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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 10, Slice 5 - "Fleury, Claude" to "Foraker"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 10, Slice 5 - "Fleury, Claude" to "Foraker"" ***

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE FLORENCE: "... while the new structures erected in their
      place, especially those in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, are almost
      uniformly ugly and quite out of keeping with Florentine
      architecture." 'Piazza' amended from 'Piaza'.

    ARTICLE FLORIDA: "Not until the last decade of the 17th century did
      the Spanish authorities attempt to extend the settlements beyond
      the east coast." 'Not' amended from 'no'.

    ARTICLE FLOWER: "The exine is a firm membrane, which defines the
      figure of the pollen-grain, and gives colour to it." 'exine'
      amended from 'extine'.

    ARTICLE FOG: "... the cooling of air by rarefaction due to the
      reduction of pressure on ascent, cannot be invoked, except in the
      case of the fogs forming the cloud-caps of hills, which are perhaps
      not fairly included." 'rarefaction' amended from 'rarefraction'.

    ARTICLE FOOTBALL: "Association football is indeed, from the
      standpoint of the spectator, a much brighter game than it was in
      its infancy, the result of the new methods bringing every one of
      the eleven players into full relief throughout the game."
      'throughout' amended from 'throughtout'.

    ARTICLE FOOTBALL: "This means that one or more of his fellows must
      accompany and shield him as he runs, blocking off any opponent who
      tries to tackle him." 'tries' amended from 'trys'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


             VOLUME X, SLICE V

         Fleury, Claude to Foraker



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  FLEURY, CLAUDE                  FLYGARE-CARLÉN, EMILIE
  FLIEDNER, THEODOR               FLYING BUTTRESS
  FLIGHT and FLYING               FLYING COLUMN
  FLINCK, GOVERT                 "FLYING DUTCHMAN,"
  FLINDERS, MATTHEW               FLYING-FISH
  FLINSBERG                       FLYING-FOX
  FLINT, AUSTIN                   FLYING-SQUIRREL
  FLINT, ROBERT                   FLYSCH
  FLINT, TIMOTHY                  FOCA
  FLINT (Michigan, U.S.A.)        FOCHABERS
  FLINT (county of North Wales)   FOCSHANI
  FLINT (town of North Wales)     FOCUS
  FLINT (crystalline substance)   FOG
  FLINT IMPLEMENTS AND WEAPONS    FOGAZZARO, ANTONIO
  FLOAT                           FOGELBERG, BENEDICT ERLAND
  FLOCK                           FOGGIA
  FLODDEN                         FÖHN
  FLODOARD                        FÖHR
  FLOE                            FOIL
  FLOOD, HENRY                    FOIL-FENCING
  FLOOD                           FOIX, PAUL DE
  FLOOD PLAIN                     FOIX
  FLOOR                           FOLARD, JEAN CHARLES
  FLOORCLOTH                      FOLD
  FLOQUET, CHARLES THOMAS         FOLENGO, TEOFILO
  FLOR, ROGER DI                  FOLEY, JOHN HENRY
  FLORA                           FOLEY, SIR THOMAS
  FLORE AND BLANCHEFLEUR          FOLI, ALLAN JAMES
  FLORENCE, WILLIAM JERMYN        FOLIGNO
  FLORENCE OF WORCESTER           FOLIO
  FLORENCE (Alabama, U.S.A.)      FOLIUM
  FLORENCE (capital of Tuscany)   FOLKES, MARTIN
  FLORES (Atlantic Ocean island)  FOLKESTONE
  FLORES (East Indies island)     FOLKLAND
  FLOREZ, ENRIQUE                 FOLKLORE
  FLORIAN, SAINT                  FOLLEN, AUGUST LUDWIG
  FLORIAN, JEAN PIERRE CLARIS DE  FOLLEN, KARL
  FLORIANOPOLIS                   FOLLETT, SIR WILLIAM WEBB
  FLORIDA                         FONBLANQUE, ALBANY WILLIAM
  FLORIDABLANCA, DON JOSE         FOND DU LAC
  FLORIDOR                        FONDI
  FLORIN                          FONNI
  FLORIO, GIOVANNI                FONSAGRADA
  FLORIS, FRANS                   FONSECA, MANOEL DEODORO DA
  FLORUS                          FONSECA, BAY OF
  FLORUS, JULIUS                  FONT
  FLORUS, PUBLIUS ANNIUS          FONTAINE, PIERRE FRANÇOIS LÉONARD
  FLOTOW, FRIEDRICH ADOLF VON     FONTAINEBLEAU
  FLOTSAM, JETSAM and LIGAN       FONTAN, LOUIS MARIE
  FLOUNDER                        FONTANA, DOMENICO
  FLOUR and FLOUR MANUFACTURE     FONTANA, LAVINIA
  FLOURENS, GUSTAVE               FONTANA, PROSPERO
  FLOURENS, MARIE JEAN PIERRE     FONTANE, THEODOR
  FLOWER, SIR WILLIAM HENRY       FONTANES, LOUIS
  FLOWER                          FONTENAY-LE-COMTE
  FLOWERS, ARTIFICIAL             FONTENELLE, BERNARD LE BOVIER DE
  FLOYD, JOHN                     FONTENOY
  FLOYD, JOHN BUCHANAN            FONTEVRAULT
  FLOYER, SIR JOHN                FOOD
  FLUDD, ROBERT                   FOOD PRESERVATION
  FLÜGEL, GUSTAV LEBERECHT        FOOL
  FLÜGEL, JOHANN GOTTFRIED        FOOLS, FEAST OF
  FLUKE                           FOOLSCAP
  FLUME                           FOOL'S PARSLEY
  FLUMINI MAGGIORE                FOOT
  FLUORANTHENE                    FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE
  FLUORENE                        FOOTBALL
  FLUORESCEIN                     FOOTE, ANDREW HULL
  FLUORESCENCE                    FOOTE, MARY HALLOCK
  FLUORINE                        FOOTE, SAMUEL
  FLUOR-SPAR                      FOOTMAN
  FLUSHING (New York, U.S.A.)     FOOTSCRAY
  FLUSHING (Zeeland, Holland)     FOOT-STALL
  FLUTE                           FOPPA, VINCENZO
  FLUX                            FORAGE
  FLY                             FORAIN, J. L.
  FLYCATCHER                      FORAKER, JOSEPH HENSON



FLEURY, CLAUDE (1640-1723), French ecclesiastical historian, was born at
Paris on the 6th of December 1640. Destined for the bar, he was educated
at the aristocratic college of Clermont (now that of Louis-le-Grand). In
1658 he was nominated an advocate to the parlement of Paris, and for
nine years followed the legal profession. But he had long been of a
religious disposition, and in 1667 turned from law to theology. He had
been some time in orders when Louis XIV., in 1672, selected him as tutor
of the princes of Conti, with such success that the king next entrusted
to him the education of the count of Vermandois, one of his natural
sons, on whose death in 1683 Fleury received for his services the
Cistercian abbey of Loc-Dieu, in the diocese of Rhodez. In 1689 he was
appointed sub-preceptor of the dukes of Burgundy, of Anjou, and of
Berry, and thus became intimately associated with Fénelon, their chief
tutor. In 1696 he was elected to fill the place of La Bruyère in the
French Academy; and on the completion of the education of the young
princes the king bestowed upon him the rich priory of Argenteuil, in the
diocese of Paris (1706). On assuming this benefice he resigned, with
rare disinterestedness, that of the abbey of Loc-Dieu. About this time
he began his great work, the first of the kind in France, and one for
which he had been collecting materials for thirty years--the _Histoire
ecclésiastique_. Fleury's evident intention was to write a history of
the church for all classes of society; but at the time in which his
great work appeared it was less religion than theology that absorbed the
attention of the clergy and the educated public; and his work
accordingly appealed to the student rather than to the popular reader,
dwelling as it does very particularly on questions of doctrine, of
discipline, of supremacy, and of rivalry between the priesthood and the
imperial power. Nevertheless it had a great success. The first edition,
printed at Paris in 20 volumes 4to, 1691, was followed by many others,
among which may be mentioned that of Brussels, in 32 vols. 8vo, 1692,
and that of Nismes, in 25 vols. 8vo, 1778 to 1780. The work of Fleury
only comes down to the year 1414. It was continued by J. Claude Fabre
and Goujet down to 1595, in 16 vols. 4to. In consulting the work of
Fleury and its supplement, the general table of contents, published by
Rondel, Paris, 1758, 1 vol. 4to, will be found very useful. Translations
have been made of the entire work into Latin, German and Italian. The
Latin translation, published at Augsburg, 1758-1759, 85 vols. 8vo,
carries the work down to 1684. Fleury, who had been appointed confessor
to the young king Louis XV. in 1716, because, as the duke of Orleans
said, he was neither Jansenist nor Molinist, nor Ultramontanist, but
Catholic, died on the 14th of July 1723. His great learning was equalled
by the modest simplicity of his life and the uprightness of his conduct.

  Fleury left many works besides his _Histoire ecclésiastique_. The
  following deserve special mention:--_Histoire du droit françois_
  (1674, 12mo); _Moeurs des Israélites_ (1681, 12mo); _Moeurs des
  Chrétiens_ (1682, 12mo); _Traité du choix et de la méthode des études_
  (1686, 2 vols. 12mo); _Les Devoirs des maîtres et des domestiques_
  (1688, 12mo). A number of the smaller works were published in one
  volume at Paris in 1807. The Roman Congregation of the Index condemned
  his _Catéchisme historique_ (1679) and the _Institution du droit
  ecclésiastique_ (1687).

  See C. Ernst Simonetti, _Der Character eines Geschichtsschreibers in
  dem Leben und aus den Schriften des Abts C. Fleury_ (Göttingen, 1746,
  4to); C.F.P. Jaeger, _Notice sur C. Fleury, considéré comme historien
  de l'église_ (Strassburg, 1847, 8vo); Reichlin-Meldegg, _Geschichte
  des Christentums, i._



FLIEDNER, THEODOR (1800-1864), German Protestant divine, was born on the
21st of January 1800 at Epstein (near Wiesbaden), the small village in
which his father was pastor. He studied theology at the universities of
Giessen and Göttingen, and at the theological seminary of Herborn, and
at the age of twenty he passed his final examination. After a year spent
in teaching and preaching, in 1821 he accepted a call from the
Protestant church at Kaiserswerth, a little town on the Rhine, a few
miles below Düsseldorf. To help his people and to provide an endowment
for his church, he undertook journeys in 1822 through part of Germany,
and then in 1823 to Holland and England. He met with considerable
success, and had opportunities of observing what was being done towards
prison reform; in England he made the acquaintance of the philanthropist
Elizabeth Fry. The German prisons were then in a very bad state. The
prisoners were huddled together in dirty rooms, badly fed, and left in
complete idleness. No one dreamed of instructing them, or of collecting
statistics to form the basis of useful legislation on the subject.
Fliedner, at first singly, undertook the work. He applied for permission
to be imprisoned for some time, in order that he might look at prison
life from the inside. This petition was refused, but he was allowed to
hold fortnightly services in the Düsseldorf prison, and to visit the
inmates individually. Those interested in the subject banded themselves
together, and on the 18th of June 1826 the first Prison Society of
Germany (_Rheinisch-Westfälischer Gefängnisverein_) was founded. In 1833
Fliedner opened in his own parsonage garden at Kaiserswerth a refuge for
discharged female convicts. His circle of practical philanthropy rapidly
increased. The state of the sick poor had for some time excited his
interest, and it seemed to him that hospitals might be best served by an
organized body of specially trained women. Accordingly in 1836 he began
the first deaconess house, and the hospital at Kaiserswerth. By their
ordination vows the deaconesses devoted themselves to the care of the
poor, the sick and the young; but their engagements were not final--they
might leave their work and return to ordinary life if they chose. In
addition to these institutions Fliedner founded in 1835 an infant
school, then a normal school for infant school mistresses (1836), an
orphanage for orphan girls of the middle class (1842), and an asylum for
female lunatics (1847). Moreover, he assisted at the foundation and in
the management of similar institutions, not only in Germany, but in
various parts of Europe.

In 1849 he resigned his pastoral charge, and from 1849 to 1851 he
travelled over a large part of Europe, America and the East--the object
of his journeys being to found "mother houses," which were to be not
merely training schools for deaconesses, but also centres whence other
training establishments might arise. He established a deaconess house in
Jerusalem, and after his return assisted by counsel and money in the
erection of establishments at Constantinople, Smyrna, Alexandria and
Bucharest. Among his later efforts may be mentioned the Christian house
of refuge for female servants in Berlin (connected with which other
institutions soon arose) and the "house of evening rest" for retired
deaconesses at Kaiserswerth. In 1855 Fliedner received the degree of
doctor in theology from the university of Bonn, in recognition rather of
his practical activity than of his theological attainments. He died on
the 4th of October 1864, leaving behind him over 100 stations attended
by 430 deaconesses; and these by 1876 had increased to 150 with an
attendance of 600.

Fliedner's son FRITZ FLIEDNER (1845-1901), after studying in Halle and
Tübingen, became in 1870 chaplain to the embassy in Madrid. He followed
in his father's footsteps by founding several philanthropic institutions
in Spain. He was also the author of a number of books, amongst which was
an autobiography, _Aus meinem Leben. Erinnerungen und Erfahrungen_
(1901).

  Theodor Fliedner's writings are almost entirely of a practical
  character. He edited a periodical, _Der Armen und Kranken Freund,_
  which contained information regarding the various institutions, and
  also the yearly almanac of the Kaiserswerth institution. Besides
  purely educational and devotional works, he wrote _Buch der Märtyrer_
  (1852); _Kurze Geschichte der Entstehung der ersten evang.
  Liebesanstalten zu Kaiserswerth_ (1856); _Nachricht über das
  Diakonissen-Werk in der Christ. Kirche_ (5th ed., 1867); _Die evangel.
  Märtyrer Ungarns und Siebenbürgens; and Beschreibung der Reise nach
  Jerusalem und Constantinopel_. All were published at Kaiserswerth.
  There is a translation of the German life by C. Winkworth (London,
  1867). See also G. Fliedner, _Theodor Fliedner, kurzer Abriss seines
  Lebens und Wirkens_ (3rd ed., 1892). See also on Fliedner and his work
  _Kaiserswerth Deaconesses_ (London, 1857); Dean John S. Howson's
  _Deaconesses_ (London, 1862); _The Service of the Poor_, by E.C.
  Stephen (London, 1871); W.F. Stevenson's _Praying and Working_
  (London, 1865).



FLIGHT and FLYING. Of the many scientific problems of modern times,
there are few possessing a wider or more enduring interest than that of
aerial navigation (see also AERONAUTICS). To fly has always been an
object of ambition with man; nor will this occasion surprise when we
remember the marvellous freedom enjoyed by volant as compared with
non-volant animals. The subject of aviation is admittedly one of extreme
difficulty. To tread upon the air (and this is what is really meant) is,
at first sight, in the highest degree utopian; and yet there are
thousands of living creatures which actually accomplish this feat. These
creatures, however varied in form and structure, all fly according to
one and the same principle; and this is a significant fact, as it tends
to show that the air must be attacked in a particular way to ensure
flight. It behoves us then at the outset to scrutinize very carefully
the general configuration of flying animals, and in particular the size,
shape and movements of their flying organs.

Flying animals differ entirely from sailing ships and from balloons,
with which they are not unfrequently though erroneously compared; and a
flying machine constructed upon proper principles can have nothing in
common with either of those creations. The ship floats upon water and
the balloon upon air; but the ship differs from the balloon, and the
ship and the balloon differ from the flying creature and flying machine.
The water and air, moreover, have characteristics of their own. The
analogies which connect the water with the air, the ship with the
balloon, and the ship and the balloon with the flying creature and
flying machine are false analogies. A sailing ship is supported by the
water and requires merely to be propelled; a flying creature and a
flying machine constructed on the living type require to be both
supported and propelled. This arises from the fact that water is much
denser than air, and because water supports on its surface substances
which fall through air. While water and air are both fluid media, they
are to be distinguished from each other in the following particulars.
Water is comparatively very heavy, inelastic and incompressible; air, on
the other hand, is comparatively very light, elastic and compressible.
If water be struck with violence, the recoil obtained is great when
compared with the recoil obtained from air similarly treated. In water
we get a maximum recoil with a minimum of displacement; in air, on the
contrary, we obtain a minimum recoil with a maximum of displacement.
Water and air when unconfined yield readily to pressure. They thus form
_movable fulcra_ to bodies acting upon them. In order to meet these
peculiarities the travelling organs of aquatic and flying animals
(whether they be feet, fins, flippers or wings) are made not of rigid
but of elastic materials. The travelling organs, moreover, increase in
size in proportion to the tenuity of the fluid to be acted upon. The
difference in size of the travelling organs of animals becomes very
marked when the land animals are contrasted with the aquatic, and the
aquatic with the aerial, as in figs. 1, 2 and 3.

The peculiarities of water and air as supporting media are well
illustrated by a reference to swimming, diving and flying birds. A bird
when swimming extends its feet simultaneously or alternately in a
backward direction, and so obtains a forward recoil. The water supports
the bird, and the feet simply propel. In this case the bird is lighter
than the water, and the long axis of the body is horizontal (a of fig.
4). When the bird dives, or flies under water, the long axis of the body
is inclined obliquely downwards and forwards, and the bird forces itself
into and beneath the water by the action of its feet, or wings, or both.
In diving or sub-aquatic flight the feet strike upwards and backwards,
the wings downwards and _backwards_ (b of fig. 4). In aerial flying
everything is reversed. The long axis of the bird is inclined obliquely
upwards and forwards, and the wings strike, not downwards and backwards,
but downwards and _forwards_ (c of fig. 4). These changes in the
direction of the long axis of the bird in swimming, diving and flying,
and in the direction of the stroke of the wings in sub-aquatic and
aerial flight, are due to the fact that the bird is heavier than the air
and lighter than the water.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Chillingham Bull (_Bos Scoticus_). Small
travelling extremities adapted for land. r, s, t, u, figure-of-8
described by the feet in walking.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--The Turtle (_Chelonia imbricata_). Enlarged
travelling extremities (flippers) adapted for water.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--The Bat (_Phyllocina gracilis_). Greatly
expanded travelling extremities adapted for air.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--The King Penguin in the positions assumed by a
bird in (a) swimming, (b) diving, and (c) flying.]

The physical properties of water and air explain in a great measure how
the sailing ship differs from the balloon, and how the latter differs
from the flying creature and flying machine constructed on the natural
type. The sailing ship is, as it were, immersed in two oceans, viz. an
ocean of water and an ocean of air--the former being greatly heavier and
denser than the latter. The ocean of water buoys or floats the ship, and
the ocean of air, or part of it in motion, swells the sails which propel
the ship. The moving air, which strikes the sails directly, strikes the
hull of the vessel indirectly and forces it through the water, which, as
explained, is a comparatively dense fluid. When the ship is in motion
it can be steered either by the sails alone, or by the rudder alone, or
by both combined. A balloon differs from a sailing ship in being
immersed in only one ocean, viz. the ocean of air. It resembles the ship
in floating upon the air, as the ship floats upon the water; in other
words, the balloon is lighter than the air, as the ship is lighter than
the water. But here all analogy ceases. The ship, in virtue of its being
immersed in two fluids having different densities, can be steered and
made to tack about in a horizontal plane in any given direction. This in
the case of the balloon, immersed in one fluid, is impossible. The
balloon in a calm can only rise and fall in a vertical line. Its
horizontal movements, which ought to be the more important, are
accidental movements due to air currents, and cannot be controlled; the
balloon, in short, cannot be guided. One might as well attempt to steer
a boat carried along by currents of water in the absence of oars, sails
and wind, as to steer a balloon carried along by currents of air. The
balloon has no hold upon the air, and this consequently cannot be
employed as a _fulcrum_ for regulating its course. The balloon, because
of its vast size and from its being lighter than the air, is completely
at the mercy of the wind. It forms an integral part, so to speak, of the
wind for the time being, and the direction of the wind in every instance
determines the horizontal motion of the balloon. The force required to
propel a balloon against even a moderate breeze would result in its
destruction. The balloon cannot be transferred with any degree of
certainty from one point of the earth's surface to another, and hence
the chief danger in its employment. It may, quite as likely as not,
carry its occupants out to sea. The balloon is a mere lifting machine
and is in no sense to be regarded as a flying machine. It resembles the
flying creature only in this, that it is immersed in the ocean of air in
which it sustains itself. The mode of suspension is wholly different.
The balloon floats because it is lighter than the air; the flying
creature floats because it extracts from the air, by the vigorous
downward action of its wings, a certain amount of upward recoil. The
balloon is passive; the flying creature is active. The balloon is
controlled by the wind; the flying creature controls the wind. The
balloon in the absence of wind can only rise and fall in a vertical
line; the flying creature can fly in a horizontal plane in any given
direction. The balloon is inefficient because of its levity; the flying
creature is efficient because of its weight.

Weight, however paradoxical it may appear, is necessary to flight.
Everything which flies is vastly heavier than the air. The inertia of
the mass of the flying creature enables it to control and direct its
movements in the air. Many are of opinion that flight is a mere matter
of levity and power. This is quite a mistake. No machine, however light
and powerful, will ever fly whose travelling surfaces are not properly
fashioned and properly applied to the air.

It was supposed at one time that the air sacs of birds contributed in
some mysterious way to flight, but this is now known to be erroneous.
The bats and some of the best-flying birds have no air sacs. Similar
remarks are to be made of the heated air imprisoned within the bones of
certain birds.[1] Feathers even are not necessary to flight. Insects and
bats have no feathers, and yet fly well. The only facts in natural
history which appear even indirectly to countenance the flotation theory
are the presence of a swimming bladder in some fishes, and the existence
of membranous expansions or pseudo-wings in certain animals, such as the
flying fish, flying dragon and flying squirrel. As, however, the animals
referred to do not actually fly, but merely dart into the air and there
sustain themselves for brief intervals, they afford no real support to
the theory. The so-called floating animals are depicted at figs. 5, 6
and 7.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--The Red-throated Dragon (_Draco haematopogon_).]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--The Flying Colugo (_Galeopithecus volans_); also
called flying lemur and flying squirrel.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--The Flying Fish (_Exocoetus exiliens_).]

It has been asserted, and with some degree of plausibility, that a fish
lighter than the water might swim, and that a bird lighter than the air
might fly: it ought, however, to be borne in mind that, in point of
fact, a fish lighter than the water could not hold its own if the water
were in the least perturbed, and that a bird lighter than the air would
be swept into space by even a moderate breeze without hope of return.
Weight and power are always associated in living animals, and the fact
that living animals are made heavier than the medium they are to
navigate may be regarded as a conclusive argument in favour of weight
being necessary alike to the swimming of the fish and the flying of the
bird. It may be stated once for all that flying creatures are for the
most part as heavy, bulk for bulk, as other animals, and that flight in
every instance is the product, not of superior levity, but of _weight_
and _power_ directed upon properly constructed flying organs.

This fact is important as bearing on the construction of flying
machines. It shows that a flying machine need not necessarily be a
light, airy structure exposing an immoderate amount of surface. On the
contrary, it favours the belief that it should be a compact and
moderately heavy and powerful structure, which trusts for elevation and
propulsion entirely to its flying appliances--whether actively moving
wings, or screws, or aeroplanes wedged forward by screws. It should
attack and subdue the air, and never give the air an opportunity of
attacking or subduing it. It should smite the air intelligently and as a
master, and its vigorous well-directed thrusts should in every instance
elicit an upward and forward recoil. The flying machine must be _multum
in parvo_. It must launch itself in the ocean of air, and must extract
from that air, by means of its travelling surfaces--however fashioned
and however applied--the recoil or resistance necessary to elevate and
carry it forward. Extensive inert surfaces indeed are contra-indicated
in a flying machine, as they approximate it to the balloon, which, as
has been shown, cannot maintain its position in the air if there are air
currents. A flying machine which could not face air currents would
necessarily be a failure. To obviate this difficulty we are forced to
fall back upon _weight_, or rather the structures and appliances which
weight represents. These appliances as indicated should not be
unnecessarily expanded, but when expanded they should, wherever
practicable, be converted into actively moving flying surfaces, in
preference to fixed or inert dead surfaces.

The question of surface is a very important one in aviation: it
naturally resolves itself into one of active and passive surface. As
there are active and passive surfaces in the flying animal, so there
are, or should be, active and passive surfaces in the flying machine.
Art should follow nature in this matter. The active surfaces in flying
creatures are always greatly in excess of the passive ones, from the
fact that the former virtually increase in proportion to the spaces
through which they are made to travel. Nature not only distinguishes
between active and passive surfaces in flying animals, but she strikes a
just balance between them, and utilizes both. She regulates the surfaces
to the strength and weight of the flying creature and the air currents
to which the surfaces are to be exposed and upon which they are to
operate. In her calculations she never forgets that her flying subjects
are to control and not to be controlled by the air. As a rule she
reduces the passive surfaces of the body to a minimum; she likewise
reduces as far as possible the actively moving or flying surfaces.
While, however, diminishing the surfaces of the flying animal as a
whole, she increases as occasion demands the active or wing surfaces by
wing movements, and the passive or dead surfaces by the forward motion
of the body in progressive flight. She knows that if the wings are
driven with sufficient rapidity they practically convert the spaces
through which they move into solid bases of support; she also knows that
the body in rapid flight derives support from all the air over which it
passes. The manner in which the wing surfaces are increased by the wing
movements will be readily understood from the accompanying illustrations
of the blow-fly with its wings at rest and in motion (figs. 8 and 9). In
fig. 8 the surfaces exposed by the body of the insect and the wings are,
as compared with those of fig. 9, trifling. The wing would have much
less purchase on fig. 8 than on fig. 9, provided the surfaces exposed by
the latter were passive or dead surfaces. But they are not dead
surfaces: they represent the spaces occupied by the rapidly vibrating
wings, which are actively moving flying organs. As, moreover, the wings
travel at a much higher speed than any wind that blows, they are
superior to and control the wind; they enable the insect to dart
through the wind in whatever direction it pleases.

The reader has only to imagine figs. 8 and 9 cut out in paper to realize
that extensive, inert, horizontal aeroplanes[2] in a flying machine
would be a mistake. It is found to be so practically, as will be shown
by and by. Fig. 9 so cut out would be heavier than fig. 8, and if both
were exposed to a current of air, fig. 9 would be more blown about than
fig. 8.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Blow-fly (_Musca vomitoria_) with its wings at
rest.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Blow-fly with its wings in motion as in flight.]

It is true that in beetles and certain other insects there are the
elytra or wing cases--thin, light, horny structures inclined slightly
upwards--which in the act of flight are spread out and act as sustainers
or gliders. The elytra, however, are comparatively long narrow
structures which occupy a position in front of the wings, of which they
may be regarded as forming the anterior parts. The elytra are to the
delicate wings of some insects what the thick anterior margins are to
stronger wings. The elytra, moreover, are not wholly passive structures.
They can be moved, and the angles made by their under surfaces with the
horizon adjusted. Finally, they are not essential to flight, as flight
in the great majority of instances is performed without them. The elytra
serve as protectors to the wings when the wings are folded upon the back
of the insect, and as they are extended on either side of the body more
or less horizontally when the insect is flying they contribute to flight
indirectly, in virtue of their being carried forward by the body in
motion.

_Natural Flight_.--The manner in which the wings of the insect traverse
the air, so as practically to increase the basis of support, raises the
whole subject of natural flight. It is necessary, therefore, at this
stage to direct the attention of the reader somewhat fully to the
subject of flight, as witnessed in the insect, bird and bat, a knowledge
of natural flight preceding, and being in some sense indispensable to, a
knowledge of artificial flight. The bodies of flying creatures are, as a
rule, very strong, comparatively light and of an elongated form,--the
bodies of birds being specially adapted for cleaving the air. Flying
creatures, however, are less remarkable for their strength, shape and
comparative levity than for the size and extraordinarily rapid and
complicated movements of their wings. Prof. J. Bell Pettigrew first
satisfactorily analysed those movements, and reproduced them by the aid
of artificial wings. This physiologist in 1867[3] showed that all
natural wings, whether of the insect, bird or bat, are screws
structurally, and that they act as screws when they are made to vibrate,
from the fact that they twist in opposite directions during the down and
up strokes. He also explained that all wings act upon a common
principle, and that they present oblique, kite-like surfaces to the air,
through which they pass much in the same way that an oar passes through
water in sculling. He further pointed out that the wings of flying
creatures (contrary to received opinions, and as has been already
indicated) strike downwards and _forwards_ during the down strokes, and
upwards and _forwards_ during the up strokes. Lastly he demonstrated
that the wings of flying creatures, when the bodies of said creatures
are fixed, describe _figure-of-8 tracks_ in space--the figure-of-8
tracks, when the bodies are released and advancing as in rapid flight,
being opened out and converted into _waved tracks_.

  It may be well to explain here that a claim has been set up by his
  admirers for the celebrated artist, architect and engineer, Leonardo
  da Vinci, to be regarded as the discoverer of the principles and
  practice of flight (see Theodore Andrea Cook, _Spirals in Nature and
  Art_, 1903). The claim is, however, unwarranted; Leonardo's chief work
  on flight, bearing the title _Codice sul Volo degli Uccelli e Varie
  Altre Materie_, written in 1505, consists of a short manuscript of
  twenty-seven small quarto pages, with simple sketch illustrations
  interspersed in the text. In addition he makes occasional references
  to flight in his other manuscripts, which are also illustrated. In
  none of Leonardo's manuscripts, however, and in none of his figures,
  is the slightest hint given of his having any knowledge of the spiral
  movements made by the wing in flight or of the spiral structure of the
  wing itself. It is claimed that Leonardo knew the direction of the
  stroke of the wing, as revealed by recent researches and proved by
  modern instantaneous photography. As a matter of fact, Leonardo gives
  a wholly inaccurate account of the direction of the stroke of the
  wing. He states that the wing during the down stroke strikes downwards
  and _backwards_, whereas in reality it strikes downwards and
  _forwards_. In speaking of artificial flight Leonardo says: "The wings
  have to row downwards and _backwards_ to support the machine on high,
  so that it moves forward." In speaking of natural flight he remarks:
  "If in its descent the bird rows _backwards_ with its wings the bird
  will move rapidly; this happens because the wings strike the air which
  successively runs behind the bird to fill the void whence it comes."
  There is nothing in Leonardo's writings to show that he knew either
  the anatomy or physiology of the wing in the modern sense.

Pettigrew's discovery of the figure-of-8 and waved movements made by the
wing in stationary and progressive flight was confirmed some two years
after it was made by Prof. E.J. Marey of Paris[4] by the aid of the
"sphygmograph."[5] The movements in question are now regarded as
fundamental, from the fact that they are alike essential to natural and
artificial flight.

The following is Pettigrew's description of wings and wing movements
published in 1867:--

  "The wings of insects and birds are, as a rule, more or less
  triangular in shape, the base of the triangle being directed towards
  the body, its sides anteriorly and posteriorly. They are also conical
  on section from within outwards and from before backwards, this shape
  converting the pinions into delicately graduated instruments balanced
  with the utmost nicety to satisfy the requirements of the muscular
  system on the one hand and the resistance and resiliency of the air on
  the other. While all wings are graduated as explained, innumerable
  varieties occur as to their general contour, some being falcated or
  scythe-like, others oblong, others rounded or circular, some
  lanceolate and some linear. The wings of insects may consist either of
  one or two pairs--the anterior or upper pair, when two are present,
  being in some instances greatly modified and presenting a corneous
  condition. They are then known as elytra, from the Gr. [Greek:
  elytron], a sheath. Both pairs are composed of a duplicature of the
  integument, or investing membrane, and are strengthened in various
  directions by a system of hollow, horny tubes, known to entomologists
  as the neurae or nervures. These nervures taper towards the extremity
  of the wing, and are strongest towards its root and anterior margin,
  where they supply the place of the arm in birds and bats. The neurae
  are arranged at the axis of the wing after the manner of a fan or
  spiral stair--the anterior one occupying a higher position than that
  farther back, and so of the others. As this arrangement extends also
  to the margins, _the wings are more or less twisted upon themselves_
  and present a certain degree of convexity on their superior or upper
  surface, and a corresponding concavity on their inferior or under
  surface,--their free edges supplying those fine curves which act with
  such efficacy upon the air in obtaining the maximum of resistance and
  the minimum of displacement. As illustrative examples of the form of
  wings alluded to, those of the beetle, bee and fly may be cited--the
  pinions in those insects acting as _helices_, or _twisted levers_,
  and elevating weights much greater than the area of the wings would
  seem to warrant" (figs. 10 and 11).... "To confer on the wings the
  multiplicity of movements which they require, they are supplied with
  double hinge or compound joints, which enable them to move not only in
  an upward, downward, forward and backward direction, but also at
  various intermediate degrees of obliquity. An insect with wings thus
  hinged may, as far as steadiness of body is concerned, be not inaptly
  compared to a compass set upon gimbals, where the universality of
  motion in one direction ensures comparative fixedness in another."...
  "All wings obtain their leverage by presenting oblique surfaces to the
  air, the degree of obliquity gradually increasing in a direction from
  behind, forwards and downwards, during extension when the sudden or
  effective stroke is being given, and gradually decreasing in an
  opposite direction during flexion, or when the wing is being more
  slowly recovered preparatory to making a second stroke. The effective
  stroke in insects, and this holds true also of birds, is therefore
  delivered _downwards and forwards_, and not, as the majority of
  writers believe, vertically, or even slightly backwards.... The wing
  in the insect is more flattened than in the bird; and advantage is
  taken on some occasions of this circumstance, particularly in
  heavy-bodied, small-winged, quick-flying insects, _to reverse the
  pinion more or less completely during the down and up strokes_."...
  "This is effected in the following manner. The posterior margin of the
  wing is made to rotate, during the down stroke, in a direction from
  above downwards and from behind forwards--the anterior margin
  travelling in an opposite direction and reciprocating. The wing may
  thus be said to attack the air by a _screwing movement_ from above.
  During the up or return stroke, on the other hand, the posterior
  margin rotates in a direction from below upwards and from before
  backwards, so that by a similar but _reverse screwing motion_ the
  pinion attacks the air from beneath."... "_A figure-of-8_, compressed
  laterally and placed obliquely with its long axis running from left to
  right of the spectator, represents the movements in question. _The
  down and up strokes_, as will be seen from this account, _cross each
  other_, the wing smiting the air during its descent from above, as in
  the bird and bat, and during its ascent from below as in the flying
  fish and boy's kite" (fig. 12).

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.--Right Wing of the Beetle (_Goliathus micans_)
  when at rest; seen from above.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.--Right Wing of the Beetle (_Goliathus micans_)
  when in motion; seen from behind. This figure shows how the wing
  twists and untwists when in action, and how it forms a true screw.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 12 shows the figure-of-8 made by the margins of
  the wing in extension (continuous line), and flexion (dotted line). As
  the tip of the wing is mid-way between its margins, a line between the
  continuous and dotted lines gives the figure-of-8 made by the tip. The
  arrows indicate the reversal of the planes of the wing, and show how
  the down and up strokes _cross each other_.]

  ... "The figure-of-8 action of the wing explains how an insect or bird
  may fix itself in the air, the backward and forward reciprocating
  action of the pinion affording support, but no propulsion. In these
  instances the backward and forward strokes are made to counterbalance
  each other. Although the figure-of-8 represents with considerable
  fidelity the twisting of the wing upon its axis during extension and
  flexion, when the insect is playing its wings before an object, or
  still better when it is artificially fixed, it is otherwise when the
  down stroke is added and the insect is fairly on the wing and
  progressing rapidly. In this case the wing, in virtue of its being
  carried forward by the body in motion, describes an undulating or
  spiral course, as shown in fig. 13."

  ... "The down and up strokes are compound movements--the termination
  of the down stroke embracing the beginning of the up stroke, and the
  termination of the up stroke including the beginning of the down
  stroke. This is necessary in order that the down and up strokes may
  glide into each other in such a manner as to prevent jerking and
  unnecessary retardation."[6]...

  [Illustration: FIG. 13.--Wave track made by the wing in progressive
  flight. a, b, Crests of the wave; c, d, e, up strokes; x, x, down
  strokes; f, point corresponding to the anterior margin of the wing,
  and forming a centre for the downward rotation of the wing (a, g); g,
  point corresponding to the posterior margin of the wing, and forming a
  centre for the upward rotation of the wing (d, f).]

  [Illustration: FIG. 14.--a, b, line along which the wing travels
  during extension and flexion. The arrows indicate the direction in
  which the wing is spread out in extension and closed or folded in
  flexion.

  Extension (elbow).  Flexion (wrist).

  Flexion (elbow).  Extension (wrist).]

  [Illustration: FIG. 15.--Right Wing of the Red-legged Partridge
  (_Perdix rubra_). Dorsal aspect as seen from above.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 16.--Right Wing of the Red-legged Partridge
  (_Perdix rubra_). Dorsal and ventral aspects as seen from behind;
  showing auger-like conformation of wing. Compare with figs. 11 and
  18.]

  "The wing of the bird, like that of the insect, is concavo-convex, and
  _more or less twisted upon itself_ when extended, so that the anterior
  or thick margin of the pinion presents a different degree of curvature
  to that of the posterior or thin margin. This twisting is in a great
  measure owing to the manner in which the bones of the wing are twisted
  upon themselves, and the spiral nature of their articular
  surfaces--the long axes of the joints always intersecting each other
  at right angles, and the bones of the elbow and wrist making a quarter
  of a turn or so during extension and the same amount during flexion.
  As a result of this disposition of the articular surfaces, the wing
  may be shot out or extended, and retracted or flexed in nearly the
  same plane, the bones composing the wing rotating on their axes during
  either movement (fig. 14). The secondary action, or the revolving of
  the component bones on their own axes, is of the greatest importance
  in the movements of the wing, as it communicates to the hand and
  forearm, and consequently to the primary and secondary feathers which
  they bear, the precise angles necessary for flight. It in fact ensures
  that the wing, and the curtain or fringe of the wing which the primary
  and secondary feathers form, shall be screwed into and down upon the
  wind in extension, and unscrewed or withdrawn from the wind during
  flexion. The wing of the bird may therefore be compared to a huge
  gimlet or auger, the axis of the gimlet representing the bones of the
  wing, the flanges or spiral thread of the gimlet the primary and
  secondary feathers" (figs. 15 and 16).... "From this description it
  will be evident that by the mere rotation of the bones of the forearm
  and hand the maximum and minimum of resistance is secured much in the
  same way that this object is attained by the alternate dipping and
  feathering of an oar."... "The wing, both when at rest and when in
  motion, may not inaptly be compared to the blade of an ordinary screw
  propeller as employed in navigation. Thus the general outline of the
  wing corresponds closely with the outline of the propeller (figs. 11,
  16 and 18), and the track described by the wing in space _is twisted
  upon itself_ propeller fashion[7] (figs. 12, 20, 21, 22, 23). The
  great velocity with which the wing is driven converts the impression
  or blur made by it into what is equivalent to a solid for the time
  being, in the same way that the spokes of a wheel in violent motion,
  as is well understood, more or less completely occupy the space
  contained within the rim or circumference of the wheel" (figs. 9, 20
  and 21).

  [Illustration: FIG. 17.--Right Wing of the Bat (_Phyllocina
  gracilis_). Dorsal aspect as seen from above.]

  ... "The wing of the bat bears a considerable resemblance to that of
  the insect, inasmuch as it consists of a delicate, semi-transparent,
  continuous membrane, supported in divers directions, particularly
  towards its anterior margin, by a system of osseous stays or
  stretchers which confer upon it the degree of rigidity requisite for
  flight. It is, as a rule, deeply concave on its under or ventral
  surface, and in this respect resembles the wing of the heavy-bodied
  birds. The movement of the bat's wing in extension is a _spiral_ one,
  the spiral running alternately from below upwards and forwards and
  from above downwards and backwards. The action of the wing of the bat,
  and the movements of its component bones, are essentially the same as
  in the bird" (figs. 17 and 18).

  [Illustration: FIG. 18.--Right Wing of the Bat (_Phyllocina
  gracilis_). Dorsal and ventral aspects, as seen from behind. These
  show the screw-like configuration of the wing, and also how the wing
  twists and untwists during its action.]

  ... "The wing strikes the air precisely as a boy's kite would if it
  were jerked by its string, the only difference being that the kite is
  _pulled forwards_ upon the wind by the string and the hand, whereas in
  the insect, bird and bat the wing is _pushed forwards_ on the wind by
  the weight of the body and the power residing in the pinion itself"
  (fig. 19).[8]

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--The Cape Barn-owl (_Strix capensis_), showing
the kite-like surfaces presented by the ventral aspect of the wings and
body in flight.]

The figure-of-8 and kite-like action of the wing referred to lead us to
explain how it happens that the wing, which in many instances is a
comparatively small and delicate organ, can yet attack the air with such
vigour as to extract from it the recoil necessary to elevate and propel
the flying creature. The accompanying figures from one of Pettigrew's
later memoirs[9] will serve to explain the _rationale_ (figs. 20, 21, 22
and 23).

As will be seen from these figures, the wing during its vibration sweeps
through a comparatively very large space. This space, as already
explained, is practically a solid basis of support for the wing and for
the flying animal. The wing attacks the air in such a manner as
virtually to have no slip--this for two reasons. The wing reverses
instantly and acts as a kite during nearly the entire down and up
strokes. The angles, moreover, made by the wing with the horizon during
the down and up strokes are at no two intervals the same, but (and this
is a remarkable circumstance) they are always adapted to the speed at
which the wing is travelling for the time being. The increase and
decrease in the angles made by the wing as it hastens to and fro are due
partly to the resistance offered by the air, and partly to the mechanism
and mode of application of the wing to the air. The wing, during its
vibrations, rotates upon two separate centres, the tip rotating round
the root of the wing as an axis (short axis of wing), the posterior
margin rotating around the anterior margin (long axis of wing). The wing
is really eccentric in its nature, a remark which applies also to the
rowing feathers of the bird's wing. The compound rotation goes on
throughout the entire down and up strokes, and is intimately associated
with the power which the wing enjoys of alternately seizing and evading
the air.

[Illustration: FIGS. 20, 21, 22 and 23 show the area mapped out by the
left wing of the Wasp when the insect is fixed and the wing made to
vibrate. These figures illustrate the various angles made by the wing
with the horizon as it hastens to and fro, and show how the wing
reverses and reciprocates, and how it twists upon itself in opposite
directions, and describes a figure-of-8 track in space. Figs. 20 and 22
represent the forward or down stroke (a b c d e f g), figs. 21 and 23
the backward or up stroke (g h i j k l a). The terms forward and back
strokes are here employed with reference to the head of the insect, x,
x', line to represent the horizon. If fig. 22, representing the down or
forward stroke, be placed upon fig. 23, representing the up or backward
stroke, it will be seen that _the wing crosses its own track_ more or
less completely at every stage of the down and up strokes.]

The compound rotation of the wing is greatly facilitated by the wing
being elastic and flexible. It is this which causes the wing to twist
and untwist diagonally on its long axis when it is made to vibrate. The
twisting referred to is partly a vital and partly a mechanical
act;--that is, it is occasioned in part by the action of the muscles and
in part by the greater resistance experienced from the air by the tip
and posterior margin of the wing as compared with the root and anterior
margin,--the resistance experienced by the tip and posterior margin
causing them to reverse always subsequently to the root and anterior
margin, which has the effect of throwing the anterior and posterior
margins of the wing into figure-of-8 curves, as shown at figs. 9, 11,
12, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22 and 23.

The compound rotation of the wing, as seen in the bird, is represented
in fig. 24.

Not the least curious feature of the wing movements is the remarkable
power which the wing possesses of making and utilizing its own currents.
Thus, when the wing descends it draws after it a strong current, which,
being met by the wing during its ascent, greatly increases the efficacy
of the up stroke. Similarly and conversely, when the wing ascends, it
creates an upward current, which, being met by the wing when it
descends, powerfully contributes to the efficiency of the down stroke.
This statement can be readily verified by experiment both with natural
and artificial wings. Neither the up nor the down strokes are complete
in themselves.

The wing to act efficiently must be driven at a certain speed, and in
such a manner that the down and up strokes shall glide into each other.
It is only in this way that the air can be made to pulsate, and that the
rhythm of the wing and the air waves can be made to correspond. The air
must be seized and let go in a certain order and at a certain speed to
extract a maximum recoil. The rapidity of the wing movements is
regulated by the size of the wing, small wings being driven at a very
much higher speed than larger ones. The different parts of the wing,
moreover, travel at different degrees of velocity--the tip and posterior
margin of the wing always rushing through a much greater space, in a
given time, than the root and anterior margin.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.--Wing of the Bird with its root (a, b) cranked
forwards.

  a, b, Short axis of the wing (axis for tip of wing, h).

  c, d, Long axis (axis for posterior margin of wing, h, i, j, k, l).

  m, n, Short axis of rowing feathers of wing.

  r, s, Long axis of rowing feathers of wing. The rotation of the rowing
  feathers on their long axis (they are eccentrics) enables them to open
  or separate during the up, and close or come together during the down
  strokes.

  e f, g p, concave shape presented by the under surface of the wing.]

The rapidity of travel of the insect wing is in some cases enormous. The
wasp, for instance, is said to ply its wings at the rate of 110, and the
common house-fly at the rate of 330 beats per second. Quick as are the
vibrations of natural wings, the speed of certain parts of the wing is
amazingly increased. Wings as a rule are long and narrow. As a
consequence, a comparatively slow and very limited movement at the root
confers great range and immense speed at the tip, the speed of each
portion of the wing increasing as the root of the wing is receded from.
This is explained on a principle well understood in mechanics, viz. that
when a wing or rod hinged at one end is made to move in a circle, the
tip or free end of the wing or rod describes a much wider circle in a
given time than a portion of the wing or rod nearer the hinge (fig. 25).

[Illustration: FIG. 25 shows how different portions of the wing travel
at different degrees of speed. In this figure the rod a, b, hinged at x,
represents the wing. When the wing is made to vibrate, its several
portions travel through the spaces d b f, j k l, g h i, and e a c in
exactly the same interval of time. The part of the wing marked b, which
corresponds with the tip, consequently travels very much more rapidly
than the part marked a, which corresponds with the root. m n, o p,
curves made by the wing at the end of the up and down strokes; r,
position of the wing at the middle of the stroke.]

One naturally inquires why the high speed of wings, and why the
progressive increase of speed at their tips and posterior margins? The
answer is not far to seek. If the wings were not driven at a high speed,
and if they were not eccentrics made to revolve upon two separate axes,
they would of necessity be large cumbrous structures; but large heavy
wings would be difficult to work, and what is worse, they would (if too
large), instead of controlling the air, be controlled by it, and so
cease to be flying organs.

There is, however, another reason why wings should be made to vibrate at
high speeds. The air, as explained, is a very light, thin, elastic
medium, which yields on the slightest pressure, and unless the wings
attacked it with great violence the necessary recoil or resistance could
not be obtained. The atmosphere, because of its great tenuity, mobility
and comparative imponderability, presents little resistance to bodies
passing through it at low velocities. If, however, the speed be greatly
accelerated, the action of even an ordinary cane is sufficient to
elicit a recoil. This comes of the action and reaction of matter, the
resistance experienced varying according to the density of the
atmosphere and the shape, extent and velocity of the body acting upon
it. While, therefore, scarcely any impediment is offered to the progress
of an animal in motion in the air, it is often exceedingly difficult to
compress the air with sufficient rapidity and energy to convert it into
a suitable fulcrum for securing the necessary support and forward
impetus. This arises from the fact that bodies moving in air experience
a _minimum of resistance_ and occasion a _maximum of displacement_.
Another and very obvious difficulty is traceable to the great disparity
in the weight of air as compared with any known solid, and the
consequent want of buoying or sustaining power which that disparity
involves. If we compare air with water we find it is nearly 1000 times
lighter. To meet these peculiarities the insect, bird and bat are
furnished with extensive flying surfaces in the shape of wings, which
they apply with singular velocity and power to the air, as levers of the
third order. In this form of lever the power is applied between the
fulcrum and the weight to be raised. The power is represented by the
wing, the fulcrum by the air, and the weight by the body of the flying
animal. Although the third order of lever is particularly inefficient
when the fulcrum is rigid and immobile, it possesses singular advantages
when these conditions are reversed, that is, when the fulcrum, as
happens with the air, is _elastic_ and _yielding_. In this instance a
very slight movement at the root of the pinion, or that end of the lever
directed towards the body, is followed by an immense sweep of the
extremity of the wing, where its elevating and propelling power is
greatest--this arrangement ensuring that the large quantity of air
necessary for support and propulsion shall be compressed under the most
favourable conditions.

[Illustration: FIG. 26.--In this figure f, f' represent the movable
fulcra furnished by the air, p p' the power residing in the wing, and b
the body to be moved. In order to make the problem of flight more
intelligible, the lever formed by the wing is prolonged beyond the body
(b), and to the root of the wing so extended the weight (w, w') is
attached; x represents the universal joint by which the wing is attached
to the body. When the wing ascends as shown at p, the air (fulcrum f)
resists its upward passage, and forces the body (b) or its
representative (w) slightly downwards. When the wing descends as shown
at p', the air (fulcrum f') resists its downward passage, and forces the
body (b) or its representative (w') slightly upwards. From this it
follows that when the wing rises the body falls, and vice versa--the
wing describing the arc of a large circle (f f'), the body (b), or the
weights (w, w') representing it, describing the arc of a small circle.]

In this process the weight of the body performs an important part, by
acting upon the inclined planes formed by the wings in the plane of
progression. The power and the weight may thus be said to reciprocate,
the two sitting as it were side by side and blending their peculiar
influences to produce a common result, as indicated at fig. 26.

When the wings descend they elevate the body, the wings being active and
the body passive; when the body descends it contributes to the elevation
of the wings,[10] the body being active and the wings more or less
passive. It is in this way that weight forms a factor in flight, the
wings and the weight of the body reciprocating and mutually assisting
and relieving each other. This is an argument for employing four wings
in artificial flight,--the wings being so arranged that the two which
are up shall always by their fall mechanically elevate the two which are
down. Such an arrangement is calculated greatly to conserve the driving
power, and as a consequence, to reduce the weight.

That the weight of the body plays an important part in the production of
flight may be proved by a very simple experiment. If two quill feathers
are fixed in an ordinary cork, and so arranged that they expand and arch
above it (fig. 27), it is found that if the apparatus be dropped from a
vertical height of 3 yds. it does not fall vertically downwards, but
downwards and _forwards_ in a curve, the forward travel amounting in
some instances to a yard and a half. Here the cork, in falling, acts
upon the feathers (which are to all intents and purposes wings), and
these in turn act upon the air, in such a manner as to produce a
horizontal transference.

[Illustration: FIG. 27.--a, b, quill feathers; c, cork; d, e, f, g,
downward and _forward_ curved trajectory made by the feathers and cork
before reaching the ground (h, i).]

In order to utilize the air as a means of transit, the body in motion,
whether it moves in virtue of the life it possesses, or because of a
force super-added, must be heavier than air. It must tread with its
wings and rise upon the air as a swimmer upon the water, or as a kite
upon the wind. This is necessary for the simple reason that the body
must be active, the air passive. The flying body must act against
gravitation, and elevate and carry itself forward at the expense of the
air and of the force which resides in it, whatever that may be. If it
were otherwise--if it were rescued from the law of gravitation on the
one hand, and bereft of independent movement on the other, it would
float about uncontrolled and uncontrollable like an ordinary balloon.

In flight one of two things is necessary. Either the wings must attack
the air with great violence, or the air in rapid motion must attack the
wings: either suffices. If a bird attempts to fly in a calm, the wings
must be made to smite the air after the manner of a boy's kite with
great vigour and at a high speed. In this case the wings fly the bird.
If, however, the bird is fairly launched in space and a stiff breeze is
blowing, all that is required in many instances is to extend the wings
at a slight upward angle to the horizon so that the under parts of the
wings present kite-like surfaces. In these circumstances the rapidly
moving air flies the bird. The flight of the albatross supplies the
necessary illustration. If by any chance this magnificent bird alights
upon the sea he must flap and beat the water and air with his wings with
tremendous energy until he gets fairly launched. This done he extends
his enormous pinions[11] and sails majestically along, seldom deigning
to flap his wings, the breeze doing the work for him. A familiar
illustration of the same principle may be witnessed any day when
children are engaged in the pastime of kite-flying. If two boys attempt
to fly a kite in a calm, the one must hold up the kite and let go when
the other runs. In this case the under surface of the kite is made to
strike the still air. If, however, a stiff autumn breeze be blowing, it
suffices if the boy who formerly ran when the kite was let go stands
still. In this case the air in rapid motion strikes the under surface of
the kite and forces it up. The string and the hand are to the kite what
the weight of the flying creature is to the inclined planes formed by
its wings.

The area of the insect, bird and bat, when the wings are fully expanded,
is greater than that of any other class of animal, their weight being
proportionally less. As already stated, however, it ought never to be
forgotten that even the lightest insect, bird or bat is vastly heavier
than the air, and that no fixed relation exists between the weight of
body and expanse of wing in any of the orders. We have thus light-bodied
and large-winged insects and birds, as the butterfly and heron; and
others with heavy bodies and small wings, as the beetle and partridge.
Similar remarks are to be made of bats. Those apparent inconsistencies
in the dimensions of the body and wings are readily explained by the
greater muscular development of the heavy-bodied, small-winged insects,
birds and bats, and the increased power and rapidity with which the
wings in them are made to oscillate. This is of the utmost importance in
the science of aviation, as showing that flight may be attained by a
heavy powerful animal with comparatively small wings, as well as by a
lighter one with greatly enlarged wings. While, therefore, there is
apparently no correspondence between the area of the wing and the animal
to be raised, there is, except in the case of sailing insects, birds and
bats, an unvarying relation as to the weight and number of oscillations;
so that the problem of flight would seem to resolve itself into one of
weight, power, velocity and small surfaces, _versus_ buoyancy, debility,
diminished speed and extensive surfaces--weight in either case being a
_sine qua non_.

[Illustration: FIG. 28.--Hawk and Pigeon.]

That no fixed relation exists between the area of the wings and the size
and weight of the body to be elevated is evident on comparing the
dimensions of the wings and bodies of the several orders of insects,
bats and birds. If such comparison be made, it will be found that the
pinions in some instances diminish while the bodies increase, and the
converse. No practical good can therefore accrue to aviation from
elaborate measurements of the wings and body of any flying thing;
neither can any rule be laid down as to the extent of surface required
for sustaining a given weight in the air. The statements here advanced
are borne out by the fact that the wings of insects, bats and birds may
be materially reduced without impairing their powers of flight. In such
cases the speed with which the wings are driven is increased in the
direct ratio of the mutilation. The inference to be deduced from the
foregoing is plainly this, that even in large-bodied, small-winged
insects and birds the wing-surface is greatly in excess, the surplus
wing area supplying that degree of elevating and sustaining power which
is necessary to prevent undue exertion on the part of the volant animal.
In this we have a partial explanation of the buoyancy of insects, and
the great lifting power possessed by birds and bats,--the bats carrying
their young without inconvenience, the birds elevating surprising
quantities of fish, game, carrion, &c. (fig. 28).

While as explained, no definite relation exists between the weight of a
flying animal and the size of its flying surfaces, there being, as
stated, heavy-bodied and small-winged insects, birds and bats, and the
converse, and while, as has been shown, flight is possible within a wide
range, the wings being, as a rule, in excess of what are required for
the purposes of flight,--still it appears from the researches of L. de
Lucy that there is a general law, to the effect that the larger the
volant animal, the smaller, by comparison, are its flying surfaces. The
existence of such a law is very encouraging so far as artificial flight
is concerned, for it shows that the flying surfaces of a large, heavy,
powerful flying machine will be comparatively small, and consequently
comparatively compact and strong. This is a point of very considerable
importance, as the object desiderated in a flying machine is elevating
capacity.

De Lucy tabulated his results as under:--

 +-------------------------------------------------+------------------------------------+
 |                        INSECTS                  |                BIRDS.              |
 +---------------------------+---------------------+-------------------+----------------+
 |                           | Flying Surface      |                   |                |
 |                           | referred to the     |                   | Flying Surface |
 |                           |  Kilogramme         |                   | referred to the|
 |          Names.           | = 2 lb. 8 oz. 3 dwt.|       Names.      | Kilogramme.    |
 |                           |   2 gr. avoird.     |                   |                |
 |                           | = 2 lb. 3 oz. 4.428 |                   |                |
 |                           |   dr. troy.         |                   |                |
 +---------------------------+---------------------+-------------------+----------------+
 |                           |  sq.                |                   |  sq.           |
 |                           | yds.  ft.  in.      |                   | yds. ft. in.   |
 | Gnat                      |  11    8   92       | Swallow           | 1    1   104½  |
 | Dragon-fly (small)        |   7    2   56       | Sparrow           | 0    5   142½  |
 | Coccinella (Lady-bird)    |   5   13   87       | Turtle-dove       | 0    4   100½  |
 | Dragon-fly (common)       |   5    2   89       | Pigeon            | 0    2   113   |
 | Tipula, or Daddy-long-legs|   3    5   11       | Stork             | 0    2    20   |
 | Bee                       |   1    2   74½      | Vulture           | 0    1   116   |
 | Meat-fly                  |   1    3   54½      | Crane of Australia| 0    0   130   |
 | Drone (blue)              |   1    2   20       |                   |                |
 | Cockchafer                |   1    2   50       |                   |                |
 |          / Stag-beetle \  |                     |                   |                |
 | Lucanus <   (female)   /  |   1    1   39½      |                   |                |
 | cervus  |  Stag-beetle \  |                     |                   |                |
 |          \  (male)     /  |   0    8   33       |                   |                |
 | Rhinoceros-beetle         |   0    6  122½      |                   |                |
 +---------------------------+---------------------+-------------------+----------------+

  "It is easy, by the aid of this table, to follow the order, always
  decreasing, of the surfaces, in proportion as the winged animal
  increases in size and weight. Thus, in comparing the insects with one
  another, we find that the gnat, which weighs 460 times less than the
  stag-beetle, has 14 times more of surface. The lady-bird weighs 150
  times less than the stag-beetle, and possesses 5 times more of
  surface, &c. It is the same with the birds. The sparrow weighs about
  10 times less than the pigeon, and has twice as much surface. The
  pigeon weighs about 8 times less than the stork, and has twice as much
  surface. The sparrow weighs 339 times less than the Australian crane,
  and possesses 7 times more surface, &c. If now we compare the insects
  and the birds, the gradation will become even much more striking. The
  gnat, for example, weighs 97,000 times less than the pigeon, and has
  40 times more surface; it weighs three millions of times less than the
  crane of Australia, and possesses 140 times more of surface than this
  latter, the weight of which is about 9 kilogrammes 500 grammes (25 lb.
  5 oz. 9 dwt. troy, 20 lb. 15 oz. 2¼ dr. avoirdupois).

  "The Australian crane, the heaviest bird weighed, is that which has
  the smallest amount of surface, for, referred to the kilogramme, it
  does not give us a surface of more than 899 square centimetres (139
  sq. in.), that is to say, about an eleventh part of a square metre.
  But every one knows that these grallatorial animals are excellent
  birds of flight. Of all travelling birds they undertake the longest
  and most remote journeys. They are, in addition, the eagle excepted,
  the birds which elevate themselves the highest, and the flight of
  which is the longest maintained."[12]

The way in which the natural wing rises and falls on the air, and
reciprocates with the body of the flying creature, has a very obvious
bearing upon artificial flight. In natural flight the body of the flying
creature falls slightly forward in a curve when the wing ascends, and
is slightly elevated in a curve when the wing descends. The wing and
body are consequently always playing at cross purposes, the wing rising
when the body is falling and vice versa. The alternate rise and fall of
the body and wing of the bird are well seen when contemplating the
flight of the gull from the stern of a steamboat, as the bird is
following in the wake of the vessel. The complementary movements
referred to are indicated at fig. 29, where the continuous waved line
represents the trajectory made by the wing, and the dotted waved line
that made by the body. As will be seen from this figure, _the wing
advances both when it rises and when it falls_. It is a peculiarity of
natural wings, and of artificial wings constructed on the principle of
living wings, that when forcibly elevated or depressed, even in a
strictly vertical direction, they inevitably dart forward. If, for
instance, the wing is suddenly depressed in a vertical direction, as at
a b of fig. 29, it at once darts downwards and forwards in a double
curve (see continuous line of figure) to c, thus converting the vertical
down stroke into a _down, oblique, forward stroke_. If, again, the wing
be suddenly elevated in a strictly vertical direction, as at c d, the
wing as certainly darts upwards and forwards in a double curve to e,
thus converting the vertical up strokes into an _upward, oblique,
forward stroke_. The same thing happens when the wing is depressed from
e to f and elevated from g to h, the wing describing a _waved track_ as
at e g, g i.

[Illustration: FIG. 29 shows how in progressive flight the wing and the
body describe _waved tracks_,--the crests of the waves made by the wing
(a, c, e, g, i) being placed opposite the crests of the waves made by
the body (1, 2, 3, 4, 5).]

There are good reasons why the wings should always be in advance of the
body. A bird when flying is a body in motion; but a body in motion tends
to fall not vertically downwards, but _downwards and forwards_. The
wings consequently must be made to strike _forwards_ and kept in advance
of the body of the bird if they are to prevent the bird from falling
_downwards and forwards_. If the wings were to strike backwards in
aerial flight, the bird would turn a forward somersault.

That the wings invariably strike forwards during the down and up strokes
in aerial flight is proved alike by observation and experiment. If any
one watches a bird rising from the ground or the water, he cannot fail
to perceive that the head and body are slightly tilted upwards, and that
the wings are made to descend with great vigour in a downward and
_forward_ direction. The dead natural wing and a properly constructed
artificial wing act in precisely the same way. If the wing of a gannet,
just shot, be removed and made to flap in what the operator believes to
be a strictly vertical downward direction, the tip of the wing, in spite
of him, will dart forwards between 2 and 3 ft.--the amount of forward
movement being regulated by the rapidity of the down stroke. This is a
very striking experiment. The same thing happens with a properly
constructed artificial wing. The down stroke with the artificial as with
the natural wing is invariably converted into an oblique, downward and
forward stroke. No one ever saw a bird in the air flapping its wings
towards its tail. The old idea was that the wings during the down stroke
_pushed_ the body of the bird in an upward and forward direction; in
reality the wings do not push but _pull_, and in order to pull they must
always be in advance of the body to be flown. If the wings did not
themselves fly _forward_, they could not possibly cause the body of the
bird to fly forward. It is the wings which cause the bird to fly.

It only remains to be stated that the wing acts as a true kite, during
both the down and the up strokes, its under concave or biting surface,
in virtue of the forward travel communicated to it by the body of the
flying creature, being closely applied to the air, during both its
ascent and its descent. This explains how the wing furnishes a
persistent buoyancy alike when it rises and when it falls (fig. 30).

[Illustration: FIG. 30 shows the kite-like action of the wing during the
down and up strokes, how the angles made by the wing with the horizon
(_a, b_) vary at every stage of these strokes, and how the wing evades
the superimposed air during the up stroke, and seizes the nether air
during the down stroke. In this figure the spaces between the double
dotted lines (c g, i b) represent the down strokes, the single dotted
line (h, i) representing the up stroke. The kite-like surfaces and
angles made by the wing with the horizon (a, b) during the down strokes
are indicated at c d e f g, j k l m,--those made during the up strokes
being indicated at g h i. As the down and up strokes run into each
other, and the convex surface of the wing is always directed upwards and
the concave surface downwards, it follows that the upper surface of the
wing evades in a great measure the upper air, while the under surface
seizes the nether air. It is easy to understand from this figure how the
wing always flying forwards furnishes a persistent buoyancy.]

The natural kite formed by the wing differs from the artificial kite
only in this, that the former is capable of being moved in all its
parts, and is more or less flexible and elastic, whereas the latter is
comparatively rigid. The flexibility and elasticity of the kite formed
by the natural wing are rendered necessary by the fact that the wing, as
already stated, is practically hinged at its root and along its anterior
margin, an arrangement which necessitates its several parts travelling
at different degrees of speed, in proportion as they are removed from
the axes of rotation. Thus the tip travels at a higher speed than the
root, and the posterior margin than the anterior margin. This begets a
_twisting diagonal movement_ of the wing on its long axis, which, but
for the elasticity referred to, would break the wing into fragments. The
elasticity contributes also to the continuous play of the wing, and
ensures that no two parts of it shall reverse at exactly the same
instant. If the wing was inelastic, every part of it would reverse at
precisely the same moment, and its vibration would be characterized by
pauses or dead points at the end of the down and up strokes which would
be fatal to it as a flying organ. The elastic properties of the wing are
absolutely essential, when the mechanism and movements of the pinion are
taken into account. A rigid wing can never be an effective flying
instrument.

The kite-like surfaces referred to in natural flight are those upon
which the constructors of flying machines very properly ground their
hopes of ultimate success. These surfaces may be conferred on artificial
wings, aeroplanes, aerial screws or similar structures; and these
structures, if we may judge from what we find in nature, _should be of
moderate size and elastic_. The power of the flying organs will be
increased if they are driven at a comparatively high speed, and
particularly if they are made to reverse and reciprocate, as in this
case they will practically create the currents upon which they are
destined to rise and advance. The angles made by the kite-like surfaces
with the horizon should vary according to circumstances. They should be
small when the speed is high, and vice versa. This, as stated, is true
of natural wings. It should also be true of artificial wings and their
analogues.

_Artificial Flight_.--We are now in a position to enter upon a
consideration of artificial wings and wing movements, and of artificial
flight and flying machines.

We begin with artificial wings. The first properly authenticated account
of an artificial wing was given by G.A. Borelli in 1670. This author,
distinguished alike as a physiologist, mathematician and mechanician,
describes and figures a bird with artificial wings, each of which
consists of _a rigid rod in front and flexible feathers behind_. The
wings are represented as striking _vertically downwards_, as the annexed
duplicate of Borelli's figure shows (fig. 31).

Borelli was of opinion that flight resulted from the application of an
inclined plane, which beats the air, and which has a wedge action. He,
in fact, endeavours to prove that a bird wedges itself forward upon the
air by the perpendicular vibration of its wings, the wings during their
action forming a wedge, the base of which (c b e) is directed towards
the head of the bird, the apex (a f) being directed towards the tail
(d). In the 196th proposition of his work (_De motu animalium_, Leiden,
1685) he states that--

  "If the expanded wings of a bird suspended in the air shall strike the
  undisturbed air beneath it with a motion _perpendicular to the
  horizon_, the bird will fly with a _transverse motion_ in a plane
  parallel with the horizon." "If," he adds, "the wings of the bird be
  expanded, and the under surfaces of the wings be struck by the air
  _ascending perpendicularly to the horizon_ with such a force as shall
  prevent the bird gliding downwards (i.e. with a tendency to glide
  downwards) from falling, it will be urged in a horizontal direction."

  [Illustration: FIG. 31. Borelli's bird with artificial wings.

    r e, Anterior margin of the right wing, consisting of a rigid rod.

    o a, Posterior margin of the right wing, consisting of flexible
    feathers.

    b c, Anterior; and

    f, Posterior margins of the left wing same as the right.

    d, Tail of the bird.

    r g, d h, Vertical direction of the down stroke of the wing.]

  The same argument is restated in different words as under:--"If the
  air under the wings be struck by the flexible portions of the wings
  (_flabella_, literally fly flaps or small fans) with a motion
  perpendicular to the horizon, the sails (_vela_) and flexible portions
  of the wings (_flabella_) will yield in an upward direction and form a
  wedge, the point of which is directed towards the tail. Whether,
  therefore, the air strikes the wings from below, or the wings strike
  the air from above, the result is the same,--the posterior or flexible
  margins of the wings _yield in an upward direction_, and in so doing
  urge the bird in a _horizontal direction_."

There are three points in Borelli's argument to which it is necessary to
draw attention: (1) the direction of the down stroke: it is stated to be
_vertically downwards_; (2) the construction of the anterior margin of
the wing: it is stated to consist of _a rigid rod_; (3) the function
delegated to the posterior margin of the wing: it is said _to yield in
an upward direction_ during the down stroke.

With regard to the first point. It is incorrect to say the wing strikes
vertically downwards, for, as already explained, the body of a flying
bird is a body in motion; but as a body in motion tends to fall
downwards and forwards, the wing must strike downwards and forwards in
order effectually to prevent its fall. Moreover, in point of fact, all
natural wings, and all artificial wings constructed on the natural type,
invariably strike downwards and forwards.

With regard to the second point, viz. the supposed rigidity of the
anterior margin of the wing, it is only necessary to examine the
anterior margins of natural wings to be convinced that they are in every
case flexible and elastic. Similar remarks apply to properly constructed
artificial wings. If the anterior margins of natural and artificial
wings were rigid, it would be impossible to make them vibrate smoothly
and continuously. This is a matter of experiment. If a rigid rod, or a
wing with a rigid anterior margin, be made to vibrate, the vibration is
characterized by an unequal jerky motion, at the end of the down and up
strokes, which contrasts strangely with the smooth, steady fanning
movement peculiar to natural wings.

As to the third point, viz. the upward bending of the posterior margin
of the wing during the down stroke, it is necessary to remark that the
statement is true if it means a slight upward bending, but that it is
untrue if it means an extensive upward bending.

Borelli does not state the amount of upward bending, but one of his
followers, E.J. Marey, maintains that during the down stroke the wing
yields until its under surface makes a backward angle with the horizon
of 45°. Marey further states that during the up stroke the wing yields
to a corresponding extent in an opposite direction--the posterior margin
of the wing, according to him, passing through an angle of 90°, plus or
minus according to circumstances, every time the wing rises and falls.

That the posterior margin of the wing yields to a slight extent during
both the down and up strokes will readily be admitted, alike because of
the very delicate and highly elastic properties of the posterior margins
of the wing, and because of the comparatively great force employed in
its propulsion; but that it does not yield to the extent stated by Marey
is a matter of absolute certainty. This admits of direct proof. If any
one watches the horizontal or upward flight of a large bird he will
observe that the posterior or flexible margin of the wing never rises
during the down stroke to a perceptible extent, so that the under
surface of the wing, as a whole, never looks backwards. On the contrary,
he will perceive that the under surface of the wing (during the down
stroke) invariably looks forwards and forms a true kite with the
horizon, the angles made by the kite varying at every part of the down
stroke, as shown more particularly at c d e f g, i j k l m of fig. 30.

The authors who have adopted Borelli's plan of artificial wing, and who
have endorsed his mechanical views of the wing's action most fully, are
J. Chabrier, H.E.G. Strauss-Dürckheim and Marey. Borelli's artificial
wing, it will be remembered, consists of a rigid rod in front and a
flexible sail behind. It is also made to strike vertically downwards.
According to Chabrier, the wing has only one period of activity. He
believes that if the wing be suddenly lowered by the depressor muscles,
it is elevated solely by the reaction of the air. There is one
unanswerable objection to this theory: the birds and bats, and some if
not all the insects, have distinct elevator muscles, and can elevate
their wings at pleasure when not flying and when, consequently, the
reaction of the air is not elicited. Strauss-Dürckheim agrees with
Borelli both as to the natural and the artificial wing. He is of opinion
that the insect abstracts from the air by means of the inclined plane a
component force (composant) which it employs to support and direct
itself. In his theology of nature he describes a schematic wing as
consisting of a rigid ribbing in front, and a flexible sail behind. A
membrane so constructed will, according to him, be fit for flight. It
will suffice if such a sail elevates and lowers itself successively. It
will of its own accord dispose itself as an inclined plane, and
receiving obliquely the reaction of the air, it transfers into tractile
force a part of the vertical impulsion it has received. These two parts
of the wing, moreover, are equally indispensable to each other.

Marey repeats Borelli and Dürckheim with very trifling modifications, so
late as 1869. He describes two artificial wings, the one composed of a
rigid rod and sail--the rod representing the stiff anterior margin of
the wing; the sail, which is made of paper bordered with cardboard, the
flexible posterior margin. The other wing consists of a rigid nervure in
front and behind of thin parchment which supports fine rods of steel. He
states that if the wing only elevates and depresses itself, "the
resistance of the air is sufficient to produce all the other movements.
In effect (according to Marey) the wing of an insect has not the power
of equal resistance in every part. On the anterior margin the extended
nervures make it rigid, while behind it is fine and flexible. During the
vigorous depression of the wing, the nervure has the power of remaining
rigid, whereas the flexible portion, being pushed in an upward direction
on account of the resistance it experiences from the air, assumes an
oblique position which causes the upper surface of the wing to look
forwards." The reverse of this, in Marey's opinion, takes place during
the elevation of the wing--the resistance of the air from above causing
the upper surface of the wing to look backwards.... "At first," he says,
"the plane of the wing is parallel with the body of the animal. It
lowers itself--the front part of the wing strongly resists, the sail
which follows it being flexible yields. Carried by the ribbing (the
anterior margin of the wing) which lowers itself, the sail or posterior
margin of the wing being raised meanwhile by the air, which sets it
straight again, the sail will take an intermediate position and incline
itself about 45° plus or minus according to circumstances.... The wing
continues its movements of depression inclined to the horizon; but the
impulse of the air, which continues its effect, and naturally acts upon
the surface which it strikes, has the power of resolving itself into two
forces, a vertical and a horizontal force; the first suffices to raise
the animal, the second to move it along."[13] Marey, it will be
observed, reproduces Borelli's artificial wing, and even his text, at a
distance of nearly two centuries.

The artificial wing recommended by Pettigrew is a more exact imitation
of nature than either of the foregoing. It is of a more or less
triangular form, thick at the root and anterior margin, and thin at the
tip and posterior margin. No part of it is rigid. It is, on the
contrary, highly elastic and flexible throughout. It is furnished with
springs at its root to contribute to its continued play, and is applied
to the air by a direct piston action in such a way that it descends in a
downward and forward direction during the down stroke, and ascends in an
upward and forward direction during the up stroke. It elevates and
propels both when it rises and falls. It, moreover, twists and untwists
during its action and describes figure-of-8 and waved tracks in space,
precisely as the natural wing does. The twisting is most marked at the
tip and posterior margin, particularly that half of the posterior margin
next the tip. The wing when in action may be divided into two portions
by a line running diagonally between the tip of the wing anteriorly and
the root of the wing posteriorly. The tip and posterior parts of the
wing are more active than the root and anterior parts, from the fact
that the tip and posterior parts (the wing is an eccentric) always
travel through greater spaces, in a given time, than the root and
anterior parts.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.--Elastic Spiral Wing, which twists and untwists
during its action, to form _a mobile helix or screw_. This wing is made
to vibrate by a direct piston action, and by a slight adjustment can be
propelled vertically, horizontally or at any degree of obliquity.

  a b, Anterior margin of wing, to which the neurae or ribs are affixed.

  c d, Posterior margin of wing crossing anterior one.

  x, Ball-and-socket joint at root of wing, the wing being attached to
  the side of the cylinder by the socket.

  t, Cylinder.

  r r, Piston, with cross heads (w, w) and piston head (s).

  o o, Stuffing boxes.

  e, f, Driving chains.

  m, Superior elastic band, which assists in elevating the wing.

  n, Inferior elastic band, which antagonizes m. The alternate
  stretching of the superior and inferior elastic bands contributes to
  the continuous play of the wing, by preventing dead points at the end
  of the down and up strokes. The wing is free to move in a vertical and
  horizontal direction and at any degree of obliquity.]

The wing is so constructed that the posterior margin yields freely in a
downward direction during the up stroke, while it yields comparatively
little in an upward direction during the down stroke; and this is a
distinguishing feature, as the wing is thus made to fold and elude the
air more or less completely during the up stroke, whereas it is made to
expand and seize the air with avidity during the down stroke. The
oblique line referred to as running diagonally across the wing virtually
divides the wing into an active and a passive part, the former elevating
and propelling, the latter sustaining.

It is not possible to determine with exactitude the precise function
discharged by each part of the wing, but experiment tends to show that
the tip of the wing elevates, the posterior margin propels, and the root
sustains.

The wing--and this is important--is driven by a direct piston action
with an irregular hammer-like movement, the pinion having communicated
to it a smart click at the beginning of every down stroke--the up stroke
being more uniform. The following is the arrangement (fig. 32). If the
artificial wing here represented (fig. 32) be compared with the natural
wing as depicted at fig. 33, it will be seen that there is nothing in
the one which is not virtually reproduced in the other. In addition to
the foregoing, Pettigrew recommended a double elastic wing to be applied
to the air like a steam-hammer, by being fixed to the head of the
piston. This wing, like the single wing described, twists and untwists
as it rises and falls, and possesses all the characteristics of the
natural wing (fig. 34).

[Illustration: FIG. 33 shows the Spiral Elastic Wings of the Gull. Each
wing forms a mobile helix or screw.

  a b, Anterior margin of left wing.

  c d, Posterior margin of ditto.

  d g, Primary or rowing feathers of left wing.

  g a, Secondary feathers ditto.

  x,   Root of right wing with ball-and-socket joint.

  l,   Elbow joint.

  m,   Wrist joint,

  n,o, Hand and finger joints.]

[Illustration: FIG. 34.--Double Elastic Wing driven by direct piston
action. During the up stroke of the piston the wing is very decidedly
convex on its upper surface (a b c d, A A'); its under surface (e f g h,
A A') being deeply concave and inclined obliquely upwards and forwards.
It thus evades, to a considerable extent, the air during the up stroke.
During the down stroke of the piston the wing is flattened out in every
direction, and its extremities twisted in such a manner as to form two
screws, as seen at a' b' c' d', e' f' g' h', B, B'. The active area of
the wing is by this arrangement considerably diminished during the up
stroke, and considerably augmented during the down stroke; the wing
seizing the air with greater avidity during the down than during the up
stroke. _i, j, k_, elastic band to regulate the expansion of the wing;
l, piston; m, piston head; n, cylinder.]

He also recommends an elastic aerial screw consisting of two blades,
which taper and become thinner towards the tips and posterior margins.
When the screw is made to rotate, the blades, because of their
elasticity, assume a great variety of angles, the angles being least
where the speed of the blades is greatest and vice versa. The pitch of
the blades is thus regulated by the speed attained (fig. 35).

The peculiarity of Pettigrew's wings and screws consists in their
elasticity, their twisting action, and their great comparative length
and narrowness. They offer little resistance to the air when they are at
rest, and when in motion the speed with which they are driven is such as
to ensure that the comparatively large spaces through which they travel
shall practically be converted into solid bases of support.

After Pettigrew enunciated his views (1867) as to the screw
configuration and elastic properties of natural wings, and more
especially after his introduction of spiral, elastic artificial wings,
and elastic screws, a great revolution took place in the construction of
flying models. Elastic aeroplanes were advocated by D.S. Brown,[14]
elastic aerial screws by J. Armour,[15] and elastic aeroplanes, wings
and screws by Alphonse Pénaud.[16]

[Illustration: FIG. 35.--Elastic Aerial Screw with twisted blades
resembling wings (a b c d, e f g h).

  x, End of driving shaft.

  v,w, Sockets in which the roots of the blades of the screw rotate, the
  degree of rotation being limited by steel springs (z, s).

  a b, e f, tapering elastic rods forming anterior or thick margins of
  blades of screw.

  d c, h g, Posterior or thin elastic margins of blades of screw. The
  arrows m, n, o, p, q, r indicate the direction of travel.]

Pénaud's experiments are alike interesting and instructive. He
constructed models to fly by three different methods:--(a) by means of
screws acting vertically upwards; (b) by aeroplanes propelled
horizontally by screws; and (c) by wings which flapped in an upward and
downward direction. An account of his helicoptère or screw model
appeared in the _Aeronaut_ for January 1872, but before giving a
description of it, it may be well to state very briefly what is known
regarding the history of the screw as applied to the air.

[Illustration: FIG. 36.--Cayley's Flying Model.]

The first suggestion on this subject was given by A.J.P. Paucton in
1768. This author, in his treatise on the _Théorie de la vis
d'Archimède_, describes a machine provided with two screws which he
calls a "ptérophores." In 1796 Sir George Cayley gave a practical
illustration of the efficacy of the screw as applied to the air by
constructing a small machine, consisting of two screws made of quill
feathers, a representation of which we annex (fig. 36). Sir George
writes as under:--

  "As it may be an amusement to some of your readers to see a machine
  rise in the air by mechanical means, I will conclude my present
  communication by describing an instrument of this kind, which any one
  can construct at the expense of ten minutes' labour.

  "a and b, fig. 36, are two corks, into each of which are inserted four
  wing feathers from any bird, so as to be slightly inclined like the
  sails of a windmill, but in opposite directions in each set. A round
  shaft is fixed in the cork a, which ends in a sharp point. At the
  upper part of the cork b is fixed a whalebone bow, having a small
  pivot hole in its centre to receive the point of the shaft. The bow is
  then to be strung equally on each side to the upper portion of the
  shaft, and the little machine is completed. Wind up the string by
  turning the flyers different ways, so that the spring of the bow may
  unwind them with their anterior edges ascending; then place the cork
  with the bow attached to it upon a table, and with a finger on the
  upper cork press strong enough to prevent the string from unwinding,
  and, taking it away suddenly, the instrument will rise to the
  ceiling."

Cayley's screws were peculiar, inasmuch as they were superimposed and
rotated in opposite directions. He estimated that if the area of the
screws was increased to 200 sq. ft., and moved by a man, they would
elevate him. His interesting experiment is described at length, and the
apparatus figured in _Nicolson's Journal_, 1809, p. 172.

Other experimenters, such as J. Degen in 1816 and Ottoris Sarti in 1823,
followed Cayley at moderate intervals, constructing flying models on the
vertical screw principle. In 1842 W.H. Phillips succeeded, it is stated,
in elevating a steam model by the aid of revolving fans, which according
to his account flew across two fields after having attained a great
altitude; and in 1859 H. Bright took out a patent for a machine to be
sustained by vertical screws. In 1863 the subject of aviation by
vertical screws received a fresh impulse from the experiments of Gustave
de Ponton d'Amécourt, G. de la Landelle, and A. Nadar, who exhibited
models driven by clock-work springs, which ascended with graduated
weights a distance of from 10 to 12 ft. These models were so fragile
that they usually broke in coming in contact with the ground in their
descent. Their flight, moreover, was unsatisfactory, from the fact that
it only lasted a few seconds.

[Illustration: FIG. 37.--De la Landelle's Flying-machine. m, n, o, p;
q, r, s, t, Screws arranged on vertical axes to act vertically upwards.
The vertical axes are surmounted by two parachutes, and the body of the
machine is furnished with an engine, propeller, rudders and an extensive
aeroplane.]

Stimulated by the success of his spring models, Ponton d'Amécourt had a
small steam model constructed. This model, which was shown at the
exhibition of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain at the Crystal
Palace in 1868, consisted of two superposed screws propelled by an
engine, the steam for which was generated (for lightness) in an
aluminium boiler. This steam model proved a failure, inasmuch as it only
lifted a third of its own weight. Fig. 37 embodies de la Landelle's
ideas.

All the models referred to (Cayley's excepted[17]) were provided with
rigid screws. In 1872 Pénaud discarded the rigid screws in favour of
elastic ones, as Pettigrew had done some years before.

[Illustration: FIG. 38.--Hélicoptère or Screw-Model, by Pénaud.]

Pénaud also substituted india-rubber under torsion for the whalebone and
clock springs of the smaller models, and the steam of the larger ones.
His hélicoptère or screw-model is remarkable for its lightness,
simplicity and power. The accompanying sketch will serve to illustrate
its construction (fig. 38). It consists of two superposed elastic screws
(a a, b b), the upper of which (a a) is fixed in a vertical frame (c),
which is pivoted in the central part (d) of the under screw. From the
centre of the under screw an axle provided with a hook (e), which
performs the part of a crank, projects in an upward direction. Between
the hook or crank (e) and the centre of the upper screw (a a), the
india-rubber in a state of torsion (f) extends. By fixing the lower
screw and turning the upper one a sufficient number of times the
requisite degree of torsion and power is obtained. The apparatus when
liberated flies into the air sometimes to a height of 50 ft., and
gyrates in large circles for a period varying from 15 to 30 seconds.

Pénaud next directed his attention to the construction of a model, to be
propelled by a screw and sustained by an elastic aeroplane extending
horizontally. Sir George Cayley proposed such a machine in 1810, and
W.S. Henson constructed and patented a similar machine in 1842. Several
inventors succeeded in making models fly by the aid of aeroplanes and
screws, as, e.g. J. Stringfellow in 1847,[18] and F. du Temple in 1857.
These models flew in a haphazard sort of a way, it being found
exceedingly difficult to confer on them the necessary degree of
stability fore and aft and laterally. Pénaud succeeded in overcoming the
difficulty in question by the invention of what he designated an
automatic rudder. This consisted of a small elastic aeroplane placed aft
or behind the principal aeroplane which is also elastic. The two elastic
aeroplanes extended horizontally and made a slight upward angle with the
horizon, the angle made by the smaller aeroplane (the rudder) being
slightly in excess of that made by the larger. The motive power was
india-rubber in the condition of torsion; the propeller, a screw. The
reader will understand the arrangement by a reference to the
accompanying drawing (fig. 39).

Models on the aeroplane screw type may be propelled by two screws, one
fore and one aft, rotating in opposite directions; and in the event of
only one screw being employed it may be placed in front of or behind the
aeroplane.

When such a model is wound up and let go it descends about 2 ft., after
which, having acquired initial velocity, it rises and flies in a forward
direction at a height of from 8 to 10 ft. from the ground for a
distance of from 120 to 130 ft. It flies this distance in from 10 to 11
seconds, its mean speed being something like 12 ft. per second. From
experiments made with this model, Pénaud calculates that one horse-power
would elevate and support 85 lb.

[Illustration: FIG. 39.--Aeroplane Model with Automatic Rudder.

  a a, Elastic aeroplane.

  b b, Automatic rudder.

  c c, Aerial screw centred at f.

  d, Frame supporting aeroplane, rudder and screw.

  e, India-rubber, in a state of torsion, attached to hook or crank at
  f. By holding the aeroplane (a a) and turning the screw (c c) the
  necessary power is obtained by torsion. (Pénaud.)]

D.S. Brown also wrote (1874) in support of elastic aero-biplanes. His
experiments proved that two elastic aeroplanes united by a central shaft
or shafts, and separated by a wide interval, always produce increased
stability. The production of flight by the vertical flapping of wings is
in some respects the most difficult, but this also has been attempted
and achieved. Pénaud and A.H. de Villeneuve each constructed winged
models. Marey was not so fortunate. He endeavoured to construct an
artificial insect on the plan advocated by Borelli, Strauss-Dürckheim
and Chabrier, but signally failed, his insect never having been able to
lift more than a third of its own weight.

[Illustration: FIG. 40.--Pénaud's Artificial Flying Bird.

  a b c d, a' b' c' d', Elastic wings, which twist and untwist when made
  to vibrate.

  a b, a' b', Anterior margins of wings.

  c d, c' d', Posterior margins of wings.

  c, c', Inner portions of wings attached to central shaft of model by
  elastic bands at e.

  f, India-rubber in a state of torsion, which provides the motive
  power, by causing the crank situated between the vertical wing
  supports (g) to rotate; as the crank revolves the wings are made to
  vibrate by means of two rods which extend between the crank and the
  roots of the wings.

  h, Tail of artificial bird.]

De Villeneuve and Pénaud constructed their winged models on different
types, the former selecting the bat, the latter the bird. De Villeneuve
made the wings of his artificial bat conical in shape and comparatively
rigid. He controlled the movements of the wings, and made them strike
downwards and forwards in imitation of natural wings. His model
possessed great power of rising. It elevated itself from the ground with
ease, and flew in a horizontal direction for a distance of 24 ft., and
at a velocity of 20 m. an hour. Pénaud's model differed from de
Villeneuve's in being provided with elastic wings, the posterior margins
of which in addition to being elastic were free to move round the
anterior margins as round axes (see fig. 24). India-rubber springs were
made to extend between the inner posterior parts of the wings and the
frame, corresponding to the backbone of the bird.

A vertical movement having been communicated by means of india-rubber in
a state of torsion to the roots of the wings, the wings themselves, in
virtue of their elasticity, and because of the resistance experienced
from the air, twisted and untwisted and formed reciprocating screws,
precisely analogous to those originally described and figured by
Pettigrew in 1867. Pénaud's arrangement is shown in fig. 40.

If the left wing of Pénaud's model (a b, c d of fig. 40) be compared
with the wing of the bat (fig. 18), or with Pettigrew's artificial wing
(fig. 32), the identity of principle and application is at once
apparent.

In Pénaud's artificial bird the equilibrium is secured by the addition
of a tail. The model cannot raise itself from the ground, but on being
liberated from the hand it descends 2 ft. or so, when, having acquired
initial velocity, it flies horizontally for a distance of 50 or more
feet, and rises as it flies from 7 to 9 ft. The following are the
measurements of the model in question:--length of wing from tip to tip,
32 in.; weight of wing, tail, frame, india-rubber, &c., 73 grammes
(about 2½ ounces).     (J. B. P.)


_Flying Machines_.--Henson's flying machine, designed in 1843, was the
earliest attempt at aviation on a great scale. Henson was one of the
first to combine aerial screws with extensive supporting structures
occupying a nearly horizontal position. The accompanying illustration
explains the combination (fig. 41).

[Illustration: FIG. 41.--Henson's Aerostat.]

  "The chief feature of the invention was the very great expanse of its
  sustaining planes, which were larger in proportion to the weight it
  had to carry than those of many birds. The machine advanced with its
  front edge a little raised, the effect of which was to present its
  under surface to the air over which it passed, the resistance of
  which, acting upon it like a strong wind on the sails of a windmill,
  prevented the descent of the machine and its burden. The sustaining of
  the whole, therefore, depended upon the speed at which it travelled
  through the air, and the angle at which its under surface impinged on
  the air in its front.... The machine, fully prepared for flight, was
  started from the top of an inclined plane, in descending which it
  attained a velocity necessary to sustain it in its further progress.
  That velocity would be gradually destroyed by the resistance of the
  air to the forward flight; it was, therefore, the office of the
  steam-engine and the vanes it actuated simply to repair the loss of
  velocity; it was made, therefore, only of the power and weight
  necessary for that small effect." The editor of Newton's _Journal of
  Arts and Sciences_ speaks of it thus:--"The apparatus consists of a
  car containing the goods, passengers, engines, fuel, &c., to which a
  rectangular frame, made of wood or bamboo cane, and covered with
  canvas or oiled silk, is attached. This frame extends on either side
  of the car in a similar manner to the outstretched wings of a bird;
  but with this difference, that the frame is immovable. Behind the
  wings are two vertical fan wheels, furnished with oblique vanes, which
  are intended to propel the apparatus through the air. The rainbow-like
  circular wheels are the propellers, answering to the wheels of a
  steamboat, and acting upon the air after the manner of a windmill.
  These wheels receive motions from bands and pulleys from a steam or
  other engine contained in the car. To an axis at the stern of the car
  a triangular frame is attached, resembling the tail of a bird, which
  is also covered with canvas or oiled silk. This may be expanded or
  contracted at pleasure, and is moved up and down for the purpose of
  causing the machine to ascend or descend. Beneath the tail is a rudder
  for directing the course of the machine to the right or to the left;
  and to facilitate the steering a sail is stretched between two masts
  which rise from the car. The amount of canvas or oiled silk necessary
  for buoying up the machine is stated to be equal to one square foot
  for each half pound of weight."

F.H. Wenham, thinking to improve upon Henson, invented in 1866 what he
designated his aeroplanes.[19] These were thin, light, long, narrow
structures, arranged above each other in tiers like so many shelves.
They were tied together at a slight upward angle, and combined strength
and lightness. The idea was to obtain great sustaining area in
comparatively small space with comparative ease of control. It was hoped
that when the aeroplanes were wedged forward in the air by vertical
screws, or by the body to be flown, each aeroplane would rest or float
upon a stratum of undisturbed air, and that practically the aeroplanes
would give the same support as if spread out horizontally. The
accompanying figures illustrate Wenham's views (figs. 42 and 43).

[Illustration: FIG. 42.--Wenham's system of Aeroplanes designed to carry
a man.

  a, a, Thin planks, tapering at each end, and attached to a triangle.

  b, Similar plank for supporting the aeronaut.

  c, c, Thin bands of iron with truss planks a, a, and

  d, d, Vertical rods. Between these are stretched five bands of holland
  15 in. broad and 16 ft. long, the total length of the web being 80 ft.
  This apparatus when caught by a gust of wind, actually lifted the
  aeronaut.]

[Illustration: FIG. 43.--A similar system, planned by Wenham.

  a, a, Main spar 16 ft. long;

  b, b, Panels, with base board for aeronaut attached to main spar.

  e, e, Thin tie-band of steel with struts starting from main spar. This
  forms a strong light framework for the aeroplanes, consisting of six
  webs of thin holland 15 in. broad. The aeroplanes are kept in parallel
  plane by vertical divisions of holland 2 ft. wide.

  c, c', Wing propellers driven by the feet.]

[Illustration: FIG. 44.--Stringfellow's Flying Machine.]

Stringfellow, who was originally associated with Henson, and built a
successful flying model in 1847, made a second model in 1868, in which
Wenham's aeroplanes were combined with aerial screws. This model was on
view at the exhibition of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain,
held at the Crystal Palace, London, in 1868. It was remarkably compact,
elegant and light, and obtained the £100 prize of the exhibition for its
engine, which was the lightest and most powerful so far constructed. The
illustration below (fig. 44), drawn from a photograph, gives a very good
idea of the arrangement--a, b, c representing the superimposed
aeroplanes, d the tail, e, f the screw propellers. The superimposed
aeroplanes (a, b, c) in this machine contained a sustaining area of 28
sq. ft., in addition to the tail (d). Its engine represented a third of
a horse power, and the weight of the whole (engine, boiler, water, fuel,
superimposed aeroplanes and propellers) was under 12 lb. Its sustaining
area, if that of the tail (d) be included, was something like 36 sq.
ft., i.e. 3 sq. ft. for every pound. The model was forced by its
propellers along a wire at a great speed, but so far as an observer
could determine, failed to lift itself, notwithstanding its extreme
lightness and the comparatively very great power employed. Stringfellow,
however, stated that it occasionally left the wire and was sustained by
its aeroplanes alone.

The aerial steamer of Thomas Moy (fig. 45), designed in 1874, consisted
of a light, powerful, skeleton frame resting on three wheels; a very
effective light engine constructed on a new principle, which dispensed
with the old-fashioned, cumbrous boiler; two long, narrow, horizontal
aeroplanes; and two comparatively very large aerial screws. The idea was
to get up the initial velocity by a preliminary run on the ground. This
accomplished it was hoped that the weight of the machine would gradually
be thrown upon the aeroplanes in the same way that the weight of certain
birds--the eagle, e.g.--is thrown upon the wings after a few hops and
leaps. Once in the air the aeroplanes, it was believed, would become
effective in proportion to the speed attained. The machine, however, did
not realize the high expectations formed of it, and like all its
predecessors it was doomed to failure.

[Illustration: FIG. 45.--Moy's Aerial Steamer.]

Two of the most famous of the next attempts to solve the problem of
artificial flight, by means of aeroplanes, were those of Prof. S.P.
Langley and Sir Hiram S. Maxim, who began their aerial experiments about
the same time (1889-1890). By 1893-1894 both had embodied their views in
models and large flying machines.

Langley, who occupied the position of secretary to the Smithsonian
Institution, Washington, U.S.A., made many small flying models and one
large one. These he designated "aerodromes." They were all constructed
on a common principle, and were provided with extensive flying surfaces
in the shape of rigid aeroplanes inclined at an upward angle to the
horizon, and more or less fixed on the plan advocated by Henson. The
cardinal idea was to force the aeroplanes (slightly elevated at their
anterior margins) forwards, kite-fashion, by means of powerful vertical
screw propellers driven at high speed--the greater the horizontal speed
provided by the propellers, the greater, by implication, the lifting
capacity of the aerodrome. The bodies, frames and aeroplanes of the
aerodromes were strengthened by vertical and other supports, to which
were attached aluminium wires to ensure absolute rigidity so far as that
was possible. Langley aimed at great lightness of construction, and in
this he succeeded to a remarkable extent. His aeroplanes were variously
shaped, and were, as a rule, concavo-convex, the convex surface being
directed upwards. He employed a competent staff of highly trained
mechanics at the Smithsonian Institution, and great secrecy was observed
as to his operations. He flew his smallest models in the great lecture
room of the National Museum, and his larger ones on the Potomac river
about 40 m. below Washington.

While Langley conducted his preliminary experiments in 1889, he did not
construct and test his steam-driven flying models until 1893. These
were made largely of steel and aluminium, and one of them in 1896 made
the longest flight then recorded for a flying machine, namely, fully
half a mile on the Potomac river. The largest aerodrome, intended to
carry passengers and to be available for war purposes, was built to the
order and at the expense of the American government, which granted a sum
of fifty thousand dollars for its construction.

[Illustration: FIG. 46.--Langley's Flying Machine. a, Large aeroplane;
b, Small aeroplane; c, Propelling screws.]

  Langley's machine shown in fig. 46 was a working model, not intended
  to carry passengers. In configuration the body-portion closely
  resembled a mackerel. The backbone was a light but very rigid tube of
  aluminium steel, 15 ft. in length, and a little more than 2 in. in
  diameter. The engines were located in the portion of the framework
  corresponding to the head of the fish; they weighed 60 oz. and
  developed one horse-power. There were four boilers made of thin
  hammered copper and weighing a little more than 7 lb. each; these
  occupied the middle portion of the fish. The fuel used was refined
  gasoline, and the extreme end of the tail of the fish was utilized for
  a storage tank with a capacity of one quart. There were twin screw
  propellers, which could be adjusted to different angles in practice,
  to provide for steering, and made 1700 revolutions a minute. The
  wings, or aeroplanes, four in number, consisted of light frames of
  tubular aluminium steel covered with china silk. The pair in front
  were 42 in. wide and 40 ft. from tip to tip. They could be adjusted at
  different angles. The machine required to be dropped from a height, or
  a preliminary forward impetus had to be given to it, before it could
  be started. Fixity of all the parts was secured by a tubular mast
  extending upwards and downwards through about the middle of the craft,
  and from its extremities ran stays of aluminium wire to the tips of
  the aeroplanes and the end of the tubular backbone. By this trussing
  arrangement the whole structure was rendered exceedingly stiff.

  [Illustration: FIG. 47.--Langley's Aerodrome in flight.]

  In the larger aerodrome (fig. 47) the aeroplanes were concavo-convex,
  narrow, greatly elongated and square at their free extremities, the
  two propellers, which were comparatively very large, being placed
  amidships, so to speak. At the first trial of this machine, on the 7th
  of October 1903, just as it left the launching track it was jerked
  violently down at the front (being caught, as subsequently appeared,
  by the falling ways), and under the full power of its engine was
  pulled into the water, carrying with it its engineer. When the
  aerodrome rose to the surface, it was found that while the front
  sustaining surfaces had been broken by their impact with the water,
  yet the rear ones were comparatively uninjured. At the second and last
  attempt, on the 8th of December 1903, another disaster, again due to
  the launching ways, occurred as the machine was leaving the track.
  This time the back part of the machine, in some way still unexplained,
  was caught by a portion of the launching car, which caused the rear
  sustaining surface to break, leaving the rear entirely without support
  and it came down almost vertically into the water. Darkness had come
  before the engineer, who had been in extreme danger, could aid in the
  recovery of the aerodrome. The boat and machine had drifted apart, and
  one of the tugs in its zeal to render assistance had fastened a rope
  to the frame of the machine in the reverse position from what it
  should have been attached, and had broken the frame entirely in two.
  Owing to lack of funds further trials were abandoned (see _Annual
  Report of the Smithsonian Institution_, 1904, p. 122).

  [Illustration: FIG. 48.--Sir H. Maxim's Flying Machine.]

  Sir Hiram S. Maxim, like Langley, employed a staff of highly skilled
  workmen. His machine (fig. 48) consisted of a platform, on which stood
  a large water-tube boiler, a number of concavo-convex aeroplanes
  arranged in tiers like shelves, each making a slight upward angle with
  the horizon, two very large vertical screws placed aft and propelled
  by steam engines, tanks for the storage of water, naphtha, &c. The
  boiler was especially noteworthy. The water was contained in about
  2000 bent copper tubes, only 3/8 in. in external diameter, heated by
  over 7000 gas jets arranged in rows. The fuel was naphtha or gasoline.
  Steam could be got up in the short space of half a minute. The
  steam-generating appliances, which weighed only 1000 lb. in all, were
  placed in the front of the machine. The motive power was provided by a
  pair of two-cylinder, compound engines, poised about 8 ft. from the
  ground, and about 6 ft. apart. Each of them was independently
  governed, and furnished together 363 horse-power in actual effect, an
  amount which, considering that their total weight was only 600 lb.,
  gave the extraordinary efficiency of over 1 horse-power for every 2
  lb. weight. The high and the low pressure cylinders were 5 and 8 in.
  in diameter respectively, and the stroke was 12 in. When going at full
  speed these engines conferred 425 revolutions per minute on the two
  gigantic propellers that drove the machine along. These were in
  appearance like two-bladed marine propellers except that they were
  square instead of rounded at the ends, and were broad and thin. They
  were built from overlapping strips of American pine, planed smooth and
  covered with glued canvas. They weighed 135 lb. each, the length of
  each blade being close upon 9 ft. and the width at the ends 5½ ft. The
  pitch was 16 ft. They were carefully stayed by steel wires to their
  shafts, or the first revolution would have snapped them off short. The
  material of which the framework was built was thin steel tubing,
  exceedingly light. All the wires and ties were of the best steel,
  capable of standing a strain of 100 tons to the square inch. The body
  of the machine was oblong in shape, with the fore-part cut away like a
  water-chute boat, and a long counter at the stern over which the
  propellers revolved. It had canvas stretched all over it. High
  overhead, like a gigantic awning, was the slightly concavo-convex main
  aeroplane, tilted towards the front at an imperceptible angle, and
  stretched taut. Its area was 1400 sq. ft., increased by side wings to
  2700 sq. ft. There were also side aeroplanes arranged in tiers, and
  large aeroplanes in front, which were pivoted and served for vertical
  steering. The machine was strengthened in every direction by vertical
  and other supports and securely wired together at all points. It was
  furnished with four strong flanged wheels and ran along a light
  broad-gauge (9 ft.) railway track, 1800 ft. long, in the hope that
  when the speed reached a certain point it would leave the rails, but
  it was prevented from rising more than an inch or so by four arms, or
  outriggers, furnished with wheels, which projected from its sides and
  ran under an inverted wooden upper or safety track outside the railway
  track proper.

  At a trial carried out in 1894 at Bexley, Kent, only the main
  aeroplane, the fore and aft rudders, and the top and bottom side
  planes were in position. After everything had been got in readiness,
  careful observers were stationed along the track, and the machine was
  connected to a dynamometer. The engines were then started and the pump
  set so as to deliver over 5000 lb. of water per hour into the boiler.
  The gas was then carefully turned on until the pressure amounted to
  310 lb. per sq. in., and the dynamometer showed a thrust of more than
  2100 lb. A small safety-valve placed in the steam pipe had been
  adjusted so as to blow off slightly at 310 lb. and with a strong blast
  at 320 lb. The signal being given to let go, the machine darted
  forward at a terrific pace, and the safety-valve ceased to blow. More
  gas was instantly turned on, and before the machine had advanced 300
  ft., the steam had mounted to 320 lb. per sq. in., and the
  safety-valve was blowing off a steady blast. When the machine had
  travelled only a few hundred feet, all four of the small outrigger
  wheels were fully engaged, which showed that the machine was lifting
  at least 8000 lb. The speed rapidly increased until when the machine
  had run about 900 ft. one of the rear axletrees, which were of 2 in.
  steel tubing, doubled up and set the rear end of the machine
  completely free. When the machine had travelled about 1000 ft., the
  left-hand forward wheel became disengaged from the safety track, and
  shortly after this the right-hand wheel broke the upper track--3 in.
  by 9 in. Georgia pine--and a plank became entangled in the framework
  of the machine. Steam had already been shut off, and the machine
  coming to rest fell directly to the ground, all four of its wheels
  sinking deeply into the turf without leaving other marks. Before
  making this run the wheels which were to engage the upper track were
  painted, and the paint left by them on the upper track indicated the
  exact point where the machine lifted. The area of the aeroplanes was
  very nearly 4000 sq. ft. and the total lifting effect was fully 10,000
  lb. The planes therefore lifted 2.5 lb. per sq. ft., and 5 lb. for
  each pound thrust. Nearly half of the power of the engines was lost in
  the screw slip. This showed that the diameter of the screws was not
  great enough; it should have been at least 22 ft.

In 1897 M.C. Ader, who had already tested, with indifferent results, two
full-sized flying machines, built a third apparatus with funds furnished
by the French government. This reproduced the structure of a bird with
almost servile imitation, save that traction was obtained by two
screw-propellers. The steam engine weighed about 7 lb. per horse-power,
but the equilibrium of the apparatus was defective.

Largely with the view of studying the problem of maintaining
equilibrium, several experimenters, including Otto Lilienthal, Percy
Pilcher and Octave Chanute, cultivated gliding flight by means of
aeroplanes capable of sustaining a man. They depended mainly on the
utilization of natural air currents, trusting for stability and balance
to movements in their own bodies, or in portions of their machines which
they could control. They threw themselves from natural or artificial
elevations, or, facing the wind, they ran or were dragged forwards
against it until they got under way and the wind caught hold of their
aeroplanes. To Lilienthal in Germany belongs the double credit of
demonstrating the superiority of arched over flat surfaces, and of
reducing gliding flight to regular practice. He made over 2000 glides
safely, using gravity as his motive power, with concave, batlike wings,
in some cases with superposed surfaces (fig. 49). It was with a machine
of the latter type that he was upset by a sudden gust of wind and killed
in 1896. Pilcher in England improved somewhat on Lilienthal's apparatus,
but used the same general method of restoring the balance, when
endangered, by shifting the weight of the operator's body. He too made
several hundred glides in safety, but finally was thrown over by a gust
of wind and killed in 1899. Chanute in America confined his endeavours
to the production of automatic stability, and made the surfaces movable
instead of the man. He used several different forms of apparatus,
including one with five superposed pairs of wings and a tail (fig. 50)
and another with two continuous aeroplanes, one above the other (fig.
51). He made over 1000 glides without accident.

[Illustration: FIG. 49.--Lilienthal's Gliding Machine.]

Similar experiments were meanwhile conducted by Wilbur and Orville
Wright of Dayton, Ohio, in whose hands the glider developed into a
successful flying machine. These investigators began their work in 1900,
and at an early stage introduced two characteristic features--a
horizontal rudder in front for steering in the vertical plane, and the
flexing or bending of the ends of the main supporting aeroplanes as a
means of maintaining the structure in proper balance. Their machines to
begin with were merely gliders, the operator lying upon them in a
horizontal, position, but in 1903 a petrol motor was added, and a flight
lasting 59 seconds was performed. In 1905 they made forty-five flights,
in the longest of which they remained in the air for half an hour and
covered a distance of 24½ m. The utmost secrecy, however, was maintained
concerning their experiments, and in consequence their achievements were
regarded at the time with doubt and suspicion, and it was hardly
realized that their success would reach the point later achieved.

[Illustration: FIG. 50.--Chanute's Multiple Gliding Machine.]

[Illustration: FIG. 51.--Chanute's Biplane Gliding Machine.]

Thanks, however, to the efforts of automobile engineers, great
improvements were now being effected in the petrol engine, and, although
the certainty and trustworthiness of its action still left something to
be desired, it provided the designers of flying machines with what they
had long been looking for--a motor very powerful in proportion to its
weight. Largely in consequence of this progress, and partly no doubt
owing to the stimulus given by the activity of builders of dirigible
balloons, the construction of motor-driven aeroplanes began to attract a
number of workers, especially in France. In 1906 A. Santos Dumont, after
a number of successful experiments with dirigible cigar-shaped gas
balloons, completed an aeroplane flying machine. It consisted of the
following parts:--(a) A system of aeroplanes arranged like the capital
letter T at a certain upward angle to the horizon and bearing a general
resemblance to box kites; (b) a pair of very light propellers driven at
a high speed; and (c) an exceedingly light and powerful petrol engine.
The driver occupied a position in the centre of the arrangement, which
is shown in fig. 52. The machine was furnished with two wheels and
vertical supports which depended from the anterior parts of the
aeroplanes and supported it when it touched the ground on either side.
With this apparatus he traversed on the 12th of November 1906 a distance
of 220 metres in 21 seconds.

[Illustration: FIG. 52.--Santos Dumont's Flying Machine.]

