (1977), South Africa, Spain (1988), Sweden (1988), Uruguay
  (1985), the US, and Russia. Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year
  of accession in parentheses, are - Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978),
  Canada (1988), Colombia (1988), Cuba (1984), Czech Republic (1993),
  Denmark (1965), Greece (1987), Guatemala (1991), Hungary (1984),
  North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Romania (1971),
  Slovakia (1993), Switzerland (1990), and Ukraine (1992).
  Article 1: area to be used for peaceful purposes only; military
  activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military
  personnel and equipment may be used for scientific research or any
  other peaceful purpose
  Article 2: freedom of scientific investigation and cooperation shall
  continue
  Article 3: free exchange of information and personnel in cooperation
  with the UN and other international agencies
  Article 4: does not recognize, dispute, or establish territorial
  claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the treaty is in
  force
  Article 5: prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of radioactive
  wastes
  Article 6: includes under the treaty all land and ice shelves south
  of 60 degrees 00 minutes south
  Article 7: treaty-state observers have free access, including aerial
  observation, to any area and may inspect all stations,
  installations, and equipment; advance notice of all activities and
  of the introduction of military personnel must be given
  Article 8: allows for jurisdiction over observers and scientists by
  their own states
  Article 9: frequent consultative meetings take place among member
  nations
  Article 10: treaty states will discourage activities by any country
  in Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty
  Article 11: disputes to be settled peacefully by the parties
  concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ
  Articles 12 13 14: deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending
  the treaty among involved nations
  Other agreements: more than 170 recommendations adopted at treaty
  consultative meetings and ratified by governments include - Agreed
  Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964);
  Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972);
  Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources
  (1980); a mineral resources agreement was signed in 1988 but was
  subsequently rejected; in 1991 the Protocol on Environmental
  Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed and awaits
  ratification; this agreement provides for the protection of the
  Antarctic environment through five specific annexes on marine
  pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental impact assessments, waste
  management, and protected areas; it also prohibits all activities
  relating to mineral resources except scientific research; 21 parties
  have ratified Protocol as of April 1996

Legal system: US law, including certain criminal offenses by or
  against US nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under
  jurisdiction of other countries. Some US laws directly apply to
  Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, 16 U.S.C.
  section 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the
  following activities, unless authorized by regulation of statute:
  The taking of native mammals or birds; the introduction of
  nonindigenous plants and animals; entry into specially protected or
  scientific areas; the discharge or disposal of pollutants; and the
  importation into the US of certain items from Antarctica. Violation
  of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to $10,000
  in fines and 1 year in prison. The Departments of Treasury,
  Commerce, Transportation, and Interior share enforcement
  responsibilities. Public Law 95-541, the US Antarctic Conservation
  Act of 1978, requires expeditions from the US to Antarctica to
  notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs, Room
  5801, Department of State, Washington, DC 20520, which reports such
  plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. For more
  information contact Permit Office, Office of Polar Programs,
  National Science Foundation, Arlington, Virginia 22230 (703)
  306-1031.



Economy
-------


Economic overview: No economic activity at present except for
  fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad.



Transportation
--------------


Ports: none; offshore anchorage

Airports: 50 landing facilities at different locations operated by
  16 national governments party to the Treaty; one additional air
  facility operated by commercial (nongovernmental) tourist
  organization; helicopter pads at 25 of these locations; runways at
  13 locations are gravel, sea ice, glacier ice, or compacted snow
  surface suitable for wheeled fixed-wing aircraft; no paved runways;
  12 locations have snow-surface skiways limited to use by
  ski-equipped planes - 8 runways/skiways greater than 3,000 m,10
  runways/skiways 1,000 to 3,000 m, 3 runways/skiways less than 1,000
  m, and 4 of unspecified or variable length; airports generally
  subject to severe restrictions and limitations resulting from
  extreme seasonal and geographic conditions; airports do not meet
  ICAO standards; advance approval from the respective governmental or
  non-governmental operating organization required for landing (1995
  est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA



Defense
-------


Defense note: the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a
  military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and
  fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the
  testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military
  personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other
  peaceful purposes



======================================================================



@Antigua and Barbuda
-------------------



Map
---


Location: 17 03 N, 61 48 W -- Caribbean, islands between the
  Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto
  Rico



Flag
----


Description: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the
  top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands
  of black (top), light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in
  the black band



Geography
---------


Location: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the
  North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total area: 440 sq km
  land area: 440 sq km
  comparative area: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
  note: includes Redonda

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some
  higher volcanic areas
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 18%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 7%
  forest and woodland: 16%
  other: 59%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: water management - a major concern because of
  limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the
  clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to
  run off quickly
  natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October);
  periodic droughts
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Desertification



People
------


Population: 65,647 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 25% (male 8,386; female 8,043)
  15-64 years: 69% (male 22,589; female 22,548)
  65 years and over: 6% (male 1,820; female 2,261) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.76% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 16.83 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.32 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 73.64 years
  male: 71.55 years
  female: 75.84 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.68 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
  adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic divisions: black, British, Portuguese, Lebanese, Syrian

Religions: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some
  Roman Catholic

Languages: English (official), local dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of
  schooling (1960 est.)
  total population: 89%
  male: 90%
  female: 88%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Data code: AC

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*;
  Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint
  Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) is a
  hereditary monarch, represented by Governor General James B.
  CARLISLE (since NA 1993) who was chosen by the queen on advice from
  the prime minister
  head of government: Prime Minister Lester Bryant BIRD (since 8 March
  1994) was appointed by the governor general
  cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the governor general
  on the advice of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
  Senate: 17- member body appointed by the governor general
  House of Representatives: elections last held 8 March 1994 (next to
  be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (17
  total) ALP 11, UPP 5, independent 1

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint
  Lucia), one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands
  and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Lester
  Bryant BIRD; United Progressive Party (UPP), headed by Baldwin
  SPENCER, a coalition of three opposition political parties-the
  United National Democratic Party (UNDP); the Antigua Caribbean
  Liberation Movement (ACLM); and the Progressive Labor Movement (PLM)

Other political or pressure groups: Antigua Trades and Labor Union
  (ATLU), William ROBINSON; People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Hugh
  MARSHALL

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
  ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO
  (subscriber), ITU, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lionel Alexander HURST
  chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
  telephone: [1] (202) 362-5211, 5166, 5122
  FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
  consulate(s) general: Miami

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in
  Antigua and Barbuda (embassy closed 30 June 1994); the US Ambassador
  to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top
  edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of
  black (top), light blue, and white with a yellow rising sun in the
  black band



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Tourism continues to be by far the dominant
  activity in the economy but the combined share in GDP of transport
  and communications, trade, and public utilities has increased
  markedly in recent years. Tourism's direct contribution to output in
  1994 was about 20%. In addition, increased tourist arrivals helped
  spur growth in the construction and transport sectors. The dual
  island nation's agricultural production is mainly directed to the
  domestic market; the sector is constrained by the limited water
  supply and labor shortages that reflect the pull of higher wages in
  tourism and construction. Manufacturing - which accounts for 3.5% of
  GDP - comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products
  being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for
  economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income
  growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which
  accounts for about half of all tourist arrivals.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $425 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.2% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $6,600 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3.5%
  industry: 19.3%
  services: 77.2% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (1994)

Labor force: 30,000
  by occupation: commerce and services 82%, agriculture 11%, industry
  7% (1983)

Unemployment rate: 5%-10%(1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $134 million
  expenditures: $135.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1995)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
  alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate: -4.9% (1993 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 52,100 kW
  production: 95 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 1,242 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts,
  cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Illicit drugs: a long-time but relatively minor transshipment
  point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe and recent
  transshipment point for heroin from Europe to the US; more
  significant as a drug money laundering center

Exports: $40.9 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, food and live
  animals 4%, machinery and transport equipment 17%
  partners: OECS 26%, Barbados 15%, Guyana 4%, Trinidad and Tobago 2%,
  US 0.3%

Imports: $443.8 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: food and live animals, machinery and transport
  equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil
  partners: US 27%, UK 16%, Canada 4%, OECS 3%, other 50%

External debt: $377 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70
  (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 77 km
  narrow gauge: 64 km 0.760-m gauge; 13 km 0.610-m gauge (used almost
  exclusively for handling sugarcane)

Highways:
  total: 240 km
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km

Ports: Saint John's

Merchant marine:
  total: 367 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,573,063
  GRT/2,147,243 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 247, chemical tanker 6, combination
  bulk 1, container 72, liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 3,
  refrigerated cargo 14, roll-on/roll-off cargo 16
  note: a flag of convenience registry: Germany owns 12 ships,
  Slovenia 3, Croatia 2, Cyprus 1, and US 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 3
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 6,700

Telephone system:
  domestic: good automatic telephone system
  international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station -
  1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Saba
  (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 2

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 28,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua
  and Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: NA
  males fit for military service: NA

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, 1%
  of GDP (FY90/91)



======================================================================



@Arctic Ocean
------------



Map
---


Location: 90 00 N, 0 00 E -- body of water mostly north of the
  Arctic Circle



Geography
---------


Location: body of water mostly north of the Arctic Circle

Geographic coordinates: 90 00 N, 0 00 E

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
  total area: 14.056 million sq km
  comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US;
  smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic
  Ocean, and Indian Ocean)
  note: includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
  East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara
  Sea, Laptev Sea, Northwest Passage, and other tributary water bodies

Coastline: 45,389 km

International disputes: some maritime disputes (see littoral
  states); Svalbard is the focus of a maritime boundary dispute
  between Norway and Russia

Climate: polar climate characterized by persistent cold and
  relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters characterized
  by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions, and
  clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and
  foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar
  icepack that averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure
  ridges may be three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the
  Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly straight line movement from the
  New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark Strait (between Greenland
  and Iceland); the icepack is surrounded by open seas during the
  summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and extends
  to the encircling land masses; the ocean floor is about 50%
  continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the
  remainder a central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges
  (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge)
  lowest point: Fram Basin -4,665 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
  polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals
  (seals and whales)

Environment:
  current issues: endangered marine species include walruses and
  whales; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from
  disruptions or damage
  natural hazards: ice islands occasionally break away from northern
  Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from glaciers in western Greenland
  and extreme northeastern Canada; permafrost in islands; virtually
  icelocked from October to June; ships subject to superstructure
  icing from October to May
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea
  (northern access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait);
  strategic location between North America and Russia; shortest marine
  link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia, floating
  research stations operated by the US and Russia; maximum snow cover
  in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean;
  snow cover lasts about 10 months



Government
----------


Data code: none; the US Government has not approved a standard for
  hydrographic codes - see the Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic
  Data Codes appendix



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Economic activity is limited to the
  exploitation of natural resources, including petroleum, natural gas,
  fish, and seals.



Transportation
--------------


Ports: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)

Transportation note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land
  routes; the Northwest Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route
  (Eurasia) are important seasonal waterways



Communications
--------------


Telephone system:
  international: no submarine cables



======================================================================



@Argentina
---------



Map
---


Location: 34 00 S, 64 00 W -- Southern South America, bordering
  the South Atlantic Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay



Flag
----


Description: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top),
  white, and light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant
  yellow sun with a human face known as the Sun of May



Geography
---------


Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic
  Ocean, between Chile and Uruguay

Geographic coordinates: 34 00 S, 64 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
  total area: 2,766,890 sq km
  land area: 2,736,690 sq km
  comparative area: slightly less than three-tenths the size of the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 9,665 km
  border countries: Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km,
  Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline: 4,989 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: short section of the boundary with Uruguay
  is in dispute; short section of the boundary with Chile is
  indefinite; claims British-administered Falkland Islands (Islas
  Malvinas); claims British-administered South Georgia and the South
  Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in
  southwest

Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to
  rolling plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western
  border
  lowest point: Salinas Chicas -40 m
  highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin,
  copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium

Land use:
  arable land: 9%
  permanent crops: 4%
  meadows and pastures: 52%
  forest and woodland: 22%
  other: 13%

Irrigated land: 17,600 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: erosion results from inadequate flood controls and
  improper land use practices; irrigated soil degradation;
  desertification; air pollution in Buenos Aires and other major
  cities; water pollution in urban areas; rivers becoming polluted due
  to increased pesticide and fertilizer use
  natural hazards: Tucuman and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to
  earthquakes; pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the
  Pampas and northeast; heavy flooding
  international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification,
  Marine Life Conservation

Geographic note: second-largest country in South America (after
  Brazil); strategic location relative to sea lanes between South
  Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle
  Channel, Drake Passage)



People
------


Population: 34,672,997 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28% (male 4,904,380; female 4,707,293)
  15-64 years: 63% (male 10,851,004; female 10,834,593)
  65 years and over: 9% (male 1,414,412; female 1,961,315) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 1.1% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 19.41 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.62 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 28.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.66 years
  male: 68.37 years
  female: 75.12 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.62 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Argentine(s)
  adjective: Argentine

Ethnic divisions: white 85%, mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite
  groups 15%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20%
  practicing), Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, other 6%

Languages: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 96.2%
  male: 96.2%
  female: 96.2%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Argentine Republic
  conventional short form: Argentina
  local long form: Republica Argentina
  local short form: Argentina

Data code: AR

Type of government: republic

Capital: Buenos Aires

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (provincias, singular -
  provincia), and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Buenos
  Aires; Catamarca; Chaco; Chubut; Cordoba; Corrientes; Distrito
  Federal*; Entre Rios; Formosa; Jujuy; La Pampa; La Rioja; Mendoza;
  Misiones; Neuquen; Rio Negro; Salta; San Juan; San Luis; Santa Cruz;
  Santa Fe; Santiago del Estero; Tierra del Fuego, Antartida e Islas
  del Atlantico Sur; Tucuman
  note: the US does not recognize any claims to Antarctica or
  Argentina's claims to the Falkland Islands

Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

National holiday: Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)

Constitution: 1 May 1853; revised August 1994

Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has
  not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President Carlos Saul MENEM
  (since 8 July 1989) was elected for a four-year term by universal
  suffrage; election last held 14 May 1995 (next to be held May 1999);
  results - Carlos Saul MENEM was reelected; Vice President Carlos
  RUCKAUF
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
  Senate: elections last held NA May 1995 (next to be held NA);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (72 total) PJ 38,
  others 34
  Chamber of Deputies: one-half of the members elected every two years
  to four-year terms; elections last held 14 May 1995; (next to be
  held NA 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (257
  total) PJ 132, UCR 68, Frepaso 26, other 31

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), the nine Supreme
  Court judges are appointed by the president with approval of the
  Senate

Political parties and leaders: Justicialist Party (PJ), Carlos
  Saul MENEM, Peronist umbrella political organization; Radical Civic
  Union (UCR), Rodolfo TERRAGNO, moderately left-of-center party;
  Union of the Democratic Center (UCD), conservative party; Dignity
  and Independence Political Party (MODIN), Aldo RICO, right-wing
  party; Grand Front (Frente Grande), Carlos ALVAREZ, center-left
  coalition; Front for a Country in Solidarity (Frepaso, a four party
  coalition), leader Jose Octavio BORDON; several provincial parties

Other political or pressure groups: Peronist-dominated labor
  movement; General Confederation of Labor (CGT), Peronist-leaning
  umbrella labor organization; Argentine Industrial Union
  (manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Society (large
  landowners' association); business organizations; students; the
  Roman Catholic Church; the Armed Forces

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer),
  Australia Group, BCIE, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G- 6, G-11, G-15, G-19,
  G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
  ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MINURSO, MTCR, NSG (observer), OAS,
  OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMIR, UNAVEM
  III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR,
  UNMIH, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Raul Enrique GRANILLO OCAMPO
  chancery: 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 939-6400 through 6403
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador James R. CHEEK
  embassy: 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
  mailing address: Unit 4334, APO AA 34034
  telephone: [54] (1) 777-4533, 4534
  FAX: [54] (1) 777-0197

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and
  light blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with
  a human face known as the Sun of May



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Argentina, rich in natural resources, benefits
  also from a highly literate population, an export-oriented
  agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base.
  Nevertheless, following decades of mismanagement and statist
  policies, the economy in the late 1980s was plagued with huge
  external debts and recurring bouts of hyperinflation. Elected in
  1989, in the depths of recession, President MENEM has implemented a
  comprehensive economic restructuring program that shows signs of
  putting Argentina on a path of stable, sustainable growth.
  Argentina's currency has traded at par with the US dollar since
  April 1991, and inflation has fallen to its lowest level in 20
  years. Argentines have responded to the relative price stability by
  repatriating flight capital and investing in domestic industry.
  After registering impressive 7.4% growth in 1994, based largely on
  inflows of foreign capital and strong domestic consumption, the
  Argentine economy stumbled in 1995 as financial pressures fueled by
  the Mexican peso crisis and political squabbling within the MENEM
  administration undermined investor confidence and triggered capital
  outflows. By yearend, GDP had contracted 4.4%, unemployment reached
  16%, and Buenos Aires struggled to meet fiscal targets. On the trade
  front, exports soared during the first half of 1995 - largely
  because of strong demand in Brazil and high commodity prices - while
  anemic domestic consumption lowered imports; the resulting yearend
  trade surplus was about $1.2 billion. However, because exports
  contribute only 7.5% to GDP, increased foreign sales had little
  impact on aggregate growth. High unemployment will continue to
  plague the MENEM administration for the next several years as
  provincial entities are readied for privatization and more public
  sector employees are laid off.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $278.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -4.4%

GDP per capita: $8,100 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 6%
  industry: 31%
  services: 63% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 10.9 million
  by occupation: agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985
  est.)

Unemployment rate: 16% (1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $48.46 billion
  expenditures: $46.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.5
  billion (1994 est.)

Industries: food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables,
  textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel

Industrial production growth rate: -4.6% (1995 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 17,330,000 kW
  production: 54.8 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 1,610 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, corn, sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets; livestock

Illicit drugs: increasing use as a transshipment country for
  cocaine headed for Europe and the US

Exports: $20.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
  commodities: meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, manufactures
  partners: US 9%, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Netherlands

Imports: $19.5 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
  commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and
  lubricants, agricultural products
  partners: US 21%, Brazil, Germany, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands

External debt: $90 billion (December 1995)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 nuevo peso argentino = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: pesos per US$1 - 1.00000 (January 1996), 0.99975
  (1995), 0.99901 (1994), 0.99895 (1993), 0.99064 (1992), 0.95355
  (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 37,910 km
  broad gauge: 24,124 km 1.676-m gauge (142 km electrified)
  standard gauge: 2,765 km 1.435-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 11,021 km 1.000-m gauge (26 km electrified)

Highways:
  total: 215,578 km
  paved: 61,440 km
  unpaved: 154,138 km

Waterways: 11,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km;
  natural gas 9,918 km

Ports: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Comodoro Rivadavia, Concepcion
  del Uruguay, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Necochea, Rio Gallegos,
  Rosario, Santa Fe, Ushuaia

Merchant marine:
  total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 303,448 GRT/458,864 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 11, chemical tanker 1, container 3, oil
  tanker 14, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off
  cargo 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 1,253
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 5
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 25
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 54
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 46
  with paved runways under 914 m: 511
  with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 60
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 549 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 2.7 million (1983 est.)

Telephone system: 12,000 public telephones; extensive modern
  system but many families do not have telephones; despite extensive
  use of microwave radio relay, the telephone system frequently
  grounds out during rainstorms, even in Buenos Aires
  domestic: microwave radio relay and a domestic satellite system with
  40 earth stations serve the trunk network
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 171, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: 22.3 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 231

Televisions: 7.165 million (1991 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic,
  Argentine Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval
  Prefecture (Coast Guard only), National Aeronautical Police Force

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 8,707,014
  males fit for military service: 7,063,304
  males reach military age (20) annually: 310,107 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $4.7 billion,
  1.5% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Armenia
-------



Map
---


Location: 40 00 N, 45 00 E -- Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey



Flag
----


Description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and
  gold



Geography
---------


Location: Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
  total area: 29,800 sq km
  land area: 28,400 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,254 km
  border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: supports ethnic Armenians in
  Nagorno-Karabakh in their separatist conflict against the
  Azerbaijani Government; traditional demands on former Armenian lands
  in Turkey have subsided

Climate: highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain: high Armenian Plateau with mountains; little forest land;
  fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
  lowest point: Debed River 400 m
  highest point: Aragats Lerr 4,095 m

Natural resources: small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum,
  zinc, alumina

Land use:
  arable land: 17%
  permanent crops: 3%
  meadows and pastures: 20%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 60%

Irrigated land: 3,050 sq km (1990)

Environment:
  current issues: soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT;
  energy blockade, the result of conflict with Azerbaijan, has led to
  deforestation as citizens scavenge for firewood; pollution of
  Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich, a
  result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking
  water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant without
  adequate (IAEA-recommended) safety and backup systems
  natural hazards: occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
  Desertification

Geographic note: landlocked



People
------


Population: 3,463,574 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28% (male 497,461; female 476,649)
  15-64 years: 64% (male 1,085,935; female 1,132,282)
  65 years and over: 8% (male 111,661; female 159,586) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.02% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 16.27 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.73 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -8.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 38.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 69.06 years
  male: 64.44 years
  female: 73.92 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.06 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Armenian(s)
  adjective: Armenian

Ethnic divisions: Armenian 93%, Azeri 3%, Russian 2%, other
  (mostly Yezidi Kurds) 2% (1989)
  note: as of the end of 1993, virtually all Azeris had emigrated from
======================================================================



@Aruba
-----


(part of the Dutch realm)

Map
---


Location: 12 30 N, 69 58 W -- Caribbean, island in the Caribbean
  Sea, north of Venezuela



Flag
----


Description: blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across
  the lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in
  the upper hoist-side corner



Geography
---------


Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of
  Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 N, 69 58 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total area: 193 sq km
  land area: 193 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 68.5 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Jamanota 188 m

Natural resources: negligible; white sandy beaches

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 100%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt
  international agreements: NA



People
------


Population: 67,794 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 22% (male 7,850; female 7,155)
  15-64 years: 69% (male 22,499; female 24,596)
  65 years and over: 9% (male 2,353; female 3,341) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.31% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 14.62 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.24 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.93 male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 8.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.68 years
  male: 73 years
  female: 80.55 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Aruban(s)
  adjective: Aruban

Ethnic divisions: mixed European/Caribbean Indian 80%

Religions: Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, Hindu, Muslim,
  Confucian, Jewish

Languages: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese,
  Dutch, English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy: NA



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Aruba

Data code: AA

Type of government: part of the Dutch realm; full autonomy in
  internal affairs obtained in 1986 upon separation from the
  Netherlands Antilles

Capital: Oranjestad

Administrative divisions: none (self-governing part of the
  Netherlands)

Independence: none (part of the Dutch realm; in 1990, Aruba
  requested and received from the Netherlands cancellation of the
  agreement to automatically give independence to the island in 1996)

National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

Constitution: 1 January 1986

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
  common law influence

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (of the Netherlands
  since 30 April 1980), a constitutional monarch, is represented by
  Governor General Olindo KOOLMAN (since 1 January 1992) who was
  appointed for a six-year term by the queen
  head of government: Prime Minister Jan (Henny) H. EMAN (since 29
  July 1994) and Deputy Prime Minister Glenbert F. CROES were
  appointed by the legislature
  cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the legislature

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Legislature (Staten): elections last held 29 July 1994 (next to be
  held by NA July 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats
  - (21 total) AVP 10, MEP 9, OLA 2

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders: Electoral Movement Party (MEP),
  Nelson ODUBER; Aruban People's Party (AVP), Jan (Henny) H. EMAN;
  National Democratic Action (ADN), Pedro Charro KELLY; New Patriotic
  Party (PPN), Eddy WERLEMEN; Aruban Patriotic Party (PPA), Benny
  NISBET; Aruban Democratic Party (PDA), Leo BERLINSKI; Democratic
  Action '86 (AD '86), Arturo ODUBER; Aruban Liberal Party (OLA),
  Glenbert CROES
  note: governing coalition includes the AVP and OLA

International organization participation: ECLAC (associate),
  Interpol, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WToO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing part of the
  Netherlands)

US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing part of the
  Netherlands)

Flag: blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the
  lower portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the
  upper hoist-side corner



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the Aruban economy,
  although offshore banking and oil refining and storage are also
  important. The rapid growth of the tourism sector over the last
  decade has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities.
  Construction has boomed, with hotel capacity five times the 1985
  level. In addition, the reopening of the country's oil refinery in
  1993, a major source of employment and foreign exchange earnings,
  has further spurred growth. Aruba's small labor force and less than
  1% unemployment rate have led to a large number of unfilled job
  vacancies despite sharp rises in wage rates in recent years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.2 billion (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.1% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $18,000 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.1% (1994)

Labor force: NA
  by occupation: most employment is in the tourist industry (1995)

Unemployment rate: 0.5% (1994)

Budget:
  revenues: $145 million
  expenditures: $185 million, including capital expenditures of $42
  million (1988)

Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 90,000 kW
  production: 330 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 4,761 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: aloes; livestock; fishing

Illicit drugs: major drug money laundering center and minor
  transit point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe

Exports: $1.3 billion (including oil re-exports) (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: mostly refined petroleum products
  partners: US 64%, EU

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: food, consumer goods, manufactures, petroleum products,
  crude oil for refining and reexport
  partners: US 8%, EU

External debt: $669 million (December 1995)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate
  since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: NA km
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km

Ports: Barcadera, Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 2
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1
  note: government-owned airport east of Oranjestad accepts
  transatlantic flights (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 22,922 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: more than adequate
  international: 1 submarine cable to Sint Maarten (Netherlands
  Antilles); extensive interisland microwave radio relay links

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 19,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands



======================================================================



@Ashmore and Cartier Islands
---------------------------


(territory of Australia)

Map
---


Location: 12 14 S, 123 05 E -- Southeastern Asia, islands in the
  Indian Ocean, northwest of Australia



Flag
----


Description: the flag of Australia is used



Geography
---------


Location: Southeastern Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean,
  northwest of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 12 14 S, 123 05 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
  total area: 5 sq km
  land area: 5 sq km
  comparative area: about eight times the size of The Mall in
  Washington, DC
  note: includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and
  Cartier Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 74.1 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 12 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low with sand and coral
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (all grass and sand)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: surrounded by shoals and reefs that can pose
  maritime hazards
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve established
  in August 1983



People
------


Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are only
  seasonal caretakers



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
  conventional short form: Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Data code: AT

Type of government: territory of Australia administered by the
  Australian Ministry for the Environment, Sport, and Territories

Capital: none; administered from Canberra, Australia

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Legal system: relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of Australia)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used



Economy
-------


Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation
--------------


Ports: none; offshore anchorage only



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic
  visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force



======================================================================



@Atlantic Ocean
--------------



Map
---


Location: 0 00 N, 25 00 W -- body of water between Africa, Europe,
  Antarctica, and the Western Hemisphere



Geography
---------


Location: body of water between Africa, Europe, Antarctica, and
  the Western Hemisphere

Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
  total area: 82.217 million sq km
  comparative area: slightly less than nine times the size of the US;
  second-largest of the world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean,
  but larger than Indian Ocean or Arctic Ocean)
  note: includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
  Denmark Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea,
  North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Scotia Sea, Weddell Sea, and other
  tributary water bodies

Coastline: 111,866 km

International disputes: some maritime disputes (see littoral
  states)

Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of
  Africa near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea;
  hurricanes can occur from May to December, but are most frequent
  from August to November

Terrain: surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea,
  Denmark Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm
  water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) in the northern
  Atlantic, counterclockwise warm water gyre in the southern Atlantic;
  the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged
  north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin
  lowest point: Puerto Rico Trench -8,605 m
  highest point: sea level 0 m

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals
  and whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
  polymetallic nodules, precious stones

Environment:
  current issues: endangered marine species include the manatee,
  seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales; drift net fishing is
  hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to
  international disputes; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US,
  southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean
  Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North
  Sea; industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea,
  North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea
  natural hazards: icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait,
  and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have
  been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands;
  icebergs from Antarctica occur in the extreme southern Atlantic
  Ocean; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern
  Atlantic from October to May and extreme southern Atlantic from May
  to October; persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to
  September
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: major choke points include the Dardanelles,
  Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals; strategic
  straits include the Strait of Dover, Straits of Florida, Mona
  Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; the Equator
  divides the Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South
======================================================================



@Australia
---------



Map
---


Location: 27 00 S, 133 00 E -- Oceania, continent between the
  Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean



Flag
----


Description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side
  quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern
  Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and
  four, larger, seven-pointed stars



Geography
---------


Location: Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the
  South Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 S, 133 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
  total area: 7,686,850 sq km
  land area: 7,617,930 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than the US
  note: includes Macquarie Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: territorial claim in Antarctica
  (Australian Antarctic Territory)

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east;
  tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in
  southeast
  lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m
  highest point: Mount Kosciusko 2,229 m

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver,
  uranium, nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds,
  natural gas, petroleum

Land use:
  arable land: 6%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 58%
  forest and woodland: 14%
  other: 22%

Irrigated land: 18,800 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial
  development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity
  rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification;
  clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of
  many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the
  northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened
  by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited
  natural fresh water resources
  natural hazards: cyclones along the coast; severe droughts
  international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
  Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Geographic note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest
  country; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern
  coasts; regular, tropical, invigorating, sea breeze known as "the
  Doctor" occurs along the west coast in the summer



People
------


Population: 18,260,863 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21% (male 2,009,915; female 1,912,605)
  15-64 years: 66% (male 6,129,285; female 5,980,315)
  65 years and over: 13% (male 967,291; female 1,261,452) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 0.99% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 13.99 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.88 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 79.39 years
  male: 76.44 years
  female: 82.5 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.84 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Australian(s)
  adjective: Australian

Ethnic divisions: Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, aboriginal and other 1%

Religions: Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26%, other Christian
  24.3%

Languages: English, native languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
  total population: 100%
  male: 100%
  female: 100%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
  conventional short form: Australia

Data code: AS

Type of government: federal parliamentary state

Capital: Canberra

Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian
  Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*,
  Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island,
  Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and
  McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island

Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

National holiday: Australia Day, 26 January (1788)

Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) is a
  hereditary monarch, represented by Governor General Sir William
  DEANE (since 16 February 1996) who was appointed by the queen
  head of government: Prime Minister John Winston HOWARD (since 11
  March 1996) was appointed by the governor general; Deputy Prime
  Minister Timothy Andrew FISCHER (since 11 March 1996)
  cabinet: Cabinet was selected from among the members of Federal
  Parliament by the governor general on the advice of the prime
  minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament
  Senate: elections last held 2 March 1996 (next to be held NA 1999);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total)
  Liberal-National 37, Labor 29, Australian Democrats 8, Greens 1,
  independent 1
  House of Representatives: elections last held 2 March 1996 (next to
  be held NA 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
  (148 total) Liberal-National 94, Labor 49, independent 5

Judicial branch: High Court, the Chief Justice and six other
  justices are appointed by the governor general

Political parties and leaders:
  government: coalition of Liberal Party, John Winston HOWARD and
  National Party, Timothy Andrew FISCHER
  opposition: Australian Labor Party, Kim BEAZLEY; Australian
  Democratic Party, Cheryl KERNOT; Green Party, Bob BROWN

Other political or pressure groups: Australian Democratic Labor
  Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Peace and Nuclear
  Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party splinter group)

International organization participation: AG (observer), ANZUS,
  APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-
  8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NAM
  (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN, UNAMIR,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John Phillip MCCARTHY
  chancery: 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  telephone: [1] (202) 797-3000
  FAX: [1] (202) 797-3168
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New
  York, Pago Pago (American Samoa), and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Edward J. PERKINS
  embassy: Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital
  Territory 2600
  mailing address: APO AP 96549
  telephone: [61] (6) 270-5000
  FAX: [61] (6) 270-5970
  consulate(s) general: Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney
  consulate(s): Brisbane

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side
  quadrant; the remaining half is a representation of the Southern
  Cross constellation in white with one small five-pointed star and
  four, larger, seven-pointed stars



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style
  capitalist economy, with a per capita GDP comparable to levels in
  highly industrialized West European countries. Rich in natural
  resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products,
  minerals, metals, and fossil fuels. Commodities account for more
  than 80% of the value of total exports, so that, as in 1983-84, a
  downturn in world commodity prices can have a big impact on the
  economy. The government is pushing for increased exports of
  manufactured goods, but competition in international markets
  continues to be severe. Australia has suffered from the low growth
  and high unemployment characterizing the OECD countries in the early
  1990s. In 1992-93 the economy recovered slowly from the prolonged
  recession of 1990-91, a major restraining factor being weak world
  demand for Australia's exports. Growth picked up so strongly in 1994
  that the government felt the need for fiscal and monetary tightening
  by yearend. Australia's GDP grew 6.4% in 1994, largely due to
  increases in industrial output and business investment. A severe
  drought in 1994 reduced the value of Australia's net farm
  production, but rising world commodity prices are likely to boost
  commodity exports by 15% to $42.4 billion in 1995/96, according to
  government statistics. Short-term economic problems include a
  balancing of output growth and inflationary pressures and the
  stimulation of exports to offset rising imports.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $405.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $22,100 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3.1%
  industry: 27.7%
  services: 69.2% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.75% (1995)

Labor force: 8.63 million (September 1991)
  by occupation: finance and services 33.8%, public and community
  services 22.3%, wholesale and retail trade 20.1%, manufacturing and
  industry 16.2%, agriculture 6.1% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 8.1% (December 1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $95.69 billion
  expenditures: $95.15 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food
  processing, chemicals, steel

Industrial production growth rate: 3.9% (FY93/94)

Electricity:
  capacity: 34,540,000 kW
  production: 155 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 8,021 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep,
  poultry

Illicit drugs: Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of
  licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over
  areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw
  concentrate

Exports: $51.57 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
  commodities: coal, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and
  transport equipment
  partners: Japan 25%, US 11%, South Korea 6%, NZ 5.7%, UK, Taiwan,
  Singapore, Hong Kong (1992)

Imports: $57.41 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
  commodities: machinery and transport equipment, computers and office
  machines, crude oil and petroleum products
  partners: US 23%, Japan 18%, UK 6%, Germany 5.7%, NZ 4% (1992)

External debt: $147.2 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
  donor: ODA, $953 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3477 (January
  1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3668 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992),
  1.2835 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 38,563 km (2,914 km electrified; 172 km dual gauge)
  broad gauge: 6,083 km 1.600-m gauge
  standard gauge: 16,752 km 1.435-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 15,728 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 810,264 km
  paved: 283,592 km (including 1,200 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 526,672 km (1989 est.)

Waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural
  gas 5,600 km

Ports: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport, Fremantle,
  Geelong, Hobart (Tasmania), Launceton (Tasmania), Mackay, Melbourne,
  Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine:
  total: 76 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,547,869 GRT/3,679,534
  DWT
  ships by type: bulk 30, cargo 4, chemical tanker 3, combination bulk
  1, container 6, liquefied gas tanker 6, oil tanker 18,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 7, short-sea passenger 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 442
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 9
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 13
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 106
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 116
  with paved runways under 914 m: 30
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 22
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 146 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 8.7 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: good domestic and international service
  domestic: domestic satellite system
  international: submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New Guinea,
  and Indonesia; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian
  Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat (Indian and Pacific Ocean
  Regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 258, FM 67, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 134 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 9.2 million (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian
  Air Force

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 4,848,777
  males fit for military service: 4,192,250
  males reach military age (17) annually: 127,569 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $7.3 billion,
  2.0% of GDP (FY95/96)



======================================================================



@Austria
-------



Map
---


Location: 47 20 N, 13 20 E -- Central Europe, north of Italy



Flag
----


Description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and
  red



Geography
---------


Location: Central Europe, north of Italy

Geographic coordinates: 47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 83,850 sq km
  land area: 82,730 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,558 km
  border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366
  km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 324
  km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with
  frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with
  occasional showers

Terrain: in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the
  eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
  lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
  highest point: Grossglockner 3,797 m

Natural resources: iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal,
  lignite, copper, hydropower

Land use:
  arable land: 17%
  permanent crops: 1%
  meadows and pastures: 24%
  forest and woodland: 39%
  other: 19%

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1989)

Environment:
  current issues: some forest degradation caused by air and soil
  pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural
  chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and
  oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks
  transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
  natural hazards: NA
  international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
  Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
  Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur
  94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol

Geographic note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads
  of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and
  valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on
  eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low
  temperatures elsewhere



People
------


Population: 8,023,244 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18% (male 720,696; female 685,179)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 2,726,122; female 2,659,162)
  65 years and over: 15% (male 451,231; female 780,854) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 0.41% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 11.19 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.43 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.53 years
  male: 73.38 years
  female: 79.84 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.49 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Austrian(s)
  adjective: Austrian

Ethnic divisions: German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other
  0.1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9%

Languages: German

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1974 est.)
  total population: 99%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Austria
  conventional short form: Austria
  local long form: Republik Oesterreich
  local short form: Oesterreich

Data code: AU

Type of government: federal republic

Capital: Vienna

Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslaender, singular -
  bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich,
  Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence: 12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)

National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955)

Constitution: 1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)

Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial
  review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate
  administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential
  elections

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992) was
  elected for a six-year term by popular vote; election last held 24
  May 1992 (next to be held 1998); results of second ballot - Thomas
  KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43%
  head of government: Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June 1986)
  was chosen by the president from the majority party in the National
  Council; Vice Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (since 22 April 1995)
  was chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
  cabinet: Council of Ministers was chosen by the president on the
  advice of the chancellor

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung)
  Federal Council (Bundesrat): consists of 63 members representing
  each of the provinces on the basis of population, but with each
  province having at least three representatives
  National Council (Nationalrat): elections last held 17 December 1995
  (next to be held Fall 1999); results - SPOE 38.3%, OEVP 28.3%, FPOE
  22.1%, Greens 4.6%, LF 5.3%, other 1.4%; seats - (183 total) SPOE
  71, OEVP 53, FPOE 40, Greens 9, LF 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for
  civil and criminal cases; Administrative Court
  (Verwaltungsgerichtshof) for bureaucratic cases; Constitutional
  Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) for constitutional cases

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party of Austria
  (SPOE), Franz VRANITZKY, chairman; Austrian People's Party (OEVP),
  Wolfgang SCHUESSEL, chairman; Freedom Movement (F, formerly the
  Freedom Party of Austria or FPOE), Joerg HAIDER, chairman; Communist
  Party (KPOE), Walter SILBERMAYER, chairman; The Greens, Madeleine
  PETROVIC; Liberal Forum (LF), Heide SCHMIDT

Other political or pressure groups: Federal Chamber of Commerce
  and Industry; Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist);
  three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party (OEVP)
  representing business, labor, and farmers; OEVP-oriented League of
  Austrian Industrialists; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief
  lay organization, Catholic Action

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer),
  AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA,
  EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
  ITU, MINURSO, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer),
  OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
  UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIH, UNMOT, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU
  (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Helmut TUERK
  chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
  telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
  FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Swanee G. HUNT
  chancery: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna
  mailing address: use embassy street address
  telephone: [43] (1) 313-39
  FAX: [43] (1) 310-0682

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Austria has a well-developed market economy
  with a sizable - but falling - proportion of nationalized industry,
  an extensive social system, and a high standard of living. Austria's
  economy is closely integrated with Germany and other EU members -
  Austria joined the EU on 1 January 1995. Since the early 1980s, the
  Austrian economy has experienced stable growth. Following a mild
  recession in 1993, Austria's economy - driven by strong exports,
  investment, and private consumption - expanded 2.7% in 1994 and
  about 2.4% in 1995. The slowdown in 1995 was largely due to an
  appreciation of the Austrian schilling and its negative effect on
  exports and tourism. EU membership has had a positive impact on
  foreign investment and has helped to lower inflation. Despite
  Austria's generally favorable economic prospects, the government
  faces a number of economic challenges, especially budget
  consolidation. Smaller than expected revenues and rising welfare
  payments caused the budget deficit to climb to 7.1% of GDP in 1995.
  Austria also faces a growing unemployment problem. Although low by
  European standards, Austria's unemployment rate has risen gradually
  during the 1990s as companies restructured to meet competition from
  the EU single market and Eastern Europe.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $152 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $19,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 2%
  industry: 34%
  services: 64% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 3.47 million (1989)
  by occupation: services 56.4%, industry and crafts 35.4%,
  agriculture and forestry 8.1%
  note: an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European
  countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about 5% of
  labor force (1988)

Unemployment rate: 4.6% (1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $65 billion
  expenditures: $75.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1995 est.)

Industries: food, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals,
  electrical, paper and pulp, tourism, mining, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate: 7.7% (first half 1995)

Electricity:
  capacity: 17,230,000 kW
  production: 50.2 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 5,824 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets; cattle, pigs,
  poultry; sawn wood

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
  transiting the Balkan route and Eastern Europe

Exports: $45.2 billion (1994)
  commodities: machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber,
  textiles, paper products, chemicals
  partners: EU 64.8% (Germany 38.1%, Italy 8.1%), Eastern Europe
  11.8%, Japan 1.6%, US 3.5% (1994)

Imports: $55.3 billion (1994)
  commodities: petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment,
  vehicles, chemicals, textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals
  partners: EU 68.4% (Germany 40%, Italy 8.8%), Eastern Europe 6.55%,
  Japan 4.3%, US 4.4% (1994)

External debt: $28.7 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
  donor: ODA, $544 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Austrian schilling (S) = 100 groschen

Exchange rates: Austrian schillings (S) per US$1 - 10.314 (January
  1996), 10.081 (1995), 11.422 (1994), 11.632 (1993), 10.989 (1992),
  11.676 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 5,624 km
  standard gauge: 5,269 km 1.435-m gauge (3,263 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 355 km 1.000-m and 0.760-m gauge (86 km electrified)
  (1995)

Highways:
  total: 108,000 km
  paved: 22,000 km (including 1,800 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 86,000 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 446 km

Pipelines: crude oil 554 km; petroleum products 171 km; natural
  gas 2,611 km

Ports: Linz, Vienna

Merchant marine:
  total: 29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 88,617 GRT/122,475 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 23, combination bulk 2, container 1,
  refrigerated cargo 2 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 55
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 5
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3
  with paved runways under 914 m: 41
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 3.47 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: highly developed and efficient
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
  Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 2 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 21 (repeaters 545), shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 47 (repeaters 870)

Televisions: 2,418,584 (1984 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army (includes Flying Division)

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,084,827
  males fit for military service: 1,741,068
  males reach military age (19) annually: 45,628 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.1 billion,
  1.0% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Azerbaijan
----------


Azerbaijan continues to be plagued by an unresolved eight-year-old
conflict with Armenian separatists over its Nagorno-Karabakh region.
The Karabakh Armenians have declared independence and seized almost
20% of the country's territory, creating almost 1 million Azeri
refugees in the process. Both sides have generally observed a
Russian-mediated cease-fire in place since May 1994, and support the
OSCE-mediated peace process, now entering its fifth year.
Nevertheless, Baku and Xankandi (Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh
region) remain far apart on most substantive issues from the
placement and composition of a peacekeeping force to the enclave's
ultimate political status, and prospects for a negotiated settlement
remain dim.

Map
---


Location: 40 30 N, 47 30 E -- Southwestern Asia, bordering the
  Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia



Flag
----


Description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and
  green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in
  red band



Geography
---------


Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between
  Iran and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 40 30 N, 47 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
  total area: 86,600 sq km
  land area: 86,100 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Maine
  note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the
  Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by
  Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,013 km
  border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia
  (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran
  (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan
  exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
  note: Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: violent and longstanding dispute with
  ethnic Armenians of Nagorno-Karabakh over its status; Caspian Sea
  boundaries are not yet determined

Climate: dry, semiarid steppe

Terrain: large, flat Kur-Araz Lowland (much of it below sea level)
  with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag (Karabakh)
  Upland in west; Baku lies on Abseron (Apsheron) Peninsula that juts
  into Caspian Sea
  lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
  highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous
  metals, alumina

Land use:
  arable land: 18%
  permanent crops: 4%
  meadows and pastures: 25%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 53%

Irrigated land: 14,010 sq km (1990)

Environment:
  current issues: local scientists consider the Abseron (Apsheron)
  Peninsula (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be
  the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe
  air, water, and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use
  of DDT as a pesticide and also from toxic defoliants used in the
  production of cotton
  natural hazards: droughts; some lowland areas threatened by rising
  levels of the Caspian Sea
  international agreements: party to - Climate Change; signed, but not
  ratified - Biodiversity

Geographic note: landlocked



People
------


Population: 7,676,953 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 32% (male 1,270,812; female 1,215,781)
  15-64 years: 61% (male 2,293,688; female 2,423,222)
  65 years and over: 7% (male 179,048; female 294,402) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.78% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 22.28 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.69 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -5.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 74.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 64.84 years
  male: 60.13 years
  female: 69.78 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.64 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Azerbaijani(s)
  adjective: Azerbaijani

Ethnic divisions: Azeri 90%, Dagestani Peoples 3.2%, Russian 2.5%,
  Armenian 2.3%, other 2% (1995 est.)
  note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh
  region

Religions: Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox
  2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)
  note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; actual
  practicing adherents are much lower

Languages: Azeri 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989 est.)
  total population: 97%
  male: 99%
  female: 96%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Azerbaijani Republic
  conventional short form: Azerbaijan
  local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
  local short form: none
  former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: AJ

Type of government: republic

Capital: Baku (Baki)

Administrative divisions: 59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular),
  11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic**
  (muxtar respublika); Abscron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu,
  Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, AliBayramli Sahari*,
  Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan
  Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu,
  Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca
  Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli
  Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin
  Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli
  Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar
  Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax
  Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu,
  Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki
  Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu,
  Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar
  Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*,
  Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimb
  Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala
  Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu

Independence: 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 May

Constitution: adopted 12 November 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993) was
  elected by popular vote; election last held 3 October 1993 (next to
  be held 1997 or 1998); results - Heydar ALIYEV won 97% of vote
  head of government: Prime Minister Fuad QULIYEV (since 9 October
  1994), First Deputy Prime Ministers Abbas ABBASOV (since NA), Samed
  SADYKOV (since NA), Vahid AKHMEDOV (since NA), Elchin EFENDIYEV
  (since NA) were appointed by the president and confirmed by the
  Milli Mejlis
  cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president and
  confirmed by the Mejlis

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National Assembly (Milli Mejlis): elections last held 12 and 26
  November 1995 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by party NA;
  seats - (125 total) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Azerbaijan Popular Front (APF),
  Ebulfez ELCIBEY, chairman; Musavat Party, Isa GAMBAR, chairman;
  National Independence Party, Etibar MAMEDOV, chairman; Social
  Democratic Party (SDP), Araz ALIZADE, chairman; Communist Party,
  Ramiz AKHMEDOV, chairman; People's Freedom Party, Yunus OGUZ,
  chairman; Independent Social Democratic Party, Arif YUNUSOV and
  Leila YUNOSOVA, cochairmen; New Azerbaijan Party, Heydar ALIYEV,
  chairman; Boz Gurd Party, Iskander HAMIDOV, chairman; Azerbaijan
  Democratic Independence Party, Qabil HUSEYNLI, chairman; Islamic
  Party of Azerbaijan, Ali Akram, chairman; Ana Veten Party, Fazail
  AGAMALIYEV; Azerbaijan Democratic Party, Sardar Jalaloglu MAMEDOV;
  Azerbaijan Democratic Party of Proprietors (DPOP), Makhmud MAMEDOV;
  Azerbaijan Patriotic Solidarity Party, Sabir RUSTAMHANLI; Azerbaijan
  Republic Reform Party, Fuad ASADOV; Communist Party of Azerbaijan
  (unregistered), Sayad SAYADOV; Equality of the Peoples Party,
  Faukhraddin AYDAYEV; Independent Azerbaijan Party, Nizami
  SULEYMANOV; Labor Party of Azerbaijan, Sabutai HAJIYEV;
  Liberal-Democratic Party of Azerbaijan, Lyudmila NIKOLAYEVNA;
  National Enlightenment Party, Hajy Osman EFENDIYEV; National
  Liberation Party, Panak SHAKHSEVEV; Peasant Party, Firuz MUSTAFAYEV;
  Radical Party of Azerbaijan, Malik SHARIFOV; United Azerbaijan
  Party, Kerrar ABILOV; Vetan Adzhagy Party, Zakir TAGIYEV

Other political or pressure groups: self-proclaimed Armenian
  Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CIS, EBRD,
  ECE, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NACC, NAM (observer), OIC, OSCE,
  PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Hafiz Mir Jalal PASHAYEV
  chancery: (temporary) Suite 700, 927 15th Street NW, Washington, DC
  20005
  telephone: [1] (202) 842-0001
  FAX: [1] (202) 842-0004

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Richard D. KAUZLARICH
  embassy: Azadliq Prospekti 83, Baku
  mailing address: use embassy street address
  telephone: [9] (9412) 96-00-19, 98-03-37, 98-03-36, 93-64-80,
  96-36-21
  FAX: [9] (9412) 98-37-55

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green;
  a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than
  either Armenia or Georgia, the other Transcaucasian states. It
  resembles the Central Asian states in its majority nominally Muslim
  population, high structural unemployment, and low standard of
  living. The economy's most prominent products are oil, cotton, and
  gas. Production from the Caspian oil and gas field has been in
  decline for several years, but the November 1994 ratification of the
  $7.5 billion oil deal with a consortium of Western companies should
  generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development.
  Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the ex-Soviet
  republics in making the transition from a command to a market
  economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its
  long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on
  economic reform, and old economic ties and structures have yet to be
  replaced. Whereas the economies of most of the former Soviet
  republics had begun to bottom out in 1995, Azerbaijan's economy
  continued to plummet because of its late start on economic reform.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.5 billion (1995 estimate as
  extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP real growth rate: -17% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,480 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 85% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 2.789 million
  by occupation: agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and
  construction 26%, other 42% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 2.3% includes officially registered unemployed;
  also large numbers of unregistered unemployed and underemployed
  workers (December 1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $465 million
  expenditures: $488 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products,
  oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and
  petrochemicals; textiles

Industrial production growth rate: -21% (1995 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 4,900,000 kW
  production: 17 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 2,200 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture: cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea,
  tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy,
  mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication program;
  transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe

Exports: $549.9 million (f.o.b., 1995)
  commodities: oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles,
  cotton
  partners: mostly CIS and European countries

Imports: $681.5 million (c.i.f., 1995)
  commodities: machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs,
  textiles
  partners: European countries

External debt: $100 million (of which $75 million to Russia)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $14 million (1993)
  note: commitments, 1992-95, $1,000 million ($185 million in
  disbursements); wheat from Turkey

Currency: 1 manat = 100 gopik

Exchange rates: manats per US$1 - 4,375 (April 1996), 4,500 (April
  1995), 4,168 (end of December 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not include
  industrial lines
  broad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (1993)

Highways:
  total: 36,700 km
  paved: 31,800 km (includes graveled)
  unpaved: 4,900 km (1990 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural
  gas 1,240 km

Ports: Baku (Baki)

Airports:
  total: 69
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 6
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 17
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3
  with paved runways under 914 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 7
  with unpaved runways under 914 m: 33 (1994 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 710,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: 202,000 persons waiting for telephone
  installations (January 1991 est.)
  domestic: telephone service is of poor quality and inadequate; a
  joint venture to establish a cellular telephone system in the Baku
  area was supposed to become operational in 1994
  international: cable and microwave radio relay connections to former
  Soviet republics; connection through Moscow international gateway
  switch to other countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat and
  1 Intersputnik (Intelsat provides service to Turkey and through
  Turkey to 200 more countries; Intersputnik provides direct service
  to New York)

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA (1
  state-owned radio broadcast station)

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2
  note: domestic and Russian TV programs are received locally and
  Turkish and Iranian TV is received from an Intelsat satellite
  through a receive-only earth station

Televisions: NA



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Maritime Border Guard

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,952,390
  males fit for military service: 1,574,813
  males reach military age (18) annually: 68,006 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: 33.5 billion manats, NA% of GDP (1994); note
  - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
  current exchange rate could produce misleading results



======================================================================



@Bahrain
-------



Map
---


Location: 26 00 N, 50 33 E -- Middle East, archipelago in the
  Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia



Flag
----


Description: red with a white serrated band (eight white points)
  on the hoist side



Geography
---------


Location: Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of
  Saudi Arabia

Geographic coordinates: 26 00 N, 50 33 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
  total area: 620 sq km
  land area: 620 sq km
  comparative area: 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: territorial dispute with Qatar over the
  Hawar Islands; maritime boundary with Qatar

Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central
  escarpment
  lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
  highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan 122 m

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas,
  fish

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 2%
  meadows and pastures: 6%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 90%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: desertification resulting from the degradation of
  limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal
  degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation)
  resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers,
  oil refineries, and distribution stations; no natural fresh water
  resources so that groundwater and sea water are the only sources for
  all water needs
  natural hazards: periodic droughts; dust storms
  international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Hazardous
  Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not
  ratified - Biodiversity

Geographic note: close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum
  sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf which much of Western
  world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean



People
------


Population: 590,042 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 31% (male 92,455; female 89,554)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 236,048; female 156,556)
  65 years and over: 2% (male 7,956; female 7,473) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.27% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 23.58 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 3.29 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.51 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.33 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.27 years
  male: 71.78 years
  female: 76.83 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.08 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bahraini(s)
  adjective: Bahraini

Ethnic divisions: Bahraini 63%, Asian 13%, other Arab 10%, Iranian
  8%, other 6%

Religions: Shi'a Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim 25%

Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 85.2%
  male: 89.1%
  female: 79.4%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: State of Bahrain
  conventional short form: Bahrain
  local long form: Dawlat al Bahrayn
  local short form: Al Bahrayn

Data code: BA

Type of government: traditional monarchy

Capital: Manama

Administrative divisions: 12 municipalites (manatiq, singular -
  mintaqah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah al Gharbiyah, Al
  Mintaqah al Wusta, Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq, Ar
  Rifa'wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs, Madinat Hamad, Madinat
  'Isa, Juzur Hawar, Sitrah; note - all municipalities administered
  from Manama

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 December (1971)

Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Amir ISA bin Salman Al Khalifa (since 2 November
  1961) is a traditional Arab monarch; Heir Apparent HAMAD bin Isa bin
  Salman Al Khalifa (son of the Amir, born 28 January 1949)
  head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al Khalifa
  (since 19 January 1970) was appointed by the amir
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the amir

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly was dissolved 26
  August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet;
  appointed Advisory Council established 16 December 1992

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: political parties prohibited

Other political or pressure groups: several small, clandestine
  leftist and Islamic fundamentalist groups are active; following the
  arrest of a popular Shi'a cleric, Shi'a activists fomented unrest
  sporadically from late 1994 to September 1995, demanding the return
  of an elected National Assembly and an end to unemployment

International organization participation: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF,
  ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDB, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM,
  OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad ABD AL-GHAFFAR al-Abdallah
  chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 342-0741, 342-0742
  FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192
  consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador David M. RANSOM
  embassy: Building No. 979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club),
  Zinj District, Manama
  mailing address: FPO AE 09834-5100; P.O. Box 26431, Manama
  (International Mail)
  telephone: [973] 273-300
  FAX: [973] 272-594

Flag: red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the
  hoist side



Economy
-------


Economic overview: In Bahrain, petroleum production and processing
  account for about 80% of export receipts, 60% of government
  revenues, and 30% of GDP. Economic conditions have fluctuated with
  the changing fortunes of oil since 1985, for example, during and
  following the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. With its highly developed
  communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to numerous
  multinational firms with business in the Gulf. A large share of
  exports consists of petroleum products made from imported crude.
  Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of both
  oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic
  problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.3 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -2% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $12,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 140,000
  by occupation: industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services
  5%, government 3% (1982)
  note: 42% of labor force is Bahraini

Unemployment rate: 25% (1994 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.38 billion
  expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1995 est.)

Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting,
  offshore banking, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: 13% (1992)

Electricity:
  capacity: 1,050,000 kW
  production: 3.3 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 5,453 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp,
  fish

Exports: $3.2 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 80%, aluminum 7%
  partners: India 20%, Japan 14%, Saudi Arabia 7%, US 6%, UAE 5% (1994)

Imports: $3.29 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
  commodities: nonoil 59%, crude oil 41%
  partners: Saudi Arabia 37%, US 12%, UK 6%, Japan 5%, Germany 4%
  (1994)

External debt: $2.6 billion (1993)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bahraini dinar (BD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1 - 0.3760 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 2,671 km
  paved: 2,011 km
  unpaved: 660 km (1991 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 56 km; petroleum products 16 km; natural gas
  32 km

Ports: Manama, Mina' Salman, Sitrah

Merchant marine:
  total: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 117,060 GRT/194,061 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 3, chemical tanker 1, oil tanker 1
  (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 3
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 73,552 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern system; good domestic services and
  excellent international connections
  domestic: NA
  international: tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave
  radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to Qatar, UAE, and
  Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
  Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 320,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 270,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Ground Force, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense, Coast Guard,
  Police Force

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 213,792
  males fit for military service: 118,702 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $247 million,
  5.5% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Baker Island
------------


(territory of the US)

Map
---


Location: 0 13 N, 176 31 W -- Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific
  Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia



Flag
----


Description: the flag of the US is used



Geography
---------


Location: Oceania, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, about
  one-half of the way from Hawaii to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 0 13 N, 176 31 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
  total area: 1.4 sq km
  land area: 1.4 sq km
  comparative area: about 2.5 times the size of The Mall in
  Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 4.8 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow
  fringing reef
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 8 m

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891)

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
  current issues: no natural fresh water resources
  natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
  be a maritime hazard
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: treeless, sparse, and scattered vegetation
  consisting of grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs;
  primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds,
  shorebirds, and marine wildlife



People
------


Population: uninhabited; note - American civilians evacuated in
  1942 after Japanese air and naval attacks during World War II;
  occupied by US military during World War II, but abandoned after the
  war; public entry is by special-use permit only and generally
  restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and cemetery
  ruins are located near the middle of the west coast



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Baker Island

Data code: FQ

Type of government: unincorporated territory of the US
  administered by the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department
  of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge system

Capital: none; administered from Washington, DC

Flag: the flag of the US is used



Economy
-------


Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation
--------------


Ports: none; offshore anchorage only; note - there is one boat
  landing area along the middle of the west coast

Airports: 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m

Transportation note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the
  west coast



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited
  annually by the US Coast Guard



======================================================================



@Bangladesh
----------



Map
---


Location: 24 00 N, 90 00 E -- Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of
  Bengal, between Burma and India



Flag
----


Description: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist
  side of center; green is the traditional color of Islam



Geography
---------


Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between
  Burma and India

Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 90 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
  total area: 144,000 sq km
  land area: 133,910 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,246 km
  border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 18 nm
  continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: a portion of the boundary with India in
  dispute; water-sharing problems with upstream riparian India over
  the Ganges

Climate: tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid
  summer (March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Reng Tlang 957 m

Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 67%
  permanent crops: 2%
  meadows and pastures: 4%
  forest and woodland: 16%
  other: 11%

Irrigated land: 27,380 sq km (1989)

Environment:
  current issues: many people are landless and forced to live on and
  cultivate flood-prone land; limited access to potable water;
  water-borne diseases prevalent; water pollution especially of
  fishing areas results from the use of commercial pesticides;
  intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the
  northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation;
  deforestation; severe overpopulation
  natural hazards: droughts, cyclones; much of the country routinely
  flooded during the summer monsoon season
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not
  ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea



People
------


Population: 123,062,800 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39% (male 24,434,219; female 23,436,359)
  15-64 years: 58% (male 36,607,942; female 34,603,628)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 2,175,017; female 1,805,635) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 1.85% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 30.5 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 11.21 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.2 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.06 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 102.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 55.86 years
  male: 56.02 years
  female: 55.69 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.57 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bangladeshi(s)
  adjective: Bangladesh

Ethnic divisions: Bengali 98%, Biharis 250,000, tribals less than
  1 million

Religions: Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, Buddhist, Christian, other

Languages: Bangla (official), English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 38.1%
  male: 49.4%
  female: 26.1%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
  conventional short form: Bangladesh
  former: East Pakistan

Data code: BG

Type of government: republic

Capital: Dhaka

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions; Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna,
  Rajshahi
  note: there may be two new divisions named Barisal and Sylhet

Independence: 16 December 1971 (from Pakistan)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971)

Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972,
  suspended following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November
  1986, amended many times

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Abdur Rahman BISWAS (since 8 October 1991)
  was elected for a five-year term by National Parliament; election
  last held 8 October 1991 (next to be held by NA October 1996);
  results - Abdur Rahman BISWAS received 52.1% of parliamentary vote
  head of government: Caretaker Prime Minister Muhammad Habibur RAHMAN
  (since 31 March 1996) was appointed by the president (see note under
  Legislative branch entry)
  cabinet: Advisory Council was appointed by the president on 3 April
  1996

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad): elections last held 15
  February 1996 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (330 total, 300 elected and 30 seats reserved for
  women) seats by party NA; note - the election was held despite the
  fact that it was boycotted by the major opposition parties; Prime
  Minister Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN's party won a landslide victory, but,
  under continuing pressure from the opposition, who called for an
  annulment of the results, National Parliament passed a bill that
  established a caretaker government to oversee new elections on a
  date yet to be determined; President BISWAS then dissolved
  Parliament and named a caretaker prime minister to replace Prime
  Minister ZIAur RAHMAN

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the Chief Justices and other
  judges are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders: Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP),
  Khaleda ZIAur RAHMAN; Awami League (AL), Sheikh Hasina WAJED; Jatiyo
  Party (JP), Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD (in jail); Jamaat-E-Islami (JI),
  Motiur Rahman NIZAMI; Bangladesh Communist Party (BCP), Saifuddin
  Ahmed MANIK; National Awami Party (Muzaffar); Workers Party, Rashid
  Khan MENON; Jatiyo Samajtantik Dal (JSD), Serajul ALAM KHAN;
  Ganotantri Party, leader NA; Islami Oikya Jote, leader NA; National
  Democratic Party (NDP), leader NA; Muslim League, Khan A. SABUR;
  Democratic League, Khondakar MUSHTAQUE Ahmed; United People's Party,
  Kazi ZAFAR Ahmed

International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
  FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
  ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCRO,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMIH, UNMOT, UNOMIG,
  UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Humayun KABIR
  chancery: 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  telephone: [1] (202) 342-8372 through 8376
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador David N. MERRILL
  embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka
  mailing address: G.P.O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000; Dhaka 1212
  telephone: [880] (2) 884700 through 884722
  FAX: [880] (2) 883-744

Flag: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of
  center; green is the traditional color of Islam



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Despite sustained domestic and international
  efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh
  remains one of the world's poorest, most densely populated, and
  least developed nations. Annual GDP growth has averaged over 4% in
  recent years from a low base. Its economy is overwhelmingly
  agricultural, with the cultivation of rice the single most important
  activity in the economy. Major impediments to growth include
  frequent cyclones and floods, the inefficiency of state-owned
  enterprises, a rapidly growing labor force that cannot be absorbed
  by agriculture, delays in exploiting energy resources (natural gas),
  inadequate power supplies, and, most recently, political
  disturbances. In 1995, progress on Bangladesh's development agenda
  has been slowed by frequent political unrest before and after
  national elections in early 1996. Opposition parties have challenged
  the government's authority by resigning from Parliament and
  sponsoring numerous countrywide strikes that have crippled
  transport, hindered business activity, and threatened to slow
  economic growth in 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $144.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.6% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,130 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 50.1 million
  by occupation: agriculture 65%, services 21%, industry and mining
  14% (1989)
  note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Oman (1991)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $2.8 billion
  expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.8
  billion (FY92/93)

Industries: jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, food processing,
  steel, fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 8.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 2,740,000 kW
  production: 9.2 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 70 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: jute, rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane, potatoes; beef,
  milk, poultry

Illicit drugs: transit country for illegal drugs produced in
  neighboring countries

Exports: $2.7 billion (1995 est.)
  commodities: garments, jute and jute goods, leather, shrimp
  partners: US 33%, Western Europe 39% (Germany 8.4%, Italy 6%)
  (FY91/92 est.)

Imports: $4.7 billion (1995 est.)
  commodities: capital goods, petroleum, food, textiles
  partners: Hong Kong 7.5%, Singapore 7.4%, China 7.4%, Japan 7.1%
  (FY91/92 est.)

