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´╗┐Title: Ritual Conformity - Interpretations of the Rubrics of the Prayer-Book
Author: Unknown
Language: English
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At a Conference of some friends interested in the subject of Ritual,
held on January 17, 1880, the following propositions were, amongst
others, agreed to:

I. That the evil of unnecessary Diversity in Ritual, as practised
in various Churches aiming at the maintenance of Catholic doctrine
and usage in the Church of England, is real and great.

II. That an effort to moderate it should be attempted, resting
mainly on the united opinion of some of those who have given
special attention to the theory and practice of Ritual, in their
private capacity of Students or Parish Priests.

III. That the effort should take the form of a body of Comments upon
the Rubrics of the Book of Common Prayer, and that these Comments
should include cautions against practices which are infractions of
the law and usage of the Church of England.

With the view of carrying these propositions into effect, it was
arranged that a series of meetings should be held; and the Vicar
of All Saints, Margaret-street, kindly provided a room at the
clergy-house for the meetings of the Conference.

Those who had met in the first instance were duly summoned, and
others were invited to join them. The meetings were held at first
on two consecutive days in alternate weeks, (since some of the
members came from a considerable distance). Latterly, in order to
expedite the work, meetings were held on three consecutive days in
alternate weeks. In all, forty-eight meetings were held between
January 17, 1880, and July 13, 1881.

It was thought possible that by the co-operation of several minds,
information might be collected from sources not commonly accessible,
and perhaps hardly within the reach of any one individual. Among
the members of the Conference also were those who had had experience
of parish-work, as well as those who had devoted time and attention
to historical enquiry into the origin and meaning of the Rubrics of
the Prayer-Book, or who had made ancient Liturgies their special
study: some, it may be added, combined these various qualifications.
A hope therefore was entertained, as the second proposition implies,
that by considering on very wide grounds (both practical and
historical), and not from any one point of view, the various
divergencies of ritual practice, some agreement might be arrived
at even on the most controverted points.

This hope has been realized. It was found that points which
seemed at first to afford no basis on which agreement was at
all probable, were settled, after long discussion, almost (if not
quite) unanimously; but this involved expenditure of time, and
much investigation into matters on which existing text-books were
often silent.

With regard to the actual diversities in ritual which came under
the attention of the Conference, some appeared to be such direct
infractions of the Rubrics that no explanation of the Rubrics could
make their irregularity more evident. Others seemed to arise from
well-meant attempts to interpret the Rubrics. These last formed
the chief subject of the labours of the Conference.

The main line of procedure laid down was a true and loyal adherence
to the spirit of the Prayer-Book. A mere literal interpretation of
the Rubric was found in many cases to be insufficient. Even if the
existing Prayer-Book had been composed for inaugurating some new
religious system, it would be scarcely reasonable to depend upon
the abstract meaning of the words employed, without any reference
to the circumstances under which the book had been written. But
when we remember that the Prayer-Book of 1662 was the last of
several revisions of the original English Prayer-Book of 1549,
which was itself avowedly based upon the Ancient Liturgies, and
carried on the existing and ancient worship of the Church of
England (with such reformation as was considered needful), no mode
of interpretation could be more misleading if rigorously insisted
on, or so likely to cause error in practice.

The Prayer-Book, however, in spite of the Revision of 1662, retains
many vestiges of the foreign Protestant influence, which affected
the Revision of 1552. With these the Conference have attempted to
deal in a loyal spirit. However much they may be regretted,
Churchmen are bound to accept them. For it must be clearly
understood that nothing was further from the intention of the
Conference, than to attempt Revision. So far from this, it was
hoped by some that a careful series of notes explaining the true
character of disputed Rubrics might go some way to allay the
present agitation for change.

The Conference cannot be blind to the conviction that they have to
face much modern prejudice. On the one hand there is still rife in
the Church of England the Puritan spirit, which condemns in one and
the same category things essentially Roman, and things which are
really primitive, but which have been retained by Rome. On the
other hand, there undoubtedly exists an occasional reaction from
this Puritan spirit, which has produced a prejudice in favour of
things--whether primitive or not--simply because they are Roman.
The Conference have felt that to yield either to one or the other
prejudice was not the right way of dealing with the Prayer-Book.

They have also been brought face to face with what are called
"Legal decisions" on some questions of Ritual. Apart from the fact
that the courts have given directly opposite decisions on the same
question, and have given reasons in one case inconsistent with the
reasons given for their decision in another; apart also from
the fact that these are chiefly decisions of secular courts in
purely spiritual matters; the Conference have been precluded from
entertaining them, as guides or as helps, in consequence of the
courts having generally acted upon principles of interpretation
entirely different from those which the Conference had adopted.

They have, moreover, found themselves in opposition to much modern
practice, originating in carelessness and neglect in the due
performance of the Services of the Church during past generations,
but alien to the spirit of those Services, though often mistaken
for their exponent.

The Conference have had to investigate the origin and to consider
the meaning of many practices, which appear either to be enjoined
or implied in the existing Rubrics, and have, in the light of these
investigations, set down unflinchingly what they believed to be
the true interpretation of these Rubrics. At the same time, they
have not shut their eyes to ancient customs, which, though less
prominently connected with the Rubrics, appear to have held on
concurrently with the Prayer-Book; being consistent with its
principles, and not authoritatively condemned either by name or
by implication.

The Comments, which have been the result of their discussions, the
Conference have printed, in the hope that they will be received by
others as suggestions towards the solution of difficulties which
must press upon all who desire to obey the spirit as well as the
letter of the Prayer-Book.

The entire adherence of any one to all the interpretations here
offered is not to be expected. Indeed, those members of the
Conference who have had experience in parish-work, are well aware
that in comparatively few villages it is possible to carry out
the fuller Ritual which the Prayer-Book admits: this can only
be successfully adopted in large towns, or where endowments are
provided, or other resources are available, for sustaining a high

It should be said, in conclusion, that amongst the members of the
Conference, some have taken part in the work to a greater extent
than others, and are consequently more directly responsible for
the Comments, and able to give a fuller assent to them. It was
impossible to consult every member upon each individual point.
All that was done to ensure the expression of the general sense
of the Conference, was to determine to insert no comment which was
not approved of by two-thirds of the members present. Practically,
it was found that in very few cases a formal division was called
for, the agreement to the final form of the comments being generally


      B. COMPTON, _Chairman_.

   Wm. Jno. Blew.        H. G. Morse.
   J. H. Blunt.          James Parker.
   Wm. Cooke.            Thos. W. Perry.
   C. L. Courtenay.      James Baden Powell.
   J. Fuller Russell.    R. F. Wilson.
   R. F. Littledale.     Chr. Wordsworth.



1. It hath been the wisdom of the Church of _England_, &c.

It is important to bear in mind, in interpreting the prefaces and
rubrics of the Prayer-Book, that they were written at various
times, and that their language is not generally the current
language of our own day, but the technical language of the times
at which they were respectively written.

The first section, headed "The Preface," was added in 1662 to the
second, entitled "Concerning the Service of the Church," which is
the original Preface to the Prayer-Book of 1549, with some important
additions and slight omissions made in 1552.

The "Order how the Psalter is appointed to be read," dates mainly
from 1549.

The "Order how the rest of Holy Scripture is appointed to be
read," with the Tables of Proper Psalms, and Lessons, and the
Calendar--originally forming part of the book of 1549--was adopted
with slight alteration in 1662, but was much varied in 1871.


2. There was never any thing by the wit of man so well devised, &c.

It seems that, having regard to the circumstances under which this
rubric was framed, the 'diversity to be appeased,' and the 'doubts
to be resolved,' concerned only the manner of saying and singing
the Morning and Evening Prayer, not the manner of administration
of the Sacraments or other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church. Nor
were any 'parties' contemplated as likely to 'doubt, or diversely
take anything,' except the clergy. The contemporaneous Latin
translation of the English Prayer-Book expressly confines this
provision of resort to the Bishop of the diocese to questions
arising _inter ministros_. The Bishop of the Diocese was the proper
person to resort to, both on account of his sacred office, which
gave him authority, and also as being at that time the person
likely to be best informed on questions of this kind, as the
Epistle, and Gospel for Quinquagesima Sunday (with the addition of
the Collect of Ash Wednesday), but the Scotch Prayer-Book directs
the use of the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel for Ash Wednesday only;
and Bishop Cosin directed the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel for
Quinquagesima Sunday to serve only until Ash Wednesday.

When more than one Collect is appointed for the day, by reason of
the coincidence of Holy Days, the question arises which Holy Day
should take precedence.

Coincidence includes (_a_) occurrence (i.e. the falling on the
same day of two occasions having special services), and (_b_)
concurrence, when the one falls on the morrow of the other.

By taking precedence is meant, that when two Holy Days occur, the
Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, the Proper Psalms and Lessons (if
any) of the superior day should be used.

But in certain cases of occurrence, noticed in the following Table,
a memorial of the inferior day should be made, by using the Collect
appointed for it in addition to, and after, the Collect for the
superior day, at all services at which the Collect for the day is
to be said.

In other cases, the services of the inferior day must be entirely
omitted for that year, or transferred to the morrow, or some
subsequent date, in accordance with ancient custom. The Prayer-Book
gives no directions for such transference, but the total loss for
the year of such Festivals as the Annunciation of the Blessed
Virgin, or of the Dedication and the Title of a Church, would be
much to be regretted.

The following Table exhibits the precedence of Holy Days:

  First Sunday in Advent takes precedence of St. Andrew's Day.

  Fourth Sunday in Advent takes precedence of St. Thomas' Day.

  St. Stephen's Day              |
  St. John the Evangelist's Day   \  take precedence of First
  Holy Innocents' Day             /  Sunday after Christmas.
  The Circumcision               |

  The Epiphany takes precedence of Second Sunday after

  The Conversion of St. Paul takes precedence of Third Sunday
  after Epiphany, but memorial is to be made of the Sunday.

  The Purification takes precedence of Fourth Sunday after
  Epiphany, also of Septuagesima, Sexagesima, Quinquagesima
  Sundays, of which three Sundays memorial is to be made.

  Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Quinquagesima Sundays take
  precedence of Conversion of St. Paul and St. Matthias' Day.

  Ash Wednesday takes precedence of St. Matthias' Day.

  Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Sundays in Lent take precedence
  of the Annunciation.

  The services of the season from Evening Prayer on Wednesday in
  Holy Week till Saturday in Easter Week, both inclusive, take
  precedence of the Annunciation.

  First Sunday after Easter takes precedence of the Annunciation,
  St. Mark's Day, and SS. Philip and James' Day.

                              | take precedence of Second,
  St. Mark's Day,            /  Third, Fourth, and Fifth Sundays
  SS. Philip and James' Day  \  after Easter.

  Ascension Day takes precedence of SS. Philip and James' Day.

  The Services of the season from Whitsun Eve till Saturday in
  Whitsun Week, both inclusive, take precedence of St. Barnabas' Day.

  Trinity Sunday takes precedence of St. Barnabas' Day.

  St. Barnabas' Day, the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, St.
  Peter's Day, St. James' Day, St. Bartholomew's Day, St. Matthew's
  Day, St. Michael and All Angels' Day, St. Luke's Day, SS. Simon
  and Jude's Day, All Saints' Day, take precedence of all Sundays
  after Trinity.

  The Feasts of the Dedication and Title of a Church rank as
  principal festivals; but may not be observed on Advent Sunday,
  Christmas Eve, Christmas Day, Epiphany, between the Fifth Sunday
  in Lent and Low Sunday inclusive, Ascension Day, or from Whitsun
  Eve to Trinity Sunday inclusive.

Octaves are not mentioned by name in the Prayer-Book, but are
implied in the rubrics preceding the Proper Prefaces of the
Communion Office. It has been suggested by the Convocation of
Canterbury that the Collects for St. Michael's and All Saints'
Days should be repeated on the seven days following those days
respectively. Such additions would be in the nature of new Octaves.
But the first of these days had no Octave in the Sarum or the Roman
Use: the second has an Octave in the Roman Use, but had none in the
Sarum Use. If any such additional Octaves are introduced, the
Festival of the Epiphany at least should have this distinction.
A general permission might also be given to individual churches
to keep the Octaves of their title or dedication.


To be read at Morning and Evening Prayer, on the Sundays, and other
Holy-days throughout the Year.




The Black-letter days, especially those that commemorate Scriptural
persons and events, should be observed if possible. They may be
marked by sermons and suitable hymns.


For the Moveable and Immoveable Feasts; together with the Days of
Fasting and Abstinence, through the whole Year.

11. _RULES_ to know when the Moveable Feasts and Holy-days begin.

12. _A TABLE_ of all the Feasts that are to be observed in the
Church of England throughout the Year.

  All Sundays in the Year.
            | The Circumcision of our Lord
            |   JESUS CHRIST.
            | The Epiphany.
            | The Conversion of S. _Paul_.
            | The Purification of the Blessed
            |   Virgin.
  The       | S. _Matthias_ the Apostle.
  Days     /  The Annunciation of the
  of the   \    Blessed Virgin.
  Feasts    | S. _Mark_ the Evangelist.
  of        | S. _Philip_ and S. _James_ the
            |   Apostles.
            | The Ascension of our Lord
            |   JESUS CHRIST.
            | S. _Barnabas_.
            | The Nativity of S. _John_ Bapt.

            | S. _Peter_ the Apostle.
            | S. _James_ the Apostle.
            | S. _Bartholomew_ the Apostle.
            | S. _Matthew_ the Apostle.
            | S. _Michael_ and All Angels.
            | S. _Luke_ the Evangelist.
  The       | S. _Simon_ and S. _Jude_,
  Days     /    Apostles.
  of the   \  All Saints.
  Feasts    | S. _Andrew_ the Apostle.
  of        | S. _Thomas_ the Apostle.
            | The Nativity of our Lord.
            | S. _Stephen_ the Martyr.
            | S. _John_ the Evangelist.
            | The Holy Innocents.

  _Monday_ and _Tuesday_ in _Easter-week_. _Monday_ and _Tuesday_
  in   _Whitsun-week_.

13. _A TABLE_ of the Vigils, Fasts, and Days of Abstinence, to be
observed in the Year.

            | The Nativity of our Lord.
            | The Purification of the Blessed
  The       |   Virgin _Mary_.
  Evens    /  The Annunciation of the
  or       \    Blessed Virgin.
  Vigils    | Easter-Day.
  before    | Ascension-Day.
            | Pentecost.
            | S. _Matthias_.

            | S. _John Baptist_.
            | S. _Peter_.
  The       | S. _James_.
  Evens    /  S. _Bartholomew_.
  or       \  S. _Matthew_.
  Vigils    | S. _Simon_ and S. _Jude_.
  before    | S. _Andrew_.
            | S. _Thomas_.
            | All Saints.

Note, That if any of these Feast-Days fall upon a _Monday_, then
the Vigil or Fast-Day shall be kept upon the _Saturday_, and not
upon the _Sunday_ next before it.

This Table includes several days not anciently observed as
Fast-days, and refers to private observance and not to public

When a Saint's Day which is preceded by a Vigil falls on a Monday,
though the fast of the Vigil is to be kept on the Saturday, yet
the Collect for the Saint's Day is not to be said on the Saturday
evening, but on the evening of Sunday, in accordance with Rubric

_DAYS_ of Fasting, or Abstinence.

   I. The Forty Days of Lent.
                                           | The First _Sunday_ in
                                           | Lent.
  II. The Ember-Days at the Four Seasons, /  The Feast of _Pentecost_.
        being the _Wednesday_, _Friday_,  \  _September_ 14, and
        and _Saturday_ after               | _December_ 13.
 III. The Three Rogation-Days, being _Monday_, _Tuesday_, and
        _Wednesday_, before _Holy Thursday_, or the _Ascension_ of
         our Lord.
  IV. All the _Fridays_ in the Year, except Christmas-Day.

The word 'or' implies a distinction in the mode of observing these
days: Nos. I. and II. in the 'Table,' viz., the Forty Days of Lent
and the Ember-days, are days of _Fasting:_ Nos. III. and IV., viz.,
the three Rogation-days and Fridays, except Christmas-Day, are
days of _Abstinence_.

14. _A CERTAIN SOLEMN DAY_, for which a particular Service is

The Twentieth Day of _June_, being the Day on which her Majesty
began her happy Reign.