About a year later Henry Farman made several short flights on a machine
of the biplane type, consisting of two main supporting surfaces one
above the other, with a box-shaped vertical rudder behind and two small
balancing aeroplanes in front. The engine was an eight-cylinder
Antoinette petrol motor, developing 49 horse-power at 1100 revolutions a
minute, and driving directly a single metal screw propeller. On the 27th
of October 1906 he flew a distance of nearly half a mile at
Issy-les-Molineaux, and on the 13th of January 1908 he made a circular
flight of one kilometre, thereby winning the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize of
£2000. In March he remained in the air for 3½ minutes, covering a
distance of 1¼ m.; but in the following month a rival, Leon Delagrange,
using a machine of the same type and constructed by the same makers,
Messrs Voisin, surpassed this performance by flying nearly 2½ m. in 6½
minutes. In July Farman remained in the air for over 20 minutes; on the
6th of September Delagrange increased the time to nearly 30 minutes, and
on the 29th of the same month Farman again came in front with a flight
lasting 42 minutes and extending over nearly 24½ m.

But the best results were obtained by the Wright brothers--Orville
Wright in America and Wilbur Wright in France. On the 9th of September
1908 the former, at Fort Myer, Virginia, made three notable flights; in
the first he remained in the air 57½ minutes and in the second 1 hour 3
minutes, while in the third he took with him a passenger and covered
nearly 4 m. in 6 minutes. Three days later he made a flight of 45 m. in
1 hour 14-1/3 minutes, but on the 17th he had an accident, explained as
being due to one of his propellers coming into contact with a stay, by
which his machine was wrecked, he himself seriously injured, and
Lieutenant Selfridge, who was with him, killed. Four days afterwards
Wilbur Wright at Le Mans in France beat all previous records with a
flight lasting 1 hour 31 minutes 25-4/5 seconds, in which he covered
about 56 m.; and subsequently, on the 11th of October, he made a flight
of 1 hour 9 minutes accompanied by a passenger. On the 31st of December
he succeeded in remaining in the air for 2 hours 20 minutes 23 seconds.

Wilbur Wright's machine (fig. 53), that used by his brother being
essentially the same, consisted of two slightly arched supporting
surfaces, each 12½ metres long, arranged parallel one above the other at
a distance of 1-4/5 metres apart. As they were each about 2 metres wide
their total area was about 50 sq. metres. About 3 metres in front of
them was arranged a pair of smaller horizontal aeroplanes, shaped like a
long narrow ellipse, which formed the rudder that effected changes of
elevation, the driver being able by means of a lever to incline them up
or down according as he desired to ascend or descend. The rudder for
lateral steering was placed about 2½ metres behind the main surfaces and
was formed of two vertical pivoted aeroplanes. The lever by which they
were turned was connected with the device by which the ends of the main
aeroplanes could be flexed simultaneously though in opposite directions;
i.e. if the ends of the aeroplanes on one side were bent downwards,
those on the other were bent upwards. By the aid of this arrangement
the natural cant of the machine when making a turn could be checked, if
it became excessive. The four-cylinder petrol engine was placed on the
lower aeroplane a little to the right of the central line, being
counterbalanced by the driver (and passenger if one was carried), who
sat a little to the left of the same line. Making about 1200 revolutions
a minute, it developed about 24 horse-power, and was connected by chain
gearing to two wooden propellers, 2½ metres in diameter and 3½ metres
apart, the speed of which was about 450 revolutions a minute. The whole
machine, with aeronaut, weighed about 1100 lb., the weight of the motor
being reputed to be 200 lb.

[Illustration: PLATE I.

  FIG. 1.--PAULHAN FLYING ON FARMAN BIPLANE.

  Photo, Topical Press.

  FIG. 2.--WRIGHT BIPLANE.

  Photo, Topical Press.]

[Illustration: PLATE II.

  FIG. 3.--BLERIOT MONOPLANE.

  Photo, Topical Press.

  FIG. 4.--A.V. ROE'S TRIPLANE.

  Photo, Topical Press.]

[Illustration: FIG. 53.--Wright Flying Machine; diagrammatic sketch.

  A, B, Main supporting surfaces.

  C, D, Aeroplanes of horizontal rudder with fixed semilunar fin E.

  F, Vertical rudder.

  G, Motor.

  H, Screws.]

A feature of the year 1909 was the success obtained with monoplanes
having only a single supporting surface, and it was on a machine of this
type that the Frenchman Blériot on July 25th flew across the English
Channel from Calais to Dover in 31 minutes. Hubert Latham all but
performed the same feat on an Antoinette monoplane. The year saw
considerable increases in the periods for which aviators were able to
remain in the air, and Roger Sommer's flight of nearly 2½ hours on
August 7th was surpassed by Henry Farman on November 3rd, when he
covered a distance estimated at 137¼ m. in 4 hr. 17 min. 53 sec. In both
these cases biplanes were employed. Successful aviation meetings were
held, among other places, at Reims, Juvisy, Doncaster and Blackpool; and
at Blackpool a daring flight was made in a wind of 40 m. an hour by
Latham. This aviator also proved the possibility of flying at
considerable altitudes by attaining on December 1st a height of over
1500 ft., but this record was far surpassed in the following January by
L. Paulhan, who on a biplane rose to a height of 1383 yds. at Los
Angeles. In the course of the year three aviators were killed--Lefèvbre
and Ferber in September and Fernandez in December; and four men perished
in September by the destruction of the French airship "République," the
gas-bag of which was ripped open by a broken propeller. In January 1910
Delagrange was killed by the fracture of one of the wings of a monoplane
on which he was flying. On April 27th-28th, 1910, Paulhan successfully
flew from London to Manchester, with only one stop, within 24 hours, for
the _Daily Mail's_ £10,000 prize.

The progress made by all these experiments at aviation had naturally
created widespread interest, both as a matter of sport and also as
indicating a new departure in the possibilities of machines of war. And
in 1909 the British government appointed a scientific committee, with
Lord Rayleigh as chairman, as a consultative body for furthering the
development of the science in England.

The table below gives some details, approximately correct, of the
principal experiments made with flying machines up to 1908.

  +-------+------------------+------+---------+---------+--------+-------+---------+----------+-------+-----------+
  |       |                  | Tip  |         |         | Pounds | Speed | Maximum |          | Horse-|  Pounds   |
  | Year. |   Experimenter.  | to   | Surface.| Weight. |  per   |  per  | Flight. |  Motor.  | power.| sustained |
  |       |                  | Tip. |         |         | sq. ft.| hour. |         |          |       |  per h.p. |
  +-------+------------------+------+---------+---------+--------+-------+---------+----------+-------+-----------+
  |       |                  |  Ft. | Sq. ft. |   lb.   |        |  Mls. |    Ft.  |          |       |           |
  | 1879  | Tatin            |  6.2 |     7.5 |    3.85 |  0.51  | 18    |    100? |Compressed|  0.03 |    110?   |
  |       |                  |      |         |         |        |       |         |   air    |       |           |
  | 1885 \|                  |      |         |         |        |       |         |          |       |           |
  | 1889 /| Hargrave (No. 16)|  5.5 |    26.0 |    5.00 |  0.19  | 10    |    343  |    "     |  0.06 |     79    |
  | 1893  | Phillips         | 22.0 |   136.0 |  402.00 |  3.00  | 28    |    500? |  Steam   |  5.6  |     72?   |
  | 1894  | Maxim*           | 50.0 |  4000.0 | 8000.00 |  2.5   | 36    |    300? |    "     |363.00 |     28    |
  | 1896  | Langley          | 12.0 |    70.0 |   30.00 |  0.43  | 24    |  4,000  |    "     |  1.00 |     30    |
  | 1897  | Tatin and Richet | 21.0 |    86.0 |   72.00 |  0.83  | 40    |    460  |    "     |  1.33 |     55    |
  | 1897  | Ader*            | 49.0 |   270.0 | 1100.00 |  4.00  | 50?   |    100? |    "     | 40.00 |     27    |
  | 1895  | Lilienthal*      | 23.0 |   151.0 |  220.00 |  1.46  | 23    |  1,200  | Gravity  |  2.00 |    110    |
  | 1896  | Pilcher*         | 23.0 |   170.0 |  200.00 |  1.17  | 25    |    900  |    "     |  2.00 |    100    |
  | 1896  | Chanute*         | 16.0 |   135.0 |  178.00 |  1.31  | 22    |    360  |    "     |  2.00 |     89    |
  | 1906  | S. Dumont*       | 39   |   560   |  550    |  0.98  | 22.26 |  2,900  |  Petrol  | 50    |     23    |
  | 1908  | W. Wright*       | 41   |   650   | 1100    |  1.7   | 37    |295,000  |  Petrol  | 24    |     46    |
  +-------+------------------+------+---------+---------+--------+-------+---------+----------+-------+-----------+
    * The apparatus marked thus * carried a man or men.

  REFERENCES.--Some of the books mentioned under AERONAUTICS contain
  details of flying machines; see H.W.L. Moedebeck, _A Pocketbook of
  Aeronautics_, trans. by W. Mansergh Varley (London, 1907); Sir Hiram
  S. Maxim, _Artificial and Natural Flight_ (London, 1908); F.W.
  Lanchester, _Aerodynamics_ and _Aerodonetics_ (London, 1907 and 1908);
  C.C. Turner, _Aerial Navigation of To-day_ (London, 1909); also two
  papers on "Aerial Navigation" read by Colonel G.O. Fullerton before
  the Royal United Service Institution in 1892 and 1906; papers read by
  Major B.F.S. Baden-Powell and E.S. Bruce before the Society of Arts,
  London, in April 1907 and December 1908 respectively; Cantor Lectures
  by F.W. Lanchester (Society of Arts, 1909); and the _Proceedings_ of
  the Aeronautical Society (founded 1865), &c.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] According to Dr Crisp, the swallow, martin, snipe and many birds
    of passage have no air in their bones.--_Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond_. part
    xxv., 1857, p. 13.

  [2] By the term aeroplane is meant a thin, light, expanded structure
    inclined at a slight upward angle to the horizon intended to float or
    rest upon the air, and calculated to afford a certain amount of
    support to any body attached to it.

  [3] "On the Various Modes of Flight in relation to Aeronautics," by
    J. Bell Pettigrew, _Proc. Roy. Inst_., 1867; "On the Mechanical
    Appliances by which Flight is attained in the Animal Kingdom," by the
    same author, _Trans. Linn. Soc_., 1867.

  [4] _Revue des cours scientifiques de la France et de l'Étranger_,
    1869.

  [5] The sphygmograph, as its name indicates, is a recording
    instrument. It consists of a smoked cylinder revolving by means of
    clock-work at a known speed, and a style or pen which inscribes its
    surface by scratching or brushing away the lampblack. The movements
    to be registered are transferred to the style or pen by one or more
    levers, and the pen in turn transfers them to the cylinder, where
    they appear as legible tracings. In registering the movements of the
    wings the tips and margins of the pinions were, by an ingenious
    modification, employed as the styles or pens. By this arrangement the
    different parts of the wings were made actually to record their own
    movements. As will be seen from this account, the figure-of-8 or wave
    theory of stationary and progressive flight has been made the subject
    of a rigorous _experimentum crucis_.

  [6] This continuity of the down into the up stroke and the converse
    is greatly facilitated by the elastic ligaments at the root and in
    the substance of the wing. These assist in elevating, and, when
    necessary, in flexing and elevating it. They counteract in some
    measure what may be regarded as the dead weight of the wing, and are
    especially useful in giving it continuous play.

  [7] "The importance of the twisted configuration or screw-like form
     cannot be over-estimated. That this shape is intimately associated
     with flight is apparent from the fact that the rowing feathers of the
     wing of the bird are every one of them distinctly spiral in their
     nature; in fact, one entire rowing feather is
     equivalent--morphologically and physiologically--to one entire insect
     wing. In the wing of the martin, where the bones of the pinion are
     short, and in some respects rudimentary, the primary and secondary
     feathers are greatly developed, and banked up in such a manner that
     the wing as a whole presents the same curves as those displayed by
     the insect's wing, or by the wing of the eagle, where the bones,
     muscles and feathers have attained a maximum development. The
     conformation of the wing is such that it presents a waved appearance
     in every direction--the waves running longitudinally, transversely
     and obliquely. The greater portion of the wing may consequently be
     removed without essentially altering either its form or its
     functions. This is proved by making sections in various directions,
     and by finding that in some instances as much as two-thirds of the
     wing may be lopped off without materially impairing the power of
     flight."--_Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin._ vol. xxvi. pp. 325, 326.

  [8] "On the Various Modes of Flight in relation to Aeronautics,"
    _Proc. Roy. Inst._, 1867; "On the Mechanical Appliances by which
    Flight is attained in the Animal Kingdom," _Trans. Linn. Soc._, 1867,
    26.

  [9] "On the Physiology of Wings; being an analysis of the movements
    by which flight is produced in the Insect, Bat and Bird," _Trans.
    Roy. Soc. Edin._ vol. 26.

  [10] The other forces which assist in elevating the wings are--(a)
    the elevator muscles of the wings, (b) the elastic properties of the
    wings, and (c) the reaction of the compressed air on the under
    surfaces of the wings.

  [11] The wings of the albatross, when fully extended, measure across
    the back some 14 ft. They are exceedingly narrow, being sometimes
    under a foot in width.

  [12] _On the Flight of Birds, of Bats and of Insects, in reference to
   the subject of Aerial Locomotion,_ by L. de Lucy (Paris).

  [13] E.J. Marey, _Revue des cours scientifiques de la France et de
    l'étranger_ (1869).

  [14] "The Aero-bi-plane, or First Steps to Flight," _Ninth Annual
    Report of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain_, 1874.

  [15] "Resistance to Falling Planes on a Path of Translation," _Ninth
    Annual Report of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain_, 1874.

  [16] The _Aeronaut_ for January 1872 and February 1875.

  [17] Cayley's screws, as explained, were made of feathers, and
    consequently elastic. As, however, no allusion is made in his
    writings to the superior advantages possessed by elastic over rigid
    screws, it is to be presumed that feathers were employed simply for
    convenience and lightness. Pettigrew, there is reason to believe, was
    the first to advocate the employment of elastic screws for aerial
    purposes.

  [18] Stringfellow constructed a second model, which is described and
    figured further on (fig. 44).

  [19] "On Aerial Locomotion," _Aeronautical Society's Report_ for
    1867.



FLINCK, GOVERT (1615-1660), Dutch painter, born at Cleves in 1615, was
apprenticed by his father to a silk mercer, but having secretly acquired
a passion for drawing, was sent to Leuwarden, where he boarded in the
house of Lambert Jacobszon, a Mennonite, better known as an itinerant
preacher than as a painter. Here Flinck was joined by Jacob Backer, and
the companionship of a youth determined like himself to be an artist
only confirmed his passion for painting. Amongst the neighbours of
Jacobszon at Leuwarden were the sons and relations of Rombert Ulenburg,
whose daughter Saske married Rembrandt in 1634. Other members of the
same family lived at Amsterdam, cultivating the arts either
professionally or as amateurs. The pupils of Lambert probably gained
some knowledge of Rembrandt by intercourse with the Ulenburgs. Certainly
J. von Sandrart, who visited Holland in 1637, found Flinck acknowledged
as one of Rembrandt's best pupils, and living habitually in the house of
the dealer Hendrik Ulenburg at Amsterdam. For many years Flinck laboured
on the lines of Rembrandt, following that master's style in all the
works which he executed between 1636 and 1648; then he fell into
peculiar mannerisms by imitating the swelling forms and grand action of
Rubens's creations. Finally he sailed with unfortunate complacency into
the Dead Sea of official and diplomatic painting. Flinck's relations
with Cleves became in time very important. He was introduced to the
court of the Great Elector, Frederick William of Brandenburg, who
married in 1646 Louisa of Orange. He obtained the patronage of John
Maurice of Orange, who was made stadtholder of Cleves in 1649. In 1652 a
citizen of Amsterdam, Flinck married in 1656 an heiress, daughter of Ver
Hoeven, a director of the Dutch East India Company. He was already well
known even then in the patrician circles over which the burgomasters De
Graef and the Echevin Six presided; he was on terms of intimacy with the
poet Vondel and the treasurer Uitenbogaard. In his house, adorned with
antique casts, costumes, and a noble collection of prints, he often
received the stadtholder John Maurice, whose portrait is still
preserved in the work of the learned Barleius.

The earliest of Flinck's authentic pieces is a likeness of a lady, dated
1636, in the gallery of Brunswick. His first subject picture is the
"Blessing of Jacob," in the Amsterdam museum (1638). Both are thoroughly
Rembrandtesque in effect as well as in vigour of touch and warmth of
flesh tints. The four "civic guards" of 1642, and "the twelve
musketeers" with their president in an arm-chair (1648), in the
town-hall at Amsterdam, are fine specimens of composed portrait groups.
But the best of Flinck's productions in this style is the peace of
Münster in the museum of Amsterdam, a canvas with 19 life-size figures
full of animation in the faces, "radiant with Rembrandtesque colour,"
and admirably distributed. Flinck here painted his own likeness to the
left in a doorway. The mannered period of Flinck is amply illustrated in
the "Marcus Curius eating Turnips before the Samnite Envoys," and
"Solomon receiving Wisdom," in the palace on the Dam at Amsterdam. Here
it is that Flinck shows most defects, being faulty in arrangement, gaudy
in tint, flat and shallow in execution, and partial to whitened flesh
that looks as if it had been smeared with violet powder and rouge. The
chronology of Flinck's works, so far as they are seen in public
galleries, comprises, in addition to the foregoing, the "Grey Beard" of
1639 at Dresden, the "Girl" of 1641 at the Louvre, a portrait group of a
male and female (1646) at Rotterdam, a lady (1651) at Berlin. In
November 1659 the burgomaster of Amsterdam contracted with Flinck for 12
canvases to represent four heroic figures of David and Samson and Marcus
Curius and Horatius Cocles, and scenes from the wars of the Batavians
and Romans. Flinck was unable to finish more than the sketches. In the
same year he received a flattering acknowledgment from the town council
of Cleves on the completion of a picture of Solomon which was a
counterpart of the composition at Amsterdam. This and other pictures and
portraits, such as the likenesses of Frederick William of Brandenburg
and John Maurice of Nassau, and the allegory of "Louisa of Orange
attended by Victory and Fame" and other figures at the cradle of the
first-born son of the elector, have disappeared. Of several pictures
which were painted for the Great Elector, none are preserved except the
"Expulsion of Hagar" in the Berlin museum. Flinck died at Amsterdam on
the 22nd of February 1660.



FLINDERS, MATTHEW (1774-1814), English navigator, explorer, and man of
science, was born at Donington, near Boston, in Lincolnshire, on the
16th of March 1774. Matthew was at first designed to follow his father's
profession of surgeon, but his enthusiasm in favour of a life of
adventure impelled him to enter the royal navy, which he did on the 23rd
of October 1789. After a voyage to the Friendly Islands and West Indies,
and after serving in the "Bellerophon" during Lord Howe's "glorious
first of June" (1794) off Ushant, Flinders went out in 1795 as
midshipman in the "Reliance" to New South Wales. For the next few years
he devoted himself to the task of accurately laying down the outline and
bearings of the Australian coast, and he did his work so thoroughly that
he left comparatively little for his successors to do. With his friend
George Bass, the surgeon of the "Reliance," in the year of his arrival
he explored George's river; and, after a voyage to Norfolk Island, again
in March 1796 the two friends in the same boat, the "Tom Thumb," only 8
ft. long, and with only a boy to help them, explored a stretch of coast
to the south of Port Jackson. After a voyage to the Cape of Good Hope,
when he was promoted to a lieutenancy, Flinders was engaged during
February 1798 in a survey of the Furneaux Islands, lying to the north of
Tasmania. His delight was great when, in September of the same year, he
was commissioned along with Bass, who had already explored the sea
between Tasmania and the south coast to some extent and inferred that it
was a strait, to proceed in the sloop "Norfolk" (25 tons) to prove
conclusively that Van Diemen's Land was an island by circumnavigating
it. In the same sloop, in the summer of next year, Flinders made an
exploration to the north of Port Jackson, the object being mainly to
survey Glasshouse Bay (Moreton Bay) and Hervey's Bay. Returning to
England he was appointed to the command of an expedition for the
thorough exploration of the coasts of Terra Australis, as the southern
continent was still called, though Flinders is said to have been the
first to suggest for it the name Australia. On the 18th of July 1801 the
sloop "Investigator" (334 tons), in which the expedition sailed, left
Spithead, Flinders being furnished with instructions and with a passport
from the French government to all their officials in the Eastern seas.
Among the scientific staff was Robert Brown, one of the most eminent
English botanists; and among the midshipmen was Flinders's relative,
John Franklin, of Arctic fame. Cape Leeuwin, on the south-west coast of
Australia, was reached on November 6, and King George's sound on the 9th
of December. Flinders sailed round the Great Bight, examining the
islands and indentations on the east side, noting the nature of the
country, the people, products, &c., and paying special attention to the
subject of the variation of the compass. Spenser and St Vincent Gulfs
were discovered and explored. On the 8th of April 1802, shortly after
leaving Kangaroo Islands, at the mouth of St Vincent Gulf, Flinders fell
in with the French exploring ship, "Le Géographe," under Captain Nicolas
Baudin, in the bay now known as Encounter Bay. In the narrative of the
French expedition published in 1807 (when Flinders was a prisoner in the
Mauritius) by M. Peron, the naturalist to the expedition, much of the
land west of the point of meeting was claimed as having been discovered
by Baudin, and French names were extensively substituted for the English
ones given by Flinders. It was only in 1814, when Flinders published his
own narrative, that the real state of the case was fully exposed.
Flinders continued his examination of the coast along Bass's Strait,
carefully surveying Port Phillip. Port Jackson was reached on the 9th of
May 1802.

After staying at Port Jackson for about a couple of months, Flinders set
out again on the 22nd of July to complete his circumnavigation of
Australia. The Great Barrier Reef was examined with the greatest care in
several places. The north-east entrance of the Gulf of Carpentaria was
reached early in November; and the next three months were spent in an
examination of the shores of the gulf, and of the islands that skirt
them. An inspection of the "Investigator" showed that she was in so
leaky a condition that only with the greatest precaution could the
voyage be completed in her. Flinders completed the survey of the Gulf of
Carpentaria, and after touching at the island of Timor, the
"Investigator" sailed round the west and south of Australia, and Port
Jackson was reached on the 9th of June 1803. Much suffering was endured
by nearly all the members of the expedition: a considerable proportion
of the men succumbed to disease, and their leader was so reduced by
scurvy that his health was greatly impaired.

Flinders determined to proceed home in H.M.S. "Porpoise" as a passenger,
submit the results of his work to the Admiralty, and obtain, if
possible, another vessel to complete his exploration of the Australian
coast. The "Porpoise" left Port Jackson on the 10th of August,
accompanied by the H.E.I.C.'s ship "Bridgewater" (750 tons) and the
"Cato" (450 tons) of London. On the night of the 17th the "Porpoise" and
"Cato" suddenly struck on a coral reef and were rapidly reduced to
wrecks. The officers and men encamped on a small sandbank near, 3 or 4
ft. above high-water, a considerable quantity of provisions, with many
of the papers and charts, having been saved from the wrecks. The reef
was in about 22° 11' S. and 155° E., and about 800 m. from Port Jackson.
Flinders returned to Port Jackson in a six-oared cutter in order to
obtain a vessel to rescue the party. The reef was again reached on the
8th of October, and all the officers and men having been satisfactorily
disposed of, Flinders on the 11th left for Jones Strait in an unsound
schooner of 29 tons, the "Cumberland," with ten companions, and a
valuable collection of papers, charts, geological specimens, &c. On the
15th of December he put in at Mauritius, when he discovered that France
and England were at war. The passport he possessed from the French
government was for the "Investigator"; still, though he was now on board
another ship, his mission was essentially the same, and the work he was
on was simply a continuation of that commenced in the unfortunate
vessel. Nevertheless, on her arrival at Port Louis the "Cumberland" was
seized by order of the governor-general de Caen. Flinders's papers were
taken possession of, and he found himself virtually a prisoner. We need
not dwell on the sad details of this unjustifiable captivity, which
lasted to June 1810. But there can be no doubt that the hardships and
inactivity Flinders was compelled to endure for upwards of six years
told seriously on his health, and brought his life to a premature end.
He reached England in October 1810, after an absence of upwards of nine
years. The official red-tapeism of the day barred all promotion to the
unfortunate explorer, who set himself to prepare an account of his
explorations, though unfortunately an important part of his record had
been retained by de Caen. The results of his labours were published in
two large quarto volumes, entitled _A Voyage to Terra Australis_, with a
folio volume of maps. The very day (July 19, 1814) on which his work was
published Flinders died, at the early age of forty. The great work is a
model of its kind, containing as it does not only a narrative of his own
and of previous voyages, but masterly statements of the scientific
results, especially with regard to magnetism, meteorology, hydrography
and navigation. Flinders paid great attention to the errors of the
compass, especially to those caused by the presence of iron in ships. He
is understood to have been the first to discover the source of such
errors (which had scarcely been noticed before), and after investigating
the laws of the variations, he suggested counter-attractions, an
invention for which Professor Barlow got much credit many years
afterwards. Numerous experiments on ships' magnetism were conducted at
Portsmouth by Flinders, by order of the admiralty, in 1812. Besides the
_Voyage_, Flinders wrote _Observations on the Coast of Van Diemen's
Land_, _Bass's Strait_, &c., and two papers in the _Phil. Trans._--one
on the "Magnetic Needle" (1805), and the other, "Observations on the
Marine Barometer" (1806).     (J. S. K.)



FLINSBERG, a village and watering-place of Germany, in the Prussian
province of Silesia, on the Queis, at the foot of the Iserkamm, 1450 ft.
above the sea, 5 m. W. of Friedeberg, the terminus station of the
railway from Greiffenberg. Pop. (1900) 1957. It contains an Evangelical
and a Roman Catholic church, and has some manufactures of wooden wares.
Flinsberg is celebrated for its chalybeate waters, specific in cases of
feminine disorders, and used both for bathing and drinking. It is also a
climatic health resort of some reputation, and the visitors number about
8500 annually.

  See Adam, _Bad Flinsberg als klimatischer Kurort_ (Görlitz, 1891).



FLINT, AUSTIN (1812-1886), American physician, was born at Petersham,
Massachusetts, on the 20th of October 1812, and graduated at the medical
department of Harvard University in 1833. From 1847 to 1852 he was
professor of the theory and practice of medicine in Buffalo Medical
College, of which he was one of the founders, and from 1852 to 1856 he
filled the same chair in the university of Louisville. From 1861 to 1886
he was professor of the principles and practice of medicine and clinical
medicine in Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York. He wrote many
text-books on medical subjects, among these being _Diseases of the
Heart_ (1859-1870); _Principles and Practice of Medicine_ (1866);
_Clinical Medicine_ (1879); and _Physical Exploration of the Lungs by
means of Auscultation and Percussion_ (1882). He died in New York on the
13th of March 1886.

His son, AUSTIN FLINT, junr., who was born at Northampton,
Massachusetts, on the 28th of March 1836, after studying at Harvard and
at the university of Louisville, graduated at the Jefferson Medical
College, Philadelphia, in 1857. He then became professor of physiology
at the university of Buffalo (1858) and subsequently at other centres,
his last connexion being with the Cornell University Medical College
(1898-1906). He was better known as a teacher and writer on physiology
than as a practitioner, and his _Text-book of Human Physiology_ (1876)
was for many years a standard book in American medical colleges. He also
published an extensive _Physiology of Man_ (5 vols., 1866-1874),
_Chemical Examination of the Urine in Disease_ (1870), _Effects of
Severe and Protracted Muscular Exercise_ (1871), _Source of Muscular
Power_ (1878), and _Handbook of Physiology_ (1905). In 1896 he became a
consulting physician to the New York State Hospital for the Insane.



FLINT, ROBERT (1838-   ), Scottish divine and philosopher, was born near
Dumfries and educated at the university of Glasgow. After a few years of
pastoral service, first in Aberdeen and then at Kilconquhar, Fife, he
was appointed professor of moral philosophy and political economy at St
Andrews in 1864. From 1876 to 1903 he was professor of divinity at
Edinburgh. He contributed a number of articles to the 9th edition of the
_Encyclopaedia Britannica_. His chief works are _Christ's Kingdom upon
Earth_ (Sermons, 1865); _Philosophy of History in Europe_ (1874; partly
rewritten with reference to France and Switzerland, 1894); _Theism_ and
_Anti-theistic Theories_ (2 vols., being the Baird Lectures for
1876-1877; often reprinted); _Socialism_ (1894); _Sermons and Addresses_
(1899); _Agnosticism_ (1903).



FLINT, TIMOTHY (1780-1840), American clergyman and writer, was born in
Reading, Massachusetts, on the 11th of July 1780. He graduated at
Harvard in 1800, and in 1802 settled as a Congregational minister in
Lunenburg, Mass., where he pursued scientific studies with interest; and
his labours in his chemical laboratory seemed so strange to the people
of that retired region, that some persons supposed and asserted that he
was engaged in counterfeiting. This, together with political
differences, led to disagreeable complications, which resulted in his
resigning his charge (1814) and becoming a missionary (1815) in the
valley of the Mississippi. He was also for a short period a teacher and
a farmer. His observations on the manners and character of the settlers
of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys were recorded in a picturesque work
called _Recollections of the Last Ten Years passed in the Valley of the
Mississippi_ (1826; reprinted in England and translated into French),
the first account of the western states which brought to light the real
life and character of the people. The success which this work met with,
together with the failing health of the writer, led him to relinquish
his more active labours for literary pursuits, and, besides editing the
_Western Review_ in Cincinnati from 1825 to 1828 and _Knickerbocker's
Magazine_ (New York) in 1833, he published a number of books, including
_Francis Berrian, or the Mexican Patriot_ (1826), his best novel; _A
Condensed Geography and History of the Western States, or the
Mississippi Valley_ (2 vols., 1828); _Arthur Clenning_ (1828), a novel;
and _Indian Wars in the West_ (1833). His style is vivid, plain and
forcible, and his matter interesting; and his works on the western
states are of great value. He died in Salem, Mass., on the 16th of
August 1840.



FLINT, a city and the county-seat of Genesee county, Michigan, U.S.A.,
on Flint river, 68 m. (by rail) N.W. of Detroit. Pop. (1890) 9803;
(1900) 13,103, of whom 2165 were foreign-born; (1910, census) 38,550. It
is served by the Grand Trunk and the Père Marquette railways, and by an
electric line, the Detroit United railway, connecting with Detroit. The
city has a fine court-house (1904), a federal building (1908), a city
hall (1908) and a public library. The Michigan school for the deaf,
established in 1854, and the Oak Grove hospital (private) for the
treatment of mental and nervous diseases, are here. Flint has important
manufacturing interests, its chief manufactures being automobiles,
wagons, carriages--Flint is called "the vehicle city,"--flour, woollen
goods, iron goods, cigars, beer, and bricks and tiles; and its grain
trade is of considerable importance. In 1904 the total value of the
city's factory product was $6,177,170, an increase of 31.1% over that of
1900. The settlement of the place, then called the Grand Traverse of the
Flint, began in 1820, but Flint's growth was very slow until 1831, when
it was platted as a village; it was chartered as a city in 1855.



FLINT, or FLINTSHIRE (_sîr Gallestr_), a county of North Wales, the
smallest in the country, bounded N. by the Irish Sea and the Dee
estuary, N.E. by the Dee, E. by Cheshire, and S.W. by Denbighshire.
Area, 257 sq. m. Included in Flint is the detached hundred of Maelor,
lying 8 m. S.E. of the main part of the county, and shut in by Cheshire
on the N. and N.E., by Shropshire on the S., and by Denbighshire on the
W. and N.W. The Clwyd valley is common to Flint and Denbigh. Those of
the Alyn and Wepre (from Ewloe Castle to the Dee) are fine. The Dee,
entering the county near Overton, divides Maelor from Denbigh on the W.,
passes Chester and bounds most of the county on the N. The Clwyd enters
Flint near Bodfary, and joining the Elwy near Rhuddlan, reaches the
Irish Sea near Rhyl. The Alyn enters the county under Moel Fammau,
passes Cilcen and Mold (_y Wyddgrug_), runs underground near Hesb-Alyn
(Alyn's drying-up), bends south to Caergwrle, re-enters Denbighshire and
joins the Dee. Llyn Helyg (willow-pool), near Whitford, is the chief
lake.

  Both for their influence upon the physical features and for their
  economic value the carboniferous rocks of Flintshire are the most
  important. From Prestatyn on the coast a band of carboniferous
  limestone passes close by Holywell and through Caerwen; it forms the
  Halkin Mountain east of Halkin, whence it continues past Mold to
  beyond the county boundary. The upper portion of this series is cherty
  in the north--the chert is quarried for use in the potteries of
  Staffordshire--but traced southward it passes into sandstones and
  grits; above these beds come the Holywell shales, possibly the
  equivalent of the Pendleside series of Lancashire and Derbyshire,
  while upon them lies the Gwespyr sandstone, which has been thought to
  correspond to the Gannister coal measures of Lancashire, but may be a
  representative of the Millstone Grit. Farther to the east, the coal
  measures, with valuable coals, some oil shale, and with fireclays and
  marls which are used for brick and tile-making, extend from Talacre
  through Flint, Northop, Hawarden and Broughton to Hope. The
  carboniferous rocks appear again through the intervention of a fault,
  in the neighbourhood of St Asaph. Silurian strata, mostly of Wenlock
  age, lie below the carboniferous limestone on the western border of
  the county. Triassic red beds of the Bunter fill the Clwyd valley and
  appear again on the coal measures S.E. of Chester. Lead and zinc ores
  have been worked in the lower carboniferous rocks in the north of the
  county, and caves in the same formation, at Caer Gwyn and Ffynnon
  Beuno, have yielded the remains of Pleistocene mammals along with
  palaeolithic implements. Much glacial drift obscures the older rocks
  on the east and north and in the vale of Clwyd. Short stretches of
  blown sand occur on the coast near Rhyl and Talacre.

The London & North-Western railway follows the coast-line. Other
railways which cross the county are the Great Western, and the Wrexham,
Mold & Connah's Quay, acquired by the Great Central company. For pasture
the vale of Clwyd is well known. Oats, turnips and swedes are the chief
crops. Stock and dairy farming prospers, native cattle being crossed
with Herefords and Downs, native sheep with Leicesters and Southdowns,
while in the thick mining population a ready market is found for meat,
cheese, butter, &c. The population (81,700 in 1901) nearly doubled in
the 19th century, and Flintshire to-day is one of the most densely
populated counties in North Wales. The area of the ancient county is
164,744 acres, and that of the administrative county 163,025 acres. The
collieries begin at Llanasa, run through Whitford, Holywell, Flint,
Halkin (Halcyn), Northop, Buckley, Mold and Hawarden (Penarlâg). At
Halkin, Mold, Holywell, Prestatyn and Talacre lead is raised, and is
sometimes sent to Bagillt, Flint or Chester to be smelted. Zinc,
formerly only worked at Dyserth, has increased in output, and copper
mines also exist, as at Talargoch, together with smelting works, oil,
vitriol, potash and alkali manufactories. Potteries around Buckley send
their produce chiefly to Connah's Quay, whence a railway crosses the Dee
to the Birkenhead (Cheshire) district. Iron seams are now thin, but
limestone quarries yield building stone, lime for burning and small
stone for chemical works. Fisheries are unproductive and textile
manufactures small.

The county returns one member to parliament. The parliamentary borough
district (returning one member), consists of Caergwrle, Caerwys, Flint,
Holywell, Mold, Overton, St Asaph and Rhuddlan. In addition, there is a
small part of the Chester parliamentary borough. There is one municipal
borough, Flint (pop. 4625). The other urban districts are: Buckley
(5780), Connah's Quay (3369), Holywell (2652), Mold (4263), Prestatyn
(1261) and Rhyl (8473). Flint is in the North Wales and Chester circuit,
assizes being held at Mold. The Flint borough has a separate commission
of the peace, but no separate court of quarter sessions. The ancient
county, which is in the dioceses of Chester, Lichfield and St Asaph,
contains forty-six entire ecclesiastical parishes and districts, with
parts of eleven others.

Among sites of antiquarian or historical interest, besides the fragmentary
ruin of Flint Castle, the following may be mentioned:--Caerwys, near
Flint, still shows traces of Roman occupation. Bodfary (Bodfari) was
traditionally occupied by the Romans. Moel y gaer (bald hill of the
fortress), near Northop, is a remarkably perfect old British post. Maes y
Garmon (perhaps for _Meusydd Garmon_, as y, the article, has no
significance before a proper name, and so to be translated, battlefields
of Germanus). A mile from Mold is the reputed scene of _une victoire sans
larmes, gagnée non par les armes, mais par la foi_ (E.H. Vollet). The
Britons, says the legend, were threatened by the Picts and Saxons, at
whose approach the _Alleluia_ of that Easter (A.D. 430) was sung. Panic
duly seized the invaders, but the victor, St Germanus, confessor and
bishop of Auxerre (A.D. 380-448), had to return to the charge in 446. He
has, under the name Garmon, a great titular share in British topography.
At Bangor Iscoed, "the great high choir in Maelor," was the monastery,
destroyed with over 2000 monks, by Æthelfred of Northumberland in 607, as
(by a curious coincidence) its namesake Bangor in Ireland was sacked by
the Danes in the 9th century. Bede says (ii. 2) that Bangor monastery was
in seven sections, with three hundred (working) monks. The supposed lines
of direction of Watt's and Offa's dykes were: Basingwerk, Halkin, Hope,
Alyn valley, Oswestry (_Croes Oswallt_, "Oswald's cross"), for Watt's, and
Prestatyn, Mold, Minera, across the Severn (_Hafren_, or Sabrina) for
Offa's. Owain Gwynedd (Gwynedd or Venedocia, is North Wales) defeated
Henry II. at Coed Ewloe (where is a tower) and at Coleshill (_Cynsyllt_).
Near Pant Asa (_pant_ is a bottom) is the medieval Maen Achwynfan
(_achwyn_, to complain, _maen_, stone), and tumuli, menhirs (_meini
hirion_) and inscribed stones are frequent throughout the county. There is
a 14th-century cross in Newmarket churchyard. Caergwrle Castle seems early
Roman, or even British; but most of the castles in the county date from
the early Edwards.

  See H. Taylor, _Flint_ (London, 1883).



FLINT, a municipal borough and the county town of the above; a seaport
and contributory parliamentary borough, on the south of the Dee estuary,
192 m. from London by the London & North-Western railway. Pop. (1901)
4265. The seat of great alkali manufactures, it imports chiefly sulphur
and other chemicals, exporting coal, soda, potash, copper, &c. The
county gaol here, as at Haverfordwest, occupied an angle of the castle,
was removed to Mold, and is now Chester Castle (jointly with Cheshire.)

Flint Castle was built on a lonely rock by the riverside by Edward I.
Here met Edward II. and Piers Gaveston. Edward III. bestowed its
constableship upon the earls of Chester, and here Richard II.
surrendered to Bolingbroke. It was twice taken, after siege, by the
parliamentarians, and finally dismantled in 1647. There remain a square
court (with angle towers), round tower and drawbridge, all three
entrusted to a constable, appointed by the crown under the Municipal
Corporations Reforms Act. Made a borough by Edward I., Flint was
chartered by Edward III., and by Edward the Black Prince, as earl of
Chester.



FLINT (a word common in Teutonic and Scandinavian languages, possibly
cognate with the Gr. [Greek: plinthos], a tile), in petrology, a dark
grey or dark brown crypto-crystalline substance which has an almost
vitreous lustre, and when pure appears structureless to the unaided eye.
In the mass it is dark and opaque, but thin plates or the edges of
splinters are pale yellow and translucent. Its hardness is greater than
that of steel, so that a knife blade leaves a grey metallic streak when
drawn across its surface. Its specific gravity is 2.6 or only a little
less than that of crystalline quartz. It is brittle, and when hammered
readily breaks up into a powder of angular grains. The fracture is
perfectly conchoidal, so that blows with a hammer detach flakes which
have convex, slightly undulating surfaces. At the point of impact a bulb
of percussion, which is a somewhat elevated conical mark, is produced.
This serves to distinguish flints which have been fashioned by human
agencies from those which have been split merely by the action of frost
and the weather. The bulb is evidence of a direct blow, probably
intentionally made, and is a point of some importance to archaeologists
investigating Palaeolithic implements. With skill and experience a mass
of flint can be worked to any simple shape by well directed strokes, and
further trimming can be effected with pressure by a pointed stone in a
direction slightly across the edge of the weapon. The purest flints have
the most perfect conchoidal fracture, and prehistoric man is known to
have quarried or mined certain bands of flint which were specially
suitable for his purposes.

  Silica forms nearly the whole substance of flint; calcite and dolomite
  may occur in it in small amounts, and analysis has also detected
  minute quantities of volatile ingredients, organic compounds, &c., to
  which the dark colour is ascribed by some authorities. These are
  dispelled by heat and the flint becomes white and duller in lustre.
  Microscopic sections show that flint is very finely crystalline and
  consists of quartz or chalcedonic silica; colloidal or amorphous
  silica may also be present but cannot form any considerable part of
  the rock. Spicules of sponges and fragments of other organisms, such
  as molluscs, polyzoa, foraminifera and brachiopods, often occur in
  flint, and may be partly or wholly silicified with retention of their
  original structure. Nodules of flint when removed from the chalk which
  encloses them have a white dull rough surface, and exposure to the
  weather produces much the same appearance on broken flints. At first
  they acquire a bright and very smooth surface, but this is
  subsequently replaced by a dull crust, resembling white or yellowish
  porcelain. It has been suggested that this change is due to the
  removal of the colloidal silica in solution, leaving behind the fibres
  and grains of more crystalline structure. This process must be a very
  slow one as, from its chemical composition, flint is a material of
  great durability. Its great hardness also enables it to resist
  attrition. Hence on beaches and in rivers, such as those of the
  south-east of England, flint pebbles exist in vast numbers. Their
  surfaces often show minute crescentic or rounded cracks which are the
  edges of small conchoidal fractures produced by the impact of one
  pebble on another during storms or floods.

  Flint occurs primarily as concretions, veins and tabular masses in the
  white chalk of such localities as the south of England (see CHALK). It
  is generally nodular, and forms rounded or highly irregular masses
  which may be several feet in diameter. Although the flint nodules
  often lie in bands which closely follow the bedding, they were not
  deposited simultaneously with the chalk; very often the flint bands
  cut across the beds of the limestone and may traverse them at right
  angles. Evidently the flint has accumulated along fissures, such as
  bedding planes, joints and other cracks, after the chalk had to some
  extent consolidated. The silica was derived from the tests of
  radiolaria and the spicular skeletons of sponges. It has passed into
  solution, filtered through the porous matrix, and has been again
  precipitated when the conditions were suitable. Its formation is
  consequently the result of "concretionary action." Where the flints
  lie the chalk must have been dissolved away; we have in fact a kind of
  metasomatic replacement in which a siliceous rock has slowly replaced
  a calcareous one. The process has been very gradual and the organisms
  of the original chalk often have their outlines preserved in the
  flint. Shells may become completely silicified, or may have their
  cavities occupied by flint with every detail of the interior of the
  shell preserved in the outer surface of the cast. Objects of this kind
  are familiar to all collectors of fossils in chalk districts.

  Chert is a coarser and less perfectly homogeneous substance of the
  same nature and composition as flint. It is grey, black or brown, and
  commonly occurs in limestone (e.g. the Carboniferous Limestone) in the
  same way as flint occurs in chalk. Some cherts contain tests of
  radiolaria, and correspond fairly closely to the siliceous radiolarian
  oozes which are gathering at the present day at the bottom of some of
  the deepest parts of the oceans. Brownish cherts are found in the
  English Greensand; these often contain remains of sponges.

The principal uses to which flint has been put are the fabrication of
weapons in Palaeolithic and Neolithic times. Other materials have been
employed where flint was not available, e.g. obsidian, chert,
chalcedony, agate and quartzite, but to prehistoric man (see FLINT
IMPLEMENTS below) flint must have been of great value and served many of
the uses to which steel is put at the present day. Flint gravels are
widely employed for dressing walks and roads, and for rough-cast work in
architecture. For road-mending flint, though very hard, is not regarded
with favour, as it is brittle and pulverizes readily; binds badly,
yielding a surface which breaks up with heavy traffic and in bad
weather; and its fine sharp-edged chips do much damage to tires of
motors and cycles. Seasoned flints from the land, having been long
exposed to the atmosphere, are preferred to flints freshly dug from the
chalk pits. Formerly flint and steel were everywhere employed for
striking a light; and gun flints were required for fire-arms. A special
industry in the shaping of gun flints long existed at Brandon in
Suffolk. In 1870 about thirty men were employed. Since then the trade
has become almost extinct as gun flints are in demand only in
semi-savage countries where modern fire-arms are not obtainable.
Powdered flint was formerly used in the manufacture of glass, and is
still one of the ingredients of many of the finer varieties of pottery.
     (J. S. F.)



FLINT IMPLEMENTS AND WEAPONS. The excavation of these remains of the
prehistoric races of the globe in river-drift gravel-beds has marked a
revolution in the study of Man's history (see ARCHAEOLOGY). Until almost
the middle of the 19th century no suspicion had arisen in the minds of
British and European archaeologists that the momentous results of the
excavations then proceeding in Egypt and Assyria would be dwarfed by
discoveries at home which revolutionized all previous ideas of Man's
antiquity. It was in 1841 that Boucher de Perthes observed in some sand
containing mammalian remains, at Menchecourt near Abbeville, a flint,
roughly worked into a cutting implement. This "find" was rapidly
followed by others, and Boucher de Perthes published his first work on
the subject, _Antiquités celtiques et antédiluviennes: mémoire sur
l'industrie primitive et les arts à leur origin_ (1847), in which he
proclaimed his discovery of human weapons in beds unmistakably belonging
to the age of the Drift. It was not until 1859 that the French
archaeologist convinced the scientific world. An English mission then
visited his collection and testified to the great importance of his
discoveries. The "finds" at Abbeville were followed by others in many
places in England, and in fact in every country where siliceous stones
which are capable of being flaked and fashioned into implements are to
be found. The implements occurred in beds of rivers and lakes, in the
tumuli and ancient burial-mounds; on the sites of settlements of
prehistoric man in nearly every land, such as the shell-heaps and
lake-dwellings; but especially embedded in the high-level gravels of
England and France which have been deposited by river-floods and long
left high and dry above the present course of the stream. These gravels
represent the Drift or Palaeolithic period when man shared Europe with
the mammoth and woolly-haired rhinoceros. The worked flints of this age
are, however, unevenly distributed; for while the river-gravels of
south-eastern England yield them abundantly, none has been found in
Scotland or the northern English counties. On the continent the same
partial distribution is observable: while they occur plentifully in the
north-western area of France, they are not discovered in Sweden, Norway
or Denmark. The association of these flints, fashioned for use by
chipping only, with the bones of animals either extinct or no longer
indigenous, has justified their reference to the earlier period of the
Stone Age, generally called Palaeolithic. Those flint implements, which
show signs of polishing and in many cases remarkably fine workmanship,
and are found in tumuli, peat-bogs and lake-dwellings mixed with the
bones of common domestic animals, are assigned to the Neolithic or later
Stone Age. The Palaeolithic flints are hammers, flakes, scrapers,
implements worked to a cutting edge at one side, implements which
resemble rude axes, flat ovoid implements worked to an edge all round,
and a great quantity of spear and arrow heads. None of these is ground
or polished. The Neolithic flints, on the other hand, exhibit more
variety of design, are carefully finished, and the particular use of
each weapon can be easily detected. Man has reached the stage of culture
when he could socket a stone into a wooden handle, and fix a flaked
flint as a handled dagger or knife. The workmanship is superior to that
shown in any of the stone utensils made by savage tribes of historic
times. The manner of making flint implements appears to have been in all
ages much the same. Flint from its mode of fracture is the only kind of
stone which can be chipped or flaked into almost any shape, and thus
forms the principal material of these earliest weapons. The blows must
be carefully aimed or the flakes dislodged will be shattered: a
gun-flint maker at Brandon, Suffolk, stated that it took him two years
to acquire the art.

  For accounts of the gun-flint manufacture at Brandon, and detailed
  descriptions of ancient flint-working, see Sir John Evans, _Ancient
  Stone Implements_ (1897), Lord Avebury's _Prehistoric Times_ (1865,
  1900); also Thomas Wilson, "Arrow-heads, Spear-heads and Knives of
  Prehistoric Times," in _Smithsonian Report_ for 1897; and W.K.
  Moorehead, _Prehistoric Implements_ (1900).



FLOAT (in O. Eng. _flot_ and _flota_, in the verbal form _fléotan_; the
Teutonic root is _flut-_, another form of _flu-_, seen in "flow," cf.
"fleet"; the root is seen in Gr. [Greek: pleein], to sail, Lat.
_pluere_, to rain; the Lat. _fluere_ and _fluctus_, wave, is not
connected), the action of moving on the surface of water, or through the
air. The word is used also of a wave, or the flood of the tide, river,
backwater or stream, and of any object floating in water, as a mass of
ice or weeds; a movable landing-stage, a flat-bottomed boat, or a raft,
or, in fishing, of the cork or quill used to support a baited line or
fishing-net. It is also applied to the hollow or inflated organ by means
of which certain animals, such as the "Portuguese man-of-war," swim, to
a hollow metal ball or piece of whinstone, &c., used to regulate the
level of water in a tank or boiler, and to a piece of ivory in the
cistern of a barometer. "Float" is also the name of one of the boards of
a paddle-wheel or water-wheel. In a theatrical sense, it is used to
denote the footlights. The word is also applied to something broad,
level and shallow, as a wooden frame attached to a cart or wagon for the
purpose of increasing the carrying capacity; and to a special kind of
low, broad cart for carrying heavy weights, and to a platform on wheels
used for shows in a procession. The term is applied also to various
tools, especially to many kinds of trowels used in plastering. It is
also used of a dock where vessels may float, as at Bristol, and of the
trenches used in "floating" land. In geology and mining, loose rock or
ore brought down by water is known as "float," and in tin-mining it is
applied to a large trough used for the smelted tin. In weaving the word
is used of the passing of weft threads over part of the warp without
being woven in with it, also of the threads so passed. In the United
States a voter not attached to any particular party and open to bribery
is called a "float" or "floater."



FLOCK. 1. (A word found in Old English and Old Norwegian, from which
come the Danish and Swedish words, and not in other Teutonic languages),
originally a company of people, now mainly, except in figurative usages,
of certain animals when gathered together for feeding or moving from
place to place. For birds it is chiefly used of geese; and for other
animals most generally of sheep and goats. It is from the particular
application of the word to sheep that "flock" is used of the Christian
Church in its relation to the "Good Shepherd," and also of a
congregation of worshippers in its relation to its spiritual head.

2. (Probably from the Lat. _floccus_, but many Teutonic languages have
the same word in various forms), a tuft of wool, cotton or similar
substance. The name "flock" is given to a material formed of wool or
cotton refuse, or of shreds of old woollen or cotton rags, torn by a
machine known as a "devil." This material is used for stuffing
mattresses or pillows, and also in upholstery. The name is also applied
to a special kind of wall-paper, which has an appearance almost like
cloth, or, in the more expensive kinds, of velvet. It is made by dusting
on a specially prepared adhesive surface finely powdered fibres of
cotton or silk. The word "flocculent" is used of many substances which
have a fleecy or "flock"-like appearance, such as a precipitate of
ferric hydrate.



FLODDEN, or FLODDEN FIELD, near the village of Branxton, in
Northumberland, England (10 m. N.W. of Wooler), the scene of a famous
battle fought on the 9th of September 1513 between the English and the
Scots. On the 22nd of August a great Scottish army under King James IV.
had crossed the border. For the moment the earl of Surrey (who in King
Henry VIII.'s absence was charged with the defence of the realm) had no
organized force in the north of England, but James wasted much precious
time among the border castles, and when Surrey appeared at Wooler, with
an army equal in strength to his own, which was now greatly weakened by
privations and desertion, he had not advanced beyond Ford Castle. The
English commander promptly sent in a challenge to a pitched battle,
which the king, in spite of the advice of his most trusted counsellors,
accepted. On the 6th of September, however, he left Ford and took up a
strong position facing south, on Flodden Edge. Surrey's reproaches for
the alleged breach of faith, and a second challenge to fight on
Millfield Plain were this time disregarded. The English commander, thus
foiled, executed a daring and skilful march round the enemy's flank, and
on the 9th drew up for battle in rear of the hostile army. It is evident
that Surrey was confident of victory, for he placed his own army, not
less than the enemy, in a position where defeat would involve utter
ruin. On his appearance the Scots hastily changed front and took post on
Branxton Hill, facing north. The battle began at 4 P.M. Surrey's archers
and cannon soon gained the upper hand, and the Scots, unable quietly to
endure their losses, rushed to close quarters. Their left wing drove the
English back, but Lord Dacre's reserve corps restored the fight on this
side. In all other parts of the field, save where James and Surrey were
personally opposed, the English gradually gained ground. The king's
corps was then attacked by Surrey in front, and by Sir Edward Stanley in
flank. As the Scots were forced back, a part of Dacre's force closed
upon the other flank, and finally Dacre himself, boldly neglecting an
almost intact Scottish division in front of him, charged in upon the
rear of King James's corps. Surrounded and attacked on all sides, this,
the remnant of the invading army, was doomed. The circle of spearmen
around the king grew less and less, and in the end James and a few of
his nobles were alone left standing. Soon they too died, fighting to the
last man. Among the ten thousand Scottish dead were all the leading men
in the kingdom of Scotland, and there was no family of importance that
had not lost a member in this great disaster. The "King's Stone," said
to mark the spot where James was killed, is at some distance from the
actual battlefield. "Sybil's Well," in Scott's _Marmion_, is imaginary.



FLODOARD (894-966), French chronicler, was born at Epernay, and educated
at Reims in the cathedral school which had been established by
Archbishop Fulcon (822-900). As canon of Reims, and favourite of the
archbishops Herivaeus (d. 922) and Seulfus (d. 925), he occupied while
still young an important position at the archiepiscopal court, but was
twice deprived of his benefices by Heribert, count of Vermandois, on
account of his steady opposition to the election of the count's infant
son to the archbishopric. Upon the final triumph of Archbishop Artold in
947, Flodoard became for a time his chief adviser, but withdrew to a
monastery in 952, and spent the remaining years of his life in literary
and devotional work. His history of the cathedral church at Reims
(_Historia Remensis Ecclesiae_) is one of the most remarkable
productions of the 10th century. Flodoard had been given charge of the
episcopal archives, and constructed his history out of the original
texts, which he generally reproduces in full; the documents for the
period of Hincmar being especially valuable. The _Annales_ which
Flodoard wrote year by year from 919 to 966 are doubly important, by
reason of the author's honesty and the central position of Reims in
European affairs in his time. Flodoard's poetical works are of hardly
less historical interest. The long poem celebrating the triumph of
Christ and His saints was called forth by the favour shown him by Pope
Leo VII., during whose pontificate he visited Rome, and he devotes
fourteen books to the history of the popes.

  Flodoard's works were published in full by J.P. Migne (_Patrologia
  Latina_, vol. 135); a modern edition of the _Annales_ is the one
  edited by P. Lauer (Paris, 1906). For bibliography see A. Molinier,
  _Sources de l'histoire de France_ (No. 932).



FLOE (of uncertain derivation; cf. Norse _flo_, layer, level plain), a
sheet of floating ice detached from the main body of polar ice. It is of
less extent than the field of "pack" ice, which is a compacted mass of
greater depth drifting frequently under the influence of deep currents,
while the floating floe is driven by the wind.



FLOOD, HENRY (1732-1791), Irish statesman, son of Warden Flood, chief
justice of the king's bench in Ireland, was born in 1732, and was
educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and afterwards at Christ Church,
Oxford, where he became proficient in the classics. His father was a man
of good birth and fortune, and he himself married a member of the
influential Beresford family, who brought him a large fortune. In his
early years he was handsome, witty, good-tempered, and a brilliant
conversationalist. His judgment was sound, and he had a natural gift of
eloquence which had been cultivated and developed by study of classical
oratory and the practice of elocution. Flood therefore possessed every
personal advantage when, in 1759, he entered the Irish parliament as
member for Kilkenny in his twenty-seventh year. There was at that time
no party in the Irish House of Commons that could truly be called
national, and until a few years before there had been none that deserved
even the name of an opposition. The Irish parliament was still
constitutionally subordinate to the English privy council; it had
practically no powers of independent legislation, and none of
controlling the policy of the executive, which was nominated by the
ministers in London (see GRATTAN, HENRY). Though the great majority of
the people were Roman Catholics, no person of that faith could either
enter parliament or exercise the franchise; the penal code, which made
it almost impossible for a Roman Catholic to hold property, to follow a
learned profession, or even to educate his children, and which in
numerous particulars pressed severely on the Roman Catholics and
subjected them to degrading conditions, was as yet unrepealed, though in
practice largely obsolete; the industry and commerce of Ireland were
throttled by restrictions imposed, in accordance with the economic
theories of the period, in the interest of the rival trade of Great
Britain. Men like Anthony Malone and Hely-Hutchison fully realized the
necessity for far-reaching reforms, and it only needed the ability and
eloquence of Flood in the Irish House of Commons to raise up an
independent party in parliament, and to create in the country a public
opinion with definite intelligible aims.

The chief objects for which Flood strove were the shortening of the
duration of parliament--which had then no legal limit in Ireland except
that of the reigning sovereign's life,--the reduction of the
scandalously heavy pension list, the establishment of a national
militia, and, above all, the complete legislative independence of the
Irish parliament. For some years little was accomplished; but in 1768
the English ministry, which had special reasons at the moment for
avoiding unpopularity in Ireland, allowed an octennial bill to pass,
which was the first step towards making the Irish House of Commons in
some measure representative of public opinion. It had become the
practice to allow crown patronage in Ireland to be exercised by the
owners of parliamentary boroughs in return for their undertaking to
manage the House in the government interest. But during the viceroyalty
of Lord Townsend the aristocracy, and more particularly these
"undertakers" as they were called, were made to understand that for the
future their privileges in this respect would be curtailed. When,
therefore, an opportunity was taken by the government in 1768 for
reasserting the constitutional subordination of the Irish parliament,
these powerful classes were thrown into temporary alliance with Flood.
In the following year, in accordance with the established procedure, a
money bill was sent over by the privy council in London for acceptance
by the Irish House of Commons. Not only was it rejected, but contrary to
custom a reason for this course was assigned, namely, that the bill had
not originated in the Irish House. In consequence parliament was
peremptorily prorogued, and a recess of fourteen months was employed by
the government in securing a majority by the most extensive
corruption.[1] Nevertheless when parliament met in February 1771 another
money bill was thrown out on the motion of Flood; and the next year Lord
Townsend, the lord lieutenant whose policy had provoked this conflict,
was recalled. The struggle was the occasion of a publication, famous in
its day, called _Baratariana_, to which Flood contributed a series of
powerful letters after the manner of Junius, one of his collaborators
being Henry Grattan.

The success which had thus far attended Flood's efforts had placed him
in a position such as no Irish politician had previously attained. He
had, as an eminent historian of Ireland observes, "proved himself beyond
all comparison the greatest popular orator that his country had yet
produced, and also a consummate master of parliamentary tactics. Under
parliamentary conditions that were exceedingly unfavourable, and in an
atmosphere charged with corruption, venality and subserviency, he had
created a party before which ministers had begun to quail, and had
inoculated the Protestant constituencies with a genuine spirit of
liberty and self-reliance."[2] Lord Harcourt, who succeeded Townsend as
viceroy, saw that Flood must be conciliated at any price "rather than
risk the opposition of so formidable a leader." Accordingly, in 1775,
Flood was offered and accepted a seat in the privy council and the
office of vice-treasurer with a salary of £3500 a year. For this step he
has been severely criticized. The suggestion that he acted corruptly in
the matter is groundless; and although it is true that he lost influence
from the moment he became a minister of the crown, Flood may reasonably
have held that he had a better prospect of advancing his policy by the
leverage of a ministerial position than by means of any opposition party
he could hope to muster in an unreformed House of Commons.[3] The
result, however, was that the leadership of the national party passed
from Flood to Grattan, who entered the Irish parliament in the same
session that Flood became a minister.

Flood continued in office for nearly seven years. During this long
period he necessarily remained silent on the subject of the independence
of the Irish parliament, and had to be content with advocating minor
reforms as occasion offered. He was thus instrumental in obtaining
bounties on the export of Irish corn to foreign countries and some other
trifling commercial concessions. On the other hand he failed to procure
the passing of a Habeas Corpus bill and a bill for making the judges
irremovable, while his support of Lord North's American policy still
more gravely injured his popularity and reputation. But an important
event in 1778 led indirectly to his recovering to some extent his former
position in the country; this event was the alliance of France with the
revolted American colonies. Ireland was thereby placed in peril of a
French invasion, while the English government could provide no troops to
defend the island. The celebrated volunteer movement was then set on
foot to meet the emergency; in a few weeks more than 40,000 men,
disciplined and equipped, were under arms, officered by the country
gentry, and controlled by the wisdom and patriotism of Lord Charlemont.
This volunteer force, in which Flood was a colonel, while vigilant for
the defence of the island, soon made itself felt in politics. A
Volunteer Convention, formed with all the regular organization of a
representative assembly, but wielding the power of an army, began
menacingly to demand the removal of the commercial restrictions which
were destroying Irish prosperity. Under this pressure the government
gave way; the whole colonial trade was in 1779 thrown open to Ireland
for the first time, and other concessions were also extorted. Flood, who
had taken an active though not a leading part in this movement, now at
last resigned his office to rejoin his old party. He found to his
chagrin that his former services had been to a great extent forgotten,
and that he was eclipsed by Grattan. When in a debate on the
constitutional question in 1779 Flood complained of the small
consideration shown him in relation to a subject which he had been the
first to agitate, he was reminded that by the civil law "if a man should
separate from his wife, and abandon her for seven years, another might
then take her and give her his protection." But though Flood had lost
control of the movement for independence of the Irish parliament, the
agitation, backed as it now was by the Volunteer Convention and by
increasing signs of popular disaffection, led at last in 1782 to the
concession of the demand, together with a number of other important
reforms (see GRATTAN, HENRY).

No sooner, however, was this great success gained than a question
arose--known as the Simple Repeal controversy--as to whether England, in
addition to the repeal of the Acts on which the subordination of the
Irish parliament had been based, should not be required expressly to
renounce for the future all claim to control Irish legislation. The
chief historical importance of this dispute is that it led to the
memorable rupture of friendship between Flood and Grattan, each of whom
assailed the other with unmeasured but magnificently eloquent invective
in the House of Commons. Flood's view prevailed--for a Renunciation Act
such as he advocated was ungrudgingly passed by the English parliament
in 1783--and for a time he regained popularity at the expense of his
rival. Flood next (28th of November 1783) introduced a reform bill,
after first submitting it to the Volunteer Convention. The bill, which
contained no provision for giving the franchise to Roman Catholics--a
proposal which Flood always opposed--was rejected, ostensibly on the
ground that the attitude of the volunteers threatened the freedom of
parliament. The volunteers were perfectly loyal to the crown and the
connexion with England. They carried an address to the king, moved by
Flood, expressing the hope that their support of parliamentary reform
might be imputed to nothing but "a sober and laudable desire to uphold
the constitution ... and to perpetuate the cordial union of both
kingdoms." The convention then dissolved, though Flood had desired, in
opposition to Grattan, to continue it as a means of putting pressure on
parliament for the purpose of obtaining reform.

In 1776 Flood had made an attempt to enter the English House of Commons.
In 1783 he tried again, this time with success. He purchased a seat for
Winchester from the duke of Chandos, and for the next seven years he was
a member at the same time of both the English and Irish parliaments. He
reintroduced, but without success, his reform bill in the Irish House in
1784; supported the movement for protecting Irish industries; but
short-sightedly opposed Pitt's commercial propositions in 1785. He
remained a firm opponent of Roman Catholic emancipation, even defending
the penal laws on the ground that after the Revolution they "were not
laws of persecution but of political necessity"; but after 1786 he does
not appear to have attended the parliament in Dublin. In the House at
Westminster, where he refused to enrol himself as a member of either
political party, he was not successful. His first speech, in opposition
to Fox's India Bill on the 3rd of December 1783, disappointed the
expectations aroused by his celebrity. His speech in opposition to the
commercial treaty with France in 1787 was, however, most able; and in
1790 he introduced a reform bill which Fox declared to be the best
scheme of reform that had yet been proposed, and which in Burke's
opinion retrieved Flood's reputation. But at the dissolution in the same
year he lost his seat in both parliaments, and he then retired to
Farmley, his residence in county Kilkenny, where he died on the 2nd of
December 1791.

When Peter Burrowes, notwithstanding his close personal friendship with
Grattan, declared that Flood was "perhaps the ablest man Ireland ever
produced, indisputably the ablest man of his own times," he expressed
what was probably the general opinion of Flood's contemporaries. Lord
Charlemont, who knew him intimately though not always in agreement with
his policy, pronounced him to be "a man of consummate ability." He also
declared that avarice made no part of Flood's character. Lord
Mountmorres, a critic by no means partial to Flood, described him as a
pre-eminently truthful man, and one who detested flattery. Grattan, who
even after the famous quarrel never lost his respect for Flood, said of
him that he was the best tempered and the most sensible man in the
world. In his youth he was genial, frank, sociable and witty; but in
later years disappointment made him gloomy and taciturn. As an orator he
was less polished, less epigrammatic than Grattan; but a closer reasoner
and a greater master of sarcasm and invective. Personal ambition often
governed his actions, but his political judgment was usually sound; and
it was the opinion of Bentham that Flood would have succeeded in
carrying a reform bill which might have preserved Irish parliamentary
independence, if he had been supported by Grattan and the rest of his
party in keeping alive the Volunteer Convention in 1783. Though he never
wavered in loyalty to the British crown and empire, Ireland never
produced a more sincere patriot than Henry Flood.

  See Warden Flood, _Memoirs of Henry Flood_ (London, 1838); Henry
  Grattan, _Memoirs of the Life and Times of the Right Hon. H. Grattan_
  (5 vols., London, 1839-1846); Charles Phillips, _Recollections of
  Curran and some of his Contemporaries_ (London, 1822); _The Irish
  Parliament 1775_, from an official and contemporary manuscript, edited
  by William Hunt (London, 1907); W.J. O'Neill Daunt, _Ireland and her
  Agitators_; Lord Mountmorres, _History of the Irish Parliament_ (2
  vols., London, 1792); W.E.H. Lecky, _History of England in the
  Eighteenth Century_ (8 vols., London, 1878-1890); and _Leaders of
  Public Opinion in Ireland_ (enlarged edition, 2 vols., London, 1903);
  J.A. Froude, _The English in Ireland_, vols. ii. and iii. (London,
  1881); Horace Walpole, _Memoirs of the Reign of George III._ (4 vols.,
  London, 1845, 1894); Sir Jonah Barrington, _Rise and Fall of the Irish
  Nation_ (London, 1833); Francis Plowden, _Historical Review of the
  State of Ireland_ (London, 1803); Alfred Webb, _Compendium of Irish
  Biography_ (Dublin, 1878); F. Hardy, _Memoirs of Lord Charlemont_
  (London, 1812), especially for the volunteer movement, on which see
  also _Proceedings of the Volunteer Delegates of Ireland 1784_ (Anon.
  Pamphlet, Brit. Mus.); also _The Charlemont Papers_, and _Irish Parl.
  Debates_, (vols. i.-iv.).     (R. J. M.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Walpole's _George III._, iv. 348.

  [2] W.E.H. Lecky, _Leaders of Public Opinion in Ireland_ (enlarged
    edition, 2 vols., 1903), i. 48.

  [3] See Hardy's _Life of Charlemont_, i. 356.



FLOOD (in O. Eng. _flód_, a word common to Teutonic languages, cf. Ger.
_Flut_, Dutch _vloed_, from the same root as is seen in "flow,"
"float"), an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a
deluge, hence "the flood," specifically, the Noachian deluge of Genesis,
but also any other catastrophic submersion recorded in the mythology of
other nations than the Hebrew (see DELUGE, THE). In the sense of
"flowing water," the word is applied to the inflow of the tide, as
opposed to "ebb."



FLOOD PLAIN, the term in physical geography for a plain formed of
sediment dropped by a river. When the slope down which a river runs has
become very slight, it is unable to carry the sediment brought from
higher regions nearer its source, and consequently the lower portion of
the river valley becomes filled with alluvial deposits; and since in
times of flood the rush of water in the high regions tears off and
carries down a greater quantity of sediment than usual, the river
spreads this also over the lower valley where the plain is flooded,
because the rush of water is checked, and the stream in consequence
drops its extra load. These flood plains are sometimes of great extent.
That of the Mississippi below Ohio has a width of from 20 to 80 m., and
its whole extent has been estimated at 50,000 sq. m. Flood plains may be
the result of planation, with aggradation, that is, they may be due to a
graded river working in meanders from side to side, widening its valley
by this process and covering the widened valley with sediment. Or the
stream by cutting into another stream (piracy), by cutting through a
barrier near its head waters, by entering a region of looser or softer
rock, and by glacial drainage, may form a flood plain simply by filling
up its valley (alluviation only). Any obstruction across a river's
course, such as a band of hard rock, may form a flood plain behind it,
and indeed anything which checks a river's course and causes it to drop
its load will tend to form a flood plain; but it is most commonly found
near the mouth of a large river, such as the Rhine, the Nile, or the
Mississippi, where there are occasional floods and the river usually
carries a large amount of sediment. "Levees" are formed, inside which
the river usually flows, gradually raising its bed above the surrounding
plain. Occasional breaches during floods cause the overloaded stream to
spread in a great lake over the surrounding country, where the silt
covers the ground in consequence. Sections of the Missouri flood plain
made by the United States geological survey show a great variety of
material of varying coarseness, the stream bed being scoured at one
place, and filled at another by currents and floods of varying
swiftness, so that sometimes the deposits are of coarse gravel,
sometimes of fine sand, or of fine silt, and it is probable that any
section of such an alluvial plain would show deposits of a similar
character. The flood plain during its formation is marked by meandering,
or anastomosing streams, ox-bow lakes and bayous, marshes or stagnant
pools, and is occasionally completely covered with water. When the
drainage system has ceased to act or is entirely diverted owing to any
cause, the flood plain may become a level area of great fertility,
similar in appearance to the floor of an old lake. The flood plain
differs, however, inasmuch as it is not altogether flat. It has a gentle
slope down-stream, and often for a distance from the sides towards the
centre.



FLOOR (from O. Eng. _flor_, a word common to many Teutonic languages,
cf. Dutch _vloer_, and Ger. _Flur_, a field, in the feminine, and a
floor, masculine), generally the lower horizontal surface of a room, but
specially employed for one covered with boarding or parquetry. The
various levels of rooms in a house are designated as "ground-floor,"
"first-floor," "mezzanine-floor," &c. The principal floor is the storey
which contains the chief apartments whether on the ground- or
first-floor; in Italy they are always on the latter and known as the
"piano nobile." The storey below the ground-floor is called the
"basement-floor," even if only a little below the level of the pavement
outside; the storey in a roof is known as the "attic-floor." The
expressions one pair, two pair, &c., apply to the storeys above the
first flight of stairs from the ground (see also CARPENTRY).



FLOORCLOTH, a rough flannel cloth used for domestic cleaning; also a
generic term applied to a variety of materials used in place of carpets
for covering floors, and known by such trade names as kamptulicon,
oil-cloth, linoleum, corticine, cork-carpet, &c. Kamptulicon ([Greek:
kamptos], flexible, [Greek: oulos], thick) was patented in 1844 by E.
Galloway, but did not attract much attention till about 1862. It was
essentially a preparation of india-rubber masticated up with ground
cork, and rolled out into sheets between heavy steam-heated rollers,
sometimes over a backing of canvas. Owing to its expensiveness, it has
given place to cheaper materials serving the same purpose. Oil-cloth is
a coarse canvas which has received a number of coats of thick oil paint,
each coat being rubbed smooth with pumice stone before the application
of the next. Its surface is ornamented with patterns printed in oil
colours by means of wooden blocks. Linoleum (_linum_, flax, _oleum_,
oil), patented by F. Walton in 1860 and 1863, consists of oxidized
linseed oil and ground cork. These ingredients, thoroughly incorporated
with the addition of certain gummy and resinous matters, and of pigments
such as ochre and oxide of iron as required, are pressed on to a rough
canvas backing between steam-heated rollers. Patterns may be printed on
its surface with oil paint, or by an improved method may be inlaid with
coloured composition so that the colours are continuous through the
thickness of the linoleum, instead of being on the surface only, and
thus do not disappear with wear. Lincrusta-Walton is a similar material
to linoleum, also having oxidized linseed oil as its base, which is
stamped out in embossed patterns and used as a covering for walls.



FLOQUET, CHARLES THOMAS (1828-1896), French statesman, was born at St
Jean-Pied-de-Port (Basses-Pyrénées) on the 2nd of October 1828. He
studied law in Paris, and was called to the bar in 1851. The _coup
d'état_ of that year aroused the strenuous opposition of Floquet, who
had, while yet a student, given proof of his republican sympathies by
taking part in the fighting of 1848. He made his name by his brilliant
and fearless attacks on the government in a series of political trials,
and at the same time contributed to the _Temps_ and other influential
journals. When the tsar Alexander II. visited the Palais de Justice in
1867, Floquet was said to have confronted him with the cry "Vive la
Pologne, monsieur!" He delivered a scathing indictment of the Empire at
the trial of Pierre Bonaparte for killing Victor Noir in 1870, and took
a part in the revolution of the 4th of September, as well as in the
subsequent defence of Paris. In 1871 he was elected to the National
Assembly by the department of the Seine. During the Commune he formed
the _Ligue d'union républicaine des droits de Paris_ to attempt a
reconciliation with the government of Versailles. When his efforts
failed, he left Paris, and was imprisoned by order of Thiers, but soon
released. He became editor of the _République Française_, was chosen
president of the municipal council, and in 1876 was elected deputy for
the eleventh arrondissement. He took a prominent place among the
extreme radicals, and became president of the group of the "Union
républicaine." In 1882 he held for a short time the post of prefect of
the Seine. In 1885 he succeeded M. Brisson as president of the chamber.
This difficult position he filled with such tact and impartiality that
he was re-elected the two following years. Having approached the Russian
ambassador in such a way as to remove the prejudice existing against him
in Russia since the incident of 1867, he rendered himself eligible for
office; and on the fall of the Tirard cabinet in 1888 he became
president of the council and minister of the interior in a radical
ministry, which pledged itself to the revision of the constitution, but
was forced to combat the proposals of General Boulanger. Heated debates
in the chamber culminated on the 13th of July in a duel between Floquet
and Boulanger in which the latter was wounded. In the following February
the government fell on the question of revision, and in the new chamber
of November Floquet was re-elected to the presidential chair. The Panama
scandals, in which he was compelled to admit his implication, dealt a
fatal blow to his career: he lost the presidency of the chamber in 1892,
and his seat in the house in 1893, but in 1894 was elected to the
senate. He died in Paris on the 18th of January 1896.

  See _Discours et opinions de M. Charles Floquet_, edited by Albert
  Faivre (1885).



FLOR, ROGER DI, a military adventurer of the 13th-14th century, was the
second son of a falconer in the service of the emperor Frederick II.,
who fell at Tagliacozzo (1268), and when eight years old was sent to sea
in a galley belonging to the Knights Templars. He entered the order and
became commander of a galley. At the siege of Acre by the Saracens in
1291 he was accused and denounced to the pope as a thief and an
apostate, was degraded from his rank, and fled to Genoa, where he began
to play the pirate. The struggle between the kings of Aragon and the
French kings of Naples for the possession of Sicily was at this time
going on; and Roger entered the service of Frederick, king of Sicily,
who gave him the rank of vice-admiral. At the close of the war, in 1302,
as Frederick was anxious to free the island from his mercenary troops
(called _Almúgavares_), whom he had no longer the means of paying, Roger
induced them under his leadership to seek new adventures in the East, in
fighting against the Turks, who were ravaging the empire. The emperor
Andronicus II. accepted his offer of service; and in September 1303
Roger with his fleet and army arrived at Constantinople. He was adopted
into the imperial family, was married to a grand-daughter of the
emperor, and was made grand duke and commander-in-chief of the army and
the fleet. After some weeks lost in dissipation, intrigues and bloody
quarrels, Roger and his men were sent into Asia, and after some
successful encounters with the Turks they went into winter quarters at
Cyzicus. In May 1304 they again took the field, and rendered the
important service of relieving Philadelphia, then invested and reduced
to extremities by the Turks. But Roger, bent on advancing his own
interests rather than those of the emperor, determined to found in the
East a principality for himself. He sent his treasures to Magnesia, but
the people slew his Catalans and seized the treasures. He then formed
the siege of the town, but his attacks were repulsed, and he was
compelled to retire. Being recalled to Europe, he settled his troops in
Gallipoli and other towns, and visited Constantinople to demand pay for
the _Almúgavares_. Dissatisfied with the small sum granted by the
emperor, he plundered the country and carried on intrigues both with and
against the emperor, receiving reinforcements all the while from all
parts of southern Europe. Roger was now created Caesar, but shortly
afterwards the young emperor Michael Palaeologus, not daring to attack
the fierce and now augmented bands of adventurers, invited Roger to
Adrianople, and there contrived his assassination and the massacre of
his Catalan cavalry (April 4, 1306). His death was avenged by his men in
a fierce and prolonged war against the Greeks.

  See Moncada, _Expedicion de los Catalanes y Aragoneses contre Turcos y
  Griegos_ (Paris, 1840).



FLORA, in Roman mythology, goddess of spring-time and flowers, later
identified with the Greek Chloris. Her festival at Rome, the Floralia,
instituted 238 B.C. by order of the Sibylline books and at first held
irregularly, became annual after 173. It lasted six days (April 28-May
3), the first day being the anniversary of the foundation of her temple.
It included theatrical performances and animal hunts in the circus, and
vegetables were distributed to the people. The proceedings were
characterized by excessive merriment and licentiousness. According to
the legend, her worship was instituted by Titus Tatius, and her priest,
the flamen Floralis, by Numa. In art Flora was represented as a
beautiful maiden, bedecked with flowers (Ovid, _Fasti_, v. 183 ff.;
Tacitus, _Annals_, ii. 49).

The term "flora" is used in botany collectively for the plant-growth of
a district; similarly "fauna" is used collectively for the animals.



FLORE AND BLANCHEFLEUR, a 13th-century romance. This tale, generally
supposed to be of oriental origin, relates the passionate devotion of
two children, and their success in overcoming all the obstacles put in
the way of their love. The romance appears in differing versions in
French, English, German, Swedish, Icelandic, Italian, Spanish, Greek and
Hungarian. The various forms of the tale receive a detailed notice in E.
Hausknecht's version of the 13th-century Middle English poem of "Floris
and Blauncheflur" (_Samml. eng. Denkmäler_, vol. v. Berlin, 1885).
Nothing definite can be stated of the origin of the story, but France
was in the 12th and 13th centuries the chief market of romance, and the
French version of the tale, _Floire et Blanchefleur_, is the most
widespread. Floire, the son of a Saracen king of Spain, is brought up in
constant companionship with Blanchefleur, the daughter of a Christian
slave of noble birth. Floire's parents, hoping to destroy this
attachment, send the boy away at fifteen and sell Blanchefleur to
foreign slave-merchants. When Floire returns a few days later he is told
that his companion is dead, but when he threatens to kill himself, his
parents tell him the truth. He traces her to the tower of the maidens
destined for the harem of the emir of Babylon, into which he penetrates
concealed in a basket of flowers. The lovers are discovered, but their
constancy touches the hearts of their judges. They are married, and
Floire returns to his kingdom, when he and all his people adopt
Christianity. Of the two 12th-century French poems (ed. Édélestand du
Méril, Paris, 1856), the one contains the love story with few additions,
the other is a romance of chivalry, containing the usual battles, single
combats, &c. Two lyrics based on episodes of the story are printed by
Paulin Paris in his _Romancero français_ (Paris, 1883). The English poem
renders the French version without amplifications, such as are found in
other adaptations. Its author has less sentiment than his original, and
less taste for detailed description. Among the other forms of the story
must be noted the prose romance (c. 1340) of Boccaccio, _Il Filocolo_,
and the 14th-century _Leggenda della reina Rosana e di Rosana sua
figliuola_ (pr. Leghorn, 1871). The similarity between the story of
Floire and Blanchefleur and _Chante-fable of Aucassin et Nicolete_[1]
has been repeatedly pointed out, and they have even been credited with a
common source.

  See also editions by I. Bekker (Berlin, 1844) and E. Hausknecht
  (Berlin, 1885); also H. Sundmacher, _Die altfr. und mittelhochdeutsche
  Bearbeitung der Sage von Flore et Blanscheflur_ (Göttingen, 1872); H.
  Herzog, _Die beiden Sagenkreise von Flore und Blanscheflur_ (Vienna,
  1884); _Zeitschrift für deut. Altertum_ (vol. xxi.) contains a Rhenish
  version; the Scandinavian _Flores Saga ok Blankiflùr_, ed. E. Kölbing
  (Halle, 1896); the 13th-century version of Konrad Fleck, _Flore und
  Blanscheflur_, ed. E. Sommer (Leipzig, 1846); the Swedish by G.E.
  Klemming (Stockholm, 1844). The English poem was also edited by
  Hartschorne (_English Metrical Tales_, 1829), by Laing (Abbotsford
  Club, 1829), and by Lumly (Early Eng. Text Soc., 1866, re-edited G.H.
  McKnight, 1901). J. Reinhold (_Floire et Blanchefleur_, Paris, 1906)
  suggests a parallelism with the story of Cupid and Psyche as told by
  Apuleius; also that the oriental setting does not necessarily imply a
  connexion with Arab tales, as the circumstances might with small
  alteration have been taken from the Vulgate version of the book of
  Esther.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Ed. H. Suchier (Paderborn, 1878, 5th ed. 1903); modern French by
    G. Michaut, with preface by J. Bédier (Tours, 1901); English by
    Andrew Lang (1887), by F.W. Bourdillon (Oxford, 1896), and by
    Laurence Housman (1902).



FLORENCE, WILLIAM JERMYN (1831-1891), American actor, of Irish descent,
whose real name was Bernard Conlin, was born on the 26th of July 1831 at
Albany, N.Y., and first attracted attention as an actor at Brougham's
Lyceum in 1851. Two years later he married Mrs Malvina Pray Littell (d.
1906), in association with whom, until her retirement in 1889, he won
all his successes, notably in Benjamin Woolf's _The Mighty Dollar_, said
to have been presented more than 2500 times. In 1856 they had a
successful London season, Mrs Florence being one of the first American
actresses to appear on the English stage. In 1889 Florence entered into
partnership with Joseph Jefferson, playing Sir Lucius O'Trigger to his
Bob Acres and Mrs John Drew's Mrs Malaprop on a very successful tour.
His last appearance was with Jefferson on the 14th of November 1891, as
Ezekiel Homespun in _The Heir-at-law_, and he died on the 18th of
November in Philadelphia.



FLORENCE OF WORCESTER (d. 1118), English chronicler, was a monk of
Worcester, who died, as we learn from his continuator, on the 7th of
July 1118. Beyond this fact nothing is known of his life. He compiled a
chronicle called _Chronicon ex chronicis_ which begins with the creation
and ends in 1117. The basis of his work was a chronicle compiled by
Marianus Scotus, an Irish recluse, who lived first at Fulda, afterwards
at Mainz. Marianus, who began his work after 1069, carried it up to
1082. Florence supplements Marianus from a lost version of the English
Chronicle, and from Asser. He is always worth comparing with the extant
English Chronicles; and from 1106 he is an independent annalist, dry but
accurate. Either Florence or a later editor of his work made
considerable borrowings from the first four books of Eadmer's _Historia
novorum_. Florence's work is continued, up to 1141, by a certain John of
Worcester, who wrote about 1150. John is valuable for the latter years
of Henry I. and the early years of Stephen. He is friendly to Stephen,
but not an indiscriminate partisan.

  The first edition of these two writers is that of 1592 (by William
  Howard). The most accessible is that of B. Thorpe (Eng. Hist. Soc., 2
  vols., 1848-1849); but Thorpe's text of John's continuation needs
  revision. Thorpe gives, without explanations, the insertions of an
  ill-informed Gloucester monk who has obscured the accurate chronology
  of the original. Thorpe also prints a continuation by John Taxter
  (died c. 1295), a 13th-century writer and a monk of Bury St Edmunds.
  Florence and John of Worcester are translated by J. Stevenson in his
  _Church Historians of England_, vol. ii. pt. i. (London, 1853); T.
  Forester's translation in Bohn's _Antiquarian Library_ (London, 1854)
  gives the work of Taxter also.     (H. W. C. D.)



FLORENCE, the county-seat of Lauderdale county, Alabama, U.S.A., on the
N. bank of the Tennessee river, at the foot of Muscle Shoals Canal, and
about 560 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1880) 1359; (1890) 6012; (1900)
6478 (1952 negroes); (1910) 6689. It is served by the Southern, the
Northern Alabama (controlled by the Southern), and the Louisville &
Nashville railways, and by electric railway to Sheffield and Tuscumbia,
and the Tennessee river is here navigable. Florence is situated in the
fertile agricultural lands of the Tennessee river valley on the edge of
the coal and iron districts of Alabama, and has various manufactures,
including pig-iron, cotton goods, wagons, stoves, fertilizers, staves
and mercantile supplies. At Florence are the state Normal College, the
Florence University for Women, and the Burrell Normal School (for
negroes; founded in 1903 by the American Missionary Association).
Florence was founded in 1818, Andrew Jackson, afterwards president of
the United States, and ex-president James Madison being among the early
property holders. For several years Florence and Nashville, Tennessee,
were commercial rivals, being situated respectively at the head of
navigation on the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers. The first invasion of
Alabama by Federal troops in the Civil War was by a gunboat raid up the
Tennessee to Florence on the 8th of February 1862. On the 11th of April
1863 another Federal gunboat raid was attempted, but the vessels were
repulsed by a force under Gen. S.A. Wood. On the 26th of May following,
Federal troops entered Florence, and destroyed cotton mills and public
and private property; but they were driven back by Gen. Philip D. Roddy
(1820-1897). On the 11th of December 1863 the town was again raided, but
the Federals did not secure permanent possession. Florence was chartered
as a city in 1889.



FLORENCE (Ital. _Firenze_, Lat. _Florentia_), formerly the capital of
Tuscany, now the capital of a province of the kingdom of Italy, and the
sixth largest city in the country. It is situated 43° 46' N., 11° 14'
E., on both banks of the river Arno, which at this point flows through a
broad fertile valley enclosed between spurs of the Apennines. The city
is 165 ft. above sea-level, and occupies an area of 3 sq. m. (area of
the commune, 16½ sq. m.). The geological formation of the soil belongs
to the Quaternary and Pliocene period in its upper strata, and to the
Eocene and Cretaceous in the lower. _Pietra forte_ of the Cretaceous
period is quarried north and south of the city, and has been used for
centuries as paving stone and for the buildings. _Pietra serena_ or
_macigno_, a stone of a firm texture also used for building purposes, is
quarried at Monte Ceceri below Fiesole. The soil is very fertile; wheat,
Indian corn, olives, vines, fruit trees of many kinds cover both the
plain and the surrounding hills; the chief non-fruit-bearing trees are
the stone pine, the cypress, the ilex and the poplar, while many other
varieties are represented. The gardens and fields produce an abundance
of flowers, which justify the city's title of _la città dei fiori_.

_Climate and Sanitary Conditions._--The climate of Florence is very
variable, ranging from severe cold accompanied by high winds from the
north in winter to great heat in the summer, while in spring-time sudden
and rapid changes of temperature are frequent. At the same time the
climate is usually very agreeable from the end of February to the
beginning of July, and from the end of September to the middle of
November. The average temperature throughout the year is about 57°
Fahr.; the maximum heat is about 96.8°, and the minimum 36.5°, sometimes
sinking to 21°. The longest day is 15 hours and 33 minutes, the shortest
8 hours and 50 minutes. The average rainfall is about 37½ inches.
Epidemic diseases are rare and children's diseases mild; cholera has
visited Florence several times, but the city has been free from it for
many years. Diphtheria first appeared in 1868 and continued as a severe
epidemic until 1872, since when it has only occurred at rare intervals
and in isolated cases. Typhoid, pneumonia, tuberculosis, measles and
scarlatina, and influenza are the commonest illnesses. The drainage
system is still somewhat imperfect, but the water brought from the hills
or from the Arno in pipes is fairly good, and the general sanitary
conditions are satisfactory.


  Churches.

_Public Buildings._--Of the very numerous Florentine churches the Duomo
(Santa Maria del Fiore) is the largest and most important, founded in
1298 on the plans of Arnolfo di Cambio, completed by Brunelleschi, and
consecrated in 1436; the façade, however, was not finished until the
19th century--it was begun in 1875 on the designs of de Fabris and
unveiled in 1888. Close by the Duomo is the no less famous Campanile
built by Giotto, begun in 1332, and adorned with exquisite bas-reliefs.
Opposite is the Baptistery built by Arnolfo di Cambio in the 13th
century on the site of an earlier church, and adorned with beautiful
bronze doors by Ghiberti in the 15th century. The Badia, Santo Spirito,
Santa Maria Novella, are a few among the many famous and beautiful
churches of Florence. The existence of these works of art attracts
students from all countries, and a German art school subsidized by the
imperial government has been instituted.

The streets and piazze of the city are celebrated for their splendid
palaces, formerly, and in many cases even to-day the residences of the
noble families of Florence. Among others we may mention the Palazzo
Vecchio, formerly the seat of the government of the Republic and now the
town hall, the Palazzo Riccardi, the residence of the Medici and now the
prefecture, the palaces of the Strozzi, Antinori (one of the most
perfect specimens of Florentine _quattrocento_ architecture), Corsini,
Davanzati, Pitti (the royal palace), &c. The palace of the Arte della
Lana or gild of wool merchants, tastefully and intelligently restored,
is the headquarters of the Dante Society. The centre of Florence, which
was becoming a danger from a hygienic point of view, was pulled down in
1880-1890, but, unfortunately, sufficient care was not taken to avoid
destroying certain buildings of historic and artistic value which might
have been spared without impairing the work of sanitation, while the new
structures erected in their place, especially those in the Piazza
Vittorio Emanuele, are almost uniformly ugly and quite out of keeping
with Florentine architecture. The question aroused many polemics at the
time both in Italy and abroad. After the new centre was built, a society
called the _Società per la difesa di Firenze antica_ was formed by many
prominent citizens to safeguard the ancient buildings and prevent them
from destruction, and a spirit of intelligent conservatism seems now to
prevail in this connexion. The city is growing in all directions, and a
number of new quarters have sprung up where the houses are more sanitary
than in the older parts, but unfortunately few of them evince much
aesthetic feeling. The _viali_ or boulevards form pleasant residential
streets with gardens, and the system of building separate houses for
each family (villini) instead of large blocks of flats is becoming more
and more general.


  Libraries.

Florence possesses four important libraries besides a number of smaller
collections. The _Biblioteca Nazionale_, originally founded by Antonio
Magliabecchi in 1747, enjoys the right, shared by the _Vittorio
Emanuele_ library of Rome, of receiving a copy of every work printed in
Italy, since 1870 (since 1848 it had enjoyed a similar privilege with
regard to works printed in Tuscany). It contains some 500,000 printed
volumes, 700,000 pamphlets, over 9000 prints and drawings (including 284
by Albert Dürer), nearly 20,000 MSS., and 40,000 letters. The number of
readers in 1904 was over 50,000. Unfortunately, however, the confusion
engendered by a defective organization has long been a byword among the
people; there is no printed catalogue, quantities of books are buried in
packing-cases and unavailable, the collection of foreign books is very
poor, hardly any new works being purchased, and the building itself is
quite inadequate and far from safe; but the site of a new one has now
been purchased and the plans are agreed upon, so that eventually the
whole collection will be transferred to more suitable quarters. The
_Biblioteca Marucelliana_, founded in 1752, contains 150,000 books,
including 620 incunabula, 17,000 engravings and 1500 MSS.; it is well
managed and chiefly remarkable for its collection of illustrated works
and art publications. The _Biblioteca Mediceo-Laurenziana_, founded in
1571, has its origin in the library of Cosimo de' Medici the Elder, and
was enlarged by Piero, Giovanni and above all by Lorenzo the
Magnificent. Various princes and private persons presented it with
valuable gifts and legacies, among the most important of which was the
collection of _editiones principes_ given by Count d'Elci, in 1841, and
the Ashburnham collection of MSS. purchased by the Italian Government in
1885. It contains nearly 10,000 MSS., including many magnificent
illuminated missals and Bibles and a number of valuable Greek and Latin
texts, 242 incunabula and 11,000 printed books, chiefly dealing with
palaeography; it is in some ways the most important of the Florentine
libraries. The _Biblioteca Riccardiana_, founded in the 16th century by
Romolo Riccardi, contains nearly 4000 MSS., over 32,000 books and 650
incunabula, chiefly relating to Florentine history. The state archives
are among the most complete in Italy, and contain over 450,000 _filze_
and _registri_ and 126,000 charters, covering the period from 726 to
1856.


  Galleries of Fine Arts and Museums.

Few cities are as rich as Florence in collections of works of artistic
and historic interest, although the great majority of them belong to a
comparatively limited period--from the 13th to the 16th century. The
chief art galleries are the Uffizi, the Pitti and Accademia. The two
former are among the finest in the world, and are filled with
masterpieces by Raphael, Andrea del Sarto, Perugino, Ghirlandaio,
Botticelli, the Lippi, and many other Florentine, Umbrian, Venetian,
Dutch and Flemish artists, as well as numerous admirable examples of
antique, medieval and Renaissance sculpture. The Pitti collection is in
the royal palace (formerly the residence of the grand dukes), and a fine
new stairway and vestibule have been constructed by royal munificence.
In the Uffizi the pictures are arranged in strict chronological order.
In the Accademia, which is rich in early Tuscan masters, the Botticelli
and Perugino rooms deserve special mention. Other pictures are scattered
about in the churches, monasteries and private palaces. Of the
monasteries, that of St Mark should be mentioned, as containing many
works of Fra Angelico, besides relics of Savonarola, while of the
private collections the only one of importance is that of Prince
Corsini. There is a splendid museum of medieval and Renaissance
antiquities in the Bargello, the ancient palace of the Podestà, itself
one of the finest buildings in the city; among its many treasures are
works of Donatello, Ghiberti, Verrochio and other sculptors, and large
collections of ivory, enamel and bronze ware. The Opera del Duomo
contains models and pieces of sculpture connected with the cathedral;
the Etruscan and Egyptian museum, the gallery of tapestries, the
Michelangelo museum, the museum of natural history and other collections
are all important in different ways.


  Population.

The total population of Florence in 1905, comprising foreigners and a
garrison of 5500 men, was 220,879. In 1861 it was 114,363; it increased
largely when the capital of Italy was in Florence (1865-1872), but
decreased or increased very slightly after the removal of the capital to
Rome, and increased at a greater rate from 1881 onwards. At present the
rate of increase is about 22 per 1000, but it is due to immigration, as
the birth rate was actually below the death rate down to 1903, since
when there has been a slight increase of the former and a decrease of
the latter.


  Administration.

Florence is the capital of a province of the same name, and the central
government is represented by a prefect (_prefetto_), while local
government is carried on by a mayor (_sindaco_) and an elective town
council (_consiglio comunale_). The city is the seat of a court of
cassation (for civil cases only), of a court of appeal, besides minor
tribunals. It is the headquarters of an army corps, and an
archiepiscopal see.


    Education.

  There are 22 public elementary schools for boys and 18 for girls
  (education being compulsory and gratuitous), with about 20,000 pupils,
  and 56 private schools with 5700 pupils. Secondary education is
  provided by one higher and four lower technical schools with 1375
  pupils, three _ginnasii_ or lower classical schools, and three _licei_
  or higher classical schools, with 1000 pupils, and three training
  colleges with over 700 pupils. Higher education is imparted at the
  university (_Istituto di studii superiori e di perfezionamento_), with
  600 to 650 students; although only comprising the faculties of
  literature, medicine and natural science, it is, as regards the
  first-named faculty, one of the most important institutions in Italy.
  The original _Studio Fiorentino_ was founded in the 14th century, and
  acquired considerable fame as a centre of learning under the Medici,
  enhanced by the presence in Florence of many learned Greeks who had
  fled from Constantinople after its capture by the Turks (1453).
  Although in 1472 some of the faculties and several of the professors
  were transferred to Pisa, it still retained importance, and in the
  17th and 18th centuries it originated a number of learned academies.
  In 1859 after the annexation of Tuscany to the Italian kingdom it was
  revived and reorganized; since then it has become to some extent a
  national centre of learning and culture, attracting students from
  other parts of Italy, partly on account of the fact that it is in
  Florence that the purest Italian is spoken. The revival of classical
  studies on scientific principles in modern Italy may be said to have
  begun in Florence, and great activity has also been displayed in
  reviving the study of Dante; Dante lectures being given regularly by
  scholars and men of letters from all parts of the country, above the
  church of Or San Michele as in the middle ages, under the auspices of
  the _Società Dantesca_. Palaeography, history and Romance languages
  are among the other subjects to which especial importance is given.
  Besides the _Istituto di studii superiori_ there is the _Istituto di
  scienze sociali_ "_Cesare Alfieri_," founded by the marchese Alfieri
  di Sostegno for the education of aspirants to the diplomatic and
  consular services, and for students of economics and social sciences
  (about 50 students); an academy of fine arts, a conservatoire of
  music, a higher female training-college with 150 students, a number of
  professional and trade schools, and an academy of recitation. There
  are also many academies and learned societies of different kinds, of
  which one of the most important is the _Accademia della Crusca_ for
  the study of the Italian language, which undertook the publication of
  a monumental dictionary.


    Charities, etc.

  Several of the Florence hospitals are of great antiquity, the most
  important being that of Santa Maria Nuova, which, founded by Folco
  Portinari, the father of Dante's Beatrice, has been thoroughly
  renovated according to modern scientific principles. There are
  numerous other hospitals both general and special, a foundling
  hospital dating from the 13th century (Santa Maria degli Innocenti),
  an institute for the blind, one for the deaf and dumb, &c. Most of the
  hospitals and other charitable institutions are endowed, but the
  endowments are supplemented by private contributions.


    Commerce and Industry.

  Florence is the centre of a large and fertile agricultural district,
  and does considerable business in wine, oil and grain, and supplies
  the neighbouring peasantry with goods of all kinds. There are no
  important industries, except a few flour-mills, some glass works, iron
  foundries, a motor car factory, straw hat factories, and power-houses
  supplying electricity for lighting and for the numerous tramcars.
  There are, however, some artistic industries in and around the city,
  of which the most important is the Ginori-Richard porcelain works, and
  the Cantagalli majolica works. There are many other smaller
  establishments, and the Florentine artificer seems to possess an
  exceptional skill in all kinds of work in which art is combined with
  technical ability. Another very important source of revenue is the
  so-called "tourist industry," which in late years has assumed immense
  proportions; the city contains a large number of hotels and
  boarding-houses which every year are filled to overflowing with
  strangers from all parts of the world.     (L. V.*)


HISTORY

Florentia was founded considerably later than Faesulae (Fiesole), which
lies on the hill above it; indeed, as its name indicates, it was built
only in Roman times and probably in connexion with the construction by
C. Flaminius in 187 B.C. of a road from Bononia to Arretium (which later
on formed part of the Via Cassia) at the point where this road crossed
the river Arnus. We hear very little of it in ancient times; it appears
to have suffered at the end of the war between Marius and Sulla, and in
A.D. 15 (by which period it seems to have been already a colony) it
successfully opposed the project of diverting part of the waters of the
Clanis into the Arno (see CHIANA). Tacitus mentions it, and Florus
describes it as one of the _municipia splendidissima_. A bishop of
Florence is mentioned in A.D. 313. A group of Italic cremation tombs _a
pozzo_ of the Villanova period were found under the pavement of the
medieval Vicolo del Campidoglio. This took its name from the
_Capitolium_ of Roman times, the remains of which were found under the
Piazza Luna; the three _cellae_ were clearly traceable. The capitals of
the columns were Corinthian, about 4 ft. in diameter, and it became
clear that this temple had supplied building materials for S. Giovanni
and S. Miniato. Fragments of a fine octagonal altar, probably belonging
to the temple, were found. Remains of baths have been found close by,
while the ancient amphitheatre has been found near S. Croce outside the
Roman town, which formed a rectangle of about 400 by 600 yds., with four
gates, the _Decumanus_ being represented by the Via Strozzi and Via del
Corso, and the _Cardo_ by the Via Calcinara, while the Mercato Vecchio
occupied the site of the Forum.

  See L.A. Milani, "Reliquie di Firenze antica," in _Monumenti dei
  Lincei_, vi. (1896), 5 seq. (T. As.)


  The countess Matilda.

  Guelphs and Ghibellines.

  Beginnings of the commune.

  War with the nobles.

  The potestas.

The first event of importance recorded is the siege of the city by the
Goths, A.D. 405, and its deliverance by the Roman general Stilicho.
Totila besieged Florence in 542, but was repulsed by the imperial
garrison under Justin, and later it was occupied by the Goths. We find
the Longobards in Tuscany in 570, and mention is made of one
_Gudibrandus Dux civitatis Florentinorum_, which suggests that Florence
was the capital of a duchy (one of the regular divisions of the
Longobard empire). Charlemagne was in Florence in 786 and conferred many
favours on the city, which continued to grow in importance owing to its
situation on the road from northern Italy to Rome. At the time of the
agitation against simony and the corruption of the clergy, the head of
the movement in Florence was San Giovanni Gualberto, of the monastery of
San Salvi. The simoniacal election of Pietro Mezzabarba as bishop of
Florence (1068) caused serious disturbances and a long controversy with
Rome, which ended in the triumph, after a trial by fire, of the monk
Petrus Igneus, champion of the popular reform movement; this event
indicates the beginnings of a popular conscience among the Florentines.
Under the Carolingian emperors Tuscany was a March or margraviate, and
the marquises became so powerful as to be even a danger to the Empire.
Under the emperor Otto I. one Ugo (d, 1001) was marquis, and the emperor
Conrad II. (elected in 1024) appointed Boniface of Canossa marquis of
Tuscany, a territory then extending from the Po to the borders of the
Roman state. Boniface died in 1052, and in the following year the
margraviate passed to his daughter, the famous countess Matilda, who
ruled for forty years and played a prominent part in the history of
Italy in that period. In the Wars of the Investitures Matilda was ever
on the papal (afterwards called Guelph) side against the emperor and the
faction afterwards known as Ghibelline, and she herself often led armies
to battle. It is at this time that the people of Florence first began to
acquire influence, and while the countess presided at the courts of
justice in the name of the Empire, she was assisted by a group of great
feudal nobles, judges, lawyers, &c., who formed, as elsewhere in
Tuscany, the _boni homines_ or _sapientes_. As the countess was
frequently absent these _boni homines_ gave judgment without her, thus
paving the way for a free commune. The citizens found themselves in
opposition to the nobility of the hills around the city, Teutonic
feudatories of Ghibelline sympathies, who interfered with their
commerce. Florence frequently waged war with these nobles and with other
cities on its own account, although in the name of the countess, and the
citizens began to form themselves into groups and associations which
were the germs of the _arti_ or gilds. After the death of Countess
Matilda in 1115 the _grandi_ or _boni homines_ continued to rule and
administer justice, but in the name of the people--a change hardly
noticed at first, but which marks the foundation of the commune. After
1138 the _boni homines_ began to be called _consules_, while the
population was divided into the _grandi_ or _delle torri_, i.e. the
noble families who had towers, and the _arti_ or trade and merchant
gilds. At first the _consules_, of whom there seem to have been twelve,
two for each _sestiere_ or ward, were chosen by the men of the towers,
and assisted by a council of 100 _boni homines_, in which the _arti_
were predominant; the government thus came to be in the hands of a few
powerful families. The republic now proceeded to extend its power. In
1125 Fiesole was sacked and destroyed, but the feudal nobles of the
_contado_ (surrounding country), protected by the imperial margraves,
were still powerful. The early margraves had permitted the Florentines
to wage war against the Alberti family, whose castles they destroyed.
The emperor Lothair when in Italy forced Florence to submit to his
authority, but at his death in 1137 things returned to their former
state and the Florentines fought successfully against the powerful
counts Guidi. Frederick Barbarossa, however, elected emperor in 1152,
made his authority felt in Tuscany, and appointed one Welf of Bavaria as
margrave. Florence and other cities were forced to supply troops to the
emperor for his Lombard campaigns, and he began to establish a
centralized imperial bureaucracy in Tuscany, appointing a _potestas_,
who resided at San Miniato (whence the name of "San Miniato al
Tedesco"), to represent him and exercise authority in the _contado_;
this double authority of the _consoli_ in the town and the _potestas_ or
_podestà_ outside generated confusion. By 1176 the Florentines were
masters of all the territory comprised in the dioceses of Florence and
Fiesole; but civil commotion within the city broke out between the
_consoli_ and the greater nobles, headed by the Alberti and strengthened
by the many feudal families who had been forced to leave their castles
and dwell in the city (1177-1180). In the end the Alberti, though not
victorious, succeeded in getting occasionally admitted to the
consulship. Florence now formed a league with the chief cities of
Tuscany, made peace with the Guidi, and humbled the Alberti whose castle
of Semifonte was destroyed (1202). Later we find a _potestas_ within the
city, elected for a year and assisted by seven councillors and seven
_rectores super capitibus artium_. This represented the triumph of the
feudal party, which had gained the support of the _arti minori_ or
minor gilds. The _potestates_ subsequently were foreigners, and in 1207
the dignity was conferred on Gualfredotto of Milan; a new council was
formed, the _consiglio del comune_, while the older senate still
survived. The Florentines now undertook to open the highways of commerce
towards Rome, for their city was already an important industrial and
banking centre.


  Comune and popolo.

  Battle of Montaperti (1260).

Discord among the great families broke out again, and the attempt to put
an end to it by a marriage between Buondelmonte de' Buondelmonti and a
daughter of the Amidei, only led to further strife (1215), although the
causes of these broils were deeper and wider, being derived from the
general division between Guelphs and Ghibellines all over Italy. But the
work of crushing the nobles of the _contado_ and of asserting the city's
position among rival communes continued. In 1222 Florence waged war
successfully on Pisa, Lucca and Pistoia, and during the next few years
against the Sienese with varying results; although the emperor supported
the latter as Ghibellines, on his departure for Germany in 1235 they
were forced to accept peace on onerous terms. During the interregnum
(1241-1243) following on the death of Pope Gregory IX. the Ghibelline
cause revived in Tuscany and imperial authority was re-established. The
tumults against the Paterine heretics (1244-1245), among whom were many
Ghibelline nobles favoured by the _podestà_ Pace di Pesamigola, indicate
a successful Guelphic reaction; but Frederick II., having defeated his
enemies both in Lombardy and in the Two Sicilies, appointed his natural
son, Frederick of Antioch, imperial vicar in Tuscany, who, when civil
war broke out, entered the city with 1600 German knights. The
Ghibellines now triumphed completely, and in 1249 the Guelph leaders
were driven into exile--the first of many instances in Florentine
history of exile _en masse_ of a defeated party. The attempt to seize
Montevarchi and other castles where the Guelph exiles were congregated
failed, and in 1250 the burghers elected thirty-six _caporali di
popolo_, who formed the basis of the _primo popolo_ or body of citizens
independent of the nobles, headed by the _capitano del popolo_. The
Ghibellines being unable to maintain their supremacy, the city came to
be divided into two almost autonomous republics, the _comune_ headed by
the _podestà_, and the _popolo_ headed by the _capitano_ and militarily
organized into twenty companies; the central power was represented by
twelve _anziani_ or elders. The _podestà_, who was always a foreigner,
usually commanded the army, represented the city before foreign powers,
and signed treaties. He was assisted by the _consiglio speciale_ of 90
and the _consiglio generale e speciale_ of 300, composed of nobles,
while the _capitano del popolo_ had also two councils composed of
burghers, heads of the gilds, _gonfalonieri_ of the companies, &c. The
_anziani_ had a council of 36 burghers, and then there was the
_parlamento_ or general assembly of the people, which met only on great
occasions. At this time the _podestà's_ palace (the Bargello) was built,
and the gold florin was first coined and soon came to be accepted as the
standard gold piece throughout Europe. But, although greatly
strengthened, the Guelphs, who now may be called the democrats as
opposed to the Ghibelline aristocrats, were by no means wholly
victorious, and in 1251 they had to defend themselves against a league
of Ghibelline cities (Siena, Pisa and Pistoia) assisted by Florentine
Ghibellines; the Florentine Uberti, who had been driven into exile after
their plot of 1258, took refuge in Siena and encouraged that city in its
hostility to Florence. Fresh disputes about the possession of
Montepulciano and other places having arisen, the Florentines declared
war once more. A Florentine army assisted by Guelphs of other towns was
cunningly induced to believe that Siena would surrender at the first
summons; but it was met by a Sienese army reinforced by Florentine
exiles, including Farinata degli Uberti and other Ghibellines, and by
the cavalry of Manfred (q.v.) of Sicily, led by Count Giordano and the
count of Arras, with the result that the Florentines were totally routed
at Montaperti on the 4th of September 1260. Count Giordano entered
Florence, appointed Count Guido Novello _podestà_, and began a series of
persecutions against the Guelphs. The Ghibellines even proposed to raze
the walls of the city, but Farinata degli Uberti strongly opposed the
idea, saying that "he had fought to regain and not to ruin his
fatherland."