External debt: $15.7 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $1.099 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 taka (Tk) = 100 poiska

Exchange rates: taka (Tk) per US$1 - 40.933 (January 19965),
  40.278 (1995), 40.212 (1994), 39.567 (1993), 38.951 (1992), 36.596
  (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 2,892 km
  broad gauge: 978 km 1.676-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 1,914 km 1.000-m gauge (1992)

Highways:
  total: 13,627 km
  paved: 8,546 km
  unpaved: 5,081 km (1992)

Waterways: 5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes
  2,575-3,058 km main cargo routes)

Pipelines: natural gas 1,220 km

Ports: Chittagong, Dhaka, Chalna Port (Mongla)

Merchant marine:
  total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 296,503 GRT/423,274 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 29, oil tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 3
  (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 15
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 6 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 249,800 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: poor domestic telephone service
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean);
  international radiotelephone communications and landline service to
  neighboring countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 11

Televisions: 350,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces (includes
  Bangladesh Rifles, Bangladesh Ansars, Armed Police Reserve, Village
  Defense Parties, National Cadet Corps)

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 31,795,848
  males fit for military service: 18,814,818 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $481 million,
  1.7% of GDP (FY95/96)



======================================================================



@Barbados
--------



Map
---


Location: 13 10 N, 59 32 W -- Caribbean, island between the
  Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela



Flag
----


Description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
  gold, and blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold
  band; the trident head represents independence and a break with the
  past (the colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)



Geography
---------


Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the
  North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates: 13 10 N, 59 32 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total area: 430 sq km
  land area: 430 sq km
  comparative area: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 97 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain: relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Hillaby 336 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 77%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 9%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 14%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: pollution of coastal waters from waste disposal by
  ships; soil erosion; illegal solid waste disposal threatens
  contamination of aquifers
  natural hazards: hurricanes (especially June to October); periodic
  landslides
  international agreements: party to - Climate Change, Endangered
  Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity,
  Hazardous Wastes

Geographic note: easternmost Caribbean island



People
------


Population: 257,030 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 24% (male 31,263; female 29,822)
  15-64 years: 66% (male 83,565; female 86,697)
  65 years and over: 10% (male 9,929; female 15,754) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.26% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 15.29 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.21 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.49 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 18.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.35 years
  male: 71.65 years
  female: 77.25 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.78 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Barbadian(s)
  adjective: Barbadian

Ethnic divisions: African 80%, European 4%, other 16%

Religions: Protestant 67% (Anglican 40%, Pentecostal 8%, Methodist
  7%, other 12%), Roman Catholic 4%, none 17%, unknown 3%, other 9%
  (1980)

Languages: English

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1995 est.)
  total population: 97.4%
  male: 98%
  female: 96.8%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Barbados

Data code: BB

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Bridgetown

Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint
  Andrew, Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint
  Lucy, Saint Michael, Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas
  note: the city of Bridgetown may be given parish status

Independence: 30 November 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Constitution: 30 November 1966

Legal system: English common law; no judicial review of
  legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952) is a
  hereditary monarch, represented by Acting Governor General Denys
  WILLIAMS (since 21 December 1995) who was appointed by the queen
  head of government: Prime Minister Owen Seymour ARTHUR (since 6
  September 1994) was appointed by the governor general; Deputy Prime
  Minister Billie MILLER (since 6 September 1994)
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the governor general on advice of
  the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
  Senate: consists of a 21-member body appointed by the governor
  general
  House of Assembly: election last held 6 September 1994 (next to be
  held by January 1999); results - percentage vote by party NA; seats
  - (28 total) BLP 19, DLP 8,NDP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature, judges are appointed
  by the Service Commissions for the Judicial and Legal Service

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Labor Party (DLP), David
  THOMPSON; Barbados Labor Party (BLP), Owen ARTHUR; National
  Democratic Party (NDP), Richard HAYNES

Other political or pressure groups: Barbados Workers Union, Leroy
  TROTMAN; People's Progressive Movement, Eric SEALY; Workers' Party
  of Barbados, Dr. George BELLE; Clement Payne Labor Union, David
  COMMISSIONG

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
  ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
  LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Courtney N. BLACKMAN
  chancery: 2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 939-9218, 9219
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-7467
  consulate(s) general: Miami and New York
  consulate(s): Los Angeles

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jeanette W. HYDE
  embassy: Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street,
  Bridgetown
  mailing address: P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown; FPO AA 34055
  telephone: [1] (809) 436-4950
  FAX: [1] (809) 429-5246

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and
  blue with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the
  trident head represents independence and a break with the past (the
  colonial coat of arms contained a complete trident)



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Historically, the Barbadian economy has been
  dependent on sugarcane cultivation and related activities, but in
  recent years the production has diversified into manufacturing and
  tourism. Sluggish performances in the sugar and tourism sectors -
  which declined by 25% and 8% respectively - tempered economic
  expansion in 1995; output increased by 2% for the year, down from
  nearly 4% in 1994. Improved weather conditions in 1995 are expected
  to boost agriculture output in 1996. Since taking office in 1994,
  Prime Minister ARTHUR has aggressively moved to promote foreign
  direct investment as part of a policy designed to reduce nagging
  unemployment. The government has also been active in promoting
  regional integration initiatives.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $9,800 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 6.4%
  industry: 39.3%
  services: 54.3% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 126,000 (1993)
  by occupation: services and government 41%, commerce 15%,
  manufacturing and construction 18%, transportation, storage,
  communications, and financial institutions 8%, agriculture 6%,
  utilities 2% (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: 19.9% (September 1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $550 million
  expenditures: $710 million, including capital expenditures of $86
  million (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component
  assembly for export

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1995 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 152,100 kW
  production: 510 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 1,841 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sugarcane, vegetables, cotton

Illicit drugs: one of many Caribbean transshipment points for
  narcotics bound for the US and Europe

Exports: $158.6 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: sugar and molasses, rum, other foods and beverages,
  chemicals, electrical components, clothing
  partners: US 13%, UK 10%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, Windward Islands 8%

Imports: $693 million (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
  commodities: consumer goods, machinery, foodstuffs, construction
  materials, chemicals, fuel, electrical components
  partners: US 36%, UK 11%, Trinidad and Tobago 11%, Japan 3%

External debt: $408 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Barbadian dollar (Bds$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1 - 2.0113 (fixed
  rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 1,550 km
  paved: 1,550 km

Ports: Bridgetown

Merchant marine:
  total: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 183,937 GRT/271,707 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 21, combination bulk 3, oil tanker 3,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 1
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 87,343 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: island wide automatic telephone system
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
  Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1 pay)

Televisions: 69,350 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Royal Barbados Defense Force (includes Ground Forces and
  Coast Guard), Royal Barbados Police Force

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 71,667
  males fit for military service: 49,726 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Bassas da India
---------------


(possession of France)

Map
---


Location: 21 30 S, 39 50 E -- Southern Africa, islands in the
  southern Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from
  Madagascar to Mozambique



Flag
----


Description: the flag of France is used



Geography
---------


Location: Southern Africa, islands in the southern Mozambique
  Channel, about one-half of the way from Madagascar to Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 S, 39 50 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 0.2 sq km
  land area: 0.2 sq km
  comparative area: about one-third the size of The Mall in
  Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 35.2 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Madagascar

Climate: tropical

Terrain: a volcanic rock 2.4 meters high
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 3 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (all rock)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: maritime hazard since it is usually under water
  during high tide and surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic
  cyclones
  international agreements: NA



People
------


Population: uninhabited



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bassas da India

Data code: BS

Type of government: French possession administered by a
  Commissioner of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used



Economy
-------


Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation
--------------


Ports: none; offshore anchorage only



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@Belarus
-------



Map
---


Location: 53 00 N, 28 00 E -- Eastern Europe, east of Poland



Flag
----


Description: red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band
  one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe of white
  on the hoist side bears in red the Belarusian national ornament



Geography
---------


Location: Eastern Europe, east of Poland

Geographic coordinates: 53 00 N, 28 00 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
  total area: 207,600 sq km
  land area: 207,600 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,098 km
  border countries: Latvia 141 km, Lithuania 502 km, Poland 605 km,
  Russia 959 km, Ukraine 891 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: none

Climate: cold winters, cool and moist summers; transitional
  between continental and maritime

Terrain: generally flat and contains much marshland
  lowest point: Nyoman River 90 m
  highest point: Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m

Natural resources: forests, peat deposits, small quantities of oil
  and natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 29%
  permanent crops: 1%
  meadows and pastures: 15%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 55%

Irrigated land: 1,490 sq km (1990)

Environment:
  current issues: soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of
  the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor
  accident at Chornobyl'
  natural hazards: NA
  international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
  Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Biodiversity,
  Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Climate Change, Law of
  the Sea

Geographic note: landlocked



People
------


Population: 10,415,973 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21% (male 1,136,499; female 1,090,101)
  15-64 years: 66% (male 3,334,077; female 3,536,982)
  65 years and over: 13% (male 429,574; female 888,740) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 0.2% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 12.15 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 13.64 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.89 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.57 years
  male: 63.2 years
  female: 74.21 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.69 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belarusian(s)
  adjective: Belarusian

Ethnic divisions: Byelorussian 77.9%, Russian 13.2%, Polish 4.1%,
  Ukrainian 2.9%, other 1.9%

Religions: Eastern Orthodox 60%, other (including Roman Catholic
  and Muslim) 40% (early 1990's)

Languages: Byelorussian, Russian, other

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989 est.)
  total population: 98%
  male: 99%
  female: 97%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
  conventional short form: Belarus
  local long form: Respublika Byelarus'
  local short form: none
  former: Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: BO

Type of government: republic

Capital: Minsk

Administrative divisions: 6 voblastsi (singular - voblasts') and
  one municipality* (harady, singular - horad); Brestskaya (Brest),
  Homyel'skaya (Homyel'), Horad Minsk*, Hrodzyenskaya (Hrodna),
  Mahilyowskaya (Mahilyow), Minskaya, Vitsyebskaya (Vitsyebsk)
  note: the administrative centers of the voblastsi are included in
  parentheses

Independence: 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union); the Belarussian
  Supreme Soviet issued a proclamation of independence; on 17 July
  1990 Belarus issued a declaration of sovereignty

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 July (1990)

Constitution: adopted 15 March 1994; replaces constitution of
  April 1978

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994)
  was elected for a five-year term by popular vote; election last held
  24 June and 10 July 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results -
  Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 85%, Vyacheslav KEBICH 15%
  head of government: Prime Minister Mikhail CHIGIR (since NA July
  1994) was appointed by the president; Deputy Prime Ministers
  Vladimir GARKUN (since NA), Sergey LING (since NA), Leonid SINITSYN
  (since NA), Valeriy KOKAREV (since NA), Vladimir RUSAKEVICH (since
  NA)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers
  note: first presidential elections took place in June-July 1994

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Supreme Soviet: elections last held May, Nov-Dec 1995 (two rounds,
  each with a run-off; next to be held NA 2000); results - percent of
  vote by party NA; seats - (260 total) KPB 42, Agrarian 33, CAB 9,
  Party of People's Concord 8, UPNAZ 2, SDPB 2, BPR 1, Green Party 1,
  Republican Party of Labor and Justice 1, BSP 1, NFB 1, Social and
  Sports Party 1, Ecological Party 1, independents 95, vacant 62

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the
  president; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Belarusian Communist Party (KPB),
  Vasiliy NOVIKOV, Viktor CHIKIN, chairmen; Agrarian Party, Semen
  SHARETSKIY; Civic Accord Bloc (CAB); Party of People's Concord,
  Gennadiy KARPENKO; Party of All-Belarusian Unity and Concord
  (UPNAZ), Dmitriy BULAKOV; Belarusian Social-Democrat Hramada (SDBP),
  Alex TRUSOV; Belarusian Patriotic Movement (BPR), Anatol
  BARANKEVICH; Green Party of Belarus, Mikalay KARTASH; Republican
  Party of Labor and Justice, Anatol NETSILKIN; Belarus Peasants
  (BSP), Yevgeniy LUGIN, chairman; Belarusian Popular Front (NFB),
  Zenon POZNYAK, chairman; Belarusian Social Sports Party, Vladimir
  ALEKSANDROVICH; Ecological Party, Aleksiy MIKULICH; National
  Democratic Party of Belarus (NDPB), Victor NAVUMENKA; United
  Democratic Party of Belarus (ADPB), Aleksandr DOBROVOLSKIY;
  Belarusian Socialist Party (SPB), Vyacheslav KUZNETSOV; Slavic
  Assembly (SAB), Nikolai SYARECHEV; Liberal-Democratic Party (LDPB),
  Vasil KRIVENKA; Belarusian Christian-Democratic Unity (BKDZ), Petr
  SILKO; Polish Democratic Union (PDZ), Konstantin TARASEVICH; Party
  of Beer Lovers, Yuriy GONCHAR; Belarusian Labor Party (BPP),
  Aleksandr BUKHVOSTOV

International organization participation: CCC, CE (guest), CIS,
  EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat
  (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC,
  OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO
  (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Sergey Nikolayevich MARTYNOV
  chancery: 1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 986-1604
  FAX: [1] (202) 986-1805
  consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth Spencer YALOWITZ
  embassy: Starovilenskaya #46-220002, Minsk
  mailing address: use embassy street address
  telephone: [375] (172) 31-50-00
  FAX: [375] (172) 34-78-53

Flag: red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half
  the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe of white on the
  hoist side bears in red the Belarusian national ornament



Economy
-------


Economic overview: At the time of independence in late 1991,
  Belarus was one of the most developed of the former Soviet states,
  inheriting a modern - by Soviet standards - machine building sector
  and robust agricultural sector. However, the breakup of the Soviet
  Union and its traditional trade ties, as well as the government's
  failure to embrace market reforms, has resulted in a sharp economic
  decline. Privatization is virtually nonexistent and the system of
  state orders and distribution persists. Although President
  LUKASHENKO pronounces his 1995 macro stabilization policies a
  success - annual inflation dropped from 2,220% in 1994 to 244% in
  1995 - the IMF has criticized his insistence on maintaining the
  steady exchange rate for Belarusian rubel, which has traded at
  11,500 to the dollar since late 1994. The IMF suspended Minsk's $300
  million standby program in November 1995 until the government would
  agree to a devaluation of the rubel. The overvalued rubel has
  especially hurt Belarusian exporters, most of which now operate at a
  loss. In addition, the January 1995 Customs Union agreement with
  Russia - which required Minsk to adjust its foreign trade practices
  to mirror Moscow's - has resulted in higher import tariffs for
  Belarusian consumers; tariffs have risen from 5%-20% to 20%-40%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $49.2 billion (1995 estimate as
  extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP real growth rate: -10% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $4,700 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 21%
  industry: 49%
  services: 30% (1991 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 244% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 4.259 million
  by occupation: industry and construction 40%, agriculture and
  forestry 21%, other 39% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 2.6% officially registered unemployed (December
  1994); large numbers of underemployed workers

Budget:
  revenues: $4.95 billion
  expenditures: $5.47 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1996 est.)

Industries: tractors, metal-cutting machine tools, off-highway
  dump trucks up to 110-metric-ton load capacity, wheel-type earth
  movers for construction and mining, eight-wheel-drive,
  high-flotation trucks with cargo capacity of 25 metric tons for use
  in tundra and roadless areas, equipment for animal husbandry and
  livestock feeding, motorcycles, television sets, chemical fibers,
  fertilizer, linen fabric, wool fabric, radios, refrigerators, other
  consumer goods

Industrial production growth rate: -11% (1995 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 7,010,000 kW
  production: 24.9 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 2,300 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture: grain, potatoes, vegetables; meat, milk

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of opium poppy and cannabis;
  mostly for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit
  drugs to Western Europe

Exports: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
  commodities: machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
  partners: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Germany

Imports: $4.6 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
  commodities: fuel, natural gas, industrial raw materials, textiles,
  sugar
  partners: Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Germany

External debt: $2 billion (September 1995 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $186 million (1993)
  note: commitments, $3,930 million ($1,845 million disbursements),
  1992-95

Currency: Belarusian rubel (BR)

Exchange rates: Belarusian rubels per US$1 - 11,500 (yearend
  1995), 10,600 (yearend 1994)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 5,488 km
  broad gauge: 5,488 km 1.520-m gauge (873 km electrified) (1993)

Highways:
  total: 92,200 km
  paved: 61,000 km (including graveled)
  unpaved: 31,200 km (1994 est.)

Waterways: NA km; note - Belarus has extensive and widely used
  canal and river systems

Pipelines: crude oil 1,470 km; refined products 1,100 km; natural
  gas 1,980 km (1992)

Ports: Mazyr

Merchant marine:
  note: claims 5% of former Soviet fleet (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 118
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 18
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 5
  with paved runways under 914 m: 11
  with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 6
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 9
  with unpaved runways under 914 m: 62 (1994 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 1.849 million (1991 est.)

Telephone system: telephone service inadequate for the purposes of
  either business or the population; about 70% of the telephones are
  in homes; over 750,000 applications from households for telephones
  remain unsatisfied (1992 est.); new investment centers on
  international connections and business needs
  domestic: the new NMT-450 analog cellular system is now operating in
  Minsk
  international: international traffic is carried by the Moscow
  international gateway switch and also by satellite; satellite earth
  stations - 1 Intelsat (through Canada) and 1 Eutelsat (through the
  UK)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 35, FM 18, shortwave 0

Radios: 3.17 million (1991 est.) (5,615,000 with multiple speaker
  systems for program diffusion)

Television broadcast stations: 2 (one national and one private;
  the license of the private station was suspended during the
  parliamentary elections of 1994)

Televisions: 3.5 million (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Air Force, Air Defense Force, Republic Security
  Forces (internal and border troops)

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,635,570
  males fit for military service: 2,067,676
  males reach military age (18) annually: 76,006 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: 892 billion rubels, 1% of GDP (1995); note -
  conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the current
  exchange rate could produce misleading results



======================================================================



@Belgium
-------



Map
---


Location: 50 50 N, 4 00 E -- Western Europe, bordering the North
  Sea, between France and the Netherlands



Flag
----


Description: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side),
  yellow, and red; the design was based on the flag of France



Geography
---------


Location: Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between France
  and the Netherlands

Geographic coordinates: 50 50 N, 4 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 30,510 sq km
  land area: 30,230 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,385 km
  border countries: France 620 km, Germany 167 km, Luxembourg 148 km,
  Netherlands 450 km

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: median line with neighbors
  exclusive fishing zone: median line with neighbors (extends about 68
  km from coast)
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid,
  cloudy

Terrain: flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills,
  rugged mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast
  lowest point: North Sea 0 m
  highest point: Signal de Botrange 694 m

Natural resources: coal, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 24%
  permanent crops: 1%
  meadows and pastures: 20%
  forest and woodland: 21%
  other: 34%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: Meuse River, a major source of drinking water,
  polluted from steel production wastes; other rivers polluted by
  animal wastes and fertilizers; industrial air pollution contributes
  to acid rain in neighboring countries
  natural hazards: flooding is a threat in areas of reclaimed coastal
  land, protected from the sea by concrete dikes
  international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic Treaty, Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine
  Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
  Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: crossroads of Western Europe; majority of West
  European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels which is the seat of
  the EU



People
------


Population: 10,170,241 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18% (male 930,919; female 886,632)
  15-64 years: 66% (male 3,380,105; female 3,326,853)
  65 years and over: 16% (male 663,760; female 981,972) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 0.33% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.3 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.63 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.09 years
  male: 73.86 years
  female: 80.51 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.69 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belgian(s)
  adjective: Belgian

Ethnic divisions: Fleming 55%, Walloon 33%, mixed or other 12%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%, Protestant or other 25%

Languages: Dutch 56%, French 32%, German 1%, legally bilingual 11%
  (divided along ethnic lines)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
  total population: 99%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Belgium
  conventional short form: Belgium
  local long form: Royaume de Belgique
  local short form: Belgique

Data code: BE

Type of government: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Brussels

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (French: provinces, singular
  - province; Flemish: provincien, singular - provincie); Antwerpen,
  Brabant, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur,
  Oost-Vlaanderen, West-Vlaanderen
  note: constitutional reforms passed by Parliament in 1993 increased
  the number of provinces to 10 by splitting the province of Brabant
  into two new provinces, Flemish Brabant and Walloon Brabant

Independence: 4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)

National holiday: National Day, 21 July (ascension of King LEOPOLD
  to the throne in 1831)

Constitution: 7 February 1831, last revised 14 July 1993;
  parliament approved a constitutional package creating a federal state

Legal system: civil law system influenced by English
  constitutional theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King ALBERT II (since 9 August 1993) is a
  constitutional monarch
  head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Luc DEHAENE (since 6 March
  1992) was appointed by the king and then approved by Parliament
  cabinet: Cabinet is appointed by the king and approved by Parliament

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
  Senate (Flemish - Senaat French - Senat): elections last held 21 May
  1995 (next to be held by the end of 1999); results - percent of vote
  by party NA; seats - (71 total, 40 directly elected; 31 will be
  indirectly elected at a later date) CVP 7, SP 6, VLD 6, VU 2, AGALEV
  1, VB 3, PS 5, PRL 5, PSC 3, ECOLO 2; note - before the 1995
  elections, there were 184 seats
  Chamber of Deputies(Flemish - Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordig:
  elections last held 21 May 1995 (next to be held by the end of
  1999); results - CVP 17.2%, PS 11.9%, SP 12.6%, VLD 13.1%, PRL
  10.3%, PSC 7.7%, VB 7.8%, VU 4.7%, ECOLO 4.0%, AGALEV 4.4%, FN 2.3%;
  seats - (150 total) CVP 29, PS 21, SP 20, VLD 21, PRL 18, PSC 12, VB
  11, VU 5, ECOLO 6, AGALEV 5, FN 2; note - before the 1995 elections,
  there were 212 seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Flemish - Hof van
  Cassatie, French - Cour de Cassation), judges are appointed for life
  by the Belgian monarch

Political parties and leaders: Flemish Christian Democrats (CVP -
  Christian People's Party), Johan VAN HECKE, president; Francophone
  Christian Democrats (PSC - Social Christian Party), Gerard DEPREZ,
  president; Flemish Socialist Party (SP), Louis TOBBACK, president;
  Francophone Socialist Party (PS), Philippe BUSQUIN, president;
  Flemish Liberal Democrats (VLD), Herman DE CROO, president;
  Francophone Liberal Reformation Party (PRL), Louis MICHEL,
  president; Francophone Democratic Front (FDF), Olivier MAINGAIN,
  president; Volksunie (VU), Bert ANCIAUX, president; Vlaams Blok
  (VB), Karel DILLEN, chairman; National Front (FN), Daniel FERET,
  president; AGALEV (Flemish Greens), no president; ECOLO (Francophone
  Greens), no president; other minor parties

Other political or pressure groups: Christian and Socialist Trade
  Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other
  associations representing bankers, manufacturers, middle-class
  artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various
  organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and
  Wallonia; various peace groups such as the Flemish Action Committee
  Against Nuclear Weapons and Pax Christi

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG
  (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN,
  EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR,
  NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCRO,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMOGIP, UNPROFOR, UNRWA,
  UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Andre ADAM
  chancery: 3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 333-6900
  FAX: [1] (202) 333-3079
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Alan J. BLINKEN
  embassy: 27 Boulevard du Regent, B-1000 Brussels
  mailing address: APO AE 09724, PSC 82, Box 002, Brussels
  telephone: [32] (2) 508-2111
  FAX: [32] (2) 511-2725

Flag: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow,
  and red; the design was based on the flag of France



Economy
-------


Economic overview: This small private enterprise economy has
  capitalized on its central geographic location, highly developed
  transport network, and diversified industrial and commercial base.
  Industry is concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the
  north, although the government is encouraging reinvestment in the
  southern region of Walloon. With few natural resources, Belgium must
  import substantial quantities of raw materials and export a large
  volume of manufactures, making its economy unusually dependent on
  the state of world markets. Two-thirds of its trade is with other EU
  countries. The economy grew at a strong 4% annual pace during the
  period 1988-90, slowed to 1% in 1991-92, dropped by 1.5% in 1993,
  and recovered with moderate 2.3% growth in 1994 and 1995. Belgium's
  public debt has risen to 140% of GDP, and the government is trying
  to control its expenditures to bring the figure more into line with
  other industrialized countries.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $197 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $19,500 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 2%
  industry: 28%
  services: 70% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 4.126 million
  by occupation: services 63.6%, industry 28%, construction 6.1%,
  agriculture 2.3% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 14% (1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: engineering and metal products, motor vehicle
  assembly, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals,
  textiles, glass, petroleum, coal

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 14,040,000 kW
  production: 66 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 6,334 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sugar beets, fresh vegetables, fruits, grain,
  tobacco; beef, veal, pork, milk

Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American
  cocaine processors; transshipment point for cocaine entering the
  European market

Exports: $108 billion (f.o.b., 1994) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic
  Union (BLEU)
  commodities: iron and steel, transportation equipment, tractors,
  diamonds, petroleum products
  partners: EU 67.2% (Germany 19%), US 5.8%, former Communist
  countries 1.4% (1994)

Imports: $140 billion (c.i.f., 1994) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic
  Union
  commodities: fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs
  partners: EU 68% (Germany 22.1%), US 8.8%, former Communist
  countries 0.8% (1994)

External debt: $31.3 billion (1992 est.)

Economic aid:
  donor: ODA, $808 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Belgian francs (BF) per US$1 - 30.036 (January
  1996), 29.480 (1995), 33.456 (1994), 34.597 (1993), 32.150 (1992),
  34.148 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 3,396 km (2,363 km electrified; 2,563 km double track)
  standard gauge: 3,396 km 1.435-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
  total: 137,876 km
  paved: 129,603 km (including 1,667 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 8,273 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)

Pipelines: crude oil 161 km; petroleum products 1,167 km; natural
  gas 3,300 km

Ports: Antwerp, Brugge, Gent, Hasselt, Liege, Mons, Namur,
  Oostende, Zeebrugge

Merchant marine:
  total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 64,220 GRT/83,360 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 8, chemical tanker 5, liquefied gas
  tanker 3, oil tanker 6 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 42
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 6
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 9
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 21
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 5.691 million (1992 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed, technologically advanced, and
  completely automated domestic and international telephone and
  telegraph facilities
  domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; extensive cable
  network; limited microwave radio relay network
  international: 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 39, shortwave 0

Radios: 100,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 32 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 3,315,662 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,571,588
  males fit for military service: 2,135,375
  males reach military age (19) annually: 61,986 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $4.6 billion,
  1.7% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Belize
------



Map
---


Location: 17 15 N, 88 45 W -- Middle America, bordering the
  Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Mexico



Flag
----


Description: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the
  bottom edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of
  arms; the coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in
  front of a mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I
  Flourish in the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a
  green garland



Geography
---------


Location: Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between
  Guatemala and Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 17 15 N, 88 45 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total area: 22,960 sq km
  land area: 22,800 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
  total: 516 km
  border countries: Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm in the north, 3 nm in the south; note - from
  the mouth of the Sarstoon River to Ranguana Cay, Belize's
  territorial sea is 3 nm; according to Belize's Maritime Areas Act,
  1992, the purpose of this limitation is to provide a framework for
  the negotiation of a definitive agreement on territorial differences
  with Guatemala

International disputes: border with Guatemala in dispute; talks to
  resolve the dispute are stalled

Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to
  February)

Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Victoria Peak 1,160 m

Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 2%
  forest and woodland: 44%
  other: 52%

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: deforestation; water pollution from sewage,
  industrial effluents, agricultural runoff
  natural hazards: frequent, devastating hurricanes (September to
  December) and coastal flooding (especially in south)
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Whaling

Geographic note: national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize
  City to Belmopan because of hurricanes; only country in Central
  America without a coastline on the North Pacific Ocean



People
------


Population: 219,296 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43% (male 48,291; female 46,451)
  15-64 years: 53% (male 59,132; female 57,498)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 3,881; female 4,043) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.42% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 32.8 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.73 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -2.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.03 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 33.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.53 years
  male: 66.58 years
  female: 70.58 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.12 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Belizean(s)
  adjective: Belizean

Ethnic divisions: mestizo 44%, Creole 30%, Maya 11%, Garifuna 7%,
  other 8%

Religions: Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 30% (Anglican 12%,
  Methodist 6%, Mennonite 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Pentecostal
  2%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1%, other 2%), none 2%, other 6% (1980)

Languages: English (official), Spanish, Mayan, Garifuna (Carib)

Literacy: age 14 and over has ever attended school (1991 est.)
  total population: 70.3%
  male: 70.3%
  female: 70.3%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Belize
  former: British Honduras

Data code: BH

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Belmopan

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal,
  Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September (1981)

Constitution: 21 September 1981

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), a
  hereditary monarch, is represented by Governor General Sir Colville
  YOUNG (since 17 November 1993), who, according to the constitution,
  must be a Belizean; was appointed by the queen
  head of government: Prime Minister Manuel ESQUIVEL (since July 1993)
  was appointed by the governor general; Deputy Prime Minister Dean
  BARROW (since NA 1993)
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the governor general on the advice
  of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly
  Senate: consists of an eight-member appointed body; five members are
  appointed on the advice of the prime minister, two on the advice of
  the leader of the opposition, and one after consultation with the
  Belize Advisory Council (this council serves as an independent body
  to advise the governor general with respect to difficult decisions
  such as granting pardons, commutations, stays of execution, the
  removal of justices of appeal who appear to be incompetent, etc.)
  National Assembly: elections last held 30 June 1993 (next to be held
  NA June 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28
  total) PUP 13 UDP 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, the chief justice is appointed by
  the governor general on advice of the prime minister

Political parties and leaders: People's United Party (PUP), George
  PRICE, Florencio MARIN, Said MUSA; United Democratic Party (UDP),
  Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean LINDO, Dean BARROW; National Alliance for
  Belizean Rights, Philip GOLDSON

Other political or pressure groups: Society for the Promotion of
  Education and Research (SPEAR), Assad SHOMAN; United Workers Front,
  leader NA

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
  ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
  IOM (observer), ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Dean R. LINDO
  chancery: 2535 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-9636
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-6888
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
  consulate(s): New York

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador George Charles BRUNO
  embassy: Gabourel Lane and Hutson Street, Belize City
  mailing address: P. O. Box 286, Belize City; APO: Unit 7401, APO AA
  34025
  telephone: [501] (2) 77161 through 77163
  FAX: [501] (2) 30802

Flag: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom
  edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the
  coat of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a
  mahogany tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in
  the Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green
  garland



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The small, essentially private enterprise
  economy is based primarily on agriculture, agro-based industry, and
  merchandising, with tourism and construction assuming increasing
  importance. Agriculture accounts for about 30% of GDP and provides
  75% of export earnings, while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for
  almost 40% of hard currency earnings. The US, Belize's main trading
  partner, is assisting in efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with
  an agricultural diversification program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $575 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,750 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 30%
  industry: NA
  services: NA (1995 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 51,500
  by occupation: agriculture 30%, services 16%, government 15.4%,
  commerce 11.2%, manufacturing 10.3%
  note: shortage of skilled labor and all types of technical personnel
  (1985)

Unemployment rate: 10% (1993 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $126.8 million
  expenditures: $123.1 million, including capital expenditures of
  $44.8 million (FY90/91 est.)

Industries: garment production, food processing, tourism,
  construction

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (1990)

Electricity:
  capacity: 34,532 kW
  production: 110 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 490 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, coca, citrus, sugarcane; lumber; fish,
  cultured shrimp

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; an illicit
  producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; minor
  money-laundering center

Exports: $115 million (f.o.b., 1993)
  commodities: sugar, citrus fruits, bananas, clothing, fish products,
  molasses, wood
  partners: US 38%, UK, other EC (1994)

Imports: $281 million (c.i.f., 1993)
  commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, food,
  manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals
  partners: US 53%, UK, other EC, Mexico (1994)

External debt: $167.5 million (1992)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Belizean dollar (Bz$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1 - 2.00 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 2,560 km
  paved: 336 km
  unpaved: 2,224 km (1987 est.)

Waterways: 825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft;
  seasonally navigable

Ports: Belize City, Big Creek, Corozol, Punta Gorda

Merchant marine:
  total: 89 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 311,731 GRT/470,272 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 60, container 6, liquefied gas tanker
  1, oil tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4,
  specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 35
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 25
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 8 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 15,917 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: above-average system
  domestic: trunk network depends primarily on microwave radio relay
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 27,048 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Belize Defense Force (includes Army, Navy, Air Force,
  and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 52,290
  males fit for military service: 31,086
  males reach military age (18) annually: 2,390 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $8.1 million, NA%
  of GDP (FY95/96)



======================================================================



@Benin
-----



Map
---


Location: 9 30 N, 2 15 E -- Western Africa, bordering the North
  Atlantic Ocean, between Nigeria and Togo



Flag
----


Description: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red
  with a vertical green band on the hoist side



Geography
---------


Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
  between Nigeria and Togo

Geographic coordinates: 9 30 N, 2 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 112,620 sq km
  land area: 110,620 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,989 km
  border countries: Burkina Faso 306 km, Niger 266 km, Nigeria 773 km,
  Togo 644 km

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low
  mountains
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Tanekas 641 m

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone, marble,
  timber

Land use:
  arable land: 12%
  permanent crops: 4%
  meadows and pastures: 4%
  forest and woodland: 35%
  other: 45%

Irrigated land: 60 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: recent droughts have severely affected marginal
  agriculture in north; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
  threatens wildlife populations; deforestation; desertification
  natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in
  winter
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification,
  Law of the Sea

Geographic note: no natural harbors



People
------


Population: 5,709,529 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 48% (male 1,376,531; female 1,367,394)
  15-64 years: 50% (male 1,349,386; female 1,480,251)
  65 years and over: 2% (male 60,030; female 75,937) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.32% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 46.76 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 13.53 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 105.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 52.69 years
  male: 50.74 years
  female: 54.7 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.64 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Beninese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Beninese

Ethnic divisions: African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important
  being Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), Europeans 5,500

Religions: indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%

Languages: French (official), Fon and Yoruba (most common
  vernaculars in south), tribal languages (at least six major ones in
  north)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 37%
  male: 48.7%
  female: 25.8%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Benin
  conventional short form: Benin
  local long form: Republique du Benin
  local short form: Benin
  former: Dahomey

Data code: BN

Type of government: republic under multiparty democratic rule
  dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms adopted
  February 1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4 April 1991

Capital: Porto-Novo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique,
  Borgou, Mono, Oueme, Zou

Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1990)

Constitution: 2 December 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President Mathieu KEREKOU
  (since 4 April 1996) was elected for a five-year term by popular
  vote; election last held 18 March 1996 (next to be held March 2001);
  results - Mathieu KEREKOU 52.49%, Nicephore SOGLO 47.51%
  cabinet: Executive Council, appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 28
  March 1995 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party
  NA; seats - (83 total) Renaissance Party and allies 20, PRD 19,
  FARD-ALAFIA 10, PSD 7, NCC 3, RDL-VIVOTEN 3, Communist Party 2,
  Alliance Chameleon 1, RDP 1, ADP 1, other 16

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: as of February 1996, more than 80
  political parties were officially recognized; the following are
  represented in the National Assembly: Alliance of the National Party
  for Democracy and Development (PNDD) and the Democratic Renewal
  Party (PRD), Pascal Chabi KAO; Action for Renewal and Development
  (FARD-ALAFIA), Mathieu KEREKOU; Alliance of the Social Democratic
  Party (PSD) and the National Union for Solidarity and Progress
  (UNSP), Bruno AMOUSSOU; Alliance Chameleon; Alliance for Democracy
  and Progress (ADP), Adekpedjon AKINDES; Alliance for Social
  Democracy (ASD), Robert DOSSOU; Assembly of Liberal Democrats for
  National Reconstruction (RDL), Severin ADJOVI; Communist Party of
  Benin, Pascal FATONDJI, First Secretary; Our Common Cause (NCC),
  Albert TEVOEDJRE; Rally for Democracy and Progress (RDP); The
  Renaissance Party, Nicephore SOGLO

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA,
  ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM,
  OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lucien Edgar TONOUKOUIN
  chancery: 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 232-6656, 6657, 6658
  FAX: [1] (202) 265-1996

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John M. YATES
  embassy: Rue Caporal Bernard Anani, Cotonou
  mailing address: B. P. 2012, Cotonou
  telephone: [229] 30-06-50, 30-05-13, 30-17-92
  FAX: [229] 30-14-39, 30-19-74

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a
  vertical green band on the hoist side



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The economy of Benin remains underdeveloped and
  dependent on subsistence agriculture, cotton production, and
  regional trade. Growth in real output, which had averaged a sound 4%
  in 1990-94, rose to 6% in 1995. Rapid population growth, now 3.3%
  per year, offset much of this growth in output. Inflation jumped to
  55% in 1994 (compared to 3% in 1993) following the 50% currency
  devaluation in January 1994, but subsided gradually in 1995.
  Commercial and transport activities, which make up 37% of GDP, are
  extremely vulnerable to developments in Nigeria as evidenced by
  decreased reexport trade in 1994 due to a severe contraction in
  Nigerian demand. Support by the Paris Club and official bilateral
  creditors has eased the external debt situation in recent years. The
  government, still burdened with money-losing state enterprises and a
  bloated civil service, has been gradually implementing a World Bank
  supported structural adjustment program since 1991.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.6 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,380 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 36.8%
  industry: 12.6%
  services: 50.6% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 55% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 1.9 million (1987)
  by occupation: agriculture 60%, transport, commerce, and public
  services 38%, industry less than 2%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $272 million (1993 est.)
  expenditures: $375 million, including capital expenditures of $84
  million (1993 est.)

Industries: textiles, cigarettes; beverages, food; construction
  materials, petroleum

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 30,000 kW
  production: 10 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 25 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: corn, sorghum, cassava (tapioca), yams, beans, rice,
  cotton, palm oil, peanuts; poultry, livestock

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics associated with
  Nigerian trafficking organizations and most commonly destined for
  Western Europe and the US

Exports: $310 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: cotton, crude oil, palm products, cocoa
  partners: France, Morocco 37%, Portugal 14%, Spain, Italy, UK, US,
  Libya

Imports: $439 million (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
  commodities: foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products,
  intermediate goods, capital goods, light consumer goods
  partners: France 24%, Thailand 12%, Netherlands 7%, US 5%, China,
  Hong Kong

External debt: $1.5 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January
  1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
  282.11 (1991)
  note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
  100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
  1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 578 km (single track) (1995 est.)
  narrow gauge: 578 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 6,070 km
  paved: 1,214 km
  unpaved: 4,856 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: navigable along small sections, important only locally

Ports: Cotonou, Porto-Novo

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 5
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 16,200 (1986 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: fair system of open wire and microwave radio relay
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
  Ocean); submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 20,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Armed Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force), National
  Gendarmerie

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,212,440
  females age 15-49: 1,290,773
  males fit for military service: 620,923
  females fit for military service: 653,094
  males reach military age (18) annually: 62,526
  females reach military age (18) annually: 60,968 (1996 est.)
  note: both sexes are liable for military service

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $33 million, 3.2%
  of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Bermuda
-------


(dependent territory of the UK)

Map
---


Location: 32 20 N, 64 45 W -- North America, group of islands in
  the North Atlantic Ocean, east of North Carolina (US)



Flag
----


Description: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with
  a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship
  Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the
  flag



Geography
---------


Location: North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic
  Ocean, east of North Carolina (US)

Geographic coordinates: 32 20 N, 64 45 W

Map references: North America

Area:
  total area: 50 sq km
  land area: 50 sq km
  comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in
  winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Town Hill 76 m

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 20%
  other: 80%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: hurricanes (June to November)
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: consists of about 360 small coral islands with
  ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some reclaimed
  land leased by US Government



People
------


Population: 62,099 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.76% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: NA male(s)/female
  under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
  15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
  65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
  all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 13.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.03 years
  male: 73.36 years
  female: 76.97 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bermudian(s)
  adjective: Bermudian

Ethnic divisions: black 61%, white and other 39%

Religions: Anglican 37%, Roman Catholic 14%, African Methodist
  Episcopal (Zion) 10%, Methodist 6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, other
  28%

Languages: English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 99%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bermuda

Data code: BD

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*;
  Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*,
  Saint Georges, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 24 May

Constitution: 8 June 1968

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6
  February 1952), a hereditary monarch, is represented by Governor
  Lord David WADDINGTON (since 25 August 1992), who was appointed by
  the queen
  head of government: Premier David SAUL (since 25 August 1995) was
  appointed by the governor; Deputy Premier Jerome DILL (since 1
  September 1995)
  cabinet: Cabinet was nominated by the premier, appointed by the
  governor

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
  Senate: consists of an 11-member body appointed by the governor
  House of Assembly: elections last held 5 October 1993 (next to be
  held by NA October 1998); results - UBP 50%, PLP 46%, independents
  4%; seats - (40 total) UBP 22, PLP 18

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party (UBP), David
  SAUL; Progressive Labor Party (PLP), Frederick WADE; National
  Liberal Party (NLP), Gilbert DARRELL

Other political or pressure groups: Bermuda Industrial Union
  (BIU), Ottiwell SIMMONS

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CCC,
  ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the
  UK)

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Robert A. FARMER
  consulate general(s): Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire,
  Hamilton
  mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate
  General Hamilton, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5300
  telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
  FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592

Flag: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
  and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red
  lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea
  Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita
  incomes in the world, having successfully exploited its location by
  providing luxury tourist facilities and financial services. The
  tourist industry attracts more than 90% of its business from North
  America. The industrial sector is small, and agriculture is severely
  limited by a lack of suitable land. About 80% of food needs are
  imported. International business contributes over 60% of Bermuda's
  economic output; a failed independence vote in late 1995 can be
  partially attributed to Bermudian's fear of scaring away foreign
  firms. Hurricane Felix, which hit Bermuda twice over three days,
  caused an estimated $2.5 million in damages in August of 1995.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.7 billion (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.5% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $28,000 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 33,650 (1992)
  by occupation: clerical 25%, services 22%, laborers 21%,
  professional and technical 13%, administrative and managerial 10%,
  sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2% (1984)

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $327.5 million
  expenditures: $308.9 million, including capital expenditures of
  $35.4 million (FY90/91 est.)

Industries: tourism, finance, structural concrete products,
  paints, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 140,000 kW
  production: 504 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 7,745 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products

Exports: $60 million (f.o.b., 1991)
  commodities: semitropical produce, light manufactures, reexports of
  pharmaceuticals
  partners: US 62.4%, UK 20%

Imports: $519 million (f.o.b., 1993)
  commodities: fuel, foodstuffs, machinery
  partners: US 38%, UK 5%, Canada 5%

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (fixed
  rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 208 km
  paved: 208 km
  unpaved: 0 km (1986 est.)
  note: in addition, there are 400 km of paved and unpaved roads that
  are privately owned

Ports: Hamilton, Saint George

Merchant marine:
  total: 69 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,146,693 GRT/5,007,242
  DWT
  ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 3, container 7, liquefied gas tanker
  16, oil tanker 16, refrigerated cargo 10, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4,
  short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1
  note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 11
  countries among which are UK 17, US 13, Canada 10, Norway 9, Nigeria
  4, Sweden 3, Hong Kong 2, Syria 2, Mexico 1, and NZ 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 1
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 54,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system
  international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2
  Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 78,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 57,000 (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve
  Constabulary

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@Bhutan
------



Map
---


Location: 27 30 N, 90 30 E -- Southern Asia, between China and
  India



Flag
----


Description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner;
  the upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange;
  centered along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon
  facing away from the hoist side



Geography
---------


Location: Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates: 27 30 N, 90 30 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
  total area: 47,000 sq km
  land area: 47,000 sq km
  comparative area: slightly more than half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,075 km
  border countries: China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: none

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot
  summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in
  Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
  lowest point: Dangme Chu 97 m
  highest point: Khula Kangri I 7,553 m

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 5%
  forest and woodland: 70%
  other: 23%

Irrigated land: 340 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: soil erosion; limited access to potable water
  natural hazards: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas are
  the source of the country's name which translates as Land of the
  Thunder Dragon; frequent landslides during the rainy season
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Geographic note: landlocked; strategic location between China and
  India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes



People
------


Population: 1,822,625 (July 1996 est.)
  note: other estimates range as low as 600,000

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 40% (male 378,407; female 351,146)
  15-64 years: 56% (male 524,972; female 496,715)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 36,304; female 35,081) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.32% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 38.48 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.28 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.06 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 116.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 51.46 years
  male: 51.96 years
  female: 50.93 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.33 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Bhutanese

Ethnic divisions: Bhote 50%, ethnic Nepalese 35%, indigenous or
  migrant tribes 15%

Religions: Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
  Hinduism 25%

Languages: Dzongkha (official), Bhotes speak various Tibetan
  dialects, Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 42.2%
  male: 56.2%
  female: 28.1%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Bhutan
  conventional short form: Bhutan

Data code: BT

Type of government: monarchy; special treaty relationship with
  India

Capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and
  plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi,
  Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar,
  Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

National holiday: National Day, 17 December (1907) (Ugyen
  Wangchuck became first hereditary king)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights
  note: Bhutan uses 1953 Royal decree for the Constitution of the
  National Assembly

Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Executive branch:
  Chief of State and Head of Government (Druk Gyalpo): King Jigme
  Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972) is a hereditary monarch
  Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde): was nominated by the king
  cabinet: Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog) was appointed by
  the king

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National Assembly (Tshogdu): members serve for three years; seats -
  (150 total, 105 elected from village constituencies, 12 represent
  religious bodies, and 33 designated by the king to represent
  government and other secular interests)

Judicial branch: the Supreme Court of Appeal is the king; High
  Court, judges appointed by the king

Political parties and leaders: no legal parties

Other political or pressure groups: Buddhist clergy; Indian
  merchant community; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
  antigovernment campaign

International organization participation: AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO,
  G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, Intelsat, IOC, ITU, NAM, SAARC,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation in US: none; note - Bhutan has a
  Permanent Mission to the UN, headed by Ugyen TSERING; address: 2
  United Nations Plaza, 27th Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone [1]
  (212) 826-1919; the Bhutanese mission to the UN has consular
  jurisdiction in the US
  consulate(s) general: New York
  honorary consulate(s): San Francisco; Washington, DC

US diplomatic representation: the US and Bhutan have no formal
  diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained
  between the Bhutanese and US Embassy in New Delhi (India)

Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the
  upper triangle is yellow and the lower triangle is orange; centered
  along the dividing line is a large black and white dragon facing
  away from the hoist side



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The economy, one of the world's smallest and
  least developed, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide
  the main livelihood for 90% of the population and account for about
  half of GDP. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and
  animal husbandry. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make the
  building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive.
  The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and
  monetary links. The industrial sector is small and technologically
  backward, with most production of the cottage industry type. Most
  development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian
  migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for
  tourists are key resources; however, the government limits the
  number of tourists to 4,000 per year to minimize foreign influence.
  The Bhutanese Government has made some progress in expanding the
  nation's productive base and improving social welfare but growth
  continues to be constrained by the government's desire to protect
  the country's environment and cultural traditions. Growth picked up
  in 1995 and the country's balance of payments remained strong with
  comfortable reserves. The cautious fiscal stance planned for FY95/96
  suggests continued economic stability in 1996. However, excessive
  controls and uncertain policies in areas like industrial licensing,
  trade, labor, and finance continue to hamper foreign investment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.3 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $730 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.6% (FY94/95 est.)

Labor force: NA
  by occupation: agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%
  note: massive lack of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $52 million
  expenditures: $150 million, including capital expenditures of $95
  million (FY93/94 est.)
  note: the government of India finances nearly three-fifths of
  Bhutan's budget expenditures

Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic
  beverages, calcium carbide

Industrial production growth rate: 7.6% (1992 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 360,000 kW
  production: 1.7 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 143 kWh (1993)
  note: Bhutan exports electricity to India

Agriculture: rice, corn, root crops, citrus, foodgrains; dairy
  products, eggs

Exports: $70.9 million (f.o.b., FY94/95 est.)
  commodities: cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit,
  electricity (to India), precious stones, spices
  partners: India 94%, Bangladesh

Imports: $113.6 million (c.i.f., FY94/95 est.)
  commodities: fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts,
  vehicles, fabrics, rice
  partners: India 77%, Japan, UK, Germany, US

External debt: $141 million (October 1994)

Economic aid:
  recipient: $NA

Currency: 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note - Indian currency is
  also legal tender

Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 35.766 (January 1996),
  32.427 (1995), 31.374 (1994), 30.493 (1993), 25.918 (1992), 22.742
  (1991); note - the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 1,296 km
  paved: 416 km
  unpaved: 880 km (1988 est.)

Ports: none

Airports:
  total: 2
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 4,620 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: domestic telephone service is very poor with very few
  telephones in use
  international: international telephone and telegraph service is by
  landline through India; a satellite earth station was planned (1990)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1990)

Radios: 23,000 (1989 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1990 est.)

Televisions: 200 (1985 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 444,875
  males fit for military service: 237,529
  males reach military age (18) annually: 17,634 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Bolivia
-------



Map
---


Location: 17 00 S, 65 00 W -- Central South America, southwest of
  Brazil



Flag
----


Description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow,
  and green with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar
  to the flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star
  centered in the yellow band



Geography
---------


Location: Central South America, southwest of Brazil

Geographic coordinates: 17 00 S, 65 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
  total area: 1,098,580 sq km
  land area: 1,084,390 sq km
  comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,743 km
  border countries: Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km,
  Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the
  South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in
  1884; dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and
  semiarid

Terrain: rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau
  (Altiplano), hills, lowland plains of the Amazon Basin
  lowest point: Rio Paraguay 90 m
  highest point: Cerro Illimani 6,882 m

Natural resources: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten,
  antimony, silver, iron, lead, gold, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 3%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 25%
  forest and woodland: 52%
  other: 20%

Irrigated land: 1,650 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: the clearing of land for agricultural purposes and
  the international demand for tropical timber are contributing to
  deforestation; soil erosion from overgrazing and poor cultivation
  methods (including slash-and-burn agriculture); desertification;
  loss of biodiversity; industrial pollution of water supplies used
  for drinking and irrigation
  natural hazards: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to
  efficient fuel combustion, as well as to physical activity by those
  unaccustomed to it from birth; flooding in the northeast
  (March-April)
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Tropical
  Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
  Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes,
  Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection

Geographic note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca,
  world's highest navigable lake (elevation 3,805 m), with Peru



People
------


Population: 7,165,257 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 39% (male 1,422,313; female 1,390,885)
  15-64 years: 56% (male 1,959,989; female 2,042,135)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 153,111; female 196,824) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.82% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 32.37 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.75 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -3.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 67.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 59.81 years
  male: 56.94 years
  female: 62.82 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.25 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bolivian(s)
  adjective: Bolivian

Ethnic divisions: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mestizo (mixed European
  and Indian ancestry) 25%-30%, European 5%-15%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Protestant (Evangelical Methodist)

Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara
  (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 83.1%
  male: 90.5%
  female: 76%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bolivia
  conventional short form: Bolivia
  local long form: Republica de Bolivia
  local short form: Bolivia

Data code: BL

Type of government: republic

Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and
  seat of judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos, singular -
  departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando,
  Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Constitution: 2 February 1967

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Napoleonic Code; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory (married); 21
  years of age, universal and compulsory (single)

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE
  LOZADA Bustamente (since 6 August 1993) and Vice President Victor
  Hugo CARDENAS Conde (since 6 August 1993) were elected for four-year
  terms by popular vote; election last held 6 June 1993 (next to be
  held NA May 1997); results - Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA (MNR) 34%,
  Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN/MIR alliance) 20%, Carlos PALENQUE Aviles
  (CONDEPA) 14%, Max FERNANDEZ Rojas (UCS) 13%, Antonio ARANIBAR
  Quiroga (MBL) 5%; no candidate received a majority of the popular
  vote; Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA won a congressional runoff election
  on 4 August 1993 after forming a coalition with Max FERNANDEZ and
  Antonio ARANIBAR; FERNANDEZ died in a plane crash 26 November 1995
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president from panel of
  candidates proposed by the Senate

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
  Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): elections last held 6
  June 1993 (next to be held NA May 1997); results - percent of vote
  by party NA; seats - (130 total) MNR 52, UCS 20, ADN 17, MIR 17,
  CONDEPA 13, MBL 7, ARBOL 1, ASD 1, EJE 1, PCD 1
  Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores): elections last held 6
  June 1993 (next to be held NA May 1997); results - percent of vote
  by party NA; seats - (27 total) MNR 17, ADN 4, MIR 4, CONDEPA 1, UCS
  1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges appointed
  for a 10-year term by National Congress

Political parties and leaders:
  Left parties: Free Bolivia Movement (MBL), Antonio ARANIBAR; April 9
  Revolutionary Vanguard (VR-9), Carlos SERRATE; Alternative of
  Democratic Socialism (ASD), Jerjes JUSTINIANO; Revolutionary Front
  of the Left (FRI), Oscar ZAMORA; Bolivian Socialist Falange (FSB);
  Socialist Unzaguista Movement (MAS); Socialist Party One (PS-1);
  Bolivian Communist Party (PCB)
  Center-Left parties: Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR),
  Gonzalo SANCHEZ DE LOZADA; Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR),
  Jaime PAZ Zamora, Oscar EID; Christian Democrat (PCD), Jorge AGREDA
  Center-Right party: Nationalist Democratic Action (ADN), Jorge
  LANDIVAR, Hugo BANZER
  Populist parties: Civic Solidarity Union (UCS), Johnny FERNANDEZ;
  Conscience of the Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos PALENQUE Aviles;
  Popular Patriotic Movement (MPP), Julio MANTILLA; Unity and Progress
  Movement (MUP), Ivo KULJIS
  Evangelical: Bolivian Renovating Alliance (ARBOL), Hugo VILLEGAS
  indigenous: Tupac Katari Revolutionary Liberation Movement (MRTK-L),
  Victor Hugo CARDENAS Conde; Patriotic Axis of Convergence (EJE-P),
  Ramiro BARRANCHEA; National Katarista Movement (MKN), Fernando UNTOJA

International organization participation: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11,
  G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS,
  OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Fernando Alvaro COSSIO
  chancery: 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 483-4410 through 4412
  FAX: [1] (202) 328-3712
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Curtis Warren KAMMAN
  embassy: Avenida Arce 2780, San Jorge, La Paz
  mailing address: P. O. Box 425, La Paz; APO AA 34032
  telephone: [591] (2) 430251
  FAX: [591] (2) 433900

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green
  with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the
  flag of Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in
  the yellow band



Economy
-------


Economic overview: With its long history of semifeudal social
  controls, dependence on volatile prices for its mineral exports, and
  bouts of hyperinflation, Bolivia has remained one of the poorest and
  least developed Latin American countries. However, Bolivia has
  experienced generally improving economic conditions since the PAZ
  Estenssoro administration (1985-89) introduced market-oriented
  policies which reduced inflation from 11,700% in 1985 to about 20%
  in 1988. PAZ Estenssoro was followed as president by Jaime PAZ
  Zamora (1989-93) who continued the free-market policies of his
  predecessor, despite opposition from his own party and from
  Bolivia's once powerful labor movement. By maintaining fiscal
  discipline, PAZ Zamora helped reduce inflation to 9.3% in 1993,
  while GDP grew by an annual average of 3.25% during his tenure.
  Inaugurated in August 1993, President SANCHEZ DE LOZADA has vowed to
  advance the market-oriented economic reforms he helped launch as PAZ
  Estenssoro's planning minister. His successes so far have included
  the signing of a free trade agreement with Mexico and progress on
  his unique privatization plan. The main privatization bill was
  passed by the Bolivian legislature in late March 1994. Since that
  time, the administration has privatized the electric power
  generation sector, the state airline, the state telephone company,
  and the national railroad. The state mining and petroleum companies
  are expected to be privatized in 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $20 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3.7% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,530 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 3.54 million
  by occupation: agriculture NA%, services and utilities 20%,
  manufacturing, mining and construction 7% (1993)

Unemployment rate: urban rate 8% (1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.75 billion
  expenditures: $3.75 billion, including capital expenditures of
  $556.2 million (1995 est.)

Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverages,
  tobacco, handicrafts, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 756,200 kW
  production: 2.116 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 367 kWh (1994)

Agriculture: coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice,
  potatoes; timber

Illicit drugs: world's third-largest cultivator of coca (after
  Peru and Colombia) with an estimated 48,600 hectares under
  cultivation in 1995, a one percent increase in overall cultivation
  of coca over 1994 levels; Bolivia, however, is the second-largest
  producer of harvested coca leaf; even so, voluntary and forced
  eradication programs resulted in leaf production dropping from
  89,800 metric tons in 1994 to 85,000 tons in 1995; government
  considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit; intermediate coca
  products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia and Brazil to
  the US and other international drug markets; alternative crop
  program aims to reduce illicit coca cultivation

Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: metals 39%, natural gas 9%, soybeans 11%, jewelry 11%,
  wood 8%
  partners: US 26%, Argentina 15% (1993 est.)

Imports: $1.21 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
  commodities: capital goods 48%, chemicals 11%, petroleum 5%, food 5%
  (1993 est.)
  partners: US 24%, Argentina 13%, Brazil 11%, Japan 11% (1993 est.)

External debt: $4.4 billion (November 1995)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $362 million (1993)

Currency: 1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 4.9137 (December 1995),
  4.8003 (1995), 4.6205 (1994), 4.2651 (1993), 3.9005 (1992), 3.5806
  (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 3,691 km (single track)
  narrow gauge: 3,652 km 1.000-m gauge; 39 km 0.760-m gauge (13 km
  electrified) (1995)

Highways:
  total: 46,311 km
  paved: 1,940 km (including 27 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 44,371 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural
  gas 1,495 km

Ports: none; however, Bolivia has free port privileges in the
  maritime ports of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Paraguay

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,214 GRT/6,390 DWT
  (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 1,017
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 3
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 4
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3
  with paved runways under 914 m: 750
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 69
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 186 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 144,300 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: new subscribers face bureaucratic difficulties;
  most telephones are concentrated in La Paz and other cities
  domestic: microwave radio relay system being expanded
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 129, FM 0, shortwave 68

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 43

Televisions: 500,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army (Ejercito Boliviano), Navy (Fuerza Naval Boliviana,
  includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Boliviana), National
  Police Force (Policia Nacional de Bolivia)

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,685,572
  males fit for military service: 1,098,948
  males reach military age (19) annually: 76,035 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $145 million;
  1.9% of GDP (1996)



======================================================================



@Bosnia and Herzegovina
----------------------


On 21 November 1995, in Dayton, Ohio, the former Yugoslavia's three
warring parties signed a peace agreement that brought to a halt over
three years of interethnic civil strife in Bosnia and Herzegovina
(the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The
Dayton Agreement, signed by Bosnian President IZETBEGOVIC, Croatian
President TUDJMAN, and Serbian President MILOSEVIC, divides Bosnia
and Herzegovina roughly equally between the Muslim/Croat Federation
and the Bosnian Serbs while maintaining Bosnia's currently
recognized borders. An international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of
60,000 troops began to enter Bosnia in late 1995 to implement and
monitor the military aspects of the agreement and is scheduled to
depart the country within one year. A High Representative appointed
by the UN Security Council is responsible for civilian
implementation of the accord, including monitoring implementation,
facilitating any difficulties arising in connection with civilian
implementation, and coordinating activities of the civilian
organizations and agencies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Bosnian
conflict began in the spring of 1992 when the Government of Bosnia
and Herzegovina held a referendum on independence and the Bosnian
Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia - responded with armed
resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and
joining Serb-held areas to form a "greater Serbia." In March 1994,
Bosnia's Muslims and Croats reduced the number of warring factions
from three to two by signing an agreement in Washington creating
their joint Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Map
---


Location: 44 00 N, 18 00 E -- Southeastern Europe, bordering the
  Adriatic Sea and Croatia



Flag
----


Description: white with a large blue shield; the shield contains
  white fleurs-de-lis with a white diagonal band running from the
  upper hoist corner to the lower outer side



Geography
---------


Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and
  Croatia

Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E

Map references: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe

Area:
  total area: 51,233 sq km
  land area: 51,233 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,459 km
  border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312
  km with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro)

Coastline: 20 km

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: none

Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation
  have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy
  winters along coast

Terrain: mountains and valleys
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests,
  copper, chromium, lead, zinc

Land use:
  arable land: 20%
  permanent crops: 2%
  meadows and pastures: 25%
  forest and woodland: 36%
  other: 17%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for
  disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties, water
  shortages, and destruction of infrastructure because of civil strife
  natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes
  international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Law of the Sea,
  Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection

Geographic note: as of January 1996, Bosnian Serb leaders
  continued to demand revisions to the territorial aspects of the
  Dayton Agreement, especially in Sarajevo - designated to be under
  Federation control - and the Brcko/Posavina corridor area; members
  of the Bosnian Croat community also reject several territorial
  aspects of the agreement, citing that historically Bosnian Croat
  lands are to be transferred to Bosnian Serb control; despite
  disagreements, initial implementation of the agreement as of January
  1996 appeared on course with the warring parties meeting the
  deadline for withdrawal of forces from the front lines in Sarajevo



People
------


Population: 2,656,240 (July 1996 est.)
  note: all data dealing with population is subject to considerable
  error because of the dislocations caused by military action and
  ethnic cleansing

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20% (male 276,530; female 248,519)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 892,807; female 915,686)
  65 years and over: 12% (male 133,081; female 189,617) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: -2.84% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 6.34 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.92 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -18.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 43.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 56.11 years
  male: 51.16 years
  female: 61.39 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)
  adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Ethnic divisions: Serb 40%, Muslim 38%, Croat 22% (est.)

Religions: Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%,
  other 10%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 99%

Literacy: NA



Government
----------


Government note: The US recognizes the Republic of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, formed by the
  Muslims and Croats in March 1994, remains in the implementation
  stages.

Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  conventional short form: Bosnia and Herzegovina
  local long form: Republika Bosna i Hercegovina
  local short form: Bosna i Hercegovina
  note: under the new constitution initialed in Dayton, Ohio, on 21
  November 1995, the name of the country will be changed from Republic
  of Bosnia and Herzegovina to simply Bosnia and Herzegovina and will
  be made up of the Muslim/Croat Federation and the Bosnian Serb
  entity now called Republika Srpska

Data code: BK

Type of government: emerging democracy

Capital: Sarajevo

Administrative divisions: 109 districts (opstinas, singular -
  opstina) Banovici, Banja Luka, Bihac, Bijeljina, Bileca, Bosanska
  Dubica, Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanska Krupa, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski
  Novi, Bosanski Petrovac, Bosanski Samac, Bosansko Grahovo, Bratunac,
  Brcko, Breza, Bugojno, Busovaca, Cazin, Cajnice, Capljina, Celinac,
  Citluk, Derventa, Doboj, Donji Vakuf, Foca, Fojnica, Gacko, Glamoc,
  Gorazde, Gornji Vakuf, Gracanica, Gradacac, Grude, Han Pijesak,
  Jablanica, Jajce, Kakanj, Kalesija, Kalinovik, Kiseljak, Kladanj,
  Kljuc, Konjic, Kotor Varos, Kresevo, Kupres, Laktasi, Listica,
  Livno, Lopare, Lukavac, Ljubinje, Ljubuski, Maglaj, Modrica, Mostar,
  Mrkonjic-Grad, Neum, Nevesinje, Odzak, Olovo, Orasje, Posusje,
  Prijedor, Prnjavor, Prozor, (Pucarevo) Novi Travnik, Rogatica, Rudo,
  Sanski Most, Sarajevo-Centar, Sarajevo-Hadzici, Sarajevo-Ilidza,
  Sarajevo-Ilijas, Sarajevo-Novi Grad, Sarajevo-Novo, Sarajevo-Pale,
  Sarajevo-Stari Grad, Sarajevo-Trnovo, Sarajevo-Vogosca, Skender
  Vakuf, Sokolac, Srbac, Srebrenica, Srebrenik, Stolac, Sekovici,
  Sipovo, Teslic, Tesanj, Drvar, Duvno, Travnik, Trebinje, Tuzla,
  Ugljevik, Vares, Velika Kladusa, Visoko, Visegrad, Vitez, Vlasenica,
  Zavidovici, Zenica, Zvornik, Zepce, Zivinice
  note: administrative reorganization is currently under negotiation
  with the assistance of international mediators; spellings not yet
  approved by the US Board on Geographic Names

Independence: NA April 1992 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: first promulgated in 1974 (under the Communists),
  amended 1989, 1990, and 1991; constitution of Muslim/Croat
  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina ratified April 1994; under the
  Dayton Agreement signed 21 November 1995, the Muslim/Croat
  Federation and the Serb republic government agreed to accept new
  basic principles in their constitutions

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 16 years of age, if employed; 18 years of age, universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since 20 December 1990)
  was elected by a collective (seven-member) presidency (of which he
  is a member); other members of the collective presidency are: Ejup
  GANIC (since NA November 1990), Nijaz DURAKOVIC (since NA October
  1993), Stjepan KLJUJIC (since NA October 1993), Ivo KOMSIC (since NA
  October 1993), Mirko PEJANOVIC (since NA June 1992), Tatjana
  LJUJIC-MIJATOVIC (since NA December 1992); the collective presidency
  is elected from among the National Assembly with at least two
  members drawn from each of the three main ethnic groups
  head of government: Prime Minister Hasan MURATOVIC (since 30 January
  1996) was elected by the collective presidency and the National
  Assembly
  cabinet: there is an executive body of ministers with no formal name
  who are members of, and responsible to, the National Assembly
  note: the president of the Muslim/Croat Federation of Bosnia and
  Herzegovina is Kresimir ZUBAK (since 31 May 1994); Vice President
  Ejup GANIC (since 31 May 1994); elections for the Presidency of
  Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Presidency of the Republika Srpska
  will take place between six and nine months after the entry into
  force of the Dayton Agreement (14 December 1995)

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly
  Chamber of Municipalities (Vijece Opeina): elections last held
  November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (110 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 38, HDZ BiH 23, Party
  of Democratic Changes 4, DSS 1, SPO 1
  Chamber of Citizens (Vijece Gradanstvo): elections last held
  November-December 1990 (next to be held NA); percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (130 total) SDA 43, SDS BiH 34, HDZ BiH 21, Party
  of Democratic Changes 15, SRSJ BiH 12, LBO 2, DSS 1, DSZ 1, LS 1
  note: the new constitution signed as part of the Dayton agreement on
  21 November 1995 provides for a new bicameral Parliamentary assembly
  which will consist of a House of Peoples with 15 delegates,
  two-thirds from the Muslim/Croat Federation and one-third from the
  Serbian republic, and a House of Representatives with 42 members,
  two-thirds from the Muslim/Croat Federation and one-third from the
  Serbian republic; elections are scheduled to be held six to nine
  months after the entry into force of the Dayton Agreement

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Civic Democratic Party (GDS),
  Ibrahim SPAHIC; Party for Bosnia, Haris SILAJDZIC; Croatian
  Democratic Union of BiH (HDZ), Bozo RAJIC; Croatian Peasants' Party
  of BiH (HSS), Stanko STISKOVIC; Independent Serbian Democratic Party
  (NSDS), Petar DODIK; Liberal Bosniak Organization (LBO), Muhamed
  FILIPOVIC; Liberal Party (LS), Rasim KADIC, president;
  Muslim-Bosniac Organization (MBO), Adil ZULFIKARPASIC; Party of
  Democratic Action (SDA), Alija IZETBEGOVIC; Republican Party of
  Bosnia and Herzegovina, Stjepan KLUJIC; Serb Democratic Party (SDS),
  Radovan KARADZIC, president; Serbian Civic Council (SGV), Mirko
  PEJANOVIC; Serbian Consultative Council, Ljubomir BERBEROVIC; Social
  Democratic Party (SDP - formerly the Democratic Party of Socialists
  (DSS)), Nijaz DURAKOVIC, president; Socialist Party of Republika
  Srpska, Zivko RADISIC; Union of Social Democrats (SSDB), Salim
  BESLAGIC; United Left of the Bosnian Serb Republic (ULRS), Mile
  IVOSEVIC; Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO), Milan TRIVUNCIC, note -
  this party participated in the 1990 elections, but may not exist
  now; Party of Democratic Changes, leader NA, note - this party
  participated in the 1990 elections, but may not exist now; Alliance
  of Reform Forces of Yugoslavia for Bosnia and Herzegovina (SRSJ
  BiH), Dr. Nenad KECMANOVIC, president, note - this party
  participated in the 1990 elections, but may not exist now;
  Democratic League of Greens (DSZ), Drazen PETROVIC, note - this
  party participated in the 1990 elections, but may not exist now;
  Yugoslav United Left (JUL), CAREVIC; Serb Liberal Party, Miodrag
  ZIVANOVIC; Serb Radical Party; Serb Patriotic Party, Slavko
  ZUPLJANIN; Serb Homeland Party

Other political or pressure groups: NA

International organization participation: CE (guest), CEI, ECE,
  FAO, ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol,
  IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM (guest), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Sven ALKALAJ
  chancery: Suite 760, 1707 L Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
  telephone: [1] (202) 833-3612, 3613, 3615
  FAX: [1] (202) 833-2061
  consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John K. MENZIES
  embassy: 43 Ul. Djure Djakovica, Sarajevo
  mailing address: use street address
  telephone: [387] (71) 645-992, 445-700, 659-743

Flag: white with a large blue shield; the shield contains white
  fleurs-de-lis with a white diagonal band running from the upper
  hoist corner to the lower outer side



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to The
  Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia as the poorest republic in the
  old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in
  private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the
  republic traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has
  been greatly overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of
  communist central planning and management. TITO had pushed the
  development of military industries in the republic with the result
  that Bosnia hosted a large share of Yugoslavia's defense plants. The
  bitter interethnic warfare in Bosnia caused production to plummet,
  unemployment and inflation to soar, and human misery to multiply. No
  economic statistics for 1992-95 are available, although output
  clearly has fallen substantially below the levels of earlier years
  and almost certainly is well below $1,000 per head. The country
  receives substantial amounts of humanitarian aid from the
  international community.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $300 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 1,026,254
  by occupation: NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: steel, coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, bauxite,
  vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products, wooden furniture, tank
  and aircraft assembly, domestic appliances, oil refining; much of
  capacity damaged or shut down (1995)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 3,800,000 kW
  production: NA kWh
  consumption per capita: NA kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, corn, fruits, vegetables; livestock

Illicit drugs: NA

Exports: $NA
  commodities: NA
  partners: NA

Imports: $NA
  commodities: NA
  partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 dinar = 100 para; Croatian dinar used in Croat-held
  area, presumably to be replaced by new Croatian kuna; old and new
  Serbian dinars used in Serb-held area; hard currencies probably
  supplanting local currencies in areas held by Bosnian Government

Exchange rates: NA

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 1,021 km (electrified 795 km)
  standard gauge: 1,021 km 1.435-m gauge (1991)

Highways:
  total: 21,168 km
  paved: 11,436 km
  unpaved: 9,732 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: NA km

Pipelines: crude oil 174 km; natural gas 90 km (1992); note -
  pipelines now disrupted

Ports: Bosanski Brod

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 24
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 7
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 9 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 727,000

Telephone system: telephone and telegraph network is in need of
  modernization and expansion; many urban areas are below average when
  compared with services in other former Yugoslav republics
  domestic: NA
  international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 9, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 840,000

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 1,012,094



Defense
-------


Branches: Army

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 654,326
  males fit for military service: 524,963
  males reach military age (19) annually: 22,902 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Botswana
--------



Map
---


Location: 22 00 S, 24 00 E -- Southern Africa, north of South
  Africa



Flag
----


Description: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe
  in the center



Geography
---------


Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 24 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 600,370 sq km
  land area: 585,370 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,013 km
  border countries: Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe
  813 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: short section of boundary with Namibia is
  indefinite; quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in
  disagreement; dispute with Namibia over uninhabited Kasikili
  (Sidudu) Island in Linyanti (Chobe) River remained unresolved in
  January 1996 and the parties have agreed to refer the matter to the
  ICJ

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari
  Desert in southwest
  lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
  highest point: Tsodilo Hill 1,489 m

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash,
  potash, coal, iron ore, silver

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 75%
  forest and woodland: 2%
  other: 21%

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: overgrazing, primarily as a result of the expansion
  of the cattle population; desertification; limited natural fresh
  water resources
  natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from
  the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can
  obscure visibility
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
  Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Geographic note: landlocked; population concentrated in eastern
  part of the country



People
------


Population: 1,477,630 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 42% (male 317,254; female 309,617)
  15-64 years: 54% (male 374,572; female 419,991)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 22,314; female 33,882) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.63% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 33.34 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 17.01 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 54.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 46.01 years
  male: 44.94 years
  female: 47.11 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.26 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
  adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic divisions: Batswana 95%, Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi
  4%, white 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

Languages: English (official), Setswana

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 69.8%
  male: 80.5%
  female: 59.9%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
  conventional short form: Botswana
  former: Bechuanaland

Data code: BC

Type of government: parliamentary republic

Capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts and four town councils*;
  Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*,Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng,
  Kweneng, Lobatse*, Ngamiland, North-East, Selebi-Phikwe*,
  South-East, Southern,

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 September (1966)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law;
  judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not
  accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President Sir Ketumile MASIRE
  (since 13 July 1980) was elected for a five-year term by the
  National Assembly; election last held 15 October 1994 (next to be
  held October 1999); Vice President Festus MOGAE (since 9 March 1992)
  was appointed by the president
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
  House of Chiefs: is a largely advisory 15-member body consisting of
  the chiefs of the eight principal tribes, four elected subchiefs,
  and three members selected by the other 12
  National Assembly: elections last held 15 October 1994 (next to be
  held October 1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
  (44 total, 40 elected and 4 appointed by the majority party) BDP 27,
  BNF 13

Judicial branch: High Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party (BDP),
  Sir Ketumile MASIRE; Botswana National Front (BNF), Kenneth KOMA;
  Botswana People's Party (BPP), Knight MARIPE; Botswana Independence
  Party (BIP), Motsamai MPHO

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA,
  FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADC, UN, UN Security
  Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
  WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Archibald MOGWE
  chancery: Suite 7M, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990, 4991
  FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Howard F. JETER
  embassy: address NA, Gaborone
  mailing address: P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
  telephone: [267] 353982
  FAX: [267] 356947

Flag: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the
  center



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The economy has historically been based on
  cattle raising and crops. Agriculture today provides a livelihood
  for more than 80% of the population but supplies only about 50% of
  food needs and accounts for only 5% of GDP. Subsistence farming and
  cattle raising predominate. The sector is plagued by erratic
  rainfall and poor soils. The driving force behind the rapid economic
  growth of the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry. This
  sector, mostly on the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating
  25% of GDP in 1980 to 39% in 1994. The unemployment rate remains a
  problem at 21%. Hampered by a still sluggish diamond market in 1994
  and 1995, GDP grew by only 1% in both years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 1% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 5%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 428,000 (1992)
  by occupation: 220,000 formal sector employees; 14,300 are employed
  in various mines in South Africa; most others are engaged in cattle
  raising and subsistence agriculture (1992 est.)