15. The Morning and Evening Prayer shall be used in the accustomed
Place of the Church, Chapel, or Chancel; except it shall be
otherwise determined by the Ordinary of the Place. And the Chancels
shall remain as they have done in times past.

The direction given in the first clause of this rubric was introduced
in 1559, in correction of the order of 1552, which had enabled the
Minister to choose any place in which the people could best hear.
It was retained in 1662, and in reading the clause with the second,
it appears distinctly to point to the ancient use, when the
accustomed place for the minister was within the chancel.

The direction that the Chancels shall remain as in times past,
dates from 1552, and must therefore refer to arrangements before
that time. It seems also definitely to refer to the retaining the
screen, and the steps, as interpreted by the order of 1561. Hence
no fixtures may be introduced, such as pews, monuments, &c., nor
any alteration made in the furniture or ornaments of the Chancels,
which will interfere with the convenience of the Minister and
Clerks in the celebration of Holy Communion, or other offices of
the Church.

16. And here is to be noted, that such Ornaments of the Church, and
of the Ministers thereof, at all Times of their Ministration, shall
be retained, and be in use, as were in this Church of England, by
the Authority of Parliament, in the Second Year of the Reign of
King Edward the Sixth.

This paragraph of the rubric is essentially taken from the Act of
Uniformity of 1559. In the ecclesiastical language of that day, the
word 'ornaments' technically includes everything which is connected
with the purposes of the consecrated building beyond the mere fabric
of the building, and with the dress of the officiating Minister
beyond his usual dress in secular life.

In the Act of 1559, the intention was to take as the basis of the
Prayer-Book then authorized the Book of the fifth and sixth years
of Edward VI. (1552); but to adopt the ornaments of another period,
viz. of the second, not of the fifth year of Edward VI.[a]

The ornaments of the second year are those which were intended to
be, and were actually, used under the Prayer-Book of 1549. Whatever
question may arise about other ornaments, there can be no question
about those prescribed by that Book, as well as those implied in it.
As to those which were not prescribed by, or implied in, that book,
they must be determined by the existing usage of the time, subject
to such modifications as were implied by the Injunctions, or other
authoritative documents, up to the year 1548.

The following ornaments are prescribed by the Book of 1549.

  1. Altar.            9. Surplice.
  2. Chalice.         10. Hood.
  3. Paten.           11. Albe.
  4. Corporas.        12. Vestment[b].
  5. Font.            13. Tunicle.
  6. Poor Man's Box.  14. Rochet.
  7. Bell.            15. Cope.
  8. Pulpit.          16. Pastoral Staff.

This rubric, if construed to include only these ornaments, would
exclude many things which common sense and custom have sanctioned;
and if the doctrine that "omission is prohibition" be insisted
on, would actually shut out organs or harmoniums, hangings on
doorways, seats for priests, clerks, and people, stoves, hassocks,
pulpit-cloths or pulpit-cushions, pews, Christmas decorations, and
the use of the pulpit or bell except on Ash Wednesday; it would
forbid any bishop to officiate publicly on any occasion without
a cope or vestment and pastoral staff. On the other hand, there
seems to be a limit to laxity in construing the rubric, and that
it cannot, unless this laxity be strained beyond the bounds of
reason, be taken to admit the substitution of other ornaments for
those which the rubric enjoins; such as the use of a bason in,
or instead of the Church font, of a common bottle for the Holy
Communion, of a black gown instead of an authorised vesture in
the pulpit during the Communion Service, or of foreign forms of
surplices and vestments instead of the English ones.

In general, the more nearly the ornaments of the Church and
Minister, and the use thereof, are conformed to the English,
usage in the early years of the reign of Edward VI., the better;
as marking the continuity of the English Church, and avoiding the
imputation of adopting at second hand the ornaments and usages
of foreign communions, whether Belgian, French, Italian, or Swiss.

Nevertheless, the non-user of any legal ornaments, such as the
Eucharistic Vestments, in any old Church, for a long period, seems
to be a valid plea against any absolute obligation of sudden
restoration in that Church, when the communicants do not desire
them to be restored.

With regard to the colours of the Priest's vestments, and of
other coloured ornaments of the Church and Minister, there were
variations in different Churches.

In the rubric of Sarum, which seems to have been regarded as a
standard of English usage up to the beginning of the reign of
Edward VI., _red_ was directed to be used on all Sundays in the
year, except in the Easter season and the Ascension festival (up
to Whitsun Eve), and except on any other festival marked by the
use of white, which takes precedence of the particular Sunday.
In these cases the colour would be _white_.

Also on the Circumcision the colour would be White.
     On the Epiphany           "      "      White.
     On the Conversion of St. Paul    "      White.
     On the Purification       "      "      White.
     On St. Matthias' Day      "      "      Red.
     On the Annunciation       "      "      White.
     On St. Mark's Day         "      "     /White (because in
     On St. Philip and St. James' Day "     \ Easter Season).
     On the Ascension          "      "      White.
     On St. Barnabas' Day      "      "     /Red (White if in
                                            \ Easter Season).
     On St. John the Baptist's Day    "      White.
     On St. Peter's Day        "      "      Red.
     On St. James' Day         "      "      Red.
     On St. Bartholomew's Day  "      "      Red.
     On St. Matthew's Day      "      "      Red.
     On St. Michael and All Angels'   "      White.
     On St. Luke's Day         "      "      Red.
     On St. Simon and St. Jude's Day  "      Red.
     On All Saints' Day        "      "      Red.
     On St. Andrew's Day       "      "      Red.
     On St. Thomas' Day        "      "      Red.
     In the Christmas Season   "      "      White (probably).
     On St. Stephen's Day      "      "      Red.
     On St. John the Evangelist's Day "      White.
     On Holy Innocents' Day    "      "      Red.
     On the Festival of the Dedication     \
       of the Church           "      "    / White.

On Week-days the colour generally followed the colour of the Sunday
or other day, the Communion Office of which was used.

The inventories, however, of many Churches made in the middle of
the sixteenth century shew that numerous colours were in use,
such as blue, green, black, and others (many of which it is
difficult to reconcile with any known ritual). In their use,
regard was probably had rather to their comparative splendour
than to their colour.

The rubrics of 1549, 1559, and 1662 did not disturb them. And
therefore, although neither law nor custom recognise the modern
Roman sequence of colours, still there is precedent for the use
of colours not specified in the rubric of Sarum, on days not
mentioned therein, especially in Churches which already possess


17. _Daily throughout the Year_.

In coming into Church (as in going out of the same, and in going
up to, and coming down from the altar) obeisance is made by the
minister as an ancient and devout usage[c].

18. At the beginning of Morning Prayer the Minister shall read
with a loud voice some one or more of these Sentences of the
Scriptures that follow. And then he shall say that which is written
after the said Sentences.

Two terms are here used, viz., 'read with a loud voice,' and 'say.'
The words 'a loud voice' have been continued in the opening rubric
of the service since 1549, when the Priest was directed to 'begin
with a loud voice the Lord's Prayer,' which previously had been
said '_secreto_.' In 1552, when the office was arranged to begin
with the Sentences, they were ordered to be 'read with a loud

That 'read' may mean a musical recital, whether monotone or
inflected, can be inferred from the rubric of the lessons which
existed in the Prayer-Book from 1549 to 1604. "Then shall be
_read_ two Lessons distinctly with a loud voice, that the people
may hear. . . . And, to the end that the people may _better_ hear,
in such places where they do sing, there shall the Lessons be
_sung_ in a plain tune after the manner of distinct reading, and
likewise the Epistle and Gospel." The 'Ministers' in 1661 took
'Exceptions' to this rubric on the ground that this portion of
the Service "being for the most part neither Psalms nor Hymns,
we know no warrant why they should be sung in any place, and
conceive that the distinct reading of them with an audible voice
tends more to the edification of the Church." To this the bishops
replied, that "the rubric directs only such singing as is after the
manner of distinct reading, and we never heard of any inconvenience
thereby, and therefore conceive this demand to be needless."

The latter portion of this rubric, explaining the most effectual
manner of distinct reading, was indeed omitted in 1662; but, though
the Lessons, Epistle, and Gospel are no longer _required_ to be
'sung' anywhere, the word 'read' must have included that manner
of reading when directed for the Sentences in 1552.

The word 'say' was applied to the Exhortation, 'Dearly beloved,'
&c., when that was introduced in 1552, and has been continued ever
since. It occurs in the rubric before the versicles after the
first Lord's Prayer (No. 23, below), viz., 'Then likewise shall
he say,' dating from 1549, where the word 'likewise' indicated
that the word 'begin' in the preceding rubric of that book meant
'say.' And if the word 'likewise' had been used in the latter
portion of this rubric, 'read' must have been also interpreted
to be identical with 'say.' But it is not used here, and therefore,
the word 'read' need not mean the same as the word 'say;' and,
consequently, while 'say' strictly means a monotone (as distinct
from 'sing,' which implies inflections); 'read' includes some other
mode of reciting the Sentences, such as singing.

This rubric does not give any direction as to the posture or
position of the Minister at the Sentences and Exhortation. But
the next rubric implies standing to be the posture; while his
position is indicated in the answer of the Bishops to the Ministers
in the Savoy Conference, "The Minister turning to the people is
not most convenient throughout the whole ministration. When he
speaks to them, as in Lessons, Absolution, and Benediction, it
is convenient that he turn to them." The Exhortation falls under
this class. Further, the Bishops said, "When he speaks for them to
God, it is fit they should all turn another way, as the Ancient
Church ever did." But the Sentences are not in the nature of prayer;
therefore, the Minister in reading them would seem to be correct
if he stood 'stall-wise,' as he would in complying with the order
that 'the chancels shall remain as they have done in times past.'

In selecting the particular Sentences for use at certain seasons it
seems suitable to use

  in Advent,                 'Repent ye,' &c.
  in Lent,                   'Rend your hearts,' &c.
                             And the Sentences from Ps. 51.
  on Sundays and Festivals,  'To the Lord our God,' &c.,
                             'I will arise,' &c.
  on Week-days,              'Enter not into judgment,' &c.

The other Sentences can be used at any time.

19. A general Confession to be said of the whole Congregation after
the Minister, all kneeling. Almighty and most merciful Father, &c.

The epithet 'general' prefixed to the word 'Confession' mainly
refers to the generality of its expressions, as being said by the
whole congregation, and not being individual or particular. It was
ordered to be said not 'with' but 'after' the Minister--i.e. each
clause, as marked by an initial capital, should be completely said
by the Minister, and then repeated by the congregation. This was
probably because the congregation required to be taught it, it
being new in 1552.

The phrase 'humble voice,' in the closing Sentence of the preceding
Exhortation, seems to have a double force, moral and vocal; and to
point to the careful solemnity with which the Confession should be
said. A low pitch of voice, therefore, such as is easily within the
reach of all, and a moderately slow time, seem absolutely necessary.

In Musical Services it is best to recite on E rather than on G
or A, to the end of the Lord's Prayer, dropping a third to C, as
customary, at 'O Lord, open Thou our lips,' and rising to G at
'Glory be to the Father,' &c. On this point it should be remembered
that the standard musical pitch three centuries ago--i.e. in the
time of Marbeck and Tallis--was considerably, lower than the present
standard pitch.

20. The Absolution, or Remission of sins, to be pronounced by the
Priest alone, standing; the people still kneeling. Almighty God, &c.

Of late years. Bishops, when present at Morning Prayer, have
sometimes pronounced this Absolution instead of the Priest who is
officiating. But the absence of any such direction as that which
is given in the Communion Office appears to shew that this practice
was not intended at Morning or Evening Prayer.

A Deacon, officiating in the absence of a Priest, may not use this
Absolution as a prayer, nor may he substitute for it either the
prayer, 'O God, whose nature,' &c. or any other prayer.

21. The people shall answer here, and at the end of all other
prayers, _Amen_.

_Amen_ is a ratification of what has preceded, sometimes by
the speaker himself, as in S. John v. 24, 25, vi. 53, Rom. ix.
5; sometimes by the hearers, as in Deut. xxvii. 15, &c., Psalm
cvi. 48, I Cor. xiv. 16. When used at the conclusion of parts of
Divine Service in which the Minister and people join aloud, as
in Confessions, Creeds, the Lord's Prayer, and Doxologies, it
will be said, as part of the devotion itself, by both Minister
and people. When used after acts of worship in which the Minister
only has spoken, as in Absolutions, Benedictions, and 'other
prayers' said by the minister alone, it is an answer of the people,
and therefore to be said by the people only.

In the Lord's Prayer at the beginning of the Communion Office, and
in the formulae of Baptism, and of reception into the Church, it
is a ratification by the speaker himself, not an answer of the
people, and should not, as it seems, be said by the people also.

22. Then the Minister shall kneel, and say the Lord's Prayer with
an audible voice; the people also kneeling, and repeating it with
him, both here, and wheresoever else it is used in Divine Service.

The Lord's Prayer is to be repeated by the people with, not after
the Minister, i.e., taking up each clause as he begins it, in the
same manner as the Creed. It was ordered in 1549, 1552, and 1604,
that the Priest [Minister] should begin the Lord's Prayer. This
is a reason for the practice of the Priest saying the first two
words alone.

23. Then likewise he shall say, O Lord, open, &c.

24. Here all standing up, the Priest shall say, Glory be, &c.

The posture of standing, here directed, is to be continued through
the _Venite_ and Psalms. It is a devout usage to turn to the East
at the _Gloria Patri_. (See _ante_ p. 12, note d.)

It is also an old custom in some places to bow.

25. Then shall be said or sung this Psalm following: except on
Easter-Day, upon which another Anthem is appointed; and on the
Nineteenth day of every Month it is not to be read here, but in
the ordinary Course of the Psalms. O come, let us sing, &c.

With regard to Easter Day, it is to be noticed that the "other
anthem" provided for that day is intended to be used on that day
only and not during the Octave, in accordance with the ancient
precedent, of using on Easter Day only the short Introductory
Office in which the central part and foundation of the Anthem (viz.,
'Christ being raised,' &c.) occurred. If it be desired, therefore,
to use this group of Anthems during the remainder of Easter Week,
it must be sung as an Anthem after the third collect, but it should
not be substituted for the _Venite_.

26. Then shall follow the Psalms in order as they are appointed.
And at the end of every Psalm throughout the Year, and likewise at
the end of _Benedicite_, _Benedictus_, _Magnificat_, and _Nunc
dimittis_, shall be repeated.

This rubric forbids the substitution of any selected Psalms for
those of the day, other than those appointed in the Table of Proper
Psalms. The only exception to this rule is made by the recent
provision, in the Order how the rest of Holy Scripture is appointed
to be read, viz. "Upon occasions to be appointed by the Ordinary,
other Psalms may, with his consent, be substituted for those
appointed in the Psalter."

27. Then shall be read distinctly with an audible voice the First
Lesson, taken out of the Old Testament, as is appointed in the
Calendar, except there be proper Lessons assigned for that day:
He that readeth so standing and turning himself, as he may best
be heard of all such as are present. And after that, shall be said
or sung, in _English_ the Hymn called _Te Deum Laudamus_, daily
throughout the Year.

The order to 'read distinctly and with an audible voice so as best
to be heard of all such as are present,' is an essential part of
this rubric, and enjoins that careful attention should be paid to
the accurate enunciation of the words and to adequate loudness of
voice. It must be remembered that the variety of Scripture lessons
makes this the more important, as the people cannot be supposed to
be equally familiar with all.

The direction to the reader to turn, indicates a change from the
previous position, specially appropriate to prayer and praise, and
a transition to a part of the Service intended to teach, and,
therefore, directly addressed to the people. The expression, 'and
turning himself as he may best be heard,' justifies his going to
the chancel entrance, or into the nave of the church, and reading
there, with or without the use of a lectern.

The alternative between the use of the _Te Deum_ and _Benedicite_
may be governed by the direction given in the Prayer-Book of 1549,
viz. to use _Te Deum_ "daily throughout the year, except in Lent,
all which time in place of _Te Deum_ shall be used _Benedicite_."

28. Note, That before every Lesson the Minister shall say, _Here
beginneth such a Chapter_, or _Verse of such a Chapter of such a
Book_; And after every Lesson, _Here endeth the First, or the
Second Lesson_.

29. Or this Canticle, _Benedicite_, &c.

30. Then shall be read in like manner the Second Lesson, taken
out of the New Testament. And after that, the Hymn following;
except when that shall happen to be read in the Chapter for the
Day, or for the Gospel on _St. John Baptist's_ Day.