  New constitution.

During this new Ghibelline predominance (1260-1266) the old liberties
were abolished, and the _popolo_ was deprived of all share in the
administration. But when Charles I. (q.v.) of Anjou descended into Italy
as champion of the papacy, and Manfred was defeated and killed (1266),
the _popolo_, who had acquired wealth in trade and industry, was ready
to rise. After some disturbances Guido Novello and the Ghibellines were
expelled, but it was not the _popolo_ who triumphed; the pope and
Charles were the real masters of the situation, and the Florentines
found they had exchanged a foreign and Ghibelline protector for one who
was foreign and Guelph. Nevertheless much of the old order was restored;
the _podestà_ who represented King Charles was assisted by 12 _buoni
uomini_, and by the council of the 100 _buoni uomini del popolo_,
"without the deliberation of whom," says Villani, "no great matter nor
expenditure could be undertaken." Other bodies and magistrates were
maintained, and the _capitano del popolo_, now called _capitano della
massa di parte Guelfa_, tended to become a very important person. The
property of the Ghibellines was confiscated, and a commission of six
_capitani di parte Guelfa_ appointed to administer it and in general to
expend it for the persecution of the Ghibellines. The whole constitution
of the republic, although of very democratic tendencies, seemed designed
to promote civil strife and weaken the central power.


  Florentine trade and the gilds.

While the constitution was evolving in a manner which seemed to argue
small political ability and no stability in the Florentines, the people
had built up a wonderful commercial organization. Each of the seven
_arti maggiori_ or greater gilds was organized like a small state with
its councils, statutes, assemblies, magistrates, &c., and in times of
trouble constituted a citizen militia. Florentine cloth especially was
known and sold all over Europe, and the Florentines were regarded as the
first merchants of the age. If the life of the city went on
uninterruptedly even during the many changes of government and the
almost endemic civil war, it was owing to the solidity of the gilds, who
could carry on the administration without a government.


  Cardinal Latino.

After Charles's victory over Conradin in 1268 the Florentines defeated
the Sienese (1269) and made frequent raids into Pisan territory. As
Charles perpetually interfered in their affairs, always favouring the
_grandi_ or Guelph nobles, some of the Ghibellines were recalled as a
counterpoise, which, however, only led to further civil strife. Rudolph
of Habsburg, elected king of the Romans in 1273, having come to terms
with Pope Nicholas III., Charles was obliged in 1278 to give up his
title of imperial vicar in Tuscany, which he had held during the
interregnum following on the death of Frederick II. In 1279 Pope
Nicholas sent his nephew, the friar preacher Latino Frangipani
Malabranca, whom he had created cardinal bishop of Ostia the same year,
to reconcile the parties in Florence once more. Cardinal Latino to some
extent succeeded, and was granted a kind of temporary dictatorship. He
raised the 12 _buoni uomini_ to 14 (8 Guelphs and 6 Ghibellines), to be
changed every two months; and they were assisted by a council of 100. A
force of 1000 men was placed at the disposal of the _podestà_ and
_capitano_ (now both elected by the people) to keep order and oblige the
_grandi_ to respect the law. The Sicilian Vespers (q.v.) by weakening
Charles strengthened the commune, which aimed at complete independence
of emperors, kings and popes. After 1282 the _signoria_ was composed of
the 3 (afterwards 6) _priori_ of the gilds, who ended by ousting the
_buoni uomini_, while a _defensor artificum et artium_ takes the place
of the _capitano_; thus the republic became an essentially trading
community, governed by the _popolani grassi_ or rich merchants.


  Battle of Campaldino (1289).

  Ordinamenti della Giustizia (1293).

The republic now turned to the task of breaking the power of the
Ghibelline cities of Pisa and Arezzo. In 1289 the Aretini were
completely defeated by the Florentines at Campaldino, a battle made
famous by the fact that Dante took part in it. War against the Pisans,
who had been defeated by the Genoese in the naval battle of La Meloria
in 1284, was carried on in a desultory fashion, and in 1293 peace was
made. But the _grandi_, who had largely contributed to the victory of
Campaldino, especially men like Corso Donati and Vieri de' Cerchi, were
becoming more powerful, and Charles had increased their number by
creating a great many knights; but their attempts to interfere with the
administration of justice were severely repressed, and new laws were
passed to reduce their influence. Among other internal reforms the
abolition of the last traces of servitude in 1289, and the increase in
the number of _arti_, first to 12 and then to 21 (7 _maggiori_ and 14
_minori_) must be mentioned. This, however, was not enough for the
Florentine democracy, who viewed with alarm the increasing power and
arrogance of the _grandi_, who in spite of their exclusion from many
offices were still influential and constituted independent clans within
the state. The law obliged each member of the clan (_consorteria_) to
_sodare_ for all the other members, i.e. to give a pecuniary guarantee
to ensure payment of fines for offences committed by any one of their
number, a provision made necessary by the fact that the whole clan acted
collectively. But as the laws were not always enforced new and severe
ones were enacted. These were the famous _Ordinamenti della Giustizia_
of 1293, by which all who were not of the _arti_ were definitely
excluded from the signory. The _priori_ were to remain in office two
months and elected the _gonfaloniere_, also for two months; there were
the _capitudini_ or councils of the gilds, and two _savi_ for each
_sestiere_, with 1000 soldiers at their disposal; the number of the
_grandi_ families was fixed at 38 (later 72). Judgment in matters
concerning the _Ordinamenti_ was delivered in a summary fashion without
appeal. The leading spirit of this reform was Giano della Bella, a noble
who by engaging in trade had become a _popolano_; the _grandi_ now tried
to make him unpopular with the _popolani grassi_, hoping that without
him the _Ordinamenti_ would not be executed, and opened negotiations
with Pope Boniface VIII. (elected 1294), who aimed at extending his
authority in Tuscany. A signory adverse to Giano having been elected, he
was driven into exile in 1295. The _grandi_ regained some of their power
by corrupting the _podestà_ and by the favour of the _popolo minuto_ or
unorganized populace; but their quarrels among themselves prevented them
from completely succeeding, while the _arti_ were solid.


  The Bianchi and the Neri.

In 1295 a signory favourable to the _grandi_ enacted a law attenuating
the _Ordinamenti_, but now the _grandi_ split into two factions, one
headed by the Donati, which hoped to abolish the _Ordinamenti_, and the
other by the Cerchi, which had given up all hope of their abolition;
afterwards these parties came to be called _Neri_ (Blacks) and _Bianchi_
(Whites). A plot of the Donati to establish their influence over
Florence with the help of Boniface VIII. having been discovered (May
1300), serious riots broke out between the Neri and the Bianchi. The
pope's attempt to unite the _grandi_ having failed, he summoned Charles
of Valois to come to his assistance, promising him the imperial crown;
in 1301 Charles entered Italy, and was created by the pope _paciaro_ or
peacemaker of Tuscany, with instructions to crush the Bianchi and the
_popolo_ and exalt the Neri. On the 1st of November Charles reached
Florence, promising to respect its laws; but he permitted Corso Donati
and his friends to attack the Bianchi, and the new _podestà_, Cante dei
Gabrielli of Gubbio, who had come with Charles, punished many of that
faction; among those whom he exiled was the poet Dante (1302). Corso
Donati, who for some time was the most powerful man in Florence, made
himself many enemies by his arrogance, and was obliged to rely on the
_popolo grasso_, the irritation against him resulting in a rising in
which he was killed (1308). In this same year Henry of Luxemburg was
elected king of the Romans and with the pope's favour he came to Italy
in 1310; the Florentine exiles and all the Ghibellines of Italy regarded
him as a saviour and regenerator of the country, while the Guelphs of
Florence on the contrary opposed both him and the pope as dangerous to
their own liberties and accepted the protection of King Robert of
Naples, disregarding Henry's summons to submission. In 1312 Henry was
crowned emperor as Henry VII. in Rome, but instead of the universal
ruler and pacifier which he tried to be, he was forced by circumstances
into being merely a German kaiser who tried to subjugate free Italian
communes. He besieged Florence without success, and died of disease in
1313.


  Uguccione della Fagginola and Castruccio Castracani.

The Pisans, fearing the vengeance of the Guelphs now that Henry was
dead, had accepted the lordship of Uguccione della Fagginola, imperial
vicar in Genoa. A brave general and an ambitious man, he captured Lucca
and defeated the Florentines and their allies from Naples at Montecatini
in 1315, but the following year he lost both Pisa and Lucca and had to
fly from Tuscany. A new danger now threatened Florence in the person of
Castruccio Castracani degli Antelminelli (q.v.), who made himself lord
of Lucca and secured help from Matteo Visconti, lord of Milan, and other
Ghibellines of northern Italy. Between 1320 and 1323 he harried the
Florentines and defeated them several times, captured Pistoia,
devastated their territory up to the walls of the city in spite of
assistance from Naples under Raymundo de Cardona and the duke of
Calabria (King Robert's son); never before had Florence been so
humiliated, but while Castruccio was preparing to attack Florence he
died in 1328. Two months later the duke of Calabria, who had been
appointed protector of the city in 1325, died, and further
constitutional reforms were made. The former councils were replaced by
the _consiglio del popolo_, consisting of 300 _popolani_ and presided
over by the _capitano_, and the _consiglio del comune_ of 250 members,
half of them nobles and half _popolani_, presided over by the _podestà_.
The _priori_ and other officers were drawn by lot from among the Guelphs
over thirty years old who were declared fit for public office by a
special board of 98 citizens (1329). The system worked well at first,
but abuses soon crept in, and many persons were unjustly excluded from
office; trouble being expected in 1335 a captain of the guard was
created. But the first one appointed, Jacopo dei Gabrielli of Gubbio,
used his dictatorial powers so ruthlessly that at the end of his year of
office no successor was chosen.


  Attempt to capture Lucca.

  The duke of Athens (1342-43).

The Florentines now turned their eyes towards Lucca; they might have
acquired the city immediately after Castruccio's death for 80,000
florins, but failed to do so owing to differences of opinion in the
signory; Martino della Scala, lord of Verona, promised it to them in
1335, but broke his word, and although their finances were not then very
flourishing they allied themselves with Venice to make war on him. They
were successful at first, but Venice made a truce with the Scala
independently of the Florentines, and by the peace of 1339 they only
obtained a part of Lucchese territory. At the same time they purchased
from the Tarlati the protectorate over Arezzo for ten years. But
misfortunes fell on the city: Edward III. of England repudiated the
heavy debts contracted for his wars in France with the Florentine
banking houses of Bardi and Peruzzi (1339), which eventually led to
their failure and to that of many smaller firms, and shook Florentine
credit all over the world; Philip VI. of France extorted large sums from
the Florentine merchants and bankers in his dominions by accusing them
of usury; in 1340 plague and famine wrought terrible havoc in Florence,
and riots again broke out between the _grandi_ and the _popolo_, partly
on account of the late unsuccessful wars and the unsatisfactory state of
the finances. To put an end to these disorders, Walter of Brienne, duke
of Athens, was elected "conservator" and captain of the guard in 1342.
An astute, dissolute and ambitious man, half French and half Levantine,
he began his government by a policy of conciliation and impartial
justice which won him great popularity. But as soon as he thought the
ground was secure he succeeded in getting himself acclaimed by the
populace lord of Florence for life, and on the 8th of September was
carried in triumph to the Palazzo della Signoria. The _podestà_ and the
_capitano_ assenting to this treachery, he dismissed the
_gonfaloniere_, reduced the _priori_ to a position of impotence,
disarmed the citizens, and soon afterwards accepted the lordship of
Arezzo, Volterra, Colle, San Gimignano and Pistoia. He increased his
bodyguard to 800 men, all Frenchmen, who behaved with the greatest
licence and brutality; by his oppressive taxes, and his ferocious
cruelty towards all who opposed him, and the unsatisfactory treaties he
concluded with Pisa, he accumulated bitter hatred against his rule. The
_grandi_ were disappointed because he had not crushed the _popolo_, and
the latter because he had destroyed their liberties and interfered with
the organization of the _arti_. Many unsuccessful plots against him were
hatched, and having discovered one that was conducted by Antonio degli
Adimari, the duke summoned the latter to the palace and detained him a
prisoner. He also summoned 300 leading citizens on the pretext of
wishing to consult them, but fearing treachery they refused to come. On
the 26th of July 1343, the citizens rose in arms, demanded the duke's
abdication, and besieged him in the palace. Help came to the Florentines
from neighbouring cities, the _podestà_ was expelled, and a _balìa_ or
provisional government of 14 was elected. The duke was forced to set
Adimari and his other prisoners free, and several of his men-at-arms
were killed by the populace; three of his chief henchmen, whom he was
obliged to surrender, were literally torn to pieces, and finally on the
1st of August he had to resign his lordship. He departed from Florence
under a strong guard a few days later, and the Fourteen cancelled all
his enactments.


  New constitution.

The expulsion of the duke of Athens was followed by several measures to
humble the _grandi_ still further, while the _popolo minuto_ or artisans
began to show signs of discontent at the rule of the merchants, and the
populace destroyed the houses of many nobles. As soon as order was
restored a _balìa_ was appointed to reform the government, in which task
it was assisted by the Sienese and Perugian ambassadors and by Simone da
Battifolle. The _priori_ were reduced to 8 (2 _popolani grassi_, 3
_mediani_ and 3 _artifici minuti_), while the _gonfaloniere_ was to be
chosen in turn from each of those classes; the _grandi_ were excluded
from the administration, but they were still admitted to the _consiglio
del comune_, the _cinque di mercanzia_, and other offices pertaining to
the commune; the _Ordinamenti_ were maintained but in a somewhat
attenuated form, and certain _grandi_ as a favour were declared to be of
the _popolo_. Florence was now a thoroughly democratic and commercial
republic, and its whole policy was mainly dominated by commercial
considerations: its rivalry with Pisa was due to an ambition to gain
secure access to the sea; its strong Guelphism was the outcome of its
determination to secure the bank-business of the papacy; and its desire
to extend its territory in Tuscany to the necessity for keeping open the
land trade routes. Florentine democracy, however, was limited to the
walls of the city, for no one of the _contado_ nor any citizen of the
subject towns enjoyed political rights, which were reserved for the
inhabitants of Florence alone and not by any means for all of them.


  Statistics.

Florence was in the 14th century a city of about 100,000 inhabitants, of
whom 25,000 could bear arms; there were 110 churches, 39 religious
houses; the shops of the _arte della lana_ numbered over 200, producing
cloth worth 1,200,000 florins; Florentine bankers and merchants were
found all over the world, often occupying responsible positions in the
service of foreign governments; the revenues of the republic, derived
chiefly from the city customs, amounted to some 300,000 florins, whereas
its ordinary expenses, exclusive of military matters and public
buildings, were barely 40,000. It was already a centre of art and
letters and full of fine buildings, pictures and libraries. But now that
the _grandi_ were suppressed politically, the lowest classes came into
prominence, "adventurers without sense or virtue and of no authority for
the most part, who had usurped public offices by illicit and dishonest
practices" (Matteo Villani, iv. 69); this paved the way for tyranny.


  The Great Plague (1348).

  War with Milan (1351).

In 1347 Florence was again stricken with famine, followed the next year
by the most terrible plague it had ever experienced, which carried off
three-fifths of the population (according to Villani). Yet in spite of
these disasters the republic was by no means crushed; it soon regained
the suzerainty of many cities which had broken off all connexion with it
after the expulsion of the duke of Athens, and purchased the
overlordship of Prato from Queen Joanna of Naples, who had inherited it
from the duke of Calabria. In 1351 Giovanni Visconti, lord and
archbishop of Milan, having purchased Bologna and allied himself with
sundry Ghibelline houses of Tuscany with a view to dominating Florence,
the city made war on him, and in violation of its Guelph traditions
placed itself under the protection of the emperor Charles IV. (1355) for
his lifetime. This move, however, was not popular, and it enabled the
_grandi_, who, although excluded from the chief offices, still dominated
the _parte Guelfa_, to reassert themselves. They had in 1347 succeeded
in enacting a very stringent law against all who were in any way tainted
with Ghibellinism, which, they themselves being above suspicion in that
connexion, enabled them to drive from office many members of the _popolo
minuto_. In 1358 the _parte Guelfa_ made these enactments still more
stringent, punishing with death or heavy fines all who being Ghibellines
held office, and provided that if trustworthy witnesses were forthcoming
condemnations might be passed for this offence without hearing the
accused; even a non-proved charge or an _ammonizione_ (warning not to
accept office) might entail disfranchisement. Thus the _parte_,
represented by its 6 (afterwards 9) captains, came to exercise a
veritable reign of terror, and no one knew when an accusation might fall
on him. The leader of the _parte_ was Piero degli Albizzi, whose chief
rivals were the Ricci family.


  The condottieri.

Italy at this time began to be overrun by bands of soldiers of fortune.
The first of these bands with whom Florence came into contact was the
Great Company, commanded by the count of Lando, which twice entered
Tuscany but was expelled both times by the Florentine troops
(1358-1359).

In 1362 we find Florence at war with Pisa on account of commercial
differences, and because the former had acquired the lordship of
Volterra. The Florentines were successful until Pisa enlisted Sir John
Hawkwood's English company; the latter won several battles, but were at
last defeated at Cascina, and peace was made in 1364, neither side
having gained much advantage. A fresh danger threatened the republic in
1367 when Charles IV., who had allied himself with Pope Urban V., Queen
Joanna of Naples, and various north Italian despots to humble the
Visconti, demanded that the Florentines should join the league. This
they refused to do and armed themselves for defence, but eventually
satisfied the emperor with a money payment.


  The parte Guelfa.

The tyranny of the _parte Guelfa_ still continued unabated, and the
_capitani_ carried an enactment by which no measure affecting the
_parte_ should be even discussed by the signory unless previously
approved of by them. This infamous law, however, aroused so much
opposition that some of the very men who had proposed it assembled in
secret to discuss its abolition, and a quarrel between the Albizzi and
the Ricci having weakened the _parte_, a _balìa_ of 56 was agreed upon.
Several of the Albizzi and the Ricci were excluded from office for five
years, and a council called the Ten of Liberty was created to defend the
laws and protect the weak against the strong. The _parte Guelfa_ and the
Albizzi still remained very influential and the attempts to abolish
admonitions failed.


  War with the church (1375-78).

In 1375 Florence became involved in a war which showed how the old party
divisions of Italy had been obliterated. The papal legate at Bologna,
Cardinal Guillaume de Noellet (d. 1394), although the church was then
allied to Florence, was meditating the annexation of the city to the
Holy See; he refused a request of the Florentines for grain from
Romagna, and authorized Hawkwood to devastate their territory. Although
a large part of the people disliked the idea of a conflict with the
church, an alliance with Florence's old enemy Bernabò Visconti was made,
war declared, and a _balìa_ of 8, the _Otto della guerra_ (afterwards
called the "Eight Saints" on account of their good management) was
created to carry on the campaign. Treaties with Pisa, Siena, Arezzo and
Cortona were concluded, and soon no less than 80 towns, including
Bologna, had thrown off the papal yoke. Pope Gregory XI. placed Florence
under an interdict, ordered the expulsion of all Florentines from
foreign countries, and engaged a ferocious company of Bretons to invade
the republic's territory. The Eight levied heavy toll on church property
and ordered the priests to disregard the interdict. They turned the
tables on the pope by engaging Hawkwood, and although the Bretons by
order of Cardinal Robert of Geneva (afterwards the anti-pope Clement
VII.) committed frightful atrocities in Romagna, their captains were
bribed by the republic not to molest its territory. By 1378 peace was
made, partly through the mediation of St Catherine of Siena, and the
interdict was removed in consideration of the republic's paying a fine
of 200,000 florins to the pope.


  Salvestro de' Medici.

  The riot of the ciompi (1378).

During the war the Eight had been practically rulers of the city, but
now the _parte Guelfa_, led by Lapo da Castiglionchio and Piero degli
Albizzi, attempted to reassert itself by illicit interference in the
elections and by a liberal use of "admonitions" (_ammonizioni_).
Salvestro de' Medici, who had always opposed the _parte_, having been
elected _gonfaloniere_ in spite of its intrigues, proposed a law for the
abolition of the admonitions, which was eventually passed (June 18,
1378), but the people had been aroused, and desired to break the power
of the _parte_ for good. Rioting occurred on the 21st of June, and the
houses of the Albizzi and other nobles were burnt. The signory meanwhile
created a _balìa_ of 80 which repealed some of the laws promoted by the
_parte_, and partly enfranchised the _ammoniti_. The people were still
unsatisfied, the _arti minori_ demanded further privileges, and the
workmen insisted that their grievances against the _arti maggiori_,
especially the wool trade by whom they were employed, be redressed. A
large body of _ciompi_ (wool carders) gathered outside the city and
conspired to subvert the signory and establish a popular government.
Although the plot, in which Salvestro does not seem to have played a
part, was revealed, a good deal of mob violence occurred, and on the
21st of July the populace seized the _podestà's_ palace, which they made
their headquarters. They demanded a share in the government for the
_popolo minuto_, but as soon as this was granted Tommaso Strozzi, as
spokesman of the _ciompi_, obliged the signory to resign their powers to
the Eight. Once the people were in possession of the palace, a _ciompo_
named Michele di Lando took the lead and put a stop to disorder and
pillage. He remained master of Florence for one day, during which he
reformed the constitution, probably with the help of Salvestro de'
Medici. Three new gilds were created, and nine priors appointed, three
from the _arti maggiori_, three from the _minori_, and three from the
new ones, while each of these classes in turn was to choose the
_gonfaloniere_ of justice; the first to hold the office was Michele di
Lando. This did not satisfy the _ciompi_, and the disorders provoked by
them resulted in a new government which reformed the two councils so as
to exclude the lower orders. But to satisfy the people several of the
_grandi_, including Piero degli Albizzi, were put to death, on charges
of conspiracy, and many others were exiled. There was perpetual rioting
and anarchy, and interference in the affairs of the government by the
working men, while at the same time poverty and unemployment increased
owing to the timidity of capital and the disorders, until at last in
1382 a reaction set in, and order was restored by the gild companies.
Again a new constitution was decreed by which the _gonfaloniere_ and
half the _priori_ were to be chosen from the _arti maggiori_ and the
other half from the _minori_; on several other boards the former were to
be in the majority, and the three new gilds were abolished. The
demagogues were executed or forced to fly, and Michele di Lando with
great ingratitude was exiled. Several subsequent risings of the
_ciompi_, largely of an economic character, were put down, and the
Guelph families gradually regained much of their lost power, of which
they availed themselves to exile their opponents and revive the odious
system of _ammonizioni_.


  Attempts to acquire Pisa (1402-6).

Meanwhile in foreign affairs the republic maintained its position, and
in 1383 it regained Arezzo by purchase from the lieutenant of Charles of
Durazzo. In 1390 Gian Galeazzo Visconti, having made himself master of a
large part of northern Italy, intrigued to gain possession of Pisa and
Siena. Florence, alone in resisting him, engaged Hawkwood, who with an
army of 7000 men more than held his own against the powerful lord of
Milan, and in 1392 a peace was concluded which the republic strengthened
by an alliance with Pisa and several north Italian states. In 1393 Maso
degli Albizzi was made _gonfaloniere_, and for many years remained
almost master of Florence owing to his influential position in the _Arte
della Lana_. A severe persecution was initiated against the Alberti and
other families, who were disfranchised and exiled. Disorders and
conspiracies against the merchant oligarchy continued, and although they
were unsuccessful party passion was incredibly bitter, and the exiles
caused the republic much trouble by intriguing against it in foreign
states. In 1397-1398 Florence had two more wars with Gian Galeazzo
Visconti, who, aspiring to the conquest of Tuscany, acquired the
lordship of Pisa, Siena and Perugia. Hawkwood being dead, Florence
purchased aid from the emperor Rupert. The Imperialists were beaten; but
just as the Milanese were about to march on Florence, Visconti died. His
territories were then divided between his sons and his _condottieri_,
and Florence, ever keeping her eye on Pisa, now ruled by Gabriele Maria
Visconti, made an alliance with Pope Boniface IX., who wished to regain
Perugia and Bologna. War broke out once more, and the allies were
successful, but as soon as Boniface had gained his ends he made peace,
leaving the Florentines unsatisfied. In 1404 their attempt to capture
Pisa single-handed failed, and Gabriele Maria placed himself under the
protection of the French king. The Florentines then made overtures to
France, who had supported the anti-popes all through the great schism,
and suggested that they too would support the then anti-pope, Benedict
XIII., in exchange for the sale of Pisa. This was agreed to, and in 1405
the city was sold to Florence for 260,000 florins; and Gino Capponi,[1]
the Florentine commissioner, took possession of the citadel, but a few
days later the citizens arose in arms and recaptured it from the
mercenaries. There was great consternation in Florence at the news, and
every man in the city "determined that he would go naked rather than not
conquer Pisa" (G. Capponi). The next year that city, then ruled by
Giovanni Gambacorti, was besieged by the Florentines, who blockaded the
mouth of the Arno. After a six months' siege Pisa surrendered on terms
(9th October 1406), and, although it was not sacked, many of the
citizens were exiled and others forced to live in Florence, a
depopulation from which it never recovered. Florence now acquired a
great seaport and was at last able to develop a direct maritime trade.


  The council of Pisa (1408).

Except in connexion with the Pisan question the republic had taken no
definite side in the great schism which had divided the church since
1378, but in 1408 she appealed both to Pope Gregory XII. and the
anti-pope Benedict XIII. as well as to various foreign governments in
favour of a settlement, and suggested a council within her own
territory. Gregory refused, but after consulting a committee of
theologians who declared him to be a heretic, the council promoted by
Cardinal Cossa and other independent prelates met at Pisa. This nearly
led to war with King Ladislas of Naples, because he had seized Rome,
which he could only hold so long as the church was divided. The council
deposed both popes and elected Pietro Filargi as Alexander V. (26th of
June). But Ladislas still occupied the papal states, and Florence,
alarmed at his growing power and ambition, formed a league with Siena,
Bologna and Louis of Anjou who laid claim to the Neapolitan throne, to
drive Ladislas from Rome. Cortona, Orvieto, Viterbo and other cities
were recovered for Alexander, and in January 1410 Rome itself was
captured by the Florentines under Malatesta dei Malatesti. Alexander
having died in May before entering the Eternal City, Cardinal Cossa was
elected as John XXIII.; Florence without offending him made peace with
Ladislas, who had ceased to be dangerous, and purchased Cortona of the
pope. In 1413 Ladislas attacked the papal states once more, driving John
from Rome, and threatened Florence; but like Henry VII., Gian Galeazzo
Visconti, and other enemies of the republic, he too died most
opportunely (6th of August 1414). John having lost all authority after
leaving Rome, a new council was held at Constance, which put an end to
the schism in 1417 with the election of Martin V. The new pope came to
Florence in 1419 as he had not yet regained Rome, which was held by
Francesco Sforza for Queen Joanna II. of Naples, and remained there
until the following year.

No important changes in the constitution took place during this period
except the appointment of two new councils in 1411 to decide on
questions of peace and war. The aristocratic faction headed by Maso
degli Albizzi, a wise and popular statesman, had remained predominant,
and at Maso's death in 1417 he was succeeded in the leadership of the
party by Niccolò da Uzzano. In 1421 Giovanni de' Medici was elected
_gonfaloniere_ of justice, an event which marks the beginning of that
wealthy family's power. The same year the republic purchased Leghorn
from the Genoese for 100,000 florins, and established a body of "Consuls
of the Sea" to superintend maritime trade. Although 11,000,000 florins
had been spent on recent wars Florence continued prosperous and its
trade increased.


  New war with the Visconti (1421-27).

In 1421 Filippo Maria Visconti, who had succeeded in reconquering most
of Lombardy, seized Forlì; this induced the Florentines to declare war
on him, as they regarded his approach as a menace to their territory in
spite of the opposition of the peace party led by Giovanni de' Medici.
The campaign was anything but successful, and the Florentines were
defeated several times, with the result that their credit was shaken and
several important firms failed. The pope too was against them, but when
they induced the Venetians to intervene the tide of fortune changed, and
Visconti was finally defeated and forced to accept peace on onerous
terms (1427).


  Fiscal reforms (1427).

The old systems of raising revenue no longer corresponded to the needs
of the republic, and as early as 1336 the various loans made to the
state were consolidated into one national debt (_monte_). Subsequently
all extraordinary expenditure was met by forced loans (_prestanze_), but
the method of distribution aroused discontent among the lower classes,
and in 1427 a general _catasto_ or assessment of all the wealth of the
citizens was formed, and measures were devised to distribute the
obligations according to each man's capacity, so as to avoid pressing
too hardly on the poor. The _catasto_ was largely the work of Giovanni
de' Medici, who greatly increased his popularity thereby. He died in
1429.


  Exile and return of Cosimo de' Medici (1433-34).

An attempt to capture Lucca led Florence, in alliance with Venice, into
another costly war with Milan (1432-1433). The mismanagement of the
campaign brought about a quarrel between the aristocratic party, led by
Rinaldo degli Albizzi, and the popular party, led by Giovanni de'
Medici's son Cosimo (1389-1464), although both had agreed to the war
before it began. Rinaldo was determined to break the Medici party, and
succeeded in getting Cosimo exiled. The Albizzi tried to strengthen
their position by conferring exceptional powers on the _capitano del
popolo_ and by juggling with the election bags, but the Medici still had
a great hold on the populace. Rinaldo's proposal for a _coup d'état_ met
with no response from his own party, and he failed to prevent the
election of a pro-Medici signory in 1434. He and other leaders of the
party were summoned to the palace to answer a charge of plotting against
the state, to which he replied by collecting 800 armed followers. A
revolution was only averted through the intervention of Pope Eugenius
IV., who was then in Florence. A _parlamento_ was summoned, and the
_balìa_ appointed decreed the return of Cosimo and the exile of Rinaldo
degli Albizzi, Rodolfo Peruzzi, Niccolò Barbadori, and others, in spite
of the feeble attempt of Eugenius to protect them. On the 6th of October
1434 Cosimo returned to Florence, and for the next three centuries the
history of the city is identified with that of the house of Medici.[2]


  Cosimo's rule.

Cosimo succeeded in dominating the republic while remaining nominally a
private citizen. He exiled those who opposed him, and governed by means
of the _balìe_, which, re-elected every five years, appointed all the
magistrates and acted according to his orders. In 1437 Florence and
Venice were again at war with the Visconti, whose chief captain, Niccolò
Piccinino (q.v.), on entering Tuscany with many Florentine exiles in his
train, was signally defeated at Anghiari by the Florentines under
Francesco Sforza (1440); peace was made the following year. The system
of the _catasto_, which led to abuses, was abolished, and a progressive
income-tax (_decima scalata_) was introduced with the object of
lightening the burdens of the poor, who were as a rule Medicean, at the
expense of the rich; but as it was frequently increased the whole
community came to be oppressed by it in the end. Cosimo increased his
own authority and that of the republic by aiding Francesco Sforza to
become duke of Milan (1450), and he sided with him in the war against
Venice (1452-1454). In 1452 the emperor Frederick III. passed through
Florence on his way to be crowned in Rome, and was received as a friend.
During the last years of Cosimo's life, affairs were less under his
control, and the _gonfaloniere_ Luca Pitti, a vain and ambitious man,
introduced many changes, such as the abasement of the authority of the
_podestà_ and of the _capitano_, which Cosimo desired but was glad to
attribute to others.


  Piero de' Medici (the Gouty).

  Lorenzo the Magnificent.

In 1464 Cosimo died and was succeeded, not without some opposition, by
his son Piero, who was very infirm and gouty. Various plots against him
were hatched, the anti-Medicean faction being called the Del Poggio
party because the house of its leader Luca Pitti was on a hill, while
the Mediceans were called the Del Piano party because Piero's house was
in the town below; the other opposition leaders were Dietisalvi Neroni
and Agnolo Acciaiuoli. But Piero's unexpected energy upset the schemes
of his enemies. The death of Sforza led to a war for the succession of
Milan, and the Venetians, instigated by Florentine exiles, invaded
Tuscany. The war ended, after many indecisive engagements, in 1468,
through the intervention of Pope Paul II. Piero died in 1469, leaving
two sons, Lorenzo (1449-1492) and Giuliano (1453-1478). The former at
once assumed the reins of government and became ruler of Florence in a
way neither Cosimo nor Piero had ever attempted; he established his
domination by means of _balìe_ consisting of the signory, the
_accoppiatori_, and 240 other members, all Mediceans, to be renewed
every five years (1471). In 1472 a quarrel having arisen with Volterra
on account of a dispute concerning the alum mines, Lorenzo sent an
expedition against the city, which was sacked and many of the
inhabitants massacred. Owing to a variety of causes an enmity arose
between Lorenzo and Pope Sixtus IV., and the latter, if not an
accomplice, at all events had knowledge of the Pazzi conspiracy against
the Medici (1478). The result of the plot was that, although Giuliano
was murdered, Lorenzo strengthened his position, and put to death or
exiled numbers of his enemies. He was excommunicated by Sixtus, who,
together with King Ferdinand of Naples, waged war against him; no great
successes were registered on either side at first, but eventually the
Florentines were defeated at Poggio Imperiale (near Poggibonsi) and the
city itself was in danger. Lorenzo's position was critical, but by his
boldness in going to Naples he succeeded in concluding a peace with the
king, which led to a reconciliation with the pope (1479-1480). He was
received with enthusiasm on returning to Florence and became absolute
master of the situation. In April 1480 a _balìa_ was formed, and its
most important act was the creation at Lorenzo's instance of the Council
of Seventy; it was constituted for five years, but it became permanent,
and all its members were Lorenzo's friends. From that time until his
death the city was free from party strife under a _de facto_ despotism,
but after the Rinuccini conspiracy of that year the Council of Seventy
passed a law declaring attempts on Lorenzo's life to be high treason.
Owing to his political activity Lorenzo had neglected the business
interests of his firm, and in order to make good certain heavy losses he
seems to have appropriated public funds. His foreign policy, which was
magnificent but expensive, rendered further forced loans necessary, and
he also laid hands on the Monte delle Doti, an insurance institution to
provide dowries for girls.


  Savonarola.

An attempt by the Venetians to seize Ferrara led to a general Italian
war, in which Florence also took part on the side hostile to Venice, and
when peace was made in 1484 the republic gained some advantages. The
following year a revolt of the Neapolitan barons against King Ferdinand
broke out, actively supported by Pope Innocent VIII.; Lorenzo remained
neutral at first, but true to his policy of maintaining the balance of
power and not wishing to see Ferdinand completely crushed, he ended by
giving him assistance in spite of the king's unpopularity in Florence.
Peace was made when the pope agreed to come to terms in 1486, and in
1487 Lorenzo regained Sarzana, which Genoa had taken from Florence nine
years previously. The general disorders and ceaseless intrigues all over
Italy required Lorenzo's constant attention, and he succeeded in making
Florence "the needle of the balance of power in Italy." At this time the
Dominican Fra Girolamo Savonarola (q.v.) was in Florence and aroused the
whole city by his denunciations of ecclesiastical corruption and also of
that of the Florentines. He opposed Lorenzo's government as the source
of the immorality of the people, and to some extent influenced public
opinion against him. Ill-health now gained on Lorenzo, and Savonarola,
whom he had summoned to his bedside, refused to give absolution to the
destroyer of Florentine liberties. Lorenzo, during whose rule Florence
had become one of the greatest centres of art and literature in Europe,
died in 1492.


  Piero de' Medici.

  Expulsion of the Medici (1494).

  Charles VIII. in Florence.

  Piero Capponi.

He was succeeded by his son Piero, who had none of his father's capacity
and made a number of political blunders. When Charles VIII. of France
came to Italy to conquer Naples Piero decided to assist the latter
kingdom, although the traditional sympathies of the people were for the
French king, and when Charles entered Florentine territory and captured
Sarzana, Piero went to his camp and asked pardon for opposing him. The
king demanded the cession of Pisa, Leghorn and other towns, which Piero
granted, but on returning to Florence on the 8th of November 1494 he
found the opposition greatly strengthened and his popularity forfeited,
especially when the news of his disgraceful cessions to Charles became
known. He was refused admittance to the palace, and the people began to
shout "Popolo e libertà!" in opposition to the Medicean cry of "Palle,
Palle!" (from the Medici arms). With a small escort he fled from the
city, followed soon after by his brother Giovanni. That same day Pisa
rose in revolt against the Florentines, and was occupied by Charles. The
expulsion of the Medici produced some disorder, but Piero Capponi (q.v.)
and other prominent citizens succeeded in keeping the peace.
Ambassadors, one of whom was Savonarola, were sent to treat with the
French king, but no agreement was arrived at until Charles entered
Florence on the 17th of November at the head of 12,000 men. In spite of
their French sympathies the citizens were indignant at the seizure of
Sarzana, and while they gave the king a splendid welcome, they did not
like his attitude of conqueror. Charles was impressed with the wealth
and refinement of the citizens, and above all with the solid
fortress-like appearance of their palaces. The signory appointed Piero
Capponi, a man of great ability and patriotism, and experienced in
diplomacy, the _gonfaloniere_ Francesco Valori, the Dominican Giorgio
Vespucci, and the jurisconsult and diplomatist Domenico Bonsi, syndics
to conduct the negotiations with the French king. Charles's demands by
no means pleased the citizens, and the arrogance and violence of his
soldiers led to riots in which they were assailed with stones in the
narrow streets. When the king began to hint at the recall of Piero de'
Medici, whose envoys had gained his ear, the signory ordered the
citizens to be ready to fly to arms. The proposal was dropped, but
Charles demanded an immense sum of money before he would leave the city;
long discussions followed, and when at last he presented an insolent
ultimatum the syndics refused to accept it. The king said in a
threatening tone, "Then we shall sound our trumpets," whereupon Capponi
tore up the document in his face and replied, "And we shall ring our
bells." The king, realizing what street fighting in Florence would mean,
at once came to terms; he contented himself with 120,000 florins,
agreeing to assume the title of "Protector and Restorer of the liberty
of Florence," and to give up the fortresses he had taken within two
years, unless his expedition to Naples should be concluded sooner; the
Medici were to remain banished, but the price on their heads was
withdrawn. But Charles would not depart, a fact which caused perpetual
disturbance in the city, and it was not until the 28th of November,
after an exhortation by Savonarola whom he greatly respected, that he
left Florence.


  The revived republic.

  Savonarola as a statesman.

It was now intended to re-establish the government on the basis of the
old republican institutions, but it was found that sixty years of Medici
rule had reduced them to mere shadows, and the condition of the
government, largely controlled by a _balìa_ of 20 _accoppiatori_ and
frequently disturbed by the summoning of the _parlamento_, was utterly
chaotic. Consequently men talked of nothing save of changing the
constitution, but unfortunately there was no longer an upper class
accustomed to public affairs, while the lower class was thoroughly
demoralized. Many proposals were made, none of them of practical value,
until Savonarola, who had already made a reputation as a moral reformer,
began his famous series of political sermons. In the prevailing confusion
the people turned to him as their only hope, and gradually a new
government was evolved, each law being enacted as the result of his
exhortations. A Greater Council empowered to appoint magistrates and pass
laws was formed, to which all citizens _netti di specchio_ (who had paid
their taxes) and _beneficiati_ (i.e. who had sat in one of the higher
magistracies or whose fathers, grandfathers, or great-grandfathers had
done so) were eligible together with certain others. There were 3200 such
citizens, and they sat one-third at a time for six months. The Greater
Council was to elect another council of 80 citizens over forty years old,
also to be changed every six months; this body, which the signory must
consult once a week, together with the colleges and the signory itself,
was to appoint ambassadors and commissaries of war, and deal with other
confidential matters. The system of forced loans was abolished and a 10%
tax on real property introduced in its stead, and a law of amnesty for
political offenders enacted. Savonarola also proposed a court of appeal
for criminal and political crimes tried by the _Otto di guardia e balìa_;
this too was agreed to, but the right of appeal was to be, not to a court
as Savonarola suggested, but to the Greater Council, a fact which led to
grave abuses, as judicial appeals became subject to party passions. The
_parlamenti_ were abolished and a _monte di pietà_ to advance money at
reasonable interest was created. But in spite of Savonarola's popularity
there was a party called the _Bigi_ (greys) who intrigued secretly in
favour of the return of the Medici, while the men of wealth, called the
_Arrabbiati_, although they hated the Medici, were even more openly
opposed to the actual régime and desired to set up an aristocratic
oligarchy. The adherents of Savonarola were called the _Piagnoni_, or
snivellers, while the _Neutrali_ changed sides frequently.


  League against Charles VIII.

  Alexander VI. against Florence.

  Trial and execution of Savonarola (1498).

A league between the pope, the emperor, Venice and Spain having been
made against Charles VIII., the latter was forced to return to France.
On his way back he passed through Florence, and; although the republic
had refused to join the league, it believed itself in danger, as Piero
de' Medici was in the king's train. Savonarola was again sent to the
French camp, and his eloquence turned the king from any idea he may have
had of reinstating the Medici. At the same time Charles violated his
promise by giving aid to the Pisans in their revolt against Florence,
and did not restore the other fortresses. After the French had abandoned
Italy, Piero de' Medici, encouraged by the league, enlisted a number of
mercenaries and marched on Florence, but the citizens, fired by
Savonarola's enthusiasm, flew to arms and prepared for an energetic
resistance; owing to Piero's incapacity and the exhaustion of his funds
the expedition came to nothing. At the same time the conditions of the
city were not prosperous; its resources were strained by the sums paid
to Charles and by the war; its credit was shaken, its trade paralysed,
famine and plague visited the city, and the war to subjugate Pisa was
proceeding unsatisfactorily. Worse still was the death in 1496 of one of
its ablest and most disinterested statesmen, Piero Capponi. The league
now attacked Florence, for Pope Alexander VI. hated Savonarola and was
determined to destroy the republic, so as to reinstate the Medici
temporarily and prepare the way for his own sons; the Venetians and
Imperialists besieged Leghorn, and there was great misery in Florence.
All this decreased Savonarola's popularity to some extent, but the enemy
having been beaten at Leghorn and the league being apparently on the
point of breaking up, the Florentines took courage and the friar's party
was once more in the ascendant. Numerous processions were held,
Savonarola's sermons against corruption and vice seemed to have
temporarily transformed the citizens, and the carnival of 1497 remained
famous for the burning of the "vanities" (i.e. indecent books and
pictures and carnival masks and costumes). The friar's sermons against
ecclesiastical corruption, and especially against the pope, resulted in
his excommunication by the latter, in consequence of which he lost much
of his influence and immorality spread once more. That same year Piero
made another unsuccessful attempt on Florence. New Medici plots having
been discovered, Bernardo del Nero and other prominent citizens were
tried and put to death; but the party hostile to Savonarola gained
ground and had the support of the Franciscans, who were hostile to the
Dominican order. Pulpit warfare was waged between Savonarola and his
opponents, and the matter ended in his being forbidden to preach and in
a proposed ordeal by fire, which, however, never came off. The pope
again and again demanded that the friar be surrendered to him, but
without success, in spite of his threats of an interdict against the
city. The Piagnoni were out of power, and a signory of Arrabbiati having
been elected in 1498, a mob of Savonarola's opponents attacked the
convent of St Mark where he resided, and he himself was arrested and
imprisoned. The commission appointed to try him on charges of heresy and
treason was composed of his enemies, including Doffo Spini, who had
previously attempted to murder him; many irregularities were committed
during the three trials, and the prisoner was repeatedly tortured. The
outgoing signory secured the election of another which was of their way
of thinking, and on the 22nd of May 1498 Savonarola was condemned to
death and executed the following day.


  Piero Soderini.

The pope having been satisfied, the situation in Florence was less
critical for the moment. The war against Pisa was renewed, and in 1499
the city might have been taken but for the dilatory tactics of the
Florentine commander Paolo Vitelli, who was consequently arrested on a
charge of treason and put to death. Louis XII. of France, who now sent
an army into Italy to conquer the Milanese, obtained the support of the
Florentines. Cesare Borgia, who had seized many cities in Romagna,
suddenly demanded the reinstatement of the Medici in Florence, and the
danger was only warded off by appointing him captain-general of the
Florentine forces at a large salary (1501). The weakness of the
government becoming every day more apparent, several constitutional
changes were made, and many old institutions, such as that of the
_podestà_ and _capitano del popolo_, were abolished; finally in 1502, in
order to give more stability to the government, the office of
_gonfaloniere_, with the right of proposing laws to the signory, was
made a life appointment. The election fell on Piero Soderini
(1448-1522), an honest public-spirited man of no particular party, but
lacking in strength of character. One useful measure which he took was
the institution of a national militia at the suggestion of Niccolò
Machiavelli (1505). In the meanwhile the Pisan war dragged on without
much headway being made. In 1503 both Piero de' Medici and Alexander VI.
had died, eliminating two dangers to the republic. Spain, who was at war
with France over the partition of Naples, helped the Pisans as the
enemies of Florence, France's ally (1501-1504), but when the war was
over the Florentines were able to lay siege to Pisa (1507), and in 1509
the city was driven by famine to surrender and became a dependency of
Florence once more.


  Schismatic council of Pisa (1510).

  Return of the Medici (1512).

  Second expulsion of the Medici (1527).

  The siege of Florence.

  Surrender of Florence (1530).

Pope Julius II., after having formed the league of Cambrai with France
and Spain against Venice, retired from it in 1510, and raised the cry of
"Fuori i Barbari" (out with the barbarians), with a view to expelling
the French from Italy. King Louis thereupon proposed an oecumenical
council so as to create a schism in the Church, and demanded that it be
held in Florentine territory. After some hesitation the republic agreed
to the demand, and the council was opened at Pisa, whereupon the pope
immediately placed Florence under an interdict. At the request of the
Florentines the council removed to Milan, but this did not save them
from the pope's wrath. A Spanish army under Raymundo de Cardona and
accompanied by Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici and his brother Giuliano
entered the republic's territory and demanded 100,000 florins, the
dismissal of Soderini, and the readmission of the Medici. Soderini
offered to resign, but the Greater Council supported him and
preparations for defence were made. In August the Spaniards took Prato
by storm and committed hideous atrocities on the inhabitants; Florence
was in a panic, a group of the _Ottimati_, or nobles, forced Soderini to
resign and leave the city, and Cardona's new terms were accepted, viz.
the readmission of the Medici, a fine of 150,000 florins, and an
alliance with Spain. On the 1st of September 1512 Giuliano and Giovanni
de' Medici, and their nephew Lorenzo, entered Florence with the Spanish
troops; a _parlamento_ was summoned, and a packed _balìa_ formed which
abolished the Greater Council and created a constitution similar to that
of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Giuliano became _de facto_ head of the
government, but he did not pursue the usual vindictive policy of his
house, although he resorted to the Laurentian method of amusing the
citizens with splendid festivities. In 1513, on the death of Julius II.,
Giovanni de' Medici was elected pope as Leo X., an event which greatly
enhanced the importance of the house. In March 1514 Giuliano died, and
was succeeded by Lorenzo, who was also created duke of Urbino. At his
death in 1519 Cardinal Giulio de' Medici (son of the Giuliano murdered
in the Pazzi conspiracy) took charge of the government; he met with some
opposition and had to play off the Ottimati against the Piagnoni, but he
did not rule badly and maintained at all events the outward forms of
freedom. In 1523 he was created pope as Clement VII. and sent his
relatives Ippolito and Alessandro, both minors and bastards, to Florence
under the tutorship of Cardinal Silvio Passerini. Ippolito was styled
the _Magnifico_ and destined to be ruler of the republic, but Cardinal
Passerini's regency proved most unpopular, and the city was soon
seething with discontent. Revolts broke out and Passerini showed himself
quite unequal to coping with the situation. The Ottimati were mostly
anti-Medicean, and by 1527 the position was untenable. When Filippo
Strozzi, and above all his wife, threw their influence in the scales
against the Medici, and the magistrates declared for their expulsion
from power, Passerini, Ippolito and Alessandro left Florence (17th of
May 1527). A _Consiglio degli Scelti_ was summoned, and a constitution
similar to that of Savonarola's time was established. The Greater
Council was revived and Niccolò Capponi created _gonfaloniere_ for a
year. But Florence was torn by factions--the Ottimati who desired an
oligarchy, the Palleschi or Mediceans who generally supported them, the
Adirati who opposed Capponi for his moderation, the Arrabbiati who were
strongly anti-Medicean, and the Popolani who opposed the Ottimati. "It
is almost impossible that a state so disorganized and corrupt as
Florence then was should produce men of parts and character, but if by
chance any such should arise they would be hated and persecuted, their
dispositions would be soured by indignation, or they would be hunted
from their country or die of grief" (Benedette Varchi). Capponi did his
best to reform the city and save the situation, and while adopting
Savonarola's tone in internal affairs, he saw the dangers in the foreign
situation, realizing that a reconciliation between the pope and the
emperor Charles V. would prove disastrous for Florence, for Clement
would certainly seize the opportunity to reinstate his family in power.
Having been re-elected _gonfaloniere_ in spite of much opposition in
1528, Capponi tried to make peace with the pope, but his correspondence
with the Vatican resulted in a quite unjustified charge of high treason,
and although acquitted he had to resign office and leave the city for
six months. Francesco Carducci was elected _gonfaloniere_ in his place,
and on the 29th of June 1529 the pope and the emperor concluded a treaty
by which the latter agreed to re-establish the Medici in Florence.
Carducci made preparations for a siege, but a large part of the people
were against him, either from Medicean sympathies or fear, although the
Frateschi, as the believers in Savonarola's views were called, supported
him strongly. A body called the _Nove della Milizia_, of whom
Michelangelo Buonarroti was a member, was charged with the defence of
the city, and Michelangelo (q.v.) himself superintended the
strengthening of the fortifications. A most unfortunate choice for the
chief command of the army was the appointment of Malatesta Baglioni. In
August an imperial army under Philibert, prince of Orange, advanced on
the city. In September Malatesta surrendered Perugia, and other cities
fell before the Imperialists. All attempts to come to terms with the
pope were unsuccessful, and by October the siege had begun. Although
alone against papacy and empire, the citizens showed the greatest spirit
and devotion, and were successful in many sorties. The finest figure
produced by these events was that of Francesco Ferruccio (q.v.); by his
defence of Empoli he showed himself a first-class soldier, and was
appointed commissioner-general. He executed many rapid marches and
counter-marches, assaulting isolated bodies of the enemy unexpectedly,
and harassing them continually. But Malatesta was a traitor at heart and
hindered the defence of the city in every way. Ferruccio, who had
recaptured Volterra, marched to Gavinana above Pistoia to attack the
Imperialists in the rear. A battle took place at that spot on the 3rd of
August, but in spite of Ferruccio's heroism he was defeated and killed;
the prince of Orange also fell in that desperate engagement. Malatesta
contributed to the defeat by preventing a simultaneous attack by the
besieged. The sufferings from famine within the city were now very
great, and an increasingly large part of the people favoured surrender.
The signory, at last realizing that Malatesta was a traitor, dismissed
him; but it was too late, and he now behaved as though he were governor
of Florence; when the troops attempted to enforce the dismissal he
turned his guns on them. On the 9th of August the signory saw that all
hope was lost and entered into negotiations with Don Ferrante Gonzaga,
the new imperial commander. On the 12th the capitulation was signed:
Florence was to pay an indemnity of 80,000 florins, the Medici were to
be recalled, the emperor was to establish the new government, "it being
understood that liberty is to be preserved." Baccio Valori, a Medicean
who had been in the imperialist camp, now took charge, and the city was
occupied by foreign troops. A _parlamento_ was summoned, the usual
packed _balìa_ created, and all opposition silenced. The city was given
over to Pope Clement, who, disregarding the terms of the capitulation,
had Carducci and Girolami (the last _gonfaloniere_) hanged, and
established Alessandro de' Medici, the natural son of Lorenzo, duke of
Urbino, as head of the republic on the 5th of July 1531. The next year
the signory was abolished, Alessandro created _gonfaloniere_ for life,
and his lordship made hereditary in his family by imperial patent. Thus
Florence lost her liberty, and came to be the capital of the duchy
(afterwards grand-duchy) of Tuscany (see TUSCANY).


  The Grand-Duchy of Tuscany.

The Medici dynasty ruled in Tuscany until the death of Gian Gastone in
1737, when the grand-duchy was assigned to Francis, duke of Lorraine.
But it was governed by a regency until 1753, when it was conferred by
the empress Maria Theresa on his son Peter Leopold. During the
Napoleonic wars the grand-duke Ferdinand III. of Habsburg-Lorraine was
driven from the throne, and Tuscany was annexed to the French empire in
1808. In 1809 Florence was made capital of the kingdom of Etruria, but
after the fall of Napoleon in 1814 Ferdinand was reinstated. He died in
1833, and was succeeded by Leopold II. In 1848 there was a liberal
revolutionary movement in Florence, and Leopold granted a constitution.
But civil disorders followed, and in 1849 the grand-duke returned under
an Austrian escort. In 1859, after the Franco-Italian victories over the
Austrians in Lombardy, by a bloodless revolution in Florence Leopold was
expelled and Tuscany annexed to the Sardinian kingdom.

In 1865 Florence became the capital of the kingdom of Italy, but after
the occupation of Rome in 1870 during the Franco-Prussian war, the
capital was transferred to the Eternal City (1871).

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The best complete history of Florence is Gino Capponi's
  _Storia della Repubblica di Firenze_ (2 vols., Florence, 1875), which
  although defective as regards the earliest times is a standard work
  based on original authorities; also F.T. Perrens, _Histoire de
  Florence_ (9 vols., Paris, 1877-1890). For the early period see
  Pasquale Villari's _I Primi Due Secoli della storia di Firenze_ (Eng.
  ed., London, 1894), and R. Davidsohn's _Geschichte der Stadt Florenz_
  (Berlin, 1896); P. Villari's _Savonarola_ (English ed., London, 1896)
  is invaluable for the period during which the friar's personality
  dominated Florence, and his _Machiavelli_ (English ed., London, 1892)
  must be also consulted, especially for the development of political
  theories. Among the English histories of Florence, Napier's
  _Florentine History_ (6 vols., London, 1846-1847) and A. Trollope's
  _History of the Commonwealth of Florence_ (4 vols., London, 1865) are
  not without value although out of date. Francis Hyett's _Florence_
  (London, 1903) is more recent and compendious; the author is somewhat
  Medicean in his views, and frequently inaccurate. For the later
  history, A. von Reumont's _Geschichte von Toscana_ (Gotha, 1876-1877)
  is one of the best works. There is a large number of small treatises
  and compendia of Florentine history of the guide-book description. See
  also the bibliographies in MEDICI, MACHIAVELLI, SAVONAROLA, TUSCANY,
  &c.     (L. V.*)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The historian, not to be confounded with the modern historian and
    statesman of the same name (q.v.).

  [2] The history of Florence from 1434 to 1737 will be found in
    greater detail in the article MEDICI, save for the periods from 1494
    to 1512 and from 1527 to 1530, during which the republic was
    restored. For the period from 1530 to 1860 see also under TUSCANY.



FLORES, an island in the Atlantic Ocean, belonging to Portugal, and
forming part of the Azores archipelago. Pop. (1900) 8137; area, 57 sq.
m. Flores and the adjacent island of Corvo (pop. 806; area, 7 sq. m.)
constitute the westernmost group of the Azores, and seem but imperfectly
to belong to the archipelago, from the rest of which they are widely
severed. They lie also out of the usual track of navigators; but to
those who, missing their course, are led thither, Flores affords good
shelter in its numerous bays. Its poultry is excellent; and the cattle
are numerous, but small. It derives its name from the abundance of the
flowers that find shelter in its deep ravines. Its capital is Santa Cruz
das Flores (2247). In 1591 Flores was the station of the English fleet
before the famous sea fight between Sir R. Grenville's ship "Revenge"
and a Spanish fleet of 53 vessels. See AZORES.



FLORES, an island of the Dutch East Indies, a member of the chain
extending east of Java. Its length is 224 m., its greatest breadth 37
m., and its area 5850 sq. m. The existence of slate, chalk, and
sandstone, eruptive rock, volcanoes and heights stretching west and
east, indicates a similar structure to that of the other islands of the
chain. Several volcanoes are active. Among the loftier summits are, on
the south coast, Gunong Rokka (7940 ft.) and Keo (6560 ft.); with the
lesser but constantly active Gunong Api, forming a peninsula; and at the
south-east, Lobetobi (7120 ft.). The thickly wooded interior is little
explored. The coasts have deep bays and extensive rounded gulfs, where
are situated the principal villages (_kampongs_). On the north coast are
Bari, Reo, Maumer and Geliting; on the east, Larantuka; and on the
south, Sikka and Endeh. The rivers, known only at their mouths, seem to
be unnavigable. The mean temperature is 77° to 80° F., and the yearly
rainfall 43 to 47 in. For administrative purposes the island is divided
into West Flores (Mangerai), attached to the government of Celebes, and
Middle and East Flores (Larantuka and dependencies), attached to the
residency of Timor. The population is estimated at 250,000. The people
live by trade, fishing, salt-making, shipbuilding, and the cultivation
of rice, maize, and palms in the plain, but there is little industry or
commerce. Some edible birds' nests, rice, sandalwood and cinnamon are
exported to Celebes and elsewhere. The inhabitants of the
coast-districts are mainly of Malay origin. The aborigines, who occupy
the interior, are of Papuan stock. They are tall and well-built, with
dark or black skins. The hair is frizzly. They are pure savages; their
only religion is a kind of nature-worship. They consider the earth holy
and inviolable; thus in severe droughts they only dig the river-beds for
water as a last resource. Portugal claimed certain portions of the
island until 1859.



FLOREZ, ENRIQUE (1701-1773), Spanish historian, was born at Valladolid
on the 14th of February 1701. In his fifteenth year he entered the order
of St Augustine, was afterwards professor of theology at the university
of Alcala, and published a _Cursus theologiae_ in five volumes
(1732-1738). He afterwards devoted himself to historical studies. Of
these the first-fruit was his _Clave Historial_, a work of the same
class as the French _Art de vérifier les dates_, and preceding it by
several years. It appeared in 1743, and passed through many editions. In
1747 was published the first volume of _España Sagrada, teatro
geografico-historico de la Iglesia de España_, a vast compilation of
Spanish ecclesiastical history which obtained a European reputation, and
of which twenty-nine volumes appeared in the author's lifetime. It was
continued after his death by Manuel Risco and others, and further
additions have been made at the expense of the Spanish government. The
whole work in fifty-one volumes was published at Madrid (1747-1886). Its
value is considerably increased by the insertion of ancient chronicles
and documents not easily accessible elsewhere. Florez was a good
numismatist, and published _Medallas de las Colonias_ in 2 vols.
(1757-1758), of which a third volume appeared in 1773. His last work was
the _Memorias de las reynas Catolicas_, 2 vols. (1770). Florez led a
retired, studious and unambitious life, and died at Madrid on the 20th
of August 1773.

  See F. Mendez, _Noticia de la vida y escritos de Henrique Florez_
  (Madrid, 1780).



FLORIAN, SAINT, a martyr honoured in Upper Austria. In the 8th century
Puoche was mentioned as the place of his tomb, and on the site was built
the celebrated monastery of canons regular, St Florian, which still
exists. His _Acta_ are of considerable antiquity, but devoid of
historical value. Their substance is borrowed from the _Acta_ of St
Irenaeus of Sirmium. The cult of St Florian was introduced into Poland,
together with the relics of the saint, which were brought thither in
1183 by Giles, bishop of Modena. Casimir, duke of Poland, dedicated a
church at Cracow to him. He is represented in various ways, especially
as a warrior holding in his hand a vessel from which he pours out
flames. His protection is often sought against fire. His day in the
calendar is the 4th of May.

  See _Acta Sanctorum_, May, i. 461-467; B. Krusch, _Scriptores rerum
  Merovingicarum_, iii. 65-68; C. Cahier, _Caractéristiques des saints_,
  p. 490 (Paris, 1867).     (H. De.)



FLORIAN, JEAN PIERRE CLARIS DE (1755-1794), French poet and romance
writer, was born on the 6th of March 1755 at the château of Florian,
near Sauve, in the department of Gard. His mother, a Spanish lady named
Gilette de Salgues, died when he was quite a child. His uncle and
guardian, the marquis of Florian, who had married a niece of Voltaire,
introduced him at Ferney and in 1768 he became page at Anet in the
household of the duke of Penthièvre, who remained his friend throughout
his life. Having studied for some time at the artillery school at
Bapaume he obtained from his patron a captain's commission in a dragoon
regiment, and in this capacity it is said he displayed a boisterous
behaviour quite incongruous with the gentle, meditative character of his
works. On the outbreak of the French Revolution he retired to Sceaux,
but he was soon discovered and imprisoned; and though his imprisonment
was short he survived his release only a few months, dying on the 13th
of September 1794.

Florian's first literary efforts were comedies; his verse epistle
_Voltaire et le serf du Mont Jura_ and an eclogue _Ruth_ were crowned by
the French Academy in 1782 and 1784 respectively. In 1782 also he
produced a one-act prose comedy, _Le Bon Ménage_, and in the next year
_Galatée_, a romantic tale in imitation of the _Galatea_ of Cervantes.
Other short tales and comedies followed, and in 1786 appeared _Numa
Pompilius_, an undisguised imitation of Fénelon's _Télémaque_. In 1788
he became a member of the French Academy, and published _Estelle_, a
pastoral of the same class as _Galatée_. Another romance, _Gonzalve de
Cordoue_, preceded by an historical notice of the Moors, appeared in
1791, and his famous collection of _Fables_ in 1792. Among his
posthumous works are _La Jeunesse de Florian, ou Mémoires d'un jeune
Espagnol_ (1807), and an abridgment (1799) of _Don Quixote_, which,
though far from being a correct representation of the original, had
great and merited success.

Florian imitated Salomon Gessner, the Swiss idyllist, and his style has
all the artificial delicacy and sentimentality of the Gessnerian school.
Perhaps the nearest example of the class in English literature is
afforded by John Wilson's (Christopher North's) _Lights and Shadows of
Scottish Life_. Among the best of his fables are reckoned "The Monkey
showing the Magic Lantern," "The Blind Man and the Paralytic," and "The
Monkeys and the Leopard."

  The best edition of Florian's _Oeuvres complètes_ appeared in Paris in
  16 volumes, 1820; his _Oeuvres inédites_ in 4 volumes, 1824.

  See "Vie de Florian," by L.F. Jauffret, prefixed to his _Oeuvres
  posthumes_ (1802); A.J.N. de Rosny, _Vie de Florian_ (Paris, An V.);
  Sainte-Beuve, _Causeries du lundi_, t. iii.; A. de Montvaillant,
  _Florian, sa vie, ses oeuvres_ (1879); and _Lettres de Florian à Mme
  de la Briche_, published, with a notice by the baron de Barante in
  _Mélanges_ published (1903) by the Société des bibliophiles français.



FLORIANOPOLIS (formerly _Desterro_, _Nossa Senhora do Desterro_ and
_Santa Catharina_, and still popularly known under the last
designation), a city and port of Brazil and the capital of the state of
Santa Catharina, on the western or inside shore of a large island of the
same name, 485 m. S.S.W. of Rio de Janeiro, in 27° 30' S., 48° 30' W.
Pop. (1890) 11,400, including many Germans; (1902, estimate) 16,000; of
the municipality, including a large rural district and several villages
(1890), 30,687. The harbour is formed by the widening of the strait
separating the island from the mainland, which is nearly 2 m. wide at
this point. It is approached by narrow entrances from the N. and S.,
which are defended by small forts. The island is mountainous and wooded,
and completely shelters the harbour from easterly storms. The
surroundings are highly picturesque and tropical in character, but the
town itself is poorly built and unattractive. Its public buildings
include the president's official residence, arsenal, lyceum, hospital
and some old churches. The climate is warm for the latitude, but the
higher elevations of the vicinity are noted for their mild climate and
healthfulness. There are some German colonies farther up the coast whose
products find a market here, and a number of small settlements along the
mainland coast add something to the trade of the town. The more distant
inland towns are partly supplied from this point, but difficult mountain
roads tend to restrict the trade greatly. There is a considerable trade
in market produce with Rio de Janeiro, but the exports are
inconsiderable. Santa Catharina was formerly one of the well-known
whaling stations of the South Atlantic, and is now a secondary military
and naval station.

The island of Santa Catharina was originally settled by the Spanish;
Cabeza de Vaca landed here in 1542 and marched hence across country to
Asuncion, Paraguay. The Spanish failed to establish a permanent colony,
however, and the Portuguese took possession. The island was captured by
a Spanish expedition under Viceroy Zeballos in 1777. A boundary treaty
of that same year restored it to Portugal. In 1894 Santa Catharina fell
into the possession of revolutionists against the government of
President Floriano Peixoto. With the collapse of the revolution the city
was occupied by the government forces, and its name was then changed to
Florianopolis in honour of the president of the republic.



FLORIDA, the most southern of the United States of America, situated
between 24° 30' and 31° N. lat. and 79° 48' and 87° 38' W. long. It is
bounded N. by Georgia and Alabama, E. by the Atlantic Ocean, S. by the
Strait of Florida, which separates it from Cuba, and by the Gulf of
Mexico, and W. by Alabama and the Gulf. The Florida Keys, a chain of
islands extending in a general south-westerly direction from Biscayne
Bay, are included in the state boundaries, and the city of Key West, on
an island of the same name, is the seat of justice of Monroe county. The
total area of the state is 58,666 sq. m., of which 3805 sq. m. are water
surface. The coast line is greater than that of any other state,
extending 472 m. on the Atlantic and 674 m. on the Gulf Coast.

The peculiar outline of Florida gives it the name of "Peninsula State."
The average elevation of the surface of the state above the sea-level is
less than that of any other state except Louisiana, but there is not the
monotony of unbroken level which descriptions and maps often suggest.
The N.W. portion of the state is, topographically, similar to
south-eastern Alabama, being a rolling, hilly country; the eastern
section is a part of the Atlantic coastal plain; the western coast line
is less regular than the eastern, being indented by a number of bays and
harbours, the largest of which are Charlotte Harbour, Tampa Bay and
Pensacola Bay. Along much of the western coast and along nearly the
whole of the eastern coast extends a line of sand reefs and narrow
islands, enclosing shallow and narrow bodies of water, such as Indian
river and Lake Worth--called rivers, lakes, lagoons, bays and harbours.
In the central part of the state there is a ridge, extending N. and S.
and forming a divide, separating the streams of the east coast from
those of the west. Its highest elevation above sea-level is about 300
ft. The central region is remarkable for its large number of lakes,
approximately 30,000 between Gainesville in Alachua county, and Lake
Okeechobee. They are due largely to sinkholes or depressions caused by
solution of the limestone of the region. Many of the lakes are connected
by subterranean channels, and a change in the surface of one lake is
often accompanied by a change in the surface of another. By far the
largest of these lakes, nearly all of them shallow, is Lake Okeechobee,
a body of water about 1250 sq. m. in area and almost uniformly shallow,
its depth seldom being greater than 15 ft. Caloosahatchee river, flowing
into the Gulf of Mexico near Charlotte Harbour, is its principal outlet.
Among the other lakes are Orange, Crescent, George, Weir, Harris,
Eustis, Apopka, Tohopekaliga, Kissimmee and Istokpoga. The chief feature
of the southern portion of the state is the Everglades (q.v.), the term
"Everglade State" being popularly applied to Florida. Within the state
there are many swamps, the largest of which are the Big Cypress Swamp in
the S. adjoining the Everglades on the W., and Okefinokee Swamp,
extending from Georgia into the N.E. part of the state.

  A peculiar feature of the drainage of the state is the large number of
  subterranean streams and of springs, always found to a greater or less
  extent in limestone regions. Some of them are of great size. Silver
  Spring and Blue Spring in Marion county, Blue Spring and Orange City
  Mineral Spring in Volusia county, Chipola Spring near Marianna in
  Jackson county, Espiritu Santo Spring near Tampa in Hillsboro county,
  Magnolia Springs in Clay county, Suwanee Springs in Suwanee county,
  White Sulphur Springs in Hamilton county, the Wekiva Springs in Orange
  county, and Wakulla Spring, Newport Sulphur Spring and Panacea Mineral
  Spring in Wakulla county are the most noteworthy. Many of the springs
  have curative properties, one of them, the Green Cove Spring in Clay
  county, discharging about 3000 gallons of sulphuretted water per
  minute. Not far from St Augustine a spring bursts through the sea
  itself with such force that the ocean breakers roll back from it as
  from a sunken reef. The springs often merge into lakes, and lake
  systems are usually the sources of the rivers, Lake George being the
  principal source of the St Johns, and Lake Kissimmee of the Kissimmee,
  while a number of smaller lakes are the source of the Oklawaha, one of
  the most beautiful of the Floridian rivers.

[Illustration: Map of Florida.]

Of the rivers the most important are the St Johns, which flows N. from
about the middle of the peninsula, empties into the Atlantic a short
distance below Jacksonville, and is navigable for about 250 m. from its
mouth, the Withlacoochee, flowing in a general north-westerly direction
from its source in the N.E. part of Polk county, and forming near its
entrance into the Gulf of Mexico the boundary between Levy and Citrus
counties, and four rivers, the Escambia, the Choctawatchee, the
Apalachicola, and the Suwanee, having their sources in other states and
traversing the north-western part of Florida. On account of its sand
reefs, the east coast has not so many harbours as the west coast. The
most important harbours are at Fernandina, St Augustine, and Miami on
the E. coast, and at Tampa, Key West and Pensacola on the W. coast.

  The soils of Florida have sand as a common ingredient.[1] They may be
  divided into three classes: the pine lands, which often have a surface
  of dark vegetable mould, under which is a sandy loam resting on a
  substratum of clay, marl or limestone--areas of such soil are found
  throughout the state; the "hammocks," which have soil of similar
  ingredients and are interspersed with the pine lands--large areas of
  this soil occur in Levy, Alachua, Citrus, Hernando, Pasco, Gadsden,
  Leon, Madison, Jefferson and Jackson counties; and the alluvial swamp
  lands, chiefly in E. and S. Florida, the richest class, which require
  drainage to fit them for cultivation.

As regards climate Florida may be divided into three more or less
distinct zones. North and west of a line passing through Cedar Keys and
Fernandina the climate is distinctly "southern," similar to that of the
Gulf states; from this line to another extending from the mouth of the
Caloosahatchee to Indian river inlet the climate is semi-tropical, and
is well suited to the cultivation of oranges; S. of this the climate is
sub-tropical, well adapted to the cultivation of pineapples. Since the
semi-tropical and sub-tropical zones are nearer the course of the Gulf
Stream, and are swept by the trade winds, their temperatures are more
uniform than those of the zones of southern climate; indeed, the
extremes of heat (103° F.) and cold (13° F.) are felt in the region of
southern climate. The mean annual temperature of the state is 70.8° F.,
greater in the sub-tropical than in the other climate zones, and the
Atlantic coast is in general warmer than the Gulf Coast. The rainfall
averages 52.09 in. per annum. On account of its warm climate, Florida
has many resorts for health and pleasure, which are especially popular
in the season from January to April; the more important are St
Augustine, Ormond, Daytona, Palm Beach, Miami, Tampa, White Springs,
Hampton Springs, Worthington Springs and Orange Springs.

  No metals have ever been discovered in Florida. The principal minerals
  are rock phosphate and (recently more important) land and river pebble
  phosphate, found in scattered deposits in a belt on the "west coast"
  about 30 m. wide and extending from Tallahassee to Lake Okeechobee.
  The centre of the quarries is Dunnellon in Marion county, and pebble
  phosphate is found in Hillsboro, Polk, De Soto, Osceola, Citrus and
  Hernando counties. Although the economic value of the phosphate
  deposits was first realized about 1889, between 1894 and 1907 Florida
  produced, each year, more than half of all the phosphate rock produced
  in the whole United States, the yield of Florida (1,357,365 long tons)
  in 1907 being valued at $6,577,757; that of the whole country at
  $10,653,558. Florida is also the principal source in the United States
  for fuller's earth, a deposit of which, near Quincy, was first
  discovered in 1893; and clay (including kaolin) is also mined to some
  extent. Other minerals that have been discovered but have not been
  industrially developed are gypsum, lignite and cement rock. The lack
  of a thorough geological survey has perhaps prevented the discovery of
  other minerals--certainly it is responsible for a late recognition of
  the economic value of the known mineral resources.

  The flora of N. Florida is similar to that of south-eastern North
  America; that of S. Florida seems to be a link between the vegetation
  of North America and that of South America and the West Indies, for
  out of 247 species of S. Florida that have been examined, 187 are
  common to the West Indies, Mexico and South America. The forests cover
  approximately 37,700 sq. m., chiefly in the northern part of the
  state, including about half of the peninsula, yellow pine being
  predominant, except in the coastal marsh lands, where cypress, found
  throughout the state, particularly abounds. About half of the
  varieties of forest trees in the United States are found, and among
  the peculiar species are the red bay or "Florida Mahogany," satinwood
  and cachibou, and the Florida yew and savin, both almost extinct. The
  lumber industry is important: in 1905 the total factory product of
  lumber and timber was valued at $10,901,650, and lumber and planing
  mill products were valued at $1,690,455. In 1900 this was the most
  valuable industry in the state; in 1905 it was second to the
  manufacture of tobacco. The fauna is similar in general to that of the
  southern United States. Among the animals are the puma, manatee (sea
  cow), alligator and crocodile, but the number of these has been
  greatly diminished by hunting. Ducks, wild turkeys, bears and wild
  cats (lynx) are found, but in decreasing numbers.

  The fisheries are very valuable; the total number of species of fish
  in Florida waters is about 600, and many species found on one coast
  are not found on the other. The king fish and tarpon are hunted for
  sport, while mullet, shad, redsnappers, pompano, trout, sheepshead and
  Spanish mackerel are of great economic value. The sponge and oyster
  fisheries are also important. The total product of the fisheries in
  1902 was valued at about $2,000,000.

_Industry and Commerce._--The principal occupation is agriculture, in
which 44% of the labouring population was engaged in 1900, but only
12.6% of the total land surface was enclosed in farms, of which only
34.6% was improved, and the total agricultural product for 1899 was
valued at $18,309,104. As the number of farms increased faster than the
cultivated area from 1850 to 1900, the average size of farms declined
from 444 acres in 1860 to 140 in 1880 and to 106.9 in 1900, the largest
class of farms being those with an acreage varying from 20 to 50 acres.
Nearly three-fourths of the farms, in 1900, were cultivated by their
owners, but the cash tenantry system showed an increase of 100% since
1890, being most extensively used in the cotton counties. One-third of
the farms were operated by negroes, but one-half of these farms were
rented, and the value of negro farm property was only one-eighth that of
the entire farm property of the state. According to the state census of
1905 only 1,621,362 acres were improved; of 45,984 farms, 31,233 were
worked by whites.

Fruits normally form the principal crop; the total value for 1907-8 of
the fruit crops of the state (including oranges, lemons, limes,
grape-fruit, bananas, guavas, pears, peaches, grapes, figs, pecans, &c.)
was $6,160,299, according to the report of the State Department of
Agriculture. The discovery of Florida's adaptability to the culture of
oranges about 1875 may be taken as the beginning of the state's modern
industrial development. But the unusual severity of the winters of 1887,
1894 and 1899 (the report of the Twelfth Census which gives the figures
for this year being therefore misleading) destroyed three-fourths of the
orange trees, and caused an increased attention to stock-raising, and to
various agricultural products. Orange culture has recovered much of its
importance, but it is carried on in the more southern counties of the
state. The cultivation of pineapples, in sub-tropical Florida, is
proving successful, the product far surpassing that of California, the
only other state in the Union in which pineapples are grown.
Grape-fruit, guavas and lemons are also successfully produced in this
part of the state. The cultivation of strawberries and vegetables
(cabbage, cauliflower, beets, beans, tomatoes, egg-plant, cucumbers,
water-melons, celery, &c.) for northern markets, and of orchard fruits,
especially plums, pears and prunes, has likewise proved successful. In
1907-8, according to the State Department of Agriculture, the total
value of vegetable and garden products was $3,928,657. In 1903,
according to the statistics of the United States Department of
Agriculture, Indian corn ranked next to fruits (as given in the state
reports), but its product as compared with that of various other states
is unimportant--in 1907 it amounted to 7,017,000 bushels only; rice is
the only other cereal whose yield in 1899 was greater than that of 1889,
but the Florida product was surpassed (in 1899) by that of the
Carolinas, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas; in 1907 the product of rice in
Florida (69,000 bushels) was less than that of Texas, Louisiana, South
Carolina, Arkansas and Georgia severally. Tobacco culture, which
declined after 1860 on account of the competition of Cuba and Sumatra,
has revived since 1885 through the introduction of Cuban and Sumatran
seed; the product of 1907 (6,937,500 lb.) was more than six times that
of 1899, the product in 1899 (1,125,600 lb.) being more than twice that
of 1889 (470,443 lb.), which in turn was more than twenty times that for
1880 (21,182 lb.)--the smallest production recorded for many decades. In
1907 the average farm price of tobacco was 45 cents per lb. higher than
that of any other state. In 1899, 84% of the product was raised in
Gadsden county. The sweet potato and pea-nut crops have also become very
valuable; on the other hand the Census of 1900 showed a decline in
acreage and production of cotton. In 1907 the acreage (265,000 acres)
was less than in any cotton-growing state except Missouri and Virginia;
the crop for 1907-1908 was 49,794 bales. Sea-island cotton of very high
grade is grown in Alachua county. The production of sugar, begun by the
early Spanish settlers, declined, but that of syrup increased. Pecan
nuts are a promising crop, and many groves were planted after 1905. In
1900 there were more than 1,900,000 acres of land in the state
unoccupied. The low lands of the South are being drained partly by the
state and partly by private companies. Irrigation, introduced in 1888 by
the orange growers, has been adopted by other farmers, especially the
tobacco-growers of Gadsden county, and so the evil effects of the
droughts, so common from February to June, are avoided. The value of
farm property in the southern counties, which have been developed very
recently, shows a steady increase, that of Hillsboro county surpassing
the other counties of the state. In 1907-8, according to the state
Department of Agriculture, the total value of all field crops (cotton,
cereals, sugar-cane, hay and forage, sweet potatoes, &c.) was
$11,856,340, and the total value of all farm products (including live
stock, $20,817,804, poultry and products, $1,688,433, and dairy
products, $1,728,642) was $46,371,320.

  The manufactures of Florida, as compared with those of other states,
  are unimportant. Their product in 1900 was more than twice the product
  in 1890, and the product in 1905 (from establishments under the
  factory system only) was $50,298,290, i.e. 47.1% greater than in 1900.
  The most important industries were those that depended upon the
  forests, their product amounting to nearly 45% of the entire
  manufactured product of the state. The lumber and timber products were
  valued in 1905 at $10,901,650, almost twice their valuation in 1890,
  and an increase of 1.2% over the product of 1900. The manufacture of
  turpentine and rosin, material for which is obtained from the pine
  forests, had increased greatly in importance between 1890 and 1900,
  the product in 1890 being valued at only $191,859, that of 1900 at
  $6,469,605, and from the latter sum it increased in 1905 to
  $9,901,905, an increase of more than one-half. In 1900 the state
  ranked second and in 1905 first of all the states of the country in
  the value of this product; in 1905 the state's product amounted to
  41.4% of that of the entire country. The manufacture of cigars and
  cigarettes (almost entirely of cigars, few cigarettes being
  manufactured), carried on chiefly by Cubans at Key West and Tampa,
  also increased in importance between 1890 and 1900, the products in
  the latter year being valued at $10,735,826, or more than one-quarter
  more than in 1890, and in 1905 there was a further increase of 56.2%,
  the gross value being $16,764,276, or nearly one-third of the total
  factory product of the state. In 1900 Florida ranked fourth in the
  manufacture of tobacco among the states of the Union, being surpassed
  by New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio; in 1905 it ranked third (after New
  York and Pennsylvania). Most of the tobacco used is imported from
  Cuba, though, as has been indicated, the production of the state has
  greatly increased since 1880. In the manufacture of fertilizers, the
  raw material for which is derived from the phosphate beds, Florida's
  aggregate product in 1900 was valued at $500,239, and in 1905 at
  $1,590,371, an increase of 217.9% in five years.

Florida's industrial progress has been mainly since the Civil War, for
before that conflict a large part of the state was practically
undeveloped. An important influence has been the railways. In 1880 the
total railway mileage was 518 m.; in 1890 it was 2489 m.; in 1900, 3255
m., and in January 1909, 4,004.92 m. The largest system is the Atlantic
Coast Line, the lines of which in Florida were built or consolidated by
H.B. Plant (1819-1899) and once formed a part of the so-called "Plant
System" of railways. The Florida East Coast Railway is also the product
of one man's faith in the country, that of Henry M. Flagler (b. 1830).
The Seaboard Air Line, the Louisville & Nashville, and the Georgia
Southern & Florida are the other important railways. The Southern
railway penetrates the state as far as Jacksonville, over the tracks of
the Atlantic Coast Line. A state railway commission, whose members are
elected by the people, has power to enforce its schedule of freight
rates except when such rates would not pay the operating expenses of the
railway. In 1882 the Florida East Coast Line Canal and Transportation
Co. was organized to develop a waterway from Jacksonville to Biscayne
Bay by connecting with canals the St Johns, Matanzas, and Halifax
rivers, Mosquito Lagoon, Indian river, Lake Worth, Hillsboro river, New
river, and Snake Creek; in 1908 this vast undertaking was completed. The
development of marine commerce has been retarded by unimproved harbours,
but Fernandina and Pensacola harbours have always been good. Since 1890
much has been done by the national Government, aided in many cases by
the local authorities and by private enterprise, to improve the harbours
and to extend the limits of river navigation. With the increase of trade
between the United States and the West Indies following the
Spanish-American War (1898), the business of the principal ports,
notably of Fernandina, Tampa and Pensacola, greatly increased.

_Population._--The population of Florida in 1880 was 269,493; in 1890,
391,422, an increase of 45.2%; and in 1900, 528,542, or a further
increase of 35%; and in 1905, by a state census, 614,845; and in 1910,
752,619. In 1900, 95.5% were native born, 43.7% were coloured (including
479 Chinese, Japanese and Indians), and in 1905 the percentages were
little altered. The Seminole Indians, whose number is not definitely
known, live in and near the Everglades. The urban population on the
basis of places having a population of 4000 or more was 16.6% of the
total in 1900 and 22.7% in 1905, the percentage for Florida, as for
other Southern States, being small as compared with the percentage for
most of the other states of the Union. In 1900 there were 92, and, in
1905, 125 incorporated cities, towns and villages; but only 14 (in 1905,
22) of these had a population of over 2000, and only 4 (in 1905, 8) a
population of more than 5000. The four in 1900 were: Jacksonville
(28,429); Pensacola (17,747); Key West (17,114); and Tampa (15,839). The
eight in 1905 were Jacksonville (35,301), Tampa (22,823), Pensacola
(21,505), Key West (20,498), Live Oak (7200), Lake City (6409),
Gainesville (5413), and St Augustine (5121). Tallahassee is the capital
of the state. In 1906 the Baptists were the strongest religious
denomination; the Methodists ranked second, while the Roman Catholic,
Presbyterian and Protestant Episcopal churches were of relatively minor
importance.

_Government._--The present constitution was framed in 1885 and was
ratified by the people in 1886. Its most important feature, when
compared with the previous constitution of 1868, is its provision for
the choice of state officials other than the governor (who was
previously chosen by election) by elections instead of by the governor's
appointment, but the governor, who serves for four years and is not
eligible for the next succeeding term, still appoints the circuit
judges, the state attorneys for each judicial circuit and the county
commissioners; he may fill certain vacancies and may suspend, and with
the Senate remove officers not liable to impeachment. The governor is a
member of the Board of Pardons, the other members being the
attorney-general, the secretary of state, the comptroller and the
commissioner of agriculture; he and the secretary of state,
attorney-general, comptroller, treasurer, superintendent of public
instruction, and commissioner of agriculture comprise a Board of
Commissioners of State Institutions; he is also a member of the Board of
Education. The office of lieutenant-governor was abolished by the
present constitution. The legislature meets biennially, the senators
being chosen for four, the representatives for two years. By an
amendment of 1896 the Senate consists of not more than 32, and the House
of Representatives of not more than 68 members; by a two-thirds vote of
members present the legislature may pass a bill over the governor's
veto. The three judges of the Supreme Court and the seven of the circuit
court serve for six years, those of the county courts for four years,
and justices of the peace (one for each justice district, of which the
county commissioners must form at least two in each county) hold office
for four years. The constitutional qualifications for suffrage are: the
age of twenty-one years, citizenship in the United States or
presentation of naturalization certificates at registration centres,
residence in the state one year and in the county six months, and
registration. To these requirements the payment of a poll-tax has been
added by legislative enactment, such an enactment having been authorized
by the constitution. Insane persons and persons under guardianship are
excluded by the constitution, and "all persons convicted of bribery,
perjury, larceny or of infamous crime, or who shall make or become
directly or indirectly interested in any bet or wager the result of
which shall depend upon any election," or who shall participate as
principal, second or challenger in any duel, are excluded by legislative
enactment.

Amendments to the constitution may be made by a three-fifths vote of
each house of the legislature, ratified by a majority vote of the
people. A revision of the Constitution may be made upon a two-thirds
vote of all members of both Houses of the legislature, if ratified by a
majority vote of the people; a Constitutional Convention is then to be
provided for by the legislature, such convention to meet within six
months of the passage of the law therefor, and to consist of a number
equal to the membership of the House of Representatives, apportioned
among the counties, as are the members of this House.

A homestead of 160 acres, or of one-half of an acre in an incorporated
town or city, owned by the head of a family residing in the state, with
personal property to the value of $1000 and the improvements on the real
estate, is exempt from enforced sale except for delinquent taxes,
purchase money, mortgage or improvements on the property. The wife holds
in her own name property acquired before or after marriage; the
intermarriage of whites and negroes (or persons of negro descent to the
fourth generation) is prohibited. All these are constitutional
provisions. By legislative enactment whites and blacks living in
adultery are to be punished by imprisonment or fine; divorces may be
secured only after two years' residence in the state and on the ground
of physical incapacity, adultery, extreme cruelty, habitual indulgence
in violent temper, habitual drunkenness, desertion for one year,
previous marriage still existing, or such relationship of the parties as
is within the degrees for which marriage is prohibited by law.
Legitimacy of natural children can be established by subsequent marriage
of the parents, and the age of consent is sixteen years.

  The bonded debt was incurred during the Reconstruction Period
  (1865-1875). In 1871 7% 30 year bonds to the extent of $350,000 were
  issued and in 1873 another issue of 6% 30 year bonds to the value of
  $925,000 was made. Most of these were held by the Educational Fund at
  the time of their maturity. By 1901 all but $267,700 of the issue of
  1871 had been retired and this amount was then refunded with 3% 50
  year bonds which were taken by the Educational Fund. In 1903 $616,800
  of the 1873 issue was held by the Educational Fund and $148,000 by
  individuals. The first part of this claim was refunded by a new bond
  issue, also taken by the Educational Fund, the second was paid from an
  Indian war claim of $692,946, received from the United States
  government in 1902, when $132,000 bonds of 1857, held by the United
  States government, were also extinguished. The bonded debt was thus
  reduced to $884,500; and on the 1st of January 1909 the debt,
  consisting of refunding bonds held as educational funds, amounted to
  $601,567.

_Penal System._--There is no penitentiary; the convicts are hired to the
one highest bidder who contracts for their labour, and who undertakes,
moreover, to lease all other persons convicted during the term of the
lease, and sub-leases the prisoners. In 1889 the convicts were placed
under the care of a supervisor of convicts, and in 1905 the law was
amended so that one or more supervisors could be appointed at the will
of the governors. In 1908 there were four supervisors and one state
prison physician, and there are special laws designed to prevent abuses
in the system. In 1908 the state received $208,148 from the lease of
convicts. Decrepit prisoners were formerly leased, but in 1906 the lease
excluded such as were thought unfit by the state prison physician. Women
convicts were still leased with the men in 1908; of the 446 convicts
committed in that year, there were 15 negro females, 356 negro males and
75 white males. In the same year 54 escaped, and 27 were recaptured. The
leased convicts are employed in the turpentine and lumber industries and
in the phosphate works. The 1232 convicts "on hand" at the close of
1908 were held in 38 camps, 4 being the minimum, and 160 the maximum
number, at a camp. In 1908 two central hospitals for the prisoners were
maintained by the lessee company. County prison camps are under the
supervision of the governor and the supervisors of convicts. The state
supervisors must inspect each state prison camp and each county prison
camp every thirty days.

_Education._--As early as 1831 an unsuccessful attempt was made to form
an adequate public school fund; the first real effort to establish a
common school system for the territory was made after 1835; in 1840
there were altogether 18 academies and 51 common schools, and in 1849
the state legislature made an appropriation in the interest of the
public instruction of white pupils, and this was supplemented by the
proceeds of land granted by the United States government for the same
purpose. In 1852 Tallahassee established a public school; and in 1860
there were, according to a report of the United States census, 2032
pupils in the public schools of the state, and 4486 in "academies and
other schools." The Civil War, however, interrupted the early progress,
and the present system of common schools dates from the constitution of
1868 and the school law of 1869. The school revenue derived from the
interest of a permanent school fund, special state and county taxes, and
a poll-tax, in 1907-1908 amounted to $1,716,161; the per capita cost for
each child of school age was $6.11 (white, $9.08; negro, $2.24), and the
average school term was 108 days (112 for whites, 99 for negroes). The
state constitution prescribes that "white and colored children shall not
be taught in the same school, but impartial provision shall be made for
both." The percentage of enrolment in 1907-1908 was 60 (whites, 66;
negroes, 52). The percentage of attendance to enrolment was 70%,--68%
for white and 74% for negro schools. Before 1905 the state provided for
higher education by the Florida State College, at Tallahassee, formerly
the West Florida Seminary (founded in 1857); the University of Florida,
at Lake City, which was organized in 1903 by enlarging the work of the
Florida Agricultural College (founded in 1884); the East Florida
Seminary, at Gainesville (founded 1848 at Ocala); the normal school (for
whites) at De Funiak Springs; and the South Florida Military Institute
at Bartow; but in 1905 the legislature passed the Buckman bill
abolishing all these state institutions for higher education and
establishing in their place the university of the state of Florida and a
state Agricultural Experiment Station, both now at Gainesville, and the
Florida Female College at Tallahassee, which has the same standards for
entrance and for graduation as the state university for men. Private
educational institutions in Florida are John B. Stetson University at De
Land (Baptist); Rollins College (1885) at Winter Park (non-sectarian),
with a collegiate department, an academy, a school of music, a school of
expression, a school of fine arts, a school of domestic and industrial
arts, and a business school; Southern College (1901), at Sutherland
(Methodist Episcopal, South); the Presbyterian College of Florida
(1905), at Eustis; Jasper Normal Institute (1890), at Jasper, and the
Florida Normal Institute at Madison. The negroes have facilities for
advanced instruction in the Florida Baptist Academy, and Cookman
Institute (Methodist Episcopal, South), both at Jacksonville, and in the
Normal and Manual Training School (Congregational), at Orange Park.
There are a school for the Blind, Deaf, and Dumb (1885) at St.
Augustine, a hospital for the insane at Chattahoochee and a reform
school at Marianna, all wholly supported by the state, and a Confederate
soldiers' and sailors' home at Tallahassee, which is partially supported
by the state.

_History._--The earliest explorations and attempts at colonization of
Florida by Europeans were made by the Spanish. The Council of the Indies
claimed that since 1510 fleets and ships had gone to Florida, and
Florida is shown on the Cantino map of 1502. In 1513 Juan Ponce de Leon
(c. 1460-1521), who had been with Christopher Columbus on his second
voyage and had later been governor of Porto Rico, obtained a royal grant
authorizing him to discover and settle "Bimini,"--a fabulous island
believed to contain a marvellous fountain or spring whose waters would
restore to old men their youth or at least had wonderful curative
powers. Soon after Easter Day he came in sight of the coast of Florida,
probably near the mouth of the St Johns river. From the name of the day
in the calendar, _Pascua Florida_, or from the fact that many flowers
were found on the coast, the country was named Florida. De León seems to
have explored the coast, to some degree, on both sides of the peninsula,
and to have turned homeward fully convinced that he had discovered an
immense island. He returned to Spain in 1514, and obtained from the king
a grant to colonize "the island of Bimini and the island of Florida," of
which he was appointed adelantado, and in 1521 he made another
expedition, this one for colonization as well as for discovery. He seems
to have touched at the island of Tortugas, so named on account of the
large number of turtles found there, and to have landed at several
places, but many of his men succumbed to disease and he himself was
wounded in an Indian attack, dying soon afterward in Cuba. Meanwhile, in
1516, another Spaniard, Diego Miruelo, seems to have sailed for some
distance along the west coast of the peninsula. The next important
exploration of Florida was that of Panfilo de Narvaez. In 1527 he sailed
from Cuba with about 600 men (soon reduced to less than 400), landed
(early in 1528) probably at the present site of Pensacola, and for six
months remained in the country, he and his men suffering terribly from
exposure, hunger and fierce Indian attacks. In September, his ships
being lost and his force greatly reduced in number, he hastily
constructed a crazy fleet, re-embarked probably at Apalachee Bay, and
lost his life in a storm probably near Pensacola Bay. Only four of his
men, including Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca, succeeded after eight years of
Indian captivity and of long and weary wanderings, in finding their way
to Spanish settlements in Mexico. Florida was also partially explored by
Ferdinando de Soto (q.v.) in 1539-1540. In the summer of 1559 another
attempt at colonization was made by Tristan de Luna, who sailed from
Vera Cruz, landed at Pensacola Bay, and explored a part of Florida and
(possibly) Southern Alabama. Somewhere in that region he desired to make
a permanent settlement, but he was abandoned by most of his followers
and gave up his attempt in 1561.

In the following year, Jean Ribaut (1520-1565), with a band of French
Huguenots, landed first near St Augustine and then at the mouth of the
St Johns river, which he called the river of May, and on behalf of
France claimed the country, which he described as "the fairest,
fruitfullest and pleasantest of all the world"; but he made his
settlement on an island near what is now Beaufort, South Carolina. In
1564 René de Laudonnière (? -c. 1586), with another party of Huguenots,
established Fort Caroline at the mouth of the St Johns, but the colony
did not prosper, and in 1565 Laudonnière was about to return to France
when (on the 28th of August) he was reinforced by Ribaut and about 300
men from France. On the same day that Ribaut landed, a Spanish
expedition arrived in the bay of St Augustine. It was commanded by Pedro
Menéndez de Avilés (1523-1574), one of whose aims was to destroy the
Huguenot settlement. This he did, putting to death almost the entire
garrison at Fort Caroline "not as Frenchmen, but as Lutherans," on the
20th of September 1565. The ships of Ribaut were soon afterwards wrecked
near Matanzas Inlet; he and most of his followers surrendered to
Menéndez and were executed. Menéndez then turned his attention to the
founding of a settlement which he named St Augustine (q.v.); he also
explored the Atlantic coast from Cape Florida to St Helena, and
established forts at San Mateo (Fort Caroline), Avista, Guale and St
Helena. In 1567 he returned to Spain in the interest of his colony.

The news of the destruction of Fort Caroline, and the execution of
Ribaut and his followers, was received with indifference at the French
court; but Dominique de Gourgues (c. 1530-1593), a friend of Ribaut but
probably a Catholic, organized an expedition of vengeance, not informing
his men of his destination until his three ships were near the Florida
coast. With the co-operation of the Indians under their chief Saturiba
he captured Fort San Mateo in the spring of 1568, and on the spot where
the garrison of Fort Caroline had been executed, he hanged his Spanish
prisoners, inscribing on a tablet of pine the words, "I do this not as
unto Spaniards but as to traitors, robbers and murderers." Feeling
unable to attack St Augustine, de Gourgues returned to France.

The Spanish settlements experienced many vicissitudes. The Indians were
hostile and the missionary efforts among them failed. In 1586 St
Augustine was almost destroyed by Sir Francis Drake and it also suffered
severely by an attack of Captain John Davis in 1665. Not until the last
decade of the 17th century did the Spanish authorities attempt to extend
the settlements beyond the east coast. Then, jealous of the French
explorations along the Gulf of Mexico, they turned their attention to
the west coast, and in 1696 founded Pensacola. When the English colonies
of the Carolinas and Georgia were founded, there was constant friction
with Florida. The Spanish were accused of inciting the Indians to make
depredations on the English settlements and of interfering with English
commerce and the Spanish were in constant fear of the encroachments of
the British. In 1702, when Great Britain and Spain were contending in
Europe, on opposite sides, in the war of the Spanish Succession, a force
from South Carolina captured St Augustine and laid siege to the fort,
but being unable to reduce it for lack of necessary artillery, burned
the town and withdrew at the approach of Spanish reinforcements. In 1706
a Spanish and French expedition against Charleston, South Carolina,
failed, and the Carolinians retaliated by invading middle Florida in
1708 and again in 1722. In 1740 General James Edward Oglethorpe,
governor of Georgia, supported by a naval force, made an unsuccessful
attack upon St Augustine; two years later a Spanish expedition against
Savannah by way of St Simon's Island failed, and in 1745 Oglethorpe
again appeared before the walls of St Augustine, but the treaty of
Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 prevented further hostilities. Pensacola, the
other centre of Spanish settlement, though captured and occupied
(1719-1723) by the French from Louisiana, had a more peaceful history.

By the treaty of Paris in 1763 Florida was ceded to England in return
for Havana. The provinces of East Florida and West Florida were now
formed, the boundaries of West Florida being 31° N. lat. (when civil
government was organized in 1767, the N. line was made 32° 28'), the
Chattahoochee, and the Apalachicola rivers, the Gulf of Mexico,
Mississippi Sound, Lakes Borgne, Pontchartrain and Maurepas, and the
Mississippi river. A period of prosperity now set in. Civil in place of
military government was instituted; immigration began; and Andrew
Turnbull, an Englishman, brought over a band of about 1500 Minorcans
(1769), whom he engaged in the cultivation of indigo at New Smyrna.
Roads were laid out, some of which yet remain; and in the last three
years of English occupation the government spent $580,000 on the two
provinces. Consequently, the people of Florida were for the most part
loyal to Great Britain during the War of American Independence. In 1776,
the Minorcans of New Smyrna refused to work longer on the indigo
plantations; and many of them removed to St Augustine, where they were
protected by the authorities. Several plans were made to invade South
Carolina and Georgia, but none matured until 1778, when an expedition
was organized which co-operated with British forces from New York in the
siege of Savannah, Georgia. In the following year, Spain having declared
war against Great Britain, Don Bernardo de Galvez (1756-1794), the
Spanish governor at New Orleans, seized most of the English forts in
West Florida, and in 1781 captured Pensacola.

By the treaty of Paris (1783) Florida reverted to Spain, and, no
religious liberty being promised, many of the English inhabitants left
East and West Florida. A dispute with the United States concerning the
northern boundary was settled by the treaty of 1795, the line 31° N.
lat. being established.

The westward expansion of the United States made necessary American
ports on the Gulf of Mexico; consequently the acquisition of West
Florida as well as of New Orleans was one of the aims of the
negotiations which resulted in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. After the
cession of Louisiana to the United States, the people of West Florida
feared that that province would be seized by Bonaparte. They, therefore,
through a convention at Buhler's Plains (July 17, 1810), formulated
plans for a more effective government. When it was found that the
Spanish governor did not accept these plans in good faith, another
convention was held on the 26th of September which declared West Florida
to be an independent state, organized a government and petitioned for
admission to the American Union. On the 27th of October President James
Madison, acting on a theory of Robert R. Livingston that West Florida
was ceded by Spain to France in 1800 along with Louisiana, and was
therefore included by France in the sale of Louisiana to the United
States in 1803, declared West Florida to be under the jurisdiction of
the United States. Two years later the American Congress annexed the
portion of West Florida between the Pearl and the Mississippi rivers to
Louisiana (hence the so-called Florida parishes of Louisiana), and that
between the Pearl and the Perdido to the Mississippi Territory.

In the meantime war between Great Britain and the United States was
imminent. The American government asked the Spanish authorities of East
Florida to permit an American occupation of the country in order that it
might not be seized by Great Britain and made a base of military
operations. When the request was refused, American forces seized
Fernandina in the spring of 1812, an action that was repudiated by the
American government after protest from Spain, although it was authorized
in official instructions. About the same time an attempt to organize a
government at St Mary's was made by American sympathizers, and a petty
civil war began between the Americans, who called themselves "Patriots,"
and the Indians, who were encouraged by the Spanish. In 1814 British
troops landed at Pensacola to begin operations against the United
States. In retaliation General Andrew Jackson captured the place, but in
a few days withdrew to New Orleans. The British then built a fort on the
Apalachicola river, and there directed expeditions of Indians and
runaway negroes against the American settlements, which continued long
after peace was concluded in 1814. In 1818 General Jackson, believing
that the Spanish were aiding the Seminole Indians and inciting them to
attack the Americans, again captured Pensacola. By the treaty of 1819
Spain formally ceded East and West Florida to the United States; the
treaty was ratified in 1821, when the United States took formal
possession, but civil government was not established until 1822.

Indian affairs furnished the most serious problems of the new Territory
of Florida. The aborigines, who seemed to have reached a stage of
civilization somewhat similar to that of the Aztecs, were conquered and
exterminated or absorbed by Creeks about the middle of the 18th century.
There was a strong demand for the removal of these Creek Indians, known
as Seminoles, and by treaties at Payne's Landing in 1832 and Fort Gibson
in 1833 the Indian chiefs agreed to exchange their Florida lands for
equal territory in the western part of the United States. But a strong
sentiment against removal suddenly developed, and the efforts of the
United States to enforce the treaty brought on the Seminole War
(1836-42), which resulted in the removal of all but a few hundred
Seminoles whose descendants still live in southern Florida.

In 1845 Florida became a state of the American Union. On the 10th of
January 1861 an ordinance of secession, which declared Florida to be a
"sovereign and independent nation," was adopted by a state convention,
and Florida became one of the Confederate States of America. The
important coast towns were readily captured by Union forces; Fernandina,
Pensacola and St Augustine in 1862, and Jacksonville in 1863; but an
invasion of the interior in 1864 failed, the Union forces being repulsed
in a battle at Olustee (on the 20th of February 1864). In 1865 a
provisional governor was appointed by President Andrew Johnson, and a
new state government was organized. The legislature of 1866 rejected the
Fourteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution, and soon afterwards
Florida was made a part of the Third Military District, according to the
Reconstruction Act of 1867. Negroes were now registered as voters by the
military authorities, and another Constitutional Convention met in
January and February 1868. A factional strife in the dominant party, the
Republican, now began; fifteen delegates withdrew from the convention;
the others framed a constitution, and then resolved themselves into a
political convention. The seceding members with nine others then
returned and organized; but the factions were reconciled by General
George M. Meade. A new constitution was framed and was ratified by the
electors, and Florida passed from under a quasi-military to a full civil
government on the 4th of July 1868.

The factional strife in the Republican party continued, a number of
efforts being made to impeach Governor Harrison Reed (1813-1899). The
decisive year of the Reconstruction Period was 1876. The Canvassing
Board, which published the election returns, cast out some votes, did
not wait for the returns from Dade county, and declared the Republican
ticket elected. George F. Drew (1827-1900), the Democratic candidate for
governor, then secured a mandamus from the circuit court restraining the
board from going behind the face of the election returns; this was not
obeyed and a similar mandamus was therefore obtained from the supreme
court of Florida, which declared that the board had no right to
determine the legality of a particular vote. According to the new count
thus ordered, the Democratic state ticket was elected. By a similar
process the board's decision in favour of the election of Republican
presidential electors was nullified, and the Democratic electors were
declared the successful candidates; but the electoral commission,
appointed by Congress, reversed this decision. (See ELECTORAL
COMMISSION.)

Since 1876 Florida has been uniformly Democratic in politics.

  American Governors of Florida.

    Territorial Governors.

  Andrew Jackson     1821-1822
  William P. Duval   1822-1834
  John H. Eaton      1834-1835
  Richard K. Call    1835-1840
  Robert R. Reid     1840-1841
  Richard K. Call    1841-1844
  John Branch        1844-1845

    State Governors.

  William D. Moseley   1845-1849 Democrat
  Thomas Brown         1849-1853 Whig
  James E. Broome      1853-1857 Democrat
  Madison S. Perry     1857-1861    "
  John Milton          1861-1865    "
  William Marvin       1865      Provisional
  David S. Walker      1865-1868 Democrat
  Harrison Reed        1868-1872 Republican
  Ossian B. Hart       1873-1874    "
  Marcellus L. Stearns 1874-1877    "
  George F. Drew       1877-1881 Democrat
  William D. Bloxham   1881-1885    "
  Edward A. Perry      1885-1889    "
  Francis P. Fleming   1889-1893    "
  Henry L. Mitchell    1893-1897    "
  William D. Bloxham   1897-1901    "
  William S. Jennings  1901-1905    "
  Napoleon B. Broward  1905-1909    "
  Albert W. Gilchrist  1909-        "

  Bibliography.--Physical and economic conditions are discussed in a
  pamphlet (591 pp.) published by the State Department of Agriculture,
  _Florida, a Pamphlet Descriptive of its History, Topography, Climate,
  Soil, &c._ (Tallahassee, 1904); in _Climate, Soil and Resources of
  Florida_ (United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, 1882);
  _A Preliminary Report on the Soils of Florida_ (United States
  Department of Agriculture, Division of Soils, Bulletin 13, 1898); C.L.
  Norton's _Handbook of Florida_ (2nd edition, New York, 1892); the
  volumes of the Twelfth Census of the United States (for 1900) which
  treat of Agriculture and Manufactures, and the Special Report on Mines
  and Quarries for 1902. J.N. MacGonigle's "Geography of Florida"
  (_National Geographic Magazine_, vol. 7), T.D.A. Cockerell's "West
  Indian Fauna in Florida" (_Nature_, vol. 46), L.F. Pourtales's "Flora
  and Fauna of the Florida Keys" (_American Naturalist_, vol. 11), and
  C.F. Millspaugh's _Flora of the Sand Keys of Florida_ (Chicago, 1907),
  a Field Columbian Museum publication, are of value. To sportsmen, C.B.
  Cory's _Hunting and Fishing in Florida_ (Boston, 1896) and A.W. and
  J.A. Dimock's _Florida Enchantments_ (New York, 1908) are of
  interest. For administration, see Wilbur F. Yocum's _Civil Government
  of Florida_ (De Land, Florida, 1904); and the _Revised Statutes of
  Florida_ (1892). The standard history is that by G.R. Fairbanks,
  _History of Florida_ (Philadelphia, 1871). This should be supplemented
  by D.G. Brinton's _Notes on the Floridian Peninsula, its Literary
  History, Indian Tribes and Antiquities_ (Philadelphia, 1859), which
  has an excellent descriptive bibliography of the early explorations;
  Woodbury Lowery, _The Spanish Settlements within the Present Limits of
  the United States_ (New York, vol. i., 1901; vol. ii., sub-title
  _Florida_, 1905); R.L. Campbell's Historical Sketches of Colonial
  Florida (Cleveland, 1892), which treats at length of the history of
  Pensacola; H.E. Chambers's _West Florida and its Relation to the
  Historical Cartography of the United States_ (Johns Hopkins Studies in
  Historical and Political Science, Series 16, No. 5); and Herbert B.
  Fuller's The _Purchase of Florida; its History and Diplomacy_
  (Cleveland, O., 1906). The only published collections of documents
  relating to the state are Buckingham Smith's _Colleccion de varios
  documentos para la historia de la Florida y tierras adyacentes_
  (London, 1857), and Benjamin F. French's _Historical Collections of
  Louisiana_ (New York, 1846-1875).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Almost everywhere limestone is the underlying rock, but siliceous
    sands, brought out by the Atlantic rivers to the N.E., are carried
    the whole length of the Florida coast by marine action.



