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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 10, Slice 6 - "Foraminifera" to "Fox, Edward"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [int] stands for the integral symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for
      greek letters and [oo] for infinity.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    ARTICLE FORESTS AND FORESTRY: "These trees will all be of
      increasing importance." 'will' amended from 'wil'.

    ARTICLE FORM : "All perception is necessarily conditioned by pure
      'forms of sensibility,' i.e. space and time: whatever is perceived
      is perceived as having spacial and temporal relations (see SPACE
      AND TIME; KANT)." 'spacial' amended from 'special'.

    ARTICLE FORMOSA: "The vegetation of the island is characterized by
      tropical luxuriance,--the mountainous regions being clad with dense
      forest, in which various species of palms, the camphor-tree (Laurus
      Camphora), and the aloe are conspicuous." 'mountainous' amended
      from 'moutainous'.

    ARTICLE FORMOSA: "... in 1624 they built a fort, Zelandia, on the
      east coast, where subsequently rose the town of Taiwan, and the
      settlement was maintained for thirty-seven years." 'thirty' amended
      from 'thrity'.

    ARTICLE FORSTER, JOHANN GEORG ADAM: "At Cassel Forster formed an
      intimate friendship with the great anatomist Sömmerring, and about
      the same time made the acquaintance of Jacobi, who gave him a
      leaning towards mysticism from which he subsequently emancipated
      himself." 'subsequently' amended from 'subequently'.

    ARTICLE FORTIFICATION AND SIEGECRAFT: "At the sieges of Tyre and
      Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in 587 B.C. we first find mention of
      the ram and of movable towers placed on mounds to overlook the
      walls." 'Nebuchadnezzar' amended from 'Nebuchadrezzar'.

    ARTICLE FORTIFICATION AND SIEGECRAFT: "The Germanic Confederation
      reinforced Mainz with improved works, and reorganized entirely
      Rastatt and Ulm." 'entirely' amended from 'enentirely'.

    ARTICLE FORTIFICATION AND SIEGECRAFT: "For the fate of the fortress
      must depend ultimately on the result of the operations of the
      active armies." 'ultimately' amended from 'utlimately'.

    ARTICLE FOSCOLO, UGO: "... found their final resting-place beside
      the monuments of Machiavelli and Alfieri, of Michelangelo and
      Galileo, in Italy's Westminster Abbey, the church of Santa Croce."
      'Machiavelli' amended from 'Macchiavelli'.

    ARTICLE FOSSANO: "It appears as a commune in 1237, but in 1251 had
      to yield to Asti. It finally surrendered in 1314 to Filippo
      d'Acaia, whose successor handed it over to the house of Savoy."
      'Filippo' amended from 'Fillippo'.

    ARTICLE FOURIER'S SERIES: "Besides Dini's treatise already referred
      to, there is a lucid treatment of the subject from an elementary
      point of view in C. Neumann's treatise, Über die nach Kreis-,
      Kugel- und Cylinder-Functionen fortschreitenden Entwickelungen."
      'subject' amended from 'subejct'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


             VOLUME X, SLICE VI

         Foraminifera to Fox, Edward



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  FORAMINIFERA                     FORT LEE
  FORBACH                          FORT MADISON
  FORBES, ALEXANDER PENROSE        FORTROSE
  FORBES, ARCHIBALD                FORT SCOTT
  FORBES, DAVID                    FORT SMITH
  FORBES, DUNCAN                   FORTUNA
  FORBES, EDWARD                   FORTUNATIANUS, ATILIUS
  FORBES, JAMES DAVID              FORTUNATUS
  FORBES, SIR JOHN                 FORTUNATUS, VENANTIUS CLEMENTIANUS
  FORBES (town)                    FORTUNE, ROBERT
  FORBES-ROBERTSON, JOHNSTON       FORTUNY, MARIANO JOSE MARIA BERNARDO
  FORBIN, CLAUDE DE                FORT WAYNE
  FORCELLINI, EGIDIO               FORT WILLIAM (Ontario, Canada)
  FORCHHAMMER, JOHANN GEORG        FORT WILLIAM (Scotland)
  FORCHHAMMER, PETER WILHELM       FORT WORTH
  FORCHHEIM                        FORTY
  FORD, EDWARD ONSLOW              FORUM
  FORD, JOHN                       FORUM APPII
  FORD, RICHARD                    FORUM CLODII
  FORD, THOMAS                     FORUM TRAIANI
  FORDE, FRANCIS                   FOSBROKE, THOMAS DUDLEY
  FORDHAM                          FOSCARI, FRANCESCO
  FORDUN, JOHN OF                  FOSCOLO, UGO
  FORECLOSURE                      FOSS, EDWARD
  FOREIGN OFFICE                   FOSSANO
  FORELAND, NORTH and SOUTH        FOSSANUOVA
  FORESHORE                        FOSSE WAY
  FORESTALLING                     FOSSICK
  FOREST LAWS                      FOSSOMBRONE
  FORESTS AND FORESTRY             FOSSOMBRONI, VITTORIO
  FOREY, ÉLIE FRÉDÉRIC             FOSTER, SIR CLEMENT LE NEVE
  FORFAR                           FOSTER, GEORGE EULAS
  FORFARSHIRE                      FOSTER, JOHN
  FORFEITURE                       FOSTER, SIR MICHAEL
  FORGERY                          FOSTER, MYLES BIRKET
  FORGET-ME-NOT                    FOSTER, STEPHEN COLLINS
  FORGING                          FOSTORIA
  FORK                             FOTHERGILL, JOHN
  FORKEL, JOHANN NIKOLAUS          FOTHERINGHAY
  FORLÌ                            FOUCAULT, JEAN BERNARD LÉON
  FORLIMPOPOLI                     FOUCHÉ, JOSEPH
  FORLORN HOPE                     FOUCHER, SIMON
  FORM                             FOUCQUET, JEAN
  FORMALIN                         FOUGÈRES
  FORMAN, ANDREW                   FOUILLÉE, ALFRED JULES EMILE
  FORMAN, SIMON                    FOULD, ACHILLE
  FORMERET                         FOULIS, ANDREW and ROBERT
  FORMEY, JOHANN HEINRICH SAMUEL   FOULLON, JOSEPH FRANÇOIS
  FORMIA                           FOUNDATION
  FORMIC ACID                      FOUNDATIONS
  FORMOSA (territory of Argentine) FOUNDING
  FORMOSA (Taiwan)                 FOUNDLING HOSPITALS
  FORMOSUS                         FOUNTAIN
  FORMULA                          FOUNTAINS ABBEY
  FORNER, JUAN BAUTISTA PABLO      FOUQUÉ, FERDINAND ANDRÉ
  FORRES                           FOUQUÉ, FRIEDRICH KARL DE LA MOTTE
  FORREST, EDWIN                   FOUQUET, NICOLAS
  FORREST, SIR JOHN                FOUQUIER-TINVILLE, ANTOINE QUENTIN
  FORREST, NATHAN BEDFORD          FOURCHAMBAULT
  FORSKÅL, PETER                   FOURCROY, ANTOINE FRANÇOIS
  FORSSELL, HANS LUDVIG            FOURIER, FRANÇOIS CHARLES MARIE
  FORST                            FOURIER, JEAN BAPTISTE JOSEPH
  FORSTER, FRANÇOIS                FOURIER'S SERIES
  FÖRSTER, FRIEDRICH CHRISTOPH     FOURMIES
  FORSTER, JOHANN GEORG ADAM       FOURMONT, ÉTIENNE
  FORSTER, JOHN                    FOURNET, JOSEPH JEAN BAPTISTE XAVIER
  FORSTER, JOHN COOPER             FOURNIER, PIERRE SIMON
  FORSTER, WILLIAM EDWARD          FOURNIER L'HÉRITIER, CLAUDE
  FORSYTH, PETER TAYLOR            FOURTOU, MARIE FRANÇOIS OSCAR BARDY DE
  FORTALEZA                        FOUSSA
  FORT AUGUSTUS                    FOWEY
  FORT DODGE                       FOWL
  FORT EDWARD                      FOWLER, CHARLES
  FORTESCUE, SIR JOHN (lawyer)     FOWLER, EDWARD
  FORTESCUE, SIR JOHN (statesman)  FOWLER, JOHN
  FORTEVIOT                        FOWLER, SIR JOHN
  FORT GEORGE                      FOWLER, WILLIAM
  FORTH                            FOX, CHARLES JAMES
  FORTIFICATION AND SIEGECRAFT     FOX, EDWARD
  FORTLAGE, KARL



FORAMINIFERA, in zoology, a subdivision of Protozoa, the name selected
for this enormous class being that given by A. D'Orbigny in 1826 to the
shells characteristic of the majority of the species. He regarded them
as minute Cephalopods, whose chambers communicated by pores (foramina).
Later on their true nature was discovered by F. Dujardin, working on
living forms, and he referred them to his Rhizopoda, characterized by
pseudopodia given off from the sarcode (protoplasm) as organs of
prehension and locomotion. W.B. Carpenter in 1862 differentiated the
group nearly in its present limits as "Reticularia"; and since then it
has been rendered more natural by the removal of a number of simple
forms (mostly freshwater) with branching but not reticulate pseudopods,
to Filosa, a distinct subclass, now united with Lobosa into the
restricted class of Rhizopoda.

[Illustration: FIG. 1A.--_Lieberkühnia_, with reticulate pseudopodia.]

_Anatomy._--Protista Sarcodina, with simple protoplasmic bodies of
_granular surface_, emitting processes which branch and _anastomose
freely_, either from the whole surface or from one or more elongated
processes ("stylopods"); nucleus one or more (not yet demonstrated in
some little known simple forms), usually in genetic relation to granules
or strands of matter of similar composition, the "chromidia" scattered
through the protoplasm; body naked, or provided with a permanent
investment (shell or test), membranous, gelatinous, arenaceous (of
compacted or cemented granules), calcareous, or very rarely (in deep sea
forms) siliceous, sometimes freely perforated, but _never latticed_;
opening by one or more permanent apertures ("pylomes") or crevices
between compacted sand-granules, often very complex; reproduction by
fission (only in simplest naked forms), or by brood formation; in the
latter case one mode of brood formation (A) eventuates in amoebiform
embryos, the other (B) in flagellate zoospores which are exogamous
gametes, pairing but not with those of their own brood; the coupled cell
("zygote") when mature in the shelled species gives rise to a very small
primitive test-chamber or "microsphere." The adult microspheric animal
gives rise to the amoebiform brood which have a larger primitive test
("megalosphere"); and megalospheric forms appear to reproduce by the A
type a series of similar forms before a B brood of gametes is finally
borne, to pair and reproduce the microspheric type, which is
consequently rare.

[Illustration: FIG. 1B.--_Protomyxa aurantiaca_, Haeck. (After Haeckel.)

  1, Adult, containing two diatom frustules, and three Tintinnid
    ciliates, with a large Dinoflagellate just caught by the expanded
    reticulate pseudopodia.
  2, Adult encysted and segmented.
  3, Flagellate zoospore just freed from cyst.
  4, Zoospore which has passed into the amoeboid state.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--_Allogromiidea._

  1, _Diplophrys archeri_, Barker.
    a, Nucleus.
    b, Contractile vacuoles.
    c, The yellow oil-like body. Moor pools, Ireland.

  2, _Allogromia oviformis_, Duj.
    a, The numerous nuclei; near these the elongated bodies represent
    ingested diatoms. Freshwater. Figs. 2, 3, 11, 12 belong to Rhizopoda
    Filosa, and are included here to show the characteristic _filose_
    pseudopodia in contrast with the reticulate spread of the others.

  3, _Shepheardella taeniiformis_, Siddall (_Quart. Jour. Micr. Sci._,
    1880).

  Marine. The protoplasm is retracted at both ends into the tubular
  case.
    a. Nucleus.

  5, _Shepheardella taeniiformis_; with pseudopodia fully expanded.

  6-10, Varying appearance of the nucleus as it is carried along in the
    streaming protoplasm within the tube.

  11, _Amphitrema wrightianum_, Archer, showing membranous shell
    encrusted with foreign particles. Moor pools, Ireland.

  12, _Diaphorophodon mobile_, Archer.
    a. Nucleus. Moor pools, Ireland.]

The shells require special study. In the lowest forms they are
membranous, sometimes encrusted with sand-grains, always very simple,
the only complication being the doubling of the pylome in _Diplophrys_
(fig. 2, 1), _Shepheardella_ (fig. 2, 3-5), _Amphitrema_ (fig. 2, 11),
_Diaphorophodon_ (fig. 2, 12). The marine shells are, as we have seen,
of cemented particles, or calcareous, glassy, and regularly perforated,
or again calcareous, but porcellanous and rarely perforate. These
characters have been used as a guide to classification; but some sandy
forms have so large a proportion of calcareous cement that they might
well be called encrusted calcareous genera, and are also not very
constant in respect of the character of perforation. The porcellanous
genera, however, form a compact group, the replacement of the shell by
silica in forms dwelling in the red clay of the ocean abysses, where
calcium carbonate is soluble, not really making any difficulty.
Moreover, the shells of this group show a deflected process or neck of
the embryonic chamber ("camptopyle") at least in the megalospheric
forms, whereas when such a neck exists in other groups it is straight.
The opening of the shell is called the pylome. This may be a mere hole
where the lateral walls of the body end, or there may be a diaphragmatic
ingrowth so as to narrow the entrance. It may be a simple rounded
opening, oblong or tri-multi-radiate, or branching (fig. 4, 1); or
replaced by a number of coarse pores ("ethmopyle") (fig. 3, 5a). Again,
it may lie at the end of a narrowed tube ("stylopyle"), which in
_Lagena_ (fig. 3, 9) may project outwards ("ectoselenial"), or inwards
("entoselenial"). In most groups the stylopyle is straight; but in the
majority of the porcellanous shells it is bent down on the side of the
shell, and constitutes the "flexopyle" of A. Kemna, which being a hybrid
term should be replaced by "camptopyle." The animal usually forms a
simple shell only after it has attained a certain size, and this
"embryonic chamber" cannot grow further. In _Spirillina_ and
_Ammodiscus_ there is no pylomic end-wall, and the shell continues to
grow as a spiral tube; in _Cornuspira_ (fig. 3, 1) there is a slight
constriction indicating the junction of a small embryonic chamber with a
camptopyle, but the rest of the shell is a simple flat spiral of several
turns. In the majority at least one chamber follows the first, with its
own pylome at the distal end. This second chamber may rest on the first,
so that the part on which it rests serves as a party-wall bounding the
front of the newer chamber as well as the back of the older; and this
state prevails for all added chambers in such cases. In the highest
vitreous shells, however, each chamber has its complete "proper wall";
while a "supplementary skeleton," a deposit of shelly matter, binds the
chambers together into a compact whole. In all cases the protoplasm from
the pylome may deposit additional matter on the outside of the shell, so
as to produce very characteristic sculpturing of the surface.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Various forms of Calcareous Foraminifera.

   1, _Cornuspira_.              11, _Cristellaria_.
   2, _Spiroloculina_.           12, _Globigerina_.
   3, _Triloculina_.             13, _Polymorphina_.
   4, _Biloculina_.              14, _Textularia_.
   5, _Peneroplis_.              15, _Discorbina_.
   6, _Orbiculina_ (cyclical).   16, _Polystomella_.
   7, _Orbiculina_ (young).      17, _Planorbulina_.
   8, _Orbiculina_ (spiral).     18, _Rotalia_.
   9, _Lagena_.                  19, _Nonionina_.
  10, _Nodosaria_.]

Compound or "polythalamic" shells derive their general form largely from
the relations of successive chambers in size, shape and direction. This
is well shown in the porcellanous _Miliolidae_. If we call the straight
line uniting the two ends of a chamber the "polar axis," we find that
successive chambers have their pylomes at alternate poles; but they lie
on different meridians. In _Spiroloculina_ (fig. 3, 2) the divergence
between the meridians is 180°, and the chambers are strongly incurved,
so that the whole shell forms a flat spiral, of nearly circular outline.
In the majority, however, the chambers are crescentic in section, their
transverse prolongations being termed "alary" outgrowths, so that
successive chambers overlap; when under this condition the angle of
successive meridians is still 180° we have the form _Biloculina_ (fig.
3, 4), or with the alary extensions completely enveloping,
_Uniloculina_; when the angle is 120° we have _Triloculina_, or 144°,
_Quinqueloculina_. Again in _Peneroplis_ (figs. 3, 5, and 4) the shell
begins as a flattened shell which tends to straighten out with further
growth and additional chambers. In some forms (_Spirolina_, fig. 22, 3)
the chambers have a nearly circular transverse section, and the adult
shell is thus crozier-shaped. In others (which may have the same
sculpture, and are scarcely distinguishable as species) the chambers are
short and wide, drawn out at right angles to the axis, but in the plane
of the spiral, and the growing shell becomes fan-shaped or
"flabelliform" (figs. 3, 5, 4, 2). This widening may go on till the
outer chambers form the greater part of a circle, as in _Orbiculina_
(fig. 3, 6-8) where, moreover, each large chamber is subdivided by
incomplete vertical bulkheads into a tier of chamberlets; each
chamberlet has a distinct pylomic pore opening to the outside or to
those of the next outer zone. In _Orbitolites_ (figs. 5, 6) we have a
centre on a somewhat Milioline type; and after a few chambers in spiral
succession, complete circles of chambers are formed. In the larger forms
the new zones are of greater height, and horizontal bulkheads divide the
chamberlets into vertical tiers, each with its own pylomic pore.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Modifications of _Peneroplis_. 1, _Dendritina_;
2, _Eu-Peneroplis_.]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Shell of simple type of _Orbitolites_, showing
primordial chamber a, and circumambient chamber b, surrounded by
successive rings of chamberlets connected by circular galleries which
open at the margin by pores.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Animal of simple type of _Orbitolites_, showing
primordial segment a, and circumambient segment b, surrounded by annuli
of sub-segments connected by radial and circular stolon-processes.]

The Cheilostomellidae (fig. 3, 13) reproduce among perforate vitreous
genera what we have already seen in the _Miliolida_: _Orbitoides_ (fig.
10, 2) and _Cycloclypeus_, among the Nummulite group, with a very finely
perforate wall, recall the porcellanous _Orbiculina_ and _Orbitolites_.

In flat spiral forms (figs. 22, 1, 7; 3, 2, 16, 19, &c.) all the
chambers may be freely exposed; or the successive chambers be wider
transversely than their predecessors and overlap by "alary extensions,"
becoming "nautiloid"; in extreme cases only the last turn or whorl is
seen (fig. 11). When the spiral axis is conical the shell may be
"rotaloid," the larger lower chambers partially concealing the upper
smaller ones (fig. 3, 12, 15, 17, 18); or they may leave, as in
_Patellina_, a wide central conical cavity--which, in this genus, is
finally occupied by later formed "supplementary" chambers. When the
successive chambers are disposed around a longitudinal central axis they
may be said to "alternate" like the leaves of a plant. If the
arrangement is distichous we get such forms as _Polymorphina_,
_Textularia_ and _Frondicularia_ (fig. 3, 13, 14), if tristichous,
_Tritaxia_. Such an arrangement may coexist with a spiral twist of the
axis for at least part of its course, as in the crozier-shaped
_Spiroplecta_.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Section of _Rotalia beccarii_, showing the canal
system, a, b, c, in the substance of the intermediate skeleton; d,
tubulated chamber-wall.]

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Internal cast of _Polystomella craticulata_.

  a, Retral processes, proceeding from the posterior margin of one of
    the segments.
  b, b¹, Smooth anterior margin of the same segment.
  c, c¹, Stolons connecting successive segments and uniting themselves
    with the diverging branches of the meridional canals.
  d, d¹, d², Three turns of one of the spiral canals.
  e, e¹, e², Three of the meridional canals.
  f, f¹, f², Their diverging branches.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--_Operculina_ laid open, to show its internal
structure.

  a, Marginal cord seen in cross section at a'.
  b, b, External walls of the chambers.
  c, c, Cavities of the chambers.
  c', c', Their alar prolongations.
  d, d, Septa divided at d', d', and at d", so as to lay open the
    interseptal canals, the general distribution of which is seen in the
    septa e, e; the lines radiating from e, e point to the secondary
    pores.
  g, g, Non-tubular columns.]

Two phenomena interfere with the ready availability of the characters of
form for classificatory ends--dimorphism and multiformity.

_Dimorphism._--The majority of foraminiferal shells show two types, the
rarer with a much smaller central chamber than that of the more
frequent. The chambers are called microsphere and megalosphere, the
forms in which they occur microsphaeric and megalosphaeric forms,
respectively. We shall study below their relation to the reproductive
cycle.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--1, Piece of Nummulitic Limestone from the
Pyrenees, showing Nummulites laid open by fracture through the median
plane; 2, vertical section of _Nummulite_; 3, _Orbitoides_.]

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--Vertical section of portion of _Nummulites_,
showing the investment of the earlier whorls by the alar prolongations
of the later.

  a, Marginal cord.
  b, Chamber of outer whorl.
  c, c, Whorl invested by a.
  d, One of the chambers of the fourth whorl from the margin.
  e, e', Marginal portions of the enclosed whorls.
  f, Investing portion of the outer whorl.
  g, g, Spaces left between the investing portions of successive whorls.
  h, h, Sections of the partitions dividing these.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--Internal surface of wall of two chambers, a, a,
of _Nummulites_, showing the orifices of its minute tubuli.

  b, b, The septa containing canals.
  c, c, Extensions of these canals in the intermediate skeleton.
  d, d, Larger pores.]

_Multiformity._--Many of the Polythalamia show different types of
chamber-succession at different ages. We have noted this phenomenon in
such crozier forms as _Peneroplis_, as well as in discoid forms; it is
very frequent. Thus the microspheric _Biloculina_ form the first few
chambers in quinqueloculine succession. The microspheric forms attain to
a greater size when adult than the megalospheric; and in _Orbitolites_
the microsphere has a straight outlet, orthostyle, instead of the
deflected camptostyle one, so general in porcellanous types; and the
spiral succession is continued for more turns before reaching the
fan-shaped and finally cyclic stage. _Globigerina_, whose chambers are
nearly spherical, is sometimes seen to be enclosed in a spherical test,
perforate, but without a pylome, and known as _Orbulina_; the chambered
Globigerina-shell is attached at first inside the wall of the
_Orbulina_, but ultimately disappears. The ultimate fate of the
_Orbulina_ shell is unknown; but it obviously marks a turning-point in
the life-cycle.

  _Protoplasmic Body and Reproduction._--The protoplasm is not
  differentiated into ecto- and endosarc, although it is often denser
  in the central part within the shell, and clearer in the pseudopodial
  ramifications and the layer (or stalk in the monothalamic forms) from
  which it is given off. In pelagic forms like _Globigerina_ the
  external layer is almost if not quite identical in structure with the
  extracapsular protoplasm of Radiolaria (q.v.), being differentiated
  into granular strands traversing a clear jelly, rich in large vacuoles
  (alveoli), and uniting outside the jelly to form the basal layer of
  the pseudopods; these again are radiolarian in character. Hence E.R.
  Lankester justly enough compares the shell here to the central capsule
  of the Radiolarian, though the comparison must not be pushed too far.
  The cytoplasm contains granules of various kinds, and the internal
  protoplasm is sometimes pigmented. The Chrysomonad Flagellate,
  _Zooxanthella_, so abundant in its resting state--the so-called
  "yellow cells"--in the extracapsular protoplasm of Radiolaria (q.v.)
  also occurs in the outer protoplasm of many Foraminifera, not only
  pelagic but also bottom-dwellers, such as _Orbitolites_.

  [Illustration: FIG. 13.--Internal cast of two chambers, a, a, of
  _Nummulites_, the radial canals between them passing into b, marginal
  plexus.]

  The nucleus is single in the Nuda and Allogromidia and in the
  megalospheric forms of higher Foraminifera; but microspheric forms
  when adult contain many simple similar nuclei. The nucleus in every
  case gives off granules and irregular masses ("chromidia") of similar
  reactions, which play an important part in reproduction. During the
  maturation of the microsphere the nuclei disappear; and the cytoplasm
  breaks up into a large number of zoospores, each of which is soon
  provided with a single nucleus, whether entirely derived from the
  parent-nucleus or from the coalescence of chromidia, or from both
  these sources is still uncertain. These zoospores are amoeboid; they
  soon secrete a shell and reveal themselves as megalospheres, the
  original state of the megalospheric forms. In the adult megalosphere
  the solitary nucleus disappears and is replaced by hosts of minute
  vesicular nuclei, formed by the concentration of chromidia. Each
  nucleus aggregates around it a proper zone of dense protoplasm; by two
  successive mitotic divisions each mass becomes quadri-nucleate, and
  splits up into four biflagellate, uninucleate zoospores. These are
  pairing-cells or gametes, though they will not pair with members of
  the same brood. In the zygote resulting from pairing two nuclei soon
  fuse into one; but this again divides into two; an embryonic shell is
  secreted, and this is the microspheric type, which is multinuclear
  from the first. F. Schaudinn compares the nuclei of the adult
  Foraminifera with the (vegetative) meganucleus of Infusora (q.v.) and
  the chromidial mass with the micronucleus, whose chief function is
  reproductive.

  [Illustration: FIG. 14.--Vertical section of tubulated chamber-walls,
  a, a, of _Nummulites_. b, b, Marginal cord; c, cavity of chamber; d,
  d, non-tubulated columns.]

  Since megalospheric forms are by far the most abundant, it seems
  probable that under most conditions they also give rise to
  megalospheric young like themselves; and that the production of
  zoospores, pairing to pass into the microspheric form, is only
  occasional, and possibly seasonal. This life-history we owe to the
  researches of Schaudinn and J.J. Lister.

  In several species (notably _Patellina_) plastogamy, the union of the
  cytoplasmic bodies without nuclear fusion, has been noted, as a
  prelude to the resolution of the conjoined protoplasm into uninucleate
  amoebulae.

  _Calcituba_, a porcellanous type, which after forming the embryonic
  chamber with its deflected pylome grows into branching stems, may fall
  apart into sections, or the protoplasm may escape and break up into
  small amoebulae. Of the reproduction of the simplest forms we know
  little. In _Mikrogromia_ the cell undergoes fission within the test,
  and on its completion the daughter-cells may emerge as biflagellate
  zoospores.

  The sandy shells are a very interesting series. In _Astrorhiza_ the
  sand grains are loosely agglutinated, without mineral cement; they
  leave numerous pores for the exit of the protoplasm, and there are no
  true pylomes. In other forms the union of the grains by a calcareous
  or ferruginous cement necessitates the existence of distinct pylomes.
  Many of the species reproduce the varieties of form found in
  calcareous tests; some are finely perforated, others not. Many of the
  larger ones have their walls thickened internally and traversed by
  complex passages; this structure is called _labyrinthic_ (fig. 19, g,
  h). The shell of _Endothyra_, a form only known to us by its abundance
  in Carboniferous and Triassic strata, is largely composed of calcite
  and is sometimes perforated.

  [Illustration: FIG. 15.--_Cycloclypeus_.]

  It is noteworthy that though of similar habitat each species selects
  its own size or sort of sand, some utilizing the siliceous spicules of
  sponges. Despite the roughness of the materials, they are often so
  laid as to yield a perfectly smooth inner wall; and sometimes the
  outer wall may be as simple. As we can find no record of a deflected
  stylopyle to the primitive chamber of the polythalamous Arenacea, it
  is safe to conclude that they have no close alliance with the
  Porcellanea.

  _Classification._

  I. NUDA.--Protoplasmic body without any pellicle or shell save in the
  resting encysted condition, sometimes forming colonial aggregates by
  coalescence of pseudopods (_Myxodictyum_), or even plasmodia
  (_Protomyxa_). Brood cells at first uniflagellate or amoeboid from
  birth. Fresh-water and marine genera _Protogenes_ (Haeckel), _Biomyxa_
  (Leidy), _Myxodictyum_ (Haeckel), _Protomyxa_ (Haeckel) (fig. 1B).

  This group of very simple forms includes many of Haeckel's Monera,
  defined as "cytodes," masses of protoplasm without a nucleus. A
  nucleus (or nuclei) has, however, been demonstrated by improved
  methods of staining in so many that it is probable that this
  distinction will fall to the ground.

  [Illustration: FIG. 16.--_Heterostegina_.]

  II. ALLOGROMIDIACEAE (figs. 1A, 2).--Protoplasmic body protected in
  adult state by an imperforate test with one or two openings (pylomes)
  for the exit of the stylopod; test simple, gelatinous, membranous,
  sometimes incrusted with foreign bodies, never calcareous nor
  arenaceous; reproduction by fission alone known. Fresh-water or marine
  genera _Allogromia_ (Rhumbl.), _Myxotheca_ (Schaud.), _Lieberkühnia_
  (Cl. & L.) (fig. 1A), _Shepheardella_ (Siddall) (fig. 2, 3-10),
  _Diplophrys_ (Barker), _Amphitrema_ (Arch.) (fig. 2, 11),
  Diaphorophodon (Arch.) (fig. 2, 12), are possibly Filosa. This group
  differs from the preceding in its simple test, but, like it, includes
  many fresh-water species, which possess contractile vacuoles.

  III. ASTRORHIZIDIACEAE.--Simple forms, rarely polythalamous (some
  _Rhabdamminidae_), but often branching or radiate; test arenaceous,
  loosely compacted and traversed by chinks for pseudopodia
  (_Astrorhizidae_), or dense, and opening by one or more terminal
  pylomes at ends of branches. Marine, 4 Fam. The test of some
  _Astrorhizidae_ is so loose that it falls to pieces when taken out of
  water. _Haliphysema_ is remarkable for its history in relation to the
  "gastraea theory." _Pilulina_ has a neat globular shell of
  sponge-spicules and fine sand. Genera, _Astrorhiza_ (Sandahl) (fig.
  22), _Pilulina_ (Carptr.) (fig. 19), _Saccammina_ (Sars) (fig. 19),
  _Rhabdammina_ (Sars), _Botellina_ (Carptr.), _Haliphysema_ (Bowerbank)
  (fig. 22).

  IV. LITUOLIDACEAE.--Shell arenaceous, usually fine-grained, definite
  and often polythalamic, recalling in structure calcareous forms.
  _Lituola_ (Lamk.) (fig. 19), _Endothyra_ (Phil.), _Ammodiscus_
  (Reuss), _Loftusia_ (Brady), _Haplophragmium_ (Reuss) (fig. 22),
  _Thurammina_ (Brady) (fig. 22).

  V. MILIOLIDACEAE.--Shells porcellanous imperforate, almost invariably
  with a camptostyle leading from the embryonic chamber; _Cornuspira_
  (Schultze) (fig. 3); _Miliola_ (Lamk.), including as subgenera
  _Spiroloculina_ (d'Orb.) (figs. 3 and 22); _Triloculina_ (d'Orb.)
  (fig. 3); _Biloculina_ (d'Orb.) (fig. 3); _Uniloculina_ (d'Orb.);
  _Quinqueloculina_ (d'Orb.); _Peneroplis_ (Montfort) (figs. 22, 3; 3),
  with form _Dendritina_ (fig. 4, 1); _Orbiculina_ (Lamk.) (fig. 3,
  6-8); _Orbitolites_ (Lamk.) (figs. 5, 6); _Vertebralina_ (d'Orb.)
  (fig. 22); _Squamulina_ (Sch.) (fig. 22); _Calcituba_ (Schaudinn).

  [Illustration: Modified from F. Schaudinn, in Lang's Zoologie.

  FIG. 17.--Life Cycle of _Polystomella crispa_.

    A, Young megalospheric individual.
    B, Adult decalcified.
    C, Later stage, resolving itself into two flagellate gametes.
    D, Conjugation.
    E, Microspheric individual produced from zygote.
    F, The same resolved itself into pseudopodiospores which are growing
      into new megalospheric individuals.
    1, Principal nucleus, and _2_, subsidiary nuclei of megalospheric
    form.
    3, Nuclei.
    4, Nuclei in multiple division.
    5, Chromidia derived from 4.]

  VI. TEXTULARIADACEAE.--Shells perforate, vitreous or (in the larger
  forms) arenaceous, in two or three alternating ranks (distichous or
  tristichous). _Textularia_ (Defrance) (fig. 21).

  VII. CHEILOSTOMELLACEAE.--Shells vitreous, thin, the chambers doubling
  forwards and backwards as in _Miliolidae_. _Cheilostomella_ (Reuss).

  VIII. LAGENIDACEAE.--Shells vitreous, often sculptured, mono-or
  polythalamic, finely perforate; chambers flask-shaped, with a
  protruding or an inturned stylopyle; _Lagena_ (Walker & Boys) (fig. 4,
  9); _Nodosaria_ (Lamk.) (figs. 23, 4; 4, 10); _Polymorphina_ (d'Orb.)
  (fig. 4, 13); _Cristellaria_ (Lamk.) (fig. 4, 11); _Frondicularia_
  (Def.) (fig. 23, 3).

  IX. GLOBIGERINIDACEAE.--Shells vitreous, coarsely perforated; chambers
  few spheroidal rapidly increasing in size; arranged in a trochoid or
  nautiloid spiral. _Globigerina_ (Lamk.) (23, 6; 4, 12); _Hastigerina_
  (Wyville Thompson) (fig. 23, 5); _Orbulina_ (d'Orb.) (fig. 23, 8).

  X. ROTALIDACEAE.--Shells vitreous, finely perforate; walls thick,
  often double, but without an intermediate party-layer traversed by
  canals; form usually spiral or trochoid. _Discorbina_ (Parker & Jones)
  (fig. 4, 15); _Planorbulina_ (d'Orb.) (fig. 4, 17); _Rotalia_ (Lamk.)
  (figs. 23, 1, 2; 7, 21); _Calcarina_ (d'Orb.) (fig. 23, 10);
  _Polytrema_ (Risso) (fig. 23, 9).

  [Illustration: Fig. 18.--_Biloculina depressa_ d'Orb., transverse
  sections showing dimorphism. (From Lister.)

  a, Megalospheric shell × 50, showing uniform growth, biloculine
  throughout. b, Microspheric shell × 90, showing multiform growth,
  quinqueloculine at first, and then multiform.]

  XI. NUMMULINIDACEAE.--As in Rotalidaceae, but with a thicker finely
  perforated shell, often well developed, and a supplementary skeleton
  traversed by branching canals as an additional party-wall between the
  proper chamber-walls. _Nonionina_ (d'Orb.) (fig. 4, 19); _Fusulina_
  (Fischer) (fig. 20); _Polystomella_ (Lamk.) (figs. 4, 16; 8);
  _Operculina_ (d'Orb.) (fig. 9); _Heterostegina_ (d'Orb.) (fig. 16);
  _Cycloclypeus_ (Carptr.) (fig. 15); _Nummulites_ (Lamk.) (figs. 10,
  11, 12, 13, 14).

  "_Eozoon canadense_," described as a species of this order by J.W.
  Dawson and Carpenter, has been pronounced by a series of enquirers,
  most of whom started with a belief in its organic structure, to be
  merely a complex mineral concretion in ophicalcite, a rock composed of
  an admixture of silicates (mostly serpentine and pyroxene) and
  calcite.

_Distribution in Vertical Space._--Owing to their lack of organs for
active locomotion the Foraminifera are all crawling or attached, with
the exception of a few genera (very rich in species, however) which
float near the surface of the ocean, constituting part of the pelagic
plankton (q.v.). Thus the majority are littoral or deep-sea, sometimes
attached to other bodies or even burrowing in the tests of other
Foraminifera; most of the fresh-water forms are sapropelic, inhabiting
the layer of organic débris at the surface of the bottom mud ditches of
pools, ponds and lakes. The deep-sea species below a certain depth
cannot possess a calcareous shell, for this would be dissolved; and it
is in these that we find limesalts sometimes replaced by silica.

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--Arenaceous Foraminifera.

  a, Exterior of _Saccammina_.
  b, The same laid open.
  c, Portion of test more highly magnified.
  d, _Pilulina_.
  e, Portion of test more highly magnified.
  f, Nautiloid _Lituola_, exterior.
  g, Chambered interior.
  h, Portion of labyrinthic chamber wall, showing component sand-grains.]

[Illustration: FIG. 20.--Section of _Fusulina_ Limestone.]

[Illustration: FIG. 21.--Microscopic Organisms in Chalk from Gravesend.
a, b, c, d, _Textularia globulosa_; e, e, e, e, _Rotalia aspera_; f,
_Textularia aculeata_; g, _Planularia hexas_; h, _Navicula_.]

The pelagic floating genera are also specially modified. Their shell is
either thin or extended many times by long slender tapering spines, and
the protoplasm outside has the same character as that of the Radiolaria
(q.v.), being differentiated into jelly containing enormous vacuoles and
traversed by reticulate strands of granular protoplasm. These coalesce
into a peripheral zone from which protrude the pseudopods, here rather
radiate than reticulate. Most genera and most species are cosmopolitan;
but local differences are often marked. Foraminifera abound in the shore
sands and the crevices of coral reefs. The membranous shelled forms
decay without leaving traces. The sandy or calcareous shells of dead
Foraminifera constitute a large proportion of littoral sand, both below
and above tide marks; and, as shown in the boring on Funafuti, enter
largely into the constituents of coral rock. They may accumulate in the
mud of the bottom to constitute Foraminiferal ooze. The source of these
shells in the latter case is double: (1) shells of bottom-dwellers
accumulate on the spot; (2) shells of dead plankton forms sink down in a
continuous shower, to form a layer at the bottom of the ocean, during
which process the spines are dissolved by the sea-water. Thus is formed
an ooze known as "Globigerina-ooze," being formed largely of that genus
and its ally _Hastigerina_; below 3000 fathoms even the tests themselves
are dissolved. Casts of their bodies in glauconite (a green ferrous
silicate, whose composition has not yet been accurately determined) are,
however, frequently left. Glauconitic casts of perforate shells, notably
_Globigerina_, have been found in Lower Cambrian (e.g. Hollybush
Sandstone), and the shells themselves in Siberian limestones of that
age. It is only when we pass into the Silurian Wenlock limestone that
sandy shells make their appearance. Above this horizon Foraminifera are
more abundant as constituents, partial or principal of calcareous rocks,
the genus _Endothyra_ being indeed almost confined to Carboniferous
beds. The genus _Fusulina_ (fig. 20) and _Saccammina_ (fig. 19) give
their names (from their respective abundance) to two limestones of the
Carboniferous series. Porcellanous shells become abundant only from the
Lias upwards. The glauconitic grains of the Greensand formations are
chiefly foraminiferal casts. Chalk is well known to consist largely of
foraminiferal shells, mostly vitreous, like the north Atlantic
globigerina ooze. In the Maestricht chalk more littoral conditions
prevailed, and we find such large-sized species as _Orbitoides_
(vitreous) and _Orbitolites_ (porcellanous; figs. 5, 6), &c. In the
Eocene Tertiaries the Calcaire Grossier of the Paris basin is mainly
composed of Miliolid forms. Nummulites occur in English beds and in the
Paris basin; but the great beds of these, forming reef-like masses of
limestone, occur farther south, extending from the Pyrenees through the
southern and eastern Alps to Egypt, Sinai, and on to north India. The
peculiar structure occurring in the Lower Laurentian limestone, as well
as other limestones of Archean age described as a Nummulitaceous genus,
"_Eozoon_," by Carpenter and Dawson, and abundantly illustrated in the
9th edition of his encyclopaedia, is now universally regarded as of
inorganic origin. "Looking at the almost universal diffusion of
existing Foraminifera and the continuous accumulation of their shells
over vast areas of the ocean-bottom, they are certainly doing more than
any other group of organisms to separate carbonate of lime from its
solution in sea-water, so as to restore to the solid crust of the earth
what is being continuously withdrawn from it by solution of the
calcareous materials of the land above sea-level." (E.R. Lankester,
"Protozoa," _Ency. Brit._ 9th ed.)

