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´╗┐Title: The 2009 CIA World Factbook
Author: United States. Central Intelligence Agency
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The 2009 CIA World Factbook" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



THE CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 2009



CONTENTS


What's New?

Did You Know?

Guide to Country Profiles

Countries and Locations

Field Listings

Rank Orders

Appendixes

Notes and Definitions

History of the CIA Factbook

Contributors and Copyright Information

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)



THE WORLD FACTBOOK :: WHAT'S NEW



November 13, 2009

Recent elections and governmental changes recorded for
Afghanistan, Aruba, Fiji, Germany, Haiti, Marshall Islands,
Mongolia, Tunisia, and Uruguay. In the Economy category, some
20 macro-economic fields have been updated with the latest
data. New NASA space photos added for the Atlantic, Indian,
and Pacific Oceans, as well as for Montserrat and the World;
new ground photos added for Cambodia and France.


October 30, 2009

In the Economy category, all the energy-related fields have
been updated with the latest data; new photos added for
Norway and Poland.


October 14, 2009

In addition to regular informational updates, new photos have
been added for Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Russia, and Sweden.


October 02, 2009

In the Transportation category, updates have been made to the
"Airports" and "Heliports" fields; new photos added for
Libya, Turkey, and the United Kingdom.


September 17, 2009

NASA images taken from space have been introduced to enhance
various country photo presentations. Significant numbers of
high altitude photos appear under China, Egypt, Spain,
Australia, and New Zealand, but can also be found scattered
among other country entries. In the Economy category,
statistics for "Distribution of family income - Gini index,"
"Public debt," and "Debt - external" now include two year's
worth of data.


September 03, 2009

In the Economy category, statistics for "Current Account
Balance," "Exports," "Imports," "Reserves of foreign exchange
and gold," "Stock of direct foreign investment - at home,"
and "Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad" now include
two year's worth of data; statistics for "Market value of
publicly traded shares" now include three year's worth of
data. New photos added for Austria, France, Monaco,
Netherlands, and Netherlands Antilles.


August 17, 2009

Various rail gauge line lengths have been updated for all
countries in the Railways entry; selected economic and
political entries also updated.


July 31, 2009

In the Economy category, statistics for "Central bank
discount rate," "Commercial bank prime lending rate," "Stock
of money," "Stock of quasi money," and "Stock of domestic
credit" now include two year's worth of data.


July 20, 2009

Latest updates include changes to the chief of state or head
of government in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Lithuania,
and Panama. New photographs have been added for Spain,
Portugal, Gibraltar, and South Africa.


July 01, 2009

With the launch of the new Web site, the former "Rank Order"
function was renamed "Country Comparisons." The link to
Country Comparisons may be found under the References tab. In
addition, many of the regional reference maps now incorporate
both elevation and vegetation on landmasses, and bathymetry
for ocean areas. Statistics for "Unemployment rate" and
"Inflation rate (consumer prices)" now include two year's
worth of data.


June 08, 2009

Completely redesigned website - presenting a cleaner look,
improved navigation, and a host of added features - launched
on the World Wide Web. Among the major enhancements are
downloadable and printable photos for nearly 100 countries, a
"Did You Know?" section explaining the impact of the Factbook
around the world, and built-in world rankings for many of the
Factbook information fields. Government sections reflect the
results of recent parliamentary elections in Kuwait - where
women were elected for the first time - and India, as well as
presidential elections in Lithuania, Mongolia, Panama, and
South Africa.


April 27, 2009

Significant updates made to the People and Economy
categories; statistics for "GDP - real growth rate" and "GDP
- per capita" (at purchasing power parity) now include three
year's worth of data, in 2008 dollars. The Urbanization entry
under People expanded to include all countries.


April 03, 2009

In addition to regular country updates, statistics for "GDP
(purchasing power parity)" now include three year's worth of
data, in 2008 dollars.


March 20, 2009

Recent major leadership changes in Guinea-Bissau, Latvia, and
Madagascar included in the Government sections of those
countries.


March 02, 2009

Latest US Census Bureau figures - updating basic demographic
data for all countries - entered into the database. Entries
on religions, languages, ethnic groups, and literacy also
updated.


February 06, 2009

Country information updated across all categories. Economic
data now includes 2008 estimates where available.


November 05, 2008

In order to provide more information on the nature and global
dimensions of the current financial crisis, five additional
fields appended to the Economy category: "Central bank
discount rate," "Commercial bank prime lending rate," "Stock
of money," "Stock of quasi money," and "Stock of domestic
credit."