No liberty is here given for the omission of the Benedictus at
any other times than those here specified, viz. "when it shall
be read in the chapter for the day, or for the Gospel on S. John
Baptist's day."

31. Or this Psalm, _Jubilate Deo_, &c.

32. Then shall be sung or said the Apostles' Creed by the Minister
and the people, standing: except only such days as the Creed of
Saint _Athanasius_ is appointed to be read. I believe, &c.

When the Name of the Lord JESUS is pronounced, the inclination of
the head should not be neglected, nor superseded by any other
gesture; it being the ancient English usage, directed by the 18th
Canon to be continued as the accustomed form of due and lowly
reverence to the Holy Name.

33. And after that, these Prayers following, all devoutly kneeling;
the Minister first pronouncing with a loud voice, The Lord, &c.

The mutual salutation is to be said, both Priest and people
standing; the people kneeling down while the Priest says, 'Let
us pray.'

34. Then the Minister, Clerks, and people, shall say the Lord's
Prayer with a loud voice.

35. Then the Priest standing up shall say, O Lord, shew, &c.

36. Then shall follow three Collects; the first of the Day, which
shall be the same that is appointed at the Communion; the second
for Peace; the third for Grace to live well. And the two last
Collects shall never alter, but daily be said at Morning Prayer
throughout all the Year, as followeth; all kneeling.

The number of Collects is fixed at three, as a general rule, to
which exceptions are made by other rubrics, as in Lent and Advent,
&c. If the Minister uses the discretion of saying, after the
Collects of Morning or Evening Prayer, one of the six Collects
provided at the end of the Order of Holy Communion, it is proper
to say it before the two invariable Collects.

A comparison of other rubrics in the Prayer-Book shews that the words
'all kneeling,' often apply to the congregation only, to the
exclusion of the Minister; and as the universal rule up to 1662 was
that the officiant, if a Priest, should stand for the Versicles and
Collects, it is probable that such is the interpretation of this
direction, especially as it is absent from the corresponding place
at Evening Prayer.

37. In Quires and Places where they sing, here followeth the
Anthem. The expression 'Quires and Places where they sing,' does
not at the present time exclude village churches; but the anthem
(suggesting part-music) may in such churches be replaced by the
ordinary hymn.

38. Then these five Prayers following are to be read here, except
when the Litany is read; and then only the two last are to be read,
as they are there placed.

The 'two last' of these prayers are not to be read at Morning
Prayer on Litany days, inasmuch as they are then read the Litany,
instead of at Morning Prayer.

39. Here endeth the Order of Morning Prayer throughout the Year.




See notes on the Rubrics of Morning Prayer for the corresponding
Rubrics of Evening Prayer.

40. At the beginning of Evening Prayer the Minister shall read with
a loud voice some one or more of these Sentences of the Scriptures
that follow. And then he shall say that which is written after the
said Sentences.

41. A general Confession to be said of the whole Congregation
after the Minister, all kneeling.

42. The Absolution, or Remission of sins, to be pronounced by
the Priest alone, standing; the people still kneeling.

43. Then the Minister shall kneel, and say the Lord's Prayer;
the people also kneeling, and repeating it with him.

44. Then likewise he shall say, O Lord, open, &c.

45. Here all standing up, the Priest shall say, Glory be, &c.

46. Then shall be said or sung the Psalms in order as they are
appointed. Then a Lesson of the Old Testament, as is appointed.
And after that, _Magnificat_ (or the Song of the blessed Virgin
_Mary_) in English, as followeth.

47. Or else this Psalm; except it be on the Nineteenth Day of the
Month, when it is read in the ordinary Course of the Psalms.

48. Then a Lesson of the New Testament, as it is appointed. And
after that, _Nunc dimittis_ (or the Song of _Symeon_) in English,
as followeth.

49. Or else this Psalm; except it be on the Twelfth Day of the Month.

When Evening Prayer is said once only in the day, it is better
never to drop the _Magnificat_ or _Nunc Dimittis_. When Evening
Prayer is said twice on the same day, it seems proper not to drop
the _Magnificat_ at the first service (representing the ancient
Evensong or Vespers, of which _Magnificat_ was an invariable part);
and, similarly, not to drop the _Nunc Dimittis_ at the second
service (representing the other component of Evening Prayer, viz.
the ancient Compline, at which that Canticle was invariably used),
so that in any case one of the Gospel Canticles should be always

50. Then shall be said or sung the Apostles' Creed by the Minister
and the people, standing.

51. And after that, these Prayers following, all devoutly kneeling;
the Minister first pronouncing with a loud voice. The Lord, &c.

52. Then the Minister, Clerks, and people, shall say the Lord's
Prayer with a loud voice.

53. Then the Priest standing up shall say, O Lord, shew, &c.

54. Then shall follow three Collects; the first of the Day; the
second for Peace; the third for Aid against all Perils, as hereafter
followeth: which two last Collects shall be daily said at Evening
Prayer without alteration.

55. In Quires and Places where they sing, here followeth the Anthem.

56. Here endeth the Order of Evening Prayer throughout the Year.


57. Upon these Feasts; _Christmas-Day_, the _Epiphany_ Saint
_Matthias_, _Easter-Day_, _Ascension-Day_, _Whit-Sunday_, Saint
_John Baptist_, Saint _James_ Saint _Bartholomew_, Saint _Matthew_,
Saint _Simon_ and Saint _Jude_, Saint _Andrew_, and upon
_Trinity-Sunday_, shall be sung or said at Morning Prayer,
instead of the Apostles' Creed, this Confession of our Christian
Faith, commonly called The Creed of Saint _Athanasius_, by the
Minister and people standing.

The Athanasian Creed being a Psalm or Hymn, as well as a Confession
of Faith, may properly be recited antiphonally as a Psalm, and
turning eastward as a Creed.


58. Here followeth the LITANY, or General Supplication, to be sung
or said after Morning Prayer upon _Sundays_, _Wednesdays_, and
_Fridays_ and at other times when it shall be commanded by the

There is no direction in this rubric, as to the place where the
Litany is sung or said; but it is clear from the rubrics of the
Commination Service, that it must be distinct from the 'Reading
Pew,' or from the place usually occupied by the Minister during
Morning and Evening Prayer. From the old Injunctions we learn
that it was to be 'in the midst of the church;' in most churches
below the chancel-steps. The Minister may exercise his discretion
in using a special desk.

In the Injunctions of 1547 and 1559, and in the Communion Office
of the Prayer-Book of 1549, the Litany was enjoined to be sung
immediately before the Communion. Our present rubric does not
insist upon the connexion with the Communion.

The liberty of using it as a separate service, and of combining
it with a sermon, or with other services than Morning Prayer, is
recognized and confirmed by the Convocations of Canterbury and
York, in their report upon which the Act of Uniformity Amendment
Act 1872 was framed, enacting the same.

Each of the four opening invocations should be separately sung or
said by the people, after it has been completely sung or said by
the person officiating. The same should be done with the concluding
invocations, 'Son of God' &c., and with the lesser Litany preceding
the Lord's Prayer.

59. Then shall the Priest, and the people with him, say the Lord's

60. Here endeth the LITANY.



To be used before the two final Prayers of the Litany, or of
Morning and Evening Prayer.


61. For Rain.

62. For fair Weather.

63. In the time of Dearth and Famine.

64. Or this.

65. In the time of War and Tumults.

66. In the time of any common Plague or Sickness.

67. In the Ember Weeks, to be said every day, for those that are
to be admitted into Holy Orders.

68. Or this.

69. A Prayer that may be said after any of the former.

This prayer should ordinarily be reserved for occasions of a
penitential character.

70. A Prayer for the High Court of Parliament, to be read during
their Session.

71. A Collect or Prayer for all Conditions of men, to be used at
such times when the Litany is not appointed to be said.

72. This to be said when any desire the Prayers of the Congregation.
Especially, &c.

It seems most conformable to the rubric to mention the names of
those who desire the prayers of the congregation, in substitution
for the word 'those' in the parenthesis. But the names, especially
when numerous, are commonly given out either before the five prayers
at morning or evening prayer, or immediately before this prayer.


The use of the Thanksgivings in the Litany is permitted, when
desirable, but is not enjoined.

73. A General Thanksgiving.

The 'General Thanksgiving' for general use, as well as the occasional
thanksgivings for occasional use, is to be said by the Minister

74. This to be said when any that have been prayed for desire to
return praise.

It is observable that the words 'return praise,' in contrast with
the words 'prayers of the congregation,' in the prayer for all
conditions of men, implies the presence of those who desire to
return thanks.

75. For Rain.

76. For fair Weather.

77. For Plenty.

78. For Peace and Deliverance from our Enemies.

79. For restoring Publick Peace at Home.

80. For Deliverance from the Plague, or other common Sickness.

81. Or this.



82. Note, that the Collect appointed for every Sunday, or for any
Holy-day that hath a Vigil or Eve, shall be said at the Evening
Service next before.

The Holy-days which have no vigil or eve, and therefore do not fall
under this rule, are Ash-Wednesday and Good Friday. The Circumcision,
Epiphany, Conversion of St. Paul, St. Mark, St. Philip and St.
James, St. Barnabas, St. Michael, St. Luke, have no vigils, but
having eves, the Collect is to be said the evening before.

St. Stephen, St. John the Evangelist, and Holy Innocents, have
neither vigil nor eve, but the Collects are generally said the
evening before, in addition to the proper collect for the day.


83. This Collect is to be repeated every day, with the other
Collects in Advent, until Christmas Eve.


84. Then shall follow the Collect of the Nativity, which shall be
said continually unto New-year's Eve.


85. The same Collect, Epistle, and Gospel shall serve for every day
after unto the Epiphany.

For the precedence of these Collects, see note on Rubric 6.

The first Day of Lent, commonly called ASH-WEDNESDAY.

86. This Collect is to be read every day in Lent after the Collect
appointed for the Day.


87. At Morning Prayer, instead of the Psalm, _O come let us sing_,
&c. these Anthems shall be sung or said. Christ our passover, &c.

See note on rubric 25, p. 16.


88. If there be any more Sundays before Advent-Sunday, the Service
of some of those Sundays that were omitted after the Epiphany shall
be taken in to supply so many as are here wanting. And if there be
fewer, the overplus may be omitted: Provided that this last Collect,
Epistle, and Gospel shall always be used upon the Sunday next
before Advent.

If there be twenty-six Sundays after Trinity, the Collect, Epistle,
and Gospel for the Sixth Sunday after Epiphany, should be used on
the twenty-fifth Sunday. If there be twenty-seven Sundays, the
Collect, Epistle, and Gospel for the Fifth Sunday after Epiphany
should be used on the twenty-fifth Sunday, and the Collect, Epistle,
and Gospel for the Sixth Sunday after Epiphany, on the Twenty-sixth





89. So many as intend to be partakers of the holy Communion shall
signify their names to the Curate, at least some time the day before.

90. And if any of those be an open and notorious evil liver, or
have done any wrong to his neighbours by word or deed, so that
the Congregation be thereby offended; the Curate, having knowledge
thereof, shall call him and advertise him, that in any wise he
presume not to come to the Lord's Table, until he hath openly
declared himself to have truly repented and amended his former
naughty life, that the Congregation may thereby be satisfied, which
before were offended; and that he hath recompensed the parties, to
whom he hath done wrong; or at least declare himself to be in full
purpose so to do, as soon as he conveniently may.

91. The same order shall the Curate use with those betwixt whom he
perceiveth malice and hatred to reign; not suffering them to be
partakers of the Lord's Table, until he know them to be reconciled.
And if one of the parties so at variance be content to forgive
from the bottom of his heart all that the other hath trespassed
against him, and to make amends for that he himself hath offended;
and the other party will not be persuaded to a godly unity, but
remain still in his frowardness and malice: the Minister in that
case ought to admit the penitent person to the holy Communion, and
not him that is obstinate. Provided that every Minister so repelling
any, as is specified in this, or the next precedent Paragraph of
this Rubrick, shall be obliged to give an account of the same to
the Ordinary within fourteen days after at the farthest. And the
Ordinary shall proceed against the offending person according to
the Canon.

The object of this rubric, when introduced in 1549, was to provide
some corrective of the lax practice of the un-reformed Church in
admission of unworthy persons to Communion. In this view, the
Curate should be informed of the names of intending Communicants,
in order that he may deal with the cases of scandal referred to
in the second paragraph, and with the cases of enmity referred to
in the third. The main reason of the Church's action herein is
the danger of profanation of the Lord's Table by the presence of
unworthy Communicants. A second reason is the danger of injury to
the consciences of the congregation by wounding their sense of
corporate responsibility for individual wrong-doing. A third is
the spiritual interest of the offenders themselves, viz., in the
words quoted with approval by Hooker (Eccl. Pol. vi. 4-15), "not
to strike them with the mortal wound of excommunication, but to
stay them rather from running desperately headlong into their
own harm, and not to sever from Holy Communion any but such as
are either found culpable by their own confession, or have been
convicted in some public Court." The mode of the Curate's action
was intended by the rubric to be admonition previous and private.
The first paragraph indicates the duty of the people, not of the
Curate, giving him the opportunity of admonition, but throwing
upon them the responsibility of the decision whether or no to
present themselves.

The rubric does not empower or entitle the Curate to repel any
at the time of Communion, on the _mere_ ground of their not having
previously signified their names to him. For there is no means
provided for receiving their names, or for making any due enquiry;
nor is any penalty imposed upon the Curate for communicating people
who have not signified their names, nor on the persons who present
themselves without having done so. The reference to the Ordinary
was added in 1662. The object is to set him in motion as the proper
person to take legal proceedings against an offender, and effectually
repel one who cannot be repelled by the Curate's weapons of
persuasion and admonition.

The precautions of this rubric against communicating unworthily are
not very effective, and it must be observed that the 26th, 27th,
and 28th Canons extend the Curate's duty in this respect much
farther than the rubric, but without giving him any power, which
would be recognised by a _secular_ Court, of conscientiously
performing his duty therein.

92. The Table, at the Communion-time having a fair white linen
cloth upon it, shall stand in the Body of the Church, or in the
Chancel, where Morning and Evening Prayer are appointed to be said.

The word 'fair,' applied to the white linen cloth in the fourth
paragraph of this rubric, means 'beautiful,' and does not exclude
adornment with embroidery.

The words 'upon it' require the cloth to lie upon the Mensa, or
upper surface of the Table, but do not require the whole Table to
be covered or enveloped therewith. The linen cloth is to be laid
upon the covering described in Canon 82 as 'a carpet of silk or
other decent stuff.'

Bishop Cosin states that "among the Ornaments of the Church that
were then (i.e. in the second year of Edward VI.) in use, the
setting of two lights upon the Communion Table or Altar was one
appointed by the King's Injunctions, set forth about that time,
and mentioned or ratified by the Act of Parliament here named
(2 & 3 Edw. VI. cap. I)." If it be contended that Bishop Cosin is
wrong in his opinion that the Injunctions were obligatory, we are
thrown back upon the universal custom of the Catholic Church,
which undoubtedly required lights to be used on the Altar for the
office of Holy Communion.

93. And the Priest standing at the North-side of the Table shall
say the Lord's Prayer, with the Collect following, the people

One Priest only is here spoken of as celebrating: there is no
authority for a change of the celebrant in the course of the
Service; and only extraordinary contingencies of the gravest kind
were anciently regarded as sufficient cause for such a change.
Special provision is made for exceptions to this principle, in the
pronouncing the Absolution by the Bishop, if officially present,
and for the making the General Confession 'by one of the Ministers.'
The Epistle and Gospel are also permitted to be read by Assistant
Ministers, in accordance with customary usage recognised in the
24th Canon. The assistance of other Clergy may also be required
for administration of the Elements.