Unemployment rate: 21% (1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.7 billion
  expenditures: $1.99 billion, including capital expenditures of $652
  million (FY93/94)

Industries: diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash,
  potash; livestock processing

Industrial production growth rate: 4.6% (FY92/93)

Electricity:
  capacity: 220,000 kW
  production: 900 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 694 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sorghum, maize, millet, pulses, groundnuts (peanuts),
  beans, cowpeas, sunflower seed; livestock

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b. 1994)
  commodities: diamonds 78%, copper and nickel 6%, meat 5%
  partners: Switzerland, UK, Southern African Customs Union (SACU),

Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1992)
  commodities: foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles,
  petroleum products
  partners: Switzerland, Southern African Customs Union (SACU), UK, US

External debt: $691 million (1994)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $189 million (1993)

Currency: 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1 - 2.8305 (January 1996), 2.7716
  (1995), 2.6831 (1994), 2.4190 (1993), 2.1327 (1992), 2.0173 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 19,109 (1985 est.)

Telephone system: sparse system
  domestic: small system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relay
  links, and a few radiotelephone communication stations
  international: microwave radio relay links to Zambia, Zimbabwe and
  South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 13, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 13,800 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Botswana Defense Force (includes Army and Air Wing),
  Botswana National Police

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 334,177
  males fit for military service: 175,471
  males reach military age (18) annually: 17,088 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $199 million,
  5.2% of GDP (FY93/94)



======================================================================



@Bouvet Island
-------------


(territory of Norway)

Map
---


Location: 54 26 S, 3 24 E -- Southern Africa, island in the South
  Atlantic Ocean, south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South
  Africa)



Flag
----


Description: the flag of Norway is used



Geography
---------


Location: Southern Africa, island in the South Atlantic Ocean,
  south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa)

Geographic coordinates: 54 26 S, 3 24 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
  total area: 58 sq km
  land area: 58 sq km
  comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 29.6 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 4 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is
  mostly inaccessible
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 780 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (all ice)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: NA
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: covered by glacial ice



People
------


Population: uninhabited



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Bouvet Island

Data code: BV

Type of government: territory of Norway

Capital: none; administered from Oslo, Norway

Independence: none (territory of Norway)

Flag: the flag of Norway is used



Economy
-------


Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation
--------------


Ports: none; offshore anchorage only



Communications
--------------


Communications note: automatic meteorological station



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Norway



======================================================================



@Brazil
------



Map
---


Location: 10 00 S, 55 00 W -- Eastern South America, bordering the
  Atlantic Ocean



Flag
----


Description: green with a large yellow diamond in the center
  bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one
  for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same
  pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white
  equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)



Geography
---------


Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
  total area: 8,511,965 sq km
  land area: 8,456,510 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than the US
  note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
  Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao
  Paulo

Land boundaries:
  total: 14,691 km
  border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia
  1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km,
  Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: short section of the boundary with
  Paraguay, just west of Salto das Sete Quedas (Guaira Falls) on the
  Rio Parana, is in dispute; two short sections of boundary with
  Uruguay are in dispute - Arroio Invernada (Arroyo de la Invernada)
  area of the Rio Quarai (Rio Cuareim) and the islands at the
  confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay River

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains,
  hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel,
  phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 7%
  permanent crops: 1%
  meadows and pastures: 19%
  forest and woodland: 67%
  other: 6%

Irrigated land: 27,000 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat
  and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and animal
  species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio de
  Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation
  and water pollution caused by improper mining activities
  natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and
  occasional frost in south
  international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
  ratified - Desertification

Geographic note: largest country in South America; shares common
  boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador



People
------


Population: 162,661,214 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 31% (male 25,286,278; female 24,422,897)
  15-64 years: 65% (male 52,232,435; female 53,094,724)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 3,072,720; female 4,552,160) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 1.16% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 20.8 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 9.19 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 55.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 61.62 years
  male: 56.67 years
  female: 66.81 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.34 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Brazilian(s)
  adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic divisions: white (includes Portuguese, German, Italian,
  Spanish, Polish) 55%, mixed white and African 38%, African 6%, other
  (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic (nominal) 70%

Languages: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 83.3%
  male: 83.3%
  female: 83.2%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
  conventional short form: Brazil
  local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
  local short form: Brasil

Data code: BR

Type of government: federal republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular - estado)
  and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa,
  Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias,
  Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para,
  Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do
  Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao
  Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: voluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70;
  compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President Fernando Henrique
  CARDOSO (since 1 January 1995) was elected for a four-year term by
  popular vote; election last held 3 October 1994; (next to be held
  October 1998); results - Fernando Henrique CARDOSO 53%, Luis Inacio
  LULA da Silva 26%, Eneas CARNEIRO 7%, Orestes QUERCIA 4%, Leonel
  BRIZOLA 3%, Espiridiao AMIN 3%; note - second direct presidential
  election since 1960; Vice President Marco MARCIEL (since NA)
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congresso
  Nacional)
  Federal Senate (Senado Federal): election last held 3 October 1994
  for two-thirds of Senate (next to be held October 1996 for one-third
  of the Senate); results - PMBD 28%, PFL 22%, PSDB 12%, PPR 7%, PDT
  7%, PT 6%, PTB 6%, other 12%; seats - (81 total) seats by party NA
  Chamber of Deputies (Camara dos Deputados): election last held 3
  October 1994 (next to be held October 1998); results - PMDB 21%, PFL
  18%, PDT 7%, PSDB 12%, PPR 10%, PTB 6%, PT 10%, other 16%; seats -
  (517 total) seats by party NA
  note: party totals since Fall 1994 have changed considerably due to
  extensive party-switching

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal, judges are appointed
  for life by the Senate

Political parties and leaders: National Reconstruction Party
  (PRN), Daniel TOURINHO, president; Brazilian Democratic Movement
  Party (PMDB), Paes DE ANDRADE, president; Liberal Front Party (PFL),
  Jorge BORNHAUSEN, president; Workers' Party (PT), Jose DIRCEU,
  president; Brazilian Workers' Party (PTB), Rodrigues PALMA,
  president; Democratic Labor Party (PDT), Leonel BRIZOLA, president;
  Brazilian Progressive Party (PPB), Espiridiao AMIN, president;
  Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Artur DA TAVOLA, president;
  Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Roberto FREIRE, president; Communist
  Party of Brazil (PCdoB), Joao AMAZONAS, chairman; Liberal Party
  (PL), Alvaro VALLE, president

Other political or pressure groups: left wing of the Catholic
  Church and labor unions allied to leftist Workers' Party are
  critical of government's social and economic policies

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer),
  CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
  ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES,
  LAIA, Mercosur, MTCR, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN,
  UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR,
  UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Paulo Tarso FLECHA de LIMA
  chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 745-2700
  FAX: [1] (202) 745-2827
  consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York,
  San Juan (Puerto Rico), and San Francisco
  consulate(s): Houston

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Melvyn LEVITSKY
  embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal
  mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030
  telephone: [55] (61) 321-7272
  FAX: [55] (61) 225-9136
  consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
  consulate(s): Porto Alegre, Recife

Flag: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a
  blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each
  state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the
  night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with
  the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)



Economy
-------


Economic overview: With its large and well-developed agricultural,
  mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazil has South
  America's largest GDP by far and has the potential to become a major
  player in the world economy. Prior to the institution of a
  stabilization plan in mid-1994, stratospheric inflation rates had
  devastated the economy and discouraged foreign investment. Since
  then, tight monetary policy has apparently brought inflation under
  control - consumer prices increased by 23% in 1995 compared to more
  than 1,000% in 1994. At the same time, GDP growth slowed from 5.7%
  to 4.2% as credit was tightened and the steadily appreciating real
  encouraged imports while depressing export growth. The increased
  stability of the Brazilian economy allowed it to weather the fallout
  from the Mexican peso crisis relatively well, with foreign funds
  flowing in during the second half of 1995 to swell official foreign
  exchange reserves past the $50 billion mark. Stock market indices in
  Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, however, ended 26% lower in 1995.
  President CARDOSO remains committed to further reducing inflation in
  1996 while boosting growth, but he faces key challenges. Servicing
  domestic debt has become dramatically more burdensome for both
  public and private sector entities because of very high real
  interest rates which are contributing to growing budget deficits and
  a surge in bankruptcies. Fiscal reforms, many of which require
  constitutional amendments, are proceeding at a slow pace through the
  Brazilian legislature; in their absence, the government is
  maintaining its strict monetary policy. Brazil's natural resources
  remain a major, long-run economic strength.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $976.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.2% (1995)

GDP per capita: $6,100 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 16%
  industry: 25%
  services: 59% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 23% (1995)

Labor force: 57 million (1989 est.)
  by occupation: services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%

Unemployment rate: 5% (1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $58.7 billion
  expenditures: $54.9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1994)

Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore,
  tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and
  equipment

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 55,130,000 kW
  production: 241.4 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 1,589 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane,
  cocoa, citrus; beef

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, coca cultivation in
  the Amazon region has diminished in recent years because of its low
  alkaloid content, mostly for domestic consumption; government has a
  large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important
  transshipment country for Bolivian and Colombian cocaine headed for
  the US and Europe

Exports: $46.5 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
  commodities: iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee,
  motor vehicle parts
  partners: EU 27.6%, Latin America 21.8%, US 17.4%, Japan 6.3% (1993)

Imports: $49.7 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
  commodities: crude oil, capital goods, chemical products,
  foodstuffs, coal
  partners: US 23.3%, EU 22.5%, Middle East 13.0%, Latin America
  11.8%, Japan 6.5% (1993)

External debt: $94 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $107 million (1993)

Currency: 1 real (R$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: R$ per US$1 - 0.975 (January 1996), 0.918 (1995),
  0.639 (1994); CR$ per US$1 - 390.845 (January 1994), 88.449 (1993),
  4.513 (1992), 0.407 (1991)
  note: on 1 August 1993 the cruzeiro real (CR$), equal to 1,000
  cruzeiros, was introduced; another new currency, the real (R$) was
  introduced on 1 July 1994, equal to 2,750 cruzeiro reals

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 27,418 km (1,750 km electrified)
  broad gauge: 5,730 km 1.600-m gauge
  standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge
  narrow gauge: 20,958 km 1.000-m gauge; 13 km 0.760-m gauge
  dual gauge: 523 km 1.000-m and 1.600-m gauges

Highways:
  total: 1,661,850 km
  paved: 142,919 km
  unpaved: 1,518,931 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km;
  natural gas 1,095 km

Ports: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Imbituba, Manaus, Paranagua,
  Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos,
  Vitoria

Merchant marine:
  total: 207 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,108,543
  GRT/8,477,760 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 48, cargo 29, chemical tanker 11, combination
  ore/oil 12, container 14, liquefied gas tanker 11, multifunction
  large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 64, passenger-cargo 5, refrigerated
  cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 11 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 2,950
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 5
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 19
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 122
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 295
  with paved runways under 914 m: 1,298
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 66
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1,145 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 14,426,673 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: good working system
  domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic
  satellite system with 64 earth stations
  international: 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations
  - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean Region
  East)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1,223, FM 0, shortwave 151

Radios: 60 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 112
  note: Brazil has the world's fourth largest television broadcasting
  system

Televisions: 30 million (1993 est.)



======================================================================



@British Indian Ocean Territory
------------------------------


(dependent territory of the UK)

Map
---


Location: 6 00 S, 71 30 E -- Southern Asia, archipelago in the
  Indian Ocean, about one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia



Flag
----


Description: white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and six blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree
  and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag



Geography
---------


Location: Southern Asia, archipelago in the Indian Ocean, about
  one-half the way from Africa to Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 71 30 E

Map references: World

Area:
  total area: 60 sq km
  land area: 60 sq km
  comparative area: about 0.5 times the size of Washington, DC
  note: includes the entire Chagos Archipelago

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 698 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: the island of Diego Garcia is claimed by
  Mauritius

Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: flat and low (up to four meters in elevation)
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location on Diego Garcia 15 m

Natural resources: coconuts, fish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: NA
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: archipelago of 2,300 islands; Diego Garcia,
  largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location in
  central Indian Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility



People
------


Population: no indigenous inhabitants
  note: there are UK-US military personnel and civilian contractors;
  civilian inhabitants, known as the Ilois, evacuated to Mauritius
  before construction of UK-US military facilities



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: British Indian Ocean Territory
  conventional short form: none
  abbreviation: BIOT

Data code: IO

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: none

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6
  February 1952) is a hereditary monarch
  head of government: Commissioner David Ross MACLENNAN (since NA
  1994); Administrator Don CAIRNS (since NA); note - both reside in
  the UK

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the
  UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and six blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree
  and yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag



Economy
-------


Economic overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the
  largest island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities
  are located. Construction projects and various services needed to
  support the military installations are done by military and contract
  employees from the UK, Mauritius, the Philippines, and the US. There
  are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.

Electricity: provided by the US military



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: NA km
  paved: short stretch of paved road of NA km between port and
  airfield on Diego Garcia
  unpaved: NA km

Ports: Diego Garcia

Airports:
  total: 1
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: NA

Telephone system: facilities for military needs only
  domestic: NA
  international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: NA



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@British Virgin Islands
----------------------


(dependent territory of the UK)

Map
---


Location: 18 30 N, 64 30 W -- Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea
  and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico



Flag
----


Description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer
  half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either
  side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing
  the Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)



Geography
---------


Location: Caribbean, between the Caribbean Sea and the North
  Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 18 30 N, 64 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total area: 150 sq km
  land area: 150 sq km
  comparative area: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC
  note: includes the island of Anegada

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep,
  hilly
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Sage 521 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 20%
  permanent crops: 7%
  meadows and pastures: 33%
  forest and woodland: 7%
  other: 33%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: limited natural fresh water resources (except for a
  few seasonal streams and springs on Tortola, most of the island's
  water supply comes from wells and rainwater catchment)
  natural hazards: hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October)
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and
  Puerto Rico



People
------


Population: 13,195 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.29% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 20.19 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.05 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: NA male(s)/female
  under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
  15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
  65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
  all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 19.16 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.78 years
  male: 70.93 years
  female: 74.75 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.26 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: British Virgin Islander(s)
  adjective: British Virgin Islander

Ethnic divisions: black 90%, white, Asian

Religions: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of
  God 7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses
  2%, other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

Languages: English (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991 est.)
  total population: 97.8%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: British Virgin Islands
  abbreviation: BVI

Data code: VI

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Road Town

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

Constitution: 1 June 1977

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6
  February 1952), hereditary monarch, is represented by Governor David
  MACKILLIGIN (since NA June 1995) who was appointed by the queen
  head of government: Chief Minister Ralph T. O'NEAL (since 15 May
  1995; appointed after the death of former Chief Minister H. Lavity
  STOUTT) was appointed by the governor from among the members of the
  Legislative Council
  cabinet: Executive Council is appointed by the governor

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Legislative Council: election last held 20 February 1995 (next to be
  held NA February 2000); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats
  - (13 total) VIP 6, CCM 2, UP 2, independents 3

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: United Party (UP), Conrad MADURO;
  Virgin Islands Party (VIP); Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM), E.
  Walwyln BREWLEY

International organization participation: Caricom (associate),
  CDB, ECLAC (associate), Interpol (subbureau), IOC, OECS (associate),
  UNESCO (associate)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the
  UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer
  half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either
  side by a vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing
  the Latin word VIGILATE (Be Watchful)



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The economy, one of the most prosperous in the
  Caribbean, is highly dependent on tourism, which generates an
  estimated 45% of the national income. In 1985, the government began
  offering offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate
  in the islands, and incorporation fees now generate substantial
  revenues. The adoption of a comprehensive insurance law in late
  1994, which provides a blanket of confidentiality with regulated
  statutory gateways for investigation of criminal offenses, is
  expected to make the British Virgin Islands even more attractive to
  international business. Livestock raising is the most important
  agricultural activity; poor soils limit the islands' ability to meet
  domestic food requirements. Because of traditional close links with
  the US Virgin Islands, the British Virgin Islands have used the
  dollar as their currency since 1959.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $133 million (1991 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2% (1991 est.)

GDP per capita: $10,600 (1991 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1990 est.)

Labor force: 4,911 (1980)
  by occupation: NA

Unemployment rate: NEGL% (1992)

Budget:
  revenues: $77.1 million
  expenditures: $76.4 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY93/94)

Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete
  block, offshore financial center

Industrial production growth rate: 4% (1985)

Electricity:
  capacity: 10,500 kW
  production: 50 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 3,148 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: fruits, vegetables; livestock, poultry; fish

Exports: $2.7 million (f.o.b., 1988)
  commodities: rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals
  partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

Imports: $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988)
  commodities: building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
  partners: Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

External debt: $4.5 million (1985)

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 106 km (1983 est.)
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km

Ports: Road Town

Merchant marine: none (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 3
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 6,291 (1990 est.)

Telephone system: worldwide telephone service
  domestic: NA
  international: submarine cable to Bermuda

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 9,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,000 (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@Brunei
------



Map
---


Location: 4 30 N, 114 40 E -- Southeastern Asia, bordering the
  South China Sea and Malaysia



Flag
----


Description: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost
  double width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the
  national emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem
  includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an
  upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands



Geography
---------


Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and
  Malaysia

Geographic coordinates: 4 30 N, 114 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
  total area: 5,770 sq km
  land area: 5,270 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware

Land boundaries:
  total: 381 km
  border country: Malaysia 381 km

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm or to median line
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient
  that divides the country; all of the Spratly Islands are claimed by
  China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them are claimed by Malaysia
  and the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an exclusive
  fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly
  claimed the island

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly
  lowland in west
  lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
  highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 1%
  permanent crops: 1%
  meadows and pastures: 1%
  forest and woodland: 79%
  other: 18%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are very
  rare
  international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Law
  of the Sea

Geographic note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea
  linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by
  Malaysia; almost an enclave of Malaysia



People
------


Population: 299,939 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 33% (male 51,266; female 49,194)
  15-64 years: 62% (male 98,806; female 88,323)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 6,843; female 5,507) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.56% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 25.5 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.1 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 5.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.24 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 24.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.39 years
  male: 69.82 years
  female: 73.04 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.39 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bruneian(s)
  adjective: Bruneian

Ethnic divisions: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%

Religions: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%,
  indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)

Languages: Malay (official), English, Chinese

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 88.2%
  male: 92.6%
  female: 83.4%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Negara Brunei Darussalam
  conventional short form: Brunei

Data code: BX

Type of government: constitutional sultanate

Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular -
  daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a
  State of Emergency since December 1962, others since independence on
  1 January 1984)

Legal system: based on Islamic law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister His
  Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin
  Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967) is a traditional Islamic monarch
  cabinet: Council of Cabinet Ministers is composed chiefly of members
  of the royal family, appointed and presided over by the sultan;
  deals with executive matters
  Religious Council: is appointed by the sultan; advises on religious
  matters
  Privy Council: is appointed by the sultan; deals with constitutional
  matters
  the Council of Succession: is appointed by the sultan; determines
  the succession to the throne if the need arises

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Legislative Council (Majlis Masyuarat Megeri): elections last held
  in March 1962; in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive body
  by decree of the sultan; an elected Legislative Council is being
  considered as part of constitutional reform, but elections are
  unlikely for several years

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chief justice and judges are sworn
  in by the sultan for a three-year term

Political parties and leaders: Brunei United National Party
  (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman; Brunei National Solidarity
  Party (the first legal political party and now banned), leader NA;
  Brunei Peoples Party (banned), leader NA

International organization participation: APEC, ASEAN, C, ESCAP,
  FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO
  (correspondent), ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador JAYA bin Abdul Latif
  chancery: Watergate, Suite 300, 3rd floor, 2600 Virginia Avenue NW,
  Washington, DC 20037
  telephone: [1] (202) 342-0159
  FAX: [1] (202) 342-0158

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Theresa A. TULL
  embassy: Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri
  Begawan
  mailing address: American Embassy Box B, Bandar Seri Begawan, APO AP
  96440
  telephone: [673] (2) 229670
  FAX: [673] (2) 225293

Flag: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double
  width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national
  emblem in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a
  swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned
  crescent above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The economy is a mixture of foreign and
  domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare
  measures, and village tradition. It is almost totally supported by
  exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the
  petroleum sector accounting for more than 40% of GDP. Per capita GDP
  is among the highest in the Third World, and substantial income from
  overseas investment supplements domestic production. The government
  provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.6 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $15,800 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3%
  industry: 42%
  services: 55%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 119,000 (1993 est.); note - includes members of the
  Army
  by occupation: government 47.5%, production of oil, natural gas,
  services, and construction 41.9%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing
  3.8% (1986)
  note: 33% of labor force is foreign (1988)

Unemployment rate: 4.8% (1994 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $2.1 billion
  expenditures: $2.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $427
  million (1993)

Industries: petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas,
  construction

Industrial production growth rate: 12.9% (1987)

Electricity:
  capacity: 380,000 kW
  production: 1.2 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 3,971 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: rice, cassava (tapioca), bananas; water buffalo, pigs

Exports: $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
  partners: Japan 50%, UK 19%, Thailand 10%, Singapore 9% (1994 est.)

Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
  commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
  food, chemicals
  partners: Singapore 29%, UK 19%, US 13%, Malaysia 9%, Japan 5% (1994
  est.)

External debt: 0

Economic aid: $NA

Currency: 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.4214 (January
  1996), 1.4174 (1995), 1.5274 (1994), 1.6158 (1993), 1.6290 (1992),
  1.7276 (1991); note - the Bruneian dollar is at par with the
  Singapore dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 13 km private line
  narrow gauge: 13 km 0.610-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 2,443 km
  paved: 1,296 km
  unpaved: 1,147 km (1993)

Waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 m

Pipelines: crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural
  gas 920 km

Ports: Bandar Seri Begawan, Kuala Belait, Muara, Seria, Tutong

Merchant marine:
  total: 7 liquefied gas tankers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476
  GRT/340,635 DWT (1994 est.)

Airports:
  total: 2
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 76,900 (1993)

Telephone system: service throughout country is adequate for
  present needs; international service good to adjacent Malaysia
  domestic: NA
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean
  and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 4, shortwave 0

Radios: 115,000 (1993)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1984 est.)

Televisions: 78,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Royal Brunei Police

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 83,641
  males fit for military service: 48,559
  males reach military age (18) annually: 2,918 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $312 million,
  6.2% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Bulgaria
--------



Map
---


Location: 43 00 N, 25 00 E -- Southeastern Europe, bordering the
  Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey



Flag
----


Description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green,
  and red; the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white
  stripe has been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a
  wreath of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a
  ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and
  1944 (liberation from Nazi control)



Geography
---------


Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between
  Romania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 110,910 sq km
  land area: 110,550 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,808 km
  border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
  Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km (all
  with Serbia), Turkey 240 km

Coastline: 354 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
  lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
  highest point: Musala 2,925 m

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber,
  arable land

Land use:
  arable land: 34%
  permanent crops: 3%
  meadows and pastures: 18%
  forest and woodland: 35%
  other: 10%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers
  polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation;
  forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil
  contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and
  industrial wastes
  natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides
  international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
  Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic
  Treaty, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls
  key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia



People
------


Population: 8,612,757 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 17% (male 769,025; female 732,119)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 2,891,197; female 2,923,440)
  65 years and over: 15% (male 561,944; female 735,032) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 0.46% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 8.33 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 13.55 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 9.81 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 15.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71 years
  male: 67.07 years
  female: 75.12 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.17 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Bulgarian(s)
  adjective: Bulgarian

Ethnic divisions: Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%,
  Macedonian 2.5%, Armenian 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%

Religions: Bulgarian Orthodox 85%, Muslim 13%, Jewish 0.8%, Roman
  Catholic 0.5%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian,
  and other 0.5%

Languages: Bulgarian, secondary languages closely correspond to
  ethnic breakdown

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1992 est.)
  total population: 98%
  male: 99%
  female: 97%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Bulgaria
  conventional short form: Bulgaria

Data code: BU

Type of government: emerging democracy

Capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (oblasti, singular -
  oblast); Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo, Lovech, Montana, Plovdiv,
  Ruse, Sofiya, Varna

Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 March (1878)

Constitution: adopted 12 July 1991

Legal system: based on civil law system with Soviet law influence;
  accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Zhelyu Mitev ZHELEV (since 1 August 1990,
  when he was elected by the National Assembly); president and vice
  president elected for five-year terms by popular vote; election last
  held NA January 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - Zhelyu
  ZHELEV elected by popular vote; Vice President (vacant)
  head of government: Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime
  Minister) Zhan VIDENOV (since 25 January 1995) appointed by the
  president; Deputy Prime Ministers Doncho KONAKCHIEV (since 25
  January 1995), Atanas PAPAKIZOV (since NA), Rumen GECHEV (since 25
  January 1995), Svetoslav SHIVAROV (since 25 January 1995)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National Assembly (Narodno Sobranie): last held 18 December 1994
  (next to be held NA 1997); results - BSP 43.5%, UDF 24.2%, PU 6.5%,
  MRF 5.4%, BBB 4.7%; seats - (240 total) BSP 125, UDF 69, PU 18, MRF
  15, BBB 13

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman appointed for a
  seven-year term by the president; Constitutional Court, 12 justices
  appointed or elected for a nine-year term

Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP),
  Zhan VIDENOV, chairman; Union of Democratic Forces (UDF - an
  alliance of pro-Democratic parties), Ivan KOSTOV; People's Union
  (PU), Stefan SAVOV; Movement for Rights and Freedoms (mainly ethnic
  Turkish party) (MRF), Ahmed DOGAN; Bulgarian Business Bloc (BBB),
  George GANCHEV

Other political or pressure groups: Democratic Alliance for the
  Republic (DAR); New Union for Democracy (NUD); Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa
  Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union; Bulgarian Communist Party
  (BCP); Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB);
  Bulgarian Agrarian National Union - United (BZNS); Bulgarian
  Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov" Bulgarian Agrarian National
  Union; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization - Union of
  Macedonian Societies (IMRO-UMS); numerous regional, ethnic, and
  national interest groups with various agendas

International organization participation: ACCT, BIS, BSEC, CCC,
  CE, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarset, Intelsat (nonsignatory
  user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NACC, NAM (guest), NSG, OSCE,
  PCA, PFP, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOT, UPU, WEU
  (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant), ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Snezhana Damianova BOTUSHAROVA
  chancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 387-7969
  FAX: [1] (202) 234-7973

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
  embassy: 1 Saborna Street, Sofia
  mailing address: Unit 1335, APO AE 09213-1335
  telephone: [359] (2) 88-48-01 through 05
  FAX: [359] (2) 80-19-77

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red;
  the national emblem formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe
  has been removed - it contained a rampant lion within a wreath of
  wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and above a ribbon bearing
  the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and 1944
  (liberation from Nazi control)



Economy
-------


Economic overview: One of the poorest countries of central Europe,
  Bulgaria has continued the difficult process of moving from its old
  command economy to a modern, market-oriented economy. GDP rose a
  moderate 2.4% in 1995; inflation was down sharply; and unemployment
  fell from an estimated 16% to 12%. Despite this progress, structural
  reforms necessary to underpin macroeconomic stabilization were not
  pursued vigorously. Mass privatization of state-owned industry
  continued to move slowly, although privatization of small-scale
  industry, particularly in the retail and service sectors,
  accelerated. The Bulgarian economy will continue to grow in 1996,
  but economic reforms will remain politically difficult as the
  population has become weary of the process.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $43.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $4,920 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 12%
  industry: 36%
  services: 52% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1995)

Labor force: 3.1 million
  by occupation: industry 41%, agriculture 18%, other 41% (1992)

Unemployment rate: 11.9% (1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.8 billion
  expenditures: $4.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1994)

Industries: machine building and metal working, food processing,
  chemicals, textiles, construction materials, ferrous and nonferrous
  metals

Industrial production growth rate: 2% (1995)

Electricity:
  capacity: 11,500,000 kW
  production: 38.1 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 4,342 kWh (1994)

Agriculture: grain, oilseed, vegetables, fruits, tobacco; livestock

Illicit drugs: important transshipment point for Southwest Asian
  heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine transiting
  the Balkan route; limited producer of precursor chemicals

Exports: $4.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: machinery and equipment 12.8%; agriculture and food
  21.9%; textiles and apparel 14%; metals and ores 19.7%; chemicals
  16.9%; minerals and fuels 9.3%
  partners: former CEMA countries 35.7%; OECD 46.6% (EU 33.5%); Arab
  countries 5.1%; other 12.6%

Imports: $4 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
  commodities: fuels, minerals, and raw materials 30.1%; machinery and
  equipment 23.6%; textiles and apparel 11.6%; agricultural products
  10.8%; metals and ores 6.8%; chemicals 12.3%; other 4.8%
  partners: former CEMA countries 40.3%; OECD 48.3% (EU 34.1%); Arab
  countries 1.7%; other 9.7%

External debt: $10.4 billion (1995)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $39 million (1993)
  note: $700 million in balance of payments support from Western
  nations (1994)

Currency: 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki

Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1 - 70.5 (December 1995), 54.2
  (1994), 27.1 (1993), 23.3 (1992), 18.4 (1991); note - floating
  exchange rate since February 1991

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 4,292 km
  standard gauge: 4,047 km 1.435-m gauge (2,650 km electrified; 917
  double track)
  other: 245 km 0.760-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
  total: 36,932 km
  paved: 33,904 km (including 276 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 3,028 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 470 km (1987)

Pipelines: crude oil 193 km; petroleum products 525 km; natural
  gas 1,400 km (1992)

Ports: Burgas, Lom, Nesebur, Ruse, Varna, Vidin

Merchant marine:
  total: 103 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,084,090
  GRT/1,596,735 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 45, cargo 27, chemical tanker 4, container 2,
  oil tanker 13, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 6, short-sea passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1
  note: Bulgaria owns an additional 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
  totaling 135,016 DWT operating under the registries of Liberia and
  Malta (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 355
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 17
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 10
  with paved runways under 914 m: 88
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 10
  with unpaved runways under 914 m: 226 (1994 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 2,773,293 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: almost two-thirds of the lines are residential;
  67% of Sofia households have telephones (November 1988 est.)
  domestic: extensive but antiquated transmission system of coaxial
  cable and microwave radio relay; telephone service is available in
  most villages
  international: direct dialing to 36 countries; satellite earth
  stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region); Intelsat
  available through a Greek earth station

Radio broadcast stations: AM 20, FM 15, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 29 (Russian repeater in Sofia 1)

Televisions: 2.1 million (May 1990 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, Border Troops,
  Internal Troops

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,155,332
  males fit for military service: 1,797,318
  males reach military age (19) annually: 64,568 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $352 million,
  2.5% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Burkina Faso
------------



Map
---


Location: 13 00 N, 2 00 W -- Western Africa, north of Ghana



Flag
----


Description: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green
  with a yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular
  pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Geography
---------


Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 274,200 sq km
  land area: 273,800 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,192 km
  border countries: Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km,
  Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: following mutual acceptance of an
  International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruling in December 1986 on
  their international boundary dispute, Burkina Faso and Mali are
  proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the tripoint with
  Niger

Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in
  west and southeast
  lowest point: Black Volta River 200 m
  highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of
  gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc,
  silver

Land use:
  arable land: 10%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 37%
  forest and woodland: 26%
  other: 27%

Irrigated land: 160 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: recent droughts and desertification severely
  affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the
  economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
  natural hazards: recurring droughts
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification,
  Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geographic note: landlocked



People
------


Population: 10,623,323 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 48% (male 2,569,806; female 2,537,106)
  15-64 years: 49% (male 2,444,601; female 2,738,726)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 145,479; female 187,605) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.53% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 47.02 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 19.99 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 117.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 43.21 years
  male: 43.46 years
  female: 42.95 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burkinabe

Ethnic divisions: Mossi about 24%, Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo,
  Mande, Fulani

Religions: indigenous beliefs 40%, Muslim 50%, Christian (mainly
  Roman Catholic) 10%

Languages: French (official), tribal languages belonging to
  Sudanic family, spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 19.2%
  male: 29.5%
  female: 9.2%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Burkina Faso
  former: Upper Volta

Data code: UV

Type of government: parliamentary

Capital: Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba,
  Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo,
  Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri,
  Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno,
  Sissili, Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo

Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)

Constitution: 2 June 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: none

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October
  1987) elected for a seven-year term by popular vote; election last
  held NA December 1991 (next to be held NA 1998)
  head of government: Prime Minister Roch KABORE (since NA March 1994)
  appointed by the president
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Assembly of People's Deputies: elections last held 24 May 1992 (next
  to be held NA 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
  (107 total), ODP-MT 78, CNPP-PSD 12, RDA 6, ADF 4, other 7
  note: the current law also provides for a second consultative
  chamber, which has not been formally constituted

Judicial branch: Appeals Court

Political parties and leaders: Organization for People's Democracy
  - Labor Movement (ODP-MT), ruling party, Secretary General Simon
  COMPAORE; National Convention of Progressive Patriots-Social
  Democratic Party (CNPP-PSD), Moussa BOLY; African Democratic Rally
  (RDA), Gerard Kango OUEDRAOGO; Alliance for Democracy and Federation
  (ADF), Amadou Michel NANA

Other political or pressure groups: committees for the defense of
  the revolution; watchdog/political action groups throughout the
  country in both organizations and communities

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC,
  ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM,
  IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU,
  NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Gaetan R. OUEDRAOGO
  chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577, 6895

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Donald J. MCCONNELL
  embassy: Avenue Raoul Follerau, Ouagadougou
  mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou
  telephone: [226] 306723 through 306725
  FAX: [226] 303890

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a
  yellow five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African
  colors of Ethiopia



Economy
-------


Economic overview: One of the poorest countries in the world,
  Burkina Faso has a high population density and a high population
  growth rate, few natural resources, and a fragile soil. Economic
  development is hindered by a poor communications network within a
  landlocked country. Agriculture is mainly subsistence farming.
  Industry remains dominated by unprofitable government-controlled
  corporations. Following the Communaute Financiere Africaine currency
  devaluation on 12 January 1994, exports appear to have risen, but no
  official figures have been released yet. The upswing apparently
  continued in 1995, with growth perhaps at 4%. The government has
  updated its development program in conjunction with international
  agencies, yet even with the best of plans, the government faces
  formidable problems on all sides.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $700 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 32%
  industry: 24%
  services: 44% (1990 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1995 est.)

Labor force: NA (most adults are employed in subsistence
  agriculture)
  by occupation: agriculture 80%, industry 15%, commerce, services,
  and government 5%
  note: 20% of male labor force migrates annually to neighboring
  countries for seasonal employment (1984)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $483 million
  expenditures: $548 million, including capital expenditures of $189
  million (1992)

Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap,
  cigarettes, textiles, gold

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 60,000 kW
  production: 190 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 17 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton, sorghum, millet,
  corn, rice; livestock

Exports: $273 million (f.o.b., 1993)
  commodities: cotton, gold, animal products
  partners: EC, Cote d'Ivoire, Taiwan, Thailand

Imports: $636 million (f.o.b., 1993)
  commodities: machinery, food products, petroleum
  partners: EC, Africa, Japan

External debt: $1 billion (December 1993 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January
  1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
  282.11 (1991)
  note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
  100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
  1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 622 km (1995 est.)
  narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge (517 km Ouagadougou to Cote
  d'Ivoire border and 105 km opened in 1993 from Ouagadougou to Kaya)

Highways:
  total: 16,400 km
  paved: 1,280 km
  unpaved: 15,120 km (1987 est.)

Ports: none

Airports:
  total: 23
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 8
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 10 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 21,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: all services only fair
  domestic: microwave radio relay, open wire, and radiotelephone
  communication stations
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 49,000 (1991 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, National Police,
  People's Militia

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,149,485
  males fit for military service: 1,101,184 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $104 million,
  6.4% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Burma
-----



Map
---


Location: 22 00 N, 98 00 E -- Southeastern Asia, bordering the
  Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand



Flag
----


Description: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
  corner bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a
  cogwheel containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14
  administrative divisions



Geography
---------


Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay
  of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand

Geographic coordinates: 22 00 N, 98 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
  total area: 678,500 sq km
  land area: 657,740 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,876 km
  border countries: Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km, India 1,463 km,
  Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers
  (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall,
  mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon,
  December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands
  lowest point: Andaman Sea 0 m
  highest point: Hkakabo Razi 5,881 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper,
  tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones,
  natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 15%
  permanent crops: 1%
  meadows and pastures: 1%
  forest and woodland: 49%
  other: 34%

Irrigated land: 10,180 sq km (1989)

Environment:
  current issues: deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil,
  and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to
  disease
  natural hazards: destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and
  landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic
  droughts
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
  Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea, Tropical
  Timber 94

Geographic note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean
  shipping lanes



People
------


Population: 45,975,625 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 37% (male 8,637,102; female 8,308,282)
  15-64 years: 59% (male 13,577,232; female 13,571,312)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 853,403; female 1,028,294) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 1.84% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 30.01 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 11.66 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.01 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 80.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 56.14 years
  male: 54.46 years
  female: 57.92 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.83 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Burmese

Ethnic divisions: Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%,
  Chinese 3%, Mon 2%, Indian 2%, other 5%

Religions: Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic
  1%), Muslim 4%, animist beliefs 1%, other 2%

Languages: Burmese, minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 83.1%
  male: 88.7%
  female: 77.7%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Union of Burma
  conventional short form: Burma
  local long form: Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw (translated by the
  US Government as Union of Myanma and by the Burmese as Union of
  Myanmar)
  local short form: Myanma Naingngandaw
  former: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

Data code: BM

Type of government: military regime

Capital: Rangoon (regime refers to the capital as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular - yin)
  and 7 states (pyine-mya, singular - pyine); Chin State, Ayeyarwady*,
  Bago*, Kachin State, Kayin State, Kayah State, Magway*, Mandalay*,
  Mon State, Rakhine State, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tanintharyi*, Yangon*

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988);
  national convention started on 9 January 1993 to draft a new
  constitution; chapter headings and three of 15 sections have been
  approved

Legal system: does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: Prime Minister and Chairman
  of the State Law and Order Restoration Council Gen. THAN SHWE (since
  23 April 1992)
  State Law and Order Restoration Council: military junta which
  assumed power 18 September 1988

Legislative branch:
  People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw): election last held 27 May 1990,
  but Assembly never convened; results - NLD 80%; seats - (485 total)
  NLD 396, NUP 10, other 79

Judicial branch: limited; remnants of the British-era legal system
  in place, but there is no guarantee of a fair public trial; the
  judiciary is not independent of the executive

Political parties and leaders: Union Solidarity and Development
  Association (USDA; pro-regime), THAN AUNG, secretary; National Unity
  Party (NUP), pro-regime, THA KYAW; National League for Democracy
  (NLD), AUNG SAN SUU KYI, general secretary; and eight minor legal
  parties

Other political or pressure groups: National Coalition Government
  of the Union of Burma (NCGUB), headed by the elected prime minister
  SEIN WIN - consists of individuals legitimately elected to the
  People's Assembly but not recognized by the military regime; the
  group fled to a border area and joined with insurgents in December
  1990 to form a parallel government; Kachin Independence Army (KIA);
  United Wa State Army (UWSA); Karen National Union (KNU); several
  Shan factions, including the Mong Tai Army (MTA); All Burma Student
  Democratic Front (ABSDF)

International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP,
  FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, Mekong Group,
  NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador U THAUNG
  chancery: 2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-9044, 9045
  consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Marilyn A.
  MEYERS
  embassy: 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon (GPO 521)
  mailing address: Box B, APO AP 96546
  telephone: [95] (1) 82055, 82182 (operator assistance required)
  FAX: [95] (1) 80409

Flag: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
  bearing, all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel
  containing a stalk of rice; the 14 stars represent the 14
  administrative divisions



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Burma has a mixed economy with about 75%
  private activity, mainly in agriculture, light industry, and
  transport, and with about 25% state-controlled activity, mainly in
  energy, heavy industry, and foreign trade. Government policy in the
  last seven years, 1989-95, has aimed at revitalizing the economy
  after three decades of tight central planning. Thus, private
  activity has markedly increased; foreign investment has been
  encouraged, so far with moderate success; and efforts continue to
  increase the efficiency of state enterprises. Published estimates of
  Burma's foreign trade are greatly understated because of the volume
  of black market trade. A major ongoing problem is the failure to
  achieve monetary and fiscal stability. Although Burma remains a poor
  Asian country, its rich resources furnish the potential for
  substantial long-term increases in income, exports, and living
  standards.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $47 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.8% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 60%
  industry: 10%
  services: 30% (1995 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 38% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 16.007 million (1992)
  by occupation: agriculture 65.2%, industry 14.3%, trade 10.1%,
  government 6.3%, other 4.1% (FY88/89 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $5.3 billion
  expenditures: $10 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1995 est.)

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood
  and wood products; petroleum refining; copper, tin, tungsten, iron;
  construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Industrial production growth rate: 4.9% (FY92/93 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 845,000 kW
  production: 3.5 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 46 kWh (1995 est.)

Agriculture: paddy rice, corn, oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; hardwood

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium (2,340
  metric tons in 1995) and source for over 60% of US heroin imports;
  minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade;
  Rangoon's antinarcotic programs hindered by lack of resources,
  government commitment; growing role in methamphetamine production
  for regional consumption

Exports: $879 million (FY94/95 est.)
  commodities: pulses and beans, teak, rice, hardwood
  partners: Singapore, China, Thailand, India, Hong Kong

Imports: $1.5 billion (FY94/95 est.)
  commodities: machinery, transport equipment, construction materials,
  food products, consumer goods
  partners: Japan, China, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia

External debt: $5.5 billion (FY94/95 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $61 million (1993)

Currency: 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1 - 5.8475 (January 1996), 5.9170
  (1995), 5.9749 (1994), 6.1570 (1993), 6.1045 (1992), 6.2837 (1991);
  unofficial - 120

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 3,569 km
  narrow gauge: 3,569 km 1.000-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
  total: 26,861 km
  paved: 3,181 km
  unpaved: 23,680 km (1988 est.)

Waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial
  vessels

Pipelines: crude oil 1,343 km; natural gas 330 km

Ports: Bassein, Bhamo, Chauk, Mandalay, Moulmein, Myitkyina,
  Rangoon, Akyab (Sittwe), Tavoy

Merchant marine:
  total: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 444,957 GRT/610,420 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 15, chemical tanker 5, container 1,
  oil tanker 3, passenger-cargo 3, vehicle carrier 2 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 74
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 13
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 10
  with paved runways under 914 m: 28
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 17 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 122,195 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: meets minimum requirements for local and
  intercity service for business and government; international service
  is good
  domestic: NA
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0 (1985 est.)
  note: radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most populous areas

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 88,000 (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 11,759,636
  females age 15-49: 11,588,181
  males fit for military service: 6,291,986
  females fit for military service: 6,184,667
  males reach military age (18) annually: 473,255
  females reach military age (18) annually: 454,786 (1996 est.)
  note: both sexes liable for military service

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $135 million, NA%
  of GDP (FY95/96)



======================================================================



@Burundi
-------



Map
---


Location: 3 30 S, 30 00 E -- Central Africa, east of Zaire



Flag
----


Description: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels
  (top and bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a
  white disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed
  stars outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star
  above, two stars below)



Geography
---------


Location: Central Africa, east of Zaire

Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 27,830 sq km
  land area: 25,650 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 974 km
  border countries: Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km, Zaire 233 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands; dry season
  from June to September

Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east,
  some plains
  lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
  highest point: Mount Heha 2,760 m

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat,
  cobalt, copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium

Land use:
  arable land: 43%
  permanent crops: 8%
  meadows and pastures: 35%
  forest and woodland: 2%
  other: 12%

Irrigated land: 720 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the
  expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little
  forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for
  fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
  natural hazards: flooding, landslides
  international agreements: party to - Endangered Species; signed, but
  not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of
  the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban

Geographic note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo
  watershed



People
------


Population: 5,943,057 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 47% (male 1,404,375; female 1,398,228)
  15-64 years: 50% (male 1,454,545; female 1,527,644)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 62,955; female 95,310) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.54% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 43.02 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.15 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)
  note: in a number of waves since October 1993, hundreds of thousands
  of refugees have fled the civil strife between the Hutu and Tutsi
  factions in Burundi and crossed into Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zaire;
  the refugee flows are continuing in 1996 as the ethnic violence
  persists

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 102.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 49.33 years
  male: 48.28 years
  female: 50.42 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.55 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Burundian(s)
  adjective: Burundi

Ethnic divisions:
  Africans: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%
  non-Africans: Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000

Religions: Christian 67% (Roman Catholic 62%, Protestant 5%),
  indigenous beliefs 32%, Muslim 1%

Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along
  Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 35.3%
  male: 49.3%
  female: 22.5%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
  conventional short form: Burundi
  local long form: Republika y'u Burundi
  local short form: Burundi

Data code: BY

Type of government: republic

Capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura,
  Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo,
  Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
  administration)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Constitution: 13 March 1992; provides for establishment of a
  plural political system

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and
  customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Sylvestre NTIBANTUNGANYA (acting president
  from 8 April 1994 to 30 September 1994, president since 1 October
  1994); note - NTIBANTUNGANYA, in his capacity as President of the
  National Assembly, became acting president upon the death of
  President Cyprien NTARYAMIRE in an airplane crash on 6 April 1994;
  NTIBANTUNGANYA was sworn in on 1 October 1994 as president by the
  "Convention on Government" to serve a four year transitional term
  head of government: Prime Minister Antoine NDUWAYO (since February
  1995)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): election last held 29 June
  1993 (next to be held NA); results - FRODEBU 71%, UPRONA 21.4%;
  seats - (81 total) FRODEBU 65, UPRONA 16; other parties won too
  small shares of the vote to win seats in the assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Unity for National Progress
  (UPRONA); Burundi Democratic Front (FRODEBU); Organization of the
  People of Burundi (RBP); Socialist Party of Burundi (PSB); People's
  Reconciliation Party (PRP); opposition parties, legalized in March
  1992, include Burundi African Alliance for the Salvation (ABASA);
  Rally for Democracy and Economic and Social Development (RADDES);
  and Party for National Redress (PARENA)

Other political or pressure groups: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC,
  CEEAC, CEPGL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO
  (subscriber), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Severin NTAHOMVUKIYE
  chancery: Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Charles YELLIN
  embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura
  mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
  telephone: [257] (2) 23454
  FAX: [257] (2) 22926

Flag: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and
  bottom) and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white
  disk superimposed at the center bearing three red six-pointed stars
  outlined in green arranged in a triangular design (one star above,
  two stars below)



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country
  in an early stage of economic development. The economy is
  predominately agricultural with roughly 90% of the population
  dependent on subsistence agriculture. Its economic health depends on
  the coffee crop, which accounts for 80% of foreign exchange
  earnings. The ability to pay for imports therefore rests largely on
  the vagaries of the climate and the international coffee market. As
  part of its economic reform agenda, launched in February 1991 with
  IMF and World Bank support, Burundi is trying to diversify its
  agricultural exports, attract foreign investment in industry, and
  modernize government budgetary practices. Since October 1993 the
  nation has suffered from massive ethnic-based violence which has
  resulted in the death of perhaps 100,000 persons and the
  displacement of a million others; production has fallen sharply, and
  an impoverished and disorganized government can hardly implement
  these needed reform programs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.7% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $600 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 54.1%
  industry: 16.8%
  services: 29.1% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 1.9 million (1983 est.)
  by occupation: agriculture 93.0%, government 4.0%, industry and
  commerce 1.5%, services 1.5%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $318 million
  expenditures: $326 million, including capital expenditures of $150
  million (1991 est.)

Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap;
  assembly of imported components; public works construction; food
  processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 55,000 kW
  production: 100 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 20 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes,
  bananas, manioc; meat, milk, hides

Exports: $68 million (f.o.b., 1993)
  commodities: coffee 81%, tea, cotton, hides
  partners: EC 57%, US 19%, Asia 1%

Imports: $203 million (c.i.f., 1993)
  commodities: capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs,
  consumer goods
  partners: EC 45%, Asia 29%, US 2%

External debt: $1.05 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Burundi franc (FBu) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Burundi francs (FBu) per US$1 - 268.13 (November
  1995), 252.66 (1994), 242.78 (1993), 208.30 (1992), 181.51 (1991),
  171.26 (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 14,473 km
  paved: 1,028 km
  unpaved: 13,445 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: Lake Tanganyika

Ports: Bujumbura

Airports:
  total: 3
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 7,200 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: primitive system
  domestic: sparse system of open wire, radiotelephone communications,
  and low-capacity microwave radio relay
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,500 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army (includes naval and air units), paramilitary
  Gendarmerie

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,312,458
  males fit for military service: 683,073
  males reach military age (16) annually: 67,990 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $25 million, 2.6%
  of GDP (1993)



======================================================================



@Cambodia
--------



Map
---


Location: 13 00 N, 105 00 E -- Southeastern Asia, bordering the
  Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand and Vietnam



Flag
----


Description: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double
  width), and blue with a white three-towered temple representing
  Angkor Wat outlined in black in the center of the red band



Geography
---------


Location: Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand,
  between Thailand and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
  total area: 181,040 sq km
  land area: 176,520 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Oklahoma

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,572 km
  border countries: Laos 541 km, Thailand 803 km, Vietnam 1,228 km

Coastline: 443 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: offshore islands and sections of the
  boundary with Vietnam are in dispute; maritime boundary with Vietnam
  not defined; parts of border with Thailand in dispute; maritime
  boundary with Thailand not clearly defined

Climate: tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry
  season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
  lowest point: Gulf of Thailand 0 m
  highest point: Phnum Aoral 1,810 m

Natural resources: timber, gemstones, some iron ore, manganese,
  phosphates, hydropower potential

Land use:
  arable land: 16%
  permanent crops: 1%
  meadows and pastures: 3%
  forest and woodland: 76%
  other: 4%

Irrigated land: 920 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: logging activities throughout the country and strip
  mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand
  are resulting in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in
  particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural
  fisheries); deforestation; soil erosion; in rural areas, a majority
  of the population does not have access to potable water
  natural hazards: monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding;
  occasional droughts
  international agreements: party to - Marine Life Conservation, Ship
  Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: a land of paddies and forests dominated by the
  Mekong River and Tonle Sap



People
------


Population: 10,861,218 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 45% (male 2,505,998; female 2,432,620)
  15-64 years: 51% (male 2,579,986; female 3,007,838)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 143,759; female 191,017) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.77% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 43.5 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.78 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.93 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 107.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 49.86 years
  male: 48.39 years
  female: 51.39 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.81 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cambodian(s)
  adjective: Cambodian

Ethnic divisions: Khmer 90%, Vietnamese 5%, Chinese 1%, other 4%

Religions: Theravada Buddhism 95%, other 5%

Languages: Khmer (official), French

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
  total population: 35%
  male: 48%
  female: 22%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
  conventional short form: Cambodia
  local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea
  local short form: Kampuchea

Data code: CB

Type of government: multiparty liberal democracy under a
  constitutional monarchy established in September 1993

Capital: Phnom Penh

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (khett, singular and
  plural); Banteay Mean Cheay, Batdambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong
  Chhnang, Kampong Spoe, Kampong Thum, Kampot, Kandal, Kaoh Kong,
  Kracheh, Mondol Kiri, Phnum Penh, Pouthisat, Preah Seihanu
  (Sihanoukville), Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Rotanah Kiri, Siem Reab,
  Stoeng Treng, Svay Rieng, Takev
  note: a new province of Otdar Mean Cheay may have been created from
  parts of Banteay Mean Cheay and Siem Reab

Independence: 9 November 1949 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 November 1949

Constitution: promulgated 21 September 1993

Legal system: currently being defined

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: King Norodom SIHANOUK (reinstated 24 September 1993)
  is a constitutional monarch
  head of government: power shared between First Prime Minister Prince
  Norodom RANARIDDH (since NA 1993) and Second Prime Minister HUN SEN
  (since NA 1993) who were appointed by the king
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the king

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National Assembly: members elected for five-year terms; elections
  last held 23 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) FUNCINPEC 58, CPP 51,
  Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party 10, Molinaka 1
  note: the May 1993 elections were for the Constituent Assembly which
  became the National Assembly after the new constitution was
  promulgated in September 1993

Judicial branch: Supreme Court provided for by the constitution
  has not yet been established and the future judicial system is yet
  to be defined by law

Political parties and leaders: National United Front for an
  Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia
  (FUNCINPEC), Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH; Cambodian Pracheachon Party
  or Cambodian People's Party (CPP), CHEA SIM; Buddhist Liberal
  Democratic Party, SON SANN faction; Buddhist Liberal Democratic
  Party, IENG MOULY faction; Democratic Kampuchea (DK, also known as
  the Khmer Rouge), KHIEU SAMPHAN; Molinaka, PROM NEAKAREACH

International organization participation: ACCT, AsDB, CP, ESCAP,
  FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, ITU, Mekong Group, NAM, PCA,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO
  (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador VAR HUOTH
  chancery: 4500 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
  telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
  FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth M. QUINN
  embassy: 27 EO Street 240, Phnom Penh
  mailing address: Box P, APO AP 96546
  telephone: [855] (23) 426436, 426438
  FAX: [855] (23) 426437

Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width),
  and blue with a white three-towered temple representing Angkor Wat
  outlined in black in the center of the red band



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The Cambodian economy - virtually destroyed by
  decades of war - is slowly recovering. Government leaders are moving
  toward restoring fiscal and monetary discipline and have established
  good working relations with international financial institutions.
  Growth, starting from a low base, has been strong in 1991-95.
  Despite such positive developments, the reconstruction effort faces
  many tough challenges because of the persistence of internal
  political divisions and the related lack of confidence of foreign
  investors. Rural Cambodia, where 90% of about 9.5 million Khmer
  live, remains mired in poverty. The almost total lack of basic
  infrastructure in the countryside will hinder development and will
  contribute to a growing imbalance in growth between urban and rural
  areas over the near term. Moreover, the government's lack of
  experience in administering economic and technical assistance
  programs and rampant corruption among officials will slow the growth
  of critical public sector investment. The decline of inflation from
  the 1992 rate of more than 50% is one of the bright spots.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.7% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $660 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 52%
  industry: 13.5%
  services: 34.5% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 2.5 million to 3 million
  by occupation: agriculture 80% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $210 million
  expenditures: $346 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1994 est.)

Industries: rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber,
  cement, gem mining

Industrial production growth rate: 7.9% (1993 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 40,000 kW
  production: 160 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 14 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: rice, rubber, corn, vegetables

Illicit drugs: key transshipment country for Golden Triangle
  heroin en route to West; possibly becoming money-laundering center;
  high-level narcotics-related corruption in government, military, and
  police; possible small-scale opium, heroin, and amphetamine
  production; large producer of cannabis

Exports: $240.7 million (1995 est.)
  commodities: timber, rubber, soybeans, sesame
  partners: Singapore, Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia

Imports: $630.5 million (1995 est.)
  commodities: cigarettes, construction materials, petroleum products,
  machinery, motor vehicles
  partners: Singapore, Vietnam, Japan, Australia, Hong Kong, Indonesia

External debt: $383 million to OECD members (1993)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA
  note: IMF pledged $120 million in aid for 1995-98

Currency: 1 new riel (CR) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: riels (CR) per US$1 - 2,585 (December 1994), 2,470
  (December 1993), 2,800 (September 1992), 500 (December 1991), 560
  (1990)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 603 km
  narrow gauge: 603 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 34,100 km
  paved: 3,000 km
  unpaved: 31,100 km (1994 est.)

Waterways: 3,700 km navigable all year to craft drawing 0.6 m; 282
  km navigable to craft drawing 1.8 m

Ports: Kampong Saom (Sihanoukville), Kampot, Krong Kaoh Kong,
  Phnom Penh

Merchant marine:
  total: 5 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,451 GRT/18,280
  DWT (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 14
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 7 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 7,000 (1981 est.)

Telephone system: service barely adequate for government
  requirements and virtually nonexistent for general public
  domestic: NA
  international: landline international service limited to Vietnam and
  other adjacent countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik
  (Indian Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 70,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches:
  Khmer Royal Armed Forces (KRAF): created in 1993 by the merger of
  the Cambodian People's Armed Forces and the two noncommunist
  resistance armies; note - the KRAF is also known as the Royal
  Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF)
  Resistance forces: National Army of Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer
  Rouge)

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,336,606
  males fit for military service: 1,302,234
  males reach military age (18) annually: 79,514 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $85 million, 1.4%
  of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Cameroon
--------



Map
---


Location: 6 00 N, 12 00 E -- Western Africa, bordering the North
  Atlantic Ocean, between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria



Flag
----


Description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side),
  red, and yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red
  band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Geography
---------


Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
  between Equatorial Guinea and Nigeria

Geographic coordinates: 6 00 N, 12 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 475,440 sq km
  land area: 469,440 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries:
  total: 4,591 km
  border countries: Central African Republic 797 km, Chad 1,094 km,
  Congo 523 km, Equatorial Guinea 189 km, Gabon 298 km, Nigeria 1,690
  km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 50 nm

International disputes: demarcation of international boundaries in
  vicinity of Lake Chad, the lack of which led to border incidents in
  the past, is completed and awaits ratification by Cameroon, Chad,
  Niger, and Nigeria; dispute with Nigeria over land and maritime
  boundaries in the vicinity of the Bakasi Peninsula has been referred
  to the International Court of Justice

Climate: varies with terrain, from tropical along coast to
  semiarid and hot in north

Terrain: diverse, with coastal plain in southwest, dissected
  plateau in center, mountains in west, plains in north
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Fako 4,095 m

Natural resources: petroleum, bauxite, iron ore, timber,
  hydropower potential

Land use:
  arable land: 13%
  permanent crops: 2%
  meadows and pastures: 18%
  forest and woodland: 54%
  other: 13%

Irrigated land: 280 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: water-borne diseases are prevalent; deforestation;
  overgrazing; desertification; poaching; overfishing
  natural hazards: recent volcanic activity with release of poisonous
  gases
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical
  Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Nuclear Test
  Ban, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: sometimes referred to as the hinge of Africa



People
------


Population: 14,261,557 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46% (male 3,295,924; female 3,266,429)
  15-64 years: 51% (male 3,602,037; female 3,627,625)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 213,176; female 256,366) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.89% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 42.49 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 13.56 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 78.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 52.6 years
  male: 51.55 years
  female: 53.68 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.99 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cameroonian(s)
  adjective: Cameroonian

Ethnic divisions: Cameroon Highlanders 31%, Equatorial Bantu 19%,
  Kirdi 11%, Fulani 10%, Northwestern Bantu 8%, Eastern Nigritic 7%,
  other African 13%, non-African less than 1%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 33%, Muslim 16%

Languages: 24 major African language groups, English (official),
  French (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 63.4%
  male: 75%
  female: 52.1%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cameroon
  conventional short form: Cameroon
  former: French Cameroon

Data code: CM

Type of government: unitary republic; multiparty presidential
  regime (opposition parties legalized 1990)

Capital: Yaounde

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Adamaoua, Centre, Est,
  Extreme-Nord, Littoral, Nord, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Ouest

Independence: 1 January 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French
  administration)

National holiday: National Day, 20 May (1972)

Constitution: 20 May 1972

Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law
  influence; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Paul BIYA (since 6 November 1982) elected
  for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last held 11
  October 1992 (next to be held NA October 1997); results - President
  Paul BIYA reelected with about 40% of the vote amid widespread
  allegations of fraud; SDF candidate John FRU NDI got 36% of the
  vote; UNDP candidate Bello Bouba MAIGARI got 19% of the vote
  head of government: Prime Minister Simon ACHIDI ACHU (since 9 April
  1992) appointed by the president
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 1 March
  1992 (next to be held NA March 1997); results - percent of vote by
  party NA; seats (180 total) CPDM 88, UNDP 68, UPC 18, MDR 6

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Cameroon People's Democratic
  Movement (CPDM) (government-controlled and the only party until
  legalization of opposition parties in 1990), Paul BIYA, president
  major opposition parties: National Union for Democracy and Progress
  (UNDP); Social Democratic Front (SDF); Cameroonian Democratic Union
  (UDC); Union of Cameroonian Populations (UPC); Movement for the
  Defense of the Republic (MDR)

Other political or pressure groups: Alliance for Change (FAC),
  Cameroon Anglophone Movement (CAM)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
  CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-19, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat,
  Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jerome MENDOUGA
  chancery: 2349 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 265-8790 through 8794

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Charles H. TWINING
  embassy: Rue Nachtigal, Yaounde
  mailing address: B. P. 817, Yaounde
  telephone: [237] 23-40-14, 23-05-12
  FAX: [237] 23-07-53

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), red, and
  yellow with a yellow five-pointed star centered in the red band;
  uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Because of its offshore oil resources and
  favorable agricultural conditions, Cameroon has one of the
  best-endowed, most diversified primary commodity economies in
  sub-Saharan Africa. Still, it faces many of the serious problems
  facing other underdeveloped countries, such as political
  instability, a top-heavy civil service, and a generally unfavorable
  climate for business enterprise. The development of the oil sector
  led to rapid economic growth between 1970 and 1985. Growth came to
  an abrupt halt in 1986, precipitated by steep declines in the prices
  of major exports: coffee, cocoa, and petroleum. Export earnings were
  cut by almost one-third, and inefficiencies in fiscal management
  were exposed. In 1990-93, with support from the IMF and World Bank,
  the government began to introduce reforms designed to spur business
  investment, increase efficiency in agriculture, and recapitalize the
  nation's banks. Political instability, following suspect elections
  in 1992, brought IMF/WB structural adjustment to a halt; currently
  Cameroon receives only minimal assistance from those Bretton Woods
  institutions. Although the 50% devaluation of the currency of 12
  January 1994 improved the potential for export growth, mismanagement
  remains the main barrier to economic improvement. The devaluation
  led to a spurt in inflation, to 48% in 1994, but inflation moderated
  in 1995. Progress toward privatization of remaining state industry
  remains slow.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $16.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 1.8% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 29%
  industry: 24%
  services: 47% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 48% (1994)

Labor force: NA
  by occupation: agriculture 74.4%, industry and transport 11.4%,
  other services 14.2% (1983)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $1.6 billion
  expenditures: $2.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $226
  million (FY92/93 est.)

Industries: petroleum production and refining, food processing,
  light consumer goods, textiles, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 630,000 kW
  production: 2.7 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 196 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, cocoa, cotton, rubber, bananas, oilseed,
  grains, root starches; livestock; timber

Exports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, lumber, aluminum,
  cocoa beans, coffee, cotton
  partners: EU (particularly France) about 50%, African countries, US

Imports: $810 million (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: machines and electrical equipment, food, consumer
  goods, transport equipment, petroleum products
  partners: EU (France 38%, Germany), African countries, Japan 5%, US
  5%

External debt: $6.6 billion (1993)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $449 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January
  1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
  282.11 (1991)
  note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
  100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
  1948

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 1,104 km (1995 est.)
  narrow gauge: 1,104 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 64,626 km
  paved: 2,666 km
  unpaved: 61,960 km (1987 est.)