August 06, 2008

In the People category, two new fields provide information on
education in terms of opportunity and resources: "School Life
Expectancy" and "Education expenditures."


November 06, 2007

In the Geography category, two new fields focus on the vital
resource of water: "Total renewable water resources" and
"Freshwater withdrawal."


October 31, 2007

Three new fields added to the Economy category: "Stock of
direct foreign investment - abroad," "Stock of direct foreign
investment - at home," "Market value of publicly traded
shares."


Ongoing

Revision of some individual country maps, first introduced in
the 2001 edition, continues. Several regional maps have been
updated to reflect boundary changes and place name spelling
changes.



======================================================================



About :: DID YOU KNOW?

The World Factbook is one of the US Government's most accessed
publications.

The World Factbook, produced for US policymakers and coordinated
throughout the US Intelligence Community, presents the basic realities
about the world in which we live. We share these facts with the people
of all nations in the belief that knowledge of the truth underpins the
functioning of free societies.


Who uses The World Factbook?

A wide variety of folks including US Government officials, researchers,
news organizations, corporations, geographers, teachers, professors,
librarians, and students. In short, anyone looking for an expansive
body of international data on a recently updated Web site.


The World Factbook is a one-stop reference site.

Although many of the facts presented in The Factbook may be found in
various other publications, they are conveniently gathered together
in one place only at The World Factbook Web site.


The World Factbook is a unique reference in that it is updated
continuously - on average, every two weeks.

Information in The Factbook is collected from - and coordinated with -
a wide variety of US Government agencies, as well as from hundreds of
published sources.



======================================================================



References :: Guide to Country Profiles


These are the Categories, Fields, and subfields of information
generally recorded for each country. Links are to the Definitions
and Notes about each entry.



Introduction ::



Background:



Geography ::



Location:

Geographic coordinates:

Map references:

Area:

total

land

water

Area - comparative:

Land boundaries:

total

border countries

Coastline:

Maritime claims:

territorial sea

contiguous zone

exclusive economic zone

continental shelf

exclusive fishing zone

Climate:

Terrain:

Elevation extremes:

lowest point

highest point

Natural resources:

Land use:

arable land

permanent crops

other

Irrigated land:

Total Renewable Water Resources:

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total

per capita

Natural hazards:

Environment - current issues:

Environment - international agreements:

party to

signed, but not ratified

Geography - note:



People ::



Population:

Age structure:

0-14 years

15-64 years

65 years and over

Median Age:

total

male

female

Population growth rate:

Birth rate:

Death rate:

Net migration rate:

Sex ratio:

at birth

under 15 years

15-64 years

65 years and over

total population

Infant mortality rate:

total

male

female

Life expectancy at birth:

total population

male

female

Total fertility rate:

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk

food or waterborne diseases

vectorborne diseases

water contact diseases

aerosolized dust or soil contact disease

respiratory disease

animal contact disease

Nationality:

noun

adjective

Ethnic groups:

Religions:

Languages:

Literacy:

definition

total population

male

female

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary):

Education expenditures:

People - note:



Government ::



Country name:

conventional long form

conventional short form

local long form

local short form

former

abbreviation

Dependency status:

Government type:

Capital:

name

geographic coordinates

time difference

daylight saving time

Administrative divisions:

Dependent areas:

Independence:

National holiday:

Constitution:

Legal system:

Suffrage:

Executive branch:

chief of state

head of government

cabinet

elections

election results

Legislative branch:

elections

election results

Judicial branch:

Political parties and leaders:

Political pressure groups and leaders:

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission

chancery

telephone

FAX

consulate(s) general

consulate(s)

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission

embassy

mailing address

telephone

FAX

consulate(s) general

consulate(s)

branch office(s)

Flag description:

Government - note:



Economy ::



Economy - overview:

GDP (purchasing power parity) :

GDP (official exchange rate) :

GDP - real growth rate:

GDP - per capita (PPP):

GDP - composition by sector:

agriculture

industry

services

Labor force:

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture

industry

services

Unemployment rate:

Population below poverty line:

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%

highest 10%

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

Investment (gross fixed):

Budget:

revenues

expenditures

Public debt :

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

Central bank discount rate:

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

Stock of money:

Stock of quasi money:

Stock of domestic credit:

Market value of publicly traded shares:

Agriculture - products:

Industries:

Industrial production growth rate:

Electricity - production:

Electricity - consumption:

Electricity - exports:

Electricity - imports:

Oil - production:

