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Title: Campward Ho! - A Manual for Girl Scout Camps
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Language: English
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[Illustration: "UNDER THE GREENWOOD TREE"]



CAMPWARD HO!

A MANUAL FOR GIRL SCOUT CAMPS

          DESIGNED TO COVER THE NEEDS OF THOSE
          UNDERTAKING TO ORGANIZE AND DIRECT
          LARGE, SELF-SUPPORTING CAMPS FOR GIRLS

[Illustration: Girl Scouts 1920]

          GIRL SCOUTS
          INCORPORATED

          NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS
          189 LEXINGTON AVENUE
          NEW YORK CITY



          Copyrighted, 1920
          by
          Girl Scouts, Incorporated

          McGRAW PHILLIPS PRINTING CO., INC.
          NEW YORK

    _When that Aprille with his schowres swoote
       The drought of March hath perced to the roote,
     And bathud every veyne in swich licour,
       Of which vertue engendred is the flour;
     Whan Zephirus eek with his swete breeth
       Enspirud hath in every holte and heeth
     The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne
       Hath in the Ram his halfe cours i-ronne,
     And smale fowles maken melodie,
       That slepen all the night with open yhe,
     So priketh hem nature in here corages:
       Thanne longen folk to gon on pilgrimages._
                                     _Chaucer_



GIRL SCOUTS


          _Motto_
          "BE PREPARED"

          _Slogan_
          "DO A GOOD TURN DAILY"


[Illustration]


PROMISE

          On My Honor, I Will Try:
          To do my duty to God and my Country
          To help other people at all times
          To obey the Scout Laws


LAWS

  I    A Girl Scout's Honor is to be Trusted
  II   A Girl Scout is Loyal
  III  A Girl Scout's Duty is to be Useful and to Help Others
  IV   A Girl Scout is a Friend to All, and a Sister to Every
            Other Girl Scout
  V    A Girl Scout is Courteous
  VI   A Girl Scout is a Friend to Animals
  VII  A Girl Scout Obeys Orders
  VIII A Girl Scout is Cheerful
  IX   A Girl Scout is Thrifty
  X    A Girl Scout is Clean in Thought, Word and Deed



FOREWORD


Someone has said, "We camp to live with Nature." If living is knowing,
let us then while we camp, learn to know the great out-of-doors, and at
the same time take advantage of being together, and learn to live as
Scouts.

It is hoped that this little book will help to solve many problems which
arise when planning for and running a camp, particularly a Girl Scout
camp. The material in this manual is supplementary to that in the
official Handbook, "Scouting for Girls," and is intended to be used in
conjunction with it.

The information given is the result of experience gained not only as a
camp Director and a housekeeper, but as a co-worker with hundreds of
Scouts whose needs are very real.

Credit is due Miss Emily McClure for her article on Activities, and Miss
Catherine Wilkeson for her account of A Deschutes River Fishing Trip.

We are glad to have permission to reprint "Water Front Protection for
Summer Camps" by Captain Fred C. Mills of the Red Cross Life Saving
Corps. The Life Saving Corps is giving the Girl Scouts the most active
sort of cooperation throughout the country.

Sincere appreciation and thanks are given to Dr. Louise Stevens Bryant,
Educational Secretary of the National Girl Scouts, for making the charts
and editing the manuscript.

                                                      CAROLINE LEWIS.



CAMPWARD HO!

CONTENTS


       Foreword                                       7
     I Planning for Camp                              9
    II Camp Directors and Counsellors                15
   III The Camper                                    22
    IV The Camp House                                28
     V General Routine from Opening to Closing Camp  40
    VI Camp Records and Accounts                     50
   VII Equipment                                     64
  VIII The Camp Program                              93
    IX General Camp Activities                       98
     X Hikes                                        127
    XI Camp Health and Camp Safety                  140
   XII Feeding the Multitude                        152
  XIII A Day in Camp                                174
       Some Books on Camps and Camping              178
       Index                                        183



I

PLANNING FOR CAMP

     _There is a pleasure in the pathless woods,
      There is a rapture on the lonely shore,
      There is society, where none intrudes
      By the deep Sea, and music in its roar:
      I love not Man the less, but Nature more,
      From these our interviews, in which I steal
      From all I may be or have been before,
      To mingle with the Universe, and feel
      What I can ne'er express, yet cannot all conceal_
                                          --_Lord Byron_


Planning for a camp is a matter of hours of thought and pipe dreaming,
every item receiving its due amount of consideration, first in general
terms, then in detail, until the whole scheme is so well formulated and
all needs so well recognized and provided for that the actual camp comes
into existence quite easily and successfully.

It is much more economical and satisfactory to change an idea than a
building, and it behooves us all to learn the trick as soon as possible.
Start to think in the winter; the fall is even better. Begin at the
beginning and let no step of the way be slighted.

Shall we have a camp, and where shall it be, are the first questions
that come to mind. Of course have it, even though it be for a small
group only, and very simple as to equipment. The benefits derived by
body, mind and soul cannot be over-estimated. The joy of finding and
seeing for the first time the things that can only be found and seen in
the open, living away from stilted civilization, flings open a door
which rarely closes again for any length of time. Most people, and
especially children, are not so far away from nature but that love and
appreciation of it can be easily awakened by its beauty of color, form
and sound, or its prodigality which cannot be rivalled. Then to realize
that all humanity is a part of this great system is to love all living
things, to know they are good, and that it is fear which calls forth
their antagonism, as has been proved time and time again. If such things
as these can be learned by living in the open, have we not sufficient
reason for providing the means to the end? Someone has said that
"cutting the camp out of the Scout year is like leaving the yeast out of
the bread."

[Illustration: BETWEEN WOOD AND FIELD. Arrangement of wall tents with
flys, set up with stakes.]

A well ordered camp is built and run on the same lines as a well ordered
house, as regards fundamentals. Whether it is made to accommodate a
small group or an army, all who gather in it must have certain dominant
needs provided for. They must eat, sleep, work, play, keep themselves
and their surroundings clean, and live the group life. How these needs
are met depends on the individual who makes and executes the plans. One
knows how to make his camp comfortable, practical and hospitable
wherever it is, and regardless of materials used, meeting all of his
daily needs, while another, glorying in simplicity _for a while_, does
without comforts which could easily be obtained. Still another casts off
all law and order, to say nothing of many necessities, during his stay
in the open.

But when planning a camp for girls who are to receive the greatest
benefits from living out of doors, and living together, there is no
reason why their environment should not be made pleasing to the eye, of
benefit mentally, a comfort to the body, and in accord with the best
known laws which govern camping.


Work of the Planning Committee

There are specific responsibilities to be borne by Councils or
Committees who undertake to promote and establish a Girl Scout camp. The
most important of these are first, to secure the money for the initial
cost, and second, to obtain a Director. The subsequent work of the
Committee will be determined almost entirely by the character and
capacity of the Director chosen.

The prime requirement for a Camp Director is that she be able to manage
a camp and the children. This means first of all, a strong reliable
character, with enthusiasm and love and understanding for people, and
particularly for young people. She must also have an understanding of
the Scout program, as well as the aims and purposes of the Scout
organization, for the children in these camps are Scouts. She must have
a practical knowledge of the administration of a large household.

If in addition to these qualities she is capable of organizing and
planning, the Council can feel itself lucky, because their specific work
in regard to the camp is ended, and they can with assurance turn over to
the Director such questions as choice of location, the camp site,
arrangements for transportation, price of board, determining and
selection of equipment, the type of children, and the length of the camp
year.

They must not forget to give the Director not only the responsibility
but the requisite authority to act, and perhaps most important, be
ready to give her financial backing.

[Illustration: THE TENT "GREEN." Conical wall tents accommodating eight
cots. Not easy to put up and give little head room.]

It must be remembered, however, that many women who are quite capable of
running a camp do not have the particular kind of organizing ability or
business training needed to establish one in the first place. It may be
necessary therefore, for the Committee to divide the work among its
members, or even to engage a professional buyer, or business manager. In
the rest of this book it has been assumed that the Director is of the
former type, and will carry the initial responsibility.


Transportation

The question of transportation is the first thing to be thought of when
considering locations for a Girl Scout camp. The cost, facilities,
accessibility and time required would all be determining factors which
when settled make it possible to investigate locations within a given
radius without waste of time.

There are many Scouts who would not go to camp if the cost of
transportation equalled the price of one week's board, but who would on
the other hand spend two weeks in camp with a smaller transportation
cost. The question of shipping equipment and provisions is also to be
considered, for these things can be bought to better advantage in large
centers and transported by boat or rail to the camp site, than purchased
from stores in a small community.

Travelling and shipping by boat is cheaper than by rail, and is often
more satisfactory. Boat companies will give reduced rates to an
organization sending many members on its line, while railroads rarely if
ever do so.

Suburban trolley lines offer advantages over both boats and railroads,
and often take one quite beyond the crowded settlements to spots of real
beauty. Unless absolutely necessary do not plan for any transportation
that requires a change of cars or boat. A motor or stage ride, or short
hike is always to be planned for.


Locations

Having investigated transportation facilities and charges various
locations would next come to mind.

Waste no time on those which do not afford a lake, a river, the sea, or
a brook of good size, if the camp is to be for a large group and open
for several weeks. The daily swim is as essential to the happiness of
the average Scout as is her mess, and the adequate water supply for
washing purposes is an essential thing to the housekeeper.

A village or town which has a post office, telegraph office, a doctor, a
store or two, a railroad station or boat landing, is often the camp
Director's best friend, and such a place should be within hiking
distance of every camp. It is there that arrangements should be made
when possible, for supplying the camp with fresh milk, fresh vegetables,
bread, and so forth. The risks taken by older people, or the small group
that wish to be indeed far from all civilization, cannot be taken by the
Director of a camp who has in her care a hundred or more children for
every one of whom she is responsible. It is possible, as has been
proved, to find a camp site so in the heart of the country or woods that
one feels miles away from everything, and still be within reach of
modern facilities.


The Site

The finding of the actual site when once the locality is determined is
really quite exciting. So many lovely spots attract one's attention, but
as natural beauty often deceives the unknowing, a thorough investigation
is the only safe course to pursue.

The necessity for a road to the camp site is not to be forgotten.
Transportation of people and supplies by row boat is too difficult.

Follow the river or brook, search the rim of the lake, or scan the edge
of the sea for high ground, a knoll will do, for well drained ground,
for the adequate drinking water supply (which must be tested), for fuel
in abundance, if wood is to be used, for trees among which tents can be
pitched or cabins built for sleeping quarters, for space for the main
building, for an open space where games and drill can be enjoyed. Forget
not the sun, the prevailing winds, and the western clearing where at the
end of the day all the beauties of the sunset can be enjoyed, or the
safe place for the campfire where songs and the real Scout Spirit bring
the day to a happy end.



II

CAMP DIRECTORS AND COUNSELLORS


No one doubts for a moment that camping is a good thing for children as
well as for grown people, but like many so-called "good things" the
results accruing from it depend upon the person or persons in charge.

For a Girl Scout camp the Director is generally engaged by a council or
a committee and is made responsible for the camp as a whole, including
the health, safety and happiness of the group, the standards established
and the furthering of Scout principles and aims. The Director may engage
as assistants, volunteer or paid counsellors. They may be Scout Captains
or people who know little about the Scout work, but whoever they are all
should qualify as to character, willingness to cooperate, love for
children, ability to teach or to do well one or more things, and possess
a personality which will make for happiness and success.

The number of counsellors will depend on the size of the group and the
work to be done. One counsellor for sixteen girls or for every two
patrols is none too many. There should be a head counsellor who takes
the Director's place when necessary, and who assists her in many ways; a
nurse who is responsible for the personal health of the Scouts and who
teaches First Aid and Personal Health; a counsellor to have charge of
each subject listed on the program, a handy-man if the camp is large and
there is much heavy work to be done; a cook and cook's helper, and last
but not least, someone to do all that no one else does--keep records of
all kinds, write letters, arrange for the coming and going of campers,
supervise the canteen, and be helpful generally.

[Illustration: Well-built floors keep out ground damp, and make level
and steady supports.]

It is most desirable when possible to engage Scout leaders as
counsellors, but they should qualify as do all other counsellors, for
the camp specialties.

The Director must think in universal terms and put personal feelings to
one side. She must aim for oneness of purpose and solve all problems
that seem to block the way. She must be an example always and her
imagination, understanding, resourcefulness, strength, and devotion to
her work are her tools. She should understand the necessary requirements
of the various groups as concerns their religious training and make
provisions for helping the girls to live up to these requirements. Those
who must go to church every Sunday, observe Feast Days and Fast Days,
should have a counsellor of their own faith to be responsible for them.
For those girls whose belief makes it necessary to abstain from eating
certain foods and being particular as to the dishes they use,
arrangements must be made to meet their needs.

Because it is not always possible to allow each member of a large group
to attend church on Sunday, especially as camps as a rule are not near
communities, a simple Scout service should be arranged at which the
Scout Promise and Laws are repeated, purely non-sectarian hymns are sung
and a short talk given on Scout-like subjects. Great care must be taken
to keep this service in accord with the policy of the Scout
organization, which is absolutely non-sectarian.

A Director's specific duties vary according to the size and type of the
camp and the number and duties of her assistants. She should, however,
in all cases see that the program adopted is being lived up to, that the
camp is in a sanitary and safe condition in every respect, that the
proper food is being served, that camp regulations are being obeyed and
that any illness is being cared for. She should improve every
opportunity to give the children something of usefulness and value by
calling their attention to the best and diverting it from all that is
not helpful.

She should cultivate the ability to read the temperature of the group
and when necessary to forestall difficult situations, discuss with it
squarely, fairly, openly and truthfully any misunderstanding or
dissatisfactions and do away with them as soon as possible.

If a Director is responsible for the money spent in running the camp she
should see that there is no waste and that the greatest possible returns
are procured for all expenditures. These will include such items as
food, cartage, labor, salaries, canteen supplies, materials for
occupational activities, necessary replenishing of household equipment,
and telephone calls.

It is hardly possible to equip and run a camp on the income from a low
rate of board, but the running expenses should be met and the children
will help by cooperating to this end if encouraged to do so, even to the
point of cheerfully foregoing some of the things they like and want and
are accustomed to having at home.

[Illustration: "A SLACK RAG OF CANVAS 'TWIXT YOU AND THE STARS."
Shipshape tents secure from wind, set up with stakes.]

The condition of the equipment during and at the end of the camp season
is largely in the hands of the Director. Careful supervision, and a few
rules that are carried out, make it possible to use the same equipment
for many seasons before it begins to show wear. An occasional accident
may happen but this is unusual. It is well to remember either when
working with an individual or a group that it is only possible to form
habits by constant repetition. To tell a child to do something and not
to see that it is done, is of little value to the child or anyone else.
One of the chief duties of a Director is to know that the things are
done which have been mapped out as essential to the welfare of the
camper.

Counsellors should meet often, even daily, with the Director and report
on the work being done, make suggestions for improvements and establish
a basis of cooperation. At such meetings plans for any special occasion
should be made and duties assigned. If the children need time to
themselves and entertainments for relaxation and to break the routine,
it is also true that the Director and Counsellors must have free time to
work out their individual problems and indulge in some form of play. An
occasional afternoon out of camp or the opportunity to have a little
party by themselves is suggested. In a large camp near the city, a full
day a week should be allowed to each Counsellor.

The Director's work is unending from the opening to the closing of camp,
but she has a rare opportunity to work with girls, to help them in many
ways, some of which are quite personal, and perhaps to be an influence
for great good in their lives. All depends however, on what she is
herself, and what she considers is the purpose of the camp.


Personality

No one is fitted to be a counsellor in a Girl Scout camp who does not
like to work with girls and who does not in a measure understand
children. The desire to be with them, to learn from them, and to help
them, is the only reason for accepting such a position. In addition one
should be equipped to teach at least one subject and able to make it of
such interest that it opens the mind to a new world. The ability to
cooperate is another essential quality, for when living with a group, we
may interpret individually, but what we interpret must be of common
understanding. While patience and sympathy are both needed in group
living, sentimentality is to be avoided.

[Illustration: In high and dry Colorado, wall tents without floors, and
put up with ground pegs can suffice.]

Hours of work have nothing to do with the duties of a camp counsellor.
She is on duty in one sense twenty-four hours out of every day, but her
work need not be arduous. If she becomes aware of anything which seems
to be, or is likely to become, a detriment to the camp it is her duty to
report the matter to the Director. There is a great deal of work which
can be done by counsellors which cannot be stipulated, but which rests
with them as individuals.

The right word at the right moment always bears fruit. A suggestion of
tidiness to an untidy girl, a suggestion of kindness to the girl who is
quick and impulsive, a suggestion to use better language, or to lower
her voice or to improve her table manners, or to be more Scout-like, if
made to a child alone, and at an opportune moment, means much and is
appreciated. The best results are obtained when we can realize that each
child holds within herself the perfect Scout ideal and that because of
her limited ideas, lack of understanding, environment, the negative
suggestions constantly being made to her, she fails to express it. One
work of the camp counsellor is to help her by example, and by word, to
give up these erroneous ideas, and to _stress being a Scout_.

Nearly all children have a dramatic instinct and love to act. Help them
to act the part of a Scout. In this way they are forming a habit that
means something.



III

THE CAMPER


A Girl Scout camp is the Scout's own camp, and she should feel the
responsibility of making it and keeping it in as Scout-like a way as
possible. There are two things for her to work for, the Camp spirit and
the maintaining of Scout standards. It is said that with a group,
"morale" is in importance to work, as _three_ is to _one_. This theory
has been proved by experts who have experimented with small and large
groups. It is well to make the Scout Laws the Laws of the camp. They
must, however, be understood and lived up to to be effective and for
this reason time must be taken each day to talk about them, discuss them
and make them of practical value.

Fortunately in every Scout camp a group of girls will be found who are
born leaders. Those in that group who are awake to the Scout ideals are
of the greatest help in all matters and should be encouraged. They can
accomplish much by way of example and in some cases can handle a
situation as well if not better than a Director. Work delegated to them
should be explained carefully and inspected for their sake as well as
others, and any lack of thoroughness or judgment pointed out and
explained that they may learn the better way.

[Illustration: This Mess Hall is open to wind and sun, but rolled up
canvas walls are ready to be dropped.]

Those girls who are negative in thought and action, should be watched
and every effort made to help them to come into line. They are bound to
have followers and this group causes trouble generally through
misunderstanding and ignorance. There should be but one interest on the
part of each camper and that is _to be a Scout_, not only in looks but
in thought and deed. This is sometimes hard, for conditions are not all
as they are in one's home, and to adjust one's ways of living,
especially in regard to eating, is not easy.

It might be well for the camper to realize that the object of a Scout
camp is to give the best and as much as can be paid for by the income
from board, and that the price of board is small in order that all
Scouts may share in the joys of living in the open. With these facts in
mind it is easier to accept conditions that may not be just to our
liking. Wherever we choose to live, indoors or out of doors, alone or as
one of a group, we have to face certain facts which must be dealt with
and not ignored if we would be healthy and happy and have our
surroundings livable.

In dealing with these facts there is certain work to be done which a
good many people call "drudgery," but if this work were neglected those
very people would be the first to complain.

We must eat to live, therefore, food must be prepared, cooked, and
served, dishes washed and wiped, tables set, and kitchen and mess hall
kept clean in every respect.

We must sleep to maintain health so beds and bed-clothing are necessary.
These need care as well as the sleeping room, and all personal
belongings in it.

We must be clean to be decent, and try as hard as we will, trash
collects and must be properly disposed of. Wash houses and latrines are
necessary and they must be kept clean.

Who should be more interested in doing this work and in doing it well
than the Scout herself? She should take the greatest pride in keeping
her camp up to the highest standard always. It can be done without great
effort on the part of any one Scout if each one tries to remember a few
things, among them:

1. That thoughtfulness reduces the amount of work to be done and saves
time and money.

[Illustration: "BY THE SHINING BIG SEA WATER." A Mess Tent for use in
clear, dry weather.]

2. That unless the work _is_ done conditions will be unbearable and camp
will close.

3. That the work she does benefits herself as well as others. It is the
waste and trash thrown or laid down where it does not belong, work half
done that has to be done over, thinking of our own desires instead of
the Scout standards, that are at the root of any trouble. Do not call
the camp duties drudgery, call them opportunities for service.

4. The fact that the Girl Scout pays board does not absolve her from
this work. If the Scouts do all that they can to be of service, and
serve cheerfully, many opportunities are offered them that otherwise
would be prohibitive.

Every girl entering a Scout camp has placed before her a camp program
which if taken advantage of offers her the best the camp affords. There
are always girls who accept the program and use it in full. They know
that in order to BE PREPARED they must grasp every opportunity to
develop along Scout lines. On the other hand there are girls who seem
too lacking in interest, too blind to the opportunities, too inert to
take advantage of it, and they leave camp having missed the very things
for which they came.

The helpful Scouts who belong to the former group are real camp helpers,
and the Director can always depend upon them, the Counsellors can depend
upon them, and they are the power which makes or mars the success of the
camp.

It is in camp that girls have the opportunity to express themselves
along lines quite different from those used during their ordinary daily
life. Entertainments are always hailed with delight, and any Scout who
does a good stunt, takes part in a play, or gives expression through
dancing, reciting, or singing, is contributing to the fun and joy of
all.

Aside from parties and plays and other fun-giving times, there is Scout
work which can be done in camp better than anywhere else. This work
includes the study of nature lore, woodcraft, certain forms of
handicraft, swimming, and hiking. The advantage of spending a part of
each day on these subjects as well as the Grade Tests and Merit Badge
tests, is found in the fact that the Counsellors are prepared to give
the work in the best possible way and under the best conditions.

Also there is inspiration in seeing what other girls do and in trying to
do as well if not a little better. Then too, what is learned in camp is
taken back home to the girls who have not been privileged to go to camp,
and they gain through the camper's experience. There are a few things
which every Scout should know after living in the open for a few weeks.
One is that we are dependent upon people, and that people are dependent
upon us; therefore, we must equip ourselves to give; another is that the
great out of doors is full of interesting things which can give us far
greater happiness if we learn to know them and try for a time for each
year to live with them, than the things to which we turn during the
winter for recreation and excitement.

[Illustration: THE CAMP LIVING ROOM]



IV

THE CAMP HOUSE

  _"Here's life: a slack rag of canvas 'twixt you and the stars....
   Not penned in a thing four-square and murk, but free
   On your feet, a thumbed road-map your guide, worlds ahead, God above;
   For companions, the seasons; for events, the blue birds, the magpies,
   Butterflies, columbines, all the myriad throng of the road folk,
   Chance-met. That, I say, is to live."_


TENTS

The kind of shelter which will be suitable and practicable for your camp
depends more or less upon the number of people to be accommodated, the
length of the camp season, and the camp site. For short time camps, for
small groups, or for older people, or when building is impossible, tents
only can be used. In such cases there would be need of a tent for a mess
and assembly room, a tent for the kitchen, a small waterproof tent in
which to store provisions, a small tent for covering a latrine and tents
for sleeping quarters.

The main tent for a mess hall and assembly room combined, should be
large, placed with some regard for a view of the surrounding country,
sun, air and general camp scheme. (p. 25.) It should be furnished with
tables, benches, and so forth, all of which can be moved out of the way
when the room is to be used for recreational purposes. The kitchen
should not be too far away, but back of the main tent and should be so
placed that all of the air possible may blow through it. There should be
a long cook table with a shelf over it, if possible, hung from the ridge
pole, or supported with uprights fastened to the table. Also a table
which can be used for dish washing. It would be well to have in
addition to the kitchen stove which is in this tent, cooking fire places
outside of the tent which could be used in pleasant weather. One of the
most practical of these is built of stone, with a back wall and two
sides, with two rods, the ends resting on the side walls and near enough
together to hold the average size pots and kettles. If stones are not
available two large logs can be placed V shape not quite meeting at the
narrow end, 1-1/2 feet apart at the other end, and the fire built in
between. Cross bars of iron or a grating can be put over the fire to
hold the pots and kettles. While it is convenient and practical to use
out of door fire places for cooking when the group is very small it is
most difficult to do so when the group is large. The work can be done,
however, with greater ease by the use of the iron bars already spoken
of.

[Illustration: BUSINESS END OF THE CAMP HALL]

The storage tent can have portable shelves and a low platform on which
to place barrels, boxes, and so forth. This tent should be pitched under
a large tree where it will be in the shade all of the time. A good store
closet can be made by digging into the side of a hill, boarding the
inside or facing it with stone and putting in shelves, and having a very
thick, well fitted door.

A more simple storage room, but not advisable except for a small camp,
is to dig a hole in the ground, line it with stone, place boards over
the top, leave a small opening for a lid or a hinged trap door and cover
the boards with earth, leaving the door free. If ice is available a
piece put into a pail can be set in this compartment.

In all of these out of door store places great care must be taken that
no animals, insects or flies get at the provisions. Covered tins, or
dishes and bags can be used for safety. When the camp is to be opened
only for a short period it is quite possible to put provisions into
pails tightly covered and set in running water in the shade.


Type of Tents

Whenever tents are to be used in a camp, they should be purchased with
care and pitched properly. There are on the market several different
types of tents: the army wall tent (p. 10.) which should always be
pitched with a fly and be opened at both ends, the conical and the
pyramidal tents. The two latter are not recommended for general use.
They are erected with one center pole, which is always in the way, and
have to be pegged to the ground, thus making guy ropes a nuisance rather
than a convenience. These tents are, however, picturesque in effect. (p.
12.)

When ordering tents always stipulate the size and the weight and width
of the material to be used. Army duck, 10 oz. double fill for the tent
and 8 oz. double fill for the fly, width 29 inches, will give the best
satisfaction.

[Illustration: The Wash House for Personal and Laundry use. Faucets hang
from above. Inclined trough between two shelves, the whole, zinc
covered, runs length of house. Two soapstone tubs for extra hard
scrubbing at right. Special compartment at left for officers.]

The size of the tents for sleeping will depend somewhat on the character
of the site. Where the ground is very sloping, trees close, space
limited, small tents will have to be used; either 7 x 9 or 9 x 9's.
These tents which will accommodate two people, should always be used to
house counsellors, but are not recommended for children as a general
thing. The larger tents, 14 x 14 or 14 x 16 will accommodate eight cots
and give ample space for personal equipment.

For short trips there are small lightweight, waterproof tents which can
be rolled so that they take up very little space in transportation. They
are pitched over ground cloths, with one pointed rod and metal spikes
for pegging the tent to the ground. These tents hold two people. (pp.
78, 80, 82.)


The Tent Floor and Support

Tents should always be pitched over wooden floors which are raised well
from the ground. (p. 16.) They should be built with square corners and
braced on the under side. The dimensions of each floor should be the
same as the length and width of the tent to be pitched over it. They
should only be put into place after considering the direction of the
sun, the prevailing winds, their relation to each other and the general
camp plan.

Large floors should be raised several inches from the ground and
supported with posts or flat stones at each corner, at the center of
each side and at intervals under the center of the floor to keep them
from sagging. When putting up a wall tent instead of using pegs, build a
frame work running parallel to the sides of the tent to which the guy
ropes can be fastened. (p. 18) This frame is made by driving into the
ground opposite the two sides of the tent floor, and 3 feet from it,
three posts, each 3 or 4 inches in diameter, and long enough to extend
when set, above the tent floor a distance equal to the height of the
tent wall, plus five inches. One post should be placed opposite the
center of each side, the others on a line with it and opposite the
corners of the floor. Nail securely to the outside of the posts and two
or three inches from the tops a strip which will extend beyond the end
posts 6 or 8 inches. Unless the ground is rocky the posts need not be
braced. If care is taken to measure and place the posts correctly the
frame will be evenly made and look trim. Small tree trunks can be used
for posts and strips, where wood is plentiful; otherwise 2 x 4's can be
used.