[Illustration: FIG. 22.--Imperforata.

  1, _Spiroloculina planulata_, Lamarck, showing five "coils";
  porcellanous.

  2, Young ditto, with shell dissolved and protoplasm stained so as to
  show the seven nuclei n.

  3, _Spirolina_ (_Peneroplis_); a sculptured imperfectly coiled shell;
  porcellanous.

  4, _Vertebralina_, a simple shell consisting of chambers succeeding
  one another in a straight line; porcellanous.

  5, 6, _Thurammina papillata_, Brady, a sandy form. 5 is broken open so
  as to show an inner chamber; recent. × 25.

  7, _Haplophragmium canariensis_, a sandy form; recent.

  8, Nucleated reproductive bodies (bud-spores) of _Haliphysema_.

  9, _Squamulina laevis_, M. Schultze; × 40; a simple porcellanous
  Miliolide.

  10, Protoplasmic core removed after treatment with weak chromic acid
  from the shell of _Haliphysema tumanovitzii_, Bow. n, Vesicular
  nuclei, stained with haematoxylin. (After Lankester.)

  11, _Haliphysema tumanovitzii_; × 25 diam.; living specimen, showing
  the wine-glass-shaped shell built up of sand-grains and
  sponge-spicules, and the abundant protoplasm p, issuing from the mouth
  of the shell and spreading partly over its projecting constituents.

  12, Shell of _Astrorhiza limicola_, Sand.; × 3/2; showing the
  branching of the test on some of the rays usually broken away in
  preserved specimens (original).

  13, Section of the shell of _Marsipella_, showing thick walls built of
  sand-grains.]

[Illustration: FIG. 23.--Perforata.

  1, Spiral arrangement of simple chambers of a Reticularian shell, as
  in small _Rotalia_.

  2, Ditto, with double septal walls, and supplemental shell-substance
  (shaded), as in large _Rotalia_.

  3, Diagram to show the mode in which successively-formed chambers may
  completely embrace their predecessors, as in _Frondicularia_.

  4, Diagram of a simple straight series of non-embracing chambers, as
  in _Nodosaria_.

  5, _Hastigerina murrayi_, Wyv. Thomson, a, Bubbly (vacuolated)
  protoplasm, enclosing b, the perforated _Globigerina_-like shell
  (conf. central capsule of Radiolaria). From the peripheral protoplasm
  project, not only fine pseudopodia, but hollow spines of calcareous
  matter, which are set on the shell, and have an axis of active
  protoplasm. Pelagic; drawn in the living state.

  6, _Globigerina bulloides_, d'Orb., showing the punctiform
  perforations of the shell and the main aperture.

  7, Fragment of the shell of _Globigerina_, seen from within, and
  highly magnified, a, Fine perforations in the inner shell substances;
  b, outer (secondary) shell substance. Two coarser perforations are
  seen in section, and one lying among the smaller.

  8, _Orbulina universa_, d'Orb. Pelagic example, with adherent
  radiating calcareous spines (hollow), and internally a small
  _Globigerina_ shell. It is probably a developmental phase of
  _Globigerina_, a, _Orbulina_ shell; b, _Globigerina_ shell.

  9, _Polytrema miniaceum_, Lin.; × 12. Mediterranean. Example of a
  branched adherent calcareous perforate Recticularian.

  10, _Calcarina spengleri_, Gmel.; × 10. Tertiary, Sicily. Shell
  dissected so as to show the spiral arrangement of the chambers, and
  the copious secondary shell substance. a², a³, a^4, Chambers of three
  successive coils in section, showing the thin primary wall (finely
  tubulate) of each; b, b, b, b, perforate surfaces of the primary wall
  of four tiers of chambers, from which the secondary shell substance
  has been cleared away; c', c', secondary or intermediate shell
  substance in section, showing coarse canals; d, section of secondary
  shell substance at right angles to c'; e, tubercles of secondary shell
  substance on the surface; f, f, club-like processes of secondary shell
  substance.]

_Historical._--The Foraminifera were discovered as we have seen by A.
d'Orbigny. C.E. Ehrenberg added a large number of species, but it was to
F. Dujardin in 1835 that we owe the recognition of their true zoological
position and the characters of the living animal. W.B. Carpenter and
W.C. Williamson in England contributed largely to the study of the
shell, the latter being the first to call attention to its multiform
character in the development of a single species, and to utilize the
method of thin sections, which has proved so fertile in results. W.K.
Parker and H.B. Brady, separately, and in collaboration, described an
enormous number of forms in a series of papers, as well as in the
monograph by the latter of the Foraminifera of the "Challenger"
expedition. Munier-Chalmas and Schlumberger brought out the fact of
dimorphism in the group, which was later elucidated and incorporated in
the full cytological study of the life-cycle of Foraminifera by J.J.
Lister and F. Schaudinn, independently, but with concurrent results.

  LITERATURE.--The chief recent books are: F. Chapman, _The
  Foraminifera_ (1902), and J.J. Lister, "The Foraminifera," in E.R.
  Lankester's _Treatise on Zoology_ (1903), in which full bibliographies
  will be found. For a final résumé of the long controversy on Eozoon,
  see George P. Merrill in _Report of the U.S. National Museum_ (1906),
  p. 635. Other classifications of the Foraminifera will be found by
  G.H. Theodor Eimer and C. Fickert in _Zeitschr. für wissenschaftliche
  Zoologie_, lxv. (1899), p. 599, and L. Rhumbler in _Archiv für
  Protistenkunde_, iii. (1903-1904); the account of the reproduction is
  based on the researches of J.J. Lister, summarized in the above-cited
  work, and of F. Schaudinn, in _Arbeiten des kaiserlichen
  Gesundheitsamts_, xix. (1903). We must also cite W.B. Carpenter, W.K.
  Parker and T. Rymer Jones, _Introduction to the Study of the
  Foraminifera_ (Ray Society) (1862); W.B. Carpenter, "Foraminifera," in
  _Ency. Brit._, 9th ed.; W.C. Williamson, _On the Recent Foraminifera
  of Great Britain_ (Ray Society), (1858); H.B. Brady, "The
  Foraminifera," in _Challenger Reports_, ix. (1884); A. Kemna, in _Ann.
  de la soc. royale zoologique et malacologique de Belgique_, xxxvii.
  (1902), p. 60; xxxix. (1904), p. 7.

  _Appendix._--The XENOPHYOPHORIDAE are a small group of bottom-dwelling
  Sarcodina which show a certain resemblance to arenaceous Foraminifera,
  though observations in the living state show that the character of the
  pseudopodia is lacking. The multinucleate protoplasm is contained in
  branching tubes, aggregated into masses of definite form, bounded by a
  common wall of foreign bodies (sponge spicules, &c.) cemented into a
  membrane. The cytoplasm contains granules of BaSO4 and pellets of
  faecal matter. All that is known of reproduction is the resolution of
  the pellets into uninucleate cells. (F.E. Schultze, _Wissenschaftliche
  Ergebnisse der deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition_, vol. xi., 1905, pt. i.)
       (M. Ha.)



FORBACH, a town of Germany in the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine,
on an affluent of the Rossel, and on the railway from Metz to
Saarbrücken, 5½ m. S.W. of the latter. Pop. (1905) 8193. It has a
Protestant and a Roman Catholic (Gothic) church, a synagogue and a
Progymnasium. Its industries include the manufacture of tiles,
pasteboard wares and gardening implements, while there are coal mines in
the vicinity. After the battle on the neighbouring heights of Spicheren
(6th of August 1870), in which the French under General Frossard were
defeated by the Germans under General von Glümer, the town was occupied
by the German troops, and at the conclusion of the war annexed to
Germany. On the Schlossberg near the town are the ruins of the castle of
the counts of Forbach, a branch of the counts of Saarbrücken.

  See Besler, _Geschichte des Schlosses, der Herrschaft und der Stadt
  Forbach_ (1895).



FORBES, ALEXANDER PENROSE (1817-1875), Scottish divine, was born at
Edinburgh on the 6th of June 1817. He was the second son of John Henry
Forbes, Lord Medwyn, a judge of the court of session, and grandson of
Sir William Forbes of Pitsligo. He studied first at the Edinburgh
Academy, then for two years under the Rev. Thomas Dale, the poet, in
Kent, passed one session at Glasgow University in 1833, and, having
chosen the career of the Indian civil service, completed his studies
with distinction at Haileybury College. In 1836 he went to Madras and
secured early promotion, but in consequence of ill-health he was obliged
to return to England. He then entered Brasenose College, Oxford, where
in 1841 he obtained the Boden Sanskrit scholarship, and graduated in
1844. He was at Oxford during the early years of the movement known as
Puseyism, and was powerfully influenced by association with Newman,
Pusey and Keble. This led him to resign his Indian appointment. In 1844
he was ordained deacon and priest in the English Church, and held
curacies at Aston, Rowant and St Thomas's, Oxford; but being naturally
attracted to the Episcopal Church of his native land, then recovering
from long depression, he removed in 1846 to Stonehaven, the chief town
of Kincardineshire. The same year, however, he was appointed to the
vicarage of St Saviour's, Leeds, a church founded to preach and
illustrate Tractarian principles. In 1848 Forbes was called to succeed
Bishop Moir in the see of Brechin. He removed the episcopal residence to
Dundee, where he resided till his death, combining the pastoral charge
of the congregation with the duties of the see. When he came to Dundee
the churchmen were accustomed owing to their small numbers to worship in
a room over a bank. Through his energy several churches were built, and
among them the pro-cathedral of St Paul's. He was prosecuted in the
church courts for heresy, the accusation being founded on his primary
charge, delivered and published in 1857, in which he set forth his views
on the Eucharist. He made a powerful defence of the charge, and was
acquitted with "a censure and an admonition." Keble wrote in his
defence, and was present at his trial at Edinburgh. Forbes was a good
scholar, a scientific theologian and a devoted worker, and was much
beloved. He died at Dundee on the 8th of October 1875.

  Principal works: _A Short Explanation of the Nicene Creed_ (1852); _An
  Explanation of the Thirty-nine Articles_ (2 vols., 1867 and 1868);
  _Commentary on the Seven Penitential Psalms_ (1847); _Commentary on
  the Canticles_ (1853). See Mackey's _Bishop Forbes, a Memoir_.



FORBES, ARCHIBALD (1838-1900), British war correspondent, the son of a
Presbyterian minister in Morayshire, was born on the 17th of April 1838,
and was educated at Aberdeen University. Entering the Royal Dragoons as
a private, he gained, while in the service, considerable practical
experience of military life and affairs. Being invalided from his
regiment, he settled in London, and became a journalist. When the
Franco-German War broke out in 1870, Forbes was sent to the front as war
correspondent to the _Morning Advertiser_, and in this capacity he
gained valuable information as to the plans of the Parisians for
withstanding a siege. Transferring his services to the _Daily News_, his
brilliant feats in the transmission of intelligence drew world-wide
attention to his despatches. He was with the German army from the
beginning of the campaign, and he afterwards witnessed the rise and fall
of the Commune. Forbes afterwards proceeded to Spain, where he
chronicled the outbreak of the second Carlist War; but his work here was
interrupted by a visit to India, where he spent eight months upon a
mission of investigation into the Bengal famine of 1874. Then he
returned to Spain, and followed at various times the Carlist, the
Republican and the Alfonsist forces. As representative of the _Daily
News_, he accompanied the prince of Wales in his tour through India in
1875-1876. Forbes went through the Servian campaign of 1876, and was
present at all the important engagements. In the Russo-Turkish campaign
of 1877 he achieved striking journalistic successes at great personal
risk. Attached to the Russian army, he witnessed most of the principal
operations, and remained continuously in the field until attacked by
fever. His letters, together with those of his colleagues, MacGahan and
Millet, were republished by the _Daily News_. On recovering from his
fever, Forbes proceeded to Cyprus, in order to witness the British
occupation. The same year (1878) he went to India, and in the winter
accompanied the Khyber Pass force to Jalalabad. He was present at the
taking of Ali Musjid, and marched with several expeditions against the
hill tribes. Burma was Forbes's next field of adventure, and at
Mandalay, the capital, he had several interesting interviews with King
Thibaw. He left Burma hurriedly for South Africa, where, in consequence
of the disaster of Isandlwana, a British force was collecting for the
invasion of Zululand. He was present at the victory of Ulundi, and his
famous ride of 120 m. in fifteen hours, by which he was enabled to
convey the first news of the battle to England, remains one of the
finest achievements in journalistic enterprise. Forbes subsequently
delivered many lectures on his war experiences to large audiences. His
closing years were spent in literary work. He had some years before
published a military novel entitled _Drawn from Life_, and a volume on
his experiences of the war between France and Germany. These were now
followed by numerous publications, including _Glimpses through the
Cannon Smoke_ (1880); _Souvenirs of some Continents_ (1885); _William I.
of Germany: a Biography_ (1888); _Havelock_, in the "English Men of
Action" Series (1890); _Barracks, Bivouacs, and Battles_ (1891); _The
Afghan Wars_, 1839-80 (1892); _Czar and Sultan_ (1895); _Memories and
Studies of War and Peace_ (1895), in many respects autobiographic; and
_Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde_ (1896). He died on the 30th of March 1900.



FORBES, DAVID (1828-1876), British mineralogist, metallurgist and
chemist, brother of Edward Forbes (q.v.), was born on the 6th of
September 1828, at Douglas, Isle of Man, and received his early
education there and at Brentwood in Essex. When a boy of fourteen he had
already acquired a remarkable knowledge of chemistry. This subject he
studied at the university of Edinburgh, and he was still young when he
was appointed superintendent of the mining and metallurgical works at
Espedal in Norway. Subsequently he became a partner in the firm of Evans
& Askin, nickel-smelters, of Birmingham, and in that capacity during the
years 1857-1860 he visited Chile, Bolivia and Peru. Besides reports for
the Iron and Steel Institute, of which, during the last years of his
life, he was foreign secretary, he wrote upwards of 50 papers on
scientific subjects, among which are the following: "The Action of
Sulphurets on Metallic Silicates at High Temperatures," _Rep. Brit.
Assoc._, 1855, pt. ii. p. 62; "The Relations of the Silurian and
Metamorphic Rocks of the south of Norway," ib. p. 82; "The Causes
producing Foliation in Rocks," _Journ. Geol. Soc._ xi., 1855; "The
Chemical Composition of the Silurian and Cambrian Limestones," _Phil.
Mag._ xiii. pp. 365-373, 1857; "The Geology of Bolivia and Southern
Peru," _Journ. Geol. Soc._ xvii. pp. 7-62, 1861; "The Mineralogy of
Chile," _Phil. Mag._, 1865; "Researches in British Mineralogy," _Phil.
Mag._, 1867-1868. His observations on the geology of South America were
given in a masterly essay, and these and subsequent researches threw
much light on igneous and metamorphic phenomena and on the resulting
changes in rock-formations. He also contributed important articles on
chemical geology to the _Chemical News_ and _Geological Magazine_ (1867
and 1868). In England he was a pioneer in microscopic petrology. He was
elected F.R.S. in 1858. He died in London on the 5th of December 1876.

  See Obituary by P.M. Duncan in _Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc._, vol.
  xxxiii., 1877, p. 41; and by J. Morris in _Geol. Mag._, 1877, p. 45.



FORBES, DUNCAN, OF CULLODEN (1685-1747), Scottish statesman, was born at
Bunchrew or at Culloden near Inverness on the 10th of November 1685.
After he had completed his studies at the universities of Edinburgh and
Leiden, he was admitted advocate at the Scottish bar in 1709. His own
talents and the influence of the Argyll family secured his rapid
advancement, which was still further helped by his loyalty to the
Hanoverian cause at the period of the rebellion in 1715. In 1722 Forbes
was returned member for Inverness, and in 1725 he succeeded Dundas of
Arniston as lord advocate. He inherited the patrimonial estates on the
death of his brother in 1734, and in 1737 he attained to the highest
legal honours in Scotland, being made lord president of the court of
session. As lord advocate, he had laboured to improve the legislation
and revenue of the country, to extend trade and encourage manufactures,
and no less to render the government popular and respected in Scotland.
In the proceedings which followed the memorable Porteous mob, for
example, when the government brought in a bill for disgracing the lord
provost of Edinburgh, for fining the corporation, and for abolishing
the town-guard and city-gate, Forbes both spoke and voted against the
measure as an unwarranted outrage on the national feeling. As lord
president also he carried out some useful legal reforms; and his term of
office was characterized by quick and impartial administration of the
law.

The rebellion of 1745 found him at his post, and it tried all his
patriotism. Some years before (1738) he had repeatedly and earnestly
urged upon the government the expediency of embodying Highland
regiments, putting them under the command of colonels whose loyalty
could be relied upon, but officering them with the native chieftains and
cadets of old families in the north. "If government," said he,
"pre-engages the Highlanders in the manner I propose, they will not only
serve well against the enemy abroad, but will be hostages for the good
behaviour of their relations at home; and I am persuaded that it will be
absolutely impossible to raise a rebellion in the Highlands." In 1739,
with Sir Robert Walpole's approval, the original (1730) six companies
(locally enlisted) of the Black Watch were formed into the famous
"Forty-second" regiment of the line. The credit given to the earl of
Chatham in some histories for this movement is an error; it rests really
with Forbes and his friend Lord Islay, afterwards 3rd duke of Argyll
(see the _Autobiography_ of the 8th duke of Argyll, vol. i. p. 8 sq.,
1906).

On the first rumour of the Jacobite rising Forbes hastened to Inverness,
and through his personal influence with the chiefs of Macdonald and
Macleod, those two powerful western clans were prevented from taking the
field for Charles Edward; the town itself also he kept loyal and well
protected at the commencement of the struggle, and many of the
neighbouring proprietors were won over by his persuasions. His
correspondence with Lord Lovat, published in the Culloden papers,
affords a fine illustration of his character, in which the firmness of
loyal principle and duty is found blended with neighbourly kindness and
consideration. But at this critical juncture of affairs, the apathy of
the government interfered considerably with the success of his
negotiations. Advances of arms and money arrived too late, and though
Forbes employed all his own means and what money he could borrow on his
personal security, his resources were quite inadequate to the emergency.
It is doubtful whether these advances were ever fully repaid. Part was
doled out to him, after repeated solicitations that his credit might be
maintained in the country; but it is evident he had fallen into disgrace
in consequence of his humane exertions to mitigate the impolitic
severities inflicted upon his countrymen after their disastrous defeat
at Culloden. The ingratitude of the government, and the many distressing
circumstances connected with the insurrection, sunk deep into the mind
of Forbes. He never fairly rallied from the depression thus caused, and
after a period of declining health he died on the 10th of December 1747.

Forbes was a patriot without ostentation or pretence, a true Scotsman
with no narrow prejudice, an accomplished and even erudite scholar
without pedantry, a man of genuine piety without asceticism or
intolerance. His country long felt his influence through her reviving
arts and institutions; and the example of such a character in that
coarse and venal age, and among a people distracted by faction,
political strife, and national antipathies, while it was invaluable to
his contemporaries in a man of high position, is entitled to the lasting
gratitude and veneration of his countrymen. In his intervals of leisure
he cultivated with some success the study of philosophy, theology and
biblical criticism. He is said to have been a diligent reader of the
Hebrew Bible. His published writings, some of them of importance,
include--_A Letter to a Bishop, concerning some Important Discoveries in
Philosophy and Theology_ (1732); _Some Thoughts concerning Religion,
natural and revealed, and the Manner of Understanding Revelation_
(1735); and _Reflections on Incredulity_ (2nd ed., 1750).

  His correspondence was collected and published in 1815, and a memoir
  of him (from the family papers) was written by Mr Hill Burton, and
  published along with a _Life of Lord Lovat_, in 1847. His statue by
  Roubillac stands in the Parliament House, Edinburgh.



FORBES, EDWARD (1815-1854), British naturalist, was born at Douglas, in
the Isle of Man, on the 12th of February 1815. While still a child, when
not engaged in reading, or in the writing of verses and drawing of
caricatures, he occupied himself with the collecting of insects, shells,
minerals, fossils, plants and other natural history objects. From his
fifth to his eleventh year, delicacy of health precluded his attendance
at any school, but in 1828 he became a day scholar at Athole House
Academy in Douglas. In June 1831 he left the Isle of Man for London,
where he studied drawing. In October, however, having given up all idea
of making painting his profession, he returned home; and in the
following month he matriculated as a student of medicine in the
university of Edinburgh. His vacation in 1832 he spent in diligent work
on the natural history of the Isle of Man. In 1833 he made a tour in
Norway, the botanical results of which were published in Loudon's
_Magazine of Natural History_ for 1835-1836. In the summer of 1834 he
devoted much time to dredging in the Irish Sea; and in the succeeding
year he travelled in France, Switzerland and Germany.

Born a naturalist, and having no relish for the practical duties of a
surgeon, Forbes in the spring of 1836 abandoned the idea of taking a
medical degree, resolving to devote himself to science and literature.
The winter of 1836-1837 found him at Paris, where he attended the
lectures at the Jardin des Plantes on natural history, comparative
anatomy, geology and mineralogy. Leaving Paris in April 1837, he went to
Algiers, and there obtained materials for a paper on land and freshwater
Mollusca, published in the _Annals of Natural History_, vol. ii. p. 250.
In the autumn of the same year he registered at Edinburgh as a student
of literature; and in 1838 appeared his first volume, _Malacologia
Monensis_, a synopsis of the species of Manx Mollusca. During the summer
of 1838 he visited Styria and Carniola, and made extensive botanical
collections. In the following autumn he read before the British
Association at Newcastle a paper on the distribution of terrestrial
Pulmonifera in Europe, and was commissioned to prepare a similar report
with reference to the British Isles. In 1841 was published his _History
of British Star-fishes_, embodying extensive observations and containing
120 illustrations, inclusive of humorous tail-pieces, all designed by
the author. On the 17th of April of the same year Forbes, accompanied by
his friend William Thompson, joined at Malta H.M. surveying ship
"Beacon," to which he had been appointed naturalist by her commander
Captain Graves. From that date until October 1842 he was employed in
investigating the botany, zoology and geology of the Mediterranean
region. The results of these researches were made known in his "Report
on the Mollusca and Radiata of the Aegean Sea, presented to the British
Association in 1843," and in _Travels in Lycia_, published in
conjunction with Lieut. (afterwards Admiral) T.A.B. Spratt in 1847. In
the former treatise he discussed the influence of climate and of the
nature and depth of the sea bottom upon marine life, and divided the
Aegean into eight biological zones; his conclusions with respect to
bathymetrical distribution, however, have naturally been modified to a
considerable extent by the more recent explorations of the deep seas.

Towards the end of the year 1842 Forbes, whom family misfortunes had now
thrown upon his own resources, sought and obtained the curatorship of
the museum of the Geological Society of London. To the duties of that
post he added in 1843 those of the professorship of botany at King's
College. In November 1844 he resigned the curatorship of the Geological
Society, and became palaeontologist to the Geological Survey of Great
Britain. Two years later he published in the _Memoirs of the Geological
Survey_, i. 336, his important essay "On the Connexion between the
distribution of the existing Fauna and Flora of the British Isles, and
the Geological Changes which have affected their Area, especially during
the epoch of the Northern Drift." It is therein pointed out that, in
accordance with the theory of their origin from various specific
centres, the plants of Great Britain may be divided into five
well-marked groups: the W. and S.W. Irish, represented in the N. of
Spain, the S.E. Irish and S.W. English, related to the flora of the
Channel Isles and the neighbouring part of France; the S.E. English,
characterized by species occurring on the opposite French coast; a group
peculiar to mountain summits, Scandinavian in type; and, lastly, a
general or Germanic flora. From a variety of arguments the conclusion is
drawn that the greater part of the terrestrial animals and flowering
plants of the British Islands migrated thitherward, over continuous
land, at three distinct periods, before, during and after the glacial
epoch. On this subject Forbes's brilliant generalizations are now
regarded as only partially true (see C. Reid's _Origin of the British
Flora_, 1899). In the autumn of 1848 Forbes married the daughter of
General Sir C. Ashworth; and in the same year was published his
_Monograph of the British Naked-eyed Medusae_ (Ray Society). The year
1851 witnessed the removal of the collections of the Geological Survey
from Craig's Court to the museum in Jermyn Street, and the appointment
of Forbes as professor of natural history to the Royal School of Mines
just established in conjunction therewith. In 1852 was published the
fourth and concluding volume of Forbes and S. Hanley's _History of
British Mollusca_; also his _Monograph of the Echinodermata of the
British Tertiaries_ (Palaeontographical Soc.).

In 1853 Forbes held the presidency of the Geological Society of London,
and in the following year he obtained the fulfilment of a long-cherished
wish in his appointment to the professorship of natural history in the
university of Edinburgh, vacant by the death of R. Jameson, his former
teacher. Since his return from the East in 1842, the determination and
arrangement of fossils, frequent lectures, and incessant literary work,
including the preparation of his palaeontological memoirs, had precluded
Forbes from giving that attention to the natural history pursuits of his
earlier life which he had earnestly desired. It seemed that at length he
was to find leisure to reduce to order his stores of biological
information. He lectured at Edinburgh, in the summer session of 1854,
and in September of that year he occupied the post of president of the
geological section at the Liverpool meeting of the British Association.
But he was taken ill just after he had commenced his winter's course of
lectures in Edinburgh, and after not many days' illness he died at
Wardie, near Edinburgh, on the 18th of November 1854.

  See _Literary Gazette_ (November 25, 1854); _Edinburgh New
  Philosophical Journal_ (New Ser.), (1855); _Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc._
  (May 1855); G. Wilson and A. Geikie, _Memoir of Edward Forbes_ (1861),
  in which, pp. 575-583, is given a list of Forbes's writings. See also
  _Literary Papers_, edited by Lovell Reeve (1855). The following works
  were issued posthumously: "On the Tertiary Fluviomarine Formation of
  the Isle of Wight" (_Geol. Survey_), edited by R.A.C. Godwin-Austen
  (1856); "The Natural History of the European Seas," edited and
  continued by R.A.C. Godwin-Austen (1859).



FORBES, JAMES DAVID (1809-1868), Scottish physicist, was the fourth son
of Sir William Forbes, 7th baronet of Pitsligo, and was born at
Edinburgh on the 20th of April 1809. He entered the university of
Edinburgh in 1825, and soon afterwards began to contribute papers to the
_Edinburgh Philosophical Journal_ anonymously under the signature
"[Delta]." At the age of nineteen he became a fellow of the Royal
Society of Edinburgh, and in 1832 he was elected to the Royal Society of
London. A year later he was appointed professor of natural philosophy in
Edinburgh University, in succession to Sir John Leslie and in
competition with Sir David Brewster, and during his tenure of that
office, which he did not give up till 1860, he not only proved himself
an active and efficient teacher, but also did much to improve the
internal conditions of the university. In 1859 he was appointed
successor to Brewster in the principalship of the United College of St
Andrews, a position which he held until his death at Clifton on the 31st
of December 1868.

As a scientific investigator he is best known for his researches on heat
and on glaciers. Between 1836 and 1844 he published in the _Trans. Roy.
Soc. Ed._ four series of "Researches on Heat," in the course of which he
described the polarization of heat by tourmaline, by transmission
through a bundle of thin mica plates inclined to the transmitted ray,
and by reflection from the multiplied surfaces of a pile of mica plates
placed at the polarizing angle, and also its circular polarization by
two internal reflections in rhombs of rock-salt. His work won him the
Rumford medal of the Royal Society in 1838, and in 1843 he received its
Royal medal for a paper on the "Transparency of the Atmosphere and the
Laws of Extinction of the Sun's Rays passing through it." In 1846 he
began experiments on the temperature of the earth at different depths
and in different soils near Edinburgh, which yielded determinations of
the thermal conductivity of trap-tufa, sandstone and pure loose sand.
Towards the end of his life he was occupied with experimental inquiries
into the laws of the conduction of heat in bars, and his last piece of
work was to show that the thermal conductivity of iron diminishes with
increase of temperature. His attention was directed to the question of
the flow of glaciers in 1840 when he met Louis Agassiz at the Glasgow
meeting of the British Association, and in subsequent years he made
several visits to Switzerland and also to Norway for the purpose of
obtaining accurate data. His observations led him to the view that a
glacier is an imperfect fluid or a viscous body which is urged down
slopes of a certain inclination by the mutual pressure of its parts, and
involved him in some controversy with Tyndall and others both as to
priority and to scientific principle. Forbes was also interested in
geology, and published memoirs on the thermal springs of the Pyrenees,
on the extinct volcanoes of the Vivarais (Ardêche), on the geology of
the Cuchullin and Eildon hills, &c. In addition to about 150 scientific
papers, he wrote _Travels through the Alps of Savoy and Other Parts of
the Pennine Chain, with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers_
(1843); _Norway and its Glaciers_ (1853); _Occasional Papers on the
Theory of Glaciers_ (1859); _A Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa_
(1855). He was also the author (1852) of the "Dissertation on the
Progress of Mathematical and Physical Science," published in the 8th
edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_.

  See _Forbes's Life and Letters_, by Principal Shairp, Professor P.G.
  Tait and A. Adams-Reilly (1873); _Professor Forbes and his
  Biographers_, by J. Tyndall (1873).



FORBES, SIR JOHN (1787-1861), British physician, was born at Cuttlebrae,
Banffshire, in 1787. He attended the grammar school at Aberdeen, and
afterwards entered Marischal College. After serving for nine years as a
surgeon in the navy, he graduated M.D. at Edinburgh in 1817, and then
began to practise in Penzance, whence he removed to Chichester in 1822.
He took up his residence in London in 1840, and in the following year
was appointed physician to the royal household. He was knighted in 1853,
and died on the 13th of November 1861 at Whitchurch in Berkshire. Sir
John Forbes was better known as an author and editor than as a practical
physician. His works include the following:--_Original Cases ...
illustrating the Use of the Stethoscope and Percussion in the Diagnosis
of Diseases of the Chest_ (1824); _Illustrations of Modern Mesmerism_
(1845); _A Physician's Holiday_ (1st ed., 1849); _Memorandums made in
Ireland in the Autumn of 1852_ (2 vols., 1853); _Sightseeing in Germany
and the Tyrol in the Autumn of 1855_ (1856). He was joint editor with A.
Tweedie and J. Conolly of _The Cyclopaedia of Practical Medicine_ (4
vols., 1833-1835); and in 1836 he founded the _British and Foreign
Medical Review_, which, after a period of prosperity, involved its
editor in pecuniary loss, and was discontinued in 1847, partly in
consequence of the advocacy in its later numbers of doctrines obnoxious
to the profession.



FORBES, a municipal town of Ashburnham county, New South Wales,
Australia, 289 m. W. by N. from Sydney, on the Lachlan river, and with a
station on the Great Western railway. Pop. (1901) 4313. Its importance
as a commercial centre is due to its advantageous position between the
northern and southern markets. It has steam-sawing and flour-mills,
breweries and wool-scouring establishments; while the surrounding
country produces good quantities of cereals, lucerne, wine and fruit.



FORBES-ROBERTSON, JOHNSTON (1853- ), English actor, was the son of John
Forbes-Robertson of Aberdeen, an art critic. He was educated at
Charterhouse, and studied at the Royal Academy schools with a view to
becoming a painter. But though he kept up his interest in that art, in
1874 he turned to the theatre, making his first appearance in London as
Chastelard, in _Mary, Queen of Scots_. He studied under Samuel Phelps,
from whom he learnt the traditions of the tragic stage. He played with
the Bancrofts and with John Hare, supported Miss Mary Anderson in both
England and America, and also acted at different times with Sir Henry
Irving. His refined and artistic style, and beautiful voice and
elocution made him a marked man on the English stage, and in Pinero's
_The Profligate_ at the Garrick theatre (1889), under Hare's management,
he established his position as one of the most individual of London
actors. In 1895 he started under his own management at the Lyceum with
Mrs Patrick Campbell, producing _Romeo and Juliet_, _Hamlet_, _Macbeth_
and also some modern plays; his impersonation as Hamlet was especially
fine, and his capacity as a romantic actor was shown to great advantage
also in John Davidson's _For the Crown_ and in Maeterlinck's _Pelléas
and Mélisande_. In 1900 he married the actress Gertrude Elliott, with
whom, as his leading lady, he appeared at various theatres, producing in
subsequent years _The Light that Failed_, Madeleine Lucette Riley's
_Mice and Men_, and G. Bernard Shaw's _Caesar and Cleopatra_, Jerome K.
Jerome's _Passing of the Third Floor Back_, &c. His brothers, Ian
Robertson (b. 1858) and Norman Forbes (b. 1859), had also been
well-known actors from about 1878 onwards.



FORBIN, CLAUDE DE (1656-1733), French naval commander, was born in
Provence, of a family of high standing, in 1656. High-spirited and
ungovernable in his boyhood, he ran away from his home, and through the
influence of an uncle entered the navy, serving his first campaign in
1675. For a short time he quitted the navy and entered the army, but
soon returned to his first choice. He made under D'Estrées the American
campaign, and under Duquesne that of Algiers in 1683, on all occasions
distinguishing himself by his impetuous courage. The most remarkable
episode of his life was his mission to Siam. During the administration
of the Greek adventurer Phaulcon in that country, the project was formed
of introducing the Christian religion and European civilization, and the
king sent an embassy to Louis XIV. In response a French embassy was sent
out, Forbin accompanying the chevalier de Chaumont with the rank of
major. When Chaumont returned to France, Forbin was induced to remain in
the service of the Siamese king, and accepted, though with much
reluctance, the posts of grand admiral, general of all the king's armies
and governor of Bangkok. His position, however, was soon made untenable
by the jealousy and intrigues of the minister Phaulcon; and at the end
of two years he left Siam, reaching France in 1688. He was afterwards
fully engaged in active service, first with Jean Bart in the war with
England, when they were both captured and taken to Plymouth. They
succeeded in making their escape and were soon serving their country
again. Forbin was wounded at the battle of La Hogue, and greatly
distinguished himself at the battle of Lagos. He served under D'Estrées
at the taking of Barcelona, was sent ambassador to Algiers, and in 1702
took a brilliant part in the Mediterranean in the War of the Spanish
Succession. In 1706 he took command of a squadron at Dunkirk, and
captured many valuable prizes from the Dutch and the English. In 1708 he
was entrusted with the command of the squadron which was to convey the
Pretender to Scotland; but so effectually were the coasts guarded by
Byng that the expedition failed, and returned to Dunkirk. Forbin was now
beginning to be weighed down with the infirmities of age and the toils
of service, and in 1710 he retired to a country house near Marseilles.
There he spent part of his time in writing his memoirs, published in
1730, which are full of interest and are written in a graphic and
attractive style. Forbin died on the 4th of March 1733.



FORCELLINI, EGIDIO (1688-1768), Italian philologist, was born at Fener
in the district of Treviso and belonged to a very poor family. He went
to the seminary at Padua in 1704, studied under Facciolati, and in due
course attained to the priesthood. From 1724 to 1731 he held the office
of rector of the seminary at Ceneda, and from 1731 to 1765 that of
father confessor in the seminary of Padua. The remaining years of his
life were mainly spent in his native village. He died at Padua in 1768
before the completion of the great work on which he had long co-operated
with Facciolati. This was the vast _Latin Lexicon_ (see FACCIOLATI),
which has formed the basis of all similar works that have since been
published. He was engaged with his Herculean task for nearly 35 years,
and the transcription of the manuscript by Luigi Violato occupied eight
years more.



FORCHHAMMER, JOHANN GEORG (1794-1865), Danish mineralogist and
geologist, was born at Husum, Schleswig, on the 24th of July 1794, and
died at Copenhagen on the 14th of December 1865. After studying at Kiel
and Copenhagen from 1815 to 1818, he joined Oersted and Lauritz Esmarch
in their mineralogical exploration of Bornholm, and took a considerable
share in the labours of the expedition. In 1820 he obtained his doctor's
degree by a chemical treatise _De mangano_, and immediately after set
out on a journey through England, Scotland and the Faeroe Islands. In
1823 he was appointed lecturer at Copenhagen University on chemistry and
mineralogy; in 1829 he obtained a similar post in the newly established
polytechnic school; and in 1831 he was appointed professor of mineralogy
in the university, and in 1848 became curator of the geological museum.
From 1835 to 1837 he made many contributions to the geological survey of
Denmark. On the death of H.C. Oersted in 1851, he succeeded him as
director of the polytechnic school and secretary of the Academy of
Sciences. In 1850 he began with J. Steenstrup and Worsaae various
anthropological publications which gained a high reputation. As a public
instructor Forchhammer held a high place and contributed potently to the
progress of his favourite studies in his native country. He interested
himself in such practical questions as the introduction of gas into
Copenhagen, the establishment of the fire-brigade at Rosenberg and the
boring of artesian wells.