Waterways: 2,090 km; of decreasing importance

Ports: Bonaberi, Douala, Garoua, Kribi, Tiko

Merchant marine:
  total: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,122 GRT/33,509
  DWT (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 45
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 4
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 13
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 7
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 15 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 36,737 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: available only to business and government
  domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 11, FM 11, shortwave 0

Radios: 2 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1995)

Televisions: NA



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Air Force,
  National Gendarmerie, Presidential Guard

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,112,339
  males fit for military service: 1,572,150
  males reach military age (18) annually: 151,300 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $102 million, NA%
  of GDP (FY93/94)



======================================================================



@Canada
------



Map
---


Location: 60 00 N, 95 00 W -- Northern North America, bordering
  the North Atlantic Ocean and North Pacific Ocean, north of the
  conterminous US



Flag
----


Description: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white
  (double width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in
  the white band



Geography
---------


Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic
  Ocean and North Pacific Ocean, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W

Map references: North America

Area:
  total area: 9,976,140 sq km
  land area: 9,220,970 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than US

Land boundaries:
  total: 8,893 km
  border country: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)

Coastline: 243,791 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: maritime boundary disputes with the US;
  Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime boundary dispute
  between Canada and France

Climate: varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in
  north

Terrain: mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in
  southeast
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Logan 5,950 m

Natural resources: nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum,
  potash, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 9%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 3%
  forest and woodland: 45%
  other: 43%

Irrigated land: 8,400 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain severely
  affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning
  utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and
  forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to
  agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
  natural hazards: continuous permafrost in north is a serious
  obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky
  Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic,
  Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the
  country's rain and snow
  international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
  Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic
  Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine
  Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified -
  Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: second-largest country in world (after Russia);
  strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route;
  nearly 90% of the population is concentrated within 161 km of the
  US/Canada border



People
------


Population: 28,820,671 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 21% (male 3,032,458; female 2,889,603)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 9,663,955; female 9,660,648)
  65 years and over: 12% (male 1,501,542; female 2,072,465) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 1.06% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 13.33 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.17 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 4.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 79.07 years
  male: 75.67 years
  female: 82.65 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Canadian(s)
  adjective: Canadian

Ethnic divisions: British Isles origin 40%, French origin 27%,
  other European 20%, indigenous Indian and Eskimo 1.5%, other, mostly
  Asian 11.5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 45%, United Church 12%, Anglican 8%,
  other 35% (1991)

Languages: English (official), French (official)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1986 est.)
  total population: 97%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Canada

Data code: CA

Type of government: confederation with parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ottawa

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces and 2 territories*;
  Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland,
  Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island,
  Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*

Independence: 1 July 1867 (from UK)

National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)

Constitution: amended British North America Act 1867 patriated to
  Canada 17 April 1982; charter of rights and unwritten customs

Legal system: based on English common law, except in Quebec, where
  civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory
  ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), a
  hereditary monarch, is represented by Governor General Romeo LeBLANC
  (since 8 February 1995), who was appointed by the queen
  head of government: Prime Minister Jean CHRETIEN (since 4 November
  1993) was appointed by the governor general; on 25 October 1993;
  Deputy Prime Minister Sheila COPPS (since NA); note - the prime
  minister is the leader of the political party commanding a majority
  in the House of Commons
  cabinet: Federal Ministry was chosen by the prime minister from
  members of his own party sitting in Parliament

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement)
  Senate (Senat): consisting of a body whose members are appointed to
  serve until 75 years of age by the governor general and selected on
  the advice of the prime minister; its normal limit is 104 senators
  House of Commons (Chambre des Communes): elections last held 25
  October 1993 (next to be held by NA October 1998); results - percent
  of votes by party NA; seats - (295 total) Liberal Party 179, Bloc
  Quebecois 53, Reform Party 52, New Democratic Party 8, Progressive
  Conservative Party 2, independents 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party, Jean CHRETIEN; Bloc
  Quebecois, Michel GAUTHIER; Reform Party, Preston MANNING; New
  Democratic Party, Alexa MCDONOUGH; Progressive Conservative Party,
  Jean CHAREST

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG
  (observer), APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, CDB
  (non-regional), EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, ESA (cooperating state), FAO, G-
  7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD,
  OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMIR, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR,
  UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond A. J. CHRETIEN
  chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
  telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
  FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas,
  Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and Seattle
  consulate(s): Cincinnati, Cleveland, Miami, Philadelphia,
  Pittsburgh, Princeton, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose, and San
  Juan (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
  embassy: 100 Wellington Street, K1P 5T1, Ottawa
  mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430
  telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470
  FAX: [1] (613) 238-5720
  consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto,
  and Vancouver

Flag: three vertical bands of red (hoist side), white (double
  width, square), and red with a red maple leaf centered in the white
  band



Economy
-------


Economic overview: As an affluent, high-tech industrial society,
  Canada today closely resembles the US in per capita output,
  market-oriented economic system, and pattern of production. Since
  World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining,
  and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural
  economy into one primarily industrial and urban. Canada started the
  1990s in recession, and real rates of growth have averaged only 1.1%
  so far this decade. Because of slower growth, Canada still faces
  high unemployment and a large public sector debt. With its great
  natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant,
  however, Canada will enjoy better economic prospects in the future.
  The continuing constitutional impasse between English- and
  French-speaking areas is raising the possibility of a split in the
  confederation, making foreign investors somewhat edgy.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $694 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.1% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $24,400 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 2%
  industry: 26%
  services: 72% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 13.38 million
  by occupation: services 75%, manufacturing 14%, agriculture 4%,
  construction 3%, other 4% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 9.5% (1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $90.4 billion
  expenditures: $114.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: processed and unprocessed minerals, food products,
  wood and paper products, transportation equipment, chemicals, fish
  products, petroleum and natural gas

Industrial production growth rate: 5.9% (1994)

Electricity:
  capacity: 108,090,000 kW
  production: 511 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 16,133 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables;
  dairy products; forest products; commercial fisheries provide annual
  catch of 1.5 million metric tons, of which 75% is exported

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug
  market; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large
  quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; growing role as a
  transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market

Exports: $185 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: newsprint, wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum,
  machinery, natural gas, aluminum, motor vehicles and parts;
  telecommunications equipment
  partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, South Korea, Netherlands, China

Imports: $166.7 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
  commodities: crude oil, chemicals, motor vehicles and parts, durable
  consumer goods, electronic computers; telecommunications equipment
  and parts
  partners: US, Japan, UK, Germany, France, Mexico, Taiwan, South Korea

External debt: $233 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
  donor: ODA, $2.373 billion (1993)
  note: ODA and OOF commitments, $10.1 billion (1986-91)

Currency: 1 Canadian dollar (Can$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$1 - 1.3666 (January
  1996), 1.3724 (1995), 1.3656 (1994), 1.2901 (1993), 1.2087 (1992),
  1.1457 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 70,176 km; note - there are two major transcontinental
  freight railway systems: Canadian National (privatized November
  1995) and Canadian Pacific Railway; passenger service provided by
  government-operated firm VIA, which has no trackage of its own
  standard gauge: 70,000 km 1.435-m gauge (63 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 176 km 0.914-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
  total: 849,404 km
  paved: 297,291 km (including 15,983 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 552,113 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 3,000 km, including Saint Lawrence Seaway

Pipelines: crude and refined oil 23,564 km; natural gas 74,980 km

Ports: Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Montreal, New
  Westminister, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick),
  Saint John's (Newfoundland), Seven Islands, Sydney, Three Rivers,
  Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor

Merchant marine:
  total: 62 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 573,089 GRT/804,436 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 17, cargo 9, chemical tanker 4, oil tanker 15,
  passenger 2, passenger-cargo 1, railcar carrier 2, roll-on/roll-off
  cargo 7, short-sea passenger 3, specialized tanker 2
  note: does not include ships used exclusively in the Great Lakes
  (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 1,138
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 17
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 15
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 136
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 226
  with paved runways under 914 m: 422
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 53
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 269 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 14 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 15.3 million (1990)

Telephone system: excellent service provided by modern technology
  domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
  international: 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations
  - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2
  Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 900, FM 29, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 70 (repeaters 1,400) (1991)

Televisions: 11.53 million (1983 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Canadian Armed Forces (includes Land Forces Command or
  LC, Maritime Command or MC, Air Command or AC, Communications
  Command or CC, Training Command or TC), Royal Canadian Mounted
  Police (RCMP)

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 7,645,245
  males fit for military service: 6,575,057
  males reach military age (17) annually: 197,688 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $9.0 billion,
  1.6% of GDP (FY95/96)



======================================================================



@Cape Verde
----------



Map
---


Location: 16 00 N, 24 00 W -- Western Africa, group of Islands in
  the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal



Flag
----


Description: three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double
  width), white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third),
  and light blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered
  on the hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and
  lower blue bands



Geography
---------


Location: Western Africa, group of Islands in the North Atlantic
  Ocean, west of Senegal

Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 24 00 W

Map references: World

Area:
  total area: 4,030 sq km
  land area: 4,030 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 965 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and
  very erratic

Terrain: steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Pico 2,829 m

Natural resources: salt, basalt rock, pozzolana, limestone,
  kaolin, fish

Land use:
  arable land: 9%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 6%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 85%

Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: overgrazing of livestock and improper land use such
  as the cultivation of crops on steep slopes has led to soil erosion;
  demand for wood used as fuel has resulted in deforestation;
  desertification; environmental damage has threatened several
  indigenous species of birds and reptiles; overfishing
  natural hazards: prolonged droughts; harmattan wind can obscure
  visibility; volcanically and seismically active
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban

Geographic note: strategic location 500 km from west coast of
  Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications
  station; important sea and air refueling site



People
------


Population: 449,066 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 50% (male 114,206; female 110,276)
  15-64 years: 46% (male 90,593; female 117,485)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 6,450; female 10,056) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.93% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 44.31 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.29 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.89 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 54.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 63.39 years
  male: 61.47 years
  female: 65.41 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.12 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cape Verdean(s)
  adjective: Cape Verdean

Ethnic divisions: Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%

Religions: Roman Catholicism fused with indigenous beliefs

Languages: Portuguese, Crioulo, a blend of Portuguese and West
  African words

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 71.6%
  male: 81.4%
  female: 63.8%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
  conventional short form: Cape Verde
  local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
  local short form: Cabo Verde

Data code: CV

Type of government: republic

Capital: Praia

Administrative divisions: 14 districts (concelhos, singular -
  concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Fogo, Maio, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo,
  Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Nicolau, Sao
  Vicente, Tarrafal

Independence: 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1975)

Constitution: new constitution came into force 25 September 1992

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Antonio MASCARENHAS Monteiro (since 22
  March 1991) elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage;
  election last held 18 February 1996 (next to be held NA February
  2001); results - Antonio Monteiro MASCARENHAS (independent) received
  80.1% of vote
  head of government: Prime Minister Carlos Alberto Wahnon de Carvalho
  VEIGA (since 13 January 1991) nominated by the People'sNational
  Assembly and appointed by the president
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by prime minister from
  members of the Peoples National Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
  People's National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional Popular): elections
  last held 17 December 1995 (next to be held NA); results - MPD 59%,
  PAICV 28%, PCD 6%; seats - (72 total) MPD 50, PAICV 21, PCD 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de
  Justia)

Political parties and leaders: Movement for Democracy (MPD), Prime
  Minister Carlos VEIGA, founder and chairman; African Party for
  Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV), Pedro Verona Rodrigues PIRES,
  chairman; Party for Democratic Convergence (PCD)

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
  ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM,
  OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Alberto Santos SILVA-CARLOS
  chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
  FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
  consulate(s) general: Boston

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph M. SEGARS
  embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 81, Praia
  mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
  telephone: [238] 61 56 16
  FAX: [238] 61 13 55

Flag: three horizontal bands of light blue (top, double width),
  white (with a horizontal red stripe in the middle third), and light
  blue; a circle of 10 yellow five-pointed stars is centered on the
  hoist end of the red stripe and extends into the upper and lower
  blue bands



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Cape Verde's low per capita GDP reflects a poor
  natural resource base, serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles
  of long-term drought, and a high birthrate. The economy is service
  oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting
  for 60% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural
  areas, the share of agriculture in GNP is only 13%, of which fishing
  accounts for 4%. About 90% of food must be imported. The fishing
  potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape
  Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by remittances
  from emigrants and foreign aid, which form important supplements to
  GDP. Economic reforms, launched by the new democratic government in
  1991, are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting
  foreign investment to diversify the economy. Prospects for 1996
  depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, remittances, and the
  momentum of the government's development program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $440 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.6% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,040 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 13%
  industry: 17%
  services: 70% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 102,000 (1985 est.)
  by occupation: agriculture (mostly subsistence) 57%, services 29%,
  industry 14% (1981)

Unemployment rate: 35% (1994 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $174 million
  expenditures: $235 million, including capital expenditures of $165
  million (1993 est.)

Industries: fish processing, salt mining, garments, ship repair,
  food and beverages

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 15,000 kW
  production: 40 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 73 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane,
  coffee, peanuts; fish

Illicit drugs: increasingly used as a transshipment point for
  illicit drugs moving from Latin America and Africa destined for
  Western Europe

Exports: $4.4 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
  commodities: fish, bananas
  partners: Netherlands, Portugal, Angola, Spain

Imports: $173 million (f.o.b., 1992 est.)
  commodities: foodstuffs, consumer goods, industrial products,
  transport equipment
  partners: Portugal, Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Brazil, France,
  Cote d'Ivoire

External debt: $156 million (1991)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Cape Verdean escudo (CVEsc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cape Verdean escudos (CVEsc) per US$1 - 77.860
  (December 1995), 76.853 (1995), 81.891 (1994), 80.427 (1993), 68.018
  (1992), 71.408 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 1,100 km
  paved: 680 km
  unpaved: 420 km (1992 est.)

Ports: Mindelo, Praia, Tarrafal

Merchant marine: cargo 3, chemical tanker 1 (1995 est.)
  total: 4 (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,632 GRT/8,872 DWT

Airports:
  total: 6
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 1,740 (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: interisland microwave radio relay system
  international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to
  Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
  (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP; includes Army
  and Navy), Security Service

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 84,003
  males fit for military service: 48,885 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.4 million, NA%
  of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Cayman Islands
--------------


(dependent territory of the UK)

Map
---


Location: 19 30 N, 80 30 W -- Caribbean, island group in Caribbean
  Sea, nearly one-half of the way from Cuba to Honduras



Flag
----


Description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on
  the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple
  and turtle above a shield with three stars (representing the three
  islands) and a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH
  FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS



Geography
---------


Location: Caribbean, island group in Caribbean Sea, nearly
  one-half of the way from Cuba to Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 19 30 N, 80 30 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total area: 260 sq km
  land area: 260 sq km
  comparative area: 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 160 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; warm, rainy summers (May to October) and
  cool, relatively dry winters (November to April)

Terrain: low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral reefs
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: The Bluff 43 m

Natural resources: fish, climate and beaches that foster tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 8%
  forest and woodland: 23%
  other: 69%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: no natural fresh water resources, drinking water
  supplies must be met by rainwater catchment
  natural hazards: hurricanes (July to November)
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: important location between Cuba and Central
  America



People
------


Population: 34,646 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 4.27% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 14.52 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.98 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 33.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)
  note: major destination for Cubans trying to migrate to the US

Sex ratio:
  at birth: NA male(s)/female
  under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
  15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
  65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
  all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.1 years
  male: 75.37 years
  female: 78.81 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Caymanian(s)
  adjective: Caymanian

Ethnic divisions: mixed 40%, white 20%, black 20%, expatriates of
  various ethnic groups 20%

Religions: United Church (Presbyterian and Congregational),
  Anglican, Baptist, Roman Catholic, Church of God, other Protestant
  denominations

Languages: English

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970 est.)
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 98%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Cayman Islands

Data code: CJ

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: George Town

Administrative divisions: 8 districts; Creek, Eastern, Midland,
  South Town, Spot Bay, Stake Bay, West End, Western

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Constitution Day (first Monday in July)

Constitution: 1959, revised 1972 and 1992

Legal system: British common law and local statutes

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6
  February 1952) is a hereditary monarch
  head of government: Governor and President of the Executive Council
  John OWEN (since 15 September 1995)
  cabinet: Executive Council - three members are appointed by the
  governor, four members are elected by the Legislative Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Legislative Assembly: election last held 18 November 1992 (next to
  be held NA November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA;
  seats - (15 total, 12 elected) independents 12

Judicial branch: Grand Court; Cayman Islands Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: no formal political parties

International organization participation: Caricom (observer), CDB,
  Interpol (subbureau), IOC

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the
  UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and the Caymanian coat of arms on a white disk centered on
  the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms includes a pineapple
  and turtle above a shield with three stars (representing the three
  islands) and a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto HE HATH
  FOUNDED IT UPON THE SEAS



Economy
-------


Economic overview: With no direct taxation, the Islands are a
  thriving offshore financial center. Tourism is also a mainstay,
  accounting for about 70% of GDP and 75% of foreign currency
  earnings. The tourist industry is aimed at the luxury market and
  caters mainly to visitors from North America. Total tourist arrivals
  exceeded one million visitors in 1995 for the first time. About 90%
  of the islands' food and consumer goods must be imported. The
  Caymanians enjoy one of the highest outputs per capita and one of
  the highest standards of living in the world.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $750 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.5% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $22,500 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1.4%
  industry: 3.2%
  services: 95.4% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 8,061
  by occupation: service workers 18.7%, clerical 18.6%, construction
  12.5%, finance and investment 6.7%, directors and business managers
  5.9% (1979)

Unemployment rate: 7% (1992)

Budget:
  revenues: $141.5 million
  expenditures: $160.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1991)

Industries: tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction,
  construction materials, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 80,000 kW
  production: 230 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 6,899 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: vegetables, fruit; livestock; turtle farming

Illicit drugs: a major money-laundering center for illicit drug
  profits; transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and
  Europe

Exports: $10 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
  commodities: turtle products, manufactured consumer goods
  partners: mostly US

Imports: $312 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
  commodities: foodstuffs, manufactured goods
  partners: US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan

External debt: $15 million (1986)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 0.83 (18
  November 1993), 0.85 (22 November 1993)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 406 km
  paved: 304 km
  unpaved: 102 km

Ports: Cayman Brac, George Town

Merchant marine:
  total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 283,734 GRT/432,610 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 3, cargo 6, chemical tanker 2, container 1, oil
  tanker 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 4
  note: a flag of convenience registry; UK owns 1 ship, India 1,
  Norway 1, US 3, Sweden 1, and UAE 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 3
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 21,584 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: 1 submarine coaxial cable; satellite earth station -
  1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: 28,200 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 6,000 (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@Central African Republic
------------------------



Map
---


Location: 7 00 N, 21 00 E -- Central Africa, north of Zaire



Flag
----


Description: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
  green, and yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a
  yellow five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band



Geography
---------


Location: Central Africa, north of Zaire

Geographic coordinates: 7 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 622,980 sq km
  land area: 622,980 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,203 km
  border countries: Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Congo 467 km,
  Sudan 1,165 km, Zaire 1,577 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers

Terrain: vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered
  hills in northeast and southwest
  lowest point: Oubangui River 335 m
  highest point: Mount Gaou 1,420 m

Natural resources: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil

Land use:
  arable land: 3%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 5%
  forest and woodland: 64%
  other: 28%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: tap water is not potable; poaching has diminished
  reputation as one of last great wildlife refuges; desertification
  natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern
  areas; floods are common
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection;
  signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa



People
------


Population: 3,274,426 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 44% (male 724,914; female 718,423)
  15-64 years: 52% (male 839,118; female 877,069)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 53,418; female 61,484) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.08% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 39.97 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 17.64 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 111.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 45.86 years
  male: 45.03 years
  female: 46.71 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.41 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Central African(s)
  adjective: Central African

Ethnic divisions: Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%,
  Mboum 4%, M'Baka 4%, Europeans 6,500 (including 3,600 French)

Religions: indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic
  25%, Muslim 15%, other 11%
  note: animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the
  Christian majority

Languages: French (official), Sangho (lingua franca and national
  language), Arabic, Hunsa, Swahili

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 60%
  male: 68.5%
  female: 52.4%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Central African Republic
  conventional short form: none
  local long form: Republique Centrafricaine
  local short form: none
  former: Central African Empire
  abbreviation: CAR

Data code: CT

Type of government: republic;

Capital: Bangui

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
  prefecture), 2 economic prefectures* (prefectures economiques,
  singular - prefecture economique), and 1 commune**;
  Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui**, Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto,
  Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou,
  Nana-Mambere, Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*,
  Vakaga

Independence: 13 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 1 December (1958) (proclamation of
  the republic)

Constitution: passed by referendum 29 December 1994; adopted 7
  January 1995

Legal system: based on French law

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Ange PATASSE (since 22 October 1993)
  elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last
  held 19 September 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - PATASSE
  received 52.45% of the votes and Abel GOUMBA received 45.62%
  head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Paul NGOUPANDE (since 6 June
  1996); appointed by the president
  cabinet: Council of Ministers; appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 19
  September 1993 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (85 total) MLPC 33, RDC 14, PLD 7, ADP 6, PSD 3,
  others 22
  note: the National Assembly is advised by the Economic and Regional
  Council (Conseil Economique et Regional); when they sit together
  they are called the Congress (Congres)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), judges appointed by
  the president; Constitutional Court, judges appointed by the
  president

Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Progress
  (ADP), Tchapka BREDE; Central African Democratic Assembly (RDC),
  Andre KOLINGBA; Civic Forum (FC), Gen. Timothee MALENDOMA; Liberal
  Democratic Party (PLD), Nestor KOMBO-NAGUEMON; Movement for the
  Liberation of the Central African People (MLPC), the party of the
  president, Ange Felix PATASSE; Movement for Democracy and
  Development (MDD), David DACKO; Marginal Movement for Democracy,
  Renaissance and Evolution (MDREC), Joseph BENDOUNGA; Patriotic Front
  for Progress (FFP), Abel GOUMBA; Social Democratic Party (PSD),
  Enoch Derant LAKOUE

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
  CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UDEAC, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Henri KOBA
  chancery: 1618 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 483-7800, 7801
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-9893

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mosina H. JORDAN
  embassy: Avenue David Dacko, Bangui
  mailing address: B. P. 924, Bangui
  telephone: [236] 61 02 00, 61 25 78, 61 02 10
  FAX: [236] 61 44 94

Flag: four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and
  yellow with a vertical red band in center; there is a yellow
  five-pointed star on the hoist side of the blue band



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Subsistence agriculture, together with
  forestry, remains the backbone of the economy of the Central African
  Republic (CAR), with more than 70% of the population living in
  outlying areas. The agricultural sector generates half of GDP.
  Timber has accounted for about 13% of export earnings and the
  diamond industry for nearly 80%. Important constraints to economic
  development include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor
  transportation system, a largely unskilled work force, and a legacy
  of misdirected macroeconomic policies. A major plus is the large
  forest reserves, which the government is moving to protect from
  overexploitation. The 50% devaluation of the currencies of 14
  Francophone African nations on 12 January 1994 had mixed effects on
  the CAR's economy. While diamond, timber, coffee, and cotton exports
  increased - leading GDP to increase by 5.5% - inflation rose to 45%,
  fueled by the rising prices of imports on which the economy depends;
  inflation dropped back rapidly in 1995. The CAR's poor resource base
  and primitive infrastructure will keep it dependent on multilateral
  donors and France for the foreseeable future.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4.1% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $800 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 50%
  industry: 14%
  services: 36% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 45% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 775,413 (1986 est.)
  by occupation: agriculture 85%, commerce and services 9%, industry
  3%, government 3%
  note: about 64,000 salaried workers (1985)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles,
  footwear, assembly of bicycles and motorcycles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 40,000 kW
  production: 100 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 29 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cotton, coffee, tobacco, manioc (tapioca), yams,
  millet, corn, bananas; timber

Exports: $154 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: diamonds, timber, cotton, coffee, tobacco
  partners: France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, US, Spain, Iran

Imports: $215 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery,
  electrical equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals,
  consumer goods, industrial products
  partners: France, other EC countries, Japan, Algeria, Cameroon,
  Namibia

External debt: $904.3 million (1993 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January
  1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
  282.11 (1991)
  note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
  100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
  1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 23,738 km
  paved: 427 km
  unpaved: 23,311 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of
  shallow-draft dugouts; Oubangui is the most important river

Ports: Bangui, Nola

Airports:
  total: 48
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2
  with paved runways under 914 m: 11
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 9
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 24 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 16,867 (1992 est.)

Telephone system: fair system
  domestic: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and
  low-capacity, low-powered radiotelephone communication
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 7,500 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Central African Army (includes Republican Guard), Air
  Force, National Gendarmerie, Police Force

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 737,330
  males fit for military service: 384,134 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $30 million, 2.3%
  of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Chad
----



Map
---


Location: 15 00 N, 19 00 E -- Central Africa, south of Libya



Flag
----


Description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
  yellow, and red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the
  flag of Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring a
  quartered shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on
  the flag of France



Geography
---------


Location: Central Africa, south of Libya

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 19 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 1.284 million sq km
  land area: 1,259,200 sq km
  comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of
  California

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,968 km
  border countries: Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197
  km, Libya 1,055 km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: the International Court of Justice (ICJ)
  ruled in February 1994 that the 100,000 sq km Aozou Strip between
  Chad and Libya belongs to Chad and that Libya must withdraw from it
  by 31 May 1994; Libya has withdrawn some of its forces in response
  to the ICJ ruling, but still maintains part of the airfield and a
  small military presence at the airfield's water supply located in
  Chad; demarcation of international boundaries in vicinity of Lake
  Chad, the lack of which has led to border incidents in the past, is
  completed and awaiting ratification by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and
  Nigeria

Climate: tropical in south, desert in north

Terrain: broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains
  in northwest, lowlands in south
  lowest point: Djourab Depression 175 m
  highest point: Emi Koussi 3,415 m

Natural resources: petroleum (unexploited but exploration under
  way), uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad)

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 36%
  forest and woodland: 11%
  other: 51%

Irrigated land: 100 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste
  disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution;
  desertification
  natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north;
  periodic droughts; locust plagues
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping

Geographic note: landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant
  water body in the Sahel



People
------


Population: 6,976,845 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 44% (male 1,543,688; female 1,535,729)
  15-64 years: 53% (male 1,807,361; female 1,881,930)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 91,998; female 116,139) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.68% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 44.25 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 17.44 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 120.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 47.55 years
  male: 45.18 years
  female: 50.01 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.84 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Chadian(s)
  adjective: Chadian

Ethnic divisions: nonindigenous 150,000, of whom 1,000 are French
  north and center: Muslims (Arabs, Toubou, Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko,
  Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba)
  south: non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye, Moundang,
  Moussei, Massa)

Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs (mostly
  animism) 25%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Sara and Sango
  (in south), more than 100 different languages and dialects

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write in French or Arabic
  (1995 est.)
  total population: 48.1%
  male: 62.1%
  female: 34.7%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Chad
  conventional short form: Chad
  local long form: Republique du Tchad
  local short form: Tchad

Data code: CD

Type of government: republic

Capital: N'Djamena

Administrative divisions: 14 prefectures (prefectures, singular -
  prefecture); Batha, Biltine, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi,
  Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi,
  Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile

Independence: 11 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 11 August (1960)

Constitution: 31 March 1995, passed by referendum

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Chadian
  customary law; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December
  1990, after seizing power on 3 December 1990); note - transitional
  government's mandate was scheduled to expire in May 1996; the first
  round of presidential elections was scheduled for 2 June 1996, with
  a runoff on 23 June if necessary
  head of government: Prime Minister Djimasta KOIBLA (since 9 April
  1995) elected by the Sovereign National Conference
  cabinet: Council of State appointed by the president on
  recommendation of the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Higher Transitional Council (Conseil Superieur de Transition:
  popular elections to the former National Consultative Council
  (Conceil National Consultatif) were last held 8 July 1990; this body
  was disbanded on 3 December 1990 by President DEBY and on 8 March
  1991 replaced with the Provisional Council of the Republic having 30
  members whom he appointed; this body, in turn, was replaced on 6
  April 1993 by a 57-member Higher Transitional Council (Conseil
  Superieur de Transition) elected by a specially convened Sovereign
  National Conference; popular elections, formerly scheduled for April
  1995, were initially postponed by mutual agreement of the parties
  concerned until at least May 1996 and subsequently postponed until
  after the rainy season (as late as October 1996); note - the name of
  the anticipated new legislative body has not been announced

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS),
  former dissident group, Idriss DEBY, chairman
  note: President DEBY, who promised political pluralism, a new
  constitution, and free elections by April 1994, subsequently twice
  postponed these initiatives; there are numerous dissident groups and
  at least 45 opposition political parties

Other political or pressure groups: NA

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
  CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UDEAC,
  UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Saleh AHMAT
  chancery: 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 462-4009
  FAX: [1] (202) 265-1937

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Laurence E. POPE II
  embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
  mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
  telephone: [235] (51) 70-09, (51) 90-52, (51) 92-33
  FAX: [235] (51) 56-54

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
  red; similar to the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of
  Andorra, which has a national coat of arms featuring a quartered
  shield centered in the yellow band; design was based on the flag of
  France



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Climate, geographic remoteness, poor resource
  endowment, and lack of infrastructure make Chad one of the most
  underdeveloped countries in the world. Its economy is hobbled by
  political turmoil, drought, and food shortages. Consequently the
  economy has shown little progress in recent years in overcoming a
  severe setback brought on by civil war in the late 1980s. More than
  80% of the work force is involved in subsistence farming and
  fishing. Cotton is the major cash crop, accounting for at least half
  of exports. Chad is highly dependent on foreign aid, especially food
  credits, given chronic shortages in several regions. Of all the
  Francophone countries in Africa, Chad has benefited the least from
  the 50% devaluation of their currencies on 12 January 1994. Despite
  an increase in external financial aid and favorable price increases
  for cotton - the primary source of foreign exchange - the corrupt
  and enfeebled government bureaucracy continues to postpone payment
  of public sector salaries and to dampen economic enterprise by
  neglecting payments to domestic suppliers. The devaluation resulted
  in stepped-up inflation of 41% in 1994; in contrast to other
  Francophone countries, Chad continued to suffer high inflation in
  1995 because of the government's lack of financial discipline. Oil
  production in the Lake Chad area remains a distant prospect and the
  subsistence-driven economy probably will continue to limp along in
  the near term.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.3 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $600 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 49%
  industry: 17%
  services: 34%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 41% (1994 est.)

Labor force: NA
  by occupation: agriculture 85% (subsistence farming, herding, and
  fishing)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $120 million
  expenditures: $363 million, including capital expenditures of $104
  million (1992 est.)

Industries: cotton textiles, meat packing, beer brewing, natron
  (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 40,000 kW
  production: 80 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 13 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice, potatoes,
  manioc (tapioca); cattle, sheep, goats, camels

Exports: $132 million (f.o.b., 1993)
  commodities: cotton, cattle, textiles, fish
  partners: France, Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaire, Sudan, Central African
  Republic

Imports: $201 million (f.o.b., 1993)
  commodities: machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial
  goods 20%, petroleum products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; textiles; note -
  excludes military equipment
  partners: US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon, Italy, Germany

External debt: $757 million (December 1993 )

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: CFA Francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January
  1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
  282.11 (1991)
  note: beginning 12 January 1994 the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
  100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
  1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 31,141 km
  paved: 32 km
  unpaved: 31,109 km (1987 est.)

Waterways: 2,000 km navigable

Ports: none

Airports:
  total: 47
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 11
  with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 13
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 18 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 5,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: primitive system
  domestic: fair system of radiotelephone communication stations
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1987 est.)
  note: limited TV service; many facilities are inoperative

Televisions: 7,000 (1991 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Armed Forces (includes Ground Force, Air Force, and
  Gendarmerie), Republican Guard, Police

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,562,052
  males fit for military service: 809,210
  males reach military age (20) annually: 63,254 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $74 million,
  11.1% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Chile
-----



Map
---


Location: 30 00 S, 71 00 W -- Southern South America, bordering
  the South Atlantic Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina
  and Peru



Flag
----


Description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red;
  there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the
  hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white
  five-pointed star in the center; design was based on the US flag



Geography
---------


Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Atlantic
  Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 71 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
  total area: 756,950 sq km
  land area: 748,800 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
  note: includes Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Land boundaries:
  total: 6,171 km
  border countries: Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km

Coastline: 6,435 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: short section of the southern boundary
  with Argentina is indefinite; Bolivia has wanted a sovereign
  corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama area was lost
  to Chile in 1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water rights;
  territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory)
  partially overlaps Argentine and British claims

Climate: temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south

Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged
  Andes in east
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Cerro Aconcagua 6,962 m

Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious
  metals, molybdenum

Land use:
  arable land: 7%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 16%
  forest and woodland: 21%
  other: 56%

Irrigated land: 12,650 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions;
  water pollution from raw sewage; deforestation contributing to loss
  of biodiversity; soil erosion; desertification
  natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis
  international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine
  Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: strategic location relative to sea lanes between
  Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel,
  Drake Passage); Atacama Desert is one of world's driest regions



People
------


Population: 14,333,258 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 29% (male 2,071,816; female 2,041,417)
  15-64 years: 65% (male 4,599,173; female 4,651,030)
  65 years and over: 6% (male 403,019; female 566,803) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.24% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 18.09 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.68 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.49 years
  male: 71.26 years
  female: 77.72 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.23 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Chilean(s)
  adjective: Chilean

Ethnic divisions: European and European-Indian 95%, Indian 3%,
  other 2%

Religions: Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, Jewish

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 95.2%
  male: 95.4%
  female: 95%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Chile
  conventional short form: Chile
  local long form: Republica de Chile
  local short form: Chile

Data code: CI

Type of government: republic

Capital: Santiago

Administrative divisions: 13 regions (regiones, singular -
  region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta,
  Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo
  O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule,
  Region Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso
  note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)

Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended
  30 July 1989

Legal system: based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and
  subsequent codes influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial
  review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; does not accept
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President Eduardo FREI
  Ruiz-Tagle (since 11 March 1994) elected for a four-year term by
  popular vote; election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be held
  NA December 1997); results - Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle (PDC) 58%,
  Arturo ALESSANDRI 24.4%, other 17.6%
  cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
  Senate (Senado): election last held 11 December 1993 (next to be
  held NA December 1997); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats
  - (46 total, 38 elected) Coalition of Parties for Democracy 21 (PDC
  13, PS 4, PPD 3, PR 1), Union for the Progress of Chile 15 (RN 11,
  UDI 3, UCC 1), right-wing independents 10
  Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): election last held 11
  December 1993 (next to be held NA December 1997); results -
  Coalition of Parties for Democracy 53.95% (PDC 27.16%, PS 12.01%,
  PPD 11.82%, PR 2.96%), Union for the Progress of Chile 30.57% (RN
  15.25%, UDI 12.13%, UCC 3.19%); seats - (120 total) Coalition of
  Parties for Democracy 70 (PDC 37, PPD 15, PR 2, PS 15, left-wing
  independent 1), Union for the Progress of Chile 47 (RN 30, UDI 15,
  UCC 2), right-wing independents 3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are
  appointed by the president, the president of the Supreme Court is
  elected by the 17-member court

Political parties and leaders: Coalition of Parties for Democracy
  (CPD) consists mainly of: Christian Democratic Party (PDC),
  Alejandro FOXLEY; Socialist Party (PS), Camilo ESCALONA; Party for
  Democracy (PPD), Jorge SCHAULSOHN, Radical Party (PR); Union for the
  Progress of Chile (UPP) consists mainly of three parties: National
  Renewal (RN), Andres ALLAMAND; Independent Democratic Union (UDI),
  Jovino NOVOA; Center Center Union (UCCP), Francisco Javier ERRAZURIZ

Other political or pressure groups: revitalized university student
  federations at all major universities; labor - United Labor Central
  (CUT) includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor
  confederations; Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation: APEC, CCC, ECLAC, FAO,
  G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
  ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate member), NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA,
  RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU,
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador John BIEHL del Rio
  chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
  telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746
  FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
  York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Gabriel GUERRA-MONDRAGON
  embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Santiago
  mailing address: use street address
  telephone: [56] (2) 232-2600
  FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is
  a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side
  end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in
  the center; design was based on the US flag



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Chile has a prosperous, essentially free market
  economy, with the degree of government intervention varying
  according to the philosophy of the different regimes. Under the
  center-left government of President AYLWIN, which took power in
  March 1990, spending on social welfare rose steadily. At the same
  time business investment, exports, and consumer spending also grew
  substantially. The new president, FREI, who took office in March
  1994, has emphasized social spending even more. Growth in real GDP
  in 1991-95 has averaged more than 6.5% annually, with an estimated
  one million Chileans having moved out of poverty in the last four
  years. Copper remains vital to the health of the economy; Chile is
  the world's largest producer and exporter of copper. Success in
  meeting the government's goal of sustained annual economic growth of
  5% depends on world copper prices, the level of confidence of
  foreign investors and creditors, and the government's own ability to
  maintain a conservative fiscal stance.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $113.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 8.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $8,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 7.4%
  industry: 36.4%
  services: 56.2% (1985)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.1% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 4.728 million
  by occupation: services 38.3% (includes government 12%), industry
  and commerce 33.8%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%, mining
  2.3%, construction 6.4% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 5.4% (1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $17 billion
  expenditures: $17 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1996 est.)

Industries: copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing,
  iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement,
  textiles

Industrial production growth rate: 4.3% (1993 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 4,810,000 kW
  production: 22 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 1,499 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, corn, grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes,
  fruit; beef, poultry, wool; timber; 1991 fish catch of 6.6 million
  metric tons

Illicit drugs: a minor transshipment country for cocaine destined
  for the US and Europe; booming economy has made it more attractive
  to traffickers seeking to launder drug profits

Exports: $15.9 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: copper 41%, other metals and minerals 8.7%, wood
  products 7.1%, fish and fishmeal 9.8%, fruits 8.4% (1991)
  partners: EU 25%, US 15%, Asia 34%, Latin America 20% (1995 est.)

Imports: $14.3 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: capital goods 25.2%, spare parts 24.8%, raw materials
  15.4%, petroleum 10%, foodstuffs 5.7%
  partners: EU 18%, US 25%, Asia 16%, Latin America 26% (1995 est.)

External debt: $21.1 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $62 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 408.64 (December
  1995), 396.78 (1995), 420.08 (1994), 404.35 (1993), 362.59 (1992),
  349.37 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 6,782 km
  broad gauge: 3,743 km 1.676-m gauge (1,653 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 116 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,923 km 1.000-m gauge (40 km
  electrified) (1995)

Highways:
  total: 79,593 km
  paved: 10,984 km
  unpaved: 68,609 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 725 km

Pipelines: crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural
  gas 320 km

Ports: Antofagasta, Arica, Chanarol, Coquimbo, Iquique, Puerto
  Montt, Punta Arenas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Talcahuano, Valparaiso

Merchant marine:
  total: 37 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 529,512 GRT/925,364 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 8, chemical tanker 4, combination
  ore/oil 2, container 1, liquefied gas tanker 2, oil tanker 4,
  roll-on/roll-off cargo 3, vehicle carrier 2 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 344
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 5
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 5
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 17
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 16
  with paved runways under 914 m: 220
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 10
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 68 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 1.5 million (1994 est.)

Telephone system: modern system based on extensive microwave radio
  relay facilities
  domestic: extensive microwave radio relay links; domestic satellite
  system with 3 earth stations
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 159, FM 0, shortwave 11

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 131

Televisions: 2.85 million (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army of the Nation, National Navy (includes Naval Air,
  Coast Guard, and Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of
  Chile (National Police), Investigations Police

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,808,655
  males fit for military service: 2,832,198
  males reach military age (19) annually: 123,443 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $970 million,
  2.0% of GDP (1994 est.)



======================================================================



@China
-----


(also see separate Taiwan entry)

Map
---


Location: 35 00 N, 105 00 E -- Eastern Asia, bordering the East
  China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North
  Korea and Vietnam



Flag
----


Description: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four
  smaller yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward
  the middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner



Geography
---------


Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay,
  Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references: Asia

Area:
  total area: 9,596,960 sq km
  land area: 9,326,410 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries:
  total: 22,143.34 km
  border countries: Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km,
  Hong Kong 30 km, India 3,380 km, Kazakstan 1,533 km, North Korea
  1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan 858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia
  4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km, Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605
  km, Russia (northwest) 40 km, Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km

Coastline: 14,500 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and
  Yellow Sea
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: boundary with India in dispute; disputed
  sections of the boundary with Russia remain to be settled; boundary
  with Tajikistan in dispute; short section of the boundary with North
  Korea is indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly
  Islands with Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly
  Brunei; maritime boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of
  Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam
  and Taiwan; claims Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku
  Islands/Diaoyu Tai), as does Taiwan

Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains,
  deltas, and hills in east
  lowest point: Turpan Pendi -154 m
  highest point: Mount Everest 8,848 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, mercury, tin,
  tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite,
  aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest)

Land use:
  arable land: 10%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 31%
  forest and woodland: 14%
  other: 45%

Irrigated land: 478,220 sq km (1991)

Environment:
  current issues: air pollution from the overwhelming use of
  high-sulfur coal as a fuel, produces acid rain which is damaging
  forests; water shortages experienced throughout the country,
  particularly in urban areas; future growth in water usage threatens
  to outpace supplies; water pollution from industrial effluents; much
  of the population does not have access to potable water; less than
  10% of sewage receives treatment; deforestation; estimated loss of
  one-fifth of agricultural land since 1957 to soil erosion and
  economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
  natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along
  southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis;
  earthquakes; droughts
  international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
  Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands;
  signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: world's third-largest country (after Russia and
  Canada)



People
------


Population: 1,210,004,956 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 26% (male 167,448,148; female 151,601,650)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 421,455,418; female 393,913,510)
  65 years and over: 7% (male 35,056,409; female 40,529,821) (July
  1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.98% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 17.01 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.92 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.06 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 39.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 69.62 years
  male: 68.33 years
  female: 71.06 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.81 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Chinese

Ethnic divisions: Han Chinese 91.9%, Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi,
  Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities
  8.1%

Religions: Daoism (Taoism), Buddhism, Muslim 2%-3%, Christian 1%
  (est.)
  note: officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic

Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (Putonghua, based on the
  Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghaiese), Minbei
  (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects,
  minority languages (see Ethnic divisions entry)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 81.5%
  male: 89.9%
  female: 72.7%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: People's Republic of China
  conventional short form: China
  local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
  local short form: Zhong Guo
  abbreviation: PRC

Data code: CH

Type of government: Communist state

Capital: Beijing

Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and
  plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 3
  municipalities** (shi, singular and plural); Anhui, Beijing**,
  Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei,
  Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin,
  Liaoning, Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong,
  Shanghai**, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tianjin**, Xinjiang*, Xizang* (Tibet),
  Yunnan, Zhejiang
  note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province

Independence: 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty
  221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12
  February 1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)

National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)

Constitution: most recent promulgated 4 December 1982

Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely
  criminal law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987;
  new legal codes in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts
  are being made to improve civil, administrative, criminal, and
  commercial law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President JIANG Zemin (since 27 March 1993) and Vice
  President RONG Yiren (since 27 March 1993) elected by the National
  People's Congress; election last held 27 March 1993 (next to be held
  NA 1998); results - JIANG Zemin was nominally elected by the Eighth
  National People's Congress
  head of government: Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since 24
  November 1987, Premier since 9 April 1988) nominated by the
  president, decided by the National People's Congress; Vice Premiers
  ZHU Rongji (since 8 April 1991), ZOU Jiahua (since 8 April 1991),
  QIAN Qichen (since 29 March 1993), LI Lanqing (29 March 1993), WU
  Bangguo (since 17 March 1995), and JIANG Chunyun (since 17 March
  1995) nominated by the president, decided by the National People's
  Congress
  cabinet: State Council appointed by the National People's Congress
  (NPC)

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National People's Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui): elections
  last held NA March 1993 (next to be held NA March 1998); results -
  CCP is the only party but there are also independents; seats -
  (2,977 total) (elected at county or xian level)

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court, judges appointed by the
  National People's Congress

Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party (CCP),
  JIANG Zemin, general secretary of the Central Committee; eight
  registered small parties controlled by CCP

Other political or pressure groups: such meaningful opposition as
  exists consists of loose coalitions, usually within the party and
  government organization, that vary by issue

International organization participation: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC,
  ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer),
  Mekong Group, MINURSO, NAM (observer), PCA, UN, UN Security Council,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNOMIL, UNTSO, UNU,
  UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador LI Daoyu
  chancery: 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 328-2500 through 2502
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and
  San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador James R. SASSER
  embassy: Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, 100600 Beijing
  mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
  telephone: [86] (10) 5323831
  FAX: [86] (10) 5326422
  consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang

Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller
  yellow five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the
  middle of the flag) in the upper hoist-side corner



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership
  has been trying to move the economy from a sluggish Soviet-style
  centrally planned economy to one that is more market-oriented, but
  still within a rigid political framework of Communist Party control.
  To this end the authorities switched to a system of household
  responsibility in agriculture in place of the old collectivization,
  increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in
  industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale enterprise in
  services and light manufacturing, and opened the economy to
  increased foreign trade and investment. The result has been a strong
  surge in production. Agricultural output doubled in the 1980s, and
  industry also posted major gains, especially in coastal areas near
  Hong Kong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment and modern
  production methods helped spur output of both domestic and export
  goods. GDP has more than tripled since 1978. On the darker side, the
  leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the worst
  results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of
  capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus
  has periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at
  intervals. In 1992-95 annual growth of GDP accelerated, particularly
  in the coastal areas - averaging more than 10% annually according to
  official figures. In late 1993 China's leadership approved
  additional long-term reforms aimed at giving still more play to
  market-oriented institutions and at strengthening the center's
  control over the financial system; state enterprises would continue
  to dominate many key industries in what was now termed "a socialist
  market economy." In 1995 inflation dropped sharply, reflecting
  tighter monetary policies and stronger measures to control food
  prices. At the same time, the government struggled to (a) collect
  revenues due from provinces, businesses, and individuals; (b) reduce
  extortion and other economic crimes; and (c) keep afloat the large
  state-owned enterprises, most of which had not participated in the
  vigorous expansion of the economy. From 60 to 100 million surplus
  rural workers are adrift between the villages and the cities, many
  subsisting through part-time low-pay jobs. Popular resistance,
  changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres
  have weakened China's population control program, which is essential
  to the nation's long-term economic viability. One of the most
  dangerous long-term threats to continued rapid economic growth is
  the deterioration in the environment, notably air pollution, soil
  erosion, and the steady fall of the water table especially in the
  north. The amount of arable land continues to decline because of
  erosion and economic development, the cumulative loss since the
  Communist takeover in 1949 being more than 15%. The next few years
  will witness increasing tensions between a highly centralized
  political system and an increasingly decentralized economic system.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.5 trillion (1995 estimate as
  extrapolated from World Bank estimate with use of official Chinese
  growth figures for 1993-95; the result may overstate China's GDP by
  as much as 25%)

GDP real growth rate: 10.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,900 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 19%
  industry: 48%
  services: 33% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.1% (December 1995 over
  December 1994)

Labor force: 583.6 million (1991)
  by occupation: agriculture and forestry 60%, industry and commerce
  25%, construction and mining 5%, social services 5%, other 5% (1990
  est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.2% in urban areas (1995 est.); substantial
  underemployment

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: iron and steel, coal, machine building, armaments,
  textiles and apparel, petroleum, cement, chemical fertilizers,
  consumer durables, food processing, autos, consumer electronics,
  telecommunications

Industrial production growth rate: 13.4% (1995 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 162,000,000 kW
  production: 746 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 593 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: rice, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet,
  barley, cotton, other fibers, oilseed; pork and other livestock
  products; fish

Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for heroin produced in
  the Golden Triangle; growing domestic drug abuse problem

Exports: $148.8 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
  commodities: garments, textiles, footwear, toys, machinery and
  equipment (1994)
  partners: Hong Kong, Japan, US, Germany, South Korea, Singapore
  (1994)

Imports: $132.1 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
  commodities: industrial machinery, textiles, plastics,
  telecommunications equipment, steel bars, aircraft (1994)
  partners: Japan, Taiwan, US, Hong Kong, South Korea, Germany (1994)

External debt: $92 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
  donor: to less developed countries (1970-89) $NA
  recipient: ODA, $1.977 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 yuan (Y) = 10 jiao

Exchange rates: yuan (Y) per US$1 - 8.3186 (January 1996), 8.3514
  (1995), 8.6187 (1994), 5.7620 (1993), 5.5146 (1992), 5.3234 (1991)
  note: beginning 1 January 1994, the People's Bank of China quotes
  the midpoint rate against the US dollar based on the previous day's
  prevailing rate in the interbank foreign exchange market

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 58,399 km
  standard gauge: 54,799 km 1.435-m gauge (7,174 km electrified; more
  than 11,000 km double track)
  narrow gauge: 3,600 km 0.762-m gauge local industrial lines (1995)

Highways:
  total: 1.029 million km
  paved: 170,000 km
  unpaved: 859,000 km (1990 est.)

Waterways: 138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 9,700 km; petroleum products 1,100 km;
  natural gas 6,200 km (1990)

Ports: Aihui, Changsha, Dalian, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Hangzhou,
  Harbin, Huangpu, Nanning, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai,
  Shantou, Tanggu, Xiamen, Xingang, Zhanjiang

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,700 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,663,260
  GRT/25,026,090 DWT
  ships by type: barge carrier 2, bulk 316, cargo 876, chemical tanker
  15, combination bulk 11, container 103, liquefied gas tanker 4,
  multifunction large-load carrier 3, oil tanker 227, passenger 24,
  passenger-cargo 28, refrigerated cargo 22, roll-on/roll-off cargo
  24, short-sea passenger 45
  note: China owns an additional 267 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
  totaling 9,044,039 DWT operating under the registries of Panama,
  Hong Kong, Malta, Liberia, Vanuatu, Cyprus, Saint Vincent and the
  Grenadines, The Bahamas, Marshall Islands, and Singapore (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 204
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 17
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 69
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 89
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 9
  with paved runways under 914 m: 7
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 7
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3
  with unpaved runways under 914 m: 3 (1994 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 20 million (1994 est.)

Telephone system: domestic and international services are
  increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed
  domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and
  most townships
  domestic: telephone lines are being expanded; interprovincial
  fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been
  installed; a domestic satellite system with 55 earth stations is in
  place
  international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Pacific
  Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region) and
  1 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean Regions); several international
  fiber-optic links to Japan, South Korea, and Hong Kong

Radio broadcast stations: AM 274, FM NA, shortwave 0

Radios: 216.5 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 202 (repeaters 2,050)

Televisions: 75 million



Defense
-------


Branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA), which includes the
  Ground Forces, Navy (includes Marines and Naval Aviation), Air
  Force, Second Artillery Corps (the strategic missile force),
  People's Armed Police (internal security troops, nominally
  subordinate to Ministry of Public Security, but included by the
  Chinese as part of the "armed forces" and considered to be an
  adjunct to the PLA in wartime)

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 352,506,948
  males fit for military service: 194,589,216
  males reach military age (18) annually: 9,763,916 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: the officially announced but suspect figure
  is 70.2 billion yuan, NA% of GDP (1995 est.); note - conversion of
  the defense budget into US dollars using the current exchange rate
  could produce misleading results



======================================================================



@Christmas Island
----------------


(territory of Australia)

Map
---


Location: 10 30 S, 105 40 E -- Southeastern Asia, island in the
  Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia



Flag
----


Description: the flag of Australia is used



Geography
---------


Location: Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of
  Indonesia

Geographic coordinates: 10 30 S, 105 40 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
  total area: 135 sq km
  land area: 135 sq km
  comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 138.9 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 12 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Murray Hill 361 m

Natural resources: phosphate

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 100%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can
  be a maritime hazard
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean



People
------


Population: 813 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: -8.98% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
  at birth: NA male(s)/female
  under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
  15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
  65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
  all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: NA years
  male: NA years
  female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
  noun: Christmas Islander(s)
  adjective: Christmas Island

Ethnic divisions: Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%,
  no indigenous population

Religions: Buddhist 55%, Christian 15%, Muslim 10%, other 20%
  (1991)

Languages: English



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island
  conventional short form: Christmas Island

Data code: KT

Type of government: territory of Australia

Capital: The Settlement

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of
  Australia

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6
  February 1952) is a hereditary monarch
  head of government: Administrator Danny Ambrose GILLESPIE (since NA)
  was appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents
  the queen and Australia
  cabinet: Christmas Island Shire Council

Legislative branch: none

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of Australia)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Phosphate mining had been the only significant
  economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government
  closed the mine as no longer economically viable. Private operators
  reopened the mine in 1990 under strict environmental controls, in
  particular to preserve the rain forest. A hotel and casino complex
  opened in 1993, and tourism is a likely growth sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $NA

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA
  by occupation: all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining
  Company of Christmas Island, Ltd.

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 11,000 kW
  production: 30 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 17,800 kWh (1990)

Agriculture: NA

Exports: $NA
  commodities: phosphate
  partners: Australia, NZ

Imports: $NA
  commodities: consumer goods
  partners: principally Australia

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3477 (January
  1996),1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704, (1993), 1.3600 (1992),
  1.2836 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 24 km to serve phosphate mines

Highways:
  total: NA km
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km

Ports: Flying Fish Cove

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 1
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 500 (1992)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 350 (1992)



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Australia



======================================================================



@Clipperton Island
-----------------


(possession of France)

Map
---


Location: 10 17 N, 109 13 W -- Middle America, atoll in the North
  Pacific Ocean, 1,120 km southwest of Mexico



Flag
----


Description: the flag of France is used



Geography
---------


Location: Middle America, atoll in the North Pacific Ocean, 1,120
  km southwest of Mexico

Geographic coordinates: 10 17 N, 109 13 W

Map references: World

Area:
  total area: 7 sq km
  land area: 7 sq km
  comparative area: about 12 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
  DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 11.1 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Mexico

Climate: tropical, humid, average temperature 20-32 degrees C,
  rains May-October

Terrain: coral atoll
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Rocher Clipperton 21 m

Natural resources: none

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (all coral)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: subject to tornadoes
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: reef about 8 km in circumference



People
------


Population: uninhabited



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Clipperton Island
  local long form: none
  local short form: Ile Clipperton
  former: sometimes called Ile de la Passion

Data code: IP

Type of government: French possession administered by France from
  French Polynesia by the High Commissioner of the Republic

Capital: none; administered by France from French Polynesia

Independence: none (possession of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The only economic activity is a tuna fishing
  station.



Transportation
--------------


Ports: none; offshore anchorage only



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@Cocos (Keeling) Islands
-----------------------


(territory of Australia)

Map
---


Location: 12 30 S, 96 50 E -- Southeastern Asia, group of islands
  in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia, about one-half of the way
  from Australia to Sri Lanka



Flag
----


Description: the flag of Australia is used



Geography
---------


Location: Southeastern Asia, group of islands in the Indian Ocean,
  south of Indonesia, about one-half of the way from Australia to Sri
  Lanka

Geographic coordinates: 12 30 S, 96 50 E

Map references: Southeast Asia

Area:
  total area: 14 sq km
  land area: 14 sq km
  comparative area: about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
  DC
  note: includes the two main islands of West Island and Home Island

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2.6 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade wind for about
  nine months of the year; moderate rainfall

Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 5 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
  arable land: NA%
  permanent crops: NA%
  meadows and pastures: NA%
  forest and woodland: NA%
  other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: fresh water resources are limited to rainwater
  accumulations in natural underground reservoirs
  natural hazards: cyclones may occur in the early months of the year
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut
  palms and other vegetation



People
------


Population: 609 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 0.94% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
  at birth: NA male(s)/female
  under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
  15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
  65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
  all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: NA years
  male: NA years
  female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
  noun: Cocos Islander(s)
  adjective: Cocos Islander

Ethnic divisions:
  West Island: Europeans
  Home Island: Cocos Malays

Religions: Sunni Muslim 57%, Christian 22%, other 21% (1981 est.)

Languages: English



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  conventional short form: Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Data code: CK

Type of government: territory of Australia

Capital: West Island

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

National holiday: NA

Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

Suffrage: NA

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6
  February 1952) is a hereditary monarch
  head of government: Administrator John Bell READ (since NA) was
  appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the
  queen and Australia

Legislative branch: unicameral Cocos (Keeling) Islands Shire
  Council; President of the Islands Council Ronald GRANT (since NA)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: none

International organization participation: WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of Australia)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the
  sole cash crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export
  earners. Small local gardens and fishing contribute to the food
  supply, but additional food and most other necessities must be
  imported from Australia.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $NA

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: NA

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: copra products

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 1,000 kW
  production: 2 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 2,980 kWh (1990)

Agriculture: vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Exports: $NA
  commodities: copra
  partners: Australia

Imports: $NA
  commodities: foodstuffs
  partners: Australia

External debt: $NA

Economic aid: none

Currency: 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3477 (January
  1996), 1.3486 (1995), 1.3667 (1994), 1.4704 (1993), 1.3600 (1992),
  1.2836 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: NA km
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km

Ports: none; lagoon anchorage only

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 1
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with
  Australia via satellite; 1 satellite earth station of NA type

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 300 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0
  note: intermittent television service via satellite

Televisions: NA



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Australia



======================================================================



@Colombia
--------



Map
---


Location: 4 00 N, 72 00 W -- Northern South America, bordering the
  Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North
  Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama



Flag
----


Description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width),
  blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and
  bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center



Geography
---------


Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea,
  between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean,
  between Ecuador and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
  total area: 1,138,910 sq km
  land area: 1,038,700 sq km
  comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Montana
  note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
  Serranilla Bank

Land boundaries:
  total: 7,408 km
  border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km,
  Peru 2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean
  1,448 km)

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela
  in the Gulf of Venezuela; territorial dispute with Nicaragua over
  Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in
  highlands

Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes
  Mountains, eastern lowland plains
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Nevado del Huila 5,750 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel,
  gold, copper, emeralds

Land use:
  arable land: 4%
  permanent crops: 2%
  meadows and pastures: 29%
  forest and woodland: 49%
  other: 16%

Irrigated land: 5,150 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: deforestation; soil damage from overuse of
  pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle
  emissions
  natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional
  earthquakes; periodic droughts
  international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
  Climate Change, Endangered Species, Marine Life Conservation,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
  Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Dumping, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: only South American country with coastlines on
  both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea



People
------


Population: 36,813,161 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 32% (male 5,948,599; female 5,806,450)
  15-64 years: 64% (male 11,496,931; female 11,890,875)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 741,788; female 928,518) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.66% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 21.34 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.65 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 25.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.81 years
  male: 69.97 years
  female: 75.73 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.35 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Colombian(s)
  adjective: Colombian

Ethnic divisions: mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%,
  mixed black-Indian 3%, Indian 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 91.3%
  male: 91.2%
  female: 91.4%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
  conventional short form: Colombia
  local long form: Republica de Colombia
  local short form: Colombia

Data code: CO

Type of government: republic; executive branch dominates
  government structure

Capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 32 departments (departamentos, singular
  - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital);
  Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca,
  Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba,
  Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta,
  Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres
  y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes,
  Vichada

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Constitution: 5 July 1991

Legal system: based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled
  after US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of
  executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
  with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President Ernesto SAMPER
  Pizano (since 7 August 1994) elected for a four-year term by popular
  vote; election last held 29 May 1994 (next to be held NA May 1998)
  results - no candidate received more than 50% of the total vote; a
  run-off election to select a president from the two leading
  candidates was held 19 June 1994; results - Ernesto SAMPER Pizano
  (Liberal Party) 50.4%, Andres PASTRANA Arango (Conservative Party)
  48.6%, blank votes 1%; Humberto de la CALLE Lombana elected vice
  president for a four-year term by popular vote in a new procedure
  that replaces the traditional designation of vice presidents by
  newly elected presidents
  cabinet: Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso)
  Senate (Senado): elections last held 13 March 1994 (next to be held
  NA March 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (102
  total) Liberal Party 59, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF)
  31, other 12
  House of Representatives (Camara de Representantes): elections last
  held 13 March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1998); seats - (161
  total) Liberal Party 89, conservatives (includes PC, MSN, and NDF)
  53, AD/M-19 2, other 17

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de
  Justical), highest court of criminal law, judges are selected from
  the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms;
  Council of State, highest court of administrative law, judges are
  selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for
  eight-year terms; Constitutional Court, guards integrity and
  supremacy of the constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws,
  amendments to the constitution, and international treaties

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party (PL), Luis Fernando
  JARAMILLO; Conservative Party (PC), Jaime ARIAS; New Democratic
  Force (NDF), Andres PASTRANA Arango; Democratic Alliance M-19
  (AD/M-19) is a coalition of small leftist parties and dissident
  liberals and conservatives; Patriotic Union (UP) is a legal
  political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia
  (FARC) and Colombian Communist Party (PCC), Aida ABELLA; National
  Salvation Movement (MSN) Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado

Other political or pressure groups: three insurgent groups are
  active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC);
  National Liberation Army (ELN); and dissidents of the recently
  demobilized People's Liberation Army (EPL/D)

International organization participation: AG, CCC, CDB, ECLAC,
  FAO, G- 3, G-11, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
  IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos LLERAS de la Fuente
  chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
  FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
  consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and
  Washington, DC
  consulate(s): Atlanta and Tampa

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Myles R. R. FRECHETTE
  embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, No. 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831
  mailing address: APO AA 34038
  telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811
  FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197
  consulate(s): Barranquilla

Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue,
  and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears
  the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Boasting a diversified and stable economy,
  Colombia has enjoyed Latin America's most consistent record of
  growth over the last several decades. Gross domestic product (GDP)
  has expanded every year for more than 25 years, and unlike many
  other South American countries, Colombia did not default on any of
  its official debts during the "lost decade" of the 1980s. Since
  1990, when Bogota introduced a comprehensive reform program that
  opened the economy to foreign trade and investment, GDP growth has
  averaged more than 4% annually. Growth has been fueled in recent
  years by the expansion of the construction and financial service
  industries and an influx of foreign capital. Some foreign investors
  have been deterred by an inadequate energy and transportation
  infrastructure and the violence stemming from drug trafficking and
  persistent rural guerrilla warfare, but direct foreign investment,
  especially in the oil industry, is still rising at a rapid rate.
  Although oil consequently is overtaking coffee as the main legal
  export, earnings from illicit drugs probably exceed those from any
  other export. Non-petroleum economic growth has been slowing,
  however, in part because the tight monetary policies adopted to
  offset the inflationary impact of high capital inflows and rising
  government spending have slowed local sales and investment. Business
  confidence also has been damaged by a political crisis stemming from
  allegations that senior government officials, including President
  SAMPER, solicited contributions from drug traffickers during the
  1994 election campaign. The slowdown in the growth of
  labor-intensive industries such as manufacturing has caused a small
  rise in unemployment and interfered with President SAMPER'S plans to
  lower the country's poverty rate, which has remained at about 40%
  despite the expanding economy. Nevertheless, the booming oil sector,
  growing foreign investment, and the fundamental stability of the
  economy promise to keep growth positive for the foreseeable future,
  barring severe, unpredictable shocks from developments in the
  political or international arenas.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $192.5 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $5,300 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 21.5%
  industry: 29%
  services: 49.5%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 19.5% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 12 million (1990)
  by occupation: services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 9.5% (1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $24 billion including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1996 est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear,
  beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds

Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (1995 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 10,220,000 kW
  production: 33 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 890 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn,
  sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp
  farming

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of coca, opium poppies, and
  cannabis; about 50,900 hectares of coca under cultivation in 1995;
  the world's largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine;
  supplier of cocaine to the US and other international drug markets;
  active aerial eradication program seeks to virtually eliminate coca
  and opium crops by 1997

Exports: $10.5 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: petroleum, coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
  partners: US 39%, EC 25.7%, Japan 2.9%, Venezuela 8.5% (1992)

Imports: $13.5 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
  commodities: industrial equipment, transportation equipment,
  consumer goods, chemicals, paper products
  partners: US 36%, EC 18%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 6.5%, Japan 8.7%
  (1992)

External debt: $14 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $30 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 1,011.11
  (January 1996), 912.83 (1995), 844.84 (1994), 863.06 (1993), 759.28
  (1992), 633.05 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 3,386 km
  standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge (connects Cerrejon coal mines
  to maritime port at Bahia Portete)
  narrow gauge: 3,236 km 0.914-m gauge (1830 km in use) (1995)

Highways:
  total: 107,200 km
  paved: 12,600 km
  unpaved: 94,600 km

Waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

Pipelines: crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km;
  natural gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km

Ports: Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Leticia, Puerto
  Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco, Turbo

Merchant marine:
  total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 97,037 GRT/129,404 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 8, container 3, oil tanker 3 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 989
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 9
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 33
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 35
  with paved runways under 914 m: 557
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 41
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 311 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 1.89 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system: modern system in many respects
  domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic
  satellite system with 11 earth stations
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 413 (licensed), FM 217 (licensed),
  shortwave 28

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 33

Televisions: 5.5 million (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional,
  includes Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea
  Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 10,067,538
  males fit for military service: 6,774,105
  males reach military age (18) annually: 346,372 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2 billion, 2.8%
  of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Comoros
-------



Map
---


Location: 12 10 S, 44 15 E -- Southern Africa, group of islands in
  the Mozambique Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern
  Madagascar and northern Mozambique



Flag
----


Description: green with a white crescent in the center of the
  field, its points facing downward; there are four white five-pointed
  stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the
  crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam;
  the four stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago -
  Mwali, Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of
  France, but claimed by Comoros); the design, the most recent of
  several, is described in the constitution approved by referendum on
  7 June 1992



Geography
---------


Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Mozambique
  Channel, about two-thirds of the way between northern Madagascar and
  northern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 12 10 S, 44 15 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 2,170 sq km
  land area: 2,170 sq km
  comparative area: slightly more than 12 times the size of
  Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims French-administered Mayotte

Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to
  low hills
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Kartala 2,360 m

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
  arable land: 35%
  permanent crops: 8%
  meadows and pastures: 7%
  forest and woodland: 16%
  other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: soil degradation and erosion results from crop
  cultivation on slopes without proper terracing; deforestation
  natural hazards: cyclones and tsunamis possible during rainy season
  (December to April); Mount Kartala on Grand Comore is an active
  volcano
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer
  Protection; signed, but not ratified - Desertification

Geographic note: important location at northern end of Mozambique
  Channel



People
------


Population: 569,237 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 48% (male 137,235; female 136,207)
  15-64 years: 49% (male 138,447; female 142,058)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 7,242; female 8,048) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.55% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 45.82 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.28 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.99 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 75.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 58.7 years
  male: 56.43 years
  female: 61.05 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.65 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Comoran(s)
  adjective: Comoran

Ethnic divisions: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religions: Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Comoran (a blend
  of Swahili and Arabic)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 57.3%
  male: 64.2%
  female: 50.4%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
  conventional short form: Comoros
  local long form: Republique Federale Islamique des Comores
  local short form: Comores

Data code: CN

Type of government: independent republic

Capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: three islands; Grand Comore (Njazidja),
  Anjouan (Nzwani), and Moheli (Mwali)
  note: there are also four municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni,
  Moroni, and Mutsamudu

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Constitution: 7 June 1992

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (since 16 March
  1996) was elected by popular vote; election last held 16 March 1996
  (next to be held March 2001)
  head of government: Prime Minister MASSOUNDI Tadjidine Ben Said
  (since March 1996) was appointed by the president
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Federal Assembly (Assemblee Federale): elections last held 12-20
  December 1993 (next to be held by NA January 1998); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (42 total) ruling coalition:
  RDR 15, UNDC 5, MWANGAZA 2; opposition: UDZIMA 8; other smaller
  parties: 10; two seats remained unfilled

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), two members are
  appointed by the president, two members are elected by the Federal
  Assembly, one by the Council of each island, plus all the former
  presidents of the republic

Political parties and leaders: Islands' Fraternity and Unity Party
  (CHUMA), Said Ali KEMAL; over 20 political parties are currently
  active, the most important of which are Comoran Union for Progress
  (UDZIMA), Omar TAMOU; Comoran Party for Democracy and Progress
  (PCDP), Ali MROUDJAE; Realizing Freedom's Capability (UWEZO),
  Mouazair ABDALLAH; Democratic Front of the Comoros (FDR), Moustapha
  CHELKH; Dialogue Proposition Action (DPA/MWANGAZA), Said MCHAWGAMA;
  Rally for Change and Democracy (RACHADE), Hassan HACHIM; Union for
  Democracy and Decentralization (UNDC), Mohamed Taki Halidi IBRAHAM;
  Rally for Democracy and Renewal (RDR); Comoran Popular Front (FPC),
  Mohamed HASSANALI, Mohamed El Arif OUKACHA, Abdou MOUSTAKIM
  (Secretary General)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AL,
  CCC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
  Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed Ahamada DJIMBANAOU (ambassador
  to the US and Canada)
  chancery: (temporary) care of the Permanent Mission of the Federal
  and Islamic Republic of the Comoros to the United Nations, 336 East
  45th Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017
  telephone: [1] (212) 972-8010
  FAX: [1] (212) 983-4712

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in
  Comoros; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Comoros

Flag: green with a white crescent in the center of the field, its
  points facing downward; there are four white five-pointed stars
  placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the crescent,
  stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four
  stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali,
  Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mayotte (a territorial collectivity of France,
  but claimed by Comoros); the design, the most recent of several, is
  described in the constitution approved by referendum on 7 June 1992



Economy
-------


Economic overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros
  is made up of several islands that have poor transportation links, a
  young and rapidly increasing population, and few natural resources.
  The low educational level of the labor force contributes to a
  subsistence level of economic activity, high unemployment, and a
  heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical assistance.
  Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the
  leading sector of the economy. It contributes 40% to GDP, employs
  80% of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. The
  country is not self-sufficient in food production; rice, the main
  staple, accounts for 90% of imports. The government is struggling to
  upgrade education and technical training, to privatize commercial
  and industrial enterprises, to improve health services, to diversify
  exports, and to reduce the high population growth rate. Continued
  foreign support is essential if the goal of 4% annual GDP growth is
  to be reached in the late 1990s.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $370 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 0.9% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $700 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 140,000 (1982)
  by occupation: agriculture 80%, government 3%

Unemployment rate: 15.8% (1989)

Budget:
  revenues: $83 million
  expenditures: $92 million, including capital expenditures of $32
  million (1992)

Industries: tourism, perfume distillation, textiles, furniture,
  jewelry, construction materials, soft drinks

Industrial production growth rate: -6.5% (1989 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 16,000 kW
  production: 17 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 27 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, copra, coconuts,
  bananas, cassava (tapioca)

Exports: $13.7 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
  commodities: vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil, copra
  partners: US 44%, France 40%, Germany 6%, Africa 5% (1992)

Imports: $40.9 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
  commodities: rice and other foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement,
  consumer goods
  partners: France 34%, South Africa 14%, Kenya 8%, Japan 4% (1992)

External debt: $160 million (1992 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1 - 375.42 (January
  1996), 374.36 (1995), 416.40 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
  282.11 (1991)
  note: beginning 12 January 1994, the Comoran franc was devalued to
  75 per French franc from 50 per French franc at which it had been
  fixed since 1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 1,104 km
  paved: 400 km
  unpaved: 704 km (1988 est.)

Ports: Fomboni, Moroni, Mutsamudu

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 4
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 3,770 (1991 est.)