Where tent floors are found to be prohibitive, tents must be pitched
over dry, well drained ground. In addition a ground cloth should be
used and a ditch dug on either side of the tent to carry off rain water.

[Illustration: Camp for a single Scout Troop. Three tents and simple
accessories enough for week-end trip.]

Tents without floors are of course used when hiking or camping for a
short time only, or in exceptional climates. (p. 20.) Specific
directions for pitching tents are given in a later section.

A small group of girls wishing to build their own camp could make two or
three lean-tos, using trees five or six inches in diameter, saplings,
boughs and vines, the latter for binding the thatch roof to the beams.
The lean-tos should be faced so the sun will shine into them some part
of the day, turned away from the prevailing winds and each one should
have in front of it a fireplace to be used for cooking as well as for
keeping the lean-to dry and warm. (pp. 105, 110, 112.)

A group of girls could also build a slab house with a good floor, a
wooden roof covered with tar paper, windows, door and even build a
fireplace, the completed building giving them permanent camp quarters.
(pp. 96, 118, 122.)

LOG HOUSES

Whenever possible it is most desirable to erect for the main camp
building a house, rustic in design if built in the woods, (p. 23.) which
includes a large room for mess hall and recreational purposes, kitchen,
store closet, ice room. (Cut A.) The types and floor plans of such
houses vary greatly, but certain things are essential in all. They
should afford protection in bad weather, some warmth in cold weather,
ample space for serving mess, room for entertainments, meetings and so
forth; a conveniently arranged kitchen, and proper facilities for the
care of food. Some of these houses are built with the main room simply
roofed over and railed in. As delightful as these open mess halls are in
pleasant weather, they are not altogether practicable in all climates,
and under all weather conditions.

Some protection is gained by enclosing the room to a height of 3-1/2 or
4 feet and having the eaves overhang for 3 feet, or by having canvas
curtains which can be raised or lowered in bad weather. If the room is
enclosed entirely it should have many large windows, and wide outside
doors.

The main feature in the room should be the fireplace. (p. 27.) The
larger it is the better so long as it is in keeping with its
surroundings. The benches and tables should be made and arranged so they
can be easily moved out of the way when extra floor space is needed.

There should be a door leading into the kitchen and a serving window
near the door, with a broad shelf on either side of it. The kitchen
needs many windows and a back door conveniently placed. (p. 29.)

[Illustration: A. Floor Plan for Mess Hall for Camp of 150 to 200 Girls]

The kitchen should be equipped with a good stove having ovens and hot
water tank and be large enough to admit of holding big boilers and
kettles. If there is no hot water tank a large boiler can be kept on top
of the stove in which to heat water. Better still, when possible, use a
Standard Oil oil heater and boiler, and have hot water pipe connections.
This of course is only possible when there is a tank and power of some
kind to pump up the water. There should be in the kitchen ample table
space, convenient places for keeping all pots and kettles, hanging
spoons and other small articles, a generous wood box that there may
always be dry wood at hand, and if there is running water a sink
conveniently placed.

The store closet should open out of the kitchen and be on the north side
of the house. It should have a raised platform 18 or 20 inches wide,
against the wall on one side of the room, on which should be placed all
barrels, large boxes, etc. holding food. There should be ample shelf
space, a broad table, plenty of ventilation, and all windows should be
covered with netting.

If possible to have an ice box it can stand in this room. Better than a
portable ice box is an ice room which is built into one corner of the
store room, the walls, floor and ceiling of which are double, lined with
tar paper and the space of four inches between them filled with sawdust
or cork. The door into the store room should be very heavy, made double
and fitted closely. The small ice door can be on the outside of the
building, made like the large door, fitted closely and opening into the
ice compartment. The ice compartment should be lined with zinc and a
slatted door should open into it from the ice room. The bottom of the
ice compartment should tip slightly to one corner from which an overflow
pipe should be run to the outside of the building. A slat bottom made in
sections and placed in the compartment protects the zinc and helps to
preserve the ice. The ice compartment can be high enough from the floor
to admit of large milk cans, tubs of butter, etc., being stored under
it. Shelves can be placed along the sides of the walls. The ice room
should be ventilated by means of a vent pipe up through the roof to the
open.

Such a building as described makes housekeeping for a family of one
hundred and fifty or two hundred possible, with only one cook and a
squad of Scouts.

In place of tents for sleeping quarters small cabins made of wood and
screening, or wood, canvas and screening, can be used. They add greatly
to the expense of building the camp, but being permanent do away with
the expense and labor of taking down and storing.

It is sometimes possible to find an old house or a barn which can be
utilized for camp quarters, and with a little ingenuity made most
attractive and practical.

There is a great deal to be learned by living in a well-planned,
well-ordered house or camp, much of which is of lasting value. For this
reason no opportunity should be lost to give these advantages to the
Scouts.


Wash House

A wash house for general use is most desirable. Where there is no
running water a long table covered with zinc and placed under a tent
fly, a board walk either side of the table, and three or four large
pitchers for water is a good arrangement. This equipment should be
placed in an open, sunny spot where the drainage is good, and away from
the tents if the waste water is to be thrown out on the ground.

Where a group is small every six or eight girls may have a shelf placed
between two trees, which would serve as a wash stand. Pitchers must be
provided for each stand and a system for keeping them filled worked out.

A type of wash house which is most satisfactory where there is
plumbing, is made as follows. (p. 31.) Build an oblong platform and over
it a roof supported by posts and covered with tar paper. Through the
center of the house build a trough, with inclined bottom, and a shelf
slightly tipped toward the trough, either side of it. Cover the inside
of the trough and the shelves with zinc. At the lower end of the trough
have a waste pipe which runs into a cesspool. Over the trough supported
from the roof run a water pipe from which depend at intervals, pipes
with automatic faucets. At the low end of the trough two wash tubs can
be placed at right angles to the wash table both of which should connect
with the trough drain pipe. Enclose the other end of the house and make
two small private wash rooms, the partition between them being over and
under the center of the trough, a faucet in each. These rooms are to be
used by counsellors, or by children when given special permission.

[Illustration:

          Name_____________________________ Age____
          Address__________________________________
          Parent's Name____________________________
          Telephone No.________________
          Arrives_____________ Leaves______________
          Tent____             Cot____
                     On Entrance      On Leaving
          Height      ____ins.           ____ins.
          Weight      ____lbs.           ____lbs.

B. Tag for Scouts arriving in Camp. Should be 5" by 3" and filed for use
in camp record.]


CAMP REGULATIONS

          The Scout Laws are the Laws of this camp: apply
          them at all times and see what happens.

          Camp boundaries are for a purpose, do not go
          beyond them without permission from a counsellor
          or the Director.

          Rest hours, from taps to reveille and after
          dinner, are a necessity to health; observe them by
          sleeping. Do not talk, it disturbs others.

          For the sake of cleanliness take no food of any
          kind, or liquids of any kind into any tent used
          for sleeping quarters.

          Keep the Health Record of the camp high by
          reporting at once to the nurse or Director any
          sickness, accident or ill health.

          First aid supplies when required can be obtained
          from the nurse, no one else is to touch them.

          Trash boxes are labor saving devices, use them for
          all trash, rather than throwing the trash on the
          ground.

          Food sent or brought to camp for individual Scouts
          will not be delivered.



V

GENERAL ROUTINE FROM OPENING TO CLOSING CAMP


After the site is obtained, necessary buildings finished, grounds
cleaned, stove in place, water tested and connections made if there is
to be plumbing, the equipment and provisions should be sent in to camp.
A week is none too long a time to allow, even if there are many hands to
unpack, put the camp in running order, make out the program, camp
regulations, etc., and select sites for classes.

If possible have the counsellors spend this week in camp with the
Director and help in doing this work. Being together for work and some
play will prepare them to take up the duties of the summer and if any of
them are not Scouts then is the time to tell them of the Scout work, its
aims and so forth. Without this information it is difficult to have true
cooperation.

When opening a large camp be sure, when the campers arrive, to have it
in the condition in which it is to be kept. First impressions are deep
impressions as a rule, even though unfair many times.


Pitching Tents

Perhaps the most difficult work to be done, especially for one who knows
little about it is the pitching of the tents, yet when simple rules are
followed the task is not beyond a group of young women even when the
tents are large. Remember that the beauty of a tent lies in its
trimness. It should look smart. The canvas must have no wrinkles, poles
must be straight, ropes taut and properly fastened.

First of all see that the tent floors and frame work are as they should
be, or lacking a frame work, that pegs are at hand. Examine poles and
make sure they are of the right height and length for the tent. If a
wall tent is to be pitched lay it on floor, inside down, the fly on top
of it. Run the ridge pole under the center of the tent from end to end
curved side next to the canvas; at either end of the tent at right
angles to the ridge pole and parallel to each other place a tent pole
which is the right length for the height of the tent. Put the spindle in
the end of each pole through the holes in the ridge pole, and the
eyelets in the tent and tent fly ridge.

[Illustration: SERVING TABLE]

Two people, one at each pole, on signal, raise the tent into position by
lifting the poles and carrying them into place. They should stand
opposite each other, at the center of either end of the tent floor.
While the poles are held in place, two other people should fasten
temporarily the corner ropes of the tent and fly. Tie the flaps into
position, fasten the corner rope loops in the bottom edge of the tent to
nails in the edge of the floor, and proceed to adjust the guy ropes. Do
not pull the tent out of line or have one rope tighter than another.
Use a clove hitch for tying the ropes to the strips. The ropes of the
tent should go under the strip for the first turn, the fly ropes over.
By so doing the roof of the tent and the fly will be kept apart, a most
important point; in fact they should never touch except at the ridge.

Fasten the tent to the floor by putting the rope loops in the bottom of
the tent over long nails driven into the edge of the tent floor at the
proper places. When all ropes are fastened and the tent looks as it
should, loosen the bottom at each end, untie the flaps, and hold them
back by fastening one of the ropes in the bottom of the flap into the
loop at the top corner of the tent wall.

Put the tent number on each pole. Cots can now be opened and placed,
blankets shaken, sunned, folded and put on the foot of the cots with a
pillow inside of each blanket. Basins go under the cots toward the head.

While four or five people are attending to the sleeping quarters others
should be washing, wiping and putting away all table ware, and the cook
arranging the kitchen, store room and ice house. All small equipment
must be put in place; a tent or room provided for the nurse's quarters
and First Aid supplies unpacked, an office equipped with all
necessities, counsellors' tents put in order, firewood stacked, lanterns
cleaned and filled, wash houses, latrines, bath house, boats in
readiness, program and camp regulations posted, in short, everything in
order, for when one hundred or more Scouts descend upon a camp, everyone
is kept busy helping them and there is no time to be given to equipment.

Special mention must be made of two things: first, the precautionary
need of fire extinguishers to be hung in the kitchen, mess hall, and
other wooden buildings, (buckets of water not being advised unless
chemical extinguishers are not obtainable); second, the importance of
the Director's office being equipped with record books, files,
stationery, and a money box; all very simple, but there.

[Illustration: SORTING THE VEGETABLES]

A small group of Scouts can make ready their own camp in many cases, but
it does not seem feasible for a large group to do so.


Housekeeping Outdoors

Because in camp we live in the open, and away from the conventional
surroundings of city life, is no reason why we should feel that anything
is good enough, as concerns the table and the serving of meals. The way
the table is set, the food brought to it, served, dishes removed, washed
and wiped, does make a difference to everyone of us whether we are
conscious of it or not. Certain work has to be done and it is far better
to do it in an efficient way and in a way which will help us, than it is
to do it in an easy way, and perhaps get into very bad habits. It makes
no difference of what material dishes are made, or what the tablecloth
is, there is no excuse for not having everything clean and orderly and
attractive in its very simplicity. The camp table should be as well set
and according to the same rules, in as far as possible, as those a
Second Class Scout follows in her test. Those who act as waitresses
should do so with as much care and understanding of the right way to do
the work as do those Scouts who work for the Hostess Badge.

[Illustration: TEAM WORK IN POTATO PARING]

Dishes should be washed and wiped and dish towels washed according to
the rules laid down by the best authorities. (p. 61.)

A good housewife throws away nothing that can be utilized. Therefore,
what is left in the serving dishes after a meal is over should be taken
to the kitchen, all of one kind put into a dish and kept for future
use. If quantities are well gauged and each Scout eats all that she
takes on her plates, there should be very little waste from the table.

There are two ways of clearing a table, washing the dishes, and so
forth, which are used in camps. One is considered easier than the other
because it divides the work among the entire group, but there is a
question as to whether it is as sanitary a way as the other, or as
helpful to the Scout. It is the method of having eight campers scrape
their dishes, stack them, fall in line, dishes in hand, and in
succession wash, rinse and wipe them in pans and with towels common to
that one group. As can readily be seen this methods breaks the rules
being taught to Scouts as to the proper way of washing dishes: namely,
to wash glass, first, silver next, change the water and wash saucers,
cups, plates and so forth. No mother would think of having each member
of the family stack her dishes, take them to the sink, wash and wipe
them and put them away. This method would be considered most inefficient
and confusing.

A better way is to have two girls from every table of sixteen,
responsible for the dining room work, this work to be done under
supervision and according to the most approved standards. Of course,
this work is relayed so that each girl has a chance to learn it.

There are many young women with homes of their own whose houses are
badly run because they have no idea how the daily housework should be
done. They cannot do it themselves and they cannot direct another. The
camp is the one place where the Scout can learn what to do and how to do
it, and use for the benefit of a large group the training which she
receives. There is not a mother who is not anxious to have her child
know how to do these homely tasks in the right way.

[Illustration: THE TOWN PUMP]

With a counsellor presiding at each table to help in serving and
maintaining order, there is no reason why each girl should not learn if
she has not already done so, the simple table manners which add so much
to her attractiveness. People are not born with good table manners; they
acquire them by being taught and by watching others, and sometimes a
good appetite and being hungry makes them unmindful of others and of
what they do, even if they have been taught. There is no desire on the
part of any Director to make of her camp a finishing school, but she
should be filled with a keen desire to make the most of every
opportunity to give what will be of help to the girls as Scouts and as
women. The time spent at the table can be most profitably filled by
guiding the conversation into interesting channels and by being merry,
while eating.

The Mess Hall should always be kept swept, either a fire burning, or a
fire laid on the hearth if there is one, fresh flowers on the tables.
If the room is used also as a recreation room it may be possible to have
a writing table with writing materials on it for the benefit of all
campers.


Closing Camp

As the camp days begin to draw to a close prepare for that last day when
every bit of equipment must be packed away, every nook and corner left
clean and the last camper silently steals away.

Use what provisions are on hand, buy only what is needed from day to
day. Begin to pack and clear out wherever possible, but do not let this
work interfere with the program which should be continued to within a
day or two of closing, or the giving of a last grand party, a fancy
dress or masquerade affair with "eats," as campers would say.

The Scouts can be most helpful after their personal equipment is packed
and out of the tents. They can assemble blankets, pillows and basins,
sweep tent floors, collect and burn all trash, leaving the grounds
clean. When all is ready for their departure let Assembly sound and with
every Scout in line on the field, have the colors lowered. Then come
goodbyes and general leave-takings.

It is well for the Director personally to inspect the Scouts before they
leave camp, that she may know in a general way their condition. This can
be done after they assemble and before the flag is lowered.

If arrangements are made with the counsellors to remain for a few days
after the Scouts leave, all working part of the time and playing some of
the time, camp can be closed without much difficulty.

Tents must be taken down, folded and numbered to correspond with tent
pole and ridge pole numbers. No tent should be folded till dry, as it
is sure to mildew if put away damp.

[Illustration: SCRUBBING UP BEFORE MEALS]

Blankets must be carefully inspected, shaken, brushed and allowed to
hang in the sun all day before folding evenly, counting and packing for
the winter. If there are any signs of soil they should be cleansed
before storing. If boxed or laid on shelves or benches and covered
snugly they can be kept in perfect condition.

Pillows should be treated in the same way as blankets as regards care
and storage.

Lanterns should be emptied and cleaned. All dishes should be washed,
wiped, counted, packed in barrels. All kitchen ware should be treated in
the same way.

Any provisions left--there should be practically none--can be disposed
of by selling or giving away. Amount and kind will determine that
question.

The kitchen stove must be cleaned and if it is to remain in camp should
be covered with grease and boarded up unless it is to be used during the
winter by campers. Store all equipment in a dry, light room and _do not
fail to have it insured_.

The Director should be the last one to leave camp. She should make a
round of inspection and be sure all is well before closing the camp
doors for the long winter months.



VI

CAMP RECORDS AND ACCOUNTS


Not only is the keeping of camp records a necessity, but certain records
are of great value in planning future camps. Also personal records are
of value during the winter to Local Councils and Directors, and in some
cases to the National Headquarters.

Every Scout entering camp should have a record tag similar to the one
shown in Cut B, which when filled out is kept on file during her stay in
camp, and transferred to another file the day she leaves camp. Her
height and weight should be taken in camp the day of or the day after
her arrival, and if possible when she is in her bathing suit. Similar
measurements should be taken the day she leaves camp. A personal record
of all tests passed may be kept on the back of the card. It would be of
interest to parents and of value to the Director when making out a camp
report.


Tent Record

A tent record in convenient form is absolutely necessary. Scouts
entering camp in large groups on a given date must be placed with as
little delay as possible. Those approximately of one age should be in
the same tents. Also friends like to be together. To know at a glance
what cots are Vacant in any one tent is of help. Also at a glance the
length of time a child has been in camp can be told, the date of coming
and going being recorded. The accompanying Cut C shows a system which
has served its good uses in more than one camp. Perhaps it will be of
service to others. A sheet of fairly heavy paper for each tent record
can be used, and all sheets put in a cover and held in place by clips.
The dates of the month when groups can enter camp are placed at the
left. Every square means a week. Ditto marks mean "remaining in camp,"
and X means leaving camp and signifies an empty cot. At a glance three
cots are seen to be vacant on August 6th, and when new Scouts arrive, as
they should after the outgoing group has gone, it is not difficult for
the Director to place them.

  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  TENT NO I
  ------|------|------|------|---------|---------|-------|------|-------
  Cot#  |   1  |   2  |   3  |  4      |   5     |   6   |    7 |   8
  ------|------|------|------|---------|---------|-------|------|-------
  July  | Jones| Brown| Wood |Frilop   |Di Santo |Foster |Kearns|Tierney
    1   |      |      |      |         |         |       |      |
  ------|------|------|------|---------|---------|-------|------|-------
        |      |   x  |      |     x   |         |       |      |
    8   |   "  |Rees  | "    | Rice    |    "    |     " |   "  |    "
  ------|------|------|------|---------|---------|-------|------|-------
        |      |      |    x |         |         |       |    x |
    15  |   "  |  "   |Fay   |   "     |    "    |     " |Greer |   "
  ------|------|------|------|---------|---------|-------|------|-------
    22  |   "  |  "   | "    |   "     |    "    |     " |   "  |   "
  ------|------|------|------|---------|---------|-------|------|-------
        |    x |      |      |         |    x    |      x|      |      x
    29  |Green | "    |   "  |   "     |         |       |   "  | Warren
  ------|------|------|------|---------|---------|-------|------|-------
  August|      |   x  |      |    x    |         |       |      |
     6  |   "  |      |    " | Phillips|         |       |   "  |
  ------|------|------|------|---------|---------|-------|------|-------
        |      |      |     x|         |         |       |      |
    13  |   "  |      |      |         |         |       |      |
  ------|------|------|------|---------|---------|-------|------|-------
    20  |   "  |      |      |         |         |       |      |
  ------|------|------|------|---------|---------|-------|------|-------
    27  |   "  |      |      |         |         |       |      |
  ------|------|------|------|---------|---------|-------|------|-------

[Illustration: C. Tent Chart for assigning reservations]


Health Certificate

[Illustration: HEALTH CERTIFICATE

The following must be filled out by a physician _within three days_ of
the time the girl enters camp. It should preferably be done by someone
who has known her for some time. The object of this certificate is: (1)
to safeguard child and others against contagious diseases; (2) to make a
basis for judging the suitability of camp life for her, and make
possible any necessary precautions, particularly in regard to exercise.

  I, .........................................................
  have this day,......................,19    personally examined
  ............................................................
  ........years, of................................,.........,
  and believe the following to be a complete statement as to her
  health and bodily condition:

_Contagious disease_: State child's condition and whether she has been
exposed and if any quarantine is necessary.

  _Nutrition_:  Excellent  Good  Fair  Poor  Very Poor
  _Anemia_:         Hemoglobin content:
  _Prepubertal_ or _postpubertal_. Menstruation:    Established
                                        Any disturbance?

  _Eyes_:   R   L   Glasses?   _Ears_:   R   L
  _Nose_:      _Throat_:     _Teeth_:
  _Muscles_:
  _General Nervous System_:
  _Stomach_:         _Bowels_:
  _Skin_:      _Head_:     _Skeletal_: Back
                                       Feet
  _Temperature_:
  _Heart_:   Rhythm:   Sounds:   Any disturbance?
  _Blood Pressure_: Systolic:   Diastolic:   Compensation:
  _Lungs_:

  As a general summing-up of recommendations in regard to whole
  condition outlined above, I recommend the following:

  1. Diet:
  2. Rest:
  3. Exercise:
       a. Should keep quiet.
       b. Can exercise moderately.
       c. Any reasonable exercise.
       d. Can take heavy exercise.
       e. Can (cannot)      walk      swim      run       jump
             climb
  4. General camp life:
  5. Additional notes:]

Another record of great importance and interest is the Health
Certificate shown on page 52, which should be kept on file in camp and
later in the office of the Local Council for a period of three months,
and then forwarded to the National Headquarters, Girl Scouts, Education
Department, for use in compiling a Scout Health record. If during a
Scout's stay in camp she is ill, meets with an accident or needs the
attention of a nurse in any way, the date, a note stating the trouble,
and what was done for the child, as well as her height and weight at
entrance and leaving, can be entered on the back of the certificate. The
form shown was made by the Education Department of National Headquarters
of Girl Scouts, and it is expected that it will be on sale and available
for use by all Local Councils.


Petty Cash Record

The petty cash record is an important department of record keeping. A
day book, balanced each day, should be carefully kept noting all income
and expenditures, and if much money passes through the cash box the
Director should have a petty cash bank account in order properly to care
for it.


Canteen Record

The canteen record is perhaps the most difficult as it is a combination
of a wholesale and a retail transaction and more or less involved in the
general house expenses. Not only should a record be kept of all goods
purchased at wholesale, as to quantity and price and when bill is paid,
but a record of daily sales is absolutely necessary. Canteen cash at the
end of each day should be handed over to the Director and entered in the
petty cash book.

The accompanying Cut D is a suggested form for keeping the canteen
accounts.


Record of Provisions and Equipment

[Illustration: THE CAMP CANTEEN

1. SAMPLE DAILY CASH ACCOUNT (Report by Items as Sold)

  -----|-----|----------------------------|-----------------------------|-------|-------|-----|-----
  Date |     |          APPLES            |        CHOCOLATE BARS       |       |       |     |
  -----|-----|----------------------------|-----------------------------|  Day  |Rec'd  |Short|Over
       |     |Rec'd Ret'd Sold Price Total|Rec'd Ret'd Sold Price Total | Total |       |     |
  -----|-----|----------------------------|-----------------------------|-------|-------|-----|-----
  July |   6 |   50   30   20 $0.05 $1.00 | 30    10   20 $0.07   1.40  | $2.40 | $2.28 |$0.12|
       |   7 |   40   20   20   .05  1.00 | 20     0   20   .07   1.40  |  2.40 |  2.45 |     |$0.05
       |   8 |   60   20   40   .04  1.60 | 40     5   35   .07   2.45  |  4.05 |  4.05 |     |
       |   9 |   50   25   25   .05  1.25 | 30    10   20   .07   1.40  |  2.65 |  2.72 |     |$0.07
       |  10 |   40   10   30   .05  1.50 | 20     0   20   .07   1.40  |  2.90 |  2.90 |     |
       |  11 |   30    0   30   .05  1.50 | 20     0   20   .07   1.40  |  2.90 |  2.90 |     |
  -----|-----|----------------------------|-----------------------------|-------|-------|-----|----
  Wkly. Total.  270  105  165       $7.85 |160    25  135        $9.45  |$17.30 |$17.30 |     |
  ----------------------------------------|-----------------------------|-------|-------|-----|----


2. WHOLESALE CANTEEN ACCOUNT: MONTHLY

  ----------------------------------------------|-----------------------------------
           RECEIVED IN JULY            |        PAID IN JULY
  ----|--|-------------------------------|------|------------|------|---------------
  Date|  |                               |      | Date       |      |  Notes
  July| 3| 3 bbls. Apples @ $5.00        |$15.00|July 8 Cash |$15.00|Try Russets next
      |  | 2 boxes Oranges @ $3.00       |  6.00|       Cash |  6.00|
      | 5| 1 case Tomatoes               |  2.50|    10 Check|  2.50|Indian Brand
      |  | 4 boxes Chocolate Bars @ $1.20|  4.80|    12 Cash |  4.80|Too small
  ----|--|-------------------------------|------|------------|------|---------------
  Monthly Total                          |$28.30|            |$28.30|
  ---------------------------------------|------|------------|------|----------------

D. Camp Canteen Account Forms. The Canteen should buy from general camp
stores and keep account with camp Director]

A very careful record must be kept of all provisions ordered, and when
the goods are delivered the lists should be checked. No bills for food
should be paid that have not been viséed by the Director. A record of
all equipment and notes as to the condition it is in should be made at
the close of each camp season.


Miscellaneous Records

Where there are materials furnished for any camp activities such as
raffia and reed for basketry there should be a separate record kept for
this department. Many times the Scouts who make baskets are anxious to
buy them and by charging a small price beyond cost the department can
pay for itself and possibly show a small profit.

A general day book, sometimes called the Camp Log, is not only of
interest at the end of the season, but if a few comments are added to
facts the book may be of real value another year. It is always a good
plan to make a note of any occasion which particularly pleases, or is of
special benefit, for these notes are of service particularly when
circumstances do not seem the brightest. Many times a suggestion is all
that is necessary to turn the tide of the whole day. Such a book is of
help in writing a report.

It is sometimes interesting for the children to keep a record of the
different kinds of wild flowers found and the birds seen in the vicinity
of the camp.

Field day programs and records are also of interest.

Another record is of hikes taken by campers during the summer. The
route, the time of starting, the hour of returning, the number of girls
who took the hike and any special point of interest noticed on the way,
may be recorded.


The Keeping of Records

[Illustration:

Twin Lake Council of Girl Scouts

Western Lane, New England

I hereby make application for:

          Name............................ Age.......

          Address................... Tel. No.........

          Troop No.......

          City.......................................

          To enter the Girl Scout Camp: July.........

                                        August.......

                              And leave July.........

                                        August.......

                                       September.....

and I hereby agree to pay in advance to the Twin Lake Council the
transportation charge from Western Lane of $2.00 and to pay board at the
rate of $6.00 per week, payable in advance weekly.

          Date..........

               Signed.........................

                       Relation:

E. Application Form]

The keeping of the Scout's application, deposit, board and
transportation record plus the responsibility of so planning that there
is never a vacant cot in camp is a matter which takes a great deal of
time at best, but which can be more easily done if a good system is
used. The records are generally kept in the office of the Local Council
under whose direction the camp is opened and run. Application blanks,
(Cut E) should be filed according to date of entering camp and kept on
file under the heading "In Camp," as long as the Scout is there, then
transferred to the "Left Camp" file and kept for reference.