  Among his more important works are--_Loerebog i de enkelte Radicalers
  Chemi_ (1842); _Danmarks geognostiske Forhold_ (1835); _Om de
  Bornholmske Kulformationer_ (1836); _Dit myere Kridt i Danmark_
  (1847); _Bidrag til Skildringen af Danmarks geographiske Forhold_
  (1858). A list of his contributions to scientific periodicals, Danish,
  English and German, will be found in the _Catalogue of Scientific
  Papers_ published by the Royal Society of London. One of the most
  interesting and most recent is "On the Constitution of Sea Water at
  Different Depths and in Different Latitudes," in the _Proceedings of
  the Roy. Soc._ xii. (1862-1863).



FORCHHAMMER, PETER WILHELM (1801-1894), German classical archaeologist,
was born at Husum in Schleswig on the 23rd of October 1801. He was
educated at the Lübeck gymnasium and the university of Kiel, with which
he was connected for nearly 65 years. In 1830-1834 and 1838-1840 he
travelled in Italy, Greece, Asia Minor and Egypt. In 1843 he was
appointed professor of philology at Kiel and director of the
archaeological museum founded by himself in co-operation with Otto Jahn.
He died on the 8th of January 1894. Forchhammer was a democrat in the
best sense of the word, and from 1871 to 1873 represented the
progressive party of Schleswig-Holstein in the German Reichstag. His
published works deal chiefly with topography and ancient mythology. His
travels had convinced him that a full and comprehensive knowledge of
classical antiquity could only be acquired by a thorough acquaintance
with Greek and Roman monuments and works of art, and a detailed
examination of the topographical and climatic conditions of the chief
localities of the ancient world. These principles are illustrated in his
_Hellenika. Griechenland. Im Neuen das Alte_ (1837), which contains his
theory of the origin and explanation of the Greek myths, which he never
abandoned, in spite of the attacks to which it was subjected. According
to him, the myths arose from definite local (especially atmospheric and
aquatic) phenomena, and represented the annually recurring processes of
nature as the acts of gods and heroes; thus, in _Achill_ (1853), the
Trojan War is the winter conflict of the elements in that district.
Other similar short treatises are: _Die Gründung Roms_ (1868);
_Daduchos_ (1875), on the language of the myths and mythical buildings;
_Die Wanderungen der Inachostochter Io_ (1880); _Prolegomena zur
Mythologie als Wissenschaft und Lexikon der Mythensprache_ (1891).
Amongst his topographical works mention may be made of: _Topographie von
Athen_ (1841); _Beschreibung der Ebene von Troja_ (1850), a commentary
on a map of the locality executed by T.A. Spratt (see _Journal of the
Royal Geographical Society_, xii., 1842); _Topographia Thebarum
Heptapylarum_ (1854); _Erklärung der Ilias_ (1884), on the basis of the
topographical and physical peculiarities of the plain of Troy. His
_Demokratenbüchlein_ (1849), in the main a discussion of the
Aristotelian theory of the state, and _Die Athener und Sokrates_ (1837),
in which, contrary to the almost universal opinion, he upheld the
procedure of the Athenians as perfectly legal and their verdict as a
perfectly just one, also deserve notice.

  For a full list of his works see the obituary notice by E. Alberti in
  C. Bursian's _Biographisches Jahrbuch für Altertumskunde_, xx. (1897);
  also J. Sass in _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_, and A. Hoeck and
  L.C. Pertsch, _P.W. Forchhammer_ (1898).



FORCHHEIM, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, near the
confluence of the Wiesent and the Regnitz, 16 m. S.S.E. of Bamberg. Pop.
(1905) 8417. It has four Roman Catholic churches, including the Gothic
Collegiate church and a Protestant church. Among the other public
buildings are the progymnasium and an orphanage. The industries of the
town include spinning and weaving, bleaching and dyeing, bone and glue
works, brewing and paper-making. The spacious château occupies the site
of the Carolingian palace which was destroyed in 1246.

Forchheim is of very early origin, having been the residence of the
Carolingian sovereigns, including Charlemagne, in the 9th century.
Consequently many diets were held here, and here also Conrad I. and
Louis the Child were chosen German kings. The town was given by the
emperor Henry II. in 1007 to the bishopric of Bamberg, and, except for a
short period during the 11th century, it remained in the possession of
the bishops until 1802, when it was ceded to Bavaria. In August 1796 a
battle took place near Forchheim between the French and the Austrians.
The fortifications of the town were dismantled in 1838.

  See Hübsch, _Chronik der Stadt Forchheim_ (Nüremberg, 1867).



FORD, EDWARD ONSLOW (1852-1901), English sculptor, was born in London.
He received some education as a painter in Antwerp and as a sculptor in
Munich under Professor Wagmüller, but was mainly self-taught. His first
contribution to the Royal Academy, in 1875, was a bust of his wife, and
in portraiture he may be said to have achieved his greatest success. His
busts are always extremely refined and show his sitters at their best.
Those (in bronze) of his fellow-artists Arthur Hacker (1894), Briton
Riviere and Sir W.Q. Orchardson (1895), Sir L. Alma Tadema (1896), Sir
Hubert von Herkomer and Sir John Millais (1897), and of A.J. Balfour are
all striking likenesses, and are equalled by that in marble of Sir
Frederick Bramwell (for the Royal Institution) and by many more. He
gained the open competition for the statue of Sir Rowland Hill, erected
in 1882 outside the Royal Exchange, and followed it in 1883 with "Henry
Irving as Hamlet," now in the Guildhall art gallery. This seated statue,
good as it is, was soon surpassed by those of Dr Dale (1898, in the city
museum, Birmingham) and Professor Huxley (1900), but the colossal
memorial statue of Queen Victoria (1901), for Manchester, was less
successful. The standing statue of W.E. Gladstone (1894, for the City
Liberal Club, London) is to be regarded as one of Ford's better portrait
works. The colossal "General Charles Gordon," camel-mounted, for
Chatham, "Lord Strathnairn," an equestrian group for Knightsbridge, and
the "Maharajah of Mysore" (1900) comprise his larger works of the kind.
A beautiful nude recumbent statue of Shelley (1892) upon a
cleverly-designed base, which is not quite impeccable from the point of
view of artistic taste, is at University College, Oxford, and a
simplified version was presented by him to be set up on the shore of
Viareggio, where the poet's body was washed up. Ford's ideal work has
great charm and daintiness; his statue "Folly" (1886) was bought by the
trustees of the Chantrey Fund, and was followed by other statues or
statuettes of a similar order: "Peace" (1890), which secured his
election as an associate of the Royal Academy, "Echo" (1895), on which
he was elected full member, "The Egyptian Singer" (1889), "Applause"
(1893), "Glory to the Dead" (1901) and "Snowdrift" (1902). Ford's
influence on the younger generation of sculptors was considerable and of
good effect. His charming disposition rendered him extremely popular,
and when he died a monument was erected to his memory (C. Lucchesi,
sculptor, J.W. Simpson, architect) in St John's Wood, near to where he
dwelt.

  See SCULPTURE; also M.H. Spielmann, _British Sculpture and Sculptors
  of To-day_ (London, 1901).



FORD, JOHN (1586-c. 1640), English dramatist, was baptized on the 17th
of April 1586 at Ilsington in north Devon. He came of a good family; his
father was in the commission of the peace and his mother was a sister of
Sir John Popham, successively attorney-general and lord chief justice.
The name of John Ford appears in the university register of Oxford as
matriculating at Exeter College in 1601. Like a cousin and namesake (to
whom, with other members of the society of Gray's Inn, he dedicated his
play of _The Lover's Melancholy_), the future dramatist entered the
profession of the law, being admitted of the Middle Temple in 1602; but
he seems never to have been called to the bar. Four years afterwards he
made his first appearance as an author with an elegy called _Fame's
Memorial, or the Earl of Devonshire deceased_, and dedicated to the
widow of the earl (Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, "coronized," to use
Ford's expression, by King James in 1603 for his services in Ireland)--a
lady who would have been no unfitting heroine for one of his own
tragedies of lawless passion, the famous Penelope, formerly Lady Rich.
This panegyric, which is accompanied by a series of epitaphs and is
composed in a strain of fearless extravagance, was, as the author
declares, written "unfee'd"; it shows that Ford sympathized, as
Shakespeare himself is supposed to have done, with the "awkward fate" of
the countess's brother, the earl of Essex. Who the "flint-hearted Lycia"
may be, to whom the poet seems to allude as his own disdainful mistress,
is unknown; indeed, the record of Ford's private life is little better
than a blank. To judge, however, from the dedications, prologues and
epilogues of his various plays, he seems to have enjoyed the patronage
of the earl, afterwards duke, of Newcastle, "himself a muse" after a
fashion, and Lord Craven, the supposed husband of the ex-queen of
Bohemia. Ford's tract of _Honor Triumphant, or the Peeres Challenge_
(printed 1606 and reprinted by the Shakespeare Society with the _Line of
Life_, in 1843), and the simultaneously published verses _The Monarches
Meeting, or the King of Denmarkes Welcome into England_, exhibit him as
occasionally meeting the festive demands of court and nobility; and a
kind of moral essay by him, entitled _A Line of Life_ (printed 1620),
which contains references to Raleigh, ends with a climax of fulsome
praise to the address of King James I. Yet at least one of Ford's plays
(_The Broken Heart_, iii. 4) contains an implied protest against the
absolute system of government generally accepted by the dramatists of
the early Stuart reigns. Of his relations with his brother-authors
little is known; it was natural that he should exchange complimentary
verses with James Shirley, and that he should join in the chorus of
laments over the death of Ben Jonson. It is more interesting to notice
an epigram in honour of Ford by Richard Crashaw, morbidly passionate in
one direction as Ford was in another. The lines run:

  "Thou cheat'st us, Ford; mak'st one seem two by art:
   What is Love's Sacrifice but the Broken Heart?"

It has been concluded that in the latter part of his life he gratified
the tendency to seclusion for which he was ridiculed in _The Time Poets_
(_Choice Drollery_, 1656) by withdrawing from business and from literary
life in London, to his native place; but nothing is known as to the date
of his death. His career as a dramatist very probably began by
collaboration with other authors. With Thomas Dekker he wrote _The Fairy
Knight_ and _The Bristowe Merchant_ (licensed in 1624, but both
unpublished), with John Webster _A late Murther of the Sonne upon the
Mother_ (licensed in 1624). A play entitled _An ill Beginning has a good
End_, brought on the stage as early as 1613 and attributed to Ford, was
(if his) his earliest acted play; whether _Sir Thomas Overbury's Life
and untimely Death_ (1615) was a play is extremely doubtful; some lines
of indignant regret by Ford on the same subject are still preserved. He
is also said to have written, at dates unknown, _The London Merchant_
(which, however, was an earlier name for Beaumont and Fletcher's _Knight
of the Burning Pestle_) and _The Royal Combat_; a tragedy by him,
_Beauty in a Trance_, was entered in the Stationers' Register in 1653,
but never printed. These three (or four) plays were among those
destroyed by Warburton's cook. _The Queen, or the Excellency of the
Sea_, a play of inverted passion, containing some fine sensuous lines,
printed in 1653 by Alexander Singhe for private performance, has been
recently edited by W. Bang (_Materialien zur Kunde d. älteren engl.
Dramas_, 13, Louvain, 1906), and is by him on internal evidence
confidently claimed as Ford's. Of the plays by Ford preserved to us the
dates span little more than a decade--the earliest, _The Lover's
Melancholy_, having been acted in 1628 and printed in 1629, the latest,
_The Lady's Trial_, acted in 1638 and printed in 1639.

When writing _The Lover's Melancholy_, it would seem that Ford had not
yet become fully aware of the bent of his own dramatic genius, although
he was already master of his powers of poetic expression. He was
attracted towards domestic tragedy by an irresistible desire to sound
the depths of abnormal conflicts between passion and circumstances, to
romantic comedy by a strong though not widely varied imaginative
faculty, and by a delusion that he was possessed of abundant comic
humour. In his next two works, undoubtedly those most characteristically
expressive of his peculiar strength, _'Tis Pity she's a Whore_ (acted c.
1626) and _The Broken Heart_ (acted c. 1629), both printed in 1633 with
the anagram of his name _Fide Honor_, he had found horrible situations
which required dramatic explanation by intensely powerful motives. Ford
by no means stood alone among English dramatists in his love of abnormal
subjects; but few were so capable of treating them sympathetically, and
yet without that reckless grossness or extravagance of expression which
renders the morally repulsive aesthetically intolerable, or converts the
horrible into the grotesque. For in Ford's genius there was real
refinement, except when the "supra-sensually sensual" impulse or the
humbler self-delusion referred to came into play. In a third tragedy,
_Love's Sacrifice_ (acted c. 1630; printed in 1633), he again worked on
similar materials; but this time he unfortunately essayed to base the
interest of his plot upon an unendurably unnatural possibility--doing
homage to virtue after a fashion which is in itself an insult. In
_Perkin Warbeck_ (printed 1634; probably acted a year later) he chose an
historical subject of great dramatic promise and psychological interest,
and sought to emulate the glory of the great series of Shakespeare's
national histories. The effort is one of the most laudable, as it was by
no means one of the least successful, in the dramatic literature of this
period. _The Fancies Chaste and Noble_ (acted before 1636, printed
1638), though it includes scenes of real force and feeling, is
dramatically a failure, of which the main idea is almost provokingly
slight and feeble; and _The Lady's Trial_ (acted 1638, printed 1639) is
only redeemed from utter wearisomeness by an unusually even pleasingness
of form. There remain two other dramatic works, of very different kinds,
in which Ford co-operated with other writers, the mask of _The Sun's
Darling_ (acted 1624, printed 1657), hardly to be placed in the first
rank of early compositions, and _The Witch of Edmonton_ (printed 1658,
but probably acted about 1621), in which we see Ford as a joint writer
with Dekker and Rowley of one of the most powerful domestic dramas of
the English or any other stage.

  A few notes may be added on some of the more remarkable of the plays
  enumerated. A wholly baseless anecdote, condensed into a stinging
  epigram by Endymion Porter, asserted that _The Lover's Melancholy_ was
  stolen by Ford from Shakespeare's papers. Undoubtedly, the madness of
  the hero of this play of Ford's occasionally recalls Hamlet, while the
  heroine is one of the many, and at the same time one of the most
  pleasing, parallels to Viola. But neither of them is a copy, as Friar
  Bonaventura in Ford's second play may be said to be a copy of Friar
  Lawrence, whose kindly pliability he disagreeably exaggerates, or as
  D'Avolos in _Love's Sacrifice_ is clearly modelled on Iago. The plot
  of _The Lover's Melancholy_, which is ineffective because it leaves no
  room for suspense in the mind of the reader, seems original; in the
  dialogue, on the other hand, a justly famous passage in Act i. (the
  beautiful version of the story of the nightingale's death) is
  translated from Strada; while the scheme of the tedious interlude
  exhibiting the various forms of madness is avowedly taken, together
  with sundry comments, from Burton's _Anatomy of Melancholy_. Already
  in this play Ford exhibits the singular force of his pathos; the
  despondent misery of the aged Meleander, and the sweetness of the last
  scene, in which his daughter comes back to him, alike go to the heart.
  A situation--hazardous in spite of its comic substratum--between
  Thaumasta and the pretended Parthenophil is conducted, as Gifford
  points out, with real delicacy; but the comic scenes are merely stagy,
  notwithstanding, or by reason of, the effort expended on them by the
  author.

  _'Tis Pity she's a Whore_ has been justly recognized as a tragedy of
  extraordinary power. Mr Swinburne, in his eloquent essay on Ford, has
  rightly shown what is the meaning of this tragedy, and has at the same
  time indicated wherein consists its poison. He dwells with great force
  upon the different treatment applied by Ford to the characters of the
  two miserable lovers--brother and sister. "The sin once committed,
  there is no more wavering or flinching possible to him, who has fought
  so hard against the demoniac possession; while she who resigned body
  and soul to the tempter, almost at a word, remains liable to the
  influences of religion and remorse." This different treatment shows
  the feeling of the poet--the feeling for which he seeks to evoke our
  inmost sympathy--to oscillate between the belief that an awful crime
  brings with it its awful punishment (and it is sickening to observe
  how the argument by which the Friar persuades Annabella to forsake her
  evil courses mainly appeals to the physical terrors of retribution),
  and the notion that there is something fatal, something irresistible,
  and therefore in a sense self-justified, in so dominant a passion. The
  key-note to the conduct of Giovanni lies in his words at the close of
  the first scene--

    "All this I'll do, to free me from the rod
     Of vengeance; _else I'll swear my fate's my god_."

  Thus there is no solution of the conflict between passion on the one
  side, and law, duty and religion on the other; and passion triumphs,
  in the dying words of "the student struck blind and mad by passion"--

             "O, I bleed fast!
    Death, thou'rt a guest long look'd for; I embrace
    Thee and thy wounds: O, my last minute comes!
    Where'er I go, let me enjoy this grace
    Freely to view my Annabella's face."

  It has been observed by J.A. Symonds that "English poets have given us
  the right key to the Italian temperament.... The love of Giovanni and
  Annabella is rightly depicted as more imaginative than sensual." It is
  difficult to allow the appositeness of this special illustration; on
  the other hand, Ford has even in this case shown his art of depicting
  sensual passion without grossness of expression; for the exception in
  Annabella's language to Soranzo seems to have a special intention, and
  is true to the pressure of the situation and the revulsion produced by
  it in a naturally weak and yielding mind. The entire atmosphere, so to
  speak, of the play is stifling, and is not rendered less so by the
  underplot with Hippolita.

  _'Tis Pity she's a Whore_ was translated into French by Maurice
  Maeterlinck under the title of _Annabella_, and represented at the
  Théâtre de l'Oeuvre in 1894. The translator prefixes to the version an
  eloquent appreciation of Ford's genius, especially in his portraits of
  women, whose fate it is to live "dans les ténèbres, les craintes et
  les larmes."

  Like this tragedy, _The Broken Heart_ was probably founded upon some
  Italian or other novel of the day; but since in the latter instance
  there is nothing revolting in the main idea of the subject, the play
  commends itself as the most enjoyable, while, in respect of many
  excellences, an unsurpassed specimen of Ford's dramatic genius. The
  complicated plot is constructed with greater skill than is usual with
  this dramatist, and the pathos of particular situations, and of the
  entire character of Penthea--a woman doomed to hopeless misery, but
  capable of seeking to obtain for her brother a happiness which his
  cruelty has condemned her to forego--has an intensity and a depth
  which are all Ford's own. Even the lesser characters are more pleasing
  than usual, and some beautiful lyrics are interspersed in the play.

  Of the other plays written by Ford alone, only _The Chronicle Historie
  of Perkin Warbeck. A Strange Truth_, appears to call for special
  attention. A repeated perusal of this drama suggests the judgment that
  it is overpraised when ranked at no great distance from Shakespeare's
  national dramas. Historical truth need not be taken into consideration
  in the matter; and if, notwithstanding James Gairdner's essay appended
  to his _Life and Reign of Richard III._, there are still credulous
  persons left to think and assert that Perkin was not an impostor, they
  will derive little satisfaction from Ford's play, which with really
  surprising skill avoids the slightest indication as to the poet's own
  belief on the subject. That this tragedy should have been reprinted in
  1714 and acted in 1745 only shows that the public, as is often the
  case, had an eye to the catastrophe rather than to the development of
  the action. The dramatic capabilities of the subject are, however,
  great, and it afterwards attracted Schiller, who, however, seems to
  have abandoned it in favour of the similar theme of the Russian
  Demetrius. Had Shakespeare treated it, he would hardly have contented
  himself with investing the hero with the nobility given by Ford to
  this personage of his play,--for it is hardly possible to speak of a
  personage as a _character_ when the clue to his conduct is
  intentionally withheld. Nor could Shakespeare have failed to bring out
  with greater variety and distinctness the dramatic features in Henry
  VII., whom Ford depicts with sufficient distinctness to give some
  degree of individuality to the figure, but still with a tenderness of
  touch which would have been much to the credit of the dramatist's
  skill had he been writing in the Tudor age. The play is, however,
  founded on Bacon's Life, of which the text is used by Ford with
  admirable discretion, and on Thomas Gainsford's _True and Wonderful
  History of Perkin Warbeck_ (1618). The minor characters of the honest
  old Huntley, whom the Scottish king obliges to bestow his daughter's
  hand upon Warbeck, and of her lover the faithful "Dalyell," are most
  effectively drawn; even "the men of judgment," the adventurers who
  surround the chief adventurer, are spirited sketches, and the Irishman
  among them has actually some humour; while the style of the play is,
  as befits a "Chronicle History," so clear and straightforward as to
  make it easy as well as interesting to read.

  _The Witch of Edmonton_ was attributed by its publisher to William
  Rowley, Dekker, Ford, "&c.," but the body of the play has been
  generally held to be ascribable to Ford and Dekker only. The subject
  of the play was no doubt suggested by the case of the reported witch,
  Elizabeth Sawyer, who was executed in 1621. Swinburne agrees with
  Gifford in thinking Ford the author of the whole of the first act; and
  he is most assuredly right in considering that "there is no more
  admirable exposition of a play on the English stage." Supposing Dekker
  to be chiefly responsible for the scenes dealing with the unfortunate
  old woman whom persecution as a witch actually drives to become one,
  and Ford for the domestic tragedy of the bigamist murderer, it cannot
  be denied that both divisions of the subject are effectively treated,
  while the more important part of the task fell to the share of Ford.
  Yet it may be doubted whether any such division can be safely assumed;
  and it may suffice to repeat that no domestic tragedy has ever taught
  with more effective simplicity and thrilling truthfulness the homely
  double lesson of the folly of selfishness and the mad rashness of
  crime.

  With Dekker Ford also wrote the mask of _The Sun's Darling_; or, as
  seems most probable, they founded this production upon _Phaeton_, an
  earlier mask, of which Dekker had been sole author. Gifford holds that
  Dekker's hand is perpetually traceable in the first three acts of _The
  Sun's Darling_, and through the whole of its comic part, but that the
  last two acts are mainly Ford's. If so, he is the author of the rather
  forced occasional tribute on the accession of King Charles I., of
  which the last act largely consists. This mask, which furnished
  abundant opportunities for the decorators, musicians and dancers, in
  showing forth how the seasons and their delights are successively
  exhausted by a "wanton darling," Raybright the grandchild of the Sun,
  is said to have been very popular. It is at the same time commonplace
  enough in conception; but there is much that is charming in the
  descriptions, Jonson and Lyly being respectively laid under
  contribution in the course of the dialogue, and in one of the
  incidental lyrics.

Ford owes his position among English dramatists to the intensity of his
passion, in particular scenes and passages where the character, the
author and the reader are alike lost in the situation and in the
sentiment evoked by it; and this gift is a supreme dramatic gift. But
his plays--with the exception of _The Witch of Edmonton_, in which he
doubtless had a prominent share--too often disturb the mind like a bad
dream which ends as an unsolved dissonance; and this defect is a supreme
dramatic defect. It is not the rigid or the stolid who have the most
reason to complain of the insufficiency of tragic poetry such as Ford's;
nor is it that morality only which, as Ithocles says in _The Broken
Heart_, "is formed of books and school-traditions," which has a right to
protest against the final effect of the most powerful creations of his
genius. There is a morality which both

        "Keeps the soul in tune,
  At whose sweet music all our actions dance,"

and is able to physic

      "The sickness of a mind
  Broken with griefs."

Of that morality--or of that deference to the binding power within man
and the ruling power above him--tragedy is the truest expounder, even
when it illustrates by contrasts; but the tragic poet who merely places
the problem before us, and bids us stand aghast with him at its cruelty,
is not to be reckoned among the great masters of a divine art.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The best edition of Ford is that by Gifford, with notes
  and introduction, revised with additions to both text and notes by
  Alexander Dyce (1869). An edition of the _Dramatic Works of Massinger
  and Ford_ appeared in 1840, with an introduction by Hartley Coleridge.
  _The Best Plays of Ford_ were edited for the "Mermaid Series" in 1888,
  with an introduction by W.H. Havelock Ellis, and reissued in 1903.
  A.C. Swinburne's "Essay on Ford" is reprinted among his _Essays and
  Studies_ (1875). _Perkin Warbeck_ and _'Tis Pity_ were translated into
  German by F. Bodenstedt in 1860; and the latter again by F. Blei in
  1904. The probable sources of the various plays are discussed in Emil
  Koeppel's _Quellenstudien zu den Dramen George Chapman's, Philip
  Massinger's und John Ford's_ (1897).     (A. W. W.)



FORD, RICHARD (1796-1858), English author of one of the earliest and
best of travellers' _Handbooks_, was the eldest son of Sir Richard Ford,
who in 1789 was member of parliament for East Grinstead, and for many
years afterwards chief police magistrate of London. His mother was the
daughter and heiress of Benjamin Booth, a distinguished connoisseur in
art. He was called to the bar, but never practised, and in 1830-1833 he
travelled in Spain, spending much of his time in the Alhambra and at
Seville. His first literary work (other than contributions to the
_Quarterly Review_) was a pamphlet, _An Historical Inquiry into the
Unchangeable Character of a War in Spain_ (Murray, 1837), in reply to
one called the _Policy of England towards Spain_, issued under the
patronage of Lord Palmerston. He spent the winter of 1839-1840 in Italy,
where he added largely to his collection of majolica; and soon after his
return he began, at John Murray's invitation, to write his _Handbook for
Travellers in Spain_, with which his name is chiefly associated. He died
on the 1st of September 1858, leaving a fine private collection of
pictures to his widow (d. 1910), his third wife, a daughter of Sir A.
Molesworth.



FORD, THOMAS (b. c. 1580), English musician, of whose life little more
is known than that he was attached to the court of Prince Henry, son of
James I. His works also are few, but they are sufficient to show the
high stage of efficiency and musical knowledge which the English school
had attained at the beginning of the 17th century. They consist of
canons and other concerted pieces of vocal music, mostly with lute
accompaniment. The chief collection of his works is entitled _Musike of
Sundrie Kinds set forth in Two Books_, &c. (1607), and the histories of
music by Burney and Hawkins give specimens of his art. Together with
Dowland, immortalized in one of Shakespeare's sonnets, Ford is the chief
representative of the school which preceded Henry Lawes.



FORDE, FRANCIS (d. 1770), British soldier, first appears in the army
list as a captain in the 39th Foot in 1746. This regiment was the first
of the king's service to serve in India (hence its motto _Primus in
Indis_), and Forde was on duty there when in 1755 he became major, at
the same time as Eyre Coote, soon to become his rival, was promoted
captain. At the express invitation of Clive, Forde resigned his king's
commission to take the post of second in command of the E.I. Company's
troops in Bengal. Soon after Plassey, Forde was sent against the French
of Masulipatam. Though feebly supported by the motley rabble of an army
which Anandraz, the local ally, brought into the field, Forde pushed
ahead through difficult country and came upon the enemy entrenched at
Condore. For four days the two armies faced one another; on the fifth
both commanders resolved on the offensive and an encounter ensued. In
spite of the want of spirit shown by Anandraz and his men, Forde in the
end succeeded in winning the battle, which was from first to last a
brilliant piece of work. Nor did he content himself with this; on the
same evening he stormed the French camp, and his pursuit was checked
only by the guns of Masulipatam itself. The place was quickly invested
on the land side, but difficulties crowded upon Forde and his handful of
men. For fifty days little advance was made; then Forde, seeing the last
avenues of escape closing behind him, ordered an assault at midnight on
the 25th of January 1759. The Company's troops lost one-third of their
number, but the storm was a brilliant and astounding success. Forde
received less than no reward. The Company refused to confirm his
lieut.-colonel's commission, and he found himself junior to Eyre Coote,
his old subaltern in the 39th Foot. Nevertheless he continued to assist
Clive, and on the 25th of November 1759 won a success comparable to
Condore at Chinsurah (or Biderra) against the Dutch. A year later he at
last received his commission, but was still opposed by a faction of the
directors which supported Coote. Clive himself warmly supported Forde in
these quarrels. In 1769, with Vansittart and Scrafton, Colonel Forde was
sent out with full powers to investigate every detail of Indian
administration. Their ship was never heard of after leaving the Cape of
Good Hope on the 27th of December.

  Monographs on Condore, Masulipatam and Chinsurah will be found in
  Malleson's _Decisive Battles of India_.



FORDHAM, formerly a village of Westchester county, New York, U.S.A., and
now a part of New York City. It lies on the mainland, along the eastern
bank of the Harlem river, E. of the northern end of Manhattan Island. It
is the seat of Fordham University (Roman Catholic), founded in 1841 as
St John's College, and since 1846 conducted by the Society of Jesus. In
1907 the institution was rechartered as Fordham University, and now
includes St John's College high school and grammar school, St John's
College, the Fordham University medical school (all in Fordham), and the
Fordham University law school (42 Broadway, New York City). In 1907-1908
the university had 96 instructors and (exclusive of 364 students in the
high school) 236 students, of whom 105 were in St John's College, 31 in
the medical school, and 100 in the law school. In Fordham still stands
the house in which Edgar Allan Poe lived from 1844 to 1849 and in which
he wrote "Annabel Lee," "Ulalume," &c.

The hamlet of Fordham was established in 1669 by Jan Arcer (a Dutchman,
who called himself "John Archer" after coming to America), who in that
year received permission from Francis Lovelace, colonial governor of New
York, to settle sixteen families on the mainland close by a
fording-place of the Spuyten Duyvil Creek, near where that stream enters
the Harlem river. Between 1655 and 1671 Archer bought from the Indians
the tract of land lying between Spuyten Duyvil Creek and the Harlem
river on the east and the Bronx river on the west, and extending from
the hamlet of Fordham to what is now High Bridge. In 1671 Governor
Lovelace erected this tract into the manor of Fordham. In 1846 it was
included with Morrisania in the township of West Farms; and in 1872 with
part of the township of Yonkers was erected into the township of
Kingsbridge, which in 1874 was annexed to the city of New York, and in
1898 became a part of the borough of the Bronx, New York City.



FORDUN, JOHN OF (d. c. 1384), Scottish chronicler. The statement
generally made that the chronicler was born at Fordoun (Kincardineshire)
has not been supported by any direct evidence. It is certain that he was
a secular priest, and that he composed his history in the latter part of
the 14th century; and it is probable that he was a chaplain in the
cathedral of Aberdeen. The work of Fordun is the earliest attempt to
write a continuous history of Scotland. We are informed that Fordun's
patriotic zeal was roused by the removal or destruction of many national
records by Edward III. and that he travelled in England and Ireland,
collecting material for his history. This work is divided into five
books. The first three are almost entirely fabulous, and form the
groundwork on which Boece and Buchanan afterwards based their historical
fictions, which were exposed by Thomas Innes in his _Critical Essay_ (i.
pp. 201-214). The 4th and 5th books, though still mixed with fable,
contain much valuable information, and become more authentic the more
nearly they approach the author's own time. The 5th book concludes with
the death of King David I. in 1153. Besides these five books, Fordun
wrote part of another book, and collected materials for bringing down
the history to a later period. These materials were used by a
continuator who wrote in the middle of the 15th century, and who is
identified with Walter Bower (q.v.), abbot of the monastery of Inchcolm.
The additions of Bower form eleven books, and bring down the narrative
to the death of King James I. in 1437. According to the custom of the
time, the continuator did not hesitate to interpolate Fordun's portion
of the work with additions of his own, and the whole history thus
compiled is known as the _Scotichronicon_.

  The first printed edition of Fordun's work was that of Thomas Gale in
  his _Scriptores quindecim_ (vol. iii.), which was published in 1691.
  This was followed by Thomas Hearne's (5 vols.) edition in 1722. The
  whole work, including Bower's continuation, was published by Walter
  Goodall at Edinburgh in 1759. In 1871 and 1872 Fordun's chronicle, in
  the original Latin and in an English translation, was edited by
  William F. Skene in _The Historians of Scotland_. The preface to this
  edition collects all the biographical details and gives full
  bibliographical references to MSS. and editions.



FORECLOSURE, in the law of mortgage, the extinguishment by order of the
court of a mortgagor's equity of redemption. In the law of equity the
object of every mortgage transaction is eventually the repayment of a
debt, the mortgaged property being incidental by way of security.
Therefore, although the day named for repayment of the loan has passed
and the mortgagor's estate is consequently forfeited, equity steps in to
mitigate the harshness of the common law, and will decree a reconveyance
of the mortgaged property on payment of the principal, interest and
costs. This right of the mortgagor to relief is termed his "equity of
redemption." But the right must be exercised within a reasonable time,
otherwise he will be foreclosed his equity of redemption and the
mortgagee's possession converted into an absolute ownership. Such
foreclosure is enforced in equity by a foreclosure action. An action is
brought by the mortgagee against the mortgagor in the chancery division
of the High Court in England, claiming that an account may be taken of
the principal and interest due to the mortgagee, and that the mortgagor
may be directed to pay the same, with costs, by a day to be appointed by
the court and that in default thereof he may be foreclosed his equity of
redemption. English county courts have jurisdiction in foreclosure
actions where the mortgage or charge does not exceed £500, or where the
mortgage is for more than £500, but less than that sum has been actually
advanced. In a Welsh mortgage there is no right to foreclosure. (See
also MORTGAGE.)



FOREIGN OFFICE, that department of the executive of the United Kingdom
which is concerned with foreign affairs. The head of the Foreign Office
is termed principal secretary of state for foreign affairs and his
office dates from 1782. Between that date and the Revolution there had
been only two secretaries of state, whose duties were divided by a
geographical division of the globe into northern and southern
departments. The duties of the secretary of the northern department of
Europe comprised dealings with the northern powers of Europe, while the
secretary of the southern department of Europe communicated with France,
Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Italy, Turkey, and also looked after Irish
and colonial business, and carried out the work of the Home Office. In
1782 the duties of these two secretaries were revised, the northern
department becoming the Foreign Office. The secretary for foreign
affairs is the official agent of the crown in all communications between
Great Britain and foreign powers; his intercourse is carried on either
through the representatives of foreign states in Great Britain or
through representatives of Great Britain abroad. He negotiates all
treaties or alliances with foreign states, protects British subjects
residing abroad, and demands satisfaction for any injuries they may
sustain at the hands of foreigners. He is assisted by two
under-secretaries of state (one of them a politician, the other a
permanent civil servant), three assistant under-secretaries (civil
servants), a librarian, a head of the treaty department and a staff of
clerks. The departments of the Foreign Office are the African, American,
commercial and sanitary, consular, eastern (Europe), far eastern,
western (Europe), parliamentary, financial, librarian and keeper of the
papers, treaties and registry. In the case of important despatches and
correspondence, these, with the drafts of answers, are sent first to the
permanent under-secretary, then to the prime minister, then to the
sovereign and, lastly, are circulated among the members of the cabinet.
The salary of the secretary for foreign affairs is £5000 per annum,
that of the permanent under-secretary £2000, the parliamentary
under-secretary and the first assistant under-secretary, £1500, and the
other assistant under-secretaries £1200.

  See Anson, _Law and Custom of the Constitution_, part ii.



FORELAND, NORTH and SOUTH, two chalk headlands on the Kent coast of
England, overlooking the Strait of Dover, the North Foreland forming the
eastern projection of the Isle of Thanet, and the South standing 3 m.
N.E. of Dover. Both present bold cliffs to the sea, and command
beautiful views over the strait. On the North Foreland (51° 22½' N., 1°
27' E.) there is a lighthouse, and on the South Foreland (51° 8½' N., 1°
23' E.) there are two. There is also a Foreland on the north coast of
Devonshire, 2½ m. N.E. of Lynmouth, a fine projection of the highlands
of Exmoor Forest, overlooking the Bristol Channel, and forming the most
northerly point of the county.



FORESHORE, that part of the seashore which lies between high- and
low-water mark at ordinary tides. In the United Kingdom it is ordinarily
and prima facie vested in the crown, except where it may be vested in a
subject by ancient grant or charter from the crown, or by prescription.
Although numerous decisions, dating from 1795, have confirmed the prima
facie title of the crown, S.A. Moore in his _History of the Foreshore_
contends that the presumption is in favour of the subject rather than of
the crown. But a subject can establish a title by proving an express
grant from the crown or giving sufficient evidence of user from which a
grant may be presumed. The chief acts showing title to foreshore are,
taking wreck or royal fish, right of fishing, mining, digging and taking
sand, seaweed, &c., embanking and enclosing. There is a public right of
user in that part of the foreshore which belongs to the crown, for the
purpose of navigation or fishery, but there is no right of passage over
lands adjacent to the shore, except by a particular custom. So that, in
order to make the right available, there must be a highway or other
public land giving access to the foreshore. Thus it has been held that
the public have no legal right to trespass on land above high-water mark
for the purpose of bathing in the sea, though if they can get to it they
may bathe there (_Blundell_ v. _Catteral_, 1821, 5 B. & Ad. 268). There
is no right in the public to take sand, shells or seaweed from the
shore, nor, except in certain places by local custom, have fishermen the
right to use the foreshore or the soil above it for drawing up their
boats, or for drying their nets or similar purposes.

  See S.A. Moore, _History of the Foreshore and the Law relating
  thereto_ (1888); Coulson and Forbes, _Law of Waters_ (1902).



FORESTALLING, in English criminal law, the offence of buying
merchandise, victual, &c., coming to market, or making any bargain for
buying the same, before they shall be in the market ready to be sold, or
making any motion for enhancing the price, or dissuading any person from
coming to market or forbearing to bring any of the things to market, &c.
See ENGROSSING.