Telephone system: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF
  radiotelephone communication stations
  domestic: HF radiotelephone communications and microwave radio relay
  international: HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and
  Reunion

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 200 (1991 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Comoran Security Force

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 121,854
  males fit for military service: 72,873 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Congo
-----



Map
---


Location: 1 00 S, 15 00 E -- Western Africa, bordering the South
  Atlantic Ocean, between Angola and Gabon



Flag
----


Description: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a
  yellow band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower
  triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Geography
---------


Location: Western Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean,
  between Angola and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 15 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 342,000 sq km
  land area: 341,500 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,504 km
  border countries: Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km, Central African
  Republic 467 km, Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km

Coastline: 169 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: long segment of boundary with Zaire along
  the Congo River is indefinite (no division of the river or its
  islands has been made)

Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June
  to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly
  enervating climate astride the Equator

Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern
  basin
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Berongou 903 m

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium,
  copper, phosphates, natural gas

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 29%
  forest and woodland: 62%
  other: 7%

Irrigated land: 40 sq km (1989)

Environment:
  current issues: air pollution from vehicle emissions; water
  pollution from the dumping of raw sewage; tap water is not potable;
  deforestation
  natural hazards: seasonal flooding
  international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified -
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea,
  Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: about 70% of the population lives in Brazzaville,
  Pointe Noire, or along the railroad between them



People
------


Population: 2,527,841 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43% (male 550,971; female 545,096)
  15-64 years: 53% (male 657,035; female 688,441)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 34,973; female 51,325) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.19% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 39.19 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 17.35 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 108.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 45.77 years
  male: 44.21 years
  female: 47.37 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.15 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Congolese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Congolese or Congo

Ethnic divisions:
  south: Kongo 48%
  north: Sangha 20%, M'Bochi 12%
  center: Teke 17%, Europeans 8,500 (mostly French)

Religions: Christian 50%, animist 48%, Muslim 2%

Languages: French (official), African languages (Lingala and
  Kikongo are the most widely used)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 74.9%
  male: 83.1%
  female: 67.2%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of the Congo
  conventional short form: Congo
  local long form: Republique Populaire du Congo
  local short form: Congo
  former: Congo/Brazzaville

Data code: CF

Type of government: republic

Capital: Brazzaville

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions, singular - region)
  and 1 commune*; Bouenza, Brazzaville*, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou,
  Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha

Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Congolese National Day, 15 August (1960)

Constitution: new constitution approved by referendum March 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Pascal LISSOUBA (since August 1992);
  elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last
  held NA August 1992 (next to be held NA August 1997); results -
  President Pascal LISSOUBA won 61% of the vote
  head of government: Prime Minister Jacques Joachim YHOMBI-OPANGO
  (since 23 June 1993) appointed by the president
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral
  National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): election last held 3
  October 1993 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (125 total) UPADS 64, URD/PCT 58, others 3
  Senate: election last held 26 July 1992 (next to be held NA July
  1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (60 total)
  UPADS 23, MCDDI 14, RDD 8, RDPS 5, PCT 2, others 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: of Congo's many political parties,
  the most important are Congolese Labor Party (PCT), Denis
  SASSOU-NGUESSO, president; Association for Democracy and Development
  (RDD), Joachim Yhombi OPANGO, president; Association for Democracy
  and Social Progress (RDPS), Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA,
  president; Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development
  (MCDDI), Bernard KOLELAS, leader; Pan-African Union for Social
  Development (UPADS), Pascal LISSOUBA, leader; Union of Democratic
  Forces (UFD), David Charles GANAO, leader; Union for Democratic
  Renewal (URD); Union for Development and Social Progress (UDPS),
  Jean-Michael BOKAMBA-YANGOUMA, leader

Other political or pressure groups: Union of Congolese Socialist
  Youth (UJSC); Congolese Trade Union Congress (CSC); Revolutionary
  Union of Congolese Women (URFC); General Union of Congolese Pupils
  and Students (UGEEC)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
  CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, UDEAC,
  UN, UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Daniel
  MOUELLET
  chancery: 4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20011
  telephone: [1] (202) 726-0825
  FAX: [1] (202) 726-1860

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador William C. RAMSEY
  embassy: Avenue Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville
  mailing address: B. P. 1015, Brazzaville
  telephone: [242] 83 20 70
  FAX: [242] 83 63 38

Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a yellow
  band; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower
  triangle is red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Congo's economy is a mixture of village
  agriculture and handicrafts, an industrial sector based largely on
  oil, support services, and a government characterized by budget
  problems and overstaffing. Oil has supplanted forestry as the
  mainstay of the economy, providing about 90% of government revenues
  and exports. In the early 1980s, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled
  Congo to finance large-scale development projects with GDP growth
  averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa.
  Subsequently, falling oil prices cut GDP growth by half. Moreover,
  the Congolese Government has mortgaged a substantial portion of its
  oil earnings, contributing to the government's shortage of revenues.
  The 12 January 1994 devaluation of Franc Zone currencies by 50%
  resulted in inflation of 61% in 1994. Recent efforts to implement
  economic reforms have begun to show progress; the IMF has
  recommended approval of an Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility
  agreement in 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $7.7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,100 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 11.4%
  industry: 35.2%
  services: 53.4% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 61% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 79,100 wage earners
  by occupation: agriculture 75%, commerce, industry, and government
  25%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $2.18 billion (1994 est.)
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: petroleum extraction, cement kilning, lumbering,
  brewing, sugar milling, palm oil, soap, cigarette making

Industrial production growth rate: 3.7% (estimated average annual
  growth rate for 1980-92)

Electricity:
  capacity: 120,000 kW
  production: 400 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 201 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cassava (tapioca) accounts for 90% of food output,
  sugar, rice, corn, peanuts, vegetables, coffee, cocoa; forest
  products

Exports: $1 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
  commodities: crude oil 90%, lumber, plywood, sugar, cocoa, coffee,
  diamonds
  partners: Italy, France, Spain, other EU countries, US, Taiwan

Imports: $600 million (c.i.f., 1995)
  commodities: intermediate manufactures, capital equipment,
  construction materials, foodstuffs, petroleum products
  partners: France, Italy, other EU countries, US, Japan, Thailand

External debt: $5 billion (1993)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January
  1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
  282.11 (1991)
  note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
  100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
  1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 795 km (1995 est.)
  narrow gauge: 795 km 1.067-m gauge (includes 285 km that are
  privately owned)

Highways:
  total: 12,745 km
  paved: 1,236 km
  unpaved: 11,509 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120 km
  of commercially navigable water transport; other rivers are used for
  local traffic only

Pipelines: crude oil 25 km

Ports: Brazzaville, Impfondo, Ouesso, Oyo, Pointe-Noire

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,218 GRT/4,100 DWT
  (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 34
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3
  with paved runways under 914 m: 9
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 7
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 14 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 18,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: services adequate for government use; key
  exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo
  domestic: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and
  coaxial cable
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 4 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 8,500 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force, National Police

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 582,103
  males fit for military service: 296,602
  males reach military age (20) annually: 25,247 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $110 million,
  3.8% of GDP (1993)



======================================================================



@Cook Islands
------------


(free association with New Zealand)

Map
---


Location: 21 14 S, 159 46 W -- Oceania, group of islands in the
  South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New
  Zealand



Flag
----


Description: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for
  every island) centered in the outer half of the flag



Geography
---------


Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean,
  about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 21 14 S, 159 46 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
  total area: 240 sq km
  land area: 240 sq km
  comparative area: slightly more than one times the size of
  Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in
  south
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Te Manga 652 m

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
  arable land: 4%
  permanent crops: 22%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 74%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: typhoons (November to March)
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Law of the Sea



People
------


Population: 19,561 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 1.11% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 22.87 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -6.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: NA male(s)/female
  under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
  15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
  65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
  all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 24.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.14 years
  male: 69.2 years
  female: 73.1 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.25 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cook Islander(s)
  adjective: Cook Islander

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian (full blood) 81.3%, Polynesian and
  European 7.7%, Polynesian and non-European 7.7%, European 2.4%,
  other 0.9%

Religions: Christian (majority of populace members of Cook Islands
  Christian Church)

Languages: English (official), Maori

Literacy: NA



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Cook Islands

Data code: CW

Type of government: self-governing parliamentary government in
  free association with New Zealand; Cook Islands is fully responsible
  for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for
  external affairs, in consultation with the Cook Islands

Capital: Avarua

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (became self-governing in free association with
  New Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move
  to full independence by unilateral action)

National holiday: Constitution Day, 4 August

Constitution: 4 August 1965

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6
  February 1952), a hereditary monarch, is represented by Apenera
  SHORT (since NA); New Zealand High Commissioner Darryl DUNN (since
  NA 1994), representative of New Zealand was appointed by the New
  Zealand Government
  head of government: Prime Minister Sir Geoffrey A. HENRY (since 1
  February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Inatio AKARURU (since 1
  February 1989)
  cabinet: Cabinet; collectively responsible to Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Parliament: elections last held 6 March 1994 (next to be held NA
  1999); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (25 total)
  Cook Islands Party 20, Democratic Party 3, Democratic Alliance Party
  2
  note: the House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters,
  but has no legislative powers

Judicial branch: High Court

Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey HENRY;
  Democratic Party, Sir Thomas DAVIS; Democratic Alliance Party,
  Norman GEORGE

International organization participation: AsDB, ESCAP (associate),
  ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), IOC, Sparteca, SPC,
  SPF, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing in free
  association with New Zealand)

US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing in free
  association with New Zealand)

Flag: blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for
  every island) centered in the outer half of the flag



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Agriculture provides the economic base. The
  major export earners are fruit, copra, and clothing. Manufacturing
  activities are limited to a fruit-processing plant and several
  clothing factories. Economic development is hindered by the
  isolation of the islands from foreign markets and a lack of natural
  resources and good transportation links. A large trade deficit is
  annually made up for by remittances from emigrants and by foreign
  aid, largely from New Zealand. Current economic development plans
  call for exploiting the tourism potential and expanding the mining
  and fishing industries. Despite these plans, the Cook Islands will
  continue to face severe financial problems.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $57 million (1993 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $3,000 (1993 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.2% (1990)

Labor force: 5,810
  by occupation: agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%,
  industry 15%, other 4% (1981)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: fruit processing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 14,000 kW
  production: 21 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 741 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: copra, citrus, pineapples, tomatoes, bananas, yams,
  taro

Exports: $3.4 million (f.o.b., 1990)
  commodities: copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing
  partners: NZ 80%, Japan

Imports: $50 million (c.i.f., 1990)
  commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber
  partners: NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US

External debt: $160 million (1994)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA
  note: in 1994, Cook Islands received $5.4 million in budget support
  and $3.3 million in project aid from New Zealand, the country's
  largest source of aid

Currency: 1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1 - 1.5138
  (January 1996), 1.5235 (1995), 1.6844 (1994), 1.8495 (1993), 1.8584
  (1992), 1.7265 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 187 km
  paved: 35 km
  unpaved: 152 km (1980 est.)

Ports: Avarua, Avatiu

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,464 GRT/2,181 DWT
  (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 7
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 4,180 (1994)

Telephone system:
  domestic: the individual islands are connected by a combination of
  satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF
  radiotelephone; within the islands, service is provided by small
  exchanges connected to subscribers by open wire, cable, and
  fiber-optic cable
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 1, shortwave 1

Radios: 13,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 studio and 8 low-powered
  repeaters to achieve good coverage on the island of Rarotonga

Televisions: 3,500 (1995 est.)



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand



======================================================================



@Coral Sea Islands
-----------------


(territory of Australia)

Map
---


Location: 18 00 S, 152 00 E -- Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea,
  northeast of Australia



Flag
----


Description: the flag of Australia is used



Geography
---------


Location: Oceania, islands in the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 152 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
  total area: less than 3 sq km
  land area: less than 3 sq km
  comparative area: NA
  note: includes numerous small islands and reefs scattered over a sea
  area of about 1 million sq km, with Willis Islets the most important

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 3,095 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location on Cato Island 6 m

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (mostly grass or scrub cover)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
  current issues: no permanent fresh water resources
  natural hazards: occasional, tropical cyclones
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: important nesting area for birds and turtles



People
------


Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there are three
  meteorologists



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Coral Sea Islands Territory
  conventional short form: Coral Sea Islands

Data code: CR

Type of government: territory of Australia administered by the
  Ministry for Environment, Sport, and Territories

Capital: none; administered from Canberra, Australia

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used



Economy
-------


Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation
--------------


Ports: none; offshore anchorage only



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited
  regularly by the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over
  the activities of visitors



======================================================================



@Costa Rica
----------



Map
---


Location: 10 00 N, 84 00 W -- Middle America, bordering both the
  Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and
  Panama



Flag
----


Description: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red
  (double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white
  disk on the hoist side of the red band



Geography
---------


Location: Middle America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the
  North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 84 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total area: 51,100 sq km
  land area: 50,660 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia
  note: includes Isla del Coco

Land boundaries:
  total: 639 km
  border countries: Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

Coastline: 1,290 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season
  (May to November)

Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m

Natural resources: hydropower potential

Land use:
  arable land: 6%
  permanent crops: 7%
  meadows and pastures: 45%
  forest and woodland: 34%
  other: 8%

Irrigated land: 1,180 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: deforestation, largely a result of the clearing of
  land for cattle ranching; soil erosion
  natural hazards: occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic
  coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season;
  active volcanoes
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test
  Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
  Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation



People
------


Population: 3,463,083 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 35% (male 612,624; female 582,566)
  15-64 years: 61% (male 1,061,703; female 1,038,403)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 77,773; female 90,014) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.06% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 23.84 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.14 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 13.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.72 years
  male: 73.31 years
  female: 78.24 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Costa Rican(s)
  adjective: Costa Rican

Ethnic divisions: white (including mestizo) 96%, black 2%, Indian
  1%, Chinese 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 94.8%
  male: 94.7%
  female: 95%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Costa Rica
  conventional short form: Costa Rica
  local long form: Republica de Costa Rica
  local short form: Costa Rica

Data code: CS

Type of government: democratic republic

Capital: San Jose

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular -
  provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon,
  Puntarenas, San Jose

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 9 November 1949

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review
  of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President Jose Maria FIGUERES
  Olsen (since 8 May 1994), First Vice President Rodrigo OREAMUNO
  Blanco (since 8 May 1994), Second Vice President Rebeca GRYNSPAN
  Mayufis (since 8 May 1994) were elected for four-year terms by
  universal suffrage; election last held 6 February 1994 (next to be
  held NA February 1998); results - President FIGUERES (PLN) 49.7%,
  Miquel Angel RODRIGUEZ (PUSC) 47.5%
  cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa): elections last held 6
  February 1994 (next to be held NA February 1998); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (61 total) PLN 28, PUSC 29, minority
  parties 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), justices are
  elected for eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: National Liberation Party (PLN),
  Rolando ARAYA; Social Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel
  CALDERON Fournier; Marxist Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto
  VARGAS Carbonell; New Republic Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick ARDON
  Ramirez; People's Party of Costa Rica (PPC), Lenin CHACON Vargas;
  Radical Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose ECHEVERRIA Brealey;
  Democratic Force Party (FD), Isaac Felipe AZOFEIFA Bolanos

Other political or pressure groups: Costa Rican Confederation of
  Democratic Workers (CCTD), Liberation Party affiliate; Confederated
  Union of Workers (CUT), Communist Party affiliate; Authentic
  Confederation of Democratic Workers (CATD), Communist Party
  affiliate; Chamber of Coffee Growers; National Association for
  Economic Development (ANFE); Free Costa Rica Movement (MCRL),
  rightwing militants; National Association of Educators (ANDE);
  Federation of Public Service Workers (FTSP)

International organization participation: AG (observer), BCIE,
  CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU,
  LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Sonia PICADO
  chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 234-2945
  FAX: [1] (202) 265-4795
  consulate(s) general: Albuquerque, Atlanta, Chicago, Durham,
  Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia,
  San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
  consulate(s): Austin

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Peter Jon DE VOS
  embassy: Pavas Road, San Jose
  mailing address: APO AA 34020
  telephone: [506] 220-3939
  FAX: [506] 220-2305

Flag: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double
  width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white disk on
  the hoist side of the red band



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Costa Rica's basically stable and progressive
  economy depends especially on tourism and the export of bananas,
  coffee, and other agricultural products. Recent trends have been
  disappointing. Economic growth slipped from 4.3% in 1994 to 2.5% in
  1995, the lowest rate of growth since 1991's 2.1%. Inflation rose
  dramatically to 22.5% from 13.5% in 1994, well above the
  government's own projection of 18%. Unemployment rose from 4.0% in
  1994 to 5.2% in 1995, and substantial underemployment continues.
  These economic woes are likely to be exacerbated in 1996 by a
  standby arrangement reached with the IMF on 29 November 1995. To
  restore fiscal balance, the government agreed to curb inflation,
  reduce the fiscal deficit, increase domestic savings, and improve
  public sector efficiency while increasing the role of the private
  sector. Costa Rica signed a free trade agreement with Mexico in 1994.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $18.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $5,400 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22.5% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 868,300
  by occupation: industry and commerce 35.1%, government and services
  33%, agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.2% (1995 est.); much underemployment

Budget:
  revenues: $1.1 billion
  expenditures: $1.34 billion, including capital expenditures of $110
  million (1991 est.)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction
  materials, fertilizer, plastic products

Industrial production growth rate: 10.5% (1992)

Electricity:
  capacity: 1,040,000 kW
  production: 4.1 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 1,164 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, bananas, sugar, corn, rice, beans, potatoes;
  beef; timber (depletion of forest resources has resulted in
  declining timber output)

Illicit drugs: transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from
  South America; illicit production of cannabis on small, scattered
  plots

Exports: $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar
  partners: US, Germany, Italy, Guatemala, El Salvador, Netherlands,
  UK, France

Imports: $3 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
  commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment,
  petroleum
  partners: US, Japan, Mexico, Guatemala, Venezuela, Germany

External debt: $4 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1 - 193.93
  (December 1995), 179.73 (1995), 157.07 (1994), 142.17 (1993), 134.51
  (1992), 122.43 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 950 km
  narrow gauge: 950 km 1.067-m gauge (260 km electrified)
  note: the entire system was scheduled to be shut down on 31 June
  1995 because of insolvency

Highways:
  total: 35,560 km
  paved: 5,608 km
  unpaved: 29,952 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable

Pipelines: petroleum products 176 km

Ports: Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puerto Limon, Puerto Quepos,
  Puntarenas

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 145
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 16
  with paved runways under 914 m: 97
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 29 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 281,042 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: very good domestic telephone service
  domestic: NA
  international: connected to Central American Microwave System;
  satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 340,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Civil Guard, Coast Guard, Air Section, Rural Assistance
  Guard; note - the Constitution prohibits armed forces

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 917,566
  males fit for military service: 616,420
  males reach military age (18) annually: 33,504 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $55 million, 2.0%
  of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Cote d'Ivoire
-------------


(also known as Ivory Coast)

Map
---


Location: 8 00 N, 5 00 W -- Western Africa, bordering the North
  Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia



Flag
----


Description: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side),
  white, and green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer
  and has the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange;
  also similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side),
  white, and red; design was based on the flag of France



Geography
---------


Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
  between Ghana and Liberia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 5 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 322,460 sq km
  land area: 318,000 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,110 km
  border countries: Burkina Faso 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea 610 km,
  Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

Coastline: 515 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three
  seasons - warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to
  May), hot and wet (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mont Nimba 1,752 m

Natural resources: petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore,
  cobalt, bauxite, copper

Land use:
  arable land: 9%
  permanent crops: 4%
  meadows and pastures: 9%
  forest and woodland: 26%
  other: 52%

Irrigated land: 620 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: deforestation (most of the country's forests - once
  the largest in West Africa - have been cleared by the timber
  industry); water pollution from sewage and industrial and
  agricultural effluents
  natural hazards: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; during
  the rainy season torrential flooding is possible
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine
  Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83; signed, but not ratified - Desertification



People
------


Population: 14,762,445 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 48% (male 3,552,270; female 3,462,462)
  15-64 years: 50% (male 3,828,538; female 3,599,920)
  65 years and over: 2% (male 164,358; female 154,897) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.92% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 42.48 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.7 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 2.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)
  note: since 1989, over 350,000 refugees have fled to Cote d'Ivoire
  to escape the civil war in Liberia

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.04 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 82.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 46.73 years
  male: 46.23 years
  female: 47.25 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.15 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Ivorian(s)
  adjective: Ivorian

Ethnic divisions: Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%,
  Agni, foreign Africans (mostly Burkinabe and Malians, about 3
  million), non-Africans 130,000 to 330,000 (French 30,000 and
  Lebanese 100,000 to 300,000)

Religions: indigenous 25%, Muslim 60%, Christian 12%

Languages: French (official), 60 native dialects with Dioula the
  most widely spoken

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 40.1%
  male: 49.9%
  female: 30%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cote d'Ivoire
  conventional short form: Cote d'Ivoire
  local long form: Republique de Cote d'Ivoire
  local short form: Cote d'Ivoire
  former: Ivory Coast

Data code: IV

Type of government: republic; multiparty presidential regime
  established 1960

Capital: Yamoussoukro
  note: although Yamoussoukro has been the capital since 1983, Abidjan
  remains the administrative center; foreign governments, including
  the US, maintain official presences in Abidjan

Administrative divisions: 50 departments (departements, singular -
  departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville,
  Agnibilekrou, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou,
  Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro,
  Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou,
  Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota, Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro,
  Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra,
  Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tingrela, Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua,
  Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula

Independence: 7 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: National Day, 7 August

Constitution: 3 November 1960; has been amended numerous times,
  last time November 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
  judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court;
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Henri Konan BEDIE (since 7 December 1993)
  served the remainder of the term of former President Felix
  HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY, who died in office after continuous service from
  November 1960; President BEDIE was elected with 96% of the vote at
  the last election on 22 October 1995 (next election October 2000);
  the president is elected for a five-year term by popular vote
  head of government: Prime Minister Daniel Kablan DUNCAN (since 10
  December 1993), appointed by the president
  cabinet: Council of Ministers, appointed by the prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 27
  November 1995 (next to be held November 2000); results - percent of
  vote by party NA; seats - (175 total) PDCI 147, RDR 14, FPI 10,
  unfilled 4; note - of the unfilled seats, elections for 3 were
  postponed because of violence in the electoral districts and 1 seat
  remains contested

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of the Cote
  d'Ivoire (PDCI), Henri Konan BEDIE; Rally of the Republicans (RDR),
  Djeny KOBINA; Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), Laurent GBAGBO; Ivorian
  Worker's Party (PIT), Francis WODIE; Ivorian Socialist Party (PSI),
  Morifere BAMBA; over 20 smaller parties

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC,
  ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
  ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC,
  ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UPU, WADB, WCL,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Moise KOUMOUE-KOFFI
  chancery: 2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 797-0300

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lannon WALKER
  embassy: 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan
  mailing address: 01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan
  telephone: [225] 21 09 79
  FAX: [225] 22 32 59

Flag: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white,
  and green; similar to the flag of Ireland, which is longer and has
  the colors reversed - green (hoist side), white, and orange; also
  similar to the flag of Italy, which is green (hoist side), white,
  and red; design was based on the flag of France



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Cote d'Ivoire is among the world's largest
  producers and exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil.
  Consequently, the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in
  international prices for coffee and cocoa and to weather conditions.
  Despite attempts by the government to diversify, the economy is
  still largely dependent on agriculture and related industries. After
  several years of lagging performance, the Ivorian economy began a
  comeback in 1994, due to improved prices for cocoa and coffee,
  growth in nontraditional primary exports such as pineapples and
  rubber, trade and banking liberalization, offshore oil and gas
  discoveries, and generous external financing and debt rescheduling
  by multilateral lenders and France. The 50% devaluation of Franc
  Zone currencies on 12 January 1994 caused a one-time jump in the
  inflation rate to 32% for 1994, but this rate fell to perhaps 10% in
  1995, in part as the economy adjusted to the devaluation. Moreover,
  government adherence to donor-mandated reforms led to a budget
  surplus in 1994. Real growth of GDP in 1994 was 1.7%, a significant
  improvement following several years of negative growth. In 1995
  growth picked up to 5%.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $21.9 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,500 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 37%
  industry: 24%
  services: 39% (1993)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 5.718 million
  by occupation: over 85% of population engaged in agriculture,
  forestry, livestock raising; about 11% of labor force are wage
  earners, nearly half in agriculture and the remainder in government,
  industry, commerce, and professions

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $1.9 billion
  expenditures: $3.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $408
  million (1993)

Industries: foodstuffs, beverages; wood products, oil refining,
  automobile assembly, textiles, fertilizer, construction materials,
  electricity

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 1,170,000 kW
  production: 1.8 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 123 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, cocoa beans, bananas, palm kernels, corn,
  rice, manioc, sweet potatoes, sugar; cotton, rubber; timber

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis; mostly for local
  consumption; some international drug trade; transshipment point for
  Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin to Europe and occasionally to
  the US

Exports: $2.9 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: cocoa 55%, coffee 12%, tropical woods 11%, petroleum,
  cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton, fish
  partners: France, Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Burkina Faso, US, UK

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: food, capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
  partners: France, Nigeria, Japan, Netherlands, US, Italy

External debt: $19 billion (1993)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $552 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January
  1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
  282.11 (1991)
  note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
  100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
  1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 660 km (1995 est.)
  narrow gauge: 660 km 1.000-meter gauge; 25 km double track

Highways:
  total: 46,331 km
  paved: 3,579 km
  unpaved: 42,752 km (1984 est.)

Waterways: 980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal
  lagoons

Ports: Abidjan, Aboisso, Dabou, San-Pedro

Merchant marine:
  total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 27,726 GRT/34,711 DWT
  ships by type: container 2, oil tanker 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 35
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4
  with paved runways under 914 m: 10
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 6
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 12 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 87,700 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: well-developed by African standards but
  operating well below capacity
  domestic: open-wire lines and microwave radio relay
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
  Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); 2 coaxial submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 71, FM 0, shortwave 13

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18

Televisions: 810,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie,
  Presidential Guard

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,386,638
  males fit for military service: 1,762,412
  males reach military age (18) annually: 157,712 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $140 million,
  1.4% of GDP (1993)



======================================================================



@Croatia
-------



Map
---


Location: 45 10 N, 15 30 E -- Southeastern Europe, bordering the
  Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia



Flag
----


Description: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian
  coat of arms (red and white checkered)



Geography
---------


Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between
  Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates: 45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 56,538 sq km
  land area: 56,410 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,073 km
  border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km,
  Serbia and Montenegro 266 km (241 km with Serbia; 25 km with
  Montenego), Slovenia 546 km

Coastline: 5,790 km (mainland 1,778 km, islands 4,012 km)

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

International disputes: Eastern Slavonia, which was held by ethnic
  Serbs during the war, is currently being overseen by the UN
  Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia; reintegration of
  Eastern Slavonia into Croatia will occur in 1997; although Croatia
  does not recognize the "Federal Republic of Yugoslavia," both
  countries have agreed to open consular sections in each other's
  capitals; Croatia and Italy have not resolved a bilateral issue
  dating from WWII over property and ethnic minority rights; a border
  dispute with Slovenia is unresolved

Climate: Mediterranean and continental; continental climate
  predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry
  summers along coast

Terrain: geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian
  border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coast, coastline,
  and islands
  lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources: oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore,
  calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt

Land use:
  arable land: 32%
  permanent crops: 20%
  meadows and pastures: 18%
  forest and woodland: 15%
  other: 15%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and
  resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from
  industrial and domestic waste; widespread casualties and destruction
  of infrastructure in border areas affected by civil strife
  natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes
  international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Hazardous
  Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air
  Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification,
  Law of the Sea

Geographic note: controls most land routes from Western Europe to
  Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits



People
------


Population: 5,004,112 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18% (male 453,142; female 431,118)
  15-64 years: 69% (male 1,731,200; female 1,716,824)
  65 years and over: 13% (male 252,897; female 418,931) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 0.58% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 9.83 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 11.33 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 7.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 10.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 72.81 years
  male: 69.13 years
  female: 76.72 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Croat(s)
  adjective: Croatian

Ethnic divisions: Croat 78%, Serb 12%, Muslim 0.9%, Hungarian
  0.5%, Slovenian 0.5%, others 8.1% (1991)

Religions: Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Slavic Muslim 1.2%,
  Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8%

Languages: Serbo-Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian,
  Hungarian, Czechoslovak, and German)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1991 est.)
  total population: 97%
  male: 99%
  female: 95%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
  conventional short form: Croatia
  local long form: Republika Hrvatska
  local short form: Hrvatska

Data code: HR

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Zagreb

Administrative divisions: 21 counties (zupanijas, zupanija -
  singular): Bjelovar-Bilogora, City of Zagreb, Dubrovnik-Neretva,
  Istra, Karlovac, Koprivnica-Krizevci, Krapina-Zagorje, Lika-Senj,
  Medimurje, Osijek-Baranja, Pozega-Slavonija, Primorje-Gorski Kotar,
  Sibenik, Sisak-Moslavina, Slavonski Brod-Posavina, Split-Dalmatia,
  Varazdin, Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem, Zadar-Knin, Zagreb

Independence: 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday: Statehood Day, 30 May (1990)

Constitution: adopted on 22 December 1990

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Franjo TUDJMAN (since 30 May 1990) was
  elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage; election last
  held 4 August 1992 (next to be held NA 1997); results - Franjo
  TUDJMAN reelected with about 56% of the vote; his opponent Dobroslav
  PARAGA received 5% of the vote
  head of government: Prime Minister Zlatko MATESA (since NA November
  1995) and Deputy Prime Ministers Mate GRANIC (since 8 September
  1992), Ivica KOSTOVIC (since 14 October 1993), Jure RADIC (since NA
  October 1994), Borislav SKEGRO (since 3 April 1993), and Ljerka
  MINTAS-HODAS (since November 1995) were appointed by the president
  cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral parliament Assembly (Sabor)
  House of Districts (Zupanije Dom): elections last held 7 and 21
  February 1993 (next to be held NA February 1997); results - percent
  of vote by party NA; seats - (68 total; 63 elected, 5 presidentially
  appointed) HDZ 37, HSLS 16, HSS 5, Istrian Democratic Assembly 3,
  SPH-SDP 1, HNS 1
  House of Representatives (Zastupnicki Dom): elections last held 29
  October 1995 (next to be held NA 1999); results - HDZ 45.23%,
  HSS/IDS/HNS/HKDU/SBHS 18.26%, HSLS 11.55%, SDP 8.93%, HSP 5.01%;
  seats - (127 total) HDZ 75, HSLS 12, HSS 10, SDP 10, IDS 4, HSP 4,
  HNS 2, SNS 2, HND 1, ASH 1, HKDU 1, SBHS 1, independents 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges appointed for eight-year
  terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by
  the Chamber of Representatives; Constitutional Court, judges
  appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the
  Republic, which is elected by the Chamber of Representatives

Political parties and leaders: Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ),
  Franjo TUDJMAN, president; Croatian Democratic Independents (HND),
  Stjepan MESIC, president; Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS),
  Vlado GOTOVAC, president; Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP),
  Ivica RACAN; Croatian Party of Rights (HSP), Ante DAPIC; Croatian
  Peasants' Party (HSS), Josip PANKRETIC; Croatian People's Party
  (HNS), Radimir CACIC, president; Serbian National Party (SNS), Milan
  DJUKIC; Action of the Social Democrats of Croatia (ASH), Miko
  TRIPALO; Croatian Christian Democratic Union (HKDU), Marko VASELICA,
  president; Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS), Ivan JACKOVIC;
  Slanvonsko-Baranja Croatian Party (SBHS)

Other political or pressure groups: NA

International organization participation: CCC, CE (guest), CEI,
  EBRD, ECE, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM
  (observer), OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
  WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Miomir ZUZUL
  chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
  FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
  consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Peter W. GALBRAITH
  embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb
  mailing address: US Embassy, Zagreb, Unit 1345, APO AE 09213-1345
  telephone: [385] (41) 455-55-00
  FAX: [385] (41) 455-85-85

Flag: red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of
  arms (red and white checkered)



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the
  Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and
  industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third
  above the Yugoslav average. Croatia faces considerable economic
  problems stemming from: the legacy of longtime communist
  mismanagement of the economy; large foreign debt; damage during the
  internecine fighting to bridges, factories, power lines, buildings,
  and houses; the large refugee population, both Croatian and Bosnian;
  and the disruption of economic ties to Serbia and the other former
  Yugoslav republics, as well as within its own territory. Western aid
  and investment, especially in the tourist and oil industries, would
  help restore the economy. The government has been successful in some
  reform efforts including stabilization policies and has normalized
  relations with creditors. Yet it still is struggling with
  privatization of large state enterprises and with bank reform. The
  draft 1996 budget, which had raised concerns about inflation,
  capitalizes on the "peace dividend" to boost expenditures on the
  repair and upgrading of infrastructure.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $20.1 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 1.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $4,300 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 12.7%
  industry: 30.6%
  services: 56.7% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1995)

Labor force: 1.444 million (1995)
  by occupation: industry and mining 31.1%, agriculture 4.3%,
  government 19.1% (including education and health), other 45.5% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 18.1% (January 1996)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.86 billion
  expenditures: $3.72 billion, including capital expenditures of $320
  million (1994 est.)

Industries: chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated
  metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum,
  paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles,
  shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages

Industrial production growth rate: 0.9% (1995 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 3,630,000 kW
  production: 11.234 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 2,000 kWh (1993 est.)

Agriculture: wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, alfalfa,
  clover, olives, citrus, grapes, vegetables; livestock breeding,
  dairy farming

Illicit drugs: transit point for Southwest Asian heroin to Western
  Europe

Exports: $4.3 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: machinery and transport equipment 13.6%, miscellaneous
  manufactures 27.6%, chemicals 14.2%, food and live animals 12.2%,
  raw materials 6.1%, fuels and lubricants 9.4%, beverages and tobacco
  2.7% (1993)
  partners: Germany 22.9%, Italy 21.2%, Slovenia 18.3% (1993)

Imports: $5.2 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
  commodities: machinery and transport equipment 23.1%, fuels and
  lubricants 8.8%, food and live animals 9.0%, chemicals 14.2%,
  miscellaneous manufactured articles 16.0%, raw materials 3.5%,
  beverages and tobacco 1.4% (1993)
  partners: Germany, Italy, Slovenia, Iran

External debt: $3.15 billion (September 1995)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA
  note: IMF has given Croatia $192 million; World Bank has given
  Croatia $100 million

Currency: 1 Croatian kuna (HRK) = 100 paras

Exchange rates: Croatian kuna per US$1 - 5.405 (January 1996),
  5.230 (1995), 5.996 (1994), 3.577 (1993)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 2,699 km
  standard gauge: 2,699 km 1.435-m gauge (1213 km electrified)
  note: disrupted by territorial dispute with Serbia (1994)

Highways:
  total: 27,378 km
  paved: 22,176 km (including 302 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 5,202 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 785 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas
  310 km (1992); note - under repair following territorial dispute

Ports: Dubrovnik, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split,
  Zadar

Merchant marine:
  total: 39 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 203,495 GRT/252,818 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 23, chemical tanker 1, container 3, oil
  tanker 1, passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo
  2, short-sea passenger 4
  note: Croatia owns an additional 140 ships (1,000 GRT or over)
  totaling 3,368,035 DWT operating under the registries of Malta,
  Liberia, Cyprus, Panama, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, and Saint
  Vincent and the Grenadines (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 68
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 6
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3
  with paved runways under 914 m: 47
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 7 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 1.216 million (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: no satellite earth stations

Radio broadcast stations: AM 14, FM 8, shortwave 0

Radios: 1.1 million

Television broadcast stations: 12 (repeaters 2)

Televisions: 1.52 million (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces,
  Frontier Guard, Home Guard

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,314,718
  males fit for military service: 1,046,490
  males reach military age (19) annually: 34,914 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: 337 billion to 393 billion dinars, NA% of
  GDP (1993 est.); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US
  dollars using the current exchange rate could produce misleading
  results



======================================================================



@Cuba
----



Map
---


Location: 21 30 N, 80 00 W -- Caribbean, island between the
  Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida



Flag
----


Description: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom)
  alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the
  hoist side bears a white five-pointed star in the center



Geography
---------


Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the
  North Atlantic Ocean, south of Florida

Geographic coordinates: 21 30 N, 80 00 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total area: 110,860 sq km
  land area: 110,860 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
  total: 29 km
  border country: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay 29 km
  note: Guantanamo Naval Base is leased by the US and thus remains
  part of Cuba

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay is leased
  to US and only mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can
  terminate the lease

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November
  to April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and
  mountains in the southeast
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Pico Turquino 2,005 m

Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese,
  salt, timber, silica, petroleum

Land use:
  arable land: 23%
  permanent crops: 6%
  meadows and pastures: 23%
  forest and woodland: 17%
  other: 31%

Irrigated land: 8,960 sq km (1989)

Environment:
  current issues: pollution of Havana Bay; overhunting threatens
  wildlife populations; deforestation
  natural hazards: the east coast is subject to hurricanes from August
  to October (in general, the country averages about one hurricane
  every other year); droughts are common
  international agreements: party to - Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
  Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer
  Protection, Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified -
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Marine Life
  Conservation

Geographic note: largest country in Caribbean



People
------


Population: 10,951,334 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 22% (male 1,256,674; female 1,191,652)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 3,753,343; female 3,736,043)
  65 years and over: 10% (male 478,630; female 534,992) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 0.44% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 13.37 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.39 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.05 years
  male: 72.71 years
  female: 77.54 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.52 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cuban(s)
  adjective: Cuban

Ethnic divisions: mulatto 51%, white 37%, black 11%, Chinese 1%

Religions: nominally Roman Catholic 85% prior to CASTRO assuming
  power; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, and Santeria are also
  represented

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 95.7%
  male: 96.2%
  female: 95.3%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
  conventional short form: Cuba
  local long form: Republica de Cuba
  local short form: Cuba

Data code: CU

Type of government: Communist state

Capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias, singular -
  provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial);
  Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma,
  Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas,
  Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa
  Clara

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898;
  administered by the US from 1898 to 1902)

National holiday: Rebellion Day, 26 July (1953); Liberation Day, 1
  January (1959)

Constitution: 24 February 1976

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large
  elements of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ
  jurisdiction

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President of the Council of
  State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz
  (prime minister from February 1959 until 24 February 1976 when
  office was abolished; president since 2 December 1976) and First
  Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of
  the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December
  1976) were elected by the National Assembly
  cabinet: Council of Ministers were proposed by the president of the
  Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly
  Council of State: members elected by the National Assembly

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National Assembly of People's Power (Asemblea Nacional del P:
  elections last held NA February 1993 (next to be held NA 1998);
  seats - 589 total, elected directly from slates approved by special
  candidacy commissions

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo
  Popular), president, vice president, and other judges are elected by
  the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: only party - Cuban Communist Party
  (PCC), Fidel CASTRO Ruz, first secretary

International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77,
  IAEA, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat
  (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer),
  NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), PCA, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO,
  WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: none; note - Cuba has an
  Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer
  Fernando REMIREZ DE ESTENOZ; address: Cuban Interests Section, Swiss
  Embassy, 2639 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009; telephone: [1]
  (202) 797-8518 through 8520

US diplomatic representation: none; note - the US does have an
  Interests Section in the Swiss Embassy, headed by Principal Officer
  Joseph G. SULLIVAN; address: USINT, Swiss Embassy, Calzada Entre L Y
  M, Vedado Seccion, Havana; telephone: 33-3551 through 3559, 33-3543
  through 3547 (operator assistance required); FAX: 33-3700;
  protecting power in Cuba is Switzerland

Flag: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom)
  alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the
  hoist side bears a white five-pointed star in the center



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The state retains a primary role in the economy
  and controls practically all foreign trade. The government has
  undertaken several reforms in recent years designed to stem excess
  liquidity, raise labor incentives, and increase the availability of
  food, consumer goods, and services from depressed levels. The
  liberalized agricultural markets introduced in October 1994, where
  state and private farms are authorized to sell any above-quota
  production at unrestricted prices, have broadened legal consumption
  alternatives and reduced black market prices. The government's
  efforts to reduce subsidies to loss-making enterprises and shrink
  the money supply caused the black market exchange rate to move from
  a peak of 120 pesos to the dollar in the summer of 1994 to 25-30
  pesos to the dollar at yearend 1995. The number of self-employed
  workers licensed by the government increased more slowly in 1995,
  from 160,000 at yearend 1994 to 190,000 in July 1995 and to about
  210,000 in January 1996. Discussions continue within the leadership
  over the relative affluence of self-employed workers and the growing
  inequality of income in what has historically been a strictly
  egalitarian society. The government released new economic data in
  1995 which showed a 35% decline in GDP during 1989-1993, a drop
  precipitated by the withdrawal of massive Soviet aid and prolonged
  by Cuba's own economic inefficiencies. The decline in GDP apparently
  was halted in 1994, and government officials claim that GDP
  increased by 2.5% in 1995. Export earnings rose by 20% in 1995 to
  $1.6 billion, largely on the strength of higher world prices for key
  commodities and increased production of nickel through joint
  ventures with a Canadian firm. Higher export revenues and new
  credits from European firms and Mexico enabled Havana to increase
  its imports for the first time in six years. Imports rose 21% to
  almost $2.4 billion, or 30% of the 1989 level. Officials have
  sharply criticized provisions of legislation under consideration in
  the US Congress, which aims to curtail third-country investment in
  expropriated US properties in Cuba and deny official assistance to
  Havana.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $14.7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,300 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 7%
  industry: 30%
  services: 63% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 4.71 million economically active population (1989);
  3,527,000 employed in state civilian sector (1989)
  by occupation: services and government 30%, industry 22%,
  agriculture 20%, commerce 11%, construction 10%, transportation and
  communications 7% (June 1990)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: sugar, petroleum, food, tobacco, textiles, chemicals,
  paper and wood products, metals (particularly nickel), cement,
  fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural machinery

Industrial production growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 3,990,000 kW
  production: 12 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 1,022 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sugarcane, tobacco, citrus, coffee, rice, potatoes
  and other tubers, beans; livestock

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: sugar, nickel, shellfish, tobacco, medical products,
  citrus, coffee
  partners: Canada 15%, China 15%, Russia 15% (1995 est.)

Imports: $2.4 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
  commodities: petroleum, food, machinery, chemicals
  partners: Spain 15%, Mexico 15%, Russia 10%, (1995 est.)

External debt: $9.1 billion (convertible currency,1995); another
  $20 billion owed to Russia (1995)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1 - 1.0000
  (non-convertible, official rate, linked to the US dollar)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 4,677 km
  standard gauge: 4,677 km 1.435-m gauge (132 km electrified)
  note: a large amount of track is in private use by sugar plantations

Highways:
  total: 26,500 km
  paved: 14,575 km
  unpaved: 11,925 km (1996 est.)

Waterways: 240 km

Ports: Cienfuegos, La Habana, Manzanillo, Mariel, Matanzas,
  Nuevitas, Santiago de Cuba

Merchant marine:
  total: 41 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 220,870 GRT/310,169 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 17, chemical tanker 1, liquefied gas tanker 4,
  oil tanker 9, passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 9
  note: Cuba owns an additional 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
  462,517 DWT operating under the registries of Panama, Cyprus, Malta,
  Belize, and Mauritius (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 156
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 7
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 14
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 9
  with paved runways under 914 m: 87
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 31 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 430,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: among the world's least developed telephone
  systems
  domestic: NA
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic
  Ocean Region)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 150, FM 5, shortwave 0

Radios: 2.14 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 58

Televisions: 2.5 million (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) includes ground forces,
  Revolutionary Navy (MGR), Air and Air Defense Force (DAAFAR),
  Territorial Troops Militia (MTT), and Youth Labor Army (EJT);
  Interior Ministry Border Guards (TGF)

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 3,053,431
  females age 15-49: 3,009,852
  males fit for military service: 1,898,644
  females fit for military service: 1,866,313
  males reach military age (17) annually: 65,182
  females reach military age (17) annually: 61,960 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $NA, roughly 4%
  of GDP (1995 est.)

Defense note: Moscow, for decades the key military supporter and
  supplier of Cuba, cut off almost all military aid by 1993



======================================================================



@Cyprus
------



Map
---


Location: 35 00 N, 33 00 E -- Middle East, island in the
  Mediterranean Sea, south of Turkey



Flag
----


Description: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island
  (the name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above
  two green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the
  branches symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the
  Greek and Turkish communities



Geography
---------


Location: Middle East, island in the Mediterranean Sea, south of
  Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 33 00 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
  total area: 9,250 sq km (note - 3,355 sq km are in the Turkish area)
  land area: 9,240 sq km
  comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: 1974 hostilities divided the island into
  two de facto autonomous areas, a Greek area controlled by the
  Cypriot Government (59% of the island's land area) and a
  Turkish-Cypriot area (37% of the island), that are separated by a UN
  buffer zone (4% of the island); there are two UK sovereign base
  areas within the Greek Cypriot portion of the island

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool,
  wet winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south;
  scattered but significant plains along southern coast
  lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Olympus 1,952 m

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber,
  salt, marble, clay earth pigment

Land use:
  arable land: 40%
  permanent crops: 7%
  meadows and pastures: 10%
  forest and woodland: 18%
  other: 25%

Irrigated land: 350 sq km (1989)

Environment:
  current issues: water resource problems (no natural reservoir
  catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and most potable
  resources concentrated in the Turkish Cypriot area); water pollution
  from sewage and industrial wastes; coastal degradation; loss of
  wildlife habitats from urbanization
  natural hazards: moderate earthquake activity
  international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate
  Change



People
------


Population: 744,609 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 25% (male 97,400; female 92,110)
  15-64 years: 64% (male 240,716; female 238,039)
  65 years and over: 11% (male 33,340; female 43,004) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.11% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 15.39 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.66 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.38 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 76.26 years
  male: 74.11 years
  female: 78.52 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.19 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Cypriot(s)
  adjective: Cypriot

Ethnic divisions:
  total: Greek 78% (99.5% of the Greeks live in the Greek area; 0.5%
  of the Greeks live in the Turkish area), Turkish 18% (1.3% of the
  Turks live in the Greek area; 98.7% of the Turks live in the Turkish
  area), other 4% (99.2% of the other ethnic groups live in the Greek
  area; 0.8% of the other ethnic groups live in the Turkish area)

Religions: Greek Orthodox 78%, Muslim 18%, Maronite, Armenian
  Apostolic, and other 4%

Languages: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1987 est.)
  total population: 94%
  male: 98%
  female: 91%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Cyprus
  conventional short form: Cyprus
  note: the Turkish area refers to itself as the "Turkish Republic" or
  the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC)

Data code: CY

Type of government: republic
  note: a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the
  island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this
  separation was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of
  the island in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto
  control in the north; Greek Cypriots control the only
  internationally recognized government; on 15 November 1983 Turkish
  Cypriot "President" Rauf DENKTASH declared independence and the
  formation of a "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (TRNC), which
  has been recognized only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the
  resolution of intercommunal differences and creation of a new
  federal system of government

Capital: Nicosia
  note: the Turkish area's capital is Lefkosa (Nicosia)

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia,
  Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos; note - Turkish area
  administrative divisions include Kyrenia, all but a small part of
  Famagusta, and small parts of Nicosia and Larnaca

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)
  note: Turkish area proclaimed self-rule on NA February 1975 from
  Republic of Cyprus

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October
  note: Turkish area celebrates 15 November as Independence Day

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for
  a new or revised constitution to govern the island and to better
  relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held
  intermittently; in 1975 Turkish Cypriots created their own
  constitution and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated
  State of Cyprus," which was renamed the "Turkish Republic of
  Northern Cyprus" in 1983; a new constitution for the Turkish area
  passed by referendum on 5 May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President Glafcos CLERIDES
  (since 28 February 1993) was elected for a five-year term by
  universal suffrage; election last held 14 February 1993 (next to be
  held NA February 1998); results - Glafcos CLERIDES 50.3%, Yeoryios
  VASSILIOU 49.7%
  cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed jointly by the president
  and vice president
  note: Rauf R. DENKTASH has been "president" of the Turkish area
  since 13 February 1975 (president is elected for a five-year term by
  universal suffrage); Hakki ATUN has been "prime minister" of the
  Turkish area since 1 January 1994; there is a Council of Ministers
  (cabinet) in the Turkish area; elections last held 15 and 22 April
  1995 (next to be held NA April 2000); results - Rauf R. DENKTASH
  62.5%, Dervis EROGLU 37.5%

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Greek area: House of Representatives (Vouli Antiprosopon): elections
  last held 19 May 1991 (next to be held May 1996); results - DISY
  35.8%, AKEL (Communist) 30.6%, DIKO 19.5%, EDEK 10.9%; others 3.2%;
  seats - (56 total) DISY 20, AKEL (Communist) 18, DIKO 11, EDEK 7
  Turkish area: Assembly of the Republic (Cumhuriyet Meclisi):
  elections last held 12 December 1993 (next to be held NA); results -
  UBP 29.9%, DP 29.2%, CTP 24.2% TKP 13.3%, others 3.4%; seats - (50
  total) UBP (conservative) 15, DP 16, CTP 13, TKP 5, UDP 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the
  Supreme Council of Judicature
  note: there is also a Supreme Court in the Turkish area

Political parties and leaders:
  Greek area: Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL, Communist
  Party), Dimitrios CHRISTOFIAS; Democratic Rally (DISY), Ioannis
  MATSIS; Democratic Party (DIKO), Spyros KYPRIANOU; United Democratic
  Union of the Center (EDEK), Vassos LYSSARIDIS; Socialist Democratic
  Renewal Movement (ADISOK), Mikhalis PAPAPETROU; Liberal Party,
  Nikolaos ROLANDIS; Free Democrats, Yeoryios VASSILIOU; New Horizons,
  Nikolaos KOUTSOU, secretary general
  Turkish area: National Unity Party (UBP), Dervis EROGLU; Communal
  Liberation Party (TKP), Mustafa AKINCI; Republican Turkish Party
  (CTP), Mehmet ALI TALAT; New Cyprus Party (YKP), Alpay DURDURAN;
  Free Democratic Party (HDP), Ismet KOTAK; Nationalist Justice Party
  (MAP), Zorlu TORE; Unity and Sovereignty Party (BEP), Arif Salih
  KIRDAG; Democratic Party (DP), Serdar DENKTASH; National Birth Party
  (UDP), Enver EMIN; the HDP, MAP, and VP merged under the label
  National Struggle Unity Party (MMBP) to compete in the 12 December
  1993 legislative election

Other political or pressure groups: United Democratic Youth
  Organization (EDON, Communist controlled); Union of Cyprus Farmers
  (EKA, Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK, pro-West);
  Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO, Communist controlled);
  Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK, pro-West); Federation of
  Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation of
  Revolutionary Labor Unions (Dev-Is)

International organization participation: C, CCC, CE, EBRD, ECE,
  EU (applicant), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarset, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO,
  ITU, NAM, OAS (observer), OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
  WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Andreas J. JACOVIDES
  chancery: 2211 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 462-5772
  consulate(s) general: New York
  note: Representative of the Turkish area in the US is Namik KORMAN,
  office at 1667 K Street NW, Washington, DC, telephone [1] (202)
  887-6198

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Richard A. BOUCHER
  embassy: corner of Metochiou and Ploutarchou Streets, Engomi, Nicosia
  mailing address: P. O. Box 4536, FPO AE 09836
  telephone: [357] (2) 476100
  FAX: [357] (2) 465944

Flag: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the
  name Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two
  green crossed olive branches in the center of the flag; the branches
  symbolize the hope for peace and reconciliation between the Greek
  and Turkish communities
  note: the Turkish Cypriot flag has a horizontal red stripe at the
  top and bottom between which is a red crescent and red star on a
  white field



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The Greek Cypriot economy is small and
  prosperous, but highly susceptible to external shocks. Industry
  contributes 25% to GDP and employs 26% of the labor force, while the
  service sector contributes 70% to GDP and employs 62% of the labor
  force. After surging 9.7% in 1992, economic growth slowed to 1.6% in
  1993 - its lowest level in two decades - because of the decline in
  tourist arrivals associated with the recession in Western Europe,
  Cyprus' main trading partner, and the loss in export competitiveness
  due to a sharp rise in unit labor costs. However, real GDP picked up
  in 1994 and 1995, as inflation fell from 4.7% to about 3%. Economic
  prospects appear favorable for 1996: real GDP is likely to grow
  between 3% and 4%, and inflation is likely to rise slightly to
  3.5%-4.5%. The Turkish Cypriot economy has less than one-third the
  per capita GDP of the south. Because it is recognized only by
  Turkey, it has had much difficulty arranging foreign financing, and
  foreign firms have hesitated to invest there. The economy remains
  heavily dependent on agriculture and government service, which
  together employ about half of the work force. Moreover, the small,
  vulnerable economy has suffered because the Turkish lira is legal
  tender. Economic growth sharply dropped during 1994 because of the
  severe economic crisis affecting the mainland, and inflation soared
  to 215%. To compensate for the economy's weakness, Turkey provides
  direct and indirect aid to nearly every sector; financial support
  has risen and now equals in value about one-third of Turkish Cypriot
  GDP.

GDP:
  Greek area: purchasing power parity - $7.8 billion (1995 est.)
  Turkish area: purchasing power parity - $520 million (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate:
  Greek area: 5% (1995 est.)
  Turkish area: 0.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita:
  Greek area: $13,000 (1995 est.)
  Turkish area: $3,900 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  Greek area - agriculture: 5.6%
  Greek area - industry: 24.9%
  Greek area - services: 69.5% (1994)
  Turkish area - agriculture: 11.4%
  Turkish area - industry: 22.9%
  Turkish area - services: 65.7% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  Greek area: 3% (1995 est.)
  Turkish area: 215% (1994)

Labor force:
  Greek area: 294,100
  by occupation: services 61.5%, industry 26%, agriculture 12.5% (1994)
  Turkish area: 75,320
  by occupation: services 52.9%, industry 23.6%, agriculture 23.5%
  (1994)

Unemployment rate:
  Greek area: 2.7% (1994)
  Turkish area: 1.6% (1994)

Budget:
  revenues: Greek area - $2.3 billion, Turkish area - $246 million
  expenditures: Greek area - $3.4 billion, including capital
  expenditures of $500 million, Turkish area - $350 million, including
  capital expenditures of $75 million (1996 est.)

Industries: food, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metal products,
  tourism, wood products

Industrial production growth rate:
  Greek area: 3.7% (1994)
  Turkish area: 2.6% (1992)

Electricity:
  capacity: 550,000 kW
  production: 2.3 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 2,903 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, citrus,
  vegetables

Illicit drugs: transit point for heroin via air routes and
  container traffic to Europe, especially from Lebanon and Turkey,
  also some cocaine transits en route to Russia

Exports:
  Greek area: $968 million (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and
  shoes
  partners: UK 16%, Lebanon 9%, Greece 8%, Russia 12%
  Turkish area: $59 million (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: citrus, potatoes, textiles
  partners: UK 48%, Turkey 22%

Imports:
  Greek area: $2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: consumer goods, petroleum and lubricants, food and feed
  grains, machinery
  partners: UK 12%, Japan 9%, Italy 10%, Germany 9%, US 8%
  Turkish area: $330 million (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: food, minerals, chemicals, machinery
  partners: Turkey 48%, UK 19%

External debt:
  Greek area: $1.4 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
  Greek area - recipient: ODA, $NA
  Turkish area: during 1977-93, received substantial grants and loans
  from Turkey

Currency: 1 Cypriot pound (LC) = 100 cents; 1 Turkish lira (TL) =
  100 kurus

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds per US1$ - 0.4628 (January 1996),
  0.4522 (1995), 0.4915 (1994), 0.4970 (1993), 0.4502 (1992), 0.4633
  (1991); Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 60,502.1 (January 1996),
  45,845.1 (1995), 29,608.7 (1994), 10,984.6 (1993), 6,872.4 (1992),
  4,171.8 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  Greek area - total: 10,448 km
  Greek area - paved: 5,694 km
  Greek area - unpaved: 4,754 km
  Turkish area - total: 6,116 km
  Turkish area - paved: 5,278 km
  Turkish area - unpaved: 838 km

Ports: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos Bay

Merchant marine:
  total: 1,524 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,949,242
  GRT/40,236,638 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 490, cargo 562, chemical tanker 27, combination
  bulk 53, combination ore/oil 22, container 115, liquefied gas tanker
  3, multifunction large-load carrier 4, oil tanker 129, passenger 6,
  passenger-cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 62, roll-on/roll-off cargo 28,
  short-sea passenger 17, specialized tanker 3, vehicle carrier 2
  note: a flag of convenience registry; includes ships from 48
  countries among which are Greece 706, Germany 171, Russia 44,
  Netherlands 31, Belgium 30, Japan 29, Cuba 21, UK 17, Spain 14, and
  Hong Kong 13 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 15
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 8
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3
  with paved runways under 914 m: 3
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 4 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 331,000 (1995 est.)

Telephone system: excellent in both the Greek and Turkish areas
  domestic: open wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay
  international: tropospheric scatter; 3 coaxial and 5 fiber-optic
  submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic
  Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations:
  Greek area: AM 11, FM 8, shortwave 0
  Turkish area: AM 2, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios:
  Greek area: 270,000 (1993 est.)
  Turkish area: 42,170 (1985 est.)

Television broadcast stations:
  Greek area: 1 (repeaters 34)
  Turkish area: 1

Televisions:
  Greek area: 107,000 (1992 est.)
  Turkish area: 75,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches:
  Greek area: Greek Cypriot National Guard (GCNG; includes air and
  naval elements), Greek Cypriot Police
  Turkish area: Turkish Cypriot Security Force

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 190,372
  males fit for military service: 130,880
  males reach military age (18) annually: 5,749 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $493 million,
  5.6% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Czech Republic
--------------



Map
---


Location: 49 45 N, 15 30 E -- Central Europe, southeast of Germany



Flag
----


Description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red
  with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost
  identical to the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)



Geography
---------


Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 49 45 N, 15 30 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 78,703 sq km
  land area: 78,645 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,880 km
  border countries: Austria 362 km, Germany 646 km, Poland 658 km,
  Slovakia 214 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: Liechtenstein claims restitution for 1,600
  sq km of Czech territory confiscated from its royal family in 1918;
  Sudeten German claims for restitution of property confiscated in
  connection with their expulsion after World War II versus the Czech
  Republic claims that restitution does not precede February 1948 when
  the Communists seized power; unresolved property issues with
  Slovakia over redistribution of property of the former Czechoslovak
  federal government

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills,
  and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east
  consists of very hilly country
  lowest point: Elbe River 115 m
  highest point: Snezka 1,602 m

Natural resources: hard coal, soft coal, kaolin, clay, graphite

Land use:
  arable land: NA%
  permanent crops: NA%
  meadows and pastures: NA%
  forest and woodland: NA%
  other: NA%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: air and water pollution in areas of northwest
  Bohemia and in northern Moravia around Ostrava present health risks;
  acid rain damaging forests
  natural hazards: NA
  international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
  Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic
  Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands; signed, but not
  ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of
  oldest and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is
  a traditional military corridor between the North European Plain and
  the Danube in central Europe



People
------


Population: 10,321,120 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 18% (male 965,861; female 918,745)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 3,519,753; female 3,524,913)
  65 years and over: 14% (male 526,841; female 865,007) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: -0.03% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 10.39 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.89 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 73.76 years
  male: 70.08 years
  female: 77.65 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.38 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Czech(s)
  adjective: Czech
  note: 300,000 Slovaks declared themselves Czech citizens in 1994

Ethnic divisions: Czech 94.4%, Slovak 3%, Polish 0.6%, German
  0.5%, Gypsy 0.3%, Hungarian 0.2%, other 1%

Religions: atheist 39.8%, Roman Catholic 39.2%, Protestant 4.6%,
  Orthodox 3%, other 13.4%

Languages: Czech, Slovak

Literacy: age NA and over can read and write (est.)
  total population: 99%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Czech Republic
  conventional short form: Czech Republic
  local long form: Ceska Republika
  local short form: Cechy

Data code: EZ

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, kraj - singular);
  Jihocesky, Jihomoravsky, Praha, Severocesky, Severomoravsky,
  Stredocesky, Vychodocesky, Zapadocesky

Independence: 1 January 1993 (from Czechoslovakia)

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 8 May; Founding of the
  Republic, 28 October

Constitution: ratified 16 December 1992; effective 1 January 1993

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes;
  has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to
  bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in
  Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal
  theory

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Vaclav HAVEL (since 26 January 1993) was
  elected for a five-year term by the Parliament; election last held
  26 January 1993 (next to be held NA January 1998); results - Vaclav
  HAVEL was elected
  head of government: Prime Minister Vaclav KLAUS (since NA June 1992)
  was appointed by the president; Deputy Prime Ministers Ivan KOCARNIK
  (since NA June 1992), Josef LUX (since NA June 1992), Jan KALVODA
  (since NA June 1992)
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president on recommendation of
  the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlament)
  Senate (Senate): elections to be held 15-16 November 1996 (next to
  be held NA); seats (81 total)
  Chamber of Deputies (Snemovna Poslancu): elections last held 5-6
  June 1992 (next to be held 31 May-1 June 1996); results - percent of
  vote by party NA given breakup and realignment of all parliamentary
  opposition parties since 1992; seats - (200 total) governing
  coalition (ODS 65, KDS 10, ODA 16, KDU-CSL 15), opposition (CSSD 18,
  LB 25, KSCM 10, LSU 9, LSNS 5, CMUS 9, SPR-RSC 6, independents 12)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, chairman and deputy chairmen are
  appointed by the president; Constitutional Court, chairman and
  deputy chairmen are appointed by the president

Political parties and leaders:
  governing coalition: Civic Democratic Party (ODS), Vaclav KLAUS,
  chairman; Christian Democratic Party (KDS), Ivan PILIP, chairman;
  Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA), Jan KALVODA, chairman; Christian
  Democratic Union/Czech People's Party (KDU-CSL), Josef LUX,
  chairman; note - KDS was to merge with ODS in March 1996
  opposition: Czech Social Democrats (CSSD - left opposition), Milos
  ZEMAN, chairman; Left Bloc (LB - left opposition), Jaroslav ORTMAN,
  chairman; Communist Party (KSCM - left opposition), Miroslav
  GREBENICEK, chairman; Liberal Social Union (LSU - left opposition),
  Frantisek TRNKA, chairman, note - may not still be in existence;
  Liberal National Social Party (LSNS - center party), Vavrinec
  BODENLOS, chairman; Bohemian-Moravian Center Union (CMUS - center
  party), Jan JEGLA, chairman; Assembly for the Republic (SPR-RSC -
  right radical), Miroslav SLADEK, chairman

Other political or pressure groups: Czech-Moravian Chamber of
  Trade Unions; Civic Movement

International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS,
  CCC, CE (guest), CEI, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NACC, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN,
  UN Security Council (temporary), UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPROFOR, UPU, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO,
  WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Michael ZANTOVSKY
  chancery: 3900 Spring of Freedom Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 363-6315, 6316
  FAX: [1] (202) 966-8540

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jenonne R. WALKER
  embassy: Trziste 15, 11801 Prague 1
  mailing address: Unit 1330, APO AE 09213-1330
  telephone: [42] (2) 2451-0847
  FAX: [42] (2) 2451-1001

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a
  blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side (almost identical to
  the flag of the former Czechoslovakia)



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The Czech Republic, which separated from
  Slovakia on 1 January 1993, emerged from recession with 2.6% growth
  in 1994 and 5% growth in 1995. Inflation in 1994-95 was cut in half;
  unemployment was kept at about 3%; the budget was balanced; and
  exports were reoriented to the EU. Prague's mass privatization
  program, including its innovative distribution of ownership shares
  to Czech citizens via "coupon vouchers," has made the most rapid
  progress in Eastern Europe. About 80% of the economy is wholly or
  partially in private hands. Because of its progress on reform, the
  Czech Republic in 1995 became the first post-Communist member of the
  OECD. Its solid economic performance also led Standard and Poor's to
  upgrade the country's sovereign credit rating to "A" and attracted
  nearly $5.3 billion in direct foreign investment to Czech industry
  between 1990 and September 1995. The Czech crown became convertible
  for current account transactions in October 1995. Czech companies
  increasingly are using the international capital market to fund
  capital investment, and foreign currency reserves totaled $13.9
  billion at the end of 1995. Prague's biggest macroeconomic concern
  now is limiting the inflationary effect of these large capital
  inflows. The Czech economy also still faces microeconomic problems.
  Prague has promised to strengthen its bankruptcy law and improve the
  transparency of stock market operations in 1996, but some changes
  probably will not take effect until some time after the
  parliamentary elections of mid-1996 and will depend largely on
  voluntary compliance. Prague forecasts a balanced budget, 5.5% GDP
  growth, 2.8% unemployment, and 8.1% inflation for 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $106.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $10,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 5.8%
  industry: 40.7%
  services: 53.5%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.1% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 5.389 million
  by occupation: industry 37.9%, agriculture 8.1%, construction 8.8%,
  communications and other 45.2% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 2.9% (1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $16.5 billion
  expenditures: $16.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1995 est.)