Oil - consumption:

Oil - exports:

Oil - imports:

Oil - proved reserves:

Natural gas - production:

Natural gas - consumption:

Natural gas - exports:

Natural gas - imports:

Natural gas - proved reserves:

Current account balance:

Exports:

Exports - commodities:

Exports - partners:

Imports:

Imports - commodities:

Imports - partners:

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

Debt - external:

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

Exchange rates:



Communications ::



Telephones - main lines in use:

Telephones - mobile cellular:

Telephone system:

general assessment

domestic

international

Radio broadcast stations:

Television broadcast stations:

Internet country code:

Internet hosts :

Internet users:

Communications - note:



Transportation ::



Airports:

Airports - with paved runways:

total

over 3,047 m

2,438 to 3,047 m

1,524 to 2,437 m

914 to 1,530 m

under 914 m

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total

over 3,047 m

2,438 to 3,047 m

1,524 to 2,437 m

914 to 1,530 m

under 914 m

Heliports:

Pipelines:

Railways:

total

broad gauge

standard gauge

narrow gauge

dual gauge

Roadways:

total

paved

unpaved

Waterways:

Merchant marine:

total

ships by type

foreign-owned

registered in other countries

Ports and terminals :

Transportation - note:



Military ::



Military branches:

Military service age and obligation :

Manpower available for military service :

males age 16-49

females age 16-49

Manpower fit for military service:

males age 16-49

females age 16-49

Manpower reaching military age annually:

males

females

Military expenditures - percent of GDP:

Military - note:



Transnational Issues ::



Disputes - international:

Refugees and internally displaced persons:

refugees

IDPs

Trafficking in persons:

current situation

tier rating

Illicit drugs:



======================================================================



The World Factbook (2009) - Country Listing


[Transcriber's note: To search on a country in this file, prefix the
country's name with "@", e.g. "@Afghanistan".  "Afghanistan" will find
all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]



World



A

Afghanistan
Akrotiri
Albania
Algeria
American Samoa
Andorra
Angola
Anguilla
Antarctica
Antigua and Barbuda
Arctic Ocean
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Atlantic Ocean
Australia
Austria
Azerbaijan



B

Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Baker Island
Bangladesh
Barbados
Belarus
Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
Bhutan
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Bouvet Island
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burma
Burundi



C

Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Chile
China
Christmas Island
Clipperton Island
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the
Cook Islands
Coral Sea Islands
Costa Rica
Cote d'Ivoire
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic



D

Denmark
Dhekelia
Djibouti
Dominica
Dominican Republic



E

Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia



F

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Faroe Islands
Fiji
Finland
France
French Polynesia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands



G

Gabon
Gambia, The
Gaza Strip
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Gibraltar
Greece
Greenland
Grenada
Guam
Guatemala
Guernsey
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana



H

Haiti
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Honduras
Hong Kong
Howland Island
Hungary



I

Iceland
India
Indian Ocean
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Isle of Man
Israel
Italy



J

Jamaica
Jan Mayen
Japan
Jarvis Island
Jersey
Johnston Atoll
Jordan



K

Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kingman Reef
Kiribati
Korea, North
Korea, South
Kosovo
Kuwait
Kyrgyzstan



L

Laos
Latvia
Lebanon
Lesotho
Liberia
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg



M

Macau
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malawi
Malaysia
Maldives
Mali
Malta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Federated States of
Midway Islands
Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia
Montenegro
Montserrat
Morocco
Mozambique



N

Namibia
Nauru
Navassa Island
Nepal
Netherlands
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria
Niue
Norfolk Island
Northern Mariana Islands
Norway



O

Oman



P

Pacific Ocean
Pakistan
Palau
Palmyra Atoll
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Paracel Islands
Paraguay
Peru
Philippines
Pitcairn Islands
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico



Q

Qatar



R

Romania
Russia
Rwanda



S

Saint Barthelemy
Saint Helena
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia
Saint Martin
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa
San Marino
Sao Tome and Principe
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa
South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands
Southern Ocean
Spain
Spratly Islands
Sri Lanka
Sudan
Suriname
Svalbard
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria



T

Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Togo
Tokelau
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
Turks and Caicos Islands
Tuvalu



U

Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
Uruguay
Uzbekistan



V

Vanuatu
Venezuela
Vietnam
Virgin Islands



W

Wake Island
Wallis and Futuna
West Bank
Western Sahara



Y

Yemen



Z

Zambia
Zimbabwe



T

Taiwan



E

European Union



Field Listings


[Transcriber's note: To search on a field code in this file, prefix
the code number with "@", e.g. "@2001".  "2001" will find all
occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]