Ten days prior to the date of entering camp a follow-up notice should be
sent to each Scout who should report to the local office, pay for
transportation, receive tickets for same, pay for first week's board and
receive a receipt for same.

The identification tag which must be taken to camp and given to the
Director upon arrival should be filled in and given to the Scout, when
she leaves.

In addition to the individual account card (Cut F.) record, all money
received for deposits, transportation or board should be entered in a
camp day book and deposited under camp account.

Any donations received for camp may also be entered in this book and
deposited as "Donations."

[Illustration:

     ---------------------------------------------------------------
    |Name...........................................................|
    |                                                               |
    |Address........................................................|
    |---------+------------------------------+-------+-------+------|
    |         |                              |       |       |      |
    |  1920   |                              | Money | Check | Cash |
    |  Dates  |                              | Order |       |      |
    | Mar.  1 |Filed Application, Paid       |       |       |      |
    |         |     Deposit                  |  1.00 |       |      |
    | July  1 | Enters Camp                  |       |       |      |
    | July 22 | Leaves Camp                  |       |       |      |
    | June 28 | Paid for Transportation      |       |       |  2.00|
    | June 21 | Paid for first week's board  |  5.00 |       |      |
    | July  1 | Paid for second week's board |       |  6.00 |      |
    | July 15 | Paid for third week's board  |  6.00 |       |      |
     ---------+------------------------------+-------+-------+------

F. Individual Account Card]

The Local Office should notify the camp Director at least two days
before sending Scouts into camp, as to the number and the names of
Scouts who will report to her, and thus give the Director time, if space
allows, to arrange for any girl or girls who may desire to remain in
camp for an additional week.

[Illustration: THE BREAD LINE]

The Director in turn must send to the Local Office a list of all Scouts
leaving camp that any unexpected vacancies may be filled from the
waiting list and accounts adjusted.


The Camp Budget

Every camp should be run on a budget; that is, according to a plan of
expenditure made on the best information available. Even if
circumstances alter the original plan, as they are apt to do, each
dollar whose expenditure is planned for will be found to bring in
considerably more return than the casually disbursed one.

The following items to be considered in any camp budget are given in
order of their numerical importance:

          1. Food. Includes carriage cost.

          2. Equipment. General and Special. The General and
          Special Equipment will be considered permanent
          camp property requiring renewal and replacement at
          various annual rates.

          3. Transportation. This will cover all railway
          charges and boat fares for Scouts and counsellors,
          and shipping charges on general merchandise other
          than food.

          4. Rental or Purchase Price of Land. This may or
          may not include rent on the houses, and will vary
          accordingly.

  CAMP BUDGET PROVIDING FOR 134 SCOUTS AND 16 ADULTS FOR 10 WEEKS
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
                          FIRST YEAR                 FOLLOWING YEARS

  	                Distribution of             Distribution of
                    Total          $1,000      Total        $1,000

  1 Food           $3,000||||||||||||||||300  $3,000||||||||||||||||395

  2 Equipment       2,800|||||||||||||280        400||||53

  3 Transportation  1,000||||||100             1,000|||||||||||130

  4 Rent              700|||||70                 700|||||||92

  5 Salaries[A]       700|||||70                 700|||||||92

  6 Canteen           400|||40                   400||||53

  7 Cartage           240||24                    240|||32

  8 Wages             240||24                    240|||32

  9 Labor             120||12                    120||16
    Opening and
  10 Closing Camp     100||10                    100||13

  11 Stamps           100||10                    100||13

  12 Water Upkeep     100||10                    100||13

  13 Boats             50|6                       50|8

  14 Printing          60|6                       60|8

  15 Telephone         60|6                       60|8

  16 Storage           20|2                       20|3

  17 All Other        300|||30                   300|||39
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  Grand Total     $10,000   $1,000          $7,600     $1,000

[A] Six persons only. Director not included, paid yearly 8 volunteers

[Illustration: G. Camp Budget]

          5. Salaries. These will vary according to the size
          and character of the camp and especially according
          to the amount of volunteer service obtainable. In
          all cases they are calculated in addition to
          living and traveling expenses. As camps become
          more numerous the demand for professionally
          trained counsellors will ultimately exclude the
          possibility of depending entirely on volunteer
          service. This item may therefore be expected to
          increase.

          6. Canteen. All the expenses for this, including
          service and accounting, should be more than
          covered by receipts.

          7. Cartage. This will vary according to the type
          of road and distances involved.

          8. Wages. A camp of any size demands certain
          permanent forms of service which cannot be given
          by the campers. This is not a good point at which
          to economize.

          9. Casual Labor. This must be provided for
          especially at the opening and closing of camp.

          10. Opening and Closing. This item covers certain
          forms of skilled labor; also transportation and
          clerical charges.

          11. Stamps. Receipts should cover cost less office
          supply.

          12. Motor Upkeep. An automobile will be found to
          more than pay for itself, and will undoubtedly
          soon become an obvious prime necessity.

          13. Boats. Boats may more profitably be rented
          than bought as the expense of storage and repairs
          is easier borne by a large company.

          14. Printing. It pays to have all camp forms and
          circulars well printed.

[Illustration: RACE BETWEEN WASHER AND DRYER]

          15. Telephone. This is a necessity and can be made
          to pay for itself.

          16. Storage. Careful storage saves equipment. Do
          not forget insurance.

          17. All Other. Incidentals may be expected to take
          up three or four per cent of available funds.

The actual cost of a large camp near New York is computed in Cut G, all
figures being given in round numbers and based on three years'
successful running. Absolute numbers mean little when considering
conditions throughout the country, particularly in this age of rapidly
shifting and climbing prices. Therefore, the figures are also expressed
in terms of the distribution of one thousand dollars, during the first
and also the following years.

It will be noted that food is always the most expensive item. It is
also the common basis for comparison. Equipment which is second in cost
the first year, drops to fifth place in the following years. With
reasonable care equipment should last seven years, upkeep and renewal
taking one-seventh each year. With exceptional care the life of
equipment may of course be extended and one of the important things to
be learned at camp is thrift and consideration for the common property.

Girl Scout camps should aim at becoming self-supporting or even sources
of revenue as soon as possible. It is good policy to charge a rate of
board that will cover _all_ costs, and then to raise money by Scout
rallies and entertainments to provide for individuals unable to meet the
full rate. Councils might well offer "scholarships" in the form of two
weeks' camping expenses. Money for original equipment should be borrowed
and paid back at interest in yearly sums.

In the camp whose budget is shown a board rate of $6.00 would more than
cover expenses after the first year as with 134 Scouts paying for ten
weeks it would yield an income of $8,040. At this rate the initial
expense could only be paid off in about five years.

A board rate of $7.00 would not only cover current expenses, but would
serve to pay off original cost of equipment in two years' time. Thus,
134 Scouts paying $7.00 a week for 10 weeks would make an income of
$9,380 a season. This would leave a deficit the first year of $620. The
second year with the current expenses $7,600 plus the deficit of $620
the total would be $8,220. The income of $9,380 would therefore give a
balance of $1,160 at the end of the second year.

This does not include any of the income to be legitimately expected from
the canteen, telephone charges, or special rates charged to guests, or
from funds raised by entertainments. Taking these things into
consideration the board rate might be considerably reduced.

The balance that should accrue at the end of the second year might be
used for reducing rates or extending time to individuals, or for paying
instructors for extra service, or perhaps best of all to start new
camps.

[Illustration: THE SUNDAY DINNER. A serious and weighty undertaking.
Sixty pounds of beef ready for the pot.]



VII

EQUIPMENT


GENERAL

In organizing a permanent camp the following things must be supplied:
beds, bed coverings, pillows, pillow cases, wash basins, lanterns, trash
boxes, tables, benches, scales, dishes for mess hall and kitchen, table
flatware, kitchen utensils, stove, household implements, camp
implements, game equipment, incinerator, boats, a flag, and ropes for
halyards.


Beds

A bed of some description is necessary to every camper. It is foolish
not to have it dry, warm and comfortable. The most durable and
economical are the canvas and wood cots which can be folded and packed
into a small space during the winter. One is the government standard
folding army cot, the other the telescope cot. Still another is the camp
made cot fashioned of posts and strips of wood, with rope interlaced
between the strips, and a sack filled with clean dry hay for a mattress.
Spring cots and mattresses can be used but require a great deal of
storage space during the winter and for many other reasons are not
practical. An old sheet, a piece of heavy cotton cloth or bed ticking
made into a bag and filled with hay can be used as a mattress on top of
a canvas cot and makes a very warm comfortable bed, especially for cold
nights.


Blankets

Woolen blankets are the only covering to be considered for camp use, as
they absorb less moisture than any other material, and even if damp are
warm. They should be long enough to cover the cot and turn under at the
bottom, and wide enough when doubled to fall over the edge of the cot
for a few inches. Those measuring 66 x 84 inches, weighing from 4 to 5
pounds, and being 70 to 90 per cent wool, are recommended. If only one
blanket for each cot is provided in the general equipment each child
should bring to camp either a sleeping bag, one heavy and one
lightweight blanket, or one blanket and a heavy bath robe.

[Illustration: CLEANING SQUAD]

Great care should be taken that the blankets are kept clean. This can be
done if the rule permitting no eatables, water or ink in the tents is
adhered to. When making the camp bed whatever the method, care should be
taken that blankets do not touch the floor. One way is to fold the camp
blanket lengthwise, lay it on top of the cot, the top nine inches from
the head of the cot. Open the blanket and lay into it the camper's
folded blanket, the top of which comes to the head of the cot. Draw the
camp blanket over it, fold both under at the foot, and turn in the open
side half of the length of the cot. If a pillow is used place it between
the folds of the inner blanket. A bed made in this way will keep the
camp blanket clean and it will be in proper condition either to use
another summer or to use the same summer by another child.

Another way is to fold the camp blanket lengthwise and place it on the
cot and fold the camper's blanket lengthwise placing the two openings in
opposite directions, one blanket inside of the other.

Still another way is to fold the blanket lengthwise in thirds and lay it
on the cot, turn it under at the foot and get into it as into a sleeping
bag.

Quilts are not advised for camp use. All blankets should be shaken every
day and thoroughly shaken and sunned at least two or three times a week.
For this purpose it is recommended that long bars be erected in a sunny
spot on the camp grounds where blankets can be thrown over them during a
part of the day. If the camp is divided into sections a few blankets
could be done at one time, and done regularly. The tent posts can be
used if care is taken that the ropes are not loosened. Low brush or an
available fence will also serve the purpose.

It is well to remember that it is more essential to have plenty of
clothing under the body than over it if one would sleep comfortably. A
wrapper worn over the night gown will keep the body warmer on a cold
night than an extra blanket on top.

The camp blankets should never be used next to the body. The personal
blanket should be used for that purpose. During the day the camp blanket
can be folded lengthwise once, crosswise once, laid on to the foot of
the cot, the fold toward the bottom, the personal blankets, night
clothes, bath wrapper and pillow neatly folded, laid on the blanket and
the border ends drawn over and tucked under, thus making a neat roll.
The foot of the cot is toward the center of the tent.

[Illustration: THE WISE VIRGINS. They clean and fill their lamps
outdoors.]


Pillows

The best pillows for camp use are those filled with kapok which is
impervious to germs, light, and possesses a cork-like quality which in
case of necessity can be utilized by making a life preserver of the
pillow.


Basins

Every child should be provided with a small agate or enamel hand basin
in which she can keep her toilet articles when not in use. The basin can
be kept under the head of the cot and is one of the things to be
thoroughly inspected each day.


Dishes for Mess Hall

Each camper should have a dinner plate, a bowl, a cup and saucer of
either white enamel ware, which is the best, crockery, which is not
recommended, aluminum, or if these are too expensive, tin. There should
be serving dishes such as one platter and three serving bowls for each
table, extra plates for bread, sugar bowl, butter dishes, large and
small pitchers, salt cellars; and do not forget the vase for flowers.

The table flat ware should consist of a fork, knife, a large and small
spoon for each child, knives for butter, serving spoons and extra
serving forks. Nickel, re-tinned, or tin-plated steel gives excellent
service.


Dishes for Kitchen

In so far as is possible use no tin in the kitchen. Use agate, aluminum,
porcelain or iron. When necessary to have very large boilers buy those
made of re-tinned steel with copper bottoms. For a camp of fifty or more
the following equipment is necessary: two large boilers, two feet high
and from twelve to fourteen inches in diameter, with handles and with
closely fitted covers; one large open boiler with a bail; three agate
boilers with bails, holding from twelve to fifteen quarts; two smaller
boilers and one sauce pan holding three quarts; four, three quart pails
with covers; one large and one small tea kettle; one colander, two
sieves (one with a handle and one large one without a handle); three or
four iron pans, the largest size that will fit into the oven; one quart
measure, one pint measure, one measuring cup; three large mixing bowls,
four milk pans, four milk bowls, and dishes in which left-overs can be
kept; one bread board, rolling pin, toaster, two iron pot rests, two
frying pans, a tea pot, a long-handled dipper, a long-handled skimmer,
six spoons with handles of different lengths, a bread knife, a meat
knife, a cleaver, a dozen vegetable knives, two can openers, one large
serving tray for each table, three dish pans, a bread cutter, a flour
sieve, a sugar scoop, an apple corer, scales, a meat grinder, and an ice
cream freezer.

[Illustration: THE SWIMMING CRIB]


Camp Implements

General camp implements are needed as follows: two flat irons, brooms
for the mess hall and kitchen, and small brooms for tent use, dust pan
and brush, stove brush, four galvanized pails, a garbage pail not too
large, a hammer, hatchet, axe, a wheel barrow, saw, fork, spade, shovel,
rakes, trowel, screw driver, a pair of pliers and nails and screws.


Kitchen Furnishings

The kitchen will have to have a good stove large enough to hold two or
three large boilers at one time. If there is plumbing and a hot water
boiler, either the stove can be furnished with a hot water back, which
is not desirable, for the fire need not be kept all day when wood is
used, but hot water is needed at all times, or a Standard Oil kerosene
heater can be installed. Without plumbing, a stove with a hot water tank
is desirable. If this is impossible a large boiler must be kept filled
with water on the top of the stove.

An army range, set on a concrete base, gives the greatest satisfaction
in a large camp. The ovens are large, an important point, and the top of
the stove large enough to care for all necessary pots and kettles. When
buying a stove for camp use make sure that it is made for the kind of
fuel which will be used in it.

The kitchen sink should be conveniently placed and large enough to hold
a large dish pan. Again if there is no plumbing a long table for dish
pans, draining pans, etc., should be provided.

Other tables, benches, shelves and a wood box are necessary.

Tables and benches are necessary in every camp. The more simple they are
the better. Tables made of pine boards, and tops covered with white oil
cloth are very serviceable, or better, tables with planed tops can be
used. Table tops and rests are feasible also. Benches can be made in
various ways but should be firm and of the right height. Chairs are not
really a camp necessity and on the whole could well be left out of the
list of camp furniture.


Lanterns

Every camp, large or small, needs lanterns. Lamps are not advised as a
general rule. There should be enough to have sufficient light in the
mess hall, in the kitchen, at least one in the wash house, one at each
latrine, and for stormy and very dark nights one for every two tents,
or group of tents. The tent lanterns can be hung on the tent posts
outside of the tents which method will prevent mosquitoes from being
attracted inside. Latrine lights should burn all night and it is
advisable to leave one burning by the mess hall in case of emergency.
Never allow children to bring candles into camp. Flash lights are a
convenience and harmless.

[Illustration: LAND DRILL]

A lantern which is not clean and shining and ready for use is a disgrace
to any camp. Every morning chimneys should be washed and wiped, lanterns
filled, wiped clean, wicks wiped off with a piece of newspaper and
turned down. They do not need to be trimmed every day. Have a place for
the lanterns to hang or stand during the day. The lamp cloths should be
washed, dried in the sun and hung where they will not be caught up and
used for other purposes.


Double Boiler

A very good double boiler can be made by using a large outer boiler in
the bottom of which is placed a pot rest and a small amount of water.
Stand on the rest either one kettle well covered, or if necessary, two
kettles, one on top of the other, both tightly covered and the outer
boiler tightly covered. This arrangement forms a kind of fire-less
cooker which is exceedingly satisfactory, especially for cooking
cereals.


Trash Boxes

Each tent or group of tents should have a conveniently placed trash box.
These can be made of wooden frames covered with screening, can be small
half-barrels or kegs, painted, or small portable incinerators. These
boxes should be emptied every twenty-four hours and the contents burned.


Weighing Scales

Another piece of furniture is a pair of personal scales, for the weight
of each child entering and leaving camp is of interest and value. Do not
use form with springs.


Games

The game equipment must not be forgotten. Basket balls, volley balls,
water polo balls, baseballs and bats, quoits, bows and arrows, and
tennis sets are all valuable.


Linen

If in the general equipment pillows are provided it is well to have a
few pillow cases other than those which the child brings to camp. There
should be sheets and pillow cases for use in the bed making test. Three
sets of dish towels and a set of dish cloths, holders, stove cloths and
kitchen hand towels. Cheese cloth is of great value in camp in the
kitchen and out of it.

[Illustration: THE DIVING LESSON]


Newspapers

Do not throw away any clean whole newspapers; they are of too great
value. Wet shoes stuffed with pieces of newspaper and stood not too near
a fire, will dry in good shape and be soft. The newspapers help to
absorb the moisture out of the leather and keep the shoes in shape.

Newspapers can be used to sit upon if benches or ground are damp.

Nothing is better for cleaning the top of a stove after each meal, than
a newspaper crunched into a wad.

Folded pieces of newspaper make an excellent holder for lifting pots and
kettles. Several thicknesses placed on the end of the kitchen table on
which to set pots and cans, will keep the table clean. Hot water pipes
or a boiler can be covered with several thicknesses of newspapers held
in place by twine, thereby conserving heat. Cover the ice cream freezer
with newspapers after the dasher is removed and while the cream is
getting stiff. They help to keep in the cold. Newspapers laid on a cot
under the blankets help very materially to keep one warm on a cold
night. After sweeping a floor put the dust and dirt from a dust pan in a
newspaper, roll it carefully and burn in the incinerator. The wind
cannot then blow the dirt about.


Flowers

When picking flowers do not pull the plants up by the root. Do not pick
a blossom with too many buds on the stem. Do not pick what you are not
going to use either as a decoration or to press for nature study work.
Do not pick short stems, and do not crowd too many flowers into one
vase. Be sure that the vase is clean and the water fresh. All dead
flowers and leaves should be burned and not thrown out to disfigure the
looks of the camp grounds.

[Illustration: THE TRUE INWARDNESS OF ROWING]

If you do not know poison ivy when you see it get someone to point it
out to you and then keep away from it. It is more apt to poison when the
leaves are wet.


PERSONAL EQUIPMENT

  _Clothes_: Scout uniform and Scout hat
             Bloomers: dark wool or khaki
             Middy blouses, at least 3; plain, strong, white
             Coat
             Rubber coat or poncho
             Sweater
             Shoes (stout, low heels, round toes; two pairs if
                 possible)
             Rubbers
             Underwear: Plain and strong. The one-piece
                athletic garment made for women and girls
                is preferable to separate chemise or drawers.
                Woven shirt or union suit of cotton or light
                wool is desirable. No petticoats.

             Stockings: at least four pairs, heavy ribbed
                cotton or wool preferred. No silk.

             Nightgown or pajamas, three, heavy cotton or
                canton flannel.

             Bath wrapper and slippers

             Bathing suit and cap

  _Bedding_: Plain woolen blankets, light-weight, for use next body
                Pillow cases, (three)

  _Toilet
  Accessories_: Bath and face towels, two each
                Face cloths, two
                Comb and brush
                Tooth brush in holder
                Soap and tooth paste
                Soap box
                Small cup
                Scissors
                Nail file or cleaner
                Sanitary napkins and belt

  _Desirable
  General
  Accessories_: Musical Instruments
                Flashlight
                Note book or pad and pencils
                Sewing kit


THE CANTEEN

There have been objections made to the camp canteen or store, but there
seem to be no very good reasons against it. By buying large quantities
and at wholesale and selling at the market price in small quantities
there can be a perfectly legitimate profit on a camp canteen. This helps
to pay camp expenses. It is also possible to make an arrangement with
local stores to supply merchandise, fruit and candy to be sold at the
store price, and receive from the store a ten per cent discount which is
clear profit to the camp. A greater profit, however, can be obtained if
the camp purchases these things for itself from wholesale dealers.

The price of board in the average Scout camp is so low that it is
impossible to supply campers with many of the things which they want and
which they may have. Fresh fruit in some localities is very expensive
and quite beyond the possibility of serving. But most parents make no
objection to their children purchasing the fruit, one or two pieces at a
time, at the canteen counter. The same is true of simple candy such as
sweet chocolate, Hershey Bars, Neccos, etc. One piece a day is not only
perfectly harmless; it is, in fact, beneficial.

Other things that can be sold in the canteen are stationery, stamps,
plain postal cards, picture postal cards, hair pins, pins, shoe laces,
needles and thread, kodak films, bathing caps, soap, and pencils.

The best time for having the canteen open is determined by the rule that
Scouts do not eat between meals. For this reason it is better to sell
fruit and candy either directly after dinner or directly after supper.
For many reasons it is much more convenient and fully as well for the
child to have the canteen open after supper, especially when that meal
is served at half-past five.

The question as to whether Scouts should be allowed to receive packages
of food from home is one which every camp Director has to decide.
Probably nothing causes more unhappiness than the fact that some girls
receive no packages while others have many. The most serious phase is
that boxes often contain food which is not best for the girl. Then, too,
packages have been sent by parcel post so badly wrapped and packed that
when received at the local post office the authorities have complained
to the camp Director. The condition of fruit or other food was such as
to be a menace.

[Illustration: MAKING CAMP ON AN OVERNIGHT HIKE. Tents and other
equipment come by trek cart.]

The problem of caring for the boxes of food which are sent to campers is
sometimes a serious question. If labelled and put into the storeroom
they take up valuable space; also much time is spent taking them out at
canteen hour and in putting them away. If a child is allowed to keep
food of any kind in her tent, it is quite impossible to have the
blankets, cots, or pillows in absolutely perfect condition.

All things considered, it seems best not to allow food including fruit
or candy to be sent or brought into camp.


EQUIPMENT FOR SWIMMING AND BOATING

The average child who enters camp does not know how to swim and knows
less about boating. What is more, it is probably the only place for many
to learn to do these things. Taking a dip for the sake of having a good
time, splashing in the water, and so forth, is one thing, but to really
learn to swim, to dive, to throw a life line, to rescue, to resuscitate,
is quite a different matter. These things must be learned, for as a
matter of fact, human beings do none of them naturally.

When possible a crib for beginners is a very desirable thing to have.
(p. 69.) Unless there is a safe beach or shallow water and a good bottom
there is more or less danger attending the teaching of swimming to a
group of children even though the group be small. With the crib, for use
especially in deep lakes and ponds, this danger is practically overcome,
and in consequence much anxiety on the part of those in charge of the
camp eliminated. The child seems to fear less, therefore learns to swim
sooner. A crib 20 x 85 feet is large enough for a group of twenty
children (Cut H.) It is built partially on land by the water's edge, is
made of logs and planks and pulled into the water over logs used as
rollers. A floor is made of 6 inch planks placed half an inch apart and
nailed on to a rectangular frame work of logs with lengthwise supports
under the planks. Uprights of logs are placed at intervals along the
sides and ends and at the corners. Two and a half feet from either end a
second row of uprights is placed. The sides and inner ends are built up
to a height of 5 feet, the outer ends to 3 feet. The crib is pulled into
the water and towed to its position by a pier or wharf. It is sunk with
stones between the double ends until the floor is 3-1/2 feet below the
surface of the water at the pier end, and 4 feet below the surface at
the other end. It is held in position by being fastened to piles placed
at intervals around the edge. Steps lead down into the crib either from
the end of a pier, or from a wharf. As soon as a child can swim three
times around the crib without touching her foot to the bottom of the
crib or her hands to the sides, and can demonstrate three strokes, she
should be allowed to go into deep water, but should be carefully watched
for a while.

[Illustration: "EATS"]

Land drill preceding the swimming lesson is very helpful. An expert
person should be made responsible for not more than twenty girls at one
time unless the girls are competent swimmers, and no one should be
allowed to interfere with the rules and regulations laid down by the
person in charge. Absolute obedience to all signals, rules and
regulations must be observed. An assistant counsellor should always be
in attendance at swimming lessons.

[Illustration: H. Swimming Crib as it would appear out of water. The
crib is 35' by 20', outside dimensions, with end pockets for stones,
2-1/2' each, leaving a swimming space of 30' by 20'. The idea for this
was planned and executed by the Engineers of the Park Commission of the
N.Y. and N.J. Interstate Park, for use in the camps in the Palisades
Park.]

Deep water swimmers should be able to pass the following requirements:
demonstrate three different strokes, breast, overarm and back stroke.
Swim under water. Demonstrate resuscitation. Throw a life-line
twenty-five feet for accuracy. Demonstrate diving, shallow, deep and
fancy diving. Rescue a drowning person twenty-five feet away from a
raft. Swim 50 yards with clothes on.

It is always advisable during a swimming period to have a boat well
manned near at hand. Bathing in fresh water, especially in spring-fed
lakes is not as exhilarating as salt water bathing, and twenty minutes
is considered the longest time a girl should stay in fresh water. Great
care should be taken that no child is allowed to get chilled. At the
first sign of pinchedness, shivering, or blue lips the child should be
called out of the water, and instructed to rub herself briskly and dress
at once.

[Illustration: THE MORNING AFTER]

Bathers should always be counted immediately before going into the
water, and immediately after being called out. It is well to have
assembly and roll call for this.


Suits

A word as to bathing suits may not be amiss. Care should be taken that
the shoulder straps are tight enough and the under arm seam sewed up
high enough to keep the top part of the suit in place. It is recommended
that camps adopt a uniform style of bathing suit and that all classified
groups wear bathing caps of the same color, as for instance, first
class swimmers wear white caps, second class blue caps, third class
green caps, and fourth class, red caps.


The Float

Probably there is more fun experienced by the Scouts who are privileged
to use a raft or float, than by all the other campers put together. To
get out of the crib group and go for the first time to the float is a
thrilling experience and one that is much discussed and enjoyed. Water
sports without a float cannot be imagined, neither can a camp really be
called a Girl Scout camp unless it possesses this important piece of
floating property, which may be large or small, but must be properly
built to be safe. For a camp of 150 or more, a float 20 x 40 feet is
none too large. It should be equipped with spring board, diving tower
and life lines, and moored in deep water, not too long a swim from
shore.

Bath houses are not always considered necessary to campers but the use
of them does much toward keeping tents and tent equipment in good
condition. Wet floors, cots, blankets and so forth are always a
detriment and should not be allowed. If bath houses are impossible,
erect a large tent with a clothes line running from pole to pole and low
benches under it to serve as racks for clothing. Have pails at hand for
holding rinsing water. This kind of bath house is easily arranged.

Where possible it is an excellent idea for girls to be able to take a
quick dip before dressing for breakfast, but in a large camp this is not
always possible, and other arrangements have to be made for the morning
ablutions, as have been suggested in another part of this book.


Boats

Only first class swimmers should be allowed the use when alone, of boats
of any kind. The flat bottomed boats are the safest and it is almost
impossible to tip them over. They are, however, much heavier and harder
to manage than the round bottomed boats. Care should be taken that not
too many girls go in one boat at one time and that whoever is put in
charge of the group must be obeyed. Girls should be taught to row, how
to enter a boat and leave it, how to tie it, how to seat passengers so
that the boat will be well balanced, how to row alone, and how to keep
stroke with another.