FLORIDABLANCA, DON JOSE MOÑINO Y REDONDO, COUNT OF (1728-1808), Spanish
statesman, was born at Murcia in 1728. He was the son of a retired army
officer, and received a good education, which he completed at the
university of Salamanca, especially applying himself to the study of
law. For a time he followed the profession of an advocate, and acquired
a high reputation. A more public career was opened to him by the marquis
of Esquilache, then chief minister of state, who sent him ambassador to
Pope Clement XIV. Successful in his mission, he was soon after appointed
by Charles III. successor to his patron, and his administration was one
of the most brilliant Spain had ever seen. He regulated the police of
Madrid, reformed many abuses, projected canals, established many
societies of agriculture and economy and many philanthropical
institutions, and gave encouragement to learning, science and the fine
arts. Commerce flourished anew under his rule, and the long-standing
disputes with Portugal about the South American colonies were settled.
He sought to strengthen the alliance of Spain with Portugal by a double
marriage between the members of the royal houses, designing by this
arrangement to place ultimately a Spanish prince on the throne of
Portugal. But in this he failed. Floridablanca was the right-hand man of
King Charles III. in his policy of domestic reform, and was much under
the influence of French _philosophes_ and economic writers. Like other
reformers of that school he was a strong supporter of the royal
authority and a convinced partisan of benevolent despotism. The French
Revolution frightened him into reaction, and he advocated the support of
the first coalition against France. He retained his office for three
years under Charles IV.; but in 1792, through the influence of the
favourite Godoy, he was dismissed and imprisoned in the castle of
Pampeluna. Here he was saved from starvation only by the intervention of
his brother. He was afterwards allowed to retire to his estates, and
remained in seclusion till the French invasion of 1808. He was then
called by his countrymen to take the presidency of the central junta.
But his strength failed him, and he died at Seville on the 20th of
November of the same year. He left several short treatises on
jurisprudence.

  See _Obras originales del Conde de Floridablanca_, edited, with
  biographical introduction, by A. Ferrer del Rio; in the _Biblioteca de
  Rivadeneyra_, vol. lix.



FLORIDOR [JOSIAS DE SOULAS, Sieur de Prinefosse] (d. c. 1671), French
actor, was born in Brie early in the 17th century, the son of a
gentleman of German family who had moved to France, married there, and
become a Roman Catholic. The son entered the French army, but after
being promoted ensign, quitted the army for the theatre, where he took
the name of Floridor. His first Paris appearance was in 1640. Three
years later he was called to the company at the Hôtel de Bourgogne,
where he played all the leading parts in tragedy and comedy and became
the head of his profession. He was a man of superb physique and
excellent carriage, with a flexible and sonorous voice, and manners of
rare distinction and elegance. He was much liked at court, and Louis
XIV. held him in particular esteem. He died in 1671 or 1672.



FLORIN, the name applied to several coins of the continent of Europe and
to two coins struck in England at different times. The word comes
through the Fr. _florin_ from the Ital. _fiorino_, flower, Lat. _flos_,
_florem_. Fiorino was the Italian name of a gold coin issued at Florence
in 1252, weighing about fifty-four grains. This coin bore on the obverse
a lily, from which it took its name of "the flower," on the reverse the
Latin name of the city _Florentia_, from which it was also known as a
"florence." "Florin" and "florence" seem to have been used in English
indiscriminately as the name of this coin. The Florentine florin was
held in great commercial repute throughout Europe, and similar coins
were struck in Germany, other parts of Italy, France, &c. The English
gold florin was introduced by Edward III. in 1343, half and quarter
florins being struck at the same time. This gold florin weighed 108
grains and was to be current for six shillings. It was found, however,
to be overvalued in proportion to the silver currency and was
demonetized the following year. The florin did not again appear in the
English coinage until 1849, when silver coins with this name, having a
nominal value of two shillings (one-tenth of a pound), were struck. When
first issued the "Dei gratia" was omitted from the inscription, and they
were frequently referred to as the "Godless" or "graceless" florins. The
D.G. was added in 1852. In 1887 a double florin or four shilling piece
was issued, but its coinage was discontinued in 1890. The total value of
double florins issued during these years amounted to £533,125. (See also
NUMISMATICS.)



FLORIO, GIOVANNI (1553?-1625), English writer, was born in London about
1553. He was of Tuscan origin, his parents being Waldenses who had fled
from persecution in the Valtelline and taken refuge in England. His
father, Michael Angelo Florio, was pastor of an Italian Protestant
congregation in London in 1550. He was attached to the household of Sir
William Cecil, but dismissed on a charge of immorality. He dedicated a
book on the Italian language to Henry Herbert, and may have been a tutor
in the family of William Herbert, earl of Pembroke. Anthony à Wood says
that the Florios left England on the accession of Queen Mary, but
returned after her death. The son resided for a time at Oxford, and was
appointed, about 1576 tutor to the son of Richard Barnes, bishop of
Durham, then studying at Magdalen College. In 1578 Florio published a
work entitled _First Fruits, which yield Familiar Speech, Merry
Proverbs, Witty Sentences, and Golden Sayings_ (4to). This was
accompanied by _A Perfect Induction to the Italian and English Tongues_.
The work was dedicated to the earl of Leicester. Three years later
Florio was admitted a member of Magdalen College, and became a teacher
of French and Italian in the university. In 1591 appeared his _Second
Fruits, to be gathered of Twelve Trees, of divers but delightsome Tastes
to the Tongues of Italian and English men_; to which was annexed the
_Garden of Recreation, yielding six thousand Italian Proverbs_ (4to).
These manuals contained an outline of the grammar, a selection of
dialogues in parallel columns of Italian and English, and longer
extracts from classical Italian writers in prose and verse. Florio had
many patrons; he says that he "lived some years" with the earl of
Southampton, and the earl of Pembroke also befriended him. His Italian
and English dictionary, entitled _A World of Words_, was published in
folio in 1598. After the accession of James I., Florio was named French
and Italian tutor to Prince Henry, and afterwards became a gentleman of
the privy chamber and clerk of the closet to the queen, whom he also
instructed in languages. His _magnum opus_ is the admirable translation
of the _Essayes on Morall, Politike, and Millitarie Discourses of Lo.
Michaell de Montaigne_, published in folio in 1603 in three books, each
dedicated to two noble ladies. A second edition in 1613 was dedicated to
the queen. Special interest attaches to the first edition from the
circumstance that of the several copies in the British Museum library
one bears the autograph of Shakespeare--long received as genuine but now
supposed to be by an 18th-century hand--and another that of Ben Jonson.
It was suggested by Warburton that Florio is satirized by Shakespeare
under the character of Holofernes, the pompous pedant of _Love's
Labour's Lost_, but it is much more likely, especially as he was one of
the earl of Southampton's protégés, that he was among the personal
friends of the dramatist, who may well have gained his knowledge of
Italian and French from him. He had married the sister of the poet
Daniel, and had friendly relations with many writers of his day. Ben
Jonson sent him a copy of _Volpone_ with the inscription, "To his loving
father and worthy friend Master John Florio, Ben Jonson seals this
testimony of his friendship and love." He is characterized by Wood, in
_Athenae Oxonienses_, as a very useful man in his profession, zealous
for his religion, and deeply attached to his adopted country. He died at
Fulham, London, in the autumn of 1625.



FLORIS, FRANS, or more correctly FRANS DE VRIENDT, called FLORIS
(1520-1570), Flemish painter, was one of a large family trained to the
study of art in Flanders. Son of a stonecutter, Cornelis de Vriendt, who
died at Antwerp in 1538, he began life as a student of sculpture, but
afterwards gave up carving for painting. At the age of twenty he went to
Liége and took lessons from Lambert Lombard, a pupil of Mabuse, whose
travels in Italy had transformed a style truly Flemish into that of a
mongrel Leonardesque. Following in the footsteps of Mabuse, Lambert
Lombard had visited Florence, and caught the manner of Salviati and
other pupils of Michelangelo and Del Sarto. It was about the time when
Schoreel, Coxcie and Heemskerk, after migrating to Rome and imitating
the masterpieces of Raphael and Buonarroti, came home to execute
Dutch-Italian works beneath the level of those produced in the peninsula
itself by Leonardo da Pistoia, Nanaccio and Rinaldo of Mantua. Fired by
these examples, Floris in his turn wandered across the Alps, and
appropriated without assimilation the various mannerisms of the schools
of Lombardy, Florence and Rome. Bold, quick and resolute, he saw how
easy it would be to earn a livelihood and acquire a name by drawing for
engravers and painting on a large scale after the fashion of Vasari. He
came home, joined the gild of Antwerp in 1540, and quickly opened a
school from which 120 disciples are stated to have issued. Floris
painted strings of large pictures for the country houses of Spanish
nobles and the villas of Antwerp patricians. He is known to have
illustrated the fable of Hercules in ten compositions, and the liberal
arts in seven, for Claes Jongeling, a merchant of Antwerp, and adorned
the duke of Arschot's palace of Beaumont with fourteen colossal panels.
Comparatively few of his works have descended to us, partly because they
came to be contemned for their inherent defects, and so were suffered to
perish, partly because they were soon judged by a different standard
from that of the Flemings of the 16th century. The earliest extant
canvas by Floris is the "Mars and Venus ensnared by Vulcan" in the
Berlin Museum (1547), the latest a "Last Judgment" (1566) in the
Brussels gallery. Neither these nor any of the intermediate works at
Alost, Antwerp, Copenhagen, Dresden, Florence, Léau, Madrid, St
Petersburg and Vienna display any charm of originality in composition or
in form. Whatever boldness and force they may possess, or whatever
principles they may embody, they are mere appropriations of Italian
models spoiled in translation or adaptation. Their technical execution
reveals a rapid hand, but none of the lustre of bright colouring; and
Floris owed much of his repute to the cleverness with which his works
were transferred to copper by Jerome Cock and Theodore de Galle. Whilst
Floris was engaged on a Crucifixion of 27 ft., and a Resurrection of
equal size, for the grand prior of Spain, he was seized with illness,
and died on the 1st of October 1570 at Antwerp.



FLORUS, Roman historian, flourished in the time of Trajan and Hadrian.
He compiled, chiefly from Livy, a brief sketch of the history of Rome
from the foundation of the city to the closing of the temple of Janus by
Augustus (25 B.C.). The work, which is called _Epitome de T. Livio
Bellorum omnium annorum DCC Libri duo_, is written in a bombastic and
rhetorical style, and is rather a panegyric of the greatness of Rome,
whose life is divided into the four periods of infancy, youth, manhood
and old age. It is often wrong in geographical and chronological
details; but, in spite of its faults, the book was much used in the
middle ages. In the MSS. the writer is variously given as Julius Florus,
Lucius Anneus Florus, or simply Annaeus Florus. From certain
similarities of style he has been identified with Publius Annius Florus,
poet, rhetorician and friend of Hadrian, author of a dialogue on the
question whether Virgil was an orator or poet, of which the introduction
has been preserved.

  The best editions are by O. Jahn (1852), C. Halm (1854), which contain
  the fragments of the Virgilian dialogue. There is an English
  translation in Bohn's _Classical Library_.



FLORUS, JULIUS, poet, orator, and jurist of the Augustan age. His name
has been immortalized by Horace, who dedicated to him two of his
_Epistles_ (i. 3; ii. 2), from which it would appear that he composed
lyrics of a light, agreeable kind. The statement of Porphyrion, the old
commentator on Horace, that Florus himself wrote satires, is probably
erroneous, but he may have edited selections from the earlier satirists
(Ennius, Lucilius, Varro). Nothing is definitely known of his
personality, except that he was one of the young men who accompanied
Tiberius on his mission to settle the affairs of Armenia. He has been
variously identified with Julius Florus, a distinguished orator and
uncle of Julius Secundus, an intimate friend of Quintilian (_Instit_. x.
3, 13); with the leader of an insurrection of the Treviri (Tacitus,
_Ann_. iii. 40); with the Postumus of Horace (_Odes_, ii. 14) and even
with the historian Florus.



FLORUS, PUBLIUS ANNIUS, Roman poet and rhetorician, identified by some
authorities with the historian Florus (q.v.). The introduction to a
dialogue called _Virgilius orator an poëta_ is extant, in which the
author (whose name is given as Publius Annius Florus) states that he was
born in Africa, and at an early age took part in the literary contests
on the Capitol instituted by Domitian. Having been refused a prize owing
to the prejudice against African provincials, he left Rome in disgust,
and after travelling for some time set up at Tarraco as a teacher of
rhetoric. Here he was persuaded by an acquaintance to return to Rome,
for it is generally agreed that he is the Florus who wrote the
well-known lines quoted together with Hadrian's answer by Aelius
Spartianus (_Hadrian_ 16). Twenty-six trochaic tetrameters, _De
qualitate vitae_, and five graceful hexameters, _De rosis_, are also
attributed to him. Florus is important as being the first in order of a
number of 2nd-century African writers who exercised a considerable
influence on Latin literature, and also the first of the _poëtae
neoterici_ or _novelli_ (new-fashioned poets) of Hadrian's reign, whose
special characteristic was the use of lighter and graceful metres
(anapaestic and iambic dimeters), which had hitherto found little
favour.

  The little poems will be found in E. Bährens, _Poëtae Latini minores_
  (1879-1883); for an unlikely identification of Florus with the author
  of the _Pervigilium Veneris_ (q.v.) see E.H.O. Müller, _De P. Annio
  Floro poëta et de Pervigilio Veneris_ (1855), and, for the poet's
  relations with Hadrian, F. Eyssenhardt, _Hadrian und Florus_ (1882);
  see also F. Marx in Pauly-Wissowa's _Realencyclopädie_, i. pt. 2
  (1894).



FLOTOW, FRIEDRICH FERDINAND ADOLF VON, FREIHERR (1812-1883), German
composer, was born on his father's estate at Teutendorf, in Mecklenburg,
on the 27th of April 1812. Destined originally for the diplomatic
profession, his passion for music induced his father to send him to
Paris to study under Reicha. But the outbreak of the revolution in 1830
caused his return home, where he busied himself writing chamber-music
and operetta until he was able to return to Paris. There he produced
_Pierre et Cathérine, Rob Roy, La Duchesse de Guise_, but made his first
real success with Le _Naufrage de la Méduse_ at the Renaissance Théâtre
in 1838. Greater, however, was the success which attended _Stradella_
(1844) and _Martha_ (1847), which made the tour of the world. In 1848
Flotow was again driven home by the Revolution, and in the course of a
few years he produced _Die Grossfürstin_ (1850), _Indra_ (1853),
_Rübezahl_ (1854), _Hilda_ (1855) and _Albin_ (1856). From 1856 to 1863
he was director (Intendant) of the Schwerin opera, but in the latter
year he returned to Paris, where in 1869 he produced _L'Ombre_. From
that time to the date of his death he lived in Paris or on his estate
near Vienna. He died on the 24th of January 1883. Of his concert-music
only the _Jubelouvertüre_ is now ever heard. His strength lay in the
facility of his melodies.



FLOTSAM, JETSAM and LIGAN, in English law, goods lost at sea, as
distinguished from goods which come to land, which are technically
designated _wreck_. Jetsam (the same word as _jettison_, from Lat.
_jactare_, to throw) is when goods are cast into the sea, and there sink
and remain under water; flotsam (_floatson_, from _float_, Lat.
_flottare_) is where they continue floating on the surface of the waves;
ligan (or _lagan_, from _lay_ or _lie_) is where they are sunk in the
sea, but tied to a cork or buoy in order to be found again. Flotsam,
jetsam and ligan belong to the sovereign in the absence only of the true
owner. Wreck, on the other hand (i.e. goods cast on shore), was by the
common law adjudged to the sovereign in any case, because it was said by
the loss of the ship all property was gone out of the original owner.
This singular distinction which treated goods washed ashore as lost, and
goods on and in the sea as not lost, is no doubt to be explained by the
primitive practice of plundering wrecked ships. (See WRECK.)



FLOUNDER, a common term for flat-fish. The name is also more specially
given to certain varieties, according to local usage. Thus the
_Pleuronectes flesus_ is the common flounder of English terminology,
found along the coasts of northern Europe from the Bristol Channel to
Iceland. It is particularly partial to fresh water, ascending the Rhine
as far as Cologne. It rarely exceeds a length of 12 in. or a weight of
1½ lb. In American terminology the principal fish of the name are the
"summer flounders" or "deep-sea flounders," also known in America as
"plaice" (_Paralichthys dentatus_), as long as 3 ft. and as heavy as 15
lb.; the "four-spotted flounders" (_Paralichthys oblongus_); the
"common" or "winter" flounder (_Pseudopleuronectes americanus_); the
"diamond flounder" (_Hysopsetta guttulata_); and the "pole flounder"
(_Glyptocephalus cynoglossus_).



FLOUR and FLOUR MANUFACTURE. The term "flour" (Fr. _fleur_, flower, i.e.
the best part) is usually applied to the triturated farinaceous
constituents of the wheat berry (see WHEAT); it is, however, also used
of other cereals and even of leguminoids when ground into a fine powder,
and of many other substances in a pulverulent state, though in these
cases it is usual to speak of rye flour, bean flour, &c. The flour
obtained from oats is generally termed oatmeal. In Great Britain wheaten
flour was commonly known in the 16th and 17th centuries as meal, and up
to the beginning of the 19th century, or perhaps later, the term mealing
trade was not infrequently used of the milling trade.


  Primitive grinding.

The ancestor of the millstone was apparently a rounded stone about the
size of a man's fist, with which grain or nuts were pounded and crushed
into a rude meal. These stones are generally of hard sandstone and were
evidently used against another stone, which by dint of continual
hammering was broken into hollows. Sometimes the crusher was used on the
surface of rocks. St Bridget's stone, on the shore of Lough Macnean, is
supposed to have been a primitive Irish mill; there are many depressions
in the face of the table-like rock, and it is probable that round this
stone several women (for in early civilization the preparation of flour
was peculiarly the duty of the women) would stand and grind, or rather
pound, meal. Many such stones, known as Bullan stones, still exist in
Ireland. Similar remains are found in the Orkneys and Shetlands, and it
is on record that some of these stones have been used for flour-making
within historic times. Richard Bennett in his _History of Corn Milling_
remarks that the Seneca Indians to this day boil maize and crush it into
a paste between loose stones. In the same way the Omahas pound this
cereal in holes in the rocks, while the Oregon Indians parch and pound
the capsules of the yellow lily, much after the fashion described by
Herodotus in his account of the ancient Egyptians. In California the
Indian squaws make a sort of paste by crushing acorns between a round
stone or "muller," and a cuplike hollow in the surface of a rock.
Crushing stones are of different shapes, ranging from the primitive
ball-like implement to an elongated shape resembling the pestle of a
mortar. Mullers of the latter type are not infrequent among prehistoric
remains in America, while Dr Schliemann discovered several specimens of
the globular form on the reputed site of the city of Troy, and also
among the ruins of Mycenae. As a matter of fact stone mullers survived
in highly civilized countries into modern days, if indeed they are now
altogether extinct.


  Saddle-stone.

The saddle-stone is the connecting link between the primitive pounder,
or muller, and the quern, which was itself the direct ancestor of the
millstones still used to some extent in the manufacture of flour. The
saddle-stone, the first true grinding implement, consisted of a stone
with a more or less concave face on which the grain was spread, and in
and along this hollow surface it was rubbed and ground into coarse meal.
Saddle-stones have been discovered in the sand caves of Italy, among the
lake dwellings of Switzerland, in the dolmens of France, in the pit
dwellings of the British Isles, and among the remains of primitive folk
all the world over. The Romans of the classical period seem to have
distinguished the saddle-stone from the quern. We find allusions to the
_mola trusatilis_, which may be translated "the thrusting mill"; this
would fairly describe a backwards and forwards motion. The _mola
versatilis_ evidently referred to the revolving millstone or quern. In
primitive parts of the world the saddle-stone is not yet extinct, as for
instance in Mexico. It is known as the _metata_, and is used both for
grinding maize and for making the maize cakes known as tortillas. The
same implement is apparently still in use in some parts of South
America, notably in Chile.


  Quern.

According to Richard Bennett, the quern, the first complete milling
machine, originated in Italy and is in all probability not older than
the 2nd century B.C. This is, however, a controverted point. Querns are
still used in most primitive countries, nor is it certain that they have
altogether disappeared from remoter districts of Scotland and Ireland.
Whatever was their origin, they revolutionized flour milling. The rotary
motion of millstones became the essential principle of the trituration
of grain, and exists to-day in the rolls of the roller mill. The early
quern appears to have differed from its descendants in that it was
somewhat globular in shape, the lower stone being made conical, possibly
with the idea that the ground flour should be provided with a downward
flow to enable it to fall from the stones. This type did not, however,
persist. Gradually the convexity disappeared and the surface of the two
stones became flat or very nearly so. In the upper stone was a species
of funnel, through which the grain passed as through a hopper, making
its way thence, as the stone revolved, into the space between the
running and the bed stone. The ground meal was discharged at the
periphery. The runner, or upper stone, was provided with a wooden handle
by which the stone was revolved. The typical Roman mill of the Augustan
age may be seen at Pompeii. Here, in what is believed to have been a
public _pistrinum_ or mill, were found four pairs of millstones. The
circular base of these mills is 5 ft. in diameter and 1 ft. high, and
upon it was fastened the _meta_, a blunt cone about 2 ft. high, on which
fitted the upper millstone or _catillus_, also conical. These mills were
evidently rotated by slave labour, as there was no room for the
perambulation of a horse or donkey, while the side-lugs in which the
handle-bars were inserted are plainly visible. Slave labour was
generally used up to the introduction of Christianity, but was finally
abolished by the emperor Constantine, though even after his edict mills
continued to be driven by criminals.


  Use of power.

The Romans are credited by some authorities with having first applied
power to the driving of millstones, which they connected with
water-wheels by a horizontal spindle through the intervention of bevel
gearing. But long after millstones had been harnessed to water power
slave labour was largely employed as a motive force. The watermill of
the Romans was introduced at a relatively early period into Britain.
Domesday Book shows that England was covered by mills of a kind at the
time of the Norman conquest, and mentions some 500 mills in the
counties of Norfolk and Suffolk alone. No doubt the _mola_ of Domesday
Book consisted of one pair of stones connected by rude gearing with a
water-wheel. Windmills are said to have been introduced by the
Crusaders, who brought them from the East. Steam power is believed to
have been first used in a British flour mill towards the close of the
18th century, when Boulton & Watt installed a steam engine in the Albion
Flour Mills in London, erected under the care of John Rennie. Another
great engineer, Sir William Fairbairn, in the early days of the 19th
century, left the impress of his genius on the mill and all its
accessories. He was followed by other clever engineers, and in the days
immediately preceding the roller period many improvements were
introduced as regards the balancing and driving of millstones. The
introduction of the blast and exhaust to keep the stones cool was a
great step in advance, while the substitution of silk gauze for woollen
or linen bolting cloth, about the middle of the 19th century, marked
another era in British milling. Millstones, as used just before the
introduction of roller milling, were from 4 to 4½ ft. in diameter by
some 12 in. in thickness, and were usually made of a siliceous stone,
known as buhr-stone, much of which came from the quarry of La
Ferté-sous-Jouarre, in France.


  Roller milling.

Nine-tenths, or perhaps ninety-nine hundredths, of all the flour
consumed in Great Britain is made in roller mills, that is, mills in
which the wheat is broken and floured by means of rollers, some grooved
in varying degrees of fineness, some smooth, their work being preceded
and supplemented by a wide range of other machinery. All roller mills
worthy of the name are completely automatic, that is to say, from the
time the raw material enters the mill warehouse till it is sacked,
either in the shape of finished flour or of offals, it is touched by no
human hand.

The history of roller milling extends back to the first half of the 19th
century. Roller mills, that is to say, machines fitted with rolls set
either horizontally, or vertically, or obliquely, for the grinding of
corn, are said to have been used as far back as the 17th century, but if
this be so it is certain that they were only used in a tentative manner.
Towards the middle of the 19th century the firm of E.R. & F. Turner, of
Ipswich, began to build roller mills for breaking wheat as a preliminary
to the conversion of the resultant middlings on millstones. The rolls
were made of chilled iron and were provided with serrated edges, which
must have exercised a tearing action on the integuments of the berry.
These mills were built to the design of a German engineer, of the name
of G.A. Buchholz, and were exhibited at the London exhibition of 1862,
but they never came into general use. It has also been stated that as
early as 1823 a French engineer, named Collier, of Paris, patented a
roller mill, while five years later a certain Malar took out another
French patent, the specification of which speaks of grooves and
differential speeds. But the direct ancestors of the roller mills of the
present day were brought out some time in the third decade of the 19th
century by a Swiss engineer named Sulzberger. His apparatus was rather
cumbrous, and the chilled iron rolls with which it was fitted consumed a
large amount of power relatively to the work effected. But the Pester
Walz-Mühle, founded in 1839 by Count Szechenyi, a Hungarian nobleman,
which took its name from the roller mills with which it was equipped by
Sulzberger, was for many years a great success; some of its roller mills
are said to have been kept at work for upwards of forty years, and one
at least is preserved in the museum at Budapest.


  Hungarian practice.

It may be noted that Hungarian wheat is hard and flinty and well adapted
for treatment by rolls. Moreover, gradual reduction, as now understood,
was more or less practised in Hungary, even before the introduction of
roller milling. Though millstones, and not rolls, were used, yet the
wheat was not floured at one operation, as in typical low or flat
grinding, but was reduced to flour in several successive operations. In
the first break the stones would be placed just wide enough apart to
"end" the wheat, and in each succeeding operation the stones were
brought closer together. But Hungarian milling was not then automatic in
the sense in which British millers understand the word. For a long time
a great deal of hand labour was employed in the merchant mills of
Budapest in carrying about products from one machine to another for
further treatment. This practice may have been partly due to the cheap
labour available, but it was also the deliberate policy of Hungarian
millers to handle in this way the middlings and fine "dunst," because it
was maintained that only thus could certain products be delivered to the
machine by which they were to be treated in the perfection of condition.
The results were good so far as the finished products were concerned,
but in the light of modern automatic milling the system appears
uneconomical. Not only did it postulate an inordinately large staff, but
it further increased the labour bill by the demand it made on the number
of sub-foremen who were occupied in classifying, largely by touch, the
various products, and directing the labourers under them. Hungarian
milling still differs widely from milling as practised in Great Britain
in being a longer system. This is due to the more minute subdivision of
products, a necessary consequence of the large number of grades of flour
and offals made in Hungary, where there are many intermediate varieties
of middlings and "dunst" for which no corresponding terms are available
in an English miller's vocabulary.


  Semolina, middlings, dunst.

It will be convenient here to explain the meaning of three terms
constantly used by millers, namely, _semolina_, _middlings_ and _dunst_.
These three products of roller mills are practically identical in
composition, but represent different stages in the process of reducing
the endosperm of the wheat to flour. A wheat berry is covered by several
layers of skin, while under these layers is the floury kernel or
endosperm. This the break or grooved rolls tend to tear and break up.
The largest of these more or less cubical particles are known as
semolina, whilst the medium-sized are called middlings and the smallest
sized termed dunst. The last is a German word, with several meanings,
but is used in this particular sense by German and Austrian millers,
from whom it was doubtless borrowed by the pioneers of roller milling in
England. If we were to lay a sample of fairly granular flour beside a
sample of small dunst the two would be easy to distinguish, but place a
magnifying glass over the flour and it would look very like the dunst.
If we were to repeat this experiment on dunst and fine middlings, the
former would under the glass present a strong resemblance to the
middlings. The same effect would be produced by the putting side by side
of large middlings and small semolina. This is a broad description of
semolina, middlings and dunst. Semolina and middlings are more apt to
vary in appearance than dunst, because the latter is the product of the
later stages of the milling process and represents small particles of
the floury kernel tolerably free from such impurities as bran or fluff.
The flour producing middlings must not be confounded with the variety of
wheat offal which is also known to many English millers as middlings.
This consists of husk or bran, more or less comminuted, and with a
certain proportion of floury particles adherent. It is only fit for
feeding beasts.


  Porcelain rolls.

The spread of roller milling on the continent of Europe was undoubtedly
accelerated by the invention of porcelain rolls, by Friedrich Wegmann, a
Swiss miller, which were brought into general use in the seventh decade
of the 19th century, and are still widely employed. They are admirably
fitted for the reduction of semolina, middlings and dunst into flour;
and for reducing pure middlings, that is, middlings containing no bran
or wheat husk, there is perhaps nothing that quite equals them. They
were introduced into Great Britain in 1877, or thereabouts, and were
used for several years, but ultimately they almost disappeared from
British mills. This was partly due to the fact that as made at that date
they were rather difficult to work, as it was not easy to keep the rolls
perfectly parallel. Another drawback was their inadaptability to
over-heavy feeds, to which the British, and perhaps still more the
American, miller is frequently obliged to resort. However, since the
beginning of the 20th century some of the most advanced flour mills in
England have again taken to using porcelain rolls for some part of
their reduction process.


  Roller milling in England.

The birth of roller milling in Great Britain may be said to date from
1872, when Oscar Oexle, a German milling engineer, erected a set of
roller mills in the Tradeston Mills, in Glasgow. This was long before
the introduction of automatic roller mills. But the foundations of the
millstone system were not seriously disturbed till 1877, when a party of
leading British and Irish millers visited Vienna and Budapest with the
object of studying roller milling in its native home. In 1878 J.H.
Carter installed in the mill of J. Boland, of Dublin, what was probably
the first complete automatic roller plant erected in the United Kingdom,
and in 1881 a milling exhibition held at the Royal Agricultural Hall,
London, showed the automatic roller system in complete operation. From
that time the roller system made great progress. By 1885 many of the
leading British millers had installed full roller plants, and in the
succeeding ten years small roller plants were installed in many country
mills. For a time there was a transition stage in which there was in
operation a number of so-called "combined" plants, that is to say, mills
in which the wheat was broken on millstones or disk mills, while the
middlings were reduced by smooth rolls; but these gradually dropped out
of being.

Well-found British flour mills at the present time are probably the best
fitted in the world, and as a whole have nothing to fear from comparison
with their American competitors. It is true that American millers were
rather quicker to copy Hungarian milling methods so far as gradual
reduction was concerned. But from about 1880 the British miller was
quite awake to his position and was straining every nerve to provide
himself with a plant capable of dealing with every kind of wheat. It has
often been said that he commands the wheat of the whole world. This is
true in a sense, but it is not true that he can always command the exact
kind of wheat he requires at the price required to meet foreign
competition. Therein he is at a disadvantage. But engineers have done
their best to meet this weak point, and by their assistance he is able
to compete under almost all conditions with the millers of the whole
world.

_Processes of Milling._--Fully to appreciate the various processes of
modern milling, it must be remembered not only that the wheat as
delivered at the mill is dusty and mixed with sand and even more
objectionable refuse, but also that it contains many light grains and
seeds of other plants. It is not therefore sufficient for the miller to
be able to reduce the grain to flour on the most approved principles; he
must also have at command the means of freeing it from foreign
substances, and further of "conditioning" it, should it be damp or over
dry and harsh. Again, his operations must be conducted with reference to
the structure of the wheat grain. The wheat berry is a fruit, not a
seed, the actual seed being the germ or embryo, a kidney-shaped body
which is found at the base of the berry and is connected with the
plumule or root. The germ is tough in texture and is in roller milling
easily separated from the rest of the berry, being flattened instead of
crushed by the rolls and thus readily sifted from the stock. The germ
contains a good deal of fatty matter, which, if allowed to remain, would
not increase the keeping qualities of the flour. Botanists distinguish
five skins on the berry--epidermis, epicarp, endicarp, episperm and
embryous membrane--but for practical purposes the number of integuments
may be taken as three. The inner skin is often as thick as the outer and
second skins together, which are largely composed of woody fibre; it
contains the cerealin or aleurone cells, but although these are made up
of a certain proportion of proteids, on account of the discolouring and
diastasic action of the cerealin in flour they are best eliminated. The
endosperm, or floury kernel, coming next to the inner skin, consists of
starch granules which are caught as it were in the minute meshes of a
net. This network is the gluten, and it may be noted that these meshes
are not of equal consistency throughout the berry, but are usually finer
and more dense near the husk than in the interior of the kernel. This
glutinous portion is of great importance to the baker because on its
quantity and quality depends the "strength" or rising power of the
flour, and the aim of modern roller milling is to retain it as
completely as possible, a matter of some difficulty owing to its close
adherence to the husk, especially in the richest wheats. Another organ
of the wheat berry which has a most important bearing on the work of the
miller is the placenta, which is in effect a cord connecting the berry
with its stalk or straw. The placenta serves to filter the food which
the plant sucks up from the ground; it passes up the crease of the
berry, and is enfolded in the middle skin, being protected on the outer
side by the first and having the third or inner skin on its other side.
A good deal of the matters filtered by the placenta are mineral in their
nature, and such portions as are not digested remain in the crease. This
is the matter which millers call "crease dirt." It is highly
discolouring to flour, and must be carefully eliminated. The fuzzy end
of the berry known as the beard also has a distinct function; its hairs
are in reality tubes which serve to carry off superfluous moisture. They
have, in common with the bran, no nutritive value. (See also WHEAT.)

  In the old "flat" or "low" milling the object was to grind as
  perfectly as possible, at one operation, the central substance of the
  grain, constituting the flour, and to separate it from the embryo and
  outer skins constituting the bran. In "high" milling, on the other
  hand, the grinding is effected in a series of operations, the aim
  being to get as much semolina and middlings as possible from the
  wheat, and to make as little flour as possible during the earlier or
  "breaking" part of the process. It is impossible altogether to avoid
  the production of flour at this stage, but properly set and worked
  break-rolls will make as little as 15% of "break-flour," which is of
  less value, being contaminated with crease dirt, and also because it
  is weak owing to the absence of the gluten cells which adhere more
  readily to the middlings. Whole wheaten flour, sometimes called Graham
  flour, consists of the entire grain ground up to a uniform mass.


    Dry cleaning.

  Wheat cleaning has been well called the foundation of all good
  milling. In the screen house, as the wheat-cleaning department of the
  mill is termed, will be found an array of machinery almost equal in
  range and variety to that in the mill itself. The wheat, drawn by an
  elevator from the barge, or hoisted in sacks, is first treated by a
  machine known as a warehouse separator. This apparatus accomplishes
  its work by means of flat sieves, some of which will be of much
  coarser mesh than others, and of air currents, the adjustment of which
  is a more delicate task than might appear. The warehouse separator
  serves to free dirty wheat of such impurities as lumps of earth,
  stones, straws and sand, not to mention small seeds, also some maize,
  oats and barley. Great care has to be exercised in all operations of
  the screen house lest wheat should pass away with the screenings.
  Besides the warehouse separator, which is made in different types and
  sizes, grading and sorting cylinders, and what are known as cockle and
  barley cylinders, are much used in the screen house. These cylinders
  are provided with indents so shaped and of such size as to catch seeds
  which are smaller than wheat, and reject grains, as of barley or oats,
  which are longer than wheat. Sorting cylinders should be followed by
  machines known as scourers, the function of which is to free the wheat
  from adherent impurities. These machines are of different types, but
  all depend on percussive action. A vertical scourer consists of a
  number of steel or iron beaters attached to a vertical spindle which
  revolves inside a metallic woven or perforated casing, the whole being
  fitted with an effectual exhaust. Scourers with horizontal spindles
  are also in great favour. Not every wheat is suitable for scouring,
  but some wheats are so mingled with impurities that a severe action
  between the beaters and the perforated case is absolutely necessary.
  The most efficient scourer is that which frees the wheat from the
  greatest amount of impurity with a minimum of abrasion. The beaters
  should be adjustable to suit different kinds of wheat. Scourers are
  followed by brush machines which are similar to the last and are of
  three distinct types: solid, divided and cone brushes. In the solid
  variety the brush surface is continuous around the circumference of a
  revolving cylinder; in divided brushes there is often a set of beaters
  or bars covered with brush but leaving intermediate spaces; while the
  cone brush consists of beaters covered with fibre arranged like cones
  around a vertical spindle. The object of all these brushes, the
  cylinder containing them being fitted with an exhaust fan, is to
  polish the wheat and remove adhering impurities which the percussive
  action of the scourer may have failed to eliminate, also to remove the
  beard or fuzzy end and any loose portions of the outer husk. But the
  miller must be careful not to overdo the scouring action and
  unnecessarily abrade the berry, else he will have trouble with his
  flour, the triturated bran breaking under the rolls and producing
  powder which will discolour the break flour. To remove such metallic
  fragments as nails, pieces of wire, &c., magnets are used. These may
  either be of horseshoe shape, in which case they are usually set at
  the head of the wheat spouts, or they may consist of magnetized plates
  set at angles over which the wheat will slide. It is not a bad plan to
  place the magnets just before the first set of break-rolls, where they
  should ensure the arrest of steel and iron particles, which might
  otherwise get between the rolls and spoil the edges of their grooves,
  and also do damage to the sifting machines. Mention must also be made
  of the automatic scales which are used to check the milling value of
  the wheat. In principle these machines are all the same, though
  details of construction may vary. Each weigher is set for a given
  weight of grain. As soon as the receiving hopper has poured through a
  valve into the recipient or skip, which is hung at one end of a beam
  scale, a load of grain sufficient to overcome the weight hung at the
  other end of the beam, the inlet of grain is automatically cut off and
  the skip is discharged, automatically returning to take another
  charge. Each weighing is automatically recorded on a dial. In this way
  a record can be kept of the gross weight of the uncleaned wheat
  entering the warehouse and of the net weight of the cleaned wheat. The
  difference between the two weighings will, of course, represent the
  loss by cleaning. The percentage of flour obtained from a given wheat
  can be ascertained in the mill itself. In practice the second weigher
  is placed just before the first break.


    Wet cleaning and conditioning.

  The cleansing of wheat by washing only became a fine art at the close
  of the 19th century, though it was practised in the north of England
  some twenty years earlier. Briefly it may be said that certain wheats
  are washed to free them from extraneous matters such as adherent earth
  and similar impurities which could not be removed by dry cleaning
  without undue abrasion. Such wheats are Indians, Persians and hard
  Russians, and these require not only washing but also conditioning, by
  which is meant mellowing, before going to the rolls. With another
  class of wheats, such as the softer Russians and Indians, spring
  Americans and Canadians, hard American winters, Californians and the
  harder River Plates, washing and conditioning by heat is also
  desirable, though care must be exercised not to let the moisture
  penetrate into the endosperm or floury portion of the kernel. In a
  third and distinct class fall soft wheats, such as many kinds of
  Plates, soft Russians and English wheat. It is generally admitted that
  while wheat of the first two divisions will benefit from the
  application of both moisture and heat, wheat of the third class must
  be washed with great circumspection. The object of washing machines is
  to agitate the wheat in water till the adherent foreign matters are
  washed off and any dirt balls broken up and drained off in the waste
  water. To this end some washers are fitted with Archimedean worm
  conveyors set either at an inclined angle or horizontally or
  vertically; or the washer may consist of a barrel revolving in a tank
  partly filled with water. Another function of washing machines is to
  separate stones of the same size which are found in several varieties
  of wheat. This separation is effected by utilizing a current of water
  as a balance strong enough to carry wheat but not strong enough to
  carry stones or bodies of greater specific gravity than wheat. This
  current may be led up an inclined worm or may flow horizontally over a
  revolving tray. The washer is followed by a whizzer, which is an
  apparatus intended to free the berry by purely mechanical means from
  superfluous moisture. The typical whizzer is a vertical column fed at
  the bottom and delivering at the top. The wet wheat ascends by
  centrifugal force in a spiral direction round the column to the top,
  and by the time it is discharged from the spout at the top it has
  thrown off from its outer skin almost all its moisture, the water
  escaping through the perforated cover of the machine. But there still
  remains a certain amount of water which has penetrated the integuments
  more or less deeply, and to condition the berry it is treated by a
  combination of hot and cold air. The wheat is passed between
  perforated metal plates and subjected to a draught first of hot and
  then of cold air. The perforated plates are usually built in the shape
  of a column, or leg as it is often called, and this is provided with
  two air chambers, an upper one serving as a reservoir for hot, and the
  lower for cold air. The air from both chambers is discharged by
  pressure through the descending layers of wheat, which should not be
  more than an inch thick; the air is drawn in by a steel-plate fan,
  which is often provided with a divided casing, one side being used for
  cold, and the other for hot air. Coupled with the hot air side is a
  heater consisting of a series of circulating steam-heated pipes. The
  temperature of the heated air can be regulated by the supply of steam
  to the heater. This process of washing and conditioning, one of the
  most important in a flour mill, is characteristically British; millers
  have to deal with wheats of the most varied nature, and one object of
  conditioning is to bring hard and harsh, soft and weak wheats as
  nearly as possible to a common standard of condition before being
  milled. Wheat is sometimes washed to toughen the bran, an end which
  can also be attained by damping it from a spraying pipe as it passes
  along an inclined worm. Another way of toughening bran is to pass
  wheat through a heated cylinder, while again another process known as
  steaming consists of injecting steam into wheat as it passes through a
  metal hopper. Here the object is to cleanse to some extent, and to
  warm and soften (by the condensation of moisture on the grain), but
  these processes are imperfect substitutes for a full washing and
  conditioning plant. Hard wheats will not be injured by a fairly long
  immersion in water, always provided the subsequent whizzing and
  drying are efficiently carried out. The second class of semi-hard
  wheats already mentioned must be run more quickly through the washer
  and freed from the water as rapidly as possible. Still more is this
  necessary with really soft wheats, such as soft River Plates and the
  softer English varieties. Here an immersion of only a few seconds is
  desirable, while the moisture left by the water must be immediately
  and energetically thrown off by the whizzer before the grain enters
  the drier. Treated thus, soft wheats may be improved by washing. It is
  claimed that hard wheats, like some varieties of Indians, are
  positively improved in flavour by conditioning, and this is probably
  true; certain it is that English country millers, in seasons when
  native wheat was scarce and dear, and Indian wheat was abundant and
  cheap, have found the latter, mellowed by conditioning, to be an
  excellent substitute.


    Effect of damp.

  Wheats which have been exposed to the action of water during harvest
  do not necessarily yield unsound flour; the matter is a question of
  the amount of moisture absorbed. But it must be remembered that it is
  not so much the water itself which degrades the constituents of the
  wheat (starch and gluten) as the chemical changes which the dampness
  produces. Hence perhaps the best remedy which can be found for damp
  wheat is to dry it as soon as it has been harvested, either by kiln or
  steam drier at a heat not exceeding 120° F., until the moisture has
  been reduced to 10% of the whole grain. The flour made from wheat so
  treated may be weak, but will not usually be unsound. The practice of
  drying damp flour has also good results. Long before the roller
  milling period it was found that only flour which had been dried (in a
  kiln) could safely be taken on long sea voyages, especially when the
  vessel had to navigate warm latitudes. It may be noted that in the
  days of millstone milling it was far more difficult to produce good
  keeping flour. The wheat berry being broken up and triturated in one
  operation, the flour necessarily contained a large proportion of
  branny particles in which cerealin, an active diastasic constituent,
  was present in very sensible proportions. Again, the elimination of
  the germ by the roller process is favourable to the production of a
  sounder flour, because the germ contains a large amount of oleaginous
  matter and has a strong diastasic action on imperfectly matured
  starches. The tendency of flours containing germ to become rancid is
  well marked. During the South African War of 1899-1902 the British
  army supply department had a practical proof of the diastasic action
  of branny particles in flour. Soldiers' bread is not usually of white
  colour, and the military authorities not unnaturally believed that
  comparatively low-grade flour, if sound, was eminently suitable for
  use in the field bakeries. But in the climate of South Africa flour of
  this description soon developed considerable acidity. Ultimately the
  supply department gave up buying any but the driest patent flours, and
  it is understood that the most suitable flour proved to be certain
  patents milled in Minneapolis, U.S.A., from hard spring wheat. Not
  only did they contain a minimum of branny and fibrous matters, but
  they were also the driest that could be found.


    Break-rolls.

  After being cleaned the wheat berry is split and broken up into
  increasingly fine pieces by fluted rolls or "breaks." In the earlier
  years of roller milling it was usual to employ more breaks than is now
  the case. The first pair of break-rolls used to be called the
  splitting rolls, because their function was supposed to be to split
  the berry longitudinally down its crease, so as to give the miller an
  opportunity of removing the dirt between the two lobes of the berry by
  means of a brush machine. The dirt was in many cases no more than the
  placenta already described, which shrivelling up took, like all
  vegetable fibre, a dark tint. The neat split along the crease was not,
  however, achieved in more than 10% of the berries so treated. Where
  such rolls are still in use they are really serving as a sort of
  adjunct to the wheat-cleaning system. Four or five breaks are now
  thought sufficient, but three breaks are not recommended, except in
  very short systems for small country mills. Rolls are now used up to
  60 in. in length, though in one of the most approved systems they
  never exceed 40 in.; they are made of chilled iron, and for the
  breaking of wheat are provided with grooving cut at a slight twist,
  the spiral averaging ¼ in. to the foot length, though for the last set
  of break-rolls, which clean up the bran, the spiral is sometimes
  increased to ½ in. per foot. The grooves should have sharp edges
  because they do better work than when blunt, giving larger semolina
  and middlings, with bran adherent in big flakes; small middlings, that
  is, little pieces of the endosperm torn away by blunt grooves, and
  comminuted bran, make the production of good class flour almost
  impossible; cut bran, moreover, brings less money. The break-rolls
  should never work by pressure, but nip the material fed between them
  at a given point; to cut or shear, not to flatten and crush, is their
  function. Rolls may be set either horizontally or vertically; an
  oblique setting has also come into favour. The feed is of the utmost
  importance to the correct working of a roller mill. The material
  should be fed in an even stream, not too thick, and leaving no part of
  the roll uncovered. The two rolls of each pair are run at unequal
  speeds, 2½ to 1 being the usual ratio on the three first breaks, while
  the last break is often speeded at 3 to 1 or 3½ to 1; in one of the
  oblique mills the difference is obtained by making the diameter of one
  roll 13 and of the other 10 in. and running them at equal speed. For
  break-rolls up to 36 in. in length 9 in. is the usual diameter; for
  longer rolls 10 in. is the standard. To do good work rolls must run in
  perfect parallelism; otherwise some parts of the material will pass
  untouched, while others will be treated too severely.


    Scalpers.

  The products of the break-rolls are treated by what are known as
  scalpers, which are simply machines for sorting out these products for
  further treatment. Scalpers may either be revolving reels or flat
  sieves. The sieve is the favourite form of scalper on account of its
  gentle action. Scalping requires a separating and sifting, not a
  scouring action. The break products are usually separated on a sieve
  covered with wire or perforated zinc plates. Generally speaking, two
  sieves are in one frame and are run at a slight incline. The throughs
  of the top sieve fall on the sieve below, while the rejections or
  overtails of the first sieve are fed to the next break. The
  "throughs," or what has passed this sieve, are graded by the next
  sieve, the tailings going to a purifier, while the throughs may be
  freed from what flour adheres to them by a centrifugal dressing
  machine and then treated by another purifier. A form of scalper which
  has come into general use on the continent of Europe, and to a lesser
  extent in Great Britain and America, is known as the plansifter. This
  machine, of Hungarian origin, is simply a collection of superimposed
  flat sieves in one box, and will scalp or sort out any kind of break
  stock very efficiently. A system of grading the tailings, that is, the
  rejections of the scalpers, introduced by James Harrison Carter
  (Carter-Zimmer patent), was known as pneumatic sorting. Its object was
  to supplement the work of the scalpers by classifying the tailings by
  means of air-currents. To this end each scalper was followed by a
  machine arranged somewhat like a gravity purifier; that is to say, a
  current of air drawn through the casing of the sorter allowed the
  heaviest and best material to drop down straight, while the lighter
  stuff was deposited in one or other of further compartments formed by
  obliquely placed adjustable cant boards. So searching was this
  grading, that from the first sorter of a four-break plant four
  separations would be obtained, the first going to the second break,
  the second joining the first separation from the second sorter and
  being fed to the third break, while the third went with the best
  separation of the third sorter to the fourth break, and the last
  separation from all the sorters went straight into the bran sack. The
  work of the break-rolls was greatly simplified and reduced by this
  sorting process, as each particle of broken wheat went exactly to that
  pair of break-rollers for which it was suitable, instead of all the
  material being run indiscriminately through all the break-rollers and
  thereby being cut up with the necessary result of increasing the
  production of small bran.


    Purifiers.

  The object of the purifier, a machine on which milling engineers have
  lavished much thought and labour, is to get away from the semolina and
  middlings as much impure matter as possible, that those products may
  be pure, as millers say, for reduction to flour by the smooth rolls.
  The purifiers used in British mills take advantage of the fact that
  the more valuable portions of the wheat berry are heavier than the
  less valuable particles, such as bran and fibrous bodies, and a
  current of air is employed to weigh these fragments of the wheat berry
  as in a balance and to separate them while they pass over a
  silk-covered sieve. To this end the semolina or middlings are fed on a
  sieve vibrated by an eccentric and set at a slight downward angle.
  This sieve is installed in an air-tight longitudinal wooden chamber
  with glass windows on either side, through which the process of
  purifying can be watched. Upwards through this sieve a fan constantly
  draws a current of air, which, raising the stock upwards, allows the
  heavier and better material to remain below while the lighter
  particles are lifted off and fall on side platforms or channels,
  whence they are carried forward and delivered separately. The good
  material drops through the meshes of the silk, and is collected by a
  worm. It is usual to clothe the sieve in sections with several
  different meshes of silk so that stock of almost identical value, but
  differing size, may be treated with uniform accuracy. In good
  purifiers the strength of the current can be regulated at will in each
  section. The tailings of a purifier do not usually exceed 10 to 15% of
  the feed. The clothing of purifier sheets must be nicely graduated to
  the clothing of the preceding machines. Repurification and even
  tertiary purification may be necessary under certain conditions. In
  Hungary and other parts of Europe, gravity purifiers are much in use.
  Here the material is guided along an open sieve set at a slight angle,
  while an air-current is drawn up at an acute angle. Under the sieve
  may be arranged a series of inclined boards, the position of which can
  be varied as required. The heaviest and most valuable products resist
  the current and drop straight down, while lighter material is carried
  off to further divisions.


    Smooth rolls.

  From the purifier all the stock except the tailings, which may require
  other treatment, should go to the smooth rollers to be made into
  flour, but here the rollerman will have to exercise great care and
  discretion. Many of the remarks already made in regard to break-rolls
  apply to smooth rolls, notably in respect of parallelism. But instead
  of a cutting action, the smooth rolls press the material fed to them
  into flour. This pressure, however, must be applied with great
  discrimination, large semolina with impurities attached requiring
  quite different treatment from that called for by small pure
  middlings. The pressure on the stock must be just sufficient and no
  more. Reduction rolls are usually run at a differential speed of about
  2 to 3. The feed must be carefully graded, because to pass stock of
  varying size through a pair of smooth rolls would be fatal to good
  work. Scratch rolls very finely grooved are used for cracking impure
  semolina or for reducing the tailings of purifiers. The latter often
  hold fragments of bran, which are best detached by rolls grooved about
  36 to the inch and run at a differential of 3 to 1. The reduction
  requires even more roll surface than the break system. To do
  first-class work a mill should have at least 35 to 40 in. on the
  breaks and 50 in. on the reduction for each sack of 280 lb. of flour
  per hour. Many engineers consider 100 to 110 in. on the break, scratch
  and smooth rolls not too much.


    Dressing.

  The dressing out of the flour from the stock reduced on smooth rolls
  is generally effected by centrifugal machines, which consist of a
  slowly revolving cylinder provided with an internal shaft on which are
  keyed a number of iron beaters that run at a speed of about 200
  revolutions a minute, and fling the feed against the silk clothing of
  the cylinder. What goes through the silk is collected by a worm
  conveyor at the bottom of the machine. Most centrifugals have
  so-called "cut-off" sheets, with internal divisions in the tail end;
  these are intended to separate some intermediate products, which,
  having been freed from floury particles, are treated on some other
  machine, such as a pair of rolls either direct or after a purifier.
  The centrifugal is undoubtedly an efficient flour separator, but the
  plansifters already mentioned are also good flour-dressers, especially
  in dry climates. A plansifter mill will have no centrifugals, except
  one or two at the tail end where the material gets more sticky and
  requires more severe treatment.

  The yield of flour obtained in a British roller mill averages 70 to
  73% of the wheat berry. The residue, with the exception of a very
  small proportion of waste, is offal, which is divided into various
  grades and sold. Profitable markets for British-made bran have been
  found in Scandinavia, and especially in Denmark. In millstone milling
  the yield of flour probably averaged 75 to 80%, but a certain
  proportion of this was little more than offal. The length of the flour
  yield taken by British millers varies in different parts of the
  kingdom, because demand varies. In one locality high-class patents may
  be at a premium; in another the call is for a straight grade, i.e. a
  flour containing as much of the farinaceous substance as can be won
  from the wheat berry. In one district there is a sale for rich offals,
  that is, offals with plenty of flour adhering; in another there may be
  no demand for such offals. Hence, though the general principles of
  roller milling as given above hold good all over the country, yet in
  practice the work of each mill is varied more or less to suit the
  peculiarities of the local trade.


    Bleaching of flour.

  Early in the 19th century a French chemist, J.J.E. Poutet, discovered
  that nitrous acid and oxides of nitrogen act on some fluid and
  semi-fluid vegetable oils, removing their yellow tinge and converting
  a considerable portion of their substance into a white solid. The
  importance of this discovery, when the physical constitution of wheat
  is considered, is obvious, but it was years before any attempt was
  made to bleach flour. The first attempts at bleaching seem to have
  been made on the wheat itself rather than on the flour. In 1879 a
  process was patented for bleaching grain by means of chlorine gas, and
  about 1891 a suggestion was made for bleaching grain by means of
  electrolysed sea-water. In 1895 a scheme was put forward for treating
  grain with sulphurous acid, and about two years later it was proposed
  to subject both grain and flour to the influence of electric currents.
  In 1893 a patent was granted for the purification of flour by means of
  fresh air or oxygen, and three years later another inventor proposed
  to employ the Röntgen rays for the same purpose. In 1898 Emile Frichot
  took out a patent for using ozone and ozonized air for
  flour-bleaching. The patent (No. 1661 of 1901) taken out by J. & S.
  Andrews of Belfast recited that flour is known to improve greatly if
  kept for some time after grinding, and the purpose of the invention it
  covered was to bring about this improvement or conditioning not only
  immediately after grinding, but also to a greater extent than can be
  effected by keeping. The process consisted in subjecting the flour to
  the action of a suitable gaseous oxidizing medium; the inventors
  preferred air carrying a minute quantity of nitric acid or peroxide of
  nitrogen, but they did not confine themselves to those compounds,
  having found that chlorine, bromine and other substances capable of
  liberating oxygen were also more or less efficacious. They claimed
  that while exercising no deleterious action their treatment made the
  flour whiter, improved its baking qualities, and rendered it less
  liable to be attacked by mites or other organisms. Under the patent,
  No. 14006 of 1903, granted to J.N. Alsop of Kentucky the flour was
  treated with atmospheric air which had been subjected to the action of
  an arc or flaming discharge of electricity, with the purpose of
  purifying it and improving its nutritious properties. The Andrews and
  Alsop patents became the objects of extended litigation in the English
  courts, and it was held that the gaseous medium employed by Alsop was
  substantially the same as that employed by Andrews, though produced
  electrically instead of chemically, and therefore that the Alsop
  process was an infringement of the Andrews patent. Various other
  patents for more or less similar processes have also been taken out.
       (G. F. Z.)



FLOURENS, GUSTAVE (1838-1871), French revolutionist and writer, a son of
J.P. Flourens (1794-1867), the physiologist, was born at Paris on the
4th of August 1838. In 1863 he undertook for his father a course of
lectures at the Collège de France, the subject of which was the history
of mankind. His theories as to the manifold origin of the human race,
however, gave offence to the clergy, and he was precluded from
delivering a second course. He then went to Brussels, where he published
his lectures under the title of _Histoire de l'homme_ (1863); he next
visited Constantinople and Athens, took part in the Cretan insurrection
of 1866, spent some time in Italy, where an article of his in the
_Popolo d'Italia_ caused his arrest and imprisonment, and finally,
having returned to France, nearly lost his life in a duel with Paul de
Cassagnac, editor of the _Pays_. In Paris he devoted his pen to the
cause of republicanism, and at length, having failed in an attempt to
organize a revolution at Belleville on the 7th of February 1870, found
himself compelled to flee from France. Returning to Paris on the
downfall of Napoleon, he soon placed himself at the head of a body of
500 tirailleurs. On account of his insurrectionary proceedings he was
taken prisoner at Créteil, near Vincennes, by the provisional
government, and confined at Mazas on the 7th of December 1870, but was
released by his men on the night of January 21-22. On the 18th of March
he joined the Communists. He was elected a member of the commune by the
20th arrondissement, and was named colonel. He was one of the most
active leaders of the insurrection, and in a sortie against the
Versailles troops in the morning of the 3rd of April was killed in a
hand-to-hand conflict at Rueil, near Malmaison. Besides his _Science de
l'homme_ (Paris, 1869), Gustave Flourens was the author of numerous
fugitive pamphlets.

  See C. Prolès, _Les Hommes de la révolution de 1871_ (Paris, 1898).



FLOURENS, MARIE JEAN PIERRE (1794-1867), French physiologist, was born
at Maureilhan, near Béziers, in the department of Hérault, on the 15th
of April 1794. At the age of fifteen he began the study of medicine at
Montpellier, where in 1823 he received the degree of doctor. In the
following year he repaired to Paris, provided with an introduction from
A.P. de Candolle, the botanist, to Baron Cuvier, who received him
kindly, and interested himself in his welfare. At Paris Flourens engaged
in physiological research, occasionally contributing to literary
publications; and in 1821, at the Athénée there, he gave a course of
lectures on the physiological theory of the sensations, which attracted
much attention amongst men of science. His paper entitled _Recherches
expérimentales sur les propriétés et les fonctions du système nerveux
dans les animaux vertébrés_, in which he, from experimental evidence,
sought to assign their special functions to the cerebrum, corpora
quadrigemina and cerebellum, was the subject of a highly commendatory
report by Cuvier, adopted by the French Academy of Sciences in 1822. He
was chosen by Cuvier in 1828 to deliver for him a course of lectures on
natural history at the Collège de France, and in the same year became,
in succession to L.A.G. Bosc, a member of the Institute, in the division
"Économie rurale." In 1830 he became Cuvier's substitute as lecturer on
human anatomy at the Jardin du Roi, and in 1832 was elected to the post
of titular professor, which he vacated for the professorship of
comparative anatomy created for him at the museum of the Jardin the same
year. In 1833 Flourens, in accordance with the dying request of Cuvier,
was appointed a perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences; and in
1838 he was returned as a deputy for the arrondissement of Béziers. In
1840 he was elected, in preference to Victor Hugo, to succeed J.F.
Michaud at the French Academy; and in 1845 he was created a commander of
the legion of honour, and in the next year a peer of France. In March
1847 Flourens directed the attention of the Academy of Sciences to the
anaesthetic effect of chloroform on animals. On the revolution of 1848
he withdrew completely from political life; and in 1855 he accepted the
professorship of natural history at the Collège de France. He died at
Montgeron, near Paris, on the 6th of December 1867.

  Besides numerous shorter scientific memoirs, Flourens
  published--_Essai sur quelques points de la doctrine de la révulsion
  et de la dérivation_ (Montpellier, 1813); _Expériences sur le système
  nerveux_ (Paris, 1825); _Cours sur la génération, l'ovologie, et
  l'embryologie_ (1836); _Analyse raisonnée des travaux de G. Cuvier_
  (1841); _Recherches sur le développement des os et des dents_ (1842);
  _Anatomie générale de la peau et des membranes muqueuses_ (1843);
  _Buffon, histoire de ses travaux et de ses idées_ (1844); _Fontenelle,
  ou de la philosophie moderne relativement aux sciences physiques_
  (1847); _Théorie expérimentale de la formation des os_ (1847);
  _Oeuvres complètes de Buffon_ (1853); _De la longévité humaine et de
  la quantité de vie sur le globe_ (1854), numerous editions; _Histoire
  de la découverte de la circulation du sang_ (1854); _Cours de
  physiologie comparée_ (1856); _Recueil des éloges historiques_ (1856);
  _De la vie et de l'intelligence_ (1858); _De la raison, du génie, et
  de la folie_ (1861); _Ontologie naturelle_ (1861); _Examen du livre de
  M. Darwin sur l'Origine des Espèces_ (1864). For a list of his papers
  see the Royal Society's _Catalogue of Scientific Papers_.



FLOWER, SIR WILLIAM HENRY (1831-1899), English biologist, was born at
Stratford-on-Avon on the 30th of November 1831. Choosing medicine as his
profession, he began his studies at University College, London, where he
showed special aptitude for physiology and comparative anatomy and took
his M.B. degree in 1851. He then joined the Army Medical Service, and
went out to the Crimea as assistant-surgeon, receiving the medal with
four clasps. On his return to England he became a member of the surgical
staff of the Middlesex hospital, London, and in 1861 succeeded J.T.
Quekett as curator of the Hunterian Museum of the Royal College of
Surgeons of England. In 1870 he also became Hunterian professor, and in
1884, on the death of Sir Richard Owen, was appointed to the
directorship of the Natural History Museum at South Kensington. He died
in London on the 1st of July 1899. He made valuable contributions to
structural anthropology, publishing, for example, complete and accurate
measurements of no less than 1300 human skulls, and as a comparative
anatomist he ranked high, devoting himself especially to the study of
the mammalia. He was also a leading authority on the arrangement of
museums. The greater part of his life was spent in their administration,
and in consequence he held very decided views as to the principles upon
which their specimens should be set out. He insisted on the importance
of distinguishing between collections intended for the use of
specialists and those designed for the instruction of the general
public, pointing out that it was as futile to present to the former a
number of merely typical forms as to provide the latter with a long
series of specimens differing only in the most minute details. His
ideas, which were largely and successfully applied to the museums of
which he had charge, gained wide approval, and their influence entitles
him to be looked upon as a reformer who did much to improve the methods
of museum arrangement and management. In addition to numerous original
papers, he was the author of _An Introduction to the Osteology of the
Mammalia_ (1870); _Fashion in Deformity_ (1881); _The Horse: a Study in
Natural History_ (1890); _Introduction to the Study of Mammals, Living
and Extinct_ (1891); _Essays on Museums and other Subjects_ (1898). He
also wrote many articles for the ninth edition of the _Encyclopaedia
Britannica_.



FLOWER (Lat. _flos_, _floris_; Fr. _fleur_), a term popularly used for
the bloom or blossom of a plant, and so by analogy for the fairest,
choicest or finest part or aspect of anything, and in various technical
senses. Here we shall deal only with its botanical interest. It is
impossible to give a rigid botanical definition of the term "flower."
The flower is a characteristic feature of the highest group of the plant
kingdom--the flowering plants (Phanerogams)--and is the name given to
the association of organs, more or less leaf-like in form, which are
concerned with the production of the fruit or seed. In modern botanical
works the group is often known as the seed-plants (Spermatophyta). As
the seed develops from the ovule which has been fertilized by the
pollen, the essential structures for seed-production are two, viz. the
pollen-bearer or _stamen_ and the ovule-bearer or _carpel_. These are
with few exceptions foliar structures, known in comparative morphology
as sporophylls, because they bear the spores, namely, the microspores or
pollen-grains which are developed in the microsporangia or pollen-sacs,
and the megaspore, which is contained in the ovule or megasporangium.

In Gymnosperms (q.v.), which represent the more primitive type of
seed-plants, the micro- or macro-sporophylls are generally associated,
often in large numbers, in separate cones, to which the term "flower"
has been applied. But there is considerable difference of opinion as to
the relation between these cones and the more definite and elaborate
structure known as the flower in the higher group of seed-plants--the
Angiosperms (q.v.)--and it is to this more definite structure that we
generally refer in using the term "flower."

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Proliferous Rose.

  s, Sepals transformed into leaves.

  p, Petals multiplied at the expense of the stamens, which are reduced
  in number.

  c, Coloured leaves representing abortive carpels.

  a, Axis prolonged, bearing an imperfect flower at its apex.]

Flowers are produced from flower-buds, just as leaf-shoots arise from
leaf-buds. These two kinds of buds have a resemblance to each other as
regards the arrangement and the development of their parts; and it
sometimes happens, from injury and other causes, that the part of the
axis which, in ordinary cases, would produce a leaf-bud, gives origin to
a flower-bud. A flower-bud has not in ordinary circumstances any power
of extension by the continuous development of its apex. In this respect
it differs from a leaf-bud. In some cases, however, of monstrosity,
especially seen in the rose (fig. 1), the central part is prolonged, and
bears leaves or flowers. In such cases the flowers, so far as their
functional capabilities are concerned, are usually abortive. This
phenomenon is known as proliferation of the floral axis.

Flower-buds, like leaf-buds, are produced in the axil of leaves, which
are called _bracts_.


  Bracts.

The term _bract_ is properly applied to the leaf from which the primary
floral axis, whether simple or branched, arises, while the leaves which
arise on the axis between the bract and the outer envelope of the flower
are _bracteoles_ or _bractlets_. Bracts sometimes do not differ from the
ordinary leaves, as in _Veronica hederifolia_, _Vinca_, _Anagallis_ and
_Ajuga_. In general as regards their form and appearance they differ
from ordinary leaves, the difference being greater in the upper than in
the lower branches of an inflorescence. They are distinguished by their
position at the base of the flower or flower-stalk. Their arrangement is
similar to that of the leaves. When the flower is sessile the bracts are
often applied closely to the calyx, and may thus be confounded with it,
as in the order Malvaceae and species of _Dianthus_ and winter aconite
(_Eranthis_), where they have received the name of _epicalyx_ or
_calyculus_. In some Rosaceous plants an epicalyx is present, due to the
formation of stipulary structures by the sepals. In many cases bracts
act as protective organs, within or beneath which the young flowers are
concealed in their earliest stage of growth.

When bracts become coloured, as in _Amherstia nobilis_, _Euphorbia
splendens_, _Erica elegans_ and _Salvia splendens_, they may be mistaken
for parts of the corolla. They are sometimes mere scales or threads, and
at other times are undeveloped, giving rise to the _ebracteate_
inflorescence of Cruciferae and some Boraginaceae. Sometimes they are
empty, no flower-buds being produced in their axil. A series of empty
coloured bracts terminates the inflorescence of _Salvia Horminum_. The
smaller bracts or bracteoles, which occur among the subdivisions of a
branching inflorescence, often produce no flower-buds, and thus
anomalies occur in the floral arrangements. Bracts are occasionally
persistent, remaining long attached to the base of the peduncles, but
more usually they are deciduous, falling off early by an articulation.
In some instances they form part of the fruit, becoming incorporated
with other organs. Thus, the cones of firs and the stroboli of the hop
are composed of a series of spirally arranged bracts covering fertile
flowers; and the scales on the fruit of the pine-apple are of the same
nature. At the base of the general umbel in umbelliferous plants a whorl
of bracts often exists, called a _general involucre_, and at the base of
the smaller umbels or umbellules there is a similar leafy whorl called
an _involucel_ or _partial involucre_. In some instances, as in
fool's-parsley, there is no general involucre, but simply an involucel;
while in other cases, as in fennel or dill (fig. 15), neither involucre
nor involucel is developed. In Compositae the name involucre is applied
to the bracts surrounding the head of flowers (fig. 2, i), as in
marigold, dandelion, daisy, artichoke. This involucre is frequently
composed of several rows of leaflets, which are either of the same or of
different forms and lengths, and often lie over each other in an
imbricated manner. The leaves of the involucre are spiny in thistles and
in teazel (_Dipsacus_), and hooked in burdock. Such whorled or
verticillate bracts generally remain separate (_polyphyllous_), but may
be united by cohesion (_gamophyllous_), as in many species of
_Bupleurum_ and in _Lavatera_. In Compositae besides the involucre there
are frequently chaffy and setose bracts at the base of each flower, and
in Dipsacaceae a membranous tube surrounds each flower. These structures
are of the nature of an epicalyx. In the acorn the _cupule_ or cup (fig.
3) is formed by a growing upwards of the flower-stalk immediately
beneath the flower, upon which scaly or spiny protuberances appear; it
is of the nature of bracts. Bracts also compose the husky covering of
the hazel-nut.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Head (capitulum) of Marigold (_Calendula_),
showing a congeries of flowers, enclosed by rows of bracts, i, at the
base, which are collectively called an involucre.]

[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 3.--Cupule of _Quercus Aegilops_. cp, Cupule; gl, fruit. (After
Duchartre.)]

When bracts become united, and overlie each other in several rows, it
often happens that the outer ones do not produce flowers, that is, are
empty or sterile. In the artichoke the outer imbricated scales or bracts
are in this condition, and it is from the membranous white scales or
bracts (_paleae_) forming the choke attached to the edible receptacle
that the flowers are produced. The sterile bracts of the daisy
occasionally produce capitula, and give rise to the hen-and-chickens
daisy. In place of developing flower-buds, bracts may, in certain
circumstances, as in proliferous or viviparous plants, produce
leaf-buds.

A sheathing bract enclosing one or several flowers is called a _spathe_.
It is common among Monocotyledons, as _Narcissus_ (fig. 4), snow-flake,
_Arum_ and palms. In some palms it is 20 ft. long, and encloses 200,000
flowers. It is often associated with that form of inflorescence termed
the _spadix_, and may be coloured, as in _Anthurium_, or white, as in
arum lily (_Richardia aethiopica_). When the spadix is compound or
branching, as in palms, there are smaller spathes, surrounding separate
parts of the inflorescence. The spathe protects the flowers in their
young state, and often falls off after they are developed, or hangs down
in a withered form, as in some palms, _Typha_ and _Pothos_. In grasses
the outer scales or glumes of the spikelets are sterile bracts (fig. 5,
gl); and in Cyperaceae bracts enclose the organs of reproduction. Bracts
are frequently changed into complete leaves. This change is called
_phyllody_ of bracts, and is seen in species of _Plantago_, especially
in the variety of _Plantago media_, called the rose-plantain in gardens,
where the bracts become leafy and form a rosette round the flowering
axis. Similar changes occur in _Plantago major_, _P. lanceolata_, _Ajuga
reptans_, dandelion, daisy, dahlia and in umbelliferous plants. The
conversion of bracts into stamens (_staminody_ of bracts) has been
observed in the case of _Abies excelsa_. A lengthening of the axis of
the female strobilus of Coniferae is not of infrequent occurrence in
_Cryptomeria japonica_, larch (_Larix europaea_), &c., and this is
usually associated with a leaf-like condition of the bracts, and
sometimes even with the development of leaf-bearing shoots in place of
the scales.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Flowers of Narcissus (_Narcissus Tazetta_)
bursting from a sheathing bract b.]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Spikelet of Oat (_Avena sativa_) laid open,
showing the sterile bracts gl, gl, or empty glumes; g, the fertile or
floral glume, with a dorsal awn a; p, the pale; fs, an abortive flower.]

The arrangement of the flowers on the axis, or the ramification of the
floral axis, is called the _inflorescence_. The primary axis of the
inflorescence is sometimes called the _rachis_; its branches, whether
terminal or lateral, which form the stalks supporting flowers or
clusters of flowers, are _peduncles_, and if small branches are given
off by it, they are called _pedicels_. A flower having a stalk is called
_pedunculate_ or _pedicellate_; one having no stalk is _sessile_. In
describing a branching inflorescence, it is common to speak of the
rachis as the _primary_ floral axis, its branches as the _secondary_
floral axes, their divisions as the _tertiary_ floral axes, and so on;
thus avoiding any confusion that might arise from the use of the terms
_rachis_, _peduncle_ and _pedicel_.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Peduncle of Fig (_Ficus Carica_), ending in a
hollow receptacle, enclosing numerous male and female flowers.]

The _peduncle_ is simple, bearing a single flower, as in primrose; or
branched, as in London-pride. It is sometimes succulent, as in the
cashew, in which it forms the large coloured expansion supporting the
nut; spiral, as in _Cyclamen_ and _Vallisneria_; or spiny, as in
_Alyssum spinosum_. When the peduncle proceeds from radical leaves, that
is, from an axis which is so shortened as to bring the leaves close
together in the form of a cluster, as in the primrose, auricula or
hyacinth, it is termed a _scape_. The floral axis may be shortened,
assuming a flattened, convex or concave form, and bearing numerous
flowers, as in the artichoke, daisy and fig (fig. 6). The floral axis
sometimes appears as if formed by several peduncles united together,
constituting a fasciated axis, as in the cockscomb, in which the flowers
form a peculiar crest at the apex of the flattened peduncles. Adhesions
occasionally take place between the peduncle and the bracts or leaves of
the plant, as in the lime-tree (fig. 7). The adhesion of the peduncles
to the stem accounts for the extra-axillary position of flowers, as in
many Solanaceae. When this union extends for a considerable length along
the stem, several leaves may be interposed between the part where the
peduncle becomes free and the leaf whence it originated, and it may be
difficult to trace the connexion. The peduncle occasionally becomes
abortive, and in place of bearing a flower, is transformed into a
tendril; at other times it is hollowed at the apex, so as apparently to
form the lower part of the outer whorl of floral leaves as in
_Eschscholtzia_. The termination of the peduncle, or the part on which
the whorls of the flower are arranged, is called the _thalamus_, _torus_
or _receptacle_.

[Illustration: (From Vines' _Students' Text-Book of Botany_, by
permission of Swan Sonnenschein & Co.)

FIG. 7.--Inflorescence of the Lime (_Tilia platyphyllos_) (nat. size).

  a, Branch.

  b, Petiole with axillary bud. Attached to the peduncle is the bract
  (h).

  k, Calyx.

  c, Corolla.

  s, Stamens.

  f, Ovary.

  kn, Flower-bud.]

[Illustration: (From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.)

FIG. 8.--Raceme of _Linaria striata_. d, bract.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Head of flowers (capitulum) of _Scabiosa
atropurpurea_. The inflorescence is simple and indeterminate, and the
expansion of the flowers centripetal, those at the circumference opening
first.]


  Inflorescence.

There are two distinct types of inflorescence--one in which the flowers
arise as lateral shoots from a primary axis, which goes on elongating,
and the lateral shoots never exceed in their development the length of
the primary axis beyond their point of origin. The flowers are thus
always _axillary_. Exceptions, such as in cruciferous plants, are due to
the non-appearance of the bracts. In the other type the primary axis
terminates in a single flower, but lateral axes are given off from the
axils of the bracts, which again repeat the primary axis; the
development of each lateral axis is stronger than that of the primary
axis beyond its point of origin. The flowers produced in this
inflorescence are thus _terminal_. The first kind of inflorescence is
_indeterminate_, _indefinite_ or _axillary_. Here the axis is either
elongated, producing flower-buds as it grows, the lower expanding first
(fig. 8), or it is shortened and depressed, and the outer flowers expand
first (fig. 9). The expansion of the flowers is thus _centripetal_, that
is, from base to apex, or from circumference to centre.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Plant of _Ranunculus bulbosus_, showing
determinate inflorescence.]

The second kind of inflorescence is _determinate_, _definite_ or
_terminal_. In this the axis is either elongated and ends in a solitary
flower, which thus terminates the axis, and if other flowers are
produced, they belong to secondary axes farther from the centre; or the
axis is shortened and flattened, producing a number of separate floral
axes, the central one expanding first, while the others are developed in
succession farther from the centre. The expansion of the flowers is in
this case _centrifugal_, that is, from apex to base, or from centre to
circumference. It is illustrated in fig. 10, _Ranunculus bulbosus_; a'
is the primary axis swollen at the base in a bulb-like manner b, and
with roots proceeding from it. From the leaves which are radical
proceeds the axis ending in a solitary terminal flower f'. About the
middle of this axis there is a leaf or bract, from which a secondary
floral axis a" is produced, ending in a single flower f", less advanced
than the flower f'. This secondary axis bears a leaf also, from which a
tertiary floral axis a"' is produced, bearing an unexpanded solitary
flower f"'. From this tertiary axis a fourth is in progress of
formation. Here f' is the termination of the primary axis, and this
flower expands first, while the other flowers are developed
centrifugally on separate axes.

A third series of inflorescences, termed _mixed_, may be recognized. In
them the primary axis has an arrangement belonging to the opposite type
from that of the branches, or vice versa. According to the mode and
degree of development of the lateral shoots and also of the bracts,
various forms of both inflorescences result.

Amongst indefinite forms the simplest occurs when a lateral shoot
produced in the axil of a large single foliage leaf of the plant ends in
a single flower, the axis of the plant elongating beyond, as in
_Veronica hederifolia_, _Vinca minor_ and _Lysimachia nemorum_. The
flower in this case is _solitary_, and the ordinary leaves become bracts
by producing flower-buds in place of leaf-buds; their number, like that
of the leaves of this main axis, is indefinite, varying with the vigour
of the plant. Usually, however, the floral axis, arising from a more or
less altered leaf or bract, instead of ending in a solitary flower, is
prolonged, and bears numerous bracteoles, from which smaller peduncles
are produced, and those again in their turn may be branched in a similar
way. Thus the flowers are arranged in groups, and frequently very
complicated forms of inflorescence result. When the primary peduncle or
floral axis, as in fig. 8, is elongated, and gives off pedicels, ending
in single flowers, a _raceme_ is produced, as in currant, hyacinth and
barberry. If the secondary floral axes give rise to tertiary ones, the
raceme is branching, and forms a _panicle_, as in _Yucca gloriosa_. If
in a raceme the lower flower-stalks are developed more strongly than the
upper, and thus all the flowers are nearly on a level, a _corymb_ is
formed, which may be simple, as in fig. 11, where the primary axis a'
gives off secondary axes a", a", which end in single flowers; or
branching, where the secondary axes again subdivide. If the pedicels are
very short or wanting, so that the flowers are sessile, a _spike_ is
produced, as in _Plantago_ and vervain (_Verbena officinalis_) (fig.
12). If the spike bears unisexual flowers, as in willow or hazel (fig.
13), it is an _amentum_ or _catkin_, hence such trees are called
_amentiferous_; at other times it becomes succulent, bearing numerous
flowers, surrounded by a sheathing bract or spathe, and then it
constitutes a _spadix_, which may be simple, as in _Arum maculatum_
(fig. 14), or branching as in palms. A spike bearing female flowers
only, and covered with scales, is a _strobilus_, as in the hop. In
grasses there are usually numerous sessile flowers arranged in small
spikes, called _locustae_ or _spikelets_, which are either set closely
along a central axis, or produced on secondary axes formed by the
branching of the central one; to the latter form the term panicle is
applied.

[Illustration:

FIG. 11.--Corymb of _Cerasus Mahaleb_, terminating an abortive branch,
at the base of which are modified leaves in the form of scales, e. a',
Primary axis; a", secondary axes bearing flowers; b, bract in the axils
of which the secondary axes arise.

FIG. 12.--Spike of Vervain (_Verbena officinalis_), showing sessile
flowers on a common rachis. The flowers at the lower part of the spike
have passed into fruit, those towards the middle are in full bloom, and
those at the top are only in bud.

FIG. 13.--Amentum or catkin of Hazel (_Corylus Avellana_), consisting of
an axis or rachis covered with bracts in the form of scales, each of
which covers a male flower, the stamens of which are seen projecting
beyond the scale. The catkin falls off in a mass, separating from the
branch by an articulation.]

[Illustration: (From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.)

FIG. 14.--Spadix of _Arum maculatum_. (After Wossidlo.) a, Female
flowers; b, male flowers; c, hairs representing sterile flowers.]

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--Compound umbel of Common Dill (_Anethum
graveolens_), having a primary umbel a, and secondary umbels b, without
either involucre or involucel.]

If the primary axis, in place of being elongated, is contracted, it
gives rise to other forms of indefinite inflorescence. When the axis is
so shortened that the secondary axes arise from a common point, and
spread out as _radii_ of nearly equal length, each ending in a single
flower or dividing again in a similar radiating manner, an _umbel_ is
produced, as in fig. 15. From the primary floral axis a the secondary
axes come off in a radiating or umbrella-like manner, and end in small
umbels b, which are called _partial umbels_ or _umbellules_. This
inflorescence is seen in hemlock and other allied plants, which are
hence called umbelliferous. If there are numerous flowers on a
flattened, convex or slightly concave receptacle, having either very
short pedicels or none, a _capitulum_ (head) is formed, as in
dandelion, daisy and other composite plants (fig. 2), also in scabious
(fig. 9) and teazel. In the American button-bush the heads are globular,
in some species of teazel elliptical, while in scabious and in composite
plants, as sunflower, dandelion, thistle, centaury and marigold, they
are somewhat hemispherical, with a flattened, slightly hollowed, or
convex disk. If the margins of such a receptacle be developed upwards,
the centre not developing, a concave receptacle is formed, which may
partially or completely enclose a number of flowers that are generally
unisexual. This gives rise to the peculiar inflorescence of _Dorstenia_,
or to that of the fig (fig. 6), where the flowers are placed on the
inner surface of the hollow receptacle, and are provided with
bracteoles. This inflorescence has been called a _hypanthodium_.

Lastly, we have what are called _compound indefinite_ inflorescences. In
these forms the lateral shoots, developed centripetally upon the primary
axis, bear numerous bracteoles, from which floral shoots arise which may
have a centripetal arrangement similar to that on the mother shoot, or
it may be different. Thus we may have a group of racemes, arranged in a
racemose manner on a common axis, forming a raceme of racemes or
compound raceme, as in _Astilbe_. In the same way we may have compound
umbels, as in hemlock and most Umbelliferae (fig. 15), a compound spike,
as in rye-grass, a compound spadix, as in some palms, and a compound
capitulum, as in the hen-and-chickens daisy. Again, there may be a
raceme of capitula, that is, a group of capitula disposed in a racemose
manner, as in _Petasites_, a raceme of umbels, as in ivy, and so on, all
the forms of inflorescence being indefinite in disposition. In
_Eryngium_ the shortening of the pedicels changes an umbel into a
capitulum.

The simplest form of the definite type of the inflorescence is seen in
_Anemone nemorosa_ and in gentianella (_Gentiana acaulis_), where the
axis terminates in a single flower, no other flowers being produced upon
the plant. This is a _solitary terminal_ inflorescence. If other flowers
were produced, they would arise as lateral shoots from the bracts below
the first-formed flower. The general name of _cyme_ is applied to the
arrangement of a group of flowers in a definite inflorescence. A
_cymose_ inflorescence is an inflorescence where the primary floral axis
before terminating in a flower gives off one or more lateral unifloral
axes which repeat the process--the development being only limited by the
vigour of the plant. The floral axes are thus centrifugally developed.
The cyme, according to its development, has been characterized as
_biparous_ or _uniparous_. In fig. 16 the biparous cyme is represented
in the flowering branch of _Cerastium_. Here the primary axis t ends in
a flower, which has passed into the state of fruit. At its base two
leaves are produced, in each of which arise secondary axes t' t', ending
in single flowers, and at the base of these axes a pair of opposite
leaves is produced, giving rise to tertiary axes t" t", ending in single
flowers, and so on. The term _dichasium_ has also been applied to this
form of cyme.

In the natural order Carophyllaceae (pink family) the dichasial form of
inflorescence is very general. In some members of the order, as
_Dianthus barbatus_, _D. carthusianorum_, &c., in which the peduncles
are short, and the flowers closely approximated, with a centrifugal
expansion, the inflorescence has the form of a contracted dichasium, and
receives the name of _fascicle_. When the axes become very much
shortened, the arrangement is more complicated in appearance, and the
nature of the inflorescence can only be recognized by the order of
opening of the flowers. In Labiate plants, as the dead-nettle
(_Lamium_), the flowers are produced in the axil of each of the foliage
leaves of the plant, and they appear as if arranged in a simple whorl of
flowers. But on examination it is found that there is a central flower
expanding first, and from its axis two secondary axes spring bearing
solitary flowers; the expansion is thus centrifugal. The inflorescence
is therefore a contracted dichasium, the flowers being sessile, or
nearly so, and the clusters are called _verticillasters_ (fig. 17).
Sometimes, especially towards the summit of a dichasium, owing to the
exhaustion of the growing power of the plant, only one of the bracts
gives origin to a new axis, the other remaining empty; thus the
inflorescence becomes unilateral, and further development is arrested.
In addition to the dichasial form there are others where more than two
lateral axes are produced from the primary floral axis, each of which in
turn produces numerous axes. To this form the terms _trichasial_ and
_polychasial cyme_ have been applied; but these are now usually
designated _cymose umbels_. They are well seen in some species of
_Euphorbia_. Another term, _anthela_, has been used to distinguish such
forms as occur in several species of _Luzula_ and _Juncus_, where
numerous lateral axes arising from the primary axis grow very strongly
and develop in an irregular manner.

[Illustration: (From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.)

FIG. 16.--Cymose inflorescence (dichasium) of _Cerastium collinum_;
t-t"", successive axes. (After Duchartre.)]

[Illustration: FIG. 17.--Flowering stalk of the White Dead-nettle
(_Lamium album_). The bracts are like the ordinary leaves of the plant,
and produce clusters of flowers in their axil. The clusters are called
verticillasters, and consist of flowers which are produced in a
centrifugal manner.]

In the uniparous cyme a number of floral axes are successively developed
one from the other, but the axis of each successive generation, instead
of producing a pair of bracts, produces only one. The basal portion of
the consecutive axes may become much thickened and arranged more or less
in a straight line, and thus collectively form an apparent or false
axis or _sympodium_, and the inflorescence thus simulates a raceme. In
the true raceme, however, we find only a single axis, producing in
succession a series of bracts, from which the floral peduncles arise as
lateral shoots, and thus each flower is on the same side of the floral
axis as the bract in the axil of which it is developed; but in the
uniparous cyme the flower of each of these axes, the basal portions of
which unite to form the false axis, is situated on the opposite side of
the axis to the bract from which it apparently arises (fig. 18). The
bract is not, however, the one from which the axis terminating in the
flower arises, but is a bract produced upon it, and gives origin in its
axil to a new axis, the basal portion of which, constituting the next
part of the false axis, occupies the angle between this bract and its
parent axis--the bract from which the axis really does arise being
situated lower down upon the same side of the axis with itself. The
uniparous cyme presents two forms, the _scorpioid_ or _cicinal_ and the
_helicoid_ or _bostrychoid_.

[Illustration:

FIG. 18.--Helicoid cyme of a species of _Alstroemeria_. a1, a2, a3, a4,
&c., separate axes successively developed in the axils of the
corresponding bracts b2, b3, b4, &c., and ending in a flower f2, f3, f4,
&c. The whole appears to form a simple raceme of which the axes form the
internodes.

FIG. 19.--Scorpioidal or cicinal cyme of Forget-me-not (_Myosotis
palustris_).

FIG. 20.--Diagram of definite floral axes a, b, c, d, e, &c.

FIG. 21.--Flowering stalk of Ragwort (_Senecio_). The flowers are in
heads (capitula), and open from the circumference inwards in an
indefinite centripetal manner. The heads of flowers, on the other hand,
taken collectively, expand centrifugally--the central one a first.]

In the scorpioid cyme the flowers are arranged alternately in a double
row along one side of the false axis (fig. 19), the bracts when
developed forming a second double row on the opposite side; the whole
inflorescence usually curves on itself like a scorpion's tail, hence its
name. In fig. 20 is shown a diagrammatic sketch of this arrangement. The
false axis, a b c d, is formed by successive generations of unifloral
axes, the flowers being arranged along one side alternately and in a
double row; had the bracts been developed they would have formed a
similar double row on the opposite side of the false axis; the whole
inflorescence is represented as curved on itself. The inflorescence in
the family Boraginaceae are usually regarded as true scorpioid cymes.

In the helicoid cyme there is also a false axis formed by the basal
portion of the separate axes, but the flowers are not placed in a double
row, but in a single row, and form a spiral or helix round the false
axis. In _Alstroemeria_, as represented in fig. 18, the axis a1 ends in
a flower (cut off in the figure) and bears a leaf. From the axil of this
leaf, that is, between it and the primary axis a1 arises a secondary
axis a2, ending in a flower f2, and producing a leaf about the middle.
From the axil of this leaf a tertiary floral axis a3, ending in a flower
f3, takes origin. In this case the axes are not arranged in two rows
along one side of the false axis, but are placed at regular intervals,
so as to form an elongated spiral round it.

Compound definite inflorescences are by no means common, but in
_Streptocarpus polyanthus_ and in several calceolarias we probably have
examples. Here there are _scorpioid cymes of pairs of flowers_, each
pair consisting of an older and a younger flower.


  Mixed inflorescence.

Forms of inflorescence occur, in which both the definite and indefinite
types are represented--_mixed_ inflorescences. Thus in Composite plants,
such as hawk weeds (_Hieracia_) and ragworts (_Senecio_, fig. 21), the
_heads_ of flowers, taken as a whole, are developed centrifugally, the
terminal head first, while the _florets_, or small flowers on the
receptacle, open centripetally, those at the circumference first. So
also in Labiatae, such as dead-nettle (_Lamium_), the different whorls
of inflorescence are developed centripetally, while the florets of the
verticillaster are centrifugal. This mixed character presents
difficulties in such cases as Labiatae, where the leaves, in place of
retaining their ordinary form, become bracts, and thus might lead to the
supposition of the whole series of flowers being one inflorescence. In
such cases the cymes are described as spiked, racemose, or panicled,
according to circumstances. In _Saxifraga umbrosa_ (London-pride) and in
the horse-chestnut we meet with a raceme of scorpioid cymes; in
sea-pink, a capitulum of contracted scorpioid cymes (often called a
glomerulus); in laurustinus, a compound umbel of dichasial cymes; a
scorpioid cyme of capitula in _Vernonia scorpioides_. The so-called
catkins of the birch are, in reality, spikes of contracted dichasial
cymes. In the bell-flower (_Campanula_) there is a racemose uniparous
cyme. In the privet (_Ligustrum vulgare_) there are numerous racemes of
dichasia arranged in a racemose manner along an axis; the whole
inflorescence thus has an appearance not unlike a bunch of grapes, and
has been called a _thyrsus_.

  TABULAR VIEW OF INFLORESCENCES

  A. Indefinite Centripetal Inflorescence.
      I. Flowers solitary, axillary. _Vinca_, _Veronica hederifolia_.
     II. Flowers in groups, pedicellate.
           1. Elongated form (Raceme), _Hyacinth_, _Laburnum_, _Currant_.
                (Corymb), _Ornithogalum_.
           2. Contracted or shortened form (Umbel), _Cowslip_,
                _Astrantia_.
    III. Flowers in groups, sessile.
           1. Elongated form (Spike), _Plantago_.
                    (Spikelet), _Grasses_.
                    (Amentum, Catkin), _Willow_, _Hazel_.
                    (Spadix) _Arum_, some _Palms_.
                    (Strobilus), _Hop_.
           2. Contracted or shortened form (Capitulum), _Daisy_,
                _Dandelion_, _Scabious_.
     IV. Compound Indefinite Inflorescence.
           a. Compound Spike, _Rye-grass_.
           b. Compound Spadix, _Palms_.
           c. Compound Raceme, _Astilbe_.
           d. Compound Umbel, _Hemlock_ and most _Umbelliferae_.
           e. Raceme of Capitula, _Petasites_.
           f. Raceme of Umbels, _Ivy_.
  B. Definite Centrifugal Inflorescence.
      I. Flowers solitary, terminal. _Gentianella_, _Tulip_.
     II. Flowers in Cymes.
           1. Uniparous Cyme.
                a. Helicoid Cyme (axes forming a spiral).
                    Elongated form, _Alstromeria_.
                    Contracted form, _Witsenia corymbosa_.

                b. Scorpioid Cyme (axes unilateral, two rows).
                    Elongated form, _Forget-me-not_, _Symphytum_,
                    _Henbane_.
                   Contracted form, _Erodium_, _Alchemilla arvensis_.
           2. Biparous Cyme (Dichotomous), including 3-5 chotomous
                Cymes (Dichasium, Cymose Umbel, Anthela).
                a. Elongated form, _Cerastium_, _Stellaria_.
                b. Contracted form (Verticillaster), _Dead-nettle_,
                     _Pelargonium_.
           3. Compound Definite Inflorescence. _Streptocarpus
                polyanthus_, many _Calceolarias_.
  C. Mixed Inflorescence.
              Raceme of Scorpioid Cymes, _Horse-chestnut_.
              Scorpioid Cyme of Capitula, _Vernonia scorpioides_.
              Compound Umbel of Dichotomous Cymes, _Laurustinus_.
              Capitulum of contracted Scorpioid Cymes (Glomerulus),
                 _Sea-pink_.

[Illustration:

FIG. 22.--Flower of _Sedum rubens_. s, Sepals; p, petals; a, stamens; c,
carpels.

FIG. 23.--Diagram of a completely symmetrical flower, consisting of four
whorls, each of five parts, s, Sepals; p, petals; a, stamens; c,
carpels.

FIG. 24.--Monochlamydeous (apetalous) flower of Goosefoot
(_Chenopodium_), consisting of a single perianth (calyx) of five parts,
enclosing five stamens, which are opposite the divisions of the
perianth, owing to the absence of the petals.

FIG. 25.--Stamen, consisting of a filament (stalk) f and an anther a,
containing the pollen p, which is discharged through slits in the two
lobes of the anther.

FIG. 26.--The pistil of Tobacco (_Nicotiana Tabacum_), consisting of the
ovary o, containing ovules, the style s, and the capitate stigma g. The
pistil is placed on the receptacle r, at the extremity of the peduncle.]


  The flower.

The flower consists of the floral axis bearing the sporophylls (stamens
and carpels), usually with certain protective envelopes. The axis is
usually very much contracted, no internodes being developed, and the
portion bearing the floral leaves, termed the _thalamus_ or _torus_,
frequently expands into a conical, flattened or hollowed expansion; at
other times, though rarely, the internodes are developed and it is
elongated. Upon this torus the parts of the flower are arranged in a
crowded manner, usually forming a series of verticils, the parts of
which alternate; but they are sometimes arranged spirally especially if
the floral axis be elongated. In a typical flower, as in fig. 22, we
recognize four distinct whorls of leaves: an outer whorl, the _calyx_ of
_sepals_; within it, another whorl, the parts alternating with those of
the outer whorl, the _corolla_ of _petals_; next a whorl of parts
alternating with the parts of the corolla, the _androecium_ of
_stamens_; and in the centre the _gynoecium_ of _carpels_. Fig. 23 is a
diagrammatic representation of the arrangement of the parts of such a
flower; it is known as a _floral diagram_. The flower is supposed to be
cut transversely, and the parts of each whorl are distinguished by a
different symbol. Of these whorls the two internal, forming the
sporophylls, constitute the _essential_ organs of reproduction; the two
outer whorls are the protective coverings or floral _envelopes_. The
sepals are generally of a greenish colour; their function is mainly
protective, shielding the more delicate internal organs before the
flower opens. The petals are usually showy, and normally alternate with
the sepals. Sometimes, as usually in monocotyledons, the calyx and
corolla are similar; in such cases the term _perianth_, or _perigone_,
is applied. Thus, in the tulip, crocus, lily, hyacinth, we speak of the
parts of the perianth, in place of calyx and corolla, although in these
plants there is an outer whorl (calyx), of three parts, and an inner
(corolla), of a similar number, alternating with them. When the parts of
the calyx are in appearance like petals they are said to be _petaloid_,
as in Liliaceae. In some cases the petals have the appearance of sepals,
then they are _sepaloid_, as in Juncaceae. In plants, as _Nymphaea
alba_, where a spiral arrangement of the floral leaves occurs, it is not
easy to say where the calyx ends and the corolla begins, as these two
whorls pass insensibly into each other. When both calyx and corolla are
present, the plants are _dichlamydeous_; when one only is present, the
flower is termed _monochlamydeous_ or _apetalous_, having no petals
(fig. 24). Sometimes both are absent, when the flower is _achlamydeous_,
or naked, as in willow. The outermost series of the essential organs,
collectively termed the _androecium_, is composed of the
microsporophylls known as the staminal leaves or _stamens_. In their
most differentiated form each consists of a stalk, the _filament_ (fig.
25, f), supporting at its summit the anther (a), consisting of the
pollen-sacs which contain the powdery _pollen_ (p), the microspores,
which is ultimately discharged therefrom. The _gynoecium_ or _pistil_ is
the central portion of the flower, terminating the floral axis. It
consists of one or more _carpels_ (megasporophylls), either separate
(fig. 22, c) or combined (fig. 24). The parts distinguished in the
pistil are the _ovary_ (fig. 26, o), which is the lower portion
enclosing the _ovules_ destined to become seeds, and the _stigma_ (g), a
portion of loose cellular tissue, the receptive surface on which the
pollen is deposited, which is either sessile on the apex of the ovary,
as in the poppy, or is separated from it by a prolonged portion called
the _style_ (s). The androecium and gynoecium are not present in all
flowers. When both are present the flower is hermaphrodite; and in
descriptive botany such a flower is indicated by the symbol
[female/male]. When only one of those organs is present the flower is
_unisexual_ or _diclinous_, and is either male (_staminate_), [male] or
female (_pistillate_), [female]. A flower then normally consists of the
four series of leaves--calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium--and
when these are all present the flower is _complete_. These are usually
densely crowded upon the thalamus, but in some instances, after apical
growth has ceased in the axis, an elongation of portions of the
receptacle by intercalary growth occurs, by which changes in the
position of the parts may be brought about. Thus in _Lychnis_ an
elongation of the axis betwixt the calyx and the corolla takes place,
and in this way they are separated by an interval. Again, in the
passion-flower (_Passiflora_) the stamens are separated from the corolla
by an elongated portion of the axis, which has consequently been termed
the _androphore_, and in _Passiflora_ also, fraxinella (fig. 27),
Capparidaceae, and some other plants, the ovary is raised upon a
distinct stalk termed the _gynophore_; it is thus separated from the
stamens, and is said to be _stipitate_. Usually the successive whorls of
the flower, disposed from below upwards or from without inwards upon the
floral axis, are of the same number of parts, or are a multiple of the
same number of parts, those of one whorl alternating with those of the
whorls next it.

[Illustration: FIG. 27.--Calyx and pistil of Fraxinella (_Dictamnus
Fraxinella_). The pistil consists of several carpels, which are elevated
on a stalk or _gynophore_ prolonged from the receptacle.]

In the more primitive types of flowers the torus is more or less convex,
and the series of organs follow in regular succession, culminating in
the carpels, in the formation of which the growth of the axis is closed
(fig. 28). This arrangement is known as hypogynous, the other series
(calyx, corolla and stamens) being beneath (_hypo-_) the gynoecium. In
other cases, the apex of the growing point ceases to develop, and the
parts below form a cup around it, from the rim of which the outer
members of the flower are developed around (_peri-_) the carpels, which
are formed from the apex of the growing-point at the bottom of the cup.
This arrangement is known as _perigynous_ (fig. 29). In many cases this
is carried farther and a cavity is formed which is roofed over by the
carpels, so that the outer members of the flower spring from the edge of
the receptacle which is immediately above the ovary (epigynous), hence
the term epigyny (fig. 30).

[Illustration: FIGS. 28, 29 and 30.--Diagrams illustrating hypogyny,
perigyny and epigyny of the flower. a, Stamens; c, carpels; p, petals;
s, sepals.]


  Symmetry of the flower.

When a flower consists of parts arranged in whorls it is said to be
_cyclic_, and if all the whorls have an equal number of parts and are
alternate it is _eucyclic_ (figs. 22, 23). In contrast to the cyclic
flowers are those, as in Magnoliaceae, where the parts are in spirals
(_acyclic_). Flowers which are cyclic at one portion and spiral at
another, as in many Ranunculaceae, are termed _hemicyclic_. In spiral
flowers the distinction into series is by no means easy, and usually
there is a gradual passage from sepaloid through petaloid to staminal
parts, as in the water-lily family, Nymphaeaceae (figs. 31, 32),
although in some plants there is no such distinction, the parts being
all petaloid, as in _Trollius_. Normally, the parts of successive whorls
alternate; but in some cases we find the parts of one whorl opposite or
_superposed_ to those of the next whorl. In some cases, as in the
vine-family Ampelidaceae, this seems to be the ordinary mode of
development, but the superposition of the stamens on the sepals in many
plants, as in the pink family, Caryophyllaceae, is due to the
suppression or abortion of the whorl of petals, and this idea is borne
out by the development, in some plants of the order, of the suppressed
whorl. As a rule, whenever we find the parts of one whorl superposed on
those of another we may suspect some abnormality.

[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Text-Book of Botany_, by permission
of Macmillan & Co., Ltd.

FIGS. 31 and 32.--White Water Lily. Fig. 31, flower; fig. 32, successive
stages, a-f, in the transition from petals to stamens. (After
Wossidlo.)]

A flower is said to be _symmetrical_ when each of its whorls consists of
an equal number of parts, or when the parts of any one whorl are
multiples of that preceding it. Thus, a symmetrical flower may have five
sepals, five petals, five stamens and five carpels, or the number of any
of these parts may be ten, twenty or some multiple of five. Fig. 23 is a
diagram of a symmetrical flower, with five parts in each whorl,
alternating with each other. Fig. 33 is a diagram of a symmetrical
flower of stone-crop, with five sepals, five alternating petals, ten
stamens and five carpels. Here the number of parts in the staminal
whorl is double that in the others, and in such a case the additional
five parts form a second row alternating with the others. In the
staminal whorl especially it is common to find additional rows. Fig. 34
shows a symmetrical flower, with five parts in the three outer rows, and
ten divisions in the inner. In this case it is the gynoecium which has
an additional number of parts. Fig. 35 shows a flower of heath, with
four divisions of the calyx and corolla, eight stamens in two rows, and
four divisions of the pistil. In fig. 36 there are three parts in each
whorl; and in fig. 37 there are three divisions of the calyx, corolla
and pistil, and six stamens in two rows. In all these cases the flower
is symmetrical. In Monocotyledons it is usual for the staminal whorl to
be double, it rarely having more than two rows, whilst amongst
dicotyledons there are often very numerous rows of stamens. The floral
envelopes are rarely multiplied. Flowers in which the number of parts in
each whorl is the same, are _isomerous_ (of equal number); when the
number in some of the whorls is different, the flower is _anisomerous_
(of unequal number). The pistillate whorl is very liable to changes. It
frequently happens that when it is fully formed, the number of its parts
is not in conformity with that of the other whorls. In such
circumstances, however, a flower has been called symmetrical, provided
the parts of the other whorls are normal,--the permanent state of the
pistil not being taken into account in determining symmetry. Thus fig.
38 shows a pentamerous symmetrical flower, with dimerous pistil.
Symmetry, then, in botanical language, has reference to a certain
definite numerical relation of parts. A flower in which the parts are
arranged in twos is called _dimerous_; when the parts of the whorls are
three, four or five, the flower is _trimerous_, _tetramerous_ or
_pentamerous_, respectively. The symmetry which is most commonly met
with is trimerous and pentamerous--the former occurring generally among
monocotyledons, the latter among dicotyledons. Dimerous and tetramerous
symmetry occur also among dicotyledons.

[Illustration:

FIG. 33.--Diagrammatic section of a symmetrical pentamerous flower of
Stone-crop (_Sedum_), consisting of five sepals (s), five petals (p)
alternating with the sepals, ten stamens (a) in two rows, and five
carpels (c) containing ovules. The dark lines (d) on the outside of the
carpels are glands.

FIG. 34.--Diagram of the flower of Flax (_Linum_), consisting of five
sepals (s), five petals (p), five stamens (a), and five carpels (c),
each of which is partially divided into two. The dots represent a whorl
of stamens which has disappeared. It is pentamerous, complete,
symmetrical and regular.

FIG. 35.--Diagram of the flower of Heath (_Erica_), a regular
tetramerous flower.

FIG. 36.--Diagram of the trimerous symmetrical flower of Iris.

FIG. 37.--Diagram of the symmetrical trimerous flower of Fritillary
(_Fritillaria_).

FIG. 38.--Diagram of the flower of Saxifrage (_Saxifraga
tridactylites_). The calyx and corolla consist of five parts, the
stamens are ten in two rows, while the pistil has only two parts
developed.]

The various parts of the flower have a certain definite relation to the
axis. Thus, in axillary tetramerous flowers (fig. 35), one sepal is next
the axis, and is called _superior_ or _posterior_; another is next the
bract, and is _inferior_ or _anterior_, and the other two are _lateral_;
and certain terms are used to indicate that position. A plane passing
through the anterior and posterior sepal and through the floral axis is
termed the _median plane_ of the flower; a plane cutting it at right
angles, and passing through the lateral sepals, is the _lateral plane_;
whilst the planes which bisect the angles formed by the lateral and
median planes are the _diagonal planes_, and in these flowers the petals
which alternate with the sepals are cut by the diagonal planes.

[Illustration: FIG. 39.--Diagram of flower of Sweet-pea (_Lathyrus_),
showing five sepals (s), two superior, one inferior, and two lateral;
five petals (p), one superior, two inferior, and two lateral; ten
stamens in two rows (a); and one carpel (c).

FIG. 40.--Flower of Pea (_Pisum sativum_), showing a papilionaceous
corolla, with one petal superior (st) called the standard (vexillum),
two inferior (car) called the keel (carina), and two lateral (a) called
wings (alae). The calyx is marked c.]

In a pentamerous flower one sepal may be superior, as in the calyx of
Rosaceae and Labiatae; or it may be inferior, as in the calyx of
Leguminosae (fig. 39)--the reverse, by the law of alternation, being the
case with the petals. Thus, in the blossom of the pea (figs. 39, 40),
the odd petal (vexillum) st is superior, while the odd sepal is
inferior. In the order Scrophulariaceae one of the two carpels is
posterior and the other anterior, whilst in Convolvulaceae the carpels
are arranged laterally. Sometimes the twisting of a part makes a change
in the position of other parts, as in Orchids, where the twisting of the
ovary changes the position of the labellum.

When the different members of each whorl are like in size and shape, the
flower is said to be _regular_; while differences in the size and shape
of the parts of a whorl make the flower _irregular_, as in the
papilionaceous flower, represented in fig. 39. When a flower can be
divided by a single plane into two exactly similar parts; then it is
said to be _zygomorphic_. Such flowers as Papilionaceae, Labiatae, are
examples. In contrast with this are _polysymmetrical_ or actinomorphic
flowers, which have a radial symmetry and can be divided by several
planes into several exactly similar portions; such are all regular,
symmetrical flowers. When the parts of any whorl are not equal to or
some multiple of the others, then the flower is _asymmetrical_. This
want of symmetry may be brought about in various ways. Alteration in the
symmetrical arrangement as well as in the completeness and regularity of
flowers has been traced to _suppression_ or the _non-development_ of
parts, _degeneration_ or imperfect formation, _cohesion_ or union of
parts of the same whorl, _adhesion_ or union of the parts of different
whorls, _multiplication_ of parts, and _deduplication_ (sometimes called
_chorisis_) or splitting of parts.

By _suppression_ or non-appearance of a part at the place where it ought
to appear if the structure was normal, the symmetry or completeness of
the flower is disturbed. This suppression when confined to the parts of
certain verticils makes the flower asymmetrical. Thus, in many
Caryophyllaceae, as _Polycarpon_ and _Holosteum_, while the calyx and
corolla are pentamerous, there are only three or four stamens and three
carpels; in _Impatiens Noli-me-tangere_ the calyx is composed of three
parts, while the other verticils have five; in labiate flowers there are
five parts of the calyx and corolla, and only four stamens; and in
_Tropaeolum pentaphyllum_ there are five sepals, two petals, eight
stamens and three carpels. In all these cases the want of symmetry is
traced to the suppression of certain parts. In the last-mentioned plant
the normal number is five, hence it is said that there are three petals
suppressed, as shown by the position of the two remaining ones; there
are two rows of stamens, in each of which one is wanting; and there are
two carpels suppressed. In many instances the parts which are afterwards
suppressed can be seen in the early stages of growth, and occasionally
some vestiges of them remain in the fully developed flower. By the
suppression of the verticil of the stamens, or of the carpels, flowers
become _unisexual_ or _diclinous_, and by the suppression of one or both
of the floral envelopes, monochlamydeous and achlamydeous flowers are
produced. The suppression of parts of the flower may be carried so far
that at last a flower consists of only one part of one whorl. In the
Euphorbiaceae we have an excellent example of the gradual suppression of
parts, where from an apetalous, trimerous, staminal flower we pass to
one where one of the stamens is suppressed, and then to forms where two
of them are wanting. We next have flowers in which the calyx is
suppressed, and its place occupied by one, two or three bracts (so that
the flower is, properly speaking, achlamydeous), and only one or two
stamens are produced. And finally, we find flowers consisting of a
single stamen with a bract. There is thus traced a _degradation_, as it
is called, from a flower with three stamens and three divisions of the
calyx, to one with a single bract and a single stamen.

_Degeneration_, or the transformation of parts, often gives rise either
to an apparent want of symmetry or to irregularity in form. In unisexual
flowers it is not uncommon to find vestiges of the undeveloped stamens
in the form of filiform bodies or scales. In double flowers
transformations of the stamens and pistils take place, so that they
appear as petals. In _Canna_, what are called petals are in reality
metamorphosed stamens. In the capitula of Compositae we sometimes find
the florets converted into green leaves. The limb of the calyx may
appear as a rim, as in some Umbelliferae; or as pappus, in Compositae
and _Valeriana_. In _Scrophularia_ the fifth stamen appears as a
scale-like body; in other Scrophulariaceae, as in _Pentstemon_, it
assumes the form of a filament, with hairs at its apex in place of an
anther.