Code    Field Description

2001    GDP (purchasing power parity)
2002    Population growth rate
2003    GDP - real growth rate
2004    GDP - per capita (PPP)
2005    Affiliation
2006    Dependency status
2007    Diplomatic representation from the US
2008    Transportation - note
2010    Age structure
2011    Geographic coordinates
2012    GDP - composition by sector
2013    Radio broadcast stations
2014    Radios
2015    Television broadcast stations
2016    Televisions
2018    Sex ratio
2019    Heliports
2020    Elevation extremes
2021    Natural hazards
2022    People - note
2023    Area - comparative
2024    Military service age and obligation
2025    Manpower fit for military service
2026    Manpower reaching militarily significant age
2028    Background
2030    Airports - with paved runways
2031    Airports - with unpaved runways
2032    Environment - current issues
2033    Environment - international agreements
2034    Military expenditures
2038    Electricity - production
2042    Electricity - consumption
2043    Electricity - imports
2044    Electricity - exports
2045    Electricity - production by source
2046    Population below poverty line
2047    Household income or consumption by percentage share
2048    Labor force - by occupation
2049    Exports - commodities
2050    Exports - partners
2051    Administrative divisions
2052    Agriculture - products
2053    Airports
2054    Birth rate
2055    Military branches
2056    Budget
2057    Capital
2058    Imports - commodities
2059    Climate
2060    Coastline
2061    Imports - partners
2062    Economic aid - donor
2063    Constitution
2064    Economic aid - recipient
2065    Currency (code)
2066    Death rate
2068    Dependent areas
2070    Disputes - international
2075    Ethnic groups
2076    Exchange rates
2077    Executive branch
2078    Exports
2079    Debt - external
2080    Fiscal year
2081    Flag description
2085    Roadways
2086    Illicit drugs
2087    Imports
2088    Independence
2089    Industrial production growth rate
2090    Industries
2091    Infant mortality rate
2092    Inflation rate (consumer prices)
2093    Waterways
2094    Judicial branch
2095    Labor force
2096    Land boundaries
2097    Land use
2098    Languages
2100    Legal system
2101    Legislative branch
2102    Life expectancy at birth
2103    Literacy
2105    Manpower available for military service
2106    Maritime claims
2107    International organization participation
2108    Merchant marine
2109    National holiday
2110    Nationality
2111    Natural resources
2112    Net migration rate
2113    Geography - note
2115    Political pressure groups and leaders
2116    Economy - overview
2117    Pipelines
2118    Political parties and leaders
2119    Population
2120    Ports and terminals
2121    Railways
2122    Religions
2123    Suffrage
2124    Telephone system
2125    Terrain
2127    Total fertility rate
2128    Government type
2129    Unemployment rate
2137    Military - note
2138    Communications - note
2140    Government - note
2141    Group
2142    Country name
2144    Location
2145    Map references
2146    Irrigated land
2147    Area
2149    Diplomatic representation in the US
2150    Telephones - main lines in use
2151    Telephones - mobile cellular
2152    Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
2153    Internet users
2154    Internet country code
2155    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
2156    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
2157    HIV/AIDS - deaths
2158    Currency code
2172    Distribution of family income - Gini index
2173    Oil - production
2174    Oil - consumption
2175    Oil - imports
2176    Oil - exports
2177    Median age
2178    Oil - proved reserves
2179    Natural gas - proved reserves
2180    Natural gas - production
2181    Natural gas - consumption
2182    Natural gas - imports
2183    Natural gas - exports
2184    Internet hosts
2185    Investment (gross fixed)
2186    Public debt
2187    Current account balance
2188    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold
2189    Union name
2190    Political structure
2191    Member states
2192    Preliminary statement
2193    Major infectious diseases
2194    Refugees and internally displaced persons
2195    GDP (official exchange rate)
2196    Trafficking in persons
2198    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home
2199    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad
2200    Market value of publicly traded shares
2201    Total renewable water resources
2202    Freshwater withdrawal
2203    Geographic overview
2204    Economy of the area administered by Turkish Cypriots
2205    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary
2206    Education expenditures
2207    Central bank discount rate
2208    Commercial bank prime lending rate
2209    Stock of money
2210    Stock of quasi money
2211    Stock of domestic credit
2212    Urbanization



======================================================================



References :: Guide to Country Comparisons


[Transcriber's note: To search on a rank order in this file, prefix
the rank's name with "@", e.g. "@Population".  "Population" will find
all occurrences; prefixing it with "@" will find the correct location.]