Lay Assistants are not mentioned in this rubric, but the principle
of assistance to the 'principal Minister' being recognized in the
twenty-fourth Canon, there can be no objection to the ancient
practice of employing clerks or choristers for other purposes than

The term 'north side,' whatever was its origin (possibly the
re-arrangements consequent on the transposition of the Gloria in
Excelsis), acquired a meaning during the changes made in the
substitution of Moveable Tables for fixed Altars about the year
1552, which determines its interpretation to exclude the north
end. In those churches where the Table was placed with its long
sides north and south, the Priest moved with the table, and stood
at the same part of it as he had stood in the use of it as an altar,
that is, at the centre of one of the long sides, though he no longer
faced the same part of the Church, and now looked to the south
instead of the east. But when Archbishop Laud pressed the restoration
of the table to its ancient position,--a restoration which has
become universal,--the question at once arose as to the position of
the celebrant, and some of the High Church clergy placed themselves
at the north end of the table placed 'altarwise,' alleging that
they were in this manner conforming to the rubric. They were at
once met with the reply that 'side' and 'end' were not convertible
terms, and it was urged that the rubric could not be complied with
at all, unless the table were set with its long sides north and
south. It is thus clear that the use of the end was disputed from
the first, and treated as an untenable innovation. Now that the
altars are universally placed so that only one of the long sides
is accessible, the rubric can only be literally complied with by
the celebrant standing at the northern portion of that side.

It seems, however, absurd that when the altar is restored to its
place, the Priest should not be restored to his. It is further to
be noted that the regarding the word 'north' rather than the word
'side,' and the placing the Priest at the north end of the altar,
has the disadvantage of making the practice of the English Church
unlike that of all the rest of Christendom. For all the ancient
historical Churches place the celebrant in front of the altar,
while the Protestant sects, even those that seat the communicants
round the table, place the Minister at the centre of a side, and
not at one end.

There is no direction for the Celebrant to kneel on reaching the
altar, and it is contrary to general Catholic usage to do so. Any
private prayers he may use then, he should say standing.

It should be remembered that the service is for the congregation,
not for the Priest alone, and therefore they ought not to be
detained for his personal convenience. He has not the same liberty
of private devotion as the individual members of the congregation,
and should carefully restrain his private devotions so as to be
as short as is consistent with reverence.

It is the clear intention of the Prayer-Book that the Lord's Prayer
and the whole office should be said deliberately, and sufficiently
loud for the congregation to hear distinctly, so as to follow it
readily. Moreover, the words of the Liturgy form an integral part
of the whole sacrificial action. They are included in the oblation
of praise and thanksgiving; and, consequently, to hurry, or mutter
them is, so far, to bring a blemished offering to God.

There is no direction for loudness of voice, but the words of the
office should be, as was anciently ordered, "roundly and distinctly

94. Then shall the Priest, turning to the people, rehearse distinctly
all the TEN COMMANDMENTS; and the people still kneeling shall, after
every Commandment, ask God mercy for their transgression thereof
for the time past, and grace to keep the same for the time to come,
as followeth.

The Commandments were first introduced in 1552, and no rubric can
be more express than this against their omission. Such omission
involves also the loss of the _Kyrie_, an ancient and valuable
feature of the Liturgy.

The Commandments are to be rehearsed 'turning to the people,'
implying that the Priest was not standing so before.

95. Then shall follow one of these two Collects for the Queen, the
Priest standing as before, and saying, Let us pray, &c. The words
'standing as before' mean standing in the position in which the
Priest was before he turned to the people to rehearse the
Commandments, viz. facing eastward.

96. Then shall be said the Collect of the Day.

97. And immediately after the Collect the Priest shall read
the Epistle, saying, _The Epistle_ [or, _The portion of Scripture
appointed for the Epistle_] _is written in the------Chapter
of------beginning at the------Verse_. And the Epistle ended, he
shall say, _Here endeth the Epistle_. Then shall he read the
Gospel, (the people all standing up) saying, _The holy Gospel
is written in the------Chapter of------beginning at the------Verse_.

98. And the Gospel ended, shall be sung or said the Creed following,
the people still standing, as before.

If more collects than the collect or collects of the day be used,
they must be taken from the six collects at the end of the Communion
Office. If a collect be used in commemoration besides the collect
of the day at Morning and Evening Prayer, it should also be used
in the Communion Service.

The practice of the people sitting during the reading of the
Epistle, though not prescribed in the rubric, may be justified
by ancient English custom.

The custom of singing or saying, 'Glory be to Thee, O Lord,' before
the Gospel, has been continued from ancient times, and was specially
ordered in the First Prayer-Book of Edward VI. Bishop Cosin thinks
that it was afterwards left out by the printers' negligence. It
seems very doubtful whether ancient authority will support the
saying 'Thanks be to Thee, O Lord,' or equivalent words, at the
end of the Gospel, though these words were inserted in the Scottish

No directions are given as to the place where the Epistle and
Gospel are to be read, but one very ancient usage is, that the
former is to be read at the south, the latter at the north, of the

From whatever part of Scripture the Epistle is taken, the words
'here endeth the Epistle' are always to be said at the end of it.

In singing or saying the Creed, it is advisable, when there are
clerks, to follow the direction of the Prayer-Book of 1549, and
that the Priest should sing or say alone the words 'I believe in
one God,' the clerks and congregation taking up the Creed with him
after those words. On bowing at the Holy Name of JESUS, the same
remark may be made as on the occurrence of the Name in the Apostles'

The clergy and congregation sometimes incline the head and body at
the words 'And was Incarnate.' According to ancient English custom,
the inclination should be maintained until the words 'for us.' But
such custom furnishes no precedent for prostration, or such
exaggerated marks of reverence.

99. Then the Curate shall declare unto the people what Holy-days,
or Fasting-days, are in the Week following to be observed.

This direction refers to the table of moveable and immoveable
feasts together with days of fasting and abstinence, in the

And then also (if occasion be) shall notice be given of the
Communion; and the Banns of Matrimony published; and Briefs,
Citations, and Excommunications read. And nothing shall be
proclaimed or published in the Church, during the time of Divine
Service, but by the Minister: nor by him any thing, but what is
prescribed in the Rules of this Book, or enjoined by the Queen,
or by the Ordinary of the place.

This rubric fixes the place in the service at which notice should
be given of Holy Communion, when the occasion requires. It does not
authorize the use in this place of the exhortations which are
directed to be used 'after the sermon or homily ended.'

The object of the Church in the publication of Banns being publicity,
it was directed to be made at a time when most people were likely
to be in church, such as shortly before the Sermon. There is some
divergence between this rubric and that at the beginning of the
Service for the Solemnization of Matrimony, where the Banns are
directed to be published 'immediately before the sentences for the
Offertory,' i.e. after the sermon, instead of before it; and the
time of publication of Banns is extended, by Stat. IV. George IV.,
c. 76, to the time of evening service, immediately after the 2nd
lesson, if there shall be no morning service.[e] It may be doubted
whether a publication of Banns on Holy-days would now suffice for
a legal publication, as this last-mentioned act names Sundays only.

The order for reading briefs, &c., indicates this to be the proper
time for reading notices from the Bishop of intended confirmations,
&c., and may perhaps be extended to cover and protect from the
prohibition which follows, the announcement of dedication, harvest,
and other local festivals.

The whole paragraph is connected with the Sermon, with the object
of grouping together all such additions to, and interruptions of,
the Office of Holy Communion.

100. Then shall follow the Sermon, or one of the Homilies already
set forth, or hereafter to be set forth, by authority.

If the sermon be preached from the pulpit (for which there is no
rubrical direction), and by the priest who is celebrating Holy
Communion, the Chasuble should be laid aside for the function of
preaching. If the sermon be preached from the altar-steps by the
celebrant the chasuble should be retained. If the preacher be not
the celebrant, it seems to be in accordance with the Prayer-Book
of 1549, and with old custom, that he should wear a Surplice, as
having previously taken his place in the choir, and also a hood,
if a graduate.

Although the 55th Canon enjoins the use of some form of bidding
the prayers before all sermons, lectures, and homilies, yet the
custom may be regarded as fairly established, of beginning the
sermon without any introductory form, or with a collect from the
Prayer-Book, or with an invocation of the Holy Trinity, in testimony
of the preacher's commission to proclaim the Gospel. The last
should be announced to the people, turning the face towards them.
Custom has also established, from the days at least of St.
Chrysostom, the practice of ending the sermon with an ascription
of praise, which may properly be pronounced turning to the East.

101. Then shall the Priest return to the Lord's Table, and begin
the Offertory, saying one or more of these Sentences following, as
he thinketh most convenient in his discretion.

The words 'Return to the Lord's Table' point to the Priest having
left the table, either for the purpose of preaching, or to take
his seat in the sedilia.

In the impoverished condition of the churches at the time of the
last revision, it was well to be content that one or more of the
sentences should be said by the Priest, not sung by a choir. But
now that clerks and choirs have been restored to many churches, it
seems reasonable that the sentences may be sung as of old, and as
was prescribed in the Prayer-Book of 1549: "Where there be clerks,
they shall sing one or many of the sentences above written,
according to the length and shortness of the time that the people
be offering."

102. Whilst these Sentences are in reading, the Deacons,
Church-wardens, or other fit person appointed for that purpose,
shall receive the Alms for the Poor, and other devotions of the
people, in a decent bason to be provided by the Parish for that
purpose; and reverently bring it to the Priest, who shall humbly
present and place it upon the holy Table.

The rubric mentions but one bason, to which originally the people
brought their alms, instead of putting them into the poor man's
box. This one bason is wholly inefficient for making a collection
by several persons, and from a large congregation; and therefore
is to be used for receiving alms collected in other receptacles.
It is seemly that these should be formally given out to the persons
by whom the collection is to be made, and afterwards received from
them in the 'decent bason' by the 'deacon, churchwarden, or other
fit person appointed for that purpose, who 'shall reverently bring
it to the Priest.'

The words 'humbly present' obviously indicate some action beyond
the mere placing on the Table, but do not mean a kneeling posture;
for neither here nor in any other part of the Service should the
Priest kneel, unless when ordered to do so.

103. And when there is a Communion, the Priest shall then place
upon the Table so much Bread and Wine, as he shall think sufficient.
After which done, the Priest shall say, Let us pray, &c.

The small fair linen cloth, commonly called the Veil, which is to
be used after the Communion, should not be spread upon the fair
white linen cloth which covers the Table, nor used to cover the
Elements before the Communion.

In order to place the Bread and Wine on the Table, which must
be done at this time, and not before, the Priest should have them at
hand in another place. This is usually the Credence-table, or some
shelf near to the altar. He places them as he did the alms, humbly,
as an offering, and so much of each as he judges approximately
sufficient for the communion of himself and the people. But if
he should afterwards find his computation excessive--as the offering
the alms and elements together is not directly connected with
consecration--he is not under obligation to consecrate all that
he has offered. He may, therefore, if he should think the entire
contents of the Flagon likely to be required for Communion, offer
the Wine in that vessel. The usage, however, of pouring a portion
of the Wine into the chalice (as was directed in the Prayer-Book
of 1549), and placing the chalice on the table without the flagon,
has been generally maintained, though this pouring forms no part
of the rubrical directions of our Liturgy, either here or at any
other period of the service.

This usage is properly associated also with the primitive custom
(prescribed to be used in 1549) of 'putting thereto a little pure
and clean water.'

The preparatory action of mixing water with the wine (besides being
connected with the original Act of Institution), was undoubtedly
the custom of the time when this Church and Realm received the
order of ministering the Sacrament, and it has never been prohibited
in the Prayer-Book. The practice is, therefore, a performance of
the Ordination vow of the English Priesthood, "so to minister the
Sacraments as the Lord hath commanded, and as this Church and Realm
hath received the same, according to the Commandments of God." A
few drops of water are sufficient for compliance with the usage,
and in no case should the quantity of water exceed one third of
the whole.

If the chalice is not fitted with a cover, some substitute for a
cover should be placed upon it; a small, square piece of linen,
stiffened with cardboard, is sometimes used for this purpose.

It is desirable that the Priest should, as a general rule,
consecrate all the Bread and Wine that he offers. And in judging
the quantity, it is to be remembered that on the one hand the
consecration of an excessive amount of the elements involves a
serious risk of irreverence in the consumption of what remains
after Communion; so on the other hand, the error of consecrating too
little is to be deprecated, as necessitating a second consecration,
and thereby breaking the continuity of the service.

Many such points in the service are left without direction, or with
inconsistent directions, in consequence of the old Liturgical order
having been so broken and distorted in the revision of 1552, that
subsequent revision has been, and probably will be, unsuccessful
in removing the inconsistencies.

104. If there be no alms or oblations, then shall the words [_of
accepting our alms and oblations_] be left out unsaid.

105. When the Minister giveth warning for the celebration of the
holy Communion, (which he shall always do upon the Sunday, or some
Holy-day, immediately preceding), after the Sermon or Homily ended,
he shall read this Exhortation following, Dearly beloved, on, &c.

106. Or, in case he shall see the people negligent to come to the
holy Communion, instead of the former, he shall use this Exhortation,
Dearly beloved brethren, on, &c.

These exhortations are in anticipation of Communions on subsequent
occasions, and are clearly distinct from the notice of Communion
directed, in the rubric after the creed, to be given before the
sermon, since they must come after the sermon. It is very difficult
to say whether they should be read before or after the offertory and
prayer for the Church Militant. Probably it was intended to group
them generally with the sermon, without disturbing the offertory
and prayer for the Church Militant.

We have here an example of inconsistency in the rubrics of our
Communion Office referred to in the comment on the last rubric,
and which is caused by successive attempts at patching (instead of
revoking) the alterations made at the revision of 1552.

These two exhortations, with the third, which is appointed for use
on the occasion of Communion, form a great feature of the English
rite, but are more appropriate when Communions are rare, than when
they are frequent. It is, indeed, somewhat inconsistent to use a
prospective exhortation on the occasion of the Communion. It is
possible that the expression 'warning' may be taken to except cases
where the Minister does not consider unusual mention to be
imperatively necessary, and at any rate to apply only where notice
is given before the sermon.

107. At the time of the celebration of the Communion, the
Communicants being conveniently placed for the receiving of the
holy Sacrament, the Priest shall say this Exhortation, Dearly
beloved in the Lord, &c.

The rubric seems to direct a change of place to be made by the
communicants, and indicates, not the general withdrawal of the
rest of the congregation, but the separation of the intending
communicants into a part of the church by themselves, after the
precedent of the Prayer-Book of 1549, which appoints that 'they
shall tarry still in the quire, or in some other convenient place
nigh to the quire.'

Such a re-disposition of the congregation requires time, and would
be the opportunity for the retirement of children, or other persons,
who may be unable (especially when a sermon has been preached) to
stay for the whole service.

The neglect of this change of place of intending communicants has
introduced many difficulties connected with the attendance of those
who are not prepared to communicate on the occasion, and with the
orderly reception of the Communion.

This exhortation gives opportunity for intending communicants to
reconsider their 'mind to come' on that occasion: it throws upon
their consciences with accumulated force the individual responsibility
of coming to the Lord's Table, which the relaxation of discipline,
and the removal of compulsory confession, had rendered doubly
important: and it being impossible that a person inadequately
prepared can fulfil on the moment the requisites here enumerated
for coming duly to the Lord's Table, they have no alternative but
to abstain.

108. Then shall the Priest say to them that come to receive the
holy Communion, Ye that do truly, &c.

The limitation of this invitation 'to those that come to receive
the Holy Communion,' is consistent with the presence of others,
and the possible retirement of some of those who (previously to
hearing the exhortation) were minded to come, to a part of the
church not occupied by communicants.

109. Then shall this general Confession be made, in the name of
all those that are minded to receive the holy Communion, by one
of the Ministers; both he and all the people kneeling humbly upon
their knees, and saying, Almighty God, &c.

This rubric makes it clear that the Confession is primarily intended
for those who are about to communicate, though it does not exclude
others from joining in it.

With regard to the manner of making the confession, it must be
remembered that the direction that it should be made in the name
of all those that are minded to come to the Holy Communion, was
worded at a time when a considerable proportion of the communicants
were too illiterate to follow such a piece of devotion by the use
of a book. It was therefore essential that their leader should say
it slowly and audibly, if they were to join in it at all. It cannot
be said that this reason has wholly disappeared now; while even for
persons of high education, so solemn and suggestive a devotion
requires all the assistance of ample time, and facility of hearing,
that they may join in it devoutly and deliberately.

The retaining the words 'one of the Ministers,' from the older
form of the rubric, implies that if the celebrant have assistants
one of them may lead the confession. And though it may no longer
be read by one of the communicant congregation (as it formerly might)
still a lay-clerk at the altar is not absolutely excluded. In any case
the celebrant, even though not leading the confession, is to kneel.

110. Then shall the Priest (or the Bishop, being present,) stand
up, and turning himself to the people, pronounce this Absolution,
Almighty God, &c.

'The Bishop' means the bishop of the diocese, or other bishop
acting in his stead. The words 'stand up,' imply that the celebrant
has been kneeling for the confession.