FOREST LAWS, the general term for the old English restriction laws,
dealing with forests. One of the most cherished prerogatives of the king
of England, at the time when his power was at the highest, was that of
converting any portion of the country into a forest in which he might
enjoy the pleasures of the chase. The earliest struggles between the
king and the people testify to the extent to which this prerogative
became a public grievance, and the charter by which its exercise was
bounded (Carta de Foresta) was in substance part of the greatest
constitutional code imposed by his barons upon King John. At common law
it appears to have been the right of the king to make a forest where he
pleased, provided that certain legal formalities were observed. The king
having a continual care for the preservation of the realm, and for the
peace and quiet of his subjects, he had therefore amongst many
privileges this prerogative, viz. to have his place of recreation
wheresoever he would appoint.[1] Land once afforested became subject to
a peculiar system of laws, which, as well as the formalities required to
constitute a valid afforestment, have been carefully ascertained by the
Anglo-Norman lawyers. "A forest," says Manwood, "is a certain territory
of woody grounds and fruitful pastures, privileged for wild beasts and
fowls of forest, chase, and warren to rest, and abide there in the safe
protection of the king, for his delight and pleasure; which territory of
ground so privileged is mered and bounded with unremovable marks, meres
and boundaries, either known by matter of record or by prescription; and
also replenished with wild beasts of venery or chase, and with great
coverts of vert, for the succour of the said beasts there to abide: for
the preservation and continuance of which said place, together with the
vert and venison there are particular officers, laws, and privileges
belonging to the same, requisite for that purpose, and proper only to a
forest and to no other place."[2] And the same author distinguishes a
forest, as "the highest franchise of princely pleasure," from the
inferior franchises of chase, park and warren--named in the order of
their importance. The forest embraces all these, and it is distinguished
by having laws and courts of its own, according to which offenders are
justiceable. An offender in a chase is to be punished by the common law;
an offender in a forest by the forest law. A chase is much the same as a
park, only the latter is enclosed, and all of them are distinguished
according to the class of wild beasts to which the privilege extended.
Thus beasts of forest (the "five wild beasts of venery") were the hart,
the hind, the hare, the boar and the wolf. The beasts of chase were also
five, viz. the buck, the doe, the fox, the marten and the roe. The
beasts and fowls of warren were the hare, the coney, the pheasant and
the partridge.

The courts of the forest were three in number, viz. the court of
attachments, swainmote and justice-seat. The court of attachments
(called also the wood-mote) is held every forty days for the foresters
to bring in their attachments concerning any hurt done to vert or
venison (_in viridi et venatione_) in the forest, and for the verderers
to receive and mark the same, but no conviction takes place. The
swainmote, held three times in the year, is the court to which all the
freeholders within the forest owe suit and service, and of which the
verderers are the judges. In this court all offences against the forest
laws may be tried, but no judgment or punishment follows. This is
reserved for the justice-seat, held every third year, to which the rolls
of offences presented at the court of attachment, and tried at the
swainmote, are presented by verderers. The justice-seat is the court of
the chief justice in eyre, who, says Coke, "is commonly a man of greater
dignity than knowledge of the laws of the forests; and therefore where
justice-seats are to be held some other persons whom the king shall
appoint are associated with him, who together are to determine _omnia
placita forestae_." There were two chief justices for the forests
_intra_ and _ultra Trentam_ respectively. The necessary officers of a
forest are a steward, verderers, foresters, regarders, agisters and
woodwards. The verderer was a judicial officer chosen in full county by
the freeholders in the same manner as the coroner. His office was to
view and receive the attachments of the foresters, and to mark them on
his rolls. A forester was "an officer sworn to preserve the vert and
venison in the forest, and to attend upon the wild beasts within his
bailiwick." The regarders were of the nature of visitors: their duty was
to make a regard (_visitatio nemorum_) every third year, to inquire of
all offences, and of the concealment of such offences by any officer of
the forest. The business of the agister was to look after the pasturage
of the forest, and to receive the payments for the same by persons
entitled to pasture their cattle in the forests. Both the pasturage and
the payment were called "agistment." The woodward was the officer who
had the care of the woods and vert and presented offences at the court
of attachment.

The legal conception of a forest was thus that of a definite territory
within which the code of the forest law prevailed to the exclusion of
the common law. The ownership of the soil might be in any one, but the
rights of the proprietor were limited by the laws made for the
protection of the king's wild beasts. These laws, enforced by fines
often arbitrary and excessive, were a great grievance to the unfortunate
owners of land within or in the neighbourhood of the forest. The
offence of "purpresture" may be cited as an example. This was an
encroachment on the forest rights, by building a house within the
forest, and it made no difference whether the land belonged to the
builder or not. In either case it was an offence punishable by fines at
discretion. And if a man converted woodlands within the forest into
arable land, he was guilty of the offence known as "assarting," whether
the covert belonged to himself or not.

The hardships of the forest laws under the Norman kings, and their
extension to private estates by the process of afforestment, were among
the grievances which united the barons and people against the king in
the reign of John. The Great Charter of King John contains clauses
relating to the forest laws, but no separate charter of the forest. The
first charter of the forest is that of Henry III., issued in 1217. "As
an important piece of legislation," said Stubbs,[3] "it must be compared
with the forest assize of 1184, and with 44th, 47th and 48th clauses of
the charter of John. It is observable that most of the abuses which are
remedied by it are regarded as having sprung up since the accession of
Henry II.; but the most offensive afforestations have been made under
Richard and John. These latter are at once disafforested; but those of
Henry II. only so far as they had been carried out to the injury of the
landowners and outside of the royal demesne." Land which had thus been
once forest land and was afterwards disafforested was known as
_purlieu_--derived by Manwood from the French _pur_ and _lieu_, i.e. "a
place exempt from the forest." The forest laws still applied in a
modified manner to the purlieu. The benefit of the disafforestment
existed only for the owner of the lands; as to all other persons the
land was forest still, and the king's wild beasts were to "have free
recourse therein and safe return to the forest, without any hurt or
destruction other than by the owners of the lands in the purlieu where
they shall be found, and that only to hunt and chase them back again
towards the forest without any forestalling" (Manwood, _On the Forest
Laws_--article "Purlieu").

The revival of the forest laws was one of the means resorted to by
Charles I. for raising a revenue independently of parliament, and the
royal forests in Essex were so enlarged that they were hyperbolically
said to include the whole county. The 4th earl of Southampton was nearly
ruined by a decision that stripped him of his estate near the New
Forest. The boundaries of Rockingham Forest were increased from 6 m. to
60, and enormous fines imposed on the trespassers,--Lord Salisbury being
assessed in £20,000, Lord Westmoreland in £19,000, Sir Christopher
Hatton in £12,000 (Hallam's _Constitutional History of England_, c.
viii.). By the statute 16 Charles I. c. 16 (1640) the royal forests were
determined for ever according to their boundaries in the twentieth year
of James, all subsequent enlargements being annulled.

The forest laws, since the Revolution, have fallen into complete disuse.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Coke, 4 _Inst._, 300.

  [2] Manwood's _Treatise of the Forest Laws_ (4th edition, 1717).

  [3] _Documents Illustrative of English History_, p. 338.



FORESTS AND FORESTRY. Although most people know what a forest (Lat.
_foris_, "out of doors") is, a definition of it which suits all cases is
by no means easy to give. Manwood, in his treatise of the _Lawes of the
Forest_ (1598), defines a forest as "a certain territory of woody
grounds, fruitful pastures, privileged for wild beasts and fowls of
forest, chase and warren, to rest and abide in, in the safe protection
of the king, for his princely delight and pleasure." This primitive
definition has, in modern times, when the economic aspect of forests
came more into the foreground, given place to others, so that forest
may, in a general way, now be described as "an area which is for the
most part set aside for the production of timber and other forest
produce, or which is expected to exercise certain climatic effects, or
to protect the locality against injurious influences."

As far as conclusions can now be drawn, it is probable that the greater
part of the dry land of the earth was, at some time, covered with
forest, which consisted of a variety of trees and shrubs grouped
according to climate, soil and configuration of the several localities.
When the old trees reached their limit of life, they disappeared, and
younger trees took their place. The conditions for an uninterrupted
regeneration of the forest were favourable, and the result was vigorous
production by the creative powers of soil and climate. Then came man,
and by degrees interfered, until in most countries of the earth the area
under forest has been considerably reduced. The first decided
interference was probably due to the establishment of domestic animals;
men burnt the forest to obtain pasture for their flocks. Subsequently
similar measures on an ever-increasing scale were employed to prepare
the land for agricultural purposes. More recently enormous areas of
forests were destroyed by reckless cutting and subsequent firing in the
extraction of timber for economic purposes.

It will readily be understood that the distribution and character of the
now remaining forests must differ enormously (see PLANTS:
_Distribution_). Large portions of the earth are still covered with
dense masses of tall trees, while others contain low scrub or grass
land, or are desert. As a general rule, natural forests consist of a
number of different species intermixed; but in some cases certain
species, called gregarious, have succeeded in obtaining the upper hand,
thus forming more or less pure forests of one species only. The number
of species differs very much. In many tropical forests hundreds of
species may be found on a comparatively small area, in other cases the
number is limited. Burma has several thousand species of trees and
shrubs, Sind has only ten species of trees. Central Europe has about
forty species, and the greater part of northern Russia, Sweden and
Norway contains forests consisting of about half a dozen species.
Elevation above the sea acts similarly to rising latitude, but the
effect is much more rapidly produced. Generally speaking, it may be said
that the Tropics and adjoining parts of the earth, wherever the climate
is not modified by considerable elevation, contain broad-leaved species,
palms, bamboos, &c. Here most of the best and hardest timbers are found,
such as teak, mahogany and ebony. The northern countries are rich in
conifers. Taking a section from Central Africa to North Europe, it will
be found that south and north of the equator there is a large belt of
dense hardwood forest; then comes the Sahara, then the coast of the
Mediterranean with forests of cork oak; then Italy with oak, olive,
chestnut, gradually giving place to ash, sycamore, beech, birch and
certain species of pine; in Switzerland and Germany silver fir and
spruce gain ground. Silver fir disappears in central Germany, and the
countries around the Baltic contain forests consisting chiefly of Scotch
pine, spruce and birch, to which, in Siberia, larch must be added, while
the lower parts of the ground are stocked with hornbeam, willow, alder
and poplar. In North America the distribution is as follows: Tropical
vegetation is found in south Florida, while in north Florida it changes
into a subtropical vegetation consisting of evergreen broad-leaved
species with pines on sandy soils. On going north in the Atlantic
region, the forest becomes temperate, containing deciduous broad-leaved
trees and pines, until Canada is reached, where larches, spruces and
firs occupy the ground. Around the great lakes on sandy soils the
broad-leaved forest gives way to pines. On proceeding west from the
Atlantic region the forest changes into a shrubby vegetation, and this
into the prairies. Farther west, towards the Pacific coast, extensive
forests are found consisting, according to latitude and elevation above
the sea, of pines, larches, fir, Thujas and Tsugas. In Japan a tropical
vegetation is found in the south, comprising palms, figs, ebony,
mangrove and others. This is followed on proceeding north by subtropical
forests containing evergreen oaks, _Podocarpus_, tree-ferns, and, at
higher elevations, _Cryptomeria_ and _Chamaecyparis_. Then follow
deciduous broad-leaved forests, and finally firs, spruces and larches.
In India the character of the forests is governed chiefly by rainfall
and elevation. Where the former is heavy evergreen forests of
Guttiferae, Dipterocarpeae, Leguminosae, Euphorbias, figs, palms, ferns,
bamboos and india-rubber trees are found. Under a less copious rainfall
deciduous forests appear, containing teak and sal (_Shorea robusta_) and
a great variety of other valuable trees. Under a still smaller rainfall
the vegetation becomes sparse, containing acacias, _Dalbergia sissoo_
and Tamarix. Where the rainfall is very light or _nil_, desert appears.
In the Himalayas, subtropical to arctic conditions are found, the
forests containing, according to elevation, pines, firs, deodars, oaks,
chestnuts, magnolias, laurels, rhododendrons and bamboos. Australia,
again, has its own particular flora of eucalypts, of which some two
hundred species have been distinguished, as well as wattles. Some of the
eucalypts attain an enormous height.

_Utility of Forests._--In the economy of man and of nature forests are
of direct and indirect value, the former chiefly through the produce
which they yield, and the latter through the influence which they
exercise upon climate, the regulation of moisture, the stability of the
soil, the healthiness and beauty of a country and allied subjects. The
_indirect_ utility will be dealt with first. A piece of land bare of
vegetation is, throughout the year, exposed to the full effect of sun
and air currents, and the climatic conditions which are produced by
these agencies. If, on the other hand, a piece of land is covered with a
growth of plants, and especially with a dense crop of forest vegetation,
it enjoys the benefit of certain agencies which modify the effect of sun
and wind on the soil and the adjoining layers of air. These modifying
agencies are as follows: (1) The crowns of the trees intercept the rays
of the sun and the falling rain; they obstruct the movement of air
currents, and reduce radiation at night. (2) The leaves, flowers and
fruits, augmented by certain plants which grow in the shade of the
trees, form a layer of mould, or humus, which protects the soil against
rapid changes of temperature, and greatly influences the movement of
water in it. (3) The roots of the trees penetrate into the soil in all
directions, and bind it together. The effects of these agencies have
been observed from ancient times, and widely differing views have been
taken of them. Of late years, however, more careful observations have
been made at so-called parallel stations, that is to say, one station in
the middle of a forest, and another outside at some distance from its
edge, but otherwise exposed to the same general conditions. In this way,
the following results have been obtained: (1) Forests reduce the
temperature of the air and soil to a moderate extent, and render the
climate more equable. (2) They increase the relative humidity of the
air, and reduce evaporation. (3) They tend to increase the precipitation
of moisture. As regards the actual rainfall, their effect in low lands
is _nil_ or very small; in hilly countries it is probably greater, but
definite results have not yet been obtained owing to the difficulty of
separating the effect of forests from that of other factors. (4) They
help to regulate the water supply, produce a more sustained feeding of
springs, tend to reduce violent floods, and render the flow of water in
rivers more continuous. (5) They assist in preventing denudation,
erosion, landslips, avalanches, the silting up of rivers and low lands
and the formation of sand dunes. (6) They reduce the velocity of
air-currents, protect adjoining fields against cold or dry winds, and
afford shelter to cattle, game and useful birds. (7) They may, under
certain conditions, improve the healthiness of a country, and help in
its defence. (8) They increase the beauty of a country, and produce a
healthy aesthetic influence upon the people.

The _direct_ utility of forests is chiefly due to their produce, the
capital which they represent, and the work which they provide. The
principal produce of forests consists of timber and firewood. Both are
necessaries for the daily life of the people. Apart from a limited
number of broad-leaved species, the conifers have become the most
important timber trees in the economy of man. They are found in greatest
quantities in the countries around the Baltic and in North America. In
modern times iron and other materials have, to a considerable extent,
replaced timber, while coal, lignite, and peat compete with firewood;
nevertheless wood is still indispensable, and likely to remain so. This
is borne out by the statistics of the most civilized nations. Whereas
the population of Great Britain and Ireland, during the period
1880-1900, increased by about 20%, the imports of timber, during the
same period, increased by 45%; in other words, every head of population
in 1900 used more timber than twenty years earlier. Germany produced in
1880 about as much timber as she required; in 1899 she imported
4,600,000 tons, valued at £14,000,000, and her imports are rapidly
increasing, although the yield capacity of her own forests is much
higher now than it was formerly. Wood is now used for many purposes
which formerly were not thought of. The manufacture of the wood pulp
annually imported into Britain consumes at least 2,000,000 tons of
timber. A fabric closely resembling silk is now made of spruce wood. The
variety of other, or minor, produce yielded by forests is very great,
and much of it is essential for the well-being of the people and for
various industries. The yield of fodder is of the utmost importance in
countries subject to periodic droughts; in many places field crops could
not be grown successfully without the leaf-mould and brushwood taken
from the forests. As regards industries, attention need only be drawn to
such articles as commercial fibre, tanning materials, dye-stuffs, lac,
turpentine, resin, rubber, gutta-percha, &c. Great Britain and Ireland
alone import every year such materials to the value of £12,000,000, half
of this being represented by rubber.

The _capital_ employed in forests consists chiefly of the value of the
soil and growing stock of timber. The latter is, ordinarily, of much
greater value than the former wherever a sustained annual yield of
timber is expected from a forest. In the case of a Scotch pine forest,
for instance, the value of the growing stock is, under the
above-mentioned condition, from three to five times that of the soil.
The rate of interest yielded by capital invested in forests differs, of
course, considerably according to circumstances, but on the whole it
may, under proper management, be placed equal to that yielded by
agricultural land; it is lower than the agricultural rate on the better
classes of land, but higher on the inferior classes. Hence the latter
are specially indicated for the forest industry, and the former for the
production of agricultural crops. Forests require _labour_ in a great
variety of ways, such as (1) general administration, formation, tending
and harvesting; (2) transport of produce; and (3) industries which
depend on forests for their prime material. The labour indicated under
the first head differs considerably according to circumstances, but its
amount is smaller than that required if the land is used for
agriculture. Hence forests provide additional labour only if they are
established on surplus lands. Owing to the bulky nature of forest
produce its transport forms a business of considerable magnitude, the
amount of labour being perhaps equal to half that employed under the
first head. The greatest amount of labour is, however, required in the
working up of the raw material yielded by forests. In this respect
attention may be drawn to the chair industry in and around High Wycombe
in Buckinghamshire, where more than 20,000 workmen are employed in
converting the beech, grown on the adjoining chalk hills, into chairs
and tools of many patterns. Complete statistics for Great Britain are
not available under this head, but it may be mentioned that in Germany
the people employed in the forests amount to 2.3% of the total
population; those employed on transport of forest produce 1.1%;
labourers employed on the various wood industries, 8.6%; or a total of
12%. An important feature of the work connected with forests and their
produce is that a great part of it can be made to fit in with the
requirements of agriculture; that is to say, it can be done at seasons
when field crops do not require attention. Thus the rural labourers or
small farmers can earn some money at times when they have nothing else
to do, and when they would probably sit idle if no forest work were
obtainable.

Whether, or how far, the utility of forests is brought out in a
particular country depends on its special conditions, such as (1) the
position of a country, its communications, and the control which it
exercises over other countries, such as colonies; (2) the quantity and
quality of substitutes for forest produce available in the country; (3)
the value of land and labour, and the returns which land yields if used
for other purposes; (4) the density of population; (5) the amount of
capital available for investment; (6) the climate and configuration,
especially the geographical position, whether inland or on the border
of the sea, &c. No general rule can be laid down, showing whether
forests are required in a country, or, if so, to what extent; that
question must be answered according to the special circumstances of each
case.

The subjoined table shows the forests of various European states:--

  +------------------+-------------+------------+------------+------------+
  |                  |             | Percentage | Percentage |   Forest   |
  |                  |   Area of   |  of Total  | of Forest  |  Area per  |
  |    Countries.    | Forests, in |   Area of  |   Area     |  Head of   |
  |                  |    Acres.   |   Country  | belonging  | Population,|
  |                  |             |    under   |  to the    |  in Acres. |
  |                  |             |   Forest.  |   State.   |            |
  +------------------+-------------+------------+------------+------------+
  | Sweden           |  49,000,000 |     48     |     33     |    9.5     |
  | Norway           |  17,000,000 |     21     |     28     |    7.6     |
  | Russia, including|             |            |            |            |
  |   Finland        | 518,000,000 |     40     |     61     |    5.9     |
  | Bosnia and       |             |            |            |            |
  |   Herzegovina    |   6,400,000 |     50     |     78     |    4.0     |
  | Bulgaria         |   7,600,000 |     30     |     30     |    2.3     |
  | Turkey           |  11,200,000 |     20     |     . .    |    1.7     |
  | Servia           |   3,900,000 |     32     |     37     |    1.5     |
  | Rumania          |   6,400,000 |     18     |     40     |    1.3     |
  | Spain            |  21,200,000 |     17     |     84     |    1.2     |
  | Hungary          |  22,500,000 |     28     |     15     |    1.2     |
  | Austria          |  24,000,000 |     32     |      7     |     .9     |
  | Greece           |   2,000,000 |     13     |     80     |     .85    |
  | Luxemburg        |     200,000 |     30     |     . .    |     .82    |
  | Switzerland      |   2,100,000 |     20     |      5     |     .7     |
  | Germany          |  35,000,000 |     26     |     34     |     .6     |
  | France           |  24,000,000 |     18     |     12     |     .6     |
  | Italy            |  10,400,000 |     15     |      4     |     .3     |
  | Denmark          |     600,000 |      6     |     24     |     .25    |
  | Belgium          |   1,300,000 |     18     |      5     |     .2     |
  | Portugal         |     770,000 |      3.5   |      8     |     .15    |
  | Holland          |     560,000 |      7     |      ?     |     .1     |
  | Great Britain    |   3,000,000 |      4     |      3     |     .07    |
  +------------------+-------------+------------+------------+------------+

These data exhibit considerable differences, since the percentage of the
forest area varies from 3.5 to 50, and the area per head of population
from .07 to 9.5 acres. Russia, Sweden and Norway may as yet have more
forest than they require for their own population. On the other hand,
Great Britain and Ireland, Germany, Denmark, Portugal, Holland, and even
Belgium, France and Italy have not a sufficient forest area to meet
their own requirements; at the same time, they are all sea-bound
countries, and importation is easy, while most of them are under the
influence of moist sea winds, which reduces to a subordinate position
the importance of forests for climatic reasons.

Intimately connected with the area of forests in a country is the state
of ownership--whether they belong to the state, corporations or to
private persons. Where, apart from the financial aspect and the supply
of work, forests are not required for the sake of their indirect
effects, and where importation from other countries is easy and assured,
the government of the country need not, as a rule, trouble itself to
maintain or acquire forests. Where the reverse conditions exist, and
especially where the cost of transport over long distances becomes
prohibitive, a wise administration will take measures to assure the
maintenance of a suitable proportion of the country under forest. This
can be done either by maintaining or constituting a suitable area of
state forests, or by exercising a certain amount of control over
corporation and even private forests. Such measures are more called for
in continental countries than in those which are sea-bound, as is proved
by the above statistics.

_Supply of Timber--Imports and Exports._--The following table shows the
net imports and exports of European countries (average data, calculated
from the returns of recent years).

The only timber-exporting countries of Europe are Russia, Sweden,
Norway, Austria-Hungary and Rumania; all the others either have only
enough for their own consumption, or import timber. Great Britain and
Ireland import now upwards of 10,000,000 tons a year, Germany about
4,600,000 tons, and Belgium about 1,300,000 tons. Holland, France,
Portugal, Spain and Italy are all importing countries, as also are Asia
Minor, Egypt and Algeria. The west coast of Africa exports hardwoods,
and imports coniferous timber. The Cape and Natal import considerable
quantities of pine and fir wood. Australasia exports hardwoods and some
Kauri pine from New Zealand, but imports larger quantities of light pine
and fir timber. British India and Siam export teak and small quantities
of fancy woods. The West Indies and South America export hardwoods, and
import pine and fir wood. The United States of America will not much
longer be a genuine exporting country, since they import already almost
as much timber from Canada as they export. Canada exports considerable
quantities of timber. The Dominion has still a forest area of 1,250,000
sq. m., equal to 38% of the total area, and giving 165 acres of forest
for every inhabitant. Although only about one-third of the forest area
can be called regular timber land, Canada possesses an enormous forest
wealth, with which she might supply permanently nearly all other
countries deficient in material, if the governing bodies in the several
provinces would only determine to stop the present fearful waste caused
by axe and fire, and to introduce a regular system of management. As
matters stand, the supplies of the most valuable timber of Canada, the
white or Weymouth pine (_Pinus strobus_), are nearly exhausted, the
great stores of spruce in the eastern provinces are being rapidly
destroyed, and the forests of Douglas fir in the western provinces have
been attacked for export to the United States and to other countries.

  _Net Imports and Exports of European Countries._

  +------------------+-----------------------+-----------------------+
  |                  |  Quantities in Tons.  |  Value in £ Sterling. |
  |    Countries.    +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  |                  |  Imports. |  Exports. |  Imports. |  Exports. |
  +------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  | United Kingdom   |10,004,000 |    . .    |26,540,000 |    . .    |
  | Germany          | 4,600,000 |    . .    |14,820,000 |    . .    |
  | Belgium          | 1,300,000 |    . .    | 5,040,000 |    . .    |
  | France           | 1,230,000 |    . .    | 3,950,000 |    . .    |
  | Italy            |   620,000 |    . .    | 2,100,000 |    . .    |
  | Spain            |   470,000 |    . .    | 1,500,000 |    . .    |
  | Denmark          |   470,000 |    . .    | 1,250,000 |    . .    |
  | Switzerland      |   204,000 |    . .    |   480,000 |    . .    |
  | Holland          |   180,000 |    . .    |   720,000 |    . .    |
  | Servia           |   110,000 |    . .    |   160,000 |    . .    |
  | Portugal         |    60,000 |    . .    |   200,000 |    . .    |
  | Greece           |    35,000 |    . .    |   130,000 |    . .    |
  | Rumania          |    . .    |   400,000 |    . .    |   840,000 |
  | Norway           |    . .    | 1,300,000 |    . .    | 2,200,000 |
  | Austria-Hungary  |           |           |           |           |
  |   with Bosnia and|           |           |           |           |
  |   Herzegovina    |    . .    | 3,996,000 |    . .    |11,400,000 |
  | Sweden           |    . .    | 4,460,000 |    . .    | 7,930,000 |
  | Russia with      |           |           |           |           |
  |   Finland        |    . .    | 6,890,000 |    . .    |10,440,000 |
  |                  +-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  |      Total       |19,283,000 |17,046,000 |56,890,000 |32,810,000 |
  +------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
  | Net Imports      | 2,237,000 |           |           |24,080,000 |
  +------------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

  These net imports are received from non-European countries. They
  consist chiefly of valuable hardwoods, like teak, mahogany, eucalypts
  and others.

Taking the remaining stocks of the whole earth together, it may be said
that a sufficient quantity of hardwoods is available, but the only
countries which are able to supply coniferous timber for export on a
considerable scale are Russia, Sweden, Norway, Austria and Canada. As
these countries have practically to supply the rest of the world, and as
the management of their forests is far from satisfactory, the question
of supplying light pine and fir timber, which forms the very staff of
life of the wood industries, must become a very serious matter before
many years have passed. Unmistakable signs of the coming crisis are
everywhere visible to all who wish to see, and it is difficult to
over-state the gravity of the problem, when it is remembered, for
instance, that 87% of all the timber imported into Great Britain
consists of light pine and fir, and that most of the other importing
countries are similarly situated. In some of these countries little or
no room exists for the extension of woodland, but this statement does
not apply to Great Britain and Ireland, which contain upwards of
12,000,000 acres of waste land, and 12,500,000 acres of mountain and
heath land used for light grazing. One-fourth of that area, if put under
forest, would produce all the timber now imported which can be grown in
Britain, that is to say, about 95% of the total.

The subjoined table shows the movements of timber within the greater
part of the British empire:--

  _Net Imports and Exports into and from the British Empire._

  +-----------------------+---------------------+---------------------+
  |                       |    Annual Average   |   Annual Average    |
  |      Countries.       |  during the Years   |  during the Years   |
  |                       |      1884-1888.     |      1900-1903.     |
  +-----------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
  |                       |   Net    |   Net    |   Net    |   Net    |
  |                       | Imports. | Exports. | Imports. | Exports. |
  +-----------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
  |                       |     £    |     £    |     £    |    £     |
  |United Kingdom         |15,000,000|   . .    |26,540,000|   . .    |
  |Australasia            | 1,284,000|   . .    |   568,000|   . .    |
  |Africa                 |  72,000  |   . .    |   737,000|   . .    |
  |West Indies,           |          |          |          |          |
  |  Honduras and Guiana  |    . .   |   207,000|   . .    |    71,000|
  |India, Ceylon and      |          |          |          |          |
  |  Mauritius            |    . .   |   528,000|   . .    |   580,000|
  |Dominion of Canada     |    . .   | 4,025,000|   . .    | 4,789,000|
  |                       +----------+----------+----------+----------+
  |    Total              |16,356,000| 4,760,000|27,845,000| 5,440,000|
  +-----------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+
  |Net Imports            |11,596,000|   . .    |22,405,000|   . .    |
  |Total increase in      |          |          |          |          |
  |  16 years             |    . .   |   . .    |10,809,000|   . .    |
  |Average annual increase|          |          |          |          |
  |  of net imports       |    . .   |   . .    |   675,562|   . .    |
  +-----------------------+----------+----------+----------+----------+

_Forest Management._--In early times there was practically no forest
management. As long as the forests occupied considerable areas, their
produce was looked upon as the free gift of nature, like air and water;
men took it, used it, and even destroyed it without let or hindrance.
With the gradual increase of population and the consequent reduction of
the forest area, proprietary ideas developed; people claimed the
ownership of certain forests, and proceeded to protect them against
outsiders. Subsequently the law of the country was called in to help in
protection, leading to the promulgation of special forest laws. By
degrees it was found that mere protection was not sufficient, and that
steps must be taken to enforce a more judicious treatment, as well as to
limit the removal of timber to what the forests were capable of
producing permanently. The teaching of natural science and of political
economy was brought to bear upon the subject, so that now forestry has
become a special science. This is recognized in many countries, amongst
which Germany stands first, closely followed by France, Austria, Denmark
and Belgium. Of non-European countries the palm belongs to British
India, and then follow Ceylon, the Malay States, the Cape of Good Hope
and Japan. The United States of America have also turned their attention
to the subject. Most of the British colonies are, in this respect, as
yet in a backward state, and the matter has still to be fought out in
Great Britain and Ireland, though many writers have urged the importance
of the question upon the public and the government. There can be no
doubt that all civilized countries must, sooner or later, adopt a
rational and systematic treatment of their forests.

For details as to the separate countries, see the articles under the
country headings; in this article only some of the more important
countries are dealt with, in so far as the history of their forestry is
important. A few notes on Germany and France will be given, because in
these countries forest management has been brought to highest
perfection; Italy is mentioned, because she has allowed her forests to
be destroyed; and a short description of forestry in the United Kingdom
and in India follows. A separate section is devoted to the United
States.

_Germany_ is in general well-wooded. The winters being long and severe,
an abundant supply of fuel is almost as essential as a sufficient supply
of food. This necessity has led, along with a passion for the chase, to
the preservation of forests, and to the establishment of an admirable
system of forest cultivation, almost as carefully conducted as field
tillage. The Black Forest stretches the whole length of the grand-duchy
of Baden and part of the kingdom of Württemberg, from the Neckar to
Basel and the Lake of Constance. The vegetation resembles that of the
Vosges; forests of spruce, silver fir, Scotch pine, and, mingled with
birches, beech and oak, are the chief woods met with. Until
comparatively recent times large quantities of timber derived from these
forests were floated down the Rhine to Holland and also shipped to
England. Now the greater part of it is used locally for construction, or
it is converted into paper pulp. In the grand-duchy of Hesse the
Odenwald range of mountains, stretching between the Main and the Neckar,
contains the chief supply of timber. In the province of Nassau there are
the large wooded tracts of the Taunus mountain range and the Westerwald.

In Rhenish Prussia valuable forests lie partly in the Eifel, on the
borders of Belgium, and on the mountains overhanging the Upper Moselle,
but they do not furnish such stately trees as the Black Forest and the
Odenwald. The Spessart, near Aschaffenburg in Bavaria, is one of the
most extensive forests of middle Germany, containing large masses of
fine oak and beech, with plantations of coniferous trees, such as
spruce, Scotch pine and silver fir. Bavaria possesses other fine forest
tracts, such as the Baierischewald on the Bohemian frontier, the
Kranzberg near Munich, and the Frankenwald in the north of the kingdom.
North Germany has extensive forests on the Harz and Thüringian
Mountains, while in East Prussia large tracts of flat ground are covered
with Scotch pine, spruce, oak and beech.

Every German state has its forest organization. In Prussia the
department is presided over by the Oberland Forstmeister at Berlin,
while each province, or part of a province, has an Oberforstmeister,
under whom a number of Oberförsters administrate the state and communal
forests. These, again, are assisted by a lower class of officials called
Försters. The Oberförsters throughout Germany are educated at special
schools of forestry, of which in 1909 the following nine existed:

In Prussia: at Eberswalde and Münden.

In Bavaria: at Munich and Aschaffenburg.

In Saxony: at Tharand.

In Württemberg: at Tübingen.

In Baden: at Carlsruhe.

In Hesse: at Giessen.

In the grand-duchy of Saxony: at Eisenach.

The schools at Munich, Tübingen and Giessen form part of the
universities at these places; that at Carlsruhe is attached to the
technical high school; the others are academies for the study of
forestry only, but there is a tendency to transfer them all to the
universities. The subordinate staff are trained for their work in
so-called silvicultural schools, of which a large number exist. In this
way the German forests have been brought to a high degree of
productiveness, but the material derived from them falls far short of
the requirements, although the forests occupy 26% of the total area of
the country; hence the net imports of timber amount already to 4,600,000
tons a year, and they are steadily rising.

_France._--The principal timber tree of France is the oak. The cork oak
is grown extensively in the south and in Corsica. The beech, ash, elm,
maple, birch, walnut, chestnut and poplar are all important trees, while
the silver fir and spruce form magnificent forests in the Vosges and
Jura Mountains, and the Aleppo and maritime pines are cultivated in the
south and south-west. About one-seventh of the entire territory is still
covered with wood.

Forest legislation took its rise in France about the middle of the 16th
century, and the great minister Sully urged the enforcement of
restrictive forest laws. In 1669 a fixed treatment of state forests was
enacted. Duhamel in 1755 published his famous work on forest trees.
Reckless destruction of the forests, however, was in progress, and the
Revolution of 1789 gave a fresh stimulus to the work of devastation. The
usual results have followed in the frequency and destructiveness of
floods, which have washed away the soil from the hillsides and valleys
of many districts, especially in the south, and the frequent
inundations of the last fifty years are no doubt caused by the
deforesting of the sources of the Rhone and Saône. Laws were passed in
1860 and 1864, providing for the reforesting, "_reboisement_," of the
slopes of mountains, and these laws take effect on private as well as
state property. Thousands of acres are annually planted in the
departments of Hautes and Basses Alpes; and during the summer of 1875,
when much injury was done by floods in the south of France, the Durance,
formerly the most dangerous in this respect of French rivers, gave
little cause for anxiety, as it is round the head waters of this river
that the chief plantations have been formed. While tracts formerly
covered with wood have been replanted, plantations have been formed on
the shifting sands or dunes along the coast of Gascony. A forest of
_Pinus pinaster_, 150 m. in length, now stretches from Bayonne to the
mouth of the Gironde, raised by means of sowing steadily continued since
1789; the cultivation of the pine, along with draining, has transformed
low marshy grounds into productive soil extending over an area of about
two million acres. The forests thus created provide annually some
600,000 tons of pit timber for the Welsh coal mines.

The state forest department is administered by the director-general, who
has his headquarters at Paris, assisted by a board of administration,
charged with the working of the forests, questions of rights and law,
finance and plantation works.

The department is supplied with officers from the forest school at
Nancy. This institution was founded in 1824, when M. Lorentz, who had
studied forestry in Germany, was appointed its first director.

_Italy._--The kingdom of Italy comprises such different climates that
within its limits we find the birch and pines of northern Europe, and
the olive, fig, manna-ash, and palm of more southern latitudes. By the
republic of Venice and the duchy of Genoa forestal legislation was
attempted at various periods from the 15th century downwards. These
efforts were not successful, as the governments were lax in enforcing
the laws. In 1789 Pius VI. issued regulations prohibiting felling
without licence, and later orders were published by his successors in
the pontifical states. In Lombardy the woods, which in 1830 reached
nearly down to Milan, have almost disappeared. The province of Como
contains only a remnant of the primitive forests, and the same may also
be said of the southern slopes of Tirol. At Ravenna there is still a
large forest of stone pine, _Pinus pinea_, though it has been much
reduced. The plains of Tuscany are adorned with planted trees, the
olive, mulberry, fig and almond. Sardinia is rich in woods, which cover
one-fifth of the area, and contain a large amount of oak, _Quercus
suber, robur_ and _cerris_. In Sicily the forests have long been felled,
save the zone at the base of Mount Etna.

The destruction of woods has been gradual but persistent; at the end of
the 17th century the effects of denudation were first felt in the
destructive force given to mountain torrents by the deforesting of the
Apennines. The work of devastation continued until a comparatively
recent time.

In 1867 the monastic property of Vallombrosa, Tuscany, 30 m. from
Florence, was purchased by government for the purposes of a forest
academy, which was opened in 1869. As only 4% of the total forest area
belongs to the state, it is doubtful whether much good can now be done.

_Great Britain and Ireland._--The British Isles were formerly much more
extensively wooded than at present. The rapid increase of population led
to the disforesting of woodland; the climate required the maintenance of
household fires during a great part of the year, and the increasing
demand for arable land and the extension of manufacturing industries
combined to cause the diminution of woodland. The proportion of forest
is now very small, and yields but a fraction of the required annual
supply of timber which is imported with facility from America, northern
Europe and the numerous British colonies.

Owing to the nature of the climate of the British Islands, with its
abundance of atmospheric moisture and freedom from such extremes of heat
and cold as are prevalent in continental Europe, a great variety of
trees are successfully cultivated. In England and Ireland oak and beech
are on the whole the most plentiful trees in the low and fertile parts;
in the south of Scotland the beech and ash are perhaps most common,
while the Scotch fir and birch are characteristic of the arboreous
vegetation in the Highlands. Although few extensive forests now exist,
woods of small area, belts of planting, clumps of trees, coppice and
hedgerows, are generally distributed over the country, constituting a
mass of wood of considerable importance, giving a clothed appearance in
many parts, and affording illustrations of skilled arboriculture not to
be found in any other country.

The principal state forests in England are Windsor Park, 14,000 acres;
the New Forest, &c., in Hampshire, 76,000 acres; and the Dean Forest in
Gloucestershire, 22,500 acres. The total extent of crown forests is
about 125,000 acres. A large proportion of the crown forests, having
been formed with the object of supplying timber for the navy, consists
of oak. The largest forests in Scotland are in Perthshire,
Inverness-shire and Aberdeenshire. Of these the most notable are the
earl of Mansfield's near Scone (8000 acres), the duke of Atholl's larch
plantations near Dunkeld (10,000 acres), and in Strathspey a large
extent of Scotch pine, partly native, partly planted, belonging to the
earl of Seafield. In the forests of Mar and Invercauld, the native pine
attains a great size, and there are also large tracts of indigenous
birch in various districts. Ireland was at one time richly clothed with
wood; this is proved by the abundant remains of fallen trees in the bogs
which occupy a large surface of the island. In addition to the causes
above alluded to as tending to disforest England, the long unsettled
state of the country also conduced to the diminishing of the woodlands.