Industries: fuels, ferrous metallurgy, machinery and equipment,
  coal, motor vehicles, glass, armaments

Industrial production growth rate: 12.9% (January-November 1995)

Electricity:
  capacity: 14.470,000 kW
  production: 56.3 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 4,842 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs,
  cattle, poultry; forest products

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and
  Latin American cocaine to Western Europe

Exports: $17.4 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment,
  chemicals, fuels, minerals, metals, agricultural products
  partners: Germany 32.4%, Slovakia 16.1%, Austria 6.7%, Poland 5.3%,
  Italy 4%, Russia 3.3%, Netherlands 2.8%, France 2.6%, UK 2.2%,
  Hungary 2.1%, US 1.8%, Belgium 1.5% (January-September 1995)

Imports: $21.3 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
  chemicals, fuels and lubricants, raw materials, agricultural products
  partners: Germany 26%, Slovakia 13.2%, Russia 9.2%, Austria 7%,
  Italy 5.6%, France 4.1%, US 3.8%, Poland 3.1%, Netherlands 2.9%, UK
  2.9%, Switzerland 2.1%, Belgium 2.0% (January-September 1995)

External debt: $14.9 billion (June 1995)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $27 million (1993)

Currency: 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru

Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1 - 26.967 (January 1996),
  26.541 (1995), 28.785 (1994), 29.153 (1993), 28.26 (1992), 29.53
  (1991), 17.95 (1990)
  note: values before 1993 reflect Czechoslovak exchange rates

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 9,413 km
  standard gauge: 9,316 km 1.435-m standard gauge (2640 km electrified)
  narrow gauge: 97 km several narrow gauges (1995)

Highways:
  total: 55,557 km (1994 est.)
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km

Waterways: NA km; the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river

Pipelines: natural gas 5,400 km

Ports: Decin, Prague, Usti nad Labem

Merchant marine:
  total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 155,946 GRT/251,624 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 5 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 116
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 9
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 13
  with paved runways under 914 m: 5
  with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 10
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 32
  with unpaved runways under 914 m: 41 (1994 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 3,349,539 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic
  and Indian Ocean Regions)

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, Civil Defense,
  Railroad Units

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,724,607
  males fit for military service: 2,074,331
  males reach military age (18) annually: 88,418 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $931 million,
  2.5% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Denmark
-------



Map
---


Location: 56 00 N, 10 00 E -- Northern Europe, bordering the
  Baltic Sea and the North Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany



Flag
----


Description: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of
  the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist
  side, and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was
  subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland,
  Iceland, Norway, and Sweden



Geography
---------


Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North
  Sea, on a peninsula north of Germany

Geographic coordinates: 56 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 43,070 sq km
  land area: 42,370 sq km
  comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Massachusetts
  note: includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest
  of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Land boundaries:
  total: 68 km
  border country: Germany 68 km

Coastline: 3,379 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 4 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute
  involving Iceland, Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have
  signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and
  cool summers

Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains
  lowest point: Lammefjord -7 m
  highest point: Ejer Bavnehoj 173 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone

Land use:
  arable land: 61%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 6%
  forest and woodland: 12%
  other: 21%

Irrigated land: 4,300 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: air pollution, principally from vehicle emissions;
  nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of the North Sea; drinking and
  surface water becoming polluted from animal wastes
  natural hazards: flooding is a threat in some areas of the country
  (e.g., parts of Jutland, along the southern coast of the island of
  Lolland) that are protected from the sea by a system of dikes
  international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
  Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Antarctic
  Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species,
  Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine
  Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
  ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic
  Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of
  the Sea

Geographic note: controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North
  Seas; about one-quarter of the population lives in Copenhagen



People
------


Population: 5,249,632 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 17% (male 469,672; female 446,907)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 1,789,552; female 1,738,870)
  65 years and over: 16% (male 330,396; female 474,235) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 0.38% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 12.24 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.42 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.3 years
  male: 73.78 years
  female: 81.01 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.67 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Dane(s)
  adjective: Danish

Ethnic divisions: Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 91%, other Protestant and Roman
  Catholic 2%, other 7% (1988)

Languages: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect),
  German (small minority)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
  total population: 99%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Kingdom of Denmark
  conventional short form: Denmark
  local long form: Kongeriget Danmark
  local short form: Danmark

Data code: DA

Type of government: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Copenhagen

Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark - 14 counties
  (amter, singular - amt) and 1 city* (stad); Arhus, Bornholms,
  Frederiksborg, Fyns, Kobenhavns, Nordjyllands, Ribe, Ringkobing,
  Roskilde, Sonderjyllands, Staden Kobenhavn*, Storstroms, Vejle,
  Vestsjaellands, Viborg
  note: see separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland,
  which are part of the Danish realm and self-governing administrative
  divisions

Independence: 10th century first organized as a unified state; in
  1849 became a constitutional monarchy

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 1849 was the original constitution; there was a
  major overhaul 5 June 1953, allowing for a unicameral legislature
  and a female chief of state

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative
  acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (since NA January 1972) is a
  constitutional monarch; Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder
  son of the queen (born 26 May 1968)
  head of government: Prime Minister Poul Nyrup RASMUSSEN (since NA
  January 1993) was appointed by the queen
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the queen

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Parliament (Folketing): elections last held 21 September 1994 (next
  to be held by December 1998); results - Social Democrats 34.6%,
  Liberals 23.3%, Conservatives 15.0%, Social People's Party 7.3%,
  Progress Party 6.4%, Radical Liberals 4.6%, Unity Party 3.1%, Center
  Democrats 2.8%, Christian People's Party 1.8%; seats - (179 total)
  Social Democrats 63, Liberals 44, Conservatives 28, Social People's
  Party 13, Progress Party 11, Radical Liberals 8, Unity Party 6,
  Center Democrats 5, independent 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are appointed by the
  monarch for life

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party, Poul Nyrup
  RASMUSSEN; Conservative Party, Hans ENGELL; Liberal Party, Uffe
  ELLEMANN-JENSEN; Socialist People's Party, Holger K. NIELSEN;
  Progress Party, Group Chairman Kim BEHNKE and Policy Spokesman Jan
  Kopke CHRISTENSEN; Center Democratic Party, Mimi Stilling JAKOBSEN;
  Radical Liberal Party, Marianne JELVED; Christian People's Party,
  Jann SJURSEN; Danish Workers' Party, Common Cause, Preben Moller
  HANSEN; Unity Party

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer),
  AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB,
  ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
  IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM,
  ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OECD, OSCE, PCA, UN,
  UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNMOT, UNOMIG,
  UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Knud-Erik TYGESEN
  chancery: 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 234-4300
  FAX: [1] (202) 328-1470
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Edward E. ELSON
  embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24, 2100 Copenhagen
  mailing address: APO AE 09716, PSC 73
  telephone: [45] (31) 42 31 44
  FAX: [45] (35) 43 02 23

Flag: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the
  flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side,
  and that design element of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was
  subsequently adopted by the other Nordic countries of Finland,
  Iceland, Norway, and Sweden



Economy
-------


Economic overview: This thoroughly modern economy features
  high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate
  industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living
  standards, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is
  self-sufficient in food production. The new center-left coalition
  government will concentrate on reducing the persistently high
  unemployment rate and the budget deficit as well as following the
  previous government's policies of maintaining low inflation and a
  current account surplus. In the face of recent international market
  pressure on the Danish krone, the coalition has also vowed to
  maintain a stable currency. The coalition hopes to lower marginal
  income taxes while maintaining overall tax revenues; boost
  industrial competitiveness through labor market and tax reforms and
  increased research and development funds; and improve welfare
  services for the neediest while cutting paperwork and delays. Prime
  Minister RASMUSSEN's reforms will focus on adapting Denmark to the
  criteria for European integration by 1999; Copenhagen has won from
  the European Union (EU) the right to opt out of the European
  Monetary Union (EMU) if a national referendum rejects it. Denmark
  is, in fact, one of the few EU countries likely to fit into the EMU
  on time. Denmark is weathering the current worldwide slump better
  than many West European countries. Although unemployment is high, it
  remains stable compared to most European countries.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $112.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3.1% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $21,700 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3%
  industry: 23.5%
  services: 73.5% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 2,553,900
  by occupation: private services 37.1%, government services 30.4%,
  manufacturing and mining 20%, construction 6.3%, agriculture,
  forestry, and fishing 5.6%, electricity/gas/water 0.6% (1991)

Unemployment rate: 9.5% (1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $56.5 billion
  expenditures: $64.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1994 est.)

Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and
  clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture,
  and other wood products, shipbuilding

Industrial production growth rate: -2.5% (1993 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 10,030,000 kW
  production: 32 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 5,835 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets; meat, dairy
  products; fish

Exports: $39.6 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: meat and meat products, dairy products, transport
  equipment (shipbuilding), fish, chemicals, industrial machinery
  partners: EU 49.4% (Germany 22.4%, UK 8.2%), Sweden 10.4%, Norway
  6.5%, US 5.5%, Japan 4.1%, FSU 1.7% (1994)

Imports: $34 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
  commodities: petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain
  and foodstuffs, textiles, paper
  partners: EU 51% (Germany 22%, UK 6.5%), Sweden 11.6%, Norway 5.1%,
  US 5.2%, Japan 3.5%, FSU 1.7% (1994)

External debt: $40.9 billion (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
  donor: ODA, $1.34 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 5.652 (January
  1996), 5.602 (1995), 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396
  (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 2,848 km (499 km privately owned and operated)
  standard gauge: 2,848 km 1.435-m gauge (326 km electrified; 760 km
  double track) (1995)

Highways:
  total: 71,042 km
  paved: 71,042 km (including 696 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 0 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 417 km

Pipelines: crude oil 110 km; petroleum products 578 km; natural
  gas 700 km

Ports: Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia, Grenaa,
  Koge, Odense, Struer

Merchant marine:
  total: 334 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,013,054
  GRT/7,171,871 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 13, cargo 114, chemical tanker 25, container 65,
  liquefied gas tanker 27, livestock carrier 5, oil tanker 31, railcar
  carrier 1, refrigerated cargo 17, roll-on/roll-off cargo 26,
  short-sea passenger 9, specialized tanker 1
  note: Denmark has created its own internal register, called the
  Danish International Ship register (DIS); DIS ships do not have to
  meet Danish manning regulations, and they amount to a flag of
  convenience within the Danish register (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 109
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 13
  with paved runways under 914 m: 77
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 6 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 4.005 million (1985 est.)

Telephone system: excellent telephone and telegraph services
  domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form
  trunk network
  international: 19 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations
  - 7 Intelsat, NA Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean
  Regions); note - Denmark shares the Inmarsat earth station with the
  other Nordic countries (Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 2

Televisions: 2.04 million (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air
  Force, Home Guard

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,338,791
  males fit for military service: 1,150,996
  males reach military age (20) annually: 34,324 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.2 billion,
  1.8% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Djibouti
--------



Map
---


Location: 11 30 N, 43 00 E -- Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf
  of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia



Flag
----


Description: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and
  light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
  bearing a red five-pointed star in the center



Geography
---------


Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red
  Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 11 30 N, 43 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 22,000 sq km
  land area: 21,980 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
  total: 508 km
  border countries: Eritrea 113 km, Ethiopia 337 km, Somalia 58 km

Coastline: 314 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: desert; torrid, dry

Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
  lowest point: Asal -155 m
  highest point: Mousa Alli 2,028 m

Natural resources: geothermal areas

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 9%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 91%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; desertification
  natural hazards: earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic
  disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ship Pollution; signed, but not
  ratified - Desertification

Geographic note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping
  lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into
  Ethiopia; a vast wasteland



People
------


Population: 427,642 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43% (male 91,687; female 91,242)
  15-64 years: 55% (male 123,699; female 110,530)
  65 years and over: 2% (male 5,389; female 5,095) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.5% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 42.5 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.26 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -12.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.07 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 106.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 50.15 years
  male: 48.24 years
  female: 52.12 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.08 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Djiboutian(s)
  adjective: Djiboutian

Ethnic divisions: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian,
  and Italian 5%

Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 46.2%
  male: 60.3%
  female: 32.7%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
  conventional short form: Djibouti
  former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland

Data code: DJ

Type of government: republic

Capital: Djibouti

Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular -
  cercle); 'Ali Sabih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

Constitution: multiparty constitution approved in referendum 4
  September 1992

Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional
  practices, and Islamic law

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President HASSAN GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June
  1977); election last held 7 May 1993 (next to be held NA 1999);
  results - President HASSAN GOULED reelected to a six-year term by
  universal suffrage
  head of government: Prime Minister BARKAT Gourad Hamadou (since 30
  September 1978)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers is responsible to the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes): elections last held 18
  December 1992; results - RPP (the ruling party) dominated; seats -
  (65 total) RPP 65

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders:
  ruling party: People's Progress Assembly (RPP), Hassan GOULED Aptidon
  other parties: Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Mohamed Jama ELABE;
  Democratic National Party (PND), ADEN Robleh Awaleh

Other political or pressure groups: Front for the Restoration of
  Unity and Democracy (FRUD) and affiliates; Movement for Unity and
  Democracy (MUD)

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AFESD,
  AL, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC,
  ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNAMIR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIH, UPU,
  WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador ROBLE Olhaye Oudine
  chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
  telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270
  FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Martin L. CHESHES
  embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti
  mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti
  telephone: [253] 35 39 95
  FAX: [253] 35 39 40

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light
  green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
  bearing a red five-pointed star in the center



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The economy is based on service activities
  connected with the country's strategic location and status as a free
  trade zone in northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live
  in the capital city, the remainder being mostly nomadic herders.
  Scanty rainfall limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and
  most food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a
  transit port for the region and an international transshipment and
  refueling center. It has few natural resources and little industry.
  The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance
  (an important supplement to GDP) to help support its balance of
  payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment rate
  of over 30% continues to be a major problem. Per capita consumption
  dropped an estimated 35% over the last six years because of
  recession, civil war, and a high population growth rate (including
  immigrants and refugees).

GDP: purchasing power parity - $500 million (1994 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -3% (1994 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,200 (1994 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 3%
  industry: 21%
  services: 76% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 282,000
  by occupation: agriculture 75%, industry 11%, services 14% (1991
  est.)

Unemployment rate: over 30% (1994 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $164 million
  expenditures: $201 million, including capital expenditures of $16
  million (1993 est.)

Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as
  dairy products and mineral-water bottling

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 90,000 kW
  production: 170 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 398 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels

Exports: $184 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
  partners: Somalia 48%, Yemen 42%

Imports: $384 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals,
  petroleum products
  partners: France, UK, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, South Korea

External debt: $227 million (1993 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Djiboutian franc (DF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1 - 177.721 (fixed
  rate since 1973)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 97 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
  narrow gauge: 97 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 2,879 km
  paved: 363 km
  unpaved: 2,516 km (1991 est.)

Ports: Djibouti

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT
  (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 11
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 7,200 (1986 est.)

Telephone system: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are
  adequate as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying
  areas of the country
  domestic: microwave radio relay network
  international: submarine cable to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth
  stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 17,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Djibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air Force),
  National Security Force (Force Nationale de Securite), National
  Police Force

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 102,528
  males fit for military service: 60,076 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $26 million, NA%
  of GDP (1989)



======================================================================



@Dominica
--------



Map
---


Location: 13 30 N, 61 20 W -- Caribbean, island between the
  Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the
  way from Puerto Rico to Trinidad and Tobago



Flag
----


Description: green with a centered cross of three equal bands -
  the vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the
  horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in
  the center of the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot
  encircled by 10 green five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10
  stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)



Geography
---------


Location: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and the
  North Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Puerto Rico to
  Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 13 30 N, 61 20 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total area: 750 sq km
  land area: 750 sq km
  comparative area: more than four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 148 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy
  rainfall

Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Morne Diablatins 1,447 m

Natural resources: timber

Land use:
  arable land: 9%
  permanent crops: 13%
  meadows and pastures: 3%
  forest and woodland: 41%
  other: 34%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: flash floods are a constant threat; destructive
  hurricanes can be expected during the late summer months
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection,
  Whaling



People
------


Population: 82,926 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 28% (male 11,986; female 11,521)
  15-64 years: 64% (male 27,206; female 25,841)
  65 years and over: 8% (male 2,608; female 3,764) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.38% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 18.38 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.31 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -9.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.4 years
  male: 74.55 years
  female: 80.4 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.93 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Dominican(s)
  adjective: Dominican

Ethnic divisions: black, Carib Indians

Religions: Roman Catholic 77%, Protestant 15% (Methodist 5%,
  Pentecostal 3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3%, Baptist 2%, other 2%),
  none 2%, unknown 1%, other 5%

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy: age 15 and over has ever attended school (1970 est.)
  total population: 94%
  male: 94%
  female: 94%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Commonwealth of Dominica
  conventional short form: Dominica

Data code: DO

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Roseau

Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David,
  Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark,
  Saint Patrick, Saint Paul, Saint Peter

Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

Constitution: 3 November 1978

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Crispin Anselm SORHAINDO (since 25 October
  1993) was elected for a five-year term by the House of Assembly;
  election last held 4 October 1993 (next to be held NA October 1998);
  results - percent of vote NA
  head of government: Prime Minister Edison C. JAMES (since 12 June
  1995); prime minister is appointed by the president
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president on the advice of the
  prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
  House of Assembly: elections last held 12 June 1995 (next to be held
  by October 2000); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (30
  total; 9 appointed senators and 21 elected representatives) UWP 11,
  DLP 5, DFP 5

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (located in Santa
  Lucia), one of the six judges must reside in Dominica and preside
  over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction

Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party (DFP), Brian
  ALLEYNE; Dominica Labor Party (DLP), Rosie DOUGLAS; United Workers
  Party (UWP), Edison JAMES

Other political or pressure groups: Dominica Liberation Movement
  (DLM), a small leftist group

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, C, Caricom,
  CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, NAM (observer), OAS, OECS, OPANAL, UN,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US: Dominica does not have an embassy
  in the US
  consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in
  Dominica; the Ambassador to Dominica resides in Bridgetown
  (Barbados), but travels frequently to Dominica

Flag: green with a centered cross of three equal bands - the
  vertical part is yellow (hoist side), black, and white - the
  horizontal part is yellow (top), black, and white; superimposed in
  the center of the cross is a red disk bearing a sisserou parrot
  encircled by 10 green five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the 10
  stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The economy is dependent on agriculture and
  thus is highly vulnerable to climatic conditions. Agriculture
  accounts for 26% of GDP and employs 40% of the labor force.
  Development of the tourist industry remains difficult because of the
  rugged coastline and the lack of an international airport. Hurricane
  Luis devastated the country's banana crop in September 1995;
  tropical storms had wiped out one-quarter of the crop in 1994 as
  well. The newly elected government is attempting to develop an
  offshore financial industry in order to diversify the island's
  production base.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $200 million (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: -1% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,450 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 26%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.4% (1995)

Labor force: 25,000
  by occupation: agriculture 40%, industry and commerce 32%, services
  28% (1984)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1992 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $80 million
  expenditures: $95.8 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (FY95/96 est.)

Industries: soap, coconut oil, tourism, copra, furniture, cement
  blocks, shoes

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 7,000 kW
  production: 30 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 347 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, citrus, mangoes, root crops, coconuts;
  forestry and fisheries potential not exploited

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US
  and Europe; minor cannabis producer

Exports: $48.3 million (f.o.b., 1993)
  commodities: bananas, soap, bay oil, vegetables, grapefruit, oranges
  partners: UK 55%, Caricom countries, Italy, US

Imports: $98.8 million (f.o.b., 1993)
  commodities: manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, food,
  chemicals
  partners: US 25%, Caricom, UK, Japan, Canada

External debt: $92.8 million (1992)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70
  (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 800 km
  paved: 500 km
  unpaved: 300 km

Ports: Portsmouth, Roseau

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 2
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 14,613 (1993 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: fully automatic network
  international: microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to
  Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint
  Lucia

Radio broadcast stations: AM 3, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 45,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 cable

Televisions: 5,200 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force (includes Special
  Service Unit, Coast Guard)

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: NA
  males fit for military service: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Dominican Republic
------------------



Map
---


Location: 19 00 N, 70 40 W -- Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the
  island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North
  Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti



Flag
----


Description: a centered white cross that extends to the edges,
  divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist
  side) and red, the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a
  small coat of arms is at the center of the cross



Geography
---------


Location: Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of
  Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean,
  east of Haiti

Geographic coordinates: 19 00 N, 70 40 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total area: 48,730 sq km
  land area: 48,380 sq km
  comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundaries:
  total: 275 km
  border country: Haiti 275 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 6 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation;
  seasonal variation in rainfall

Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys
  interspersed
  lowest point: Lago Enriquillo -46 m
  highest point: Pico Duarte 3,175 m

Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

Land use:
  arable land: 23%
  permanent crops: 7%
  meadows and pastures: 43%
  forest and woodland: 13%
  other: 14%

Irrigated land: 2,250 sq km (1989)

Environment:
  current issues: water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages
  coral reefs; deforestation
  natural hazards: occasional hurricanes (July to October)
  international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Marine
  Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
  Protection; signed, but not ratified - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Law of the Sea

Geographic note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern
  two-thirds is the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti)



People
------


Population: 8,088,881 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 34% (male 1,401,322; female 1,355,530)
  15-64 years: 62% (male 2,541,356; female 2,460,509)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 156,238; female 173,926) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.73% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 23.51 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.66 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.03 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 47.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 69.06 years
  male: 66.89 years
  female: 71.34 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.66 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Dominican(s)
  adjective: Dominican

Ethnic divisions: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 82.1%
  male: 82%
  female: 82.2%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Dominican Republic
  conventional short form: none
  local long form: Republica Dominicana
  local short form: none

Data code: DR

Type of government: republic

Capital: Santo Domingo

Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias, singular -
  provincia) and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona,
  Dajabon, Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo,
  Espaillat, Hato Mayor, Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La
  Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez, Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte
  Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata, Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez
  Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan, San Pedro de Macoris, Santiago,
  Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde

Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

Constitution: 28 November 1966

Legal system: based on French civil codes

Suffrage: 18 years of age, universal and compulsory; married
  persons regardless of age
  note: members of the armed forces and police cannot vote

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President Joaquin BALAGUER
  Ricardo (since 16 August 1986, sixth elected term began 16 August
  1994); Vice President Jacinto PEYNADO Garrigoza (since 16 August
  1994); president is elected for a four-year term by direct vote;
  election last held 16 May 1994 (next to be held 16 May 1996);
  results - Joaquin BALAGUER (PRSC) 42.6%, Juan BOSCH Gavino (PLD)
  13.2%, Jose Francisco PENA Gomez (PRD) 41.9%, Jacobo MAJLUTA (PRI)
  2.3%
  cabinet: Cabinet was nominated by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
  Senate (Senado): elections last held 16 May 1994 (next to be held NA
  May 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (30 total)
  PRSC 15, PLD 1, PRD 14
  Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados): elections last held 16
  May 1994 (next to be held NA May 1998); results - percent of vote by
  party NA; seats - (120 total) PLD 13, PRSC 50, PRD 57

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are elected
  by the Senate

Political parties and leaders:
  major parties: Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC), Joaquin
  BALAGUER Ricardo; Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), Lidio CADET;
  Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD), Jose Franciso PENA Gomez;
  Independent Revolutionary Party (PRI), Jacobo MAJLUTA
  minor parties: National Veterans and Civilian Party (PNVC), Juan
  Rene BEAUCHAMPS Javier; Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic
  (PLRD), Andres Van Der HORST; Democratic Quisqueyan Party (PQD),
  Elias WESSIN Chavez; National Progressive Force (FNP), Marino
  VINICIO Castillo; Popular Christian Party (PPC), Rogelio DELGADO
  Bogaert; Dominican Communist Party (PCD), Narciso ISA Conde;
  Dominican Workers' Party (PTD), Ivan RODRIGUEZ; Anti-Imperialist
  Patriotic Union (UPA), Ignacio RODRIGUEZ Chiappini; Alliance for
  Democracy Party (APD), Maximilano Rabelais PUIG Miller, Nelsida
  MARMOLEJOS, Vicente BENGOA; Democratic Union (UD), Fernando ALVAREZ
  Bogaert
  note: in 1983 several leftist parties, including the PCD, joined to
  form the Dominican Leftist Front (FID); however, they still retain
  individual party structures

Other political or pressure groups: Collective of Popular
  Organizations (COP)

International organization participation: ACP, Caricom (observer),
  ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
  IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU,
  LAES, LAIA (observer), NAM (guest), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jose del Carmen ARIZA Gomez
  chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280
  FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057
  consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto
  Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco,
  and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
  consulate(s): Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit, Houston,
  Jacksonville, Mobile, and Ponce (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Donna Jean HRINAK
  embassy: corner of Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo
  Navarro, Santo Domingo
  mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041
  telephone: [1] (809) 221-2171, 221-8100
  FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437

Flag: a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides
  the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are blue (hoist side)
  and red, the bottom ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat
  of arms is at the center of the cross



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Economic reforms launched in late 1994
  contributed to exchange rate stabilization, reduced inflation, and
  relatively strong GDP growth in 1995. Output growth was concentrated
  in the tourism and free trade zone (ftz) sectors while sugar and
  non-ftz manufacturing declined last year. Drought in early 1995 hurt
  agricultural production but favorable world prices for export
  commodities helped mitigate the impact. Sugar refining was
  devastated by a disastrous harvest resulting from the drought and
  ongoing problems at the state-owned sugar company. Unreliable
  electric supplies continue to hamper expansion in manufacturing;
  small and medium-sized retail firms also suffer due to the dismal
  power situation. A presidential election scheduled for May 1996
  could lead to increased government spending before and in the
  immediate aftermath of the vote, raising the potential for rising
  inflation and increased pressure on the Dominican peso.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26.8 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3.5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,400 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 13%
  industry: 32%
  services: 55% (1995)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1995)

Labor force: 2.3 million to 2.6 million
  by occupation: agriculture 50%, services and government 32%,
  industry 18% (1991 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.8 billion
  expenditures: $2.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1994 est.)

Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold
  mining, textiles, cement, tobacco

Industrial production growth rate: 6.3% (1995 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 1,450,000 kW
  production: 5.4 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 651 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, rice,
  beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, meat,
  eggs

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American drugs
  destined for the US and Europe

Exports: $837.7 million (f.o.b., 1995)
  commodities: ferronickel, sugar, gold, coffee, cocoa
  partners: US 47.5%, EC 22%, Puerto Rico 8.4%, Asia 6.7% (1994)

Imports: $2.867 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
  commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals
  and pharmaceuticals
  partners: US 60% (1993)

External debt: $4.6 billion (1994)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $21 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Dominican peso (RD$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Dominican pesos (RD$) per US$1 - 13.589 (December
  1995), 13.617 (1995), 13.160 (1994), 12.676 (1993), 12.774 (1992),
  12.692 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 757 km
  standard gauge: 375 km 1.435-m gauge (Central Romana Railroad)
  narrow gauge: 142 km 0.762-m gauge (Dominica Government Railway);
  240 km operated by sugar companies in various gauges (0.558-m,
  0.762-m, 1.067-m gauges) (1995)

Highways:
  total: 11,931 km
  paved: 5,766 km
  unpaved: 6,165 km (1987 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 96 km; petroleum products 8 km

Ports: Barahona, La Romana, Puerto Plata, San Pedro de Macoris,
  Santo Domingo

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,587 GRT/1,165 DWT
  (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 31
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 6
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3
  with paved runways under 914 m: 14
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 190,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: relatively efficient system based on islandwide microwave
  radio relay network
  international: 1 coaxial submarine cable; satellite earth station -
  1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 120, FM 0, shortwave 6

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 18 (1987 est.)

Televisions: 728,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,212,012
  males fit for military service: 1,391,472
  males reach military age (18) annually: 83,611 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $116 million,
  1.4% of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Ecuador
-------



Map
---


Location: 2 00 S, 77 30 W -- Western South America, bordering the
  Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru



Flag
----


Description: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width),
  blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of
  the flag; similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does
  not bear a coat of arms



Geography
---------


Location: Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at
  the Equator, between Colombia and Peru

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 77 30 W

Map references: South America

Area:
  total area: 283,560 sq km
  land area: 276,840 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Nevada
  note: includes Galapagos Islands

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,010 km
  border countries: Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: claims continental shelf between mainland and
  Galapagos Islands
  territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: three sections of the boundary with Peru
  are in dispute

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

Terrain: coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands
  (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Chimborazo 6,267 m

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber

Land use:
  arable land: 6%
  permanent crops: 3%
  meadows and pastures: 17%
  forest and woodland: 51%
  other: 23%

Irrigated land: 5,500 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water
  pollution
  natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic
  activity; periodic droughts
  international agreements: party to - Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test
  Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
  Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

Geographic note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in
  world



People
------


Population: 11,466,291 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 35% (male 2,062,468; female 1,996,679)
  15-64 years: 60% (male 3,403,197; female 3,489,728)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 241,217; female 273,002) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.96% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 25.06 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.5 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.99 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 34.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.09 years
  male: 68.49 years
  female: 73.82 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.89 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Ecuadorian(s)
  adjective: Ecuadorian

Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish) 55%, Indian
  25%, Spanish 10%, black 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%

Languages: Spanish (official), Indian languages (especially
  Quechua)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 90.1%
  male: 92%
  female: 88.2%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
  conventional short form: Ecuador
  local long form: Republica del Ecuador
  local short form: Ecuador

Data code: EC

Type of government: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias, singular -
  provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El
  Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios,
  Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios,
  Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809) (independence
  of Quito)

Constitution: 10 August 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, compulsory for literate
  persons ages 18-65, optional for other eligible voters

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN
  Cordovez (since 10 August 1992); Vice President Eduardo PENA Trivino
  (since 18 October 1995); president and vice president were elected
  for four-year terms by universal suffrage; runoff election held 5
  July 1992; results - Sixto DURAN-BALLEN elected as president (next
  election was held 19 May 1996; no presidential candidate received
  more than 50% of the vote; a runoff election between BUCARAM and
  NEBOT will be held on 7 July 1996); note - former Vice President
  DAHIK resigned 11 October 1995 and left the country to escape arrest
  on corruption charges; National Congress chose PENA as his successor
  in accordance with the constitution
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National Congress (Congreso Nacional): elections last held 19 May
  1996; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (82 total) PSC
  27, PRE 21, DP 10, Pachakutik Movement 7, ID 5, PLRE 3, MPD 2, APRE
  2, CFP 1, independent and other 4

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are elected
  by the Chamber of Representatives

Political parties and leaders:
  Center-Right parties: Republican Unity Party (PUR); Social Christian
  Party (PSC), Jaime NEBOT Saadi, president; Ecuadorian Conservative
  Party (PCE), President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN (two parties merged in
  1995)
  Center-Left parties: Democratic Left (ID), Andres VALLEJO Arcos,
  Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos, leaders; Popular Democracy (DP), Rodrigo
  PAZ, leader; Ecuadorian Radical Liberal Party (PLRE), Medardo MORA,
  leader; Radical Alfarista Front (FRA), Jaime ASPIAZU Seminario,
  director
  Populist parties: Roldosist Party (PRE), Abdala BUCARAM Ortiz,
  director; Concentration of Popular Forces (CFP), Rodolfo BAQUERIZO
  Nazur, leader; Popular Revolutionary Action (APRE), Frank VARGAS
  Passos, leader
  Far-Left parties: Popular Democratic Movement (MPD), Juan Jose
  CASTELLO, leader; Ecuadorian Socialist Party (PSE), Leon ROLDOS,
  leader; Broad Leftist Front (FADI), Rene Mauge MOSQUERA, chairman;
  Ecuadorian National Liberation (LN), Alfredo CASTILLO, director
  Communists: Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro-North Korea), Rene
  Mauge MOSQUERA, Secretary General; Communist Party of
  Ecuador/Marxist-Leninist (PCMLE, Maoist)

International organization participation: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11,
  G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA,
  NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Edgar TERAN Teran
  chancery: 2535 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 234-7200
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New
  Orleans, New York, and San Francisco
  consulate(s): Newark

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Peter F. ROMERO
  embassy: Avenida 12 de Octubre y Avenida Patria, Quito
  mailing address: APO AA 34039
  telephone: [593] (2) 562-890
  FAX: [593] (2) 502-052
  consulate(s) general: Guayaquil

Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue,
  and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the
  flag; similar to the flag of Colombia that is shorter and does not
  bear a coat of arms



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Ecuador has substantial oil resources and rich
  agricultural areas. Growth has been uneven in recent years because
  of fluctuations in prices for Ecuador's primary exports - oil and
  bananas - as well as because of government policies designed to curb
  inflation. President Sixto DURAN-BALLEN launched a series of
  macroeconomic reforms when he came into office in August 1992, which
  included raising domestic fuel prices and utility rates, eliminating
  most subsidies, and bringing the government budget into balance.
  These measures helped to reduce inflation from 55% in 1992 to 25% in
  1995. DURAN-BALLEN has a much more favorable attitude toward foreign
  investment than his predecessor and has supported several laws
  designed to encourage foreign investment. Ecuador has implemented
  free or complementary trade agreements with Bolivia, Chile,
  Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela, as well as joined the World Trade
  Organization. Growth slowed to 2.3% in 1995 due in part to high
  domestic interest rates and shortages of electric power.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $44.6 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $4,100 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 13%
  industry: 39%
  services: 48% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1995)

Labor force: 2.8 million
  by occupation: agriculture 35%, manufacturing 21%, commerce 16%,
  services and other activities 28% (1982)

Unemployment rate: 7.1% (1994)

Budget:
  revenues: $3.3 billion
  expenditures: $3.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1996 est.)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work,
  paper products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 6.4% (1993)

Electricity:
  capacity: 2,230,000 kW
  production: 6.9 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 612 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc,
  plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy
  products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Illicit drugs: significant transit country for derivatives of coca
  originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru; minor illicit producer
  of coca; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of
  illicit narcotics; important money-laundering hub

Exports: $4 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: petroleum 39%, bananas 17%, shrimp 16%, cocoa 3%,
  coffee 6%
  partners: US 42%, Latin America 29%, Caribbean, EU countries 17%

Imports: $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
  commodities: transport equipment, consumer goods, vehicles,
  machinery, chemicals
  partners: US 28%, EU 17%, Latin America 31%, Caribbean, Japan

External debt: $12.6 billion (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $153 million (1993)
  note: received $12.7 million from the US and $160 million from other
  countries in 1995

Currency: 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1 - 2914.8 (31 December 1995),
  2,564.5 (1995), 2,196.7 (1994), 1,919.1 (1993), 1,534.0 (1992),
  1,046.25 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 965 km (single track)
  narrow gauge: 965 km 1.067-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 43,709 km
  paved: 5,245 km
  unpaved: 38,464 km (1991 est.)

Waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil 800 km; petroleum products 1,358 km

Ports: Esmeraldas, Guayaquil, La Libertad, Manta, Puerto Bolivar,
  San Lorenzo

Merchant marine:
  total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 114,701 GRT/171,240 DWT
  ships by type: container 2, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker 12,
  passenger 3, refrigerated cargo 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 188
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 8
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 13
  with paved runways under 914 m: 121
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 5
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 32 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 586,300 (1994 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: facilities generally inadequate and unreliable
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 272, FM 0, shortwave 39

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 33

Televisions: 940,000 (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana,
  includes Marines), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana), National
  Police

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 2,968,361
  males fit for military service: 2,006,509
  males reach military age (20) annually: 121,241 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $386 million,
  2.1% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Egypt
-----



Map
---


Location: 27 00 N, 30 00 E -- Northern Africa, bordering the
  Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip



Flag
----


Description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and
  black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden
  eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the
  country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag
  of Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of
  Syria that has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has
  three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line
  centered in the white band



Geography
---------


Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea,
  between Libya and the Gaza Strip

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 1,001,450 sq km
  land area: 995,450 sq km
  comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of New
  Mexico

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,689 km
  border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km,
  Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: administrative boundary with Sudan does
  not coincide with international boundary creating the "Hala'ib
  Triangle," a barren area of 20,580 sq km, tensions over this
  disputed area began to escalate in 1992 and remain high

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
  lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
  highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
  manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use:
  arable land: 3%
  permanent crops: 2%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 95%

Irrigated land: 25,850 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and
  windblown sands; increasing soil salinization below Aswan High Dam;
  desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and
  marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides,
  raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh
  water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water
  source; rapid growth in population overstraining natural resources
  natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash
  floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called
  khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
  Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not ratified - Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge
  between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez
  Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea;
  size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in
  Middle Eastern geopolitics



People
------


Population: 63,575,107 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 37% (male 11,970,197; female 11,462,689)
  15-64 years: 60% (male 19,127,696; female 18,738,304)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 1,028,916; female 1,247,305) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 1.91% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 28.18 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.7 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 72.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 61.43 years
  male: 59.51 years
  female: 63.46 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.58 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Egyptian(s)
  adjective: Egyptian

Ethnic divisions: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and
  Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily
  Italian and French) 1%

Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94% (official estimate), Coptic
  Christian and other 6% (official estimate)

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood
  by educated classes

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 51.4%
  male: 63.6%
  female: 38.8%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
  conventional short form: Egypt
  local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
  local short form: none
  former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Data code: EG

Type of government: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular -
  muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum,
  Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al
  Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid,
  Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id,
  Dumyat, Janub Sina, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina, Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and
  Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of
  State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (sworn in as
  president 14 October 1981, eight days after the assassination of
  President SADAT); national referendum held 4 October 1993 validated
  MUBARAK's nomination by the People's Assembly to a third six-year
  presidential term; note - the president is nominated by the People's
  Assembly and that nomination must then be validated by a national,
  popular referendum
  head of government: Prime Minister Kamal Ahmed al-GANZOURI (since 4
  January 1996) was appointed by the president
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president

Legislative branch: bicameral
  People's Assembly (Majlis al-Cha'b): elections last held 29 November
  1995 (next to be held NA 2000); results - NDP 72%, idependents 25%,
  opposition 3%; seats - (454 total, 444 elected, 10 appointed by the
  president) NDP 317, independents 114, NWP 6, NPUG 5, Nasserist Arab
  Democratic Party 1, Liberals 1
  Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura): functions only in a consultative
  role; elections last held 7 June 1995 (next to be held NA); results
  - NDP 99%, independents 1%; seats - (264 total, 176 elected, 88
  appointed by the president) seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party (NDP),
  President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader, is the dominant party;
  legal opposition parties are as follows: New Wafd Party (NWP), Fu'ad
  SIRAJ AL-DIN; Socialist Labor Party (SLP), Ibrahim SHUKRI; National
  Progressive Unionist Grouping (NPUG), Khalid Muhi al-DIN; Socialist
  Liberal Party, Mustafa Kamal MURAD; Democratic Unionist Party,
  Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK; Umma Party, Ahmad al-SABAHI; Misr
  al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party), leader NA; Nasserist Arab
  Democratic Party, Dia' al-din DAWUD; Democratic Peoples' Party,
  Anwar AFIFI; The Greens Party, Kamal KIRAH; Social Justice Party,
  Muhammad 'ABD-AL-'AL
  note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

Other political or pressure groups: despite a constitutional ban
  against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim
  Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant
  political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity
  by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but has moved more
  aggressively in the past year to block its influence; trade unions
  and professional associations are officially sanctioned

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT
  (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AG (observer), AL, AMF, BSEC (observer),
  CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA,
  IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAPEC, OAS
  (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAVEM III, UNCRO,
  UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNRWA,
  UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed Maher El SAYED
  chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
  FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319, 5131
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Edward S. WALKER, Jr.
  embassy: (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City,
  Cairo
  mailing address: APO AE 09839-4900, Unit 64900, Cairo
  telephone: [20] (2) 3557371
  FAX: [20] (2) 3573200
  branch office: Alexandria

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black
  with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle
  facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country
  in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen,
  which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria that
  has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green
  stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in
  the white band



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Half of Egypt's GDP originates in the public
  sector, most industrial plants being owned by the government.
  Overregulation holds back technical modernization and foreign
  investment. Even so, the economy grew rapidly during the late 1970s
  and early 1980s, but in 1986 the collapse of world oil prices and an
  increasingly heavy burden of debt servicing led Egypt to begin
  negotiations with the IMF for balance-of-payments support. Egypt's
  first IMF standby arrangement, concluded in mid-1987, was suspended
  in early 1988 because of the government's failure to adopt promised
  reforms. Egypt signed a follow-on program with the IMF and also
  negotiated a structural adjustment loan with the World Bank in 1991.
  In 1991-93 the government made solid progress on administrative
  reforms such as liberalizing exchange and interest rates, but
  resisted implementing major structural reforms like streamlining the
  public sector. As a result, the economy has not gained enough
  momentum to tackle the growing problem of unemployment. Egypt made
  uneven progress in implementing the successor programs it signed
  onto in late 1993 with the IMF and World Bank; currently it is
  negotiating another successor program with the IMF. President
  MUBARAK has cited population growth as the main cause of the
  country's economic troubles. The addition of about 1.2 million
  people a year to the already huge population of 63 million exerts
  enormous pressure on the 5% of the land area available for
  agriculture along the Nile.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $171 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $2,760 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.4% (yearend 1995)

Labor force: 16 million (1994 est.)
  by occupation: government, public sector enterprises, and armed
  forces 36%, agriculture 34%, privately owned service and
  manufacturing enterprises 20% (1984)
  note: shortage of skilled labor; 2.5 million Egyptians work abroad,
  mostly in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf Arab states (1993 est.)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $18 billion
  expenditures: $19.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $3.8
  billion (FY94/95 est.)

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals,
  petroleum, construction, cement, metals

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 11,830,000 kW
  production: 44.5 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 695 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables;
  cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats; annual fish catch about 140,000
  metric tons

Illicit drugs: a transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast
  Asian heroin and opium moving to Europe and the US; popular transit
  stop for Nigerian couriers; large domestic consumption of hashish
  from Lebanon and Syria

Exports: $5.4 billion (f.o.b., FY94/95 est.)
  commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton yarn, raw
  cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
  partners: EU, US, Japan

Imports: $15.2 billion (c.i.f., FY94/95 est.)
  commodities: machinery and equipment, foods, fertilizers, wood
  products, durable consumer goods, capital goods
  partners: US, EU, Japan

External debt: $33.6 billion (FY93/94 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $1.713 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 Egyptian pound (LE) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (LE) per US$1 - 3.4 (November
  1994), 3.369 (November 1993), 3.345 (November 1992), 2.7072 (1990);
  market rate: 3.3920 (January 1996), 3.3900 (1995), 3.3910 (1994),
  3.3718 (1993), 3.3386 (1992), 3.3322 (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 4,751 km
  standard gauge: 4,751 km 1,435-m gauge (42 km electrified; 951 km
  double track)

Highways:
  total: 47,387 km
  paved: 34,593 km
  unpaved: 12,794 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser,
  Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the
  delta); Suez Canal, 193.5 km long (including approaches), used by
  oceangoing vessels drawing up to 16.1 m of water

Pipelines: crude oil 1,171 km; petroleum products 596 km; natural
  gas 460 km

Ports: Alexandria, Al Ghardaqah, Aswan, Asyut, Bur Safajah,
  Damietta, Marsa Matruh, Port Said, Suez

Merchant marine:
  total: 164 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,187,290
  GRT/1,833,108 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 22, cargo 74, liquefied gas tanker 1, oil tanker
  14, passenger 33, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 15,
  short-sea passenger 4 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 80
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 11
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 34
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 16
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2
  with paved runways under 914 m: 9
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 2.2 million (1993)

Telephone system: large system by Third World standards but
  inadequate for present requirements and undergoing extensive
  upgrading
  domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah,
  Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and
  microwave radio relay
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean
  and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine
  cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to
  Israel; participant in Medarabtel

Radio broadcast stations: AM 39, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 41

Televisions: 5 million (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 16,530,460
  males fit for military service: 10,723,011
  males reach military age (20) annually: 660,453 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $3.5 billion,
  8.2% of GDP (FY94/95 est.)



======================================================================



@El Salvador
-----------



Map
---


Location: 13 50 N, 88 55 W -- Middle America, bordering the North
  Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and Honduras



Flag
----


Description: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white,
  and blue with the national coat of arms centered in the white band;
  the coat of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words
  REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag
  of Nicaragua, which has a different coat of arms centered in the
  white band - it features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA
  DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar
  to the flag of Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X
  pattern centered in the white band



Geography
---------


Location: Middle America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean,
  between Guatemala and Honduras

Geographic coordinates: 13 50 N, 88 55 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total area: 21,040 sq km
  land area: 20,720 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries:
  total: 545 km
  border countries: Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 200 nm

International disputes: land boundary dispute with Honduras mostly
  resolved by 11 September 1992 International Court of Justice (ICJ)
  decision; with respect to the maritime boundary in the Golfo de
  Fonseca, ICJ referred to an earlier agreement in this century and
  advised that some tripartite resolution among El Salvador, Honduras
  and Nicaragua likely would be required

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season
  (November to April)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central
  plateau
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Cerro El Pital 2,730 m

Natural resources: hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum

Land use:
  arable land: 27%
  permanent crops: 8%
  meadows and pastures: 29%
  forest and woodland: 6%
  other: 30%

Irrigated land: 1,200 sq km (1989)

Environment:
  current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution;
  contamination of soils from disposal of toxic wastes
  natural hazards: known as the Land of Volcanoes; frequent and
  sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
  Protection; signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea

Geographic note: smallest Central American country and only one
  without a coastline on Caribbean Sea



People
------


Population: 5,828,987 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 38% (male 1,137,804; female 1,097,774)
  15-64 years: 57% (male 1,627,519; female 1,716,261)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 115,973; female 133,656) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.81% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 28.3 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.81 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 31.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.88 years
  male: 65.44 years
  female: 72.5 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.2 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Salvadoran(s)
  adjective: Salvadoran

Ethnic divisions: mestizo 94%, Indian 5%, white 1%

Religions: Roman Catholic 75%
  note: there is extensive activity by Protestant groups throughout
  the country; by the end of 1992, there were an estimated 1 million
  Protestant evangelicals in El Salvador

Languages: Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 71.5%
  male: 73.5%
  female: 69.8%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of El Salvador
  conventional short form: El Salvador
  local long form: Republica de El Salvador
  local short form: El Salvador

Data code: ES

Type of government: republic

Capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos, singular
  - departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan, La
  Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa
  Ana, San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Constitution: 20 December 1983

Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common
  law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court;
  accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President Armando CALDERON
  Sol (since 1 June 1994) and Vice President Enrique BORGO Bustamante
  (since 1 June 1994) were elected for five-year terms by universal
  suffrage; election last held 20 March 1994 (next to be held NA March
  1999); results - Armando CALDERON SOL (ARENA) 49.03%, Ruben ZAMORA
  Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 24.09%, Fidel CHAVEZ Mena (PDC) 16.39%, other
  10.49%; because no candidate received a majority, a run-off election
  was held 24 April 1994; results - Armando CALDERON SOL (ARENA)
  68.35%, Ruben ZAMORA Rivas (CD/FMLN/MNR) 31.65%
  cabinet: Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa): elections last held 20
  March 1994 (next to be held NA March 1997); results - ARENA 46.4%,
  FMLN 25.0%, PDC 21.4%, PCN 4.8%, other 2.4%; seats - (84 total)
  ARENA 39, FMLN 21, PDC 18, PCN 4, other 2

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema), judges are
  selected by the Legislative Assembly

Political parties and leaders: National Republican Alliance
  (ARENA), Juan Jose DOMENECH, president; Farabundo Marti National
  Liberation Front (FMLN), Salvador SANCHEZ Ceren (aka Leonel
  GONZALEZ), general coordinator; Christian Democratic Party (PDC),
  Ronal UMANA, secretary general; National Conciliation Party (PCN),
  Ciro CRUZ Zepeda, secretary general; Democratic Convergence (CD),
  Juan Jose MARTEL, secretary general; Unity Movement, Jorge MARTINEZ
  Menendez, president
  note: newly formed parties not yet officially recognized by the
  Supreme Electoral Tribunal: Liberal Democratic Party (PLD), Kirio
  Waldo SALGADO, founder; Social Democratic Party (breakaway from
  FMLN), Joaquin VILLALOBOS, founder; Social Christian Renovation
  Movement (MRSC) (breakaway from PDC), Abraham RODRIGUEZ, founder

Other political or pressure groups:
  labor organizations: Salvadoran Communal Union (UCS), peasant
  association; General Confederation of Workers (CGT), moderate;
  United Workers Front (FUT)
  business organizations: Productive Alliance (AP), conservative;
  National Federation of Salvadoran Small Businessmen (FENAPES),
  conservative

International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO,
  G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA
  (observer), MINURSO, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ana Cristina SOL
  chancery: 2308 California Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 265-9671, 9672
  consulate(s) general: Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
  New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Alan H. FLANIGAN
  embassy: Final Boulevard Santa Elena, Station Antiguo Cuscatlan, San
  Salvador
  mailing address: Unit 3116, APO AA 34023
  telephone: [503] 278-4444
  FAX: [503] 278-6011

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue
  with the national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat
  of arms features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE
  EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua,
  which has a different coat of arms centered in the white band - it
  features a triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on
  top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; also similar to the flag of
  Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern
  centered in the white band



Economy
-------


Economic overview: El Salvador possesses a fast-growing
  entrepreneurial economy in which 90% of economic activity is in
  private hands, with growth averaging 5% since 1990. Yet, because the
  1980s were a decade of civil war and stagnation, per capita GDP has
  not regained the level of the late 1970s. The rebound in the 1990s
  stems from the government program, in conjunction with the IMF, of
  privatization, deregulation, and fiscal stabilization. The economy
  now is oriented more toward manufacturing and services compared with
  agriculture. The sizable trade deficits are in the main covered by
  remittances from the large number of Salvadorans abroad.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $11.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 6.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,950 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.4% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 1.7 million (1982 est.)
  by occupation: agriculture 40%, commerce 16%, manufacturing 15%,
  government 13%, financial services 9%, transportation 6%, other 1%

Unemployment rate: 6.7% (1993)

Budget:
  revenues: $846 million
  expenditures: $890 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1992 est.)

Industries: food processing, beverages, petroleum, tobacco,
  chemicals, textiles, furniture

Industrial production growth rate: 7.6% (1993)

Electricity:
  capacity: 750,000 kW
  production: 2.4 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 408 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseed; beef,
  dairy products; shrimp

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine; marijuana produced
  for local consumption

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: coffee, sugarcane, shrimp
  partners: US, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Germany

Imports: $3.3 billion (c.i.f., 1995 est.)
  commodities: raw materials, consumer goods, capital goods
  partners: US, Guatemala, Mexico, Venezuela, Germany

External debt: $2.6 billion (December 1992)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $777 million (1993)
  note: US has committed $250 million in aid to El Salvador for 1992-96

Currency: 1 Salvadoran colon (C) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1 - 8.755 (December
  1995), 8.755 (1995), 8.750 (1994), 8.670 (1993), 9.170 (1992), 8.080
  (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 602 km (single track; note - some sections abandoned,
  unusable, or operating at reduced capacity)
  narrow gauge: 602 km 0.914-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 12,251 km
  paved: 1,740 km (including 107 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 10,511 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

Ports: Acajutla, Puerto Cutuco, La Libertad, La Union, Puerto El
  Triunfo

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 73
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2
  with paved runways under 914 m: 48
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 21 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 116,000 (1984 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
  Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System

Radio broadcast stations: AM 77, FM 0, shortwave 2

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 5 (1986 est.)

Televisions: 500,700 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,415,691
  males fit for military service: 905,938
  males reach military age (18) annually: 78,660 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $100 million, 1%
  of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Equatorial Guinea
-----------------



Map
---


Location: 2 00 N, 10 00 E -- Western Africa, bordering the North
  Atlantic Ocean, between Cameroon and Gabon



Flag
----


Description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white,
  and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and
  the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has
  six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five
  offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and
  below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity,
  Peace, Justice)



Geography
---------


Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
  between Cameroon and Gabon

Geographic coordinates: 2 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 28,050 sq km
  land area: 28,050 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries:
  total: 539 km
  border countries: Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km

Coastline: 296 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Gabon
  because of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are
  volcanic
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Malabo 3,008 m

Natural resources: timber, petroleum, small unexploited deposits
  of gold, manganese, uranium

Land use:
  arable land: 8%
  permanent crops: 4%
  meadows and pastures: 4%
  forest and woodland: 51%
  other: 33%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: tap water is not potable; desertification
  natural hazards: violent windstorms
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Endangered
  Species, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified -
  Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: insular and continental regions rather widely
  separated



People
------


Population: 431,282 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43% (male 93,319; female 92,753)
  15-64 years: 53% (male 108,706; female 120,129)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 7,235; female 9,140) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.58% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 39.77 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 14.01 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.94 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 98 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 53.01 years
  male: 50.79 years
  female: 55.29 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 5.17 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
  adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic divisions: Bioko (primarily Bubi, some Fernandinos), Rio
  Muni (primarily Fang), Europeans less than 1,000, mostly Spanish

Religions: nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic,
  pagan practices

Languages: Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 78.5%
  male: 89.6%
  female: 68.1%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
  conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
  local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial
  local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial
  former: Spanish Guinea

Data code: EK

Type of government: republic in transition to multiparty democracy

Capital: Malabo

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular -
  provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem,
  Litoral, Wele-Nzas

Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

Constitution: new constitution 17 November 1991

Legal system: partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal adult

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
  MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979) election last held 25 February 1996
  (next to be held NA February 2003); results - President OBIANG
  NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected to a seven-year term without opposition
  head of government: Prime Minister Silvestre SIALE BILEKA (since 17
  January 1992); Vice Prime Minister Anatolio NDONG MBA (since
  November 1993)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

Legislative branch: unicameral
  House of People's Representatives: (Camara de Representantes del
  Pueblo) elections last held 21 November 1993 (next to be held NA);
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (82 total) PDGE 72,
  various opposition parties 10

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders:
  ruling party: Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea (PDGE), Brig.
  Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO, party leader
  opposition parties: Progressive Democratic Alliance (ADP),
  Antonio-Ebang Mbele Abang, president; Popular Action of Equatorial
  Guinea (APGE),Casiano Masi Edu, leader; Liberal Democratic
  Convention (CLD), Alfonso Nsue MIFUMU, president; Convergence for
  Social Democracy (CPDS), Santiago Obama Ndong, president; Social
  Democratic and Popular Convergence (CSDP), Secundino Oyono Agueng
  Ada, general secretary; Party of the Social Democratic Coalition
  (PCSD), Buenaventura Moswi M'Asumu, general coordinater; Liberal
  Party (PL), Santos PASCUAL; Party of Progress (PP), Severo MOTO Nsa,
  president; Social Democratic Party (PSD), Benjamin-Gabriel Balingha
  Balinga Alene, general secretary; Socialist Party of Equatorial
  Guinea (PSGE), Tomas MICHEBE Fernandez, general secretary; National
  Democratic Union (UDENA), Jose MECHEBA Ikaka, president; Democratic
  Social Union (UDS), Camelo Modu, general secretary; Popular Union
  (UP), Juan Bitui, president

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
  CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ITU, NAM, OAS
  (observer), OAU, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WTrO
  (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Pastor Micha ONDO BILE
  chancery: (temporary) 57 Magnolia Avenue, Mount Vernon, NY 10553
  telephone: [1] (914) 738-9584, 667-6913
  FAX: [1] (914) 667-6838

US diplomatic representation: the US does not have an embassy in
  Equatorial Guinea (embassy closed September 1995); US relations with
  Equatorial Guinea are handled through the US Embassy in Yaounde,
  Cameroon

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red
  with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat
  of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow
  six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore
  islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below
  which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity,
  Peace, Justice)



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing account for
  about half of GDP and nearly all exports. Subsistence farming
  predominates. Although pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on
  cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the deterioration of
  the rural economy under successive brutal regimes has diminished
  potential for agriculture-led growth. A number of aid programs
  sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut off since 1993
  because of the government's gross corruption and mismanagement.
  Businesses, for the most part, are owned by government officials and
  their family members. Undeveloped natural resources include
  titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. Oil
  exploration, taking place under concessions offered to US, French,
  and Spanish firms, has been moderately successful. In 1995, exports
  responded to the devaluation of 12 January 1994, apparently
  resulting in a sizable surplus and strong GDP growth. Increased
  production from recently discovered oil and natural gas fields will
  provide a greater share of exports in 1996-97.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $325 million (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 10% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $800 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 47%
  industry: 26%
  services: 27% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 41% (1994 est.)

Labor force: 172,000 (1986 est.)
  by occupation: agriculture 66%, services 23%, industry 11% (1980)
  note: labor shortages on plantations

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $32.5 million
  expenditures: $35.9 million, including capital expenditures of $3
  million (1992 est.)

Industries: fishing, sawmilling

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 23,000 kW
  production: 20 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 50 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (tapioca),
  bananas, palm oil nuts, manioc; livestock; timber

Exports: $62 million (f.o.b., 1993)
  commodities: coffee, cocoa beans, timber, petroleum
  partners: Spain, Nigeria, Cameroon, Japan, Portugal

Imports: $60 million (f.o.b., 1993)
  commodities: petroleum, food, beverages, clothing, machinery
  partners: Cameroon, Spain, France, US, Italy, Netherlands

External debt: $268 million (1993 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January
  1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
  282.11 (1991)
  note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
  100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
  1948

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 2,744 km
  paved: 330 km
  unpaved: 2,414 km (1988 est.)

Ports: Bata, Luba, Malabo

Merchant marine:
  total: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,412 GRT/6,699 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 1, passenger-cargo 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 3
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 2,000 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: poor system with adequate government services
  domestic: NA
  international: international communications from Bata and Malabo to
  African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
  (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 4,000 (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Rapid Intervention Force,
  National Police

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 92,704
  males fit for military service: 47,124 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $2.5 million, NA%
  of GDP (FY93/94)



======================================================================



@Eritrea
-------



Map
---


Location: 15 00 N, 39 00 E -- Eastern Africa, bordering the Red
  Sea, between Djibouti and Sudan



Flag
----


Description: red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side)
  dividing the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is
  green, the lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive
  branch is centered on the hoist side of the red triangle



Geography
---------


Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Djibouti
  and Sudan

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 39 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 121,320 sq km
  land area: 121,320 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,630 km
  border countries: Djibouti 113 km, Ethiopia 912 km, Sudan 605 km

Coastline: 1,151 km (land and island coastline is 2,234 km)

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: a dispute with Yemen over sovereignty of
  the Hanish Islands in the southern Red Sea has been submitted to
  arbitration under the auspices of the ICJ

Climate: hot, dry desert strip along Red Sea coast; cooler and
  wetter in the central highlands (up to 61 cm of rainfall annually);
  semiarid in western hills and lowlands; rainfall heaviest during
  June-September except on coastal desert

Terrain: dominated by extension of Ethiopian north-south trending
  highlands, descending on the east to a coastal desert plain, on the
  northwest to hilly terrain and on the southwest to flat-to-rolling
  plains
  lowest point: Kobar Sink -75 m
  highest point: Soira 3,013 m

Natural resources: gold, potash, zinc, copper, salt, probably oil
  (petroleum geologists are prospecting for it), fish

Land use:
  arable land: 3%
  permanent crops: 2% (coffee)
  meadows and pastures: 40%
  forest and woodland: 5%
  other: 50%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: famine; deforestation; desertification; soil
  erosion; overgrazing; loss of infrastructure from civil warfare
  natural hazards: frequent droughts
  international agreements: party to - Endangered Species; signed, but
  not ratified - Climate Change, Desertification

Geographic note: strategic geopolitical position along world's
  busiest shipping lanes; Eritrea retained the entire coastline of
  Ethiopia along the Red Sea upon de jure independence from Ethiopia
  on 27 April 1993



People
------


Population: 3,427,883 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 44% (male 755,417; female 743,135)
  15-64 years: 53% (male 910,976; female 913,531)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 54,310; female 50,514) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.79% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 43.32 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 15.44 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)
  note: it is estimated that between 300,000 and 500,000 Eritrean
  refugees were still living in Sudan at the end of 1995; their
  repatriation is being facilitated by the UNHCR

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1.08 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.01 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 118.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 50.31 years
  male: 48.57 years
  female: 52.1 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Eritrean(s)
  adjective: Eritrean

Ethnic divisions: ethnic Tigrinya 50%, Tigre and Kunama 40%, Afar
  4%, Saho (Red Sea coast dwellers) 3%

Religions: Muslim, Coptic Christian, Roman Catholic, Protestant

Languages: Afar, Amharic, Arabic, Italian, Tigre and Kunama,
  Tigrinya, minor tribal languages



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: State of Eritrea
  conventional short form: Eritrea
  local long form: none
  local short form: none
  former: Eritrea Autonomous Region in Ethiopia

Data code: ER

Type of government: transitional government
  note: on 29 May 1991 ISAIAS Afworke, secretary general of the
  Peoples' Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), which then served
  and still serves as the country's legislative body, announced the
  formation of the Provisional Government in Eritrea (PGE) in
  preparation for the 23-25 April 1993 referendum on independence for
  the autonomous region of Eritrea; the result was a landslide vote
  for independence, which was proclaimed on 27 April 1993

Capital: Asmara (formerly Asmera)

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces (singular - awraja); Akele
  Guzay, Barka, Denkel, Hamasen, Sahil, Semhar, Senhit, Seraye; note -
  information issued by the Eritrean government indicates that the
  administrative structure of Eritrea, which had been established by
  former colonial powers, will consist of only six regions when the
  new constitution, presently being drafted, goes into effect sometime
  in 1996

Independence: 27 May 1993 (from Ethiopia; formerly the Eritrea
  Autonomous Region)

National holiday: National Day (independence from Ethiopia), 24
  May (1993)

Constitution: transitional "constitution" decreed 19 May 1993; the
  promulgation of a draft constitution is expected in 1996

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: NA; note - the transitional constitution of 19 May 1993
  did not provide rules for suffrage, but it seems likely that the
  final version of the constitution, to be promulgated some time in
  1996, will follow the example set in the referendum of 1993 in which
  suffrage was universal for persons 18 years of age or older

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President ISAIAS Afworki
  (since 22 May 1993) is head of the State Council and National
  Assembly
  cabinet: State Council is the collective executive authority
  note: election to be held in 1997

Legislative branch: unicameral
  National Assembly: 75 members of the PFDJ Central Committee (the old
  Central Committee of the EPLF) and 75 directly elected members serve
  as the country's legislative body until country-wide elections are
  held in 1997

Judicial branch: Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: People's Front for Democracy and
  Justice (PFDJ), ISAIAS Afworki, PETROS Solomon (the only party
  recognized by the government)

Other political or pressure groups: Eritrean Islamic Jihad (EIJ);
  Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF), ABDULLAH Muhammed; Eritrean
  Liberation Front - United Organization (ELF-UO), Mohammed Said
  NAWUD; Eritrean Liberation Front - Revolutionary Council (ELF-RC),
  Ahmed NASSER

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, ECA, FAO,
  IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat (nonsignatory
  user), ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador AMDEMICHAEL Berhane Khasai
  chancery: Suite 400, 910 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20006
  telephone: [1] (202) 429-1991
  FAX: [1] (202) 429-9004

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Robert G. HOUDEK
  embassy: Franklin D. Roosevelt St., Asmara
  mailing address: P.O. Box 211, Asmara
  telephone: [291] (1) 120004
  FAX: [291] (1) 127584

Flag: red isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) dividing
  the flag into two right triangles; the upper triangle is green, the
  lower one is blue; a gold wreath encircling a gold olive branch is
  centered on the hoist side of the red triangle



Economy
-------


Economic overview: With independence from Ethiopia on 27 April
  1993, Eritrea faces the bitter economic problems of a small,
  desperately poor African country. Most of the population will
  continue to depend on subsistence farming. Domestic output is
  substantially augmented by worker remittances from abroad.
  Government revenues come from custom duties and income and sales
  taxes. Eritrea has inherited the entire coastline of Ethiopia and
  has long-term prospects for revenues from the development of
  offshore oil, offshore fishing, and tourism. For the time being,
  Ethiopia will be largely dependent on Eritrean ports for its foreign
  trade.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 10% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $570 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1995 est.)

Labor force: NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: food processing, beverages, clothing and textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: NA kW
  production: NA kWh
  consumption per capita: NA kWh

Agriculture: sorghum, lentils, vegetables, maize, cotton, tobacco,
  coffee, sisal (for making rope); livestock (including goats); fish

Exports: $33 million (1995 est.)
  commodities: livestock, sorghum, textiles
  partners: Ethiopia, Italy, Saudi Arabia, UK, US, Yemen

Imports: $420 million (1995 est.)
  commodities: processed goods, machinery, petroleum products
  partners: NA

External debt: $NA

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents; at present, Ethiopian currency
  used

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 - 6.2 (1995 est.), 5.600
  (September 1994), 5.000 (fixed rate 1992-93); note - following
  independence from Ethiopia, Eritrea continued to use Ethiopian
  currency, the official rate of which was pegged to US$1 = 5.000 birr

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 307 km; note - nonoperational since 1978 except for about 5
  km that was reopened in Massawa in 1994; rehabilitation of the
  remainder and of the rolling stock is under way; links Ak'ordat and
  Asmara (formerly Asmera) with the port of Massawa (formerly Mits'iwa)
  narrow gauge: 307 km 0.950-m gauge (1995 est.)

Highways:
  total: 3,845 km
  paved: 807 km
  unpaved: 3,038 km (1993 est.)