Camp Supplies

A list of firms handling approved equipment for camps will be furnished
upon request to National Headquarters Girl Scouts, Inc.

[Illustration: SETTING OUT FOR THE WATER HIKE]



WATER FRONT PROTECTION FOR SUMMER CAMPS

          _By_

          Captain Fred. C. Mills,
          Red Cross Life Saving Corps,
          Atlantic Division.


Every camp that is situated on water or has a near-by bathing place,
should organize its water front protection system before the camp opens.


Choice of Bathing Place

The swimming place should be so chosen as to combine, if possible, deep
water swimming for the experienced swimmers and a shallow bathing place
for beginners. The non-swimmers' pool should never be over four and
one-half feet deep at its deepest point.


Equipment

_For Beginners._ The non-swimmers' pool should be enclosed on three
sides by life lines, (1" to 1-1/2" manila rope, depending on weather
conditions), buoyed up every fifteen feet by cork floats or balsa wood
buoys, painted white and made fast at the corners to piles driven into
the sand, or to buoys moored with rocks or cement moorings. No beginners
should be allowed to go beyond these lines.

_For Swimmers._ The area to be used by Swimmers should then be plainly
marked off with white floats moored to the bottom, with a flag placed at
top. No swimmer, no matter how expert, should be allowed to go beyond
these floats, unless permission is obtained from the Master of Aquatics.

Great care should be taken that all diving platforms and spring boards
are safely situated and that the water surrounding these diving
arrangements is clear of all rocks, stumpage, etc., to the depth of at
least 10 feet. Ladders should be placed at the float to allow swimmers
to climb from the water easily.

[Illustration: LAYING THE FIRE]

_Tower._ A small tower, eight to twelve feet high, should be erected on
the shore so as to overlook the bathing place. A warning signal, such as
a bell or gong, should be placed in the tower.

_Life Boats._ Two or more boats, depending on the size of the camp,
should be set aside for life-saving patrol. These should be equipped
with life lines looped around the outside of the gunwhale, ring
rowlocks, and an air tank placed under the bow and stern seats. A hole
should be cut in the top of the stern board for sculling.

Life boats should be chosen that are light and easy to handle, and care
should be used in picking boats that are sea-worthy and have good beam.

One life boat should always be at the dock, ready for instant use, while
the other boat or boats are on patrol.

Under no circumstances should these boats be used for anything but
life-saving duty.

_Ring Buoys._ Ring buoys should be placed on every dock. These should
not be over nineteen inches in diameter, and should be equipped with
sixty feet of 1/4" line with a float or "lemon" on end. Ring buoys are
valueless unless ready at all times for use, so should be mounted on a
rack the shape of a cross, painted red, having a peg, 5" long, on the
end of each arm, for the rope to be loosely coiled around. The top loop
of the buoy hangs on the top peg. By this arrangement, the buoy is
always ready for use.

Water glasses, first aid equipment, grappling irons, and extra boat
equipment, such as oars, rowlocks, and boat hooks, should be kept on
hand ready for instant use.

_Row Boats and Canoes._ All row boats should be placed in first class
condition and tested out to find their safety capacity. The way to
determine this is to fill the boat full of water and find out how many
it will support in the water holding on to sides; this then is the safe
number to carry in the boat when free from water. If boats are equipped
with a small air-tight compartment of metal in bow and stern, it will
increase their buoyancy to a great extent. Every boat should be plainly
marked: THE CAPACITY OF THIS BOAT IS..., with white paint on both sides.


The Life Saving Corps

_Choosing the Crew._ Every camp should build up around its Master of
Aquatics a Life Saving Corps from among the campers. Choosing the
personnel of the Corps is a very important matter. The applicants should
understand that it is an honor to be a member of this unit.

[Illustration: THE GOODNIGHT STORY]

It will be found that if the members of the Corps are allowed to have
separate sleeping quarters, near the water, over which they fly the Red
Cross Life Saving Corps flag, mess together and be relieved of K. P.
duty, that they will develop an esprit de corps which will make for
efficiency in their work and be of great value to the general morale of
the camp.

Everyone trying for membership should first have a medical examination
to prove that he is physically able to stand the very difficult work
which he may have to perform at any time. The group of applicants should
then be tested out as to their swimming ability, especially being
required to swim on back without hands, and on side with one arm only.

_Training._ After your applicants have been culled out, the ones that
you decide to use should be given a thorough course of training, first
being obliged to pass the Red Cross life saving test. They must be
instructed in boat handling and the methods of taking another person
into the boat, in the proper method of throwing the life buoy, using a
60-foot line and a 19-inch buoy. They should be capable of tying knots
needed in their work, such as a square knot, clove hitch, two half
hitches, bowline, short splice and eye splice. Much emphasis should be
placed on instruction in resuscitation by the Schaefer method, and no
attempt should be made to instruct them in the use of any mechanical
respiratory devices as they are practically useless.

During the camp season, if possible, members should have thorough
instruction in first aid, especially as it applies to water accidents,
the most common of which are abrasions, sun burn, seasickness, broken
arms from backfire of gasoline engines, sickness from gasoline fumes of
motor boat engines, and submersion.

_Duties of Crew._ The Life Saving Corps should be familiar with the
water at all points and should buoy any especially dangerous spots, such
as submerged tree stumps or very deep holes. This can be done with a
line, anchor, and float painted red.

The Life Saving Corps should be in charge of Mates under the command of
the Master of Aquatics who is the Captain. A log of each day's work
should be kept, recording such events as concern the Corps, such as
weather report, officer in charge of day's watch, number of swimmers,
name of day's swimming instructor, number taught to swim, etc. Watches
should be so arranged that members of crew are not on duty more than two
days out of three.

[Illustration: "GOOD MORROW, LORD SUN!"]

During the bathing periods, which should be at least two hours after
meals, the Corps members will be in charge of the protection and
discipline of bathers, the instruction of swimming, and supervision of
diving.

The following is suggested as a good distribution. Two in each life
boat, oarsman and coxswain, one person on the dock, two lookouts and
messenger in the tower, one at diving board and one or two instructing
swimming (change instructors every third day).

_The Swimming Test._ After every camper has had a medical examination he
should have a test in swimming and be graded in one of three classes:
Non-Swimmer, red knot on right shoulder; Beginner--the ones that will
still bear watching--white knot on right shoulder; Swimmer, American Red
Cross Junior Life Saving Corps emblem.

Check your list up every once in a while to see that everybody is in the
right class. Hold frequent tests to re-classify two lower grades. The
graded Red Cross tests are recommended and arrangements can be made for
Red Cross awards.


Supervision of Boating

A Non-Swimmer should never be allowed to take out a boat unless
accompanied by a swimmer. The Beginners should be limited in the
distance they can go and only the Swimmers should be allowed to go where
they please. At least two-thirds of every boat load should be able to
swim and take care of those who cannot swim.

Under no circumstances allow more than one boat to be towed behind a
motor or sail boat, and then only if boat being towed is in hands of an
expert coxswain.

No boating should be allowed during bathing periods.

Detail one of the crew to give instructions in boat handling if
necessary.

Have all boats in by "Mess gear" unless special permission is given.

No boating after dark without special permission.

Every camper should know how to tie up a boat, if he wishes to use them.
See that he does it.

A simple set of rules may be drawn up and posted in prominent places so
that every camper will know exactly what the bathing regulations are.
The following are a few suggestions. No one is allowed to swim for at
least two hours after meals. No swimming allowed in the heat of the day.
No one is allowed to swim if he has any stomach disorder. A limit set
on number allowed in boats. No boats loaded with campers allowed to be
towed behind motor boats. Absolutely no swimming to be permitted unless
life boat is on hand for protection of bathers.

Of course these rules may be modified to suit each camp's local
problems, but if these suggestions are adhered to in the main, it will
be almost impossible for any accidents to happen.

One accidental drowning case may ruin the reputation of a camp. Build up
the confidence of your campers and their families by making your safety
system as near foolproof as possible.

_Send every camper home a swimmer; and, if possible, able to swim for
two._

_For information about life saving, write American Red Cross Life Saving
Corps, 44 East 23rd St., New York City._

[Illustration: MONARCHS OF ALL THEY SURVEY]



VIII.

THE CAMP PROGRAM


The program is one of the most important factors in the well-organized
camp and must be given much thought. It is the thing which gives
continuity to the summer's work and holds the entire group together.
Without it there would be disorder and confusion.

While including as many activities as possible without causing any
feeling of hurry, rush or forcing, it must be planned so that repetition
will not prove monotonous. It should provide for periods of work and
play, rest and leisure; it must afford ample opportunity for
self-expression and development. Parts of the program must necessarily
be obligatory for all, others optional, still others optional as to time
only.

The fact that the group is composed of Scouts and is living out of doors
should bring to the fore, subjects for study which are particularly in
keeping with the Scout program, such as nature lore, simple astronomy,
woodcraft, campcraft, carpentry, gardening, hiking, map-making, swimming
and boating; Scout grade test requirements, and some of the Merit Badge
work. Specific directions for teaching these subjects are not given
here, as they are covered in the Handbook, "Scouting for Girls," and
other publications.

Periods for play may include games, group singing, rowing, hikes,
entertainments, and so forth. Leisure moments are for the individual.
She should be allowed to follow her own inclination so long as she does
not infringe upon the rights of others or break the necessary camp rules
which protect the safety and health of the group. Hours of rest which
all observe at stated periods are, of course, most essential. While a
daily program is absolutely necessary as a basis of work, it should
occasionally be put one side to allow the entire group to take advantage
of particularly propitious weather conditions for walking and hiking, or
for an entertainment or field day. The daily program in every Girl Scout
camp should always include the formal ceremony of raising and lowering
the flag, inspection, a period of rest directly after dinner, a period
for the discussion of the Scout Promise and Laws, and a short period for
Setting-up Exercises, preferably the first thing in the morning. On
Sundays a simple Scout service should be held.

[Illustration: A Sun Clock never runs down. Stake five feet high driven
firmly in ground in open space. Peg is stuck in at end of shadow every
hour during the day. From article in "Scouting", Dec. 15, 1917]


PROGRAM FOR HOUSEKEEPING SQUAD

    3:30 P.M. Report for duty.
               Change of Squad
               Work explained
               Instructions given
               Off duty

    5:00 P.M. Report for duty
               Prepare for and serve supper
               Clear table, wash dishes, etc.
               Light and place lanterns
               Off duty

    7:00 A.M. Report for duty
               Bring in lanterns
               Prepare tables, serve breakfast
               Clear tables, wash dishes
               Set tables
               Clean: Mess hall, wash house, latrines,
                      camp grounds, lanterns, fold napkins,
                      burn trash, fill vases with
                      fresh flowers
               Prepare vegetables
               Off duty

    12:00 M.  Report for duty
               Prepare for and serve dinner
               Clear tables, wash dishes
               Wash dish towels

    3:30 P.M. Report for change of squad
               Relieved of duty
               Swimming and re-enter general program


Housekeeping Squad

A feature of the day's routine is the coming on duty of the housekeeping
squad which for a period of twenty-four hours keeps the camp clean,
orderly and safe, and performs most if not all of the necessary
household duties which must be done in every home or camp. The squad
should be under the leadership of a counsellor who is particularly
fitted to direct and instruct the squad and be responsible for the work
it does.

Going on duty in the middle of the afternoon gives the members an
opportunity to have a swim earlier in the day, and after going off duty
the next day, which is a privilege not to be despised. The work which
this squad does is for the benefit of the entire group and raises or
lowers the camp standard each day.

The general program should be posted on the bulletin board and explained
to each new group that enters camp. It should be given in detail as to
hours, activities and requirements. Whether the program is planned for
the group divided into two or three units or for the group as one unit,
depends upon the size of the camp. No counsellor can do justice to her
work if she has too large a group, and on the other hand, the group if
too large will lose interest in the subject. The accompanying program
has been tried and may be of value as a suggestion.

[Illustration: FIREPLACE IN THE HOUSE THE SCOUTS BUILT]


DAILY PROGRAM FOR A GIRL SCOUT CAMP

  -----+----+----------------+-----------------+---------------------
  Bugle| M. |     Group I    |  Group II       |  Group III
  -----+----+----------------+-----------------+---------------------
  6.30 | 10 | REVIELLE
  -----+----+--------------------------------------------------------
  6.40 | 10 | SETTING-UP EXERCISES
  -----+----+--------------------------------------------------------
  7.15 | 15 | ASSEMBLY AND MORNING COLORS
  -----+----+--------------------------------------------------------
  7.30 | 30 | BREAKFAST AND ANNOUNCEMENTS
  -----+----+--------------------------------------------------------
  8.30 | 30 | INSPECTION
  -----+----+----------------+-----------------+---------------------
  9.00 | 30 | Nature Lore    | 2d Class Work   |  Games
  -----+----+----------------+-----------------+---------------------
  9.30 | 45 | Drilling, Games|    Swimming     | First Aid, Bed
       |    |                |                 |   Making
  -----+----+----------------+-----------------+---------------------
  10.15| 45 | Basketry       |Health, First Aid| Swimming
  -----+----+----------------+-----------------+---------------------
  11.00|30  |Scout Laws      | Basketry        | Health
  -----+----+----------------+-----------------+---------------------
  11.30| 30 | Health, Adv.   |                 |
       |    | First Aid      | Scout Laws      |   Scout Laws
  -----+----+----------------+-----------------+---------------------
  12.00| 30 | FREE TIME
  -----+----+--------------------------------------------------------
  12.30| 60 | DINNER
  -----+----+--------------------------------------------------------
  1.30 | 60 | REST HOUR
  -----+----+--------------------------------------------------------
  2.30 | 45 | MAIL DISTRIBUTED, AND FREE TIME
  -----+----+----------------+-----------------+---------------------
  3.15 | 30 | 1st Class Work | Nature Lore     | Knots and Signalling
  -----+----+----------------+-----------------+---------------------
  3.45 | 45 |  Swimming      | Games, Drilling | Nature Lore
  -----+----+----------------+-----------------+---------------------
  4.30 | 60 | FREE TIME
  -----+----+--------------------------------------------------------
  5.30 | 30 | ASSEMBLY, RETREAT, SUPPER
  -----+----+--------------------------------------------------------
  6.00 |    | CANTEEN, BOATING, SHORT WALKS, GAMES, DANCING, ETC.
  -----+----+--------------------------------------------------------
  7.30 |    | CAMP FIRE, SINGING, STUNTS, ETC., FOR THE WHOLE CAMP
  -----+----+--------------------------------------------------------
  8.20 |    | FIRST CALL
  -----+----+--------------------------------------------------------
  8.45 |    | TAPS
  -----+----+--------------------------------------------------------



IX.

GENERAL CAMP ACTIVITIES


Outline

  1. SPORTS
    a. _Water sports_
      1. Swimming
        (a) Classification
          (1) Groups or classes
        (b) Life saving
      2. Boating
        (a) Rowing
        (b) Canoeing
          (1) Classification
    b. _Games_
      1. Major games
      2. Minor games
    c. _Dancing_
      1. Types
        (a) Aesthetic or classic
        (b) Folk dancing
        (c) Social dancing
    d. _Horsemanship_
      1. Requirements
  2. CRAFTS AND OCCUPATIONS
    a. _Crafts_
      1. Handcrafts
        (a) Kinds
      2. Woodcraft
        (a) Nature Study
          1. Ferns, Flowers, Trees, Birds, Stars, Maps
      3. Campcraft
        (a) Making and breaking camp
        (b) Camp fires
        (c) Cooking
        (d) Trail making
  3. ENTERTAINMENTS and diversions outside of the regular schedule
    a. Types
      1. Dramatic
      2. Miscellaneous
      3. Celebrations and pageants
      4. Inter-Camp frolics
  4. SINGING
    a. Camp songs
  5. ACHIEVEMENTS
    a. _Recording of achievements_
      1. Books
      2. Chart system
    b. _Recognition of achievements_
      1. Points and honors
      2. Girl Scout Merit Badges


1. SPORTS

Every girl who goes to a camp in the summer is interested in some form
of sport. But perhaps swimming and boating head the list for popularity.

There are many interesting ways in which to run your swimming program so
that it is taught systematically and leads to real progress and
efficiency.

One method that has been tried successfully in a very large camp, but
which would apply equally well in any camp, is the arrangement of the
entire camp into groups designated as "Swimming Classes" and indicated
by a special color bathing cap for each group or class so that they may
be easily distinguished in the water.

[Illustration: THE TOP OF THE MORNING]

_Class Number 4, Red Cap._--All who have not passed the canoe test which
is explained under the heading "Class Number 3."

_Class Number 3, Green Cap._--Pass the canoe test which consists of
swimming, floating or otherwise staying above depth for fifteen minutes,
and swimming in from an overturned canoe 20 yards from shore.

_Class Number 2, Blue Cap._

  _Strokes_: Breast stroke--25 yards
             Side Stroke--25 yards
             Back stroke--25 yards
             Single overhand--25 yards
             Double overhand--25 yards
  _Dives_: Standing or running dive from spring board
             (3 perfect out of 5).

             Dive from a low tower 4 feet high. (3 perfect out of 5).

  _Class Number 1, White Cap_.

  _Strokes_: Crawl
             Trudgeon

  _Dives_: From spring board, running plain
           From spring board, running jack knife
           From spring board, running angel
           From spring board, standing side
           From spring board, standing back
           From float standing from high tower (10) and
             3 optional dives from the following:
             Hand stand (spring board, high or low tower).
             Back somersault, spring board
             Front somersault, spring board
             Sailor running, spring board
             Back dive, high tower
             Jack knife, high tower
             Double dive, high tower

Another method is to record the swimming achievements on a chart under
the following headings:

Form swimming, ornamental swimming, speed swimming, canoe tests, life
saving and dives.

Did you ever work to become a member of the Women's Life Saving Corps of
the American Red Cross? The purpose of this organization is to train
women in all coast cities, and cities bordering on lakes and rivers, to
be able to meet emergencies in the water and save lives.

There are six tests which have to be passed before a girl is considered
worthy of a W. L. S. C. certificate.

          Test 1. Jump off a low dock dressed in bathing
          suit, shoes, shirt waist and skirt. Swim to a
          given point, (about 20 yards), there undress and
          swim in bathing suit to another dock (about 20
          yards).

          2. Swim down from surface in 10 feet of water and
          fetch up a 2-foot birch log from bottom.

          3. Rescue a non-resisting person and demonstrate
          the "carries" (head, under-arm and side stroke) as
          you bring them ashore.

          4. In deep water demonstrate the correct breaks
          for the wrist holds, and the front and back
          strangle holds around the neck.

          5. Demonstrate resuscitation by Schaefer method.

          6. Tell proper procedure in caring for patient
          after breathing has been restored.


Boating

Boating, of which we shall first consider rowing, may also be worked out
according to classes, such as:

          Second Class: Manoeuvre a row boat properly, i. e.,
          unship, reverse, anchor, scull, make 3 perfect
          landings out of 5.

          First Class: Row singly for a given distance 1-1/2
          miles in 40 minutes, or according to certain
          standards, such as:

          Start
          Row forward
          Row backward
          Manoeuvre
          Good landing
          Fasten boat


Canoeing

          Class II. Know how to paddle bow and stern with
          another girl in a canoe, and make 3 out of 5
          perfect landings.

[Illustration: BEFORE THE CAMP FIRE IS LIGHTED]

    Class I. a. Handle a canoe singly in all weathers and make 3 out of
                   5 perfect landings,
             b. Climb into a canoe with another swimmer's help from the
                   water in three consecutive trials.

In your own camp when grouping sports for classification although you
may get good suggestions from other methods, it is best to work out a
way which meets your own particular need.

Remember that the swimming and boating should be in charge of competent
and responsible people or instructors and that every precaution should
be taken against accident.

Remember it is better to emphasize good form rather than speed or long
distance swimming and the ability to meet emergencies in the water
rather than stunts.

Honors or recognition should be given for skill, form and improvement
rather than for endurance.

The interest in Water Sports is further stimulated by weekly contests or
a day set apart at the end of the season called the Water Sports Day.

In weekly contests enough competition takes place to keep the girls'
interest in improvement constantly keen.

For Water Sports Day here is a typical and comprehensive program:

          Canoe race
          25-yard dash
          50-yard dash
          Dives; an option of 2 out of 3
          Boating race
          Relay swimming race
          Obstacle race
          Practical demonstration such as taught by the Women's
          Life Saving Corps of the American Red Cross.

[Illustration: WOOD CUTTERS]

If you do not wish to have too strenuous a time for Water Sports Day a
carnival is suggested which is more festive and makes for a very gay and
picturesque time. The carnival can be worked out in a variety of ways,
but the main feature is the decking of boats and costuming of the
participants, prizes being given for originality. A short program of
water sports can be added.


Games

If there is adequate equipment Basket-ball, Baseball and Tennis become
the outstanding or major games in a camp. These games should never be
indulged in for the idea of winning at all costs, but for the fun that
one gets out of them.

Of course there will be competitive games with qualified teams and high
standards of playing, but there will also be the impromptu and
unexpected challenge games played in fantastic costumes, accompanied by
many antics and songs composed on the inspiration of the moment, games
apt to be remembered long after the other kind of competition has been
forgotten.

Baseball for girls or children who cannot get used to the paraphernalia
of hard balls, bats and mitts, can be played with a softer ball such as
a playground ball, a light bat and if necessary the simpler rules of
Indoor Baseball can be adopted for out-door playing. In most camps,
however, enthusiasm for real Baseball generally outweighs every
handicap.

Tennis does not take in the same number of players at one time as does
Baseball or Basket-ball, therefore in order that everyone may get a try
at it a schedule may be made out so that the courts will not be
monopolized by one set of players to the exclusion of beginners or other
enthusiasts.

Ladder tournaments, both for singles and doubles, solve this problem
somewhat and create interest, especially when the final try-outs are on.

There are any number of group games, Volley Ball, Captain Ball, Relay
Races and Ball Games, which are played in camps when there is adequate
equipment for Basket-ball and Tennis, but more especially where there is
a lack of it.

Individual games, such as Archery, and Quoits make the time pass
pleasantly and profitably for a few who like to go off by themselves.


Dancing

Dancing is an interesting pastime for camp and fills in many gaps.

It is a help in entertainments and if you are to have an end of the
season pageant, it is well to hold dancing classes regularly so that
there will not be endless rehearsing for the last days.

There are three types of dancing which can be presented. The Aesthetic
or Classic, the Folk Dancing and the Social Dancing. For the most part,
the Folk Dancing is freer, easy to learn and more suited to the
community as a whole than the Aesthetic work.

It is better not to attempt much dancing in your schedule if you have no
piano or stringed pieces, for although there are phonograph records to
be had, the supply is too limited to be entirely satisfactory.

A collection of English Country Dances by Cecil Sharpe are dances that
everyone can do and enjoy.


Horseback Riding

The joy of horseback riding does not find its way into every camp,
mainly because of the expense and responsibility entailed, but if it
does there are many facts to know and master in horsemanship. For
instance, one should know how to take care of a horse, which means
feeding, watering, saddling, grooming, shoeing, tying and general care
necessary under different conditions.

The requirements for riding are to know:

          1. How to mount and dismount correctly

          2. To be able to demonstrate riding at a walk,
          trot or gallop

          3. To be able to jump a low hurdle

The requirements for driving are:

          1. To learn how to harness correctly in a single
          and double harness; and

          2. How to manage a horse on the road


2. CRAFTS AND OCCUPATIONS

But sports are not the only side to the camper's program. Another very
large and absorbing part is the Crafts, inclusive of Handcrafts,
Woodcraft, Campcraft, and the distinct Scout occupations, such as First
Aid, Home Nursing, Gardening, Signalling, and Homemaking, treated in the
Girl Scout Handbook.


Handcrafts

The handcrafts are more numerous than your fingers and can be defined as
anything that is done with the hands. It is possible to have almost any
branch of the Fine Arts and the Applied Arts as dyeing, batik,
stenciling, woodblock printing, pottery. Then there is basketry,
weaving, rug-making, leather work, and metal work in copper, or jewelry
in silver, woodcarving and carpentry. The first problem is: "Who will
teach it?" The choice of what handcrafts you will have then, depends
somewhat on whom you can secure to present them properly.

But closely allied is your second problem, "What can we afford?"
Jewelry, metal work and leather are the most expensive. Pottery is
fascinating, but you must have a kiln to finish the product.

Try to choose the crafts which will suit the capacities. It is better
not to attempt jewelry at the outset.

Relating your craft work to the camp makes it doubly interesting. So
much can be done in this way with carpentry which produces anything from
docks and canoe paddles to furniture and toothbrush holders.

Delightful problems in the interior decoration of a camp living room can
be worked out by combining the efforts of all the craft workers. The
carpenters build the furniture; the weavers make rugs and materials;
the dyers dip the materials and carry out the color scheme and other
workers supply the accessories.

It is well to have an exhibition to look forward to for the end of the
season when appointed judges decide upon the merit of the work.


Woodcraft

          _Night is a dead monotonous period under a roof;
          but in the open world it passes lightly with its
          stars and dews and perfumes, and the hours are
          marked by changes in the face of Nature. What
          seems a kind of death to people choked between
          walls and curtains, is only a light and living
          slumber to the man who sleeps a-field. All night
          long he can hear Nature breathing deeply and
          freely; even as she takes her rest, she turns and
          smiles; and there is one stirring hour unknown to
          those who dwell in houses, when a wakeful
          influence goes abroad over the sleeping
          hemisphere, and all the outdoor world are on their
          feet. It is then that the cock first crows, not
          this time to announce the dawn, but like a
          cheerful watchman speeding the course of night.
          Cattle awake on the meadows; sheep break their
          fast on dewy hillsides, and change to a new lair
          among the ferns; and houseless men, who have lain
          down with the fowls, open their dim eyes and
          behold the beauty of the night._

          _At what inaudible summons, at what gentle touch
          of Nature, are all these sleepers thus recalled in
          the the same hour to life? Do the stars rain down
          an influence, or do we share some thrill of mother
          earth below our resting bodies?... Towards two in
          the morning ... the thing takes place._

                            _Robert Louis Stevenson_
                              _From "Travels With a Donkey."_

Woodcraft in the beginning was the first science of man. As applied to
camping we most frequently think of it as anything which pertains to the
woods or forests and as a turning away from the more artificial side of
camping, and as in pioneer times learning to do everything ourselves,
which is after all the keynote of real joy in camping.

[Illustration: THE LEAN-TO GOING UP]

To acquaint ourselves with the woods we can begin with our immediate
surroundings. Short walks to search for flowers or ferns and to know the
different varieties of trees, or early morning trips to a bit of swamp
land where we can study the coloring and habits of birds or sit quietly
while patiently listening to distinguish them by their songs.

We can lie out on the grass when the stars have come out, and study the
heavens or take trips at night with an experienced woodsman, who perhaps
shows us that Nature by night is very often different from Nature by
day, or of how we can find a trail through a dense wood by the light of
a star--the North Star.

Woodcraft includes what we may merely for convenience classify as
campcraft, which is to know all there is to know about camping in the
open.

For most purposes a good knowledge of how to make out-door fires; (both
from the standpoint of heat and the kind of food to be cooked) cooking;
trailing; and how to make and break a camp, are sufficient.