The forests of Great Britain and Ireland, in spite of the large imports
of timber, have not been appreciably extended up to the present time
because (1) the rate at which foreign timber has been laid down in
Britain is very low, thus keeping down the price of home-grown timber;
(2) foreign timber is preferred to home-grown material, because it is in
many cases of superior quality, while the latter comes into the market
in an irregular and intermittent manner; (3) nearly the whole of the
waste lands is private property. As regards prices, it can be shown that
the lowest point was reached about the year 1888, in consequence of the
remarkable development of means of communication, that prices then
remained fairly stationary for some years, and that about 1894 a slow
but steady rise set in, showing during the years 1894-1904 an increase
of about 20% all round. This was due to the gradual approach of the
coming crisis in the supply of coniferous timber to the world. It can be
shown that even with present prices the growing of timber can be made to
pay, provided it is carried on in a rational and economic manner.
Improved silvicultural methods must be applied, so as to produce a
better class of timber, and the forests must be managed according to
well-arranged working plans, which provide for a regular and sustained
out-turn of timber year by year, so as to develop a healthy and steady
market for locally-grown material. Unfortunately the private proprietors
of the waste lands are in many cases not in a financial position to
plant. Starting forests demands a certain outlay in cash, and the
proprietor must forgo the income, however small, hitherto derived from
the land until the plantations begin to yield a return. In these
circumstances the state may well be expected to help in one or all of
the following ways: (1) The equipment of forest schools, where economic
forestry, as elaborated by research, is taught; (2) the management of
the crown forests on economic principles, so as to serve as patterns to
private proprietors; (3) advances should be made to landed proprietors
who desire to plant land, but are short of funds, just as is done in the
case of improvements of agricultural holdings; and (4) the state might
acquire surplus lands in certain parts of the country, such as congested
districts, and convert them into forests. Action in these directions
would soon lead to substantial benefits. The income of landed
proprietors would rise, a considerable sum of money now sent abroad
would remain in the country, and forest industries would spring up, thus
helping to counteract the ever-increasing flow of people from the
country into the large towns, where only too many must join the army of
the unemployed. Even within a radius of 50 m. of London 700,000 acres of
land are unaccounted for in the official agricultural returns. In
Ireland more than 3,000,000 acres are waiting to be utilized, and it is
well worth the consideration of the Irish Land Commissioners whether the
lands remaining on their hands, when buying and breaking up large
estates, should not be converted into state forests. Such a measure
might become a useful auxiliary in the peaceful settlement of the Irish
land question. No doubt success depends upon the probable financial
results. There are at present no British statistics to prove such
success; hence, by way of illustration, it may be stated what the
results have been in the kingdom of Saxony, which, from an industrial
point of view, is comparable with England. That country has 432,085
acres of state forests, of which about one-eighth are stocked with
broad-leaved species, and seven-eighths with conifers. Some of the
forests are situated on low lands, but the bulk of the area is found in
the hilly parts of the country up to an elevation of 3000 ft. above the
sea. The average price realized of late years per cubic foot of wood
amounts to 5d., and yet to such perfection has the management been
brought by a well-trained staff, that the mean annual net revenue, after
meeting all expenses, comes to 21s. an acre all round. There can be no
doubt that, under the more favourable climate of Great Britain, even
better results can be obtained, especially if it is remembered that
foreign supplies of coniferous timber must fall off, or, at any rate,
the price per cubic foot rise considerably.

These things have been recognized to some extent, and a movement has
been set on foot to improve matters. The Commissioners of Woods and a
number of private proprietors had rational working plans prepared for
their forests, and instruction in forestry has been developed. There is
now a well-equipped school of forestry connected with the university of
Oxford, while Cambridge is following on similar lines; instruction in
forestry is given at the university of Edinburgh, the Durham College of
Science, at Bangor, Cirencester and other places. The Commissioners of
Woods have purchased an estate of 12,500 acres in Scotland, which will
be converted into a crown forest, so as to serve as an example. The
experience thus gained will prove valuable should action ever be taken
on the lines suggested by a Royal Commission on Coast Erosion,
Reclamation of Tidal Lands and Afforestation, which reported on the last
subject in 1909.

_India._--The history of forest administration in India is exceedingly
instructive to all who take an interest in the welfare of the British
Empire, because it places before the reader an account of the gradual
destruction of the greater part of the natural forests, a process
through which most other British colonies are now passing, and then it
shows how India emerged triumphantly from the self-inflicted calamity.
As far as information goes, India was, in the early times, for the most
part covered with forest. Subsequently settlers opened out the country
along fertile valleys and streams, while nomadic tribes, moving from
pasture to pasture, fired alike hills and plains. This process went on
for centuries. With the advent of British rule forest destruction became
more rapid than ever, owing to the increase of population, extension of
cultivation, the multiplication of herds of cattle, and the universal
firing of the forests to produce fresh crops of grass. Then railways
came, and with their extension the forests suffered anew, partly on
account of the increased demand for timber and firewood, and partly on
account of the fresh impetus given to cultivation along their routes.
Ultimately, when failure to meet the requirements of public works was
brought to notice, it was recognized that a grievous mistake had been
made in allowing the forests to be recklessly destroyed. Already in the
early part of the 19th century sporadic efforts were made to protect the
forests in various parts of the country, and these continued
intermittently; but the first organized steps were taken about the year
1855, when Lord Dalhousie was governor-general. At that time
conservators of forests existed in Bombay, Madras and Burma. Soon
afterwards other appointments followed, and in 1864 an organized state
department, presided over by the inspector-general of forests, was
established. Since then the Indian Forest Department has steadily grown,
so that it has now become of considerable importance for the welfare of
the people, as well as for the Indian exchequer.

The first duty of the department was to ascertain the position and
extent of the remaining forests, and more particularly of that portion
which still belonged to the state. Then a special forest law was passed,
which was superseded in 1878 by an improved act, providing for the legal
formation of permanent state forests; the determination, regulation,
and, if necessary, commutation of forest rights; the protection of the
forests against unlawful acts and the punishment of forest offences; the
protection of forest produce in transit; the constitution of a staff of
forest officers, provision to invest them with suitable legal powers,
and the determination of their duties and liabilities. The officers who
administered the department in its infancy were mostly botanists and
military officers. Some of these became excellent foresters. In order to
provide a technically trained staff arrangements were made in 1866 by
Sir Dietrich Brandis, the first inspector-general of forests, for the
training of young Englishmen at the French Forest School at Nancy and at
similar institutions in Germany. In 1876 the students were concentrated
at Nancy, and in 1885 an English forest school for India was organized
in connexion with the Royal Indian Engineering College at Cooper's Hill.
In 1905 the school was transferred to the university of Oxford. The
imperial forest staff of India consisted in 1909 of--officers not
specially trained before entering the department, 17; officers trained
in France and Germany, 23; officers trained at Cooper's Hill, 143--total
184.

In 1878 a forest school was started at Dehra Dun, United Provinces, for
the training of natives of India as executive officers on the provincial
staff. Since then a similar school, though on a smaller scale, has been
established at Tharrawaddy in Burma. About 500 officers of this class
have been appointed. In addition, there are about 11,000 subordinates,
foresters and forest guards, who form the protective staff. The school
at Dehra Dun has lately been converted into the Imperial Forest College.

The progress made since 1864 is really astonishing. According to the
latest available returns, the areas taken under the management of the
department are--reserved state forests, or permanent forest estates,
91,272 sq. m.; other state forests, 141,669 sq. m.; or a total of
232,941 sq. m., equal to 24% of the area over which they are scattered.
At present, therefore, the average charge of each member of the
controlling staff comprises 1266 sq. m.; that of each executive officer,
446 sq. m.; and that of each protective official, 21 sq. m. It is the
intention to increase the executive and protective staff considerably,
in the same degree as the management of the forests becomes more
detailed. Of the above-mentioned area the Forest Survey Branch,
established in 1872, has up to date surveyed and mapped about 65,000 sq.
m. From 1864 onwards efforts were made to introduce systematic
management into the forests, based upon working plans, but, as the
management had been provincialized, there was no central or continuous
control. This was remedied in 1884, when a central Working Plans Office,
under the inspector-general of forests, was established. This officer
has since then controlled the preparation and execution of the plans, a
procedure which has led to most beneficial results. Plans referring to
about 38,000 sq. m. are now (1909) in operation, and after a reasonable
lapse of time there should not be a single forest of importance which is
not worked on a well-regulated plan, and on the principle of a sustained
yield. While the danger of overworking the forests is thus being
gradually eliminated, their yield capacity is increased by suitable
silvicultural treatment and by fire protection. Formerly most of the
important forests were annually or periodically devastated by jungle
fires, sometimes lighted accidentally, in other cases purposely. Now
38,000 sq. m. of forest are actually protected against fire by the
efforts of the department, and it is the intention gradually to extend
protection to all permanent state forests. Grazing of cattle is of
great importance in India; at the same time it is liable to interfere
seriously with the reproduction of the forests. To meet both
requirements careful and minute arrangements have been made, according
to which at present 38,000 sq. m. are closed to grazing; 19,000 sq. m.
are closed only against the grazing of goats, sheep and camels; while
176,000 sq. m. are open to the grazing of all kinds of cattle. The areas
closed in ordinary years form a reserve of fodder in years of drought
and scarcity. During famine years they are either opened to grazing, or
grass is cut in them and transported to districts where the cattle are
in danger of starvation. The service rendered in this way by a wise
forest administration should not be underrated, since one of the most
serious calamities of a famine--the want of cattle to cultivate the
land--is thus, if not avoided, at any rate considerably reduced. During
1907 the government of India established a Research Institute, with six
members engaged in collecting data regarding silviculture, forest
botany, forest zoology, forest economics, working plans, and chemistry
in connexion with forest produce and production. The institute is likely
to lead to further substantial progress in the management of the
forests.

The financial results of forest administration in India for the years
1865 to 1905 show the progress made:

  +-----------+--------------+-----------------+
  |           | Mean Annual  |  Percentage of  |
  |  Period.  | Net Revenue. | Annual Increase |
  |           |              |  during Period. |
  +-----------+--------------+-----------------+
  |           |   Rupees.    |                 |
  |           |              |                 |
  | 1865-1870 |  1,372,733   |       . .       |
  | 1870-1875 |  1,783,248   |       30        |
  | 1875-1880 |  2,224,687   |       25        |
  | 1880-1885 |  3,385,745   |       52        |
  | 1885-1890 |  5,066,671   |       50        |
  | 1890-1895 |  7,370,572   |       44        |
  | 1895-1900 |  7,923,484   |        7        |
  | 1900-1905 |  9,004,367   |       12        |
  +-----------+--------------+-----------------+

The highest percentage of increase occurred in the period 1880-1885. The
revenue since 1886 has been considerably increased by the annexation of
Upper Burma.

Apart from the net revenue, large quantities of produce are given free
of charge, or at reduced rates, to the people of the country. Thus, in
1904-1905, the net revenue amounted to Rs. 11,062,094, while the produce
given free or at reduced rates was valued at Rs. 3,500,661, making a
total net benefit derived from the state forests during that year of Rs.
14,562,755, or in round figures one million pounds sterling. The
out-turn during the same year amounted to 252 million cub. ft. of timber
and fuel and 215 million bamboos. The receipts from the sale of other
forest produce came to 9 million rupees, out of a total gross revenue of
24 million rupees.

These results are highly creditable to the government of India, which
has led the way towards the introduction of rational forest management
into the British empire, thus setting an example which has been followed
more or less by various colonies. Even the movement in the United
Kingdom during late years is due to it. Apart from India, substantial
progress has been made in Cape Colony, Ceylon, the Straits Settlements
and the Federated Malay States. Other British colonies are more backward
in this respect. Energetic action is urgently wanted, especially in
Canada and Australasia, where an enormous state property is threatened
by destruction.

  LITERATURE.--The following works of special interest may be mentioned:
  W. Schlich, _A Manual of Forestry_ (London) (vols. i., ii. and iii. by
  W. Schlich; vols. iv. and v. by W.R. Fisher; 3rd ed. of vol. i., 1906,
  of vol. ii., 1904, of vol. iii., 1905; 2nd ed. of vol. iv., 1907; 2nd
  ed. of vol. v., 1908); Baden-Powell, _Forest Law_ (London, 1893);
  Brown, _The Forester_ (ed. by Nisbet, Edinburgh and London, 1905);
  Broilliard, _Le Traitement des bois_ (Paris, 1894); Huffel, _Économie
  forestière_ (Paris, 1904-1907); Lorey, _Handbuch der
  Forstwissenschaft_ (2nd ed. by Stoetzer, Tübingen, 1903); Rossmässler,
  _Der Wald_.     (W. Sch.)


UNITED STATES

_The Forest Regions._--The great treeless region east of the Rocky
Mountains separates the wooded area of the United States into two grand
divisions, which may be called the Eastern and the Western forests. The
Eastern forest is characterized by the predominance, on the whole, of
broad-leafed trees, the comparative uniformity of its general types over
wide areas, and its naturally unbroken distribution. In the Western
forest conifers are conspicuously predominant; the individual species
often reaches enormous and even unequalled dimensions, the forest is
frequently interrupted by treeless areas, and the transitions from one
type to another are often exceedingly abrupt. Both divisions are
botanically and commercially rich in species.

The Eastern forest may conveniently be subdivided into three members:

1. The Northern forest, marked by great density and large volume of
standing timber, and a comparative immunity, in its virgin condition,
from fire. The characteristic trees are maples, birches and beech
(_Fagus atropunicea_), among the hardwoods and white pine (_Pinus
strobus_), spruce (_Picea rubens_ and _Picea mariana_) and hemlock
(_Tsuga canadensis_) among conifers.

2. The Southern forest is on the whole less dense than the Northern, and
more frequently burned over. Among its characteristic trees are the
longleaf (_Pinus palustris_) and other pines, oaks, gums, bald cypress
(_Taxodium distichum_) and white cedar (_Chamaecyparis thyoides_).

3. The Central Hardwood forest, which differs comparatively little from
adjacent portions of the Northern and Southern forests except in the
absence of conifers. Among its trees are the chestnut (_Castanea
dentata_), hickories, ashes and other hardwoods already mentioned.

The Western division has two members:

1. The Pacific Coast forest, marked by the great size of its trees and
the vast accumulations of merchantable timber. Among its characteristic
species are the redwood (_Sequoia sempervirens_) and the big tree (_S.
Washingtoniana_), the Douglas fir (_Pseudotsuga taxifolia_), sugar pine
(_Pinus lambertiana_), western hemlock (_Tsuga heterophylla_), giant
arborvitae (_Thuja plicata_) and Sitka spruce (_Picea sitchensis_).

2. The Rocky Mountain forest, whose characteristic species are the
western yellow pine (_Pinus ponderosa_), Engelmann spruce (_Picea
engelmanni_) and lodgepole pine (_Pinus murrayana_). This forest is
frequently broken by treeless areas of greater or less extent,
especially towards the south, and it suffers greatly from fire. Subarid
in character, except to the north and at high elevations, the vast
mining interests of the region and its treeless surroundings give this
forest an economic value out of proportion to the quantities of timber
it contains.

This distribution of the various forests is indicated on the first of
the two accompanying maps. The second map shows the situation of the
national forests hereafter mentioned.

The forests of Alaska fall into two main divisions: the commercial
though undeveloped forests of the south-east coast, which occur along
the streams and on the lower slopes of the mountains and consist chiefly
of western hemlock (_Tsuga heterophylla_), Sitka spruce (_Picea
sitchensis_), yellow cedar (_Chamaecyparis nootkatensis_) and giant
arborvitae (_Thuja plicata_), usually of large size and uninjured by
fire; and the vast interior forests, swept by severe fires, and
consisting chiefly of white and black spruces (_Picea canadensis_ and
_nigra_), paper birch (_Betula papyrifera_) and aspen (_Populus
tremuloides_), all of small size but of great importance in connexion
with mining. Northern Alaska and the extreme western coast regions are
entirely barren.

[Illustration: Forest Regions of the United States

_The unshaded areas are treeless, except along the Streams_]

_The National Forest Policy._--The forest policy of the United States
may be said to have had its origin in 1799 in the enactment of a law
which authorized the purchase of timber suitable for the use of the
navy, or of land upon which such timber was growing. It is true that
laws were in force under the early governments of Massachusetts, New
Jersey and other colonies, providing for the care and protection of
forest interests in various ways, but these laws were distinctly
survivals of tendencies acquired in Europe, and for the most part of
little use. It was not until the apparent approach of a dangerous
shortage in certain timber supplies that the first real step in forest
policy was taken by the United States. Successive laws passed from 1817
to 1831 strove to give larger effect to the original enactment, but
without permanent influence towards the preservation of the live oak
(_Quercus virginiana_ Mill.), which was the object in view. A long
period of inaction followed these early measures. In 1831 the
solicitor of the treasury assumed a partial responsibility for the care
and protection of the public timber lands, and in 1855 this duty was
transferred to the commissioner of the general land office in the
Department of the Interior. The effect of these changes upon forest
protection was unimportant. When, however, at the close of the Civil War
railway building in the United States took on an unparalleled activity,
the destruction of forests by fire and the axe increased in a
corresponding ratio, and public sentiment began to take alarm. Action by
several of the states slightly preceded that of the Federal government,
but in 1876 Congress, acting under the inspiration of a memorial from
the American Association for the Advancement of Science, authorized the
appointment of an officer (Dr Franklin B. Hough) under the commissioner
of agriculture, to collect and distribute information upon forest
matters. His office became in 1880 the division of forestry in what is
now the United States Department of Agriculture.

As the railways advanced into the treeless interior, public interest in
tree-planting became keen. In 1873 Congress passed and later amended and
repealed the timber culture acts, which granted homesteads on the
treeless public lands to settlers who planted one-fourth of their
entries with trees. Though these measures were not successful in
themselves they directed attention towards forestry. The act which
repealed them in 1891 contained a clause which lies at the foundation of
the present forest policy of the United States. By it the president was
authorized to set aside "any part of the public lands wholly or in part
covered with timber or undergrowth, whether of commercial value or not,
as public reservations, and the President shall, by public proclamation,
declare the establishment of such reservations and the limits thereof."
Some eighteen million acres had been proclaimed as reservations at the
time when, in 1896, the National Academy of Sciences was asked by the
secretary of the interior to make an investigation and report upon "the
inauguration of a rational forest policy for the forest lands of the
United States." Upon the recommendation of a commission named by the
Academy, President Cleveland established more than twenty-one million
acres of new reserves on the 22nd of February 1897. His action was
widely misunderstood and attacked, but it awakened a public interest in
forest questions without which the rapid progress of forestry in the
United States since that time could never have been made.

Within a few months after the proclamation of the Cleveland reserves the
present national forest policy took definite shape. Under this policy
the national government holds and manages, in the common interest of all
users of the forests or its products, such portions of the public lands
as have been set aside by presidential proclamation in accordance with
the act of 1891. These lands are held against private acquisition under
the Homestead Act (except as to agricultural lands as hereafter
mentioned), the Timber and Stone Act, and other laws under which the
United States disposes of its unappropriated public domain, but not
against private acquisition under the Mineral Land Laws. They are
selected from lands believed to be more valuable for forest purposes
than for agriculture, and are managed with the purpose of securing from
them the best and largest possible returns, present and future, whether
in the form of water for irrigation or power, of timber, of forage for
stock, or of any other beneficial product. The aggregate area of the
reserves, or national forests, has been steadily increased until they
now include nearly all the timber lands left of the public domain.

The general lines of this policy were in part laid down by the
commission already mentioned, in its report submitted to the secretary
of the interior, May 1, 1897, and by the act of June 4, 1897, which was
largely shaped by the work of the commission. Until this act was passed
the national forests had been in theory closed against any form of use;
nor had the possibility of securing forest preservation by wise use
received much thought from those who had favoured their creation. Such a
state of affairs could not continue. Before long public opinion would
have forced the opening to use of the resources thus arbitrarily locked
up, and in the absence of any administrative system providing for
conservative use, the national forests would inevitably have been
abolished, and the whole policy of government forest holdings would have
ceased. The act of June 4, 1897 was therefore of the first importance.
This act conferred upon the secretary of the interior general powers for
the proper management of the national forests through the general land
office of his department. It provided for the designation and sale of
dead, mature and large timber; authorized the secretary to permit free
use of timber in small quantities by settlers, miners and residents;
empowered him to "make such rules and regulations and establish such
service as will insure the objects of such reservations, namely, to
regulate their occupancy and use and to preserve the forests thereon
from destruction"; and made violation of the act or of such rules and
regulations a misdemeanour. The statute limited the power to establish
forest reservations to the purpose of improving and protecting the
forest, securing favourable conditions of water flows, and furnishing a
continuous supply of timber for the use and necessities of citizens of
the United States. Lands found, upon due examination, to be more
valuable for other purposes than for forest uses might be eliminated
from any reservation, and all mineral lands within the reservations were
left open to private appropriation under the mineral laws. The rights of
settlers and claimants were safeguarded, and civil and criminal
jurisdiction, except so far as the punishment of offences against the
United States in the reservations was concerned, was reserved to the
States.

While the administration of the national forests was entrusted to the
general land office, the same act assigned the surveying and mapping of
them to the United States Geological Survey, which has published
descriptions and maps of some of the more important.

No attempt was made in the general land office to develop a technical
forest service. There were, indeed, at the time of passage of the act,
less than ten trained foresters in the United States, no means of
training more, and very little conception of what forestry actually
meant. The purpose of the administration was therefore mainly protection
against trespass and fire, particularly the latter. Regulations were
made giving effect to the provisions of the act of June 4, set forth
above, but in the absence of technical knowledge as to what might safely
be done, the tendency was rather to restrict than to extend the use of
the forest. Meanwhile, however, there was rapidly developing in another
branch of the government service an organization qualified for actual
forest management.

One year after the passage of the act of June 4, 1897, the division of
forestry in the Department of Agriculture ceased to be merely a bureau
of information, and became an active agency for introducing the actual
practice of forestry among private owners and for conducting the
investigations upon which a sound American forest practice could be
based. The work awakened great interest among forest owners, and exerted
a powerful educational influence upon the country at large. The division
extended its work and became (July 1, 1901) the Bureau of Forestry. It
drew into its employment for a time nearly all the men who were
preparing themselves in increasing numbers (at first abroad, then in the
newly-founded schools in the United States) for the profession of
forestry, and was soon recognized as qualified to speak authoritatively
on technical questions connected with the administration of the national
forests. This led to a request from the secretary of the interior for
the advice of the bureau on such questions. Working plans were
accordingly undertaken for a number of the forests. The general land
office, however, was not ready to attempt active forest management.
Though some timber was sold and the grazing of stock regulated to some
extent, the main object of the land office administration continued to
be protection against fire. Many of the regulations which it made could
not be enforced.

The disadvantages of dispersal of the Federal government forest work
among three separate agencies grew more and more apparent, until, on the
1st of February 1905, control of the 63,000,000 acres of forest reserves
which up to that time had been set aside was transferred from the
general land office to the Bureau of Forestry. In recognition of its
new duties the designation of the bureau became the Forest Service.

[Illustration: National Forests and National Parks of the United States.]

Other provisions of the act which affected the transfer were that forest
supervisors and rangers should be selected, so far as possible, from
qualified citizens of the state or territory in which each forest was
situated, and that all money received from the sale of any products or
the use of any land or resources of the national forests should be
covered into the treasury and constitute a special fund for their
protection, administration, improvement and extension. Five days later a
statute gave forest officers the power to arrest trespassers; and on the
3rd of March the lieu land selection law was repealed. This law had
opened the way for grave abuses through the exchange of worthless land
by private owners within the forests for an equal area of valuable
timber lands outside.

The law has been modified since by the change of the old name "Forest
Reserves" to "National Forests." The act of June 11, 1906, opened to
homestead entry lands within national forests found by examination to be
chiefly valuable for agriculture. The administration and improvement of
the national forests are now provided for directly by congressional
appropriation. The power to create national forests conferred on the
president by the act of March 1891 has been repealed for the states of
Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado, but for no
others.

The Forest Service began in earnest the development of all the resources
of the national forests. Mature timber was sold wherever there was a
demand for it and the permanent welfare of the forests and protection of
the streams permitted, but always so as to prevent waste, guard against
fire, protect young growth and ensure reproduction. Regulations were
adopted which allowed small sales to be made without formality or delay,
secured for the government the full value of timber sold, and eliminated
unnecessary routine. Care was taken to safeguard the interests of the
government and provide for the maintenance of good technical standards.
The conduct of local business was entrusted to local officers. Large
transactions with general policies were controlled from Washington, but
with careful provision for first-hand knowledge and close touch with
the work in the field. Business efficiency and the convenience of the
public were carefully studied. In short, an organization was created
capable of handling safely, speedily and satisfactorily the complex
business of making useful a forest property of vast extent, scattered
through sixteen different states of an aggregate area of over 1,500,000
sq. m. and with a population of 9,000,000.

The growth since the 1st of July 1897 of the area of the national
forests, of the expenditures of the government for forestry, and of the
receipts from the national forests, is shown by the statement which
follows. Though the act of June 4, 1897, became effective immediately
upon its passage, the fiscal year 1899 was the first of actual
administration, because the first for which Congress made the
appropriation necessary to carry out the law.

  _Area of National Forests, Annual Expenditures of the Federal
  Government for Forestry and National Forest Administration, and
  Receipts from National Forests, 1898-1909._

  +---------+-----------------+--------------------+--------------+------------------+------------------+-----------------+
  |         |     Area of     |                    |              |                  |                  |                 |
  | Fiscal  | National Forests|Division of Forestry|   General    |  Receipts from   |  Receipts from   |Expenditures upon|
  | Year.[1]| at Close of Year|(Bureau of Forestry,| Land Office. | National Forests.| National Forests,|National Forests,|
  |         |   (June 30).    |  Forest Service).  |              |                  |     per Acre.    |    per Acre.    |
  +---------+-----------------+--------------------+--------------+------------------+------------------+-----------------+
  |         |      Acres.     |         $          |       $      |          $       |         $        |        $        |
  |  1898   |    40,866,184   |      20,000.00     |     . .      |        . .       |       . .        |       . .       |
  |  1899   |    46,168,439   |      28,520.00     | 175,000.00   |       7,534.83   |     0.00016      |     0.0038      |
  |  1900   |    46,515,039   |      48,520.00     | 210,000.00   |      36,754.02   |      .00078      |      .0045      |
  |  1901   |    46,324,479   |      88,520.00     | 325,000.00   |      29,250.88   |      .00063      |      .0070      |
  |  1902   |    51,896,357   |     185,440.00     | 300,000.00   |      25,431.87   |      .00049      |      .0060      |
  |  1903   |    62,211,240   |     291,860.00     | 304,135.00   |      45,838.08   |      .00074      |      .0054      |
  |  1904   |    62,611,449   |     350,000.00     | 375,000.00   |      58,436.19   |      .00093      |      .0072      |
  |  1905   |    85,693,422   |     632,232.36[2]  | 217,907.64[2]|      73,276.15   |      .00085      |      .0059      |
  |  1906   |   106,994,018   |   1,191,400.21     |     . .      |     767,219.96   |      .00717      |      .0089      |
  |  1907   |   150,832,665   |   1,800,595.20     |     . .      |   1,571,059.44   |      .01041      |      .0097      |
  |  1909   |   167,677,749   |   2,948,153.08     |     . .      |   1,807,276.66   |      .00931      |      .0151      |
  +---------+-----------------+--------------------+--------------+------------------+------------------+-----------------+

Until 1906, the sole source of receipts was the sale of timber. In the
fiscal year 1907, however, timber sales furnished less than half the
receipts. The following statement concerning the timber sales of the
fiscal years 1904-1907 will serve to bring out the change that followed
the transfer of control to the forest service in the midst of the fiscal
year 1905:--

  +--------+---------------+-------------+---------------+
  | Fiscal |   Amount of   |  Amount of  | Receipts from |
  | Year.  |  Timber Sold. | Timber Cut. | Timber Sales. |
  +--------+---------------+-------------+---------------+
  |        |     Bd.-ft.   |   Bd.-ft.   |       $       |
  |  1904  |   112,773,710 |  58,435,000 |   58,436.19   |
  |  1905  |   113,661,508 |  68,475,000 |   73,270.15   |
  |  1906  |   328,230,326 | 138,665,000 |  245,013.49   |
  |  1907  | 1,044,855,000 | 194,872,000 |  686,813.12   |
  +--------+---------------+-------------+---------------+

These figures show (1) a large excess each year in the amount of timber
sold over that cut and paid for; (2) nine times as much timber sold at
the end of the four-year period as at the beginning and three times as
much cut; and (3) a much higher price obtained per thousand board-feet
at the end of the period than at the beginning. Each of these matters
calls for comment. The sales are of stumpage only; the government does
no logging on its own account.

1. More timber is sold each year than is cut and paid for, because many
of the sales extend over several years. With increasing sales the amount
sold each year for future removal has exceeded the amount to be removed
during that year under sales of earlier years. Large sales covering a
term of years are made because the national forests contain much
overmature timber, which needs removal, but which is frequently too
inaccessible to be saleable in small amounts. To prevent speculation the
time allowed for cutting is never more than five years, and cutting must
begin at once and be continued steadily.

2. The volume of sales has increased rapidly because much forest is ripe
for the axe, the demand is strong, and control by trained men makes it
safe to cut more freely. The increase is marked both in small and in
large sales, but a score of sales for less than $5000 are made against
one for more. The total cut is still far below the annual increment of
the forests. As the demand grows restrictions must increase in order to
husband the present supply until the next crop matures.

3. The stumpage price would seem on the face of the figures to have
risen from about one dollar to more than three dollars per thousand
board-feet. The receipts, however, for any one year are not exclusively
for the timber cut in that year, since payments are made in advance. In
the year 1907 the average price obtained was something less than $2.50
per thousand. It is therefore true that stumpage prices have risen
greatly, although conditions new to the American lumbermen are imposed.
Full utilization of all merchantable material, care of young growth
in felling and logging, and the piling of brush, to be subsequently
burned by the forest officers if burning is necessary, are among these
conditions. Timber to be cut must first be marked by the forest
officers. Sales of more than $100 in value are made only after public
advertisement.

Only the simplest forms of silviculture have as yet been introduced. The
vast area of the national forests, the comparatively sparse population
of the West, the rough and broken character of the forests themselves,
and the newness of the problems which their management presents, make
the general application of intensive methods for the present
impracticable. Natural reproduction is secured. The selection system is
most used, often under the rough and ready method of an approximate
diameter limit, with the reservation of seed trees where needed. The
tendency, however, is strongly towards a more flexible and effective
application of the selection principle, as a better trained field force
is developed and as market conditions improve.

One conspicuous achievement was the reduction of loss by fires on the
national forests. During the unusually dry season of 1905 there were
only eight fires of any importance, and the area burned over amounted
only to about .16 of 1% of the total area. In 1900 about .12 of 1% was
burned. This was accomplished by efficient patrol, co-operation of the
public, and by preventive measures, such as piling and burning the brush
on cut-over areas.

Since the beginning of 1906 the largest source of income from the
national forests was their use for grazing. Stock-raising is one of the
most important industries of the West. Formerly cattle and sheep grazed
freely on all parts of the public domain. In the early days of the
national forests the wisdom of permitting any grazing at all upon them
was sharply questioned. Unrestricted grazing had led to friction between
individuals, the deterioration of much of the range through
overstocking, and serious injury to the forests and stream flow. The
forests of the West, however, are largely of open growth and contain
many grassy parks, the results of old fires, and many high mountain
meadows. Under proper regulations the grass and other forage plants
which they produce in great quantity can be used without detriment to
the forests themselves, and with great benefit to the stock industry,
which often can find summer pasturage nowhere else. Except in southern
California grazing is now permitted on all national forests unless the
watersheds furnish water for domestic use; but the time of entering and
leaving, the number of head to be grazed by each applicant, and the part
of the range to be occupied are carefully prescribed. Planted areas and
cut-over areas are closed to stock until the young growth is safe from
harm, and goats are allowed only in the brushland of the foothills.

The results of regulation, in addition to the protection of forest
growth and streams, are the prevention of disputes, improved range,
better stock, stable conditions in the stock industry, and the best use
of the range in the interest of progress and development. The first
right to graze stock on the forests is given to residents, small owners
and those who have used the range before. Thus the crowding out of the
weaker by the stronger and of the settler by the roving outsider has
been stopped. In 1906 the forest service began to impose a moderate
charge for the use of the national forest range. The following statement
shows the amount of stock grazed on the national forests 1904-09, and
the receipts for the grazing charge:--

  +------+------------------+----------------+---------------+
  | Year.|    Number of     |   Number of    |   Receipts.   |
  |      |Cattle and Horses.|Sheep and Goats.|               |
  +------+------------------+----------------+---------------+
  |      |                  |                |       $       |
  | 1904 |      610,091     |   1,806,722    |      . .      |
  | 1905 |      692,124     |   1,709,987    |      . .      |
  | 1906 |    1,015,148     |   5,763,100    |   514,692.87  |
  | 1907 |    1,200,158     |   6,657,083    |   863,920.32  |
  | 1909 |    1,581,404     |   7,819,594    | 1,032,185.70  |
  +------+------------------+----------------+---------------+

A work of enormous magnitude which has now begun is planting on the
national forests. At present, with low stumpage prices and incomplete
utilization of forest products, clear cutting with subsequent planting
is not practicable. There are, however, many million acres of denuded
land within the national forests which require planting. Such planting
is still confined chiefly to watersheds which supply cities and towns
with water. The first planting was done in 1892, in California. Since
then similar work has been done on city watersheds in Colorado, Utah,
Idaho and New Mexico. Other plantations are in the Black Hills national
forest, where large areas of cut-over and burned-over land are entirely
without seed trees, and in the sandhill region of Nebraska. Up to 1908
about 2,000,000 seedlings had been planted, on over 2000 acres--a small
beginning, but the work was entirely new and presented many hard
problems.

The nursery operations of the forest service are concentrated at seven
stations, located in southern California, Nebraska, Colorado, New Mexico
(2), Utah and Idaho, where stock is raised for local planting and for
shipment elsewhere. These nurseries are small. Their annual productive
capacity is between 8,000,000 and 10,000,000 seedlings. Each nursery is
practically an experimental forest-planting station, at which a large
variety of species are grown and various methods are tried.

The organization of the administrative work of the national forests is
by single forests. On the 1st of January 1908 the total number of
forests was 165 with a total area of 162,023,190 acres (on April 7,
1909, the numbers were 146 national forests in the U.S. with 167,672,467
acres, besides two in Alaska with 26,761,626 and one in Porto Rico with
65,950 acres). In charge of each forest is a forest supervisor. Under
the supervisors are forest rangers and forest guards, whose duties
include patrol, marking timber and scaling logs, enforcing the
regulations and conducting some of the minor business arising from the
use of the forests. Guards are temporary employés; rangers are employed
by the year. The supervisors report directly to and receive instructions
from the central office at Washington. In this office there are four
branches--operation, grazing, silviculture and products--each of which
directs that part of the work which belongs to it, dealing directly with
the supervisor. For inspection purposes, however, the forests are
separated into six districts, in each of which is located a chief
inspector with a corps of assistants. The inspectors are without
administrative authority, but assist by their counsel the supervisors,
and through inspection reports keep the Washington office informed of
the condition of all lines of administrative work in progress.
Administrative officers alternate frequently between field and office
duties.

The number of forest officers in the several grades on the 1st of
January 1908 were: 6 chief inspectors, 26 inspectors, 106 forest
supervisors, 41 deputy forest supervisors, 820 forest rangers and 283
forest guards. The total number of employés of the forest service on the
same date, including the clerical force, was 2034.

Besides the administration of the national forests, the forest service
conducts general investigations, carries on an extensive educational
work, and co-operates with private owners who contemplate forest
management upon their own tracts. This last work is undertaken because
of the need of bringing forestry into practice, the lack of trained
foresters outside of the employ of the government, and the lack of
information as to how to apply forestry and what returns may be
obtained. Co-operation takes the form of advice upon the ground and, on
occasion, of the making of working plans. The educational work of the
service is performed chiefly through publications, the purpose of which
is to spread very widely a knowledge of the importance of forestry to
the nation and of the principles upon which its practice rests. The
investigations which the service conducts extend from studies of the
natural distribution and classification of American forests and of their
varied silvicultural problems to statistics of lumber production and
laboratory researches which bear upon the economical utilization of
forest products. As examples of these researches may be mentioned tests
of the strength of timber, studies of the preservative treatment of wood
for various uses, wood-pulp investigations and studies in wood
chemistry.

_Forest Instruction._--Most of the men now in the forest service
received their training in the United States. There are several
professional schools of forestry. The Yale Forest School, which was
opened as a department of Yale University in September 1900, offers a
two-years' graduate course with abundant field work, and also conducts a
summer school of forestry, especially adapted to the training of forest
rangers and special students, at Milford, Pennsylvania. The university
of Michigan and Harvard University also offer a two-years' graduate
course in forestry. The Pennsylvania State College has recently
established a four-years' undergraduate course in forestry. The Biltmore
Forest School in North Carolina, the oldest of all these schools, offers
a one-year course in technical forestry. A large number of the
agricultural colleges give instruction in forestry. Among these are
Nebraska, Minnesota, Maine, Michigan, Washington and Mississippi
agricultural colleges, the university of Georgia and Iowa State College.
Berea College, Kentucky, deserves special mention as a college which has
done valuable work in teaching forestry without attempting to turn out
professional foresters.

_Forestry among the States._--Among the states forestry has hardly
reached the stage of practical application on the ground. New York holds
1,500,000 acres of forest land. It has a commission to care for its
forest preserve, and to protect the forest land throughout the state
from fire. The constitution of the state, however, prohibits the cutting
of timber on state land, and thus confines the work entirely to
protection of the forest and to the planting of waste areas.
Pennsylvania is at present showing the most efficient activity in
working out a forest policy. It has state forests of 820,000 acres, a
good fire law more and more satisfactorily enforced, and eight nurseries
for growing planting material. In 1905, 160,000 white pine seedlings
were set out. It has also a school for forest rangers, to be employed on
the state forests, and it has just established a state professional
school of forestry.

Twenty-six of the states have regularly appointed forest officers, six
have carried on studies of forest conditions in co-operation with the
forest service, and there is scarcely one which is not actively
interested in forestry. Laws, generally good, to prevent damage from
forest fires, have been enacted by practically all the states, but
their enforcement has unfortunately been lax. Public sentiment, however,
is making rapid progress. Among the best laws are those of Maine, New
Hampshire, Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. The New York
law, for example, provides for the appointment of one or more
fire-wardens in each town of the counties in which damage by fire is
especially to be feared. In other counties supervisors of towns are
_ex-officio_ fire-wardens. A chief fire-warden has general supervision
of their work. The wardens, half of the cost of whose services is paid
by the state, receive compensation only for the time actually employed
in fighting fires. They may command the service of any citizen to assist
them. Setting fire to woods or waste lands belonging to the state or to
another, if such fire results in loss, is punishable by a fine not
exceeding $250 or imprisonment not exceeding one year, or both, and
damages are provided for the person injured. Since fire is beyond
question the most dangerous enemy of forests in the United States, the
measures taken against it are of vital importance.