111. Then shall the Priest say. Hear what, &c.

112. After which the Priest shall proceed, saying, Lift up, &c.

There is authority of ancient custom (though there is no direction
for so doing in the rubric) for the Priest to open his arms, and
raise his hands, while pronouncing the words 'Lift up your hearts,'
which are to be said facing the people.

113. Then shall the Priest turn to the Lord's Table, and say, It is
very, &c.

The Priest up to this point has been 'turning to the people' in
accordance with the rubric of the Absolution. He must now turn to
the Lord's Table.

114. These words [_Holy Father_] must be omitted on _Trinity-Sunday_.

115. Here shall follow the Proper Preface, according to the time,
if there be any specially appointed: or else immediately shall
follow, Therefore, &c.

116. After each of which Prefaces shall immediately be sung or
said. Therefore, &c.

A comparison with the Books of 1549 and 1552 shews that the time
at which the people should join in is at the words 'Holy, &c.'

117. Then shall the Priest, kneeling down at the Lord's Table,
say in the name of all them that shall receive the Communion this
Prayer following, We do not presume, &c.

The Priest is assumed to be _at_ the Lord's Table, _to_ which he
had previously turned, and is merely directed to kneel down where
he is.

118. When the Priest, standing before the Table, hath so ordered
the Bread and Wine, that he may with the more readiness and decency
break the Bread before the people, and take the Cup into his hands,
he shall say the Prayer of Consecration, as followeth, Almighty God,

The expression 'standing before the Table,' is to be rightly
understood by observing that the emphatic word in it is 'standing.'
The intention of the framers of this direction was to put an end to
the previous posture of kneeling directed in the preceding rubric,
and to direct the priest to stand during the consecration. The word
'before' evidently implies a position in front of the Table, and
excludes the end, whichever way the Table might be placed.

The ordering the Bread and Wine for the manual acts of consecration,
might include the pouring of some of the wine from the flagon into
the chalice (if not previously done); also the separation of a part
of the bread from the remainder which the Priest does not now intend
to consecrate, and pre-eminently the arranging conveniently the
individual piece to be broken during the consecration.

The expression 'before the people' in this rubric, means simply in
the presence of the people.

It was proposed by Baxter, at the Savoy Conference, to direct the
Bread to be broken in the sight of the people. The framers of the
rubric seem to have rejected the latter part of this proposal, and
to have thought it sufficient to direct it to be done in the
presence of the people, irrespective of their being able actually
to see it. Any breaking the Bread at this period of the service was
then a novelty, and is now peculiar to the English Liturgy. The
object of the Puritans probably was to bring the ceremonial acts
of the Priest in the Consecration into closer harmony with the order
of our Lord's own acts and words in the Institution itself, as
recorded in the Synoptic Gospels, and this part of their proposal
was conceded by the bishops and the revisers, as not inconsistent
with the ancient usage of _touching_ the Bread at this period of
the service _as if_ breaking it.

The acts of reverence of the Priest, during and after consecration,
according to the old English use (as may be plainly seen in the
rubrics of the Sarum Missal) consisted not in bending the knee, but
in bowing the head and body.

The custom of elevating the consecrated Elements was probably
connected with the Jewish heave-offering, and its idea of heavenward
oblation. It was directed by the most ancient Liturgies, but was
expressly prohibited in the Prayer-Book of 1549. This prohibition,
however, was withdrawn in 1552. The elevation cannot therefore be
unlawful, though certainly it is not obligatory. The ancient rubric
of Sarum gives, as a first alternative respecting the height of
elevation of the chalice, that it should be raised to the height
of the breast. And this, therefore, would be a sufficient compliance
with ancient custom.

There seems to be no reason for pronouncing the words of Institution
in a different voice from the rest of the Prayer. See note e, p. 28.

119. * Here the Priest is to take the Paten into his hands:

120. + And here to break the Bread:

121. ++ And here to lay his hand upon all the Bread.

122. +++ Here he is to take the Cup into his hand:

123. ++++ And here to lay his hand upon every vessel (be it Chalice
or Flagon) in which there is any Wine to be consecrated.

The direction of the Priest to 'lay his hand upon all the Bread and
every vessel,' indicates the extreme care of the Church that none
of the Bread and Wine intended for the Communicants should be
overlooked in the performance of the manual acts.

It is better not to consecrate wine in the flagon (though the rubric
permits it) except in the emergency of having only one chalice, and
a very large number of communicants. Even in that case, a second
consecration in the chalice would perhaps be preferable.

124. Then shall the Minister first receive the Communion in both
kinds himself, and then proceed to deliver the same to the Bishops,
Priests, and Deacons, in like manner, (if any be present,) and
after that to the people also in order, into their hands, all meekly
kneeling. And, when he delivereth the Bread to any one he shall
say, The Body, &c.

This rubric, with the Twenty-first Canon, obliges the celebrant to
receive the Communion every time that he celebrates, even if he
shall do so more than once in the same day. He does so as a part
of the sacrificial action, which is not complete unless a portion
of the sacrifice is consumed by the offering Priest. For this reason
he communicates himself, standing, as distinct from the congregation,
and completing the essentials of the Sacrifice in his priestly

As he is not ministering to others when communicating himself, he
should not speak audibly in so doing.

He is to deliver the Sacrament first of all to the Clergy assisting
in the service, beginning with the Gospeller and Epistoler, in
accordance with the reason assigned in the rubric of 1549 for so
doing, viz. that they may be ready to help the chief minister.

The order of communicating the rest of the Clergy, and the lay
congregation, would be as follows:--1. To the Metropolitan of the
Province (if present). 2. To the Bishop of the Diocese (if present).
3. To other Metropolitans and Bishops (if present), in the order of
their seniority of consecration respectively. 4. Priests or Deacons.
5. Lay choristers, and 6. The rest of the laity.

'In like manner' means 'in both kinds.'

'In order.' These words may refer to the distinction of sexes,
as in the Clementine Liturgy,[f] or more generally to the usage
of taking the Sacrament to the people in their places in the
choir, in contrast with the present usage of coming up to the
altar-step. At all events, here is no recognition of the practice
of communicating by railsful.

'Into their hands.' It was prescribed in the Prayer-Book of 1549,
"that, although it be read in ancient writers that the people, many
years past, received at the Priest's hands the Sacrament of the
Body of Christ in their own hands, and no commandment of Christ to
the contrary: yet for as much as they many times conveyed the same
secretly away, kept it with them, and diversely abused it to
superstition and wickedness: lest any such thing hereafter should
be attempted, and that a uniformity might be used throughout the
whole realm, it is thought convenient the people commonly receive
the Sacrament of Christ's body in their mouths at the Priest's
hand." In 1552, the manner of receiving was again put back to the
use of the hands, and this has been continued since, so that the
receiving in the mouth is unrubrical now.[g]

Whatever be the manner of holding out the hands for the purpose of
reception, the Sacrament should, in order to avoid the possibility
of accident, be placed firmly and safely in the hands of the
recipient, and not merely offered to be accepted with the fingers.

The words 'meekly kneeling' in this rubric exclude prostration,
which is not kneeling.

The expression 'to anyone,' coupled with the use of the singular
number in the address to the recipient, obliges the Priest to repeat
the words of administration in delivering the Sacrament to each
communicant separately.

The rubric is not clear on the point, whether the Priest should
give the Sacrament of the Body as soon as he has pronounced the
words 'The Body of our Lord Jesus Christ,' (when the communicant
may be supposed to have made an act of faith in the mystery of the
Sacrament,) or whether he should give it at the end of the whole of
the first sentence of administration, as he says the word 'Take.'
At all events, he should not wait until he has completed the second

The words of administration should be distinctly pronounced, so as
to be audible to the communicant. See note e, p. 28.

125. And the Minister that delivereth the Cup to any one shall say,
The Blood, &c.

Although the word 'Minister' is used for priest in the preceding
rubric and elsewhere, yet in this place it implies an important
distinction between a Priest and a Deacon, the latter being forbidden
by ancient Canons of the Church to deliver the Bread. And when it
is declared in the Ordination of Deacons that it appertaineth to
the office of a Deacon to help the Priest in the distribution of
the Holy Communion, this help must be confined to the distribution
of the Wine.

The rubric for the delivery of the species of Bread (directing it
to be given into the hands of the communicants), seems to govern
generally the administration of the Cup, though the words 'into
their hands' do not occur in this rubric. Thus, the omission of
these words leaves it open to the discretion of the Minister to
retain his hold of the Cup while the communicant uses his hands for
the purpose of guiding it. But in no case should the communicant
abstain from using the hands at all, unless absolutely disabled
from doing so.

It is to be noted that the directions of the rubrics on the subject
of the administration of the Sacrament, are intended for the
guidance of the Priest. No similar details are specified for the
acts of the communicants. Hence the celebrant will use a wise
discretion in not enforcing exact uniformity in the mode of reception
adopted by individuals, provided it be reverent, and does not
endanger the safety of the Sacrament.

There seems to be no warrant, in the English use, for making the
sign of the cross with the consecrated species, paten, or chalice,
in front of the communicant, at the moment of administration. At
the end of the words of administration provided for the celebrant
at the moment of his own Communion, in the old Sarum rite, occurs
the formula '+ In Nomine Patris,' &c., and the sign of the Cross
was directed to be made with the Body of the Lord. A similar
direction was given for the chalice, which the Priest was at that
moment holding in his hands. But this formula does not seem to
have been used in communicating the people. If the sign of the
cross had been intended to be used in the Order of Communion of
1548 (the first formula of administration in English), we may
certainly presume that it would have been notified or printed
as a guide, as it is in the Book of 1549, in the Prayer of
Consecration, and in the Blessing of the Marriage Service. But
no such guide is to be found, either there, or in any subsequent
formula of administration; nor does there seem to be any ancient
precedent or tradition for its use in that place. Moreover, there
is a risk attending the practice, especially in the case of a large
chalice nearly full of wine.

126. If the consecrated Bread or Wine be all spent before all have
communicated, the Priest is to consecrate more according to the
Form before prescribed: beginning at [_Our Saviour Christ in the
same night_, &c.] for the blessing of the Bread; and at [_Likewise
after Supper_, &c.] for the blessing of the Cup.

The necessity for consecrating more of the species of Bread can
almost invariably be avoided by subdividing what is already

127. When all have communicated, the Minister shall return to the
Lord's Table, and reverently place upon it what remaineth of the
consecrated Elements, covering the same with a fair linen cloth.

The direction is express to place 'what remaineth of the consecrated
elements' upon the Lord's Table. The Priest is, therefore, not at
liberty to consume what remains at this period of the service.

In arranging 'what remaineth of the consecrated elements,' the
cover previously used, and not the paten, should be placed upon
the chalice. The fair linen cloth, or veil, should be large enough
to cover thoroughly the whole of both chalice and paten, when the
paten is placed in front of the chalice. It should be observed,
that the employment of the word 'linen' excludes a fabric of other
material, such as silk or cotton.

128. Then shall the Priest say the Lord's Prayer, the people
repeating after him every Petition.

129. After shall be said as followeth, O Lord and, &c.

130. Or this, Almighty and, &c.

131. Then shall be said or sung, Glory be to God, &c.

The Gloria in Excelsis, as it originally stood at the beginning of
the office, in the Prayer-Book of 1549, being an opening Act of
Praise, was sung by the Priest and Clerks while the people were
standing. In its altered position, it may be regarded rather as a
prayer. It seems reasonable that when it is sung in a choral
celebration, the people should stand, as for an Act of Praise; and
that when it is said without music, and in a plain celebration, the
people may treat it chiefly as a prayer, and so kneel.

132. Then the Priest (or Bishop if he be present) shall let them
depart with this Blessing.

For the meaning of the expression 'or bishop if he be present,' see
the note on rubric No. 110, p. 35.

The words 'let them depart' imply that the congregation are not
to dismiss themselves previously. Archbishop Grindal, in his
injunctions to the Province of York in 1571, forbad the Minister
to pause or stay between the Morning Prayer, Litany, and Communion,
and directed him "to continue and say them, &c., without any
intermission, to the intent that the people may continue together
in prayer and hearing the word of God, and not depart out of the
Church during all the time of the whole Divine Service."

The whole of the Blessing, including 'The peace of God,' &c., should
be pronounced turning to the people.

The custom of reading St. John i. 1-13 aloud at the altar after the
service is ended, adopted from the Roman Missal, has lately been
introduced in some churches. Such public use of this Scripture has
no authority, and is in direct opposition to the ancient English
custom of the Priest reciting it privately, on his way to the

133. Collects to be said after the Offertory, when there is no
Communion, every such day one or more; and the same may be said
also, as often as occasion shall serve, after the Collects either
of Morning or Evening Prayer, Communion, or Litany, by the
discretion of the Minister.

134. Upon the Sundays and other Holy-days (if there be no Communion)
shall be said all that is appointed at the Communion, until the end
of the general Prayer [_For the whole state of Christ's Church
militant here in earth_] together with one or more of these
Collects last before rehearsed, concluding with the Blessing.

135. And there shall be no celebration of the Lord's Supper, except
there be a convenient number to communicate with the Priest,
according to his discretion.

136. And if there be not above twenty persons in the Parish
of discretion to receive the Communion; yet there shall be no
Communion, except four (or three at the least) communicate with
the Priest.

In considering the operation of the two last rubrics, it must be
remembered--I. That the Prayer-Book gives the Curate no authority
to dismiss non-communicants.--2. That the system of separating the
communicants from the rest of the congregation, which underlies
the rubrics in the earlier part of the office, has generally ceased
to be observed.--3. That the order for signifying the names of
intending communicants, at least some time the day before, has
fallen into abeyance.--4. That the Curate has no opportunity of
interrupting the Service for the purpose of making inquiry among
the congregation of their individual intentions in this respect.
The Curate, therefore, has no means of obtaining information whereon
to exercise the discretion to which this rubric refers. It may
happen that there being more than three or four in the church when
he begins the Service, some may depart before Communion. If
there be fewer, some may arrive later with the intention of
communicating. In short, he cannot be certain whether or not
the number of communicants be below the minimum until he has
communicated himself.[h]

It seems then that the utmost he can do, in order to comply with
this part of the rubric, is to avoid any deliberate promoting of
Solitary Communion, or nearly Solitary Communion.

In accordance with the general protest of this rubric against
Solitary Communion of the Priest, he should, at all celebrations,
be very careful to allow ample time for the people to present
themselves for Communion, not beginning the Lord's Prayer until
it is quite evident that none who intend to communicate remain
without having done so.

137. And in Cathedral and Collegiate Churches, and Colleges, where
there are many Priests and Deacons, they shall all receive the
Communion with the Priest every Sunday at the least, except they
have a reasonable cause to the contrary.

This rubric affords no ground for the opinion that Communions
should not be more frequent than weekly. The direction that the
Clergy when numerous should all receive the Communion every Sunday
at the least, so far from debarring them or any one else from the
privilege of more frequent Communions, implies that a weekly
Communion is the lowest standard in such cases. Any other principle
of interpreting the words 'at the least,' in this and in the
later paragraph of this rubric (where the laity are required to
receive three times in the year at the least), would involve a
prohibition to the laity against receiving more than three times
in the year.

Bishop Cosin was of opinion that when the Church enjoined her
Priests and Deacons to communicate every Sunday at least, she
supposed it "ought and should be done by them oftener. And from
hence was it that the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels were appointed
upon the Sundays and Holy-days, and a rubric made at the beginning
of the Service Book for the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels to
serve all the week-days, that were used on the Sunday--that is, at
any time when there is a Communion on the week-day. And, certainly,
though it be no fault to read the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels
either upon Sundays or week-days; yet to read them, and not to go
on with the Communion, is contrary to the intent of our Church,
that, if there were any company, intended a Communion every day,
for the continuing of the daily sacrifice in the Church, ever used
till Calvinism sprung up, and leaped over into England."[i]

It was a principle affirmed by Hooker and Archbishop Laud as well
as by Bishop Cosin, and still later by Archbishop Sheldon in 1670,
that the practice of cathedrals or mother churches was intended to
be a pattern for that of parochial churches. Wherever, therefore,
the Clergy form a company sufficient for communion they ought not
to communicate less often than every Sunday, and may well do so
oftener, even daily; and wherever a company of communicant laity
desire a like privilege, they are not debarred from it by this

138. And to take away all occasion of dissension, and superstition,
which any person hath or might have concerning the Bread and Wine,
it shall suffice that the Bread be such as is usual to be eaten;
but the best and purest Wheat Bread that conveniently may be gotten.