Beginners in this lore would do well to get a thorough knowledge of
campcraft by going about it one step at a time. For instance, it is
advisable to confine oneself to short trips at first and learn about the
sensing of directions, trail cutting and blazing, cooking, pitching
tents or building lean-tos; thus taking the various branches which are
preparatory to the actual experience and real adventure of a camping-out
party, and it is then and there that our real knowledge is tested.

The topics to be considered either when learning about campcraft or when
actually doing it, are briefly:

  1. _Trip Planning_
      Use of maps
      Provisions
      Clothing
      Railroad connections

  2. _Trail Making_
      Survey for trail
      Blazing trail
      Cutting a trail

  3. _Selection of Camp Site_
      Location as to supply of fuel, water and fairly high,
          well-drained land.
      Shelters, tents or lean-tos
      Bed-making

[Illustration: The complete lean-to, showing fire place, wood pile and
table to right. Cache is in back.]

  4. _Camp Discipline_
      Working squad
      Toilet facilities
      Exploration parties

The basis for quite a comprehensive knowledge of woodcraft in all its
branches, camping and Nature Study, is to be found in the Girl Scout
Handbook, "Scouting for Girls."


3. ENTERTAINMENTS AND DIVERSIONS

Entertainments or shows of which there are an overwhelming variety are a
great aid in keeping everyone in a cheerful frame of mind.

In the dramatic line we have the play, pantomime, vaudeville, minstrel,
"take offs," charades, the circus and dramatization of stories.

With musical talent in a camp it adds much zest to form an orchestra and
then there is the possibility of musical evenings and concerts. Added to
these are the Stunt Parties, Dances and Masquerades, Marshmallow and
Corn Roasts, and if it is a seashore camp, the clam bake.

The play requires an amount of preparation and time not always to be
spared in a camp unless the season is long. The most enjoyable shows are
bound to be the more spontaneous expressions in the form of impromptu
affairs.

There are celebrations which take place on particular days such as the
Fourth of July or any other event which you wish to commemorate, just as
the pageant can be presented to display your camping or community
activities.

One of the finest things to cultivate if you are in close proximity to
other camps is an inter-camp relationship, either in the forms of
inter-camp contests or frolics, or any demonstration which you think
betokens friendship. This may even go so far as the building of
inter-camp shacks and the making of inter-camp trails.

It is not only illuminating to come into contact with another camp
besides your own--it is a source of great diversion and enjoyment, if
there is plenty of fun and friendship, and an absence of group jealousy.


4. CAMP SINGS

Singing is a great and important part of camp life, for it reflects
every phase and meets all the situations of that life.

Songs are generally composed by the individual or by groups, being the
expression of their feelings, or results of their experience in camp.
The songs are quickly adopted by the camp as a whole because people like
to sing their own songs, especially songs about fresh, actual
happenings.

Some of the songs which reflect universal experience live on through the
years and become traditional, while others drop out and are never heard
of again. The following are Girl Scout Songs that have weathered more or
less satisfactorily.


THE VICTORY GIRLS

(_Tune_: "K-K-Katy")

          G-G-G-Girl Scouts!
          You Victory Girl Scouts!
          You're the only Victory Girls that get our votes.
          And when you march by,
          Under your troop flags,
          We'll be cheering for your K-K-K-Khaki coats!


MARCHING SONG

(_Tune_: "Where Do We Go from Here, Boys?")

    Where do we go from here, girls, where do we go from here?
    Anywhere (our Captain[B]) leads we'll follow, never fear.
    The world is full of dandy girls, but wait till we appear--Then!
    Girl Scouts, Girl Scouts, give us a hearty cheer!

[B] Supply Captain's name.


WE'RE COMING!

(_Tune_: "Old Black Joe")

Camping Song

I.

    Come where the lake lies gleaming in the sun,
    Come where the days are filled with work and fun,
    Come where the moon hangs out her evening lamp,
    The Scouts are trooping, trooping, trooping, back to Camp.

    CHORUS:

    We're coming! We're coming! to the lakes, the hills, the sea.
    Old Mother Nature calls her children--you and me!

    II.

    Come where we learn the wisdom of the wood,
    Come where we prove that simple things are good,
    Come where we pledge allegiance to our land,
    America! you've called your daughters--here we stand.

    CHORUS:

    We're coming! We're coming, till we spread from sea to sea,
    Our country needs us--wants us--calls us--you and me!


RALLY SONG

(_Tune_: "Smiles")

          There are girls that make you gloomy,
            There are girls that make you gay,
          There are girls forever hanging backward,
            There are girls who like to lead the way,
          But that girl that's always at "attention!"
            That her Country cannot do without,
          That we know the world can always count on--
            She is my girl--the good Girl Scout.


THE LONG, LONG LINE

(_Tune_: "The Long, Long Trail")

Recruiting Song

    Do you feel a little lonely?
    Are your friends too few?
    Would you like to join some jolly girls
    In the things you think and do?
    Don't you know your Country's waiting?
    Have you heard her call?
    See, the Scouts are crowding, crowding in,
    Where there's room for one and all!

    CHORUS:

    There's a long, long line a-growing,
    From north to south, east to west,
    There's a place a-waiting in it, too, that you'll fill best!
    We are sure you'd like to join us
    If you knew what we can do,
    And we'd like, O how we'd like, to make a good Girl Scout of you!


CLIMB ALONG!

(_Tune_: "Joan of Arc")

_Golden Eaglet Song_

  Some girls are working, some girls are shirking,
  Some girls are too scared to try,
  Pluck up your grit, girls, use all your wit, girls,
  See where the Gold Eaglets fly!
  Watch them up above there, circling in the blue,
  Earn them--and they'll fly to you!

  CHORUS:

  Climb along! Climb along! with a cheer and a smile and a song!
  Though it seems an awful lot to do,
  Other Scouts made good--and so can you!
  Climb along! Climb along! and you'll surely put it through.
  Then lead your troop to Victory--for the Eaglets are calling you!


TENDERFOOT SONG

(_Tune_: "When You Come Back")

          When I'm a Scout--and I _am_ a Scout,
          I'll make the other girls jump and look out!
          And as I get on, I surely will pass
          Like a bright lass to the Scout's Second Class.
          And when I've a First Class up on my sleeve,
          Oh, it's the proud girl I shall be! (Hurrah!)
          When I'm a Scout--and I _am_ a Scout,
          There's a big job waiting for me!


ORGANIZING SONG

(_Tune_: "A Hot Time in the Old Town")

    Come along, girls, get ready, let us form our patrol,
    Let us choose a dandy Captain who will make the Scouts enroll,
    All around us they are joining, and we can't be left behind,
    Get your friends all together--see how many you can find!

[Illustration: THE BUILDERS. House built entirely by Girl Scouts]

          CHORUS:

          See, oh, see, the Scouts are coming in!
          Once they join, they stick through thick and thin,
          And when they play the game, they're pretty sure to win--
          There'll be a Scout troop in our town this year!


WINTER SONG

(_Tune_: "Keep the Home Fires Burning")

          Keep the Scout work going,
          While the year is growing,
          Winter's cold and dready, but 'twill soon pass by!
          We can all remember
          Through the long December
          Camps and hikes and swims and sports in the warm July!


HIKING SONG

(_Tune_: "Pack Up Your Troubles in Your Old Kit Bag")

          Pack up your dinner in your brown knapsack,
          And hike, hike, hike!
          Take all you need upon your own strong back,
          Wander where you like.
          Leave the roads to motor cars,
          The side walks to the bike--_but_
          Pack up your dinner in your brown knapsack,
          And hike, hike, hike!


SCOUT MARCHING SONG

(_Tune_: "Marching Through Georgia")

I.

  Everywhere you go to-day, you'll find a little Scout,
  Work or play, they lead the way, there can't be any doubt,
  When their Country calls on them, they answer with a shout,
  Rah, rah, rah, for the Girl Scouts!

  CHORUS:

  Hurrah, Hurrah, the Scouts are on their way!
  Hurrah, Hurrah, we're surely here to stay!
  Comrades all around the world, we're growing every day,
  Rah, rah, rah, for the Girl Scouts!

  II.

  Nothing is too big or small for any Scout to do,
  Call them if you need their help, and they will see you through,
  Here's their motto--Be Prepared!--they mean it, yes, they do!
  Rah, rah, rah, for the Girl Scouts!


GIRL SCOUT LULLABYE

          When evening comes and darkness softly falls,
          Girl Scouts their rest around the camp fire seek
          And each to herself her laws recalls.
          Her truth, her honor, purity, obedience and loyalty
          While softly, the moonbeams and stars twinkle brightly,
          God's witnesses on high,
          While the bugle sounds its soft good-night.

       *       *       *       *       *

(_Tune_: "Carry'n On," from "The Better 'Ole")

          The Girl Scouts are coming, their drums and their fifes
          Sound echoes of gladness from joyous young lives.
          See each is prepared to do her good deed,
          To God and her country and all those in need.
          Her knots and her signalling, first aid and drill,
          Show regular practice--say, ain't that some skill?

          CHORUS:

          My word, ain't they carry'n on
          It's just great to think upon
          Now Scouting's just the thing,
          So let your joy bells ring
          Because the Girl Scouts all are carrying on,
          It's simply great, how they're carrying on.


ON THE TRAIL

The Girl Scouts' Marching Song


I.

  Oh! this is the song we sing, as the gay Girl Scouts go marching,
  Away on the trail we swing, with heaven over-arching,
  As up, up, up the hill we climb, and down, down, down again,
  Our hearts are happy all the time, and we step to the gay refrain,
  Marching on! Marching on! Marching on through rain or sunshine!

  CHORUS:

  Sing ho! for the way, and hurrah! for the day,
  As we march along together,
  Then naught are the hills, or the miles or the ills,
  When the Girl Scouts take the trail.
  Sing ho! for the way, and hurrah! for the day,
  As we march along together!
  Then naught are the hills, or the miles or the ills
  When the Girl Scouts take the trail.


II.

  The sun is a comrade old, with a warm and hearty blessing,
  The wind, with his fingers cold, will tease in rough caressing,
  The friendly trees make shadow sweet, on roads that wind and wind,
  The grass is tender to our feet, and even the rain is kind.

      _Words by Abbie Farwell Brown_
                        _Music by Mabel W. Daniels_
      _Copies to be had from National Headquarters_

[Illustration: NEARLY FINISHED]


SONGS FROM IV ENCAMPMENT OF 1ST G. S. T. S.

(_Tune_: "Mr. Zip Zip")

COMPANY A

          Good morning, Caterpillar dear,
          Hanging down to kiss us every day;
          Good morning, Caterpillar dear,
          You're never far away.
          You're with us at breakfast and dinner, too;
          At rest your numbers are not a few.
          Good morning, Caterpillar dear,
          For the beetles soon will get you,
          The beetles soon will get you,
          The beetles soon will get you
                                     Here!!!

COMPANY B

          Good morning! Keep your posture straight,
          With your spine just as long as mine;
          Good morning! Take your exercise,
          With all your bones in a line;
          Skull and thorax and pelvis, too,
          Keep a plumb line, that's what you do.
          Good morning! Keep your posture straight,
          With your spine just as long as--
          Your spine just as long as--
          Your spine just as long as--
                                     Mine.

COMPANY C

          Good morning! When inspection comes,
          Have your tent look just as neat as mine;
          Good morning! When inspection comes,
          Have your handles in a line;
          Hide your tooth brush and paper, too,
          Or they'll mark you down--
          That's what they'll do.
          Good morning! When inspection comes,
          Have your pockets buttoned tight as--
          Your tent flaps just as right as--
          Your face and hands as white as--
                                     Mine.

INSTRUCTORS

          Good morning! G. S. T. S. girls,
          With your brains all in a whirl;
          Good morning! When the bugle sounds
          Each to her chase and twirl!
          To drill and dancing and fire galore,
          Swimming and posture and semaphore--
          Good morning at the G. S. Camp,
          Where you work upon your lean-to
          Longer than you mean to,
          Where they keep you on the tramp, tramp, tramp.

OFFICERS

          Good morning! Did you sleep last night,
          When the officers had passed your tents?
          Good morning! Don't you think they might
          Show a little more common sense?
          They say good-night when we're fast asleep,
          As into our cots they coyly peep;
          Good morning! Did you sleep last night,
          When the officers had passed your--
          The officers had passed your--
          The officers had passed your--
                                     tents?

       *       *       *       *       *

(_Tune_: "How You Goin' to Keep Them Down on the Farm?")

  How're you going to keep us happy at home,
  After we've been at Camp?
  How're you going to keep us inside the house,
  After we've slept in the dew and the damp?
  How will we remember, when we eat,
  Not to wipe out plates?
  Imagine having everything so neat.
  Keeping _shoes_, _soap_, _brush_, _bags_, _pins_, _towels_,
  Under blanket and sheet.
  How're we going to live in a civilized town,
  After we've been to Camp?

[Illustration: "BE PREPARED." The Signalling Class]


5. ACHIEVEMENTS

Whether you receive prizes or honors, points or merit badges for the
attainment of a definite achievement in your camp work, it is more
systematic to keep some sort of record of each individual's progress and
accomplishment.

A very simple way is a book record, but a far more interesting and
successful method is to make a chart placing it on a conspicuous wall
space where all may study it. On the chart will be found the names of
all the campers together, with the names of all the activities. In a
space under these activity headings and opposite the girl's name, a
space will be reserved for recording her points.

Take for example a proposed section of a chart such as the accompanying
one.

For every girl who has received a point on such a chart it means that
she has satisfactorily complied with the standards imposed. For example,
in Nature Study we may say that Scout Jane identified perfectly 20
flowers and 15 birds.

[Illustration:

  |-------------------------------------------------------------------|
  |CAMP CALMACO                        CHART RECORD                   |
  |                                    - for 1920 -                   |
  |---------|---------------------------------------------------------|
  |         |                         Qualified As
  |  NAMES  |-----------|-----|-----|------|---------|-------|--------|
  |         |Second     |Child|First|Health|Signaller|Swimmer|Gardener|
  |         |Class Scout|Nurse| Aide|Winner|     2   |       |        |
  |---------|-----------|-----|-----|------|---------|-------|--------|
  |M. Bishop|    *      |  *  |     |  *   |         |       |        |
  |---------|-----------|-----|-----|------|---------|-------|--------|
  |J. Deeter|    *      |     |  *  |      |    *    |   *   |        |
  |---------|-----------|-----|-----|------|---------|-------|--------|
  |B. Dean  |    *      |     |     |  *   |         |       |        |
  |---------|-----------|-----|-----|------|---------|-------|--------|

  |---------|-----------------------------------------------|
  |         |               Qualified As                    |
  |  NAMES  |--------|---------|---------|-----|-------|----|
  |         |Botanist|Zoologist|Map Maker|Dance|Athlete|    |
  |         |        |         |         |     |       |    |
  |---------|--------|---------|---------|-----|-------|----|
  |M. Bishop|        |         |   *     |  *  |       |    |
  |---------|--------|---------|---------|-----|-------|----|
  |J. Deeter|        |         |         |     |       |    |
  |---------|--------|---------|---------|-----|-------|----|
  |B. Dean  |        |   *     |         |     |   *   |    |
  |---------|--------|---------|---------|-----|-------|----|

I. Section of a Chart for recording achievements of Scouts. In a large
camp, a permanent backer with headings can be made, and strips for each
Scout pinned on and removed when she leaves camp.]

Girl Scouts would work out such a chart in relation to and on the basis
of the winning of merit badges in the fifty-seven-odd Scout subjects.

Recording is not the only means of recognition given to a girl who has
made a definite achievement along some given line. But awards and honors
are often given at the end of the season in many camps. However, only
the merit badges will be discussed here, as this is primarily a Manual
for Girl Scout camps.

It is to be remembered that the chart does not record everything about a
girl. When reviewing the chart or record book before deciding who
deserves the final honors, or merit badges, there are other things to be
taken into account, for instance, the effort and the progress or
improvement and the kind of spirit that went with the material
achievement.



X

HIKES

          _Now away we go toward the topmost mountains. Many
          still, small voices, as well as the noon thunder,
          are calling, "Come higher!"_
                                              --_John Muir_


Daytime

The daytime hike gives the camper an opportunity to see something of the
surrounding country, and to have the experience of following paths and
trails, of climbing and coming into touch with the deep woods, and all
of their beauties. Also the necessary routine and rules of an organized
camp would prove unbearable to the all-summer hiker if she did not get
away from them once in a while. The very purpose of the camp would be
thwarted. All children are not so constituted or trained that they can
go off and sleep in the woods even for one night, but they should be
encouraged to take hikes varying in length from five to twenty miles
according to the child's ability to endure.

The daytime hikers should leave camp by ten o'clock, each one properly
shod and clothed and for convenience carrying her own luncheon either in
a knapsack or in a little, well-wrapped parcel. She should have her
individual drinking cup, and if the hike is to include a swim in some
far-off lake, a bathing suit and bath towel should be taken. There
should be an objective for these daytime hikes and the paths and roads
should be well known by some member of the party. Two hours is none too
long a time for the noon rest and luncheon and the return trip should be
planned to bring the campers into camp before supper. It is never wise
to start out with a group of girls who cannot keep about the same pace.
Nothing is more fatiguing than exerting oneself to keep up to a pace or
on the other hand to slacken one's pace for the accommodation of the
lagger. There should always be one person in charge of the entire group
and she should have as many assistants as the size of the group
requires. One counsellor to every ten girls is none too many for a
daytime hike. Under no circumstances, even though there were but six
girls, should one counsellor assume the entire responsibility for a
week-end or overnight hike. There should always be at least two older
people. The great opportunity for studying Nature should be taken
advantage of and if possible a nature study teacher should accompany the
girls. All hikers on return to camp should be examined, and any
blisters, bruises, cuts or strains should be reported and properly
attended to. There have been cases where from neglect, a blister on the
foot has become infected, causing serious trouble.

Girl Scouts when hiking along highways should walk in single file on the
left hand side of the way, thus giving them an opportunity to see
approaching vehicles.

There are many interesting signs that can be made by Scouts when hiking,
to mark the trail or note conditions observed. These signs and their
uses are given in the Girl Scout Handbook and should be learned and put
into practice. The use of them develops the powers of observation and
makes for alertness.


Week-End Hike

No child should be permitted to start out on a week-end hike unless her
physical condition is such as to withstand any unexpected weather
conditions which might arise or prolonged exposure in the open. Also she
should be properly clothed; preferably in thin woolen clothes, wearing
as little as possible, yet being comfortable. Her shoes should be stout,
low-heeled and round-toed. She should take with her a sweater, extra
underwear, stockings, nightclothes, toilet articles, and blankets.

Only sufficient food should be taken to last during the time planned
for. This food should be packed in small bags, preferably waterproof.
Two and a quarter pounds for one day's rations is sufficient. Cereal in
some form, many prefer flour in order to make bread, a fat--such as
bacon or butter--rice, for bulk, something to drink, cocoa or tea, a
sweet, preferably chocolate, a small amount of sugar and raisins are
suggested. Eggs can be added to the above; also salt, baking powder,
evaporated milk and dried egg.

Never start for a week-end hike late in the afternoon. Plan to make camp
not later in the day than five o'clock. At once build the campfire and
start to prepare the supper. Select suitable places on the ground for
sleeping. Make sure that the ground is dry, and if possible spread a
poncho under the blankets. A hole dug so that the body will fit into it
and touch the ground at every point makes sleeping more comfortable.
Keep the campfire burning all night, different members of the party, two
at a time, being on guard. Do not have the fire too large. One of the
signs of a tenderfoot woodsman is a big fire for cooking or the night
watch. Not only are they dangerous, but when using them for cooking the
cook as well as the food is apt to be burned. Before building the fire,
scrape all leaves and dried grass from the ground, leaving a foundation
of bare earth. Make sure that every vestige of fire is out upon breaking
camp. Also that no evidences of a camp save the matted grass are left
behind.

In carrying a pack, place the load high on the back and move the body
forward to keep the center of gravity.


Overnight Hike

          _... And when the airs is warming, it's then
          yourself and me should be pacing ... in the dews
          of night, the times sweet smells do be rising, and
          you'd see a little shiny new moon, may be, sinking
          on the hills._
                                            --_J. M. Synge_

The overnight hike is more of a lark than the week-end hike. Its
principal features are sleeping in the open and cooking one's food in
the most primitive manner. The same requirements as for week-end hikes
should obtain as to the number of counsellors and the child's physical
condition. Also she should be properly clothed for the trip as to shoes,
stockings, underclothes, and so forth. The necessary equipment for an
overnight hike such as nightclothes, toilet articles, etc., can be
neatly laid in a blanket and the blanket rolled from end to end. It
should be tied in the center, about four inches from either end and
between the ends and the center with a stout string. Bring the ends
together side by side and tie tightly. Throw the blanket over the head,
the ends under one arm, the center of the blanket on the opposite
shoulder.

The hiker can take more food than is strictly necessary, for as a
general thing she walks only a short distance and can thus carry a quite
heavy pack. The trip should be so planned that the hikers reach their
destination by five o'clock in the afternoon. The following day can be
spent in exploring the surrounding country, finding as many points of
interest as possible, studying the trees, the flowers, the birds, and
following up any trails, paths or streams which look interesting. The
day should be so planned that the return to the main camp will be
accomplished in the late afternoon or early evening.

[Illustration: FIRST AIDES. Several Kinds of Bandages]


Camp Fires

There are various kinds of camp fires that can be made and experimented
with while off on a hike. The log cabin fire, in which two sticks are
laid parallel to each other about nine inches apart, two more laid in
the opposite direction on top of the ends of the first two sticks, the
square made about three sticks high. In the center of this is laid a
small fire of dried leaves and small dried twigs. When the fire is well
started larger twigs should be slowly added until there is a bed of
coals on which can be put short sticks of wood. The cooking utensils can
be stood on the log cabin foundation if it has been made of wood
sufficiently large to withstand the heat of the fire, or they can stand
on a grating placed over the fire. Never cook over a blaze. Wait until
there is a bed of coals.

Another way of building a campfire is to select two large green logs;
place them near together at one end, the other ends 18 inches or more
apart and facing the wind. Build the fire in between the logs. Smooth
off the top of the logs with an axe to form a support for the cooking
utensils.

Where large stones are available make a fireplace by putting two stones
about ten or twelve inches apart at right angles to a large back stone,
or place three stones to form a hollow square, building the fire in the
center. Cooking utensils can be stood on a stone placed over the top of
the fireplace or on a grating placed across the top, or rested on two
iron bars laid on top of the fireplace.

Another fire can be built by placing three medium sized sticks in the
shape of an Indian tepee or wigwam. The sticks must be of about the same
size and placed so carefully that they will not fall into the fire which
is built underneath them. When the dried leaves and twigs have started
to burn well, add a little wood of a larger size, thus gradually
building up the fire. Over the fire three larger sticks can be
placed--those which are three or four feet in length--brought to a
point, fastened with rope and a kettle hung over the fire from the
center.

One of the best woods to use is scrub oak which is distributed quite
widely over the United States. It burns slowly and gives out an even
heat.

Another fire, especially useful in the case of high wind, is built in a
trench, one end of which is deeper than the other, also wider. Start the
fire with dried leaves, twigs, etc., gradually adding larger wood,
finally using logs placed lengthwise in the trench. This type can be
used very effectively for burning garbage, particularly if the garbage
is placed in the trench and the fire built on top of it.

[Illustration: TO "KEEP THE HOME FIRES BURNING," KEEP THE WOOD PILE
HIGH]

Another type of fire which can be used for warmth even better than for
cooking is built in front of three large logs placed one on top of
another in slightly slanting formation. The logs serve to reflect the
heat.

A few suggestions may be helpful to the young camper. Before lighting
your fire have at hand all of the necessary material, dried leaves, tiny
dry twigs, twigs of a larger size, small sticks, and finally your heavy
fuel. Do not smother the fire by starting with too much material and do
not put it out by putting on too much wood at one time. The object is to
have a bed of hot coals over which you can do the necessary cooking
without either smoking the cooking utensils, burning the food, or
burning oneself, or being choked with smoke.

There are various cooking utensils and appliances made especially for
campers which are both interesting to use and most serviceable. One is
the grate with folding legs which can be stuck into the ground, the
grate placed over the fire. Another is the reflector oven made of tin
with a shelf holding a pan, the whole to be set in front of the fire,
and can be used for baking bread, apple cake, etc.

The greatest test for the camper is the building of a fire in rainy
weather when leaves and twigs and wood are far from dry. It can be done
and the greatest joy derived in the doing. Choose an old log which is
not water-soaked. Split it with an axe; split one-half of it again. With
a sharp knife make a little pile of shavings whittled from the heart of
the log. Put them in the center of the log cabin formation. Light them
from underneath (which is the way all fires should be lighted), and coax
the blaze by adding dry shavings as required until there is sufficient
blaze to light the small wood which has been collected. This fire takes
patience and perseverance.

It is sometimes possible in very wet weather to pick up small wood that
has been protected from the rain; also to break off the dead wood of
trees or the small twigs on the ends of the limbs to start a fire.

Under no circumstances should a camper use artificial tinder of any
kind. No paper, excelsior or oil should be used in building a campfire,
and a Scout should need only one match.

Always build a fire where the wind will blow the smoke away from the
camp, and never fail to build it on the bare ground where there will be
no possibility of its creeping through the grass or underbrush into the
woods.

After a meal when necessary to burn garbage, do not throw a quantity
right on top of the fire to smoulder and cause a disagreeable odor.
Rather sprinkle it around the edges that it may dry before being
shoveled onto the coals. When necessary to burn papers, be careful that
a burning paper does not blow into nearby brush or woods.

The questions of fires and provisions for hiking are treated at length
in the Girl Scout Handbook.


A Deschutes River Fishing Trip in the Deep Forests of the Cascade Range
North Western Washington

          _We are now in the mountains and they are in us,
          kindling enthusiasm, making every nerve quiver,
          filling every pore and cell of us. Our
          flesh-and-bone tabernacle teems transparent as
          glass to the beauty about us, as if truly an
          inseparable part of it, thrilling with the air and
          trees, streams and rocks, in the waves of the
          sun--a part of all nature, neither old nor young,
          sick nor well, but immortal._
                                              --_John Muir_

          There were ten of us--our chaperones, a man and
          his wife; a good all-round camp man, capable of
          instructing in camp life, fishing and wood
          knowledge of all kinds; our Captain and four Girl
          Scouts.

          We left Tacoma at seven A. M. by automobile,
          driving three hours to the foot of Huckleberry
          Mountain from which point we were to hike to camp.
          Here we were met by a native of the parts who was
          to carry a pack, as we had not enough men to
          manage supplies. Pack ponies are out of the
          question, for the trail leads for six miles over
          fallen trees and through dense growth. After half
          an hour, our packs and bed rolls adjusted, we
          started off at a good even pace for the river.

          For one mile hiking was comparatively easy. Then
          we had to cross the river over a fallen tree. The
          girls could not do this and carry their packs, so
          the men made several trips after which we all
          crossed. The time taken in crossing the river was
          equivalent to, a good rest, so as soon as the last
          member of our party was over, we readjusted our
          packs and started on our way.

          The trail now led through a dense fir forest with
          its scattering spruce and hemlock. For a mile it
          led along the high bank of the Deschutes River
          where we could look far down into myriads of
          jade-colored pools; then for a mile into the very
          heart of the woods among masses of glassy,
          dark-green ferns, and clumps of feathery, tossing
          maiden-hair; through Oregon grape, bright arsenic
          green and brilliant red. Here and there we came to
          a fairy-like dell, carpeted with red and green
          moss, starred with hundreds of flat five-petalled
          white blossoms. At the far corner of this nook,
          more unprotected where the sun shone, was a clump
          of the blue and white butterfly blossoms of the
          Mountain Lupine. In one of these dells we stopped
          for our luncheon. It was just past that silent
          hour of the woods and we could hear twigs snapping
          under the feet of moving animals. Birds were
          singing and it was the one time of day when there
          is a perfume in the dense woods such as we were
          in; a drugged perfume of sweet clover, the
          flowered mosses and scattered Lupine. Before
          leaving we each ate an orange we had been told to
          bring, as mountain water taken on a hike winds one
          too quickly. During the hike we could chew dried
          prunes at any time, but absolutely no water could
          we have until we reached camp.