Ports: Assab (Aseb), Massawa (Mits'iwa)

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,573 GRT/13,593
  DWT (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 14
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 2
  with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
  domestic: very inadequate; about 4 telephones per 100 families, most
  of which are in Asmara; government is seeking international tenders
  to improve the system
  international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 1 (government controlled)

Televisions: NA



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: NA
  males fit for military service: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Estonia
-------



Map
---


Location: 59 00 N, 26 00 E -- Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic
  Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia



Flag
----


Description: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990
  - three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white



Geography
---------


Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of
  Finland, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 45,100 sq km
  land area: 43,200 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than New Hampshire and Vermont
  combined
  note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

Land boundaries:
  total: 557 km
  border countries: Latvia 267 km, Russia 290 km

Coastline: 1,393 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: limits to be fixed in coordination with
  neighboring states
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claims over 2,000 sq km of Russian
  territory in the Narva and Pechora regions - based on boundary
  established under the 1921 Peace Treaty of Tartu; disputes maritime
  border with Latvia - primary concern is fishing rights around Ruhne
  Island in the Gulf of Riga

Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

Terrain: marshy, lowlands
  lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

Natural resources: shale oil, peat, phosphorite, amber

Land use:
  arable land: 22%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 11%
  forest and woodland: 31%
  other: 36%

Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1990)

Environment:
  current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from
  oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil
  and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at former Soviet
  military bases
  natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Wetlands



People
------


Population: 1,459,428 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20% (male 148,683; female 143,563)
  15-64 years: 66% (male 467,759; female 501,519)
  65 years and over: 14% (male 63,976; female 133,928) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.13% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 10.74 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 14.12 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -7.96 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.48 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.87 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.13 years
  male: 62.5 years
  female: 74.05 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.55 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Estonian(s)
  adjective: Estonian

Ethnic divisions: Estonian 61.5%, Russian 30.3%, Ukrainian 3.2%,
  Byelorussian 1.8%, Finn 1.1%, other 2.1% (1989)

Religions: Lutheran, Orthodox Christian

Languages: Estonian (official), Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, other

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989 est.)
  total population: 100%
  male: 100%
  female: 100%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
  conventional short form: Estonia
  local long form: Eesti Vabariik
  local short form: Eesti
  former: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: EN

Type of government: republic

Capital: Tallinn

Administrative divisions: 15 counties (maakonnad, singular -
  maakond): Harju maakond (Tallinn), Hiiu maakond (Kardla), Ida-Viru
  maakond (Johvi), Jarva maakond (Paide), Jogeva maakond (Jogeva),
  Laane maakond (Haapsalu), Laane-Viru maakond (Rakvere), Parnu
  maakond (Parnu), Polva maakond (Polva), Rapla maakond (Rapla), Saare
  maakond (Kuessaare), Tartu maakond (Tartu), Valga maakond (Valga),
  Viljandi maakond (Viljandi), Voru maakond (Voru)
  note: county centers are in parentheses

Independence: 6 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 February (1918)

Constitution: adopted 28 June 1992

Legal system: based on civil law system; no judicial review of
  legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Lennart MERI (since 21 October 1992) was
  elected for a five-year term by Parliament; election last held 20
  September 1992 (next to be held fall 1996); results - no candidate
  received majority; Parliament elected Lennart MERI
  head of government: Acting Prime Minister Tiit VAHI (since NA March
  1995); the president nominated and Parliament authorized the
  candidate for prime minister
  cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the prime minister,
  approved by Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Parliament (Riigikogu): elections last held 5 March 1995 (next to be
  held NA 1999); results - KMU 32.22%, RE 16.18%, K 14.17%, Pro Patria
  and ERSP 7.85%, M 5.98%, Our Home is Estonia and Right-Wingers 5.0%;
  seats - (101 total) KMU 41, RE 19, K 16, Pro Patria 8, Our Home is
  Estonia 6, M 6, Right-Wingers 5

Judicial branch: National Court

Political parties and leaders: Coalition Party and Rural Union
  (KMU), Tiit VAHI, chairman, made up of 4 parties: Coalition Party,
  Country People's Party, Farmer's Assembly, and Pensioners' and
  Families' League; Reform Party-Liberals (RE), Siim KALLAS, chairman;
  Center Party (K), Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman; Union of Pro Patria or
  Fatherland Alliance (Isamaa of Fatherland), Toivo JURGENSON,
  chairman; National Independence Party (ERSP), Kelam TUNNE, chairman,
  note - may have disappeared since the last election; Our Home is
  Estonia made up of 2 parties: United Peoples Party and the Russian
  People's Party of Estonia; United Peoples Party, Viktor ANDREJEV,
  chairman; Russian People's Party of Estonia, Sergei KUZNETSOV,
  chairman; Moderates (M) made up of 2 parties: Social Democratic
  Party and Rural Center Party; Social Democratic Party, Eiki NESTOR,
  chairman; Rural Center Party, Vambo KAAL, chairman; Right-Wingers,
  Ulo NUGIS, chairman

International organization participation: BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE,
  EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IFC,
  IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NACC,
  OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WEU (associate partner),
  WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO (applicant)

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Toomas Hendrik ILVES
  chancery: 2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 588-0101
  FAX: [1] (202) 789-0471
  consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Lawrence P. TAYLOR
  embassy: Kentmanni 20, Tallinn EE 0001
  mailing address: use embassy street address
  telephone: [372] (6) 312-021
  FAX: [372] (6) 312-025

Flag: pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990 - three
  equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Estonia continues to experience strong economic
  growth after its economy bottomed out in 1993. Bolstered by a
  widespread national desire to reintegrate into Western Europe,
  Estonia has adhered to disciplined fiscal and financial policies and
  has led the FSU countries in pursuing economic reform. Monthly
  inflation has been held to under 5% since the beginning of 1992,
  with monthly inflation in 1995 at 2%. Following four years of
  decline, Estonia's GDP grew 5% in 1994 and 6% in 1995 - among the
  highest rates in Europe, according to estimates of the IMF and
  Estonia's own Economic Ministry. Despite these positive economic
  indicators, unemployment - 8% in 1994 - is on the rise, and wages -
  especially for teachers and law enforcement personnel - have not
  kept pace with inflation. Small- and medium-scale privatization is
  essentially complete, and large-scale privatization is progressing,
  but slowly. Estonia has successfully reoriented it trade toward the
  West, two-thirds of exports now going to Western markets. Estonia's
  free trade policies were the cornerstone of its negotiations with
  the European Union, and led to the signing of an association
  agreement in June 1995. Estonia was the only Baltic state not to
  have a transition period imposed by the EU prior to its
  implementation of a free trade agreement.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $12.3 billion (1995 estimate as
  extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP real growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $7,600 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 10%
  industry: 37%
  services: 53% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 29% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 750,000 (1992)
  by occupation: industry and construction 42%, agriculture and
  forestry 20%, other 38% (1990)

Unemployment rate: 8% (1994 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $620 million
  expenditures: $582 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (January-October 1995)

Industries: oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates, electric motors,
  excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper, shoes,
  apparel

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 3,420,000 kW
  production: 11.3 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 6,528 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: potatoes, fruits, vegetables; livestock and dairy
  products; fish

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central
  and Southwest Asia and Latin America to Western Europe; very limited
  illicit opium producer; mostly for domestic consumption

Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1995)
  commodities: textile 14%, food products 11%, vehicles 11%, metals
  11% (1993)
  partners: Russia, Finland, Sweden, Germany

Imports: $2.5 billion (c.i.f., 1995)
  commodities: machinery 18%, fuels 15%, vehicles 14%, textiles 10%
  (1993)
  partners: Finland, Russia, Germany, Sweden

External debt: $270 million (January 1996)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $147 million (1993)
  note: Western commitments $285 million (including international
  financial institutions)

Currency: 1 Estonian kroon (EEK) = 100 cents (introduced in August
  1992)

Exchange rates: krooni (EEK) per US$1 - 11.523 (December 1995),
  11.465 (1995), 12.991 (1994), 13.223 (1993); note - krooni are tied
  to the German deutsche mark at a fixed rate of 8 to 1

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 1,018 km common carrier lines only; does not include
  dedicated industrial lines
  broad gauge: 1,018 km 1.520-m gauge (132 km electrified) (1995)

Highways:
  total: 14,771 km
  paved: 8,124 km (including 62 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 6,647 km (1993)

Waterways: 500 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: natural gas 420 km (1992)

Ports: Haapsalu, Narva, Paldiski, Parnu, Tallinn

Merchant marine:
  total: 52 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 353,140 GRT/467,086 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 33, oil tanker 3, roll-on/roll-off
  cargo 6, short-sea passenger 4 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 22
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 4
  with unpaved runways under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 400,000

Telephone system: system is antiquated; improvements are being
  made piecemeal, with emphasis on business needs and international
  connections; there are still about 150,000 unfulfilled requests for
  subscriber service
  domestic: substantial investment has been made in cellular systems
  which are operational throughout Estonia
  international: international traffic is carried to the other former
  Soviet republics by landline or microwave radio relay and to other
  countries partly by leased connection to the Moscow international
  gateway switch and partly by a new Tallinn-Helsinki fiber-optic,
  submarine cable which gives Estonia access to international circuits
  everywhere; access to the international packet-switched digital
  network via Helsinki

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave 0

Radios: 710,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3
  note: provide Estonian programs as well as Moscow Ostenkino's first
  and second programs

Televisions: 600,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Force (not
  officially sanctioned), Maritime Border Guard, Volunteer Defense
  League (Kaitseliit), Security Forces (internal and border troops),
  Coast Guard

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 357,835
  males fit for military service: 280,757
  males reach military age (18) annually: 10,525 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $35 million, 1.5%
  of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Ethiopia
--------



Map
---


Location: 8 00 N, 38 00 E -- Eastern Africa, west of Somalia



Flag
----


Description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow,
  and red with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating
  from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on
  the three bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in
  Africa, and the colors of her flag were so often adopted by other
  African countries upon independence that they became known as the
  pan-African colors



Geography
---------


Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 38 00 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 1,127,127 sq km
  land area: 1,119,683 sq km
  comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries:
  total: 5,311 km
  border countries: Djibouti 337 km, Eritrea 912 km, Kenya 830 km,
  Somalia 1,626 km, Sudan 1,606 km

Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

International disputes: southern half of the boundary with Somalia
  is a Provisional Administrative Line; territorial dispute with
  Somalia over the Ogaden

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great
  Rift Valley
  lowest point: Denakil -125 m
  highest point: Ras Dashen Terara 4,620 m

Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash

Land use:
  arable land: 12%
  permanent crops: 1%
  meadows and pastures: 41%
  forest and woodland: 24%
  other: 22%

Irrigated land: 1,620 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
  desertification; famine
  natural hazards: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible
  to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Ozone Layer Protection; signed, but not ratified
  - Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea,
  Nuclear Test Ban

Geographic note: landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea
  was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 27 April 1993



People
------


Population: 57,171,662 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 46% (male 13,116,158; female 13,080,276)
  15-64 years: 51% (male 14,782,995; female 14,624,779)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 728,808; female 838,646) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.72% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 46.05 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 17.53 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -1.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)
  note: repatriation of Ethiopians who fled to Sudan, Kenya and
  Somalia for refuge from war and famine in earlier years, is expected
  to continue in 1996; entry into Ethiopia of Sudanese and Somalis
  fleeing the fighting in their own countries is also continuing in
  1996

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 122.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 46.85 years
  male: 45.71 years
  female: 48.02 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Ethiopian(s)
  adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic divisions: Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%,
  Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar 4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%

Religions: Muslim 45%-50%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35%-40%, animist
  12%, other 5%

Languages: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga,
  Somali, Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 35.5%
  male: 45.5%
  female: 25.3%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
  conventional short form: Ethiopia
  local long form: none
  local short form: Ityop'iya
  abbreviation: FDRE

Data code: ET

Type of government: federal republic
  note: on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic
  Front (EPRDF) toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU
  Haile-Mariam and took control in Addis Ababa; a new constitution was
  promulgated in December 1994 and national and regional popular
  elections were held in May and June 1995

Capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 9 ethnically-based administrative
  regions (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akababi) and 1
  federal capital*: Addis Ababa*; Afar; Amhara; Benshangul/Gumaz;
  Gambela; Harar; Oromia; Somali; Southern Nations, Nationalities and
  Peoples; Tigray

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the
  oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years

National holiday: National Day, 28 May (1991) (defeat of Mengistu
  regime)

Constitution: new constitution promulgated in December 1994

Legal system: NA

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President NEGASSO Gidada (since NA August 1995)
  elected by the Council of People's Representatives following the
  elections of legislators in May and June 1995
  head of government: Prime Minister MELES Zenawi (since NA August
  1995) designated by the party in power, EPRDF, following the
  elections of legislators in May and June 1995
  cabinet: Council of Ministers as provided in the December 1994
  constitution; ministers are selected by the prime minister and
  approved by the Council of People's Representatives

Legislative branch: bicameral legislature
  Federal Council: upper chamber, having NA members, represents the
  ethnic interests of the regional governments and is elected by the
  regional assemblies
  Council of People's Representatives: lower chamber, having 550
  members, elected by popular vote
  note: both bodies have five-year terms of office; regional and
  national popular elections were held in May and June 1995; results -
  EPRDF swept nearly all seats

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judges are elected by the national
  legislature

Political parties and leaders: Ethiopian People's Revolutionary
  Democratic Front (EPRDF), MELES Zenawi

Other political or pressure groups: Oromo Liberation Front (OLF);
  All Amhara People's Organization; Southern Ethiopia People's
  Democratic Coalition; numerous small, ethnic-based groups have
  formed since MENGISTU'S resignation, including several Islamic
  militant groups

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA,
  FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU,
  UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WToO,
  WTrO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador BERHANE Gebre-Christos
  chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 234-2281, 2282
  FAX: [1] (202) 328-7950

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Irvin HICKS
  embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
  mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
  telephone: [251] (1) 550666
  FAX: [251] (1) 552191

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red
  with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the
  angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three
  bands; Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the
  colors of her flag were so often adopted by other African countries
  upon independence that they became known as the pan-African colors



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Ethiopia continues to face difficult economic
  problems as one of the poorest and least developed countries in
  Africa. Its economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for
  about half of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment;
  coffee generates 60% of export earnings. The agricultural sector
  suffers from frequent periods of drought, poor cultivation
  practices, and deterioration of internal security conditions. The
  manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs from the
  agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less than
  10% of agriculture, is state-run. The government is considering
  selling off a portion of state-owned plants and is implementing
  reform measures that are gradually liberalizing the economy. A major
  medium-term problem is the improvement of roads, water supply, and
  other parts of an infrastructure badly neglected during years of
  civil strife.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $24.2 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.7% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $400 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 48%
  industry: 15%
  services: 37% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (FY93/94)

Labor force: 18 million
  by occupation: agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and
  services 12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $1.2 billion
  expenditures: $1.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $707
  million (FY93/94)

Industries: food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals,
  metals processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 460,000 kW
  production: 1.3 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 23 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, sugarcane,
  potatoes, other vegetables; hides, cattle, sheep, goats

Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and
  Southeast Asia and destined for Europe and North America as well as
  cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat
  (chat) for local use and regional export

Exports: $296 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: coffee, leather products, gold
  partners: Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia, France, Italy

Imports: $972 million (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
  commodities: capital goods, consumer goods, fuel
  partners: US, Germany, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Japan

External debt: $3.7 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $1.036 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1 - 6.3200 (December 1995),
  6.3200 (1995), 5.9500 (1994), 5.0000 (fixed rate 1992-93); fixed at
  2.070 before 1992; note - official rate pegged to the US$

Fiscal year: 8 July - 7 July



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti
  railroad)
  narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge

Highways:
  total: 24,127 km
  paved: 3,289 km
  unpaved: 20,838 km (1993 est.)

Ports: none; Ethiopia is landlocked but by agreement with Eritrea
  may use the ports of Assab and Massawa

Merchant marine:
  total: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,627 GRT/88,908 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 8, oil tanker 2, roll-on/roll-off cargo 2 (1995
  est.)

Airports:
  total: 58
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 6
  with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 5
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 9
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 29 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 100,000 (1983 est.)

Telephone system: open wire and microwave radio relay system
  adequate for government use
  domestic: open wire and microwave radio relay
  international: open wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio
  relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat
  (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 9.9 million (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1

Televisions: 100,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Ground Forces, Air Force, Police
  note: following the secession of Eritrea, Ethiopia's naval
  facilities remained in Eritrea's possession; current reorganization
  plans do not include a navy

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 12,912,144
  males fit for military service: 6,707,180
  males reach military age (18) annually: 583,724 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $140 million,
  4.1% of GDP (FY93/94)



======================================================================



@Europa Island
-------------


(possession of France)

Map
---


Location: 22 20 S, 40 22 E -- Southern Africa, island in the
  Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from southern
  Madagascar to southern Mozambique



Flag
----


Description: the flag of France is used



Geography
---------


Location: Southern Africa, island in the Mozambique Channel, about
  one-half of the way from southern Madagascar to southern Mozambique

Geographic coordinates: 22 20 S, 40 22 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 28 sq km
  land area: 28 sq km
  comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 22.2 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Madagascar

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 24 m

Natural resources: negligible

Land use:
  arable land: NA%
  permanent crops: NA%
  meadows and pastures: NA%
  forest and woodland: NA% (heavily wooded)
  other: NA%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: NA
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: wildlife sanctuary



People
------


Population: uninhabited



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Europa Island
  local long form: none
  local short form: Ile Europa

Data code: EU

Type of government: French possession administered by Commissioner
  of the Republic; resident in Reunion

Capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used



Economy
-------


Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation
--------------


Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports:
  total: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Communications note: 1 meteorological station



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
---------------------------------


(dependent territory of the UK)

Map
---


Location: 51 45 S, 59 00 W -- Southern South America, islands in
  the South Atlantic Ocean, east of southern Argentina



Flag
----


Description: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk
  centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a
  white ram (sheep raising is the major economic activity) above the
  sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the islands) with a
  scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT



Geography
---------


Location: Southern South America, islands in the South Atlantic
  Ocean, east of southern Argentina

Geographic coordinates: 51 45 S, 59 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
  total area: 12,170 sq km
  land area: 12,170 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut
  note: includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and
  about 200 small islands

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200 nm
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: administered by the UK, claimed by
  Argentina

Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain
  occurs on more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year,
  except in January and February, but does not accumulate

Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating
  plains
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Usborne 705 m

Natural resources: fish, wildlife

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 99%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 1%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: strong winds persist throughout the year
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: deeply indented coast provides good natural
  harbors; short growing season



People
------


Population: 2,374 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 2.43% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population

Net migration rate: NA migrant(s)/1,000 population

Sex ratio:
  at birth: NA male(s)/female
  under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
  15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
  65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
  all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: NA years
  male: NA years
  female: NA years

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman

Nationality:
  noun: Falkland Islander(s)
  adjective: Falkland Island

Ethnic divisions: British

Religions: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Free Church,
  Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day
  Adventist

Languages: English



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Colony of the Falkland Islands
  conventional short form: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

Data code: FA

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Stanley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Constitution: 3 October 1985

Legal system: English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the UK since 6 February 1952)
  is a hereditary monarch
  head of government: Governor R. RALPH (since NA) was appointed by
  the queen
  cabinet: Executive Council; three members elected by the Legislative
  Council, two ex-officio members (chief executive and the financial
  secretary), and the governor

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Legislative Council: elections last held 11 October 1989 (next was
  to be held NA October 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA;
  seats - (10 total, 8 elected) independents 8

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: NA

International organization participation: ICFTU

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the
  UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk
  centered on the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a
  white ram (sheep raising is the major economic activity) above the
  sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the islands) with a
  scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The economy was formerly based on agriculture,
  mainly sheep farming, which directly or indirectly employs most of
  the work force. Dairy farming supports domestic consumption; crops
  furnish winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool
  to the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. Rich stocks of
  fish in the surrounding waters are not presently exploited by the
  islanders. So far, efforts to establish a domestic fishing industry
  have been unsuccessful. The economy has diversified since 1987, when
  the government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers
  operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license
  fees total more than $40 million per year and support the island's
  health, education, and welfare system. To encourage tourism, the
  Falkland Islands Development Corporation has built three lodges for
  visitors attracted by the abundant wildlife and trout fishing. The
  islands are now self-financing except for defense. The British
  Geological Survey announced a 200-mile oil exploration zone around
  the islands in 1993, and early seismic surveys suggest substantial
  reserves capable of producing 500,000 barrels per day. An agreement
  between Argentina and the United Kingdom in 1995 seeks to defuse
  licensing and sovereignty conflicts that would dampen foreign
  interest in exploiting potential oil reserves.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $NA

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $NA

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 1,100 (est.)
  by occupation: agriculture 95% (mostly sheepherding)

Unemployment rate: NA%; labor shortage

Budget:
  revenues: $42.7 million
  expenditures: $28.5 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1993-94 est.)

Industries: wool and fish processing

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 9,200 kW
  production: 17 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 7,253 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: fodder and vegetable crops; sheep farming, small
  dairy herds

Exports: $5.4 million
  commodities: wool, hides, meat
  partners: UK, Netherlands, Japan (1992)

Imports: $26.2 million
  commodities: food, clothing, timber, and machinery
  partners: UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1992)

External debt: $NA

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA
  note: UK, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments totaled $18 million
  (1993-94)

Currency: 1 Falkland pound (LF) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Falkland pound (LF) per US$1 - 0.6535 (January
  1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664 (1992),
  0.5652 (1991); note - the Falkland pound is at par with the British
  pound

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 510 km
  paved: 30 km
  unpaved: 480 km

Ports: Stanley

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 5
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 4 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 1,180 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB
  radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all
  points on both islands
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
  with links through London to other countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 3, shortwave 0

Radios: 1,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (government operated)

Televisions: NA



Defense
-------


Branches: British Forces Falkland Islands (includes Army, Royal
  Air Force, Royal Navy, and Royal Marines), Police Force

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@Faroe Islands
-------------


(part of the Danish realm)

Map
---


Location: 62 00 N, 7 00 W -- Northern Europe, island group between
  the Norwegian Sea and the north Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of
  the way from Iceland to Norway



Flag
----


Description: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends
  to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted
  to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Geography
---------


Location: Northern Europe, island group between the Norwegian Sea
  and the north Atlantic Ocean, about one-half of the way from Iceland
  to Norway

Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 7 00 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 1,400 sq km
  land area: 1,400 sq km
  comparative area: eight times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 764 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Slaettaratindur 882 m

Natural resources: fish

Land use:
  arable land: 2%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 98%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: NA
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: archipelago of 18 inhabited islands and a few
  uninhabited islets; strategically located along important sea lanes
  in northeastern Atlantic; precipitous terrain limits habitation to
  small coastal lowlands



People
------


Population: 43,857 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 24% (male 5,461; female 5,280)
  15-64 years: 62% (male 14,488; female 12,617)
  65 years and over: 14% (male 2,661; female 3,350) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: -1.8% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 13.91 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.69 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -23.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 0.99 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.06 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.83 years
  male: 74.75 years
  female: 80.88 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.38 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Faroese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Faroese

Ethnic divisions: Scandinavian

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran

Languages: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

Literacy: NA



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Faroe Islands
  local long form: none
  local short form: Foroyar

Data code: FO

Type of government: part of the Danish realm; self-governing
  overseas administrative division of Denmark

Capital: Torshavn

Administrative divisions: none (self-governing overseas
  administrative division of Denmark)

Independence: none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing
  overseas administrative division of Denmark)

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)

Legal system: Danish

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (of Denmark since 14 January
  1972), who is a constitutional monarch, is represented by High
  Commissioner Bent KLINTE, chief administrative officer (since NA)
  head of government: Prime Minister Edmund JOENSEN (since 15
  September 1994) was elected by the Logting
  cabinet: Landsstyri was elected by the Logting

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Faroese Parliament (Logting): elections last held 8 July 1994 (next
  to be held by July 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA;
  seats - (32 total) Liberal Party 8, People's Party 6, Social
  Democrats 5, Republicans 4, Workers' Party 3, Christian Democrats 2,
  Center Party 2, Home Rule Party 2
  Danish Parliament: elections last held on 21 September 1994 (next to
  be held by September 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA;
  seats - (2 total) Liberals 2

Judicial branch: none

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party, Marita
  PETERSEN; Workers Front, Oli JACOBSEN; Home Rule Party, Helena Dam A
  NEYSTABO; The "Coalition Party," Edmund JOENSEN; Republican Party,
  Finnbogi ISAKSON; Centrist Party, Tordur NICLASEN; Christian
  People's Party, Niels Pauli DANIELSEN; People's Party, Arnfinn
  KALLSBERG; Liberal Party, Jorgen ESTRUP; Christian Democratic Party

International organization participation: none

Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing overseas
  administrative division of Denmark)

US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing overseas
  administrative division of Denmark)

Flag: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the
  edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the
  hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The Faroese economy is experiencing a moderate
  upturn after several years of decline brought on by over-fishing and
  declining fish prices, large budget deficits by the Faroese Home
  Rule Government (FHRG), plummeting property values, and a bail-out
  merger of the two largest Faroese banks. Near-term forecasts suggest
  continued economic recovery, and oil finds close to the Faroese area
  may lay the basis for an eventual economic rebound. Aided by a
  substantial annual subsidy from Denmark, the Faroese have enjoyed a
  standard of living comparable to the Danes and other Scandinavians.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $733 million (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $15,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.8% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 17,585
  by occupation: largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing,
  transportation, and commerce

Unemployment rate: 23% (1993)

Budget:
  revenues: $407.2 million
  expenditures: $482.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1993 est.)

Industries: fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 90,000 kW
  production: 200 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 3,953 kWh (1992)

Agriculture: potatoes, vegetables; sheep; annual fish catch about
  360,000 metric tons

Exports: $345.3 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
  commodities: fish and fish products 88%, animal feedstuffs,
  transport equipment (ships) (1989)
  partners: Denmark 20%, Germany 18.3%, UK 14.2%, France 11.2%, Spain
  7.9%, US 4.5%

Imports: $234.4 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
  commodities: machinery and transport equipment 24.4%, manufactures
  24%, food and livestock 19%, fuels 12%, chemicals 6.5%
  partners: Denmark 43.8%, Norway 19.8%, Sweden 4.9%, Germany 4.2%, US
  1.3%

External debt: $1.2 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA
  note: receives an annual subsidy from Denmark of about $130 million

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 5.652 (January
  1996), 5.602 (1995), 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396
  (1991)

Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 443 km
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km

Ports: Klaksvick, Torshavn, Tvoroyri

Merchant marine:
  total: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,879 GRT/18,444 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 5, roll-on/roll-off cargo 1, short-sea
  passenger 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 1
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 27,900 (1984 est.)

Telephone system: good international communications; fair domestic
  facilities
  domestic: NA
  international: 3 coaxial submarine cables

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 3 (repeaters 10), shortwave 0

Radios: 24,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (repeaters 29)

Televisions: 14,000 (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: no organized native military forces; only a small Police
  Force and Coast Guard are maintained

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark



======================================================================



@Fiji
----



Map
---


Location: 18 00 S, 175 00 E -- Oceania, island group in the South
  Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand



Flag
----


Description: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper
  hoist-side quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half
  of the flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field
  quartered by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of
  sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove



Geography
---------


Location: Oceania, island group in the South Pacific Ocean, about
  two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

Geographic coordinates: 18 00 S, 175 00 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
  total area: 18,270 sq km
  land area: 18,270 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,129 km

Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation;
  rectilinear shelf claim added
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature
  variation

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Tomanivi 1,324 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper, offshore oil
  potential

Land use:
  arable land: 8%
  permanent crops: 5%
  meadows and pastures: 3%
  forest and woodland: 65%
  other: 19%

Irrigated land: 10 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: deforestation; soil erosion
  natural hazards: cyclonic storms can occur from November to January
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone
  Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Whaling

Geographic note: includes 332 islands of which approximately 110
  are inhabited



People
------


Population: 782,381 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 35% (male 141,652; female 135,829)
  15-64 years: 62% (male 240,621; female 240,620)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 11,235; female 12,424) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.28% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 23.37 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 6.35 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -4.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.01 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 17.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 65.71 years
  male: 63.39 years
  female: 68.14 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.83 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Fijian(s)
  adjective: Fijian

Ethnic divisions: Fijian 49%, Indian 46%, European, other Pacific
  Islanders, overseas Chinese, and other 5%

Religions: Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu
  38%, Muslim 8%, other 2%
  note: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there is
  a Muslim minority (1986)

Languages: English (official), Fijian, Hindustani

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 91.6%
  male: 93.8%
  female: 89.3%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Fiji
  conventional short form: Fiji

Data code: FJ

Type of government: republic
  note: military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally
  declared Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

Capital: Suva

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central,
  Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western

Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1970)

Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new
  Constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25
  July 1990; the 1990 Constitution is under review; the review is
  scheduled to be complete by 1997

Legal system: based on British system

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (Acting President
  since 15 December 1993, President since 12 January 1994) was
  appointed for a five-year term by the Great Council of Chiefs; First
  Vice President Ratu Sir Josaia TAIVAIQIA (since 12 January 1994);
  Second Vice President Ratu Inoke TAKIVEIKATA (since 12 January 1994)
  head of government: Prime Minister Sitiveni RABUKA (since 2 June
  1992) was appointed by the president; Deputy Prime Minister Timoci
  VESIKULA (since NA)
  Presidential Council: advises the president on matters of national
  importance
  Great Council of Chiefs: highest ranking members of the traditional
  chiefly system
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the prime minister from among the
  members of Parliament and is responsible to Parliament

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
  Senate: nonelective body, members are appointed by the president and
  serve five-year terms; seats - (34 total, 24 reserved for ethnic
  Fijians, 9 for Indians and others, and 1 for the island of Rotuma)
  House of Representatives: members serve five-year terms; elections
  last held 18-25 February 1994 (next to be held NA 1999); results -
  percent of vote by party NA; seats - (70 total, with ethnic Fijians
  allocated 37 seats, ethnic Indians 27 seats, and independents and
  other 6 seats) SVT 31, NFP 20, FLP 7, FAP 5, GVP 4, independents 2,
  ANC 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Fijian Political Party (SVT -
  primarily Fijian), leader Maj. Gen. Sitivini RABUKA; National
  Federation Party (NFP; primarily Indian), Jai Ram REDDY; Fijian
  Nationalist Party (FNP), Sakeasi BUTADROKA; Fiji Labor Party (FLP),
  Mahendra CHAUDHRY; General Voters Party (GVP), Leo SMITH; Fiji
  Conservative Party (FCP), leader NA; Conservative Party of Fiji
  (CPF), leader NA; Fiji Indian Liberal Party, leader NA; Fiji Indian
  Congress Party, leader NA; Fiji Independent Labor (Muslim), leader
  NA; Four Corners Party, leader NA; Fijian Association Party (FAP),
  Josevata KAMIKAMICA; General Electors' Association, leader NA
  note: in early 1995, ethnic Fijian members of the All National
  Congress (ANC) merged with the Fijian Association (FA); the
  remaining members of the ANC have renamed their party the General
  Electors' Association

International organization participation: ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP,
  FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF,
  IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ITU, PCA, Sparteca, SPC, SPF, UN,
  UNAMIR, UNAVEM III, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UPU,
  WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Pita Kewa NACUVA
  chancery: Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
  telephone: [1] (202) 337-8320
  FAX: [1] (202) 337-1996
  consulate(s): New York

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Don Lee GEVIRTZ
  embassy: 31 Loftus Street, Suva
  mailing address: P. O. Box 218, Suva
  telephone: [679] 314466
  FAX: [679] 300081

Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
  quadrant and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the
  flag; the shield depicts a yellow lion above a white field quartered
  by the cross of Saint George featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm
  tree, bananas, and a white dove



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Fiji, richly endowed with forest, mineral, and
  fish resources, is one of the most developed of the Pacific island
  economies, though still with a large subsistence sector. Sugar
  exports and tourism are the major sources of foreign exchange.
  Industry contributes 17% to GDP; sugar processing makes up one-third
  of industrial activity. Roughly 250,000 tourists visit each year.
  Political uncertainty and drought, however, contribute to
  substantial fluctuations in earnings from tourism and sugar and to
  the emigration of skilled workers. In 1992, growth was approximately
  3%, based on growth in tourism and a lessening of labor-management
  disputes in the sugar and gold-mining sectors. In 1993, the
  government's budgeted growth rate of 3% was not achieved because of
  a decline in non-sugar agricultural output and damage from Cyclone
  Kina. Growth in 1994 of 5% was largely attributable to increased
  tourism and expansion in the manufacturing sector.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.2% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $6,100 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 22%
  industry: 17%
  services: 61% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1995)

Labor force: 235,000
  by occupation: subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary
  earners 15% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 5.4% (1992)

Budget:
  revenues: $495.6 million
  expenditures: $591.2 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1995 est.)

Industries: sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, clothing, lumber,
  small cottage industries

Industrial production growth rate: 0% (1993 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 200,000 kW
  production: 480 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 581 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: sugarcane, coconuts, cassava (tapioca), rice, sweet
  potatoes, bananas; cattle, pigs, horses, goats; fish catch nearly
  33,000 tons (1989)

Exports: $571.8 million (f.o.b., 1995)
  commodities: sugar 40%, clothing, gold, processed fish, lumber
  partners: EC 26%, Australia 15%, Pacific Islands 11%, Japan 6%

Imports: $864.3 million (c.i.f., 1995)
  commodities: machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products,
  food, consumer goods, chemicals
  partners: Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EC 6%, US 6%

External debt: $670 million (1994 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.4347 (January
  1996), 1.4063 (1995), 1.4641 (1994), 1.5418 (1993), 1.5030 (1992),
  1.4756 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 597 km; note - belongs to the government-owned Fiji Sugar
  Corporation
  narrow gauge: 597 km 0.610-m gauge (1995)

Highways:
  total: 4,800 km
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km

Waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and
  200-metric-ton barges

Ports: Labasa, Lautoka, Levuka, Savusavu, Suva

Merchant marine:
  total: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,267 GRT/17,884 DWT
  ships by type: chemical tanker 2, oil tanker 1, roll-on/roll-off
  cargo 2 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 21
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 15
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 60,017 (1987 est.)

Telephone system: modern local, interisland, and international
  (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone,
  telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications
  center
  domestic: NA
  international: access to important cable link between US and Canada
  and NZ and Australia; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific
  Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 7, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: 12,000 (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Republic of Fiji Military Forces (RFMF; includes army,
  navy, and air elements)

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 205,616
  males fit for military service: 113,339
  males reach military age (18) annually: 8,746 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $28 million, 2.5%
  of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Finland
-------



Map
---


Location: 64 00 N, 26 00 E -- Northern Europe, bordering the
  Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and
  Russia



Flag
----


Description: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of
  the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist
  side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Geography
---------


Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of
  Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 337,030 sq km
  land area: 305,470 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,628 km
  border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 6 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
  territorial sea: 4 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively
  mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current,
  Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with
  lakes and low hills
  lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
  highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

Land use:
  arable land: 8%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 76%
  other: 16%

Irrigated land: 620 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants
  contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes,
  agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
  natural hazards: NA
  international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
  Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty,
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental
  Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life
  Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
  ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is
  northernmost national capital on European continent; population
  concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain



People
------


Population: 5,105,230 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 19% (male 492,616; female 471,736)
  15-64 years: 67% (male 1,725,113; female 1,687,974)
  65 years and over: 14% (male 275,927; female 451,864) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 0.1% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 11.32 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 10.92 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.47 years
  male: 73.82 years
  female: 77.18 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.68 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Finn(s)
  adjective: Finnish

Ethnic divisions: Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%,
  other 1%

Languages: Finnish 93.5% (official), Swedish 6.3% (official),
  small Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
  total population: 100%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Finland
  conventional short form: Finland
  local long form: Suomen Tasavalta
  local short form: Suomi

Data code: FI

Type of government: republic

Capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (laanit, singular - laani);
  Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu,
  Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court
  may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts
  compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Martti AHTISAARI (since 1 March 1994) was
  elected for a six-year term by popular vote; election last held 31
  January-6 February 1994 (next to be held NA January 2000); results -
  Martti AHTISAARI 54%, Elisabeth REHN 46%
  head of government: Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April
  1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Sauli NIINISTO (since 13 April 1995)
  were appointed by the president
  cabinet: Council of State (Valtioneuvosto) was appointed by the
  president, responsible to Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Parliament (Eduskunta): elections last held 19 March 1995 (next to
  be held NA March 1999); results - Social Democratic Party 28.3%,
  Center Party 19.9%, National Coalition (Conservative) Party 17.9%,
  Leftist Alliance (Communist) 11.2%, Swedish People's Party 5.1%,
  Green League 6.5%, Ecology Party 0.3%, Rural 1.3%, Finnish Christian
  League 3.0%, Liberal People's Party 0.6%, Young Finns 2.8%; seats -
  (200 total) Social Democratic Party 63, Center Party 44, National
  Coalition (Conservative) Party 39, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 22,
  Swedish People's Party 11, Green League 9, Ecology Party 1, Rural 1,
  Finnish Christian League 7, Young Finns 2, Aaland Islands 1

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus), judges appointed
  by the president

Political parties and leaders:
  government coalition: Social Democratic Party, Paavo LIPPONEN;
  National Coalition (conservative) Party, Sauli NIINISTO; Leftist
  Alliance (Communist) People's Democratic League and Democratic
  Alternative, Claes ANDERSSON; Swedish People's Party, (Johan) Ole
  NORRBACK; Green League, Pekka HAAVISTO
  other: Center Party, Esko AHO; Finnish Christian League, Toimi
  KANKAANNIEMI; Rural Party, Raimo VISTBACKA; Liberal People's Party,
  Tuulikki UKKOLA; Greens Ecological Party (EPV); Young Finns, Risto
  PENTTILAE

Other political or pressure groups: Finnish Communist Party-Unity,
  Yrjo HAKANEN; Constitutional Rightist Party; Finnish Pensioners
  Party; Communist Workers Party, Timo LAHDENMAKI

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer),
  AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB,
  ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA,
  IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
  IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS
  (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
  UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR,
  UNTSO, UPU, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Jaakko LAAJAVA
  chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
  FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
  consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Derek N. SHEARER
  embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14A, FIN-00140, Helsinki
  mailing address: APO AE 09723
  telephone: [358] (0) 171931
  FAX: [358] (0) 174681

Flag: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the
  flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in
  the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely
  free-market economy, with per capita output equaling that of the UK,
  France and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing -
  principally the wood, metals, and engineering industries. Trade is
  important, with the export of goods representing about 30% of GDP.
  Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports
  of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured
  goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited
  to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an
  important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the
  rural population. The economy, which experienced an average of 4.9%
  annual growth between 1987 and 1989, sank into deep recession in
  1991 as GDP contracted by 6.5%. The recession - which continued in
  1992 with GDP contracting by 4.1% - has been caused by economic
  overheating, depressed foreign markets, and the dismantling of the
  barter system between Finland and the former Soviet Union under
  which Soviet oil and gas had been exchanged for Finnish manufactured
  goods. The Finnish Government has proposed efforts to increase
  industrial competitiveness and efficiency by an increase in exports
  to Western markets, cuts in public expenditures, partial
  privatization of state enterprises, and changes in monetary policy.
  In June 1991 Helsinki had tied the markka to the European Union's
  (EU) European Currency Unit (ECU) to promote stability. Ongoing
  speculation resulting from a lack of confidence in the government's
  policies forced Helsinki to devalue the markka by about 12% in
  November 1991 and to indefinitely break the link in September 1992.
  The devaluations have boosted the competitiveness of Finnish
  exports. The recession bottomed out in 1993, and Finland
  participated in the general European upturn of 1994. Unemployment
  probably will remain a serious problem during the next few years;
  the majority of Finnish firms face a weak domestic market and the
  troubled German and Swedish export markets. The Finns voted in an
  October 1994 referendum to enter the EU, and Finland officially
  joined the Union on 1 January 1995. Increasing integration with
  Western Europe will dominate the economic picture over the next few
  years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $92.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $18,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 4.6%
  industry: 28%
  services: 67.4% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 2.533 million
  by occupation: public services 30.4%, industry 20.9%, commerce
  15.0%, finance, insurance, and business services 10.2%, agriculture
  and forestry 8.6%, transport and communications 7.7%, construction
  7.2%

Unemployment rate: 17% (1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $21.7 billion
  expenditures: $31.7 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1993 est.)

Industries: metal products, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper
  refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate: 5% (1993 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 13,360,000 kW
  production: 58 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 12,196 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; annual
  fish catch about 160,000 metric tons

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Latin American cocaine for
  the West European market

Exports: $29.7 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: paper and pulp, machinery, chemicals, metals, timber
  partners: EU 46.5% (Germany 13.4%, UK 10.3%), Sweden 11%, US 7.2%,
  Japan 2.1%, FSU 8.6% (1994)

Imports: $23.2 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
  commodities: foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products,
  chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile
  yarn and fabrics, fodder grains
  partners: EU 44% (Germany 15%, UK 8.3%), Sweden 10.4%, US 7.6%,
  Japan 6.5%, FSU 10.3 (1994)

External debt: $30 billion (December 1993)

Economic aid:
  donor: ODA, $355 million (1993)

Currency: 1 markka (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia

Exchange rates: markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 4.4425 (January 1996),
  4.3667 (1995), 5.2235 (1994), 5.7123 (1993), 4.4794 (1992), 4.0440
  (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 5,895 km
  broad gauge: 5,895 km 1.524-m gauge (1,993 km electrified; 480 km
  double- or more-track) (1995)

Highways:
  total: 76,755 km
  paved: 47,588 km (including 318 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 29,167 km (1992 est.)

Waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km
  suitable for steamers

Pipelines: natural gas 580 km

Ports: Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu, Pori,
  Rauma, Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus

Merchant marine:
  total: 92 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,051,231 GRT/1,075,397
  DWT
  ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 20, chemical tanker 5, oil tanker 12,
  passenger 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll-on/roll-off cargo 31,
  short-sea passenger 12, vehicle carrier 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 157
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 3
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 23
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 13
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 21
  with paved runways under 914 m: 92
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 2.78 million (1986 est.)

Telephone system: good service from cable and microwave radio
  relay network
  domestic: cable and microwave radio relay
  international: 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations - access
  to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth
  station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean Regions); note -
  Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic
  countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 105, shortwave 0

Radios: 4.98 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 235

Televisions: 2.1 million (1983 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (includes Sea
  Guard)

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,307,128
  males fit for military service: 1,074,540
  males reach military age (17) annually: 32,760 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $1.9 billion,
  1.6% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@France
------



Map
---


Location: 46 00 N, 2 00 E -- Western Europe, bordering the Bay of
  Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain southeast of
  the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain



Flag
----


Description: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side),
  white, and red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the
  design and colors are similar to a number of other flags, including
  those of Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the
  official flag for all French dependent areas



Geography
---------


Location: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English
  Channel, between Belgium and Spain southeast of the UK; bordering
  the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain

Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 2 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 547,030 sq km
  land area: 545,630 sq km
  comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Colorado
  note: includes only metropolitan France (which includes Corsica),
  but excludes the overseas administrative divisions

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,892.4 km
  border countries: Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km,
  Italy 488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km,
  Switzerland 573 km

Coastline: 3,427 km (mainland 2,783 km, Corsica 644 km)

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa
  Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island;
  Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles
  claims Tromelin Island; Suriname claims part of French Guiana;
  Mexico claims Clipperton Island; territorial claim in Antarctica
  (Adelie Land); Saint Pierre and Miquelon is focus of maritime
  boundary dispute between Canada and France; claims Matthew and
  Hunter Islands east of New Caledonia

Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters
  and hot summers along the Mediterranean

Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and
  west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps
  in east
  lowest point: Rhone River delta -2 m
  highest point: Mont Blanc 4,807 m

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc,
  potash

Land use:
  arable land: 32%
  permanent crops: 2%
  meadows and pastures: 23%
  forest and woodland: 27%
  other: 16%
  note: includes Corsica

Irrigated land: 14,850 sq km (1993 est.); note - includes Corsica

Environment:
  current issues: some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution
  from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban
  wastes, agricultural runoff
  natural hazards: flooding
  international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
  Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85,
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
  Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine
  Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
  ratified - Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic
  Compounds, Desertification, Law of the Sea

Geographic note: largest West European nation; occasional strong,
  cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral



People
------


Population: 58,317,450 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 19.04% (male 5,688,505; female 5,417,355)
  15-64 years: 65.62% (male 19,147,369; female 19,120,935)
  65 years and over: 15.34% (male 3,589,100; female 5,354,186) (July
  1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.34% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 10.82 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 9.27 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 1.88 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.95 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.93 years
  male: 73.98 years
  female: 82.11 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.49 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
  adjective: French

Ethnic divisions: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North
  African, Indochinese, Basque minorities

Religions: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim
  (North African workers) 1%, unaffiliated 6%

Languages: French 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and
  languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque,
  Flemish)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
  total population: 99%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: French Republic
  conventional short form: France
  local long form: Republique Francaise
  local short form: France

Data code: FR

Type of government: republic

Capital: Paris

Administrative divisions: 22 regions (regions, singular - region);
  Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne,
  Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie,
  Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine,
  Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie,
  Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes
  note: metropolitan France is divided into 22 regions (including the
  "territorial collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and are subdivided
  into 96 departments; see separate entries for the overseas
  departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion) and the
  territorial collectivities (Mayotte, Saint Pierre and Miquelon)

Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa
  Island, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands,
  Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin
  Island, Wallis and Futuna
  note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica

Independence: 486 (unified by Clovis)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July
  (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of
  president in 1962, amended to comply with provisions of EC
  Maastricht Treaty in 1992; amended to tighten immigration laws 1993

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of
  administrative but not legislative acts

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May 1995) was
  elected for a seven-year term by direct universal suffrage; election
  last held 17 May 1995 (next to be held by May 2002); results -
  Second Ballot Jacques CHIRAC 52.64%, Lionel JOSPIN 47.36%
  head of government: Prime Minister Alain JUPPE (since 18 May 1995)
  was appointed by the president
  cabinet: the Council of Ministers was appointed by the president on
  the suggestion of the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement)
  Senate (Senat): elections last held 24 September 1995 (next to be
  held September 1998; nine-year term, elected by thirds every three
  years); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (321 total;
  296 metropolitan France, 13 for overseas departments and
  territories, and 12 for French nationals abroad) RPR 91, UDF 132, PS
  75, PCF 16, other 7
  National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held 21 and
  28 March 1993 (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote
  by party NA; seats - (577 total) RPR 247, UDF 213, PS 67, PCF 24,
  independents 26; note - seating as of 24 September 1995: RPR 247,
  UDF 208, PS 71, PCF 24, independents 27

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeals (Cour de Cassation),
  judges are appointed by the president from nominations of the High
  Council of the Judiciary

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR), Alain
  JUPPE, president; Union for French Democracy (UDF - coalition of PR,
  FD, RAD, PSD), Francois LEOTARD; Republican Party (PR), Francois
  LEOTARD; Democratic Force (FD), Francois BAYROU; Radical (RAD),
  Andre ROSSINOT; Socialist Party (PS), Lionel JOSPIN; Left Radical
  Movement (MRG); Communist Party (PCF), Robert HUE; National Front
  (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN; The Greens, Dominique VOYNET; Generation
  Ecology (GE), Brice LALONDE; Citizens Movement (MDC), Jean Pierre
  CHEVENEMENT

Other political or pressure groups: Communist-controlled labor
  union (Confederation Generale du Travail - CGT) nearly 2.4 million
  members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation
  Francaise Democratique du Travail - CFDT) about 800,000 members
  (est.); independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1 million members
  (est.); independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des
  Cadres) 340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French
  Employers (Conseil National du Patronat Francais - CNPF or Patronat)

International organization participation: ACCT, AfDB, AG
  (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB
  (non-regional), CE, CERN, EBRD, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB,
  ESA, ESCAP, EU, FAO, FZ, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
  ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO,
  Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MTCR,
  NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE, PCA, SPC, UN, UN
  Security Council, UNAVEM III, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
  UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIH, UNOMIG, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNRWA,
  UNTSO, UNU, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Francois BUJON DE L'ESTANG
  chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
  telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston,
  Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San
  Juan (Puerto Rico)

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela C. HARRIMAN
  embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08
  mailing address: PSC 116, APO AE 09777
  telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22
  FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83
  consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and
  red; known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and
  colors are similar to a number of other flags, including those of
  Belgium, Chad, Ireland, Cote d'Ivoire, and Luxembourg; the official
  flag for all French dependent areas



Economy
-------


Economic overview: One of the four West European trillion-dollar
  economies, the French economy features considerable - albeit
  diminishing - state control over its capitalistic market system. In
  running important industrial segments (railways, airlines,
  electricity, telecommunications), administrating an exceptionally
  generous social welfare system, and staffing an enormous
  bureaucracy, the state spends about 55% of GDP. France has
  substantial agricultural resources and a diversified modern
  industrial sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of
  modern technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the
  leading agricultural producer in Western Europe. Largely
  self-sufficient in agricultural products, France is a major exporter
  of wheat and dairy products. The industrial sector generates about
  one-quarter of GDP, and the growing services sector has become
  crucial to the economy. Following stagnation and recession in
  1991-93, French GDP expanded 2.4% in 1994 and in 1995. Persistently
  high unemployment still poses a major problem for the government, as
  will the need to cut back on welfare benefits and bureaucratic
  budgets. Paris remains committed to maintaining the franc-deutsche
  mark parity, which has kept French interest rates high at the
  expense of jobs. Although the pace of economic and financial
  integration within the European Union has slowed down, integration
  will remain a major force in France, shaping the fortunes of the
  various economic sectors over the next few years.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.173 trillion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2.4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $20,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 2.4%
  industry: 26.5%
  services: 71.1% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (1995)

Labor force: 24.17 million
  by occupation: services 61.5%, industry 31.3%, agriculture 7.2%
  (1987)
  note: includes Corsica

Unemployment rate: 11.7% (yearend 1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $220.5 billion
  expenditures: $249.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $47
  billion (1993 budget)

Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy,
  aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: 2.6% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 105,250,000 kW
  production: 447 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 6,149 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes;
  beef, dairy products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks among
  world's top 20 countries and is all used domestically

Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American cocaine and
  Southwest Asian heroin

Exports: $235.5 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals,
  foodstuffs, agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles
  and clothing
  partners: Germany 17.1%, Italy 9.3%, Spain 7.1%, Belgium-Luxembourg
  8.7%, UK 9.9%, Netherlands 4.6%, US 7.0%, Japan 2.0%, Russia 0.5%

Imports: $229.3 billion (c.i.f., 1994)
  commodities: crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural
  products, chemicals, iron and steel products
  partners: Germany 17.8%, Italy 10.1%, US 8.5%, Netherlands 4.9%,
  Spain 8.8%, Belgium-Luxembourg 9.1%, UK 7.9%, Japan 3.7%, Russia 1.2%

External debt: $300 billion (1993 est.)

Economic aid:
  donor: ODA, $7.915 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.0056 (January
  1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992),
  5.6421 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 33,891 km
  standard gauge: 33,524 km 1.435-m gauge; 32,275 km are operated by
  French National Railways (SNCF); 13,741 km of SNCF routes are
  electrified and 12,132 km are double- or multiple-tracked
  narrow gauge: 367 km 1.000-m gauge
  note: includes Corsica; does not include 33 tourist railroads,
  totalling 469 km, many being of very narrow gauge (1995)

Highways:
  total: 1,511,200 km
  paved: 811,200 km (including 7,700 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 700,000 km (1992 est.)
  note: includes Corsica

Waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled

Pipelines: crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km;
  natural gas 24,746 km

Ports: Bordeaux, Boulogne, Cherbourg, Dijon, Dunkerque, La
  Pallice, Le Havre, Lyon, Marseille, Mullhouse, Nantes, Paris, Rouen,
  Saint Nazaire, Saint Malo, Strasbourg

Merchant marine:
  total: 55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,203,086 GRT/1,779,263
  DWT
  ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 5, chemical tanker 5, container 7,
  liquefied gas tanker 3, oil tanker 16, passenger 1, roll-on/roll-off
  cargo 6, short-sea passenger 5, specialized tanker 1
  note: France also maintains a captive register for French-owned
  ships in the Kerguelen Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands)
  (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 460
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 13
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 26
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 91
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 73
  with paved runways under 914 m: 179
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 3
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 75 (1995 est.)
  note: includes Corsica

Heliports: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 35 million (1987 est.)

Telephone system: highly developed
  domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive
  introduction of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system
  international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (with total of
  5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA
  Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean Region); HF radiotelephone
  communications with more than 20 countries

Radio broadcast stations: AM 41, FM 800 (mostly repeaters),
  shortwave 0

Radios: 49 million (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 846 (mostly repeaters)
  note: Eutelsat receive-only TV service

Televisions: 29.3 million (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air), Air Force and Air
  Defense, National Gendarmerie

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 14,782,577
  males fit for military service: 12,299,651
  males reach military age (18) annually: 383,252 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $47.7 billion,
  2.5% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@French Guiana
-------------


(overseas department of France)

Map
---


Location: 4 00 N, 53 00 W -- Northern South America, bordering the
  North Atlantic Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname



Flag
----


Description: the flag of France is used



Geography
---------


Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic
  Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname

Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 53 00 W

Map references: South America

Area:
  total area: 91,000 sq km
  land area: 89,150 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,183 km
  border countries: Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km

Coastline: 378 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: Suriname claims area between Riviere
  Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature
  variation

Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small
  mountains
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Bellevue de l'Inini 851 m

Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered),
  cinnabar, kaolin, fish

Land use:
  arable land: NEGL%
  permanent crops: NEGL%
  meadows and pastures: NEGL%
  forest and woodland: 88%
  other: 12% (1992)

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: high frequency of heavy showers and severe
  thunderstorms; flooding
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: mostly an unsettled wilderness



People
------


Population: 151,187 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 32% (male 24,447; female 23,378)
  15-64 years: 63% (male 52,061; female 43,726)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 3,784; female 3,791) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 3.86% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 24.68 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.59 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 18.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.19 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.13 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.79 years
  male: 72.55 years
  female: 79.19 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.42 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: French Guianese (singular and plural)
  adjective: French Guianese

Ethnic divisions: black or mulatto 66%, white 12%, East Indian,
  Chinese, Amerindian 12%, other 10%

Religions: Roman Catholic

Languages: French

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982 est.)
  total population: 83%
  male: 84%
  female: 82%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Department of Guiana
  conventional short form: French Guiana
  local long form: none
  local short form: Guyane

Data code: FG

Type of government: overseas department of France

Capital: Cayenne

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July
  (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President (of France) Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
  1995); represented by Prefect Pierre DARTOUT who was appointed by
  the French Ministry of Interior
  head of government: President of the General Council Stephan
  PHINERA-HORTH (since March 1994)

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and a unicameral
  Regional Council
  General Council: elections last held NA March 1994 (next to be held
  NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (19 total) PSG
  8, RPR 2, UDF 1, other right 1, other 7
  Regional Council: elections last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held
  NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (31 total) PSG
  16, FDG 10, RPR 2, independents 3
  French Senate: elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be
  held September 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
  (1 total) PSG 1
  French National Assembly: elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993
  (next to be held NA 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA;
  seats - (2 total) RPR 1, independent 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals (highest local court based in
  Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French
  Guiana)

Political parties and leaders: Guianese Socialist Party (PSG),
  Raymond TRACY; Conservative Union for the Republic (UPR), Leon
  BERTRAND; Rally for the Center Right (URC); Rally for the Republic
  (RPR); Guyana Democratic Front (FDG), Georges OTHILY; Walwari
  Committee, Christine TAUBIRA-DELANON; Socialist Party (PS), Jean
  BART; Union for French Democracy (UDF), R. CHOW-CHINE

International organization participation: FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas department of
  France)

US diplomatic representation: none (overseas department of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The economy is tied closely to that of France
  through subsidies and imports. Besides the French space center at
  Kourou, fishing and forestry are the most important economic
  activities, with exports of fish and fish products (mostly shrimp)
  accounting for more than 60% of total revenue in 1992. The large
  reserves of tropical hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an
  expanding sawmill industry that provides sawn logs for export.
  Cultivation of crops is limited to the coastal area, where the
  population is largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily
  dependent on imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious
  problem, particularly among younger workers.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $800 million (1993 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $6,000 (1993 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1992)

Labor force: 36,597 (1993)
  by occupation: services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry
  21.2%, agriculture 18.2% (1980)

Unemployment rate: 24.1% (1993 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $133 million
  expenditures: $284 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1992 est.)

Industries: construction, shrimp processing, forestry products,
  rum, gold mining

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 180,000 kW
  production: 450 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 3,149 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: rice, corn, manioc, cocoa, vegetables, bananas,
  sugar; cattle, pigs, poultry

Illicit drugs: small amount of marijuana grown for local
  consumption; minor transshipment point to Europe

Exports: $110 million (f.o.b., 1993)
  commodities: shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence
  partners: France 52%, Spain 15%, US 5% (1992)

Imports: $719 million (c.i.f., 1992)
  commodities: food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods,
  producer goods, petroleum
  partners: France 77%, Germany 11%, US 5% (1992)

External debt: $1.2 billion (1988)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.0056 (January
  1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992),
  5.6421 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km (1995)

Highways:
  total: 1,817 km (national 432 km, departmental 385 km, community
  1,000 km)
  paved: 727 km
  unpaved: 1,090 km (1995 est.)

Waterways: 460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and river
  and coastal steamers; 3,300 km navigable by native craft

Ports: Cayenne, Degrad des Cannes, Saint-Laurent du Maroni

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 10
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2
  with paved runways under 914 m: 4
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 31,000 (1990 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: fair open wire and microwave radio relay system
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 7, shortwave 0

Radios: 79,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 22,000 (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 43,412
  males fit for military service: 28,171 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@French Polynesia
----------------


(overseas territory of France)

Map
---


Location: 15 00 S, 140 00 W -- Oceania, archipelago in the South
  Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from South America to
  Australia



Flag
----


Description: two narrow red horizontal bands encase a wide white
  band; centered on the white band is a disk with blue and white wave
  pattern on the lower half and gold and white ray pattern on the
  upper half; a stylized red, blue and white ship rides on the wave
  pattern; the French flag is used for official occasions



Geography
---------


Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about
  one-half of the way from South America to Australia

Geographic coordinates: 15 00 S, 140 00 W

Map references: Oceania

Area:
  total area: 4,167 sq km (118 islands and atolls)
  land area: 3,660 sq km
  comparative area: slightly less than one-third the size of
  Connecticut

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 2,525 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical, but moderate

Terrain: mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Orohena 2,241 m

Natural resources: timber, fish, cobalt

Land use:
  arable land: 1%
  permanent crops: 19%
  meadows and pastures: 5%
  forest and woodland: 31%
  other: 44%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: occasional cyclonic storms in January
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: includes five archipelagoes; Makatea in French
  Polynesia is one of the three great phosphate rock islands in the
  Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and
  Nauru



People
------


Population: 224,911 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 35% (male 40,450; female 39,038)
  15-64 years: 61% (male 70,506; female 65,620)
  65 years and over: 4% (male 4,636; female 4,661) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.19% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 27.15 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.27 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 1 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.06 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 14.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 70.94 years
  male: 68.49 years
  female: 73.5 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.26 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: French Polynesian(s)
  adjective: French Polynesian

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%,
  metropolitan French 4%

Religions: Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16%

Languages: French (official), Tahitian (official)

Literacy: age 14 and over can read and write, but definition of
  literacy not available (1977 est.)
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 98%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Territory of French Polynesia
  conventional short form: French Polynesia
  local long form: Territoire de la Polynesie Francaise
  local short form: Polynesie Francaise

Data code: FP

Type of government: overseas territory of France since 1946

Capital: Papeete

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France);
  there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the
  US Government, but there are 5 archipelagic divisions named Archipel
  des Marquises, Archipel des Tuamotu, Archipel des Tubuai, Iles du
  Vent, and Iles Sous-le-Vent
  note: Clipperton Island is administered by France from French
  Polynesia

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July
  (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: based on French system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President (of France) Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
  1995); represented by High Commissioner of the Republic Paul
  RONCIERE (since 8 August 1994) who was appointed by the French
  Ministry of Interior
  head of government: President of the Territorial Government of
  French Polynesia Gaston FLOSSE (since 4 April 1991); President of
  the Territorial Assembly Tinomana EBB (since NA)
  cabinet: Council of Ministers; president submits a list of members
  of the Territorial Assembly for approval by them to serve as
  ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Territorial Assembly: elections last held 17 March 1991 (next to be
  held NA March 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
  (41 total) People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 18, Polynesian
  Union Party 12, New Fatherland Party 7, other 4
  French Senate: elections last held 24 September 1989 (next to be
  held NA September 1998); results - percent of vote by party NA;
  seats - (1 total) party NA
  French National Assembly: elections last held 21 and 28 March 1993
  (next to be held NA March 1998); results - percent of vote by party
  NA; seats - (2 total) People's Rally for the Republic (Gaullist) 2

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal; Court of the First Instance;
  Court of Administrative Law

Political parties and leaders: People's Rally for the Republic
  (Tahoeraa Huiraatira), Gaston FLOSSE; Polynesian Union Party
  (includes Te Tiarama and Here Ai'a Party), Jean JUVENTIN; New
  Fatherland Party (Ai'a Api), Emile VERNAUDON; Independent Party (Ia
  Mana Te Nunaa), Jacques DROLLET; Te Aratia Ote Nunaa, Tinomana EBB;
  Haere i Mua, Alexandre LEONTIEFF; other small parties

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), FZ,
  ICFTU, SPC, WMO

Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas territory of
  France)

US diplomatic representation: none (overseas territory of France)

Flag: two narrow red horizontal bands encase a wide white band;
  centered on the white band is a disk with blue and white wave
  pattern on the lower half and gold and white ray pattern on the
  upper half; a stylized red, blue and white ship rides on the wave
  pattern; the French flag is used for official occasions



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Since 1962, when France stationed military
  personnel in the region, French Polynesia has changed from a
  subsistence economy to one in which a high proportion of the work
  force is either employed by the military or supports the tourist
  industry. Tourism accounts for about 20% of GDP and is a primary
  source of hard currency earnings. The territory will continue to
  benefit from a five-year (1994-98) development agreement with France
  aimed principally at creating new jobs.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1.76 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $8,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 4%
  industry: 18%
  services: 78% (1992 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1994)

Labor force: 76,630 employed (1988)
  by occupation: agriculture 13%, industry 19%, services 68% (1992
  est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $686 million
  expenditures: $884 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1989)

Industries: tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 75,000 kW
  production: 334 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 1,189 kWh (1994)

Agriculture: coconuts, vanilla, vegetables, fruits; poultry, beef,
  dairy products

Exports: $230 million (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: cultured pearls 41.6%, coconut products,
  mother-of-pearl, vanilla, shark meat (1992)
  partners: France 34%, US 10% (1992)

Imports: $912 million (c.i.f., 1994)
  commodities: fuels, foodstuffs, equipment
  partners: ECE 64% (France 45.4%), US 13.6%, Australia 6.9%, NZ 5.8%,
  Japan 5% (1992)

External debt: $NA

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per
  US$1 - 91.00 (January 1996), 90.75 (1995), 100.94 (1994), 102.96
  (1993), 96.24 (1992), 102.57 (1991); note - linked at the rate of
  18.18 to the French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 792 km
  paved: 792 km (1995 est.)

Ports: Mataura, Papeete, Rikitea, Uturoa

Merchant marine:
  total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,127 GRT/6,710 DWT
  ships by type: passenger-cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 41
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 5
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 13
  with paved runways under 914 m: 15
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 6 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 33,200 (1983 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 2, shortwave 0

Radios: 116,000 (1992 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 6

Televisions: 35,000 (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: French Forces (includes Army, Navy, Air Force),
  Gendarmerie

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@French Southern and Antarctic Lands
-----------------------------------


(overseas territory of France)

Map
---


Location: 43 00 S, 67 00 E -- Southern Africa, islands in the
  southern Indian Ocean, about equidistant between Africa, Antarctica,
  and Australia; note - French Southern and Antarctic Lands includes
  Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Crozet, and Iles Kerguelen in
  the southern Indian Ocean, along with the French-claimed sector of
  Antarctica, "Adelie Land"; the US does not recognize the French
  claim to "Adelie Land"



Flag
----


Description: the flag of France is used



Geography
---------


Location: Southern Africa, islands in the southern Indian Ocean,
  about equidistant between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia; note -
  French Southern and Antarctic Lands includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile
  Saint-Paul, Iles Crozet, and Iles Kerguelen in the southern Indian
  Ocean, along with the French-claimed sector of Antarctica, "Adelie
  Land"; the US does not recognize the French claim to "Adelie Land"

Geographic coordinates: 43 00 S, 67 00 E

Map references: Antarctic Region

Area:
  total area: 7,781 sq km
  land area: 7,781 sq km
  comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware
  note: includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Crozet and Iles
  Kerguelen; excludes "Adelie Land" claim of about 500,000 sq km in
  Antarctica that is not recognized by the US

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 1,232 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm from Iles Kerguelen only
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: "Adelie Land" claim in Antarctica is not
  recognized by the US

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mont Ross on Kerguelen 1,850 m

Natural resources: fish, crayfish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 100%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct
  volcanoes
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: remote location in the southern Indian Ocean



People
------


Population: no indigenous inhabitants; note - there were 145
  (1995) mostly researchers whose numbers vary from winter (July) to
  summer (January)



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Territory of the French Southern and
  Antarctic Lands
  conventional short form: French Southern and Antarctic Lands
  local long form: Territoire des Terres Australes et Antarctiques
  Francaises
  local short form: Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises

Data code: FS

Type of government: overseas territory of France since 1955;
  governed by High Administrator Christian DORS (since 4 December 1991)

Capital: none; administered from Paris, France

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France);
  there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the
  US Government, but there are 3 districts named Ile Crozet, Iles
  Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul et Amsterdam; excludes "Adelie Land"
  claim in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Economic activity is limited to servicing
  meteorological and geophysical research stations and French and
  other fishing fleets. The fish catches landed on Iles Kerguelen by
  foreign ships are exported to France and Reunion.

Budget:
  revenues: $22.6 million
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995)



Transportation
--------------


Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine:
  total: 66 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,133,942 GRT/3,617,863
  DWT
  ships by type: bulk 2, cargo 6, chemical tanker 7, container 10,
  liquefied gas tanker 4, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil
  tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4, roll-on/roll-off cargo 13,
  specialized tanker 1
  note: a subset of the French register allowing French-owned ships to
  operate under more liberal taxation and manning regulations than
  permissable under the main French register (1995 est.)

Airports: none (1994 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: NA

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: NA

Televisions: NA



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@Gabon
-----



Map
---


Location: 1 00 S, 11 45 E -- Western Africa, bordering the
  Atlantic Ocean at the Equator, between Congo and Equatorial Guinea



Flag
----


Description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow,
  and blue



Geography
---------


Location: Western Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean at the
  Equator, between Congo and Equatorial Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 1 00 S, 11 45 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 267,670 sq km
  land area: 257,670 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Colorado

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,551 km
  border countries: Cameroon 298 km, Congo 1,903 km, Equatorial Guinea
  350 km

Coastline: 885 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial
  Guinea because of disputed sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and
  south
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mont Iboundji 1,575 m

Natural resources: petroleum, manganese, uranium, gold, timber,
  iron ore

Land use:
  arable land: 1%
  permanent crops: 1%
  meadows and pastures: 18%
  forest and woodland: 78%
  other: 2%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: deforestation; poaching
  natural hazards: NA
  international agreements: party to - Endangered Species, Marine
  Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution,
  Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
  Biodiversity, Climate Change, Law of the Sea, Tropical Timber 94



People
------


Population: 1,172,798 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 34% (male 197,188; female 196,562)
  15-64 years: 61% (male 364,033; female 353,451)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 30,270; female 31,294) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.47% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 28.22 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 13.56 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.97 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 90.1 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 55.59 years
  male: 52.72 years
  female: 58.56 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.89 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Gabonese (singular and plural)
  adjective: Gabonese

Ethnic divisions: Bantu tribes including four major tribal
  groupings (Fang, Eshira, Bapounou, Bateke), other Africans and
  Europeans 100,000, including 27,000 French

Religions: Christian 55%-75%, Muslim less than 1%, animist

Languages: French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke,
  Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 63.2%
  male: 73.7%
  female: 53.3%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Gabonese Republic
  conventional short form: Gabon
  local long form: Republique Gabonaise
  local short form: Gabon

Data code: GB

Type of government: republic; multiparty presidential regime
  (opposition parties legalized 1990)

Capital: Libreville

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue,
  Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo,
  Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem

Independence: 17 August 1960 (from France)

National holiday: Renovation Day, 12 March (1968) (Gabonese
  Democratic Party established)

Constitution: adopted 14 March 1991

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
  judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the
  Supreme Court; compulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted

Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967)
  was elected for a five-year term by universal suffrage on 5 December
  1993 (next election to be held 1998); results - President Omar BONGO
  received 51% of the vote
  head of government: Prime Minister Paulin OBAME Nguema (since 9
  December 1994) was appointed by the president
  cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed by the prime minister in
  consultation with the president

Legislative branch: unicameral; note - the provision of the
  constitution for the establishment of a senate has not been
  implemented
  National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale): elections last held on 5
  December 1993 (next to be held by July 1996, according to the
  October 1994 Paris Accords; however, President BONGO has indicated
  that date might slip); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats
  - (120 total) PDG 64, National Recovery Movement - Lumberjacks
  (Morena-Bucherons/RNB) 17, PGP 12, National Recovery Movement
  (Morena-Original) 2, PUP 4, CLR 1, FAR 4, UPG 1, independents 15

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Political parties and leaders: Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG,
  former sole party), Simplice Guedet MANZELA, secretary general;
  Circle of Liberal Reformers (CLR), General Jean Boniface ASSELE;
  People's Unity Party (PUP), Louis Gaston MAYILA; Gabonese Socialist
  Union (USG), Dr. Serge Mba BEKALE; National Recovery Movement -
  Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons/RNB), Fr. Paul M'BA-ABESSOLE; Gabonese
  Party for Progress (PGP), Pierre-Louis AGONDHO-OKAWE, president;
  National Recovery Movement (Morena-Origina), note - this party won 2
  seats in the 5 December 1993 elections for the National Assembly but
  is no longer very active; Gabonese Party for Progress (PGP), Pierre
  Louis AGONDJO OKAWE; African Forum for Reconstruction (FAR), Leon
  MBOU-YEMBI, secretary general; Gabonese People's Union (UPG), Pierre
  MAMBOUNDOU

International organization participation: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC,
  CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
  IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol,
  IOC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Paul BOUNDOUKOU-LATHA
  chancery: Suite 200, 2034 20th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 797-1000
  FAX: [1] (202) 332-0668

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Elizabeth RASPOLIC
  embassy: Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville
  mailing address: B. P. 4000, Libreville
  telephone: [241] 76 20 03 through 76 20 04, 74 34 92
  FAX: [241] 74 55 07

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Notwithstanding its serious ongoing economic
  problems, Gabon enjoys a per capita income more than three times
  that of most nations of sub-Saharan Africa. Gabon depended on timber
  and manganese until oil was discovered offshore in the early 1970s.
  The oil sector now accounts for 50% of GDP. Real GDP growth has been
  feeble since 1992 and Gabon continues to face the problem of
  fluctuating prices for its oil, timber, manganese, and uranium
  exports. Despite an abundance of natural wealth, and a manageable
  rate of population growth, the economy is hobbled by poor fiscal
  management. In 1992, the fiscal deficit widened to 2.4% of GDP, and
  Gabon failed to settle arrears on its bilateral debt, leading to a
  cancellation of rescheduling agreements with official and private
  creditors. Devaluation of its Francophone currency by 50% on 12
  January 1994 sparked a one-time inflationary surge, to 35%; the rate
  dropped to 15% in 1995. Nevertheless, the government must continue
  to keep a tight rein on spending and wage increases. The IMF and
  France are considering offering financial assistance in 1996 if
  Gabon shows progress in privatization and fiscal discipline.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 2% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $5,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 8.2%
  industry: 44.7%
  services: 47.1% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 120,000 salaried
  by occupation: agriculture 65.0%, industry and commerce 30.0%,
  services 2.5%, government 2.5%

Unemployment rate: 10%-14% (1993 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.3 billion
  expenditures: $1.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $311
  million (1993 est.)

Industries: food and beverage; textile; lumbering and plywood;
  cement; petroleum extraction and refining; manganese, uranium, and
  gold mining; chemicals; ship repair

Industrial production growth rate: -3% (1991)

Electricity:
  capacity: 315,000 kW
  production: 910 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 757 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cocoa, coffee, sugar, palm oil; rubber; okoume (a
  tropical softwood); cattle; small fishing operations (provide a
  catch of about 20,000 metric tons)

Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: crude oil 80%, timber 14%, manganese 6%, uranium
  partners: US 50%, France 16%, Japan 8%, Spain 6%, Germany NA (1994
  est.)

Imports: $800 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: foodstuffs, chemical products, petroleum products,
  construction materials, manufactures, machinery
  partners: France 35%, African countries, US, Japan, Netherlands
  (1994)

External debt: $3.8 billion (1993 )

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $75 million (1993)

Currency: 1 Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (CFAF) = 100
  centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 500.56 (January
  1996), 499.15 (1995), 555.20 (1994), 283.16 (1993), 264.69 (1992),
  282.11 (1991)
  note: beginning 12 January 1994, the CFA franc was devalued to CFAF
  100 per French franc from CFAF 50 at which it had been fixed since
  1948

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 649 km Gabon State Railways (OCTRA)
  standard gauge: 649 km 1.435-m gauge; single track (1994)

Highways:
  total: 7,456 km
  paved: 560 km
  unpaved: 6,896 km (1988 est.)

Waterways: 1,600 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil 270 km; petroleum products 14 km

Ports: Cape Lopez, Kango, Lambarene, Libreville, Mayumba, Owendo,
  Port-Gentil

Merchant marine:
  total: 3 bulk (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 36,976 GRT/60,319 DWT
  (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 54
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 7
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 21
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 8
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 15 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 22,000 (1991 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: adequate system of cable, microwave radio relay,
  tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a
  domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
  international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 6, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: 250,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 3 (repeaters 5)

Televisions: 40,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Guard, National
  Gendarmerie, National Police

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 273,662
  males fit for military service: 139,439
  males reach military age (20) annually: 10,966 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $154 million,
  2.4% of GDP (1993)



======================================================================



@Gaza Strip
----------

The Israel-PLO Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government
Arrangements ("the DOP"), signed in Washington on 13 September 1993,
provides for a transitional period not exceeding five years of
Palestinian interim self-government in the Gaza Strip and the West
Bank. Permanent status negotiations began on 5 May 1996.