The words 'shall suffice' do not exclude a higher alternative, as
may be seen in the rubric of administration of Baptism to Infants,
where they are employed in the recognition of the validity of
baptism by pouring, though it is not equally significant with, and
certainly is not exclusive of, baptism by dipping. The true meaning
is expanded in the corresponding rubric of the Scottish Liturgy of
1637:--"Though it be lawful to have wafer bread, it shall suffice
that the bread be such as is usual; yet the best and purest wheat
bread that conveniently may be gotten." This is more strongly
expressed by Bishop Cosin, in his comment on the similar rubric
in the Prayer-Book of 1604:--"It is not here commanded that no
unleavened or wafer bread be used, but it is said only that the
other bread shall suffice. So that, though there was no necessity,
yet there was a liberty still reserved of using wafer bread, which
was continued in divers churches of the kingdom and Westminster
for one) till the 17th of King Charles.[j] The first use of the
common bread was begun by Farel and Viret at Geneva, in 1538, which
so offended the people there, and their neighbours at Lausanne
and Berne (who had called a synod about it), that both Farel and
Viret and Calvin and all were banished for it from the town; where
afterwards, the wafer bread being restored, Calvin thought fit to
continue it, and so it is at this day."

The rubric insists that great care should be taken in the selection
of the bread; wherefore the Curate and Church-wardens should not
be content with the first bread that comes to hand. Indeed, the
ordinary bread of commerce scarcely comes up to the standard of
excellence and purity here required. There is no mention of any
corresponding care about the wine. But considerations of reverence
obviously demand a similar standard of excellence and purity;
and it is much to be wished that more attention were paid to this
point. The thick and syrupy wines, commonly made up for this sacred
use, are undesirable; on the other hand, unfermented grape juice
is not wine.[k]

139. And if any of the Bread and Wine remain unconsecrated, the
Curate shall have it to his own use: but if any remain of that
which was consecrated, it shall not be carried out of the Church,
but the Priest and such other of the Communicants as he shall then
call unto him, shall, immediately after the Blessing, reverently
eat and drink the same.

This rubric provides for the reverent consumption of the consecrated

The direction to drink the Wine, as well as to eat the Bread,
reverently, is imperative to compel the consumption of the Wine,
as well as of the Bread. It is most desirable that care should be
taken in the consecration that no more of the consecrated elements
should remain than the celebrant can conveniently consume without
assistance. But if it should happen that he finds it necessary to
call to him other communicants for the purpose of consuming a
considerable surplus, the word 'reverently' implies that they
should receive it in the same posture in which they communicated.

The prohibition against carrying the unconsumed remainder of the
consecrated elements out of church involves the cleansing the
vessels in church. This should be done by the Priest himself.
Although the Service has been concluded, the people are not required
to withdraw immediately: indeed, if all left immediately after
the blessing, the Priest could not call unto him any of them for
the purpose of consuming the remainder of the consecrated elements.

The method of cleansing, which is really intended to ensure the
entire consumption of all that remains, is not prescribed, and the
word 'reverently' leaves much to the discretion of the Priest,
while it certainly applies as much to his demeanour as to that
of the people.[l]

140. The Bread and Wine for the Communion shall be provided by the
Curate and the Church-wardens at the charges of the Parish.

141. And note, that every Parishioner shall communicate at the
least three times in the year, of which Easter to be one. And
yearly at Easter every Parishioner shall reckon with the Parson,
Vicar, or Curate, or his or their Deputy or Deputies; and pay to
them or him all Ecclesiastical Duties, accustomably due, then and
at that time to be paid.

142. After the Divine Service ended, the money given at the
Offertory shall be disposed of to such pious and charitable
uses, as the Minister and Church-wardens shall think fit. Wherein
if they disagree, it shall be disposed of as the Ordinary shall

143. Whereas it is ordained in this Office for the Administration
of the Lord's Supper, that the Communicants should receive the same
kneeling; &c.




144. The people are to be admonished, that it is most convenient
that Baptism should not be administered but upon Sundays, and
other Holy-days, when the most number of people come together; as
well for that the Congregation there present may testify the
receiving of them that be newly baptized into the number of
Christ's Church; as also because in the Baptism of Infants every
Man present may be put in remembrance of his own profession made
to God in his Baptism. For which cause also it is expedient that
Baptism be ministered in the vulgar tongue. Nevertheless, (if
necessity so require,) Children may be baptized upon any other day.

The main object of the rubric is that there should be a good
congregation; and in preferring 'Sundays and other Holydays' to
other days, because 'the most number of people' then 'come
together,' the rubric implies that some come together on all
days, viz., to daily Morning and Evening Prayer.

145. And note, that there shall be for every Male-child to be
baptized two Godfathers and one Godmother; and for every Female,
one Godfather and two Godmothers.

The twenty-ninth canon of 1603 forbade parents, that is fathers,
to be godfathers for their own children; but this prohibition was
abolished by the Convocation of Canterbury in 1865, though the
amended canon has not yet received the sanction of the Crown. So
that the law on the subject has been for sixteen years in a state
of transition, and a custom of admitting fathers to be godfathers
for their children is growing up.

146. When there are Children to be baptized, the Parents shall
give knowledge thereof over night, or in the morning before the
beginning of Morning Prayer, to the Curate. And then the Godfathers
and Godmothers, and the people with the Children, must be ready
at the Font, either immediately after the last Lesson at Morning
Prayer, or else immediately after the last Lesson at Evening
Prayer, as the Curate by his discretion shall appoint. And the
Priest coming to the Font, (which is then to be filled with pure
Water,) and standing there, shall say, Hath this child, &c.

The use of the word 'Priest' here should not be taken to exclude
the ministration of a Deacon in the absence of the Priest, inasmuch
as the Ordination Service empowers a Deacon to baptize. But it
seems to exclude the ministration of a Deacon in the presence of
the Priest.

The font should be filled immediately before the Baptism, so that
the water may be pure and fresh.

The official dress for the Priest is a surplice and a stole.

It is the custom of some Churches to use a shell for pouring water
on the child; and it ensures the application of sufficient water.
It is convenient, besides adding to the dignity of the Sacrament,
that when it is ministered according to the rubric at Morning or
Evening Prayer, the Priest should be attended to the font by two
or more of the choir, who will hand him the shell, or napkin, or
hold the book when required.

147. If they answer, _No_: Then shall the Priest proceed as followeth.
Dearly beloved, &c.

148. Then shall the Priest say, _Let us pray_.

At the words 'Let us pray,' the general congregation, as well as
those immediately concerned in the Baptism, should kneel, the Priest
continuing to stand.

The Collects, 'Almighty and Everlasting God,' and 'Almighty and
Immortal God,' should be said by the Priest only, the people saying

149. Then shall the people stand up, and the Priest shall say, Hear
the words, &c.

150. After the Gospel is read, the Minister shall make this brief
Exhortation upon the words of the Gospel. Beloved, ye hear, &c.

151. Then shall the Priest speak unto the Godfathers and Godmothers
on this wise. Dearly beloved, &c.

152. Then shall the Priest say, O merciful God, &c.

In the Book of 1549 the Sign of the Cross was directed to be made
in the water at the words 'Sanctify this fountain of Baptism,'
which correspond to and are in substance restored by the words
'Sanctify this water' in this prayer, introduced in the revision
of 1662. It seems therefore admissible to restore also the act of
blessing which formerly accompanied the words now restored in

153. Then the Priest shall take the Child into his hands, and shall
say to the Godfathers and Godmothers,

_Name this Child_.

154. And then naming it after them (if they shall certify him
that the Child may well endure it) he shall dip it in the Water
discreetly and warily, saying, _N_. I baptize thee, &c.

155. But if they certify that the Child is weak, it shall suffice
to pour Water upon it, saying the foresaid words. _N_. I baptize
thee, &c.

Whereas in other parts of the offices of Baptism the Minister is
specially directed to ask certain questions of the sponsors, but
is not so directed here, it may be concluded that he is not under
obligation to volunteer the inquiry whether or not the child be
weak; but may baptize in the usual way by pouring, unless the
sponsors request him to baptize by dipping. And practically, notice
of such request should be given previously, in order that proper
preparation should be made.

156. Then the Priest shall say. We receive, &c.

157. * Here the Priest shall make a Cross upon the Child's forehead.

The ancient custom was to make the cross on the child's forehead
with the thumb. No water should be used.

158. Then shall the Priest say. Seeing now, &c.

Although all direction for the disposal of the child is omitted,
it stands to reason that the Minister must give back the child,
and care should be taken to give it to a sponsor, and not to a

159. Then shall be said, all kneeling; Our Father, &c.

160. Then shall the Priest say. We yield Thee, &c.

161. Then, all standing up, the Priest shall say to the Godfathers
and Godmothers this Exhortation following. Forasmuch, &c.

162. Then shall he add and say, Ye are to, &c.

163. It is certain, by God's Word, that Children which are baptized,
dying before they commit actual sin, are undoubtedly saved.

164. To take away all scruple concerning the use of the sign of the
Cross in Baptism; the true explication thereof, and the just reasons
for the retaining of it, may be seen in the xxxth Canon, first
published in the Year MDCIV.




165. The Curates of every Parish shall often admonish the people,
that they defer not the Baptism of their Children longer than the
first or second Sunday next after their birth, or other Holy-day
falling between, unless upon a great and reasonable cause, to be
approved by the Curate.

166. And also they shall warn them, that without like great cause
and necessity they procure not their Children to be baptized at
home in their houses. But when need shall compel them so to do,
then Baptism shall be administered on this fashion:

167. First, let the Minister of the Parish (or, in his absence,
any other lawful Minister that can be procured) with them that are
present call upon God, and say the Lord's Prayer, and so many of
the Collects appointed to be said before in the Form of Publick
Baptism, as the time and present exigence will suffer. And then,
the Child being named by some one that is present, the Minister
shall pour Water upon it, saying these words; _N_. I baptize thee,

Bishop Cosin observes: "It is not here said what shall be done in
case a lawful Minister cannot be found; or whether the child ought
to be baptized again, or no, when only a midwife, or some other
such, hath baptized it before." According to the ancient custom
of the church, recognized and affirmed in the case of Mastin _v_.
Estcott (1841), a child baptized by a layman is validly baptized.
It follows, that though Baptism by any other than a Bishop, Priest,
or Deacon is discouraged, and is only excusable in extreme
necessity, the Sacrament should not be repeated.

In selecting the Collects for use after the Lord's Prayer, the
Minister should be careful to prefer those which would not be used
in the church, when the child (if it afterwards live) is brought
into the church. He will therefore say (if time and present exigence
will suffer) the Collects beginning,

Almighty everlasting God, who of Thy great mercy, &c.

Almighty and Immortal God, the aid of all that need, &c.

O merciful God, grant that the old Adam, &c.

Almighty ever-living God, &c., which last Collect should always
be used, except in a case of extremest urgency.

168. Then, all kneeling down, the Minister shall give thanks unto
God, and say, We yield Thee, &c.

169. And let them not doubt, but that the Child so baptized is
lawfully and sufficiently baptized, and ought not to be baptized


170. Yet nevertheless, if the Child, which is after this sort
baptized, do afterward live, it is expedient that it be brought
into the Church, to the intent that, if the Minister of the same
Parish did himself baptize that Child, the Congregation may be
certified of the true Form of Baptism, by him privately before
used: In which case he shall say thus, I certify you, &c.

171. But if the Child were baptized by any other lawful Minister,
then the Minister of the Parish, where the Child was born or
christened, shall examine and try whether the Child be lawfully
baptized, or no. In which case, if those that bring any Child to
the Church do answer, that the same Child is already baptized,
then shall the Minister examine them further, saying, By whom, &c.

172. And if the Minister shall find by the answers of such as
bring the Child, that all things were done as they ought to be;
then shall not he christen the Child again, but shall receive
him as one of the flock of true christian people, saying thus,
I certify you, &c.

173. After the Gospel is read, the Minister shall make this brief
Exhortation upon the words of the Gospel. Beloved, ye hear, &c.

174. Then shall the Priest demand the Name of the Child; which
being by the Godfathers and Godmothers pronounced, the Minister
shall say, Dost thou, &c.

175. Then the Priest shall say, We receive, &c.

176. Here the Priest shall make a Cross upon the Child's forehead.

177. Then shall the Priest say, Seeing now, &c.

178. Then shall the Priest say, We yield Thee, &c.

179. Then, all standing up, the Minister shall make this Exhortation
to the Godfathers and Godmothers. Forasmuch, &c.

The final exhortation in the Office of Public Baptism was probably
omitted here by an oversight, and should be used.

180. But if they which bring the Infant to the Church do make such
uncertain answers to the Priest's questions, as that it cannot
appear that the Child was baptized with _Water, In the Name of the
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost_, (which are essential
parts of Baptism,) then let the Priest baptize it in the form before
appointed for Publick Baptism of Infants; saving that at the dipping
of the Child in the Font, he shall use this form of words. If thou
art not, &c.

It seems very difficult, if not impossible, to combine properly the
Office for Public Baptism with that for the reception of infants
brought to church after having been privately baptized. But if it
must be attempted (and in large parishes it is difficult to avoid
it), the Office of Public Baptism should be used, with the
interposition (immediately after the reception of the infants
then baptized) of the inquiries and certificates of the children
privately baptized, and of their reception into the Church. The
Office of Public Baptism can be taken up again at the words,
'Seeing now, dearly beloved brethren,' and continued to the end.




181. When any such persons, as are of riper years, are to be
baptized, timely notice shall be given to the Bishop, or whom he
shall appoint for that purpose, a week before at the least, by
the Parents, or some other discreet persons; that so due care
may be taken for their Examination, whether they be sufficiently
instructed in the Principles of the Christian Religion; and that
they may be exhorted to prepare themselves with Prayers and Fasting
for the receiving of this holy Sacrament.

The duty of giving notice to the Bishop is not laid upon the Curate,
but upon the parents, or some other discreet persons. He is not
therefore bound to give such notice.

182. And if they shall be found fit, then the Godfathers and
Godmothers (the people being assembled upon the Sunday or Holy-day
appointed) shall be ready to present them at the Font immediately
after the second Lesson, either at Morning or Evening Prayer, as
the Curate in his discretion shall think fit.

183. And standing there, the Priest shall ask, whether any of the
persons here presented be baptized, or no: If they shall answer,
No; then shall the Priest say thus, Dearly beloved, &c.

184. Then shall the Priest say,

_Let us pray_.

185. (And here all the Congregation shall kneel.)

186. Then shall the people stand up, and the Priest shall say, Hear
the words, &c.

187. After which he shall say this Exhortation following. Beloved,
ye hear, &c.

188. Then the Priest shall speak to the _persons_ to be baptized
on this wise: Well-beloved, &c.

189. Then shall the Priest demand of each of the persons to be
baptized, severally, these Questions following: Dost thou, &c.

190. Then shall the Priest say, O merciful God, &c.

191. Then shall the Priest take each person to be baptized by the
right hand, and placing him conveniently by the Font, according to
his discretion, shall ask the Godfathers and Godmothers the Name;
and then shall dip him in the water, or pour water upon him,
saying, _N_. I baptize thee, &c.

If a person desire baptism by dipping, every effort should be made
to provide means for the due administration of the Sacrament after
the primitive manner.

192. Then shall the Priest say. We receive, &c.

193. Here the Priest shall make a Cross upon the person's forehead.

194. Then shall the Priest say, Seeing now, dearly beloved, &c.

195. Then shall be said the Lord's Prayer, all kneeling.

196. Then, all standing up, the Priest shall use this Exhortation
following; speaking to the Godfathers and Godmothers first.
Forasmuch as, &c.

197. (And then, speaking to the new baptized persons, he shall
proceed, and say,) And as for you, &c.

198. It is expedient that every person, thus baptized, should be
confirmed by the Bishop as soon after his Baptism as conveniently
may be; that so he may be admitted to the holy Communion.

199. If any persons not baptized in their infancy shall be brought
to be baptized before they come to years of discretion to answer
for themselves; it may suffice to use the Office for Public Baptism
of Infants, or (in case of extreme danger) the Office for Private
Baptism; only changing the word [_Infant_] for [_Child_ or
_Person_] as occasion requireth.


That is to say,

An Instruction to be learned of every person, before he be brought
to be confirmed by the Bishop.