Country Comparison pages are presorted lists of data from selected
Factbook data fields. Country Comparison pages are generally given
in descending order - highest to lowest - such as Population and
Area. The two exceptions are Unemployment Rate and Inflation Rate,
which are in ascending - lowest to highest - order. Country
Comparison pages are available for the following 58 fields in six of
the nine Factbook categories.



Geography ::



Area:

total



People ::



Population:

Population growth rate:

Birth rate:

Death rate:

Net migration rate:

Infant mortality rate:

Life expectancy at birth:

Total fertility rate:

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

Education expenditures:



Economy ::



GDP (purchasing power parity):

GDP real growth rate:

GDP - per capita (PPP):

Labor force:

Unemployment rate:

Distribution of family income - Gini Index:

Investment (gross fixed):

Public debt:

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

Central bank discount rate:

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

Stock of money:

Stock of quasi money:

Stock of domestic credit:

Market value of publicly traded shares:

Industrial production growth rate:

Electricity - production:

Electricity - consumption:

Oil - production:

Oil - consumption:

Oil - exports:

Oil - imports:

Oil - proved reserves:

Natural gas - production:

Natural gas - consumption:

Natural gas - exports:

Natural gas - imports:

Natural gas - proved reserves:

Current account balance:

Exports:

Imports:

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

Debt - external:

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:



Communications ::



Telephones - main lines in use:

Telephones - mobile cellular:

Internet hosts:

Internet users:



Transportation ::



Airports:

Railways:

total

Roadways:

total

Waterways:

Merchant marine:

total



Military ::



Military expenditures - percent of GDP:



Not all Country Comparisons include the same number of entries
because information for a particular field is not available for all
countries. In addition, not all data fields are suitable for
displaying as Country Comparisons, such as those containing textual
information. Textual information is more readily viewed by clicking
on the Field Listing icon next to the Data field title.



All of the Country Comparisons' pages can be downloaded as
tab-delimited data files and can be opened in other applications
such as spreadsheets and databases. To save a Country Comparisons
page in a spreadsheet, first click on the 'Download Datafile' choice
above the Country Comparisons page you selected; then, at the top of
your browser window, click on 'File' and 'Save As'. After saving the
file, open the spreadsheet, find the saved file, and 'Open' it.



======================================================================



Appendixes


Appendix A - Abbreviations

Appendix B - International Organizations and Groups

Appendix C - Selected International Environmental Agreements

Appendix D - Cross-Reference list of Country Data Codes

Appendix E - Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes

Appendix F - Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names

Appendix G - Weights and Measures


======================================================================



References :: Definitions and Notes


A


Abbreviations

This information is included in Appendix A: Abbreviations, which
includes all abbreviations and acronyms used in the Factbook, with
their expansions.


Acronyms

An acronym is an abbreviation coined from the initial letter of each
successive word in a term or phrase. In general, an acronym made up
solely from the first letter of the major words in the expanded form
is rendered in all capital letters (NATO from North Atlantic Treaty
Organization; an exception would be ASEAN for Association of
Southeast Asian Nations). In general, an acronym made up of more
than the first letter of the major words in the expanded form is
rendered with only an initial capital letter (Comsat from
Communications Satellite Corporation; an exception would be NAM from
Nonaligned Movement). Hybrid forms are sometimes used to distinguish
between initially identical terms (ICC for International Chamber of
Commerce and ICCt for International Criminal Court).

Administrative divisions

This entry generally gives the numbers, designatory terms, and
first-order administrative divisions as approved by the US Board on
Geographic Names (BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet
acted on by the BGN are noted.

Age structure

This entry provides the distribution of the population according to
age. Information is included by sex and age group (0-14 years, 15-64
years, 65 years and over). The age structure of a population affects
a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Countries with young
populations (high percentage under age 15) need to invest more in
schools, while countries with older populations (high percentage
ages 65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The age
structure can also be used to help predict potential political
issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young adult population
unable to find employment can lead to unrest.

Agriculture - products

This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products
starting with the most important.

Airports

This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields
recognizable from the air. The runway(s) may be paved (concrete or
asphalt surfaces) or unpaved (grass, earth, sand, or gravel
surfaces) and may include closed or abandoned installations.
Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable (overgrown, no
facilities, etc.) are not included. Note that not all airports have
accommodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.