The following table shows the amount of forest land held by the
different states, and by the territory of Hawaii:--

  _Area of State Forest Reservations, 1907._

  Connecticut       1,360 acres
  Hawaii          117,532   "
  Indiana           2,000   "
  Maryland          3,540   "
  Michigan         39,000   "
  Minnesota        42,800   "
  New Jersey        2,474   "
  New York      1,439,998   "
  Pennsylvania    820,000   "
  Wisconsin       254,072   "

_Forestry on Private Lands._--The practice of forestry among private
owners is of old date. One of the earliest instances was that of Jared
Eliot, who, in 1730, began the systematic cutting of timber land to
supply charcoal for an iron furnace at Old Salisbury, Connecticut. The
successful planting of waste lands with timber trees in Massachusetts
dates from about ten years later. But such examples were comparatively
rare until recent times. At present the intelligent harvesting of timber
with a view to successive crops, which is forestry, is much more common
than is usually supposed. Among farmers it is especially frequent. It
was begun among lumbermen by the late E.S. Coe, of Bangor, Maine, who
made a practice of restricting the cut of spruce from his forests to
trees 10, 12 or sometimes even 14 in. in diameter, with the result that
much of his land yielded, during his life, a second crop as plentiful as
the first. Many owners of spruce lands have followed his example, but
until very recently without improving upon it. Systematic forestry on a
large scale among lumbermen was begun in the Adirondacks during the
summer of 1898 on the lands of Dr W.S. Webb and Hon. W.C. Whitney, of a
combined area of over 100,000 acres, under the superintendence of the
then Division of Forestry. In these forests spruce, maple, beech and
birch predominate, but the spruce alone is at present of the first
commercial importance. The treatment is a form of the selection system.
Under it a second crop of equal yield would be ripe for the axe in
thirty-five years. Spruce and pine are the only trees cut. The work had
been executed, at least up to the year 1902, with great satisfaction to
the owners and the lumbering contractors, as well as to the decided
benefit of the forest. The lumbering is regulated by the following
rules, and competent inspectors are employed to see that they are
rightly carried out: (1) No trees shall be cut which are not marked. (2)
All trees marked shall be cut. (3) No trees shall be left lodged in the
woods, and none shall be overlooked by the skidders or haulers. (4) All
merchantable logs which are as large as 6 in. in diameter at the small
end must be utilized. (5) No stumps shall be cut more than 6 in. higher
than the stump is wide. (6) No spruce shall be used for bridges,
corduroy, skids, slides, or for any purpose except building camps, dams
or booms, unless it is absolutely necessary on account of lack of other
timber. (7) All merchantable spruce used for skidways must be cut into
logs and hauled out. (8) Contractors must not do any unnecessary damage
to young growth in lumbering; and if any is done, they must discharge
the men who did it.

These two instances of forestry have been most useful and effective
among lumbermen and other owners of forest land in the north-east. Among
those which have followed their example are the Berlin Mills Paper
Company in northern New Hampshire, the Cleveland Cliffs Iron Company in
northern Michigan, and the Delaware and Hudson Railroad Company in New
York, all of which have employed professional foresters.

The most notable instance of forestry in the south is on the estate of
George W. Vanderbilt at Biltmore, N.C. This was the first case of
systematic forestry under regular working plans in the United States. It
was begun in 1891 on about 4000 acres, and has since been extended until
it now covers about 100,000 acres. A professional forester with a corps
of trained rangers under him is in charge of the work. The Pennsylvania
Railroad has recently employed a trained forester and several assistants
and has undertaken systematic forestry on a large scale.

The effect of the work of the forest service in assisting private owners
is evidenced by the fact that down to the year 1908 670 wood lots and
timber tracts had been examined by agents of the forest service, of
which 250 were tracts over 400 acres in extent, and planting plans had
been made for 436 owners covering a total area of 80,000 acres. Expert
advice is also given to wood lot owners upon application by many of the
state foresters.

_American Practice._--The conditions under which forestry is practised
in Europe and in America differ so widely that rules which are received
as axiomatic in the one must often be rejected in the other. Among these
conditions in America are the highly developed and specialized methods
and machinery of lumbering, the greater facilities for transportation
and consequent greater mobility of the lumber trade, the vast number of
small holdings of forest land, and the enormous supply of low-grade wood
in the timbered regions. High taxes on forest properties, cut-over as
well as virgin, notably in the north-western pineries, and the firmly
established habits of lumbermen, are factors of great importance. From
these and other considerations it follows that such generally accepted
essentials of European methods of forestry as a sustained annual yield,
a permanent force of forest labourers, a permanent road system and the
like, are in most cases utterly inapplicable in the United States at the
present day in private forestry. Methods of forest management, to find
acceptance, must there conform as closely as possible to existing
methods of lumbering. Rules of marked simplicity, the observance of
which will yet secure the safety of the forest, must open the way for
more refined methods in the future. For the present a periodic or
irregular yield, temporary means of transport, constantly changing
crews, and an almost total ignorance of the silvics of all but a few of
the most important trees--all combine to enforce the simplest
silvicultural treatment and the utmost concentration of purpose on the
two main objects of forestry, which are the production of a net revenue
and the perpetuation of the forest. Such concentration has been followed
in practice by complete success.

The forests with which the American forester deals are rich in species,
usually endowed with abundant powers of reproduction, and, over a large
part of their range, greatly dependent for their composition and general
character upon the action of forest fires. Of the commercially valuable
trees there may be said to be, in round numbers, a hundred out of a
total forest flora of about 500 species, but many trees not yet of
importance in the lumber trade will become so hereafter, as has already
happened in many cases. The attention of the forester must usually be
concentrated upon the growth and reproduction of a single species, and
never of more than a very few. Thus the silvicultural problems which
must be solved in the practice of forestry in America are fortunately
less complicated than the presence of so many kinds of trees in forests
of such diverse types would naturally seem to indicate.

The forest fire problem is one of the most difficult with which the
American forester has to deal. It is probable that forest fires have
had more to do with the character and distribution of forests in America
than any other factor except rainfall. With an annual range over
thousands of square miles, in many portions of the United States they
occur regularly year after year on the same ground. Trees whose thick
bark or abundant seeding gives them peculiar powers of resistance,
frequently owe their exclusive possessions of vast areas purely to the
action of fire. On the economic side fire is equally influential. The
probability, or often the practical certainty, of fire after the first
cut, commonly determines lumbermen to leave no merchantable tree
standing. Forest fires are thus the most effective barriers to the
introduction of forestry. Excessive taxation of timber land is another
of almost equal effect. Because of it lumbermen hasten to cut, and
afterwards often to abandon, lands which they cannot afford to hold.
This evil, which only the progress of public sentiment can control, is
especially prevalent in certain portions of the white pine belt.

_Forest Associations._--Public sentiment in favour of the protection of
forests is now widespread and increasingly effective throughout the
United States. As the general understanding of the objects and methods
of forestry becomes clearer, the tendency, formerly very marked, to
confound ornamental tree planting and botanical matters with forestry
proper is rapidly growing less. At the same time, the number and
activity of associations dealing with forest matters is increasing with
notable rapidity. There are now about thirty such associations in the
United States. One of these, the Society of American Foresters, is
composed exclusively of professional foresters. The American Forestry
Association is the oldest and largest. It has been influential in
preparing the ground work of popular interest in forestry, and
especially in advocating and securing the adoption of the federal forest
reservation policy, the most important step yet taken by the national
government. It publishes as its organ a monthly magazine called
_Forestry and Irrigation_. The Pennsylvania Forestry Association has
been instrumental in placing that state in the forefront of forest
progress. Its organ is a bi-monthly publication called _Forest Leaves_.
Other states which have associations or societies of special influence
in forest matters are California, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Colorado,
New Hampshire, Georgia and Oregon. Arbor Day, instituted in Nebraska in
1872 as a day for shade-tree planting by farmers who had settled on the
treeless prairies, has been taken up as a means of interesting school
children in the planting of trees, and has spread until it is now
observed in every state and territory. It continues to serve an
admirable purpose.

_Lumbering._--According to the census report for 1905 the capital
invested in logging operations in the United States was $90,454,596, the
number of employés engaged 146,596, and their wages $66,990,000;
sawmills represented an invested capital of $381,621,000, and employed
223,674 persons, whose wages were $100,311,000, while planing mills
represented a capital of $222,294,000 and employed 132,030 persons
whose wages were $66,434,000.

  +-------------------+------------------------------+-----------+---------+---------+----------+
  |                   |                              | Equivalent|Estimated|Estimated|Total Wood|
  |     Product.      |         Output 1906.         |    Wood   |  Woods  |  Mill   |  Volume  |
  |                   |                              |  Volume.  |Waste.[3]|Waste.[4]| Consumed.|
  +-------------------+------------------------------+-----------+---------+---------+----------+
  |                   |                              |  Million  | Million | Million | Million  |
  |                   |                              |  cub. ft. | cub. ft.| cub. ft.| cub. ft. |
  | Lumber--          |                              |           |         |         |          |
  |   Conifers        |   30,200,000 thousand bd. ft.|   2517    |  1173   |  2170   |   5860   |
  |   Hardwoods       |    7,300,000     "      "    |    612    |   577   |   461   |   1650   |
  | Shingles          |   11,900,000     "      "    |    107    |    54   |   109   |    270   |
  | Pulpwood          |    2,900,000 cords           |    261    |    79   |   . .   |    340   |
  | Wood distillation |    1,200,000   "             |    108    |    12   |   . .   |    120   |
  | Heading           |  146,000,000 sets            |     32    |    33   |    45   |    110   |
  | Staves--          |                              |           |         |         |          |
  |   Tight cooperage |  267,000,000                 |     22    |    36   |    32   |     90   |
  |   Slack cooperage |1,097,000,000                 |     27    |    22   |    21   |     70   |
  | Poles             |    3,500,000                 |     35    |    15   |   . .   |     50   |
  | Veneer            |      300,000 thousand bd. ft.|     50    |    30   |   . .   |     80   |
  | Round mine timbers|  165,000,000 cub. ft.        |    165    |    35   |   . .   |    200   |
  | Hewn cross ties   |   77,500,000                 |    207    |   503   |   . .   |    710   |
  |                   |                              +-----------+---------+---------+----------+
  |                   |                              |   4143    |  2569   |  2838   |   9550   |
  +-------------------+------------------------------+-----------+---------+---------+----------+

All the operations of the lumber trade in the United States are
controlled, and to no small degree determined, by the peculiar unit of
measure which has been adopted. This unit, the board-foot, is generally
defined as a board one foot long, one foot wide and one inch thick, but
in reality it is equivalent to 144 cub. in. of manufactured lumber in
any form. To purchase logs by this measure one must first know about
what each log will yield in one-inch boards. For this purpose a scale or
table is used, which gives the contents of logs of various diameters and
lengths in board feet. Under such a standard the purchaser pays for
nothing but the saleable lumber in each log, the inevitable waste in
slabs and sawdust costing him nothing.

The table at foot gives the estimated consumption of wood for certain
purposes in the United States in 1906.

In addition to this amount, an immense quantity of wood is used each
year for fuel, posts and other domestic purposes, and the total annual
consumption is not less than 20 billion cub. ft.

The years 1890 to 1906 were marked by rapid changes in the rank of the
important timber trees with reference to the amount of timber cut, and a
shifting of the important centres of production. Among coniferous trees,
white pine has yielded successively to yellow pine and Douglas fir,
while the scene of greatest activity has shifted from the Northern
forest to the Southern, and from there is rapidly shifting to the
Pacific Coast. The total cut of coniferous lumber has increased
steadily, but that of the hardwoods is falling off, and in 1906 it was
15% less than in 1899, while inferior hardwoods are gradually assuming
more and more importance, and the scene of greatest activity has passed
from the middle west to the south and the Appalachian region.

_Conifers._--The coniferous supply of the country is derived from four
forest regions: (1) The Northern forest; (2) the Southern forest; (3)
the Pacific Coast forest; and (4) the Rocky Mountain forest.

1. The Northern forest was long the chief source of the coniferous
lumber production in the United States. The principal timber tree of
this region is the white pine, usually known in Europe as the Weymouth
pine. It has an average height when mature of 110 ft., with a diameter a
little less than 3 ft., but the virgin timber is approaching exhaustion.
White pine was one of the first trees to be cut extensively in the
United States, and Maine, the pine tree state, was at first the centre
of production. In 1851 the cut of white pine on the Penobscot river was
144 million ft., that of spruce 14 million and of hemlock 11 million.
Thirty years later the pine cut had sunk to 23 million, spruce had risen
to 118 million, and hemlock had passed pine by a million feet.
Meanwhile, the centre of production had passed from the north woods to
the Lake States, and for many years this region was the scene of the
most vigorous lumbering activity in the world. The following figures
show the cut for the Lake States from 1873 to 1906. It is certain that
the remarkable decline in the cut of white pine which these figures show
will continue still farther.

  1873  3,993,780,000  |  1890  8,597,659,352
  1874  3,751,306,000  |  1891  7,879,948,349
  1875  3,968,553,000  |  1892  8,594,222,802
  1876  3,879,046,000  |  1893  7,326,263,782
  1877  3,595,333,496  |  1894  6,821,516,412
  1878  3,629,472,759  |  1895  7,050,669,235
  1879  4,806,943,000  |  1896  5,725,763,035
  1880  5,651,295,000  |  1897  6,233,454,000
  1881  6,768,856,749  |  1898  6,155,300,000
  1882  7,552,150,744  |  1899  6,056,508,000
  1883  7,624,789,786  |  1900  5,485,261,000
  1884  7,935,033,054  |  1901  5,336,000,000
  1885  7,053,094,555  |  1902  5,294,000,000
  1886  7,425,368,443  |  1903  4,792,000,000
  1887  7,757,916,784  |  1904  4,220,000,000
  1888  8,388,716,460  |  1905  3,777,000,000
  1889  8,183,050,755  |  1906  3,032,000,000

Second to the white pine among the coniferous lumber trees of the
Northern forest is the hemlock (_Tsuga canadensis_). It is used chiefly
for construction purposes and furnishes a comparatively low grade of
lumber.

The spruce (_Picea rubens_) is used chiefly for lumber, but it is in
large and increasing demand in the manufacture of paper pulp. For the
latter purpose hemlock, poplar (_Populus tremuloides_ and _P.
grandidentata_) and several other woods are also employed, but on a
smaller scale. The total consumption of wood for paper in the United
States for 1906 was 3,660,000 cords, of which 2,500,000 was spruce. Of
this, however, 720,000 cords were imported from Canada.

2. The chief product of the Southern forest is the yellow pine. This is
the collective term for the longleaf, shortleaf, loblolly and Cuban
pines. Of these the longleaf pine (_Pinus palustris_ Mill.), called
pitch-pine in Europe, is the most important. Its timber is probably
superior in strength and durability to that of any other member of the
genus _Pinus_, and in addition to its value as a timber tree it is the
source of naval stores in the United States. The average size of the
mature longleaf pine is 90 ft. in height and 20 in. in diameter.
Shortleaf (_Pinus echinata_) and loblolly (_P. taeda_) are other
important members of this group. Their wood very closely resembles that
of the longleaf pine and is often difficult to distinguish from it. The
trees are also of about the same size and height. Loblolly is, however,
of more rapid growth. The total cut of yellow pine in 1906 was
11,661,000,000 board ft.; it has perhaps not yet reached its maximum,
but is certainly near it.

Another important coniferous tree of the Southern forest is the bald
cypress (_Taxodium distichum_), which grows in the swamps. The cut in
1906 was 839,000,000 board ft., a gain of 69% over 1899.

3. But the great supply of coniferous timber is now on the Pacific
Coast. The Douglas fir (_Pseudotsuga taxifolia_), also known as Douglas
spruce, red fir and Oregon pine, is the foremost tree in Oregon and
Washington, and the redwood in California. When mature the Douglas fir
averages 200 ft. in height and 4 ft. in diameter, and the redwood 225
ft. in height and 8 ft. in diameter. Other important trees of the
Pacific Coast are sugar pine (_Pinus lambertiana_), western red cedar
(_Thuja plicata_), western larch (_Larix occidentalis_), Sitka spruce
(_Picea sitchensis_), western hemlock (_Tsuga heterophylla_) and western
yellow pine (_Pinus ponderosa_). These trees will all be of increasing
importance.

Logging on the Pacific Coast is characterized by the use of powerful
machinery and by extreme skill in handling enormous weights. This is
especially true in California, where the logs of redwood and of the big
tree (_Sequoia Washingtoniana_) are often more than 10 ft. in diameter.
Logging is usually done by wire cables operated by donkey-engines. The
journey to the mill is usually by rail. The mills are often of great
size, built on piles over tide water and so arranged that their product
is delivered directly from the saws and dry kilns to vessels moored
alongside. The products of the Pacific Coast forest make their way over
land to the markets of the central and eastern states and into foreign
markets. Among the lumber-producing states, Washington has in seven
years jumped from fifth place to first, and its output has increased
from 1,428,000,000 board ft. in 1899 to 4,305,000,000 ft. in 1906.
Oregon and California have increased their output from 734,000,000 each
in 1899 to 1,605,000,000 and 1,349,000,000 ft. respectively in 1906. Of
the total output of these three states (7,259,000,000 ft.) 4,880,000,000
ft. is Douglas fir and 660,000,000 redwood.

4. The important lumber trees of the Rocky Mountain forest are the
western yellow pine, the lodgepole pine, the Douglas fir and the
Engelmann spruce. The Douglas fir, here extremely variable in size and
value, reaches in this region average dimensions of perhaps 80 ft. in
height by 2 ft. in diameter, the western yellow pine 90 ft. by 3 ft. and
the Engelmann spruce 60 ft. by 2 ft. Mining, railroad and domestic uses
chiefly absorb the annual timber product, which is considerable in
quantity, and of vast importance to the local population. The lumber
output of the Rocky Mountain region is, however, increasing very rapidly
both in the north and in the south-west. One of the largest mills in the
United States is in Idaho.

The following table summarizes the cut of the important coniferous
species during the years 1899-1906:

  +--------------+-------+-------+-------+------------------+
  |              |       |       |       | Per Cent Increase|
  |     Kind.    | 1899. | 1904. | 1906. | (+) or Decrease  |
  |              |       |       |       |  (-) since 1899. |
  +--------------+-------+-------+-------+------------------+
  |              |Million|Million|Million|                  |
  |              |  ft.  |   ft. |  ft.  |                  |
  | Yellow Pine  | 9,659 |11,533 |11,661 |     +  20.7      |
  | Douglas Fir  | 1,737 | 2,928 | 4,970 |     + 186.2      |
  | White Pine   | 7,742 | 5,333 | 4,584 |     -  40.8      |
  | Hemlock      | 3,421 | 3,269 | 3,537 |     +   3.4      |
  | Spruce       | 1,448 | 1,304 | 1,645 |     +  13.6      |
  | Western Pine |   944 | 1,279 | 1,387 |     +  46.9      |
  | Cypress      |   496 |   750 |   839 |     +  69.3      |
  | Redwood      |   360 |   519 |   683 |     +  83.2      |
  | Cedar        |   233 |   223 |   358 |     +  53.7      |
  |              +-------+-------+-------+------------------+
  |              |26,040 | 27,138|29,664 |     +  14        |
  +--------------+-------+-------+-------+------------------+

_Hardwoods._--The hardwood supply of the country is derived almost
entirely from the eastern half of the continent, and comes from each of
the three great Eastern forest regions.

The following table shows the cut of the important species of hardwoods
for 1899 and 1906:

  +--------------+-----------+-----------+-----------------+
  |              |           |           |    Per Cent     |
  |     Kind.    |   1899.   |   1906.   |   Increase (+)  |
  |              |           |           | or Decrease (-).|
  +--------------+-----------+-----------+-----------------+
  |              | Thousand  | Thousand  |                 |
  |              |  Feet.    |  Feet.    |                 |
  | Oak          | 4,438,027 | 2,820,393 |    -  36.5      |
  | Maple        |   633,466 |   882,878 |    +  39.4      |
  | Poplar       | 1,115,242 |   693,076 |    -  37.9      |
  | Red gum      |   285,417 |   453,678 |    +  59.0      |
  | Chestnut     |   206,688 |   407,379 |    +  97.1      |
  | Basswood     |   308,069 |   376,838 |    +  22.3      |
  | Birch        |   132,601 |   370,432 |    + 179.4      |
  | Cottonwood   |   415,124 |   263,996 |    -  36.4      |
  | Beech        |       (a) |   275,661 |                 |
  | Elm          |   456,731 |   224,795 |    -  50.8      |
  | Ash          |   269,120 |   214,460 |    -  20.8      |
  | Hickory      |    96,636 |   148,212 |    +  53.4      |
  | Tupelo       |       (a) |    47,882 |                 |
  | Walnut       |    38,681 |    48,174 |    +  24.5      |
  | Sycamore     |    29,715 |       (a) |                 |
  | All other    |   208,504 |    87,637 |    -  58.0      |
  +--------------+-----------+-----------+-----------------+
  |    Total     | 8,634,021 | 7,315,491 |    -  15.3      |
  +--------------+-----------+-----------+-----------------+
  a Not separately reported.

Oak, which in 1899 furnished over half the entire output, has fallen off
36.5%. Yellow poplar, which in 1899 was second among the hardwoods, has
fallen off 38% and now occupies third place; and elm, the great stand-by
in slack cooperage, has fallen 50.8%. On the other hand less valuable
species like maple and red gum have advanced 39 and 59% respectively.

The decrease is largely due to the fact that the hardwoods grow
naturally on the better classes of soil, and in the eastern United
States where the population has always been the densest, and as a
consequence of this, a large proportion of the original hardwood land
has been cleared up and put under cultivation. The hardwood supply of
the future must be obtained chiefly from the Appalachian region, where
the conditions are less favourable to agriculture.

In addition to the lumber cut, enormous quantities of hardwoods are used
each year for railroad ties, telephone and other poles, piles, fence
posts and fuel, and there is a great amount of waste in the course of
lumbering and manufacture.

  AUTHORITIES.--Sargent, _Silva of North America_ (Boston, 1891-1897),
  _Manual of Trees of North America_ (Boston, 1903); Lemmon, _Handbook
  of West American Cone-Bearers_ (San Francisco, 1895); Bruncken, _North
  American Forests and Forestry_ (New York, 1900); Fernow, _Economics of
  Forestry_ (New York, 1902); Pinchot, _The Adirondack Spruce_ (New
  York, 1898); Pinchot and Graves, _The White Pine_ (New York, 1896).
  See also the various publications of the U.S. forest service,
  including especially the following general works: _Forest Influences_;
  _Primer of Forestry_; the _Timber Supply of the United States_; the
  _Waning Hardwood Supply_; _Forest Products of the United States in
  1906_; _Exports and Imports of Forest Products in 1906_; _Federal and
  State Forest Laws_; _Regulations and Instructions for the Use of the
  National Forests_; _The Use of the National Forests_; also part v. of
  the _Nineteenth and of the Twenty-first Annual Reports of the United
  States Geological Survey_, and vol. ix. of the _10th Census Report on
  the Forests of North America_; and _Reports_ of the State Forestry
  Commissions of New York, New Hampshire, Maine, Pennsylvania, Michigan,
  Ohio, &c., and of the State Geological Surveys of New Jersey, Maryland
  and North Carolina.     (G. P.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The United States fiscal year ends June 30, and receives its
    designation from the calendar year in which it terminates. Thus, the
    fiscal year 1898 is the year July 1, 1897-June 30, 1898.

  [2] Administration transferred to Bureau of Forestry, February 1,
    1905.

  [3] Woods waste includes tops, stumps, cull logs and butts, but does
    not include defective trees left or trees used for road purposes.

  [4] Mill waste includes bark, kerf, slabs and edgings.



FOREY, ÉLIE FRÉDÉRIC (1804-1872), marshal of France, was born at Paris
on the 5th of January 1804, and entered the army from St Cyr in 1824. He
took part in the earlier Algerian campaigns, and became captain in 1835.
Four years later he was given command of a battalion of _chasseurs à
pied_ and in 1844 he became colonel. At the Revolution of 1848 Cavaignac
made him a general of brigade. He took an active part in the _coup
d'état_ of the 2nd of December 1851, and Napoleon III. made him a
general of division shortly afterwards. He held a superior command in
the Crimean War, and in the Italian campaign of 1859 distinguished
himself very greatly in the action of Montebello (20th May). In 1862
Forey was placed in command of the French expeditionary corps in Mexico,
with the fullest civil and military powers, and he crowned a successful
campaign by the capture of Mexico city in May 1863, receiving as his
reward the marshal's bâton. From December 1863 to 1867 he held high
commands in France, but in the latter year he was struck with paralysis
and had to retire. Marshal Forey died at Paris on the 20th of June 1872.



FORFAR, a royal, municipal and police burgh, and capital of the county
of Forfarshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 12,117. It lies at the east end of
the Loch of Forfar in the valley of Strathmore, and is 13 m. N. by E. of
Dundee by road and 21¼ m. by the Caledonian railway. It is also situated
on the same company's main line to Aberdeen and sends off a branch to
Brechin. The principal buildings comprise the court house, the county
hall (with portraits by Raeburn, Romney, Opie and others), the town
hall, the Meffan Institute (including the free library), the infirmary,
poorhouse and the Reid hall, founded by Peter Reid, a merchant in the
burgh who also gave the public park. The burgh unites with Montrose,
Arbroath, Brechin and Inverbervie (the Montrose group of burghs) in
returning one member to parliament. The Loch of Forfar, 1¼ m. long by ¼
m. wide, is drained by Dean Burn, and contains pike and perch. On a
gravel bank or spit in the north-west of the lake stood a castle which
was sometimes used as a residence by Margaret, queen of Malcolm Canmore.
The staple industries are linen and jute manufactures, but brewing,
tanning, bleaching, rope-making and iron-founding are also carried on.

Forfar is at least as old as the time of Malcolm Canmore, for the first
parliament after the defeat of Macbeth met in the old castle, which
stood on a mound on the northern side of the town. The parliaments of
William the Lion, Alexander II. and Robert II. also assembled within its
walls. The town, which was created a royal burgh by David I., was burnt
down about the middle of the 13th century. Edward I. captured the
castle on one of his incursions, but in 1307 Robert Bruce seized it,
put its defenders to the sword and then destroyed it, its site being now
marked by the town cross. Previous to the reign of James VI. the weekly
market was held on Sunday, but after the union of the crowns parliament
enacted that it should be held on Friday. The town sided with Charles I.
during the Civil War, and Charles II. presented the Cross to it out of
regard for the loyalty shown to his father. Forfar seems to have played
a less reputable part in the persecution of witches. In 1661 a crown
commission was issued for the trial of certain miserable creatures, some
of whom were condemned to be burnt. In the same year one John Ford for
his services as a witch-finder was admitted a burgess along with Lord
Kinghorne. The witches' bridle, a gag to prevent them from speaking
whilst being led to execution, is still preserved in the county hall.
One mile to the E. lie the ruins of Restennet Priory, where a son of
Robert Bruce was buried. For twenty five years after the Reformation it
was used as the parish church and afterwards by the Episcopalians, until
they obtained a chapel of their own in 1822.



FORFARSHIRE, or ANGUS, an eastern county of Scotland, bounded N. by the
shires of Kincardine and Aberdeen, W. by Perthshire, S. by the Firth of
Tay and E. by the North Sea. It has an area of 559,171 acres, or 873.7
sq. m. The island of Rossie and the Bell Rock belong to the shire.

Forfarshire is characterized by great variety of surface and may be
divided physically into four well-marked sections. In the most northerly
of these many of the rugged masses of the Grampians are found; this belt
is succeeded by Strathmore, or the Howe of Angus, a fertile valley, from
6 to 8 m. broad, which is a continuation of the Howe of the Mearns, and
runs south-westwards till it enters Strathearn, to the south-west of
Perth; then come the Sidlaw Hills and a number of isolated heights,
which in turn give way to the plain of the coast and the Firth. The
mountains are all in the northern division and belong to the Binchinnin
group (sometimes rather inexactly called the Braes of Angus) of the
Grampian ranges. Among the highest masses, most of which lie on or near
the confines of the bordering counties, are Glas Maol(3502 ft.), on the
summit of which the shires of Aberdeen, Forfar and Perth meet,
Cairn-na-Glasha (3484), Fafernie (3274), Broad Cairn (3268), Creag
Leacach (3238), Tolmount (3143), Tom Buidhe (3140), Driesh (3105), Mount
Keen (3077) and Mayar (3043), while peaks of upwards of 2000 ft. are
numerous. The Sidlaw Hills--the greater part of which, however, belongs
to Perthshire--are much less lofty and of less striking appearance. They
have a breadth of from 3 to 6 m., the highest points within the county
being Craigowl Hill (1493 ft.), Auchterhouse Hill (1399) and Gallow Hill
(1242). None of the rivers is navigable, and only three are of any
importance. The Isla, rising in Cairn-na-Glasha, flows southwards, then
turns S.E. and finally S.W. till it enters the Tay after a course of 45
m. Its chief tributaries on the right are the Alyth, Ericht and Lunan,
and on the left the Newton, Melgam and Dean. Near Bridge of Craig is the
fall of Reekie Linn (70 ft.), so named from the fact that when the
stream is in flood the spray rises in a dense cloud like smoke (_reek_).
Near old Airlie Castle are the cascades called the Slugs of Auchrannie.
The North Esk, formed by the confluence of the Lee and Mark at
Invermark, after a south-easterly course of 28 m. enters the North Sea 3
m. N. of Montrose. On the right bank it receives the West Water and
Cruick and on the left the Tarf and Luther. It gives the title of earl
of Northesk to a branch of the Carnegie family. The South Esk rises in
the Grampians near Mount Fafernie and not far from its source forms the
Falls of Bachnagairn; after flowing towards the south-east, it bends
eastwards near Tannadice and reaches the North Sea at Montrose, the
length of its course being 48 m. Its principal affluents are the Prosen
on the right and the Noran on the left. It supplies the title of earl of
Southesk to another branch of the Carnegies. The lakes are small, the
two largest being the Loch of Forfar and the mountain-girt Loch Lee (1
m. long by ¼ m. wide). Lintrathen (circular in shape and about ¾ m.
across), to the north of Airlie Castle, supplies Dundee with drinking
water. The glens of the Forfarshire Grampians are remarkable for their
beauty, and several of them for the wealth of their botanical specimens.
The largest and finest of them are Glen Isla, in which are the ruins of
Forter Castle, destroyed by Argyll in 1640, and the earl of Airlie's
shooting-lodge of the Tulchan; Glen Clova, near the entrance to which
stands Cortachy Castle, the seat of the earl of Airlie; Glen Esk and
Glen Prosen.

  _Geology._--A great earth fracture traverses this county from near
  Edzell on the N.E. to Lintrathen Loch on the S.W. Between Cortachy and
  the south-western boundary this fault runs in Old Red Sandstone, but
  north-east of that place it forms the junction line of Silurian and
  Old Red; and in a general way we may say that on the N.W. side of the
  fault the metamorphosed Silurian rocks are found, while the remainder
  of the county is occupied by the Old Red Sandstone. On the margin of
  the disturbance the Silurian rocks are little-altered grey and green
  clay slates with bands of pebbly grit; farther towards the N.W. we
  find the same rocks metamorphosed into mica schists and gneisses with
  pebbly quartzites. Rising up through the schists between Carn Bannock
  and Mount Battock is a great mass of granite. The Old Red Sandstone
  extends from this county into Perthshire and Kincardineshire; here
  some 20,000 ft. of these deposits are seen; an important part being
  formed of volcanic tuffs and lavas which are regularly interbedded in
  the sandstones and conglomerates. North of Dundee some of the lower
  beds are traversed by intrusive dolerites, and Dundee Law is probably
  the remains of an old vent through which some of the contemporaneous
  lavas, &c., were discharged. The Old Red Rocks have been subjected to
  a good deal of folding, as may be seen along the coast. The principal
  direction of strike is from N.E. to S.W. A synclinal fold occupies
  Strathmore, and between Longforgan and Montrose the northern extension
  of the Sidlaw Hills is an anticlinal fold. Two fish-bearing beds occur
  in the county; from the lower one many large _Eurypterids_ have been
  obtained. The well-known paving flags of Arbroath belong to the lower
  part of the formation. The Upper Old Red Sandstone is found only in
  one spot about a mile north of Arbroath. During the Glacial period the
  ice travelled south-eastward across Strathmore and over the Sidlaw
  Hills; abundant evidence of this transporting agent is to be seen in
  the form of morainic deposits, the most striking of which is the great
  transverse barrier of Glenairn in the valley of the S. Esk, half a
  mile in length and about 200 ft. high. Relics of the same period are
  found round the coast in the form of raised beaches at 100, 50 and 25
  ft. above the present sea-level.

_Climate and Agriculture._--On the whole the climate is healthy and
favourable to agricultural pursuits. The mean temperature for the year
is 47.3° F., for January 38° and for July 59°. The average annual
rainfall is 34 in., the coast being considerably drier than the uplands.
In the low-lying districts of the south the harvest is nearly as early
as it is in the rest of Scotland, but in the north it is often late. The
principal wheat districts are Strathmore and the neighbourhood of Dundee
and Arbroath; and the yield is well up to the best Scottish average.
Barley, an important crop, has increased steadily. Oats, however, though
still the leading crop, have somewhat declined. Potatoes are mostly
grown near the seaboard in the higher ground; turnips also are largely
raised. The northern belt, where it is not waste land, has been turned
into sheep walks and deer forests. The black-faced sheep are the most
common in the mountainous country; cross-bred sheep in the lowlands.
Though it is their native county (where they date from 1808), polled
Angus are not reared so generally as in the neighbouring shire of
Aberdeen, but shorthorns are a favourite stock and Irish cattle are
imported for winter-feeding. Excepting in the vicinity of the towns
there are no dairy farms. Horses are raised successfully, Clydesdales
being the commonest breed, but the small native garrons are now little
used. Pigs also are reared. Save perhaps in the case of the crofts, or
very small holdings of less than 10 acres, farm management is fully
abreast of the times.

_Other Industries._--The staple industries are the jute and flax
manufactures. Their headquarters are in Dundee, but they flourish also
at other places. Shipbuilding is carried on at Dundee, Arbroath and
Montrose. The manufactures of jams, confectionery, leather, machinery,
soap and chemicals, are all of great and growing value. Sandstone
quarries employ many hands and the deep-sea fisheries, of which Montrose
is the centre, are of considerable importance. The netting of salmon at
the mouth of the North Esk is also a profitable pursuit.

Two railway companies serve the county. The North British, entering from
the south by the Tay Bridge, follows the coast north-eastwards, sending
off at Montrose a branch to Bervie. The Caledonian runs up Strathmore to
Forfar, whence it diverges due east to Guthrie, where it again resumes
its north-easterly course to Dubton and Marykirk; it reaches Dundee from
Perth by the shore of the estuary of the Tay, and sends branches from
Dundee to Kirriemuir via Monikie and Forfar and to Alyth Junction via
Newtyle, while a short line from Dubton gives it touch with Montrose.

_Population and Government._--The population was 277,735 in 1891, and
284,083 in 1901, when 1303 spoke Gaelic and English, and 13 Gaelic only.
The chief towns are Arbroath (pop. in 1901, 22,398), Brechin (8941),
Broughty Ferry (10,484), Carnoustie (5204), Dundee (161,173), Forfar
(11,397), Kirriemuir (4096), Monifieth (2134) and Montrose (12,427).
Forfarshire returns one member to Parliament. It is a sheriffdom and
there is a resident sheriff-substitute at Dundee and another at Forfar,
the county town, and courts are held also at Arbroath. In addition to
numerous board schools there are secondary schools at Dundee, Montrose,
Arbroath, Brechin, Forfar and Kirriemuir, and technical schools at
Dundee and Arbroath. Many of the elementary schools earn grants for
higher education. The county council and the Dundee and Arbroath town
councils expend the "residue" grant in subsidizing science and art and
technical schools and classes, including University College, the textile
school, the technical institute, the navigation school, and the workshop
schools at Dundee, the technical school at Arbroath, besides cookery,
dairy, dress-cutting, laundry, plumbing and veterinary science classes
at different places.

_History._--In the time of the Romans the country now known as
Forfarshire was inhabited by Picts, of whose occupation there are
evidences in remains of weems, or underground houses. Traces of Roman
camps and stone forts are common, and there are vitrified forts at
Finhaven, Dumsturdy Muir, the hill of Laws near Monifieth and at other
points. Spearheads, battle-axes, sepulchral deposits, Scandinavian
bronze pins, and other antiquarian relics testify to periods of storm
and stress before the land settled down into order, towards which the
Church was a powerful contributor. In the earliest days strife was
frequent. The battle in which Agricola defeated Galgacus is supposed to
have occurred in the Forfarshire Grampians (A.D. 84); the Northumbrian
King Egfrith and the Pictish king Burde fought near Dunnichen in 685,
the former being slain; conflicts with the Danes took place at Aberlemno
and other spots; Elpin king of the Scots was defeated by Aengus in the
parish of Liff in 730; at Restennet, about 835, the Picts and Scots had
a bitter encounter. In later times the principal historical events,
whether of peace or war, were more immediately connected with burghs
than with the county as a whole. There is some doubt whether the county
was named Angus, its title for several centuries, after a legendary
Scottish prince or from the hill of Angus to the east of the church of
Aberlemno. It was early governed by hereditary earls and was made a
hereditary sheriffdom by David II. The first earl of Angus (by charter
of 1389) was George Douglas, an illegitimate son of the 1st earl of
Douglas by Margaret Stuart, who was countess of Angus in her own right.
On the death of the 1st and only duke of Douglas, who was also 13th earl
of Angus, in 1761, the earldom merged in the dukedom of Hamilton.
Precisely when the shire became known by the name of the county town has
not been ascertained, but probably the usage dates from the 16th
century. Among old castles are the roofless square tower of Red Castle
at the mouth of the Lunan; the tower of the castle of Auchinleck; the
stronghold of Inverquharity near Kirriemuir; the castle of Finhaven; the
two towers of old Edzell Castle; the ruins of Melgund Castle, which are
fairly complete; the small castle of Newtyle, and the old square tower
and gateway of the castle of Craig.