201. The Curate of every Parish shall diligently upon Sundays and
Holy-days, after the second Lesson at Evening Prayer, openly in
the Church instruct and examine so many Children of his Parish
sent unto him, as he shall think convenient, in some part of this

The time of Catechising was fixed by the 59th Canon of 1603, and
by the Prayer-Book up to 1662, to be "before Evening Prayer." In
1662, this was changed to "after the Second Lesson." It must be
remembered that in 1662 the Evening Prayer was said or sung in
the afternoon only.

While the edifying effect of public Catechising is very great, it
must be admitted that the introduction of Sunday-schools into the
Church system, together with the change in the hours of Divine
Service, have undoubtedly altered the conditions which rendered
it necessary to provide so definite an order as this.

202. And all Fathers, Mothers, Masters, and Dames, shall cause
their Children, Servants, and Apprentices, (which have not learned
their Catechism,) to come to the Church at the time appointed,
and obediently to hear and be ordered by the Curate, until such
time as they have learned all that is here appointed for them to

203. So soon as Children are come to a competent age, and can
say, in their Mother Tongue, the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and
the Ten Commandments; and also can answer to the other Questions
of this short Catechism; they shall be brought to the Bishop. And
every one shall have a Godfather, or a Godmother, as a Witness of
their Confirmation.

The qualification for Confirmation, given in the rubric at the end
of the Office for Public Baptism, seems to be here restricted by
the addition of the words 'so soon as children are come to a
competent age.' On the principle that the wider interpretation
of the requisites for spiritual privileges should prevail over
the narrower, this rubric should be so interpreted as not to
conflict with the other. In this view, the competency here intended
does not consist in having arrived at a definite age, but in
understanding what they are able to repeat with their lips. It
should be observed that the word 'child' used in the rubric
indicates, in the language of the Canon Law, an age between seven
and fourteen.

204. And whensoever the Bishop shall give knowledge for Children
to be brought unto him for their Confirmation, the Curate of every
Parish shall either bring, or send in writing, with his hand
subscribed thereunto, the names of all such persons within his
Parish, as he shall think fit to be presented to the Bishop to
be confirmed. And, if the Bishop approve of them, he shall confirm
them in manner following.





205. Upon the day appointed, all that are to be then confirmed,
being placed, and standing in order, before the Bishop; he (or
some other Minister appointed by him) shall read this Preface
following. To the end, &c.

206. Then shall the Bishop say, Do ye here, &c.

207. And every one shall audibly answer, I do.

208. Then all of them in order kneeling before the Bishop, he shall
lay his hand upon the head of every one severally, saying, Defend,

The word 'severally' (closely connected with the word 'saying'),
and the singular number of the expression 'this thy child,' &c.,
indicate a distinct intention that the words should be said to
each individual.

209. Then shall the Bishop say. The Lord be, &c.

210. And (all kneeling down) the Bishop shall add, Let us pray.
Our Father, &c.

211. And this Collect. Almighty and, &c.

212. Then the Bishop shall bless them, saying thus, The blessing, &c.

The Blessing implies the dismissal of the congregation, and seems
to exclude any idea of an address after it; for which also no
place is provided during the rite, nor is any interruption to the
course of the service suggested which could admit of its insertion
anywhere. However desirable it may be, it is, therefore, an
unauthorized addition to the Prayer-Book.

213. And there shall none be admitted to the holy Communion, until
such time as he be confirmed, or be ready and desirous to be



214. First the Banns of all that are to be married together must be
published in the Church three several Sundays or Holy-days, in the
time of Divine Service, immediately before the Sentences for the
Offertory; the Curate saying after the accustomed manner,

On the question of the time for the Publication of Banns, see note
on Rubric 99.

The rubric leaves it to the discretion of the Curate how to act,
when any one rises in answer to his invitation, to declare some
cause or impediment; and it is only reasonable that some words,
though not set down, should be spoken by the Curate, to shew that
the person has been heard. It is perhaps advisable, having regard
to the precautions directed to be taken in the later rubric touching
the same matter, that the Curate, while stating that he hears the
declaration, should request the objector to speak to him more fully
on the matter, after the Divine service is ended; and then it is
also advisable to demand that the objection should be made in

215. And if the persons that are to be married dwell in divers
Parishes, the Banns must be asked in both Parishes; and the Curate
of the one Parish shall not solemnize Matrimony betwixt them,
without a Certificate of the Banns being thrice asked, from the
Curate of the other Parish.

216. At the day and time appointed for solemnization of Matrimony,
the persons to be married shall come into the body of the Church
with their friends and neighbours: and there standing together,
the Man on the right hand, and the Woman on the left, the Priest
shall say, Dearly beloved, &c.

This direction to come into the 'body of the church' is best obeyed
by placing the persons to be married outside the chancel, and at
the chancel-step, the Priest standing upon or above the step, and
turning his face towards them.

The word 'Priest' here is to be interpreted strictly, as excluding
a Deacon, in accordance with the ancient law and usage that
marriage ought not to be celebrated by a Deacon. Though a marriage
so celebrated would not be invalid, it is contrary to all order
that a Deacon should take upon himself to pronounce the solemn
benedictions of the Church contained in this rite.

217. And also, speaking unto the persons that shall be married, he
shall say, I require, &c.

218. At which day of Marriage, if any man do alledge and declare
any impediment, why they may not be coupled together in Matrimony,
by God's Law, or the Laws of this Realm; and will be bound, and
sufficient sureties with him, to the parties: or else put in a
Caution (to the full value of such charges as the persons to be
married do thereby sustain) to prove his allegation: then the
solemnization must be deferred, until such time as the truth be

219. If no impediment be alledged, then shall the Curate say unto
the Man, Wilt thou have, &c.

220. The Man shall answer,

_I will_.

221. Then shall the Priest say unto the Woman, Wilt thou have, &c.

222. The Woman shall answer,

_I will_.

223. Then shall the Minister say, Who giveth, &c.

224. Then shall they give their troth to each other in this manner.

225. The Minister, receiving the Woman at her father's or friend's
hands, shall cause the Man with his right hand to take the Woman
by her right hand, and to say after him as followeth. I, _N_. take,

Care should be taken by the Minister not to permit the father or
friend who gives the woman to be married, to give the woman's hand
to the man, but to receive it himself, and himself give it to the

226. Then shall they loose their hands; and the Woman, with her
right hand taking the Man by his right hand, shall likewise say
after the Minister, I, _N_. take, &c.

227. Then shall they again loose their hands; and the Man shall
give unto the Woman a Ring, laying the same upon the book with the
accustomed duty to the Priest and Clerk.

The order to lay the accustomed duty to the Priest and Clerk on
the Book, was introduced in 1552, and this seems to be the legal
opportunity for the payment of marriage-fees. It must be observed
that if this rubric be complied with, the accustomed duty must be
removed from the book before the Priest can conveniently proceed
with the Service, though any direction for removing it is omitted
in the rubric.

228. And the Priest, taking the Ring, shall deliver it unto the
Man, to put it upon the fourth finger of the Woman's left hand.
And the Man holding the Ring there, and taught by the Priest,
shall say, With this ring, &c.

229. Then the Man leaving the Ring upon the fourth finger of the
Woman's left hand, they shall both kneel down; and the Minister
shall say.

Let us pray. O Eternal God, &c.

230. Then shall the Priest join their right hands together, and
say, Those whom, &c.

This is a peculiarity of the English rite, and a very solemn and
important part of it. It should, therefore, be done very carefully
and accurately, and should not be obscured by any additional
ceremonial, that all men may recognise the far-reaching simplicity
of our Lord's prohibition of dissolution of marriage, extending
to all human action, except that of the Church, whatever civil
authority such other action may possess.

231. Then shall the Minister speak unto the people. Forasmuch as,

232. And the Minister shall add this Blessing. God the Father, &c.

233. Then the Minister or Clerks, going to the Lord's Table, shall
say or sing this Psalm following. Blessed are all, &c.

It is in accordance with this rubric that the Psalm should be said
or sung while going (in procession) to the Lord's Table. The
alternative, 'or Clerks,' does not affect the minister's going
to the Lord's Table, as may be seen in the original rubric of
the Prayer-Book of 1549, which ran 'Then shall they go into the
quire, and the Ministers or Clerks shall say, or sing,' &c. The
word 'clerks' being introduced in connection with the alternative
of singing, not with the going to the Lord's Table.

234. Or this Psalm. God be merciful, &c.

235. The Psalm ended, and the Man and the Woman, kneeling before
the Lord's Table, the Priest standing at the Table, and turning
his face towards them, shall say, Lord, have, &c.

The Priest must obviously stand at the midst of the Holy Table,
and between it and the man and woman kneeling at the steps thereof.

236. This Prayer next following shall be omitted, where the Woman
is past child-bearing. O merciful Lord, &c.

237. Then shall the Priest say. Almighty God, &c.

238. After which, if there be no Sermon declaring the duties of
Man and Wife, the Minister shall read as followeth. All ye, &c.

When the Holy Communion is celebrated at the time of a marriage,
the address, if used, is to be read in the usual place of the
sermon in the Communion Service.

In exercise of the liberty of choosing any suitable subject
relating to the duties of man and wife, it is well to insist
especially upon the indissolubility of the marriage tie.

239. It is convenient that the new-married persons should receive
the holy Communion at the time of their Marriage, or at the first
opportunity after their Marriage.

This rubric testifies to the intention of the Church that Matrimony
should be sealed by the reception of Holy Communion. When considered
in conjunction with the ancient feeling in favour of early and
fasting Communion, the direction of Canon 62, that Marriages should
be celebrated before twelve o'clock at noon, and the custom of
styling the subsequent festivity a breakfast, all point the same
way. And as Marriage is for all who desire it in the fear of God,
the Church hereby assumes that all her Members are Communicants.



240. When any person is sick, notice shall be given thereof to
the Minister of the Parish; who, coming into the sick person's
house, shall say,

The direction that notice should be given to the Minister of the
parish was first inserted in the Prayer-Book of 1662; indicating
that he is the proper person to discharge the Priest's duty in
ministering to the sick.

This office, being of a more solemn and formal character than an
ordinary visit to a sick person, should be used, if possible,
with proper ornaments of the Minister, such as the Surplice and
Stole, or, at all events, the Stole.

241. When he cometh into the sick man's presence he shall say,
kneeling down, Remember not, Lord, &c.

242. Then the Minister shall say, Let us pray.

243. Then shall the Minister exhort the sick person after this form,
or other like. Dearly beloved, &c.

244. If the person visited be very sick, then the Curate may end
his exhortation in this place, or else proceed. Take therefore, &c.

245. Here the Minister shall rehearse the Articles of the Faith,
saying thus, Dost thou believe, &c.

246. The sick person shall answer. All this, &c.

247. Then shall the Minister examine whether he repent him truly of
his sins, and be in charity with all the world; exhorting him to
forgive, from the bottom of his heart, all persons that have
offended him; and if he hath offended any other, to ask them
forgiveness; and where he hath done injury or wrong to any man,
that he make amends to the uttermost of his power. And if he hath
not before disposed of his goods, let him then be admonished to
make his Will, and to declare his Debts, what he oweth, and what
is owing unto him; for the better discharging of his conscience,
and the quietness of his Executors. But men should often be put
in remembrance to take order for the settling of their temporal
estates, whilst they are in health.

248. These words before rehearsed may be said before the Minister
begin his Prayer, as he shall see cause.

249. The Minister should not omit earnestly to move such sick
persons as are of ability to be liberal to the poor.

In obeying this explicit direction, the Minister must consider
that hasty and inconsiderate almsgiving, especially by will, such
as bequeathing doles to the inhabitants of particular places, has
been productive of much evil. He must also be careful not to advise
acts of liberality which are disproportionate to the ability of
the sick person, or illegal (as, e.g., in contravention of the
Mortmain Acts); and in general he will do well to refrain from
suggesting any special objects of benevolence.

When the sick person prepares an offering of alms, and is afterwards
communicated, his alms may well be offered after the Gospel, in
the Office for the Communion of the Sick.

250. Here shall the sick person be moved to make a special
Confession of his sins, if he feel his conscience troubled with
any weighty matter. After which Confession, the Priest shall
absolve him (if he humbly and heartily desire it) after this sort.

The significant introduction in the last revision of this direction
to 'move' the sick person to make a special confession of his sins,
recalls the fact that the practice of confession had then been
interrupted for many years, and required exertion for its revival.
In 'moving' the sick person, is included instruction upon the
nature and details of sins, as well as help to discover them, such
as the suggestion of questions on the Commandments, Baptismal
obligations, marriage vows, &c. The expression 'special confession'
does not mean a _partial_ confession, but a confession which goes
into _detail_; and the Priest should not absolve the sick person
unless his confession comprehends, besides the weighty matter which
had immediately prompted it, all matters which ought to press upon
his conscience, and can be recalled to mind by his utmost efforts.

The words 'if he humbly and heartily desire it,' do not refer to
the expression of the penitent's desire for absolution as a positive
condition of his receiving it, but denote a state of mind suitable
to receiving it, and the absence whereof, if manifested, would
justify the priest in withholding absolution.

'After this sort' means _in this form_, and is an express direction
to use the form of absolution which then follows. The form here
prescribed is employed in this office as being the usual form of
private absolution in all cases, and is recognised as such in the
Prayer-Book of 1549, where it is enjoined for universal private
use. Neither does it contain any such allusion to sickness or
weakness of body, or to unlikelihood of recovery, as would render
it inappropriate for persons in health.

251. And then the Priest shall say the Collect following. O most
merciful, &c.

252. Then shall the Minister say this Psalm. In Thee, O Lord, &c.

253. Adding this. O Saviour, &c.

254. Then shall the Minister say, The Almighty Lord, &c.

255. And after that shall say, Unto God's, &c.

256. A Prayer for a sick Child. O Almighty God, &c.

257. A Prayer for a sick Person, when there appeareth small hope
of recovery. O Father of mercies, &c.

258. A commendatory Prayer for a sick person at the point of
departure. O Almighty God, &c.

259. A Prayer for persons troubled in mind or in conscience. O
Blessed Lord, &c.


260. Forasmuch as all mortal men be subject to many sudden perils,
diseases, and sicknesses, and ever uncertain what time they shall
depart out of this life; therefore, to the intent they may be
always in a readiness to die, whensoever it shall please Almighty
God to call them, the Curates shall diligently from time to time
(but especially in the time of pestilence, or other infectious
sickness) exhort their Parishioners to the often receiving of the
holy Communion of the Body and Blood of our Saviour Christ, when
it shall be publickly administered in the Church; that so doing,
they may, in case of sudden visitation, have the less cause to be
disquieted for lack of the same.

261. But if the sick person be not able to come to the Church, and
yet is desirous to receive the Communion in his house: then he must
give timely notice to the Curate, signifying also how many there
are to communicate with him, (which shall be three, or two at the
least,) and having a convenient place in the sick man's house, with
all things necessary so prepared, that the Curate may reverently
minister, he shall there celebrate the holy Communion, beginning
with the Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, here following.

The opening direction of this rubric evidently contemplates regular
and frequent opportunities of access to the public administration
of the Holy Communion in church, such as would suffice for times
of great danger and distress; and therefore implies frequent
celebrations as a permanent system. Otherwise, it would be mere
hypocrisy to exhort men to the often receiving thereof, and that,
not only in time of pestilence, &c., but generally and habitually.
A special order for those not able to come to church was unknown
in the Church until 1549. Previously to that date no provision was
made for their case, except by the reservation of some of the
Blessed Sacrament from the open Communion in the church, and its
conveyance to them afterwards; and in the Book of 1549, the order
was introduced for use on such days as there was no open Communion
in church. The word 'reverently' may be best satisfied by as near
an approximation to the ceremonial of the open Communion in the
church as can be attained, in regard of the ornaments of the
Church and Minister. In addition to the usual vessels for the
celebration of the Holy Communion, the Minister will do well to
provide himself with a spoon, for the administration of the species
of Wine to very feeble persons.

Cases will occur where the difficulty of swallowing even very small
quantities of either the Bread or the Wine is almost insuperable.
Administration in both kinds may, in some of these cases, be still
attained by placing a minute particle of the Bread in the spoon
with some of the Wine, or conversely by touching the Wine in the
cup with the corner of the piece of Bread which is to be given to
the sick person.