_Cohesion_, or the union of parts of the same whorl, and _adhesion_, or
the growing together of parts of different whorls, are causes of change
both as regards form and symmetry. Thus in _Cucurbita_ the stamens are
originally five in number, but subsequently some cohere, so that three
stamens only are seen in the mature flower. Adhesion is well seen in the
_gynostemium_ of orchids, where the stamens and stigmas adhere. In
Capparidaceae the calyx and petals occupy their usual position, but the
axis is prolonged in the form of a gynophore, to which the stamens are
united.

_Multiplication_, or an increase of the number of parts, gives rise to
changes. We have already alluded to the interposition of new members in
a whorl. This takes place chiefly in the staminal whorl, but usually the
additional parts produced form a symmetrical whorl with the others. In
some instances, however, this is not the case. Thus in the
horse-chestnut there is an interposition of two stamens, and thus seven
stamens are formed in the flower, which is asymmetrical.

Parts of the flower are often increased by a process of _deduplication_,
or _chorisis_, i.e. the splitting of a part so that two or more parts
are formed out of what was originally one. Thus in Cruciferous plants
the staminal whorl consists of four long stamens and two short ones
(_tetradynamous_). The symmetry in the flower is evidently dimerous, and
the abnormality in the androecium, where the four long stamens are
opposite the posterior sepals, takes place by a splitting, at a very
early stage of development, of a single outgrowth into two. Many cases
of what was considered chorisis are in reality due to the development of
stipules from the staminal leaf. Thus in _Dicentra_ and _Corydalis_
there are six stamens in two bundles; the central one of each bundle
alone is perfect, the lateral ones have each only half an anther, and
are really stipules formed from the staminal leaf. Branching of stamens
also produces apparent want of symmetry; thus, in the so-called
polyadelphous stamens of Hypericaceae there are really only five stamens
which give off numerous branches, but the basal portion remaining short,
the branches have the appearance of separate stamens, and the flower
thus seems asymmetrical.

_Cultivation_ has a great effect in causing changes in the various parts
of plants. Many alterations in form, size, number and adhesion of parts
are due to the art of the horticulturist. The changes in the colour and
forms of flowers thus produced are endless. In the dahlia the florets
are rendered quilled, and are made to assume many glowing colours. In
pelargonium the flowers have been rendered larger and more showy; and
such is also the case with the _Ranunculus_, the auricula and the
carnation. Some flowers, with spurred petals in their usual state, as
columbine, are changed so that the spurs disappear; and others, as
_Linaria_, in which one petal only is usually spurred, are altered so as
to have all the petals spurred, and to present what are called
_pelorian_ varieties.

[Illustration:

FIG. 41.--Tetramerous monochlamydeous male flower of the Nettle
(_Urtica_).

FIG. 42.--Diagram to illustrate valvular or valvate aestivation, in
which the parts are placed in a circle, without overlapping or folding.

FIG. 43.--Diagram to illustrate induplicative or induplicate
aestivation, in which the parts of the verticil are slightly turned
inwards at the edges.]

As a convenient method of expressing the arrangement of the parts of the
flower, _floral formulae_ have been devised. Several modes of expression
are employed. The following is a very simple mode which has been
proposed:--The several whorls are represented by the letters S (sepals),
P (petals), St (stamens), C (carpels), and a figure marked after each
indicates the number of parts in that whorl. Thus the formula S5P5St5C5
means that the flower is perfect, and has pentamerous symmetry, the
whorls being isomerous. Such a flower as that of Sedum (fig. 33) would
be represented by the formula S5P5St_(5+5)C5, where St_(5+5) indicates
that the staminal whorl consists of two rows of five parts each. A
flower such as the male flower of the nettle (fig. 41) would be
expressed S4P0St4C0. When no other mark is appended the whorls are
supposed to be alternate; but if it is desired to mark the position of
the whorls special symbols are employed. Thus, to express the
superposition of one whorl upon another, a line is drawn between them,
e.g. the symbol S5P5 | St5C5 is the formula of the flower of
Primulaceae.

[Illustration:

FIG. 44.--Diagram to illustrate reduplicative or reduplicate
aestivation, in which the parts of the whorl are slightly turned
outwards at the edges.

FIG. 45.--Diagram to illustrate contorted or twisted aestivation, in
which the parts of the whorl are overlapped by each other in turn, and
are twisted on their axis.

FIG. 46.--Diagram to illustrate the quincuncial aestivation, in which
the parts of the flower are arranged in a spiral cycle, so that 1 and 2
are wholly external, 4 and 5 are internal, and 3 is partly external and
partly overlapped by 1.]

The manner in which the parts are arranged in the flower-bud with
respect to each other before opening is the _aestivation_ or
_praefloration_. The latter terms are applied to the flower-bud in the
same way as vernation is to the leaf-bud, and distinctive names have
been given to the different arrangements exhibited, both by the leaves
individually and in their relations to each other. As regards each leaf
of the flower, it is either spread out, as the sepals in the bud of the
lime-tree, or folded upon itself (conduplicate), as in the petals of
some species of _Lysimachia_, or slightly folded inwards or outwards at
the edges, as in the calyx of some species of clematis and of some
herbaceous plants, or rolled up at the edges (involute or revolute), or
folded transversely, becoming _crumpled_ or _corrugated_, as in the
poppy. When the parts of a whorl are placed in an exact circle, and are
applied to each other by their edges only, without overlapping or being
folded, thus resembling the valves of a seed-vessel, the aestivation is
_valvate_ (fig. 42). The edges of each of the parts may be turned either
inwards or outwards; in the former case the aestivation is _induplicate_
(fig. 43), in the latter case _reduplicate_ (fig. 44). When the parts of
a single whorl are placed in a circle, each of them exhibiting a torsion
of its axis, so that by one of its sides it overlaps its neighbour,
whilst its side is overlapped in like manner by that standing next to
it, the aestivation is _twisted_ or _contorted_ (fig. 45). This
arrangement is characteristic of the flower-buds of Malvaceae and
Apocynaceae, and it is also seen in Convolvulaceae and Caryophyllaceae.
When the flower expands, the traces of twisting often disappear, but
sometimes, as in Apocynaceae, they remain. Those forms of aestivation
are such as occur in cyclic flowers, and they are included under
_circular_ aestivation. But in spiral flowers we have a different
arrangement; thus the leaves of the calyx of _Camellia japonica_ cover
each other partially like tiles on a house. This aestivation is
_imbricate_. At other times, as in the petals of _Camellia_, the parts
envelop each other completely, so as to become _convolute_. This is also
seen in a transverse section of the calyx of _Magnolia grandiflora_,
where each of the three leaves embraces that within it. When the parts
of a whorl are five, as occurs in many dicotyledons, and the imbrication
is such that there are two parts external, two internal, and a fifth
which partially covers one of the internal parts by its margin, and is
in its turn partially covered by one of the external parts, the
aestivation is _quincuncial_ (fig. 46). This quincunx is common in the
corolla of Rosaceae. In fig. 47 a section is given of the bud of
_Antirrhinum majus_, showing the imbricate spiral arrangement. In this
case it will be seen that the part marked 5 has, by a slight change in
position, become overlapped by 1. This variety of imbricate aestivation
has been termed _cochlear_. In flowers such as those of the pea (fig.
40), one of the parts, the vexillum, is often large and folded over the
others, giving rise to _vexillary_ aestivation (fig. 48), or the carina
may perform a similar office, and then the aestivation is _carinal_, as
in the Judas-tree (_Cercis Siliquastrum_). The parts of the several
verticils often differ in their mode of aestivation. Thus, in Malvaceae
the corolla is contorted and the calyx valvate, or reduplicate; in St
John's-wort the calyx is imbricate, and the corolla contorted. In
Convolvulaceae, while the corolla is twisted, and has its parts arranged
in a circle, the calyx is imbricate, and exhibits a spiral arrangement.
In _Guazuma_ the calyx is valvate, and the corolla induplicate. The
circular aestivation is generally associated with a regular calyx and
corolla, while the spiral aestivations are connected with irregular as
well as with regular forms.

[Illustration:

FIG. 47.--Diagram to illustrate imbricated aestivation, in which the
parts are arranged in a spiral cycle, following the order indicated by
the figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

FIG. 48.--Diagram of a papilionaceous flower, showing vexillary
aestivation.

  1 and 2, The alae or wings.

  3, A part of the carina or keel.

  4, The vexillum or standard, which, in place of being internal, as
  marked by the dotted line, becomes external.

  5, The remaining part of the keel.

  The order of the cycle is indicated by the figures.]


  Calyx.

The _sepals_ are sometimes _free_ or separate from each other, at other
times they are united to a greater or less extent; in the former case,
the calyx is _polysepalous_, in the latter _gamosepalous_ or
_monosepalous_. The divisions of the calyx present usually the
characters of leaves, and in some cases of monstrosity they are
converted into leaf-like organs, as not infrequently happens in
primulas. They are usually entire, but occasionally they are cut in
various ways, as in the rose; they are rarely stalked. Sepals are
generally of a more or less oval, elliptical or oblong form, with their
apices either blunt or acute. In their direction they are erect or
reflexed (with their apices downwards), spreading outwards (_divergent_
or _patulous_), or arched inwards (_connivent_). They are usually of a
greenish colour (_herbaceous_); but sometimes they are coloured or
_petaloid_, as in the fuchsia, tropaeolum, globe-flower and pomegranate.
Whatever be its colour, the external envelope of the flower is
considered as the calyx. The vascular bundles sometimes form a prominent
rib, which indicates the middle of the sepal; at other times they form
several ribs. The venation is useful as pointing out the number of
leaves which constitute a gamosepalous calyx. In a polysepalous calyx
the number of the parts is indicated by Greek numerals prefixed; thus, a
calyx which has three sepals is _trisepalous_; one with five sepals is
_pentasepalous_. The sepals occasionally are of different forms and
sizes. In Aconite one of them is shaped like a helmet (_galeate_). In a
gamosepalous calyx the sepals are united in various ways, sometimes very
slightly, and their number is marked by the divisions at the apex. These
divisions either are simple projections in the form of acute or obtuse
teeth (fig. 49); or they extend down the calyx as fissures about
half-way, the calyx being _trifid_ (three-cleft), _quinquefid_
(five-cleft), &c., according to their number; or they reach to near the
base in the form of partitions, the calyx being _tripartite_,
_quadripartite_, _quinquepartite_, &c. The union of the parts may be
complete, and the calyx may be quite entire or _truncate_, as in some
Correas, the venation being the chief indication of the different parts.
The cohesion is sometimes irregular, some parts uniting to a greater
extent than others; thus a two-lipped or _labiate_ calyx is formed. The
upper lip is often composed of three parts, which are thus posterior or
next the axis, while the lower has two, which are anterior. The part
formed by the union of the sepals is called the _tube_ of the calyx; the
portion where the sepals are free is the _limb_.

[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 49.--Gamosepalous five-toothed calyx of Campion (_Lychnis_).

FIG. 50.--Obsolete calyx (c) of Madder (_Rubia_) adherent to the pistil,
in the form of a rim.

FIG. 51.--Feathery pappus attached to the fruit of Groundsel (_Senecio
vulgaris_).

FIG. 52.--Caducous calyx (c) of Poppy. There are two sepals which fall
off before the petals expand.

FIG. 53.--Fruit of Physalis Alkekengi, consisting of the persistent
calyx (s), surrounding the berry (fr), derived from the ovary. (After
Duchartre.)]

Occasionally, certain parts of the sepals undergo marked enlargement. In
the violet the calycine segments are prolonged downwards beyond their
insertions, and in the Indian cress (_Tropaeolum_) this prolongation is
in the form of a spur (_calcar_), formed by three sepals; in Delphinium
it is formed by one. In Pelargonium the spur from one of the sepals is
adherent to the flower-stalk. In _Potentilla_ and allied genera an
_epicalyx_ is formed by the development of stipules from the sepals,
which form an apparent outer calyx, the parts of which alternate with
the true sepals. In Malvaceae an epicalyx is formed by the bracteoles.
Degenerations take place in the calyx, so that it becomes dry, scaly and
glumaceous (like the glumes of grasses), as in the rushes (Juncaceae);
hairy, as in Compositae; or a mere rim, as in some Umbelliferae and
Acanthaceae, and in Madder (_Rubia tinctorum_, fig. 50), when it is
called _obsolete_ or _marginate_. In Compositae, Dipsacaceae and
Valerianaceae the calyx is attached to the pistil, and its limb is
developed in the form of hairs called _pappus_ (fig. 51). This pappus is
either simple (_pilose_) or feathery (_plumose_). In _Valeriana_ the
superior calyx is at first an obsolete rim, but as the fruit ripens it
is shown to consist of hairs rolled inwards, which expand so as to waft
the fruit. The calyx sometimes falls off before the flower expands, as
in poppies, and is _caducous_ (fig. 52); or along with the corolla, as
in _Ranunculus_, and is _deciduous_; or it remains after flowering
(_persistent_) as in Labiatae, Scrophulariaceae, and Boraginaceae; or
its base only is persistent, as in _Datura Stramonium_. In
_Eschscholtzia_ and _Eucalyptus_ the sepals remain united at the upper
part, and become disarticulated at the base or middle, so as to come off
in the form of a lid or funnel. Such a calyx is _operculate_ or
_calyptrate_. The existence or non-existence of an articulation
determines the deciduous or persistent nature of the calyx.

The receptacle bearing the calyx is sometimes united to the pistil, and
enlarges so as to form a part of the fruit, as in the apple, pear, &c.
In these fruits the withered calyx is seen at the apex. Sometimes a
persistent calyx increases much after flowering, and encloses the fruit
without being incorporated with it, becoming _accrescent_, as in various
species of _Physalis_ (fig. 53); at other times it remains in a withered
or _marcescent_ form, as in _Erica_; sometimes it becomes _inflated_ or
_vesicular_, as in sea campion (_Silene maritima_).


  Corolla.

The corolla is the more or less coloured attractive inner floral
envelope; generally the most conspicuous whorl. It is present in the
greater number of Dicotyledons. Petals differ more from ordinary leaves
than sepals do, and are much more nearly allied to the staminal whorl.
In some cases, however, they are transformed into leaves, like the
calyx, and occasionally leaf-buds are developed in their axil They are
seldom green, although occasionally that colour is met with, as in some
species of _Cobaea_, _Hoya viridiflora_, _Gonolobus viridiflorus_ and
_Pentatropis spiralis_. As a rule they are highly coloured, the
colouring matter being contained in the cell-sap, as in blue or red
flowers, or in plastids (chromoplasts), as generally in yellow flowers,
or in both forms, as in many orange-coloured or reddish flowers. The
attractiveness of the petal is often due wholly or in part to surface
markings; thus the cuticle of the petal of a pelargonium, when viewed
with a ½ or ¼-in. object-glass, shows beautiful hexagons, the boundaries
of which are ornamented with several inflected loops in the sides of the
cells.

Petals are generally glabrous or smooth; but, in some instances, hairs
are produced on their surface. Petaline hairs, though sparse and
scattered, present occasionally the same arrangement as those which
occur on the leaves; thus, in Bombaceae they are stellate. Coloured
hairs are seen on the petals of _Menyanthes_, and on the segments of the
perianth of _Iris_. They serve various purposes in the economy of the
flower, often closing the way to the honey-secreting part of the flower
to small insects, whose visits would be useless for purposes of
pollination. Although petals are usually very thin and delicate in their
texture, they occasionally become thick and fleshy, as in _Stapelia_ and
_Rafflesia_; or dry, as in heaths; or hard and stiff, as in _Xylopia_. A
petal often consists of two portions--the lower narrow, resembling the
petiole of a leaf, and called the _unguis_ or _claw_; the upper broader,
like the blade of a leaf, and called the _lamina_ or _limb_. These parts
are seen in the petals of the wallflower (fig. 54). The claw is often
wanting, as in the crowfoot (fig. 55) and the poppy, and the petals are
then _sessile_. According to the development of veins and the growth of
cellular tissue, petals present varieties similar to those of leaves.
Thus the margin is either entire or divided into lobes or teeth. These
teeth sometimes form a regular fringe round the margin, and the petal
becomes _fimbriated_, as in the pink; or _laciniated_, as in _Lychnis
Flos-cuculi_; or _crested_, as in _Polygala_. Sometimes the petal
becomes pinnatifid, as in _Schizopetalum_. The median vein is
occasionally prolonged beyond the summit of the petals in the form of a
long process, as in _Strophanthus hispidus_, where it extends for 7 in.;
or the prolonged extremity is folded downwards or inflexed, as in
Umbelliferae, so that the apex approaches the base. The limb of the
petal may be flat or concave, or hollowed like a boat. In Hellebore the
petals become folded in a tubular form, resembling a horn (fig. 56); in
aconite (fig. 58) some of the petals resemble a hollow-curved horn,
supported on a grooved stalk; while in columbine, violet (fig. 57),
snapdragon and _Centranthus_, one or all of them are prolonged in the
form of a spur, and are _calcarate_. In _Valeriana_, _Antirrhinum_ and
_Corydalis_, the spur is very short, and the corolla or petal is said to
be _gibbous_, or _saccate_, at the base. These spurs, tubes and sacs
serve as receptacles for the secretion or containing of nectar.

[Illustration:

FIG. 54.--Unguiculate or clawed petal of Wallflower (_Cheiranthus
Cheiri_). c, The claw or unguis; l, the blade or lamina.

FIG. 55.--Petal of Crowfoot (_Ranunculus_), without a claw, and thus
resembling a sessile leaf. At the base of the petal a nectariferous
scale is seen.

FIG. 56.--Tubular petal of Hellebore (_Helleborus_).

FIG. 57.--Pansy (_Viola tricolor_). Longitudinal section of flower; v,
bracteole on the peduncle; l, sepals; ls, appendage of sepal; c, petals;
cs, spur of the lower petals; fs, glandular appendage of the lower
stamens; a, anthers. (After Sachs.)

(From Vines' Students' _Text-Book of Botany_, by permission of Swan
Sonnenschein & Co.)

FIG. 58.--Part of the flower of Aconite (_Aconitum Napellus_), showing
two irregular horn-like petals (p) supported on grooved stalks (o).
These serve as nectaries, s, the whorl of stamens inserted on the
thalamus and surrounding the pistil.]

A corolla is _dipetalous_, _tripetalous_, _tetrapetalous_ or
_pentapetalous_ according as it has two, three, four or five separate
petals. The general name of _polypetalous_ is given to corollas having
separate petals, while _monopetalous_, _gamopetalous_ or _sympetalous_
is applied to those in which the petals are united. This union generally
takes place at the base, and extends more or less towards the apex; in
_Phyteuma_ the petals are united at their apices also. In some
polypetalous corollas, as that of the vine, the petals are separate at
the base and adhere by the apices. When the petals are equal as regards
their development and size, the corolla is _regular_; when unequal, it
is _irregular_. When a corolla is gamopetalous it usually happens that
the lower portion forms a tube, while the upper parts are either free or
partially united, so as to form a common limb, the point of union of the
two portions being the _throat_, which often exhibits a distinct
constriction or dilatation. The number of parts forming such a corolla
can be determined by the divisions, whether existing as teeth,
crenations, fissures or partitions, or if, as rarely happens, the
corolla is entire, by the venation. The union may be equal among the
parts, or some may unite more than others.

[Illustration: FIG. 59.--Rosaceous corolla (c) of the Strawberry
(_Fragaria vesca_), composed of five petals without claws.]

Amongst regular polypetalous corollas may be noticed the _rosaceous_
corolla (fig. 59), in which there are five spreading petals, having no
claws, and arranged as in the rose, strawberry and _Potentilla_; the
_caryophyllaceous_ corolla, in which there are five petals with long,
narrow, tapering claws, as in many of the pink tribe; the _cruciform_,
having four petals, often unguiculate, placed opposite in the form of a
cross, as seen in wallflower, and in other plants called _cruciferous_.
Of irregular polypetalous corollas the most marked is the
_papilionaceous_ (fig. 40), in which there are five petals:--one
superior (posterior), st, placed next to the axis, usually larger than
the rest, called the _vexillum_ or _standard_; two lateral, a, the
_alae_ or wings; two inferior (anterior), partially or completely
covered by the alae, and often united slightly by their lower margins,
so as to form a single keel-like piece, _car_, called _carina_, or keel,
which embraces the essential organs. This form of corolla is
characteristic of British leguminous plants.

[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 60.--Flower of _Campanula medium_; d, bract; v, bracteoles.]

Regular gamopetalous corollas are sometimes _campanulate_ or
_bell-shaped_, as in (_Campanula_) (fig. 60); _infundibuliform_ or
_funnel-shaped_, when the tube is like an inverted cone, and the limb
becomes more expanded at the apex, as in tobacco; _hypocrateriform_ or
_salver-shaped_, when there is a straight tube surmounted by a flat
spreading limb, as in primula (fig. 61); _tubular_, having a long
cylindrical tube, appearing continuous with the limb, as in _Spigelia_
and comfrey; _rotate_ or _wheel-shaped_, when the tube is very short,
and the limb flat and spreading, as in forget-me-not, _Myosotis_ (when
the divisions of the rotate corolla are very acute, as in _Galium_, it
is sometimes called _stellate_ or _star-like_); _urceolate_ or
_urn-shaped_, when there is scarcely any limb, and the tube is narrow at
both ends, and expanded in the middle, as in bell-heath (_Erica
cinerea_). Some of these forms may become irregular in consequence of
certain parts being more developed than others. Thus, in _Veronica_, the
rotate corolla has one division much smaller than the rest, and in
foxglove (_Digitalis_) there is a slightly irregular companulate
corolla. Of irregular gamopetalous corollas there may be mentioned the
_labiate_ or _lipped_ (fig. 62), having two divisions of the limb in the
form of lips (the upper one, u, composed usually of two united petals,
and the lower, l, of three), separated by a gap. In such cases the tube
varies in length, and the parts in their union follow the reverse order
of what occurs in the calyx, where two sepals are united in the lower
lip and three in the upper. When the upper lip of a labiate corolla is
much arched, and the lips separated by a distinct gap, it is called
_ringent_ (fig. 62). The labiate corolla characterizes the natural order
Labiatae. When the lower lip is pressed against the upper, so as to
leave only a chink between them, the corolla is said to be _personate_,
as in snapdragon, and some other Scrophulariaceae. In some corollas the
two lips become hollowed out in a remarkable manner, as in calceolaria,
assuming a slipper-like appearance, similar to what occurs in the
labellum of some orchids, as _Cypripedium_. When a tubular corolla is
split in such a way as to form a strap-like process on one side with
several tooth-like projections at its apex, it becomes _ligulate_ or
_strap-shaped_ (fig. 63). This corolla occurs in many composite plants,
as in the florets of dandelion, daisy and chicory. The number of
divisions at the apex indicates the number of united petals, some of
which, however, may be abortive. Occasionally some of the petals become
more united than others, and then the corolla assumes a _bilabiate_ or
_two-lipped_ form, as seen in the division of Compositae called
Labiatiflorae.

Petals are sometimes suppressed, and sometimes the whole corolla is
absent. In _Amorpha_ and _Afzelia_ the corolla is reduced to a single
petal, and in some other Leguminous plants it is entirely wanting. In
the natural order Ranunculaceae, some genera, such as _Ranunculus_,
globe-flower and paeony, have both calyx and corolla, while others, such
as clematis, anemone and _Caltha_, have only a coloured calyx. Flowers
become double by the multiplication of the parts of the corolline whorl;
this arises in general from a metamorphosis of the stamens.

[Illustration:

FIG. 61.--Flower of cowslip (_Primula veris_) cut vertically. s, Sepals
joined to form a gamosepalous calyx; c, corolla consisting of tube and
spreading limb; a, stamens springing from the mouth of the tube; p,
pistil.

FIG. 62.--Irregular gamopetalous labiate corolla of the Dead-nettle
(_Lamium album_). The upper lip u is composed of two petals united, the
lower lip (l) of three. Between the two lips there is a gap. The throat
is the part where the tube and the labiate limb join. From the arching
of the upper lip this corolla is called ringent.

FIG. 63.--Irregular gamopetalous ligulate flower of Ragwort (_Senecio_).
It is a tubular floret, split down on one side, with the united petals
forming a straplike projection. The lines on the flat portion indicate
the divisions of the five petals. From the tubular portion below, the
bifid style projects slightly.]

Certain structures occur on the petals of some flowers, which received
in former days the name of _nectaries_. The term nectary was very
vaguely applied by Linnaeus to any part of the flower which presented an
unusual aspect, as the crown (_corona_) of narcissus, the fringes of the
Passion-flower, &c. If the name is retained it ought properly to include
only those parts which secrete a honey-like substance, as the glandular
depression at the base of the perianth of the fritillary, or on the
petal of _Ranunculus_ (fig. 55), or on the stamens of Rutaceae. The
honey secreted by flowers attracts insects, which, by conveying the
pollen to the stigma, effect fertilization. The horn-like nectaries
under the galeate sepal of aconite (fig. 58) are modified petals, so
also are the tubular nectaries of hellebore (fig. 56). Other
modifications of some part of the flower, especially of the corolla and
stamens, are produced either by degeneration or outgrowth, or by
_chorisis_, or _deduplication_. Of this nature are the scales on the
petals in _Lychnis_, _Silene_ and _Cynoglossum_, which are formed in the
same way as the ligules of grasses. In other cases, as in Samolus, the
scales are alternate with the petals, and may represent altered stamens.
In _Narcissus_ the appendages are united to form a crown, consisting of
a membrane similar to that which unites the stamens in _Pancratium_. It
is sometimes difficult to say whether these structures are to be
referred to the corolline or to the staminal row.

Petals are attached to the axis usually by a narrow base. When this
attachment takes place by an articulation, the petals fall off either
immediately after expansion (_caducous_) or after fertilization
(_deciduous_). A corolla which is continuous with the axis and not
articulated to it, as in campanula and heaths, may be persistent, and
remain in a withered or marcescent state while the fruit is ripening. A
gamopetalous corolla falls off in one piece; but sometimes the base of
the corolla remains persistent, as in _Rhinanthus_ and _Orobanche_.

The _stamens_ and the _pistil_ are sometimes spoken of as the essential
organs of the flower, as the presence of both is required in order that
perfect seed may be produced. As with few exceptions the stamen
represents a leaf which has been specially developed to bear the pollen
or microspores, it is spoken of in comparative morphology as a
microsporophyll; similarly the carpels which make up the pistil are the
megasporophylls (see ANGIOSPERMS). _Hermaphrodite_ or _bisexual_ flowers
are those in which both these organs are found; _unisexual_ or
_diclinous_ are those in which only one of these organs appears,--those
bearing stamens only, being _staminiferous_ or "male"; those having the
pistil only, _pistilliferous_ or "female." But even in plants with
hermaphrodite flowers self-fertilization is often provided against by
the structure of the parts or by the period of ripening of the organs.
For instance, in _Primula_ and _Linum_ some flowers have long stamens
and a pistil with a short style, the others having short stamens and a
pistil with a long style. The former occur in the so-called thrum-eyed
primroses (fig. 61), the latter in the "pin-eyed." Such plants are
called _dimorphic_. Other plants are _trimorphic_, as species of
_Lythrum_, and proper fertilization is only effected by combination of
parts of equal length. In some plants the stamens are perfected before
the pistil; these are called _proterandrous_, as in _Ranunculus repens_,
_Silene maritima_, _Zea Mays_. In other plants, but more rarely, the
pistil is perfected before the stamens, as in _Potentilla argentea_,
_Plantago major_, _Coix Lachryma_, and they are termed _proterogynous_.
Plants in which proterandry or proterogyny occurs are called
_dichogamous_. When in the same plant there are unisexual flowers, both
male and female, the plant is said to be _monoecious_, as in the hazel
and castor-oil plant. When the male and female flowers of a species are
found on separate plants, the term _dioecious_ is applied, as in
_Mercurialis_ and hemp; and when a species has male, female and
hermaphrodite flowers on the same or different plants, as in
_Parietaria_, it is _polygamous_.

[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 64.--Flower of _Paeonia peregrina_, in longitudinal section. k,
Sepal; c, petal; a, stamens; g, pistil. (½ nat. size.)]


  Stamens.

The stamens arise from the thalamus or torus within the petals, with
which they generally alternate, forming one or more whorls, which
collectively constitute the _androecium_. Their normal position is below
the pistil, and when they are so placed (fig. 64, a) upon the thalamus
they are hypogynous. Sometimes they become adherent to the petals, or
are _epipetalous_, and the insertion of both is looked upon as similar,
so that they are still hypogynous, provided they are independent of the
calyx and the pistil. In other cases they are perigynous or epigynous
(fig. 65). Numerous intermediate forms occur, especially amongst
Saxifragaceae, where the parts are _half superior_ or _half inferior_.
Where the stamens become adherent to the pistil so as to form a column,
the flowers are said to be _gynandrous_, as in _Aristolochia_ (fig. 66).
These arrangements of parts are of great importance in classification.
The stamens vary in number from one to many hundreds. In acyclic flowers
there is often a gradual transition from petals to stamens, as in the
white water-lily (fig. 31). When flowers become double by cultivation,
the stamens are converted into petals, as in the paeony, camellia, rose,
&c. When there is only one whorl the stamens are usually equal in number
to the sepals or petals, and are arranged opposite to the former, and
alternate with the latter. The flower is then _isostemonous_. When the
stamens are not equal in number to the sepals or petals, the flower is
_anisostemonous_. When there is more than one whorl of stamens, then the
parts of each successive whorl alternate with those of the whorl
preceding it. The staminal row is more liable to multiplication of parts
than the outer whorls. A flower with a single row of stamens is
_haplostemonous_. If the stamens are double the sepals or petals as
regards number, the flower is _diplostemonous_; if more than double,
_polystemonous_. The additional rows of stamens may be developed in the
usual centripetal (acropetal) order, as in Rhamnaceae; or they may be
interposed between the pre-existing ones or be placed outside them, i.e.
develop centrifugally (basipetally), as in geranium and oxalis, when the
flower is said to be _obdiplostemonous_. When the stamens are fewer than
twenty they are said to be _definite_; when above twenty they are
_indefinite_, and are represented by the symbol [infinity]. The number
of stamens is indicated by the Greek numerals prefixed to the term
_androus_; thus a flower with one stamen is _monandrous_, with two,
three, four, five, six or many stamens, di-, tri-, tetr-, pent-, hex- or
polyandrous, respectively.

[Illustration: FIG. 65.--Flower of Aralia in vertical section. c, Calyx;
p, petal; e, stamen; s, stigmas. The calyx, petals and stamens spring
from above the ovary (o) in which two chambers are shown each with a
pendulous ovule; d, disc between the stamens and stigmas.]

[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 66.--Flowers of _Aristolochia Clematitis_ cut through
longitudinally. I. Young flower in which the stigma (N) is receptive and
the stamens (S) have not yet opened; II. Older flower with the stamens
(S) opened, the stigma withered, and the hairs on the corolla dried up.]

The function of the stamen is the development and distribution of the
pollen. The stamen usually consists of two parts, a contracted portion,
often thread-like, termed the _filament_ (fig. 25 f), and a broader
portion, usually of two lobes, termed the _anther_ (a), containing the
powdery _pollen_ (p), and supported upon the end of the filament. That
portion of the filament in contact with the anther-lobes is termed the
_connective_. If the anther is absent the stamen is abortive, and cannot
perform its functions. The anther is developed before the filament, and
when the latter is not produced, the anther is sessile, as in the
mistletoe.

The filament is usually, as its name imports, filiform or thread-like,
and cylindrical, or slightly tapering towards its summit. It is often,
however, thickened, compressed and flattened in various ways, becoming
_petaloid_ in _Canna_, _Marania_, water-lily (fig. 32); _subulate_ or
slightly broadened at the base and drawn out into a point like an awl,
as in _Butomus umbellatus_; or clavate, that is, narrow below and broad
above, as in _Thalictrum_. In some instances, as in _Tamarix gallica_,
_Peganum Harmala_, and _Campanula_, the base of the filament is much
dilated, and ends suddenly in a narrow thread-like portion. In these
cases the base may give off lateral stipulary processes, as in _Allium_
and _Alyssum calycinum_. The filament varies much in length and in
firmness. The length sometimes bears a relation to that of the pistil,
and to the position of the flower, whether erect or drooping. The
filament is usually of sufficient solidity to support the anther in an
erect position; but sometimes, as in grasses, and other wind-pollinated
flowers, it is very delicate and hair-like, so that the anther is
pendulous (fig. 105). The filament is generally continuous from one end
to the other, but in some cases it is bent or jointed, becoming
_geniculate_; at other times, as in the pellitory, it is spiral. It is
colourless, or of different colours. Thus in fuchsia and _Poinciana_, it
is red; in _Adamia_ and _Tradescantia virginica_, blue; in _Oenothera_
and _Ranunculus acris_, yellow.

Hairs, scales, teeth or processes of different kinds are sometimes
times developed on the filament. In spiderwort (_Tradescantia
virginica_) the hairs are beautifully coloured, moniliform or
necklace-like, and afford good objects for studying rotation of the
protoplasm. Filaments are usually articulated to the thalamus or torus,
and the stamens fall off after fertilization; but in _Campanula_ and
some other plants they are continuous with the torus, and the stamens
remain persistent, although in a withered state. Changes are produced in
the whorl of stamens by cohesion of the filaments to a greater or less
extent, while the anthers remain free; thus, all the filaments of the
androecium may unite, forming a tube round the pistil, or a central
bundle when the pistil is abortive, the stamens becoming _monadelphous_,
as occurs in plants of the Mallow tribe; or they may be arranged in two
bundles, the stamens being _diadelphous_, as in _Polygala_, _Fumaria_
and Pea; in this case the bundles may be equal or unequal. It frequently
happens, especially in Papilionaceous flowers, that out of ten stamens
nine are united by their filaments, while one (the posterior one) is
free (fig. 68). When there are three or more bundles the stamens are
_triadelphous_, as in _Hypericum aegyptiacum_, or _polyadelphous_, as in
_Ricinus communis_ (castor-oil). In some cases, as in papilionaceous
flowers, the stamens cohere, having been originally separate, but in
most cases each bundle is produced by the branching of a single stamen.
When there are three stamens in a bundle we may conceive the lateral
ones as of a stipulary nature. In Lauraceae there are perfect stamens,
each having at the base of the filament two abortive stamens or
staminodes, which may be analogous to stipules. Filaments sometimes are
adherent to the pistil, forming a column (_gynostemium_), as in
_Stylidium_, Asclepiadaceae, _Rafflesia_, and Aristolochiaceae (fig.
66); the flowers are then termed _gynandrous_.

[Illustration: FIG. 67.--Spikelet of Reed (_Phragmites communis_) opened
out. a, b, Barren glumes; c, fertile glumes, each enclosing one flower
with its pale, d; the zigzag axis (_rhachilla_) bears long silky hairs.]

[Illustration:

FIG. 68.--Stamens and pistil of Sweet Pea (_Lathyrus_). The stamens are
diadelphous, nine of them being united by their filaments (f), while one
of them (e) is free; st, stigma; c, calyx.

FIG. 69.--Portion of wall of anther of Wallflower (_Cheiranthus_). ce,
Exothecium; cf, endothecium; highly magnified.

FIG. 70.--Quadrilocular or tetrathecal anther of the flowering Rush
(_Butomus umbellatus_). The anther entire (a) with its filament; section
of anther (b) showing the four loculi.]


  The anther.

The _anther_ consists of lobes containing the minute powdery pollen
grains, which, when mature, are discharged by a fissure or opening of
some sort. There is a double covering of the anther--the outer, or
_exothecium_, resembles the epidermis, and often presents stomata and
projections of different kinds (fig. 69); the inner, or _endothecium_,
is formed by a layer or layers of cellular tissue (fig. 69, cf), the
cells of which have a spiral, annular, or reticulated thickening of the
wall. The endothecium varies in thickness, generally becoming thinner
towards the part where the anther opens, and there disappears entirely.
The walls of the cells are frequently absorbed, so that when the anther
attains maturity the fibres are alone left, and these by their
elasticity assist in discharging the pollen. The anther is developed
before the filament, and is always sessile in the first instance, and
sometimes continues so. It appears at first as a simple cellular papilla
of meristem, upon which an indication of two lobes soon appears. Upon
these projections the rudiments of the pollen-sacs are then seen,
usually four in number, two on each lobe. In each a differentiation
takes place in the layers beneath the epidermis, by which an outer layer
of small-celled tissue surrounds an inner portion of large cells. Those
central cells are the mother-cells of the pollen, whilst the
small-celled layer of tissue external to them becomes the endothecium,
the exothecium being formed from the epidermal layer.

In the young state there are usually four pollen-sacs, two for each
anther-lobe, and when these remain permanently complete it is a
_quadrilocular_ or _tetrathecal_ anther (fig. 70). Sometimes, however,
only two cavities remain in the anther, by union of the sacs in each
lobe, in which case the anther is said to be _bilocular_ or _dithecal_.
Sometimes the anther has a single cavity, and becomes _unilocular_, or
_monothecal_, or _dimidiate_, either by the disappearance of the
partition between the two lobes, or by the abortion of one of its lobes,
as in _Styphelia laeta_ and _Althaea officinalis_ (hollyhock).
Occasionally there are numerous cavities in the anther, as in _Viscum_
and _Rafflesia_. The form of the anther-lobes varies. They are generally
of a more or less oval or elliptical form, or they may be globular, as
in _Mercurialis annua_; at other times linear or clavate: curved,
flexuose, or sinuose, as in bryony and gourd. According to the amount of
union of the lobes and the unequal development of different parts of
their surface an infinite variety of forms is produced. That part of the
anther to which the filament is attached is the _back_, the opposite
being the _face_. The division between the lobes is marked on the face
of the anther by a groove or _furrow_, and there is usually on the face
a _suture_, indicating the line of dehiscence. The suture is often
towards one side in consequence of the valves being unequal. The stamens
may cohere by their anthers, and become _syngenesious_, as in composite
flowers, and in lobelia, jasione, &c.


  The connective.

The anther-lobes are united to the _connective_, which is either
continuous with the filament or articulated with it. When the filament
is continuous with the connective, and is prolonged so that the
anther-lobes appear to be united to it throughout their whole length,
and lie in apposition to it and on both sides of it, the anther is said
to be _adnate_ or _adherent_; when the filament ends at the base of the
anther, then the latter is _innate_ or _erect_. In these cases the
anther is to a greater or less degree fixed. When, however, the
attachment is very narrow, and an articulation exists, the anthers are
movable (_versatile_) and are easily turned by the wind, as in
_Tritonia_, grasses (fig. 105), &c., where the filament is attached only
to the middle of the connective. The connective may unite the
anther-lobes completely or only partially. It is sometimes very short
and is reduced to a mere point, so that the lobes are separate or free.
At other times it is prolonged upwards beyond the lobes, assuming
various forms, as in _Acalypha_ and oleander; or it is extended
backwards and downwards, as in violet (fig. 71), forming a
nectar-secreting spur. In _Salvia officinalis_ the connective is
attached to the filament in a horizontal manner, so as to separate the
two anther-lobes (fig. 72), one only of which contains pollen, the other
being imperfectly developed and sterile. The connective is joined to the
filament by a movable joint forming a lever which plays an important
part in the pollination-mechanism. In _Stachys_ the connective is
expanded laterally, so as to unite the bases of the anther-lobes and
bring them into a horizontal line.


  Antherdehiscence.

The opening or _dehiscence_ of the anthers to discharge their contents
takes place either by clefts, by valves, or by pores. When the
anther-lobes are erect, the cleft is lengthwise along the line of the
suture--_longitudinal dehiscence_ (fig. 25). At other times the slit is
horizontal, from the connective to the side, as in _Alchemilla arvensis_
(fig. 73) and in _Lemna_; the dehiscence is then _transverse_. When the
anther-lobes are rendered horizontal by the enlargement of the
connective, then what is really longitudinal dehiscence may appear to be
transverse. The cleft does not always proceed the whole length of the
anther-lobe at once, but often for a time it extends only partially. In
other instances the opening is confined to the base or apex, each
loculament opening by a single pore, as in _Pyrola_, _Tetratheca
juncea_, Rhododendron, _Vaccinium_ and _Solanum_ (fig. 74), where there
are two, and _Poranthera_, where there are four; whilst in the mistletoe
the anther has numerous pores for the discharge of the pollen. Another
mode of dehiscence is the valvular, as in the barberry (fig. 75), where
each lobe opens by a valve on the outer side of the suture, separately
rolling up from base to apex; in some of the laurel tribe there are two
such valves for each lobe, or four in all. In some Guttiferae, as
_Hebradendron cambogioides_ (the Ceylon gamboge plant), the anther opens
by a lid separating from the apex (_circumscissile_ dehiscence).

[Illustration:

FIG. 71.--Two stamens of Pansy (_Viola tricolor_), with their two
anther-lobes and the connectives (p) extending beyond them. One of the
stamens has been deprived of its spur, the other shows its spur c.

FIG. 72.--Anther of _Salvia officinalis_. lf, fertile lobe full of
pollen; ls, barren lobe without pollen; e, connective; f, filament.

FIG. 73.--Stamen of Lady's Mantle (_Alchemilla_), with the anther
opening transversely.

FIG. 74.--Stamen of a species of Nightshade (_Solanum_), showing the
divergence of the anther-lobes at the base, and the dehiscence by pores
at the apex.

FIG. 75.--The stamen of the Barberry (_Berberis vulgaris_), showing one
of the valves of the anther (v) curved upwards, bearing the pollen on
its inner surface.]

The anthers dehisce at different periods during the process of
flowering; sometimes in the bud, but more commonly when the pistil is
fully developed and the flower is expanded. They either dehisce
simultaneously or in succession. In the latter case individual stamens
may move in succession towards the pistil and discharge their contents,
as in _Parnassia palustris_, or the outer or the inner stamens may first
dehisce, following thus a centripetal or centrifugal order. These
variations are intimately connected with the arrangements for
transference of pollen. The anthers are called _introrse_ when they
dehisce by the surface next to the centre of the flower; they are
_extrorse_ when they dehisce by the outer surface; when they dehisce by
the sides, as in _Iris_ and some grasses, they are _laterally_
dehiscent. Sometimes, from their versatile nature, anthers originally
introrse become extrorse, as in the Passion-flower and _Oxalis_.

The usual colour of anthers is yellow, but they present a great variety
in this respect. They are red in the peach, dark purple in the poppy and
tulip, orange in _Eschscholtzia_, &c. The colour and appearance of the
anthers often change after they have discharged their functions.

Stamens occasionally become sterile by the degeneration or
non-development of the anthers, when they are known as _staminodia_, or
rudimentary stamens. In _Scrophularia_ the fifth stamen appears in the
form of a scale; and in many Pentstemons it is reduced to a filament
with hairs or a shrivelled membrane at the apex. In other cases, as in
double flowers, the stamens are converted into petals; this is also
probably the case with such plants as _Mesembryanthemum_, where there
is a multiplication of petals in several rows. Sometimes, as in _Canna_,
one of the anther-lobes becomes abortive, and a petaloid appendage is
produced. Stamens vary in length as regards the corolla. Some are
enclosed within the tube of the flower, as in _Cinchona_ (_included_);
others are _exserted_, or extend beyond the flower, as in _Littorella_
or _Plantago_. Sometimes the stamens in the early state of the flower
project beyond the petals, and in the progress of growth become
included, as in _Geranium striatum_. Stamens also vary in their relative
lengths. When there is more than one row or whorl in a flower, those on
the outside are sometimes longest, as in many Rosaceae; at other times
those in the interior are longest, as in _Luhea_. When the stamens are
in two rows, those opposite the petals are usually shorter than those
which alternate with the petals. It sometimes happens that a single
stamen is longer than all the rest. A definite relation, as regards
number, sometimes exists between the long and the short stamens. Thus,
in some flowers the stamens are _didynamous_, having only four out of
five stamens developed, and the two corresponding to the upper part of
the flower longer than the two lateral ones. This occurs in Labiatae and
Scrophulariaceae (fig. 76). Again, in other cases there are six stamens,
whereof four long ones are arranged in pairs opposite to each other, and
alternate with two isolated short ones (fig. 77), giving rise to
_tetradynamous_ flowers, as in Cruciferae. Stamens, as regards their
direction, may be erect, turned inwards, outwards, or to one side. In
the last-mentioned case they are called _declinate_, as in amaryllis,
horse-chestnut and fraxinella.

[Illustration: FIG. 76.--Corolla of foxglove (_Digitalis purpurea_), cut
in order to show the didynamous stamens (two long and two short) which
are attached to it.]

[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 77.--Tetradynamous stamens (four long and two short) of wallflower
(_Cheiranthus Cheiri_).]

The pollen-grains or microspores contained in the anther consist of
small cells, which are developed in the large thick-walled mother-cells
formed in the interior of the pollen-sacs (microsporangia) of the young
anther. These mother-cells are either separated from one another and
float in the granular fluid which fills up the cavity of the pollen-sac,
or are not so isolated. A division takes place, by which four cells are
formed in each, the exact mode of division differing in dicotyledons and
monocotyledons. These cells are the pollen-grains. They increase in size
and acquire a cell-wall, which becomes differentiated into an outer
cuticular layer, or _extine_, and an inner layer, or _intine_. Then the
walls of the mother-cells are absorbed, and the pollen-grains float
freely in the fluid of the pollen-sacs, which gradually disappears, and
the mature grains form a powdery mass within the anther. They then
either remain united in fours, or multiples of four, as in some acacias,
_Periploca graeca_ and _Inga anomala_, or separate into individual
grains, which by degrees become mature pollen. Occasionally the membrane
of the mother-cell is not completely absorbed, and traces of it are
detected in a viscid matter surrounding the pollen-grains, as in
Onagraceae. In orchidaceous plants the pollen-grains are united into
masses, or _pollinia_ (fig. 78), by means of viscid matter. In orchids
each of the pollen-masses has a prolongation or stalk (_caudicle_) which
adheres to a prolongation at the base of the anther (_rostellum_) by
means of a viscid gland (_retinaculum_) which is either naked or
covered. The term _clinandrium_ is sometimes applied to the part of the
column in orchids where the stamens are situated. In some orchids, as
_Cypripedium_, the pollen has its ordinary character of separate grains.
The number of pollinia varies; thus, in _Orchis_ there are usually two,
in _Cattleya_ four, and in _Laelia_ eight. The two pollinia in _Orchis
Morio_ contain each about 200 secondary smaller masses. These small
masses, when bruised, divide into grains which are united in fours. In
Asclepiadaceae the pollinia are usually united in pairs (fig. 79),
belonging to two contiguous anther-lobes--each pollen-mass having a
caudicular appendage, ending in a common gland, by means of which they
are attached to a process of the stigma. The pollinia are also provided
with an appendicular staminal covering (fig. 80). The exine is a firm
membrane, which defines the figure of the pollen-grain, and gives colour
to it. It is either smooth, or covered with numerous projections (fig.
81), granules, points or crested reticulations. The colour is generally
yellow, and the surface is often covered with a viscid or oily matter.
The intine is uniform in different kinds of pollen, thin and
transparent, and possesses great power of extension. In some aquatics,
as _Zostera_, _Zannichellia_, _Naias_, &c., only one covering exists.

[Illustration:

FIG. 78.--Pollinia, or pollen-masses, with their retinacula (g) or
viscid matter attaching them at the base. The pollen masses (p) are
supported on stalks or caudicles (c). These masses are easily detached
by the agency of insects. Much enlarged.

FIG. 79.--Pistil of _Asclepias_ (a) with pollen-masses (p) adhering to
the stigma (s). b, pollen-masses, removed from the stigma, united by a
gland-like body. Enlarged.

FIG. 80.--Stamen of _Asclepias_, showing filament f, anther a, and
appendages p. Enlarged.]

[Illustration: FIG. 81.--Pollen of Hollyhock (_Althaea rosea_), highly
magnified.]

[Illustration: _From Vines' Students' Text-Book of Botany_, by
permission of Swan Sonnenschein & Co.

FIG. 82.--Germinating pollen-grain of Epilobium (highly mag.) bearing a
pollen-tube s; e, exine; i, intine; abc, the three spots where the exine
is thicker in anticipation of the formation of the pollen-tube developed
in this case at a.]

[Illustration: FIG. 83.--Male flower of Pellitory (_Parietaria
officinalis_), having four stamens with in-curved elastic filaments, and
an abortive pistil in the centre. When the perianth (p) expands, the
filaments are thrown out with force as at a, so as to scatter the
pollen.]

Pollen-grains vary from 1/300 to 1/700 of an inch or less in diameter.
Their forms are various. The most common form of grain is ellipsoidal,
more or less narrow at the extremities, which are called its _poles_, in
contradistinction to a line equidistant from the extremities, which is
its equator. Pollen-grains are also spherical; cylindrical and curved,
as in _Tradescantia virginica_; polyhedral in Dipsacaceae and
Compositae; nearly triangular in section in Proteaceae and Onagraceae
(fig. 82). The surface of the pollen-grain is either uniform and
homogeneous, or it is marked by folds formed by thinnings of the
membrane. There are also rounded portions of the membrane or pores
visible in the pollen-grain; these vary in number from one to fifty, and
through one or more of them the pollen-tube is extended in germination
of the spore. In Monocotyledons, as in grasses, there is often only one,
while in Dicotyledons they number from three upwards; when numerous, the
pores are either scattered irregularly, or in a regular order,
frequently forming a circle round the equatorial surface. Sometimes at
the place where they exist, the outer membrane, in place of being thin
and transparent, is separated in the form of a lid, thus becoming
_operculate_, as in the passion-flower and gourd. Within the
pollen-grain is the granular protoplasm with some oily particles, and
occasionally starch. Before leaving the pollen-sac a division takes
place in the pollen-grain into a vegetative cell or cells, from which
the tube is developed, and a generative cell, which ultimately divides
to form the male cells (see ANGIOSPERMS and GYMNOSPERMS).


  Pollination.

When the pollen-grains are ripe, the anther dehisces and the pollen is
shed. In order that fertilization may be effected the pollen must be
conveyed to the stigma of the pistil. This process, termed _pollination_
(see POLLINATION), is promoted in various ways,--the whole form and
structure of the flower having relation to the process. In some plants,
as _Kalmia_ and Pellitory (fig. 83), the mere elasticity of the
filaments is sufficient to effect this; in other plants pollination is
effected by the wind, as in most of our forest trees, grasses, &c., and
in such cases enormous quantities of pollen are produced. These plants
are _anemophilous_. But the common agents for pollination are insects.
To allure and attract them to visit the flower the odoriferous
secretions and gay colours are developed, and the position and
complicated structure of the parts of the flower are adapted to the
perfect performance of the process. It is comparatively rare in
hermaphrodite flowers for self-fertilization to occur, and the various
forms of dichogamy, dimorphism and trimorphism are fitted to prevent
this.

[Illustration: FIG. 84.--Flower of Tree Paeony (_Paeonia Moutan_),
deprived of its corolla, and showing the disk in the form of a fleshy
expansion (d) covering the ovary.]


  Disk.

Under the term _disk_ is included every structure intervening between
the stamens and the pistil. It was to such structures that the name of
_nectary_ was applied by old authors. It presents great varieties of
form, such as a ring, scales, glands, hairs, petaloid appendages, &c.,
and in the progress of growth it often contains saccharine matter, thus
becoming truly nectariferous. The disk is frequently formed by
degeneration or transformation of the staminal row. It may consist of
processes rising from the torus, alternating with the stamens, and thus
representing an abortive whorl; or its parts may be opposite to the
stamens. In some flowers, as _Jatropha Curcas_, in which the stamens are
not developed, their place is occupied by glandular bodies forming the
disk. In Gesneraceae and Cruciferae the disk consists of tooth-like
scales at the base of the stamens. The parts composing the disk
sometimes unite and form a glandular ring, as in the orange; or they
form a dark-red lamina covering the pistil, as in _Paeonia Moutan_ (fig.
84); or a waxy lining of the hollow receptacle, as in the rose; or a
swelling at the top of the ovary, as in Umbelliferae, in which the disk
is said to be epigynous. The enlarged torus covering the ovary in
_Nymphaea_ (_Castalia_) and _Nelumbium_ may be regarded as a form of
disk.


  The pistil.

The pistil or _gynoecium_ occupies the centre or apex of the flower, and
is surrounded by the stamens and floral envelopes when these are
present. It constitutes the innermost whorl, which after flowering is
changed into the fruit and contains the seeds. It consists essentially
of two parts, a basal portion forming a chamber, the _ovary_, containing
the ovules attached to a part called the _placenta_, and an upper
receptive portion, the _stigma_, which is either seated on the ovary
(_sessile_), as in the tulip and poppy, or is elevated on a stalk called
the _style_, interposed between the ovary and stigma. The pistil
consists of one or more modified leaves, the _carpels_ (or
_megasporophylls_). When a pistil consists of a single carpel it is
_simple_ or monocarpellary (fig. 85). When it is composed of several
carpels, more or less united, it is _compound_ or _polycarpellary_ (fig.
86). In the first-mentioned case the terms carpel and pistil are
synonymous. Each carpel has its own ovary, style (when present), and
stigma, and may be regarded as formed by a folded leaf, the upper
surface of which is turned inwards towards the axis, and the lower
outwards, while from its margins are developed one or more _ovules_.
This comparison is borne out by an examination of the flower of the
double-flowering cherry. In it no fruit is produced, and the pistil
consists merely of sessile leaves, the limb of each being green and
folded, with a narrow prolongation upwards, as if from the midrib, and
ending in a thickened portion. In _Cycas_ the carpels are ordinary
leaves, with ovules upon their margin.

[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 85.--Pistil of Broom (_Cytisus_) consisting of ovary o, style s,
and stigma t. It is formed by a single carpel.

FIG. 86.--Vertical section of the flower of Black Hellebore (_Helleborus
niger_). The pistil is apocarpous, consisting of several distinct
carpels, each with ovary, style and stigma. The stamens are indefinite,
and are inserted below the pistil (hypogynous).

FIG. 87.--Fruit of the Strawberry (_Fragaria vesca_), consisting of an
enlarged succulent receptacle, bearing on its surface the small dry
seed-like fruits (achenes).

FIG. 88.--Fruit of _Rosa alba_, consisting of the fleshy hollowed axis
s', the persistent sepals s, and the carpels fr. The stamens (c) have
withered. (After Duchartre.)

FIG. 89.--Pistil of _Ranunculus_. x, Receptacle with the points of
insertion of the stamens a, most of which have been removed.

FIG. 90.--Syncarpous Pistil of Flax (_Linum_), consisting of five
carpels, united by their ovaries, while their styles and stigmas are
separate.]

A pistil is usually formed by more than one carpel. The carpels may be
arranged either at the same or nearly the same height in a verticil, or
at different heights in a spiral cycle. When they remain separate and
distinct, thus showing at once the composition of the pistil, as in
_Caltha, Ranunculus_, hellebore (fig. 86), and _Spiraea_, the term
_apocarpous_ is applied. Thus, in Sedum (fig. 22) the pistil consists of
five verticillate carpels o, alternating with the stamens e. In magnolia
and _Ranunculus_ (fig. 89) the separate carpels are numerous and are
arranged in a spiral cycle upon an elongated axis or receptacle. In the
raspberry the carpels are on a conical receptacle; in the strawberry, on
a swollen succulent one (fig. 87); and in the rose (fig. 88), on a
hollow one. When the carpels are united, as in the pear, arbutus and
chickweed, the pistil becomes _syncarpous_. The number of carpels in a
pistil is indicated by the Greek numeral. A flower with a simple pistil
is monogynous; with two carpels, digynous; with three carpels,
trigynous, &c.

The union in a syncarpous pistil is not always complete; it may take
place by the ovaries alone, while the styles and stigmas remain free
(fig. 90), and in this case, when the ovaries form apparently a single
body, the organ receives the name of _compound_ ovary; or the union may
take place by the ovaries and styles while the stigmas are disunited; or
by the stigmas and the summit of the style only. Various intermediate
states exist, such as partial union of the ovaries, as in the rue, where
they coalesce at their base; and partial union of the styles, as in
Malvaceae. The union is usually most complete at the base; but in
Labiatae the styles are united throughout their length, and in
Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae the stigmas only. When the union is
incomplete, the number of the parts of a compound pistil may be
determined by the number of styles and stigmas; when complete, the
external venation, the grooves on the surface, and the internal
divisions of the ovary indicate the number.


  The placenta.

[Illustration: FIG. 91.--Pistil of Pea after fertilization of the
ovules, developing to form the fruit. f, Funicle or stalk of ovule (ov);
pl, placenta; s, withered style and stigma; c, persistent calyx.]

[Illustration:

FIG. 92.--Trilocular ovary of the Lily (_Lilium_), cut transversely. s,
Septum; o, ovules, which form a double row in the inner angle of each
chamber. Enlarged.

FIG. 93.--Diagrammatic section of a quinquelocular ovary, composed of
five carpels, the edges of which are folded inwards, and meet in the
centre forming the septa, s. The ovules (o) are attached to a central
placenta, formed by the union of the five ventral sutures. Dorsal
suture, l.

FIG. 94.--Diagrammatic section of a five-carpellary ovary, in which the
edges of the carpels, bearing the placentas and ovules o, are not folded
inwards. The placentas are parietal, and the ovules appear sessile on
the walls of the ovary. The ovary is unilocular.]

[Illustration:

FIG. 95.--Diagrammatic section of a five-carpellary ovary, in which
the septa (s) proceed inwards for a certain length, bearing the
placentas and ovules (o). In this case the ovary is unilocular, and the
placentas are parietal. Dorsal suture, l.

FIG. 96.--Pistil of Pansy (_Viola tricolor_), enlarged. 1, Vertical;
2, horizontal section; c, calyx; d, wall of ovary; o, ovules; p,
placenta; s, stigma.

FIG. 97.--Transverse section of the fruit of the Melon (_Cucumis
Melo_), showing the placentas with the seeds attached to them. The three
carpels forming the pepo are separated by partitions. From the centre,
processes go to circumference, ending in curved placentas bearing the
ovules.

FIG. 98.--Diagrammatic section of a compound unilocular ovary, in
which there are no indications of partitions. The ovules (o) are
attached to a free central placenta, which has no connexion with the
walls of the ovary.]

[Illustration:

FIG. 99.--Pistil of _Cerastium hirsutum_ cut vertically. o, Ovary; p,
free central placenta; g, ovules; s, styles.

FIG. 100.--The same cut horizontally, and the halves separated so as
to show the interior of the cavity of the ovary o, with the free central
placenta p, covered with ovules g.]

The ovules are attached to the _placenta_, which consists of a mass of
cellular tissue, through which the nourishing vessels pass to the ovule.
The placenta is usually formed on the edges of the carpellary leaf (fig.
91)--_marginal_. In many cases, however, the placentas are formations
from the axis (axile), and are not connected with the carpellary leaves.
In marginal placentation the part of the carpel bearing the placenta is
the _inner_ or _ventral suture_, corresponding to the margin of the
folded carpellary leaf, while the _outer_ or _dorsal suture_ corresponds
to the midrib of the carpellary leaf. As the placenta is formed on each
margin of the carpel it is essentially double. This is seen in cases
where the margins of the carpel do not unite, but remain separate, and
consequently two placentas are formed in place of one. When the pistil
is formed by one carpel the inner margins unite and form usually a
common marginal placenta, which may extend along the whole margin of the
ovary as far as the base of the style (fig. 91), or may be confined to
the base or apex only. When the pistil consists of several separate
carpels, or is apocarpous, there are generally separate placentas at
each of their margins. In a syncarpous pistil, on the other hand, the
carpels are so united that the edges of each of the contiguous ones, by
their union, form a _septum_ or _dissepiment_, and the number of these
septa consequently indicates the number of carpels in the compound
pistil (fig. 92). When the dissepiments extend to the centre or axis,
the ovary is divided into cavities or _cells_, and it may be
_bilocular_, _triloculur_ (fig. 92), _quadrilocular_, _quinquelocular_,
or _multilocular_, according as it is formed by two, three, four, five
or many carpels, each carpel corresponding to a single cell. In these
cases the marginal placentas meet in the axis, and unite so as to form a
single _central_ one (figs. 92, 93), and the ovules appear in the
central angle of the loculi. When the carpels in a syncarpous pistil do
not fold inwards so that the placentas appear as projections on the
walls of the ovary, then the ovary is _unilocular_ (fig. 95) and the
placentas are _parietal_, as in _Viola_ (fig. 96). In these instances
the placentas may be formed at the margin of the united contiguous
leaves, so as to appear single, or the margins may not be united, each
developing a placenta. Frequently the margins of the carpels, which fold
in to the centre, split there into two lamellae, each of which is curved
outwards and projects into the loculament, dilating at the end into a
placenta. This is well seen in Cucurbitaceae (fig. 97), _Pyrola_, &c.
The carpellary leaves may fold inwards very slightly, or they may be
applied in a valvate manner, merely touching at their margins, the
placentas then being parietal (fig. 94), and appearing as lines or
thickenings along the walls. Cases occur, however, in which the
placentas are not connected with the walls of the ovary, and form what
is called a _free central placenta_ (fig. 98). This is seen in many of
the Caryophyllaceae and Primulaceae (figs. 99, 100). In Caryophyllaceae,
however, while the placenta is free in the centre, there are often
traces found at the base of the ovary of the remains of septa, as if
rupture had taken place, and, in rare instances, ovules are found on the
margins of the carpels. But in Primulaceae no vestiges of septa or
marginal ovules can be perceived at any period of growth; the placenta
is always free, and rises in the centre of the ovary. Free central
placentation, therefore, has been accounted for in two ways: either by
supposing that the placentas in the early state were formed on the
margins of carpellary leaves, and that in the progress of development
these leaves separated from them, leaving the placentas and ovules free
in the centre; or by supposing that the placentas are not _marginal_ but
_axile_ formations, produced by an elongation of the axis, and the
carpels verticillate leaves, united together around the axis. The first
of these views applies to Caryophyllaceae, the second to Primulaceae.

Occasionally, divisions take place in ovaries which are not formed by
the edges of contiguous carpels. These are called _spurious
dissepiments_. They are often horizontal, as in _Cathartocarpus
Fistula_, where they consist of transverse cellular prolongations from
the walls of the ovary, only developed after fertilization, and
therefore more properly noticed under fruit. At other times they are
vertical, as in _Datura_, where the ovary, in place of being two-celled,
becomes four-celled; in Cruciferae, where the prolongation of the
placentas forms a vertical partition; in _Astragalus_ and _Thespesia_,
where the dorsal suture is folded inwards; and in _Oxytropis_, where the
ventral suture is folded inwards.

The ovary is usually of a more or less spherical or curved form,
sometimes smooth and uniform on its surface, at other times hairy and
grooved. The grooves usually indicate the divisions between the carpels
and correspond to the dissepiments. The dorsal suture may be marked by a
slight projection or by a superficial groove. When the ovary is situated
on the centre of the receptacle, free from the other whorls, so that its
base is above the insertion of the stamens, it is termed _superior_, as
in _Lychnis_, _Primula_ (fig. 61) and Peony (fig. 64) (see also fig.
28). When the margin of the receptacle is prolonged upwards, carrying
with it the floral envelopes and staminal leaves, the basal portion of
the ovary being formed by the receptacle, and the carpellary leaves
alone closing in the apex, the ovary is _inferior_, as in pomegranate,
aralia (fig. 65), gooseberry and fuchsia (see fig. 30). In some plants,
as many Saxifragaceae, there are intermediate forms, in which the term
_half-inferior_ is applied to the ovary, whilst the floral whorls are
_half-superior_.

[Illustration:

FIG. 101.--Carpel of Lady's-mantle (_Alchemilla_) with lateral style s;
o, ovary, _st_, stigma. Enlarged.

FIG. 102.--Pistil of Primrose (_Primula_) composed of five carpels which
are completely united; o, ovary; s, style; st, stigma. Enlarged.

FIG. 103.--Gynoecium of the Flower-de-Luce (_Iris_), consisting of an
inferior ovary (o) and a style which divides into three petaloid
segments (s), each bearing a stigma (st).

FIG. 104.--Capsule of Poppy, opening by pores (p), under the radiating
peltate stigma (s).]


  The style.

The _style_ proceeds from the summit of the carpel (fig. 102), and is
traversed by a narrow canal, in which there are some loose projecting
cells, a continuation of the placenta, constituting what is called
conducting tissue, which ends in the stigma. This is particularly
abundant when the pistil is ready for fertilization. In some cases,
owing to more rapid growth of the dorsal side of the ovary, the style
becomes _lateral_ (fig. 101); this may so increase that the style
appears to arise from near the base, as in the strawberry, or from the
base, as in _Chrysobalanus Icaco_, when it is called _basilar_. In all
these cases the style still indicates the organic apex of the ovary,
although it may not be the apparent apex. When in a compound pistil the
style of each carpel is thus displaced, it appears as if the ovary were
depressed in the centre, and the style rising from the depression in the
midst of the carpels seems to come from the torus. Such a style is
_gynobasic_, and is well seen in Boraginaceae. The form of the style is
usually cylindrical, more or less filiform and simple; sometimes it is
grooved on one side, at other times it is flat, thick, angular,
compressed and even petaloid, as in _Iris_ (fig. 103) and _Canna_. In
Goodeniaceae it ends in a cuplike expansion, enclosing the stigma. It
sometimes bears hairs, which aid in the application of the pollen to the
stigma, and are called _collecting hairs_, as in _Campanula_, and also
in _Aster_ and other Compositae. These hairs, during the upward growth
of the style, come into contact with the already ripened pollen, and
carry it up along with them, ready to be applied by insects to the
mature stigma of other flowers. In _Vicia_ and _Lobelia_ the hairs
frequently form a tuft below the stigma. The styles of a syncarpous
pistil are either separate or united; when separate, they alternate with
the septa; when united completely, the style is said to be _simple_
(fig. 102). The style of a single carpel, or of each carpel of a
compound pistil, may also be divided. Each division of the tricarpellary
ovary of _Jatropha Curcas_ has a _bifurcate_ or forked style, and the
ovary of _Emblica officinalis_ has three styles, each of which is twice
forked. The length of the style is determined by the relation which
should subsist between the position of the stigma and that of the
anthers, so as to allow the proper application of the pollen. The style
is deciduous or persists after fertilization.


  The stigma.

The _stigma_ is the termination of the conducting tissue of the style,
and is usually in direct communication with the placenta. It consists of
loose cellular tissue, and secretes a viscid matter which detains the
pollen, and causes it to germinate. This secreting portion is, strictly
speaking, the true stigma, but the name is generally applied to all the
divisions of the style on which the stigmatic apparatus is situated. The
stigma alternates with the dissepiments of a syncarpous pistil, or, in
other words, corresponds with the back of the loculaments; but in some
cases it would appear that half the stigma of one carpel unites with
half that of the contiguous carpel, and thus the stigma is opposite the
dissepiments, that is, alternates with the loculaments, as in the poppy.

[Illustration: FIG. 105.--Flower of a grass with glumes removed, showing
three stamens and two feathery styles. p, Pale; l, lodicules. Enlarged.]

The divisions of the stigma mark the number of carpels which compose the
pistil. Thus in _Campanula_ a five-cleft stigma indicates five carpels;
in Bignoniaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Acanthaceae, the two-lobed or
bilamellar stigma indicates a bilocular ovary. Sometimes, however, as in
Gramineae, the stigma of a single carpel divides. Its position may be
terminal or lateral. In _Iris_ it is situated on a cleft on the back of
the petaloid divisions of the style (fig. 103). Some stigmas, as those
of _Mimulus_, present sensitive flattened laminae, which close when
touched. The stigma presents various forms. It may be globular, as in
_Mirabilis Jalapa_; orbicular, as in _Arbutus Andrachne_; umbrella-like,
as in _Sarracenia_, where, however, the proper stigmatic surface is
beneath the angles of the large expansion of the apex of the style;
ovoid, as in fuchsia; hemispherical; polyhedral; radiating, as in the
poppy (fig. 104), where the true stigmatic rays are attached to a sort
of _peltate_ or shield-like body, which may represent depressed or
flattened styles; _cucullate_, i.e. covered by a hood, in calabar bean.
The lobes of a stigma are flat and pointed as in _Mimulus_ and
_Bignonia_, fleshy and blunt, smooth or granular, or they are feathery,
as in many grasses (fig. 105) and other wind-pollinated flowers. In
Orchidaceae the stigma is situated on the anterior surface of the column
beneath the anther. In Asclepiadaceae the stigmas are united to the face
of the anthers, and along with them form a solid mass.


  The ovule.

The ovule is attached to the placenta, and destined to become the seed.
Ovules are most usually produced on the margins of the carpellary
leaves, but are also formed over the whole surface of the leaf, as in
_Butomus_. In other instances they rise from the floral axis itself,
either terminal, as in Polygonaceae and Piperaceae, or lateral, as in
Primulaceae and Compositae. The ovule is usually contained in an ovary,
and all plants in which the ovule is so enclosed are termed
_angiospermous_; but in Coniferae and Cycadaceae it has no proper
ovarian covering, and is called naked, these orders being denominated
_gymnospermous_. In _Cycas_ the altered leaf, upon the margin of which
the ovule is produced, and the peltate scales, from which they are
pendulous in _Zamia_, are regarded by all botanists as carpellary
leaves. As for the Coniferae great discussion has arisen regarding the
morphology of parts in many genera. The carpellary leaves are sometimes
united in such a way as to leave an opening at the apex of the pistil,
so that the ovules are exposed, as in mignonette. In _Leontice
thalictroides_ (Blue Cohosh), species of _Ophiopogon_, _Peliosanthes_
and _Stateria_, the ovary ruptures immediately after flowering, and the
ovules are exposed; and in species of _Cuphea_ the placenta ultimately
bursts through the ovary and corolla, and becomes erect, bearing the
exposed ovules. The ovule is attached to the placenta either directly,
when it is _sessile_, or by means of a prolongation _funicle_ (fig. 110,
f). This cord sometimes becomes much elongated after fertilization. The
part by which the ovule is attached to the placenta or cord is its
_base_ or _hilum_, the opposite extremity being its _apex_. The latter
is frequently turned round in such a way as to approach the base. The
ovule is sometimes embedded in the placenta, as in _Hydnora_.

[Illustration:

FIGS. 106 and 107.--Successive stages in the development of an ovule. n,
Nucellus; i, inner; o, outer integument in section; m, micropyle.

FIG. 108.--Orthotropous ovule of _Polygonum_ in section, showing the
embryo-sac s, in the nucellus n, the different ovular coverings, the
base of the nucellus or chalaza ch, and the apex of the ovule with its
micropyle m.

FIG. 109.--Vertical section of the ovule of the Austrian Pine (_Pinus
austriaca_), showing the nucellus a, consisting of delicate cellular
tissue containing deep in its substance an embryo-sac b. The micropyle m
is very wide.]

The ovule appears at first as a small cellular projection from the
placenta. The cells multiply until they assume a more or less enlarged
ovate form constituting what has been called the _nucellus_ (fig. 106,
n), or central cellular mass of the ovule. This nucellus may remain
naked, and alone form the ovule, as in some orders of parasitic plants
such as Balanophoraceae, Santalaceae, &c.; but in most plants it becomes
surrounded by certain coverings or integuments during its development.
These appear first in the form of cellular rings at the base of the
nucellus, which gradually spread over its surface (figs. 106, 107). In
some cases only one covering is formed, especially amongst gamopetalous
dicotyledons, as in Compositae, Campanulaceae, also in walnut, &c. But
usually besides the single covering another is developed subsequently
(fig. 106, o), which gradually extends over that first formed, and
ultimately covers it completely, except at the apex. There are thus two
integuments to the nucellus, an outer and an inner. The integuments do
not completely invest the apex of the nucellus, but an opening termed
the _micropyle_ is left. The micropyle indicates the organic apex of the
ovule. A single cell of the nucellus enlarges greatly to form the
_embryo-sac_ or megaspore (fig. 108, s). This embryo-sac increases in
size, gradually supplanting the cellular tissue of the nucellus until it
is surrounded only by a thin layer of it; or it may actually extend at
the apex beyond it, as in _Phaseolus_ and _Alsine media_; or it may pass
into the micropyle, as in _Santalum_. In Gymnosperms it usually remains
deep in the nucellus and surrounded by a thick mass of cellular tissue
(fig. 109). For an account of the further development of the megaspore,
and the formation of the egg-cell, from which after fertilization is
formed the embryo, see GYMNOSPERMS and ANGIOSPERMS.

[Illustration:

FIG. 110.--Campylotropous ovule of wall-flower (_Cheiranthus_), showing
the funicle f, which attaches the ovule to the placenta; p, the outer,
s, the inner coat, n, the nucellus, ch, the chalaza. The ovule is curved
upon itself, so that the micropyle is near the funicle.

FIG. 111.--Anatropous ovule of Dandelion (_Taraxacum_), n, nucellus,
which is inverted, so that the chalaza ch, is removed from the base or
hilum h, while the micropyle f is near the base. The connexion between
the base of the ovule and the base of the nucellus is kept up by means
of the raphe r.]

The point where the integuments are united to the base of the nucellus
is called the _chalaza_ (figs. 111, 112). This is often coloured, is of
a denser texture than the surrounding tissue, and is traversed by
fibro-vascular bundles, which pass from the placenta to nourish the
ovule.

When the ovule is so developed that the chalaza is at the hilum (next
the placenta), and the micropyle is at the opposite extremity, there
being a short funicle, the ovule is _orthotropous_. This form is well
seen in Polygonaceae (fig. 112), Cistaceae, and most gymnosperms. In
such an ovule a straight line drawn from the hilum to the micropyle
passes along the axis of the ovule. Where, by more rapid growth on one
side than on the other, the nucellus, together with the integuments, is
curved upon itself, so that the micropyle approaches the hilum, and
ultimately is placed close to it, while the chalaza is at the hilum, the
ovule is _campylotropous_ (fig. 110). Curved ovules are found in
Cruciferae, and Caryophyllaceae. The inverted or _anatropous_ ovule
(fig. 111) is the commonest form amongst angiosperms. In this ovule the
apex with the micropyle is turned towards the point of attachment of the
funicle to the placenta, the chalaza being situated at the opposite
extremity; and the funicle, which runs along the side usually next the
placenta, coalesces with the ovule and constitutes the _raphe_ (r),
which often forms a ridge. The anatropous ovule arises from the placenta
as a straight or only slightly curved cellular process, and as it grows,
gradually becomes inverted, curving from the point of origin of the
integuments (cf. figs. 106, 107). As the first integument grows round
it, the amount of inversion increases, and the funicle becomes adherent
to the side of the nucellus. Then if a second integument be formed it
covers all the free part of the ovule, but does not form on the side to
which the raphe is adherent. These may be taken as the three types of
ovule; but there are various intermediate forms, such as
_semi-anatropous_ and others.

The position of the ovule relative to the ovary varies. When there is a
single ovule, with its axis vertical, it may be attached to the placenta
at the base of the ovary (_basal placenta_), and is then _erect_, as in
Polygonaceae and Compositae; or it may be inserted a little above the
base, on a parietal placenta, with its apex upwards, and then is
_ascending_, as in _Parietaria_. It may hang from an apicilar placenta
at the summit of the ovary, its apex being directed downwards, and is
_inverted_ or _pendulous_, as in _Hippuris vulgaris_; or from a parietal
placenta near the summit, and then is _suspended_, as in _Daphne
Mezereum_, Polygalaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Sometimes a long funicle
arises from a basal placenta, reaches the summit of the ovary, and there
bending over suspends the ovule, as in _Armeria_ (sea-pink); at other
times the hilum appears to be in the middle, and the ovule becomes
_horizontal_. When there are two ovules in the same cell, they may be
either _collateral_, that is, placed side by side (fig. 92), or the one
may be erect and the other inverted, as in some species of _Spiraea_ and
_Aesculus_; or they may be placed one above another, each directed
similarly, as is the case in ovaries containing a moderate or definite
number of ovules. Thus, in the ovary of Leguminous plants (fig. 91), the
ovules, o, are attached to the extended marginal placenta, one above the
other, forming usually two parallel rows corresponding to each margin of
the carpel. When the ovules are _definite_ (i.e. are uniform, and can be
counted), it is usual to find their attachment so constant as to afford
good characters for classification. When the ovules are very numerous
(_indefinite_), while at the same time the placenta is not much
developed, their position exhibits great variation, some being directed
upwards, others downwards, others transversely; and their form is
altered by pressure into various polyhedral shapes. In such cases it
frequently happens that some of the ovules are arrested in their
development and become abortive.

[Illustration: From Strasburger's _Lehrbuch der Botanik_, by permission
of Gustav Fischer.

FIG. 112.--Ovary of _Polygonum Convolvulus_ in longitudinal section
during fertilization. (× 48.)

  fs, Stalk-like base of ovary,
  fu, Funicle.
  cha, Chalaza.
  nu, Nucellus.
  mi, Micropyle.
  ii, inner, ie, outer integument,
  e, Embryo-sac.
  ek, Nucleus of embryo-sac.
  ei, Egg-apparatus.
  an, Antipodal cells.
  g, Style.
  n, Stigma.
  p, Pollen-grains.
  ps, Pollen-tubes.]

[Illustration: FIG. 113.--Vertical section of the ovule of the Scotch
Fir (_Pinus sylvestris_) in May of the second year, showing the enlarged
embryo-sac b, full of endosperm cells, and pollen-tubes c, penetrating
the summit of the nucellus after the pollen has entered the large
micropyle.]


  Fertilization.

When the pistil has reached a certain stage in growth it becomes ready
for fertilization. Pollination having been effected, and the
pollen-grain having reached the stigma in angiosperms, or the summit of
the nucellus in gymnosperms, it is detained there, and the viscid
secretion from the glands of the stigma in the former case, or from the
nucellus in the latter, induce the protrusion of the intine as a
pollen-tube through the pores of the grain. The pollen-tube or tubes
pass down the canal (fig. 112), through the conducting tissue of the
style when present, and reach the interior of the ovary in angiosperms,
and then pass to the micropyle of the ovule, one pollen-tube going to
each ovule. Sometimes the micropyle lies close to the base of the style,
and then the pollen-tube enters it at once, but frequently it has to
pass some distance into the ovary, being guided in its direction by
various contrivances, as hairs, grooves, &c. In gymnosperms the
pollen-grain resting on the apex of the nucellus sends out its
pollen-tubes, which at once penetrate the nucellus (fig. 113). In
angiosperms when the pollen-tube reaches the micropyle it passes down
into the canal, and this portion of it increases considerably in size.
Ultimately the apex of the tube comes in contact with the tip of the
embryo-sac and perforates it. The male cells in the end of the
pollen-tube are then transmitted to the embryo-sac and fertilization is
effected. Consequent upon this, after a longer or shorter period, those
changes commence in the embryo-sac which result in the formation of the
embryo plant, the ovule also undergoing changes which convert it into
the seed, and fit it for a protective covering, and a store of nutriment
for the embryo. Nor are the effects of fertilization confined to the
ovule; they extend to other parts of the plant. The ovary enlarges, and,
with the seeds enclosed, constitutes the fruit, frequently incorporated
with which are other parts of the flower, as receptacle, calyx, &c. In
gymnosperms the pollen-tubes, having penetrated a certain distance down
the tissue of the nucellus, are usually arrested in growth for a longer
or shorter period, sometimes nearly a year. Fruit and seed are discussed
in a separate article--FRUIT.     (A. B. R.)



FLOWERS, ARTIFICIAL. Imitations of natural flowers are sometimes made
for scientific purposes (as the collection of glass flowers at Harvard
University, which illustrates the flora of the United States), but more
often as articles of decoration and ornament. A large variety of
materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at
different times--painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the
Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese,
silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South
America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 18th
century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians,
made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards
the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide
reputation. About the same time the art was introduced into England by
French refugees, and soon afterwards it spread also to America. The
industry is now a highly specialized one and comprises a large number of
operations performed by separate hands. Four main processes may be
distinguished. The first consists of cutting up the various fabrics and
materials employed into shapes suitable for forming the leaves, petals,
&c.; this may be done by scissors, but more often stamps are employed
which will cut through a dozen or more thicknesses at one blow. The
veins of the leaves are next impressed by means of a die, and the petals
are given their natural rounded forms by goffering irons of various
shapes. The next step is to assemble the petals and other parts of the
flower, which is built up from the centre outwards; and the fourth is to
mount the flower on a stalk formed of brass or iron wire wrapped round
with suitably coloured material, and to fasten on the leaves required to
complete the spray.



FLOYD, JOHN (1572-1649), English Jesuit, was born in Cambridgeshire in
1572. He entered the Society of Jesus when at Rome in 1592 and is also
known as Daniel à Jesu, Hermannus Loemelius, and George White, the names
under which he published a score of controversial treatises. He had
considerable fame both as a preacher and teacher, and was frequently
arrested in England. His last years were spent at Louvain and he died at
St Omer on the 15th of September 1649. His brother Edward Floyd was
impeached and sentenced by the Commons in 1621 for speaking
disparagingly of the elector palatine.



FLOYD, JOHN BUCHANAN (1807-1863), American politician, was born at
Blacksburg, Virginia, on the 1st of June 1807. He was the son of John
Floyd (1770-1837), a representative in Congress from 1817 to 1829 and
governor of Virginia from 1830 to 1834. After graduating at South
Carolina College in 1826, the son practised law in his native state and
at Helena, Arkansas, and in 1839 settled in Washington county, Virginia,
which in 1847-1849 and again in 1853 he represented in the state
legislature. Meanwhile, from 1849 to 1852, he was governor of Virginia,
in which position he recommended to the legislature the enactment of a
law laying an import tax on the products of such states as refused to
surrender fugitive slaves owned by Virginia masters. In March 1857 he
became secretary of war in President Buchanan's cabinet, where his lack
of administrative ability was soon apparent. In December 1860, on
ascertaining that Floyd had honoured heavy drafts made by government
contractors in anticipation of their earnings, the president requested
his resignation. Several days later Floyd was indicted for malversation
in office, but the indictment was overruled on technical grounds. There
is no proof that he profited by these irregular transactions; in fact he
went out of the office financially embarrassed. Though he had openly
opposed secession before the election of Lincoln, his conduct after that
event, especially after his breach with Buchanan, fell under suspicion,
and he was accused of having sent large stores of government arms to
Southern arsenals in anticipation of the Civil War. In the last days of
his term he apparently had such an intention, but during the year 1860
the Southern States actually received less than their full quota of
arms. After the secession of Virginia he was commissioned a
brigadier-general in the Confederate service. He was first employed in
some unsuccessful operations in western Virginia, and in February 1862
became commander of the Confederate forces at Fort Donelson, from which
he fled with his second in command, General Gideon J. Pillow, on the
night of February 18, leaving General Simon B. Buckner to surrender to
General Grant. A fortnight later President Davis relieved him of his
command. He died at Abingdon, Virginia, on the 26th of August 1863.



FLOYER, SIR JOHN (1649-1734), English physician and author, was born at
Hinters in Staffordshire, and was educated at Oxford. He practised in
Lichfield, and it was by his advice that Dr Johnson, when a child, was
taken by his mother to be touched by Queen Anne for the king's evil on
the 30th of March 1714. He died on the 1st of February 1734. Floyer was
an advocate of cold bathing, introduced the practice of counting the
rate of the pulse-beats, and gave an early account of the pathological
changes in the lungs associated with emphysema.

  His writings include:--[Greek: Pharmako-Basanos]: _or the Touchstone
  of Medicines, discovering the virtues of Vegetables, Minerals and
  Animals, by their Tastes and Smells_ (2 vols., 1687); _The
  praeternatural State of animal Humours described by their sensible
  Qualities_ (1696); _An Enquiry into the right Use and Abuses of the
  hot, cold and temperate Baths in England_ (1697); _A Treatise of the
  Asthma_ (1st ed., 1698); _The ancient_ [Greek: Psychrolousia]
  _revived, or an Essay to prove cold Bathing both safe and useful_
  (London, 1702; several editions 8vo; abridged, Manchester, 1844,
  12mo); _The Physician's Pulse-watch_ (1707-1710); _The Sibylline
  Oracles, translated from the best Greek copies, and compared with the
  sacred Prophecies_ (1st ed., 1713); _Two Essays: the first Essay
  concerning the Creation, Aetherial Bodies, and Offices of good and bad
  Angels; the second Essay concerning the Mosaic System of the World_
  (Nottingham, 1717); _An Exposition of the Revelations_ (1719); _An
  Essay to restore the Dipping of Infants in their Baptism_ (1722);
  _Medicina Gerocomica, or the Galenic Art of preserving old Men's
  Healths_ (1st ed., 1724); _A Comment on forty-two Histories described
  by Hippocrates_ (1726).



FLUDD, or FLUD, ROBERT [ROBERTUS DE FLUCTIBUS] (1574-1637), English
physician and mystical philosopher, the son of Sir Thomas Fludd,
treasurer of war to Queen Elizabeth in France and the Low Countries, was
born at Milgate, Kent. After studying at St John's College, Oxford, he
travelled in Europe for six years, and became acquainted with the
writings of Paracelsus. He subsequently returned to Oxford, became a
member of Christ Church, took his medical degrees, and ultimately became
a fellow of the College of Physicians. He practised in London with
success, though it is said that he combined with purely medical
treatment a good deal of faith-healing. Following Paracelsus, he
endeavoured to form a system of philosophy founded on the identity of
physical and spiritual truth. The universe and all created things
proceed from God, who is the beginning, the end and the sum of all
things, and to him they will return. The act of creation is the
separation of the active principle (light) from the passive (darkness)
in the bosom of the divine unity (God). The universe consists of three
worlds; the archetypal (God), the macrocosm (the world), the microcosm
(man). Man is the world in miniature, all the parts of both
sympathetically correspond and act upon each other. It is possible for
man (and even for the mineral and the plant) to undergo transformation
and to win immortality. Fludd's system may be described as a
materialistic pantheism, which, allegorically interpreted, he put
forward as containing the real meaning of Christianity, revealed to Adam
by God himself, handed down by tradition to Moses and the patriarchs,
and revealed a second time by Christ. The opinions of Fludd had the
honour of being refuted by Kepler, Gassendi and Mersenne. Though rapt in
mystical speculation, Fludd was a man of varied attainments. He did not
disdain scientific experiments, and is thought by some to be the
original inventor of the barometer. He was an ardent defender of the
Rosicrucians, and De Quincey considers him to have been the immediate,
as J.V. Andreä was the remote, father of freemasonry. Fludd died on the
8th of September 1637.

  See J.B. Craven, _Robert Fludd, the English Rosicrucian_ (1902), where
  a list of his works is given; A.E. Waite, _The Real History of the
  Rosicrucians_ (1887); De Quincey, _The Rosicrucians and Freemasons_;
  J. Hunt, _Religious Thought in England_ (1870), i. 240 seq. His works
  were published in 6 vols., Oppenheim and Gouda, 1638.



FLÜGEL, GUSTAV LEBERECHT (1802-1870), German orientalist, was born at
Bautzen on the 18th of February 1802. He received his early education at
the gymnasium of his native town, and studied theology and philology at
Leipzig. Gradually he devoted his attention chiefly to Oriental
languages, which he studied in Vienna and Paris. In 1832 he became
professor at the _Fürstenschule_ of St Afra in Meissen, but ill-health
compelled him to resign that office in 1850, and in 1851 he went to
Vienna, where he was employed in cataloguing the Arabic, Turkish and
Persian manuscripts of the court library. He died at Dresden on the 5th
of July 1870.

  Flügel's chief work is an edition of the bibliographical and
  encyclopaedic lexicon of Haji Khalfa, with Latin translation (7 vols.,
  London and Leipzig, 1835-1858). He also brought out an edition of the
  Koran (Leipzig, 1834 and again 1893); then followed _Concordantiae
  Corani arabicae_ (Leipzig, 1842 and again 1898); _Mani, seine Lehren
  und seine Schriften_ (Leipzig, 1862); _Die grammatischen Schulen der
  Araber_ (Leipzig, 1862); and _Ibn Kutlûbugas Krone der
  Lebensbeschreibungen_ (Leipzig, 1862). An edition of
  _Kitâb-al-Fihrist_, prepared by him, was published after his death.



FLÜGEL, JOHANN GOTTFRIED (1788-1855), German lexicographer, was born at
Barby near Magdeburg, on the 22nd of November 1788. He was originally a
merchant's clerk, but emigrating to the United States in 1810, he made a
special study of the English language, and returning to Germany in 1819,
was in 1824 appointed lector of the English language in the university
of Leipzig. In 1838 he became American consul, and subsequently
representative and correspondent of the Smithsonian Institution at
Washington and several other leading American literary and scientific
institutions. He died at Leipzig on the 24th of June 1855.

  The fame of Flügel rests chiefly on the _Vollständige
  englisch-deutsche und deutsch-englische Wörterbuch_, first published
  in 2 vols. (Leipzig) in 1830, which has had an extensive circulation
  not only in Germany but in England and America. In this work he was
  assisted by J. Sporschil, and a new and enlarged edition, edited by
  his son Felix Flügel (1820-1904), was published at Brunswick
  (1890-1892). Another edition, in two volumes, edited by Prof. Immanuel
  Schmidt and S. Tanger appeared (Brunswick, London & New York) in 1906.
  Among his other works are--_Vollständige engl. Sprachlehre_
  (1824-1826); _Triglotte, oder kaufmännisches Wörterbuch in drei
  Sprachen, Deutsch, Englisch und Französisch_ (1836-1840); _Kleines
  Kaufmännisches Handwörterbuch in drei Sprachen_ (1840); and
  _Praktisches Handbuch der engl. Handelscorrespondenz_ (1827, 9th ed.
  1873). All these have passed through several editions. In addition,
  Flügel also published in the English language: _A series of Commercial
  Letters_ (Leipzig, 1822), a 9th edition of which appeared in 1874
  under the title _Practical Mercantile Correspondence_ and a _Practical
  Dictionary of the English and German Languages_ (2 vols., Hamburg and
  Leipzig, 1847-1852; 15th ed., Leipzig, 1891). The last was continued
  and re-edited by his son Felix.



FLUKE (probably connected with the Ger. _flach_, flat), a name given to
several kinds of fish, flat in shape, especially to the common flounder;
also the name of a trematoid worm, resembling a flounder in shape, which
as a parasite infects the liver and neighbouring organs of certain
animals, especially sheep, and causes liver-rot. The most common is the
_Fasciola hepatica_ (see TREMATODES). It is also the name of a species
of kidney potato. Probably from a resemblance to the shape of the fish,
"fluke" is the name given to the holding-plates, triangular in shape, at
the end of the arms of an anchor, and to the triangular extremities of
the tail of a whale. The use of the word as a slang expression for a
lucky accident appears to have been first applied in billiards to an
unintentional scoring shot.



FLUME (through an O. Fr. word _flum_, from the Lat. _flumen_, a river),
a word formerly used for a stream, and particularly for the tail of a
mill-race. It is used in America for a very narrow gorge running between
precipitous rocks, with a stream at the bottom, but more frequently is
applied to an artificial channel of wood or other material for the
diversion of a stream of water from a river for purposes of irrigation,
for running a sawmill, or for various processes in the hydraulic method
of gold-mining (see AQUEDUCT).



FLUMINI MAGGIORE, a town of the province of Cagliari, Sardinia, 10 m. by
road N. of Iglesias, and 5 m. from the W. coast. Pop. (1901) town 3908;
commune 9647. It is the centre of a considerable lead and zinc mining
district. Three miles to the S. are the ruins of a temple erected
probably in the time of Commodus (_Corpus inscr. Lat._ x., Berlin, 1883,
No. 7539). They seem to mark the site of Metalla (mines), a station on
the coast road from Sulci to Tharros, and the centre of the mining
district in Roman times. At Flumini Maggiore itself were found two
ingots of lead, one bearing a stamp with Hadrian's name.



FLUORANTHENE, C15H10, also known as idryl, a hydrocarbon occurring with
phenanthrene, pyrene, diphenyl, and other substances in "Stupp" fat (the
fat obtained in working up the mercury ores in Idria), and also in the
higher boiling fractions of the coal tar distillate. It was discovered
by R. Fittig in 1878, who, with Gebhard and H. Liepmann, elucidated its
constitution (see _Ann._, 1879, 200, p. 1). The hydrocarbons are
separated from the "Stupp" by means of alcohol, the soluble portion on
distillation giving first phenanthrene and then a mixture of pyrene and
fluoranthene. From the tar distillate, the chrysene can be fractionally
precipitated, and the fluoranthene can be separated from most of the
pyrene by fractional distillation in a partial vacuum. In either case
the two hydrocarbons are finally separated by fractional crystallization
of their picrates, which are then decomposed by ammonia. Fluoranthene
crystallizes in large slender needles or monoclinic tables, melting at
109-110° C. and boiling at 250-251° C. (60 mm.). It is easily soluble in
hot alcohol, ether and carbon bisulphide. On oxidation with chromic acid
it forms a quinone, C15H8O2, and an [alpha]-diphenylene ketocarboxylic
acid

  C6H4 \
  ·     >   CO
  C6H3 / -- CO2H.

The picrate melts at 182-183° C.



FLUORENE ([alpha]-diphenylene methane), C13H10 or (C6H4)2CH2, a
hydrocarbon found in coal-tar. It is obtained from the higher boiling
fractions, after separation of naphthalene and anthracene, by fractional
distillation, the portion boiling between 290-340° C. being taken. The
fluorene is separated from this by placing it in a freezing mixture, and
is then redistilled or crystallized from glacial acetic acid, or
purified by means of its picrate. It may be prepared by distilling
diphenylene ketone over zinc dust, or by heating it with hydriodic acid
and phosphorus to 150-160° C.; and also by passing the vapour of
diphenyl methane through a red hot tube. It crystallizes in colourless
plates, possessing a violet fluorescence, melting at 112-113° and
boiling at 293-295° C. By oxidation with chromic acid in glacial acetic
acid solution, it is converted into diphenylene ketone (C6H4)2·CO;
whilst on heating with hydriodic acid and phosphorus to 250-260° C. it
gives a hydro derivative of composition C18H22.



FLUORESCEIN, or RESORCIN-PHTHALEIN, C20H12O5, in chemistry, a compound
discovered in 1876 by A. v. Baeyer by the condensation of phthalic
anhydride with resorcin at 195-200° C. (_Ann._, 1876, 183, p. 1). The two
reacting substances are either heated alone or with zinc chloride for
some hours, and the melt obtained is boiled out with water, washed by
dilute alcohol, extracted by means of sodium hydrate, and the solution so
obtained is precipitated by an acid. The precipitate is well washed with
water and then dried. By repeating this process two or three times, the
fluorescein may be obtained in a very pure condition. It forms a yellow
amorphous powder, insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol, and
crystallizing from the alcoholic solution in small dark red nodules. It
is readily soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis, the solution
being of a dark red colour and showing (especially when largely diluted
with water) a brilliant green fluorescence. It was so named on account of
this last character. By brominating fluorescein in glacial acetic acid
solution, _eosin_ (tetrabromfluorescein) is obtained, the same compound
being formed by heating 3.5-dibrom-2.4-dioxybenzoylbenzoic acid above its
melting point (R. Meyer, _Ber._, 1895, 28, p. 1576). It crystallizes
from alcohol in yellowish red needles, and dyes silk, wool, and mordanted
cotton a fine pink colour. When heated with caustic alkalis it yields
dibromresorcin and dibrommonoresorcin-phthalein. The corresponding iodo
compound is known as _erythrosin_. Fluorescein is readily nitrated,
yielding a di- or tetra-nitro compound according to conditions. The
entrance of the negative nitro group into the molecule weakens the
central pyrone ring in the fluorescein nucleus and the di-and tetra-nitro
compounds readily yield hydrates (see J.T. Hewitt and B.W. Perkins,
_Jour. Chem. Soc._, 1900, p. 1326). By the action of ammonia or amines
the di-nitro fluoresceins are converted into yellow dyestuffs (F.
Reverdin, _Ber_., 1897, 30, p. 332). Other dyestuffs obtained from
fluorescein are safrosine or eosin scarlet (dibromdinitrofluorescein) and
rose Bengal (tetraiodotetrachlorfluorescein).

  On fusion with caustic alkali, fluorescein yields resorcin, C6H4(OH)2,
  and monoresorcin phthalein (dioxybenzoylbenzoic acid), (HO)2C6H3·CO·C
  H4·COOH. With zinc dust and caustic soda it yields fluorescin. By
  warming fluorescein with excess of phosphorus pentachloride it yields
  fluorescein chloride, C20H10O3Cl2 (A. Baeyer), which crystallizes from
  alcohol in small prisms, melting at 252° C. When heated with aniline
  and aniline hydrochloride, fluorescein yields a colourless anilide (O.
  Fischer and E. Hepp, _Ber_., 1893, 26, p. 2236), which is readily
  methylated by methyl iodide and potash to a fluoresceinanilidedimethyl
  ether, which when heated for six hours to 150° C. with acetic and
  hydrochloric acids, is hydrolysed and yields a colourless
  fluoresceindimethyl ether, which melts at 198° C. On the other hand,
  by heating fluorescein with caustic potash, methyl iodide and methyl
  alcohol, a coloured (yellow) dimethyl ether, melting at 208° C. is
  obtained (Fischer and Hepp). By heating the coloured dimethyl ether
  with caustic soda, the monomethyl ether is obtained (O. Fischer and E.
  Hepp, _Ber_., 1895, 28, p. 397); this crystallizes in triclinic
  tables, and melts at 262° C. It is to be noted that the colourless
  monomethyl ether fluoresces strongly in alkaline solution, the
  dimethyl ether of melting point 208° fluoresces only in neutral
  solution (e.g., in alcoholic solution), and the dimethyl ether of
  melting point 198° C. only in concentrated hydrochloric or sulphuric
  acid solution (Fischer and Hepp). Considerable discussion has taken
  place as to the position held by the hydroxyl groups in the
  fluorescein molecule, C. Graebe (_Ber_., 1895, 28, p. 28) asserting
  that they were in the ortho position to the linking carbon atom of the
  phthalic anhydride residue. G. Heller (_Ber_., 1895, 28, p. 312),
  however, showed that monoresorcin-phthalein when brominated in glacial
  acetic acid gives a dibrom derivative which, with fuming sulphuric
  acid, yields dibromxanthopurpurin (1.3-dioxy-2.4-dibromanthraquinone),
  a reaction which is only possible if the fluorescein (from which the
  monoresorcin-phthalein is derived) contains free hydroxyl groups in
  the para position to the linking carbon atom of the phthalic anhydride
  residue.



FLUORESCENCE. In a paper read before the Royal Society of Edinburgh in
1833, Sir David Brewster described a remarkable phenomenon he had
discovered to which he gave the name of "internal dispersion." On
admitting a beam of sunlight, condensed by a lens, into a solution of
chlorophyll, the green colouring matter of leaves (see fig. 1), he was
surprised to find that the path of the rays within the fluid was marked
by a bright light of a blood-red colour, strangely contrasting with the
beautiful green of the fluid when seen in moderate thickness. Brewster
afterwards observed the same phenomenon in various vegetable solutions
and essential oils, and in some solids, amongst which was fluor-spar. He
believed this effect to be due to coloured particles held in suspension.
A few years later, Sir John Herschel independently discovered that if a
solution of quinine sulphate, which, viewed by transmitted light,
appears colourless and transparent like water, were illuminated by a
beam of ordinary daylight, a peculiar blue colour was seen in a thin
stratum of the fluid adjacent to the surface by which the light entered.
The blue light was unpolarized and passed freely through many inches of
the fluid. The incident beam, after having passed through the stratum
from which the blue light came, was not sensibly enfeebled or coloured,
but yet it had lost the power of producing the characteristic blue
colour when admitted into a second solution of quinine sulphate. A beam
of light modified in this mysterious manner was called by Herschel
"epipolized." Brewster showed that epipolic was merely a particular case
of internal dispersion, peculiar only in this respect, that the rays
capable of dispersion were dispersed with unusual rapidity.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

The investigation of this phenomenon was afterwards taken up by Sir G.G.
Stokes, to whom the greater part of our present knowledge of the subject
is due. Stokes's first paper "On the Change of the Refrangibility of
Light" appeared in 1852. He repeated the experiments of Brewster and
Herschel, and considerably extended them. These experiments soon led him
to the conclusion that the effect could not be due, as Brewster had
imagined, to the scattering of light by suspended particles, but that
the dispersed beam actually differed in refrangibility from the light
which excited it. He therefore termed it "true internal dispersion" to
distinguish it from the scattering of light, which he called "false
internal dispersion." As this name, however, is apt to suggest
Brewster's view of the phenomenon, he afterwards abandoned it as
unsatisfactory, and substituted the word "fluorescence." This term,
derived from fluor-spar after the analogy of opalescence from opal, does
not presuppose any theory. To examine the nature of the fluorescence
produced by quinine, Stokes formed a pure spectrum of the sun's rays in
the usual manner. A test-tube, filled with a dilute solution of quinine
sulphate, was placed just outside the red end of the spectrum and then
gradually moved along the spectrum to the other extremity. No
fluorescence was observed as long as the tube remained in the more
luminous portion, but as soon as the violet was reached, a ghost-like
gleam of blue light shot right across the tube. On continuing to move
the tube, the blue light at first increased in intensity and afterwards
died away, but not until the tube had been moved a considerable distance
into the ultra-violet part of the spectrum. When the blue gleam first
appeared it extended right across the tube, but just before disappearing
it was confined to a very thin stratum on the side at which the exciting
rays entered. Stokes varied this experiment by placing a vessel filled
with the dilute solution in a spectrum formed by a train of prisms. The
appearance is illustrated diagrammatically in fig. 2. The greater part
of the light passed freely as if through water, but from about half-way
between the Fraunhofer lines G and H to far beyond the extreme violet,
the incident rays gave rise to light of a sky-blue colour, which
emanated in all directions from the portion of the fluid (represented
white in fig. 2) which was under the influence of the incident rays. The
anterior surface of the blue space coincided, of course, with the inner
surface of the glass vessel. The posterior surface marked the distance
to which the incident rays were able to penetrate before they were
absorbed. This distance was at first considerable, greater than the
diameter of the vessel, but decreased with great rapidity as the
refrangibility of the incident light increased, so that from a little
beyond the extreme violet to the end, the blue space was reduced to an
excessively thin stratum. This shows that the fluid is very opaque to
the ultra-violet rays. The fixed lines in the violet and invisible part
of the solar spectrum were represented by dark lines, or rather planes,
intersecting the blue region. Stokes found that the fluorescent light is
not homogeneous, for on reducing the incident rays to a narrow band of
homogeneous light, and examining the dispersed beam through a prism, he
found that the blue light consisted of rays extending over a wide range
of refrangibility, but not into the ultra-violet.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

Another method, which Stokes found especially useful in examining
different substances for fluorescence, was as follows. Two coloured
media were prepared, one of which transmitted the upper portion of the
spectrum and was opaque to the lower portion, while the second was
opaque to the upper and transparent to the lower part of the spectrum.
These were called by Stokes "complementary absorbents." No pair could be
found which were exactly complementary, of course, but the condition was
approximately fulfilled by several sets of coloured glasses or
solutions. One such combination consisted of a deep-blue solution of
ammioniacal copper sulphate and a yellow glass coloured with silver. The
two media together were almost opaque. The light of the sun being
admitted through a hole in the window-shutter, a white porcelain tablet
was laid on a shelf fastened in front of the hole. If the vessel
containing the blue solution was placed so as to cover the hole, and the
tablet was viewed through the yellow glass, scarcely any light entered
the eye, but if a paper washed with some fluorescent liquid were laid on
the tablet it appeared brilliantly luminous. Different pairs of
complementary absorbents were required according to the colour of the
fluorescent light. This experiment shows clearly that the light which
passed through the first absorbent and which would have been stopped by
the second gave rise in the fluorescent substance to rays of a different
wave-length which were transmitted by the second absorbent. Scattered
light, with which the true fluorescent light was often associated, was
eliminated by this method, being stopped by the second absorbent.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Spectrum of Chlorophyll.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Spectrum of Aesculin.]

Stokes also used a method, analogous to Newton's method of crossed
prisms, for the purpose of analysing the fluorescent light. A spectrum
was produced by means of a slit and a prism, the slit being horizontal
instead of vertical. The resulting very narrow spectrum was projected on
a white paper moistened with a fluorescent solution, and viewed through
a second prism with its refracting edge perpendicular to that of the
first prism. In addition to the sloping spectrum seen under ordinary
circumstances, another spectrum due to the fluorescent light alone, made
its appearance, as seen in figs. 3 and 4. In this spectrum the colours
do not run from left to right, but in horizontal lines. Thus the dark
lines of the solar spectrum lie across the colours. The spectra in figs.
3 and 4 were obtained by V. Pierre with an improved arrangement of
Stokes's method. It will be seen that, in the case of chlorophyll, the
whole spectrum, far into the ultra-violet, gives rise to a short range
of red fluorescent light, while the effective part of the exciting light
in the case of aesculin (a glucoside occurring in horse-chestnut bark)
begins a little above the fixed line G and the fluorescent light covers
a wide range extending from orange to blue.

Besides the substances already mentioned, a large number of vegetable
extracts and some inorganic bodies are strongly fluorescent. Stokes
found that most organic substances show signs of fluorescence. Green
fluor-spar from Alston Moor exhibits a violet, uranium glass a
yellowish-green fluorescence. Tincture of turmeric gives rise to a
greenish light, and the extract of seeds of _Datura stramonium_ a pale
green light. Ordinary paraffin oil fluoresces blue. Barium
platinocyanide, which is much used in the fluorescent screens employed
in work with the Röntgen rays, shows a brilliant green fluorescence with
ordinary light. Crystals of magnesium platinocyanide possess the
remarkable property of emitting a polarized fluorescent light, the
colour and plane of polarization depending on the position of the
crystal with respect to the incident beam, and, if polarized light is
used, on the plane of polarization of the latter.

_Stokes's Law._--In all the substances examined by Stokes, the
fluorescent light appeared to be of lower refrangibility than the light
which excited it. Stokes considered it probable that this lowering of
the refrangibility of the light was a general law which held for all
substances. This is known as Stokes's law. It has been shown, however,
by E. Lommel and others, that this law does not hold generally. Lommel
distinguishes two kinds of fluorescence. The bodies which exhibit the
first kind are those which possess strong absorption bands, of which
only one remains appreciable after great dilution. These bodies are
always strongly coloured and show anomalous dispersion and (in solids)
surface colour. In such cases, the maximum of intensity in the
fluorescent spectrum corresponds to the maximum of absorption. Stokes's
law is not obeyed, for a fluorescent spectrum can be produced by means
of homogeneous light of lower refrangibility than a great part of the
fluorescent light. The second kind of fluorescence is the most common,
and is exhibited by bodies which show absorption only in the upper part
of the spectrum, i.e. they are usually yellow or brown or (if the
absorption is in the ultra-violet) colourless. The absorption bands also
are different from those of substances of the first kind, for they
readily disappear on dilution. A third class of bodies is formed by
those substances which exhibit both kinds of fluorescence.

_Nature of Fluorescence._--No complete theory of fluorescence has yet
been given, though various attempts have been made to explain the
phenomenon. Fluorescence is closely allied to phosphorescence (q.v.),
the difference consisting in the duration of the effect after the
exciting cause is removed. Liquids which fluoresce only do so while the
exciting light is falling on them, ceasing immediately the exciting
light is cut off. In the case of solids, on the other hand, such as
fluor-spar or uranium glass, the effect, though very brief, does not die
away quite instantaneously, so that it is really a very brief
phosphorescence. The property of phosphorescence has been generally
attributed to some molecular change taking place in the bodies
possessing it. That some such change takes place during fluorescence is
rendered probable by the fact that the property depends upon the state
of the sensitive substance; some bodies, such as barium platinocyanide,
fluorescing in the solid state but not in solution, while others, such
as fluorescein, only fluoresce in solution. Fluorescence is always
associated with absorption, but many bodies are absorbent without
showing fluorescence. A satisfactory theory would have to account for
these facts as well as for the production of waves of one period by
those of another, and the non-homogeneous character of the fluorescent
light. Quite recently W. Voigt has sought to give a theory of
fluorescence depending on the theory of electrons. Briefly, this theory
assumes that the electrons which constitute the molecule of the
sensitive body can exist in two or more different configurations
simultaneously, and that these are in dynamical equilibrium, like the
molecule in a partially dissociated gas. If the electrons have different
periods of vibration in the different configurations, then it would
happen that the electrons whose period nearly corresponded with that of
the incident light would absorb the energy of the latter, and if they
then underwent a transformation into a different configuration with a
different period, this absorbed energy would be given out in waves of a
period corresponding to that of the new configuration.

_Applications of Fluorescence._--The phenomenon of fluorescence can be
utilized for the purpose of illustrating the laws of reflection and
refraction in lecture experiments since the path of a ray of light
through a very dilute solution of a sensitive substance is rendered
visible. The existence of the dark lines in the ultra-violet portion of
the solar spectrum can also be demonstrated in a simple manner. In
addition to the foregoing applications, Stokes made use of this property
for studying the character of the ultra-violet spectrum of different
sources of illumination and flames. He suggested also that the property
would in some cases furnish a simple test for the presence of a small
quantity of a sensitive substance in an organic mixture. Fluorescent
screens are largely used in work with Röntgen rays. There appears to be
some prospect of light being thrown on the question of molecular
structure by experiments on the fluorescence of vapours. Some very
interesting experiments in this direction have been performed by R.W.
Wood on the fluorescence of sodium vapour.