          The trail then led back to the river bank and
          along it over fallen logs and among trees deeply
          laden with hanging silver grey moss. This lasted
          for two miles, until the river split, forming a
          small island easily reached by stepping stones,
          where camp was made.

          The very first thing done was to teach the girls
          how to make beds, which we did, while the men cut
          hemlock boughs; our extra man remaining long
          enough for that. The second thing was to pick out
          places for our beds and as soon as there were
          enough boughs we placed our bags, already made,
          upon them. The men then gathered enough wood for
          that night and the following morning. Pitch
          torches were made and stacked where we could get
          them. While they were busy with this heavy work
          that had to be accomplished before night the girls
          gathered rocks for the oven, and dug a hole for
          the cache. This hole was lined with one of the
          small tarpaulins, all food placed in it, tarpaulin
          drawn over, and slabs of bark then placed over the
          hole. This protected food, both from weather and
          animals. A shelf was made on the side of one of
          the trees on which the baking powder tins were
          placed with salt, sugar, part of flour, such
          things as coffee, jam, milk, etc., that were
          already in tins were also kept on this shelf.

[Illustration: AROUND THE CAMPFIRE]

          This work was completed by five-thirty, the cook
          oven constructed and second fire made around
          which the beds were placed. Dinner over, we turned
          in early, being exhausted, in spite of the good
          condition we were all supposed to be in for the
          trip. We slept in our clothes with cap and bed
          socks for extra warmth and comfort. The two men
          did not sit up all night, but took turns keeping
          up the fire as it needed attention. The only
          animals are deer and cougar, the former harmless,
          while the latter seldom come near camp except when
          it is deserted. They cause little trouble in the
          woods, as we never go alone, but always in
          couples. They will track a single person, but
          _never_ two.

          Morning routine commenced with a dip in the river
          and change of clothes. As we wear our breeches
          when out fishing and our skirts in camp, no extra
          heavy wearing apparel need be carried. Immediately
          after breakfast the beds are always taken apart,
          blankets folded and placed on second small
          tarpaulin in lean-to which had been constructed
          from large slabs of bark against a tree. This
          lean-to kept bedding protected from the atmosphere
          and animals, as well as serving a second purpose
          of camp orderliness and neatness. A second lean-to
          was made for wood, bark and pitch torches. The
          first morning it was necessary to complete camp
          construction before the fun commenced. Shelves
          were made on the river bank for toilet articles,
          nails placed for towels, etc., and saplings formed
          as a screen for fear of a chance fisherman or game
          protector passing by. On the other side of the
          island a place was made for washing dishes.

          Camp made, we were free to go fishing. So taking a
          can of unsalted salmon eggs in our pockets, our
          rods, and a v-shaped twig to carry our fish on, we
          were off until lunch.

          We all assist in making and cleaning up after this
          meal. Then an hour of rest is followed by fishing,
          learning woodcraft methods of various kinds, or
          anything that we may choose to do. Dinner was
          prepared while there was still daylight, and then
          the best part of camp life began--telling stories
          around the fire, studying the stars and singing to
          the accompaniment of mandolin and ukulele, always
          carried on a trip of this kind.

          The large tarpaulins brought are for emergency
          only, in case of a thunderstorm. Such occurring we
          gather all our beds together into one row and the
          tarpaulin is placed over them, under which we lie
          until the storm is over. By crawling out carefully
          we can gather up tarpaulin and shake it out away
          from our bedding and thus we can keep dry without
          the shelter of cabin, tent or lean-to.

          This is a general routine of a short roughing trip
          in the deep mountain forests of North Western
          Washington.

          The only addition necessary for the ordinary Girl
          Scout equipment for a week-end hike is fishing
          rods and tackle.

[Illustration: GIRL SCOUT "HAYSEEDS" AND THE STACK THEY MADE]



XI.

CAMP HEALTH AND CAMP SAFETY

          _Ye, use ... this medicine
           Every day this May or thou dine,
           Go looke upon the fresh daisie
           And though thou be for wo in point to die,
           That shall full greatly lessen thee of thy pine._
                                        --_Chaucer_


1. CAMP SANITATION

Too great stress cannot be laid upon the question of sanitation. Make
the camp safe if you would have a healthful, happy camp, and keep it
orderly if you would keep it safe. The time to make the camp safe is
before and during the process of building and prior to each camp season
if an old camp is used. Certain known things are fore-runners of trouble
and should be avoided or safeguarded against from the start. Among these
are low, damp ground, impure water, an insufficient supply of water,
unsafe bathing conditions, such as deep water only, a very swift
current, undertow, shallow water and a quick drop, holes, and so forth;
proximity to pest breeding places such as pools of stagnant water,
marshes where mosquitoes breed, uncared-for out houses, barns, and
dumps; inadequate latrine facilities, and so forth.

The keeping of the camp safe is a daily matter which includes the
disposal of all waste, the cleaning of the camp grounds and all
buildings, the inspection of the water supply, provisions, equipment,
the latter in a general way, the guarding against pests of any kind and
the personal health of the campers.


Disposition of Trash

Every morning all trash should be collected and properly disposed of.
Burning is the only method unless arrangements have been made to have
all dry waste carted away. For burning light trash use a small
incinerator two feet high and eighteen inches in diameter, made of iron,
and with a cover circular in shape and perforated closely with holes
half an inch in diameter. When in use the incinerator should stand in an
open place away from all tents and buildings. The heavier trash, such as
old shoes, paste-board boxes, discarded clothing, should be burned in a
heap away from all buildings, care being taken that no bits of hot paper
cause grass fires, or blow into the woods.

[Illustration: "OVER THE TOP"]

Wooden boxes in which provisions are shipped can be split up for
kindling wood, or if the boxes are large and well made, kept for packing
equipment for storage. Some of the well-made boxes are very serviceable
to use as seats, and one could be placed in the kitchen to hold wood.
Butter tubs, if washed and dried, can be used to hold vegetables or
other provisions. Barrels should never be thrown away if in good
condition. They are invaluable when packing dishes or kitchen ware and
during the summer will hold sacks of provisions such as cereal, rice,
hominy, beans, and so forth.

All tin cans should be rinsed out as soon as emptied, burned on the
trash heap and when cold thrown into a covered pit, or into covered
barrels to be carted away at the end of the season.


Garbage

There are three ways of disposing of garbage when in camp. Burn it, bury
it, give it away. Sometimes all three ways are necessary in one camp. If
the group is small and there is little garbage it can be thrown around
the edge of a hot fire and when dried out, raked onto the hot coals.

In larger camps a portable incinerator can be used. One form has a basin
over the fire pot, into which garbage is placed to be dried out and then
turned into the fire.

In camps of 100 or more people where burning is difficult, pits for
burying garbage have been found satisfactory if properly cared for and
dug not near the camp buildings or source of water supply. They should
be deep, oblong in shape, and the earth should be thrown up at one side
to be used in covering the garbage as soon as it is thrown into the pit.

In a camp where there is no plumbing, liquid waste as well as garbage,
can be disposed of in the following way. Dig a trench four feet long,
two feet deep and thirty inches wide at one end; eight inches wide and
level with the ground at the other end; line with stone, or if this is
impossible, use tin, sheet iron, or brick. Put the garbage into the
trench, build a fire on top of it, when the fire is very hot pour the
liquid waste into the trench at the small end. If there is a great deal
of garbage some of it will have to be put on top of the fire which
should be made of heavy logs of hard wood. Tin cans can be burnt in this
fire and then treated as stated before.

The disposing of camp garbage is not a difficult matter if some system
and care are used. It is necessary to have a covered pail near the
kitchen door for use during the day. The contents of this pail should be
burned or buried every night after supper and if necessary once during
the day, preferably after dinner. If this pail is lined with two or
three thicknesses of newspaper each time after emptying, it will be kept
in good condition.

If garbage is to be carted out of camp, have proper receptacles for
transporting it and do not let too much accumulate at any one time.

Under no circumstances allow waste food to be strewn on the ground
anywhere within camp limits, or the ground around the garbage pail, pit
or incinerator to be untidy.

One of the best disinfectants for latrines and garbage pits is
smouldering tar paper. Break the paper into small pieces, throw into the
latrine or pit, light and let smoulder.


Pests

At least twice a week camp grounds should be thoroughly inspected to
make sure that there are no pest breeding places such as pools of
stagnant water, old tin cans in which water will collect, trash heaps,
and so forth. It is much easier to keep flies and mosquitoes away by
doing away with such places, than it is to exterminate them after they
have come in large numbers. If camp grounds and buildings are cleaned
every day and all waste properly disposed of, there is little danger of
trouble from pests.

In localities where mosquitoes and flies are very troublesome other
precautions should be taken. It might be necessary to have mosquito
netting over the cots at night and fly paper in the kitchen and store
closet. A piece of absorbent cotton saturated in citronella and hung on
the tent poles at either end of the tent will sometimes keep mosquitoes
away as they dislike intensely any strong odor.

If ants get into the kitchen or store closets borax sprinkled on the
shelves will often send them away, or if they are very troublesome
dishes of food can be stood in pans of water.


Water Supply

An adequate water supply is most essential for any camp, and should be
one of the first things to be considered in selecting a site. Springs
and wells generally supply the camper with drinking water; lakes and
streams with wash water. Few springs or wells can supply enough water
for all purposes when a camp is large.

Whatever the source of supply the drinking water should be tested by the
Health authorities before camp opens, and at any time there is any
question concerning it. Springs and wells should be cleaned out and the
former protected with boards or screening if necessary.

Too much thought cannot be given to the question of the water, as to its
purity and quantity. Children drink a great deal in hot weather and much
has to be used for cooking and washing. If there is any danger of the
drinking supply giving out, to prevent waste, allow only one or two
people to draw water and then only when necessary.

Keep covered tanks or coolers of drinking water in shady places,
convenient for the campers. Caution all as to wastefulness and if in
case of an emergency there is only a very little, place a counsellor in
charge of it and deal it out by the cupful, seeing that all have an
equal share. Of course, only individual cups should be used.

Should there be any doubt as to the purity of the water, boil it for
twenty minutes, place in earthenware or agate vessels, cool, cover and
lower the vessels down the well, or put them in the ice box, or some
cool place for the water to get cold.

Water for cooking can be taken from a lake or stream. It is generally
boiled.

If the only source of supply is a brook or stream, water for drinking
should be taken above camp. All vessels in which it is carried or kept
should be thoroughly washed each day.

No camp should remain open if the water supply is not what it ought to
be.

If a camp is supplied with running water and plumbing has been installed
the location and covering of the tank and the cesspool are important
things to consider.

The drain pipes connected with sinks or tubs should be flushed
occasionally with disinfectants, the sink drain cleaned daily with
boiling water and washing soda.

Marsh land near a camp site which is otherwise desirable, if treated
with crude oil or the water drained off by ditches, will not prove a
menace.


Latrines

Every camp must be provided with adequate latrine service. One unit for
every eight or ten people is considered necessary. The type of latrine
to be used will depend on existing conditions at the camp site, but
whatever it is the greatest care must be taken to keep them clean. Seats
and covers should be scrubbed every day, houses swept and toilet paper
provided. Covers should not remain open, and it should be considered a
misdemeanor to throw cloths of any kind into a latrine. As a place must
be provided for them it is suggested that a small portable incinerator
be kept in a closed box stood in one corner of the latrine house, and
that the incinerator be removed every day to a near-by open place and
the contents burned.

[Illustration: VOLLEY BALL]

Latrines should be cleaned out before camp opens and the ground around
them left perfectly clean. As a precaution make sure that no part of the
contents is deposited anywhere near camp. If the ordinary out-of-door
closet is used, see that chloride of lime is sprinkled in the pit daily.

If a small group is to be provided for in a temporary camp and a latrine
must be built, the earthen closet will probably give the best
satisfaction. This is made by digging a trench 2 ft. wide, 3 ft. deep
and in length 2 ft. for each unit. Over the trench place a box seat 17
inches high, with holes having hinged covers. Bank earth around the
bottom of the box and in front of it place a board walk. Protect the
seat by pitching a tent over it or encircling it with a strip of canvas
5 ft. high, fastened to posts, the ends of which pass each other forming
a protected doorway. A box of earth and a small shovel should be kept in
the tent and every time the closet is used earth should be thrown into
it. Lime should be used daily. When necessary to dig a new trench make
sure that the old one is properly filled in. A latrine of this kind must
not be placed near any water supply.

A type of latrine which is being built on permanent camp sites in the
Palisades Interstate Park and which has been developed by the engineers
of the Park Commission, is giving such satisfaction that an outline of
its construction is herewith given.

Dig a pit in which is built a concrete tank 3 ft. wide, 3 ft. deep at
one end, and 3 ft. 8 inches at the other, and 17 ft. in length for eight
units, the concrete 6 inches thick.

Build over it a house 6 or 7 ft. wide, the rear and one side wall of
which rest on the rear and lower end wall of the pit. The deep end of
the pit for 18 inches is left outside of the house. This opening, which
must have an adjustable cover, is used when cleaning the pit.

Floor the building to within 20 inches of the rear wall. Cover the
opening in the floor with a box seat 17 inches high leaving in it
properly made toilet seats, 2 ft. apart from center to center, with
covers.

Make four agitators, one for every two units, by fastening a wooden
paddle 5 x 7 inches onto one end of a 5-ft. length of 2-inch iron pipe.
Put the pipes through a slot in the seat between the two openings, the
paddle at right angles to the length of the seat, and clearing the
bottom of the pit by three inches. The agitators are held in place by
clamps attached to the bottom of he seat which allows the pipe handle to
be moved from side to side. Vent pipes 4 inches in diameter extend from
the pit up through the seat back of each cover, and through the roof for
18 inches.

Charge the pit with 175 gallons of water and 240 pounds of Kaustine, a
patented chemical compound. By moving the agitator handles from side to
side whenever the latrine is used all solid matter is brought in contact
with the Kaustine solution and decomposed.

As with all other latrines, the house must be kept clean and the seats
scrubbed each day. It is not necessary to use any disinfectants in this
type of house, but it should have two doors and windows.


2. FIRST AID

First Aid supplies are a necessity in camp and should always be
provided. Some one person must be responsible for them and when possible
this person should be either a trained nurse or a practical nurse.


Essential Supplies

          Absorbent cotton
          Sterile gauze
          Bandages
          Iodine
          Vaseline
          Bicarbonate of soda
          Castor oil
          Alcohol and sugar of lead (for ivy poisoning)
          Hot water bottle
          Alcohol
          Aromatic Spirits of Ammonia
          Epsom salts
          Small alcohol stove and pan
          Cascara
          White enamel basin
          Towels

The nurse should have a tent or a corner in some building where a table
and shelf covered with oil cloth and a bed can be placed and all
supplies properly cared for. No one should be allowed to take any of the
supplies without her permission.


3. FIRE PREVENTION

It is advisable to have in every camp, pails of water standing in the
mess hall, in the kitchen, or in other accessible places, or small
chemical fire apparatus to be used in case of necessity. A fire drill is
also an essential provision.

Place the indoor camp stove on a concrete base with zinc back of it.

In building the mess hall chimney, be sure that two flues are built, in
case one needs to be used for the kitchen stove pipe, as one flue cannot
be used for two fires.


4. THE HEALTH WINNER IN CAMP

Before any child is admitted to a Girl Scout camp she should have been
thoroughly examined by a competent physician. These examinations should
be arranged for by the Local Councils. With very slight effort it is
possible to enlist the interest of physicians, particularly women
physicians, in making these examinations.

The accompanying certificate (p. 52) is particularly recommended as
preferable to an informal statement. This certificate, properly filled
out, should be of great assistance to the Camp Director in safeguarding
the health of the Scouts in camp. It must be remembered that young girls
are ambitious to do all that their fellows do, and very seldom are
willing to admit any physical disability. The responsibility should not
be on their shoulders. Camp life subjects each person to quite unusual
physical exertion which in some cases may amount to a strain. The things
to be especially guarded against are heart disturbances, either
functional or organic; painful or too profuse menstruation; flat foot,
weak backs and prolapsed intestine. Under-nutrition and anemia will
usually be automatically corrected by life in the open and the
consequent increased appetite. No child who is markedly undernourished,
however, should be allowed to take extraordinary exercise until she has
begun to gain.

Before the Scouts start for camp they should be assembled and inspected
in a group by a nurse, or some other person competent to detect body and
head lice. No Scout should be allowed to come to camp infested with
vermin, and yet this happens repeatedly unless definite precautions are
taken. As a rule this cannot be left to the examining physician. If this
examination is made as early as a week ahead of the time to start for
camp the children's heads can be cleansed.

To cleanse the head from lice, rub the scalp and saturate the hair with
kerosene. Tie the head up in a thick, clean cloth held in place with
safety pins. Leave the bandage on over night. After removing the bandage
it should be plunged at once into hot soap suds, and thoroughly washed.
Wash the scalp and hair with castile or ivory soap, rinsing thoroughly.
Dry with clean towels. Combs and brushes should be thoroughly cleansed
before using. It may be necessary to repeat this process once.

The ideal should be held before each Scout of having her health record
while in camp a perfect one. Should any unforeseen trouble arise,
however, she must report at once to the nurse or Director.

Whenever possible, sleep with tent sides and flaps up; never with the
tent closed except in case of a severe storm.

Indigestion, constipation, diarrhea, headaches, bruises, blisters,
strains and sprains, insect bites, sunburn and ivy poisoning are some of
the common camp ailments that have to be dealt with.

Observing the Scout Health requirements as discussed in the Handbook,
"Scouting for Girls," helps very much in establishing a healthy Scout
camp and keeping out of it conditions which are often due to
carelessness.

[Illustration: THE FIRST AID HOUSE]



XII

FEEDING THE MULTITUDE


1. PROVISIONING

To buy in large quantities at wholesale and pay for the order within ten
days is economy. To ship by boat and not by rail, when possible, also
saves money. To have a dry, well ventilated store room and an ice room
is to save still more. It is possible and feasible to order before camp
opens, the necessary dry groceries and canned goods to be used in a camp
of 150 during a period of four to five weeks, and to care for same in a
comparatively small space.

The amounts needed can be computed from the amounts necessary for a
family of four or six. In fact, the knowledge necessary to provide
properly for a family under ordinary circumstances is of the greatest
help in providing for a camp be it large or small. There are many good
cook books which specify quantities for given numbers of people; knowing
these, the numbers of campers to be fed per day, the amounts in which
various kinds of dry provisions are sold at wholesale, gives one the key
to the situation. By making out roughly a week's menus, a close estimate
can be made.

Cereals, flours and meals can be bought by the sack and range in weight
from 50 to 100 pounds. Sugar can be bought by the bag or barrel, the
latter being better because it is cleaner. Navvy beans, to be used for
baking, are sold in bags, 150 or 160 pounds in a bag. Baking powder is
bought in 5-lb. tins. Cocoa is bought in 25-lb. drums. Macaroni comes in
22-lb. boxes. Peanut butter in 10-lb. pails. Crisco comes in 6-lb. cans;
molasses in No. 10 tins, 6 tins in a case; tomatoes in No. 10 tins, 6
in a case; apple butter in 30-lb. pails; cod fish in 20-lb. boxes; soap,
1 case of 100 bars; butter in 63-lb. tubs; eggs in a case of 30 dozen;
prunes, apricots, peaches in 25-lb. boxes; raisins in 25-lb. boxes;
cheese, 30 lbs. (whole cheese); split peas in 60-lb. bag; vanilla in
pint or quart bottles; salt, 25-lb. bag; corn starch, 1 package of 2
dozen boxes; soda, cinnamon, nut meg, ginger, pepper and mustard to be
bought in small quantities as needed.

Fresh milk, if obtained from a dairy, is delivered in 40-qt. cans. A
quart and a cup per person per day is a good allowance for drinking and
cooking purposes. If fresh milk is not obtainable, or can be had only in
small quantities, a good brand of evaporated milk should be kept on
hand.

Fresh vegetables are bought either by the pound, bunch, quart, peck or
bushel. In so far as is possible they should be cooked the day they are
delivered. If, however, it is necessary to buy vegetables at one time
for two or three days' supply, use first such things as spinach, peas,
beans and corn, for cabbages, carrots, beets, tomatoes and squash are
more easily kept and are not so impaired in flavor by keeping.

If fresh meat or chicken is to be served it should be cooked the day it
is delivered, or kept on ice until such time as it will be needed. Fresh
fish should be handled with great care and not allowed to remain off the
ice for any length of time. There are so many wholesome substitutes for
meat that it seems entirely unnecessary for campers to have meat more
than once or at most twice a week. In the summer time, it is very
heating, and also the meat which is obtainable in small communities is
very often not the best quality, to say nothing of being very expensive.
An occasional pot roast of the top of the round, or a roast of lamb, or
a piece of corned beef can be used. Fresh fish when obtainable and well
cooked is always most acceptable.

[Illustration: THE WEAVERS]

Canned meat and canned fish are not recommended.


Care of Provisions

All bags of cereal, meals or flour should be placed in covered barrels,
boxes or tubs stood on a platform raised from the floor. Boxes of dried
foods such as fruit, cod fish and so forth should be stacked, each kind
in a pile and placed on the platform. All tinned goods should be taken
out of their cases and laid on shelves. Butter, crisco, eggs, peanut
butter, apple butter, and so forth, should be kept in the ice house.
Cheese should be wrapped in cheese cloth wrung out in vinegar and kept
in a box on a shelf in the store room, not in the ice box.

The handling of fresh milk is something which should be done with great
care. After opening a large can, the milk should be stirred with a long
ladle which reaches to the bottom of the can. The quantity of milk
needed should be taken out and put in a pitcher. For dipping out the
milk use a dipper which has been sterilized by placing it in boiling
water and cooled by allowing cold water to run over it. This dipper
should not be used for any other purpose than taking milk from the large
can and when not in use can hang in the ice room. Milk cans should
always be kept covered and no milk which has once been taken out of a
can should ever be poured back into it. What is left from the table
should be put in a pitcher and stood in the ice house to be used for
cooking. Milk which is handled in this way and which comes from a first
class dairy will keep sweet for three days. It is not essential to keep
fresh vegetables in an ice house. If the tops are cut off, vegetables
can be kept in baskets in the store room. Under no circumstances should
anything hot or even warm be put into the ice box, as the steam which
arises from the combination of cold and heat will decompose food very
quickly, or cause it to sour. Anything that is hot and needs to be
cooled before placing in the ice box should be covered with cheese cloth
kept for the purpose and stood on the store room shelves.

Bread, if bought from a bakery, can be kept in a barrel or on shelves
and covered with cheese cloth. The sandwich loaves are recommended as
they cut to better advantage in the bread cutter, and are more
economical in the long run. These loaves weigh about three pounds apiece
and cut into from 40 to 45 slices.

Ice cream salt should not be kept in the store room, but in a
half-barrel or tub outside of the kitchen door. Salt causes dampness,
which is not desirable. The bag of table salt should stand in a tub or
box of some kind. Fruit, especially tomatoes and peaches, should be
watched closely as little flies are apt to collect on them.

It is most essential that the store room be swept, the shelves brushed,
and everything not of use removed from it every morning. This is true
with the care of an ice box or room. Not a day should pass that it is
not thoroughly inspected and all that is not usable removed from it, and
the room left in a perfectly clean, wholesome condition. The ice
compartment should be washed out two or three times a week before the
fresh ice is put into the box.

Do not buy more perishable food than can be properly taken care of and
used within a day or two. Watch it closely, pick it over each day and
throw out any part which shows signs of decay.

Do not neglect to replenish the larder before supplies are out, as
transportation is slow. Do not forget that large quantities take much
more time to cook than small quantities. Many times meals are not served
on time for this reason.

Make a point of weighing, measuring and apportioning. It is economy to
do so.

Nail a card in the kitchen on which is given the quantities of those
things which are used constantly and the number of people each quantity
will supply: sugar, butter, bread, cereal, cocoa, dried fruit.

Buy only what is needed and can be properly stored. The second grade of
many foods is as good as the first in taste, and as nourishing. It costs
less, and many times simply because it is not perfect in size or
uniformity.

To buy in bulk is less expensive than to purchase boxed or tinned goods.
This rule for campers pertains particularly to cereals, crackers, meals,
flours, sugar, cocoa, raisins, etc.

When buying fresh fruits, vegetables or meat, take advantage of the
market, even if it means a quick change of menus. A surplus means low
prices.

Having bought what is the best or the best that can be afforded, do not
spoil it in the preparation, cooking or serving. A deplorable condition
exists in many homes and doubtless camps as well, because the art of
provisioning from first to last is not better understood.

The Girl Scout camps must prove that thrift and good food go hand in
hand; also that in every department related in any way to our food,
which is of such importance to health and happiness, the most approved
methods are used.


2. CAMP MENUS AND RECIPES

The condition of one's health is probably more dependent on what one
eats than on any other single thing. Certain foods are necessary to keep
the body in good physical condition and certain combinations of foods
are not only better for the body but more pleasing to the palate than
others. There is a psychology of food which, if studied, is interesting,
and which, if applied, is most helpful. How many times _quantity_ has
not satisfied an appetite when _quality_ has. Living in the open creates
an appetite, generally for quantity rather than quality; but this is no
reason why the latter should be overlooked.

The facilities for cooking and preparing food for obtaining variety are
limited, and for this reason the deficit must be made up in other ways.
Cereals, fats, liquids, fresh vegetables, fruits and sweets are
necessary, and a little meat may be added. Starchy foods are used for
bulk and should include the cereals, such as rice, hominy, oatmeal,
shredded wheat, cornmeal and macaroni, and potatoes.

For fat, butter of the _best_ quality should be used on the table, and
crisco for cooking. Liquids, fresh milk, the best that can be obtained,
cocoa and plenty of pure water; fresh vegetables, any and all kinds
procurable; those which are camp standbys are string beans, beets,
carrots, spinach, peas, squash, potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce.

Fresh fruit, if not too expensive, as it is in some parts of the
country, is desirable; otherwise dried fruits must be used--apricots,
peaches, prunes, apples. It is sometimes possible to secure fresh
berries.


_Lamb_: For small groups buy a leg or hind quarter of lamb for roasting,
the shoulder for stews, chops for broiling. For a large group, buy whole
lambs and cut at camp; 40 or 50 pounds is enough for one meal. Before
cooking, wipe off with a damp cloth and rub with salt.


_Beef_: A pot roast is best. Use the top of the round which can also be
used for roasting or making meat pies. Twenty-five or thirty pounds for
a pot roast is sufficient for 130 people. When buying beef make sure
that it is not too fresh, for it will be tough; also, the fibre should
not be coarse. The meat should be deep red in color and juicy.

For soup, buy shin beef.


_Fowl_: Chickens are too expensive for camp use. Fowl properly cooked
are very nice. Buy those that are fat and yellow in color. Four pounds
will serve five campers. Cut the meat from the bones before serving and
use the bones for soup.


_Fish_: Fish must be fresh or it is not fit even to be cooked. It should
be firm and look fresh. Small fish, cod, halibut or special fish in
special localities are good for camp use.