Map
---


Location: 31 25 N, 34 20 E -- Middle East, bordering the
  Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Israel



Geography
---------


Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between
  Egypt and Israel

Geographic coordinates: 31 25 N, 34 20 E

Map references: Middle East

Area:
  total area: 360 sq km
  land area: 360 sq km
  comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries:
  total: 62 km
  border countries: Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: Israeli occupied with current status subject to
  the Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement - permanent status to be
  determined through further negotiation

International disputes: West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli
  occupied with current status subject to the Israeli-Palestinian
  Interim Agreement - permanent status to be determined through
  further negotiation

Climate: temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

Terrain: flat to rolling, sand- and dune-covered coastal plain
  lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Abu 'Awdah (Joz Abu 'Auda) 105 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 13%
  permanent crops: 32%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 55%

Irrigated land: 115 sq km (1992 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: desertification
  natural hazards: NA
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: there are 24 Israeli settlements and civilian
  land use sites in the Gaza Strip (August 1995 est.)



People
------


Population: 923,940 (July 1996 est.)
  note: in addition, there are 5,000 Israeli settlers in the Gaza
  Strip (August 1995 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 52% (male 244,026; female 231,976)
  15-64 years: 46% (male 210,706; female 210,764)
  65 years and over: 2% (male 11,553; female 14,915) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 6.79% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 50.67 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 4.4 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 21.65 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.02 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 27.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 71.98 years
  male: 70.69 years
  female: 73.34 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 7.79 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: NA
  adjective: NA

Ethnic divisions: Palestinian Arab and other 99.4%, Jewish 0.6%

Religions: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 98.7%, Christian 0.7%,
  Jewish 0.6%

Languages: Arabic, Hebrew (spoken by Israeli settlers), English
  (widely understood)

Literacy: NA



Government
----------


Government note: Under the Israeli-PLO Declaration of Principles
  on Interim Self-Government Arrangements ("the DOP"), Israel agreed
  to transfer certain powers and responsibilities to the Palestinian
  Authority, which includes a Palestinian Legislative Council elected
  in January 1996, as part of interim self-governing arrangements in
  the West Bank and Gaza Strip. A transfer of powers and
  responsibilities for the Gaza Strip and Jericho has taken place
  pursuant to the Israel-PLO 4 May 1994 Cairo Agreement on the Gaza
  Strip and the Jericho Area and in additional areas of the West Bank
  pursuant to the Israel-PLO 28 September 1995 Interim Agreement. The
  DOP provides that Israel will retain responsibility during the
  transitional period for external security and for internal security
  and public order of settlements and Israelis. Permanent status is to
  be determined through direct negotiations within five years.

Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Gaza Strip
  local long form: none
  local short form: Qita Ghazzah

Data code: GZ



Economy
-------


Economic overview: In 1991 roughly 40% of Gaza Strip workers were
  employed across the border by Israeli industrial, construction, and
  agricultural enterprises, with worker remittances supplementing GDP
  by roughly 50%. Gaza has depended upon Israel for nearly 90% of its
  external trade. Aggravating the impact of Israeli military
  administration, unrest in the territory from 1988 to 1993
  (intifadah) raised unemployment and lowered the standard of living
  of Gazans. The Persian Gulf crisis and its aftershocks also dealt
  blows to Gaza since August 1990. Worker remittances from the Gulf
  states have dropped, unemployment has increased, and exports have
  fallen. The withdrawal of Israel from the Gaza Strip in May 1994 has
  brought a new set of adjustment problems. The stringent border
  restrictions have held back economic growth in 1995 and 1996.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $1 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3%-4% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 33%
  industry: 7%
  services: 60% (1995 est., includes West Bank)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (1995 est.)

Labor force: NA
  by occupation: construction 33.4%, agriculture 20.0%, commerce,
  restaurants, and hotels 14.9%, industry 10.0%, other services 21.7%
  (1991)
  note: excluding Israeli settlers

Unemployment rate: 30%-45% (1995 est.)

Budget: $NA

Industries: generally small family businesses that produce
  textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs;
  the Israelis have established some small-scale modern industries in
  an industrial center

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity: power supplied by Israel

Agriculture: olives, citrus, other fruits, vegetables; beef, dairy
  products

Exports: $49 million (f.o.b., 1994 est.)
  commodities: citrus
  partners: Israel, Egypt

Imports: $339 million (c.i.f., 1994 est.)
  commodities: food, consumer goods, construction materials
  partners: Israel, Egypt

External debt: $NA

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA
  note: $410 million (est.) disbursed from international aid pledges
  in 1995 (includes aid to West Bank)

Currency: 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 3.1295
  (January 1996), 3.0113 (1995), 3.0111 (1994), 2.8301 (1993), 2.4591
  (1992), 2.2791 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year (since 1 January 1992)



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: NA km; note - one line, abandoned and in disrepair, little
  trackage remains

Highways:
  total: NA km
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km
  note: small, poorly developed road network

Ports: Gaza

Airports:
  total: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: NA
  note: 10% of Palestinian households have telephones (1992 est.)

Telephone system:
  domestic: NA
  international: NA

Radio broadcast stations: AM 0, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: NA; note - 95% of Palestinian households have radios (1992
  est.)

Television broadcast stations: 0

Televisions: NA; note - 59% of Palestinian households have
  televisions (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: NA

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: NA
  males fit for military service: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Georgia
-------


Beset by ethnic and civil strife since independence in 1991, Georgia
began to stabilize in 1994. Separatist conflicts in Abkhazia and
South Ossetia have been dormant for more than two years, although
political settlements remain elusive. Russian peacekeepers are
deployed in both regions and a UN Observer Mission is operating in
Abkhazia. As a result of these conflicts, Georgia still has about
250,000 internally displaced people. In November 1995, Georgia held
peaceful, generally free and fair nationwide presidential and
parliamentary elections. Although the country continues to suffer
from a crippling economic crisis, aggravated by a severe energy
shortage, some progress has been made and the Georgian Government
remains committed to economic reform in cooperation with the IMF and
the World Bank. Violence and organized crime were sharply curtailed
in 1995.

Map
---


Location: 42 00 N, 43 30 E -- Southwestern Asia, bordering the
  Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia



Flag
----


Description: maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side
  corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below



Geography
---------


Location: Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between
  Turkey and Russia

Geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 43 30 E

Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

Area:
  total area: 69,700 sq km
  land area: 69,700 sq km
  comparative area: slightly larger than South Carolina

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,461 km
  border countries: Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km,
  Turkey 252 km

Coastline: 310 km

Maritime claims: NA

International disputes: none

Climate: warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast

Terrain: largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the
  north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhida Lowland
  opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east;
  good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida
  Lowland
  lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mt'a Mqinvartsveri (Gora Kazbek) 5,048 m

Natural resources: forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron
  ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils
  allow for important tea and citrus growth

Land use:
  arable land: 11%
  permanent crops: 4%
  meadows and pastures: 29%
  forest and woodland: 38%
  other: 18%

Irrigated land: 4,660 sq km (1990)

Environment:
  current issues: air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy
  pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of
  potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
  natural hazards: NA
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Ship Pollution; signed, but not ratified - Desertification



People
------


Population: 5,219,810 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 22% (male 595,524; female 571,207)
  15-64 years: 66% (male 1,643,506; female 1,784,286)
  65 years and over: 12% (male 229,910; female 395,377) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: -1.02% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 12.81 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 12.21 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -10.82 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.9 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 22.5 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.09 years
  male: 63.43 years
  female: 72.98 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.69 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Georgian(s)
  adjective: Georgian

Ethnic divisions: Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%,
  Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%

Religions: Christian Orthodox 75% (Georgian Orthodox 65%, Russian
  Orthodox 10%), Muslim 11%, Armenian Apostolic 8%, unknown 6%

Languages: Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, Georgian 71% (official), Russian
  9%, other 7%

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1989 est.)
  total population: 99%
  male: 100%
  female: 98%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Georgia
  conventional short form: Georgia
  local long form: Sak'art'velos Respublika
  local short form: Sak'art'velo
  former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

Data code: GG

Type of government: republic

Capital: T'bilisi

Administrative divisions: 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy
  respubliki, singular - avtom respublika); Abkhazia (Sokhumi), Ajaria
  (Bat'umi)
  note: the administrative centers of the autonomous republics are
  included in parentheses; there are no oblasts - the rayons around
  T'bilisi are under direct republic jurisdiction

Independence: 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 May (1991)

Constitution: adopted 17 October 1995

Legal system: based on civil law system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President Eduard
  Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (previously elected Chairman of the
  Government Council 10 March 1992, Council has since been disbanded;
  previously elected Chairman of Parliament 11 October 1992);
  presidential election last held 5 November 1995 (next to be held NA
  April 2001); results - Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 74%; president's term to
  last five years
  cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Georgian Parliament: elections last held 5 November 1995 (next to be
  held NA November 2000); results - CUG 24%, NDP 8%, All Georgia
  Revival Union 7%, all other parties received less than 5% each;
  seats - (235 total) number of seats by party NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: Citizens Union of Georgia (CUG),
  Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, Zurab ZHVANIA, general secretary; National
  Democratic Party (NDP), Irina SARISHVILI-CHANTARIA; United
  Republican Party, umbrella organization for parties including the
  GPF and the Charter 1991 Party, Notar NATADZE, chairman; Georgian
  Popular Front (GPF), Nodar NATADZE, chairman; Charter 1991 Party,
  Tedo PAATASHVILI; Georgian Social Democratic Party (GSDP), Guram
  MUCHAIDZE, secretary general; All Georgia Union for Revival, Alsan
  ABASHIDZE; Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Irakli SHENGELAYA;
  Democratic Georgia Union (DGU), Avtandil MARGIANI; National
  Independence Party (NIP), Irakliy TSERETELI, chairman; Georgian
  Monarchists' Party (GMP), Temur ZHORZHOLIANI; Greens Party; Agrarian
  Party of Georgia (APG), Roin LIPARTELIANI; United Communist Party of
  Georgia (UCP), Panteleimon GIORGADZE, chairman

Other political or pressure groups: supporters of ousted President
  Zviad GAMSAKHURDIA (deceased 1 January 1994) remain a source of
  opposition; separatist elements in the breakaway region of Abkhazia

International organization participation: BSEC, CCC, CIS, EBRD,
  ECE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
  Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NACC, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Tedo JAPARIDZE
  chancery: (temporary) Suite 424, 1511 K Street NW, Washington, DC
  20005
  telephone: [1] (202) 393-5959
  FAX: [1] (202) 393-6060

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador William H. COURTNEY
  embassy: #25 Antoneli Street, T'bilisi 380026
  mailing address: use embassy street address
  telephone: [7] (8832) 98-99-67, 93-38-03
  FAX: [7] (8832) 93-37-59

Flag: maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side
  corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Georgia's economy has traditionally revolved
  around Black Sea tourism; cultivation of citrus fruits, tea, and
  grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and a small industrial
  sector producing wine, metals, machinery, chemicals, and textiles.
  The country imports the bulk of its energy needs, including natural
  gas and oil products. Its only sizable internal energy resource is
  hydropower. Since 1991 the economy has sustained severe damage from
  civil strife. Georgia has been suffering from acute energy
  shortages, as it is having problems paying for even minimal imports.
  Georgia is pinning its hopes for long-term recovery largely on
  reestablishing trade ties with Russia and on developing
  international transportation through the key Black Sea ports of
  P'ot'i and Bat'umi. Statistical estimates on Georgia are subject to
  a particularly wide margin of error, even compared with other FSU
  countries. The GDP estimate below probably does not reflect much of
  its grass roots economic activity. GDP is supplemented by
  considerable EU and US humanitarian aid.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $6.2 billion (1995 estimate as
  extrapolated from World Bank estimate for 1994)

GDP real growth rate: -11% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,080 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 70.4%
  industry: 10.2%
  services: 19.4% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% monthly average (first half
  1995 est.)

Labor force: 2.763 million
  by occupation: industry and construction 31%, agriculture and
  forestry 25%, other 44% (1990)

Unemployment rate: officially less than 5% but real unemployment
  may be more than 20%, with even larger numbers of underemployed
  workers

Budget:
  revenues: $NA
  expenditures: $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA

Industries: steel, aircraft, machine tools, foundry equipment,
  electric locomotives, tower cranes, electric welding equipment,
  machinery for food preparation and meat packing, electric motors,
  process control equipment, trucks, tractors, textiles, shoes,
  chemicals, wood products, wine

Industrial production growth rate: -10% (1995)

Electricity:
  capacity: 4,410,000 kW
  production: 9.1 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 1,526 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: citrus, grapes, tea, vegetables, potatoes; small
  livestock sector

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivator of cannabis and opium poppy;
  mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for
  illicit drugs to Western Europe

Exports: $140 million (c.i.f., 1995)
  commodities: citrus fruits, tea, wine, other agricultural products;
  diverse types of machinery; ferrous and nonferrous metals; textiles;
  chemicals; fuel re-exports
  partners: Russia, Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan

Imports: $250 million (f.o.b., 1995)
  commodities: fuel, grain and other foods, machinery and parts,
  transport equipment
  partners: Russia, Azerbaijan, Turkey; note - EU and US send
  humanitarian food shipments

External debt: $1.2 billion (of which $135 million to Russia)
  (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $28 million (1993)
  note: commitments, 1992-95, $1,200 million ($675 million
  disbursements)

Currency: lari introduced September 1995 replacing the coupon

Exchange rates: laris per US$1 - 1.24 (end December 1995)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 1,570 km in common carrier service; does not include
  industrial lines
  broad gauge: 1,570 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)

Highways:
  total: 35,100 km
  paved: 31,200 km
  unpaved: 3,900 km (1990 est.)

Pipelines: crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas
  440 km (1992)

Ports: Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi

Merchant marine:
  total: 23 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 307,765 GRT/483,567 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 8, cargo 2, oil tanker 12, short-sea passenger 1
  (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 28
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 4
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 1
  with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 5
  with unpaved runways under 914 m: 6 (1994 est.)

Transportation note: transportation network is in poor condition
  and disrupted by ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel
  shortages; network lacks maintenance and repair



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 672,000 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: poor service; 339,000 unsatisfied applications
  for telephones (December 1990 est.)
  domestic: NA
  international: landline to CIS members and Turkey; satellite earth
  station - 1 Eutelsat; leased connections with other countries via
  the Moscow international gateway switch; international electronic
  mail and telex service available

Radio broadcast stations: AM NA, FM NA, shortwave NA

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 3

Televisions: NA



Defense
-------


Branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces,
  Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops)

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 1,288,291
  males fit for military service: 1,021,632
  males reach military age (18) annually: 40,654 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $60 million to
  $65 million, NA% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Germany
-------



Map
---


Location: 51 00 N, 9 00 E -- Central Europe, bordering the Baltic
  Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of
  Denmark



Flag
----


Description: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and
  yellow



Geography
---------


Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North
  Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 356,910 sq km
  land area: 349,520 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana
  note: includes the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany,
  the German Democratic Republic, and Berlin, following formal
  unification on 3 October 1990

Land boundaries:
  total: 3,621 km
  border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646
  km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577
  km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km

Coastline: 2,389 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and
  summers; occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity

Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in
  south
  lowest point: Freepsum Lake -2 m
  highest point: Zugspitze 2,962 m

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite,
  uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel

Land use:
  arable land: 34%
  permanent crops: 1%
  meadows and pastures: 16%
  forest and woodland: 30%
  other: 19%

Irrigated land: 4,800 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries
  and lead emissions from vehicle exhausts (the result of continued
  use of leaded fuels) contribute to air pollution; acid rain,
  resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; heavy
  pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents
  from rivers in eastern Germany
  natural hazards: NA
  international agreements: party to - Air Pollution, Air
  Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air
  Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental
  Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered
  Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the
  Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship
  Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands; signed, but not ratified -
  Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Desertification, Tropical Timber 94

Geographic note: strategic location on North European Plain and
  along the entrance to the Baltic Sea



People
------


Population: 83,536,115 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 16.15% (male 6,928,750; female 6,563,026)
  15-64 years: 68.52% (male 29,339,780; female 27,902,549)
  65 years and over: 15.33% (male 4,658,014; female 8,143,996) (July
  1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.67% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 9.66 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 12.21 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 8.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.57 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.96 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 75.95 years
  male: 72.8 years
  female: 79.27 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: German(s)
  adjective: German

Ethnic divisions: German 95.1%, Turkish 2.3%, Italians 0.7%,
  Greeks 0.4%, Poles 0.4%, other 1.1% (made up largely of people
  fleeing the war in the former Yugoslavia)

Religions: Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or
  other 18%

Languages: German

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1977 est.)
  total population: 99%
  male: NA%
  female: NA%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
  conventional short form: Germany
  local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
  local short form: Deutschland

Data code: GM

Type of government: federal republic

Capital: Berlin
  note: the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period of
  years, with Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several
  ministries

Administrative divisions: 16 states (laender, singular - land);
  Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg,
  Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen, Nordrhein-Westfalen,
  Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt,
  Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen

Independence: 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided
  into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in
  1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or
  West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US,
  and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany)
  proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone;
  unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October
  1990; all four power rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991

National holiday: German Unity Day (Day of Unity), 3 October (1990)

Constitution: 23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution
  of the united German people 3 October 1990

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial
  review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has
  not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President Roman HERZOG (since 1 July 1994) was
  elected by the Federal Convention including members of the Bundestag
  and an equal number of members elected by the Land Parliaments
  head of government: Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October
  1982) was elected by an absolute majority of the Bundestag
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the president upon the proposal of
  the chancellor

Legislative branch: bicameral chamber (no official name for the
  two chambers as a whole)
  Federal Assembly (Bundestag): election last held 16 October 1994
  (next to be held by NA 1998); results - CDU 34.2%, SPD 36.4%,
  Alliance 90/Greens 7.3%, CSU 7.3%, FDP 6.9%, PDS 4.4%, Republicans
  1.9%; seats - (usually 656 total, but 672 for the 1994 term) CDU
  244, SPD 252, Alliance 90/Greens 49, CSU 50, FDP 47, PDS 30; elected
  by direct popular vote under a system combining direct and
  proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national
  vote or three direct mandates to gain representation
  Federal Council (Bundesrat): State governments are directly
  represented by votes; each has 3 to 6 votes depending on size and
  are required to vote as a block; current composition: votes - (68
  total) SPD-led states 41, CDU-led states 27

Judicial branch: Federal Constitutional Court
  (Bundesverfassungsgericht), half the judges are elected by the
  Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Union (CDU),
  Helmut KOHL, chairman; Christian Social Union (CSU), Theo WAIGEL,
  chairman; Free Democratic Party (FDP), Wolfgang GERHARDT, chairman;
  Social Democratic Party (SPD), Oskar LA FONTAINE, chairman; Alliance
  '90/Greens, Krista SAGER, Juergen TRITTIN, cochairpersons; Party of
  Democratic Socialism (PDS), Lothar BISKY, chairman; Republikaner,
  Rolf SCHLIERER, chairman; National Democratic Party (NPD),
  Ellen-Doris SCHERER; Communist Party (DKP), Rolf PRIEMER and Heinz
  STEHR, cochairpersons

Other political or pressure groups: expellee, refugee, and
  veterans groups

International organization participation: AfDB, AG (observer),
  AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CDB (non-regional),
  CE, CERN, EBRD, ECE, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G-10, IADB,
  IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO,
  IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO,
  MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OSCE,
  PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMIR, UNCRO, UNCTAD,
  UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNOMIG, UNPROFOR, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Juergen CHROBOG
  chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
  telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
  FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
  consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston,
  Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, Seattle

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Charles E. REDMAN
  embassy: Deichmanns Aue 29, 53170 Bonn
  mailing address: APO AE 09080, PSC 117, Bonn
  telephone: [49] (228) 3391
  FAX: [49] (228) 339-2663
  branch office: Berlin
  consulate(s) general: Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Leipzig,
  Munich, and Stuttgart

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Germany, the world's third-most powerful
  economy, faces its own unique problem of bringing its eastern area
  up to scratch after 45 years of communist rule. Despite substantial
  progress toward economic integration, the eastern states will
  continue to rely on subsidies from the federal government into the
  next century. Assistance to the east of about $100 billion annually
  has helped the region average nearly 8% annual economic growth since
  1991, even though the overall German economy has averaged less than
  2% growth. The economic recovery in the east has been led by the
  construction industries, with growth increasingly supported by the
  service sectors and light manufacturing industries. Western Germany,
  which accounts for 90% of overall German GDP and has three times the
  per capita income of eastern Germany, is perennially the first- or
  second-largest exporter, after the US, in the world. Nonetheless,
  business and political leaders have in recent years become
  increasingly concerned about Germany's apparent decline in
  attractiveness as a business location. They cite the increasing
  preference of German companies to locate manufacturing facilities -
  long the strength of the postwar economy - to foreign countries,
  including the US, rather than in Germany, so they can be closer to
  their markets and avoid Germany's high production costs. The
  conditions under which European economic integration - especially
  movement toward a single European currency - will proceed will be
  another key issue facing Germany in the next few years.

GDP:
  Germany: purchasing power parity - $1.4522 trillion (1995 est.)
  western: purchasing power parity - $1.3318 trillion (1995 est.)
  eastern: purchasing power parity - $120.4 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate:
  Germany: 1.8% (1995 est.)
  western: 1.5% (1995 est.)
  eastern: 6.3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita:
  Germany: $17,900 (1995 est.)
  western: $21,100 (1995 est.)
  eastern: $6,600 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 1%
  industry: 34.2%
  services: 64.8% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
  western: 2% (1995 est.)
  eastern: 2% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 36.75 million
  by occupation: industry 41%, agriculture 6%, other 53% (1987)

Unemployment rate:
  western: 8.7% (December 1995)
  eastern: 14.9% (December 1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $690 billion
  expenditures: $780 billion, including capital expenditures of $96.5
  billion (1994)

Industries:
  western: among world's largest and technologically advanced
  producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery,
  vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages
  eastern: metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding,
  machine building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum refining

Industrial production growth rate:
  western: 2.8% (1994)
  eastern: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 115,430,000 kW
  production: 493 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 5,683 kWh (1993)

Agriculture:
  western: potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage;
  cattle, pigs, poultry
  eastern: wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit; pork,
  beef, chicken, milk, hides

Illicit drugs: source of precursor chemicals for South American
  cocaine processors; transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin
  and Latin American cocaine for West European markets

Exports: $437 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: manufactures 89.3% (including machines and machine
  tools, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel products),
  agricultural products 5.5%, raw materials 2.7%, fuels 1.3% (1993)
  partners: EC 47.9% (France 11.7%, Netherlands 7.4%, Italy 7.5%, UK
  7.7%, Belgium-Luxembourg 6.6%), EFTA 15.5%, US 7.7%, Eastern Europe
  5.2%, OPEC 3.0% (1993)

Imports: $362 billion (f.o.b., 1994)
  commodities: manufactures 75.1%, agricultural products 10.0%, fuels
  8.3%, raw materials 5.0% (1993)
  partners: EC 46.4% (France 11.3%, Netherlands 8.4%, Italy 8.1%, UK
  6.0%, Belgium-Luxembourg 5.7%), EFTA 14.3%, US 7.3%, Japan 6.3%,
  Eastern Europe 5.1%, OPEC 2.6% (1993)

External debt: $NA

Economic aid:
  donor: ODA, $6.954 billion (1993)

Currency: 1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige

Exchange rates: deutsche marks (DM) per US$1 - 1.4617 (January
  1996), 1.4331 (1995), 1.6228 (1994), 1.6533 (1993), 1.5617 (1992),
  1.6595 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 43,966 km
  standard gauge: 43,531 km 1.435-m; 40,355 km are owned by Deutsche
  Bahn AG (DB); 17,015 km of the DB system are electrified and 16,941
  km are double- or more-tracked
  narrow gauge: 389 km 1.000-m gauge (DB operates 146 km of 1.000-m
  gauge); 7 km 0.900-m gauge; 39 km 0.750-m gauge
  note: in addition to the DB system there are 54 privately-owned
  industrial or excursion railways, ranging in route length from 2 km
  to 632 km, with a total length of 3,465 km (1995)

Highways:
  total: 636,282 km
  paved: 531,018 km (including 10,955 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 105,264 km (1991 est.)

Waterways:
  western: 5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of
  1,000-metric-ton capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine
  and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic
  Sea and North Sea
  eastern: 2,319 km (1988)

Pipelines: crude oil 3,644 km; petroleum products 3,946 km;
  natural gas 97,564 km (1988)

Ports: Berlin, Bonn, Brake, Bremen, Bremerhaven, Cologne, Dresden,
  Duisburg, Emden, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Kiel, Lubeck, Magdeburg,
  Mannheim, Rostock, Stuttgart

Merchant marine:
  total: 452 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,054,327
  GRT/6,367,036 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 6, cargo 193, chemical tanker 15, combination
  bulk 4, combination ore/oil 5, container 166, liquefied gas tanker
  12, multifunction large-load carrier 6, oil tanker 11, passenger 3,
  railcar carrier 3, refrigerated cargo 7, roll-on/roll-off cargo 14,
  short-sea passenger 7 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 617
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 13
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 65
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 67
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 51
  with paved runways under 914 m: 351
  with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 6
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 7
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 55 (1995 est.)

Heliports: 55 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 44 million

Telephone system: Germany has one of the world's most
  technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of
  intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly
  backward system of the eastern part of the country is being rapidly
  modernized and integrated with that of the western part
  domestic: the region which was formerly West Germany is served by an
  extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by
  modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio
  relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service
  is widely available and includes roaming service to many foreign
  countries; since the reunification of Germany, the telephone system
  of the eastern region has been upgraded and enjoys many of the
  advantages of the national system
  international: satellite earth stations - 14 Intelsat (12 Atlantic
  Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean
  region), 2 Intersputnik (1 Atlantic Ocean region and 1 Indian Ocean
  region); 6 submarine cable connections; 2 HF radiotelephone
  communication centers; tropospheric scatter links

Radio broadcast stations:
  western: AM 80, FM 470, shortwave 0
  eastern: AM 23, FM 17, shortwave 0

Radios: 70 million (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 246 (repeaters 6,000); note - there
  are 15 Russian repeaters in eastern Germany

Televisions: 44.8 million (1992 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy (includes Naval Air Arm), Air Force, Border
  Police, Coast Guard

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 21,540,919
  males fit for military service: 18,537,347
  males reach military age (18) annually: 449,292 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $42.8 billion,
  1.5% of GDP (1995)



======================================================================



@Ghana
-----



Map
---


Location: 8 00 N, 2 00 W -- Western Africa, bordering the North
  Atlantic Ocean, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo



Flag
----


Description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow,
  and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the
  yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia;
  similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in
  the yellow band



Geography
---------


Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
  between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo

Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 238,540 sq km
  land area: 230,020 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries:
  total: 2,093 km
  border countries: Burkina Faso 548 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo
  877 km

Coastline: 539 km

Maritime claims:
  contiguous zone: 24 nm
  continental shelf: 200 nm
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast
  coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central
  area
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Afadjato 880 m

Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite,
  manganese, fish, rubber

Land use:
  arable land: 5%
  permanent crops: 7%
  meadows and pastures: 15%
  forest and woodland: 37%
  other: 36%

Irrigated land: 80 sq km (1989)

Environment:
  current issues: recent drought in north severely affecting
  agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
  poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations;
  water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
  natural hazards: dry, dusty, harmattan winds occur from January to
  March; droughts
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea,
  Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
  Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling; signed, but not
  ratified - Desertification, Marine Life Conservation

Geographic note: Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial
  lake; northeasterly harmattan wind (January to March)



People
------


Population: 17,698,271 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43% (male 3,856,673; female 3,819,946)
  15-64 years: 54% (male 4,658,142; female 4,814,060)
  65 years and over: 3% (male 262,159; female 287,291) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.29% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 11.15 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.91 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 80.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 56.17 years
  male: 54.18 years
  female: 58.22 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 4.59 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Ghanaian(s)
  adjective: Ghanaian

Ethnic divisions: black African 99.8% (major tribes - Akan 44%,
  Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga 8%), European and other 0.2%

Religions: indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%,
  other 8%

Languages: English (official), African languages (including Akan,
  Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga)

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1995 est.)
  total population: 64.5%
  male: 75.9%
  female: 53.5%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
  conventional short form: Ghana
  former: Gold Coast

Data code: GH

Type of government: constitutional democracy

Capital: Accra

Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo,
  Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West,
  Volta, Western

Independence: 6 March 1957 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)

Constitution: new constitution approved 28 April 1992

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; has
  not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state and head of government: President Jerry John RAWLINGS
  (since 3 November 1992); elected for a four-year term by direct
  universal suffrage; the president can appoint a vice president;
  election last held 3 November 1992 (next to be held NA December 1996)
  cabinet: Cabinet; president nominates members subject to approval by
  the Parliament

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Parliament: elections last held 29 December 1992 (next to be held NA
  December 1996); results - opposition boycotted the election, the
  National Democratic Congress won 198 of the total 200 seats and 2
  seats were won by independents; because of interim bye-elections,
  the National Democratic Congress and its remaining coalition
  partner, Every Ghanian Living Everywhere (EGLE), now control 189
  seats; former coalition partner, NCP, has 8 seats; independents hold
  3

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Congress (NDC),
  Jerry John RAWLINGS; New Patriotic Party (NPP), Peter Ala ADJETY;
  People's Heritage Party (PHP), Alex ERSKINE; National Convention
  Party (NCP), Kow ARKAAH; Every Ghanian Living Everywhere (EGLE),
  Ashang OKINE; Peoples Convention Party (PCP), B.K. NKETSIA; Peoples
  National Convention (PNC), Alhaji Asuma BANDA

International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA,
  ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD,
  IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer),
  ITU, MINURSO, NAM, OAU, UN, UNAMIR, UNCRO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
  UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNPREDEP, UNPROFOR, UNU, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
  WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Ekwow SPIO-GARBRAH
  chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
  telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
  FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
  consulate(s) general: New York

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Edward BRYNN
  embassy: Ring Road East, East of Danquah Circle, Accra
  mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra
  telephone: [233] (21) 775348
  FAX: [233] (21) 775747

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green
  with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band;
  uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag
  of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has
  twice the per capita output of the poorer countries in West Africa.
  Heavily reliant on international assistance, Ghana has made steady
  progress in liberalizing its economy since 1983. Overall growth
  continued at a rate of approximately 5% in 1995, due largely to
  increased gold, timber, and cocoa production - major sources of
  foreign exchange. The economy, however, continues to revolve around
  subsistence agriculture, which accounts for almost half of GDP and
  employs 55% of the work force, mainly small landholders. Public
  sector wage increases, regional peacekeeping commitments, and the
  containment of internal unrest in the underdeveloped north have
  placed substantial demands on the government's budget and have led
  to inflationary deficit financing, depreciation of the cedi, and
  rising public discontent with Ghana's austerity program.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $25.1 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 5% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $1,400 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 47%
  industry: 16%
  services: 37% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 69% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 3.7 million
  by occupation: agriculture and fishing 54.7%, industry 18.7%, sales
  and clerical 15.2%, professional 3.7%, services, transportation, and
  communications 7.7%

Unemployment rate: 10% (1993 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $1.05 billion
  expenditures: $1.2 billion, including capital expenditures of $178
  million (1993)

Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum, food
  processing

Industrial production growth rate: 2.8% (1994 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 1,180,000 kW
  production: 6.1 billion kWh
  consumption per capita: 323 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts,
  corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
  drug trade; transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin
  destined for Europe and the US

Exports: $1 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
  commodities: cocoa 40%, gold, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum,
  manganese ore, and diamonds
  partners: Germany , US , UK , Netherlands , Japan (1995)

Imports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
  commodities: petroleum, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods,
  capital equipment
  partners: UK, US, Germany, Japan, Netherlands (1995)

External debt: $4.6 billion (December 1993 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $472 million (1993)

Currency: 1 new cedi (C) = 100 pesewas

Exchange rates: new cedis per US$1 - 1,246.11 (September 1995),
  956.71 (1994), 649.06 (1993), 437.09 (1992), 367.83 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: 953 km; note - undergoing major renovation (1995 est.)
  narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge; 32 km double track

Highways:
  total: 38,145 km
  paved: 7,476 km (including 21 km of expressways)
  unpaved: 30,669 km (1990 est.)

Waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of
  perennial navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides
  1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways

Pipelines: none

Ports: Takoradi, Tema

Merchant marine:
  total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 27,427 GRT/35,894 DWT
  ships by type: cargo 2, refrigerated cargo 1 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 12
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 3
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2
  with paved runways under 914 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 2
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 70,000 (1988 est.)

Telephone system: poor to fair system
  domestic: primarily microwave radio relay
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 4, FM 1, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 4 (repeaters 8)

Televisions: 250,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force, Palace Guard, Civil
  Defense

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: 4,135,538
  males fit for military service: 2,303,423
  males reach military age (18) annually: 176,332 (1996 est.)

Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $30 million, 0.8%
  of GDP (1994)



======================================================================



@Gibraltar
---------


(dependent territory of the UK)

Map
---


Location: 36 11 N, 5 22 W -- Southwestern Europe, bordering the
  Strait of Gibraltar, which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North
  Atlantic Ocean, on the southern coast of Spain



Flag
----


Description: two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and
  red with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band;
  hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band



Geography
---------


Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Strait of Gibraltar,
  which links the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, on
  the southern coast of Spain

Geographic coordinates: 36 11 N, 5 22 W

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 6.5 sq km
  land area: 6.5 sq km
  comparative area: about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington,
  DC

Land boundaries:
  total: 1.2 km
  border country: Spain 1.2 km

Coastline: 12 km

Maritime claims:
  territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: source of friction between Spain and the UK

Climate: Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

Terrain: a narrow coastal lowland borders the Rock of Gibraltar
  lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Rock of Gibraltar 426 m

Natural resources: NEGL

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 100%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: limited natural freshwater resources, so large
  concrete or natural rock water catchments collect rain water
  natural hazards: NA
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that
  links the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea



People
------


Population: 28,765 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 20% (male 3,109; female 2,728)
  15-64 years: 66% (male 10,668; female 8,292)
  65 years and over: 14% (male 1,582; female 2,386) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.54% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 13.94 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 8.73 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.29 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.15 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.83 years
  male: 74.5 years
  female: 81.31 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.26 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Gibraltarian(s)
  adjective: Gibraltar

Ethnic divisions: Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, Spanish

Religions: Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 11% (Church of England
  8%, other 3%), Muslim 8%, Jewish 2%, none or other 5% (1981)

Languages: English (used in schools and for official purposes),
  Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Russian

Literacy: NA



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Gibraltar

Data code: GI

Type of government: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Gibraltar

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

National holiday: Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March)

Constitution: 30 May 1969

Legal system: English law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, plus other UK subjects
  resident six months or more

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (of the United Kingdom since 6
  February 1952), a hereditary monarch, is represented by Governor and
  Commander in Chief Field Marshal Sir John CHAPPLE (since NA March
  1993)
  head of government: Chief Minister Joe BOSSANO (since 25 March 1988)
  was appointed by the governor
  Gibraltar Council: advises the governor
  cabinet: Council of Ministers was appointed from the elected members
  of the House of Assembly by the governor in consultation with the
  chief minister

Legislative branch: unicameral
  House of Assembly: elections last held 16 January 1992 (next to be
  held NA January 1996); results - SL 73.3%, SD 20.2%, NP 4.7%,
  independents 1.8%; seats - (18 total, 15 elected) SL 8, SD 7

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Court of Appeal

Political parties and leaders: Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party
  (SL), Joe BOSSANO; Gibraltar Labor Party/Association for the
  Advancement of Civil Rights (GCL/AACR), leader Adolfo CANEPA;
  Gibraltar Social Democrats (SD), Peter CARUANA; Gibraltar National
  Party (NP), Joe GARCIA

Other political or pressure groups: Housewives Association;
  Chamber of Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization

International organization participation: Interpol (subbureau)

Diplomatic representation in US: none (dependent territory of the
  UK)

US diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red
  with a three-towered red castle in the center of the white band;
  hanging from the castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Gibraltar benefits from an extensive shipping
  trade and offshore banking. The British military presence has been
  sharply reduced and now contributes about 11% to the local economy.
  The financial sector accounts for 15% of GDP; tourism, shipping
  services fees, and duties on consumer goods also generate revenue.
  Because more than 70% of the economy is in the public sector,
  changes in government spending have a major impact on the level of
  employment.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $205 million (1993 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $6,600 (1993 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Labor force: 14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers)
  note: UK military establishments and civil government employ nearly
  50% of the labor force

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget:
  revenues: $116 million
  expenditures: $124 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1992-93)

Industries: tourism, banking and finance, construction, commerce;
  support to large UK naval and air bases; tobacco, mineral waters,
  beer, canned fish

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 47,000 kW
  production: 90 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 2,539 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: none

Exports: $57 million (f.o.b., 1992)
  commodities: (principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured
  goods 41%, other 8%
  partners: UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG

Imports: $420 million (c.i.f., 1992)
  commodities: fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
  partners: UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands

External debt: $318 million (1987)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 Gibraltar pound (LG) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Gibraltar pounds (LG) per US$1 - 0.6535 (January
  1996), 0.6335 (1995), 0.6529 (1994), 0.6658 (1993), 0.5664 (1992),
  0.5652 (1991); note - the Gibraltar pound is at par with the British
  pound

Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: NA km; 1.000-m gauge system in dockyard area only

Highways:
  total: 49.9 km (including 12.9 km public highways)
  paved: 49.9 km
  unpaved: 0 km

Pipelines: none

Ports: Gibraltar

Merchant marine:
  total: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 357,730 GRT/635,769 DWT
  ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 3, chemical tanker 1, container 1, oil
  tanker 13 (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 1
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 19,529 (1993 est.)

Telephone system: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate
  international facilities
  domestic: automatic exchange facilities
  international: radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite
  earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 6, shortwave 0

Radios: NA

Television broadcast stations: 4

Televisions: NA



Defense
-------


Branches: British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of the UK



======================================================================



@Glorioso Islands
----------------


(possession of France)

Map
---


Location: 11 30 S, 47 20 E -- Southern Africa, group of islands in
  the Indian Ocean, northwest of Madagascar



Flag
----


Description: the flag of France is used



Geography
---------


Location: Southern Africa, group of islands in the Indian Ocean,
  northwest of Madagascar

Geographic coordinates: 11 30 S, 47 20 E

Map references: Africa

Area:
  total area: 5 sq km
  land area: 5 sq km
  comparative area: about eight times the size of The Mall in
  Washington, DC
  note: includes Ile Glorieuse, Ile du Lys, Verte Rocks, Wreck Rock,
  and South Rock

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 35.2 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: claimed by Madagascar

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA
  lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
  highest point: unnamed location 12 m

Natural resources: guano, coconuts

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 0%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 100% (all lush vegetation and coconut palms)

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: periodic cyclones
  international agreements: NA



People
------


Population: uninhabited



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Glorioso Islands
  local long form: none
  local short form: Iles Glorieuses

Data code: GO

Type of government: French possession administered by Commissioner
  of the Republic, resident in Reunion

Capital: none; administered by France from Reunion

Independence: none (possession of France)

Flag: the flag of France is used



Economy
-------


Economic overview: no economic activity



Transportation
--------------


Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports:
  total: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@Greece
------



Map
---


Location: 39 00 N, 22 00 E -- Southern Europe, bordering the
  Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania
  and Turkey



Flag
----


Description: nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating
  with white; there is a blue square in the upper hoist-side corner
  bearing a white cross; the cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the
  established religion of the country



Geography
---------


Location: Southern Europe, bordering the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea,
  and the Mediterranean Sea, between Albania and Turkey

Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 22 00 E

Map references: Europe

Area:
  total area: 131,940 sq km
  land area: 130,800 sq km
  comparative area: slightly smaller than Alabama

Land boundaries:
  total: 1,210 km
  border countries: Albania 282 km, Bulgaria 494 km, Turkey 206 km,
  The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 228 km

Coastline: 13,676 km

Maritime claims:
  continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
  territorial sea: 6 nm

International disputes: complex maritime, air, and territorial
  disputes with Turkey in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; dispute with
  The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia over name; border
  demarcation with Albania, the treatment of Albania's ethnic Greek
  minority, and migrant Albanian workers in Greece remain unresolved
  issues

Climate: temperate; mild, wet winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with ranges extending into sea as
  peninsulas or chains of islands
  lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Olympus 2,917 m

Natural resources: bauxite, lignite, magnesite, petroleum, marble

Land use:
  arable land: 23%
  permanent crops: 8%
  meadows and pastures: 40%
  forest and woodland: 20%
  other: 9%

Irrigated land: 11,900 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: air pollution; water pollution
  natural hazards: severe earthquakes
  international agreements: party to - Air Pollution,
  Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
  Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
  Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban,
  Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83,
  Wetlands; signed, but not ratified - Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides,
  Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
  Desertification

Geographic note: strategic location dominating the Aegean Sea and
  southern approach to Turkish Straits; a peninsular country,
  possessing an archipelago of about 2,000 islands



People
------


Population: 10,538,594 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 16% (male 899,029; female 837,308)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 3,571,918; female 3,542,556)
  65 years and over: 16% (male 736,818; female 950,965) (July 1996
  est.)

Population growth rate: 0.42% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 9.78 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 9.53 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 3.98 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.98 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 78.1 years
  male: 75.6 years
  female: 80.78 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.37 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Greek(s)
  adjective: Greek

Ethnic divisions: Greek 98%, other 2%
  note: the Greek Government states there are no ethnic divisions in
======================================================================



@Greenland
---------


(part of the Danish realm)

Map
---


Location: 72 00 N, 40 00 W -- Northern North America, island
  between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of
  Canada



Flag
----


Description: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red
  with a large disk slightly to the hoist side of center - the top
  half of the disk is red, the bottom half is white



Geography
---------


Location: Northern North America, island between the Arctic Ocean
  and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada

Geographic coordinates: 72 00 N, 40 00 W

Map references: Arctic Region

Area:
  total area: 2,175,600 sq km
  land area: 383,600 sq km (ice free)
  comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 44,087 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 3 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters

Terrain: flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow,
  mountainous, barren, rocky coast
  lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Gunnbjorn 3,700 m

Natural resources: zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, molybdenum,
  cryolite, uranium, fish

Land use:
  arable land: 0%
  permanent crops: 0%
  meadows and pastures: 1%
  forest and woodland: 0%
  other: 99%

Irrigated land: 0 sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of
  the island
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North
  America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements
  along coast



People
------


Population: 58,203 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 27% (male 7,871; female 7,723)
  15-64 years: 68% (male 21,755; female 17,961)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 1,307; female 1,586) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 17.06 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 7.11 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.21 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.13 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 23.8 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 68.24 years
  male: 63.97 years
  female: 72.53 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.22 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Greenlander(s)
  adjective: Greenlandic

Ethnic divisions: Greenlander 86% (Eskimos and Greenland-born
  whites), Danish 14%

Religions: Evangelical Lutheran

Languages: Eskimo dialects, Danish

Literacy: NA



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Greenland
  local long form: none
  local short form: Kalaallit Nunaat

Data code: GL

Type of government: part of the Danish realm; self-governing
  overseas administrative division

Capital: Nuuk (Godthab)

Administrative divisions: 3 municipalities (kommuner, singular -
  kommun); Nordgronland, Ostgronland, Vestgronland

Independence: none (part of the Danish realm; self-governing
  overseas administrative division)

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Constitution: 5 June 1953 (Danish constitution)

Legal system: Danish

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II (of Denmark since 14 January
  1972), a constitutional monarch, is represented by High Commissioner
  Steen SPORE (since NA 1993)
  head of government: Prime Minister Lars Emil JOHANSEN (since 15
  March 1991) was elected by the Landsting
  cabinet: Landsstyre is formed from the Landsting on basis of
  strength of parties

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Parliament (Landsting): election last held on 4 March 1995 (next to
  be held NA 5 March 1999); results - Siumut 38.5%, Inuit Ataqatigiit
  20.3%, Atassut Party 29.7%; seats - (31 total) Siumut 12, Atassut
  Party 10, Inuit Ataqatigiit 6, conservative splinter grouping 2,
  independent 1
  Danish Folketing: election last held on 21 September 1994 (next to
  be held by NA September 1998); Greenland elects two representatives
  to the Folketing; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2
  total) Liberals 1, Social Democrats 1; note - Greenlandic
  representatives are affiliated with Danish political parties

Judicial branch: High Court (Landsret)

Political parties and leaders: two-party ruling coalition; Siumut
  (Forward Party, a moderate socialist party that advocates more
  distinct Greenlandic identity and greater autonomy from Denmark),
  Lars Emil JOHANSEN, chairman; Inuit Ataqatigiit (IA) (Eskimo
  Brotherhood, a Marxist-Leninist party that favors complete
  independence from Denmark rather than home rule), Josef MOTZFELDT;
  Atassut Party (Solidarity, a more conservative party that favors
  continuing close relations with Denmark), Daniel SKIFTE; Akulliit
  Party, Bjarne KREUTZMANN; Issituup (Polar Party), Nicolai HEINRICH

Diplomatic representation in US: none (self-governing overseas
  administrative division of Denmark)

US diplomatic representation: none (self-governing overseas
  administrative division of Denmark)

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a
  large disk slightly to the hoist side of center - the top half of
  the disk is red, the bottom half is white



Economy
-------


Economic overview: Greenland's economic situation at present is
  difficult. Unemployment is increasing, and prospects for economic
  growth in the immediate future are dim. Following the closing of the
  Black Angel lead and zinc mine in 1989, Greenland became almost
  completely dependent on fishing and fish processing, the sector
  accounting for 95% of exports. Prospects for fisheries are not
  bright, as the important shrimp catches will at best stabilize and
  cod catches have dropped. Resumption of mining and hydrocarbon
  activities is not around the corner, thus leaving only tourism with
  some potential for the near future. The public sector, i.e., the
  central government and its commercial entities and the
  municipalities, plays a dominant role in Greenland, accounting for
  about two-thirds of total employment. About half the government's
  revenues come from grants from the Danish Government, an important
  supplement of GDP.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $892 million (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $15,500 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1993 est.)

Labor force: 22,800

Unemployment rate: 6.6% (1993 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $667 million
  expenditures: $635 million, including capital expenditures of $103.8
  million (1993 est.)

Industries: fish processing (mainly shrimp), lead, zinc,
  handicrafts, small shipyards

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 84,000 kW
  production: 210 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 3,361 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: forage crops, small garden vegetables; sheep; 1988
  fish catch of 133,500 metric tons

Exports: $330.5 million (f.o.b., 1993 est.)
  commodities: fish and fish products 95%
  partners: Denmark 79%, Benelux 9%, Germany 5%

Imports: $369.6 million (c.i.f., 1993 est.)
  commodities: manufactured goods 28%, machinery and transport
  equipment 24%, food and live animals 12.4%, petroleum products 12%
  partners: Denmark 65%, Norway 8.8%, US 4.6%, Germany 3.8%, Japan
  3.8%, Sweden 2.4%

External debt: $297.1 million (1993)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA
  note: substantial annual subsidy from Denmark

Currency: 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 oere

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 5.652 (January
  1996), 5.602 (1995), 6.361 (1994), 6.484 (1993), 6.036 (1992), 6.396
  (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 150 km
  paved: 60 km
  unpaved: 90 km

Ports: Faeringehavn, Frederikshaab, Holsteinsborg, Nanortalik,
  Narsaq, Nuuk (Godthaab), Sondre Stromfjord

Merchant marine:
  total: 1 short-sea passenger (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,162
  GRT/610 DWT (1995 est.)

Airports:
  total: 8
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 17,900 (1984 est.)

Telephone system: adequate domestic and international service
  provided by cables and microwave radio relay
  domestic: microwave radio relay
  international: 2 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth station -
  1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations: AM 5, FM 7 (repeaters 35), shortwave 0

Radios: 23,000 (1991 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 4 (repeaters 9)

Televisions: 12,000 (1991 est.)



Defense
-------


Defense note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark



======================================================================



@Grenada
-------



Map
---


Location: 12 07 N, 61 40 W -- Caribbean, island in the Caribbean
  Sea, north of Trinidad and Tobago



Flag
----


Description: a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles
  (top and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side)
  with a red border around the flag; there are seven yellow
  five-pointed stars with three centered in the top red border, three
  centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red disk
  superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic
  nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world's
  second-largest producer of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars
  represent the seven administrative divisions



Geography
---------


Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of
  Trinidad and Tobago

Geographic coordinates: 12 07 N, 61 40 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total area: 340 sq km
  land area: 340 sq km
  comparative area: twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds

Terrain: volcanic in origin with central mountains
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Mount Saint Catherine 840 m

Natural resources: timber, tropical fruit, deepwater harbors

Land use:
  arable land: 15%
  permanent crops: 26%
  meadows and pastures: 3%
  forest and woodland: 9%
  other: 47%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season
  lasts from June to November
  international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change,
  Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling

Geographic note: the administration of the islands of the
  Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  and Grenada



People
------


Population: 94,961 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 43% (male 20,975; female 20,246)
  15-64 years: 52% (male 26,089; female 23,068)
  65 years and over: 5% (male 2,112; female 2,471) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 0.55% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 29.13 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.74 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -17.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
  all ages: 1.07 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 11.9 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 70.89 years
  male: 68.39 years
  female: 73.44 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 3.78 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Grenadian(s)
  adjective: Grenadian

Ethnic divisions: black African

Religions: Roman Catholic, Anglican, other Protestant sects

Languages: English (official), French patois

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
  total population: 98%
  male: 98%
  female: 98%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: none
  conventional short form: Grenada

Data code: GJ

Type of government: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Saint George's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou
  and Petit Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George,
  Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick

Independence: 7 February 1974 (from UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 February (1974)

Constitution: 19 December 1973

Legal system: based on English common law

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), a
  hereditary monarch, is represented by Governor General Reginald
  Oswald PALMER (since 6 August 1992)
  head of government: Prime Minister Keith MITCHELL (since 22 June
  1995) was appointed from members of the House of Assembly by the
  governor general
  cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the governor general on advice of
  the prime minister

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament
  Senate: consists of a 13-member body, 10 appointed by the government
  and three by the leader of the opposition
  House of Representatives: elections last held on 20 June 1995 (next
  to be held by NA October 2000); results - percent of vote by party
  NA; seats - (15 total) NDC 5, GULP 2, NNP 8

Judicial branch: West Indies Associate States Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Congress (NDC),
  George BRIZAN; Grenada United Labor Party (GULP), Sir Eric GAIRY;
  The National Party (TNP), Ben JONES; New National Party (NNP), Keith
  MITCHELL; Maurice Bishop Patriotic Movement (MBPM), Terrence
  MARRYSHOW; New Democratic Party (NDP), James MITCHELL; Unity Labor
  Party (ULP), Vincent BEACHE

International organization participation: ACP, C, Caricom, CDB,
  ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS,
  ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, LAES, NAM, OAS,
  OECS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WToO

Diplomatic representation in US:
  chief of mission: Ambassador Denneth MODESTE
  chancery: 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
  telephone: [1] (202) 265-2561

US diplomatic representation:
  chief of mission: the ambassador to Barbados is accredited to
  Grenada; Charge d'Affaires Dennis CARTER
  embassy: Point Salines, Saint George's
  mailing address: P. O. Box 54, Saint George's, Grenada, W.I.
  telephone: [1] (809) 444-1173 through 1178
  FAX: [1] (809) 444-4820

Flag: a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top
  and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side) with a
  red border around the flag; there are seven yellow five-pointed
  stars with three centered in the top red border, three centered in
  the bottom red border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the
  center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the
  hoist-side triangle (Grenada is the world's second-largest producer
  of nutmeg, after Indonesia); the seven stars represent the seven
  administrative divisions



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The economy is essentially agricultural and
  centers on the traditional production of spices and tropical plants.
  Agriculture accounts for about 10% of GDP and 80% of exports and
  employs 24% of the labor force. Tourism is the leading foreign
  exchange earner, followed by agricultural exports. Manufacturing
  remains relatively undeveloped, but is growing due to a favorable
  private investment climate since 1983. The economy achieved an
  impressive average annual growth rate of 5.5% in 1986-91 but has
  slowed since 1992. The new MITCHELL government has moved forward
  with a plan to eliminate personal income tax in the hope of spurring
  domestic consumption.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $284 million (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: 3% (1995 est.)

GDP per capita: $3,000 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 10.2%
  industry: 40.3%
  services: 49.5% (1994 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1995 est.)

Labor force: 36,000
  by occupation: services 31%, agriculture 24%, construction 8%,
  manufacturing 5%, other 32% (1985)

Unemployment rate: 14% (1995 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $75.7 million (1996 est.)
  expenditures: $126.7 million, including capital expenditures of $51
  million (1996 est.)

Industries: food and beverages, textiles, light assembly
  operations, tourism, construction

Industrial production growth rate: 1.8% (1992 est.)

Electricity:
  capacity: 12,500 kW
  production: 60 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 639 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, citrus, avocados, root
  crops, sugarcane, corn, vegetables

Illicit drugs: produces and exports marijuana for US markets

Exports: $24.2 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, fruit and vegetables, clothing,
  mace
  partners: Caricom 32.3%, UK 20%, US 13%, Netherlands 8.8% (1991)

Imports: $162.2 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
  commodities: food 25%, manufactured goods 22%, machinery 20%,
  chemicals 10%, fuel 6% (1989)
  partners: US 31.2%, Caricom 23.6%, UK 13.8%, Japan 7.1% (1991)

External debt: $89.1 million (1995 est.)

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA

Currency: 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70
  (fixed rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 994 km
  paved: 597 km
  unpaved: 397 km (1988 est.)

Ports: Grenville, Saint George's

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 3
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914 m: 1 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 5,650 (1988 est.)

Telephone system: automatic, islandwide telephone system
  domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links
  international: new SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago
  and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad

Radio broadcast stations: AM 1, FM 0, shortwave 0

Radios: 80,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 1 (1988 est.)

Televisions: 30,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: Royal Grenada Police Force, Coast Guard

Manpower availability:
  males age 15-49: NA
  males fit for military service: NA

Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP



======================================================================



@Guadeloupe
----------


(overseas department of France)

Map
---


Location: 16 15 N, 61 35 W -- Caribbean, islands in the eastern
  Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto Rico



Flag
----


Description: three horizontal bands, a narrow green band (top), a
  wide red band, and a narrow green band; the green bands are
  separated from the red band by two narrow white stripes; a
  five-pointed gold star is centered in the red band toward the hoist
  side; the flag of France is used for official occasions



Geography
---------


Location: Caribbean, islands in the eastern Caribbean Sea,
  southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates: 16 15 N, 61 35 W

Map references: Central America and the Caribbean

Area:
  total area: 1,780 sq km
  land area: 1,706 sq km
  comparative area: 10 times the size of Washington, DC
  note: Guadeloupe is an archipelago of nine inhabited islands, of
  which Basse-Terre, Grande-Terre, and Marie-Galante are the three
  largest

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 306 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high
  humidity

Terrain: Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior
  mountains; Grand-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven
  other islands are volcanic in origin
  lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
  highest point: Soufriere 1,467 m

Natural resources: cultivable land, beaches and climate that
  foster tourism

Land use:
  arable land: 18%
  permanent crops: 5%
  meadows and pastures: 13%
  forest and woodland: 40%
  other: 24%

Irrigated land: 30 sq km (1989 est.)

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: hurricanes (June to October); La Soufriere is an
  active volcano
  international agreements: NA



People
------


Population: 407,768 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: 26% (male 53,118; female 51,219)
  15-64 years: 66% (male 132,846; female 136,147)
  65 years and over: 8% (male 14,617; female 19,821) (July 1996 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.2% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 17.78 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 5.59 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: -0.16 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
  under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
  15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
  65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
  all ages: 0.97 male(s)/female (1996 est.)

Infant mortality rate: 8.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 77.4 years
  male: 74.37 years
  female: 80.58 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 1.92 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Guadeloupian(s)
  adjective: Guadeloupe

Ethnic divisions: black or mulatto 90%, white 5%, East Indian,
  Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%

Religions: Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 4%,
  Protestant sects 1%

Languages: French (official) 99%, Creole patois

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1982 est.)
  total population: 90%
  male: 90%
  female: 90%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Department of Guadeloupe
  conventional short form: Guadeloupe
  local long form: Departement de la Guadeloupe
  local short form: Guadeloupe

Data code: GP

Type of government: overseas department of France

Capital: Basse-Terre

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

National holiday: National Day, Taking of the Bastille, 14 July
  (1789)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President (of France) Jacques CHIRAC (since 17 May
  1995), represented by Prefect Michel DIEFENBACHER (since NA March
  1995), who was appointed by the French Ministry of Interior
  head of government: President of the General Council Dominique
  LARIFLA (since NA); President of the Regional Council Lucette
  MICHAUX-CHEVRY (since 22 March 1992)

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and unicameral
  Regional Council
  General Council: elections last held 22 March 1992 (next to be held
  by NA 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (43
  total) FRUI.G 13, RPR/DUD 13, PPDG 8, FGPS 3, PCG 3, UPLG 1, PSG 1,
  independent 1
  Regional Council: elections last held 31 January 1994 (next to be
  held by 16 March 1998); results - RPR/FGPS-dissadents 48.30%, FGPS
  17.09%, FRUI.G 7.44%, PPDG 8.90%, UPLG 7.75% PCG 6.05%; seats - (41
  total) RPR/FGPS-dissadents 22, FGPS/FRUI.G 9, PPDG 5, PCG 3, UPLG 2
  French Senate: elections last held in September 1995 (next to be
  held NA September 2004); Guadeloupe elects two representatives;
  results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) PPDG 1,
  FGPS 1
  French National Assembly: elections last held on 21 and 28 March
  1993 (next to be held NA March 1998); Guadeloupe elects four
  representatives; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (4
  total) FGPS 1, RPR 1, PPDG 1, independent 1

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel) with jurisdiction
  over Guadeloupe, French Guiana, and Martinique

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR),
  Daniel BEAUBRUN; Communist Party of Guadeloupe (PCG), Christian
  Medard CELESTE; Socialist Party (FGPS), Georges LOUISOR; Popular
  Union for the Liberation of Guadeloupe (UPLG), Claude MAKOUKE; FGPS
  Dissidents (FRUI.G), Dominique LARIFLA; Union for French Democracy
  (UDF), Marcel ESDRAS; Progressive Democratic Party (PPDG), Henri
  BANGOU

Other political or pressure groups: Movement for Independent
  Guadeloupe (MPGI); General Union of Guadeloupe Workers (UGTG);
  General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers (CGT-G); Christian Movement
  for the Liberation of Guadeloupe (KLPG)

International organization participation: FZ, WCL, WFTU

Diplomatic representation in US: none (overseas department of
  France)

US diplomatic representation: none (overseas department of France)

Flag: three horizontal bands, a narrow green band (top), a wide
  red band, and a narrow green band; the green bands are separated
  from the red band by two narrow white stripes; a five-pointed gold
  star is centered in the red band toward the hoist side; the flag of
  France is used for official occasions



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The economy depends on agriculture, tourism,
  light industry, and services. It is also dependent upon France for
  large subsidies and imports. Tourism is a key industry, with most
  tourists from the US. In addition, an increasingly large number of
  cruise ships visit the islands. The traditionally important
  sugarcane crop is slowly being replaced by other crops, such as
  bananas (which now supply about 50% of export earnings), eggplant,
  and flowers. Other vegetables and root crops are cultivated for
  local consumption, although Guadeloupe is still dependent on
  imported food, which comes mainly from France. Light industry
  consists mostly of sugar and rum production. Most manufactured goods
  and fuel are imported. Unemployment is especially high among the
  young.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $3.7 billion (1995 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $9,200 (1995 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: 6%
  industry: 9%
  services: 85% (1993 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1990)

Labor force: 129,700
  by occupation: agriculture 15%, industry 20%, services 65% (1993)

Unemployment rate: 31.3% (1995)

Budget:
  revenues: $395 million
  expenditures: $407 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1995)

Industries: construction, cement, rum, sugar, tourism

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 320,000 kW
  production: 650 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 1,421 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: bananas, sugarcane, tropical fruits and vegetables;
  cattle, pigs, goats

Exports: $130 million (f.o.b., 1993)
  commodities: bananas, sugar, rum
  partners: France 70%, Martinique 17% (1991)

Imports: $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
  commodities: foodstuffs, fuels, vehicles, clothing and other
  consumer goods, construction materials
  partners: France 60%, EC, US, Japan (1991)

External debt: $NA

Economic aid:
  recipient: ODA, $NA
  note: substantial annual French subsidies

Currency: 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.0056 (January
  1996), 4.9915 (1995), 5.5520 (1994), 5.6632 (1993), 5.2938 (1992),
  5.6421 (1991)

Fiscal year: calendar year



Transportation
--------------


Railways:
  total: NA km; privately owned, narrow-gauge plantation lines

Highways:
  total: 2,082 km (national 329 km, regional 582 km, community/local
  1171 km)
  paved: 1,742 km
  unpaved: 340 km (1985 est.)

Ports: Basse-Terre, Gustavia, Marigot, Pointe-a-Pitre

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 9
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 2
  with paved runways under 914 m: 6 (1995 est.)



Communications
--------------


Telephones: 64,916 (1984 est.)

Telephone system: domestic facilities inadequate
  domestic: NA
  international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic
  Ocean); microwave radio relay to Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, and
  Martinique

Radio broadcast stations: AM 2, FM 8 (private stations licensed to
  broadcast FM 30), shortwave 0

Radios: 100,000 (1993 est.)

Television broadcast stations: 9

Televisions: 150,000 (1993 est.)



Defense
-------


Branches: French Forces, Gendarmerie

Defense note: defense is the responsibility of France



======================================================================



@Guam
----


(territory of the US)

Map
---


Location: 13 28 N, 144 47 E -- Oceania, island in the North
  Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the
  Philippines



Flag
----


Description: territorial flag is dark blue with a narrow red
  border on all four sides; centered is a red-bordered, pointed,
  vertical ellipse containing a beach scene, outrigger canoe with
  sail, and a palm tree with the word GUAM superimposed in bold red
  letters; US flag is the national flag



Geography
---------


Location: Oceania, island in the North Pacific Ocean, about
  three-quarters of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines

Geographic coordinates: 13 28 N, 144 47 E

Map references: Oceania

Area:
  total area: 541.3 sq km
  land area: 541.3 sq km
  comparative area: three times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 125.5 km

Maritime claims:
  exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  territorial sea: 12 nm

International disputes: none

Climate: tropical marine; generally warm and humid, moderated by
  northeast trade winds; dry season from January to June, rainy season
  from July to December; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic origin, surrounded by coral reefs; relatively
  flat coralline limestone plateau (source of most fresh water) with
  steep coastal cliffs and narrow coastal plains in north, low-rising
  hills in center, mountains in south
  lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
  highest point: Mount Lamlam 406 m

Natural resources: fishing (largely undeveloped), tourism
  (especially from Japan)

Land use:
  arable land: 11%
  permanent crops: 11%
  meadows and pastures: 15%
  forest and woodland: 18%
  other: 45%

Irrigated land: NA sq km

Environment:
  current issues: NA
  natural hazards: frequent squalls during rainy season; relatively
  rare, but potentially very destructive typhoons (especially in
  August)
  international agreements: NA

Geographic note: largest and southernmost island in the Mariana
  Islands archipelago; strategic location in western North Pacific
  Ocean



People
------


Population: 156,974 (July 1996 est.)

Age structure:
  0-14 years: NA
  15-64 years: NA
  65 years and over: NA

Population growth rate: 2.34% (1996 est.)

Birth rate: 24.24 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Death rate: 3.86 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Net migration rate: 3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)

Sex ratio:
  at birth: NA male(s)/female
  under 15 years: NA male(s)/female
  15-64 years: NA male(s)/female
  65 years and over: NA male(s)/female
  all ages: NA male(s)/female

Infant mortality rate: 15.17 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
  total population: 74.29 years
  male: 72.42 years
  female: 76.13 years (1996 est.)

Total fertility rate: 2.25 children born/woman (1996 est.)

Nationality:
  noun: Guamanian(s)
  adjective: Guamanian

Ethnic divisions: Chamorro 47%, Filipino 25%, white 10%, Chinese,
  Japanese, Korean, and other 18%

Religions: Roman Catholic 98%, other 2%

Languages: English, Chamorro, Japanese

Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
  total population: 99%
  male: 99%
  female: 99%



Government
----------


Name of country:
  conventional long form: Territory of Guam
  conventional short form: Guam

Data code: GQ

Type of government: organized, unincorporated territory of the US
  with policy relations between Guam and the US under the jurisdiction
  of the Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US
  Department of the Interior

Capital: Agana

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

Independence: none (territory of the US)

National holiday: Guam Discovery Day (first Monday in March)
  (1521); Liberation Day, 21 July

Constitution: Organic Act of 1 August 1950

Legal system: modeled on US; federal laws apply

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal; US citizens, but do not vote
  in US presidential elections

Executive branch:
  chief of state: President (of the United States) William Jefferson
  CLINTON (since 20 January 1993); Vice President Albert GORE, Jr.
  (since 20 January 1993)
  head of government: Governor Carl GUTIERREZ (since 8 November 1994)
  and Lieutenant Governor Madeleine BORDALLO (since 8 November 1994)
  were elected for a four-year term by popular vote; election last
  held 8 November 1994 (next to be held NA November 1998); results -
  Carl GUTIERREZ (Democrat) defeated Tommy TANAKA (Republican) with
  54.6% of the vote
  cabinet: executive departments; heads appointed by the governor with
  the consent of the Guam legislature

Legislative branch: unicameral
  Legislature: elections last held 8 November 1994 (next to be held NA
  November 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21
  total) Democrats 14, Republican 7
  US House of Representatives: elections last held 8 November 1994
  (next to be held NA November 1996); Guam elects one delegate;
  results - Robert UNDERWOOD was reelected as delegate; seats - (1
  total) Democrat 1

Judicial branch: Federal District Court, judge is appointed by the
  president; Territorial Superior Court, judges appointed for
  eight-year terms by the governor

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party (controls the
  legislature); Republican Party (party of the Governor)

International organization participation: ESCAP (associate), IOC,
  SPC

Diplomatic representation in US: none (territory of the US)

US diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: territorial flag is dark blue with a narrow red border on
  all four sides; centered is a red-bordered, pointed, vertical
  ellipse containing a beach scene, outrigger canoe with sail, and a
  palm tree with the word GUAM superimposed in bold red letters; US
  flag is the national flag



Economy
-------


Economic overview: The economy depends mainly on US military
  spending and on revenues from tourism. Over the past 20 years, the
  tourist industry has grown rapidly, creating a construction boom for
  new hotels and the expansion of older ones. Visitors numbered about
  900,000 in 1992. The slowdown in Japanese economic growth has been
  reflected in less vigorous growth in the tourism sector. About 60%
  of the labor force works for the private sector and the rest for
  government. Most food and industrial goods are imported, with about
  75% from the US. Guam faces the problem of building up the civilian
  economic sector to offset the impact of military downsizing.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $2 billion (1991 est.)

GDP real growth rate: NA%

GDP per capita: $14,000 (1991 est.)

GDP composition by sector:
  agriculture: NA%
  industry: NA%
  services: NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1992 est.)

Labor force: 46,930 (1990)
  by occupation: federal and territorial government 40%, private 60%
  (trade 18%, services 15.6%, construction 13.8%, other 12.6%) (1990)

Unemployment rate: 2% (1992 est.)

Budget:
  revenues: $525 million
  expenditures: $395 million, including capital expenditures of $NA
  (1991)

Industries: US military, tourism, construction, transshipment
  services, concrete products, printing and publishing, food
  processing, textiles

Industrial production growth rate: NA%

Electricity:
  capacity: 300,000 kW
  production: 750 million kWh
  consumption per capita: 4,797 kWh (1993)

Agriculture: fruits, copra, vegetables; eggs, pork, poultry, beef

Exports: $34 million (f.o.b., 1984)
  commodities: mostly transshipments of refined petroleum products,
  construction materials, fish, food and beverage products
  partners: US 25%, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 63%, other
  12%

Imports: $493 million (c.i.f., 1984)
  commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, food, manufactured
  goods
  partners: US 23%, Japan 19%, other 58%

External debt: $NA

Economic aid:
  recipient: although Guam receives no foreign aid, it does receive
  large transfer payments from the general revenues of the US Federal
  Treasury into which Guamanians pay no income or excise taxes; under
  the provisions of a special law of Congress, the Guamanian Treasury,
  rather than the US Treasury, receives federal income taxes paid by
  military and civilian Federal employees stationed in Guam

Currency: 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October - 30 September



Transportation
--------------


Railways: 0 km

Highways:
  total: 674 km (all-weather roads)
  paved: NA km
  unpaved: NA km

Ports: Apra Harbor

Merchant marine: none

Airports:
  total: 4
  with paved runways over 3 047 m: 2
  with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 1
  with paved runways under 914