  REFERENCES.--Sir G.G. Stokes, _Mathematical and Physical Papers_,
  vols. iii. and iv.; Müller-Pouillet, _Lehrbuch der Physik_, Bd. ii.
  (1897); A. Wullner, _Lehrbuch der Experimentalphysik_, Bd. iv. (1899);
  A.A. Winkelmann, _Handbuch der Physik_, Bd. vi. (1906); R.W. Wood,
  _Physical Optics_ (1905).     (J. R. C.)



FLUORINE (symbol F, atomic weight 19), a chemical element of the halogen
group. It is never found in the uncombined condition, but in combination
with calcium as fluor-spar CaF2 it is widely distributed; it is also
found in cryolite Na3AlF6, in fluor-apatite, CaF2·3Ca3P2O8, and in
minute traces in sea-water, in some mineral springs, and as a
constituent of the enamel of the teeth. It was first isolated by H.
Moissan in 1886 by the electrolysis of pure anhydrous hydrofluoric acid
containing dissolved potassium fluoride. The U-shaped electrolytic
vessel and the electrodes are made of an alloy of platinum-iridium, the
limbs of the tube being closed by stoppers made of fluor-spar, and
fitted with two lateral exit tubes for carrying off the gases evolved.
Whilst the electrolysis is proceeding, the apparatus is kept at a
constant temperature of -23° C. by means of liquid methyl chloride. The
fluorine, which is liberated as a gas at the anode, is passed through a
well cooled platinum vessel, in order to free it from any acid fumes
that may be carried over, and finally through two platinum tubes
containing sodium fluoride to remove the last traces of hydrofluoric
acid; it is then collected in a platinum tube closed with fluor-spar
plates. B. Brauner (_Jour. Chem. Soc._, 1894, 65, p. 393) obtained
fluorine by heating potassium fluorplumbate 3KF·HF·PbF4. At 200° C. this
salt decomposes, giving off hydrofluoric acid, and between 230-250° C.
fluorine is liberated.

Fluorine is a pale greenish-yellow gas with a very sharp smell; its
specific gravity is 1.265 (H. Moissan); it has been liquefied, the
liquid also being of a yellow colour and boiling at -187° C. It is the
most active of all the chemical elements; in contact with hydrogen
combination takes place between the two gases with explosive violence,
even in the dark, and at as low a temperature as -210° C; finely divided
carbon burns in the gas, forming carbon tetrafluoride; water is
decomposed even at ordinary temperatures, with the formation of
hydrofluoric acid and "ozonised" oxygen; iodine, sulphur and phosphorus
melt and then inflame in the gas; it liberates chlorine from chlorides,
and combines with most metals instantaneously to form fluorides; it does
not, however, combine with oxygen. Organic compounds are rapidly
attacked by the gas.

Only one compound of hydrogen and fluorine is known, namely
_hydrofluoric acid_, HF or H2F2, which was first obtained by C. Scheele
in 1771 by decomposing fluor-spar with concentrated sulphuric acid, a
method still used for the commercial preparation of the aqueous solution
of the acid, the mixture being distilled from leaden retorts and the
acid stored in leaden or gutta-percha bottles. The perfectly anhydrous
acid is a very volatile colourless liquid and is best obtained,
according to G. Gore (_Phil. Trans._, 1869, p. 173) by decomposing the
double fluoride of hydrogen and potassium, at a red heat in a platinum
retort fitted with a platinum condenser surrounded by a freezing
mixture, and having a platinum receiver luted on. It can also be
prepared in the anhydrous condition by passing a current of hydrogen
over dry silver fluoride. The pure acid thus obtained is a most
dangerous substance to handle, its vapour even when highly diluted with
air having an exceedingly injurious action on the respiratory organs,
whilst inhalation of the pure vapour is followed by death. The anhydrous
acid boils at 19°.5 C. (H. Moissan), and on cooling, sets to a solid
mass at -102°.5 C, which melts at -92°.3 C. (K. Olszewski, _Monats. für
Chemie_, 1886, 7, p. 371). Potassium and sodium readily dissolve in the
anhydrous acid with evolution of hydrogen and formation of fluorides.
The aqueous solution is strongly acid to litmus and dissolves most
metals directly. Its most important property is that it rapidly attacks
glass, reacting with the silica of the glass to form gaseous silicon
fluoride, and consequently it is used for etching. T.E. Thorpe (_Jour.
Chem. Soc._, 1889, 55, p. 163) determined the vapour density of
hydrofluoric acid at different temperatures, and showed that there is no
approach to a definite value below about 88° C. where it reaches the
value 10.29 corresponding to the molecular formula HF; at temperatures
below 88° C. the value increases rapidly, showing that the molecule is
more complex in its structure. (For references see J.N. Friend, _The
Theory of Valency_ (1909), p. 111.) The aqueous solution behaves on
concentration similarly to the other halogen acids; E. Deussen (_Zeit.
anorg. Chem._, 1905, 44, pp. 300, 408; 1906, 49, p. 297) found the
solution of constant boiling point to contain 43.2% HF and to boil at
110° (750 mm.).

  The salts of hydrofluoric acid are known as _fluorides_ and are easily
  obtained by the action of the acid on metals or their oxides,
  hydroxides or carbonates. The fluorides of the alkali metals, of
  silver, and of most of the heavy metals are soluble in water; those of
  the alkaline earths are insoluble. A characteristic property of the
  alkaline fluorides is their power of combining with a molecule of
  hydrofluoric acid and with the fluorides of the more electro-negative
  elements to form double fluorides, a behaviour not shown by other
  metallic halides. Fluorides can be readily detected by their power of
  etching glass when warmed with sulphuric acid; or by warming them in a
  glass tube with concentrated sulphuric acid and holding a moistened
  glass rod in the mouth of the tube, the water apparently gelatinizes
  owing to the decomposition of the silicon fluoride formed. The atomic
  weight of fluorine has been determined by the conversion of calcium,
  sodium and potassium fluorides into the corresponding sulphates. J.
  Berzelius, by converting silver fluoride into silver chloride,
  obtained the value 19.44, and by analysing calcium fluoride the value
  19.16; the more recent work of H. Moissan gives the value 19.05.

  See H. Moissan, _Le Fluor et ses composes_ (Paris, 1900).



FLUOR-SPAR, native calcium fluoride (CaF2), known also as FLUORITE or
simply FLUOR. In France it is called fluorine, whilst the term fluor is
applied to the element (F). All these terms, from the Lat. _fluere_, "to
flow," recall the fact that the spar is useful as a flux in certain
metallurgical operations. (Cf. its Ger. name _Flussspat_ or _Fluss_.)

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

Fluor-spar crystallizes in the cubic system, commonly in cubes, either
alone or combined with the octahedron, rhombic dodecahedron, four-faced
cube, &c. The four-faced cube has been called the fluoroid. In fig. 1, a
is the cube (100), d the rhombic dodecahedron (110), and f the
four-faced cube (310). Fig. 2 shows a characteristic twin of
interpenetrant cubes. The crystals are sometimes polysynthetic, a large
octahedron, e.g., being built up of small cubes. The faces are often
etched or corroded. Cleavage is nearly always perfect, parallel to the
octahedron.

Fluor-spar has a hardness of 4, so that it is scratched by a knife,
though not so readily as calcite. Its specific gravity is about 3.2. The
colour is very variable, and often beautiful, but the mineral is too
soft for personal decoration, though it forms a handsome material for
vases, &c. In some fluor-spar the colour is disposed in bands, regularly
following the contour of the crystal. As the colour is usually expelled,
or much altered, by heat, it is believed to be due to an organic
pigment, and the presence of hydrocarbons has been detected in many
specimens by G. Wyrouboff, and other observers. H.W. Morse (_Proc. Amer.
Acad._, 1906, p. 587) obtained carbon monoxide and dioxide, hydrogen
and nitrogen and small quantities of oxygen from Weardale specimens by
heating. He concluded that the gases are due to the decomposition of an
organic colouring matter, which has, however, no connexion with the
fluorescence or thermo-luminescence of the mineral. Certain crystals
from Cumberland are beautifully fluorescent, appearing purple with a
bluish internal haziness by reflected light, and greenish by transmitted
light. Fluor-spar, though cubic, sometimes exhibits weak double
refraction, probably due to internal tension. Many kinds of fluor-spar
are thermo-luminescent, i.e. they glow on exposure to a moderate heat,
and the name of chlorophane has been given to a variety which exhibits a
green glow. The mineral also phosphoresces under the Röntgen rays.
Cavities containing liquid occasionally occur in crystals of fluor-spar,
notably in the greasy green cubes of Weardale in Durham. A dark violet
fluor-spar from Wölsendorf in Bavaria, evolves an odour of ozone when
struck, and has been called antozonite. Ozone is also emitted by a
violet fluor-spar from Quincié, dep. Rhône, France. In both cases the
spar evolves free fluorine, which ozonizes the air.

Fluor-spar is largely employed by the metallurgist, especially in
lead-smelting, and in the production of ferro-silicon and
ferro-manganese. It is also used in iron and brass foundries, and has
been found useful as a flux for certain gold-ores and in the reduction
of aluminium. It is used as a source of hydrofluoric acid, which it
evolves when heated with sulphuric acid. The mineral is also used in the
production of opal glass and enamel ware. In consequence of its low
refractive and dispersive power, colourless pellucid fluor-spar is
valuable in the construction of apochromatic lenses, but this variety is
rare. The dark violet fluor-spar of Derbyshire, known locally as "Blue
John," is prized for ornamental purposes. It occurs almost exclusively
at Tray Cliff, near Castleton. The dark purple spar, called by the
workmen "bull beef," may be changed, by heat, to a rich amethystine
tint. Being very brittle, the spar is rather difficult to work on the
lathe, and is often toughened by means of resin. F. Corsi, the eminent
Italian antiquary, held that fluor-spar was the material of the famous
murrhine vases.

Fluor-spar is a mineral of very wide distribution. Some of the finest
crystals occur in the lead-veins of the Carboniferous Limestone series
in the north of England, especially at Weardale, Allendale and Alston
Moor. It is also found in the lead and copper-mines of Cornwall and S.
Devon, notably near Liskeard, where fine crystals have been found, with
faces of the six-faced octahedron replacing the corners of the cube. In
Cornwall fluor-spar is known to the miners as "cann." Fine yellow
fluor-spar occurs in some of the Saxon mines, and beautiful rose-red
octahedra are found in the Alps, near Göschenen. Many localities in the
United States yield fluor-spar, and it is worked commercially in a few
places, notably at Rosiclare in southern Illinois.



FLUSHING, formerly a township and a village of Queens county, New York,
U.S.A., on Long Island, at the head of Flushing Bay, since the 1st of
January 1898 a part of the borough of Queens, New York City. Flushing is
served by the Long Island railroad and by electric lines. It was settled
in 1644 by a company of English non-conformists who had probably been
residents of Flushing in Holland, from which the new place took its
name. Subsequently a large number of Quakers settled here, and in 1672
George Fox spent some time in the township. Before the War of
Independence Flushing was the country-seat of many rich New Yorkers and
colonial officials.



FLUSHING (Dutch _Vlissingen_), a fortified seaport in the province of
Zeeland, Holland, on the south side of the island of Walcheren, at the
mouth of the estuary of the western Scheldt, 4 m. by rail S. by W. of
Middelburg, with which it is also connected by steam tramway and by a
ship canal. There is a steam ferry to Breskens and Ter Neuzen on the
coast of Zeeland-Flandres. Pop. (1900) 18,893. An important naval
station and fortress up to 1867, Flushing has since aspired, under the
care of the Dutch government, to become a great commercial port. In 1872
the railway was opened which, in conjunction with the regular day and
night service of steamers to Queenborough in the county of Kent, forms
one of the main routes between England and the east of Europe. In 1873
the great harbour, docks and canal works were completed. Yet the
navigation of the port remains far behind that of Rotterdam or Antwerp,
the tonnage being in 1899 about 7.9% of that of the kingdom. As a summer
resort, however, Flushing has acquired considerable popularity,
sea-baths and a large modern hotel being situated on the fine beach
about three-quarters of a mile north-west of the town. It possesses a
town hall, containing a collection of local antiquities, a theatre, an
exchange, an academy of sciences and a school of navigation. The
Jakobskerk, or Jacob's church, founded in 1328, contains monuments to
Admiral de Ruyter (1607-1676) and the poet Jacob Bellamy (1757-1786),
who were natives of Flushing. The chief industries of the town are
connected with the considerable manufacture of machinery, the state
railway-workshops, shipbuilding yards, Krupp iron and steel works'
depot, brewing, and oil and soap manufacture. The chief imports are
colonial produce and wine, wood and coal. The exports include
agricultural produce (wheat and beans), shrimps and meat.



FLUTE, a word adapted from O. Fr. _fleüte_, modern _flûte_; from O. Fr.
have come the Span. _flauta_, Ital. _flauto_ and Ger. _Flöte_. The _New
English Dictionary_ dismisses the derivations suggested from Lat.
_flatuare_ or _flavitare_; ultimately the word must be referred to the
root seen in "blow," Lat. _flare_, Ger. _blasen_, &c.

1. In music "flute" is a general term applied to wood-wind instruments
consisting of a pipe pierced with lateral holes and blown directly
through the mouthpiece without the intervention of a reed. The flute
family is classified according to the mouthpiece used to set in
vibration the column of air within the tube: i.e. (1) the simple lateral
mouth-hole or embouchure which necessitates holding the instrument in a
transverse position; (2) the whistle or fipple mouthpiece which allows
the performer to hold the instrument vertically in front of him. There
is a third class of pipes included among the flutes, having no
mouthpiece of any sort, in which the column of air is set in vibration
by blowing obliquely across the open end of the pipe, as in the ancient
Egyptian nay, and the pan-pipe or syrinx (q.v.). The transverse flute
has entirely superseded the whistle flute, which has survived only in
the so-called penny whistle, in the "flute-work" of the organ (q.v.),
and in the French flageolet.

_The Transverse Flute_ or _German Flute_ (Fr. _flûte traversière_,
_flûte allemande_: Ger. _Flöte_, _Querflöte_, _Zwerchpfeiff_,
_Schweitzerpfeiff_; Ital. _flauto traverso_) includes the _concert
flute_ known both as flute in C and as flute in D, the piccolo (q.v.) or
octave flute, and the fife (q.v.). The modern flute consists of a tube
open at one end and nominally closed at the other by means of a plug or
cork stopper: virtually, however, the tube is an open one giving the
consecutive harmonic series of the open pipe or of a stretched string.
The primitive flute was made in one piece, but the modern instrument is
composed of three adjustable joints. (1) The head-joint, plugged at the
upper end and containing at about one-third of the length the mouth-hole
or embouchure. This embouchure, always open when the instrument is being
played, converts the closed tube into an open one, in an acoustical
sense. (2) The body, containing the holes and keys necessary to produce
the scale which gave the flute its original designation of D flute, the
head and body together, when the holes are closed, giving the
fundamental note D. Before the invention of keys, this fundamental note
and the notes obtained by the successive opening of the six holes
produced the diatonic scale of D major. All other semitones were
obtained by what is known as cross fingering (Fr. _doigté fourchu_; Ger.
_Gabelgriffe_). It became usual to consider this the typical fingering
nomenclature, whatever the fundamental note given out by the flute, and
to indicate the tonality by the note given out when the six lateral
holes are covered by the fingers. The result is that the tonality is
always a tone lower than the name of the instrument indicates. Thus the
D flute is really in C, the F flute is E[flat], &c. (3) The foot-joint
or tail-joint containing the two additional keys for C[sharp] and C
which extend the compass downwards, completing the chromatic scale of C
in the fundamental octave.

The compass of the modern flute is three octaves with chromatic
semitones from [notes] to [notes]. The sound is produced by holding the
flute transversely with the embouchure turned slightly outwards, the
lower lip resting on the nearer edge of the embouchure, and blowing
obliquely across, not into, the orifice. The flat stream of air from the
lips, known as the air-reed, breaks against the sharp outer edge of the
embouchure. The current of air, thus set in a flutter, produces in the
stationary column of air within the tube a series of pulsations or
vibrations caused by the alternate compression and rarefaction of the
air and generating sounds of a pitch proportional to the length of the
stationary column, which is practically somewhat longer than the length
of the tube.[1] The length of this column is varied by opening the
lateral finger-holes. The current or air-reed thus acts upon the air
column within the flute, without passing through the tube, as a plectrum
upon a string, setting it in vibration. The air column of the flute is
the sound-producer, whereas in instruments with reed mouthpieces the
vibrating reed is more properly the sound-producer, while the air
column, acting as a resonating medium, reinforces the note of the reed
by vibrating synchronously with it. If the angle[2] at which the current
of air is directed against the outer edge of the embouchure be made less
acute and the pressure of the breath be at the same time increased, the
frequency of the alternate pulses of compression and rarefaction within
the tube will be increased two, three or fourfold, forming a
corresponding number of nodes and loops which results in harmonics or
upper partials, respectively the octave, the twelfth, the double octave.
By this means sounds of higher pitch are produced without actually
shortening the length of the column of air by means of lateral holes.
The acoustic theory of sound-production in the flute is one on which
there is great diversity of opinion. The subject is too vast to be
treated here, but readers who wish to pursue it may consult the works of
Rockstro,[3] Helmholtz,[4] and others.[5] The effect of boring lateral
holes in pipes is to shorten the vibrating length of the air column,
which may be regarded as being effective only between the hole in
question and the mouthpiece. In order to obtain this result the diameter
of the hole should be equal to that of the bore; as long as the holes
were covered by the fingers, this was obviously impossible. The holes,
therefore, being smaller than the laws of acoustics demand, have to be
placed proportionally nearer the mouthpiece in order to avoid deepening
the pitch and deadening the tone. This principle was understood by
wind-instrument makers of classic Greece (see AULOS and CLARINET), and
has been explained by Chladni[6] and Gottfried Weber.[7]

The bore of the early flute with six finger-holes was invariably
cylindrical throughout, but towards the end of the 17th century a
modification took place, the head joint alone remaining cylindrical
while the rest of the bore assumed the form of a cone having its
smallest diameter at the open end of the tube. The conoidal bore
greatly improved the quality of tone and the production of the higher
harmonics of the third octave. Once the conical bore had been adopted,
the term flute was exclusively applied to the new instruments, the
smaller flutes, then cylindrical, used in the army being designated fife
(q.v.). At the present day in England, France and America, the favourite
mode of construction is that introduced by Theobald Boehm, and known as
the "cylinder flute with the parabolic head," of which more will be said
further on. The successive opening of the holes and keys on the flute
produces the chromatic scale of the first or fundamental octave. By
increasing the pressure of the breath and slightly altering the position
of the lips over the mouth-hole, the same fingering produces the notes
of the fundamental octave in the next octave higher. The third octave of
the compass is obtained by the production of the higher harmonics (Fr.
_sons harmoniques_; Ger. _Flageolettöne_), of the fundamental scale,
facilitated by the opening of certain of the finger-holes as "vent
holes." The quality of tone depends somewhat on the material of which
the flute is made; silver and gold produce a liquid tone of exquisite
delicacy suitable for solo music, cocus-wood and ebonite a rich mellow
tone of considerable power suitable for orchestral music. The tone
differs further in the three registers, the lowest being slightly rough,
the medium sweet and elegiac, and the third bird-like and brilliant. The
proportions, position and form of the stopper and of the air chamber
situated between it and the embouchure are mainly influential in giving
the flute its peculiar slightly hollow timbre, due to the paucity of the
upper partials of which according to Helmholtz[8] only the octave and
twelfth are heard. Mr Blaikley[9] states, however, that when the
fundamental D is played, he can discern the seventh partial. The
technical capabilities of the flute are practically unlimited to a good
player who can obtain sustained notes diminuendo and crescendo, diatonic
and chromatic scales and arpeggios both legato and staccato, leaps,
turns, shakes, &c. By the articulation with the tongue of the syllables
_te-ke_ or _ti-ke_ repeated quickly for groups of double notes, or of
_te-ke-ti_ for triplets, an easy effective staccato is produced, known
respectively as _double_ or _triple tonguing_, a device understood early
in the 16th century and mentioned by Martin Agricola,[10] who gives the
syllables as _de_ for sustained notes, di-ri for shorter notes, and
_tel-lel-lel_ for staccato passages in quick tempo.[11]

[Illustration: From Captain Day's _Catalogue, &c._, by permission of
Messrs. Eyre & Spottiswoode.

FIG. 1.--Eight-keyed Cone Flute by Richard Potter. 18th century.]

[Illustration: Messrs. Rudall, Carte & Co.

FIG. 2.--Boehm Cylinder Flute. Rockstro Model.]

  Musical instruments, such as flutes, in which a column of air is set
  in vibration by regular pulsations derived from a current of air
  directed by the lips of the executant against the side of the orifice
  serving as embouchure, appear to be of very ancient origin. The
  Hindus, Chinese and Japanese claim to have used these modes of blowing
  from time immemorial. The ancient Egyptians had a long pipe held
  obliquely and blown across the end of the pipe itself at its upper
  extremity; it was known as _Saïb-it_[12] and was frequently figured on
  the monuments. The same instrument, called "nay," is still used in
  Mahommedan countries. The oblique aulos of the Greeks,
  plagiaulos,[13] was of Egyptian origin and was perhaps at first blown
  from the end as described above,[14] since we know that the Greeks
  were familiar with that method of blowing in the syrinx or pan-pipe.
  The instruments preserved at the British Museum[15] having lateral
  embouchures show, however, that they were also acquainted--probably
  through the Hindus--with the transverse flute, although in the case of
  these specimens a reed must have been inserted into the mouth-hole or
  no sound would have been obtained.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--Transverse Flute. 1st or 2nd century A.D. From
  the Tope at Amarabati, British Museum.]

  The high antiquity of a lateral embouchure in Europe is generally
  admitted; the flute evidently penetrated from the East at some period
  not yet determined. A transverse flute is seen on Indian sculptures of
  the Gandhara school showing Greek influence, and dating from the
  beginning of our era (fig. 3). But although the transverse flute was
  evidently known to the Greeks and Romans, it did not find the same
  favour as the reed instruments known as auloi. We have no evidence of
  the survival of the transverse flute after the fall of the Roman
  empire until it filtered through from Byzantine sources during the
  early middle ages. Instances of the flute occur on a group of
  caskets[16] of Italo-Byzantine work of the 9th or 10th century, while
  of purely Byzantine origin we find examples of flutes in Greek
  MSS.[17] preserved in Paris, at the British Museum and elsewhere.
  There is moreover in the cathedral of St Sophia at Kiev[18] an
  orchestra depicted on frescoes said to date from the 11th century;
  among the musicians is a flautist.

  The first essentially western European trace of the transverse flute
  occurs in a German MS. of the 12th century, the celebrated _Hortus
  deliciarum_ of the abbess Herrad von Landsperg.[19] Fol. 221 shows a
  syren playing upon the transverse flute, which Herrad explains in a
  legend as _tibia_; in the vocabulary the latter is translated swegel.
  In the 13th century it occurs among the miniatures of the fifty-one
  musicians in the beautiful MS. _Las Cantigas de Santa Maria_ in the
  Escorial, Madrid.[20] Eustache Deschamps, a French poet of the 14th
  century, in one of his ballads, makes mention of the "flute
  traversaine," and we are justified in supposing that he refers to the
  transverse flute. It had certainly acquired some vogue in the 15th
  century, being figured in an engraving in Sebastian Virdung's
  celebrated work,[21] where it is called "Zwerchpfeiff," and, with the
  drums, it already constituted the principal element of the military
  music. Agricola (op. cit.) alludes to it as the "Querchpfeiff" or
  "Schweizerpfeiff," the latter designation dating, it is said, from the
  battle of Marignan (1515), when the Swiss troops used it for the first
  time in war.

  From Agricola onwards transverse flutes formed a complete family, said
  to comprise the discant, the alto and tenor, and the bass--[notes] or
  [notes] respectively. Praetorius[22] designates the transverse flute
  as "Flauta traversa' Querpfeiff" and "Querflöt," and gives the pitch
  of the bass in [notes] the tenor and alto in [notes] and the discant
  in [notes] as varieties then in use. A flute concert at that time
  included two discants, four altos or tenors, and two basses. The same
  author distinguishes between the "Traversa" and the "Schweizerpfeiff"
  or fife (which he also calls "Feldpfeiff," i.e. military flute),
  although the construction was the same. There were two kinds of
  "Feldpfeiff," in [notes] and [notes] respectively; they were employed
  exclusively with the military drum.

  Mersenne's[23] account of the transverse flute, then designated "flûte
  d'Allemagne" or "flûte allemande" in France, and an "Air de Cour" for
  four flutes in his work lead us to believe that there were then in use
  in France the soprano flute in [notes] the tenor or alto flute in
  [notes] and the bass flute descending to [notes]. The museum of the
  Conservatoire Royal of Brussels possesses specimens of all these
  varieties except the last. All of them are laterally pierced with six
  finger-holes; they have a cylindrical bore, and are fashioned out of a
  single piece of wood. Their compass consists of two octaves and a
  fifth. Mersenne's tablature for fingering the flute differs but little
  from those of Hotteterre-le-Romain[24] and Eisel[25] for the diatonic
  scale; he does not give the chromatic semitones and the flute had as
  yet no keys.

  The largest bass flute in the Brussels museum is in [notes] at the
  French normal pitch A 435 double vibrations per second. It measures
  0.95 m. from the centre of the blow orifice to the lower extremity of
  the tube. The disposition of the lateral holes is such that it is
  impossible to cover them with the fingers if the flute is held in the
  ordinary way. The instrument must be placed against the mouth in an
  almost vertical direction, inclining the extremity of the tube either
  to the right or the left. This inconvenient position makes it
  necessary that the instrument should be divided into two parts,
  enabling the player to turn the head joint that the embouchure may be
  most commodiously approached by the lips, which is not at all easy.
  The first and fourth of the six lateral holes are double in order to
  accommodate both right- and left-handed players, the holes not in use
  being stopped up with wax. The bass flute shown in fig. 4 is the
  facsimile of an instrument in the Museo Civico of Verona. The
  original, unfortunately no longer fit for use, is nevertheless
  sufficiently well preserved to allow of all its proportionate
  measurements being given. The lowest note, E[flat], is obtained with a
  remarkable amplitude of sound, thus upsetting a very prevalent opinion
  that it is impossible to produce by lateral insufflation sounds which
  go a little lower than the ordinary limit downwards of the modern
  orchestral flute.[26]

  [Illustration:

  FIG. 4.--Bass Flute. From Museo Civico, Verona (facsimile).

  FIG. 5.--Bass Flute. Brussels Museum.]

  The bass flute cited by Mersenne should not differ much from that of
  the Museo Civico at Verona. We suppose it to have been in [notes], and
  that it was furnished with an open key like that which was applied to
  the recorders (_flûtes douces_) of the same epoch, the function of the
  key being to augment by another note the compass of the instrument in
  the lower part. A bass flute in G similar to the one in fig. 5 is
  figured and described in Diderot and D'Alembert's encyclopaedia [27]
  (1751). According to Quantz,[28] it was in France and about the middle
  of the 17th century that the first modifications were introduced in
  the manufacture of the flute. The improvements at this period
  consisted of the abandonment of the cylindrical bore in favour of a
  conical one, with the base of the cone forming the head of the
  instrument. At the same time the flute was made of three separate
  pieces called head, body, and tail or foot, which were ultimately
  further subdivided. The body or middle joint was divided into two
  pieces, so that the instrument could be tuned to the different pitches
  then in use by a replacement with longer or shorter pieces. It was
  probably about 1677, when Lully introduced the German flute into the
  opera, that recourse was had for the first time to keys, and that the
  key of D# was applied to the lower part of the instrument.[29] The
  engraving of B. Picart, dated 1707, given in Hotteterre's book,
  represents the flute as having reached the stage of improvement of
  which we have just spoken. In 1726 Quantz,[30] finding himself in
  Paris, had a second key applied to the flute, placed nearly at the
  same height as the first, that of the [notes], intended to
  differentiate the D# and the E[flat].[31] This innovation was
  generally well received in Germany, but does not appear to have met
  with corresponding success in other countries. In France and England
  manufacturers adopted it but rarely; in Italy it was declared
  useless.[32] About the same time flutes were constructed with the
  lower extremity lengthened sufficiently to produce the fundamental C,
  and furnished with a supplementary key to produce the C[sharp]. This
  innovation, spoken of by Quantz,[33] did not meet with a very
  favourable reception, and was shortly afterwards abandoned. Passing
  mention may be made of the drawing of a flute with a C key in the
  _Music-Saal_ of J.F.B. Majer (Nuremberg, 1741), p. 45.

  The tuning of the instrument to different pitches was effected by
  changes in the length, and notably by substituting a longer or shorter
  upper piece in the middle joint. So wide were the differences in the
  pitches then in use that seven such pieces for the upper portion of it
  were deemed necessary. The relative proportions between the different
  parts of the instrument being altered by these modifications in the
  length, it was conceived that the just relation could be
  re-established by dividing the foot into two pieces, below the key.
  These two pieces were adjusted by means of a tenon, and it was
  asserted that, in this way, the foot could be lengthened
  proportionately to the length of the middle joint. Flutes thus
  improved took the name of "flûtes à registre." The register system
  was, about 1752, applied by Quantz to the head joint[34] and, the
  embouchure section being thus capable of elongation, it was allowable
  to the performer, according to the opinion of this professor, to lower
  the pitch of the flute a semitone, without having recourse to other
  lengthening pieces, and without disturbing the accuracy of intonation.

  The upper extremity of the flute, beyond the embouchure orifice, is
  closed by means of a cork stopper. On the position of this cork
  depends, in a great measure, the accurate tuning of the flute. It is
  in its right place when the accompanying octaves [notes] are true.
  Quantz, in speaking of this accessory, mentions the use of a nut-screw
  to give the required position to the cork.[35] He does not name the
  inventor of this appliance, but, according to Tromlitz,[36] the
  improvement was due to Quantz himself. The invention goes back to
  1726.

  When the _Method_ of Quantz appeared there were still in use, besides
  the orchestral flute in D, the little fourth flute in G, the low
  fourth flute in A, and the flûte d'amour a note higher; in France they
  had, moreover, the little octave flute in D (octave). A bass flute in
  D had also been attempted (see fig. 5). When Ribock published his
  _Bemerkungen über die Flöte_[37] the flute had already the five keys
  here shown. [notes] This author states that the inventor of these new
  keys is not known to him, but that either Kusder, a musical
  instrument-maker in London, or Johann Georg Tromlitz of Leipzig was
  the originator, since he has not been able to trace those keys on the
  flutes of any other maker. Although Tromlitz does not claim for
  himself the invention of the keys for F, G[sharp] and B[flat], he
  states that "he had occupied himself for several years in applying
  these keys so as not to augment the difficulty of playing, but on the
  contrary to render the handling of them as easy as possible."[38] In
  the later work published in 1800,[39] however, he seems to attribute
  the invention of these keys to Richard Potter of London; he says that
  he has never yet been fortunate enough to come across a good flute by
  that maker--"the flute has certainly gained by the addition of the
  keys for F, G[sharp] and B[flat], but this is not everything, for on
  such a flute much must perforce be left unattempted.... Only a flute
  with eight keys according to my invention is capable of everything."
  It would seem, moreover, from circumstantial evidence stated clearly
  and on good authority by Rockstro[40] that the keys for F, G[sharp]
  and B[flat] must have been used first in England and made by Richard
  Potter before 1774. The higher key of C adopted from 1786 by Tromlitz,
  we believe to have been first recommended by Ribock (1782).[41]
  Tromlitz in _Über Flöten_ describes at length what may be termed the
  first systematic effort to overcome the difficulties created by the
  combination of open holes and closed keys. He attempted to solve the
  question by determining the positions of the holes according to the
  exigencies of fingering instead of subordinating them to the more
  arbitrary theories connected with the musical scale.

  In 1785 Richard Potter improved Quantz's slide applied to the head
  joint as well as to the register of the foot by a double system of
  tubes forming double sliding air-tight joints. In the document[42]
  describing this improvement Potter patented the idea of lining the
  holes with silver tubes and of adapting metal conical valves to the
  keys. Potter's patent conical valves were an adaptation of the
  contrivance first invented by J.F. Boie or Boye of Göttingen,[43] who
  used pewter for the plugs, and silver for lining the holes. The keys
  mentioned in the patent were four--D[sharp], F, G[sharp], A[sharp].
  The idea of extending the compass of the flute downwards was taken up
  again about the same time by two players of the flute in London named
  Tacet and Florio. They devised a new disposition of the keys C and C#,
  and confided the execution of their invention to Potter. In Dr
  Arnold's _New Instructions for the German Flute_ occurs a tablature,
  the engraving of which goes back to the end of the 18th century, and
  bears the following title, "A Complete Drawing and Concise Scale and
  Description of Tacet and Florio's new invented German Flute, with all
  the additional keys explained." It explains the use of six keys--C,
  C#, D#, F, G#, A#--that are not always figured, because the employment
  of so many keys was at once admitted. Tromlitz himself, who, however,
  made flutes with nine keys--adding E[flat], another F, and C[natural],
  declared that he was not in favour of so great a complication, and
  that he preferred the flute with only two keys, D[sharp] and E[flat],
  with a register foot joint and a cork nut-screw at the head joint.
  This instrument met all requirements. He was always much opposed to
  the use of the old keys for C[natural] and C[sharp], because they
  altered the recognised quality of tone of the instrument. When
  Tromlitz published his method, the family of flutes had become
  modified. It comprehended only the typical flute in D, the flûte
  d'amour a minor third lower, a "third" flute a minor third higher,
  and, finally, the little octave flute.

  While Tromlitz was struggling in Germany with the idea of augmenting
  the compass of the flute downwards by employing open keys for
  C[natural] and C[sharp], an Italian, Giovanni Batista Orazi,[44]
  increased the scale of the instrument downwards by the application of
  five new keys, viz. B, B[flat], A, A[flat], and G. At the same time
  that he produced this invention [45] he conceived the plugging of the
  lateral holes by the valve keys then recently invented by Potter. But
  it was hardly possible to obtain a perfect plugging of seven lateral
  holes with the aid of as many keys, for the control of which there
  were only the two little fingers, and therefore this invention of
  Orazi proved a failure.

  In 1808 the Rev. Frederick Nolan,[46] of Stratford, near London,
  conceived an open key, the lever of which, terminating by a ring,
  permitted the closing of a lateral hole at the same time the key was
  being acted upon. The combination in this double action is the embryo
  of the mechanism that a little later was to transform the system of
  the flute. Two years later Macgregor,[47] a musical-instrument maker
  in London, constructed a bass flute an octave lower than the ordinary
  flute. The idea was not new, as is proved by the existence of the bass
  flute mentioned above. The difference between the two instruments lies
  in the mechanism of the keys. That employed by Macgregor consisted of
  a double lever, a contrivance dating from before the middle of the
  18th century, of which the application is seen in an oboe of large
  dimensions preserved in the National Museum at Munich.[48]

  In 1811 Johann Nepomuk Capeller invented the extra D[natural] hole and
  key, which is still in constant use on every flute of modern
  construction.[49]

  About 1830 the celebrated French flautist Tulou added two more keys,
  those of F[sharp] and C[sharp], and a key, called "de cadence," to
  facilitate the accompanying shakes.

  To increase the number of keys, to improve their system of plugging,
  and to extend the [notes] scale of the instrument in the lower
  region,--these had hitherto been the principal problems dealt with in
  the improvement of the flute. No maker, no inventor to whose labours
  we have called attention, had as yet devoted his attention to the
  rational division of the column of air by means of the lateral holes.
  In 1831 Theobald Boehm, a Bavarian, happening to be in London, was
  struck with the power of tone the celebrated English performer Charles
  Nicholson drew from his instrument. Boehm learned, and not without
  astonishment, that his English colleague obtained this result by
  giving the lateral holes a much greater diameter than was then usually
  admitted. About the same time Boehm made the acquaintance of an
  amateur player named Gordon, who had effected certain improvements; he
  had bored the lateral hole for the lower E, and had covered it with a
  key, while he had replaced the key for F with a ring. These
  innovations set Boehm about attempting a complete reform of the
  instrument.[50] He went resolutely to work, and during the year 1832
  he produced the new flute which bears his name. This instrument is
  distinguished by a new mechanism of keys, as well as by larger holes
  disposed along the tube in geometrical progression.

  Boehm's system had preserved the key of G[sharp] open; Coche,[51] a
  professor in the Paris Conservatoire, assisted by Auguste Buffet the
  younger, a musical-instrument maker in that city, modified Boehm's
  flute by closing the G[sharp] with a key, wishing thus to render the
  new fingering more conformable to the old. He thus added a key,
  facilitating the shake upon C[sharp] with D[sharp], and brought about
  some other changes in the instrument of less importance.

  Boehm had not, however, altered the bore of the flute, which had been
  conical from the end of the 17th century. In 1846, however, he made
  further experiments, and the results obtained were put in practice by
  the construction of a new instrument, of which the body was given a
  cylindrical bore, while the diameter of the head was modified at the
  embouchure, the head-joint becoming parabolic (see fig. 2). The
  inventor thus obtained a remarkable equality in the tones of the lower
  octave, a greater sonorousness, and a perfect accuracy of intonation,
  by establishing the more exact proportions which a column of air of
  cylindrical form permitted.

  The priority of Boehm's invention was long contested, his detractors
  maintaining that the honour of having reconstructed the flute was due
  to Gordon. But an impartial investigation vindicates the claim of the
  former to the invention of the large lateral holes.[52] His greatest
  title to fame is the invention of the mechanism which allows the
  production of the eleven chromatic semitones intermediate between the
  fundamental note and its first harmonic by means of eleven holes so
  disposed that in opening them successively they shorten the column of
  air in exact proportional quantities.[53] Boehm (_Essays_, &c.)
  published a diagram or scheme to be adopted in determining the
  position of the note-holes of wind instruments for every given pitch.
  This diagram gives the position of the intermediate holes which he had
  been enabled to establish by a rule of proportion based on the law of
  the lengths of strings.

  The Boehm flute, notwithstanding the high degree of perfection it has
  reached, has not secured unanimous favour; even now there are players
  who prefer the ordinary flute. The change of fingering required for
  some notes, the great delicacy and liability to derangement of the
  mechanism, have something to do with this. In England especially, the
  ordinary flute retains many partisans, thanks to the improvements
  introduced by a clever player, Abel Siccama, in 1845 (Patent No.
  10,553). He bored the lateral holes of E and A lower, and covered them
  with open keys. He added some keys, and made a better disposition of
  the other lateral holes, of which he increased the diameter, producing
  thus a sonorousness almost equal to that of the Boehm flute, while yet
  preserving the old fingering for the notes of the first two octaves.
  But in spite of these improvements the old flute will not bear an
  impartial comparison with that of Boehm.

  A flute constructed on a radically new system by Signor Carlo Tommaso
  Georgi and introduced in 1896 places the technique of the instrument
  on an entirely new and simple basis. The principal features of this
  flute consist in an embouchure placed at the upper extremity of the
  tube instead of at the side, which allows the instrument to be held in
  a perpendicular position; no tuning cork is required. There are eleven
  holes mathematically placed in the tube which give the semitones of
  the scale; there are no keys. The eleven holes are fingered by the
  fingers and thumbs, the C[sharp] hole being closed by the side of the
  left fore-finger. All the notes are obtained by means of simple
  fingering as far as G[sharp] of the third octave, the remaining notes
  of which are produced by cross-fingering. For the convenience of
  players with short fingers keys can be added, and the head of the
  Georgi flute can be used with any cylinder flute. The compass of the
  Georgi flute [notes] is almost the same as that of the concert flute;
  viz. If the lower C and C[sharp] are required, extra holes and keys
  can be added. Everything that is possible on the Boehm flute is
  possible on the Georgi and more, owing to the simplicity of the
  fingering; each finger having but one duty to perform, all trills are
  equally easy. The tone is the true flute tone, brilliant and
  sympathetic.[54]

  The old English _fipple flute_, or _flûte à bec_, is described under
  the headings RECORDER and FLAGEOLET.     (V. M.; K. S.)

2. In architecture the name "flute" is given to the vertical channels
(segmental, semicircular or elliptical in horizontal section) employed
on the shafts of columns in the classic styles. The flutes are separated
one from the other by an "arris" in the Doric order and by a "fillet" in
the Ionic and Corinthian orders. The earliest fluted columns are those
in Egypt, at first with plain faces without any sinking, subsequently at
Karnac (1400 B.C.) with a segmental sinking equal in depth to about
one-seventh of the width of the flute. The columns flanking one of the
"beehive" tombs at Mycenae have segmental flutes and are the earliest
Greek examples. In two of the earliest Doric temples at Metapontum and
Syracuse (temple of Apollo) the flutes are also segmental, but in later
examples in order to emphasize the arris they were formed of three arcs
and are known as "false ellipses," and this applies to nearly all the
fluting in Greek examples whether belonging to the Doric, Ionic or
Corinthian orders. The number of flutes varies, there being 52 in the
archaic temple of Diana at Ephesus and from 30 to 52 flutes in the
Persian columns according to the diameter of the column. In the Greek
Doric column 20 is the usual number, but there are 16 only in the
temples of Sunium, Assos, Segesta and the temple of Apollo at Syracuse;
18 in one of the temples of Selinus and the temple of Diana at Syracuse,
and 24 in the temple of Neptune at Paestum. The depth of the flute also
varies; in the Propylaea at Athens the radius is equal to the width of
the flute and the flute is segmental. In the Parthenon the radius of the
central part of the flute is greater than the width, but the smaller
arcs on either side accentuate better the arris. A similar accentuation
is found in the Ionic and Corinthian orders, where the flutes are
separated by fillets, and their section is always elliptical in Greek
work, the depth of the flute, however, being always greater than in the
Doric order. Thus, in the temple of Ilissus and the Ionic column in the
cella of the temple at Bassae, the depth is about one-quarter of the
width, in the Propylaea at Priene it is about one-third, and in the
Erechtheum and other examples of the Greek Ionic order it is little more
than one-half. The width of the fillet also varies, being as a rule one
quarter of the width of the flute; and the same applies to the Greek
Corinthian order. In the Roman Doric, Ionic and Corinthian orders, the
flute is either segmental or semicircular, its depth being about one
third of the width in the Doric column, and in all Ionic, Corinthian and
Composite columns half the width of the flute. The fillet also is much
broader in Roman examples, being about one-third of the width of the
flute. In Roman columns sometimes the flutes of the lower part of the
shaft, about one-third of the height, are partly filled with a convex
moulding, "cabling" being the usual term applied to this treatment. The
French architects of the 16th and 17th centuries carried this decorative
feature much farther, and in the Tuileries and the Louvre carved a
series of leaves in the flutes. In a few Italian buildings, instead of
the fluting of the column being vertical, it twines round the column and
is known as spiral fluting; a fine example is found in the Bevilacqua
palace at Verona by San Michele. Fluting is sometimes introduced into
capitals, as in the tomb of Mylasa, and in friezes, as in the theatre at
Cnidos, the Incantada at Salonica, and a doorway at Patara. In one of
the museums at Rome is a fine sarcophagus, the sides of which are
sculptured with flutes in waved lines. The coronas of many of the Roman
temples were carved with flutes. In medieval buildings, fluting was
occasionally introduced in imitation of Roman work, as in the churches
of central Syria and of Autun and Langres in France, but in the south of
Italy and Sicily it would seem to have been brought in as a variety of
treatment, in the decoration of the shafts carrying the arches of
cloisters, as at Monreale in Sicily and in those of St John Lateran and
St Paul-outside-the-Walls at Rome.     (R. P. S.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See E.F.F. Chladni, _Die Akustik_ (Leipzig, 1802), p. 87.

  [2] See Sonreck, "Über die Schwingungserregung und die Bewegung der
    Luftsäule in offenen und gedeckten Röhren," _Pogg. Ann._, 1876, vol.
    158.

  [3] _The Flute_ (London, 1890), § 90-105, pp. 34-40.

  [4] _Theorie der Luftschwingungen in Röhren mit offenen Enden_
    (Berlin, 1896). Ostwald's _Klassiker der exacten Wissenschaften_, No.
    80.

  [5] V.C. Mahillon, _Experimental Studies on the Resonance of
    Trunco-Conical and Cylindrical Air Columns_, translated by F.A. Mahan
    (London, 1901); D.J. Blaikley, _Acoustics in Relation to Wind
    Instruments_ (London, 1890); Friedrich Zamminer, _Die Musik und die
    musikalischen Instrumente, &c._ (Giessen, 1855); _idem._ "Sur le
    mouvement vibratoire de l'air dans les tuyaux," _Comptes rendus_,
    1855, vol. 41, &c.

  [6] _Op. cit._, § 73, pp. 87-88, note 1.

  [7] "Akustik der Blasinstrumente," _Allgem. musikal. Zeit._ (Leipzig,
    1816), Bd. xviii. No. 5, p. 65 et seq. See also Ernst Euting, _Zur
    Geschichte der Blasinstrumente im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert_. Inaugural
    Dissertation, Friedrich-Wilhelms Universität. (Berlin, 15th of March
    1899), p. 9.

  [8] _Lehre von der Tonempfindung_ (Braunschweig, 1877).

  [9] See additions by D. J. B. to article "Flute" in Grove's
    _Dictionary of Music and Musicians_ (London, 1904).

  [10] _Musica instrumentalis deutsch_ (Wittenberg, 1528).

  [11] See also L'Artusi, _Delle imperfettioni della musica moderna_
    (Venice, 1600), p. 4; Gottfried Weber in Cäcilia, Bd. ix. p. 99.

  [12] See "Les Anciennes Flûtes égyptiennes," by Victor Loret in
    _Journal asiatique_ (Paris, 1889), vol. xiv. p. 133 et seq., two
    careful articles based on the ancient Egyptian instruments still
    extant. See also Lauth, "Über die ägyptische Instrumente," _Sitzungs.
    der philos., philolog. und histor. Klasse. der Kgl. bayer. Akad. zu
    München_ (1873).

  [13] See Albert A. Howard, "The Aulos or Tibia," _Harvard Studies_,
    iv. (Boston, 1893), pp. 16-17.

  [14] Representations of flutes blown as here described have been
    found in Europe. See _Comptes rendus de la commission impériale
    archéologique_ (St Petersburg, 1867), p. 45, and atlas for the same
    date, pl. vi. Pompeian painting given by Helbig, _Wandgemälde_, No.
    7607; Zahn, vol. iii. pl. 31; Museo Borbonnico, pl. xv. No. 18;
    Clarac, pl. 130, 131, 139; Heuzey, _Les Figurines_, p. 136.

  [15] There are two flutes at the British Museum (Catal. No. 84, 4-9
     and 5 and 6), belonging to the Castellani collection, made of wood
     encased in bronze in which the mouthpiece, consisting of the head of
     a maenad, has a lateral hole bored obliquely into the main tube. This
     hole was probably intended for the reception of a reed. The pipe is
     stopped at the end beyond the mouthpiece as in the modern flute.
     There are six holes. See also the plagiaulos from Halicarnassus in
     the British Museum described by C.T. Newton in _History of
     Discoveries at Halicarnassus_ (London), vol. ii. p. 339. The Louvre
     has two ancient statues (from the villa Borghese) representing satyrs
     playing upon transverse flutes. Unfortunately these marbles have been
     restored, especially in the details affecting our present subject,
     and are therefore examples of no value to us. Another statue
     representing a flute-player occurs in the British Museum. The
     instrument has been supposed to be a transverse flute, but
     erroneously, for the insufflation of the lateral tube against which
     the instrumentalist presses his lips, could not, without the
     intervention of a reed, excite the vibratory movement of the column
     of air.

  [16] Florence, Carrand Collection. See Museo Nazionale Firenze,
    _Catalogo_ (1898), p. 205, No. 26 (description only). Illustration in
    _Gallerie nazionali italiane_, A. Venturi, vol. iii. (1897), p. 263,
    L'Arte (Rome, 1894), vol. i. p. 24, Hans Graeven, "Antike Vorlagen
    byzantinischer Elfenbeinreliefs," in _Jahrb. d. K. Preuss.
    Kunst-Sammlungen_ (Berlin, 1897), Bd. xviii. p. 11; Hans Graeven,
    "Ein Reliquienkästchen aus Pirano," id., 1899, Bd. xx. fig. 2 and pl.
    iii.

  [17] Greek MS. 510, Grégoir de Nazance 10th century, Bibliothèque
    Nationale, Paris; illustration in Gustave L. Schlumberger, _L'Épopée
    byzantine à la fin du dizième siècle_ (Paris, 1896 and 1900), vol. i.
    p. 503. British Museum, Greek Psalter, add. MS. 19352, fol. 189b.
    written and illuminated cir. 1066 by Theodorus of Caesarea. A
    cylindrical flute is shown turned to the right, the left hand being
    uppermost. Smyrna, Library of the Evaggelike Schole B. 18, fol. 72a,
    A.D. 1100, illustration by Strzygowski, "Der Bilderkreis des
    griechischen Physiologus," in _Byzantinisches Archiv_ (Leipzig,
    1899), Heft 2, Taf. xi.; N.P. Kondakoff, _Histoire de l'art byzantin_
    (Paris, 1886 and 1891), pl. xii. 5; "Kuseyr' Amra," issued by _K.
    Akad. d. Wissenschaften_ (Vienna, 1907), vol. ii. pl. xxxiv.

  [18] A fine volume containing coloured drawings of these frescoes has
    been published in St Petersburg (British Museum library catalogue,
    sect. "Academies," St Petersburg, 1874-1887, vol. iv. Tab. 1325a).

  [19] This manuscript, written towards the end of the 12th century,
    was preserved in the Strassburg library until 1870, when it was burnt
    during the bombardment of the city. See the fine reproduction in
    facsimile published by the _Soc. pour la conservation des monuments
    historiques d'Alsace_. Texte explicatif de A. Straub and G. Keller
    (Strassburg, 1901), pl. lvii., also C.M. Engelhardt, _Herrad von
    Landsperg und ihr Werk_ (Stuttgart and Tübingen, 1818), twelve
    plates.

  [20] MS. j. b. 2. Illustrated in _Critical and Bibliographical Notes
    on Early Spanish Music_ (London, 1887), p. 119.

  [21] _Musica getutscht und auszgezogen_ (Basel, 1511).

  [22] _Organographia_ (Wolfenbüttel. 1618), pp. 24, 25, 40.

  [23] _Harmonie universelle_ (Paris, 1636), _Livre_ v. p. 241.

  [24] Principes de la flûte traversière ou flûte d'Allemagne, de la
   flûte à bec et du hautbois (Paris, 1722), p. 38.

  [25] _Musicus [Greek: autodidaktos] oder der sich selbst informirende
    Musicus_ (Erfurt, 1738), p. 85.

  [26] Fétis, _Rapport sur la fabrication des instruments de musique à
    l'Exposition Universelle de Paris, en 1855_.

  [27] See _Recueil de planches_, vol. iv., and article "Basse de flûte
    traversière," vol. ii. (Paris, 1751). See also _The Flute_, by R.S.
    Rockstro (London, 1890), p. 238, where the wood cut is reproduced
    together with a translation of the article. The Museum of the
    Conservatoire in Paris also possesses a bass flute by the noted
    French maker Delusse.

  [28] _Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversière zu spielen_
    (Berlin, 1752).

  [29] Unless the contrary is stated, we have always in view, in
    describing the successive improvements of the flute, the treble flute
    in D, which is considered to be typical of the family.

  [30] "Herrn Johann Joachim Quantzens-Lebenslauf, von ihm selbst
    entworfen," in the _Historisch-Kritische Beyträge zur Aufnahme der
    Musik_, by Marpurg (Berlin, 1754), p. 239. Quantz was professor of
    the flute to Frederick the Great.

  [31] See Johann Georg Tromlitz, _Ausführlicher und gründlicher
    Unterricht die Flöte zu spielen_ (Leipzig, 1791), 1, § 7, and _Über
    Flöten mit mehrern Klappen_ (Leipzig, 1800), cap. vii. § 21.

  [32] Antonio Lorenzoni, _Saggio per ben sonare il flauto traverso_
    (Vicenza, 1779).

  [33] See _Anweisung_, i. § 15.

  [34] See _Lebenslauf_, _loc. cit._ p. 248, where Quantz states that
    he invented the adjustable head for the flute.

  [35] See _Anweisung_, i. §§ 10-13 and iv. § 26.

  [36] _Ausführlicher und gründlicher Unterricht die Flöte zu spielen_
    (Leipzig, 1791), i. cap. § 20. Compare Schilling, _Univ.-Lexikon_
    (Leipzig, 1835).

  [37] Stendal, 1782 (published under his initials only, J. J. H. R.,
    see p. 2).

  [38] _Kurze Abhandlung von Flötenspielen_ (Leipzig, 1786), p. 27.

  [39] _Über Flöten_, &c., pp. 133 and 134.

  [40] See _The Flute_, pp. 242-244 and 561 and 562.

  [41] See op. cit. pp. 51 and 62.

  [42] English patent, No. 1499.

  [43] See Rockstro, op. cit. p. 197.

  [44] _Saggio per costruire e suonare un flauto traverso enarmonico
    che ha i suoni bassi del violino_ (Rome, 1797).

  [45] The idea of this large flute was taken up again in 1819 by
    Trexler of Vienna, who called it the "panaulon."

  [46] Patent, No. 3183. Part of the specification together with a
    diagram is reproduced by Rockstro, op. cit. pp. 273-274.

  [47] Patent, No. 3349. Part of the specification together with a
    diagram is reproduced by Rockstro, op. cit. pp. 273-274.

  [48] Another specimen, almost the same, constructed about 1775, and
    called "Basse de Musette," may be seen in the Museum of the Paris
    Conservatoire.

  [49] See account of Capeller's inventions by Carl Maria von Weber in
    _Allgem. musikal. Zeit._ (Leipzig, 1811), pp. 377-379, a translation
    of which is given by Rockstro, op. cit. pp. 279 and 280.

  [50] See _Über den Flötenbau und die neuesten Verbesserungen
    desselben_ (Mainz, 1847); and W.S. Broadwood, _An Essay on the
    Construction of Flutes originally written by Theobald Boehm,
    published with the addition of Correspondence and other Documents_
    (London, 1882).

  [51] _Examen critique de la flûte ordinaire comparée à la flûte
    Boehm_ (Paris, 1838).

  [52] They existed long before, however, in the Chinese _Ty_ and the
    Japanese _Fuye_.

  [53] The reader may consult with advantage Mr C. Welch's _History of
    the Boehm Flute_ (London, 1883), wherein all the documents relating
    to this interesting discussion have been collected with great
    impartiality.

  [54] For further details see Kathleen Schlesinger, _The Instruments
    of the Orchestra_, part i. pp. 192-194, where an illustration is
    given, and Paul Wetzger, _Die Flöte_ (Heilbronn, 1906), pp. 23-24,
    and Tafel iv. No. 20.



FLUX (Lat. _fluxus_, a flowing; this being also the meaning of the
English term in medicine, &c.), in metallurgy, a substance introduced in
the smelting of ores to promote fluidity, and to remove objectionable
impurities in the form of a slag. The substances in commonest use
are:--lime or limestone, to slag off silica and silicates, fluor-spar
for lead, calcium and barium sulphates and calcium phosphate, and silica
for removing basic substances such as limestone. Other substances are
also used, but more commonly in assaying than in metallurgy. Sodium and
potassium carbonates are valuable for fluxing off silica; mixed with
potassium nitrate sodium carbonate forms a valuable oxidizing fusion
mixture; "black flux" is a reducing flux composed of finely divided
carbon and potassium carbonate, and formed by deflagrating a mixture of
argol with ¼ to ½ its weight of nitre. Borax is very frequently
employed; it melts to a clear liquid and dissolves silica and many
metallic oxides. Potassium bisulphate is useful in the preliminary
treatment of refractory aluminous ores. Litharge and red lead are used
in silver and gold assays, acting as solvents for silica and any
metallic oxides present.



FLY (formed on the root of the supposed original Teut. _fleugan_, to
fly), a designation applied to the winged or perfect state of many
insects belonging to various orders, as in butterfly (see LEPIDOPTERA),
dragon-fly (q.v.), may-fly (q.v.), caddis-fly (q.v.), &c.; also
specially employed by entomologists to mean any species of the
two-winged flies, or Diptera (q.v.). In ordinary parlance _fly_ is often
used in the sense of the common house-fly (_Musca domestica_); and by
English colonists and sportsmen in South Africa in that of a species of
tsetse-fly (_Glossina_), or a tract of country ("belt") in which these
insects abound (see TSETSE-FLY).

Apart from the house-fly proper (_Musca domestica_), which in England is
the usual one, several species of flies are commonly found in houses;
e.g. the _Stomoxys calcitrans_, or stable-fly; _Pollenia rudis_, or
cluster-fly; _Muscina stabulans_, another stable-fly; _Calliphora
erythrocephala_, blue-bottle fly, blow-fly or meat-fly, with smaller
sorts of blue-bottle, _Phormia terraenovae_ and _Lucilia caesar_;
_Homalomyia canicularis_ and _brevis_, the small house-fly; _Scenopinus
fenestralis_, the black window-fly, &c. But _Musca domestica_ is far the
most numerous, and in many places, especially in hot weather and in hot
climates, is a regular pest. Mr L.O. Howard (Circular 71 of the Bureau
of Entomology U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, 1906) says that in
1900 he made a collection of the flies in dining-rooms in different
parts of the United States, and out of a total of 23,087 flies, 22,808
were the common house-fly. Its geographical distribution is of the
widest, and its rapidity of breeding, in manure and door-yard filth, so
great that, as a carrier of germs of disease, especially cholera and
typhoid, the house-fly is now recognized as a potent source of danger;
and various sanitary regulations have been made, or precautions
suggested, for getting rid of it. These are discussed by Mr Howard in
the paper referred to, but in brief they all amount to measures of
general hygiene, and the isolation, prompt removal, or proper
sterilization of the animal or human excrement in which these flies
breed.



FLYCATCHER, a name introduced in ornithology by Ray, being a translation
of the _Muscicapa_ of older authors, and applied by Pennant to an
extremely common English bird, the _M. grisola_ of Linnaeus. It has
since been used in a general and very vague way for a great many small
birds from all parts of the world, which have the habit of catching
flies on the wing. Ornithologists who have trusted too much to this
characteristic and to certain merely superficial correlations of
structure, especially those exhibited by a broad and rather flat bill
and a gape beset by strong hairs or bristles, have associated under the
title of _Muscicapidae_ an exceedingly heterogeneous assemblage of forms
much reduced in number by later systematists. Great advance has been
made in establishing as independent families the _Todidae_ and
_Eurylaemidae_, as well as in excluding from it various members of the
_Ampelidae_, _Cotingidae_, _Tyrannidae_, _Vireonidae_, _Mniotiltidae_,
and perhaps others, which had been placed within its limits. These steps
have left the _Muscicapidae_ a purely Old-World family of the order
_Passeres_, and the chief difficulty now seems to lie in separating it
from the _Campephagidae_ and the _Laniidae_. Only a very few of the
forms of flycatchers (which, after all the deductions above mentioned,
may be reckoned to include some 60 genera or subgenera, and perhaps 250
species) can here be even named.[1]

The best-known bird of this family is that which also happens to be the
type of the Linnaean genus _Muscicapa_--the spotted or grey flycatcher
(_M. grisola_). It is a common summer visitant to nearly the whole of
Europe, and is found throughout Great Britain, though less abundant in
Scotland than in England, as well as in many parts of Ireland, where,
however, it seems to be but locally and sparingly distributed. It is one
of the latest migrants to arrive, and seldom reaches the British Islands
till the latter part of May, when it may be seen, a small dust-coloured
bird, sitting on the posts or railings of gardens and fields, ever and
anon springing into the air, seizing with an audible snap of its bill
some passing insect as it flies, and returning to the spot it has
quitted, or taking up some similar station to keep watch as before. It
has no song, but merely a plaintive or peevish call-note, uttered from
time to time with a jerking gesture of the wings and tail. It makes a
neat nest, built among the small twigs which sprout from the bole of a
large tree, fixed in the branches of some plant trained against a wall,
or placed in any hole of the wall itself that may be left by the falling
of a brick or stone. The eggs are from four to six in number, of a pale
greenish-blue, closely blotched or freckled with rust-colour. Silent and
inconspicuous as is this bird, its constant pursuit of flies in the
closest vicinity of houses makes it a familiar object to almost
everybody. A second British species is the pied flycatcher (_M.
atricapilla_), a much rarer bird, and in England not often seen except
in the hilly country extending from the Peak of Derbyshire to
Cumberland, and more numerous in the Lake District than elsewhere. It is
not common in Scotland, and has only once been observed in Ireland. More
of a woodland bird than the former, the brightly-contrasted black and
white plumage of the cock, together with his agreeable song, readily
attracts attention where it occurs. It is a summer visitant to all
western Europe, but farther eastward its place is taken by a nearly
allied species (_M. collaris_) in which the white of the throat and
breast extends like a collar round the neck. A fourth European species
(_M. parva_), distinguished by its very small size and red breast, has
also strayed some three or four times to the extreme south-west of
England. This last belongs to a group of more eastern range, which has
received generic recognition under the name of _Erythrosterna_, and it
has several relations in Asia and particularly in India, while the
allies of the pied flycatchers (_Ficedula_ of Brisson) are chiefly of
African origin, and those of the grey or spotted flycatcher (_Muscicapa_
proper[2]) are common to the two continents.

One of the most remarkable groups of _Muscicapidae_ is that known as the
paradise flycatchers, forming the genus _Tchitrea_ of Lesson. In nearly
all the species the males are distinguished by the growth of exceedingly
long feathers in their tail, and by their putting on, for some part of
the year at least, a plumage generally white, but almost always quite
different from that worn by the females, which is of a more or less deep
chestnut or bay colour, though in both sexes the crown is of a glossy
steel-blue. They are found pretty well throughout Africa and tropical
Asia to Japan, and seem to affect the deep shade of forests rather than
the open country. The best-known species is perhaps the Indian _T.
paradisi_; but the Chinese _T. incii_, and the Japanese _T. princeps_,
from being very commonly represented by the artists of those nations on
screens, fans and the like, are hardly less so; and the cock of the last
named, with his bill of a pale greenish-blue and eyes surrounded by
bare skin of the same colour--though these are characters possessed in
some degree by all the species--seems to be the most beautiful of the
genus. _T. bourbonnensis_, which is peculiar to the islands of Mauritius
and Réunion, appears to be the only species in which the outward
difference of the sexes is but slight. In _T. corvina_ of the
Seychelles, the adult male is wholly black, and his middle tail-feathers
are not only very long but very broad. In _T. mutata_ of Madagascar,
some of the males are found in a blackish plumage, though with the
elongated median rectrices white, while in others white predominates
over the whole body; but whether this sex is here actually dimorphic, or
whether the one dress is a passing phase of the other, is at present
undetermined. Some of the African species, of which many have been
described, seem always to retain the rufous plumage, but the long
tail-feathers serve to mark the males.

A few other groups are distinguished by the brilliant blue they exhibit,
as _Myiagra azurea_, and others as _Monarcha_ (or _Arses_) _chrysomela_
by their golden yellow. The Australian forms assigned to the
_Muscicapidae_ are very varied. _Sisura inquieta_ has some of the habits
of a water-wagtail (_Motacilla_), and hence has received the name of
"dishwasher," bestowed in many parts of England on its analogue; and the
many species of _Rhipidura_ or fantailed flycatchers, which occur in
various parts of the Australian Region, have manners still more
singular--turning over in the air, it is said, like a tumbler pigeon, as
they catch their prey; but concerning the mode of life of the majority
of the _Muscicapidae_, and especially of the numerous African forms,
hardly anything is known.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Of the 30 genera or subgenera which Swainson included in his
    _Natural Arrangement and Relations of the Family of Flycatchers_
    (published in 1838), at least 19 do not belong to the _Muscicapidae_
    at all, and one of them, _Todus_, not even to the order _Passeres_.
    It is perhaps impossible to name any ornithological work whose
    substance so fully belies its title as does this treatise. Swainson
    wrote it filled with faith in the so-called "Quinary System"--that
    fanciful theory, invented by W.S. Macleay, which misled and kept back
    so many of the best English zoologists of his generation from the
    truth,--and, unconsciously swayed by his bias, his judgment was
    warped to fit his hypothesis.

  [2] By some writers this section is distinguished as _Butalis_ of
    Boie, but to do so seems contrary to rule.



FLYGARE-CARLÉN, EMILIE (1807-1892), Swedish novelist, was born in
Strömstad on the 8th of August 1807. Her father, Rutger Smith, was a
retired sea-captain who had settled down as a small merchant, and she
often accompanied him on the voyages he made along the coast. She
married in 1827 a doctor named Axel Flygare, and went with him to live
in the province of Småland. After his death in 1833 she returned to her
old home and published in 1838 her first novel, _Waldemar Klein_. In the
next year she removed to Stockholm, and married, in 1841, the jurist and
poet, Johan Gabriel Carlén (1814-1875). Her house became a meeting-place
for Stockholm men of letters, and for the next twelve years she produced
one or two novels annually. The premature death of her son Edvard
Flygare (1829-1853), who had already published three books, showing
great promise, was followed by six years of silence, after which she
resumed her writing until 1884. The most famous of her tales are _Rosen
på Tistelön_ (1842; Eng. trans. _The Rose of Tistelön_, 1842);
_Enslingen på Johannesskäret_ (1846; Eng. trans. _The Hermit_, 4 vols.,
1853); and _Ett Köpemanshus i skärgården_ (1859; _The Merchant's House
on the Cliffs_). Fru Carlén published in 1878 _Minnen af svenskt
författarlif_ 1840-1860, and in 1887-1888 three volumes of _Efterskörd
från en 80- årings författarbana_, containing her last tales. She died
at Stockholm on the 5th of February 1892. Her daughter, Rosa Carlén
(1836-1883), was also a popular novelist.

  Emilie Flygare-Carlén's novels were collected in thirty-one volumes
  (Stockholm, 1869-1875).



FLYING BUTTRESS, in architecture, the term given to a structural feature
employed to transmit the thrust of a vault across an intervening space,
such as an aisle, chapel or cloister, to a buttress built outside the
latter. This was done by throwing a semi-arch across to the vertical
buttress. Though employed by the Romans and in early Romanesque work, it
was generally masked by other constructions or hidden under a roof, but
in the 12th century it was recognized as rational construction and
emphasized by the decorative accentuation of its features, as in the
cathedrals of Chartres, Le Mans, Paris, Beauvais, Reims, &c. Sometimes,
owing to the great height of the vaults, two semi-arches were thrown one
above the other, and there are cases where the thrust was transmitted to
two or even three buttresses across intervening spaces. As a vertical
buttress, placed at a distance, possesses greater power of resistance to
thrust than if attached to the wall carrying the vault, vertical
buttresses as at Lincoln and Westminster Abbey were built outside the
chapterhouse to receive the thrust. All vertical buttresses are, as a
rule, in addition weighted with pinnacles to give them greater power of
resistance.



FLYING COLUMN, in military organization, an independent corps of troops
usually composed of all arms, to which a particular task is assigned. It
is almost always composed in the course of operations, out of the troops
immediately available. Mobility being its _raison d'être_, a flying
column is when possible composed of picked men and horses accompanied
with the barest minimum of baggage. The term is usually, though not
necessarily, applied to forces under the strength of a brigade. The
"mobile columns" employed by the British in the South African War of
1899-1902, were usually of the strength of two battalions of infantry, a
battery of artillery, and a squadron of cavalry--almost exactly half
that of a mixed brigade. Flying columns are mostly used in savage or
guerrilla warfare.



"FLYING DUTCHMAN," a spectre-ship popularly believed to haunt the waters
around the Cape of Good Hope. The legend has several variants, but the
commonest is that which declares that the captain of the vessel,
Vanderdecken, was condemned for his blasphemy to sail round the cape for
ever, unable to "make" a port. In the Dutch version the skipper is the
ghost of the Dutch seaman Van Straaten. The appearance of the "Flying
Dutchman" is considered by sailors as ominous of disaster. The German
legend makes one Herr Von Falkenberg the hero, and alleges that he is
condemned to sail for ever around the North Sea, on a ship without helm
or steersman, playing at dice for his soul with the devil. Sir Walter
Scott says the "Flying Dutchman" was originally a vessel laden with
bullion. A murder was committed on board, and thereafter the plague
broke out among the crew, which closed all ports to the ill-fated craft.
The legend has been used by Wagner in his opera _Der fliegende
Holländer_.



FLYING-FISH, the name given to two different kinds of fish. The one
(_Dactylopterus_) belongs to the gurnard family (_Triglidae_), and is
more properly called flying gurnard; the other (_Exocoetus_) has been
called flying herring, though more nearly allied to the gar-pike than to
the herring. Some other fishes with long pectoral fins (_Pterois_) have
been stated to be able to fly, but this has been proved to be incorrect.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--_Dactylopterus volitans._]

The flying gurnards are much less numerous than the _Exocoeti_ with
regard to individuals as well as species, there being only three or four
species known of the former, whilst more than fifty have been described
of the latter, which, besides, are found in numerous shoals of
thousands. The _Dactylopteri_ may be readily distinguished by a large
bony head armed with spines, hard keeled scales, two dorsal fins, &c.
The _Exocoeti_ have thin, deciduous scales, only one dorsal fin, and the
ventrals placed far backwards, below the middle of the body; some have
long barbels at the chin. In both kinds the pectoral fins are greatly
prolonged and enlarged, modified into an organ of flight, and in many
species of _Exocoetus_ the ventral fins are similarly enlarged, and
evidently assist in the aerial evolutions of these fishes. Flying-fishes
are found in the tropical and sub-tropical seas only, and it is a
singular fact that the geographical distribution of the two kinds is
nearly identical. Flying-fish are more frequently observed in rough
weather and in a disturbed sea than during calms; they dart out of the
water when pursued by their enemies or frightened by an approaching
vessel, but frequently also without any apparent cause, as is also
observed in many other fishes; and they rise without regard to the
direction of the wind or waves. The fins are kept quietly distended,
without any motion, except an occasional vibration caused by the air
whenever the surface of the wing is parallel with the current of the
wind. Their flight is rapid, greatly exceeding that of a ship going 10
m. an hour, but gradually decreasing in velocity and not extending
beyond a distance of 500 ft. Generally it is longer when the fishes fly
against, than with or at an angle to, the wind. Any vertical or
horizontal deviation from a straight line is not caused at the will of
the fish, but by currents of the air; thus they retain a horizontally
straight course when flying with or against the wind, but are carried
towards the right or left whenever the direction of the wind is at an
angle with that of their flight. However, it sometimes happens that the
fish during its flight immerses its caudal fin in the water, and by a
stroke of its tail turns towards the right or left. In a calm the line
of their flight is always also vertically straight or rather parabolic,
like the course of a projectile, but it may become undulated in a rough
sea, when they are flying against the course of the waves; they then
frequently overtop each wave, being carried over it by the pressure of
the disturbed air. Flying-fish often fall on board of vessels, but this
never happens during a calm or from the lee side, but during a breeze
only and from the weather side. In day time they avoid a ship, flying
away from it, but during the night when they are unable to see, they
frequently fly against the weather board, where they are caught by the
current of the air, and carried upwards to a height of 20 ft. above the
surface of the water, whilst under ordinary circumstances they keep
close to it. All these observations point clearly to the fact that any
deflection from a straight course is due to external circumstances, and
not to voluntary action on the part of the fish.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--_Exocoetus callopterus._]

A little Malacopterygian fish about 4 in. long has recently been
discovered in West Africa which has the habits of a fresh-water
flying-fish. It has been named _Pantodon buchholzi_. It has very large
pectoral fins with a remarkable muscular process attached to the inner
ray. It lives in fresh-water lakes and rivers in the Congo region, and
has been caught in its flight above the water in a butterfly-net.



FLYING-FOX, or, more correctly, FOX-BAT. The first name is applied by
Europeans in India to the fruit-eating bats of the genus _Pteropus_,
which contains more than half the family (_Pteropidae_). This genus is
confined to the tropical regions of the Eastern hemisphere and
Australia. It comprises numerous species, a considerable proportion of
which occur in the islands of the Malay Archipelago. The flying-foxes
are the largest of the bats, the kalong of Java (_Pteropus edulis_)
measuring about a foot in length, and having an expanse of wing-membrane
measuring 5 ft. across. Flying-foxes are gregarious, nocturnal bats,
suspending themselves during the day head-downwards by thousands from
the branches of trees, where with their wings gathered about them, they
bear some resemblance to huge shrivelled-up leaves or to clusters of
some peculiar fruit. In Batchian, according to Wallace, they suspend
themselves chiefly from the branches of dead trees, where they are
easily caught or knocked down by sticks, the natives carrying them home
in basketfuls. They are then cooked with abundance of spices, and "are
really very good eating, something like hare." Towards evening these
bats bestir themselves, and fly off in companies to the village
plantations, where they feed on all kinds of fruit, and so numerous and
voracious are they that no garden crop has much chance of being gathered
which is not specially protected from their attacks. The flying-fox of
India (_Pteropus medius_) is a smaller species, but is found in great
numbers wherever fruit is to be had in the Indian peninsula.



FLYING-SQUIRREL, properly the name of such members of the squirrel-group
of rodent mammals as have a parachute-like expansion of the skin of the
flanks, with attachments to the limbs, by means of which they are able
to take long flying-leaps from tree to tree. The parachute is supported
by a cartilage attached to the wrist or carpus; in addition to the
lateral membrane, there is a narrow one from the cheek along the front
of each shoulder to the wrist, and in the larger species a third
(interfemoral) connecting the hind-limbs with the base of the long tail.
Of the two widely distributed genera, _Pteromys_ includes the larger and
_Sciuropterus_ the smaller species. The two differ in certain details of
dentition, and in the greater development in the former of the
parachute, especially the interfemoral portion, which in the latter is
almost absent. In _Pteromys_ the tail is cylindrical and comparatively
thin, while in _Sciuropterus_ it is broad, flat and laterally expanded,
so as to compensate for the absence of the interfemoral membrane by
acting as a supplementary parachute.

[Illustration: Pigmy African Flying-Squirrel (_Idiurus zenkeri_).]

In general appearance flying-squirrels resemble ordinary squirrels,
although they are even more beautifully coloured. Their habits, food,
&c., are also very similar to those of the true squirrels, except that
they are more nocturnal, and are therefore less often seen. The Indian
flying-squirrel (_P. oral_) leaps with its parachute extended from the
higher branches of a tree, and descends first directly and then more and
more obliquely, until the flight, gradually becoming slower, assumes a
horizontal direction, and finally terminates in an ascent to the branch
or trunk of the tree to which it was directed. The presence of these
rodents at night is made known by their screaming cries. _Sciuropterus_
is represented by _S. velucella_ in eastern Europe and northern Asia,
and by a second species in North America, but the other species of this
genus and all those of _Pteromys_ are Indo-Malayan. A third genus,
_Eupetaurus_, typified by a very large, long-haired, dark-grey species
from the mountains to the north-west of Kashmir (_Eu. cinereus_),
differs from all other members of the squirrel-family by its
tall-crowned molar teeth. It has a total length of 37 in., of which 22
are taken up by the tail.

In Africa the name of flying-squirrel is applied to the members of a
very different family of rodents, the _Anomaluridae_, which are provided
with a parachute. Since, however, this parachute is absent in some
members of the family, the most distinctive character is the presence of
a double row of spiny scales on the under surface of the tail, which
apparently aid in climbing. The flying species are also distinguished
from ordinary flying-squirrels by the circumstance that the additional
bone serving for the support of the fore part of the flying-membrane
rises from the elbow-joint instead of from the wrist. The family is
represented by two flying genera, _Anomalurus_ and _Idiurus_; the latter
containing only one very minute species (shown in the cut) characterized
by its small ears and elongated tail. Most of the species are West
African. In habits these rodents appear to be very similar to the true
flying-squirrels. The species without a parachute constitutes the genus
_Zenkerella_, and looks very like an ordinary squirrel (see RODENTIA).

In Australia and Papua the name flying-squirrel is applied to such
marsupials as are provided with parachutes; animals which naturalists
prefer to designate flying-phalangers (see MARSUPIALIA) (R. L.*)



FLYSCH, in geology, a remarkable formation, composed mainly of
sandstones, soft marls and sandy shales found extending from S.W.
Switzerland eastward along the northern Alpine zone to the Vienna basin,
whence it may be followed round the northern flanks of the Carpathians
into the Balkan peninsula. It is represented in the Pyrenees, the
Apennines, the Caucasus and extends into Asia; similar flysch-like
deposits are related to the Himalayas as the European formations are to
the Alps. The Flysch is not of the same age in every place; thus in the
western parts of Switzerland the oldest portions probably belong to the
Eocene period, but the principal development is of Oligocene age; as it
is traced eastward we find in the east Alps that it descends into the
upper Cretaceous, and in the Vienna region and the Carpathians it
contains intercalations which clearly indicate a lower Cretaceous horizon
for the lower parts. It appears indeed that this type of formation was in
progress of deposition at one point or another in the regions enumerated
above from Jurassic to late Tertiary times. The absence of fossils from
enormous thicknesses of Flysch makes the correlation with other
formations difficult; often the only indications of organisms are the
abundant markings supposed to represent Algae (Chondrites, &c.), which
have given rise to the term "Hieroglyphic-sandstone." The most noteworthy
exceptions are perhaps the Oligocene fish-bed of Glarus, the Eocene
nummulitic beds in Calabria, and the _Aptychus_ beds of Waidhofen. Local
phases of the Flysch have received special names; it is the "Vienna" or
"Carpathian" sandstone of those regions; the "macigno" (a soft sandstone
with calcareous cement) of the Maritime Alps and Apennines; the
"scagliose" (scaly clays) and "alberese" (limestones) of the same places
are portions of this formation. The _gris de Menton_, the _gris d'Annot_
of the Basses Alps, and the _gris d'Embrun_ of Chaillot appear in
Switzerland as the _gris de Taveyannaz_. At several places the upper
layers of the Flysch are iron-stained, as in the region of Léman and at
the foot of the Dent du Midi; it is then styled the "Red-Flysch."
Lenticular intercalations of gabbro, diabase, &c., occur in the Flysch in
Calabria on the Pyrenees. Large exotic blocks of granite, gneiss and
other crystalline rocks in coarse conglomerates are found near Vienna,
near Sonthofen in Bavaria, near Lake Thun (Wild Flysch) and at other
points, which have been variously regarded as indications of glaciation
or of coastal conditions.



FOCA (pronounced _Fáwtcha_), a town of Bosnia, situated at the
confluence of the Drina and Cehotina rivers, and encircled by wooded
mountains. Pop. (1895) 4217. The town is the headquarters of a thriving
industry in silver filigree-work and inlaid weapons, for which it was
famous. With its territories enclosed by the frontiers of Montenegro and
Novi Bazar, Foca, then known as _Chocha_, was the scene of almost
incessant border warfare during the middle ages. No monuments of this
period are left except the Bogomil cemeteries, and the beautiful
mosques, which are the most ancient in Bosnia. The three adjoining towns
of Foca, Gorazda and Ustikolina were trading-stations of the Ragusans in
the 14th century, if not earlier. In the 16th century, Benedetto
Ramberti, ambassador from Venice to the Porte, described the town, in
his _Libri Tre delle Cose dei Turchi_, as _Cozza_, "a large settlement,
with good houses in Turkish style, and many shops and merchants. Here
dwells the governor of Herzegovina, whose authority extends over the
whole of Servia. Through this place all goods must pass, both going and
returning, between Ragusa and Constantinople."



FOCHABERS, a burgh of barony and village of Elginshire, Scotland. Pop.
(1901) 981. It is delightfully situated on the Spey, about 9 m. E. by S.
of Elgin, the terminus of a branch of the Highland railway connecting at
Orbliston Junction with the main line from Elgin to Keith. The town was
rebuilt in its present situation at the end of the 18th century, when
its earlier site was required for alterations in the grounds of Gordon
Castle, in which the old town cross still stands. The streets all lead
at right angles to the central square, where fairs and markets are held.
The public buildings include a library and reading-room, the court-house
and the Milne school, named after Alexander Milne, who endowed it with a
legacy of £20,000. Adjoining the town, surrounded by a park containing
many magnificent old trees, stands Gordon Castle, the chief seat of the
duke of Richmond and Gordon, erected in the 18th century. The antiquary
George Chalmers (1742-1825) and the composer William Marshall
(1748-1833) were natives of the burgh.



FOCSHANI (Rumanian _Focsani_, sometimes incorrectly written _Fokshani_
or _Fokshan_), the capital of the department of Putna, Rumania; on the
river Milcov, which formed the ancient frontier of the former
principalities of Moldavia and Walachia. Pop. (1900) 23,783; of whom
6000 were Jews. The chief buildings are the prefecture, schools,
synagogues, and many churches, including those of the Armenians and
Protestants. Focshani is a commercial centre of some importance, the
chief industries being oil and soap manufacture and tannery. A large
wine trade is also carried on, and corn is shipped in lighters to
Galatz. The annual fair is held on the 29th of April. Government
explorations in the vicinity of this town show it to be rich in
minerals, such as iron, copper, coal and petroleum. The line
Focshani-Galatz is covered by a very strong line of fortifications,
known as the Sereth Line. A congress between Russian and Turkish
diplomatists was held near the town in 1772. In the neighbourhood the
Turks suffered a severe defeat from the Austrians and Russians in 1789.



FOCUS (Latin for "hearth" or "fireplace"), a point at which converging
rays meet, toward which they are directed, or from which diverging rays
are directed; in the latter case called the virtual focus (see
MICROSCOPE; TELESCOPE; LENS). In geometry the word is used to denote
certain points (see GEOMETRY; CONIC SECTION; and PERSPECTIVE).



FOG, the name given to any distribution of solid or liquid particles in
the surface layers of the atmosphere which renders surrounding objects
notably indistinct or altogether invisible according to their distance.
In its more intense forms it hinders and delays travellers of all kinds,
by sea or land, by railway, road or river, or by the mountain path. It
is sometimes so thick as to paralyse traffic altogether. According to
the _New English Dictionary_ the word "appears to be" a back formation
from the adjective "foggy," a derivative of "fog" used with its old
meaning of aftermath or coarse grass, or, in the north of Britain, of
"moss." Such a formation would be reasonable, because wreaths of fog in
the atmospheric sense are specially characteristic of meadows and
marshes where fog, in the more ancient sense, grows.

Two other words, _mist_ and _haze_, are also in common use with
reference to the deterioration of transparency of the surface layers of
the atmosphere caused by solid or liquid particles, and in ordinary
literature the three words are used almost according to the fancy of the
writer. It seems possible to draw a distinction between mist and haze
that would be fairly well supported by usage. Mist may be defined as a
cloud of water particles at the surface of land or sea, and would only
occur when the air is nearly or actually saturated, that is, when there
is little or no difference between the readings of the dry and wet
bulbs; the word haze, on the other hand, may be reserved for the
obscuration of the surface layers of the atmosphere when the air is dry.

It would not be difficult to quote instances in which even this
distinction is disregarded in practice. Indeed, the telegraphic code of
the British Meteorological Office uses the same figure for mist and
haze, and formerly the Beaufort weather notation had no separate letter
for haze (now indicated by z), though it distinguished between f, fog,
and m, mist. It is possible, however, that these practices may arise,
not from confusion of idea, but from economy of symbols, when the
meaning can be made out from a knowledge of the associated observations.

As regards the distinction between mist and fog, careful consideration
of a number of examples leads to the conclusion that the word "fog" is
used to indicate not so much the origin or meteorological nature of the
obscurity as its effect upon traffic and travellers whether on land or
sea. It is, generally speaking, "in a fog" that a traveller loses
himself, and indeed the phrase has become proverbial in that sense. A
"fog-bell" or "fog-horn" is sounded when the atmosphere is so thick that
the aid of sound is required for navigation. A vessel is "fog-logged" or
"fog-bound" when it is stopped or detained on account of thick
atmosphere. A "fog-signal" is employed on railways when the ordinary
signals are obliterated within working distances. A "fog-bow" is the
accompaniment of conditions when a mountain traveller is apt to lose his
way.

These words are used quite irrespective of the nature of the cloud which
interferes with effective vision and necessitates the special provision;
the word "mist" is seldom used in similar connexion. We may thus define
a fog as a surface cloud sufficiently thick to cause hindrance to
traffic. It will be a _thick mist_ if the cloud consists of water
particles, a _thick haze_ if it consists of smoke or dust particles
which would be persistent even in a dry atmosphere.

It is probable that sailors would be inclined to restrict the use of the
word to the surface clouds met with in comparatively calm weather, and
that the obscurity of the atmosphere when it is blowing hard and perhaps
raining hard as well should be indicated by the terms "thick weather" or
"very thick weather" and not by "fog"; but the term "fog" would be quite
correctly used on such occasions from the point of view of cautious
navigation. If cloud, drizzling rain, or heavy rain cause such obscurity
that passing ships are not visible within working distances the sounding
of a fog-horn becomes a duty.

The number of occasions upon which fog and mist may be noted as
occurring with winds of different strengths may be exemplified by the
following results of thirty years for St Mary's, Scilly Isles, where the
observations have always been made by men of nautical experience.

  +----------------------------+-----+---+---+---+---+---+----+----+-------+
  |        Wind Force.         |0 & 1| 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7  |8-12|  All  |
  |                            |     |   |   |   |   |   |    |    | Winds.|
  +----------------------------+-----+---+---+---+---+---+----+----+-------+
  |Number of occasions of fog  |     |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |       |
  |  per 1000 observations     |  8  | 7 | 9 |14 | 6 | 3 | <1 | <1 |  47   |
  |Number of occasions of mist |     |   |   |   |   |   |    |    |       |
  |  per 1000 observations     |  5  | 6 |11 |22 |20 |12 |  6 |  2 |  84   |
  +----------------------------+-----+---+---+---+---+---+----+----+-------+

The use of the word "fog" in the connexion "high fog," to describe the
almost total darkness in the daytime occasionally noted in London and
other large cities due to the persistent opaque cloud in the upper air
without serious obscuration of the surface layers, is convenient but
incorrect.

Regarding "fog" as a word used to indicate the state of the atmosphere
as regards transparency considered with reference to its effect upon
traffic, a scale of fog intensity has been introduced for use on land or
at sea, whereby the intensity of obscurity is indicated by the numbers 1
to 5 in the table following. At sea or in the country a fog, as a rule,
is white and consists of a cloud of minute water globules, of no great
vertical thickness, which disperses the sunlight by repeated reflection
but is fully translucent. In dust-storms and sand-storms dark or
coloured fog clouds are produced such as those which are met with in the
Harmattan winds off the west coast of Africa. In large towns the fog
cloud is darkened and intensified by smoke, and in some cases may be
regarded as due entirely to the smoke.

_Description of Effects._

  +------------------+-----+--------------------------+-----------------------------+------------------------+
  |       Name.      | No. |         On Land.         |           On Sea.           |        On River.       |
  +------------------+-----+--------------------------+-----------------------------+------------------------+
  |                  |  1  | Objects indistinct, but  |   Horizon invisible, but    | Objects indistinct, but|
  |Slight Fog or Mist|     |   traffic by rail or road|     lights and landmarks    |   navigation unimpeded |
  |                  |     |   unimpeded              |     visible at working      |                        |
  |                  |     |                          |     distances               |                        |
  |                  | / 2 | Traffic by rail requires | / Lights, passing vessels   | Navigation impeded,    |
  |Moderate Fog      |<    |   additional caution     |<    and landmarks generally |   additional caution   |
  |                  | | 3 | Traffic by rail or road  | |   indistinct under a mile.|   required             |
  |                  | \   |   impeded                | \   Fog signals are sounded |                        |
  |                  | / 4 | Traffic by rail or road  | / Ships' lights and vessels | Navigation suspended   |
  |Thick Fog         |<    |   impeded                |<    invisible at ¼ mile or  |                        |
  |                  | | 5 | Traffic by rail or road  | |   less                    |                        |
  |                  | \   |   totally disorganized   | \                           |                        |
  +------------------+-----+--------------------------+-----------------------------+------------------------+

The physical processes which produce fogs of water particles are
complicated and difficult to unravel. We have to account for the
formation and maintenance of a cloud at the earth's surface; and the
process of cloud-formation which is probably most usual in nature,
namely, the cooling of air by rarefaction due to the reduction of
pressure on ascent, cannot be invoked, except in the case of the fogs
forming the cloud-caps of hills, which are perhaps not fairly included.
We have to fall back upon the only other process hitherto recognized as
causing cloudy condensation in the atmosphere, that is to say, the
mixing of masses of mist air of different temperatures. The mixing is
brought about by the slow motion of air masses, and this slow motion is
probably essential to the phenomenon.

  TABLE I.--_Air travelling from Northern Africa to Northern Russia,
  round by the Azores._

  +------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+--------+------+
  | Successive Temperatures of sea     |  68°  |  68°  |  67°  |   59°  | 54°F.|
  |     "            "      "  air     |  68°  |  70°  |  67°  |   60°  | 56°F.|
  |     "     States of the atmosphere | clear | clear | clear | shower | mist |
  +------------------------------------+-------+-------+-------+--------+------+

  TABLE II.--_Air travelling from N.W. Africa to Scotland._

  +-------------------------------+------+--------+-----------------+
  |Successive Temperatures of sea |  67° |   63°  |      54° F.     |
  |    "           "       "  air |  66° |   64°  |      53° F.     |
  |    "      State of atmosphere | fair | shower | mist with shower|
  +-------------------------------+------+--------+-----------------+

Over the sea fog is most frequently due to the cooling of a surface
layer of warm air by the underlying cold water. The amount of motion of
the air must be sufficient to prevent the condensation taking place at
the sea surface without showing itself as a cloud. In a research on the
Life History of Surface Air Currents the changes incidental to the
movement of the air over the north Atlantic Ocean were traced with great
care, and the above examples (Tables I, II) taken from page 72 of the
work referred to are typical of the formation of sea fog by the cooling
of a relatively warm current passing over cold water.

In conformity with this suggestion we find that fog is most liable to
occur over the open ocean in those regions where, as off the
Newfoundland banks, cold-water currents underlie warm air, and that it
is most frequent at the season of the year when the air temperature is
increasing faster than the water temperature. But it is difficult to
bring this hypothesis always to bear upon actual practice, because the
fog is representative of a temperature difference which has ceased to
exist. One cannot therefore observe under ordinary circumstances both
the temperature difference and the fog. Doubtless one requires not only
the initial temperature difference but also the slow drift of air which
favours cooling of the lower layers without too much mixing and
consequently a layer of fog close to the surface. Such a fog, the
characteristic sea fog, may be called a cold surface fog. From the
conditions of its formation it is likely to be less dense at the
mast-head than it is on deck.

One would expect that a cold-air current passing over a warm sea surface
would give rise to an ascending current of warmed air and hence cause
cumulus cloud and possibly thunder showers rather than surface fog, but
one cannot resist the conclusion that sea fog is sometimes formed by
slow transference of cold air over relatively warm water, giving rise to
what may be called a "steaming-pot" fog. In such a case the actual
surface layer in contact with the warm water would be clear, and the fog
would be thicker aloft where the mixing of cold air and water vapour is
more complete. Such fogs are, however, probably rare in comparison with
the cold-water fogs. If the existence of a cold current over warm water
were a sufficient cause of fog, as a current of warm air over cold water
appears to be, the geographical distribution of notable fog would be
much more widespread than it actually is, and the seasonal distribution
of fog would also be other than it is.

The formation of fog over land seems to be an even more complicated
process than over the sea. Certainly in some cases mistiness amounting
to fog arises from the replacement of cold surface air which has chilled
the earth and the objects thereon by a warm current. But this process
can hardly give rise to detached masses or banks of fog. The ordinary
land or valley fog of the autumn evening or winter morning is due to the
combination of three causes, first the cooling of the surface layer of
air at or after sunset by the radiation of the earth, or more
particularly of blades of grass, secondly the slow downward flow (in the
absence of wind) of the air thus cooled towards lower levels following
roughly the course of the natural water drainage of the land, and
thirdly the supply of moisture by evaporation from warm moist soil or
from the relatively warm water surface of river or lake. In this way
steaming-pot fog gradually forms and is carried downward by the natural
though slow descent of the cooled air. It thus forms in wreaths and
banks in the lowest parts, until perhaps the whole valley becomes filled
with a cloud of mist or fog. A case of this kind in the Lake District is
minutely described by J.B. Cohen (_Q.J. Roy. Met. Soc._ vol. 30, p. 211,
1904).

It will be noticed that upon this hypothesis the circumstances
favourable for fog formation are (1) a site near the bottom level of the
drainage area, (2) cold surface air and no wind, (3) an evening or night
of vigorous radiation, (4) warm soil, and (5) abundant moisture in the
surface-soil. These conditions define with reasonable accuracy the
circumstances in which fog is actually observed.

The persistence of these fog wreaths is always remarkable when one
considers that the particles of a fog cloud, however small they may be,
must be continually sinking through the air which holds them, and that
unless some upward motion of the air keeps at least a balance against
this downward fall, the particles of the cloud must reach the earth or
water and to that extent the cloud must disappear. In sheltered valleys
it is easy to suppose that the constant downward drainage of fresh and
colder fog-laden material at the surface supplies to the layers
displaced from the bottom the necessary upward motion, and the result of
the gradual falling of drops is only that the surface cloud gets
thicker; but there are occasions when the extent and persistence of land
fog seems too great to be accounted for by persistent radiation cooling.
For example, in the week before Christmas of 1904 the whole of England
south of the Humber was covered with fog for several days. It is of
course possible that so much fog-laden air was poured down from the
sides of mountains and hills that did project above the surface of the
fog, as to keep the lower reaches supplied for the whole time, but
without more particulars such a statement seems almost incredible.
Moreover, the drifting of fog banks over the sea seems capricious and
unrelated to any known circumstances of fog-formation, so that one is
tempted to invoke the aid of electrification of the particles or some
other abnormal condition to account for the persistence of fog. The
observations at Kew observatory show that the electrical potential is
abnormally high during fog, but whether that is the cause or the result
of the presence of the water particles, we are not yet in a position to
say. It must be remembered that a fog cloud ought to be regarded as
being, generally speaking, _in process of formation_ by mixing.
Observations upon clouds formed experimentally in globes tend to show
that if a mass of fog-bearing air could be enclosed and kept still for
only a short while the fog would settle and leave the air clear. The
apparently capricious behaviour of fog banks may be due to the fact that
mixing is still going on in the persistent ones, but is completed in the
disappearing ones.

One remarkable characteristic of a persistent fog is the coldness of the
foggy air at the surface in spite of the heat of the sun's rays falling
upon the upper surface of the fog. A remarkable example may be quoted
from the case of London, which was under fog all day on 28th January
1909. The maximum temperature only reached 31° F., whereas at Warlingham
in Surrey from which the fog lifted it was as high as 46° F.

_A priori_ we might suppose that the formation of fog would arrest
cooling by radiation, and that fog would thus act as a protection of
plants against frost. The condensation of water evaporated from wet
ground, which affords the material for making fog, does apparently act
as a protection, and heavy watering is sometimes used to protect plants
from frost, but the same cannot be said of fog itself--cooling appears
to go on in spite of the formation of fog.

A third process of fog-formation, namely, the descent of a cloud from
above in the form of light drizzling rain, hardly calls for remark. In
so far as it is subject to rules, they are the rules of clouds and rain
and are therefore independent of surface conditions.

These various causes of fog-formation maybe considered with advantage in
relation to the geographical distribution of fog. Statistics on this
subject are not very satisfactory on account of the uncertainty of the
distinction between fog and mist, but a good deal may be learned from
the distribution of fog over the north Atlantic Ocean and its various
coasts as shown in the Monthly Meteorological Charts of the north
Atlantic issued by the Meteorological Office, and the Pilot charts of
the North Atlantic of the United States Hydrographic Office. Coast fog,
which is probably of the same nature as land fog, is most frequent in
the winter months, whereas sea fog and ocean fog is most extensive and
frequent in the spring and summer. By June the fog area has extended
from the Great Banks over the ocean to the British Isles, in July it is
most intense, and by August it has notably diminished, while in
November, which is proverbially a foggy month on land, there is hardly
any fog shown over the ocean.

The various meteorological aspects of fog and its incidence in London
were the subject of reports to the Meteorological Council by Captain A.
Carpenter and Mr R.G.K. Lempfert, based upon special observations made
in the winters of 1901-1902 and 1902-1903 in order to examine the
possibility of more precise forecasts of fog.

The study of the properties and behaviour of fog is especially important
for large towns in consequence of the economic and hygienic results
which follow the incidence of dense fogs. The fogs of London in
particular have long been a subject of inquiry. It is difficult to get
trustworthy statistics on the subject in consequence of the vagueness of
the practice as regards the classification of fog. For large towns there
is great advantage in using a fog scale such as that given above, in
which one deals only with the practical range of vision irrespective of
the meteorological cause.

Accepting the classification which distinguishes between fog and haze or
mist, but not between the two latter terms, as equivalent to specifying
fog when the thickness amounts to the figure 2 or more on the fog scale,
we are enabled to compare the frequency of fog in London by the
comparison of the results at the London observing stations. The
comparison was made by Mr Brodie in a paper read before the Royal
Meteorological Society (_Quarterly Journal_, vol. 31, p. 15), and it
appears therefrom that in recent years there has been a notable
diminution of fog frequency, as indicated in the following table of the
total number of days of fog in the years from 1871:--

  +------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
  | 1871.| 1872.| 1873.| 1874.| 1875.| 1876.| 1877.| 1878.| 1879.| 1880.| 1881.| 1882.| 1883.| 1884.| 1885.| 1886.| 1887.| 1888.| 1889.|
  +-------------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
  |  42  |  35  |  75  |  53  |  49  |  40  |  46  |  63  |  69  |  74  |  59  |  69  |  61  |  53  |  69  |  86  |  83  |  62  |  75  |
  +------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
  +------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
  | 1890.| 1891.| 1892.| 1893.| 1894.| 1895.| 1896.| 1897.| 1898.| 1899.| 1900.| 1901.| 1902.| 1903.| 1904.| 1905.| 1906.| 1907.| 1908.|
  +------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
  |  65  |  69  |  68  |  31  |  51  |  48  |  43  |  48  |  47  |  56  |  13  |  45  |  42  |  26  |  44  |  19  |  16  |  37  |  19  |
  +------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+

But from any statistics of the frequency occurrence of fog it must not
be understood that the atmosphere of London is approaching that of the
surrounding districts as regards transparency. Judged by the autographic
records it is still almost opaque to sunshine strong enough to burn the
card of the recorder during the winter months.

  The bibliography of fog is very extensive. The titles referring to
  fog, mist and haze in the _Bibliography of Meteorology_ (part ii.) of
  the U.S. Signal Office, published in 1889, number 306. Among more
  recent authors on the subject, besides those referred to in the text,
  may be mentioned:--Köppen, "Bodennebel," _Met. Zeit._ (1885); Trabert,
  _Met. Zeit._ (1901), p. 522; Elias in _Ergebnisse des aëronautischen
  Observatoriums bei Berlin_, ii. (Berlin, 1904); Scott, _Q.J.R. Met.
  Soc._ xix. p. 229; A.G. McAdie, "Fog Studies," _Amer. Inv._ ix.
  (Washington, D.C., 1902), p. 209; Buchan, "Fogs on the Coasts of
  Scotland," _Journ. Scot. Met. Soc._ xii. p. 3.     (W. N. S.)



FOGAZZARO, ANTONIO (1842-   ), Italian novelist and poet, was born at
Vicenza in 1842. He was a pupil of the Abate Zanella, one of the best of
the modern Italian poets, whose tender, thoughtful and deeply religious
spirit continued to animate his literary productions. He began his
literary career with _Miranda_, a poetical romance (1874), followed in
1876 by _Valsolda_, which, republished in 1886 with considerable
additions, constitutes perhaps his principal claim as a poet, which is
not inconsiderable. To the classic grandeur of Carducci and D'Annunzio's
impetuous torrent of melody Fogazzaro opposes a Wordsworthian simplicity
and pathos, contributing to modern Italian literature wholesome elements
of which it would otherwise be nearly destitute. His novels, _Malombra_
(1882), _Daniele Cortis_ (1887), _Misterio del Poeta_ (1888), obtained
considerable literary success upon their first publication, but did not
gain universal popularity until they were discovered and taken up by
French critics in 1896. The demand then became prodigious, and a new
work, _Piccolo Mondo antico_ (1896), which critics far from friendly to
Fogazzaro's religious and philosophical ideas pronounced the best
Italian novel since _I Promessi Sposi_, went through numerous editions.
Even greater sensation was caused by his novel _Il Santo_ (_The Saint_,
1906), on account of its being treated as unorthodox by the Vatican; and
Fogazzaro's sympathy with the Liberal Catholic movement--his own
Catholicism being well known--made this novel a centre of discussion in
the Roman Catholic world.

  See the biography by Molmenti (1900).



FOGELBERG, BENEDICT (or BENGT) ERLAND (1786-1854), Swedish sculptor, was
born at Gothenburg on the 8th of August 1786. His father, a
copper-founder, encouraging an early-exhibited taste for design, sent
him in 1801 to Stockholm, where he studied at the school of art. There
he came much under the influence of the sculptor Sergell, who
communicated to him his own enthusiasm for antique art and natural
grace. Fogelberg worked hard at Stockholm for many years, although his
instinct for severe beauty rebelled against the somewhat rococo quality
of the art then prevalent in the city. In 1818 the grant of a government
pension enabled him to travel. He studied from one to two years in
Paris, first under Pierre Guérin, and afterwards under the sculptor
Bosio, for the technical practice of sculpture. In 1820 Fogelberg
realized a dream of his life in visiting Rome, where the greater part of
his remaining years were spent in the assiduous practice of his art, and
the careful study and analysis of the works of the past. Visiting his
native country by royal command in 1854, he was received with great
enthusiasm, but nothing could compensate him for the absence of those
remains of antiquity and surroundings of free natural beauty to which he
had been so long accustomed. Returning to Italy, he died suddenly of
apoplexy at Trieste on the 22nd of December 1854. The subjects of
Fogelberg's earlier works are mostly taken from classic mythology. Of
these, "Cupid and Psyche," "Venus entering the Bath," "A Bather" (1838),
"Apollo Citharede," "Venus and Cupid" (1839) and "Psyche" (1854) may be
mentioned. In his representations of Scandinavian mythology Fogelberg
showed, perhaps for the first time, that he had powers above those of
intelligent assimilation and imitation. His "Odin" (1831), "Thor"
(1842), and "Balder" (1842), though influenced by Greek art, display
considerable power of independent imagination. His portraits and
historical figures, as those of Gustavus Adolphus (1849), of Charles
XII. (1851), of Charles XIII. (1852), and of Birger Jarl, the founder of
Stockholm (1853), are faithful and dignified works.

  See Casimir Leconte, _L'Oeuvre de Fogelberg_ (Paris, 1856).



FOGGIA, a town and episcopal see (since 1855) of Apulia, Italy, the
capital of the province of Foggia, situated 243 ft. above sea-level, in
the centre of the great Apulian plain, 201 m. by rail S.E. of Ancona and
123 m. N.E. by E. of Naples. Pop. (1901) town, 49,031; commune, 53,134.
The name is probably derived from the pits or cellars (_foveae_) in
which the inhabitants store their grain. The town is the medieval
successor of the ancient Arpi, 3 m. to the N.; the Normans, after
conquering the district from the Eastern empire, gave it its first
importance. The date of the erection of the cathedral is probably about
1179; it retains some traces of Norman architecture, and the façade has
a fine figured cornice by Bartolommeo da Foggia; the crypt has capitals
of the 11th (?) century. The whole church was, however, much altered
after the earthquake of 1731. A gateway of the palace of the emperor
Frederick II. (1223, by Bartolommeo da Foggia) is also preserved. Here
died his third wife, Isabella, daughter of King John of England. Charles
of Anjou died here in 1284. After his son's death, it was a prey to
internal dissensions and finally came under Alphonso I. of Aragon, who
converted the pastures of the Apulian plain into a royal domain in 1445,
and made Foggia the place at which the tax on the sheep was to be paid
and the wool to be sold. The other buildings of the town are modern.
Foggia is a commercial centre of some importance for the produce of the
surrounding country, and is also a considerable railway centre, being
situated on the main line from Bologna to Brindisi, at the point where
this is joined by the line from Benevento and Caserta. There are also
branches to Rocchetta S. Antonio (and thence to either Avellino,
Potenza, or Gioia del Colle), to Manfredonia, and to Lucera.



FÖHN (Ger., probably derived through Romansch _favongn_, _favoign_, from
Lat. _favonius_), a warm dry wind blowing down the valleys of the Alps
from high central regions, most frequently in winter. The Föhn wind
often blows with great violence. It is caused by the indraft of air from
the elevated region to areas of low barometric pressure in the
neighbourhood, and the warmth and dryness are due to dynamical
compression of the air as it descends to lower levels. Similar local
winds occur in many parts of the world, as Greenland, and on the slopes
of the Rocky Mountains. In the southern Alpine valleys the Föhn wind is
often called sirocco, but its nature and cause are different from the
true sirocco. The belief that the warm dry wind comes from the Sahara
dies hard; and still finds expression in some textbooks.

  For a full account of these winds see Hann, _Lehrbuch der
  Meteorologie_, p. 594.



FÖHR, a German island in the North Sea, belonging to the province of
Schleswig-Holstein, and situated off its coast. Pop. 4500. It comprises
an area of 32 sq. m., and is reached by a regular steamboat service from
Husum and Dagebüll on the mainland to Wyk, the principal bathing resort
on the E. coast of the island. The chief attraction of Wyk is the
Sandwall, a promenade which is shaded by trees and skirts the beach.
Föhr, the most fertile of the North Frisian islands, is principally
marshland, and comparatively well wooded. There are numerous
pleasantly-situated villages and hamlets scattered over it, of which the
most frequented are Boldixum, Nieblum and Alkersum. The inhabitants are
mainly engaged in the fishing industry, and are known as excellent
sailors.



FOIL. 1. (Through O. Fr. from Lat. _folium_, a leaf, modern Fr.
_feuille_), a leaf, and so used in heraldry and in plant names, such as
the "trefoil" clover; and hence applied to anything resembling a leaf.
In architecture, the word appears for the small leaf-like spaces formed
by the cusps of tracery in windows or panels, and known, according to
the number of such spaces, as "quatrefoil," "cinquefoil," &c. The word
is also found in "counterfoil," a leaf of a receipt or cheque book,
containing memoranda or a duplicate of the receipt or draft, kept by the
receiver or drawer as a "counter" or check. "Foil" is particularly used
of thin plates of metal, resembling a leaf, not in shape as much as in
thinness. In thickness foil comes between "leaf" and "sheet" metal. In
jewelry, a foil of silvered sheet copper, sometimes known as Dutch foil,
is used as a backing for paste gems, or stones of inferior lustre or
colour. This is coated with a mixture of isinglass and translucent
colour, varying with the stones to be backed, or, if only brilliancy is
required, left uncoloured, but highly polished. From this use of "foil,"
the word comes to mean, in a figurative sense, something which by
contrast, or by its own brightness, serves to heighten the attractive
qualities of something else placed in juxtaposition. The commonest
"foil" is that generally known as "tinfoil." The ordinary commercial
"tinfoil" usually consists chiefly of lead, and is used for the wrapping
of chocolate or other sweetmeats, tobacco or cigarettes. A Japanese
variegated foil gives the effect of "damaskeening." A large number of
thin plates of various metals, gold, silver, copper, together with
alloys of different metals are soldered together in a particular order,
a pattern is hammered into the soldered edges, and the whole is hammered
or rolled into a single thin plate, the pattern then appearing in the
order in which the various metals were placed.

2. (From an O. Fr. _fuler_ or _foler_, modern _fouler_, to tread or
trample, to "full" cloth, Lat. _fullo_, a fuller), an old hunting term,
used of the running back of an animal over its own tracks, to confuse
the scent and baffle the hounds. It is also used in wrestling, of a
"throw." Thus comes the common use of the word, in a figurative sense,
with reference to both these meanings, of baffling or defeating an
adversary, or of parrying an attack.

3. As the name of the weapon used in fencing (see FOIL-FENCING) the word
is of doubtful origin. One suggestion, based on a supposed similar use
of Fr. _fleuret_, literally a "little flower," for the weapon, is that
foil means a leaf, and must be referred in origin to Lat. _folium_. A
second suggestion is that it means "blunted," and is the same as (2). A
third is that it is an adaptation of an expression "at foils," i.e.
"parrying." Of these suggestions, according to the _New English
Dictionary_, the first has nothing to support it, the second is not
supported by any evidence that in sense (2) the word ever meant to
blunt. The third has some support. Finally a suggestion is made that the
word is an alteration of an old word "foin," meaning a thrust with a
pointed weapon. The origin of this word is probably an O. Fr. _foisne_,
from the Lat. _fuscina_, a three-pronged fork.