  See A. Jervise, _Memorials of Angus and Mearns_ (Edinburgh, 1895);
  _Land of the Lindsays_ (Edinburgh, 1882); _Epitaphs and Inscriptions_
  (Edinburgh, 1879); Earl of Crawford, _Lives of the_ _Lindsays_
  (London, 1835); Sir W. Fraser, _History of the Carnegies_ (Edinburgh,
  1867); A.H. Millar, _Historical Castles and Mansions_ (Paisley, 1890);
  G. Hay, _History of Arbroath_ (Arbroath, 1876); D.D. Black, _History
  of Brechin_ (Edinburgh, 1867).



FORFEITURE (from "forfeit," originally an offence, and hence a fine
exacted as a penalty for such; derived through the O. Fr. _forfait_,
from the late Lat. _foris factum_, a trespass, that which is done
_foris_, outside), in English law, the term applied (1) to loss or
liability to the loss of property in consequence of an offence or breach
of contract; (2) to the property of which the party is deprived.

Under the common law, conviction and attainder on indictment for treason
or felony was followed not only by forfeiture of the life of the
offender, but also by forfeiture of his lands and goods. In the case of
treason all the traitor's lands of whomsoever holden were forfeited to
the king; in the case of felony (including _felo-de-se_, or suicide),
the felon's lands escheated (_exceciderunt_) to his immediate lord,
subject to the king's right to waste them for a year and a day. This
rule did not apply to lands held in gavelkind in the county of Kent. The
goods of traitors and felons were forfeited to the king. The desire of
the king and his officers to realize the profits of these forfeitures
was one of the chief motives for instituting the circuits of the king's
justices throughout England; and from time to time conflicts arose from
attempts by these justices to extend the law of treason--under which the
king levied all the forfeitures--at the expense of felony, in which the
lord of the felon benefited by the escheats. As regards theft, the
king's rights overrode those of the owner of the stolen property, until,
in the reign of Henry VIII., provision was made for restitution of the
goods to the owner if he prosecuted the thief to conviction. In Pepys's
_Diary_, 21st of January 1667-1668, will be found an illustration of the
working of the old law. We find that on the suicide of his
brother-in-law, Pepys at once applied to the king personally and
obtained a grant of the brother-in-law's estate in favour of his widow
and children should the inquest find a verdict of _felo-de-se_. It was
common practice for persons anticipating conviction for treason or
felony to assign all their property to others to avoid the forfeiture;
and in some instances the accused refused to plead to the indictment and
endured the _peine forte et dure_, until death supervened, to avoid
these consequences of conviction. The royal rights to forfeitures
arising within particular areas were frequently granted by charter to
corporations or individuals. In 1897 the courts had to interpret such
charters granted to the town of Nottingham in 1399 and 1448. All
forfeitures and escheats with respect to conviction and attainder for
treason and felony were abolished as from the 4th of July 1870, except
forfeitures consequent upon the now disused process of outlawry, and the
forfeitures included in the penalties of praemunire.

The term "forfeit" is also applied to penalties imposed by statute for
acts or omissions which are neither treasonable nor felonious. In such
statutes the forfeiture enures in favour of the crown unless the statute
indicates another destination; and unless a particular method of
enforcing the forfeiture is indicated it is enforceable as a debt to the
crown and has priority as such. The words "forfeit and pay" are often
used in imposing a pecuniary penalty for a petty misdemeanour, and where
they are used the court dealing with the case must not only convict the
offender but adjudicate as to the forfeiture.

Statutory forfeitures in some cases extend to specific chattels, e.g. of
a British merchant-ship when her character as such is fraudulently
dissimulated (Merch. Shipp. Act 1894, ss. 70, 76), or of goods smuggled
in contravention of the customs acts or books introduced in violation of
the copyright acts. Recognisances are said to be forfeited when the
conditions are broken and an order of court is made for their
enforcement as a crown debt against the persons bound by them.

The term "forfeiture" is now most commonly used with reference to real
property, i.e. with reference to the rights of lords of the manor or
lessors to determine the estate or interest of a copyholder or lessee
for breach of the customary or contractual terms of tenure. It is also
applied to express the deprivation of a limited owner of settled
property, real or personal, for breach of the conditions by which his
rights are limited; e.g. by becoming bankrupt or attempting to charge or
alienate his interest. As a general rule, the courts "lean against
forfeitures" of this kind; and are astute to defeat the claim of the
superior landlord or other person seeking to enforce them. By
legislation of 1881 and 1892 there is jurisdiction to grant relief upon
terms against the forfeiture of a lease for breach of certain classes of
covenant, e.g. to pay rent or to insure.



FORGERY (derived through the French from Latin _fabricare_, to
construct), in English law, "the fraudulent making or alteration of a
writing to the prejudice of another man's right," or "the false making,
or making _malo animo_, of any written instrument for the purpose of
fraud or deceit." This definition, it will be seen, comprehends all
fraudulent tampering with documents. "Not only the fabrication and false
making of the whole of a written instrument, but a fraudulent insertion,
alteration or erasure, even of a letter, in any material part of a true
instrument whereby a new operation is given to it, will amount to
forgery,--and this though it be afterwards executed by another person
ignorant of the deceit" (Russell on _Crimes and Misdemeanours_, vol.
ii.). Changing the word Dale into Sale in a lease, so that it appears to
be a lease of the manor of Sale instead of the manor of Dale, is a
forgery. And when a country banker's note was made payable at the house
of a banker in London who failed, it was held to be forgery to alter the
name of such London banker to that of another London banker with whom
the country banker had subsequently made his notes payable. As to the
fraud, "an intent to defraud is presumed to exist if it appears that at
the time when the false document was made there was in existence a
specific person, ascertained or unascertained, capable of being
defrauded thereby; and this presumption is not rebutted by proof that
the offender took or intended to take measures to prevent such person
from being defrauded in fact, nor by the fact that he had or thought he
had a right to the thing to be obtained by the false document"
(Stephen's _Digest of the Criminal Law_). Thus when a man makes a false
acceptance to a bill of exchange, and circulates it, intending to take
it up and actually taking it up before it is presented for payment, he
is guilty of forgery. Even if it be proved as a matter of fact that no
person could be defrauded (as when A forges a cheque in B's name on a
bank from which B had withdrawn his account), the intent to defraud will
be presumed. But it would appear that if A knew that B had withdrawn his
account, the absence of fraudulent intention would be inferred. A
general intention to cheat the public is not the kind of fraud necessary
to constitute forgery. Thus if a quack forges a diploma of the college
of surgeons, in order to make people believe that he is a member of that
body, he is not guilty of forgery.

The crime of forgery in English law has been from time to time dealt
with in an enormous number of statutes. It was first made a statutory
offence in 1562, and was punishable by fine, by standing in the pillory,
having both ears cut off, the nostrils slit up and seared, the
forfeiture of land and perpetual imprisonment. It was made capital,
without benefit of clergy in 1634. The most notable cases of those who
have suffered the extreme penalty of the law are those of the Rev. Dr W.
Dodd in 1777, for forging Lord Chesterfield's name on a bond, and Henry
Fauntleroy, a partner in the banking-house of Marsh, Sibbald & Co., for
the appropriation by means of forged instruments of money entrusted to
the bank, in 1824. "Anthony Hammond, in the title Forgery of his
_Criminal Code_, has enumerated more than 400 statutes which contain
provisions against the offence" (Sir J.T. Coleridge's notes to
Blackstone). Blackstone notices the increasing severity of the
legislature against forgery, and says that "through the number of these
general and special provisions there is now hardly a case possible to be
conceived wherein forgery that tends to defraud, whether in the name of
a real or fictitious person, is not made a capital crime." These acts
were consolidated in 1830. The later statutes, fixing penalties from
penal servitude for life downwards, were consolidated by the Forgery Act
1861. It would take too much space to enumerate all the varieties of the
offence with their appropriate punishments. The following condensed
summary is based upon chapter xlv. of Sir J. Stephen's _Digest of the
Criminal Law_:

  1. Forgeries punishable with penal servitude for life as a maximum
  are--

  (a) Forgeries of the great seal, privy seal, &c.

  (b) Forgeries of transfers of stock, India bonds, exchequer bills,
  bank-notes, deeds, wills, bills of exchange, &c.

  (c) Obliterations or alterations of crossing on a cheque.

  (d) Forgeries of registers of birth, &c., or of copies thereof and
  others.

  2. Forgeries punishable with fourteen years' penal servitude are--

  (a) Forgeries of debentures.

  (b) Forgeries of documents relating to the registering of deeds, &c.

  (c) Forgeries of instruments purporting to be made by the accountant
  general and other officers of the court of chancery, &c.

  (d) Drawing bill of exchange, &c., on account of another, per
  procuration or otherwise, without authority.

  (e) Obtaining property by means of a forged instrument, knowing it to
  be forged, or by probate obtained on a forged will, false oath, &c.

  3. Forgeries punishable with seven years' penal servitude:--Forgeries
  of seals of courts, of the process of courts, of certificates, and of
  documents to be used in evidence, &c.

By the Merchandise Marks Acts 1887 and 1891, forgery of trade marks is
an offence punishable on conviction by indictment with imprisonment not
exceeding two years or to fine, or both, and on conviction by summary
proceedings with imprisonment not exceeding four months or with a fine.

The Forged Transfers Act 1891, made retrospective by the Forged
Transfers Act 1892, enables companies and local authorities to make
compensation by a cash payment out of their funds for any loss arising
from a transfer of their stocks, shares or securities through a forged
transfer.

_United States._--Forgery is made a crime by statute in most if not all
the states, in addition to being a common law cheat. These statutes have
much enlarged the common definition of this crime. It is also made a
crime by a Federal statute (U.S. Rev. Stat., ch. 5), which includes
forgery of national banknotes, letters patent, public bid, record,
signature of a judge, land warrants, powers of attorney, ships' papers
or custom-house documents, certificates of naturalization, &c.; the
punishment is by fine or by imprisonment from one to fifteen years with
or without hard labour.

In Illinois, fraudulently connecting together different parts of several
banknotes or other genuine instruments so as to produce one additional
note or instrument with intent to pass all as genuine, is a forgery of
each of them (Rev. Stats. 1901, ch. 38, § 108). The alleged instrument
must be apparently capable of defrauding (_Goodman_ v. _People_ [1907],
228, Ill. 154).

In Massachusetts, forgery of any note, certificate or bill of credit
issued by the state treasurer and receiver general, or by any other
officer, for a debt of that commonwealth, or a bank bill of any bank, is
punishable by imprisonment for life or any term of years (Rev. Laws
1902, ch. 209, §§ 4 and 5).

In New York, forgery includes the false making, counterfeiting,
alteration, erasure or obliteration of a genuine instrument (Penal Code,
§ 520). An officer or agent of a corporation who with intent to defraud
sells, pledges or issues a fraudulent scrip, share certificate, is
guilty of forgery in third degree. Falsely making any instrument which
purports to be issued by a corporation bearing a pretended signature of
a person falsely indicated as an officer of the company, is forgery just
as if such person were in truth such officer (id. § 519). Counterfeiting
railroad tickets is forgery in the third degree. Falsely certifying that
the execution of a deed has been acknowledged is forgery (id. § 511). So
also is the forging a fictitious name (_People_ v. _Browne_ [1907], 103
N.Y. suppl. 903). Punishment for forgery in the first degree may be
twenty years, in the second degree ten years, in the third degree five
years.

In Pennsylvania, fraudulently making, signing, altering, uttering or
publishing any written instrument other than bank bills, cheques or
drafts, was punishable by fine and imprisonment "by separate or
solitary confinement at labour for a term not exceeding ten years" (L.
1860, March 31); forging bank bills, &c., for a term not exceeding five
years. Defacing, removing, or counterfeiting brands from lumber floating
in any river is punishable by imprisonment for a term not exceeding two
years or a fine (L. 1887, May 23). Fraudulently using the registered
mark of another on lumber is punishable by fine or imprisonment by
solitary confinement for a term not exceeding three years (id.).

In Tennessee, forgery may be committed by typewriting the body of and
signature to an instrument which may be the subject of forgery (1906;
_State_ v. _Bradley_, 116 Tenn. 711).

In Vermont, the act of 1904, p. 135, no. 115, § 24, authorizes licensees
to sell intoxicating liquors only on the written prescription of a
legally qualified physician stating that it "is given and necessary for
medicinal use." It was held that a prescription containing no such
statement was invalid and the alteration thereof was not forgery (1906;
_State_ v. _McManus_, 78 St. 433).

  AUTHORITIES.--Pollock and Maitland, _History of English Law_; Stephen,
  _Digest of Criminal Law_; _History of Criminal Law_; L.O. Pike,
  _History of Crime in England_, 1873-1876; Russell, _On Crimes_;
  Archbold, _Criminal Pleadings_.



FORGET-ME-NOT, or SCORPION-GRASS (Ger. _Vergissmeinnicht_, Fr.
_grémillet_, _scorpionne_), the name popularly applied to the small
annual or perennial herbs forming the genus _Myosotis_ of the natural
order _Boraginaceae_, so called from the Greek [Greek: mys], a mouse,
and [Greek: ous], an ear, on account of the shape of the leaves. The
genus is represented in Europe, north Asia, North America and Australia,
and is characterized by oblong or linear stem-leaves, flowers in
terminal scorpioid cymes, small blue, pink or white flowers, a
five-cleft persistent calyx, a salver- or funnel-shaped corolla, having
its mouth closed by five short scales and hard, smooth, shining nutlets.
The common or true forget-me-not, _M. palustris_, is a perennial plant
growing to a height of 6 to 18 in., with rootstock creeping, stem
clothed with lax spreading hairs, leaves light green, and somewhat
shining, buds pink, becoming blue as they expand, and corolla rotate,
broad, with retuse lobes and bright blue with a yellow centre. The
divisions of the calyx extend only about one-third the length of the
corolla, whereas in the other British species of _Myosotis_ it is deeply
cleft. The forget-me-not, a favourite with poets, and the symbol of
constancy, is a frequent ornament of brooks, rivers and ditches, and,
according to an old German tradition, received its name from the last
words of a knight who was drowned in the attempt to procure the flower
for his lady. It attains its greatest perfection under cultivation, and,
as it flowers throughout the summer, is used with good effect for garden
borders; a variety, _M. strigulosa_, is more hairy and erect, and its
flowers are smaller. In _M. versicolor_ the flowers are yellow when
first open and change generally to a dull blue; sometimes they are
permanently yellowish-white. Of the species in cultivation, _M.
dissitiflora_, 6 to 8 in., with large handsome abundant sky-blue
flowers, is the best and earliest, flowering from February onwards; it
does well in light cool soils, preferring peaty ones, and should be
renewed annually from seeds or cuttings. _M. rupicola_, or _M.
alpestris_, 2 to 3 in., intense blue, is a fine rock plant, preferring
shady situations and gritty soil; _M. azorica_ (a native of the Azores)
with purple, ultimately blue flowers about half an inch across, has a
similar habit but larger flowers; _M. sylvatica_, 1 ft., blue, pink or
white, used for spring bedding, should be sown annually in August.



FORGING, the craft of the smith, or "blacksmith," exercised on malleable
iron and steel, in the production of works of constructive utility and
of ornament. It differs from founding (q.v.) in the fact that the metal
is never melted. It is essentially a moulding process, the iron or steel
being worked at a full red, or white, heat when it is in a plastic and
more or less pasty condition. Consequently the tools used are in the
main counterparts of the shapes desired, and they mould by impact. All
the operations of forging may be reduced to a few very simple ones: (1)
Reducing or drawing down from a larger to a smaller section ("fullering"
and "swaging"); (2) enlargement of a smaller to a larger portion
("upsetting"); (3) bending, or turning round to any angle of curvature;
(4) uniting one piece of metal to another ("welding"); (5) the formation
of holes by punching; and (6) severance, or cutting off. These include
all the operations that are done at the anvil. In none of these
processes, the last excepted, is the use of a sharp cutting tool
involved, and therefore there is no violence done to the fibre of the
malleable metal. Nor have the tools of the smith any sharp edges, except
the cutting-off tools or "setts." The essential fact of the flow of the
metal, which is viscous when at a full red heat, must never be lost
sight of; and in forging wrought iron the judgment of the smith must be
exercised in arranging the direction of the fibre in a way best
calculated to secure maximum strength.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]


    Fullering and swaging.

  Fullering denotes the preliminary roughing-down of the material
  between tools having convex edges; swaging, the completion or
  finishing process between swages, or dies of definite shape, nearly
  hemispherical in form. When a bar has to be reduced from larger to
  smaller dimensions, it is laid upon a fuller or round-faced stake, set
  in the anvil, or, in some cases, on a flat face (fig. 1), and blows
  are dealt upon that portion of the face which lies exactly opposite
  with a fullering tool A, grasped by a rather loosely-fitting handle
  and struck on its head by a sledge. The position of the piece of work
  is quickly changed at brief intervals in order to bring successive
  portions under the action of the swages until the reduction is
  completed; the upper face, and if a bottom fuller is used the under
  face also, is thus left corrugated slightly. These corrugations are
  then removed either by a flatter, if the surfaces are plane (fig. 2),
  or by hollow swages, if the cross section is circular (fig. 3). Spring
  swages (fig. 4) are frequently used instead of separate "top and
  bottom tools." Frequently swaging is practised at once, without the
  preliminary detail of fullering. It is adopted when the amount of
  reduction is slight, and also when a steam hammer or other type of
  power hammer is available. This process of drawing down or fullering
  is, when practicable, adopted in preference to either upsetting or
  welding, because it is open to no objection, and involves no risk of
  damage to the material, while it improves the metal by consolidating
  its fibres. But its limitations in anvil work lie in the tediousness
  of the operation, when the part to be reduced is very much less in
  diameter, and very much longer, than the original piece of bar. Then
  there are other alternatives.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.]


    Upsetting.

  If a long bar is required to have an enlargement at any portion of its
  length, not very much larger in diameter than the bar, nor of great
  length, upsetting is the method adopted. The part to be enlarged is
  heated, the parts adjacent remaining cold, and an end is hammered, or
  else lifted and dropped heavily on the anvil or on an iron plate, with
  the result that the heated portion becomes both shortened and enlarged
  (figs. 5 and 6). This process is only suitable for relatively short
  lengths, and has the disadvantage that the fibres of wrought iron are
  liable to open, and so cause weakening of the upset portion. But
  steel, which has no direction of fibre, can be upset without injury;
  this method is therefore commonly adopted in steel work, in power
  presses to an equal extent with drawing down. The alternative to
  upsetting is generally to weld a larger to a smaller bar or section,
  or to encircle the bar with a ring and weld the two (fig. 7), and then
  to impart any shape desired to the ring in swages.


    Bending.

  Bending is effected either by the hammer or by the simple exercise of
  leverage, the heated bar being pulled round a fulcrum. It is always,
  when practicable, preferable to cutting out a curved or angular shape
  with a hot sett or to welding. The continuity of the fibre in iron is
  preserved by bending, and the risk of an imperfect weld is avoided.
  Hence it is a simple and safe process which is constantly being
  performed at the anvil. An objection to sharp bends, or those having a
  small radius, is that the fibres become extended on the outer radius,
  the cross section being at the same time reduced below that of the bar
  itself. This is met by imparting a preliminary amount of upsetting to
  the part to be bent, sufficient to counteract the amount of reduction
  due to extension of the fibres. A familiar example is seen in the
  corners of dip cranks.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.]


    Welding.

  The property possessed by pieces of iron or steel of uniting
  autogeneously while in a condition of semi-fusion is very valuable.
  When portions which differ greatly in dimensions have to be united,
  welding is the only method practicable at the anvil. It is also
  generally the best to adopt when union has to be made between pieces
  at right angles, or when a piece on which much work has to be done is
  required at the end of a long plain bar, as in the tension rods of
  cranes and other structures with eyes. The art of welding depends
  chiefly on having perfectly clean joint faces, free from scale, so
  that metal can unite to metal; union would be prevented by the
  presence of oxide or of dirt. Also it is essential to have a
  temperature sufficiently high, yet not such as to overheat the metal.
  A dazzling white, at which small particles of metal begin to drop off,
  is suitable for iron, but steel must not be made so hot. A very few
  hammer blows suffice to effect the actual union; if the joint be
  faulty, no amount of subsequent hammering will weld it. The forms of
  weld-joints include the scarf (figs. 8 and 9), the butt (fig. 10), the
  V (fig. 11) and the glut, one form of which is shown in fig. 12; the
  illustrations are of bars prepared for welding. These forms give the
  smith a suitable choice for different conditions. A convexity is
  imparted to the joint faces in order to favour the expulsion of slag
  and dirt during the closing of the joint; these undesirable matters
  become entangled between concave faces. The ends are upset or enlarged
  in order to leave enough metal to be dressed down flush, by swaging or
  by flattering. The proportional lengths of the joint faces shown are
  those which conform to good practice. The fluxes used for welding are
  numerous. Sand alone is generally dusted on wrought iron, but steel
  requires borax applied on the joint while in the fire, and also dusted
  on the joint at the anvil and on the face of the latter itself.
  Electric welding is largely taking the place of the hand process, but
  machines are required to maintain the parts in contact during the
  passage of the current. Butt joints are employed, and a large quantity
  of power is absorbed, but the output is immensely greater than that of
  hand-made welds.

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.]


    Punching.

  When holes are not very large they are formed by punching, but large
  holes are preferably produced by bending a rod round and welding it,
  so forming an eye (fig. 13). Small holes are often punched simply as a
  preliminary stage in the formation of a larger hole by a process of
  drifting. A piece of work to be punched is supported either on the
  anvil or on a ring of metal termed a bolster, laid on the anvil,
  through which the burr, when severed, falls. But in making small holes
  through a thick mass, no burr is produced, the metal yielding sideways
  and forming an enlargement or boss. Examples occur in the wrought iron
  stanchions that carry light hand railing. In such cases the hole has
  to be punched from each face, meeting in the centre. Punching under
  power hammers is done similarly, but occupies less time.


    Cutting-off.

  The cutting-off or severance of material is done either on hot or cold
  metal. In the first case the chisels used, "hot setts," have keener
  cutting angles than those employed for the second, termed "cold
  setts." One sett is held in a hole in the anvil face, the "anvil
  chisel," the other is handled and struck with a sledge.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.]

The difference between iron and steel at the forge is that iron
possesses a very marked fibre whereas steel does not. Many forgings
therefore must be made differently according as they are in iron or in
steel. In the first the fibre must never be allowed to run transversely
to the axis of greatest tensile or bending stress, but must be in line
therewith. For this reason many forgings, of which a common eye or loop
(fig. 13) is a typical example, that would be stamped from a solid piece
if made in steel, must be bent round from bar and welded if in wrought
iron. Further, welding which is practically uniformly trustworthy in
wrought iron, is distrusted in steel. The difference is due to the very
fibrous character of iron, the welding of which gives much less anxiety
to the smith than that of steel. Welds in iron are frequently made
without any flux, those in steel never. Though mention has only been
made of iron and steel, other alloys are forged, as those of aluminium,
delta metal, &c. But the essential operations are alike, the differences
being in temperature at which the forging is done and nature of the
fluxes used for welding. For hardening and tempering, an important
section of smith's work, see ANNEALING.

_Die Forging._--The smith operating by hand uses the above methods only.
There is, however, a large and increasing volume of forgings produced in
other ways, and comprehended under the general terms, "die forging" or
"drop forging."

Little proof is needed to show that the various operations done at the
anvil might be performed in a more expeditious way by the aid of
power-operated appliances; for the elementary processes of reducing, and
enlarging, bending, punching, &c., are extremely simple, and the most
elaborate forged work involves only a repetition of these. The fact that
the material used is entirely plastic when raised to a white heat is
most favourable to the method of forging in matrices or dies. A white
hot mass of metal can be placed in a matrix, and stamped into shape in a
few blows under a hammer with as much ease as a medal can be stamped in
steel dies under a coining press. But much detail is involved in the
translation of the principle into practice. The parallel between coining
dies and forging dies does not go far. The blank for the coin is
prepared to such exact dimensions that no surplus material is left over
by the striking of the coin, which is struck while cold. But the blank
used in die forging is generally a shapeless piece, taken without any
preliminary preparation, a mere lump, a piece of bar or rod, which may
be square or round irrespective of whether the ultimate forging is to be
square, or round, or flat or a combination of forms. At the verge of the
welding heat to which it is raised, and under the intensity of the
impact of hammer blows rained rapidly on the upper die, the metal yields
like lead, and flows and fills the dies.

Herein lies a difference between striking a coin and moulding a forging.
A large amount of metal is squeezed out beyond the concavity of the
forging dies, and this would, if allowed to flow over between the
joints, prevent the dies from being closed on the forging. There are two
methods adopted for removing this "fin," or "flash" as it is termed, one
being that of suppression, applicable to circular work, the other that
of stripping, applied to almost all other cases.

  The suppression of fin means that the circular bar is rotated in the
  dies (fig. 14) through a small arc, alternating between every few
  blows, with the result that the fin is obliterated immediately when
  formed, this being done at the same time that reduction of section is
  being effected over a portion or the whole of the bar.

  Stripping means that when a considerable amount of fin has been
  formed, it is removed by laying the forging on a die pierced right
  through with an opening of the same shape and area as the forging, and
  then dealing the forging a blow with the hammer. The forging is thus
  knocked through the die, leaving the severed or stripped fin behind.
  The forging is then returned to the dies and again treated, and the
  stripping may be repeated twice, or even oftener, before the forging
  can be completed.

  [Illustration: Fig. 14.]

  Figs. 15 and 16 illustrate the bottom dies of a set for forging in a
  particular form of eye, the top dies being of exactly the same shape.
  The first operation takes place in fig. 15, in which a bar of metal is
  reduced to a globular and cylindrical form, being constantly rotated
  meanwhile. The shank portion is then drawn down in the parallel recess
  to the left. The shape of the eye is completed in fig. 16, and the
  shank in the recess to the left of that. Fig. 17 shows how a lever is
  stamped between top and bottom dies. The hole in the larger boss is
  formed by punching, the punches nearly meeting in the centre, and the
  centre for the hole to be drilled subsequently in the smaller boss is
  located by a conical projection in the top die.

  [Illustration: FIG. 15.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 16.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 17.]

  It is evident that the methods of die forging, though only explained
  here in barest outline, constitute a principle of extensive
  application.

  An intricate or ornamental forging, which might occupy a smith a
  quarter of a day in making at the anvil, can often be produced in dies
  within five minutes (fig. 18). On the other hand, there is the cost of
  the preparation of the dies, which is often heavy, so that the
  question of method is resolved into the relative one of the cost of
  dies, distributed over the number of identical forgings required. From
  this point of view it is clear that given say a thousand forgings,
  ordered all alike, the cost of even expensive dies distributed over
  the whole becomes only an infinitesimal amount per forging.

  [Illustration: FIG. 18.]

  There is, further, the very important fact that forgings which are
  produced in dies are uniform and generally of more exact dimensions
  than anvil-made articles. This is seen to be an advantage when
  forgings have to be turned or otherwise tooled in the engineer's
  machine shop, since it lessens the amount of work required there.
  Besides, for many purposes such forgings do not require tooling at
  all, or only superficial grinding, while anvil-made ones would, in
  consequence of their slight inaccuracies.

  [Illustration: FIG. 19.]

  Yet again, die forging is a very elastic system, and herein lies much
  of its value. Though it reaches its highest development when thousands
  of similar pieces are wanted, it is also adaptable to a hundred, or
  even to a dozen, similar forgings. In such cases economy is secured by
  using dies of a very cheap character; or, by employing such dies as
  supplementary to anvil work for effecting neat finish to more precise
  dimensions than can be ensured at the anvil. In the first case use is
  made of dies of cast iron moulded from patterns (fig. 19) instead of
  having their matrices laboriously cut in steel with drills, chisels
  and milling tools. In the second, preliminary drawing down is done
  under the steam hammer, and bending and welding at the anvil, or under
  the steam hammer, until the forgings are brought approximately to
  their final shape and dimensions. Then they are reheated and inserted
  in the dies, when a few blows under the steam or drop hammer suffice
  to impart a neat and accurate finish.

  The limitations of die forging are chiefly those due to large
  dimensions. The system is most successful for the smallest forgings
  and dies which can be handled by one man without the assistance of
  cranes; and massive forgings are not required in such large numbers as
  are those of small dimensions. But there are many large articles
  manufactured which do not strictly come under the term forgings, in
  which the aid of dies actuated by powerful hydraulic presses is
  utilized. These include work that is bent, drawn and shaped from steel
  plate, of which the fittings of railway wagons constitute by far the
  largest proportion. The dies used for some of these are massive, and a
  single squeeze from the ram of the hydraulic press employed bends the
  steel plate between the dies to shape at once. Fairly massive forgings
  are also produced in these presses.

  Die forging in its highest developments invades the craft of the
  skilled smith. In shops where it is adopted entirely, the only
  craftsmen required are the few who have general charge of the shops.
  The men who attend to the machines are not smiths, but unskilled
  helpers.     (J. G. H.)



FORK (Lat. _furca_), an implement formed of two or more prongs at the
end of a shaft or handle, the most familiar type of which is the
table-fork for use in eating. In agriculture and horticulture the fork
is used for pitching hay, and other green crops, manure, &c.; commonly
this has two prongs, "tines"; for digging, breaking up surface soil,
preparing for hand weeding and for planting the three-pronged fork is
used. The word is also applied to many objects which are characterized
by branching ends, as the tuning-fork, with two branching metal prongs,
which on being struck vibrates and gives a musical note, used to give a
standard of pitch; to the branching into two streams of a river, or the
junction where a tributary runs into the main river; and in the human
body, to that part where the legs branch off from the trunk.

The _furca_, two pieces of wood fastened together in the form of the
letter [Lambda], was used by the Romans as an instrument of punishment.
It was placed over the shoulders of the criminal, and his hands were
fastened to it, condemned slaves were compelled to carry it about with
them, and those sentenced to be flogged would be tied to it;
crucifixions were sometimes carried out on a similar shaped instrument.
From the great defeat of the Romans by the Samnites at the battle of the
Caudine Forks (_Furculae Caudinae_), a narrow gorge, where the
vanquished were compelled to pass under the yoke (_jugum_), as a sign of
submission, the expression "to pass through or under the forks" has been
loosely used of such a disgraceful surrender. The "forks" in any
allusion to this defeat should refer to the topographical name and not
to the _jugum_, which consisted of two upright spears with a third
placed transversely as a cross-bar.



FORKEL, JOHANN NIKOLAUS (1749-1818), German musician, was born on the
22nd of February 1749 at Meeder in Coburg. He was the son of a cobbler,
and as a practical musician, especially as a pianoforte player, achieved
some eminence; but his claims to a more abiding name rest chiefly upon
his literary skill and deep research as an historian of musical science
and literature. He was an enthusiastic admirer of J.S. Bach, whose music
he did much to popularize. His library, which was accumulated with care
and discrimination at a time when rare books were cheap, forms a
valuable portion of the royal library in Berlin and also of the library
of the Königlicher Institut für Kirchenmusik. He was organist to the
university church of Göttingen, obtained the degree of doctor of
philosophy, and in 1778 became musical director of the university. He
died at Göttingen on the 20th of March 1818. The following is a list of
his principal works: _Über die Theorie der Musik_ (Göttingen, 1777);
_Musikalisch kritische Bibliothek_ (Gotha, 1778); _Allgemeine Geschichte
der Musik_ (Leipzig, 1788). The last is his most important work. He also
wrote a _Dictionary of Musical Literature_, which is full of valuable
material. To his musical compositions, which are numerous, little
interest is to-day to be attached. But it is worth noting that he wrote
variations on the English national anthem "God save the king" for the
clavichord, and that Abt Vogler wrote a sharp criticism on them, which
appeared at Frankfort in 1793 together with a set of variations as he
conceived they ought to be written.



FORLÌ (anc. _Forum Livii_), a town and episcopal see of Emilia, Italy,
the capital of the province of Forlì, 40 m. S.E. of Bologna by rail, 108
ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901) 15,461 (town); 43,321 (commune). Forlì
is situated on the railway between Bologna and Rimini. It is connected
by steam tramways with Ravenna and Meldola, and by a road through the
Apennines with Pontassieve. The church of S. Mercuriale stands in the
principal square, and contains, besides paintings, some good carved and
inlaid choir stalls by Alessandro dei Bigni. The façade has been
considerably altered, but the campanile, erected in 1178-1180, still
exists; it is 252 ft. in height, square and built of brickwork, and is
one of the finest of Lombard campanili. The pictures in this church are
the work of Marco Palmezzano (1456-1537) and others; S. Biagio and the
municipal picture gallery also contain works by him. The latter has
other interesting pictures, including a fresco representing an
apprentice with pestle and mortar (Pestapepe), the only authentic work
in Forlì of Melozzo da Forlì (1438-1494), an eminent master whose style
was formed under the influence of Piero della Francesca, and who was the
master of Palmezzano; the frescoes in the Sforza chapel in SS. Biagio e
Girolamo are from the former's designs, though executed by the latter.
The church also contains the fine tomb (1466) of Barbara Manfredi. The
cathedral (Santa Croce) has been almost entirely rebuilt since 1844. The
Palazzo del Podestà, now a private house, is a brick building of the
15th century. The citadel (Rocca Ravaldina), constructed about
1360-1370, and later rebuilt, is now used as a prison. Flavio Biondo,
the first Renaissance writer on the topography of ancient Rome
(1388-1463), was a native of Forlì.

Of the ancient Forum Livii, which lay on the Via Aemilia, hardly
anything is known. In the 12th century we find Forlì in league with
Ravenna, and in the 13th the imperial count of the province of Romagna
resided there. In 1275 Forlì defeated Bologna with great loss. Martin
IV. sent an army to besiege it in 1282, which was driven out after
severe fighting in the streets; but the town soon afterwards
surrendered. In the 14th and 15th centuries it was under the government
of the Ordelaffi; and in 1500 was taken by Caesar Borgia, despite a
determined resistance by Caterina Sforza, widow of Girolamo Riario.
Forlì finally became a part of the papal state in 1504. (T. As.)



FORLIMPOPOLI (anc. _Forum Popillii_), a village of Emilia, Italy, in the
province of Forlì, from which it is 5 m. S.E. by rail, 105 ft. above
sea-level. Pop. (1901) 2299 (town); 5795 (commune). The ancient Forum
Popillii, a station on the Via Aemilia, was destroyed by Grimuald in
672. Whether its site is occupied by the present town is not certain;
the former should perhaps be sought a mile or so farther to the S.E.,
where were found most of the inscriptions of which the place of
discovery is certain. Forlimpopoli was again destroyed by Cardinal
Albornoz in 1360, and rebuilt by Sinibaldo Ordelaffi, who constructed
the well-preserved medieval castle (1380), rectangular with four
circular towers at the corners.     (T. As.)



FORLORN HOPE (through Dutch _verloren hoop_, from Ger. _verlorene Haufe_
= "lost troop"; _Haufe_, "heap," being equivalent in the 17th century to
"body of troops"; the French equivalent is _enfants perdus_), a
military term (sometimes shortened to "forlorn"), used in the 16th and
17th centuries for a body of troops thrown out in front of the line of
battle to engage the hostile line, somewhat after the fashion of
skirmishers, though they were always solid closed bodies. These troops
ran great risks, because they were often trapped between the two lines
of battle as the latter closed upon one another, and fired upon or
ridden down by their friends; further, their mission was to facilitate
the attacks of their own main body by striking the first blow against or
meeting the first shock of the fresh and unshaken enemy. In the
following century (18th), when lines of masses were no longer employed,
a thin line of skirmishers alone preceded the three-deep line of battle,
but the term "forlorn hope" continued to be used for picked bodies of
men entrusted with dangerous tasks, and in particular for the storming
party at the assault of a fortress. In this last sense "forlorn hope" is
often used at the present time. The misunderstanding of the word "hope"
has led to various applications of "forlorn hope," such as to an
enterprise offering little chance of success, or, further still from the
original meaning, to the faint or desperate hope of such success.



FORM (Lat. _forma_), in general, the external shape, appearance,
configuration of an object, in contradistinction to the matter of which
it is composed; thus a speech may contain excellent arguments,--the
_matter_ may be good, while the style, grammar, arrangement,--the
_form_--is bad. The term, with its adjective "formal" and the derived
nouns "formality" and "formalism," is hence contemptuously used for that
which is superficial, unessential, hypocritical: chap. xxiii. of
Matthew's gospel is a classical instance of the distinction between the
formalism of the Pharisaic code and genuine religion. With this may be
compared the popular phrases "good form" and "bad form" applied to
behaviour in society: so "format" (from the French) is technically used
of the shape and size, e.g. of a book (octavo, quarto, &c.) or of a
cigarette. The word "form" is also applied to certain definite objects:
in printing a body of type secured in a chase for printing at one
impression ("form" or "forme"); a bench without a back, such as is used
in schools (perhaps to be compared with O. Fr. _s'asseoir en forme_, to
sit in a row); a mould or shape on or in which an object is
manufactured; the lair or nest of a hare. From its use in the sense of
regulated order comes the application of the term to a class in a school
("sixth form," "fifth form," &c.); this sense has been explained without
sufficient ground as due to the idea of all children in the same class
sitting on a single form (bench).