_Sweets_: Simple desserts, such as bread pudding, rice pudding, cottage
pudding, apple pudding, Indian pudding, corn starch, blanc mange, ice
cream, apple butter and jam, sherbets, chocolate pudding, ginger bread
and cookies are used; of course, raw sugar and syrup in moderate
quantities.


_Meat substitutes_: Baked beans, cheese, eggs.


_Soups_: Soup is wholesome, economical and, when well made, palatable.
It is particularly good on cold days for supper. Vegetable soups without
meat, and cream soups are the best for campers.

Save the water in which vegetables have been boiled for making soup;
that drained from rice, potatoes, spinach, peas or string beans is best.
The rice water may have added to it tomatoes and seasoning. To potato
and spinach water, add milk, thickening and seasoning.


_Breads_: Serve rye bread, whole wheat, graham, corn bread and a limited
amount of white bread; too much of the latter is not healthful.


_Menus_: A menu is merely a combination of a few of the above-listed
foods prepared in a variety of ways. Do not serve two starches at the
same time, or two creamed vegetables, or a starch and vegetables without
a sauce or gravy. Bread of some kind, a liquid and a fat are served with
every meal. For breakfast there should be cereal, and if desired a
stewed fruit, perhaps eggs in some form, but they are not necessary.
Dinner should include one starch, two fresh vegetables and a dessert,
or, fish, a starch, one green vegetable and a dessert; or, meat, two
vegetables and a dessert; or a meat substitute, a vegetable, and a
dessert. For supper, fresh or stewed fruit, plenty of milk if possible,
a sweet, and either cheese, peanut butter, a salad or a soup.


CAMP FOODS

          _Soups_
          Potato and Onion
          Corn Chowder
          Tomato
          Vegetable
          Split Pea
          Clam or Fish Chowder


          _Fish_
          Flounder
          Weak Fish
          Salt Cod
          Butter Fish
          Salmon (fresh)
          Mackerel


          _Meat Substitutes_
          Baked Beans
          Cheese Omelet
          Peanut Butter
          Komac Stew
          Eggs
          Brunswick Stew


          _Meats_
          Roast Lamb
          Lamb Stew
          Pot Roast
          Roast Beef
          Corned Beef
          Beef Pie
          Meat Loaf
          Bacon
          Ham
          Salt Pork


          _Vegetables_
          Peas
          String Beans
          Beets
          Carrots
          Cabbage
          Potatoes
          Squash
          Onions
          Spinach
          Cucumbers
          Tomatoes
          Green Peppers
          Corn
          Cauliflower
          Macaroni
          Spaghetti
          Rice
          Baked Hominy


          _Breads_
          Brown Bread
          Rye Bread
          Corn Bread
          Baking Powder Biscuit
          Graham Bread
          White Bread (in small quantities)
          Spoon Bread
          Whole Wheat Bread
          Toast
          Griddle Cakes


          _Desserts_
          Indian Pudding
          Chocolate Pudding
          Rice Pudding
          Apple Cake
          Brown Betty
          Apple Tapioca
          Bread Pudding
          Berry Pudding
          Ice Cream
          Milk Sherbet
          Fruit Sherbets
          Ginger Bread
          French Toast
          Cornstarch Pudding
          Apple Slump
          Stewed Fruits
          Apple Butter
          Jam
          Cookies


          _Cereals_
          Oatmeal
          Hominy
          Corn Meal
          Post Toasties
          Shredded Wheat
          Wheatena


          _Beverages_
          Cocoa
          Milk
          Lemonade
          Postum

          NOTE: It is suggested that a convenient form for
          keeping these foods will be a card index with a
          separate card for each food, together with a
          recipe, and quantities needed for the camp in
          question.


RECIPES

_Bread and Cereals_


  _Biscuit, Baking Powder_
  For 4 persons
  1 large cup flour
  1 heaping teaspoonful baking powder
  1 teaspoonful salt
  Crisco, bacon fat or butter and lard mixed, piece size of an egg
  Milk

          With knife chop the fat into the dry mixture
          thoroughly, add slowly the milk, stirring gently
          with a spoon. Make the dough soft and spongy but
          not thin enough to run. With a very little fat
          grease the bottom of a pan. Drop the dough from
          the end of a spoon onto the pan in quantities the
          size of a Uneeda lunch biscuit and about 3/4 of an
          inch thick, leaving space between them. Bake in a
          reflector oven before a hot fire for 20 minutes,
          or cover tight with another pan and bury in hot
          ashes under a fire.

_Bread for Hikers._--1/2 white flour, 1/2 yellow meal; 1-5 powdered
milk; 1/10 powdered egg; salt and baking powder; bake in frying pan
tightly covered and buried in ashes.


_Cereals_

  _Cornmeal_
  1 cup meal
  1 teaspoonful salt

          Pour boiling water onto the meal a little at a
          time, beating fast and hard. When the mixture is
          the consistency of mush, cover the kettle, place
          it in the outer kettle and cook all night.

          Cereals prepared in this way are much more
          digestible and palatable than when boiled quickly
          over a hot fire and stirred constantly.

          Hominy can be cooked in this way, using I cup
          hominy and four cups of water; small amount of
          salt.

          Rice also may be cooked this way. Wash the rice
          carefully, 1/2 cup to 3 cups of water, 1 scant
          teaspoonful of salt.


Rolled Oats for 4 persons

  Two small pieces of wood an inch thick to serve as a pot rest.
  3 cups of cold water
  1 teaspoonful salt
  1 cup oat meal

          Bring water to boiling in small kettle, add salt,
          add oatmeal very slowly. Boil over fire 5 minutes
          stirring occasionally; cover tight.

          Place the pieces of wood in the larger kettle,
          stand cereal kettle on them and pour hot water to
          the depth of 3 inches into larger kettle. Cover,
          hang over slow fire for all night. Do not uncover
          until ready to use.


_Dumplings_

  3/4 cup of flour
  1 scant teaspoonful baking powder
  1 teaspoonful salt
  Enough milk to make a spongy dough

          Add baking powder and salt to flour. Add milk
          slowly, drop mixture from end of spoon onto the
          boiling stew, cover tightly and cook for 15
          minutes.


_Toast_

          Cut the bread not less than 1/2 inch thick. Brown
          over coals, not flames. Use a fork, wire toaster,
          or two green wood sticks.


_Cocoa_

  1 heaping teaspoonful sweetened cocoa
  3/4 cup water
  1/2 cup milk

          Boil the water, put cocoa in cup, add part of the
          boiled water, mix thoroughly. Add to rest of
          water, boil 2 minutes, add milk, heat to boiling
          point but do not boil. Be careful not to burn. If
          condensed milk is used, mix cocoa and two
          teaspoonfuls of condensed milk together and add
          the water, bring to the boiling point.


_Desserts_


_Apple Cake_

          For 4 persons

          Make a baking-powder biscuit dough (see rule) and
          spread it in an oblong pan having the dough about
          2 inches thick. The pan should be greased
          slightly. Peel and core and cut in quarters 2
          large apples. Slice these thin, and place on the
          dough in rows, each slice held in place by
          pressing it down into the dough a little. The
          slices should be near together. Sprinkle 3/4 of a
          cup of sugar over the top, add small pieces of
          butter and a little grated nutmeg. Bake in a
          reflector oven in front of hot fire until the
          apples are soft--about 1/2 hour.


_Apples, Fried_

  For 4 persons
  2 large apples
  Small piece of butter or bacon fat

          Wash apples, remove stems and blossoms, cut across
          the core in slices 1/2 inch thick; heat pan, melt
          fat in it, put in apple slices, brown on one side,
          turn and brown on the other. Or, grease a broiler,
          place the slices on it and broil the apples over
          hot coals until tender and brown.


_Apple Slump_

          For 4 persons

          Peel and cut in eighths, 4 apples. Put in a kettle
          with 1 cup of water, 1/2 cup of sugar, 1/2 cup of
          molasses; cover and place on the stove or over a
          slow fire. Make a dough as for dumplings (see
          rule). Drop the dough onto the hot apples. Cover
          tight and cook 20 minutes. Serve with cream, milk
          or hard sauce. Blue berries, huckleberries,
          peaches, can be used in place of apples, omitting
          the molasses and adding a little more sugar.


_Dried Fruit_

          All dried fruit should be thoroughly washed in
          cold water, covered with fresh cold water and
          allowed to soak all night, stewed slowly over a
          low fire or on the back of the stove for an hour.
          Add, if necessary, sugar; stew 15 minutes longer
          and set away to cool. Do not stew fruit in tin
          receptacles; use enamel or agate.


_Indian Pudding_

  For 5 persons
  1/2 cup of Indian meal
  3/4 cup of molasses
  1 teaspoonful of salt

          Mix thoroughly, add to 1 quart of scalded milk,
          cook in double boiler 1/2 hour, stir often. Pour
          into buttered baking dish; allow to cool. Pour 1
          cup cold water on top of pudding. Do not stir it
          in. Bake in a slow oven 3 hours.


_Rice Pudding_

          For 4 persons

          Butter a bowl or deep dish, pan if necessary; put
          into it 1 quart of milk, 1 tablespoonful of washed
          rice, 1 teaspoonful of salt, 1/2 cup of sugar,
          small piece of butter; cover and cook in slow
          oven, stirring occasionally, for 3 hours. Remove
          cover last 1/2 hour.


_Meat, Fish and Meat Substitutes_


_Bacon_

          Sliced bacon can be broiled by placing it on the
          end of a sharp stick held over the fire and turned
          over and over; or put into a very hot frying pan.
          Be careful that the fat does not catch on fire. If
          staying in camp for another meal, save the bacon
          drippings and use them for frying potatoes, cakes
          or use for shortening.


_Beans, Baked_ (The Real Boston Article)

  For 4 persons
  1 large cup of pea beans or navy beans
  1/2 lb. salt pork
  1 scant tablespoonful molasses
  2 teaspoonfuls salt
  Pinch of soda

          Wash and pick over the beans, cover with cold
          water and soak over night. Place on the stove and
          boil very gently for two hours; drain off the
          water, put the beans in a deep dish with a cover,
          or in a pan; wash the pork and cut the rind side
          into small squares or strips. Put in the pot so
          the rind is above the beans; add 1 dessertspoonful
          of molasses, the salt and soda, cover with hot
          water, cover the pot and place in a moderate oven
          for 4 or 5 hours. It may be necessary to add more
          water during that time, as the beans should be
          covered with water for the first 3 hours. For the
          last half hour the cover can be removed from the
          pot. If baked in an open pan, cook for 3 hours;
          keep the beans covered with water for 2 hours and
          then brown during the next hour.


_Beef, Shriveled_

  1 lb. of shaved beef
  Small piece of butter

          Heat the fry pan, melt butter in it, tear beef
          into small bits, put in pan, stir with fork until
          shriveled and very hot. Serve at once.


_Cheese and eggs_

  For 4 persons
  1/2 lb. cheese
  4 eggs
  Salt
  1/2 cup of milk
  Butter size of an egg

          Melt the butter in the frying pan, add the cheese
          which has been sliced thin, stir until the cheese
          is melted, adding the milk gradually; add the salt
          and the beaten eggs. Cook for 5 minutes. Serve on
          toast or crackers.


_Codfish, Creamed_

          Buy boneless cod, in boxes. Cover it with cold
          water. Soak over night. In the morning place on
          stove and boil 1/2 hour. Pull apart into small
          pieces, add cream sauce, and serve.


_Scrambled Eggs_

  Butter size of hickory nut
  1 egg
  1 tablespoonful of cold water
  Pinch of salt, dash of pepper

          Heat in frying pan, melt butter in it, break egg
          in cup (be sure of its freshness). Add egg to
          melted butter, add water, salt, pepper, stir with
          fork, holding pan over fire until egg is flakey
          but not stiff.


_Kidneys and Bacon_

          Split the kidneys, cut the bacon slices in two,
          scrape and sharpen a green wood stick 2 feet long
          and 1/2 inch in diameter at the smaller end. Put
          onto the stick alternately the pieces of bacon and
          kidney, hold over the fire, turning constantly for
          5 minutes. Half a kidney and one piece of bacon
          between a split hot roll makes a delicious
          sandwich.


_Komac Stew_

  For 4 persons
  4 large tomatoes, or one small can of same
  3 eggs
  2 good-sized onions
  Green pepper
  Butter size of walnut
  Salt, pepper
  Bread or crackers

          Heat the frying pan hot, melt butter in it; peel
          and slice thin onions and fry them for a few
          moments in the hot fat; add the well-washed green
          pepper cut fine; fry. Peel the tomatoes, cut in
          pieces, add to the onions and pepper, add salt and
          dash of pepper; cover, stew slowly 1/2 hour. Add
          one by one the eggs, stirring them in well. Serve
          at once on toast or crackers.


_Macaroni with Cheese and Tomato Sauce_

          Cook slowly for 2 or 3 hours, keeping covered.

          Drop into 3 quarts boiling salted water 1/2 lb. of
          macaroni or spaghetti broken into 4-inch lengths;
          stir occasionally with a fork to keep from
          sticking. Boil 3/4 of an hour, pour through a
          colander, drain off all hot water, pour cold water
          over macaroni, while in colander, return it to the
          kettle it was cooked in.

          Pour tomato sauce over it and when hot, serve.
          Have ready 1/2 lb. cheese grated fine; put it on
          top of the macaroni.

          Campbell's tomato soup, to which has been added
          chopped onions and a chopped pepper, salt and a
          pinch of soda, makes a very good tomato sauce and
          can be prepared in a short time or:

          Brown three thinly sliced onions in butter the
          size of an egg.

  Add 1 small can of tomatoes
  1 green pepper chopped fine
  1 large spoonful of salt
  2 cloves
  Dash of cayenne
  Big dash of paprika


_Sardines and Tomato Sauce_

          For 4 persons

          1 can Campbell's soup heated to boiling point in a
          frying pan. Very carefully so as not to break
          them, lay sardines from one box in the sauce. When
          hot serve on squares of toast or on crackers. A
          little dash of red pepper and a bit of salt
          improve the taste.


_Stew, Irish_

  For 4 persons
  1 lb. of lamb for stew
  3 onions
  3 carrots
  2 large potatoes
  Salt and pepper
  Water

          Cut the meat in small pieces, wash it; peel and
          slice the onions, scrape the carrots and slice
          crosswise; wash, peel and slice potatoes; place
          all in the kettle, cover with cold water, add 2
          teaspoonfuls of salt and a dash of pepper; cover
          and cook slowly 2 hours; 3 hours is better, but
          not necessary. Be sure and cook the stew in a
          kettle large enough to allow room for cooking the
          dumplings on top of the stew.


_Salads_


_Cucumbers_

          Should be green, dark, firm, not too large around,
          but long and slender. Keep in the ice box. When
          ready to use, peel with a sharp knife from the
          blossom end down to the stem end. The reason for
          this is that the stem has in it a bitter flavor
          which, if drawn over the cucumber, spoils the
          taste. After peeling slice very, very thin, and
          cover with iced water, stand in a cold place. Just
          before serving, drain off the water and pour a
          French dressing over them.


_Lettuce_

          All salads should be picked apart, wilted or
          yellow leaves removed, thoroughly washed in cold
          water, the water shaken from the leaves, and
          placed in a cheese cloth or a knitted bag and laid
          on the ice. Salads will keep for several days if
          prepared in this way. It is necessary, however, to
          look it over every day and take out any leaves
          which begin to look wilted or to have yellow
          edges.


_Tomato Salad_

          Tomatoes should be peeled with a very sharp knife;
          or, when there is time, by pouring boiling water
          over them and gently rubbing off skins, and
          setting on the ice to cool. Wash and slice not too
          thin, serve with dressing.


_Sauces and Dressings_


_Cream Sauce_

          If cream sauce is to be made in small quantities,
          the butter should be melted, the flour added, the
          two rubbed into a smooth paste, the milk added
          slowly while the pan is on the fire. Season with
          salt, stir constantly so that no lumps will form.
          As it is difficult to make large quantities of
          cream sauce in this manner, it may be necessary to
          heat the milk in a double boiler and thicken to
          the consistency of rich cream with flour and
          butter rubbed to a smooth paste. Cook for fifteen
          minutes, salt to taste. For 4 or 5 persons use
          butter size of an egg, 1 tablespoonful flour, and
          1-1/2 cups milk. Cream sauce is used with carrots,
          codfish, potatoes, cabbage, dried beef, etc.


_Boiled Salad Dressing_

  For 8 persons
    Mix together:
  2 even teaspoonfuls mustard (dry)
  1 even teaspoonful salt
  Butter size of an egg
  Yolk 1 egg

          Add:

          2/3 cup cold milk and bring to a boil stirring
          constantly; add 1/4 cup of vinegar into which is
          rubbed 1 teaspoonful of corn-starch; boil until
          thick and smooth.


_French Dressing_

          Put into a bowl 1 teaspoonful of salt, add 1
          teaspoonful of vinegar, mix well. Add 1/2
          teaspoonful of prepared mustard, a dash of
          paprika, dash of pepper and 1/2 cup of olive oil.
          Beat thoroughly; if possible, add a small piece
          of ice which will make the dressing thick and
          smooth. Pour over the salad to be served and serve
          at once.


_Tomato Sauce_

          To one No. 10 can of tomatoes, brought to the
          boiling point, add three chopped green peppers,
          making sure no seeds are used, and seven or eight
          large onions sliced thin, both having been browned
          with a little fat in a spider. Add salt (scant
          tablespoonful) and a scant tablespoonful of sugar,
          a pinch of soda to counteract the acid and cook
          very slowly for three hours. This sauce can be
          used with macaroni, spaghetti or rice, or served
          with fish or baked beans as a vegetable, the long
          cooking making it thick.


_Soups_


_Potato and Onion Soup_

          Peel and slice thin 1 potato and 1 onion. Put in a
          kettle and cover with cold water. Boil for 1/2
          hour. Add milk, salt and a dash of pepper, a
          little chopped parsley and green pepper.


_Steero Bouillon_

          One cube of Steero placed in a cup. Fill the cup
          with hot water, stir until dissolved, add salt.
          Instead of water, the liquid from a can of
          tomatoes could be used.


_Vegetables_


_Beets._

          For 3 persons--1 bunch or 5 beets.

          Wash with a brush, cut off the tops leaving at
          least 1 inch of stems on the beet. Do not cut the
          roots. Drop into boiling water and cook for 1-1/2
          hours. Drain off all water, slip off the skins
          which come off very easily. If too hot to handle,
          pour cold water over the beets. Slice crosswise,
          add butter and salt and serve. Beet tops, if
          young, can be used as greens.


_Cabbage, Boiled_

          Remove outer leaves, cut in quarters, shave, not
          using the hard center, drop into boiling salted
          water, enough to cover the cabbage and boil hard
          for one hour. Drain, add a piece of butter and
          serve.


_Carrots, Creamed_

  1 bunch or 5 carrots for 4 or 6 persons.

          New carrots are sold with the tops on. They should
          not be withered nor dry. Loose carrots are sold by
          the quantity and are less expensive. Cut off the
          tops, wash and scrape, cut in slices crosswise,
          cook in salted boiling water 1/2 hour. Drain off
          the water, pour cream sauce over carrots and
          serve.


_Corn, Boiled_

          Husk it, remove all silk, cut off the butt close
          to the ear, cook in boiling salted water for about
          fifteen minutes, if there is a small quantity;
          longer if there is a great deal.


_Corn, Roasted_

          Dip the ear of corn, husk and all, in cold water;
          bury in hot coals under a fire, roast for 20
          minutes.


_Onions_

          Peel, boil in salted water two hours, drain,
          season, serve. Or slice raw into a buttered dish,
          season, add a small quantity of water, cover and
          bake three hours.


_Peas_

  2 quarts for 4 persons

          Shell, drop into boiling water not salted. Boil
          for 25 minutes. Fresh peas are very green and have
          a sweet taste; the pods are green and tender and
          should look full and fat.


_Potatoes_

_Baked_

          Wash thoroughly large potatoes; (and if there is a
          large quantity, put in a big pan as they are more
          easily handled), and bake in a hot oven from one
          to one and one-half hours, according to size, and
          temperature of the oven.

_Boiled_

          In preparing a large quantity of potatoes, it
          takes too much time to scrape them, and to peel
          them is wasteful. In camp it is far better, if
          they are to be served plain boiled, to wash and
          scrub them thoroughly, and peel only a narrow
          strip around the center. Potatoes should be
          covered with boiling, salted water, cooked until
          tender, the water drained off, and allowed to
          remain in the kettle on the back of the stove for
          a few minutes to thoroughly dry out before
          serving. Put the largest potatoes into the pot
          first.

_Escalloped_

          Peel and slice raw; place in layers in a buttered
          pan or dish with butter and salt between the
          layers. Cover with milk (the dish should be
          covered also); place in a slow oven for three
          hours; uncover the dish for the last fifteen
          minutes of the time.

_Lyonnaise_

          Melt a piece of butter the size of an egg in a
          frying pan. Add two onions sliced thin and two
          good-sized cold potatoes sliced; cover, cook
          slowly stirring with a fork occasionally. Serve
          when brown.


_Spinach_

          Pick over, reject the leaves that are yellow,
          wilted, or very coarse; wash thoroughly in several
          waters, drain, cut off the roots; put in a boiler
          with just enough water to keep from sticking,
          cover tight turning occasionally with a long fork.
          Cook for about an hour. When tender drain off all
          water, chop with a knife, season and serve. For a
          garnish use hard-boiled eggs, sliced.


_Squash_

          Large, yellow squashes should be cut in two, and
          the seeds removed. Place in pan and roast in a hot
          oven. When tender remove the brown skin that has
          been formed on top of the squash, add butter and
          salt and place the halves on a platter to serve.
          Or the squash can be scooped out of the shell,
          seasoned and served from a dish.


_String Beans_

          Buy only those that are crisp and green or crisp
          and yellow. The latter are called wax beans. Both
          kinds should be young, that is, having only beans
          of small size in them. Remove all strings by
          taking the stem end in the thumb and fore finger,
          break off near the end and take off with it the
          string on one side of the bean. Do the same thing
          at the other end of the bean. Break the bean once
          or twice, according to size, or split the entire
          length with a sharp knife. Wash and drop into
          boiling salted water. Boil for 1-1/2 hours.


_Scalloped Tomato_

          Butter a dish or pan, put in it alternate layers
          of tomatoes and bread cut in dice. The thick part
          of a can of tomatoes or sliced raw tomatoes can be
          used. Put pieces of butter on top of the bread
          crumbs, salt, sprinkle sugar on top, put a layer
          of bread crumbs over all, cover, and bake in a hot
          oven three-quarters of an hour. Save the tomato
          liquid (if canned tomatoes are used) for soup or
          sauce. Do not allow it to stay in the tin.

_Stewed Tomatoes_

          Add a pinch of soda and simmer for an hour or
          more; season with salt, butter and a little sugar.
          Bread cut in very small squares can be added to
          thicken the tomato.


_Tomato and Rice_

          To one quart can of tomatoes add a teaspoonful of
          salt, a teaspoonful of sugar, soda the size of a
          pea, and one tablespoonful of raw rice well
          washed. Bake for three hours in a deep dish,
          stirring occasionally with a fork. Serve as a
          vegetable. It is particularly nice with beef.



MENUS SUITABLE FOR OVERNIGHT HIKES


_Breakfast_

          Fruit
          Scrambled Eggs
          Toast
          Cocoa

          Fruit
          Cereal
          Bacon
          Biscuits
          Cocoa

          Fruit
          Bacon
          Griddle Cakes
          Cocoa

          Cereal
          Cocoa
          Toast
          Jam


_Lunch_ (To be eaten en route)

          Sandwiches: Peanut Butter Bread and Butter Cheese
          Jam or Jelly

          Sweet Chocolate Raisins Fruit


_Supper_

          Komac Stew
          Green Corn
          Bread and butter
          Raisins
          Sweet chocolate

          Steero bouillon
          Cheese and eggs
          Raw tomatoes
          Biscuit and jam

          Irish stew with dumplings
          Bread and butter
          Baked apples
          Milk (if obtainable from nearby farm)

          Baked beans (canned)
          Brown bread
          Berry or Apple slump
          Milk

          Lamb kidneys
          Bacon
          Bread and butter
          Apple cake
          Cocoa

          Sardines and tomato sauce (Campbell's tomato soup)
          Toast
          Boiled rice and syrup

          Onion and potato chowder
          Uneeda biscuits
          Toast, cheese and jam

          Shrivelled beef
          Fried potatoes
          Biscuit and cocoa

_Note._--Hikers should drink very little water while hiking. This rule
should be adhered to absolutely.



XIII

A DAY IN CAMP


The day is clear, the sun casts long shadows as it rises back of the
woods, all is still, when suddenly a long whistle blast is heard
followed by the bugle call, "You can't get 'um up, you can't get 'um up,
you can't get 'um up in the morning," and an immediate babble of voices.
Out of every tent comes tumbling weird looking figures in bathrobes,
pajamas, sweaters and bloomers, tousled heads and half-clad feet. A
line-up on the drill field, and setting-up exercises begin under the
direction of the game counsellor or physical director. Ten minutes of
work and then a mad rush for tents, wash basins, and the wash house,
laughter and joking, dressing and hair brushing, and four whistles
sound. Housekeepers, housekeepers, housekeepers, come! There they go
carrying in the lanterns that have hung on the the lamp posts--trees in
this case--all night.

Are your tables ready? Get the bread, the butter, the milk, and so on
and so forth. The Director appears, a sign that it is time for morning
colors. The Color Guard, five girls from one tent, all in Scout uniform,
"fall in," the bugler joins them, assembly sounds and everyone but the
housekeepers line up on the field. "Right dress, Front," and the Color
Guard, bearing the flag marches to the flag pole as the Colors are
hoisted and the bugler plays "To Colors." All pledge allegiance to the
flag, sing the Star Spangled Banner. The Guard leaves the field and with
a "Right Face, Forward March," all file in to breakfast.

There are always announcements to be made, some questions to be asked,
and after the meal is over, or just before classes, is a good time to do
this.

[Illustration: "SPECIAL DELIVERY." CAMP POST OFFICE.]

Inspection follows--all too soon for some. Tents must be in order,
grounds around them clean, trash boxes emptied, and each girl in her
tent, the chosen leader of the group, called the Patrol Leader, Court of
Honor, or Orderly, at the door. The Director hears a murmur, "Here she
comes, here she comes"; then all is still. A salute, a thorough look at
grounds around, trash box, basins, cots, a look into a blanket or two
for fear that hurry has caused some mistakes, and sometimes a look into
dress suitcases, for cleanliness, and order must begin on the inside, a
word of commendation, a suggestion for improvement and possibly a
reprimand, follow.

The bugler announces the time for classes, each group whether far or
near changing from one class to another, until the noon hour brings a
free period to all.

The signalling class is under the trees back of the mess hall, the First
Aid group in a shady spot on the edge of the woods, the basketry class
near their base of supplies but sitting on the grass in the shade, the
nature lovers in the woods to find new birds and ferns and flowers--and
so it goes.

During the working hours, the housekeepers have been busy performing all
kinds of necessary camp work. Some Scouts enjoy all of it, others none
of it, but rarely does anyone fail to do her part. Dinner is served, the
Scouts marching in to the mess hall, as they do for all meals, and being
excused when all have finished. Much talking and laughter, but
orderliness and courtesy, with an occasional sigh when something does
not please, or a prolonged "ah" when it does, make the time and all
there is to eat disappear in what seems a short time.

Dinner is followed by rest hour, always difficult for some temperaments,
but a real necessity in camp. Sometimes it is necessary to discipline in
order to have quiet, or have counsellors on duty near the tents to
insure rest. Whatever can be done to make the Scouts realize the
importance of obeying this rule, should be done.