Airports - with paved runways

This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways
(concrete or asphalt surfaces) by length. For airports with more
than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to
the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m (over 10,000 ft), (2)
2,438 to 3,047 m (8,000 to 10,000 ft), (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m (5,000
to 8,000 ft), (4) 914 to 1,523 m (3,000 to 5,000 ft), and (5) under
914 m (under 3,000 ft). Only airports with usable runways are
included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for
refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control. The type aircraft
capable of operating from a runway of a given length is dependent
upon a number of factors including elevation of the runway, runway
gradient, average maximum daily temperature at the airport, engine
types, flap settings, and take-off weight of the aircraft.

Airports - with unpaved runways

This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways
(grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces) by length. For airports with
more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according
to the following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m (over 10,000 ft),
(2) 2,438 to 3,047 m (8,000 to 10,000 ft), (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m
(5,000 to 8,000 ft), (4) 914 to 1,523 m (3,000 to 5,000 ft), and (5)
under 914 m (under 3,000 ft). Only airports with usable runways are
included in this listing. Not all airports have facilities for
refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control. The type aircraft
capable of operating from a runway of a given length is dependent
upon a number of factors including elevation of the runway, runway
gradient, average maximum daily temperature at the airport, engine
types, flap settings, and take-off weight of the aircraft.


Appendixes

This section includes Factbook-related material by topic.

Area

This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the sum of all
land and water areas delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of all surfaces delimited by
international boundaries and/or coastlines, excluding inland water
bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of the
surfaces of all inland water bodies, such as lakes, reservoirs, or
rivers, as delimited by international boundaries and/or coastlines.

Area - comparative

This entry provides an area comparison based on total area
equivalents. Most entities are compared with the entire US or one of
the 50 states based on area measurements (1990 revised) provided by
the US Bureau of the Census. The smaller entities are compared with
Washington, DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC
(0.59 sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).

B



Background

This entry usually highlights major historic events and current
issues and may include a statement about one or two key future
trends.

Birth rate

This entry gives the average annual number of births during a year
per 1,000 persons in the population at midyear; also known as crude
birth rate. The birth rate is usually the dominant factor in
determining the rate of population growth. It depends on both the
level of fertility and the age structure of the population.

Budget

This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital
expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate
basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

C



Capital

This entry gives the name of the seat of government, its geographic
coordinates, the time difference relative to Coordinated Universal
Time (UTC) and the time observed in Washington, DC, and, if
applicable, information on daylight saving time (DST). Where
appropriate, a special note has been added to highlight those
countries that have multiple time zones.

Central bank discount rate

This entry provides the annualized interest rate a country's central
bank charges commercial, depository banks for loans to meet
temporary shortages of funds.

Climate

This entry includes a brief description of typical weather regimes
throughout the year.

Coastline

This entry gives the total length of the boundary between the land
area (including islands) and the sea.

Commercial bank prime lending rate

This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates
commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national
currency, to their most credit-worthy customers.


Communications

This category deals with the means of exchanging information and
includes the telephone, radio, television, and Internet host entries.

Communications - note

This entry includes miscellaneous communications information of
significance not included elsewhere.

Constitution

This entry includes the dates of adoption, revisions, and major
amendments.


Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)

UTC is the international atomic time scale that serves as the basis
of timekeeping for most of the world. The hours, minutes, and
seconds expressed by UTC represent the time of day at the Prime
Meridian (0 deg. longitude) located near Greenwich, England as reckoned
from midnight. UTC is calculated by the Bureau International des
Poids et Measures (BIPM) in Sevres, France. The BIPM averages data
collected from more than 200 atomic time and frequency standards
located at about 50 laboratories worldwide. UTC is the basis for all
civil time with the Earth divided into time zones expressed as
positive or negative differences from UTC. UTC is also referred to
as "Zulu time." See the Standard Time Zones of the World map
included with the Reference Maps.


Country data codes

See Data codes.


Country map

Most versions of the Factbook provide a country map in color. The
maps were produced from the best information available at the time
of preparation. Names and/or boundaries may have changed
subsequently.

Country name

This entry includes all forms of the country's name approved by the
US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is used as an example):
conventional long form (Italian Republic), conventional short form
(Italy), local long form (Repubblica Italiana), local short form
(Italia), former (Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation.
Also see the Terminology note.


Crude oil

See entry for oil.

Current account balance

This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus
net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net
transfer payments (such as pension funds and worker remittances) to
and from the rest of the world during the period specified. These
figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in
purchasing power parity (PPP) terms.

D


Data codes

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