FOIL-FENCING, the art of attack and defence with the fencing-foil. The
word is used in several spellings (foyle, file, &c.) by the English
writers of the last half of the 16th century, but less in the sense of a
weapon of defence than merely as an imitation of a real weapon. Blunt
swords for practice in fencing have been used in all ages. For the most
part these were of wood and flat in general form, but when, towards the
close of the 17th century, all cutting action with the small-sword was
discarded (see FENCING), foil-blades were usually made of steel, and
either round, three-cornered or four-cornered in form, with a button
covering the point. The foil is called in French _fleuret_, and in
Italian _fioretto_ (literally "bud") from this button. The classic
small-sword play of the 17th and 18th centuries is represented at the
present time by fencing with the _épée de combat_ (fighting-rapier),
which is merely the modern duelling-sword furnished with a button (see
ÉPÉE-DE-COMBAT), and by foil-fencing. Foil-fencing is a conventional
art, its characteristic limitation lying in the rule that no hits except
those on the body shall be considered good, and not even those unless
they be given in strict accordance with certain standard precepts. In
épée-fencing on the contrary, a touch on any part of the person, however
given, is valid. Foil-fencing is considered the basis, so far as
practice is concerned, of all sword-play, whether with foil, épée or
sabre.

There are two recognized schools of foil-fencing, the French and the
Italian. The French method, which is now generally adopted everywhere
except in Italy, is described in this article, reference being made to
the important differences between the two schools.

_The Foil._--The foil consists of the "blade" and the "handle." The
blade, which is of steel and has a quadrangular section, consists of two
parts: the blade proper, extending from the guard to the button, and the
"tongue," which runs through the handle and is joined to the pommel. The
blade proper is divided into the "forte," or thicker half (next the
handle), and the "foible" or thinner half. Some authorities divide the
blade proper into three parts, the "forte," "middle" and "foible." The
handle is comprised of the "guard," the "grip" and the "pommel." The
guard is a light piece of metal shaped like the figure 8 (Fr.
_lunettes_, spectacles) and backed with a piece of stiff leather of the
same shape. The grip, which is grasped by the hand, is a hollow piece of
wood, usually wound with twine, through which the tongue of the blade
passes. The pommel is a piece of metal, usually pear-shaped, to which
the end of the tongue is joined and which forms the extremity of the
handle. The blade from guard to button is about 33 in. long (No. 5),
though a somewhat shorter and lighter blade is generally used by ladies.
The handle is about 8 in. long and slightly curved downwards.

The genuine Italian foil differs from the French in having the blade a
trifle longer and more whippy, and in the form of the handle, which
consists of a thin, solid, bell-shaped guard from 4 to 5 in. in
diameter, a straight grip and a light metal bar joining the grip with
the guard, beyond the edge of which it extends slightly on each side. Of
late years many Italian masters use French blades and even discard the
cross-bar, retaining, however, the bell-guard.

In holding the foil, the thumb is placed on the top or convex surface of
the grip (the sides of which are a trifle narrower than the top and
bottom), while the palm and fingers grasp the other three sides. This is
the position of "supination," or thumb-up. "Pronation" is the reverse
position, with the knuckles up. The French lay stress upon holding the
foil lightly, the necessary pressure being exerted mostly by the thumb
and forefinger, the other fingers being used more to guide the direction
of the executed movements. This is in order to give free scope to the
_doigté_ (fingering), or the faculty of directing the point of the foil
by the action of the fingers alone, and includes the possibility of
changing the position of the hand on the grip. Thus, in parrying, the
end of the thumb is placed within half an inch, or even less, of the
guard, while in making a lunge, the foil is held as near the pommel as
possible, in order to gain additional length. It will be seen that
_doigté_ is impossible with the Italian foil, in holding which the
forefinger is firmly interlaced with the cross-bar, preventing any
movement of the hand. The lightness of grasp inculcated by the French is
illustrated by the rule of the celebrated master Lafaugère: "Hold your
sword as if you had a little bird in your hand, firmly enough to prevent
its escape, yet not so firmly as to crush it." This lightness has for a
consequence that a disarmament is not considered of any value in the
French school.

_To Come on Guard._--The position of "on guard" is that in which the
fencer is best prepared both for attack and defence. It is taken from
the position of "attention"; the feet together and at right angles with
each other, head and body erect, facing forward in the same direction as
the right foot, left arm and hand hanging in touch with the body, and
the right arm and foil forming a straight line so that the button is
about 1 yd. in front of the feet and 4 in. from the floor. From this
position the movements to come "on guard" are seven in number:--

  1. Raise the arm and foil and extend them towards the adversary (or
  master) in a straight line, the hand being opposite the eye.

  2. Drop the arm and foil again until the point is about 4 in. from the
  floor.

  3. Swing the button round so that it shall point horizontally
  backwards, and hold the hilt against the left thigh, the open fingers
  of the left hand being held, knuckles down, against the guard and
  along the blade.

  4. Carry the foil, without altering the position of the hands, above
  the head until the arms are fully extended, the foil being kept
  horizontal and close to the body as it is lifted.

  5. Let the left arm fall back behind the head to a curved position,
  the hand being opposite the top of the head; at the same time bring
  the right hand down opposite the right breast and about 8 in. from it;
  keeping the elbow well in and the point of the foil directed towards
  the opponent's eye.

  6. Bend the legs by separating them at the knees but without moving
  the feet.

  7. Shift the weight of the body on to the left leg and advance the
  right foot a short distance (from 14 to 18 in., according to the
  height of the fencer).

In the Italian school the fencer stands on guard with the right arm
fully extended, the body more effaced, i.e. the left shoulder thrown
farther back, and the feet somewhat farther apart. At the present time,
however, many of the best Italian fencers have adopted the guard with
crooked sword-arm, owing to their abandonment of the old long-foil
blade.

_The Recover_ (at the close of the lesson or assault).--To recover "in
advance": extend the right arm at right angles with the body, drop the
left arm and straighten the legs by drawing the rear foot up to the one
in advance. To recover "to the rear": extend the right arm and drop the
left as before, and straighten the legs by drawing the forward foot back
to that in the rear.

_The Salute_ always follows the recover, the two really forming one
manoeuvre. Having recovered, carry the right hand to a position just in
front of the throat, knuckles out, foil vertical with point upwards;
then lower and extend the arm with nails up until the point is 4 in.
from the floor and slightly to the right.

_To Advance._--Being on guard, take a short step forward with the right
foot and let the left foot follow immediately the same distance, the
position of the body not being changed. However the step, or series of
steps, is made, the right foot should always move first.

_To Retreat._--This is the reverse of the advance, the left foot always
moving first.

_The Calls_ (_deux appels_).--Being on guard, tap the floor twice with
the right foot without altering the position of any other part of the
person. The object of the calls is to test the equilibrium of the body,
and they are usually executed as a preliminary to the recover.

_The Lunge_ is the chief means of attack. It is immediately preceded by
the movement of "extension," in fact the two really form one combined
movement. Extension is executed by quickly extending the right arm, so
that point, hand and shoulder shall have the same elevation; no other
part of the person is moved. The "lunge" is then carried out by
straightening the left leg and throwing forward the right foot, so that
it shall be planted as far forward as possible without losing the
equilibrium or preventing a quick recovery to the position of guard. The
left foot remains firmly in its position, the right shoulder is
advanced, and the left arm is thrown down and back (with hand open and
thumb up), to balance the body. The recovery to the position of guard is
accomplished by smartly throwing the body back by the exertion of the
right leg, until its weight rests again on the left leg, the right foot
and arms resuming their on-guard positions. The point upon which the
French school lays most stress is, that the movement of extension shall,
if only by a fraction of a second, actually precede the advance of the
right foot. The object of this is to ensure the accuracy of the lunge,
i.e. the direction of the point.

_The Gain._--This consists in bringing up the left foot towards the
right (the balance being shifted), keeping the knees bent. In this
manner a step is gained and an exceptionally long lunge can be made
without the knowledge of the adversary. It is a common stratagem of
fencers whose reach is short.

_Defence._--For the purpose of nomenclature the space on the fencer's
jacket within which hits count is divided into quarters, the two upper
ones being called the "high lines," and the two lower ones the "low
lines." Thus a thrust directed at the upper part of the breast is called
an attack in the high lines. In like manner the parries are named from
the different quarters they are designed to protect. There are four
traditional parries executed with the hand in supination, and four
others, practically identical in execution, made with the hand held in
pronation. Thus the parries defending the upper right-hand quarter of
the jacket are "sixte" (sixth; with the hand in supination) and "tierce"
(third; hand in pronation). Those defending the upper left-hand quarter
are "quarte" (fourth; in supination) and "quinte" (fifth; in pronation).
Those defending the lower right-hand quarter are "octave" (eighth; in
supination) and "seconde" (second; in pronation). Those defending the
lower left-hand quarter are "septime" (seventh; in supination), more
generally called "demicircle," or "half-circle"; and "prime" (first; in
pronation).

_The Parries._--The tendency of the French school has always been
towards simplicity, especially of defence, and at the present day the
parries made with the knuckles up (pronation), although recognized and
taught, are seldom if ever used against a strong adversary in
foil-fencing, owing principally to the time lost in turning the hand.
The theory of parrying is to turn aside the opponent's foil with the
least possible expenditure of time and exertion, using the arm as little
as possible while letting the hand and wrist do the work, and opposing
the "forte" of the foil to the "foible" of the adversary's. The foil is
kept pointed as directly as possible towards the adversary, and the
parries are made rather with the corners than the sides of the blade.
The slightest movement that will turn aside the opponent's blade is the
most perfect parry. There are two kinds of parries, "simple," in which
the attack is warded off by a single movement, and "counter," in which a
narrow circle is described by the point of the foil round that of the
opponent, which is thus enveloped and thrown aside. There are also
complex parries, composed of combinations of two or more parries, which
are used to meet complicated attacks, but they are all resolvable into
simple parries. In parrying, the arm is bent about at right angles.

_Simple Parries._--The origin of the numerical nomenclature of the
parries is a matter of dispute, but it is generally believed that they
received their names from the positions assumed in the process of
drawing the sword and falling on guard. Thus the position of the hand
and blade, the moment it is drawn from the scabbard on the left side, is
practically that of the first, or "prime," parry. To go from "prime" to
"seconde" it is only necessary to drop the hand and carry it across the
body to the left side; thence to "tierce" is only a matter of raising
the point of the sword, &c.

_Parry of Prime_ (to ward off attacks on the--usually lower--left-hand
side of the body). Hold the hand, knuckles up, opposite the left eye and
the point directed towards the opponent's knee. This parry is now
regarded more as an elegant evolution than a sound means of defence, and
is little employed.

_Parry of Seconde_ (against thrusts at the lower right-hand side). This
is executed by a quick, not too wide movement of the hand downwards and
slightly to the right, knuckles up.

_Parry of Tierce_ (against thrusts at the upper right-hand side). A
quick, dry beat on the adversary's "foible" is given, forcing it to the
right, the hand, in pronation, being held opposite the middle of the
right breast. This parry has been practically discarded in favour of
"sixte."

_Parry of Quarte_ (against thrusts at the upper left-hand side). This
parry, perhaps the most used of all, is executed by forcing the
adversary's blade to the left by a dry beat, the hand being in
supination, opposite the left breast.

_Parry of Quinte_ (against thrusts at the left-hand side, like
"quarte"). This is practically a low "quarte," and is little used.

_Parry of Sixte_ (against thrusts at the upper right-hand side). This
parry is, together with "quarte," the most important of all. It is
executed with the hand held in supination opposite the right breast, a
quick, narrow movement throwing the adversary's blade to the right.

_Parry of Septime or Half-Circle_ (against thrusts at the lower
left-hand side) is executed by describing with the point of the foil a
small semicircle downward and towards the left, the hand moving a few
inches in the same direction, but kept thumb up.

_Parry of Octave_ (against thrusts at the lower right-hand side) is
executed by describing with the point of the foil a small semicircle
downward and towards the right, the hand moving a few inches in the same
direction, but kept thumb up.

_Counter Parries_ (Fr. _contre_).--Although the simple parries are
theoretically sufficient for defence, they are so easily deceived by
feints that they are supplemented by counter parries, in which the blade
describes narrow circles, following that of the adversary and meeting
and turning it aside; thus the point describes a complete circle while
the hand remains practically stationary. Each simple parry has its
counter, made with the hand in the same position and on the same side as
in the simple parry. The two most important are the "counter of quarte"
and the "counter of sixte," while the counters of "septime" and "octave"
are less used, and the other four at the present time practically never.

_Counter of Quarte._--Being on guard in quarte (with your adversary's
blade on the left of yours), if he drops his point under and thrusts in
sixte, in other words at your right breast, describe a narrow circle
with your point round his blade, downward to the right and then up over
to the left, bringing hand and foil back to their previous positions and
catching and turning aside his blade on the way. The "Counter of Sixte"
is executed in a similar manner, but the circle is described in the
opposite direction, throwing off the adverse blade to the right. The
"Counters of Septime and Octave" are similar to the other two but are
executed in the low lines.

_Complex or Combined Parries_ are such as are composed of two or more
parries executed in immediate succession, and are made in answer to
feint attacks by the adversary (see below); e.g. being on guard in
quarte, should the adversary drop his point under and feint at the right
breast but deflect the point again and really thrust on the left, it is
evident that the simple parry of sixte would cover the right breast but
would leave the real point of attack, the left, entirely uncovered. The
sixte parry is therefore followed, as a continuation of the movement, by
the parry of quarte, or a counter parry. The complex parries are
numerous and depend upon the attack to be met.

_Engagement_ is the junction of the blades, the different engagements
being named from the parries. Thus, if both fencers are in the position
of quarte, they are said to be engaged in quarte. To engage in another
line (Change of Engagement) e.g. from quarte to sixte, the point is
lowered and passed under the adversary's blade, which is pressed
slightly outward, so as to be well covered (called "opposition").
"Double Engagement" is composed of two engagements executed rapidly in
succession in the high lines, the last with opposition.

_Attack._--The attack in fencing comprises all movements the object of
which is to place the point of the foil upon the adversary's breast,
body, sides or back, between collar and belt. The space upon which hits
count is called the "target" and differs according to the rules
prevailing in the several countries, but is usually as above stated. In
Great Britain no hits above the collar-bones count, while in America the
target is only the left breast between the median line and a line
running from the armpit to the belt. The reason for this limitation is
to encourage accuracy.

Attacks are either "primary" or "secondary." _Primary Attacks_ are those
initiated by a fencer before his adversary has made any offensive
movement, and are divided into "Simple," "Feint" and "Force" attacks.

_Simple Attacks_, the characteristic of which is pace, are those made
with one simple movement only and are four in number, viz. the "Straight
Lunge," the "Disengagement," the "Counter-disengagement" and the
"Cut-over." The Straight-Lunge (_coup droit_), used when the adversary
is not properly covered when on guard, is described above under "Lunge."
The Disengagement is made by dropping the point of the foil under the
opponent's blade and executing a straight lunge on the other side. It is
often used to take an opponent unawares or when he presses unduly hard
on your blade. The Counter-disengagement is used when the adversary
moves his blade, i.e. changes the line of engagement, upon which you
execute a narrow circle, avoiding his blade, and thrust in your original
line. The Cut-over (_coupé_) is a disengagement executed by passing the
point of the foil over that of the adversary and lunging in the opposite
line. The preliminary movement of raising the point is made by the
action of the hand only, the arm not being drawn back.

_Feint Attacks_, deceptive in character, are those which are preceded by
one or more feints, or false thrusts made to lure the adversary into
thinking them real ones. A feint is a simple extension, often with a
slight movement of the body, threatening the adversary in a certain
line, for the purpose of inducing him to parry on that side and thus
leave the other open for the real thrust. At the same time any movement
of the blade or any part of the body tending to deceive the adversary in
regard to the nature of the attack about to follow, must also be
considered a species of feint. The principal feint attacks are the
"One-Two," the "One-Two-Three" and the "Double."

The "One-Two" is a feint in one line, followed (as the adversary
parries) by a thrust in the original line of engagement. Thus, being
engaged in quarte, you drop your point under the adversary's blade and
extend your arm as if to thrust at his left breast, but instead of doing
this, the instant he parries you move your point back again and lunge in
quarte, i.e. on the side on which you were originally engaged. In
feinting it is necessary that the extension of the arm and blade be so
complete as really to compel the adversary to believe it a part of a
real thrust in that line.

The "One-Two-Three" consists of two feints, one at each side, followed
by a thrust in the line opposite to that of the original engagement.
Thrusts preceded by three feints are also sometimes used. It is evident
that the above attacks are useless if the adversary parries by a counter
(circular parry), which must be met by a "Double." This is executed by
feinting and, upon perceiving that the adversary opposes with a circular
parry, by following the circle described by his point with a similar
circle, deceiving (i.e. avoiding contact with) his blade and thrusting
home.

The "Double," which is a favourite manoeuvre in fencing, is a
combination of a disengagement and a counter-disengagement.

_Force-Attacks_, the object of which is to disconcert the opponent by
assaulting his blade, are various in character, the principal ones being
the "Beat," the "Press," the "Glide" and the "Bind." The "Beat" is a
quick, sharp blow of the forte of the foil upon the foible of the
adversary's, for the purpose of opening a way for a straight lunge which
follows instantly. The blow is made with the hand only. A "false beat"
is a lighter blow made for the purpose of drawing out or disconcerting
the opponent, and is often followed by a disengagement. The "Press" is
similar in character to the beat, but, instead of striking the adverse
blade, a sudden pressure is brought to bear upon it, sufficiently heavy
to force it aside and allow one's own blade to be thrust home. A "false
press" may be used to entice the adversary into a too heavy responsive
pressure, which may then be taken advantage of by a disengagement. The
"Traverse" (Fr. _froissé_, Ital. _striscio_) is a prolonged press
carried sharply down the adverse blade towards the handle. The "Glide"
("Graze," Fr. _coulé_) is a stealthy sliding of one's blade down that of
the adversary, without his notice, until a straight thrust can be made
inside his guard. It is also used as a feint before a disengage. The
"Bind" (_liement_) consists in gaining possession of the adversary's
foible with one's forte, and pressing it down and across into the
opposite low line, when one's own point is thrust home, the adversary's
blade being still held by one's hilt. It may be also carried out from a
low line into a high one. The bind is less used in the French school
than in the Italian. The "Flanconnade" is a bind made by capturing the
adversary's blade in high quarte, carrying it down and thrusting in the
outside line with strong opposition. Another attack carried out by means
of a twist and thrust is the "Cross" (_croisé_), which is executed when
the adversary's blade is held low by passing one's point over his wrist
and forcing down both blades into seconde with a full extension of the
arm. The result is to create a sudden and wide opening, and often
disarms the adversary.

_Secondary Attacks_ are those made (1) just as your adversary himself
starts to attack; (2) during his attack; and (3) on the completion of
his attack if it fails.

1. "Attacks on the Preparation" are a matter of judgment and quickness.
They are usually attempted when the adversary is evidently preparing a
complicated attack, such as the "one-two-three" or some other manoeuvre,
involving one or more preliminary movements. At such a time a quick
thrust will often catch him unawares and score. Opportunities for
preparation attacks are often given when the adversary attempts a beat
preliminary to his thrust; the beat is frustrated by an "absence of the
blade," i.e. your blade is made to avoid contact with his by a narrow
movement, and your point thrust home into the space left unguarded by
the force of his unresisted beat. Or the adversary himself may create an
"absence" by suddenly interrupting the contact of the blades, in the
hope that, by the removal of the pressure, your blade will fly off to
one side, leaving an opening; if, however, you are prepared for his
"absence" a straight thrust will score.

2. The chief "Attacks on the Development," or "Counter Attacks," are the
"Stop Thrust" and the "Time Thrust," both made while the adversary is
carrying out his own attack. The "Stop Thrust" (_coup d'arrêt_) is one
made after the adversary has actually begun an attack involving two or
more movements, and is only justified when it can be brought off without
your being hit by the attacking adversary's point on any part of the
person. The reason for this is, that the rules of fencing decree that
the fencer attacked must parry, and that, if he disregards this and
attempts a simultaneous counter attack, he must touch his opponent while
totally avoiding the latter's point. Should he, however, be touched,
even on the foot or mask, by the adversary, his touch, however good, is
invalid. If both touches are good, that of the original attacker only
counts. Stop thrusts are employed mostly against fencers who attack
wildly or without being properly covered. The "Time Thrust" is delivered
with opposition upon the adversary's composite attack (one involving
several movements), and, if successful, generally parries the original
attack at the same time. It is not valid if the fencer employing it is
touched on any part of the person.

3. "Attacks on the Completion" (i.e. of the adversary's attack) are
"Ripostes," "Counter-ripostes," "Remises" and "Renewals of Attack."

The _Riposte_ (literally, response) is an attack made, immediately after
parrying successfully, by merely straightening the arm, the body
remaining immovable. The "counter-riposte" is a riposte made after
parrying the adversary's riposte, and generally from the position of the
lunge, or while recovering from it, since one must have attacked with a
full lunge if the adversary has had an opportunity to deliver a riposte.
There are three kinds of ripostes: direct, with feints and after a
pause.

The "direct _riposte_" may be made instantly after parrying the
adversary's thrust by quitting his blade and straightening the arm, so
that the point will touch his body on the nearest and most exposed part;
or by not quitting his blade but running yours quickly down his and at
the same time keeping a strong opposition ("riposte d'opposition"). The
quickest direct riposte is that delivered after parrying quarte (for a
right-hand fencer), and is called by the French the riposte of
"_tac-au-tac_," imitative of the sudden succession of the click of the
parry and the tap of the riposting fencer's point on his adversary's
breast. In making "ripostes with a feint" the point is not jabbed on to
the opponent's breast immediately after the parry, but one or more
preliminary movements precede the actual riposte, such as a
disengagement, a cut-over or a double.

_Ripostes_ with a pause (_à temps perdu_, with lost time) are made after
a second's hesitation, and are resorted to when the fencers are too near
for an accurate direct riposte, or to give the adversary time to make a
quick parry, which is then deceived.

The _remise_ is a thrust made after one's first thrust has been parried
and in the same line; it must be made in such a way that the adversary's
justified riposte is at the same time parried by opposition or
completely avoided. It is really a renewal of the attack in the original
line, while the so-called "renewal of attack" ("_redoublement
d'attaque_") is a second thrust which ignores the adversary's riposte,
but made in a different line. Both the remise and the renewal are valid
only when the adversary's riposte does not hit.

"False Attacks" are broad movements made for the purpose of drawing the
adversary out or of disconcerting him. They may consist of an advance,
an extension, a change of engagement, an intentional uncovering by
taking a wide guard (called "invitation guard"), or any movement or
combination of movements tending to make the adversary believe that a
real attack is under way.

"The Assault" is a formal fencing bout or series of bouts in public,
while formal fencing in private is called "loose play" or a "friendly
bout." Bouts between fencers take place on a platform about 24 ft. long
and 6 ft. wide (in the United States 20 × 3 ft.). Formal bouts are
usually for a number of touches, or for a certain number of minutes, the
fencer who touches oftenest winning. The judges (usually three or five)
are sometimes empowered to score one or more points against a competitor
for breaches of good form, or for overstepping the space limits. In the
United States bouts are for four minutes, with a change of places after
two minutes, and the competitors are not interrupted, the winner being
indicated by a vote of the judges, who take into account touches and
style. In all countries contestants are required to wear jackets of a
light colour, so that hits may be easily seen. Audible acknowledgment of
all touches, whether on the target or not, is universally considered to
be a fencer's duty. Fencing competitions are held in Great Britain under
the rules of the Amateur Fencing Association, and in the United States
under those of the Amateur Fencers' League of America.

  _Fencing Terms_ (not mentioned above): "_Cavazione_," Ital. for
  disengagement. "Contraction, Parries of," those which do not parry in
  the simplest manner, but drag the adverse blade into another line,
  e.g. to parry a thrust in high sixte by counter of quarte.
  "_Controtempo_," Ital. for time-thrust. "Coronation," an attack
  preceded by a circular movement from high sixte to high quarte (and
  vice versa) made famous by Lafaugère. "_Corps-à-corps_" (body to
  body), the position of two fencers who are at such close quarters that
  their persons touch: when this occurs the fencers must again come on
  guard. "_Coulé_," Fr. for glide. "Disarm," to knock the foil out of
  the adversary's hand; it is of no value in the French school. "Double
  Hit," when both fencers attack and hit at the same time; neither hit
  counts. "_Filo_," Ital. for glide (graze). "Flying Cut-over," a
  cut-over executed as a continuation of a parry, the hand being drawn
  back towards the body. "_Incontro_," Ital. for double attack. "Give
  the blade," to allow the adversary easy contact with the foil; it is
  often resorted to in order to tempt the adversary into a beat or bind.
  "Menace," to threaten the adversary by an extension and forward
  movement of the trunk. "_Mur_," see "Salute." "Passage of arms," a
  series of attacks and parries, ending in a successful hit. "Phrase of
  arms," a series of attacks and parries ending in a hit or
  invalidation. "Invalidation," a hit on some part of the person outside
  the target, made by the fencer whose right it is at that moment to
  attack or riposte; such a hit invalidates one made simultaneously or
  subsequently by his opponent, however good. "Rebeat," two beats,
  executed as quickly as possible together, one on each side of the
  adversary's blade. "_Reprises d'attaque_," Fr. for renewed attacks.
  "Salute," the courteous salutation of the public and the adversary
  before and after a bout. A more elaborate salute, called by the French
  the _Mur_, consists of a series of parries, lunges and other
  evolutions carried out by both fencers at the same time. Important
  exhibition assaults are usually preceded by the _Mur_, which is called
  in English the Grand Salute. "_Septime enveloppée_," a riposte by
  means of a twist and thrust after a parry in septime. It envelops and
  masters the adverse blade, whence the name. "Secret thrusts," the
  French "_bottes secrètes_," pretended infallible attacks of which the
  user is supposed alone to know the method of execution; they have no
  real existence. "_Sforza,_" Ital. for disarmament. "_Scandaglio,_"
  Ital for examination, studying the form of an opponent at the
  beginning of a bout. "_Toccato!_" Ital. for "Touched!",. Fr.
  "_Touché._"

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The literature of foil-fencing is practically identical
  with that of the art in general (see FENCING). The following modern
  works are among the best. French School: _Fencing_, in the Badminton
  library (1897); _Foil and Sabre_, by L. Rondelle (Boston, 1892);
  "Fencing," by C. Prevost in the _Encyclopaedia of Sport_ (1901);
  _Fencing_, by Edward Breck (New York, 1906). Italian school:
  _Istruzione per la scherma, &c._, by S. de Frae (Milan, 1885); _La
  Scherma italiana di spada e di sciabola_, by F. Masiello (Florence,
  1887).     (E. B.)



FOIX, PAUL DE (1528-1584), French prelate and diplomatist. He studied
Greek and Roman literature at Paris, and jurisprudence at Toulouse,
where shortly after finishing his curriculum he delivered a course of
lectures on civil law, which gained him great reputation. At the age of
nineteen he was named councillor of the parlement of Paris. Having in
this capacity expressed himself favourable to the adoption of mild
measures in regard to certain persons accused of Lutheranism, he was
arrested, but escaped punishment, and subsequently regained the favour
of the French court. At the end of 1561 he was sent ambassador to
England, where he remained four years. He was then sent to Venice, and
returned a short time afterwards to England to negotiate a marriage
between Queen Elizabeth and the duke of Anjou. He again fulfilled
several important missions during the reign of Henry III. of France. In
1577 he was made archbishop of Toulouse, and in 1579 was appointed
ambassador to Rome, where he remained till his death in 1584.

  _Les Lettres de Messire de Paul de Foix, archevesque de Toloze et
  ambassadeur pour le roy auprès du pape Grégoire XIII, au roi Henry
  III_, were published in 1628, but there are some doubts as to their
  authenticity. See _Gallia Christiana_ (1715 seq.); M.A. Muret,
  _Oraison funèbre de Paul de Foix_ (Paris, 1584); "Lettres de Catherine
  de Médicis," edited by Hector de la Ferrière (Paris, 1880 seq.) in the
  _Collection de documents inédits sur l'histoire de France_.



FOIX, a town of south-western France, in the middle ages capital of the
counts of Foix, and now capital of the department of Ariège, 51 m. S. of
Toulouse, on the Southern railway from that city to Ax. Pop. (1906)
town, 4498; commune, 6750. It is situated between the Ariège and the
Arget at their confluence. The old part of the town, with its ill-paved
winding streets and old houses, is dominated on the west by an isolated
rock crowned by the three towers of the castle (12th, 14th and 15th
centuries), while to the south it is limited by the shady Promenade de
Villotte. The chief church is that of St Volusien, a Gothic building of
the 14th century. The town is the seat of a prefecture, a court of
assizes and a tribunal of first instance, and has a lycée, training
colleges, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
Flour-milling and iron-working are carried on. Foix probably owes its
origin to an oratory founded by Charlemagne. This afterwards became an
abbey, in which were laid the remains of St Volusien, archbishop of
Tours in the 5th century.

The county of Foix included roughly the eastern part of the modern
department of Ariège, a region watered chiefly by the Ariège and its
affluents. During the later middle ages it consisted of an agglomeration
of small holdings ruled by lords, who, though subordinate to the counts
of Foix, had some voice in the government of the district. Protestantism
obtained an early entrance into the county, and the religious struggles
of the 16th and 17th centuries were carried on with much implacability
therein. The estates of the county, which can be traced back to the 14th
century, consisted of three orders and possessed considerable power and
virility. In the 17th and 18th centuries Foix formed one of the
thirty-three governments of France, and in 1790 it was incorporated in
the department of Ariège.

_Counts of Foix._--The counts of Foix were an old and distinguished
French family which flourished from the 11th to the 15th century. They
were at first feudatories of the counts of Toulouse, but chafing under
this yoke they soon succeeded in throwing it off, and during the 13th
and 14th centuries were among the most powerful of the French feudal
nobles. Living on the borders of France, having constant intercourse
with Navarre, and in frequent communication with England, they were in
a position peculiarly favourable to an assertion of independence, and
acted rather as the equals than as the dependents of the kings of
France.

The title of count of Foix was first assumed by Roger, son of Bernard
Roger, who was a younger son of Roger I., count of Carcassonne (d.
1012), when he inherited the town of Foix and the adjoining lands, which
had hitherto formed part of the county of Carcassonne. Dying about 1064,
Roger was succeeded by his brother Peter, who died six years later, and
was succeeded in turn by his son, Roger II. This count took part in the
crusade of 1095, and was afterwards excommunicated by Pope Paschal II.
for seizing ecclesiastical property; but subsequently he appeased the
anger of the church by rich donations, and when he died in 1125 he was
succeeded by his son, Roger III. The death of Roger III. about 1149, and
of his son, Roger Bernard I., in 1188, brought the county to Roger
Bernard's only son, Raymond Roger, who, in 1190, accompanied the French
king, Philip Augustus, to Palestine and distinguished himself at the
capture of Acre. He was afterwards engaged in the wars of the
Albigenses, and on being accused of heresy his lands were given to Simon
IV., count of Montfort. Raymond Roger, who came to terms with the church
and recovered his estates before his death in 1223, was a patron of the
Provençal poets, and counted himself among their number. He was
succeeded by his son, Roger Bernard II., called the Great, who assisted
Raymond VII., count of Toulouse, and the Albigenses in their resistance
to the French kings, Louis VIII. and Louis IX., was excommunicated on
two occasions and died in 1241. His son, Roger IV., who followed, died
in 1265, and was succeeded by his son, Roger Bernard III., who, more
famous as a poet than as a warrior, was taken prisoner both by Philip
III. of France and by Peter III. of Aragon. This count married
Marguerite, daughter and heiress of Gaston VII., viscount of Béarn (d.
1290), and this union led to the outbreak of a long feud between the
houses of Foix and Armagnac; a quarrel which was continued by Roger
Bernard's son and successor, Gaston I., who became count in 1302,
inheriting both Foix and Béarn. Becoming embroiled with the French king,
Philip IV., in consequence of the struggle with the count of Armagnac,
Gaston was imprisoned in Paris; but quickly regaining his freedom he
accompanied King Louis X. on an expedition into Flanders in 1315, and
died on his return to France in the same year. His eldest son, Gaston
II., was the next count. Having become reconciled with the house of
Armagnac, Gaston took part in various wars both in France and Spain,
dying at Seville in 1343, when he was succeeded by his son, Gaston III.
(1331-1391). Gaston III., who was surnamed Phoebus on account of his
beauty, was the most famous member of the old Foix family. Like his
father he assisted France in her struggle against England, being
entrusted with the defence of the frontiers of Gascony; but when the
French king, John II., showed a marked preference for the count of
Armagnac, Gaston left his service and went to fight against the heathen
in Prussia. Returning to France about 1357 he delivered some noble
ladies from the attacks of the adherents of the _Jacquerie_ at Meaux,
and was soon at war with the count of Armagnac. During this struggle he
also attacked the count of Poitiers, the royal representative in
Languedoc, but owing to the intervention of Pope Innocent VI. he made
peace with the count in 1360. Gaston, however, continued to fight
against the count of Armagnac, who, in 1362, was defeated and compelled
to pay a ransom; and this war lasted until 1377, when peace was made.
Early in 1380 the count was appointed governor of Languedoc, but when
Charles VI. succeeded Charles V. as king later in the same year, this
appointment was cancelled. Refusing, however, to heed the royal command,
and supported by the communes of Languedoc, Gaston fought for about two
years against John, duke of Berry, who had been chosen as his successor,
until, worsted in the combat, he abandoned the struggle and retired to
his estates, remaining neutral and independent. In 1348 the count had
married Agnes, daughter of Philip, count of Evreux (d. 1343), by his
wife Jeanne II., queen of Navarre. By Agnes, whom he divorced in 1373,
he had an only son, Gaston, who is said to have been incited by his
uncle, Charles II., king of Navarre, to poison his father, and who met
his death in 1381. It is probable, as Froissart says, that he was killed
by his father. Left without legitimate sons, Gaston was easily persuaded
to bequeath his lands to King Charles VI., who thus obtained Foix and
Béarn when the count died at Orthes in 1391. Gaston was very fond of
hunting, but was not without a taste for art and literature. Several
beautiful manuscripts are in existence which were executed by his
orders, and he himself wrote _Déduits de la chasse des bestes sauvaiges
et des oiseaulx de proye_. Froissart, who gives a graphic description of
his court and his manner of life, speaks enthusiastically of Gaston,
saying: "I never saw none like him of personage, nor of so fair form,
nor so well made," and again, "in everything he was so perfect that he
cannot be praised too much."

Almost immediately after Gaston's death King Charles VI. granted the
county of Foix to Matthew, viscount of Castelbon, a descendant of Count
Gaston I. Dying without issue in 1398, Matthew's lands were seized by
Archambault, count of Grailly and captal de Buch, the husband of his
sister Isabella (d. 1426), who became count of Foix in 1401.
Archambault's eldest son, John (c. 1382-1436), who succeeded to his
father's lands and titles in 1412, had married in 1402 Jeanne, daughter
of Charles III., king of Navarre. Having served the king of France in
Guienne and the king of Aragon in Sardinia, John became the royal
representative in Languedoc, when the old quarrel between Foix and
Armagnac broke out again. During the struggle between the Burgundians
and the Armagnacs, he intrigued with both parties, and consequently was
distrusted by the dauphin, afterwards King Charles VII. Deserting the
cause of France, he then allied himself with Henry V. of England; but
when Charles VII. became king in 1422, he returned to his former
allegiance and became the king's representative in Languedoc and
Guienne. He then assisted to suppress the marauding bands which were
devastating France; fought for Aragon against Castile; and aided his
brother, the cardinal of Foix, to crush some insurgents in Aragon.
Peter, cardinal of Foix (1386-1464), was the fifth son of Archambault of
Grailly, and was made archbishop of Arles in 1450. He took a prominent
part in the struggle between the rival popes, and founded and endowed
the Collège de Foix at Toulouse. The next count was John's son, Gaston
IV., who married Leonora (d. 1479), a daughter of John, king of Aragon
and Navarre. In 1447 he bought the viscounty of Narbonne, and having
assisted King Charles VII. in Guienne, he was made a peer of France in
1458. In 1455 his father-in-law designated him as his successor in
Navarre, and Louis XI. of France gave him the counties of Rousillon and
Cerdagne, and made him his representative in Languedoc and Guienne; but
these marks of favour did not prevent him from joining a league against
Louis in 1471. His eldest son, Gaston, the husband of Madeleine, a
daughter of Charles VII. of France, died in 1470, and when Gaston IV.
died two years later, his lands descended to his grandson, Francis
Phoebus (d. 1483), who became king of Navarre in 1479, and was succeeded
by his sister Catherine (d. 1517), the wife of Jean d'Albret (d. 1516).
Thus the house of Foix-Grailly was merged in that of Albret and
subsequently in that of Bourbon; and when Henry of Navarre became king
of France in 1589 the lands of the counts of Foix-Grailly became part of
the French royal domain. A younger son of Count Gaston IV. was John (d.
1500), who received the viscounty of Narbonne from his father and
married Marie, a sister of the French king Louis XII. He was on good
terms both with Louis XI. and Louis XII., and on the death of his nephew
Francis Phoebus, in 1483, he claimed the kingdom of Navarre against Jean
d'Albret and his wife, Catherine de Foix. The ensuing struggle lasted
until 1497, when John renounced his claim. He left a son, Gaston de Foix
(1489-1512), the distinguished French general, and a daughter, Germaine,
who became the second wife of Ferdinand I., king of Spain. In 1507
Gaston exchanged his viscounty of Narbonne with King Louis XII. for the
duchy of Nemours, and as duke of Nemours he took command of the French
troops in Italy. Having delivered Bologna and taken Brescia, Gaston
encountered the troops of the Holy League at Ravenna in April 1512, and
after putting the enemy to flight was killed during the pursuit. From
the younger branch of the house of Foix-Grailly have also sprung the
viscounts of Lautrec and of Meilles, the counts of Bénanges and Candale,
and of Gurson and Fleix.

  See D.J. Vaissète, _Histoire générale de Languedoc_, tome iv. (Paris,
  1876); L. Flourac, _Jean I^er, comte de Foix, vicomte souverain de
  Béarn_ (Paris, 1884); Le Père Anselme, _Histoire généalogique_, tome
  iii. (Paris, 1726-1733); Castillon, _Histoire du comte de Foix_
  (Toulouse, 1852); Madaune, _Gaston Phoebus, comte de Foix et souverain
  de Béarn_ (Pau, 1865); and Froissart's _Chroniques_, edited by S. Luce
  and G. Raynaud (Paris, 1869-1897).



FOLARD, JEAN CHARLES, CHEVALIER DE (1669-1752), French soldier and
military author, was born at Avignon on the 13th of February 1669. His
military ardour was first awakened by reading Caesar's _Commentaries_,
and he ran away from home and joined the army. He soon saw active
service, and, young as he was, wrote a manual on partisan warfare, the
manuscript of which passed with Folard's other papers to Marshal
Belleisle on the author's death. In 1702 he became a captain, and
aide-de-camp to the duke of Vendôme, then in command of the French
forces in Italy. In 1705, while serving under Vendôme's brother, the
Grand Prior, Folard won the cross of St Louis for a gallant feat of
arms, and in the same year he distinguished himself at the battle of
Cassano, where he was severely wounded. It was during his tedious
recovery from his wounds that he conceived the tactical theories to the
elucidation of which he devoted most of his life. In 1706 he again
rendered good service in Italy, and in 1708 distinguished himself
greatly in the operations attempted by Vendôme and the duke of Burgundy
for the relief of Lille, the failure of which was due in part to the
disagreement of the French commanders; and it is no small testimony to
the ability and tact of Folard that he retained the friendship of both.
Folard was wounded at Malplaquet in 1709, and in 1711 his services were
rewarded with the governorship of Bourbourg. He saw further active
service in 1714 in Malta, under Charles XII. of Sweden in the north, and
under the duke of Berwick in the short Spanish War of 1719. Charles XII.
he regarded as the first captain of all time, and it was at Stockholm
that Folard began to formulate his tactical ideas in a commentary on
Polybius. On his way back to France he was shipwrecked and lost all his
papers, but he set to work at once to write his essays afresh, and in
1724 appeared his _Nouvelles Découvertes sur la guerre dans une
dissertation de Polybe_, followed (1727-1730) by _Histoire de Polybe
traduite par ... de Thuillier avec un commentaire ... de M. de Folard,
Chevalier de l'Ordre de St Louis_. Folard spent the remainder of his
life in answering the criticisms provoked by the novelty of his
theories. He died friendless and in obscurity at Avignon in 1752.

An analysis of Folard's military writings brings to light not a
connected theory of war as a whole, but a great number of independent
ideas, sometimes valuable and suggestive, but far more often
extravagant. The central point of his tactics was his proposed column
formation for infantry. Struck by the apparent weakness of the thin line
of battle of the time, and arguing from the [Greek: embolon] or _cuneus_
of ancient warfare, he desired to substitute the shock of a deep mass of
troops for former methods of attack, and further considered that in
defence a solid column gave an unshakable stability to the line of
battle. Controversy at once centred itself upon the column. Whilst some
famous commanders, such as Marshal Saxe and Guido Starhemberg, approved
it and put it in practice, the weight of military opinion throughout
Europe was opposed to it, and eventually history justified this
opposition. Amongst the most discriminating of his critics was Frederick
the Great, who is said to have invited Folard to Berlin. The Prussian
king certainly caused a _précis_ to be made by Colonel von Seers, and
wrote a preface thereto expressing his views. The work (like others by
Frederick) fell into unauthorized hands, and, on its publication (Paris,
1760) under the title _Esprit du Chev. Folard_, created a great
impression. "Thus kept within bounds," said the prince de Ligne,
"Folard was the best author of the time." Frederick himself said tersely
that "Folard had buried diamonds in a rubbish-heap." Thus began the
controversy between line and column formations, which long continued and
influenced the development of tactics up to the most modern times.
Folard's principal adherents in the 18th century were Joly de Maizeroy
and Menil Durand.

  See _Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de M. le Chevalier de Folard_
  (Paris and Regensburg, 1753), and for a detailed account of Folard's
  works and those of his critics and supporters. Max Jähns, _Geschichte
  der Kriegswissenschaften_, vol. ii. pp. 1478-1493 (Munich and Leipzig,
  1890).



FOLD, a pleat or bend in a flexible material, or a curve in any surface,
whence its particular application in geology with which this article
deals. The verb "to fold" (O. Eng. _fealdan_) meant originally to double
back a piece of cloth or other material so as to form a pleat, whence
has evolved its various senses of to roll up, to enclose, enfold or
embrace as with the arms, to clasp the hands or arms together, &c. The
word is common to Teutonic languages, cf. Ger. _falten_, Dutch _vouwen_
(for _vouden_), &c., and the ultimate Indo-European root is found in Gr.
[Greek: plekein], Lat. _plicare_, _plectere_, to plait, pleat, weave,
and in the suffixes of such words as [Greek: diplasios], _duplex_,
double, _simplex_, &c. Similarly the termination "-fold" is added to
numbers implying "so many," e.g. twofold, hundredfold, cf. "manifold."
The similar word for an enclosure or pen for animals, especially for
sheep, and hence applied in a spiritual sense to a community of
worshippers, or to the whole body of Christians regarded as Christ's
flock, must be distinguished. In O. Eng. it is _falæd_, and cognate
forms are found in Dutch _vaalt_, &c. It apparently meant a planked or
boarded enclosure, cf. Dan. _fjael_, Swed. _fjöl_, plank.

In geology, a fold is a bend or curvature in the stratified rocks of the
earth's crust, whereby they have been made to take up less horizontal
space. The French equivalents are _pli_, _plissement_, _ridement_; in
Germany, _Falte_, _Faltung_, _Sattelung_ are the terms usually employed.
It is comparatively rarely that bedded rocks are observed in the
position in which they were first deposited, a certain amount of
buckling up or sagging down of the crust being continually in progress
in one region or another. In every instance therefore where, in walking
over the surface, we traverse a series of strata which gradually, and
without dislocations, increase or diminish in inclination, we cross part
of a great curvature in the strata of the earth's crust.

Such foldings, however, can often be distinctly seen, either on some
cliff or coast-line, or in the traverse of a piece of hilly or
mountainous ground. The observer cannot long continue his researches in
the field without discovering that the rocks of the earth's crust have
been almost everywhere thrown into curves, usually so broad and gentle
as to escape observation except when specially looked for. The outcrop
of beds at the surface is commonly the truncation of these curves. The
strata must once have risen above the present surface, and in many cases
may be found descending to the surface again with a contrary dip, the
intervening portion of the undulation having been worn away.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Section of the Isle of Wight--a Monoclinal
Curve, a, Chalk; b, Woolwich and Reading beds; c, London clay; d,
Bagshot series; e, Headon series; f, g, Osborne and Bembridge series.]

The curvature occasionally shows itself among horizontal or gently
inclined strata in the form of an abrupt inclination, and then an
immediate resumption of the previous flat or sloping character. The
strata are thus bent up and continue on the other side of the tilt at a
higher level. Such bends are called _monoclines_, _monoclinal folds_ or
_flexures_, because they present only one fold, or one half of a fold,
instead of the two which we see in an arch or trough. The most notable
instance of this structure in Britain is that of the Isle of Wight, of
which a section is given in fig. 1. The Cretaceous rocks on the south
side of the island rapidly rise in inclination till they become nearly
vertical. The Lower Tertiary strata follow with a similar steep dip,
but rapidly flatten down towards the north coast. Some remarkable cases
of the same structure have been brought to light by J.W. Powell in his
survey of the Colorado region.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Plan of Anticlinal and Synclinal Folds.]

It much more frequently happens that the strata have been bent into
arches and troughs, so that they can be seen dipping under the surface
on one side of the axis of a fold, and rising up again on the other
side. Where they dip away from the axis of movement the structure is
termed an _anticline_ or _anticlinal fold_; where they dip towards the
axis, it is a _syncline_ or _synclinal fold_. The diagram in fig. 2 may
be taken to represent a series of strata (1-17) thrown into an anticline
(AA') and syncline (BB'). A section drawn across these folds in the line
CD would show the structure given in fig. 3. Here we see that, at the
part of the anticlinal axis (A) where the section crosses, bed No. 4
forms the crown of the arch, Nos. 1, 2 and 3 being concealed beneath it.
On the east side of the axis the strata follow each other in regular
succession as far as No. 13, which, instead of passing here under the
next in order, turns up with a contrary dip and forms the centre of a
trough or syncline (B). From underneath No. 13 on the east side the same
beds rise to the surface which passed beneath it on the west side. The
particular bed marked EF has been entirely removed by denudation from
the top of the anticline, and is buried deep beneath the centre of the
syncline.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Section of Anticlinal and Synclinal Folds on the
line CD (fig. 2).]

Such foldings of strata must always die out unless they are abruptly
terminated by dislocations. In the cases given in fig. 2, both the arch
and trough are represented as diminishing, the former towards the north,
the latter towards the south. The observer in passing northwards along
the axis of that anticline finds himself getting into progressively
higher strata as the fold sinks down. On the other hand, in advancing
southwards along the synclinal axis, he loses stratum after stratum and
gets into lower portions of the series. When a fold diminishes in this
way it is said to "nose out." In fig. 2 there is obviously a general
inclination of the beds towards the north, besides the outward dip from
the anticline and the inward dip from the syncline. Hence the anticline
noses out to the north and the syncline to the south.

_Simple Folds._--In describing rock-folds special terms have been
assigned to certain portions of the fold; thus, the sloping sides of an
anticline or syncline are known as the "limbs," "slopes," "flanks" or
"members" of the fold; in an anticline, the part X, fig. 3, the angle of
the bend, is the "crest" or "crown" (Ger. _Gewölbebiegung_, Fr.
_charnière anticlinale_), the corresponding part of a syncline being the
"trough-core" or "base," Y, fig. 3 (Ger. _Muldenbiegung_, Fr. _charnière
synclinale_). The portion of an anticline which has been removed by
denudation is the "aerial arch," dotted in fig. 3. The innermost strata
in a fold constitute the "core," arch-core A, fig. 3, or trough-core B,
in the same figure. In the majority of folds the bending of the strata
has taken place about an "axial plane" (often called the "axis"), which
in the examples illustrated in fig. 3 would pass through the points A and
B, perpendicularly to the horizontal line CD. In powerfully folded
regions the axial planes of the folds are no longer upright; they may be
moderately inclined, producing an "inversion," "inverted fold" or
"overfold." When the inclination of the axial plane is great a "recumbent
overfold" is produced (Fr. _pli couché_, Ger, _liegende Falte_). In a
fold of this kind (fig. 4) we have an "arch limb" (a), a middle limb (b)
and a floor or "trough limb" (c). X and Y are the upper and lower bends
respectively. One of the important functions of a fold is its direction;
this of course depends upon the orientation of the axial plane. The
crest-line of an anticline or trough-line of a syncline is rarely
horizontal for any great distance; its departure from horizontality is
designated the "pitch," and the fold is said to pitch (or dip) towards
the north, &c. Most simple folds--with the exception of very shallow
curvatures of wide area,--when considered in their entirety, are seen to
be somewhat canoe-shaped in form. There are three variations of the
simple fold dependent upon the position of the limbs, (1) the limbs may
tend to diverge as they recede from the crest (fig. 3), sometimes styled
an "open anticline"; (2) the limbs may be parallel in "closed" folds
(commonly known as isoclinal folding); (3) the limbs may make an open
angle or widen out towards the crest (fig. 4). This is known as a
fan-shaped fold (Fr. _pli en éventail_, Ger. _Fächerfalte_); another
variant of the same form is the mushroom fold (Fr. _pli en champignon_).
The axial plane is not always extended: it may be so abbreviated that the
folding appears to have taken place about a point; anticlines of this
type are variously designated "short-anticlines," "_brachyanticlinaux_"
or "domes"; similarly, there are "short-synclines," "_brachysynclinaux_"
or "cuvettes." The dip in cases of this kind has been described as
"qua-qua versal" or "periclinal."

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

_Complex Folding._--Sometimes a simple fold has been itself subjected
to further folding repeated more than once, it is then termed a
"refolded fold" (Fr. _pli replié_); fine examples may be observed in the
Alps and in other mountain chains. A great regional major fold
containing within itself a number of minor "special" or subsidiary folds
is described as a "geanticline" (Fr. _structure en éventail composé_),
or as a "geosyncline" (Fr. _structure en éventail renversé_). Even folds
of lesser magnitude may be highly complex in regions of extreme crustal
movement, and may contain smaller folds of the first, second, third or
higher order (Fr. _couches gaufrées_ [fig. 5]). In its smaller
manifestation, this class of folding passes into "crumpling" or
"puckering," where quite a large number of folds may be crowded into a
single hand specimen. In "frilling" or "frilled structure" the folds
have still smaller amplitude, and in many highly corrugated rocks minute
folds are observable with the microscope that do not appear to the
unaided eye. When a series of adjacent isoclinal overfolds has passed
into a series of thrusts (see FAULT), the so-called "imbricated"
structure (Fr. _structure imbriquée_, Ger. _Schuppenstruktur_) is
generated. Occasionally crust-blocks resembling "graben" and "horsts"
are circumscribed by folds instead of faults; when this is so they have
been called respectively "infolded graben" or "overfolded horsts."

The heterogeneous character of great masses of strata has always had a
marked influence on the nature of the folding; some beds have yielded
much more readily than others, certain beds will be found to be faulted,
while those above and below have folded without fracture. In many
examples of apparent plasticity it can be shown that this effect has
been produced by an infinite number of minute slippings within the rock
substance.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Curved and Contorted Rocks, near Old Head of
Kinsale. (Du Noyer.)]

The larger rock folds have produced important economic results. For
example, in many coal regions the deposits have been conserved in some
districts in the synclines or "basins," while they have been removed by
denudation from the uplifted anticlines in others. Near the crest of
anticlines is commonly an enriched portion of the ground in mineralized
districts; and, in the case of water supply, the tilt of the strata
determines the direction of the underground flowage. Again, the most
convenient site for oil wells is the crest of an anticline or "dome,"
where an impervious stratum imprisons the gas and oil in a subjacent
saturated layer under pressure.

  For a discussion of the question of the distribution and arrangement
  of the great folded regions of the earth's crust, see E. Suess, _Das
  Antlitz der Erde_, English translation. _The Face of the Earth_, vols.
  i., ii., iii., iv. (Oxford). See also E. de Margerie and A. Heim, _Les
  Dislocations de l'écorce terrestre_ (Zurich, 1888); A. Rothpletz,
  _Geotektonische Probleme_ (Stuttgart, 1894).



FOLENGO, TEOFILO (1491-1544), otherwise known as Merlino Coccajo or
Cocajo, one of the principal Italian macaronic poets, was born of noble
parentage at Cipada near Mantua on the 8th of November 1491, From his
infancy he showed great vivacity of mind, and a remarkable cleverness in
making verses. At the age of sixteen he entered the monastery of Monte
Casino near Brescia, and eighteen months afterwards he became a
professed member of the Benedictine order. For a few years his life as a
monk seems to have been tolerably regular, and he is said to have
produced a considerable quantity of Latin verse, written, not
unsuccessfully, in the Virgilian style. About the year 1516 he forsook
the monastic life for the society of a well-born young woman named
Girolama Dieda, with whom he wandered about the country for several
years, often suffering great poverty, having no other means of support
than his talent for versification. His first publication was the
_Merlini Cocaii macaronicon_, which relates the adventures of a
fictitious hero named Baldus. The coarse buffoonery of this work is
often relieved by touches of genuine poetry, as well as by graphic
descriptions and acute criticisms of men and manners. Its macaronic
style is rendered peculiarly perplexing to the foreigner by the frequent
introduction of words and phrases from the Mantuan patois. Though
frequently censured for its occasional grossness of idea and expression,
it soon attained a wide popularity, and within a very few years passed
through several editions. Folengo's next production was the _Orlandino_,
an Italian poem of eight cantos, written in rhymed octaves. It appeared
in 1526, and bore on the title-page the new pseudonym of Limerno Pitocco
(Merlin the Beggar) da Mantova. In the same year, wearied with a life of
dissipation, Folengo returned to his ecclesiastical obedience; and
shortly afterwards wrote his _Chaos del tri per uno_, in which, partly
in prose, partly in verse, sometimes in Latin, sometimes in Italian, and
sometimes in macaronic, he gives a veiled account of the vicissitudes of
the life he had lived under his various names, We next find him about
the year 1533 writing in rhymed octaves a life of Christ entitled
_L'Umanità del Figliuolo di Dio_; and he is known to have composed,
still later, another religious poem upon the creation, fall and
restoration of man, besides a few tragedies. These, however, have never
been published. Some of his later years were spent in Sicily under the
patronage of Don Fernando de Gonzaga, the viceroy; he even appears for a
short time to have had charge of a monastery there. In 1543 he retired
to Santa Croce de Campesio, near Bassano; and there he died on the 9th
of December 1544.

  Folengo is frequently quoted and still more frequently copied by
  Rabelais. The earlier editions of his _Opus macaronicum_ are now
  extremely rare. The often reprinted edition of 1530 exhibits the text
  as revised by the author after he had begun to amend his life.



FOLEY, JOHN HENRY (1818-1874), Irish sculptor, was born at Dublin on the
24th of May 1818. At thirteen he began to study drawing and modelling at
the schools of the Royal Dublin Society, where he took several
first-class prizes. In 1835 he was admitted a student in the schools of
the Royal Academy, London. He first appeared as an exhibitor in 1839
with his "Death of Abel and Innocence." "Ino and Bacchus," exhibited in
1840, gave him immediate reputation, and the work itself was afterwards
commissioned to be done in marble for the earl of Ellesmere. "Lear and
Cordelia" and "Death of Lear" were exhibited in 1841. "Venus rescuing
Aeneas" and "The Houseless Wanderer" in 1842, "Prospero and Miranda" in
1843. In 1844 Foley sent to the exhibition at Westminster Hall his
"Youth at a Stream," and was, with Calder Marshall and John Bell, chosen
by the commissioners to do work in sculpture for the decoration of the
Houses of Parliament. Statues of John Hampden and Selden were executed
for this purpose, and received liberal praise for the propriety, dignity
and proportion of their treatment. Commissions of all kinds now began to
come rapidly. Fanciful works, busts, bas-reliefs, tablets and monumental
statues were in great numbers undertaken and executed by him with a
steady equality of worthy treatment. In 1849 he was made an associate
and in 1858 a member of the Royal Academy. Among his numerous works the
following may be noticed, besides those mentioned above:--"The Mother";
"Egeria," for the Mansion House; "The Elder Brother in Comus," his
diploma work; "The Muse of Painting," the monument of James Ward, R.A.;
"Caractacus," for the Mansion House; "Helen Faucit"; "Goldsmith" and
"Burke," for Trinity College, Dublin; "Faraday"; "Reynolds"; "Barry,"
for Westminster Palace Yard; "John Stuart Mill," for the Thames
embankment; "O'Connell" and "Cough," for Dublin; "Clyde," for Glasgow;
"Clive," for Shrewsbury; "Hardinge," "Canning" and "Outram," for
Calcutta; "Hon. James Stewart," for Ceylon; the symbolical group "Asia,"
as well as the statue of the prince himself, for the Albert Memorial in
Hyde Park; and "Stonewall Jackson," in Richmond, Va. The statue of Sir
James Outram is probably his masterpiece. Foley's early fanciful works
have some charming qualities; but he will probably always be best
remembered for the workmanlike and manly style of his monumental
portraits. He died at Hampstead on the 27th of August 1874, and on the
4th of September was buried in St Paul's cathedral. He left his models
to the Royal Dublin Society, his early school, and a great part of his
property to the Artists' Benevolent Fund.

  See W. Cosmo Monkhouse, _The Works of J.H. Foley_ (1875).



FOLEY, SIR THOMAS (1757-1833), British admiral, entered the navy in
1770, and, during his time as midshipman, saw a good deal of active
service in the West Indies against American privateers. Promoted
lieutenant in 1778, he served under Admiral (afterwards Viscount) Keppel
and Sir Charles Hardy in the Channel, and with Rodney's squadron was
present at the defeat of De Lángara off Cape St Vincent in 1780, and at
the relief of Gibraltar. Still under Rodney's command, he went out to
the West Indies, and took his part in the operations which culminated in
the victory of the 12th of April 1782. In the Revolutionary War he was
engaged from the first. As flag-captain to Admiral John Gell, and
afterwards to Sir Hyde Parker, Foley took part in the siege of Toulon
in 1793, the action of Golfe Jouan in 1794, and the two fights off
Toulon on the 13th of April and the 13th of July 1795. At St Vincent he
was flag-captain to the second in command, and in the following year was
sent out in command of the "Goliath" (74), to reinforce Nelson's fleet
in the Mediterranean. The part played by the "Goliath" in the battle of
the Nile was brilliant. She led the squadron round the French van, and
this manoeuvre contributed not a little to the result of the day.
Whether this was done by Foley's own initiative, or intended by Nelson,
has been a matter of controversy (see _Journal of the Royal United
Service Institution_, 1885, p. 916). His next important service was with
Nelson in the Baltic. The "Elephant" carried Nelson's flag at the battle
of Copenhagen, and her captain acted as his chief-of-staff. Ill-health
obliged Foley to decline Nelson's offer (made when on the point of
starting for the battle of Trafalgar) of the post of Captain of the
Fleet. From 1808 to 1815 he commanded in the Downs and at the peace was
made K.C.B. Sir Thomas Foley rose to be full admiral and G.C.B. He died
while commanding in chief at Portsmouth in 1833.

  See J.B. Herbert, _Life and Services of Sir Thomas Foley_ (Cardiff,
  1884).



FOLI (FOLEY), ALLAN JAMES (1837-1899), Irish bass singer, was born at
Cahir, Tipperary, on the 7th of August 1837; originally a carpenter, he
studied under Bisaccia at Naples, and made his first appearance at
Catania in 1862. From the opera in Paris he was engaged by Mapleson for
the season of 1865, and appeared with much success in various parts. He
sang in the first performance of _The Flying Dutchman_ (Daland) in
England in 1870, and in the first performance of Gounod's _Redemption_
in 1882. He was distinguished in opera and oratorio alike for his
vigorous, straightforward way of singing, and was in great request at
ballad concerts. He died on the 20th of October 1899.



FOLIGNO (anc. _Fulginiae_, q.v.), a town and episcopal see of Umbria,
Italy, 771 ft. above sea-level, in the province of Perugia, from which
it is 25 m. S.E. by rail. Pop. (1901) 9532 (town), 26,278 (commune). It
lies in a fertile plain, on the Topino, a tributary of the Tiber; it is
almost square in shape and is surrounded by walls. It is a picturesque
and interesting town; several of its churches contain paintings by
Umbrian masters, notably works by Niccolò di Liberatore (or Niccolò
Alunno, 1430-1502), and among them his chief work, a large altar-piece
(the predella of which is in the Louvre) in S. Niccolò. The cathedral
has a romanesque S. façade of 1133, restored in 1903; the interior was
modernized in the 18th century. To the left of the choir is an octagonal
chapel by Antonio da Sangallo the younger (1527). In the same piazza as
the S. façade is the Palazzo del Governo, erected in 1350, which has a
chapel with frescoes by Ottaviano Nelli of Gubbio (1424). S. Maria infra
Portas is said to date from the 7th century, but from this period only
the columns of the portico remain. Raphael's "Madonna di Foligno," now
in the Vatican, was originally painted for the church of S. Anna. The
Palazzo Orfini and the Palazzo Deli are two good Renaissance buildings.

Foligno seems to have been founded about the middle of the 8th century
A.D. It changed hands often during the wars of the 13th century, and was
destroyed by Perugia in 1281. From 1305 to 1439 it was governed by the
family of the Trinci as deputies of the Holy See, until in the latter
year one of its members went against the church. Pope Eugene IV. sent a
force against Foligno, to which the inhabitants opened their gates, and
the last of the Trinci, Corrado II., was beheaded. Henceforth Foligno
belonged to the states of the church until 1860. It suffered from a
severe earthquake in 1832. Foligno is a station on the main line from
Rome (via Orte) to Ancona, and is the junction for Perugia. Three miles
to the E. is the abbey of Sassovivo with cloisters of 1229, very like
those of S. Paolo fuori le Mura at Rome, with pairs of small columns
supporting arches, and decorations in coloured mosaic ("Cosmatesque"
work). The church has been modernized.



FOLIO (properly the ablative case of the Lat. _folium_, leaf, but also
frequently an adaptation of the Ital. _foglio_), a term in bibliography
and printing, with reference either to the size of paper employed, or of
the book, or to the pagination. In the phrase "in folio" it means a
sheet of paper folded once, and thus a book bound up in sheets thus
folded is a book of the largest size and is known as a "folio" (see
BIBLIOGRAPHY). Similarly, "folio" is one of the sizes of paper adapted
to be thus folded (see PAPER). In book-keeping the word is used for a
page in a ledger on which the credit and debtor account is written; in
law-writing, for a fixed number of words in a legal document, used for
measurement of the length and for the addition of costs. In Great
Britain, a "folio" is taken to contain 72 words, except in parliamentary
and chancery documents, when the number is 90. In the U.S.A. 100 words
form a "folio."



FOLIUM, in mathematics, a curve invented and discussed by René
Descartes. Its cartesian equation is x³ + y³ = 3axy. The curve is
symmetrical about the line x = y, and consists of two infinite branches
asymptotic to the line x + y + a = o and a loop in the first quadrant.
It may be traced by giving m various values in the equations x = 3am/(1
+ m³), y = 3am² (1 + m³), since by eliminating m between these relations
the equation to the curve is obtained. Hence it is _unicursal_ (see
CURVE). The area of the loop, which equals the area between the curve
and its asymptote, is 3a/2.

[Illustration.]



FOLKES, MARTIN (1690-1754), English antiquary, was born in London on the
29th of October 1690. He was educated at Saumur University and Clare
College, Cambridge, where he so distinguished himself in mathematics
that when only twenty-three years of age he was chosen a fellow of the
Royal Society. He was elected one of the council in 1716, and in 1723
Sir Isaac Newton, president of the society, appointed him one of the
vice-presidents. On the death of Newton he became a candidate for the
presidency, but was defeated by Sir Hans Sloane, whom, however, he
succeeded in 1741; in 1742 he was made a member of the French Academy;
in 1746 he received honorary degrees from Oxford and Cambridge. In 1733
he set out on a tour through Italy, in the course of which he composed
his _Dissertations on the Weights and Values of Ancient Coins_. Before
the Society of Antiquaries, of which he was president from 1749 to 1754,
he read in 1736 his _Observations on the Trajan and Antonine Pillars at
Rome_ and his _Table of English Gold Coins from the 18th Year of King
Edward III_. In 1745 he printed the latter with another on the history
of silver coinage. He also contributed both to the Society of
Antiquaries and to the Royal Society other papers, chiefly on Roman
antiquities. He married in 1714 Lucretia Bradshaw, an actress who had
appeared at the Haymarket and Drury Lane (see Nichols's Lit. _Anecdot._
ii. 578-598).

  For Sir John Hill's attack on Folkes (_Review of the Works of the
  Royal Soc._, 1751), see D'Israeli, _Calamities and Quarrels of
  Authors_ (1860), pp. 364-366.



FOLKESTONE, a municipal borough, seaport and watering-place of Kent,
England, within the parliamentary borough of Hythe, 71 m. S.E. by E. of
London by the South-Eastern & Chatham railway. Pop. (1891) 23,905;
(1901) 30,650. This is one of the principal ports in cross-Channel
communications, the steamers serving Boulogne, 30 m. distant. The older
part of Folkestone lies in a small valley which here opens upon the
shore between steep hills. The more modern portions extend up the hills
on either hand. To the north the town is sheltered by hills rising
sharply to heights of 400 to 500 ft., on several of which, such as
Sugarloaf and Castle Hills, are ancient earthworks. Above the cliff west
of the old town is a broad promenade called the Lees, commanding a
notable view of the channel and connected by lifts with the shore below.
On this cliff also stands the parish church of St Mary and St Eanswith,
a cruciform building of much interest, with central tower. It is mainly
Early English, but the original church, attached to a Benedictine
priory, was founded in 1095 on the site of a convent established by
Eanswith, daughter of Eadbald, king of Kent in 630. The site of this
foundation, however, became endangered by encroachments of the sea. The
monastery was destroyed at the dissolution of religious houses by Henry
VIII. Folkestone inner harbour is dry at low water, but there is a deep
water pier for use at low tide by the Channel steamers, by which not
only the passenger traffic, but also a large general trade are carried
on. The fisheries are important. Among institutions may be mentioned the
grammar school, founded in 1674, the public library and museum, and a
number of hospitals and sanatoria. The discontinued Harveian Institution
for young men was named after William Harvey, discoverer of the
circulation of the blood, a native of Folkestone (1578), who is also
commemorated by a tercentenary memorial on the Lees. Folkestone is a
member of the Cinque Port of Dover. It is governed by a mayor, 7
aldermen and 21 councillors. Area, 2522 acres. To the west of
Folkestone, close to Shorncliffe camp, is the populous suburb of
Cheriton (an urban district, pop. 7091).

Folkestone (Folcestan) was among the possessions of Earl Godwine and was
called upon to supply him with ships when he was exiled from England; at
the time of the Domesday Survey it belonged to Odo, bishop of Bayeux.
From early times it was a member of the Cinque Port of Dover, and had to
find one out of the twenty-one ships furnished by that port for the
royal service. It shared the privileges of the Cinque Ports, whose
liberties were exemplified at the request of the barons of Folkestone by
Edward III. in 1330. The corporation, which was prescriptive, was
entitled the mayor, jurats and commonalty of Folkestone. The history of
Folkestone is a record of its struggle against the sea, which was
constantly encroaching upon the town. In 1629 the inhabitants,
impoverished by their losses, obtained licence to erect a port. By the
end of the 18th century the town had become prosperous by the increase
of its fishing and shipping trades, and by the middle of the 19th
century one of the chief health and pleasure resorts of the south coast.



FOLKLAND (_folcland_). This term occurs three times in Anglo-Saxon
documents. In a law of Edward the Elder (c. i. 2) it is contrasted with
bookland in a way which shows that these two kinds of tenure formed the
two main subdivisions of landownership: no one is to deny right to
another in respect of folkland or bookland. By a charter of 863 (Cod.
Dipl. 281), King Æthelberht exchanges five hides of folkland for five
hides of bookland which had formerly belonged to a thane, granting the
latter for the newly-acquired estates exemption from all fiscal
exactions except the threefold public obligation of attending the fyrd
and joining in the repair of fortresses and bridges. Evidently folkland
was not free from the payment of _gafål_ (land tax) and providing
quarters for the king's men. In ealdorman Alfred's will the testator
disposes freely of his bookland estates in favour of his sons and his
daughter, but to a son who is not considered as rightful offspring five
hides of folkland are left, provided the king consents. It is probable
that folkland is meant in two or three cases when Latin documents speak
of _terra rei publicae jure possessa_.

Two principal explanations have been given to this term. Allen thought
that folkland was similar to the Roman _ager publicus_: it was the
common property of the nation (_folc_), and the king had to dispose of
it by carving out dependent tenures for his followers more or less after
the fashion of continental _beneficia_. These estates remained subject
to the superior ownership of the folk and of the king: they could
eventually be taken back by the latter and, in any case, the heir of a
holder of folkland had to be confirmed in possession by the king. A
letter of Bede to the archbishop Ecgbert of York may be interpreted to
apply to this kind of tenure. Kemble, K. Maurer, H.C. Lodge, Stubbs and
others followed Allen's lead.

Another theory was started by Professor Vinogradoff in an article on
folkland in the _English Hist. Review_ for 1893. It considers folkland
as landownership by folkright--at common law, as might be said in modern
legal speech. In opposition to it bookland appears as landownership
derived from royal privilege. The incidents recorded in the charters
characterize folkland as subject to ordinary fiscal burdens and to
limitations in respect of testamentary succession. Thane Wallaf has to
be relieved from fiscal exactions when his estate is converted from
folkland into bookland (C.D. 281). Ealdorman Alfred's son, not being
recognized as legitimate, has to claim folkland not by direct succession
or devise, but by the consent of the king. These incidents and
limitations are thrown into relief by copious illustrations as to the
fundamental features of bookland contained in the numberless "books."
These are exemptions from fiscal dues and freedom of disposition of the
owner. This view of the matter has been accepted by the chief modern
authorities.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--J. Allen, _Inquiry into the Rise and Growth of Royal
  Prerogative in England_ (London, 1849); K. Maurer, _Kritische
  Überschau_ (1853), Band i. 102 ff.; F.W. Maitland, _Domesday Book and
  Beyond_, 244 ff. (Cambridge, 1897); P. Vinogradoff, "Folcland," in the
  _Eng. Hist. Rev._ (1893), p. 1 ff.; Sir F. Pollock, _Land Laws_
  (London, 1896); H. Brunner, _Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte_, Band i. (2nd
  ed., 293, Leipzig, 1887-1892).     (P. Vi.)



FOLKLORE, a term invented in 1846 by Mr W.J. Thoms as a designation for
the traditional learning of the uncultured classes of civilized nations.
The word has been adopted in this sense into many foreign languages; it
is sometimes regarded as the equivalent of the Ger. _Volkskunde_. But
folklore is, properly speaking, the "lore _of_ the folk," while
_Volkskunde_ is lore or learning _about_ the folk, and includes not only
the mental life of a people, but also their arts and crafts. The term
folklore is also used to designate the science which deals with
folklore; the study of survivals involves the investigation of the
similar customs, beliefs, &c., of races on lower planes of culture;
consequently folklore, as interpreted by the English and American
societies, concerns itself as much or more with savage races as with the
popular superstitions of the white races.

_History._--The scientific study of folklore dates back to the first
quarter of the 19th century, but folklore was collected long before that
date. The organized study of folklore is a thing of recent growth. The
first Folklore Society was founded in London in 1878; similar bodies now
exist in the United States, France, Italy, Switzerland and especially in
Germany and Austria. The folk-tale makes its appearance in literature at
a very early period; Egyptian examples have come down to us from the
28th century B.C. In Greece the Homeric poems contain many folk-tale
incidents; for India we have the _Jatakas_ and _Panchatantra_; and for
the Arabs the great collection of the _Thousand and One Nights_. Another
type of folk-narrative is represented by Aesop's _Fables_. Not
unnaturally beliefs and customs received less attention; our knowledge
of them among the ancients is as a rule pieced together. Among the
oldest professed collections are J.B. Thiers (1606-1703), _Traité des
superstitions_ (1679), Aubrey's _Miscellanies_ (1686) and H. Bourne's
(1696-1733) _Antiquitates vulgares_ (1725); but they belong to the
antiquarian, non-scientific period.

The pioneers of the modern scientific treatment of folklore were the
brothers Grimm, by the publication of their _Kinder-und Hausmärchen_
(1812-1815) and _Deutsche Mythologie_ (1835). They were the first to
present the folk-tale in its genuine unadulterated form. They differed
from their predecessors in regarding the myth, not as the result of
conscious speculation, but of a mythopoeic impulse. They were, however,
disposed to press modern linguistic evidence too far and make the
figures of the folk-tale the lineal representatives of ancient gods, as
the folk-tales themselves were of the myths. This tendency was
exaggerated by their successors, J.W. Wolf, W. Rochholz and others. At
the outset of his career, W. Mannhardt (1831-1880), the forerunner of
the anthropological school of folklore, shared in this mistake. Breaking
away eventually from the philological schools, which interpreted myths
and their supposed descendants, the folk-tales, as relating to the
storm, the sun, the dawn, &c. (see MYTHOLOGY), Mannhardt made
folk-custom and belief his basis. To this end he set himself to collect
and compare the superstitions of the peasantry; but his health was
always feeble and he never completed his scheme. For a time Mannhardt's
researches bore fruit neither in his own country nor abroad. In 1878 the
foundation of the Folklore Society marked a new era in England, where
the philological school had had few adherents; and the anthropological
school soon produced evidence of its vitality in the works of Mr Andrew
Lang, Dr J.G. Frazer and Professor Robertson Smith.

With the growth of our knowledge of European folk-custom and belief on
the one hand, and of rites and religions of people in the lower stages
of culture on the other hand, it has become abundantly clear that there
is no line of demarcation between the two. Each throws light upon the
other, and the superstitions of Europe are the lineal descendants of
savage creeds which have their parallels all over the world in the
culture of primitive peoples.

_Subdivisions._--The folklore of civilized peoples may be conveniently
classified under three main heads: (1) belief and custom; (2) narratives
and sayings; (3) art. These again may be subdivided. The first division,
_Belief and Custom_, includes (A) Superstitious beliefs and practices,
including (a) those connected with natural phenomena or inanimate
nature, (b) tree and plant superstitions, (c) animal superstitions, (d)
ghosts and goblins, (e) witchcraft, (f) leechcraft, (g) magic in general
and divination, (h) eschatology, and (i) miscellaneous superstitions and
practices; and (B) Traditional customs, including (a) festival customs
for which are set aside certain days and seasons, (b) ceremonial customs
on the occasion of events such as birth, death or marriage, (c) games,
(d) miscellaneous local customs, such as agricultural rites connected
with the corn-spirit (see DEMONOLOGY), and (e) dances. The second head
of _Narratives and Sayings_ may be subdivided (A) into (a) sagas or
tales told as true, (b) Märchen or nursery tales, (c) fables, (d)
drolls, apologues, cumulative tales, &c., (e) myths (see MYTHOLOGY), and
(f) place legends; (B) into ballads and songs (in so far as they do not
come under art); and (C) into nursery rhymes, riddles, jingles,
proverbs, nicknames, place rhymes, &c. The third head, _Art_, subdivides
into (a) folk music with ballads and songs, (b) folk drama. Any
classification, however, labours under the disadvantage of separating
items which properly belong together. Thus, myths are obviously the form
in which some superstitions are expressed. They may also be aetiological
in their nature and form an elaborate record of a custom. Eschatological
beliefs naturally take the form of myths. Traditional narratives can
also be classified under art, and so on.

_Literature._--The literature of the subject falls into two sharply
defined classes--synthetic works and collections of folklore--of which
the latter are immensely more numerous. Of the former class the most
important is Dr J.G. Frazer's _Golden Bough_, which sets out from the
study of a survival in Roman religion and covers a wide field of savage
and civilized beliefs and customs. Especially important are the chapters
on agricultural rites, in which are set forth the results of Mannhardt's
researches. Other important lines of folklore research in the _Golden
Bough_ are those dealing with spring ceremonies, with the primitive view
of the soul, with animal cults, and with sun and rain charms. Mr E.S.
Hartland's _Legend of Perseus_ is primarily concerned with the origin of
a folk-tale, and this problem in the end is dismissed as insoluble. A
large part of the book is taken up with a discussion of sympathetic
magic, and especially with the "life index," an object so bound up with
the life of a human being that it acts as an indication of his
well-being or otherwise. The importance of children's games in the study
of folklore has been recognized of recent years. An admirable collection
of the games of England has been published by Mrs G.L. Gomme. With the
more minute study of uncivilized peoples the problem of the diffusion of
games has also come to the fore. In particular it is found that the
string-game called "cat's cradle" in various forms is of very wide
diffusion, being found even in Australia. The question of folk-music has
recently received much attention (see SONG).

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Introductory works: M.R. Cox, _Introduction to
  Folklore_; Kaindl, _Die Volkskunde_; Marillier in _Revue de l'histoire
  des religions_, xliii. 166, and other works mentioned by Kaindl.

  General works: J.G. Frazer, _The Golden Bough_; E.S. Hartland, _The
  Legend of Perseus_; A. Lang, _Custom, and Myth, Myth, Ritual and
  Religion_; Tylor, _Primitive Culture_; Liebrecht, _Zur Volkskunde_.

  British Isles. England: Burne, _Shropshire Folklore_; _Denham Tracts_
  (F.L.S.); Harland and Wilkinson, _Lancashire Folklore_; Henderson,
  _Folklore of Northern Counties_; _County Folklore Series_ (Printed
  Extracts) of the F.L.S. Wales: Elias Owen, _Welsh Folklore_; Rhys,
  _Celtic Folklore_. Scotland: Dalyell, _Darker Superstitions_; Gregor,
  _Folklore of N.E. of Scotland_; the works of J.G. Campbell, &c.

  Germany: Grimm, _Deutsche Mythologie_, English translation by
  Stallybrass; Wuttke, _Der deutsche Volksaberglaube_; Meyer, _Deutsche
  Volkskunde_; Tetzner, _Die Slaven in Deutschland_; Mogk in Paul's
  _Grundriss der germanischen Philologie_, and the works cited by Kaindl
  (see above).

  France: Sebillot's works; Rolland, _Faune populaire_; Laisnel de la
  Salle, _Croyances et légendes_.

  On the Slavs see the works of Krauss and v. Wlislochi; for Bohemia,
  Grohmann, _Aberglaube_; for Greece, Abbott, _Macedonian Folklore_, and
  Rennell Rodd, _Folklore of Greece_; for Italy, Pitré's bibliography;
  for India, Crooke's works, and the _Indian Antiquary_. For
  questionnaires see _Handbook of Folklore_ (Folklore Soc.); Sebillot,
  _Essai de questionnaires_; _Journal of American Folklore_ (1890, &c.);
  and Kaindl's _Volkskunde_. For a bibliography of folk-tales see
  Hartland, _Mythology and Folk-tales_; to his list may be added
  Petitot's _Légendes indiennes_; Rand, _Legends of the Micmacs_;
  Lummis, _The Man who Married the Moon_; and the publications of the
  American Folklore Society. For other works see bibliographies in
  _Folklore_ and other periodicals. On special points may be mentioned
  Miss Cox's _Cinderella_ (Folklore Society); Kohler's works, &c. (see
  also bibliography to the article TALE). For games see Gomme, _English
  Games_; Culin, _Korean Games_; Rochholz, _Alemannisches Kinderlied_;
  Böhme, _Deutsches Kinderlied_; Handelmann, _Volks- und Kinderspiele_;
  Jayne, _String Figures_, &c.; and the bibliography to DOLL. See also
  Sonnenschein's _Best Books_.

  The following is a list of the more important Societies and
  publications:--

  England: Folklore Society; Folksong Society; Gipsy-lore Society.

  U.S.A.: American Folklore Society.

  France: _Société des traditions populaires_.

  Germany: _Verein für Volkskunde; Hessische Vereinigung für
  Volkskunde_; and minor societies in Saxony, Silesia and other
  provinces.

  Austria: _Verein für österreichische Volkskunde_.

  Switzerland: _Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Volkskunde_.

  Italy: _Società per lo studio delle tradizioni popolari_.

  In addition to these, the anthropological societies devote more or
  less attention to folklore. Besides the publications of the societies
  mentioned above, minor societies or individuals are responsible for
  the following among others: Belgium, _Wallonia_; Poland, _Wisla_;
  France, _Melusine_ (1878, 1883-1901); Bohemia, _Cesky Lid_; Denmark,
  _Dania_, &c.; Germany, _Zeitschrift für Völkerpsychologie_
  (1859-1890); _Am Urguell_ (1890-1898).     (N. W. T.)



FOLLEN, AUGUST (or, as he afterwards called himself, ADOLF) LUDWIG
(1794-1855), German poet, was born at Giessen on the 21st of January
1794, the son of a district judge. He studied theology at Giessen and
law at Heidelberg, and after leaving the university edited the Elberfeld
_Allgemeine Zeitung_. Suspected of being connected with some radical
plots, he was imprisoned for two years in Berlin. When released in 1821
he went to Switzerland, where he taught in the canton school at Aarau,
farmed from 1847-1854 the estate of Liebenfels in Thurgau, and then
retired to Bern, where he lived till his death on the 26th of December
1855. Besides a number of minor poems he wrote _Harfengrüsse aus
Deutschland und der Schweiz_ (1823) and _Malegys und Vivian_ (1829), a
knightly romance after the fashion of the romantic school. Of his many
translations, mention may be made of the Homeric Hymns in collaboration
with R. Schwenck (1814), Tasso's _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1818) and
_Siegfrieds Tod_ from the _Nibelungenlied_ (1842); he also collected and
translated Latin hymns and sacred poetry (1819). In 1846 he published a
brief collection of sonnets entitled _An die gottlosen Nichtswüteriche_.
This was aimed at the liberal philosopher Arnold Ruge, and was the
occasion of a literary duel between the two authors. Follen's posthumous
poem _Tristans Eltern_ (1857) may also be mentioned, but his best-known
work is a collection of German poetry entitled _Bildersaal deutscher
Dichtung_ (1827).



FOLLEN, KARL (1795-1840), German poet and patriot, brother of A.L.
Follen, was born at Romrod in Hesse-Darmstadt, on the 5th of September
1795. He first studied theology at Giessen, but after the campaign of
1814, in which, like his brother August, he took part as a Hessian
volunteer, began the study of jurisprudence, and in 1818 established
himself as _Privatdocent_ of civil law at Giessen. Owing to being
suspected of political intrigues, he removed to Jena, and thence, after
the assassination of Kotzebue, fled to France. Here again the political
murder of the duc de Berry, on the 14th of January 1820, led to Follen
being regarded as a suspect, and he accordingly took refuge in
Switzerland, where he taught for a while at the cantonal school at Coire
and at the university of Basel; but the Prussian authorities
imperatively demanding his surrender, he sought in 1824 the hospitality
of the United States of America. Here he became an instructor in German
at Harvard in 1825, and in 1830 obtained an appointment as professor of
German language and literature there; but his anti-slavery agitation
having given umbrage to the authorities, he forfeited his post in 1835,
and was ordained Unitarian minister of a chapel at Lexington in
Massachusetts in 1836. He perished at sea on board a steamboat which was
totally consumed by fire while on a voyage from New York to Boston, on
the night of the 13th-14th of January 1840. Follen was the author of
several celebrated patriotic songs written in the interests of liberty.
The best is perhaps _Horch auf, ihr Fürsten! Du Volk, horch auf!_ of
which Johannes Wit, called von Dörring (1800-1863), was long, though
erroneously, considered the author. It was published in A.L. Follen's
collection of patriotic songs, _Freie Stimmen frischer Jugend_.

  His wife Elisa Lee (1787-1860), an American authoress of some
  reputation, published after his death his lectures and sermons, with a
  biography written by herself (5 vols., Boston, 1846).



FOLLETT, SIR WILLIAM WEBB (1798-1845), English lawyer, was born at
Topsham in Devonshire on the 2nd of December 1798. He was the son of
Captain Benjamin Follett, who had retired from the army in 1790, and
engaged in business at Topsham. He received his education at Exeter
grammar school and Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating in 1818. He
had entered the Inner Temple in 1816 and began to practise as a pleader
below the bar in 1821, but was called to the bar in 1824, and joined the
western circuit in 1825. At the very outset his great qualifications
were universally recognized. He was thoroughly master of his profession,
and his rapid rise in it was due not only to his quick perception and
sound judgment, but to his singular courtesy, kindness and sweetness of
temper. In 1830 he married the eldest daughter of Sir Ambrose Harding
Gifford, chief justice of Ceylon. In 1835 he was returned to parliament
for Exeter. In parliament he early distinguished himself, and under the
first administration of Sir Robert Peel was appointed solicitor-general
(November 1834); but resigned with the ministry in April 1835. In the
course of this year he was knighted. On the return of Peel to power in
1841 Sir William was again appointed solicitor-general, and in April
1844 he succeeded Sir Frederick Pollock as attorney-general. But his
health, which had begun to fail him in 1838, and had been permanently
injured by a severe illness in 1841, now broke down, and he was
compelled to relinquish practice and to visit the south of Europe. He
returned to England in March 1845; but the disease, consumption,
reasserted itself, and he died in London on the 28th of June following.
A statue of Follett, executed by Behnes, was erected by subscription in
Westminster Abbey.



FONBLANQUE, ALBANY WILLIAM (1793-1872), English journalist, descended
from a noble French Huguenot family, the Greniers of Languedoc, was born
in London in 1793. John Grenier, a banker, became naturalized in England
under the name of Fonblanque; and his son John Samuel Martin Fonblanque
(1760-1838), a distinguished equity lawyer, and the author of a standard
legal work, a _Treatise on Equity_, was the father of Albany Fonblanque;
he represented the borough of Camelford in parliament; and was one of
the Whig friends of George IV. when prince of Wales. At fourteen young
Fonblanque was sent to Woolwich to prepare for the Royal Engineers. His
health, however, failed, and for two years his studies had to be
suspended. Upon his recovery he studied for some time with a view to
being called to the bar. At the age of nineteen (1812) he commenced
writing for the newspapers, and very soon attracted notice both by the
boldness and liberality of his opinions, and by the superiority of his
style to what Macaulay, when speaking of him, justly called the "rant
and twaddle of the daily and weekly press" of the time. While he was
eagerly taking his share in all the political struggles of this eventful
period, he was also continuing his studies, devoting no less than six
hours a day to the study of classics and political philosophy. Under
this severe mental training his health once more broke down. His energy,
however, was not impaired. He became a regular contributor to the
newspapers and reviews, realizing a fair income which, as his habits
were simple and temperate, secured him against pecuniary anxieties.

From 1820 to 1830 Albany Fonblanque was successively employed upon the
staff of _The Times_ and the _Morning Chronicle_, whilst he contributed
to the _Examiner_, to the _London Magazine_ and to the _Westminster
Review_. In 1828 the _Examiner_ newspaper, which had been purchased by
the Rev. Dr Fellowes, author of the _Religion of the Universe_, &c., was
given over to Fonblanque's complete control; and for a period of
seventeen years (1830 to 1847) he not only sustained the high character
for political independence and literary ability which the _Examiner_ had
gained under the direction of Leigh Hunt and his brother, John Hunt, but
even compelled his political opponents to acknowledge a certain delight
in the boldness and brightness of the wit directed against themselves.
When it was proposed that the admirers and supporters of the paper
should facilitate a reduction in its price by the payment of their
subscription ten years in advance, not only did Mr Edward Bulwer (Lord
Lytton) volunteer his aid, but also Mr Disraeli, who was then coquetting
with radicalism. During his connexion with the _Examiner_, Fonblanque
had many advantageous offers of further literary employment; but he
devoted his energies and talents almost exclusively to the service of
the paper he had resolved to make a standard of literary excellence in
the world of journalism. Fonblanque was offered the governorship of Nova
Scotia; but although he took great interest in colonial matters, and had
used every effort to advocate the more generous political system which
had colonial self-government for its goal, he decided not to abandon his
beloved _Examiner_ even for so sympathetic an employment. In 1847,
however, domestic reasons induced him to accept the post of statistical
secretary of the Board of Trade. This of course compelled him to resign
the editorship of the _Examiner_, but he still continued to contribute
largely to the paper, which, under the control of John Forster,
continued to sustain its influential position. During the later years of
his life Fonblanque took no prominent part in public affairs; and when
he died at the age of seventy-nine (1872) he seemed, as his nephew,
Edward Fonblanque, rightly observes, "a man who had lived and toiled in
an age gone by and in a cause long since established."

The character of Albany Fonblanque's political activity may be judged of
by a study of his _England under Seven Administrations_ (1837), in
comparison with the course of social and political events in England
from 1826 to 1837. As a journalist, he must be regarded in the light of
a reformer. Journalism before his day was regarded as a somewhat
discreditable profession; men of true culture were shy of entering the
hot and dusty arena lest they should be confounded with the ruder
combatants who fought there before the public for hire. But the fact
that Fonblanque, a man not only of strong and earnest political
convictions but also of exceptional literary ability, did not hesitate
to choose this field as a worthy one in which both a politician and a
man of letters might usefully as well as honourably put forth his best
gifts, must have helped, in no small degree, to correct the old
prejudice.

  See the _Life and Labours of Albany Fonblanque_, edited by his nephew,
  Edward Barrington de Fonblanque (London, 1874); a collection of his
  articles with a brief biographical notice.



FOND DU LAC, a city and the county-seat of Fond du Lac county,
Wisconsin, U.S.A., about 60 m. N. of Milwaukee, at the S. end of Lake
Winnebago, and at the mouth of the Fond du Lac river, which is navigable
for only a short distance. Pop. (1890) 12,024; (1900) 15,110, of whom
2952 were foreign-born; (1910) 18,797. The city is a railway centre of
some importance, and is served by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul, the
Minneapolis, St Paul & Sault St Marie, and the Chicago & North-Western
railways, by interurban electric lines, and by steamboat lines
connecting through the Fox river with vessels on the Great Lakes. At
North Fond du Lac, just beyond the city limits, are car-shops of the two
last-mentioned railways, and in the city are manufactories of machinery,
automobiles, wagons and carriages, awnings, leather, beer, flour,
refrigerators, agricultural implements, toys and furniture. The total
value of the city's factory products in 1905 was $5,599,606, an increase
of 95.7% since 1900. The city has a Protestant Episcopal cathedral, the
Grafton Hall school for girls, and St Agnes hospital and convent, and a
public library with about 25,000 volumes in 1908. The first settlers on
the site of Fond du Lac arrived about 1835. Subsequently a village was
laid out which was incorporated in 1847; a city charter was secured in
1852.



FONDI (anc. _Fundi_), a town of Campania, Italy, in the province of
Caserta, 12 m. N.W. of Formia, and 11 m. E.N.E. of Terracina by road.
Pop. (1901) 9930. It lies 25 ft. above sea-level, at the N. end of a
plain surrounded by mountains, which extend to the sea. It occupies the
site of the ancient Fundi, a Volscian town, belonging later to _Latium
adjectum_, on the Via Appia, still represented by the modern high-road
which passes through the centre of the town. It is rectangular in plan,
and portions of its walls, partly in fine polygonal work and partly in
_opus incertum_, are preserved. Both plan and walls date, no doubt, from
the Roman period. The gate on the north-east still exists, and bears the
inscription of three aediles who erected the gate, the towers and the
wall. A similar inscription of three different aediles from the N.W.
gate still exists, but not _in situ_. In the neighbourhood are the
remains of several ancient villas, and along the Via Appia still stands
an ancient wall of _opus reticulatum_, with an inscription, in large
letters, of one Varronianus, the letters being at intervals of 25 ft.
The engineering of the ancient Via Appia between Fondi and Formia, where
it passes through the mountains near Itri, is remarkable.

The modern town is still enclosed by the ancient walls. The castle on
the S.E. side has some 15th-century windows with beautiful tracery.
Close by is the Gothic church of S. Pietro (formerly S. Maria), which
was the cathedral until the see was suppressed in 1818 and united with
that of Gaeta; it contains a fine pulpit with "cosmatesque" work and the
fine tomb of Cristoforo Caetani (1439), two interesting 15th-century
triptychs and an episcopal throne, which served for the coronation of
the anti-pope Clement VII. in 1378. In the Dominican monastery the cell
which St Thomas Aquinas sometimes occupied is shown.

The ancient city of Fundi in 338 B.C. (or 332) received (with Formiae)
the _civitas sine suffragio_, because it had always secured the Romans
safe passage through its territory; the people as a whole did not join
Privernum in its war against Rome three years later, though Vitruvius
Vacca, the leader, was a native of Fundi. It acquired the full
citizenship in 188 B.C., and was partly under the control of a
_praefectus_. The inscription upon some waterpipes which have been
discovered shows that later it became a _municipium_. It was governed by
three aediles: Horace's jest against the officious praetor (sic) is due
to the exigencies of metre (Th. Mommsen in _Hermes_, xiii. p. 113). The
family of Livia, the consort of Augustus, belonged to Fundi. During the
Lombard invasions in 592 Fundi was temporarily abandoned, but it seems
to have come under the rule of the papacy by A.D. 754 at any rate. Pope
John VIII. ceded it with its territory to Docibile, duke of Gaeta, but
its history is somewhat intricate after this period. Sometimes it
appears as an independent countship, though held by members of the
Caetani family, who about 1297 returned to it. In 1504 it was given to
Prospero Colonna. In 1534 Khair-ed-Din Barbarossa tried to carry off
Giulia Gonzaga, countess of Fondi, and sacked the city. After this Fondi
was much neglected; in 1721 it was sold to the Di Sangro family, in
which it still remains. Its position as a frontier town between the
papal states and the kingdom of Naples, just in the territory of the
latter--the Via Appia can easily be blocked either N.W. at the actual
frontier called Portella[1] or S.E. of it--affected it a good deal
during the French Revolution and the events which led up to the
unification of Italy.

The Lago di Fondi, which lies in the middle of the plain, and the
partially drained marshes surrounding it, compelled the ancient Via
Appia, followed by the modern road, to make a considerable détour. The
lake was also known in classical times ass, _lacus Amyclanu_ from the
town of Amyclae or Amunclae, which was founded, according to legend, by
Spartan colonists, and probably destroyed by the Oscans in the 5th
century B.C. (E. Pais in _Rendiconti dei Lincei_, 1906, 611 seq.); the
bay was also known as _mare Amunclanum_.

The ancient Speluncae (mod. _Sperlonga_) on the coast also belonged to
the territory of Fundi. Here was the imperial villa in which Sejanus
saved the life of Tiberius, who was almost crushed by a fall of rock.
Considerable remains of it, and of the caves from which it took its
name, still exist 1 m. S.E. of the modern village. For modern
discoveries see P. di Tucci in _Notizie degli scavi_ (1880), 480; G.
Patroni, _ibid._ (1898), 493. The wine of Fundi is spoken of by ancient
writers, though the _ager Caecubus_, the coast plain round the Lago di
Fundi, was even more renowned, and Horace frequently praises its wine;
and though Pliny the Elder speaks as if its production had almost
entirely ceased in his day (attributing this to neglect, but even more
to the excavation works of Nero's projected canal from the lacus Avernus
to Ostia), Martial mentions it often, and it is spoken of in the
inscription of a wine-dealer of the time of Hadrian, together with
Falernian and Setian wines (_Corpus inscript. Lat._ vi. Berlin, 1882,
9797). The plain of Fondi is the northernmost point in Italy where the
cultivation of oranges and lemons is regularly carried on in modern
times.

  See G. Conte Colino, _Storia di Fondi_ (Naples, 1902); B. Amante and
  R. Bianchi, _Memorie storiche e statutarie di Fondi in Campania_
  (Rome, 1903); T. Ashby, in _English Historical Review_, xix. (1904)
  557 seq. (T. As.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] For the pass of Ad Lautulas see TERRACINA.



FONNI, a town of Sardinia, in the province of Sassari, 3280 ft. above
sea-level, to the N.W. of Monte Gennargentu, 21 m. S. of Nuoro by road.
Pop. (1901) 4323. It is the highest village in Sardinia, and situated
among fine scenery with some chestnut woods. The church of the
Franciscans, built in 1708, contains some curious paintings by local
artists. The costumes are extremely picturesque, and are well seen on
the day of St John the Baptist, the patron saint. The men's costume is
similar to that worn in the district generally; the linen trousers are
long and black gaiters are worn. The women wear a white chemise; over
that a very small corselet, and over that a red jacket with blue and
black velvet facings. The skirt is brown above and red below, with a
blue band between the two colours; it is accordion-pleated. Two
identical skirts are often worn, one above the other. The unmarried
girls wear white kerchiefs, the married women black. A little to the N.
of Fonni, by the high-road, stood the Roman station of Sorabile,
mentioned in the _Antonine Itinerary_ as situated 87 m. from Carales on
the road to Olbia. Excavations made in 1879 and 1880 led to the
discovery of the remains of this station, arranged round three sides of
a courtyard some 100 ft. square, including traces of baths and other
buildings, and a massive embanking wall above them, some 150 ft. in
length, to protect them from landslips (F. Vivanet, in _Notizie degli
scavi_, 1879, 350; 1881, 31), while a discharge certificate (_tabula
honestae missionis_) of sailors who had served in the _classis Ravennas_
was found in some ruins here or hereabouts (_id. ib._, 1882, 440; T.
Mommsen, _Corp. inscr. Lat._ x. 8325). Near Fonni, too, are several
"menhirs" (called _pietre celtiche_ in the district) and other
prehistoric remains.     (T. As.)



FONSAGRADA, a town of north-western Spain, in the province of Lugo; 25
m. E.N.E. of Lugo by road. Pop. (1900) 17,302. Fonsagrada is situated
3166 ft. above the sea, on the watershed between the rivers Rodil and
Suarna. It is an important market for all kinds of agricultural produce,
and manufactures linen and frieze; but its trade is mainly local, owing
to the mountainous character of the neighbourhood, and the lack of a
railway or navigable waterway, which prevent the development of any
considerable export trade.



FONSECA, MANOEL DEODORO DA (1827-1892), first president of the united
states of Brazil, was born at Alagoas on the 5th of August 1827, being
the third son of Lieut.-Colonel Manoel Mendes da Fonseca (d. 1859). He
was educated at the military school of Rio de Janeiro, and had attained
the rank of captain in the Brazilian army when war broke out in 1864
against Montevideo, and afterwards against Solano Lopez, dictator of
Paraguay. His courage gained him distinction, and before the close of
the war in 1870 he reached the rank of colonel, and some years later
that of general of division. After holding several military commands, he
was appointed in 1886 governor of the province of Rio Grande do Sul. In
this position he threw himself heartily into politics, espoused the
republican opinions then becoming prevalent, and sheltered their
exponents with his authority. After a fruitless remonstrance, the
government at the close of the year removed him from his post, and
recalled him to the capital as director of the service of army material.
Finding that even in that post he still continued to encourage
insubordination, the minister of war, Alfredo Chaves, dismissed him from
office. On 14th of May 1887, in conjunction with the viscount de
Pelotas, Fonseca issued a manifesto in defence of the military officers'
political rights. From that time his influence was supreme in the army.
In December 1888, when the Conservative Correa d'Oliveira became prime
minister, Fonseca was appointed to command an army corps on the frontier
of Matto Grosso. In June 1889 the ministry was overthrown, and on a
dissolution an overwhelming Liberal majority was returned to the chamber
of deputies. Fonseca returned to the capital in September. Divisions of
opinion soon arose within the Liberal party on the question of
provincial autonomy. The more extreme desired the inauguration of a
complete federal system. Amongst the most vehement was Ruy Barbosa, the
journalist and orator, and after some difficulty he persuaded Fonseca to
head an armed movement against the government. The insurrection broke
out on the 15th of November 1889. The government commander, Almeida
Barreto, hastened to place himself under Fonseca's orders, and the
soldiers and sailors made common cause with the insurgents. The affair
was almost bloodless, the minister of marine, baron de Ladario, being
the only person wounded. Fonseca had only intended to overturn the
ministry, but he yielded to the insistency of the republican, leaders
and proclaimed a republic. A provisional government was constituted by
the army and navy in the name of the nation, with Fonseca at its head.
The council was abolished, and both the senate and the chamber of
deputies were dissolved. The emperor was requested to leave the
territory of Brazil within twenty-four hours, and on the 17th of
November was embarked on a cruiser for Lisbon. On the 20th of December a
decree of banishment was pronounced against the imperial family. So
universal was the republican sentiment that there was no attempt at
armed resistance. The provisional government exercised dictatorial
powers for a year, and on the 25th of February 1891 Fonseca was elected
president of the republic. He was, however, no politician, and possessed
indeed little ability beyond the art of acquiring popularity. His tenure
of office was short. In May he became involved in an altercation with
congress, and in November pronounced its dissolution, a measure beyond
his constitutional power. After a few days of arbitrary rule
insurrection broke out in Rio Grande do Sul, and before the close of
November Fonseca, finding himself forsaken, resigned his office. From
that time he lived in retirement. He died at Rio de Janeiro on the 23rd
of August 1892.



FONSECA, AMAPALA or CONCHAGUA, BAY OF, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean in
the volcanic region between the Central American republics of Honduras,
Salvador and Nicaragua. The bay is unsurpassed in extent and security by
any other harbour on the Pacific. It is upwards of 50 m. in greatest
length, by about 30 m. in average width, with an entrance from the sea
about 18 m. wide, between the great volcanoes of Conchagua (3800 ft.)
and Coseguina (3000 ft.). The lofty islands of Conchaguita and
Mianguiri, with a collection of rocks called "Los Farellones," divide
the entrance into four distinct channels, each of sufficient depth for
the largest vessels. A channel called "El Estero Real" extends from the
extreme southern point of the bay into Nicaragua for about 50 m.,
reaching within 20 or 25 m. of Lake Managua. The principal islands in
the bay are Sacate Grande, Tigre, Gueguensi and Esposescion belonging to
Honduras, and Martin Perez, Punta Sacate, Conchaguita and Mianguiri
belonging to Salvador. Of these Sacate Grande is the largest, being
about 7 m. long by 4 broad. The island of Tigre from its position is the
most important in the bay, being about 20 m. in circumference, and
rising in a cone to the height of 2500 ft. On the southern and eastern
shores of the island the lava forms black rocky barriers to the waves,
varying in height from 10 to 80 ft.; but on the northward and eastward
are a number of _playas_ or smooth, sandy beaches. Facing one of the
most considerable of these is the port of Amapala (q.v.). Fonseca Bay
was discovered in 1522 by Gil Gonzalez de Avila, and named by him after
his patron, Archbishop Juan Fonseca, the implacable enemy of Columbus.



FONT (Lat. _fons_, "fountain" or "spring," Ital. _fonte_, Fr. _les
fonts_), the vessel used in churches to hold the water for Christian
baptism. In the apostolic period baptism was administered at rivers or
natural springs (cf. Acts viii. 36), and no doubt the primitive form of
the rite was by _immersion_ in the water. _Infusion_--pouring water on
the head of the neophyte--was early introduced into the west and north
of Europe on account of the inconvenience of immersion, as well as its
occasional danger; this form has never been countenanced in the Oriental
churches. _Aspersion_, or sprinkling, was also admitted as valid, but
recorded early examples of its use are rare (see BAPTISM). These
different modes of administering baptism have caused corresponding
changes in the receptacles for the water. After the cessation of
persecution, when ritual and ornament began to develop openly, special
buildings were erected for administering the rite of baptism. This was
obviously necessary, for a large _piscina_ (basin or tank) in which
candidates could be immersed would occupy too much space of the church
floor itself. These baptisteries consisted of tanks entered by steps (an
ascent of three, and descent of four, to the water was the normal but
not the invariable number) and covered with a domed chamber (see
BAPTISTERY).

By the 9th century, however, the use of separate baptisteries had
generally given place to that of fonts. The material of which these were
made was stone, often decorative marble; as early as 524, however, the
council of Lerida enacted that if a stone font were not procurable the
presbyter was to provide a suitable vessel, to be used for the sacrament
exclusively, which might be of any material. In the Eastern Church the
font never became an important decorative article of church furniture:
"The font, [Greek: kolumbêthra] (says Neale, _Eastern Church_, i. 214),
in the Eastern Church is a far less conspicuous object than it is in the
West. Baptism by immersion has been retained; but the font seldom or
never possesses any beauty. The material is usually either metal or
wood. In Russia the _columbethra_ is movable and only brought out when
wanted."

One of the most elaborate of early fonts is that described by Anastasius
in the Lateran church at Rome, and said to have been presented thereto
by Constantine the Great. It was of porphyry, overlaid with silver
inside and out. In the middle were two porphyry pillars carrying a
golden dish, on which burnt the Paschal lamp (having an asbestos wick
and fed with balsam). On the rim of the bowl was a golden lamb, with
silver statues of Christ and St. John the Baptist. Seven silver stags
poured out water. This elaborate vessel was of course exceptional; the
majority of early fonts were certainly much simpler. A fine early
Byzantine stone example exists, or till recently existed, at Beer-Sheba.

Few if any fonts survive older than the 11th century. These are all of
stone, except a few of lead; much less common are fonts of cast bronze
(a fine example, dated 1112, exists at the Church of St Barthélemy,
Liége). The most ancient are plain cylindrical bowls, with a
circular--sometimes cruciform or quatrefoil--outline to the basin,
either without support or with a single central pillar; occasionally
there is more than one pillar. The basins are usually lined with lead to
prevent absorption by the stone. The church of Efenechtyd, Denbigh,
possesses an ancient font made of a single block of oak. Though the
circular form is the commonest, early Romanesque fonts are not
infrequently square; and sometimes an inverted truncated cone is found.
Octagonal fonts are also known, though uncommon; hexagons are even less
common, and pentagons very rare. There is a pentagonal font of this
period at Cabourg, dept. Calvados, N. France.

Fonts early began to be decorated with sculpture and relief. Arcading
and interlacing work are common; so are symbol and pictorial
representation. A very remarkable leaden font is preserved at
Strassburg, bearing reliefs representing scenes in the life of Christ.
At Pont-à-Mousson on the Moselle are bas-reliefs of St John the Baptist
preaching, and baptizing Christ. Caryatides sometimes take the place of
the pillars, and sculptured animals and grotesques of strange design not
infrequently form the base. More remarkable is the occasional
persistence of pagan symbolism; an interesting example is the very
ancient font from Ottrava, Sweden, which, among a series of Christian
symbols and figures on its panels, bears a representation of Thor (see
G. Stephens' brochure, _Thunor the Thunderer_).

In the 13th century octagonal fonts became commoner. A very remarkable
example exists at the cathedral of Hildesheim in Hanover, resting on
four kneeling figures, each bearing a vase from which water is running
(typical of the rivers of Paradise). Above is an inscription explaining
the connexion of these rivers with the virtues of temperance, courage,
justice and prudence. On the sides of the cup are representations of the
passage of the Jordan, of the Red Sea, the Baptism of Christ, and the
Virgin and Child. The font has a conical lid, also ornamented with
bas-reliefs. A cast of this font is to be seen in the Victoria and
Albert Museum at South Kensington. A leaden font, with figures of Our
Lord, the Virgin Mary, St Martin, and the twelve Apostles, exists at
Mainz; it is dated 1328 by a set of four leonine hexameters inscribed
upon it. In the 14th and succeeding centuries octagonal fonts became the
rule. They are delicately ornamented with mouldings and similar
decorations, in the contemporary style of Gothic architectural art.
Though the basin is usually circular in 15th-century fonts, examples are
not infrequently found in which the outline of the basin follows the
octagonal shape of the outer surface of the vessel. Examples of this
type are to be found at Strassburg, Freiburg and Basel.