Nothing is more looked forward to than the distribution of the mail
unless it is the Canteen. A whistle call and all tent representatives
fairly fly to the post office window, and eagerly listen for the names
of their tent mates. Which group has the most mail--are there any
packages?

Letter reading, letter writing, reading, mending, laundry work, fill the
time until the afternoon classes begin.

At five-thirty when the call for supper is sounded the Color Guard "fall
in" and while all Scouts stand in Company formation at attention the
Colors are slowly lowered. The Color Guard is changed every day, each
Guard representing a different tent.

After supper, canteen is opened. Perhaps a table out of doors is used as
a counter, or one in the mess hall if it does not interfere with
housework. Three or four Scouts assist the counsellor who has charge of
the canteen and all the goodies on sale for that day are arranged in
tempting fashion before the very eyes of the waiting group.

There are so many things to do after supper that each Scout is given the
privilege of making her own choice, and can join a group for a row, or a
walk, a game of ball or a sing, but all must be back in time for the
camp fire, and goodnight songs, First Call, Taps, and evening
inspection, and last to make sure that all Scouts are safe and happy and
all tents in proper condition, flaps back and sides up when possible.

This closes one day. Others like it may follow, but as a rule no two
days are alike. Hikes, visitors, storms, comings and goings, all vary
the schedule tremendously, but all are needed to teach us how to camp.

          _Life is sweet, brother, ... There's day and
          night, brother, both sweet things; sun, moon, and
          stars, all sweet things; there's likewise a wind
          on the heath._
                                              --_Lavengro_



SOME BOOKS ON CAMPS AND CAMPING


          ATHLETIC GAMES FOR WOMEN, Dudley and Keller.

          BACKWOODS SURGERY AND MEDICINE, Chas. S. Moody,
          Outing Publishing Co.

          CAMPING AND OUTING ACTIVITIES, Cheley-Baker;
          Games, songs, pageants, plays, water sports, etc.,
          $1.50.

          CAMP COOKERY, M. Parloa.

          CAMPCRAFT, Warren H. Miller.

          CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT, Vols. I and II, Horace
          Kephart, Macmillan Co.

          CAMP KITS AND CAMP LIFE, Charles Stedman Hanks.

          CAMPING OUT, Warren H. Miller, Geo. Doran Co.

          CARAVANING AND CAMPING-OUT, J. Harris Stone,
          Herbert Jenkins, Ltd., 12 Arundel Place, London.

          FESTIVALS AND PLAYS, Percival Chubb.

          FOLK SONGS, CHANTEY SONGS AND SINGING GAMES,
          Farnsworth and Sharp.

          FOUL PLAY, Charles Reade.

          GAMES AND DANCES, William A. Stecher.

          GAMES FOR THE PLAYGROUND, HOME, SCHOOL AND
          GYMNASIUM, Jessie Bancroft

          HARPER'S CAMPING AND SCOUTING, Joseph Adams,
          Harper Bros.

          MANUAL FOR ARMY COOKS, Military Pub. Co., 42
          Broadway, New York City.

          ON THE TRAIL, L. Beard, Scribner.

          PRACTICAL HINTS ON CAMPING, Howard Henderson.

          SHELTERS, SHACKS AND SHANTIES, D. C. Beard.

          SUMMER IN A GIRLS' CAMP, Anna Worthington Coale,
          Century.

          SWIMMING AND WATERMANSHIP, L. DeB. Handley,
          Macmillan Co.

          THE BOOK OF WOODCRAFT, Ernest Thompson-Seton.

          THE BOY'S CAMP BOOK, Edward Cave.

          THE BOYS' CAMP MANUAL, Charles K. Taylor.

          THE CAMP FIRE GIRLS' VACATION BOOK, Camp Fire
          Girls, New York City.

          THE FIELD AND FOREST HANDY BOOK, D. C. Beard.

          TOURING AFOOT, Dr. C. P. Fordyce, New York Outing
          Pub. Co.

          WILDERNESS HOMES, Oliver Kamp, Outing Pub. Co.

          VACATION CAMPS FOR GIRLS, Jeannette Marks, D.
          Appleton Co.


ONE-ACT PLAYS (SMALL CAST)

          MISS CIVILIZATION, Richard Harding Davis

          POT O' BROTH, William Butler Yeats

          SOCIAL GAMES AND GROUP DANCES, T. C. Elson and
          Blanche Trilling.

          THE MAKER OF DREAMS, Oliphant Doun.

          THE TRAVELING MAN, Lady Gregory.

          THE WORKHOUSE WARD, Lady Gregory.


PAGEANTS AND MASQUES.

THE BIRD MASQUE, Percy MacKaye.

_For Special References on_: First Aid, Cooking, Nature Study,
Astronomy, Home Nursing and other Scout Activities, see references in
section of Proficiency Tests in "Scouting for Girls," the official
handbook of the Girl Scouts.

[Illustration: THE VICTORIOUS NINE]



GIRL SCOUT PUBLICATIONS


          SCOUTING FOR GIRLS. Official Handbook of the Girl
          Scouts. 572 pages, profuse illustrations.
          Bibliography. Khaki cloth cover, flexible, $0.75;
          Officers' Edition, board, $1.00.

          CAMPWARD HO! Manual for Girl Scout Camps. 192
          pages. Illustrations. Bibliography, cuts and
          diagrams. Cloth, $1.25.

          THE BLUE BOOK OF RULES FOR GIRL SCOUT CAPTAINS. 32
          pages. All official regulations, constitution,
          etc., $0.25.

          A TRAINING COURSE FOR GIRL SCOUT CAPTAINS. Outline
          approved by National Headquarters. Lectures and
          practical lessons. $0.15.

          THE GIRL SCOUT'S HEALTH RECORD. A convenient form
          for recording the points needed to cover for badge
          of "Health Winner." $0.10.

          GIRL SCOUTS: THEIR HISTORY AND PRACTICE. Pamphlet,
          2 cents.

          GIRL SCOUTS: THEIR WORKS, WAYS AND PLAYS.
          Pamphlet, 2 cents.

          YOUR GIRL AND MINE, by Josephine Daskam Bacon. 2
          cents.

          WHY I BELIEVE IN SCOUTING FOR GIRLS, by Mary
          Roberts Rinehart. 2 cents.

          THE GIRL SCOUTS. A Training School for Womanhood,
          by Kate Douglas Wiggin. 2 cents.

          THE CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS OF THE GIRL SCOUTS,
          INCORPORATED. 5 cents.

          THE AMERICAN GIRL. (Formerly The Rally). A
          Scouting Magazine for all girls. Monthly. 15 cents
          the copy, $1.50 the year.


IN PREPARATION

          GIRL SCOUT OFFICERS' MANUAL. For Captains,
          Lieutenants, Commissioners and Councillors.

          BRIEF TRAINING COURSE FOR GIRL SCOUT CAPTAINS. 10
          lessons.

          GIRL SCOUT OFFICERS' FIELD BOOK. A notebook with
          all necessary material for troop work, including
          much Manual information in loose leaf form.

          SENIOR SCOUT PROGRAM.

          BROWNIE OR JUNIOR PROGRAM.

          GIRL SCOUT AWARDS. Requirements for Proficiency
          and Class Badges, and all special medals.

          OUTLINES OF LECTURES ON SEX HYGIENE, in
          collaboration with the United States Bureau of the
          Public Health Service.

          STUDIES IN APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY, in
          collaboration with the American Museum of Natural
          History.

          A GIRL SCOUT BOOK SHELF, in collaboration with the
          New York Public Library.



GIRL SCOUTS

INCORPORATED

National Headquarters

189 Lexington Ave., New York City


The Girl Scouts, a National Organization, is open to any girl who
expresses her desire to join and voluntarily accepts the Promise and the
Laws. The object of the Girl Scouts is to bring to all girls the
opportunity for group experience, outdoor life and to learn through
work, but more through play, to serve their community.


OFFICERS, 1920

          FOUNDER
          Mrs. Juliette Low

          HONORARY PRESIDENT
          Mrs. Woodrow Wilson

          FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT
          Mrs. James J. Storrow

          TREASURER
          Mrs. Nicholas F. Brady

          COUNSEL
          Douglas Campbell

          PRESIDENT
          Mrs. Arthur O. Choate

          SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT
          Mrs. Herbert Hoover

          CHAIRMAN, EXECUTIVE BOARD
          Mrs. V. Everit Macy

          DIRECTOR
          Mrs. Jane Deeter Rippen

          EXECUTIVE BOARD
          Mrs. Selden Bacon
          Mrs. Nicholas F. Brady
          Miss Ellen M. Cassatt
          Mrs. Arthur O. Choate
          Francis P. Dodge
          Miss Emma R. Hall
          Mrs. Juliette Low
          Mrs. V. Everit Macy
          Mrs. William McAdoo
          Mrs. Robert G. Mead
          Miss Llewellyn Parsons
          Mrs. Harold Irving Pratt
          Mrs. Theodore H. Price
          Mrs. W. N. Rothschild
          Mrs. George W. Stevens
          Mrs. James J. Storrow
          Mrs. Charles Welch
          Mrs. Percy H. Williams


PERMANENT COMMITTEES

  EDUCATION   _Chairman_ Miss Sarah Louise Arnold
              _Secretary_ Dr. Louise Stevens Bryant

  PUBLICATION _Chairman_ Mrs. Josephine Daskam Bacon
              _Secretary_ Dr. Louise Stevens Bryant

  FIELD       _Chairman_ Mrs. Robert G. Mead
              _Secretary_ Miss Mary C. Clendenin

  STANDARDS   _Chairman_ Miss Llewellyn Parsons
              _Secretary_ Miss Mary C. Clendenin

  BUSINESS    _Chairman_ Mrs. Percy Williams
              _Secretary_ Mr. Sidney Monroe MacDowell

  FINANCE     _Chairman_ Mrs. Nicholas F. Brady

  ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON BUSINESS AND FINANCE
              _Chairman_ Mr. Frederic W. Allen



INDEX


  A
  Achievements                                   125,
    chart record for,                            126
  A Day in Camp                                174ff
  American Red Cross                              92
  Apple cake                                     163,
    slump,                                       113
  Apples, fried                                  163
  Application form                                56
  Around the Campfire                            137
  "A Slack Rag of Canvas"                         18

  B
  Bacon                                          164
  Basins                                          67
  Basketry                                        55
  Bath houses                                     83
  Bathing place                                   85
  Bathing suits                                 82ff
  Beans, baked                                   164
  Bedding                                         76
  Beds                                          64ff
  Beef, shriveled                                165
  Before the Campfire is Lighted                 103
  Beets                                          169
  Beginners in swimming                           85
  "Be Prepared", the Signalling Class            125
  "Between Wood and Field"                        10
  Biscuit                                        161
  Blankets                           48, 64, 65, 130
  Board rate                                      62
  Boats and boating                    79ff, 83, 102
  Boiled salad dressing                          168
  Books on Camps and Camping                   178ff
  Bread Line, the                                 58
  Breads                                         161
  Bryant, Louise Stevens                           7
  Builders, the--House Built by Girl Scouts      118
  Buoys                                           87
  "Business End of Camp Hall"                     29
  "By the Shining Big Sea Water"                  25
  Byron, Lord                                      9

  C
  Cabbage                                        169
  Cabins, of wood, canvas                         37
  Camp Budget                                   58ff
    All other                                     60
    Boats                                         60
    Canteen                                       60
    Cartage                                       60
    Casual labor                                  60
    Equipment                                     59
    Motor upkeep                                  60
    Opening and closing                           60
    Printing                                      60
    Rental or purchase price of land              59
    Salaries                                      60
    Stamps                                        60
    Storage                                       60
    Telephone                                     60
    Transportation                                59
    Wages                                         60
  Camp canteen                                    54
  Camp closing                                    47
  Camp Directors and Counsellors                15ff
  Camper, the                                   22ff
  Campfires                               121, 131ff;
    to build in rain                             134
  Camp foods                                     160
  Camp, for single Scout troop                    33
  Camp house, the                               28ff
  Camp Health and Camp Safety                  140ff
  Camp implements                                 69
  Camp Living Room                                27
  Camp log                                        55
  Camp Menus and Recipes                       157ff
  Camp Post Office                               175
  Camp Program                                  93ff
  Camp Records and Accounts                     50ff
  Camp Regulations                                39
  Camp Sanitation                                140
  Camp sings                                   113ff
  Camp songs                                   114ff
  Candles                                         71
  Candy                                           76
  Canoes                                   87, 122ff
  Canteen                                       76ff
  Canteen record                                  53
  Carrots                                        170
  Cereals                                        161
  Chaucer                                         51
  Cheese and eggs                                165
  Cheese cloth                                    73
  Cleaning squad                                  65
  Closing Camp                                    47
  Clove Hitch                                     42
  Cocoa                                          112
  Codfish, creamed                               165
  "Colorado, In high and dry"                     20
  Cooking utensils, for campers                  133
  Corn                                           170
  Cornmeal                                       161
  Counsellors, camp                             15ff
  Crafts and occupations                         108
  Cream sauce                                    168
  Crew for Life Saving Corps                      87
  Crib                                          79ff
  Cucumbers                                      167

  D
  Daily program for Girl Scout camp               97
  Dancing                                      106ff
  Deschutes River Fishing Trip                 135ff
  Desserts                                     163ff
  Directors, camp                               15ff
  Dishes, washing                                 45,
    for kitchen                                 67ff
  Disinfectants for latrines, for garbage pits  143
  Dives                                        100ff
  Donations                                       57
  Double boiler                                   72
  Dried fruit                                    163
  Dumplings                                      162

  E
  Eats                                            80
  Eggs                                           165
  Entertainments and diversions                112ff
  Equipment for:
    boating                                     79ff
    general                                     64ff
    personal                                    74ff
    swimming                                      79
    waterfront protection                         85

  F
  Feeding the Multitude                          152
  Field Day Program                               55
  Fire extinguishers                              42
  Fires, out door                                 29
  Fireplace                                       34
  Fire prevention                                149
  First Aides: Several Kinds of bandages         131
  First Aid, essential supplies                  148
    house                                        151
  Food, for hiking                               129
  Foreword                                         7
  Flatware for table                              68
  Float                                           83
  Floor Plan for Mess Hall                        35
  Floor, tent with                                32,
    without                                   20, 33
  Flowers                                         74
  French dressing                                168
  Furnishings                                   69ff

  G
  Games                                    72, 105ff
  Garbage, disposal of                           134,
    trench for                                 142ff
  General Camp Activities                       98ff
  General routine from opening to closing camp  40ff
  "Girl Scout Hayseeds and the Stack they Made"  139
  Girl Scouts' Laws and Promise                    6
  "Good Morrow, Lord Sun"                         90
  Goodnight story                                 88
  Grappling irons                                 87

  H
  Handbook of Girl Scouts       7, 93, 112, 179, 180
  Handcrafts                                     108
  Health Certificate                            51ff
  Health Winner, the, in camp                  149ff
  Hikes,                                       127ff;
    daytime                                      127,
    week end                                     128,
    overnight                                    130
  Horseback riding                               107
  Housekeeping squad                              94
  Housekeeping outdoors                         43ff

  I
  Ice box                                       36ff
  Identification tag                              57
  Implements                                      69
  Indian pudding                                 164
  Individual account card                         57
  Insurance                                       49

  K
  Keeping of records                            55ff
  Kidney and bacon                               166
  Kitchen                                   28ff, 34
  Kitchen furnishings                           69ff
  Kitchen stove                                   49
  Komac stew                                     166


  L
  Lamps                                           67
  Land drill                                  71, 80
  Lanterns                                  48, 70ff
  Latrines, making, care of                    145ff
  Lavengro                                       177
  Laws, of Girl Scouts                             6
  Laying the fire                                 86
  Lean-tos                          33, 105, 110, 112
  "Lean-to Going Up"                              110
  Lettuce                                        167
  Lice (head) to remove                          150
  Life boats                                    86ff
  Life Saving Corps                               85
     Red Cross, Women's                           85
  Lighting                                      70ff
  Linen                                           72
  Location                                      13ff
  Log houses                                    34ff

  M
  Macaroni, with cheese and tomato               166
  Making camp on overnight hike                   78
  Master of Aquatics                            85ff
  McClure, Emily                                   7
  Meats, fish and meat substitutes             164ff
  Menus for overnight hike                       173
  Mess Hall, tent                                 23,
    floor plan for                                35
  Mills, Captain Fred C.,                      7, 85
  Miscellaneous records                           55
  Monarchs of all they Survey                     92
  Morale, camp                                  22ff
  Motto, Girl Scout                                6

  N
  Nearly Finished                                122
  Newspapers                                    73ff

  O
  Oatmeal                                        162
  Oil heater, Standard                            36
  Onions                                         170
  "Over the Top"                                 141

  P
  Packages for Scouts                             77
  Pack for hiking                                129
  Peas                                           170
  Personality                                     19
  Personal Equipment                              74
  Personnel, of Life Saving Corps                 88
  Pests                                          143
  Petty cash record                               53
  Physical examination of Girl Scout              49
  Pillows                                     48, 67,
    cases                                         72
  Pitching tents                                40ff
  Planning Committee                            11ff
  Planning for camp                              9ff
  Plays, for use in camp                         178
  Play, place in program                          93
  Potatoes                                     170ff
  Program for housekeeping squad                  95
  Program, camp                                 93ff
  Promise, Girl Scout                              6
  Provisions,                                   47ff,
    care of                                      154
  Provisioning                                   152
  Publications of Girl Scouts                    180

  R
  Recipes                                      161ff
  Record of provisions                          53ff
  Record tag                                      50
  Red Cross Life Saving Corps                     85
  Regulations for Camp                            39
  Religious Policy                              16ff
  Rice pudding                                   164
  Ring buoys                                      87
  Row boats                                       87
  Rowing                                          75
  Rules for swimming                              91

  S
  Salads                                       167ff
  Sardines and tomato sauce                      167
  Sauces and dressings                         168ff
  Scalloped tomatoes                            172
  "Scouting for Girls"                             7
  Scout Laws                                   6, 94
  Scout Promise                                6, 94
  Scrambled eggs                                 165
  Scrubbing up Before Meals                       48
  Serving table                                   41
  Setting out for the water hike                  84
  Sheets                                          72
  Shoes, for hiking                              128
  Site                                          14ff
  Slab House                                      33
  Slogan, Girl Scout                               6
  Soups                                          169
  Special Delivery                               175
  Spinach                                        171
  Sports                                          99
  Squad, housekeeping                           94ff
  Squash                                         171
  Stew, Irish                                    167
  Store closet                                     36
  Stove                                         69ff
  String beans                                   171
  Suits, bathing                                  82
  Sun Clock                                       94
  Sunday dinner                                   22
  Supervision of bathing                        91ff
  Swimmers, equipment for                 82ff, 85ff
  Swimming crib                         69, 79ff, 81
  Swimming strokes                               100
  Swimming test                                   90

  T
  Table manners                                   46
  Tag for Scouts arriving in camp                 38
  Team Work In Potato Paring                      44
  "Tent Green"                                    12
  Tents                                         28ff
    chart for                                   50ff
    conical                                   12, 30
    floors                                    16, 32
    mess                                      28, 58
    pitching                                  32, 40
    pyramidal                                     30
    size                                        30ff
    taking down                                   47
    wall                                10, 18, 30ff
    without floors                                33
  The Morning After                               82
  The Town Pump                                   46
  Toast                                          162
  Toilet accessories                              76
  To Keep the Home Fires Burning                 133
  Tomatoes                                     172ff
    salad                                        168
    sauce                                        169
  Top of the Morning                             100
  Tower, for bathing                              86
  Training, life saving                           89
  Transportation                                12ff
  Trash, disposition of                    72, 140ff
  Twin Lake Council Application Form              56

  U
  "Under the Greenwood Tree"                       2
  Underwear                                       76

  V
  Vegetables                                    69ff
  Victorious Nine                                179
  Volley ball                                    146

  W
  Wall tent                                   18, 32
  Wash house                                    37ff
  Washing dishes                                  45
  Water front protection                        85ff
  Water glasses                                   87
  Water sports day, program for                104ff
  Water supply                                 144ff
  Weighing scales                                 72
  Well built floors                               16
  Women's Life Saving Corps, American Red Cross  101
  Woodcraft                                    109ff
    camp discipline                              112
    camp site                                    111
    trail making                                 111
    trip planning                                111
  Wood cutters                                   105
  Wilkeson, Catherine                              7
  "Wise Virgins"                                  67



THE GIRL SCOUT SHOP


[Illustration: Long Coat "The Combination Dress"]

[Illustration: Shirt Waist and Bloomers]

[Illustration: Short Coat and Skirt]


SCOUT UNIFORMS AND EQUIPMENT

Operating under National supervision the Girl Scout Supply Department
carries a complete and attractive line of equipment for girls. It is the
purpose of this branch to give the Scout her equipment at lowest
possible cost. Official equipment is sold to members of Registered
Troops on formal presentation by Scout of her voucher signed by her
Captain.

Price lists will be furnished upon application and money must be sent
with order as the equipment is handled on a strictly cash basis. Owing
to the irregularity of the market these prices will change from time to
time but a revised price list will be printed every two months until the
market is more stable.

Sizes should be given when ordering uniforms; this applies also to hats
and belts. Find out from jeweler size of ring needed.

  =Girl Scout National Supply Department=
  =189 Lexington Avenue=          =New York City=



Special Instructions for Ordering Equipment


=Order Blanks=

          These will be furnished you free of charge upon
          application and are specially prepared forms which
          make ordering easy. Give your full name and
          address and if ordering from a local council be
          sure to give the name of your council and then
          your own name.


=Scout Voucher=

          This is a form to be used by the individual Scout
          when purchasing equipment. It is the certification
          by the Captain that the Scout is entitled to buy
          equipment, and no equipment can be sold except on
          presentation of this voucher.


=How to Obtain Correct Hat Size=

          A size 7 hat measures 21-5/8" in circumference
          inside, or the actual distance around the child's
          head. For each 3/8" in head size order hat 1/8
          size larger.


=Flag Orders=

          It requires at least 10 days after receipt of
          order to obtain flag from manufacturer. Be sure to
          write plainly the exact lettering you wish.


=Prices of Girl Scout Troop Flags=

        =Size=               =Material=      =Price=
  =No. 1 22" x 36"=       =Cotton and Wool=  =$ 2.50=
  =No. 2 2-1/2 x 4 ft.=       =Wool=           =6.35=
  =No. 3 3' x 5'=              "               =7.35=
  =No. 4 4' x 6'=              "               =9.10=
  =No. 5 5' x 8'=              "              =10.65=
  =No. 6 6' x 10'=             "              =20.00=


=LETTERING=

  =No. 1--10c per letter=
  =No. 2--13c= "     "
  =No. 3--15c= "     "
  =No. 4--16c= "     "
  =No. 5--20c= "     "
  =No. 6--25c= "     "


=STAFFS=

  =Plain--1/2" x 8ft--30c.=
  =Jointed 1" x 8 ft--With Eagle for American Flag,=      =$4.90=
  =Jointed 1" x 8 ft., With Solid Spear for Troop Flag,=  =$3.20=

     =Girl Scout National Supply Department=
  =189 Lexington Avenue=           =New York City=



[Illustration]

What Do You Read?

If You are a Girl Scout You Read--and Need

=THE AMERICAN GIRL=

=A Magazine for Girl Scouts and Girls who Love Scouting=

_=It Contains The Only=_

          Up-to-date account of Girl Scout doings. You can
          read of Scout camps in the North, scout parties in
          the South, scout mountain climbing expeditions in
          the West, and scout hikes in the East. These are
          all described delightfully by the scouts
          themselves.


_=As For The Stories=_

          They are carefully selected with an eye to real
          fun and excitement. "Regular girls" like "regular
          stories." The American Girl remembers that and has
          one or more good ones every month.


_=And That Isn't All=_

          Every month there is a page of foreign scout news.
          Did you know there were Girl Scouts in
          Czechoslovakia? Well there are, and you can read
          about them and also about the Girl Scouts in
          England, France, Italy and Belgium.


_=There Are New Ideas, Too=_

That are likely to be just what you are looking for. The Party Page has
a suggestion for a scout entertainment every month. And there are
hundreds of hints to help you with your camping, hiking and other scout
activities.


  =THE AMERICAN GIRL=
  _15 cents single copy; $1.50 per year_
  =189 Lexington Ave.=    =New York City=
  _=SCOUT FUN=_ -- _=SCOUT NEWS=_ -- _=SCOUT HELPS=_



[Illustration]


LEFAX

FACTS ON LEAVES

(=Loose Leaf=)

Lefax represents positively the last word in record-keeping.

Here are found data sheets covering all of the important scientific
branches, as well as sheets of general information.

Lefax blank forms take care of your own notes and data. They are
reasonable in price and cover every possible field.

Lefax Monthly Magazine is printed Lefax size and is so arranged that any
article may be instantly removed and incorporated in your records.

The Lefax page is a convenient size, 6-3/4 x 3-3/4 inches.

The Lefax Filing Index which appears on all sheets makes systematic
filing easy. All the data sheets are also classified according to the
Dewey-Decimal System. Full particulars will be gladly sent on request.

  =LEFAX, Inc., 9th and Sansom Streets, Philadelphia, Pa.=
  SERENO STETSON, Special Girl Scout Representative,
  _511 W., 113th Street, New York City_

=Note=--The Constitution and By-Laws of the Girl Scouts have been
printed in the Lefax form. Have you seen this booklet?



=Girl Scout Shoes=


We make the accepted GIRL SCOUT SHOE--Broad Toe--Low Heel and Flexible.
This shoe has also been approved by the National Board of the Y.W.C.A.
Write us and we will see that you are supplied.

          PRESTON B. KEITH SHOE CO.
          BROCKTON, MASS.
          (Campello Station)



          Specialists in Scout Printing

          CLARK & FRITTS, INC.
          229 WEST 28th STREET
          NEW YORK CITY

Printers of the Girl Scouts Handbook, "Scouting for Girls" and the
Official Organ of the Scouts, "The American Girl"



          SIGMUND-EISNER CO.
          RED BANK, N. J.

[Illustration]

          OFFICIAL NATIONAL OUTFITTERS TO GIRL SCOUTS, Inc.


TENTS, BLANKETS KITCHENWARE, ETC.

At present the Girl Scout Shop cannot directly supply general camp
equipment, but a list of firms handling approved forms of tents, sport
goods, clothes, bedding and other furnishings will be sent upon request.

       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired.

As italic text is indicated by _underscores_, bold text is surrounded by
=equal signs=.

Page 9, Table of Contents, "182" changed to "183" because page 182 is
blank and the index starts on 183.

Page 16, word "to" added to text (personal feelings to one)

Page 18, "in" changed to "is" (but this is unusual)

Page 33, "n" changed to "in" (given in a later)

Page 84, "epuipment" changed to "equipment" (approved equipment for
camps)

Page 107, repeated word "the" removed from text original read (the the
supply is too limited)

Page 115, "troooping" changed to "trooping" (The Scouts are trooping)

Page 124, "cilivized" changed to "civilized" (live in a civilized town)

Page 128, "consellor" changed to "counsellor" (should one counsellor
assume)

Page 163, "suace" changed to "sauce" (sauce. Blue berries,
huckleberries)

Page 164, "navvy" changed to "navy" (beans or navy beans)

Page 168, "suace" changed to "sauce" (Cream sauce is used)

Page 185, Index, "Scallopped" changed to "Scalloped" (Scalloped
tomatoes)

Page 186, Index, "Storecloset" changed to "Store closet" (Store closet)





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