In cases of long infirmity, as of bedridden people without acute
illness, the analogy of the Office of Private Baptism would seem
to hold good, and to admit of the introduction of the other parts
of the Order of Holy Communion, besides those appointed for the
Communion of the Sick.

262. After which the Priest shall proceed according to the form
before prescribed for the holy Communion, beginning at these
words [_Ye that do truly_ &c.]

263. At the time of the distribution of the holy Sacrament, the
Priest shall first receive the Communion himself, and after
minister unto them that are appointed to communicate with the
sick, and last of all to the sick person.

264. But if a man, either by reason of extremity of sickness, or
for want of warning in due time to the Curate, or for lack of
company to receive with him, or by any other just impediment, do
not receive the Sacrament of Christ's Body and Blood, the Curate
shall instruct him, that if he do truly repent him of his sins,
and stedfastly believe that Jesus Christ hath suffered death upon
the Cross for him, and shed his Blood for his redemption, earnestly
remembering the benefits he hath thereby, and giving him hearty
thanks therefore, he doth eat and drink the Body and Blood of our
Saviour Christ profitably to his Soul's health, although he do not
receive the Sacrament with his mouth.

The instruction ordered to be given to the sick man, under certain
circumstances, of unavoidable impediment to his receiving the
Sacrament of Christ's Body and Blood 'that he nevertheless doth
eat and drink Christ's Body and Blood,' must be understood to mean
that physical incapacity to eat and drink does not cut off the
sick man from the benefits of Holy Communion. But this rubric does
not justify any wilful or habitual neglect of receiving the
Sacrament itself.

265. When the sick person is visited, and receiveth the holy
Communion all at one time, then the Priest, for more expedition,
shall cut off the form of the Visitation at the Psalm [_In thee,
O Lord, have I put my trust_, &c.] and go straight to the Communion.

266. In the time of the Plague, Sweat, or such other like contagious
times of sickness or diseases, when none of the Parish or neighbours
can be gotten to communicate with the sick in their houses, for
fear of the infection, upon special request of the diseased, the
Minister may only communicate with him.



267. Here is to be noted, that the Office ensuing is not to be used
for any that die unbaptized, or excommunicate, or have laid violent
hands upon themselves.

This order was adapted for a state of society in which the Parish
Priest was intimately acquainted with the circumstances of every
deceased person who was brought to be buried. Under the altered
conditions of the present day, the officiating Priest being often
in ignorance of the lives and deaths of those over whom he has to
perform the office of the Church, has no power of inquiry given
him, nor any authority to delay a burial for the purpose of making
such inquiry. He is, therefore, not obliged to seek for these
exceptions, nor to infer their existence, from his own previous
knowledge of the matter, unless that knowledge be very clear, and
founded upon certain evidence.

The exception of the unbaptized does not apply to those who have
received Lay or Schismatical Baptism, provided the proper matter
and form had been used.

The word 'excommunicate' means under formal sentence of
excommunication passed by a competent Spiritual Court. It is
equivalent to the words 'denounced excommunicated' in Canon 68.
Even those who are 'ipso facto excommunicated,' by virtue of
Canons 2 to 9, are not technically 'excommunicate,' until after
trial and sentence, the words 'ipso facto' having in English Canon
Law a special technical meaning, viz. that the offence cannot be
punished by a sentence of less severity.

268. The Priest and Clerks meeting the Corpse at the entrance of
the Churchyard, and going before it, either into the Church, or
towards the Grave, shall say, or sing, I am the Resurrection, &c.

The alternative of saying the sentences going towards the grave
is intended to meet exceptional cases of apprehended infection,
when it might be dangerous to bring the body into the church. No
distinction of spiritual condition was contemplated. It is clearly
the general intention of the revisers of 1662 that the corpse should
in ordinary cases be brought first into the church. But when under
special circumstances it has been taken from the entrance of the
churchyard directly to the grave, there seems no reason why the
people should not return to the church after the interment, for
the reading the Psalms and Lesson, as was expressly provided in
the Prayer-Book of 1549.

When the corpse is taken first to a church, and afterwards to a
distant cemetery, the part of the service which follows the Lesson
being necessarily reserved for use at the grave, the previous
part, i.e. the Sentences, Psalms, and Lesson, which were said
at the church, should not be repeated at the grave.

269. After they are come into the Church, shall be read one or
both of these Psalms following. I said, &c, _and_ Lord, Thou hast
been, &c.

When the corpse is brought into the church, it is usually placed
in the Nave. In the burial of a Priest it would seem decorous to
place the corpse in the Chancel. In either case the feet should
be towards the east.

The place of the officiating Priest, in reading the Psalms and
Lesson, is not specified. Sometimes it is the custom to stand at
the feet of the corpse (when it is placed near the Chancel), so
that the congregation may be in front of the Priest, but usually
he would occupy 'the accustomed place.' The 90th Psalm seems the
most appropriate for burial of an aged person.

270. Then shall follow the Lesson taken out of the fifteenth
Chapter of the former Epistle of Saint Paul to the Corinthians.

271. When they come to the Grave, while the Corpse is made ready
to be laid into the earth, the Priest shall say, or the Priest
and Clerks shall sing: Man that is born, &c.

In the Prayer-Book of 1549 the casting the earth upon the body was
directed to be done by the Priest, with the words, 'I commend thy
soul to God the Father Almighty.' This action was transferred
from the Priest to 'some standing by,' when those words were
omitted in 1552. The present rubric seems to direct that any one
else is to perform the act. If done, as it usually is, by the
Parish Clerk, or other inferior Church official, there is more
dignity in it than if done by an unofficial person.

If there is a celebration of Holy Communion at the time of a
burial, it is a separate service, and the celebrant must remember
that the use of any Collect, Epistle, and Gospel, except the one
for the day, is very difficult to justify as being in accordance
with the rubrics of either service. See Rubric 6.

272. Then, while the earth shall be cast upon the Body by some
standing by, the Priest shall say, Forasmuch as it hath, &c.

273. Then shall be said or sung, I heard a voice, &c.

274. Then the Priest shall say. Lord, have mercy, &c.



275. The Woman, at the usual time after her Delivery, shall come
into the Church decently apparelled, and there shall kneel down in
some convenient place, as hath been accustomed, or as the Ordinary
shall direct: And then the Priest shall say unto her, Forasmuch, &c.

By the direction that the woman should be decently apparelled, it
was originally meant that she should be veiled. This was part of
the general practice of her being (in the words of the Bishops at
the Savoy Conference), 'perspicuous to the whole congregation.' And
although the custom of veiling cannot be revived, yet its principle
of marking the individual should be borne in mind in the arrangement
of the Service, as e.g. placing the woman in a special place.

The convenient or proper place in which the woman was to kneel,
was 'near the church door' in the ancient English use, 'near the
choir door' in the Prayer-Book of 1549, 'nigh unto the place where
the Table standeth' in the book of 1552. The words 'as hath been
accustomed' refer to the one of these usages which has survived,
and been adhered to, in any old church. The place at the altar
rails was approved by the Bishops at the Savoy Conference, in
regard of the offering she is there to make. The Priest, in all
cases, should stand by her--i.e. near to, and in front of, her.

He is to say to her the Address and the Psalm. The congregation
should not join in the latter. Care must be taken not to replace
from an ordinary Psalter the verses omitted from the 116th Psalm.

In cases where the new-born child has died, it is better to use
the 116th Psalm.

276. (Then shall the Priest say the cxvith Psalm,)

277. Or _Psalm cxxvii_.

278. Then the Priest shall say,

Let us pray. Lord, have mercy, &c.

The Priest may at this point properly turn to look eastward.

279. The Woman, that cometh to give her Thanks, must offer accustomed
Offerings; and, if there be a Communion, it is convenient that she
receive the holy Communion.

The Service is intentionally concluded without a blessing, which
it is wrong to insert. The suggestion of the woman's receiving the
Holy Communion is aided by the incompleteness of the Service ending
abruptly with the Thanksgiving.

With regard to the time of the Service, there is no express
direction, provided that a congregation may be reasonably expected.

The offering of the woman is connected with her receiving the Holy
Communion, and should be made in that Service, if she comes to it.
In all cases, it is well that it should be formally received by the
Priest or an assistant, in an alms-bag or bason, and presented by
the Priest on the Altar.

It is to be observed that no mention is made of the condition of
the woman, as being in wedlock or not. When it was objected at the
Savoy Conference that some profession of humiliation ought to be
required of an unmarried or profligate woman before she was
admitted to the privilege of thanksgiving, the Bishops replied,
"that such a woman should do her penance before she was churched."

If the Priest, therefore, be privately cognizant of the penance of
such a woman, he is bound to admit her to the Service, without
requiring public profession of her humiliation.

Without such cognizance he could hardly admit such a woman to a
Service which expressly implies access to Communion.




_With certain Prayers to be used on the First Day of Lent, and at
other Times, as the Ordinary shall appoint_.

280. After Morning Prayer, the Litany ended according to the
accustomed manner, the Priest shall, in the Reading-Pew or Pulpit,
say, Brethren, &c.

The 51st Psalm is directed to be said, not 'said or sung.' Singing,
therefore, appears to be excluded, as it was, in the similar place
in the old English Office, by the direction to say the Psalm _sine

281. And the people shall answer and say. Amen.

282. Then shall they all kneel upon their knees, and the Priest and
Clerks kneeling (in the place where they are accustomed to say the
Litany) shall say this Psalm. Have mercy upon me, &c.

283. Then shall the people say this that followeth, after the
Minister. Turn Thou us, &c.

284. Then the Minister alone shall say, The Lord bless us, &c.

Printed by Parker and Co., Crown Yard, Oxford.


[a] "The Act of Uniformity is to be construed by the same rules
exactly as any act passed in the last session of Parliament. The
clause in question, by which I mean the rubric in question (the
Ornaments Rubric), is perfectly unambiguous in language, free from
all difficulty as to construction. It therefore lets in no argument
as to intention other than that which the words themselves import.
There might be a seeming difficulty in fact, because it might not
be known what vestments were in use by authority of Parliament in
the second year of the reign of King Edward the Sixth; but this
difficulty has been removed. It is conceded in the report that the
vestments, the use of which is now condemned, were in use by
authority of Parliament in that year. Having that fact, you are
bound to construe the rubric as if those vestments were specifically
named in it, instead of being only referred to. If an act should be
passed to-morrow that the uniform of the Guards should henceforth
be such as was ordered for them by authority, and used by them in
the 1st George I., you would first ascertain what that uniform was,
and having ascertained it, you would not enquire into the changes
which may have been made, many or few, with or without lawful
authority, between the 1st George I. and the passing of the new
act. All these, from that act specifying the earlier date, would
have been made wholly immaterial. It would have seemed strange, I
suppose, if a commanding officer, disobeying the statute, had said
in his defence, 'There have been many changes since the reign of
George I., and as to "retaining," we put a gloss on that, and
thought it might mean only retaining to the Queen's use; so we have
put the uniforms safely in store.' But I think it would have seemed
more strange to punish and mulct him severely, if he had obeyed the
law and put no gloss on plain words.

"This case stands on the same principle. The rubric, indeed, seems
to me to imply with some clearness that, in the long interval
between Edw. VI. and the 14th Car. II., there had been many changes;
but it does not stay to specify them, or distinguish between what
was mere evasion, and what was lawful. It quietly passes them all
by, and goes back to _the legalized usage of the second year of
Edward VI_. What had prevailed since, whether by an archbishop's
gloss, by commissioners, or even statutes, whether, in short, legal
or illegal, it makes quite immaterial." _Remarks on some parts of
the Report of the Judicial Committee in the case of Elphinstone v.
Purchas, and on the course proper to be pursued by the Clergy in
regard to it_. A Letter to the Rev. Canon Liddon from the Right
Hon. J. T. Coleridge. (1871.)

[b] We gather from the Inventories and other authorities, that
the word _vestment_ generally included, besides the chasuble, the
stole and maniple, and the albe with its amice and girdle.

[c] "To bow reverently at 'the name of Jesus' whenever it is
mentioned in any of the Church's offices; to turn towards the East
when the Gloria Patri and Creeds are rehearsing; and to make
obeisance at coming into and going out of Church; and at going up
to, and coming down from, the altar, are all ancient and devout
usages, and which thousands of good people of our own Church
practise at this day, and amongst them, if he deserves to be
reckoned among them, T. W.'s good friend."--_Michael Hewetson's
Memorandums concerning the Consecration of the Church of Kildare,
and the Ordination of his dear friend, Thomas Wilson_ [_S. Peter's'
day_, 1686], _with some Advices thereon_. Quoted in Life of Bishop
Wilson, edited by the Rev. John Keble. A.-C.L., Part I. cap. i. p.

"Whereas the Church is the house of God, dedicated to his holy
worship, and therefore ought to mind us both of the greatnesse
and goodness of his Divine Majestie, certain it is that the
acknowledgement thereof not onely inwardly in our hearts, but
also outwardly with our bodies, must needs be pious in itself,
profitable unto us, and edifying unto others. We therefore think
it very meet and behovefull, and heartily commend it to all good
and well-affected people members of this Church, that they be ready
to tender unto the Lord the said acknowledgement, by doing reverence
and obeisance both at their coming in and going out of the said
churches, chancels, or chapels, according to the most ancient
custome of the Primitive Church in the purest times, and of the
Church also for many yeers of the reign of Queen Elizabeth."--_The
Canons of the Church of England_, 1640, No. vii.

[d] "Verba Canonis _rotunde_ dicantur, et distincte,
nec ex festinatione retracta, nec ex diuturnitate nimis
protracta."--_Decree of Herbert, Archbishop of Canterbury_, in
a general synod at London, A.D. 1200: Spelman's _Concilia_, ii.
p. 123; John Johnson's Canons, A.-C.L., vol. ii. p. 84.

[e] In most Prayer-Books printed in this century, the words 'and
Banns of Matrimony published' have been omitted from this rubric;
and a corresponding alteration has been made by the printers in
the first rubric in the Marriage Service, under a mistaken idea
of the effect of Stat. 26 George II. cap. 33, which contained the
same clause as that quoted above from the Act of 4 George IV. c. 76.

Even supposing that the words of these Acts were irreconcilable
with the rubric, they did not alter the rubric.

[f] The order of reception in the Clementine Liturgy is:--The
Bishop, priests, deacons, sub-deacons, readers, singers, monastics,
deaconesses, religious virgins and widows, children, all the
people in order (apparently first men, and then women).

[g] The direction of St. Cyril of Jerusalem was to use the
hands, making the left hand a throne for the right, and hollowing
the palm of the right to receive the Body of Christ.

The fact of receiving in the hands is also noticed by Tertullian
in blaming people for using for purposes which he considered
unworthy the hands which they had held forth to receive God.

[h] There seems a disposition to reduce the minimum lower than
that appointed in our Rubric. The Lower House of Convocation of
Canterbury have recommended its reduction to two or three, and the
testimony of Bishop Torry to the ancient usage of the Scottish
Church is that one was considered sufficient.

[i] Cosin's Works, A.-C.L. Edition, vol. v. p. 129.

[j] This is A.D. 1643, the date of the total abrogation of the

[k] A distinction must, however, be drawn between the natural
juice freshly pressed from the grape which has sometimes been
allowed as valid matter for the Sacrament in cases of necessity,
and the compounds now sold as 'non-alcoholic' or 'unfermented'
wines. The reason why the former may be allowed is because it is
potentially wine, and so to speak a child-wine, and would become
true wine, if given time. But the principle of wine has been killed
in the latter cases, so that the artificial fluids in question not
only are not wine, but never can become wine, and are therefore
invalid matter. The statement that the Jews employ unfermented
wine at the Passover, is contrary to fact. They could not have
employed it in our Lord's time, because the process of arresting
fermentation during so long an interval as that between the vintage
and the Passover, was unknown until very lately; and the Passover
cup is now naturally fermented grape wine, carefully watched from
the grape to the bottle to provide against accidental admixture
from without: while vinegar, itself the product of two processes
of fermentation, is also used by them at the Passover.

[l] Note.--It is sometimes customary, with a view of scrupulously
consuming the entire of the consecrated wine, to cleanse the chalice
with a little wine previously to using water; and not to pour away
any water thus used until it is absolutely certain that all the
consecrated species has been consumed. In the rare cases where
wine has been consecrated in the flagon, that vessel must be
cleansed with the same care as the chalice.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Ritual Conformity - Interpretations of the Rubrics of the Prayer-Book" ***

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