In England no fonts can certainly be said to date before the Norman
conquest, although it is possible that a few very rude examples, such as
those of Washaway, Cornwall, and Denton, Sussex, are actually of Saxon
times; of course we cannot count as "Saxon fonts" those adapted from
pre-Norman sculptured stones originally designed for other purposes,
such as that at Dolton, Devonshire. On the other hand, Norman fonts are
very common, and are often the sole surviving relics of the Norman
parish church. They are circular or square, sometimes plain, but
generally covered with carving of arcades, figures, foliage, &c. Among
good examples that might be instanced of this period are Alphington,
Devon (inverted cone, without foot); Stoke Cannon, Devon (supported on
caryatides); Ilam, Staffs (cup-shaped); Fincham, Burnham Deepdale,
Sculthorpe, Toftrees, and Shernborne in Norfolk (all, especially the
last, remarkable for elaborate carving); Youlgrave, Derby (with a
projecting stoup in the side for the chrism--a unique detail); besides
others in Lincoln cathedral; Iffley, Oxon; Newenden, Kent; Coleshill,
Warwick; East Meon, Hants; Castle Frome, Herefordshire. Some of the best
examples of "Norman" fonts in England (such as the notable specimen in
Winchester cathedral) were probably imported from Belgium. In the
Transitional period we may mention a remarkable octagonal font at
Belton, Lincolnshire; in this period fall most of the leaden fonts that
remain in England, of which thirty are known (7 in Gloucestershire, 4
in Berkshire and Kent, 3 in Norfolk, Oxford and Sussex, 1 in Derby,
Dorset, Lincoln, Somerset, Surrey and Wiltshire); perhaps the finest
examples are at Ashover, Derbyshire, and Walton, Surrey. Early English
fonts are comparatively rare. They bear the moulding, foliage and tooth
ornament in the usual style of the period. A good example of an Early
English font is at All Saints, Leicester; others may be seen at St
Giles', Oxford, and at Lackford, Suffolk. Fonts of the Decorated period
are commoner, but not so frequent as those of the preceding Norman or
subsequent Perpendicular periods. Fonts of the Perpendicular period are
very common, and are generally raised upon steps and a lofty stem,
which, together with the body of the font, are frequently richly
ornamented with panelling. It was also the custom during this period to
ornament the font with shields and coats of arms and other heraldic
insignia, as at Herne, Kent. The fonts of this period, however, are as a
rule devoid of interest, and, like most Perpendicular work, are stiff
and monotonous. There is, however, a remarkable font, with sculptured
figures, belonging to the late 14th century, at West Drayton in
Middlesex.

In Holyrood chapel there was a brazen font in which the royal children
of Scotland were baptized. It was carried off in 1544 by Sir R. Lea, and
given by him to the church at St Albans, but was afterwards destroyed by
the Puritans. A silver font existed at Canterbury, which was sometimes
brought to Westminster on the occasion of a royal baptism. At Chobham,
Surrey, there is a leaden font covered with oaken panels of the 16th
century. The only existing structure at all recalling the ancient
baptisteries in English churches is found at Luton in Bedfordshire. The
font at Luton belongs to the Decorated style, and is enclosed in an
octagonal structure of freestone, consisting of eight pillars about 25
ft. in height, supporting a canopy. The space around the font is large
enough to hold twelve adults comfortably. At the top of the canopy is a
vessel for containing the consecrated water, which when required was let
down into the font by means of a pipe.

In 1236 it was ordered by Edmund, archbishop of Canterbury, that
baptismal fonts should be kept under lock and key, as a precaution
against sorcery:--"Fontes baptismales sub sera clausi teneantur propter
sortilegia." The lids appear at first to have been quite simple and
flat. They gradually, however, partook of the ornamentation of the font
itself, and are often of pyramidal and conical forms, highly decorated
with finials, crockets, mouldings and grotesques. Sometimes these covers
are very heavy and are suspended by chains to enable them to be raised
at will. Very rich font covers may be seen at Ewelme, Oxon; St Gregory,
Sudbury; North Walsingham, Norfolk; Worlingworth, Suffolk. The ordinary
position of the font in the church was and is near the entrance, usually
to the left of the south door.

  See Arcisse de Caumont, _Cours d'antiquités monumentales_ (Paris,
  1830-1843); Francis Simpson, _A Series of Antient Baptismal Fonts_
  (London, 1828); Paley, Ancient Fonts; E.E. Viollet-le-Duc, _Dict.
  raisonné de l'architecture_ (1858-1868), vol. v.; J.H. Parker's
  _Glossary of Architecture_; Francis Bond, _Fonts and Font-Covers_
  (London, 1908). A large number of fine illustrations of fonts,
  principally of the earlier periods, will be found in the volumes of
  the _Reliquary_ and _Illustrated Archaeologist_.     (R. A. S. M.)



FONTAINE, PIERRE FRANÇOIS LÉONARD (1762-1853), French architect, was
born at Pontoise on the 20th of September 1762. He came of a family
several of whose members had distinguished themselves as architects.
Leaving the college of Pontoise at the age of sixteen he was sent to
L'Isle-Adam to assist in hydraulic works undertaken by the architect
André. To facilitate his improvement André allowed him to have access to
his plans and to copy his designs. In October 1779 he was sent to Paris
to study in the school of Peyre the younger, and there began his
acquaintance with Percier, which ripened into a life-long friendship.
After six years of study he competed for a prize at the Academy, and,
winning the second for the plan of an underground chapel, he received a
pension and was sent to Rome (1785). Percier accompanied him. The
Revolution breaking out soon after his return to France, he took refuge
in England; but after the establishment of the consulate he was
employed by Bonaparte, to whom he had been introduced by the painter,
David, to restore the palace of Malmaison. Henceforth he was fully
engaged in the principal architectural works executed in Paris as
architect successively to Napoleon I., Louis XVIII. and Louis Philippe.
In conjunction with Percier (till his death) he was employed on the arch
of the Carrousel, the restoration of the Palais-Royal, the grand
staircase of the Louvre, and the works projected for the union of the
Louvre and the Tuileries. In 1812 he was admitted a member of the
Academy of Fine Arts, and in 1813 was named first architect to the
emperor. With Percier he published the following works--_Palais_,
_maisons_, _et autres édifices de Rome moderne_ (1802); _Descriptions de
cérémonies et de fêtes_ (1807 and 1810); _Recueil de décorations
intérieures_ (1812); _Choix des plus célèbres maisons de plaisance de
Rome et des environs_ (1809-1813); _Résidences des souverains,
Parallèle_ (1833). _L'histoire du Palais-Royal_ was published by
Fontaine alone, who lost Percier, his friend and associate, in 1838, and
himself died in Paris on the 10th of October 1853.



FONTAINEBLEAU, a town of northern France, capital of an arrondissement
in the department of Seine-et-Marne, 37 m. S.E. of Paris on the railway
to Lyons. Pop. (1906) 11,108. Fontainebleau, a town of clean, wide and
well-built streets, stands in the midst of the forest of Fontainebleau,
nearly 2 m. from the left bank of the Seine. Of its old houses, the
Tambour mansion, and a portion of that which belonged to the cardinal of
Ferrara, both of the 16th century, are still preserved; apart from the
palace, the public buildings are without interest. A statue of General
Damesme (d. 1848) stands in the principal square, and a monument to
President Carnot was erected in 1895. Fontainebleau is the seat of a
subprefect and has a tribunal of first instance and a communal college.
The school of practical artillery and engineering was transferred to
Fontainebleau from Metz by a decree of 1871, and now occupies the part
of the palace surrounding the cour des offices.

Fontainebleau has quarries of sand and sandstone, saw-mills, and
manufactories of porcelain and gloves. Fine grapes are grown in the
vicinity. The town is a fashionable summer resort, and during the season
the president of the Republic frequently resides in the palace. This
famous building, one of the largest, and in the interior one of the most
sumptuous, of the royal residences of France, lies immediately to the
south-east of the town. It consists of a series of courts surrounded by
buildings, extending from W. to E.N.E.; they comprise the Cour du Cheval
Blanc or des Adieux (thus named in memory of the parting scene between
Napoleon and the Old Guard in 1814), the Cour de la Fontaine, the Cour
Ovale, built on the site of a more ancient château, and the Cour d'
Henri IV.: the smaller Cour des Princes adjoins the northern wing of the
Cour Ovale. The exact origin of the palace and of its name (Lat. _Fons
Bleaudi_) are equally unknown, but the older château was used in the
latter part of the 12th century by Louis VII., who caused Thomas Becket
to consecrate the Chapelle St Saturnin, and it continued a favourite
residence of Philip Augustus and Louis IX. The creator of the present
edifice was Francis I., under whom the architect Gilles le Breton
erected most of the buildings of the Cour Ovale, including the Porte
Dorée, its southern entrance, and the Salle des Fêtes, which, in the
reign of Henry II., was decorated by the Italians, Francesco Primaticcio
and Nicolo dell' Abbate, and is perhaps the finest Renaissance chamber
in France. The Galerie de François I. and the lower storey of the left
wing of the Cour de la Fontaine are the work of the same architect, who
also rebuilt the two-storeyed Chapelle St Saturnin. In the same reign
the Cour du Cheval Blanc, including the Chapelle de la Ste Trinité and
the Galerie d'Ulysse, destroyed and rebuilt under Louis XV., was
constructed by Pierre Chambiges. After Francis I., Fontainebleau owes
most to Henry IV., to whom are due the Cour d' Henri IV., the Cour des
Princes, with the adjoining Galerie de Diane, and Galerie des Cerfs,
used as a library. Louis XIII. built the graceful horseshoe staircase in
the Cour du Cheval Blanc; Napoleon I. spent 12,000,000 francs on works
of restoration, and Louis XVIII., Louis Philippe and Napoleon III.
devoted considerable sums to the same end. The palace is surrounded by
gardens and ornamental waters--to the north the Jardin de l'Orangerie,
to the south the Jardin Anglais and the Parterre, between which extends
the lake known as the Bassin des Carpes, containing carp in large
numbers. A space of over 200 acres to the east of the palace is covered
by the park, which is traversed by a canal dating from the reign of
Henry IV. On the north the park is bordered by a vinery producing fine
white grapes.

_Forest of Fontainebleau._--The forest of Fontainebleau is one of the
most beautiful wooded tracts in France, and for generations it has been
the chosen haunt of French landscape painters. Among the most celebrated
spots are the Vallée de la Solle, the Gorge aux Loups, the Gorges de
Franchard and d'Apremont, and the Fort l'Empereur. The whole area
extends to 42,200 acres, with a circumference of 56 m. Nearly a quarter
of this area is of a rocky nature, and the quarries of sandstone
supplied a large part of the paving of Paris. The oak, pine, beech,
hornbeam and birch are the chief varieties of trees.

It is impossible to do more than mention a few of the historical events
which have taken place at Fontainebleau. Philip the Fair, Henry III. and
Louis XIII. were all born in the palace, and the first of these kings
died there. James V. of Scotland was there received by his intended
bride; and Charles V. of Germany was entertained there in 1539.
Christina of Sweden lived there for years, and the gallery is still to
be seen where in 1657 she caused her secretary Monaldeschi to be put to
death. In 1685 Fontainebleau saw the signing of the revocation of the
edict of Nantes, and in the following year the death of the great Condé.
In the 18th century it had two illustrious guests in Peter the Great of
Russia and Christian VII. of Denmark; and in the early part of the 19th
century it was twice the residence of Pius VII.,--in 1804 when he came
to consecrate the emperor Napoleon, and in 1812-1814, when he was his
prisoner.

  See Pfnor, _Monographie de Fontainebleau_, with text by Champollion
  Figeac (Paris, 1866); _Guide artistique et historique au palais de
  Fontainebleau_ (Paris, 1889); E. Bourges, _Recherches sur
  Fontainebleau_ (Fontainebleau, 1896).



FONTAN, LOUIS MARIE (1801-1839), French man of letters, was born at
Lorient on the 4th of November 1801. He began his career as a clerk in a
government office, but was dismissed for taking part in a political
banquet. At the age of nineteen he went to Paris and began to contribute
to the _Tablettes_ and the _Album_. He was brought to trial for
political articles written for the latter paper, but defended himself so
energetically that he secured the indefinite postponement of his case.
The offending paper was suppressed for a time, and Fontan produced a
collection of political poems, _Odes et épîtres_, and a number of plays,
of which _Perkins Warbec_ (1828), written in collaboration with MM.
Halévy and Drouineau, was the most successful. In 1828 the _Album_ was
revived, and in it Fontan published a virulent but witty attack on
Charles X., entitled _Le Mouton enragé_ (20th June 1829). To escape the
inevitable prosecution Fontan fled over the frontier, but, finding no
safe asylum, he returned to Paris to give himself up to the authorities,
and was sentenced to five years' imprisonment and a heavy fine. He was
liberated by the revolution of 1830, and his _Jeanne la folle_,
performed in the same year, gained a success due perhaps more to
sympathy with the author's political principles than to the merits of
the piece itself, a somewhat crude and violent picture of Breton
history. A drama representing the trial of Marshal Ney, which he wrote
in collaboration with Charles Dupenty, _Le Procès d'un maréchal de
France_ (printed 1831), was suppressed on the night of its production.
Fontan died in Paris on the 10th of October 1839.

  A sympathetic portrait of Fontan as a prisoner, and an analysis of his
  principal works, are to be found in Jules Janin's _Histoire de la
  littérature dramatique_, vol. i.



FONTANA, DOMENICO (1543-1607), Italian architect and mechanician, was
born at Mili, a village on the Lake of Como, in 1543. After a good
training in mathematics, he went in 1563 to join his elder brother, then
studying architecture at Rome. He made rapid progress, and was taken
into the service of Cardinal Montalto, for whom he erected a chapel in
the church of Santa Maria Maggiore and the villa Negroni. When the
cardinal's pension was stopped by the pope, Gregory XIII., Fontana
volunteered to complete the works in hand at his own expense. The
cardinal being soon after elected pope, under the name of Sixtus V., he
immediately appointed Fontana his chief architect. Amongst the works
executed by him were the Lateran palace, the palace of Monte Cavallo
(the Quirinal), the Vatican library, &c. But the undertaking which
brought Fontana the highest repute was the removal of the great Egyptian
obelisk, which had been brought to Rome in the reign of Caligula, from
the place where it lay in the circus of the Vatican. Its erection in
front of St Peter's he accomplished in 1586. After the death of Sixtus
V., charges were brought against Fontana of misappropriation of public
moneys, and Clement VIII. dismissed him from his post (1592). This
appears to have been just in time to save the Colosseum from being
converted by Fontana into a huge cloth factory, according to a project
of Sixtus V. Fontana was then called to Naples, and accepted the
appointment of architect to the viceroy, the count of Miranda. At Naples
he built the royal palace, constructed several canals and projected a
new harbour and bridge, which he did not live to execute. The only
literary work left by him is his account of the removal of the obelisk
(Rome, 1590). He died at Naples in 1607, and was honoured with a public
funeral in the church of Santa Anna. His plan for a new harbour at
Naples was carried out only after his death. His son Giulio Cesare
succeeded him as royal architect in Naples, the university of that town
being his best-known building.



FONTANA, LAVINIA (1552-1614), Italian portrait-painter, was the daughter
of Prospero Fontana (q.v.). She was greatly employed by the ladies of
Bologna, and, going thence to Rome, painted the likenesses of many
illustrious personages, being under the particular patronage of the
family (Buoncampagni) of Pope Gregory XIII., who died in 1585. The Roman
ladies, from the days of this pontiff to those of Paul V., elected in
1605, showed no less favour to Lavinia than their Bolognese sisters had
done; and Paul V. was himself among her sitters. Some of her portraits,
often lavishly paid for, have been attributed to Guido. In works of a
different kind also she united care and delicacy with boldness. Among
the chief of these are a Venus in the Berlin museum; the "Virgin lifting
a veil from the sleeping infant Christ," in the Escorial; and the "Queen
of Sheba visiting Solomon." Her own portrait in youth--she was accounted
very beautiful--was perhaps her masterpiece; it belongs to the counts
Zappi of Imola, the family into which Lavinia married. Her husband,
whose name is given as Paolo Zappi or Paolo Foppa, painted the draperies
in many of Lavinia's pictures. She is deemed on the whole a better
painter than her father; from him naturally came her first instruction,
but she gradually adopted the Caraccesque style, with strong
quasi-Venetian colouring. She was elected into the Academy of Rome, and
died in that city in 1614.



FONTANA, PROSPERO (1512-1597), Italian painter, was born in Bologna, and
became a pupil of Innocenzo da Imola. He afterwards worked for Vasari
and Perino del Vaga. It was probably from Vasari that Fontana acquired a
practice of offhand, self-displaying work. He undertook a multitude of
commissions, and was so rapid, that he painted, it is said, in a few
weeks an entire hall in the Vitelli palace at Città di Castello. Along
with daring, he had fertility of combination, and in works of parade he
attained a certain measure of success, although his drawing was
incorrect and his mannerism palpable. He belongs to the degenerate
period of the Bolognese school, under the influence chiefly of the
imitators of Raphael--Sabbatini, Sammachini and Passerotti being three
of his principal colleagues. His soundest successes were in portraiture,
in which branch of art he stood so high that towards 1550 Michelangelo
introduced him to Pope Julius III. as a portrait-painter; and he was
pensioned by this pope, and remained at the pontifical court with the
three successors of Julius. Here he lived on a grand scale, and figured
as a sort of arbiter and oracle among his professional brethren.
Returning to Bologna, after doing some work in Fontainebleau and in
Genoa, he opened a school of art, in which he became the preceptor of
Lodovico and Agostino Caracci; but these pupils, standing forth as
reformers and innovators, finally extinguished the academy and the vogue
of Fontana. His subjects were in the way of sacred and profane history
and of fable. He has left a large quantity of work in Bologna,--the
picture of the "Adoration of the Magi," in the church of S. Maria delle
Grazie, being considered his masterpiece--not unlike the style of Paul
Veronese. He died in Rome in 1597.



FONTANE, THEODOR (1819-1898), German poet and novelist, was born at
Neu-Ruppin on the 30th of December 1819. At the age of sixteen he was
apprenticed to a chemist, and after qualifying as an apothecary, he
found employment in Leipzig and Dresden. In 1844 he travelled in
England, and settling in Berlin devoted himself from 1849 to literature.
He made repeated journeys to England, interesting himself in old English
ballads, and as the first fruits of his tours published _Ein Sommer in
London_ (1854); _Aus England, Studien und Briefe_ (1860) and _Jenseit
des Tweed, Bilder und Briefe aus Schottland_ (1860). Fontane was
particularly attached to the Mark of Brandenburg, in which his home lay;
he was proud of its past achievements, and delighted in the growth of
the capital city, Berlin. The fascination which the country of his birth
had for him may be seen in his delightfully picturesque _Wanderungen
durch die Mark Brandenburg_ (1862-1882, 4 vols.). He also described the
wars of Prussia in _Der schleswig-holsteinische Krieg im Jahre 1864_
(1866) and _Der deutsche Krieg von 1866_ (1869). He proceeded to the
theatre of war in 1870, and, being taken prisoner at Vaucouleurs,
remained three months in captivity. His experiences he narrates in
_Kriegsgefangen. Erlebtes 1870_ (1871), and he published the result of
his observations of the campaign in _Der Krieg gegen Frankreich 1870-71_
(1874-1876). Like most of his contemporaries, he at first sought
inspiration for his poetry in the heroes of other countries. His
_Gedichte_ (1851) and ballads _Manner und Helden_ (1860) tell of
England's glories in bygone days. Then the achievements of his own
countrymen entered into rivalry, and these, as an ardent patriot, he
immortalized in poem and narrative. It is, however, as a novelist that
Fontane is best known. His fine historical romance _Vor dem Sturm_
(1878) was followed by a series of novels of modern life: _L'Adultera_
(1882); _Schach von Wuthenow_ (1883); _Irrungen, Wirrungen_ (1888);
_Stine_ (1890); _Unwiederbringlich_ (1891); _Effi Briest_ (1895); _Der
Stechlin_ (1899), in which with fine literary tact Fontane adapted the
realistic methods and social criticism of contemporary French fiction to
the conditions of Prussian life. He died on the 20th of September 1898
at Berlin.

  Fontane's _Gesammelte Romane und Erzählungen_ were published in 12
  vols. (1890-1891; 2nd ed., 1905). For his life see the
  autobiographical works _Meine Kinderjahre_ (1894) and _Von zwanzig bis
  dreissig_ (1898), also _Briefe an seine Familie_ (1905); also F.
  Servaes, _Theodor Fontane_ (1900).



FONTANES, LOUIS, MARQUIS DE (1757-1821), French poet and politician, was
born at Niort (Deux Sèvres) on the 6th of March 1757. He belonged to a
noble Protestant family of Languedoc which had been reduced to poverty
by the revocation of the edict of Nantes. His father and grandfather
remained Protestant, but he was himself brought up as a Catholic. His
parents died in 1774-1775, and in 1777 Fontanes went to Paris, where he
found a friend in the dramatist J.F. Ducis. His first published poems,
some of which were inspired by English models, appeared in the _Almanack
des Muses_; "Le Cri de mon coeur," describing his own sad childhood, in
1778; and "La Forêt de Navarre" in 1780. His translation from Alexander
Pope, _L'Essai sur l'homme_, was published with an elaborate preface in
1783, and _La Chartreuse_ and _Le Jour des morts_ in the same year, _Le
Verger_ in 1788 and his _Épître sur l'édit en faveur des
non-catholiques_, and the _Essai sur l'astronomie_ in 1789. Fontanes was
a moderate reformer, and in 1790 he became joint-editor of the
_Modérateur_. He married at Lyons in 1792, and his wife's first child
was born during their flight from the siege of that town. Fontanes was
in hiding in Paris when the four citizens of Lyons were sent to the
Convention to protest against the cruelties of Collot d'Herbois. The
petition was drawn up by Fontanes, and the authorship being discovered,
he fled from Paris and found shelter at Sevran, near Livry, and
afterwards at Andelys. On the fall of Robespierre he was made professor
of literature in the École Centrale des Quatre-Nations, and he was one
of the original members of the Institute. In the _Mémorial_, a journal
edited by La Harpe, he discreetly advocated reaction to the monarchical
principle. He was exiled by the Directory and made his way to London,
where he was closely associated with Chateaubriand. He soon returned to
France, and his admiration for Napoleon, who commissioned him to write
an _éloge_ on Washington, secured his return to the Institute and his
political promotion. In 1802 he was elected to the legislative chamber,
of which he was president from 1804 to 1810. Other honours and titles
followed. He has been accused of servility to Napoleon, but he had the
courage to remonstrate with him on the judicial murder of the due
d'Enghien, and as grand master of the university of Paris (1808-1815) he
consistently supported religious and monarchical principles. He
acquiesced in the Bourbon restoration, and was made a marquis in 1817.
He died on the 17th of March 1821 in Paris, leaving eight cantos of an
unfinished epic poem entitled _La Grèce sauvée_.

The verse of Fontanes is polished and musical in the style of the 18th
century. It was not collected until 1839, when Sainte-Beuve edited the
_Oeuvres_ (2 vols.) of Fontanes, with a sympathetic critical study of
the author and his career. But by that time the Romantic movement was in
the ascendant and Fontanes met with small appreciation.



FONTENAY-LE-COMTE, a town of western France, capital of an
arrondissement in the department of Vendée 30 m. N.E. of La Rochelle on
the State railway between that town and Saumur. Pop. (1906) town, 7639;
commune, 10,326. Fontenay, an ancient and straggling town, is situated a
few miles south of the forest of Vouvant and on both banks of the
Vendée, at the point where it becomes navigable. The church of
Notre-Dame (15th to 18th centuries), which has a fine spire and a richly
sculptured western entrance, and the church of St Jean (16th and 17th
centuries) are the chief religious buildings. The town has several
houses of the 16th and 17th centuries. The most remarkable of these is
the Hôtel de Terre Neuve (1595-1600), which contains much rich
decoration together with collections of furniture and tapestry. Fontenay
was the birthplace of many prominent men during the 15th and 16th
centuries, and the Fontaine des Quatre-Tias, a fountain in the
Renaissance style, given to the town by King Francis I., commemorates
the fact. The chief square is named after François Viète, the great
mathematician, who was born at Fontenay in 1540. The public institutions
of the town include a tribunal of first instance and a communal college.
Among its industries are the manufacture of felt hats, oil and soap and
timber-sawing, flour-milling and tanning. There is trade in horses,
mules, timber, grain, fruit, &c.

Fontenay was in existence as early as the time of the Gauls. The affix
of "comte" is said to have been applied to it when it was taken by King
Louis IX. from the family of Lusignan and given to his brother Alphonse,
count of Poitou, under whom it became capital of Bas-Poitou. Ceded to
the English by the treaty of Brétigny in 1360 it was retaken in 1372 by
Duguesclin. It suffered repeated capture during the Religious Wars of
the 16th century, was dismantled in 1621 and was occupied both by the
republicans and the Vendeans in the war of 1793. From 1790 to 1806 it
was capital of the department of Vendée.



FONTENELLE, BERNARD LE BOVIER DE (1657-1757), French author, was born at
Rouen, on the 11th of February 1657. He died in Paris, on the 9th of
January 1757, having thus very nearly attained the age of 100 years. His
father was an advocate settled in Rouen, his mother a sister of the two
Corneille. He was educated at the college of the Jesuits in his native
city, and distinguished himself by the extraordinary precocity and
versatility of his talents. His teachers, who readily appreciated these,
were anxious for him to join their order, but his father had designed
him for the bar, and an advocate accordingly he became; but, having lost
the first cause which was entrusted to him, he soon abandoned law and
gave himself wholly to literary pursuits. His attention was first
directed to poetry; and more than once he competed for prizes of the
French Academy, but never with success. He visited Paris from time to
time and established intimate relations with the abbé de Saint Pierre,
the abbé Vertot and the mathematician Pierre Varignon. He witnessed, in
1680, the total failure of his tragedy _Aspar_. Fontenelle afterwards
acknowledged the justice of the public verdict by burning his
unfortunate drama. His opera of _Thétis et Pélée_, 1689, though highly
praised by Voltaire, cannot be said to rise much above the others; and
it may be regarded as significant that of all his dramatic works not one
has kept the stage. His _Poésies pastorales_ (1688) have no greater
claim to permanent repute, being characterized by stiffness and
affectation; and the utmost that can be said for his poetry in general
is that it displays much of the _limae labor_, great purity of diction
and occasional felicity of expression.

His _Lettres galantes du chevalier d'Her_ ..., published anonymously in
1685, was an amusing collection of stories that immediately made its
mark. In 1686 his famous allegory of Rome and Geneva, slightly disguised
as the rival princesses Mreo and Eenegu, in the _Relation de l'île de
Bornéo_, gave proof of his daring in religious matters. But it was by
his _Nouveaux Dialogues des morts_ (1683) that Fontenelle established a
genuine claim to high literary rank; and that claim was enhanced three
years later by the appearance of the _Entretiens sur la pluralité des
mondes_ (1686), a work which was among the very first to illustrate the
possibility of being scientific without being either uninteresting or
unintelligible to the ordinary reader. His object was to popularize
among his countrymen the astronomical theories of Descartes; and it may
well be doubted if that philosopher ever ranked a more ingenious or
successful expositor among his disciples.

Hitherto Fontenelle had made his home in Rouen, but in 1687 he removed
to Paris; and in the same year he published his _Histoire des oracles_,
a book which made a considerable stir in theological and philosophical
circles. It consisted of two essays, the first of which was designed to
prove that oracles were not given by the supernatural agency of demons,
and the second that they did not cease with the birth of Christ. It
excited the suspicion of the Church, and a Jesuit, by name Baltus,
published a ponderous refutation of it; but the peace-loving disposition
of its author impelled him to leave his opponent unanswered. To the
following year (1688) belongs his _Digression sur les anciens et les
modernes_, in which he took the modern side in the controversy then
raging; his _Doutes sur le système physique des causes occasionnelles_
(against Malebranche) appeared shortly afterwards.

In 1691 he was received into the French Academy in spite of the
determined efforts of the partisans of the ancients in this quarrel,
especially of Racine and Boileau, who on four previous occasions had
secured his rejection. He consequently was admitted a member both of the
Academy of Inscriptions and of the Academy of Sciences; and in 1697 he
became perpetual secretary to the latter body. This office he actually
held for the long period of forty-two years; and it was in this official
capacity that he wrote the _Histoire du renouvellement de l'Académie des
Sciences_ (Paris, 3 vols., 1708, 1717, 1722) containing extracts and
analyses of the proceedings, and also the _éloges_ of the members,
written with great simplicity and delicacy. Perhaps the best known of
his _éloges_, of which there are sixty-nine in all, is that of his uncle
Pierre Corneille. This was first printed in the _Nouvelles de la
république des lettres_ (January 1685) and, as _Vie de Corneille_, was
included in all the editions of Fontenelle's _Oeuvres_. The other
important works of Fontenelle are his _Élements de la géometrie de
l'infini_ (1727) and his _Apologie des tourbillons_ (1752). Fontenelle
forms a link between two very widely different periods of French
literature, that of Corneille, Racine and Boileau on the one hand, and
that of Voltaire, D'Alembert and Diderot on the other. It is not in
virtue of his great age alone that this can be said of him; he actually
had much in common with the _beaux esprits_ of the 17th century, as well
as with the _philosophes_ of the 18th. But it is to the latter rather
than to the former period that he properly belongs.

He has no claim to be regarded as a genius; but, as Sainte-Beuve has
said, he well deserves a place "_dans la classe des esprits infiniment
distingués_"--distinguished, however, it ought to be added by
intelligence rather than by intellect, and less by the power of saying
much than by the power of saying a little well. In personal character he
has sometimes been described as having been revoltingly heartless; and
it is abundantly plain that he was singularly incapable of feeling
strongly the more generous emotions--a misfortune, or a fault, which
revealed itself in many ways. "_Il faut avoir de l'âme pour avoir du
goût._" But the cynical expressions of such a man are not to be taken
too literally; and the mere fact that he lived and died in the esteem of
many friends suffices to show that the theoretical selfishness which he
sometimes professed cannot have been consistently and at all times
carried into practice.

  There have been several collective editions of Fontenelle's works, the
  first being printed in 3 vols. at the Hague in 1728-1729. The best is
  that of Paris, in 8 vols. 8vo, 1790. Some of his separate works have
  been very frequently reprinted and also translated. The _Pluralité des
  mondes_ was translated into modern Greek in 1794. Sainte-Beuve has an
  interesting essay on Fontenelle, with several useful references, in
  the _Causeries du lundi_, vol. iii. See also Villemain, _Tableau de la
  littérature française au XVIII^e siècle_; the abbé Trublet, _Mémoires
  pour servir à l'histoire de la vie et des ouvrages de M. de
  Fontenelle_ (1759); A. Laborde-Milaà, _Fontenelle_ (1905), in the
  "Grands écrivains français" series; and L. Maigron, _Fontenelle,
  l'homme, l'oeuvre, l'influence_ (Paris, 1906).



FONTENOY, a village of Belgium, in the province of Hennegau, about 4 m.
S.E. of Tournai, famous as the scene of the battle of Fontenoy, in which
on the 11th of May 1745 the French army under Marshal Saxe defeated the
Anglo-Allied army under the duke of Cumberland. The object of the French
(see also AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION, WAR OF THE) was to cover the siege of the
then important fortress of Tournai, that of the Allies, who slowly
advanced from the east, to relieve it. Informed of the impending attack,
Louis XV., with the dauphin, came with all speed to witness the
operations, and by his presence to give Saxe, who was in bad health and
beset with private enemies, the support necessary to enable him to
command effectively. Under Cumberland served the Austrian field-marshal
Königsegg, and, at the head of the Dutch contingent, the prince of
Waldeck.

The right of the French position (see map) rested on the river at
Antoing, which village was fortified and garrisoned, between Antoing and
Fontenoy three square redoubts were constructed, and Fontenoy itself was
put in a complete state of defence. On the left rear of this line, and
separated from Fontenoy by some furlongs of open ground, another redoubt
was made at the corner of the wood of Barry and a fifth towards Gavrain.
The infantry was arrayed in deployed lines behind the Antoing-Fontenoy
redoubts and the low ridge between Fontenoy and the wood; behind them
was the cavalry. The approaches to Gavrain were guarded by a mounted
volunteer corps called _Grassins_. At Calonne the marshal had
constructed three military bridges against the contingency of a forced
retreat. The force of the French was about 60,000 of all arms, not
including 22,000 left in the lines before Tournai. Marshal Saxe himself,
who was suffering from dropsy to such an extent that he was unable to
mount his horse, slept in a wicker chariot in the midst of the troops.
At early dawn of the 11th of May, the Anglo-Hanoverian army with the
Austrian contingent formed up in front of Vézon, facing towards Fontenoy
and the wood, while the Dutch on their left extended the general line to
Péronne. The total force was 46,000, against about 52,000 whom Saxe
could actually put into the line of battle.

The plan of attack arranged by Cumberland, Königsegg and Waldeck on the
10th grew out of circumstances. A preliminary skirmish had cleared the
broken ground immediately about Vézon and revealed a part of the
defender's dispositions. It was resolved that the Dutch should attack
the front Antoing-Fontenoy, while Cumberland should deliver a flank
attack against Fontenoy and all in rear of it, by way of the open ground
between Fontenoy and the wood. A great cavalry attack round the wood was
projected but had to be given up, as in the late evening of the 10th the
Allies' light cavalry drew fire from its southern edge. Cumberland then
ordered his cavalry commander to form a screen facing Fontenoy, so as to
cover the formation of the infantry. On the morning of the 11th another
and most important modification had to be made. The advance was
beginning when the redoubt at the corner of the wood became visible.
Cumberland hastily told off Brigadier James Ingoldsby (major and
brevet-colonel 1st Guards), with four regiments and an artillery
detachment, to storm this redoubt which, crossing its fire with that of
Fontenoy, seemed absolutely to inhibit the development of the flank
attack. At 6 A.M. the brigade moved off, but it was irresolutely handled
and halted time after time; and after waiting as long as possible, the
British and Hanoverian cavalry under Sir James Campbell rode forward and
extended in the plain, becoming at once the target for a furious
cannonade which killed their leader and drove them back. Thereupon Sir
John (Lord) Ligonier, whose deployment the squadrons were to have
covered, let them pass to the rear, and, hearing the guns of the Dutch
towards Antoing, pushed the British infantry forward through the lanes,
each unit on reaching open ground covering the exit and deployment of
the one in rear, all under the French cannonade. This went on for two
hours, and save that it showed the magnificent discipline of the British
and Hanoverian regiments, was a bad prelude to the real attack.
Cumberland's own exertions brought a few small guns to the front of the
Guards' Brigade, and one of the first shots from these killed Antoine
Louis, duc de Gramont, colonel of the Gardes Françaises, and another
Henri du Baraillon du Brocard, Saxe's artillery commander.

[Illustration: Map of Fontenoy.]

It was now 9 A.M., and while the guns from the wood redoubt battered the
upright ranks of the Allies, Ingoldsby's brigade was huddled together,
motionless, on the right. Cumberland himself galloped thither, and under
his reproaches Ingoldsby lost the last remnants of self-possession. To
Sir John Ligonier's aide-de-camp, who delivered soon afterwards a
bitterly formal order to advance, Ingoldsby sullenly replied that the
duke's orders were for him to advance in line with Ligonier's main body.
By now, too, the Dutch advance against Antoing-Fontenoy had collapsed.

But on the right the cannonade and the blunders together had roused a
stern and almost blind anger in the leaders and the men they led.
Ingoldsby was wounded, and his successor, the Hanoverian general
Zastrow, gave up the right attack and brought his battalions into the
main body. A second halfhearted attack on Fontenoy itself, delivered by
some Dutch troops, was almost made successful by the valour of two of
these battalions (one of them being the then newly raised Highland
regiment, the Black Watch) which came thither of their own accord.
Meantime the young duke and the old Austrian field-marshal had agreed to
take all risks and to storm through between Fontenoy and the wood
redoubt, and had launched the great attack, one of the most celebrated
in the history of war. The English infantry was in two lines. The
Hanoverians on their left, owing to want of space, were compelled to
file into third line behind the redcoats, and on their outer flanks were
the battalions that had been with Ingoldsby. A few guns, man-drawn,
accompanied the assaulting mass, and the cavalry followed. The column
may have numbered 14,000 infantry. All the infantry battalions closed on
their centre, the normal three ranks becoming six. If the proper
distances between lines were preserved, the mass must have formed an
oblong about 500 yds × 600 yds (excluding the cavalry).

The duke of Cumberland placed himself at the head of the front line and
gave the signal to advance. Slowly and in parade order, drums beating
and colours flying, the mass advanced, straight up the gentle slope,
which was swept everywhere by the flanking artillery of the defence.
Then, when the first line reached the low crest on the ends of which
stood the French artillery, the fire, hitherto convergent, became a full
enfilade from both sides, and at the same moment the enemy's horse and
foot became visible beyond. A brief pause ensued, and the front
gradually contracted as regiments shouldered inwards to avoid the fire.
Then the French advanced, and the Guards Brigade and the Gardes
Françaises met face to face. Captain Lord Charles Hay (d. 1760),
lieutenant of the First (Grenadier) Guards, suddenly ran in front of the
line, took off his hat to the enemy and drank to them from a pocket
flask, shouting a taunt, "We hope you will stand till we come up to you,
and not swim the river as you did at Dettingen," then, turning to his
own men, he called for three cheers. The astonished French officers
returned the salute and gave a ragged counter-cheer. Whether or not the
French, as legend states, were asked and refused to fire first, the
whole British line fired one tremendous series of volleys by companies.
50 officers and 760 men of the three foremost French regiments fell at
once, and at so appalling a loss the remnant broke and fled. Three
hundred paces farther on stood the second line of the French, and slowly
the mass advanced, firing regular volleys. It was now well inside the
French position, and no longer felt the enfilade fire that swept the
crest it had passed over. By now, as the rear lines closed up, the
assailants were practically in square and repelled various partial
attacks coming from all sides. The Régiment du Roi lost 33 officers and
345 men at the hands of the Second (Coldstream) Guards. But these
counter-attacks gained a few precious minutes for the French. It was the
crisis of the battle. The king, though the court meditated flight, stood
steady with the dauphin at his side,--Fontenoy was the one great day of
Louis XV.'s life,--and Saxe, ill as he was, mounted his horse to collect
his cavalry for a charge. The British and Hanoverians were now at a
standstill. More and heavier counter-strokes were repulsed, but no
progress was made; their cavalry was unable to get to the front, and
Saxe was by now thinking of victory. Captain Isnard of the Touraine
regiment suggested artillery to batter the face of the square,
preparatory to a final charge. General Löwendahl galloped up to Saxe,
crying, "This is a great day for the king; they will never escape!" The
nearest guns were planted in front of the assailants, and used with
effect. The infantry, led by Löwendahl, fastened itself on the sides of
the square, the regiments of Normandy and Vaisseaux and the Irish
Brigade conspicuous above the rest. On the front, waiting for the cannon
to do its work, were the Maison du Roi, the Gendarmerie and all the
light cavalry, under Saxe himself, the duke of Richelieu and count
d'Estrées. The left wing of the Allies was still inactive, and troops
were brought up from Antoing and Fontenoy to support the final blow.
About 2 P.M. it was delivered, and in eight minutes the square was
broken. As the infantry retired across the plain in small stubborn
groups the French fire still made havoc in their ranks, but all attempts
to close with them were repulsed by the terrible volleys, and they
regained the broken ground about Vézon, whence they had come. Cumberland
himself and all the senior generals remained with the rearguard.

The losses at Fontenoy were, as might be expected, somewhat less than
normally heavy when distributed over the whole of both armies, but
exceedingly severe in the units really engaged. Eight out of nineteen
regiments of British infantry lost over 200 men, two of these more than
300. A tribute to the loyalty and discipline of the British, as compared
with the generality of armies in those days, may be found in the fact
that the three Guards' regiments had no "missing" men whatever. The 23rd
(Royal Welsh Fusiliers) had 322 casualties. Böschlanger's Hanoverian
regiment suffered even more heavily, and four others of that nation had
200 or more casualties. The total loss was about 7500, that of the
French 7200. The French "Royal" regiment lost 30 officers and 645 men;
some other regimental casualties have been mentioned above. The Dutch
lost a bare 7% of their strength.

Fontenoy was in the 18th century what the attack of the Prussian Guards
at St Privat is to-day, _a locus classicus_ for military theorists. But
the technical features of the battle are completely overshadowed by its
epic interest, and above all it illustrates the permanent and
unchangeable military characteristics of the British and French nations.



FONTEVRAULT, or FONTEVRAUD (Lat. _Fons Ebraldi_), a town of western
France, in the department of Maine-et-Loire, 10 m. S.E. of Saumur by
road and 2½ m. from the confluence of the Loire and Vienne. Pop. (1906)
1279. It is situated in the midst of the forest of Fontevrault. The
interest of the place centres in its abbey, which since 1804 has been
utilized and abused as a central house of detention for convicts. The
church (12th century), of which only the choir and apse are appropriated
to divine service, has a beautiful nave formerly covered by four cupolas
destroyed in 1816. There is a fifth cupola above the crossing. In a
chapel in the south transept are the effigies of Henry II. of England,
of his wife Eleanor of Guienne, of Richard I. of England and of Isabella
of Angoulême, wife of John of England--Eleanor's being of oak and the
rest of stone. The cloister, refectory and chapter-house date from the
16th century. The second court of the abbey contains a remarkable
building, the Tour d'Évrault (12th century), which long went under the
misnomer of _chapelle funéraire_, but was in reality the old kitchen.
Details and diagrams will be found in Viollet-le-Duc's _Dictionnaire de
l'architecture_. There are three stories, the whole being surmounted by
a pyramidal structure.

The _Order of Fontevrault_ was founded about 1100 by Robert of
Arbrissel, who was born in the village of Arbrissel or Arbresec, in the
diocese of Rennes, and attained great fame as a preacher and ascetic.
The establishment was a double monastery, containing a nunnery of 300
nuns and a monastery of 200 monks, separated completely so that no
communication was allowed except in the church, where the services were
carried on in common; there were, moreover, a hospital for 120 lepers
and other sick, and a penitentiary for fallen women, both worked by the
nuns. The basis of the life was the Benedictine rule, but the observance
of abstinence and silence went beyond it in stringency. The special
feature of the institute was that the abbess ruled the monks as well as
the nuns. At the beginning the order had a great vogue, and at the time
of Robert's death, 1117, there were several monasteries and 3000 nuns;
afterwards the number of monasteries reached 57, all organized on the
same plan. The institute never throve out of France; there were attempts
to introduce it into Spain and England: in England there were three
houses--at Ambresbury (Amesbury in Wiltshire), Nuneaton, and Westwood in
Worcestershire. The nuns in England as in France were recruited from the
highest families, and the abbess of Fontevrault, who was the
superior-general of the whole order, was usually of the royal family of
France.

  See P. Hélyot, _Hist, des ordres religieuses_ (1718), vi. cc. 12, 13;
  Max Heimbucher, _Orden und Kongregationen_ (1907), i. 46; the arts.
  "Fontevrauld" in Wetzer and Welte, _Kirchenlexicon_ (ed. 2), and in
  Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (ed. 3), supply full references to
  the literature. The most recent monograph is Édouard, _Fontevrault et
  ses monuments_ (1875); for the later history see art. by Edmund Bishop
  in _Downside Review_ (1886).     (E. C. B.)



FOOD (like the verb "to feed," from a Teutonic root, whence O. Eng.
_foda_; cf. "fodder"; connected with Gr. [Greek: pateiothai], to feed),
the general term for what is eaten by man and other creatures for the
sustenance of life. The scientific aspect of human food is dealt with
under NUTRITION and DIETETICS.

_Infancy._--The influence of a normal diet upon the health of man (we
exclude here the question of diet in illness, which must depend on the
abnormal conditions existing) begins at the earliest stage of his life.
No food has as yet been found so suitable for the young of all animals
as their mother's milk. This, however, has not been from want of
seeking. Dr Brouzet (_Sur l'éducation médicinale des enfants_, i. p.
165) had such a bad opinion of human mothers, that he expressed a wish
for the state to interfere and prevent them from suckling their
children, lest they should communicate immorality and disease! A still
more determined pessimist was the famous chemist Van Helmont, who
thought life had been reduced to its present shortness by our inborn
propensities, and proposed to substitute bread boiled in beer and honey
for milk, which latter he calls "brute's food." Baron Justus von Liebig,
as the result of his chemical researches, introduced a "food for
infants," which in more modern days has been followed by a
multiplication of patent foods. A close imitation of human milk may also
be made by the addition to fresh cow's milk of half its bulk of soft
water, in each pint of which has been mixed a heaped-up teaspoonful of
powdered "sugar of milk" and a pinch of phosphate of lime. These
artificial substitutes for the natural nutriment have their value where
for any reason it is not available. The wholesomest food, however, for
the first six months is certainly mother's milk alone. A vigorous baby
can indeed bear with impunity much rough usage, and often appears none
the worse for a certain quantity of farinaceous food; but the majority
do not get habituated to it without an exhibition of dislike which
indicates rebellion of the bowels. It is only when the teeth are on
their way to the front, as shown by dribbling, that the parotid glands
secrete an active saliva capable of digesting bread stuffs. Till then
anything but milk must be given tentatively, and considered in the light
of a means of education for its future mode of nutrition.

The time for weaning should be fixed partly by the child's age, partly
by the growth of the teeth. The first group of teeth nine times out of
ten consists of the lower central front teeth, which may appear any time
during the sixth and seventh month. The mother may then begin to
diminish the number of suckling times; and by a month she can have
reduced them to twice a day, so as to be ready when the second group
makes its way through the upper front gums to cut off the supply
altogether. The third group, the lateral incisors and first grinders,
usually after the first anniversary of birth, give notice that solid
food can be chewed. But it is prudent to let dairy milk form a
considerable portion of the fare till the eye-teeth are cut, which
seldom happens till the eighteenth or twentieth month.

_Childhood and Youth._--At this stage of life the diet must obviously be
the best which is a transition from that of infancy to that of adult
age. Growth is not completed, but yet entire surrender of every
consideration to the claim of growth is not possible, nor indeed
desirable. Moreover, that abundance of adipose tissue, or reserve new
growth, which a baby can bear is an impediment to the due education of
the muscles of the boy or girl. The supply of nutriment need not be so
continuous as before, but at the same time should be more frequent than
for the adult. Up to at least fourteen or fifteen years of age the rule
should be four meals a day, varied indeed, but nearly equal in nutritive
power and in quantity, that is to say, all moderate, all sufficient. The
maturity the body then reaches involves a hardening and enlargement of
the bones and cartilages, and a strengthening of the digestive organs,
which in healthy young persons enables us to dispense with some of the
watchful care bestowed upon their diet. Three full meals a day are
generally sufficient, and the requirements of mental training may be
allowed to a certain extent to modify the attention to nutrition which
has hitherto been paramount.

_Adults._--It is only necessary here to refer to the article on
DIETETICS (see also VEGETARIANISM) for a discussion of the food of
normal adults; and to such headings as DIETARY (for fixed allowances) or
COOKERY. Different staple articles of food are dealt with under their
own headings. For animals other than man see the respective articles on
them.

  Among numerous books on the subject, in addition to those enumerated
  under DIETETICS, see Sir Henry Thompson's _Foods and Feeding_ (1894);
  Hart's _Diet in Sickness and Health_ (1896); Knight, _Food and its
  Functions_ (1895).



FOOD PRESERVATION. The preservation of food material beyond the short
term during which it naturally keeps sound and eatable has engaged human
thought from the earliest dawn of civilization. Necessity compelled man
to store the plenitude of one season or place against the need of
another. The hunter dried, smoked and salted meat and fish, pastoral man
preserved milk in the form of cheese and butter, or fermented
grape-juice into wine. With the separation of country from town, the
development of manufacturing nation as distinct from agricultural and
food-producing people, the spreading of civilized man from torrid to
arctic zones, the needs of travellers on land and sea and of armies on
the march, the problem of the prevention of the natural decomposition to
which nearly all food substances are liable became increasingly urgent,
and forms to-day, next to the production of food, the most important
problem in connexion with the feeding and the trade of nations. As long
as the reasons of decomposition were unknown, all attempts at
preservation were necessarily empirical, and of the numberless processes
which have during modern times been proposed and attempted comparatively
few have stood the test of experience. In the light of modern knowledge,
however, the guiding principles appear to be very simple.

Very few organic materials undergo decomposition, as it were, of their
own accord. They may lose water by evaporation, and fatty substances may
alter by the absorption of oxygen from the air. They are otherwise quite
stable and unchangeable while not attacked and eaten up by living
organisms, or while the life with which they may be endowed is in a
state of suspense. An apple is alive and in breathing undergoes its
ripening change; a grain of wheat is dormant and does not alter. A
substance, in order to be a food material, must be decomposable under
the attack of a living organism; the energy stored in it must be
available to that stream of energy which we call life, whether the life
be in the form of the human consumer or of any lower organism. All
decomposition of food is due to the development within the food of
living organisms. Under conditions under which living organisms cannot
enter or cannot develop food keeps undecomposed for an indefinite length
of time. The problem of food preservation resolves itself, therefore,
into that of keeping out or killing off all living things that might
feed upon and thus alter the food, and as these organisms mainly belong
to the family of moulds, yeasts and bacteria, modern food preservation
is strictly a subject for the bacteriologist.

The changes which food undergoes on keeping are easily intelligible when
once their biological origin is recognized. Yeasts cause the
decomposition of saccharine substances into alcohol and carbon dioxide,
acetic and lactic ferments produce from sugar or from alcohol the
organic acids causing the souring of food, moulds as a rule cause
oxidation and complete destruction of organic matter, nitrogenous or
saccharine, while most bacteria act mainly upon the nitrogenous
constituents, producing albumoses and peptones and breaking up the
complex albumen-molecule into numerous smaller molecules often allied to
alkaloids, generally with the production of evil-smelling gases. These
processes may go on simultaneously, but more frequently take place
successively in the decomposition of food, one set of organisms taking
up the work of destruction as the conditions become favourable to its
development and unfavourable to its predecessor. The organisms may come
from the air, the soil or from animal sources. The air teems with
organisms which settle and may develop when brought upon a favourable
nidus; the organic matter of the soil largely consists of fungoid life;
while the intestinal canal and other mucous membranes of all animals
harbour bacteria, sarcinae and other organisms in countless millions.
Whenever, therefore, food material is exposed to the air, or touched by
the soil or by animals or man, it becomes infected with living cells,
which by their development lead to its decomposition and destruction.

Fungoid organisms may be killed by heat or by chemicals; or their
development may be arrested by cold, removal of water, or by the
presence of agents inhibiting their growth though not destroying their
life. All successful processes of food preservation depend upon one or
other of these circumstances.

_Preservation by Heat._--At the boiling-point of water all living cells
perish, but some spores of bacteria may survive for about three hours.
Few adult bacteria can live beyond 75° C. (167° F.) in the presence of
water, though dry heat only kills with certainty at 140° C. (284° F.).
Destruction of life takes place more rapidly in solutions showing an
acid than a feebly alkaline reaction; hence acid fruit is more easily
preserved than milk, which, when quite fresh, is alkaline. By cooking,
therefore, food becomes temporarily sterile, until a fresh crop of
organisms finds access from the air. By repeated cooking all food can be
indefinitely preserved. One of the most important functions of cookery
is sterilization. Civilized man unwittingly revolts against the
consumption of non-sterile food, and the use of certain fungus-infected
material is an inheritance from barbarous ages; few materials of animal
origin are eaten raw, and in vegetables some sort of sterilizing process
is attempted by washing (of salads) or removal of the outer skin (of
fruits). All preparation of food for the table, cooking being the most
important, tends towards preservation, but is effectual only for a few
hours or days at most, unless special means are adopted to prevent
reinfection. The housewife covering the jam with a thin paper soaked in
brandy, or the potted meat with a thin layer of lard, attempts
unconsciously to bar the road to bacteria and other minute organisms. To
preserve food in a permanent manner and on a commercial scale it has to
be cooked in a receptacle which must be sufficiently strong for
transport, cheap, light and unattacked by the material in contact with
it. None of the receptacles at present in use quite fulfils the whole of
these conditions: glass and china are heavy and fragile, and their
carriage is expensive; tinned iron, so-called tin-plate, is rarely quite
unaffected by food materials, but owing to its strength, tenacity and
cheapness, it is used on an ever-increasing scale. The sheet iron, which
formerly was made of soft wrought iron, now generally consists of steel
containing but very little carbon; it is cleaned by immersion in acid
and covered with a very thin layer of pure tin, all excess of tin being
removed by hot rollers and brushes. The layer of tin, which formerly
constituted from 3 to 5% of the total weight of the plate, has, owing to
the increased price of tin and the improvement in machinery, gradually
become so thin that its weight is only from 1 to 3%. Not rarely,
therefore, the tin-surface is imperfect, perforated or pin-holed. Tin
itself is slightly attacked by all acid juices of vegetable or animal
substances. With the exception of milk, all human food is slightly acid,
and consequently all food that has been preserved in tin canisters
contains variable traces of dissolved tin. Happily, salts of tin have
but little physiological action. Nevertheless, the employment cf
tin-plate for very acid materials, like tomatoes, peaches, &c., is very
objectionable.

The process of preservation in canisters is carried out as
follows:--The canister, which has been made either by the use of solder
or by folding machinery only, is packed with the material to be
preserved, and a little water having been added to fill the interstices
the lid is secured by soldering or folding, generally the former.
Sterilization is effected by placing the tins in pressure chambers,
which are heated by steam to 120° C. or more. The tins are exposed to
that temperature for such time as experience has shown to be necessary
to heat the contents throughout to at least 100° C. The temperature is
then allowed to fall slowly to below the boiling-point of water, when
the tins can be taken out of the pressure chamber, or they are placed in
pans filled with water or a solution of calcium chloride and are therein
heated till thoroughly cooked. Sometimes a small aperture is pierced
through the lid, to allow of the escape of the expanding air, such holes
before cooling closed by means of a drop of solder. This process, which
was originally introduced by François Appert early in the 19th century,
is employed on an enormous scale, especially in America. The use of
lacquered tins, having the inner surface of the tin covered with a
heat-resisting varnish, is gradually extending. Imperfect sterilization
shows itself in many cases by gas development within the tin, which
causes the ends to become convex and drummy. More frequently than not
the contents of the larger tins, containing meat or other animal
products, are not absolutely sterile, but the conditions are mostly such
that the organisms which have survived the cooking process cannot
develop. When they can develop without formation of gas dangerous
products of decomposition may be produced without showing themselves to
taste or smell. Numerous cases of so-called ptomaine poisoning have thus
occurred; these are more frequently associated with preserved fish and
lobster than with meats, although no class of preserved animal food is
free from liability of ptomaine formation. The formation of poisonous
substances has never been traced to preserved fruit or other material
poor in nitrogen. The mode of preserving food in china or glass is quite
similar, but the losses by breakage are not inconsiderable. Food which
has been preserved in tins is sometimes transferred to glass and
re-sterilized, the feeling against "tinned" food caused by the "Chicago
scandals" not having entirely subsided. Were it not for the facts that
sterilization is rarely quite perfect, and that the food attacks the
tin, the contents of tin canisters ought to keep for an indefinite
length of time. Under existing circumstances, however, there is a
distinct limit to the age of soundness of canned food.

_Preservation by Chemicals._--Salt is the oldest chemical preservative
and, either alone or in conjunction with saltpetre and with wood-smoke,
has been used for many centuries, mainly as a meat preservative. It is
used either dry in layers strewn on the surface of the meat or fish to
be preserved, or in the form of brine in which the meat is submerged or
which is injected into the carcasses. The preserving power of salt is
but moderate. It has the great advantage that in ordinary doses it is
non-injurious, that an excess at once betrays itself in the taste, and
that it can be readily removed by soaking in water. When aided by
wood-smoke, which depends for its preservative power upon traces of
creosote and formaldehyde, it is, however, quite efficient. The addition
of saltpetre is principally for the purpose of giving to the meat a
bright pink tint. The strongly saline taste of pickled meat or salted
butter appears gradually to have become repugnant to a large part of
mankind, and other preservatives have come into use, possessing greater
bactericidal power and less taste. The serious objection attaching to
them is discussed in the article ADULTERATION. At the present time the
use of borax or boracic acid is almost universal in England. Meat which
has been exposed to the vapours of formaldehyde, and has thus been
superficially sterilized, is also coming into commerce in increasing
quantities. Formaldehyde in itself is distinctly poisonous, and has the
property of combining with albuminoids and rendering them completely
insoluble in the digestive secretions. Salicylic and benzoic acids are
not infrequently used to stop fermentation of saccharine beverages or
deterioration of so-called "potted meats," which are supposed to last
fresh and sweet on the consumer's table for a considerable length of
time. Sulphurous acid and sulphites are chiefly used in the preservation
of thin ales, wine and fruit, and sodium fluoride has been found in
butter. The whole of these substances possess decided and injurious
physiological properties. Alcohol now rarely forms a preservative of
food material, its employment being confined to small fruit. The use of
sugar as a preservative depends upon the fact that, although in a dilute
solution it is highly prone to fermentation and other decomposition, it
possesses bactericidal properties when in the form of a concentrated
syrup. A sugar solution containing 30% of water or less does not undergo
any biological change; in the presence of organic acids, like those
contained in fruit, growth of organisms is inhibited when the percentage
of water is somewhat greater. Upon this fact depends the use of sugar in
the manufacture of jams, marmalades and jellies. Moulds may grow on the
surface of such saccharine preparations, but the interior remains
unaffected and unaltered.

_Preservation by Drying._--Food materials in which the percentage of
moisture is small (not exceeding about 8%) are but little liable to
bacterial growths, at most to the attacks of innocent _Penicillium_.
Nature preserves the germs in seeds and nuts, which are laden with
otherwise decomposable food material, by the simple expedient of water
removal. The life of cereal grains and many seeds appears to be
unlimited. By the removal of water the most perishable materials, like
meat or eggs, can be rendered unchangeable, except so far as the
inevitable oxidation of the fatty substances contained in them is
concerned and which is independent of life-action. The drying of meat,
upon which a generation ago inventors bestowed a great deal of
attention, has become almost obsolete, excepting for comparatively small
articles or animals, like ox tongues or tails and fish. It has been
superseded even among less civilized communities by the spread of canned
food. Fruit, however, is very largely preserved in the dried state.
Grapes are sun-dried and thus form currants, raisins and sultanas, the
last variety being often bleached by the addition of sulphites. Plums,
apples and pears are artificially dried in ovens on wooden battens or on
wire sieves; from the latter they are apt to become contaminated with
notable quantities of zinc. Excellent preparations of dried vegetables,
including potatoes, carrots, onions, French beans and cabbages, are also
manufactured.

The utilization of meat in the form of meat extract belongs to some
extent to this class of preserved foods. Its origin is due to J. von
Liebig and Max von Pettenkofer, and dates from the middle of the 19th
century. The soluble material is extracted mainly from beef, in
Australia to some extent from mutton, by means of warm water; the
albumen is coagulated by heat and removed, and the broths thus obtained
are evaporated _in vacuo_ until the extract contains no more than about
20% of water. One pound of extract is obtained from about 25 lb. of lean
beef.

_Preservation by Refrigeration._--At or below the freezing-point of
water fungoid organisms are incapable of growth and multiplication.
Although it has been asserted that many of them perish when kept for
some time in the frozen condition, it is certain that the vast majority
of bacteria and their germs remain merely dormant. Even so highly
organized structures as cereal seeds do not suffer in vitality on being
kept for a considerable length of time at the far lower temperature of
liquid air. Biological change is, therefore, arrested at freezing-point,
and as long as that temperature is maintained food material remains
unaltered, except for physical changes depending upon the evaporation of
water and of volatile flavouring matters, or chemical alterations due to
oxidation.

Refrigeration, therefore, affords the means of keeping for a reasonably
long time, and without the addition of any preservative substance, food
in a raw condition. It is the only process of preservation which from a
sanitary point of view is entirely unobjectionable as ordinarily and
properly employed. Its introduction on a commercial scale has more
powerfully affected the economic conditions of England and, to a less
degree, of the United States than any other scientific advance since
the establishment of railways and steamboats. Enormous quantities of
frozen carcasses, butter, fruit, vegetables and fish are introduced in
the fresh condition into Great Britain and stored until required.
Extreme fluctuations of supply or of price have become almost
impossible, and the abundance of Australian and New Zealand ranches, and
of West Indian orchards, has been made readily accessible to the British
consumer. For household purposes cooling in ice-chests or ice-chambers
suffices to preserve food on a comparatively small scale. The ice used
for the purpose comes, to a small extent, from natural sources, stored
from the winter or imported from northern countries; a far larger
quantity is artificially produced by the methods described in the
article on REFRIGERATING, which also contains an account of the means by
which low temperatures are produced for industrial purposes of
importation and storage. Fleets of steamships fitted with refrigerating
machinery and insulated cold-rooms are employed in carrying the food
materials, which are deposited in cold-stores at docks, warehouses,
markets and hotels. The first cargo of frozen meat was shipped in July
1873 from Melbourne, but arrived in October in an unsatisfactory state.
In 1875-1876 sound frozen meat came from America. The first cargo of
frozen meat was successfully brought to the United Kingdom in 1880 from
Australia in the "Strathleven," fitted with a Bell-Coleman air machine.
The temperature in the cold-storage rooms is generally kept near 34° F.,
whilst in the chilling chambers a somewhat lower, and in the freezing
room or chambers a much lower temperature (between 0° and 10° F.) is
maintained. The carcasses to be frozen should be cooled slowly at first
to ensure even freezing throughout and to prevent damage by the unequal
expansion of the outer layer of ice. The carcasses when freezing must be
hung separated from each other, but for storage or transportation they
are packed tightly together. Fish such as salmon is washed, thoroughly
cleansed, and frozen on trays. Butter should be cooled as rapidly as
possible to about 10° F.; its composition as regards proportion of
volatile fatty-acids, &c., remains absolutely unaltered for years.
Cheese should only be cold-stored when nearly ripe and should not be
frozen. Eggs must be carefully selected, each one being inspected by
candle-light. They are placed in cases holding about three hundred,
which are taken first to a room in which they are slowly cooled to about
33° F., and are then kept in store just below freezing-point. Particular
attention must be paid to the relative humidity of the air in egg
stores. Fruit should be quite fresh; grapes may be chilled to 26° F.,
while lemons cannot safely be kept at a lower temperature than 36°. The
time during which soft fruit can be kept even in cold-store is limited,
and does not exceed about six weeks.

In the early days of the chilled-meat trade considerable prejudice
existed against stored meat. While in many cases the flavour of fresh
meat is rather superior, the food value is in no way altered by
cold-storage.[1]

_Preservation by Pickling other than Salt._--For the preservation of
vegetables, vinegar or other solution of acetic acid is used to a
limited extent. Eggs are submerged in lime-water or a dilute solution of
sodium silicate (soluble glass). During the storage of eggs the more
aqueous white of egg yields by endosmosis a portion of its water to the
more concentrated yolk, which thereby expands and renders its thin
containing-membrane liable to rupture. Fish, such as sardines, sprats
and salmon, is preserved by packing in olive or other oil.

The preservation of the most important dairy product, namely, milk,
deserves a separate notice. It has already been stated that alkaline
liquids, like milk, are more difficult to sterilize by heat than acid
materials. In consequence of the alteration in flavour which milk
undergoes by long continued boiling, and of the fact that milk forms
perhaps the best medium for the growth and propagation of bacterial
organisms, there is exceptional difficulty in its sterilization. As
secreted by a healthy cow it is a perfectly sterile fluid, and, as shown
by Sir J. Lister, when drawn under aseptic conditions and kept under
such, it remains definitely fresh and sweet. Bacterial and other
pollution at the time of milking arises from the animal, the stable, the
milker and the vessels. In animals suffering from tuberculosis and other
bacterial affections the milk may be infected within the udder. Milk as
it reaches the consumer rarely contains less than 50,000 bacteria and
often many millions per cubic centimetre. In fresh country cream 100
millions per cubic centimetre are not unusual. These bacteria are of
many kinds, some of them spore-bearing. The spores are more difficult to
kill than the adult organism. The first step towards preservation is the
removal of the dirt unavoidably present, to the particles of which a
considerable proportion of the bacteria adhere. Filtration through
cloths or, better, the passing of the milk through centrifugals effects
that removal. Subsequent treatment is preferably preceded by a
breaking-up of the larger fat-globules by the projection of a jet of the
milk under high pressures against a steel or agate plate, a process
known as homogenizing. From homogenized milk the cream separates slowly,
and does not form the coherent layer thrown up by ordinary milk. Heating
is then effected either after bottling or by passing the milk
continuously through pipes in which it is heated to from 160° to 170° F.
By a repetition of the heating process on two or more succeeding days,
complete sterilization may be effected, although a single treatment is
sufficient to render the milk stable for a few days. Many forms of
pasteurizing apparatus for milk are in use. Since the general
introduction of pasteurization of the skim-milk used in Denmark for the
feeding of calves and pigs, tuberculosis in these animals has
practically disappeared. On the continent of Europe the use of
sterilized milk is now very general. In England it has found little
favour in households, but is making rapid progress on board ship.

Milk which has been condensed has for many years found a most extensive
sale. The first efforts to condense and thus preserve milk date from
1835, when an English patent was granted to Newton. In 1849 C.N.
Horsford prepared condensed milk with the addition of lactose.
Commercially successful milk condensation began in 1856. The milk is
heated to about 180° F. and filled into large copper vacuum pans, after
having been mixed with from 10 to 12 parts of sugar per 100 parts of
milk. Evaporation takes place in the pans at about 122° F., and is
carried on till the milk is boiled down to such concentration that 100
parts of the condensed milk, including the sugar, contain the solids of
300 parts of milk. Sweetened condensed milk, although rarely quite
sterile, keeps indefinitely, and is invariably brought into commerce in
tin canisters. The preparation of sweetened condensed milk forms one of
the most important branches of manufacture in Switzerland and is
steadily increasing in England. Although milk can quite well be
preserved in the form of condensed unsweetened milk, which dietetically
possesses immense advantages over the sweetened milk in which the
balance between carbohydrates and albuminoids is very unfavourable, such
unsweetened milk has found little or no favour. Milk powder is
manufactured under various patents, the most successful of which depends
upon the addition of sodium bicarbonate and the subsequent rapid
evaporation of the milk on steam-heated revolving iron cylinders. Milk
powder made from skim-milk keeps well for considerable periods, but
full-cream milk develops rancid or tallowy flavours by the oxidation of
the finely divided butter-fat. It is largely employed in the preparation
of so-called milk chocolates.     (O. H.*)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] _Per contra_, see the article by Mary E. Pennington in the
    _Year-book for 1907_ (1908) of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, pp.
    197-206, with illustrations of chickens kept in cold storage for two
    and three years. The results there shown cast considerable doubt on
    the efficiency of even refrigeration so far as an "indefinite" period
    is concerned; and it is suggested that the consumption of frozen meat
    may really account for various modern diseases.



FOOL (O. Fr. _fol_, modern _fou_, foolish, from a Late Latin use of
_follis_, bellows, a ball filled with air, for a stupid person, a
jester, a wind-bag), a buffoon or jester.

The class of professional fools or jesters, which reached its
culminating point of influence and recognized place and function in the
social organism during the middle ages, appears to have existed in all
times and countries. Not only have there always been individuals
naturally inclined and endowed to amuse others; there has been besides
in most communities a definite class, the members of which have used
their powers or weaknesses in this direction as a regular means of
getting a livelihood. Savage jugglers, medicine-men, and even priests,
have certainly much in common with the jester by profession. There
existed in ancient Greece a distinct class of professed fools whose
habits were not essentially different from those of the jesters of the
middle ages. Of the behaviour of one of these, named Philip, Xenophon
has given a picturesque account in the _Banquet_. Philip of Macedon is
said to have possessed a court fool, and certainly these (as well as
court poets and court philosophers, with whom they have sometimes been
not unreasonably confounded) were common in a number of the petty courts
at that era of civilization. _Scurrae_ and _moriones_ were the Roman
parallels of the medieval witty fool; and during the empire the
manufacture of human monstrosities was a regular practice, slaves of
this kind being much in request to relieve the languid hours. The jester
again has from time immemorial existed at eastern courts. Witty stories
are told of Bahalul (see D'HERBELOT, s.v.) the jester of Harun
al-Reshid, which have long had a place in Western fiction. On the
conquest of Mexico court fools and deformed human creatures of all kinds
were found at the court of Montezuma. But that monarch no doubt hit upon
one great cause of the favour of monarchs for this class when he said
that "more instruction was to be gathered from them than from wiser men,
for they dared to tell the truth." Douce, in his essay _On the Clowns
and Fools of Shakespeare_, has made a ninefold division of English
fools, according to quality and place of employment, as the domestic
fool, the city or corporation fool, the tavern fool, the fool of the
mysteries and moralities. The last is generally called the "vice," and
is the original of the stage clowns so common among the dramatists of
the time of Elizabeth, and who embody so much of the wit of Shakespeare.
A very palpable classification is that which distinguishes between such
creatures as were chosen to excite to laughter from some deformity of
mind or body, and such as were so chosen for a certain (to all
appearance generally very shallow) alertness of mind and power of
repartee,--or briefly, butts and wits. The dress of the regular court
fool of the middle ages was not altogether a rigid uniform. To judge
from the prints and illuminations which are the sources of our knowledge
on this matter, it seems to have changed considerably from time to time.
The head was shaved, the coat was motley, and the breeches tight, with
generally one leg different in colour from the other. The head was
covered with a garment resembling a monk's cowl, which fell over the
breast and shoulders, and often bore asses' ears, and was crested with a
cockscomb, while bells hung from various parts of the attire. The fool's
bauble was a short staff bearing a ridiculous head, to which was
sometimes attached an inflated bladder, by means of which sham
castigations were effected. A long petticoat was also occasionally worn,
but seems to have belonged rather to the idiots than to the wits.

The fool's business was to amuse his master, to excite him to laughter
by sharp contrast, to prevent the over-oppression of state affairs, and,
in harmony with a well-known physiological precept, by his liveliness at
meals to assist his lord's digestion. The names and the witticisms of
many of the official jesters at the courts of Europe have been preserved
by popular or state records. In England the list is long between Hitard,
the fool of Edmund Ironside, and Muckle John, the fool of Charles I.,
and probably the last official royal fool of England. Many are
remembered from some connexion with general or literary history. Scogan
was attached to Edward IV., and later was published a collection of poor
jests ascribed to him, to which Andrew Boorde's name was attached, but
without authority.

Will Sommers, of the time of Henry VIII., seems to have been a
kind-hearted as well as a witty man, and occasionally used his influence
with the king for good and charitable purposes. Armin, who, in his _Nest
of Ninnies_, gives a full description of Sommers, and introduces many
popular fools, says of him--

  "Only this much, he was a poor man's friend.
   And helpt the widow often in her end.
   The king would ever grant what he would crave.
   For well he knew Will no exacting knave."

The literature of the period immediately succeeding his death is full of
allusions to Will Sommers.

Richard Tarleton, famous as a comic actor, cannot be omitted from any
list of jesters. A book of Tarleton's Jests was published in 1611, and,
together with his _News out of Purgatory_, was reprinted by Halliwell
Phillips for the Shakespeare Society in 1844. Archie Armstrong, for a
too free use of wit and tongue against Laud, lost his office and was
banished the court. The conduct of the archbishop against the poor fool
is not the least item of the evidence which convicts him of a certain
narrow-mindedness and pettiness. In French history, too, the figure of
the court-jester flits across the gay or sombre scene at times with
fantastic effect. Caillette and Triboulet are well-known characters of
the times of Francis I. Triboulet appears in Rabelais's romance, and is
the hero of Victor Hugo's _Le Roi s'amuse_, and, with some changes, of
Verdi's opera _Rigoletto_; while Chicot, the lithe and acute Gascon, who
was so close a friend of Henry III., is portrayed with considerable
justness by Dumas in his _Dame de Monsoreau_. In Germany Rudolph of
Habsburg had his Pfaff Cappadox, Maximilian I. his Kunz von der Rosen
(whose features, as well as those of Will Sommers, have been preserved
by the pencil of Holbein), and many a petty court its jester after
jester.

Late in the 16th century appeared _Le Sottilissime Astuzie di Bertoldo_,
which is one of the most remarkable books ever written about a jester.
It is by Giulio Cesare Croce, a street musician of Bologna, and is a
comic romance giving an account of the appearance at the court of Alboin
king of the Lombards of a peasant wonderful in ugliness, good sense and
wit. The book was for a time the most popular in Italy. A great number
of editions and translations appeared, and it was even versified. Though
fiction, both the character and the career of Bertoldo are typical of
the jester. That the private fool existed as late as the 18th century is
proved by Swift's epitaph on Dicky Pearce, the earl of Suffolk's jester.

  See Flögel, Geschichte der Hofnarren (Leipzig, 1789); Doran, The
  History of Court Fools (1858).     (W. He.)



FOOLS, FEAST OF (Lat. _festum stultorum_, _fatuorum_, _follorum_, Fr.
_fête des fous_), the name for certain burlesque quasi-religious
festivals which, during the middle ages, were the ecclesiastical
counterpart of the secular revelries of the Lord of Misrule. The
celebrations are directly traceable to the pagan Saturnalia of ancient
Rome, which in spite of the conversion of the Empire to Christianity,
and of the denunciation of bishops and ecclesiastical councils,
continued to be celebrated by the people on the Kalends of January with
all their old licence. The custom, indeed, so far from dying out, was
adopted by the barbarian conquerors and spread among the Christian Goths
in Spain, Franks in Gaul, Alemanni in Germany, and Anglo-Saxons in
Britain. So late as the 11th century Bishop Burchard of Worms thought it
necessary to fulminate against the excesses connected with it
(_Decretum_, xix. c. 5, Migne, _Patrologia lat_. 140, p. 965). Then,
just as it appears to have been sinking into oblivion among the people,
the clergy themselves gave it the character of a specific religious
festival. Certain days seem early to have been set apart as special
festivals for different orders of the clergy: the feast of St Stephen
(December 26) for the deacons, St John's day (December 27) for the
priests, Holy Innocents' Day for the boys, and for the sub-deacons
Circumcision, the Epiphany, or the 11th of January. The Feast of Holy
Innocents became a regular festival of children, in which a boy, elected
by his fellows of the choir school, functioned solemnly as bishop or
archbishop, surrounded by the elder choir-boys as his clergy, while the
canons and other clergy took the humbler seats. At first there is no
evidence to prove that these celebrations were characterized by any
specially indecorous behaviour; but in the 12th century such behaviour
had become the rule. In 1180 Jean Beleth, of the diocese of Amiens,
calls the festival of the sub-deacons _festum stultorum_ (Migne,
_Patrol_. _lat_. 202, p. 79). The burlesque ritual which characterized
the Feast of Fools throughout the middle ages was now at its height. A
young sub-deacon was elected bishop, vested in the episcopal _insignia_
(except the mitre) and conducted by his fellows to the sanctuary. A mock
mass was begun, during which the lections were read _cum farsia_,
obscene songs were sung and dances performed, cakes and sausages eaten
at the altar, and cards and dice played upon it.

This burlesquing of things universally held sacred, though condemned by
serious-minded theologians, conveyed to the child-like popular mind of
the middle ages no suggestion of contempt, though when belief in the
doctrines and rites of the medieval Church was shaken it became a ready
instrument in the hands of those who sought to destroy them. Of this
kind of retribution Scott in _The Abbot_ gives a vivid picture, the
Protestants interrupting the mass celebrated by the trembling remnant of
the monks in the ruined abbey church, and insisting on substituting the
traditional Feast of Fools.

This naive temper of the middle ages is nowhere more conspicuously
displayed than in the Feast of the Ass, which under various forms was
celebrated in a large number of churches throughout the West. The ass
had been introduced into the ritual of the church in the 9th century,
representing either Balaam's ass, that which stood with the ox beside
the manger at Bethlehem, that which carried the Holy Family into Egypt,
or that on which Christ rode in triumph into Jerusalem. Often the ass
was a mere incident in the Feast of Fools; but sometimes he was the
occasion of a special festival, ridiculous enough to modern notions, but
by no means intended in an irreverent spirit. The three most notable
celebrations of the Feast of the Ass were at Rouen, Beauvais and Sens.
At Rouen the feast was celebrated on Christmas Day, and was intended to
represent the times before the coming of Christ. The service opened with
a procession of Old Testament characters, prophets, patriarchs and
kings, together with heathen prophets, including Virgil, the chief
figure being Balaam on his ass. The ass was a hollow wooden effigy,
within which a priest capered and uttered prophecies. The procession was
followed, inside the church, by a curious combination of ritual office
and mystery play, the text of which, according to the _Ordo processionis
asinorum secundum Rothomagensem usum_, is given in Du Cange.

Far more singular was the celebration at Beauvais, which was held on the
14th of January, and represented the flight into Egypt. A richly
caparisoned ass, on which was seated the prettiest girl in the town
holding in her arms a baby or a large doll, was escorted with much pomp
from the cathedral to the church of St Étienne. There the procession was
received by the priests, who led the ass and its burden to the
sanctuary. Mass was then sung; but instead of the ordinary responses to
the _Introit_, _Kyrie_, _Gloria_, &c., the congregation chanted "Hinham"
(Hee-haw) three times. The rubric of the mass for this feast actually
runs: _In fine Missae Sacerdos versus ad populum vice, Ite missa est,
Hinhannabit: populus vero vice, Deo Gratias, ter respondebit Hinham,
Hinham, Hinham_ (At the close of the mass the priest turning to the
people instead of saying, _Ite missa est_, shall bray thrice: the
people, instead of _Deo gratias_, shall thrice respond Hee-haw, Hee-haw,
Hee-haw).

At Sens the Feast of the Ass was associated with the Feast of Fools,
celebrated at Vespers on the Feast of Circumcision. The clergy went in
procession to the west door of the church, where two canons received the
ass, amid joyous chants, and led it to the precentor's table. Bizarre
vespers followed, sung falsetto and consisting of a medley of extracts
from all the vespers of the year. Between the lessons the ass was
solemnly fed, and at the conclusion of the service was led by the
precentor out into the square before the church (_conductus ad ludos_);
water was poured on the precentor's head, and the ass became the centre
of burlesque ceremonies, dancing and buffoonery being carried on far
into the night, while the clergy and the serious-minded retired to
matins and bed.

Various efforts were made during the middle ages to abolish the Feast of
Fools. Thus in 1198 the chapter of Paris suppressed its more obvious
indecencies; in 1210 Pope Innocent III. forbade the feasts of priests,
deacons and sub-deacons altogether; and in 1246 Innocent IV. threatened
those who disobeyed this prohibition with excommunication. How little
effect this had, however, is shown by the fact that in 1265 Odo,
archbishop of Sens, could do no more than prohibit the obscene excesses
of the feast, without abolishing the feast itself; that in 1444 the
university of Paris, at the request of certain bishops, addressed a
letter condemning it to all cathedral chapters; and that King Charles
VII. found it necessary to order all masters in theology to forbid it in
collegiate churches. The festival was, in fact, too popular to succumb
to these efforts, and it survived throughout Europe till the
Reformation, and even later in France; for in 1645 Mathurin de Neuré
complains in a letter to Pierre Gassendi of the monstrous fooleries
which yearly on Innocents' Day took place in the monastery of the
Cordeliers at Antibes. "Never did pagans," he writes, "solemnize with
such extravagance their superstitious festivals as do they.... The
lay-brothers, the cabbage-cutters, those who work in the kitchen ...
occupy the places of the clergy in the church. They don the sacerdotal
garments, reverse side out. They hold in their hands books turned upside
down, and pretend to read through spectacles in which for glass have
been substituted bits of orange-peel."

  See B. Picart, _Cérémonies et coutumes religieuses de tous les
  peuples_ (1723); du Tilliot, _Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de la
  fête des Fous_ (Lausanne, 1741); Aimé Cherest, _Nouvelles recherches
  sur la fête des Innocents et la fête des Fous dans plusieurs églises
  et notamment dans celle de Sens_ (Paris, 1853); Schneegans in Müller's
  _Zeitschrift für deutsche Kulturgeschichte_ (1858); H. Böhmer, art.
  "Narrenfest" in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklop_. (ed. 1903); Du Cange,
  _Glossarium_ (ed. 1884), s.v. "Festum Asinorum."



FOOLSCAP, the cap, usually of conical shape, with a cockscomb running up
the centre of the back, and with bells attached, worn by jesters and
fools (see FOOL); also a conical cap worn by dunces. The name is given
to a size of writing or printing paper, varying in size from 12 × 15 in.
to 17 × 13-1/2 in. (see PAPER). The name is derived from the use of a
"fool's cap" as a watermark. A German example of the watermark dating
from 1479 was exhibited in the Caxton Exhibition (1877). The _New
English Dictionary_ finds no trustworthy evidence for the introduction
of the watermark by a German, Sir John Spielmann, at his paper-mill at
Dartford in 1580, and states that there is no truth in the familiar
story that the Rump Parliament substituted a fool's cap for the royal
arms as a watermark on the paper used for the journals of parliament.



FOOL'S PARSLEY, in botany, the popular name for _Aethusa Cynapium_, a
member of the family _Umbelliferae_, and a common weed in cultivated
ground. It is an annual herb, with a fusiform root and a smooth hollow
branched stem 1 to 2 ft. high, with much divided (ternately pinnate)
smooth leaves and small compound umbels of small irregular white
flowers. The plant has a nauseous smell, and, like other members of the
order (e.g. hemlock, water-drop wort), is poisonous.



FOOT, the lower part of the leg, in vertebrate animals consisting of
tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges, on which the body rests when in an
upright position, standing or moving (see ANATOMY: _Superficial and
Artistic_; and SKELETON: _Appendicular_). The word is also applied to
such parts of invertebrate animals as serve as a foot, either for
movement or attachment to a surface. "Foot" is a word common in various
forms to Indo-European languages, Dutch, _voet_, Ger. _Fuss_, Dan.
_fod_, &c. The Aryan root is _pod_-, which appears in Sans. _pud_, Gr.
[Greek: pous, podos] and Lat. _pes_, _pedis_. From the resemblance to
the foot, in regard to its position, as the base of anything, or as the
lowest member of the body, or in regard to its function of movement, the
word is applied to the lowest part of a hill or mountain, the plate of a
sewing-machine which holds the material in position, to the part of an
organ pipe below the mouth, and the like. In printing the bottom of a
type is divided by a groove into two portions known as "feet." Probably
referring to the beating of the rhythm with the foot in dancing, the Gr.
[Greek: pous] and Lat. _pes_ were applied in prosody to a grouping of
syllables, one of which is stressed, forming the division of a verse.
"Foot," i.e. foot-soldier, was formerly, with an ordinal number
prefixed, the name of the infantry regiments of the British army. It is
now superseded by territorial designations, but it still is used in the
four regiments of the infantry of the Household, the Foot Guards. As a
lineal measure of length the "foot" is of great antiquity, estimated
originally by the length of a man's foot (see WEIGHTS AND MEASURES). For
the ceremonial washing of feet, see MAUNDY THURSDAY.



FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE (Aphthous Fever, Epizootic Aphtha, Eczema
Epizootica), a virulent contagious and inoculable malady of animals,
characterized by initial fever, followed by the formation of vesicles or
blisters on the tongue, palate and lips, sometimes in the nostrils,
fourth stomach and intestine of cattle, and on parts of the body where
the skin is thin, as on the udder and teats, between the claws, on the
heels, coronet and pastern. The disease begins suddenly and spreads very
rapidly. A rise of temperature precedes the vesicular eruption, which is
accompanied by salivation and a peculiar "smacking" of the lips. The
vesicles gradually enlarge and eventually break, exposing a red raw
patch, which is very sensitive. The animal cannot feed so well as usual,
suffers much pain and inconvenience, loses condition, and, if a
milk-yielding creature, gives less milk, or, if pregnant, may abort.
More or less lameness is a constant symptom, and sometimes the feet
become very much diseased and the animal is so crippled that it has to
be destroyed. It is often fatal to young animals. It is transmitted by
the saliva and the discharges from the vesicles, though all the
secretions and excretions are doubtless infective, as well as all
articles and places soiled by them. This disease can be produced by
injecting the saliva, or the lymph of the vesicles, into the blood or
the peritoneal cavity.

If we were to judge by the somewhat vague descriptions of different
disorders by Greek and Roman writers, this disease has been a European
malady for more than 2000 years. But no reliance can be placed on this
evidence, and it is not until we reach the 17th and 18th centuries that
we find trustworthy proof of its presence, when it was reported as
frequently prevailing extensively in Germany, Italy and France. During
the 19th century, owing to the vastly extended commercial relations
between civilized countries, it has, like the lung-plague, become widely
diffused. In the Old World its effects are now experienced from the
Caspian Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. Hungary, Lower Austria, Bohemia,
Saxony and Prussia were invaded in 1834. Cattle in the Vosges and in
Switzerland were attacked in 1837, and the disease extending to France,
Belgium and Holland, reached England in 1839, and quickly spread over
the three kingdoms (see also under AGRICULTURE). At this time the
importation of foreign animals into England was prohibited, and it was
supposed that the infection must have been introduced by surplus ships'
stores, probably sheep, which had not been consumed during the voyage.
This invasion was followed at intervals by eleven distinct outbreaks,
and since 1902 Great Britain has been free of foot-and-mouth disease.
From the observations of the best authorities it would appear to be an
altogether exotic malady in the west of Europe, always invading it from
the east; at least, this has been the course noted in all the principal
invasions. It was introduced into Denmark in 1841; and into the United
States of America in 1870, from Canada, where it had been carried by
diseased cattle from England. It rapidly extended through cattle traffic
from the state first invaded to adjoining states, but was eventually
extinguished, and does not now appear to be known in North America. It
was twice introduced into Australia in 1872, but was stamped out on each
occasion. It appears to be well known in India, Ceylon, Burma and the
Straits Settlements. In 1870 it was introduced into the Andaman Islands
by cattle imported from Calcutta, where it was then prevailing, and in
the same year it appeared in South America. In South Africa it is
frequently epizootic, causing great inconvenience, owing to the bullocks
used for draught purposes becoming unfit for work. These cattle also
spread the contagion. It is not improbable that it also prevails in
central Africa, as Schweinfurth alludes to the cattle of the Dinkas
suffering from a disease of the kind.

Though not usually a fatal malady, except in very young animals, or when
malignant, yet it is a most serious scourge. In one year (1892) in
Germany, it attacked 150,929 farms, with an estimated loss to the owners
of £7,500,000 sterling. It is transmissible to nearly all the domestic
animals, but its ravages are most severe among cattle, sheep, goats and
swine. Human beings are also liable to infection.

The treatment of affected animals comprises a laxative diet, with
salines, and the application of antiseptics and astringents to the
sores. The preventive measures recommended are, isolation of the
diseased animals, boiling the milk before use, and thorough disinfection
of all places and substances which are capable of conveying the
infection.



FOOTBALL, a game between two opposing sides played with a large inflated
ball, which is propelled either by the feet alone or by both feet and
hands.

Pastimes of the kind were known to many nations of antiquity, and their
existence among savage tribes, such as the Maoris, Faroe Islanders,
Philippine Islanders, Polynesians and Eskimos, points to their primitive
nature. In Greece the [Greek: episkyros] seems to have borne a
resemblance to the modern game. Of this we read in Smith's _Dictionary
of Antiquities_--"It was the game at football, played in much the same
way as with us, by a great number of persons divided into two parties
opposed to one another." Amongst the Romans the _harpastum_, derived
from the Greek verb [Greek: harpazô], I seize, thus showing that
carrying the ball was permissible, bore a certain resemblance. Basil
Kennett, in his _Romae antiquae notitia_, terms this missile a "larger
kind of ball, which they played with, dividing into two companies and
striving to throw it into one another's goals, which was the conquering
cast." The _harpastum_ was a gymnastic game and probably played for the
most part indoors. The real Roman football was played with the inflated
_follis_, which was kicked from side to side over boundaries, and thus
must have closely resembled the modern Association game. Tradition
ascribes its introduction in northern Europe to the Roman legions. It
has been played in Tuscany under the name of _Calcio_ from the middle
ages down to modern times.

Regarding the origin of the game in Great Britain the Roman tradition
has been generally accepted, although Irish antiquarians assert that a
variety of football has been played in Ireland for over 2000 years. In
early times the great football festival of the year was Shrove Tuesday,
though the connexion of the game with this particular date is lost in
obscurity. William Fitzstephen, in his _History of London_ (about 1175),
speaks of the young men of the city annually going into the fields after
dinner to play at the well-known game of ball on the day _quae dicitur
Carnilevaria_. As far as is known this is the first distinct mention of
football in England. It was forbidden by Edward II. (1314) in
consequence of "the great noise in the city caused by hustling over
large balls (_rageries de grosses pelotes_)." A clear reference is made
"ad pilam ... pedinam" in the Rotuli Clausarum, 39 Edward III. (1365),
memb. 23, as one of the pastimes to be prohibited on account of the
decadence of archery, and the same thing occurs in 12 Richard II. c. 6
(1388). Both Henry VIII. and Elizabeth enacted laws against football,
which, both then and under the Stuarts and the Georges, seems to have
been violent to the point of brutality, a fact often referred to by
prominent writers. Thus Sir Thomas Elyot, in his _Boke named the
Governour_ (1531), speaks of football as being "nothyng but beastely
fury and extreme violence, whereof proceedeth hurte and consequently
rancour and malice to remayne with thym that be wounded, wherefore it is
to be put in perpetual silence." In Stubbes' _Anatomie of Abuses_ (1583)
it is referred to as "a develishe pastime ... and hereof groweth envy,
rancour and malice, and sometimes brawling, murther, homicide, and great
effusion of blood, as experience daily teacheth." Fifty years later
(1634) Davenant is quoted (in Hone's _Table-Book_) as remarking, "I
would now make a safe retreat, but methinks I am stopped by one of your
heroic games called football; which I conceive (under your favour) not
very conveniently civil in the streets, especially in such irregular and
narrow roads as Crooked Lane. Yet it argues your courage, much like
your military pastime of throwing at cocks, since you have long allowed
these two valiant exercises in the streets."

An evidence of its old popularity in Ireland is that the statutes of
Galway in 1527 forbade every other sport save archery, excepting "onely
the great foot balle." In the time of Charles II. football was popular
at Cambridge, particularly at Magdalene College, as is evidenced by the
following extract from the register book of that institution under the
date 1679:--

  "That no schollers give or receive at any time any treat or collation
  upon account of ye football play, on or about Michaelmas Day, further
  than Colledge beere or ale in ye open halle to quench their thirsts.
  And particularly that that most vile custom of drinking and spending
  money--Sophisters and Freshmen together--upon ye account of making or
  not making a speech at that football time be utterly left off and
  extinguished."

It nevertheless remained for the most part a game for the masses, and
never took root, except in educational institutions, among the upper
classes until the 19th century. No clubs or code of rules had been
formed, and the sole aim seems to have been to drive the ball through
the opposing side's goal by fair means or foul. So rough did the game
become that James I. forbade the heir apparent to play it, and describes
the exercise in his _Basilikon Doron_ as "meeter for laming than making
able the users thereof." Both sexes and all ages seem to have taken part
in it on Shrove Tuesday; shutters had to be put up and houses closed in
order to prevent damage; and it is not to be wondered that the game fell
into bad repute. Accidents, sometimes fatal, occurred; and Shrove
Tuesday "football-day" gradually died out about 1830, though a relic of
the custom still remained in a few places. For some thirty years
football was only practised at the great English public schools, many of
which possessed special games, which in practically all cases arose from
the nature of the individual ground. Thus the rough, open game, with its
charging, tackling and throwing, which were features of football when it
was taken up by the great public schools, would have been extremely
dangerous if played in the flagged and walled courts of some schools,
as, for example, the old Charterhouse. Hence at such institutions the
dribbling style of play, in which Mr Montague Shearman (_Football_, in
the "Badminton Library") sees the origin of the Association game, came
into existence. Only at Rugby (later at some other schools), which from
the first possessed an extensive grass field, was the old game preserved
and developed, including even its roughness, for actual "hacking" (i.e.
intentional kicking of an opponent's legs) was not expressly abolished
at Rugby until 1877. The description of the old school game at Rugby
contained in _Tom Brown's School Days_ has become classic.

1. _Rugby Union._--We have seen that from early times a rudimentary game
of football had been a popular form of sport in many parts of Great
Britain, and that in the old-established schools football had been a
regular game among the boys. In different schools there arose various
developments of the original game; or rather, what, at first, must have
been a somewhat rough form of horse-play with a ball began to take shape
as a definite game, with a definite object and definite rules. Rugby
school had developed such a game, and from football played according to
Rugby rules has arisen Rugby football. It was about the middle of the
19th century that football--up till that time a regular game only among
schoolboys--took its place as a regular sport among men. To begin with,
men who had played the game as schoolboys formed clubs to enable them to
continue playing their favourite school game, and others were induced to
join them; while in other cases, clubs were formed by men who had not
had the experience of playing the game at school, but who had the energy
and the will to follow the example of those who had had this experience.
In this way football was established as a regular game, no longer
confined to schoolboys. When football was thus first started, the game
was little developed or organized. Rules were very few, and often there
was great doubt as to what the rules were. But, almost from the first,
clubs were formed to play football according to Rugby rules--that is,
according to the rules of the game as played at Rugby school. But even
the Rugby rules of that date were few and vague, and indeed almost
unintelligible to those who had not been at Rugby school. Still, the
fact that play was according to Rugby rules produced a certain
uniformity; but it was not till the establishment of the English Union,
and the commencement of international matches, that a really definite
code of rules was drawn up.

It is an interesting question to ask why it was that the game of Rugby
school became so popular in preference to the games of other schools,
such as Eton, Winchester or Harrow. It was probably very largely due to
the reputation and success of Rugby school under Dr Arnold, and this
also led most probably to its adoption by other schools; for in 1860
many schools besides Rugby played football according to Rugby rules. The
rapidity with which the game spread after the middle of the 19th century
was remarkable. The Blackheath club, the senior club of the London
district, was established in 1860, and Richmond, its great rival,
shortly afterwards. Before 1870, football clubs had been started in
Lancashire and Yorkshire; indeed the Sheffield football club dates back
to 1855. Likewise, in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, Rugby
football clubs had been formed before 1870, and by that date the game
had been implanted both in Ireland and South Wales; while in Scotland,
before 1860, football had taken a hold. Thus by 1870 the game had been
established throughout the United Kingdom, and in many districts had
been regularly played for a number of years. Rapid as, in some ways, had
been the spread of the game between the years 1850 and 1870, it was as
nothing to what happened in the following twenty years; for by 1890
Rugby football, together with Association football, had become the great
winter amusement of the people, and roused universal interest; while
to-day on any fine Saturday afternoon in winter there are tens of
thousands of people playing football, while those who watch the game can
be counted by the hundred thousand. The causes that led to this great
increase in the game and interest taken in it were, undoubtedly, the
establishment of the various national Unions and the international
matches; and, of course, the local rivalry of various clubs, together
with cup or other competitions prevalent in certain districts, was a
leading factor. The establishment of the English Union led to a
codification of the rules without which development was impossible.

In the year 1871 the English Rugby Union was founded in London. This
Union was an association of some clubs and schools which joined together
and appointed a committee and officials to draw up a code of rules of
the game. From this beginning the English Rugby Union has become the
governing body of Rugby football in England, and has been joined by
practically all the Rugby clubs in England, and deals with all matters
connected with Rugby football, notably the choosing of the international
teams. In 1873 the Scottish Football Union was founded in Edinburgh on
the same lines, and with the same objects, while in 1880 the Welsh
Football Union, and in 1881 the Irish Rugby Football Union, were
established as the national Unions of Wales and Ireland, though in both
countries there had been previously Unions not thoroughly representative
of the country. All these Unions became the chief governing body within
their own country, and one of their functions was to make the rules and
laws of the game; but as this had been done to start with by the English
Union, the others adopted the English rules, with amendments to them
from time to time. This state of affairs had one element of
weakness--viz. that since all the Unions made their own rules, if ever a
dispute should arise between any of them, a dead-lock was almost certain
to ensue. Such a dispute did occur in 1884 between the English and
Scottish Unions. This dispute eventually turned on the question of the
right of the English Union to make and interpret the rules of the game,
and to be the paramount authority in the game, and superior to the other
Unions. Scotland, Ireland and Wales resisted this claim, and finally, in
1889, Lord Kingsburgh and Major Marindin were appointed as a commission
to settle the dispute. The result was the establishment of the
International Board, which consists of representatives from each
Union--six from England, two from each of the others--whose duties were
to settle any question that might arise between the different Unions,
and to settle the rules under which international matches were to be
played, these rules being invariably adopted by the various Unions as
the rules of the game.

With the establishment of the International Board the organization of
the game was complete. Still harmony did not prevail, and in 1895
occurred a definite disruption. A number of leading clubs in Yorkshire
and Lancashire broke off from the English Union and formed the Northern
Union, which since that date has had many accessions, and has become the
leading body in the north of England. The question in dispute was the
payment of players. Football was originally played by men for the sheer
love of the game, and by men who were comparatively well-to-do, and who
could give the time to play it; but with the increasing popularity of
the game it became the pastime of all classes of the people, and clubs
began to grow rich by "drawing big gates,"--that is, large numbers of
spectators, frequently many thousands in number, paid for the privilege
of witnessing the match. In these circumstances the temptation arose to
reimburse the player for any out-of-pocket expenses he might be put to
for playing the game, and thus it became universally recognized as
legitimate to pay a player's expenses to and from a match. But in the
case of working men it often meant that they lost part of their weekly
wage when they had to go a distance to play a match, or to go on tour
with their club--that is, go off for a few days and play one or two
matches in different parts of the country--and consequently the claim
was made on their behalf to recoup them for their loss of wage; while at
the same time rich clubs began to be willing to offer inducements to
good players to join their club, and these inducements were generally
most acceptable in the form of money. In Association football (see
below) professionalism--i.e. the hiring and paying of a player for his
services--had been openly recognized. A large section of the English
Union--the amateur party--would not tolerate anything that savoured of
professionalism, and regarded payments made to a player for broken time
as illegitimate. The result was the formation of the Northern Union,
which allowed such payments, and has practically recognized
professionalism. This body has also somewhat altered the laws of the
game, and reduced the number of players constituting a team from fifteen
to thirteen. In Scotland and Ireland Rugby footballers are strongly
amateur; but wherever Rugby football is the popular game of the artisan
the professional element is strong.

Besides legislation, one of the functions of the Unions is to select
international teams. On the 27th of March 1871 the first international
match was played between England and Scotland in Edinburgh. This was a
match between teams picked from English and Scottish players. These
matches from the first roused widespread interest, and were a great
stimulus to the development of the game. With the exception of a few
years, when there were disputes between their respective Unions, all the
countries of the United Kingdom have annually played one
another--England having played Scotland since 1871, Ireland since 1875
and Wales since 1880. Scotland commenced playing Ireland in 1877 and
Wales in 1883, while Ireland and Wales met first in 1882 and then in
1884, and since 1887 have played annually. The qualifications of a
player for any country were at first vaguely considered to be birth; but
they were never definitely settled, and there has been a case of a
player playing for two countries. In 1894, however, the International
Board decided that no player was to play for more than one country, and
this has been the only pronouncement on the question; and though birth
is still looked upon as the main qualification, it is not essential.
Though international matches excite interest throughout the United
Kingdom, the matches between two rival clubs arouse just as much
excitement in their district, particularly when the clubs may be taken
as representatives of two neighbouring rival towns. But when to this
rivalry there is added the inducement to play for a cup, or prize, the
excitement is much more intense. Among Rugby players cup competitions
have never been so popular as among Association, but the competition for
the Yorkshire Cup was very keen in the days before the establishment of
the Northern Union, and this undoubtedly was the main cause of the
popularity of the game in that county. Similarly the competition for the
South Wales Cup from 1878 to 1887 did a great deal to establish the game
in that country. The method of carrying on these competitions is, that
all the clubs entered are drawn by lot, in pairs, to play together in
the first round; the winners of these ties are then similarly drawn in
pairs for the next round, until for the final round there is only one
pair left, the winner of which takes the cup. An elaboration of this
competition is the "League system" of the Association game. This,
likewise, has not been popular with Rugby players. Still it exists in
some districts, especially where clubs are anxious to draw big gates. In
the League system a certain number of clubs form a league to play one
another twice each season; two points are counted for a win and one for
a draw. The club which at the end of the season comes out with most
points wins the competition. The advantage of this system over a cup
competition is, that interest is kept up during the whole season, and
one defeat does not debar a club from eventually coming out first.

It is said that wherever Britons go they take their games with them, and
this has certainly been the case with Rugby football, especially in New
Zealand, South Africa and Australia. An interchange of football visits
between these colonies and the motherland is now an important feature in
the game. These tours date from 1888, when an English team visited
Australia and New Zealand. In the following season, 1889, a team of New
Zealanders, some of whom were native Maories, came over to England, and
by their play even then indicated how well the grammar of the game had
been studied in that colony. Subsequently several British teams visited
at intervals New Zealand and Australia, and in 1905 New Zealand sent
home a team which eclipsed anything previously accomplished. They played
altogether thirty-three matches, including fixtures with England,
Ireland, Scotland and Wales, and only sustained one defeat, viz. by a
try in their match with Wales, a record which speaks for itself. In 1908
a combined team of English and Welsh players toured in New Zealand and
Australia, and also visited Canada on their way home. The team was not
so strong as could have been wished, and though they did fairly well in
Australia, they lost all three "test matches" against New Zealand. In
South Africa the game is followed with equal enthusiasm, and the play is
hardly inferior, if at all, to that of the New Zealanders. The first
British team to visit the Cape went in 1891 through the generosity of
Cecil Rhodes, who guaranteed the undertaking against loss. Teams were
also sent out in 1896 and 1903; the result of matches played in each
visit showing the steady improvement of the colonists. In 1906 the South
Africans paid their first visit to England, and the result of their tour
proved them to be equally formidable with the New Zealanders. England
managed to draw with them, but Scotland was the only one of the home
Unions to gain a victory. The success of these colonial visits, more
especially financially, created a development very foreign to the
intentions of their organizers. The Northern Union as a professional
body had drifted into a somewhat parlous state, through suffering on the
one hand from a lack of international matches, and on the other from the
competition of Association professional teams. The great financial
success resulting from the New Zealand tour of 1905 roused the attention
of the Northern Union authorities, and they quickly entered into
negotiations with New Zealand players to collect a team who would come
over and play the Northern Union clubs, the visiting players themselves
taking a share of the gate-money. For this purpose a team of New
Zealanders toured the north of England in 1907, and their action caused
the introduction of professional or Northern Union football in both New
Zealand and Australia.

The spread of the game has not, however, been confined to
English-speaking races. In France it has found fruitful soil, and
numerous clubs exist in that country. Since 1906 international matches
have been played between France and England, and the energy of French
players, coupled with their national _élan_, makes them formidable
opponents. The Rugby code has also obtained a firm footing in Canada,
India, Ceylon and the Argentine.

The game itself is essentially a winter pastime, as two requisite
conditions for its enjoyment are a cool atmosphere and a soft though
firm turf. The field of play is an oblong, not more than 110 yds. long
nor more than 75 yds. broad, and it usually approximates to these
dimensions. The boundaries are marked by lines, called touch-lines, down
the sides, and goal-lines along the ends. The touch-lines are continued
beyond the goal-lines for a distance of not more than 25 yds.; and
parallel to the goal-line and behind it, at a distance of not more than
25 yds., is drawn a line called the dead-ball line, joining the ends of
the touch-lines produced. On each goal-line, at an equal distance from
the touch-lines, are erected two posts, termed goal-posts, exceeding 11
ft. in height, and generally much more--averaging perhaps from 20 to 30
ft. from the ground, and placed 18 ft. 6 in. apart. At a height of 10
ft. from the ground they are joined by a cross-bar; and the object of
the game is to kick the ball over the cross-bar between the upright
posts, and so obtain a goal. The ball is egg-shaped (strictly an oblate
spheroid), and the official dimensions are--length, 11 to 11¼ in.;
length circumference, 30 to 31 in.; width circumference, 25½ to 26 in.;
weight, 13 to 14½ oz. It is made of india-rubber inflated, and covered
with a leather case. Halfway between the two goal-lines there is
generally drawn the half-way line, but sometimes it is marked by flags
on the touch-line; and 25 yds. from each goal-line there is similarly
marked the 25-yds. line. In the original game the side that had gained
the majority of goals won the match, and if no goal had been scored, or
an equal number, the game was said to be left drawn; but a modification
was adopted before long. A goal can be kicked from the field in the
ordinary course of play; but from the very first a try goal could be
obtained by that side one of whose players either carried the ball
across his opponents' goal-line and then touched it down (i.e. on the
ground), or touched it down after it had been kicked across the
goal-line, before any of his opponents. The "try" is then proceeded with
as follows: the ball is taken out by a member of the side obtaining the
try in a straight line from the spot where it was "touched down," and is
deposited in a selected position on the ground in the field of play, the
defending side being all confined behind their own goal-line until the
moment the ball is so placed on the ground, when another member of the
attacking side endeavours to kick it from the ground (a "place kick")
over the bar and between the goal-posts. Frequently a goal is kicked;
very often not. The modification first allowed was to count that side
the winner which had gained the majority of tries, provided no goal or
an equal number of goals had been scored; but a majority of one goal
took precedence of any number of tries. But this, too, was afterwards
abolished, and a system of points instituted by which the side with the
majority of points wins. The numerical value, however, of goals and
tries has undergone several changes, the system in 1908 being as
follows:--A try counts 3 points. A goal from a try (in which case the
try shall not count) 5 points. A dropped goal (except from a mark or a
penalty kick) 4 points; a dropped goal being a goal obtained by a player
who drops the ball from his hands and kicks it the moment it rises off
the ground, as in the "half-volley" at cricket or tennis. A goal from a
mark or penalty kick 3 points. Under the Northern Union code any sort of
goal counts 2 points, a try 3 points; but if a try be converted into a
goal, both try and goal count, i.e. 5 points are scored.

In the game itself not only may the ball be kicked in the direction of
the opponents' goal, but it may also be carried; but it must not be
thrown forward or knocked on--that is, in the direction of the
opponents' goal--though it may be thrown back. Thus the game is really a
combination of football and handball. The main principle is that any one
who is not "offside" is in play. A player is offside if he gets in front
of the ball--that is, on the opponents' side of the ball, nearer than a
colleague in possession of the ball to the opponents' goal-line; when in
this position he must not interfere with an opponent or touch the ball
under penalty. The leading feature of the game is the "scrummage." In
old days at Rugby school there was practically no limit to the numbers
of players on each side, and not infrequently there would be a hundred
or more players on one side. This was never prevalent in club football;
twenty a-side was the usual number to start with, reduced in 1877 to
fifteen a-side, the number still maintained. In the old Rugby big sides
the ball got settled amidst a mass of players, and each side attempted
to drive it through this mass by shoving, kicking, and otherwise forcing
their way through with the ball in front of them. This was the origin of
the scrummage.

The game is played usually for one hour, or one hour and ten minutes,
sometimes for one hour and a half. Each side defends each goal in turn
for half the time of play. Of the fifteen players who compose a side,
the usual arrangement is that eight are called "forwards," and form the
scrummage; two "half-backs" are posted outside the scrummage; and four
"three-quarter-backs," a little behind the halves, stretch in a line
across the field, their duties being mainly to run and kick and pass the
ball to other members of their own side, and to prevent their opponents
from doing the same. In recent years, owing to the development of
"passing," the field position of the half-backs has undergone a change.
One stands fairly close to the scrummage and is known as the
"scrum-half," the other takes a position between the latter and the
three-quarters, and is termed the "stand-off-half." Behind the
three-quarters comes the "full-back" or "back," a single individual to
maintain the last line of defence; his duties are entirely defensive,
either to "tackle" an opponent who has managed to get through, or, more
usually, to catch and return long kicks. Play is started by one side
kicking the ball off from the centre of the field in the direction of
the opponents' goal. The ball is then caught by one of the other side,
who either kicks it or runs with it. In running he goes on until he is
"tackled," or caught, by one of his opponents, unless he should choose
to "pass" or throw it to another of his own side, who, provided he be
not offside, may either kick, or run, or pass as he chooses. The ball in
this way is kept moving until it crosses the touch-line, or goal-line,
or is tackled. If the ball crosses the touch-line both sides line up at
right angles to the point where it crossed the line, and the ball is
thrown in straight either by one of the same side whose player carried
the ball across the touch-line, or, if the ball was kicked or thrown
out, by one of the opposite side. If the ball crosses the goal-line
either a try is gained, as explained above, or if the defending side
touch it down first, the other side retire to the line 25 yds. from the
goal-line, and the defending side kick it up the field. If the ball is
tackled the player carrying the ball gets up from the ground as soon as
possible, and the forwards at once form the scrummage by putting down
their heads and getting ready to shove against one another. They shove
as soon as the ball is put down between the two front rows. In the
scrummage the object is, by shoving the opponents back or otherwise
breaking away with the ball in front, to carry the ball in the direction
of the opponents' goal-line by a series of short kicks in which the
players run after the ball as fast as possible, while their opponents
lie in wait to get the ball, and either by a kick or other device stop
the rush. Instead, however, of the forwards breaking away with the ball,
sometimes they let the ball come out of the scrummage to their
half-backs, who either kick or run with it, or pass it to the
three-quarter-backs, and so the game proceeds until the ball is once
more "dead"--that is, brought to a standstill. The scrummage appears to
be an uninteresting manoeuvre, and a strange relic of bygone times; but
it is not merely a manoeuvre in which weight and strength alone tell--it