The word has been used technically in philosophy with various shades of
meaning. Thus it is used to translate the Platonic [Greek: idea],
[Greek: eidos], the permanent reality which makes a thing what it is, in
contrast with the particulars which are finite and subject to change.
Whether Plato understood these forms as actually existent apart from all
the particular examples, or as being of the nature of immutable physical
laws, is matter of discussion. For practical purposes Aristotle was the
first to distinguish between matter ([Greek: hylê]) and form ([Greek:
eidos]). To Aristotle matter is the undifferentiated primal element: it
is rather that from which things develop ([Greek: hypokeimenon], [Greek:
dynamis]) than a thing in itself ([Greek: energeia]). The development of
particular things from this germinal matter consists in differentiation,
the acquiring of particular _forms_ of which the knowable universe
consists (cf. CAUSATION for the Aristotelian "formal cause"). The
perfection of the form of a thing is its entelechy ([Greek:
entelecheia]) in virtue of which it attains its fullest realization of
function (_De anima_, ii. 2, [Greek: hê men hylê dynamis to de eidos
entelecheia]). Thus the entelechy of the body is the soul. The origin of
the differentiation process is to be sought in a "prime mover" ([Greek:
prôton kinoun]), i.e. pure form entirely separate ([Greek: chôriston])
from all matter, eternal, unchangeable, operating not by its own
activity but by the impulse which its own absolute existence excites in
matter ([Greek: hôs erômenon], [Greek: ou kinoumenon]). The Aristotelian
conception of form was nominally, though perhaps in most cases
unintelligently, adopted by the Scholastics, to whom, however, its
origin in the observation of the physical universe was an entirely
foreign idea. The most remarkable adaptation is probably that of
Aquinas, who distinguished the spiritual world with its "subsistent
forms" (_formae separatae_) from the material with its "inherent forms"
which exist only in combination with matter. Bacon, returning to the
physical standpoint, maintained that all true research must be devoted
to the discovery of the real nature or essence of things. His induction
searches for the true "form" of light, heat and so forth, analysing the
external "form" given in perception into simpler "forms" and their
"differences." Thus he would collect all possible instances of hot
things, and discover that which is present in all, excluding all those
qualities which belong accidentally to one or more of the examples
investigated: the "form" of heat is the residuum common to all. Kant
transferred the term from the objective to the subjective sphere. All
perception is necessarily conditioned by pure "forms of sensibility,"
i.e. space and time: whatever is perceived is perceived as having
spacial and temporal relations (see SPACE AND TIME; KANT). These forms
are not obtained by abstraction from sensible data, nor are they
strictly speaking innate: they are obtained "by the very action of the
mind from the co-ordination of its sensation."



FORMALIN, or FORMALDEHYDE, CH2O or H·CHO, the first member of the series
of saturated aliphatic aldehydes. It is most readily prepared by passing
the vapour of methyl alcohol, mixed with air, over heated copper or
platinum. In order to collect the formaldehyde, the vapour is condensed
and absorbed, either in water or alcohol. It may also be obtained,
although only in small quantities, by the distillation of calcium
formate. At ordinary temperatures formaldehyde is a gas possessing a
pungent smell; it is a strong antiseptic and disinfectant, a 40%
solution of the aldehyde in water or methyl alcohol, sold as _formalin_,
being employed as a deodorant, fungicide and preservative. It is not
possible to obtain the aldehyde in a pure condition, since it readily
polymerizes. It is a strong reducing agent; it combines with ammonia to
form _hexamethylene tetramine_, (CH2)6N4, and easily "condenses" in the
presence of many bases to produce compounds which apparently belong to
the sugars (q.v.). It renders glue or gelatin insoluble in water, and is
used in the coal-tar colour industry in the manufacture of
para-rosaniline, pyronines and rosamines. Several polymers have been
described. _Para-formaldehyde_, or trioxymethylene, obtained by
concentrating solutions of formaldehyde _in vacuo_, is a white
crystalline solid, which sublimes at about 100° C. and melts at a
somewhat higher temperature, changing back into the original form. It is
insoluble in cold water, alcohol and ether. A diformaldehyde is supposed
to separate as white flakes when the vapour is passed into chloroform
(Körber, _Pharm. Zeit._, 1904, xlix. p. 609); F. Auerbach and H.
Barschall (_Chem. Zentr._, 1907, ii. p. 1734) obtained three polymers by
acting with concentrated sulphuric acid on solutions of formaldehyde,
and a fourth by heating one of the forms so obtained. The strength of
solutions of formaldehyde may be ascertained by the addition of excess
of standard ammonia to the aldehyde solution (hexamethylene tetramine
being formed), the excess of ammonia being then estimated by titration
with standard acid. On the formation of formaldehyde by the oxidation of
methane at high temperatures, see W.A. Bone (_Journ. Chem. Soc._, 1902,
81, p. 535; 1903, 83, p. 1074). Formaldehyde also appears to be a
reduction product of carbon dioxide (see _Annual Reports of the Chemical
Society_).



FORMAN, ANDREW (c. 1465-1521), Scottish ecclesiastic, was educated at
the university of St Andrews and entered the service of King James IV.
about 1489. He soon earned the favour of this king, who treated him with
great generosity and who on several occasions sent him on important
embassies to the English, the French and the papal courts. In 1501 he
became bishop of Moray and in July 1513 Louis XII. of France secured his
appointment as archbishop of Bourges, while pope Julius II. promised to
make him a cardinal. In 1514 during a long absence from his own land
Forman was nominated by Pope Leo X. to the vacant archbishopric of St
Andrews and was made papal legate in Scotland, but it was some time
before he secured possession of the see owing to the attempts of Henry
VIII. to subject Scotland to England and to the efforts of his rivals,
Gavin Douglas, the poet, and John Hepburn, prior of St Andrews, and
their supporters. Eventually, however, he resigned some of his many
benefices, the holding of which had made him unpopular, and through the
good offices of the regent, John Stewart, duke of Albany, obtained the
coveted archbishopric and the primacy of Scotland. Afterwards he was one
of the vice-regents of the kingdom and he died on the 11th of March
1521. As archbishop he issued a series of constitutions which are
printed in J. Robertson's _Concilia Scotiae_ (1866). Mr Andrew Lang
(_History of Scotland_, vol. i.) describes Forman as "the Wolsey of
Scotland, and a fomenter of the war which ended at Flodden."

  See the biography of the archbishop which forms vol. ii. of _The
  Archbishops of St Andrews_, by J. Herkless and R.K. Hannay (1909).



FORMAN, SIMON (1552-1611), English physician and astrologer, was born in
1552 at Quidham, a small village near Wilton, Wiltshire. At the age of
fourteen he became apprentice to a druggist at Salisbury, but at the end
of four years he exchanged this profession for that of a schoolmaster.
Shortly afterwards he entered Magdalen College, Oxford, where he studied
chiefly medicine and astrology. After continuing the same studies in
Holland he commenced practice as a physician in Philpot Lane, London,
but as he possessed no diploma, he on this account underwent more than
one term of imprisonment. Ultimately, however, he obtained a diploma
from Cambridge university, and established himself as a physician and
astrologer at Lambeth, where he was consulted, especially as a
physician, by many persons of rank, among others by the notorious
countess of Essex. He expired suddenly while crossing the Thames in a
boat on the 12th of September 1611.

  A list of Forman's works on astrology is given in Bliss's edition of
  the _Athenae Oxonienses_; many of his MS. works are contained in the
  Bodleian Library, the British Museum and the Plymouth Library. _A
  Brief Description of the Forman MSS. in the Public Library, Plymouth_,
  was published in 1853.



FORMERET, a French architectural term for the wall-rib carrying the web
or filling-in of a vault (q.v.).



FORMEY, JOHANN HEINRICH SAMUEL (1711-1797), Franco-German author, was
born of French parentage at Berlin on the 31st of May 1711. He was
educated for the ministry, and at the age of twenty became pastor of the
French church at Brandenburg. Having in 1736 accepted the invitation of
a congregation in Berlin, he was in the following year chosen professor
of rhetoric in the French college of that city and in 1739 professor of
philosophy. On the organization of the academy of Berlin in 1744 he was
named a member, and in 1748 became its perpetual secretary. He died at
Berlin on the 7th of March 1797. His principal works are _La Belle
Wolfienne_ (1741-1750, 6 vols.), a kind of novel written with the view
of enforcing the precepts of the Wolfian philosophy; _Bibliothèque
critique, ou mémoires pour servir à l'histoire littéraire ancienne et
moderne_ (1746); _Le Philosophe chrétien_ (1750); _L'Émile chrétien_
(1764), intended as an answer to the _Émile_ of Rousseau; and _Souvenirs
d'un citoyen_ (Berlin, 1789). He also published an immense number of
contemporary memoirs in the transactions of the Berlin Academy.



FORMIA (anc. _Formiae_, called Mola di Gaeta until recent times), a town
of Campania, Italy, in the province of Caserta, from which it is 48 m.
W.N.W. by rail. Pop. (1901) 5514 (town); 8452 (commune). It is situated
at the N.W. extremity of the Bay of Gaeta, and commands beautiful views.
It lay on the ancient Via Appia, and was much frequented as a resort by
wealthy Romans. There was considerable imperial property here and along
the coast as far as Sperlonga, and there are numerous remains of ancient
villas along the coast and on the slopes above it. The so-called villa
of Cicero contains two well-preserved _nymphaea_ with Doric
architecture. Its site is now occupied by the villa Caposele, once a
summer residence of the kings of Naples. There are many other modern
villas, and the sheltered hillsides (for the mountains rise abruptly
behind the town) are covered with lemon, orange and pomegranate gardens.
The now deserted promontory of the Monte Scauri to the E. is also
covered with remains of ancient villas; the hill is crowned by a large
tomb, known as Torre Giano. To the E. at Scauri is a large villa with
substructions in "Cyclopean" work. The ancient Formiae was, according to
the legend, the home of the Laestrygones, and later a Spartan colony
([Greek: Hormiaidia to euormon], Strabo v. 3. 6, p. 233). It was a
Volscian town, and, like Fundi, received the _civitas sine suffragio_
from Rome in 338 (or 332 B.C.) because the passage through its territory
had always been secure. This was strategically important for the Romans,
as the military road definitely constructed by Appius Claudius in 312
B.C., still easily traceable by its remains, and in part followed by the
high-road, traversed a narrow pass, which could easily be blocked,
between Fundi and Formiae. In 188 B.C., with Fundi, it received the full
citizenship, and, like it, was to a certain extent under the control of
a _praefectus_ sent from Rome, though it retained its three aediles.
Mamurra was a native of Formia. Cicero possessed a favourite villa here,
and was murdered in its vicinity in 43 B.C., but neither the villa nor
the tomb can be identified with any certainty. It was devastated by
Sextus Pompeius, and became a colony, with _duoviri_ as chief
magistrates, under Hadrian. Portus Caietae (the modern Gaeta) was
dependent upon it.

  See T. Ashby, "Dessins inédits de Carlo Labruzzi," in _Mélanges de
  l'école française de Rome_ (1903), 410 seq.     (T. As.)



FORMIC ACID, H2CO2 or H·COOH, the first member of the series of
aliphatic monobasic acids of the general formula CnH_(2n)O2. It is
distinguished from the other members of the series by certain
characteristic properties; for example, it shows an aldehydic character
in reducing silver salts to metallic silver, and it does not form an
acid chloride or an acid anhydride. Its nitrile (prussic acid) has an
acid character, a property not possessed by the nitriles of the other
members of the series; and, by the abstraction of the elements of water
from the acid, carbon monoxide is produced, a reaction which finds no
parallel in the higher members of the series. Finally, formic acid is,
as shown by the determination of its affinity constant, a much stronger
acid than the other acids of the series. It occurs naturally in red ants
(Lat. _formica_), in stinging nettles, in some mineral waters, in animal
secretions and in muscle. It may be prepared artificially by the
oxidation of methyl alcohol and of formaldehyde; by the rapid heating of
oxalic acid (J. Gay-Lussac, _Ann. chim. phys._, 1831 [2] 46, p. 218),
but best by heating oxalic acid with glycerin, at a temperature of
100-110° C. (M. Berthelot, _Ann._, 1856, 98, p. 139). In this reaction a
glycerol ester is formed as an intermediate product, and undergoes
decomposition by the water which is also produced at the same time.

    C3H5(OH)3 + H2C2O4 = C3H5(OH)2·OCHO+CO2 + H2O
    C3H5(OH)2O·CHO + H2O = C3H5(OH)3 + H2CO2.

  Many other synthetical processes for the production of the acid or its
  salts are known. Hydrolysis of hydrocyanic acid by means of
  hydrochloric acid yields formic acid. Chloroform boiled with alcoholic
  potash forms potassium formate (J. Dumas, _Berzelius Jahresberichte_,
  vol. 15, p. 371), a somewhat similar decomposition being shown by
  chloral and aqueous potash (J. v. Liebig, _Ann._, 1832, 1, p. 198).
  Formates are also produced by the action of moist carbon monoxide on
  soda lime at 190-220° C. (V. Merz and J. Tibiçira, _Ber._, 1880, 13,
  p. 23; A. Geuther, _Ann._, 1880, 202, p. 317), or by the action of
  moist carbon dioxide on potassium (H. Kolbe and R. Schmitt, _Ann._,
  1861, 119, p. 251). H. Moissan (_Comptes rend._, 1902, 134, p. 261)
  prepared potassium formate by passing a current of carbon monoxide or
  carbon dioxide over heated potassium hydride,

    KH + CO2 = KHCO2 and KH + 2CO = KHCO2 + C.

  A concentrated acid may be obtained from the diluted acid either by
  neutralization with soda, the sodium salt thus obtained being then
  dried and heated with the equivalent quantity of anhydrous oxalic acid
  (Lorin, _Bull. soc. chim._, 37, p. 104), or the lead or copper salt
  may be decomposed by dry sulphuretted hydrogen at 130° C. L. Maquenne
  (_Bull. soc. chim._, 1888, 50, p. 662) distils the commercial acid,
  _in vacuo_, with concentrated sulphuric acid below 75° C.

  Formic acid is a colourless, sharp-smelling liquid, which crystallizes
  at 0° C., melts at 8.6° C. and boils at 100.8° C. Its specific gravity
  is 1.22 (20°/4°). It is miscible in all proportions with water,
  alcohol and ether. When heated with zinc dust, the acid decomposes
  into carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The sodium and potassium salts,
  when heated to 400° C., give oxalates and carbonates of the alkali
  metals, but the magnesium, calcium and barium salts yield carbonates
  only. The free acid, when heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, is
  decomposed into water and pure carbon monoxide; when heated with
  nitric acid, it is oxidized first to oxalic acid and finally to carbon
  dioxide. The salts of the acid are known as _formates_, and are mostly
  soluble in water, those of silver and lead being the least soluble.
  They crystallize well and are readily decomposed. Concentrated
  sulphuric acid converts them into sulphates, with simultaneous
  liberation of carbon monoxide. The calcium salt, when heated with the
  calcium salts of higher homologues, gives aldehydes. The silver and
  mercury salts, when heated, yield the metal, with liberation of carbon
  dioxide and formation of free formic acid; and the ammonium salt, when
  distilled, gives some formamide, HCONH2. The esters of the acid may be
  obtained by distilling a mixture of the sodium or potassium salts and
  the corresponding alcohol with hydrochloric or sulphuric acids.

  _Formamide_, HCONH2, is obtained by heating ethyl formate with
  ammonia; by heating ammonium formate with urea to 140° C.,

    2HCO·ONH4 + CO(NH2)2 = 2HCONH2 + (NH4)2CO3;

  by heating ammonium formate in a sealed tube for some hours at 230°
  C., or by the action of sodium amalgam on a solution of potassium
  cyanate (H. Basarow, _Ber._, 1871, 4, p. 409). It is a liquid which
  boils _in vacuo_ at 150°, but at 192-195° C. under ordinary
  atmospheric pressure, with partial decomposition into carbon monoxide
  and ammonia. It dissolves mercuric oxide, with the formation of
  mercuric formamide, (HCONH)2Hg.



FORMOSA, a northern territory of the Argentine republic, bounded N. by
Bolivia, N.E. and E. by Paraguay, S. by the Chaco Territory, and W. by
Salta, with the Pilcomayo and Bermejo forming its northern and southern
boundaries. Estimated area, 41,402 sq. m. It is a vast plain, sloping
gently to the S.E., covered with marshes and tropical forests. Very
little is known of it except small areas along the Bermejo and Paraguay
rivers, where attempts have been made to form settlements. The
unexplored interior is still occupied by tribes of wild Indians. The
climate is hot, the summer temperature rising to a maximum of 104° F.
Timber-cutting is the principal occupation of the settlers, though
stock-raising and agriculture engage some attention in the settlements
on the Paraguay. The capital, Formosa (founded 1879), is a small
settlement on the Paraguay with a population of about 1000 in 1900. The
settled population of the territory was 4829 in 1895, which it was
estimated had increased to 13,431 in 1905. The nomadic Indians are
estimated at 8000.



FORMOSA (called _Taiwan_ by the Chinese, and following them by the
Japanese, into whose possession it came after their war with China in
1895), an island in the western Pacific Ocean, between the Southern and
the Eastern China Sea, separated from the Chinese mainland by the
Formosa Strait, which has a width of about 90 m. in its narrowest part.
The island is 225 m. long and from 60 to 80 m. broad, has a coast-line
measuring 731 m., an area of 13,429 sq. m.--being thus nearly the same
size as Kiushiu, the most southern of the four chief islands forming the
Japanese empire proper--and extends from 20° 56' to 25° 15' N. and from
120° to 122° E. It forms part of the long line of islands which are
interposed as a protective barrier between the Asiatic coast and the
outer Pacific, and is the cause of the immunity from typhoons enjoyed by
the ports of China from Amoy to the Yellow Sea. Along the western coast
is a low plain, not exceeding 20 m. in extreme width; on the east coast
there is a rich plain called Giran, and there are also some fertile
valleys in the neighbourhood of Karenko and Pinan, extending up the
longitudinal valleys of the rivers Karenko and Pinan, between which and
the east coast the Taito range intervenes; but the rest of the island is
mountainous and covered with virgin forest. In the plains the soil is
generally of sand or alluvial clay, covered in the valleys with a rich
vegetable mould. The scenery of Formosa is frequently of majestic
beauty, and to this it is indebted for its European name, happily
bestowed by the early Spanish navigators.

On the addition of Formosa to her dominions, Fuji ceased to be Japan's
highest mountain, and took the third place on the list. Mount Morrison
(14,270 ft.), which the Japanese renamed Niitaka-yama (New High
Mountain), stands first, and Mount Sylvia (12,480 ft.), to which they
give the name of Setzu-zan (Snowy Mountain), comes second. Mount
Morrison stands nearly under the Tropic of Cancer. It is not volcanic,
but consists of argillaceous schist and quartzite. An ascent made by Dr
Honda of the imperial university of Japan showed that, up to a height of
6000 ft., the mountain is clothed with primeval forests of palms,
banyans, cork trees, camphor trees, tree ferns, interlacing creepers and
dense thickets of rattan or stretches of grass higher than a man's
stature. The next interval of 1000 ft. has gigantic cryptomerias and
chamoecyparis; then follow pines; then, at a height of 9500 ft., a broad
plateau, and then alternate stretches of grass and forest up to the top,
which consists of several small peaks. There is no snow. Mount Morrison,
being surrounded by high ranges, is not a conspicuous object. Mount
Sylvia lies in 24° 30' N. lat. There are many other mountains of
considerable elevation. In the north is Getsurôbi-zan (4101 ft.); and on
either side of Setzu-zan, with which they form a range running due east
and west across the island, are Jusampunzan (4698 ft.) and Kali-zan
(7027 ft.). Twenty-two miles due south of Kali-zan stands Hakumosha-zan
(5282 ft.), and just 20 m. due south of Hakumosha-zan begins a chain of
three peaks, Suisha-zan (6200 ft.), Hoo-zan (4928), and Niitaka-yama.
These five mountains, Hari-zan, Hakumosha-zan, Suisha-zan, Hoo-zan and
Niitaka-yama, stand almost exactly under 121° E. long., in the very
centre of the island. But the backbone of the island lies east of them,
extending S. from Setzu-zan through Gokan-zan, and Noko-zan and other
peaks and bending S.W. to Niitaka-yama. Yet farther south, and still
lying in line down the centre of the island, are Sankyakunan-zan (3752
ft.), Shurogi-zan (5729 ft.), Poren-zan (4957 ft.), and Kado-zan (9055
ft.), and, finally, in the south-east Arugan-zan (4985 ft.). These, it
will be observed, are all Japanese names, and the heights have been
determined by Japanese observers. In addition to these remarkable inland
mountains, Formosa's eastern shores show magnificent cliff scenery, the
bases of the hills on the seaside taking the form of almost
perpendicular walls as high as from 1500 to 2500 ft. Volcanic outbreaks
of steam and sulphur-springs are found. Owing to the precipitous
character of the east coast few rivers of any size find their way to the
sea in that direction. The west coast, on the contrary, has many
streams, but the only two of any considerable length are the Kotansui,
which rises on Shurogi-zan, and has its mouth at Toko after a course of
some 60 m. and the Seirakei, which rises on Hakumosha-zan, and enters
the sea at a point 57 m. farther north after a course of 90 m.

The climate is damp, hot and malarious. In the north, the driest and
best months are October, November and December; in the south, December,
January, February and March. The sea immediately south of Formosa is the
birthplace of innumerable typhoons, but the high mountains of the island
protect it partially against the extreme violence of the wind.

_Flora and Fauna._--The vegetation of the island is characterized by
tropical luxuriance,--the mountainous regions being clad with dense
forest, in which various species of palms, the camphor-tree (_Laurus
Camphora_), and the aloe are conspicuous. Consul R. Swinhoe obtained no
fewer than 65 different kinds of timber from a large yard in Taiwanfu;
and his specimens are now to be seen in the museum at Kew. The tree
which supplies the materials for the pith paper of the Chinese is not
uncommon, and the cassia tree is found in the mountains. Travellers are
especially struck with the beauty of some of the wild flowers, more
especially with the lilies and convolvuluses; and European greenhouses
have been enriched by several Formosan orchids and other ornamental
plants. The pine-apple grows in abundance. In the lowlands of the
western portion, the Chinese have introduced a large number of
cultivated plants and fruit trees. Rice is grown in such quantities as
to procure for Formosa, in former days, the title of the "granary of
China"; and the sweet potato, taro, millet, barley, wheat and maize are
also cultivated. Camphor, sugar, tea, indigo, ground peanuts, jute,
hemp, oil and rattans are all articles of export.

The Formosan fauna has been but partially ascertained; but at least
three kinds of deer, wild boars, bears, goats, monkeys (probably
_Macacus speciosus_), squirrels, and flying squirrels are fairly
common, and panthers and wild cats are not unfrequent. A poisonous but
beautiful green snake is often mentioned by travellers. Pheasants,
ducks, geese and snipe are abundant, and Dr C. Collingwood in his
_Naturalist's Rambles in the China Seas_ mentions _Ardea prasinosceles_
and other species of herons, several species of fly-catchers,
kingfishers, shrikes and larks, the black drongo, the _Cotyle sinensis_
and the _Prinia sonitans_. Dogs are kept by the savages for hunting. The
horse is hardly known, and his place is taken by the ox, which is
regularly bridled and saddled and ridden with all dignity. The rivers
and neighbouring seas seem to be well stocked with fish, and especial
mention must be made of the turtles, flying-fish, and brilliant
coral-fish which swarm in the waters warmed by the _Kurosiwo_ current,
the gulf-stream of the Pacific. Shell-fish form an important article of
diet to both the Chinese and the aborigines along the coast--a species
of _Cyrena_, a species of _Tapes_, _Cytheraea petechiana_ and _Modiola
teres_ being most abundant.

_Population._--The population of Formosa, according to a census in 1904,
is estimated at 3,022,687, made up as follows: aborigines 104,334,
Chinese 2,860,574 and Japanese 51,770. The inhabitants of Formosa may be
divided into four classes: the Japanese, who are comparatively few, as
there has not been much tendency to immigration; the Chinese, many of
whom immigrated from the neighbourhood of Amoy and speak the dialect of
that district, while others were Hakkas from the vicinity of Swatow; the
subjugated aborigines, who largely intermingled with the Chinese; and
the uncivilized aborigines of the eastern region who refuse to recognize
authority and carry on raids as opportunity occurs. The semi-civilized
aborigines, who adopted the Chinese language, dress and customs, were
called Pe-pa-hwan (_Anglice_ Pepo-hoans), while their wilder brethren
bear the name of Chin-hwan or "green savages," otherwise Sheng-fan or
"wild savages." They appear to belong to the Malay stock, and their
language bears out the supposition. They are broken up into almost
countless tribes and clans, many of which number only a few hundred
individuals, and their language consequently presents a variety of
dialects, of which no classification has yet been effected: in the
district of Posia alone a member of the Presbyterian mission
distinguished eight different mutually unintelligible dialects. The
people themselves are described as of "middle height, broad-chested and
muscular, with remarkably large hands and feet, the eyes large, the
forehead round, and not narrow or receding in many instances, the nose
broad, the mouth large and disfigured with betel." The custom of
tattooing is universal. In the north of the island at least, the dead
are buried in a sitting posture under the bed on which they have
expired. Petty wars are extremely common, not only along the Chinese
frontiers, but between the neighbouring clans; and the heads of the
slain are carefully preserved as trophies. In some districts the young
men and boys sleep in the skull-chambers, in order that they may be
inspired with courage. Many of the tribes that had least intercourse
with the Chinese show a considerable amount of skill in the arts of
civilization. The use of Manchester prints and other European goods is
fairly general; and the women, who make a fine native cloth from hemp,
introduce coloured threads from the foreign stuffs, so as to produce
ornamental devices. The office of chieftain is sometimes held by women.

The chief town is Taipe (called by the Japanese Taihoku), which is on
the Tamsui-yei river, and has a population of about 118,000, including
5850 Japanese. Taipe may be said to have two ports; one, Tamsui, at the
mouth of the river Tamsui-yei, 10 m. distant on the north-west coast,
the other Kelung (called by the Japanese Kiirun), on the north-east
shore, with which it is connected by rail, a run of some 18 m. The
foreign settlement at Taipe lies outside the walls of the city, and is
called Twatutia (Taitotei by the Japanese). Kelung (the ancient Pekiang)
is an excellent harbour, and the scenery is very beautiful. There are
coal-mines in the neighbourhood. Tamsui (called Tansui by the Japanese)
is usually termed Hobe by foreigners. It is the site of the first
foreign settlement, has a population of about 7000, but cannot be made a
good harbour without considerable expenditure. On the west coast there
is no place of any importance until reaching Anping (23° N. lat.), a
port where a few foreign merchants reside for the sake of the sugar
trade. It is an unlovely place, surrounded by mud flats, and a hotbed of
malaria. It has a population of 4000 Chinese and 200 Japanese. At a
distance of some 2½ m. inland is the former capital of Formosa, the
walled city of Tainan, which has a population of 100,000 Chinese, 2300
Japanese, and a few British merchants and missionaries. Connected with
Anping by rail (26 m.) and laying south of it is Takau, a treaty port.
It has a population of 6800, and is prettily situated on two sides of a
large lagoon. Six miles inland from Takau is a prosperous Chinese town
called Feng-shan (Japanese, Hozan). The anchorages on the east coast are
Soo, Karenko and Pinan, which do not call for special notice.
Forty-seven m. east of the extreme south coast there is a little island
called Botel-tobago (Japanese, Koto-sho), which rises to a height of
1914 ft. and is inhabited by a tribe whose customs differ essentially
from those of the natives on the main island.

_Administration and Commerce._--The island is treated as an outlying
territory; it has not been brought within the full purview of the
Japanese constitution. Its affairs are administered by a
governor-general, who is also commander-in-chief of the forces, by a
bureau of civil government, and by three prefectural governors, below
whom are the heads of twenty territorial divisions called _cho_; its
finances are not included in the general budget of the Japanese empire;
it is garrisoned by a mixed brigade taken from the home divisions; and
its currency is on a silver basis. One of the first abuses with which
the Japanese had to deal was the excessive use of opium by the Chinese
settlers. To interdict the importation of the drug altogether, as is
done in Japan, was the step advocated by Japanese public opinion. But,
influenced by medical views and by the almost insuperable difficulty of
enforcing any drastic import veto in the face of Formosa's large
communications by junk with China, the Japanese finally adopted the
middle course of licensing the preparation and sale of the drug, and
limiting its use to persons in receipt of medical sanction. Under the
administration of the Japanese the island has been largely developed.
Among other industries gold-mining is advancing rapidly. In 1902 48,400
oz. of gold representing a value of £168,626 were obtained from the
mines and alluvial washings. Coal is also found in large quantities near
Kelung and sulphur springs exist in the north of the island.

An extensive scheme of railway construction has been planned, the four
main lines projected being (1) from Takau to Tainan; (2) from Tainan to
Kagi; (3) from Kagi to Shoka; and (4) from Shoka to Kelung; these four
forming, in effect, a main trunk road running from the south-west to the
north-east, its course being along the foot of the mountains that border
the western coast-plains. The Takau-Tainan section (26 m.) was opened to
traffic on the 3rd of November 1900, and by 1905 the whole line of 259
m. was practically complete. Harbour improvements also are projected,
but in Formosa, as in Japan proper, paucity of capital constitutes a
fatal obstacle to rapid development.

There are thirteen ports of export and import, but 75% of the total
business is done at Tamsui. Tea and camphor are the staple exports. The
greater part of the former goes to Amoy for re-shipment to the west, but
it is believed that if harbour improvements were effected at Tamsui so
as to render it accessible for ocean-going steamers, shipments would be
made thence direct to New York. The camphor trade being a government
monopoly, the quantity exported is under strict control.

_History._--The island of Formosa must have been known from a very early
date to the Chinese who were established in the Pescadores. The
inhabitants are mentioned in the official works of the Yuan dynasty as
_Tung-fan_ or eastern barbarians; and under the Ming dynasty the island
begins to appear as Kilung. In the beginning of the 16th century it
began to be known to the Portuguese and Spanish navigators, and the
latter at least made some attempts at establishing settlements or
missions. The Dutch were the first, however, to take footing in the
island; in 1624 they built a fort, Zelandia, on the east coast, where
subsequently rose the town of Taiwan, and the settlement was maintained
for thirty-seven years. On the expulsion of the Ming dynasty in China, a
number of their defeated adherents came over to Formosa, and under a
leader called in European accounts Coxinga, succeeded in expelling the
Dutch and taking possession of a good part of the island. In 1682 the
Chinese of Formosa recognized the emperor K'ang-hi, and the island then
began to form part of the Chinese empire. From the close of the 17th
century a long era of conflict ensued between the Chinese and the
aborigines. A more debased population than the peoples thus struggling
for supremacy could scarcely be conceived. The aborigines, _Sheng-fan_,
or "wild savages," deserved the appellation in some respects, for they
lived by the chase and had little knowledge even of husbandry; while the
Chinese themselves, uneducated labourers, acknowledged no right except
that of might. The former were not implacably cruel or vindictive. They
merely clung to their homesteads, and harboured a natural resentment
against the raiders who had dispossessed them. Their disposition was to
leave the Chinese in unmolested possession of the plain. But some of the
most valuable products of the island, as camphor and rattan, are to be
found in the upland forests, and the Chinese, whenever they ventured too
far in search of these products, fell into ambushes of hill-men who
neither gave nor sought quarter, and who regarded a Chinese skull as a
specially attractive article of household furniture. A violent rebellion
is mentioned in 1788, put down only after the loss, it is said, of
100,000 men by disease and sword, and the expenditure of 2,000,000 taels
of silver. Reconciliation never took place on any large scale, though it
is true that, in the course of time, some fitful displays of
administrative ability on the part of the Chinese, and the opening of
partial means of communication, led to the pacification of a section of
the _Sheng-fan_, who thenceforth became known as Pe-pa-hwan
(_Pepohoan_).

In the early part of the 19th century the island was chiefly known to
Europeans on account of the wrecks which took place on its coasts, and
the dangers that the crews had to run from the cannibal propensities of
the aborigines, and the almost equally cruel tendencies of the Chinese.
Among the most notable was the loss in 1842 of the British brig "Ann,"
with fifty-seven persons on board, of whom forty-three were executed at
Taichu. By the treaty of Tientsin (1860) Taichu was opened to European
commerce, but the place was found quite unsuitable for a port of trade,
and the harbour of Tamsui was selected instead. From 1859 both
Protestant and Presbyterian missions were established in the island. An
attack made on those at Feng-shan (Hozan) in 1868 led to the occupation
of Fort Zelandia and Anping by British forces; but this action was
disapproved by the home government, and the indemnity demanded from the
Chinese restored. In 1874 the island was invaded by the Japanese for the
purpose of obtaining satisfaction for the murder of a shipwrecked crew
who had been put to death by one of the semi-savage tribes on the
southern coast, the Chinese government being either unable or unwilling
to punish the culprits. A war was averted through the good offices of
the British minister, Sir T.F. Wade, and the Japanese retired on payment
of an indemnity of 500,000 taels. The political state of the island
during these years was very bad; in a report of 1872 there is recorded a
proverb among the official classes, "every three years an outbreak,
every five a rebellion"; but subsequent to 1877 some improvement was
manifested, and public works were pushed forward by the Chinese
authorities. In 1884, in the course of belligerent proceedings arising
out of the Tongking dispute, the forts at Kelung on the north were
bombarded by the French fleet, and the place was captured and held for
some months by French troops. An attack on the neighbouring town of
Tamsui failed, but a semi-blockade of the island was maintained by the
French fleet during the winter and spring of 1884-1885. The troops were
withdrawn on the conclusion of peace in June 1885.

In 1895 the island was ceded to Japan by the treaty of Shimonoseki at
the close of the Japanese war. The resident Chinese officials, however,
refused to recognize the cession, declared a republic, and prepared to
offer resistance. It is even said they offered to transfer the
sovereignty to Great Britain if that power would accept it. A formal
transfer to Japan was made in June of the same year in pursuance of the
treaty, the ceremony taking place on board ship outside Kelung, as the
Chinese commissioners did not venture to land. The Japanese were thus
left to take possession as best they could, and some four months elapsed
before they effected a landing on the south of the island. Takau was
bombarded and captured on the 15th of October, and the resistance
collapsed. Liu Yung-fu, the notorious Black Flag general, and the
back-bone of the resistance, sought refuge in flight. The general state
of the island when the Japanese assumed possession was that the plain of
Giran on the eastern coast and the hill-districts were inhabited by
semi-barbarous folk, the western plains by Chinese of a degraded type,
and that between the two there existed a traditional and continuous
feud, leading to mutual displays of merciless and murderous violence. By
many of these Chinese settlers the Japanese conquerors, when they came
to occupy the island, were regarded in precisely the same light as the
Chinese themselves had been regarded from time immemorial by the
aborigines. Insurrections occurred frequently, the insurgents receiving
secret aid from sympathizers in China, and the difficulties of the
Japanese being increased not only by their ignorance of the country,
which abounds in fastnesses where bandits can find almost inaccessible
refuge, but also by the unwillingness of experienced officials to
abandon their home posts for the purpose of taking service in the new
territory.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--C. Imbault-Huart, _L'Île Formose, histoire et
  description_ (Paris, 1893), 4^o; J.D. Clark, _Formosa_ (Shanghai,
  1896); W.A. Pickering, _Pioneering in Formosa_ (London, 1898); George
  Candidius, _A Short Account of the Island of Formosa in the Indies_
  ..., vol. i.; Churchill's _Collection of Voyages_ (1744); Robert
  Swinhoe, _Notes on the Island of Formosa_, read before the British
  Association (1863); W. Campbell, "Aboriginal Savages of Formosa,"
  _Ocean Highways_ (April 1873); H.J. Klaproth, _Description de l'île de
  Formose, mém. rel. à l'Asie_ (1826); Mrs T.F. Hughes, _Notes of a Six
  Years' Residence in Formosa_ (London, 1881); Y. Takekoshi, _Japanese
  Rule in Formosa_ (transl. by G. Braithwaite) (London, 1907).



FORMOSUS, pope from 891 to 896, the successor of Stephen V. (or VI.). He
first appears in history when, as bishop of Porto, he was sent on an
embassy to the Bulgarians. Having afterwards sided with a faction
against John VIII., he was excommunicated, and compelled to take an oath
never to return to Rome or again to assume his priestly functions. From
this oath he was, however, absolved by Marinus, the successor of John
VIII., and restored to his dignities; and on the death of Stephen V. in
891 he was chosen pope. At that time the Holy See was engaged in a
struggle against the oppression of the princes of Spoleto, and a
powerful party in Rome was eager to obtain the intervention of Arnulf,
king of Germany, against these dangerous neighbours. Formosus himself
shared this view; but he was forced to yield to circumstances and to
consecrate as emperor Lambert, the young son of Guy of Spoleto. Guy had
already been consecrated by Stephen V., and died in 894. In the
following year Arnulf succeeded in seizing Rome, and Formosus crowned
him emperor. But, as he was advancing on Spoleto against Lambert, Arnulf
was seized with paralysis, and was forced to return to Germany.
Overwhelmed with chagrin, Formosus died on the 4th of April 896. The
discords in which he had been involved continued after his death. The
validity of his acts was contested on the pretext that, having been
originally bishop of Porto, he could not be a legitimate pope. The
fundamental factor in these dissensions was the rivalry between the
princes of Spoleto and the Carolingian house, represented by the king of
Germany. The body of Formosus was disinterred in 897 by Stephen VI., and
treated with contumely as that of a usurper of the papal throne; but
Theodore II. restored it to Christian burial, and at a council presided
over by John IX. the pontificate of Formosus was declared valid and all
his acts confirmed.     (L. D.*)



FORMULA (Lat. diminutive of _forma_, shape, pattern, &c., especially
used of rules of judicial procedure), in general, a stereotyped form of
words to be used on stated occasions, for specific purposes, ceremonies,
&c. In the sciences, the word usually denotes a symbolical statement of
certain facts; for example, a chemical formula exhibits the composition
of a substance (see CHEMISTRY); a botanical formula gives the
differentia of a plant; a dentition formula indicates the arrangement
and number of the teeth of an animal.



FORNER, JUAN BAUTISTA PABLO (1756-1799), Spanish satirist and scholar,
was born at Mérida (Badajoz) on the 23rd of February 1756, studied at
the university of Salamanca, and was called to the bar at Madrid in
1783. During the next few years--under the pseudonyms of "Tomé Cecial,"
"Pablo Segarra," "Don Antonio Varas," "Bartolo," "Pablo Ignocausto," "El
Bachiller Regañadientes," and "Silvio Liberio"--Forner was engaged in a
series of polemics with García de la Huerta, Iriarte and other writers;
the violence of his attacks was so extreme that he was finally forbidden
to publish any controversial pamphlets, and was transferred to a legal
post at Seville. In 1796 he became crown prosecutor at Madrid, where he
died on the 17th of March 1799. Forner's brutality is almost unexampled,
and his satirical writings give a false impression of his powers. His
_Oración apologética por la España y su mérito literario_ (1787) is an
excellent example of learned advocacy, far superior to similar efforts
made by Denina and Antonio Cavanilles; and his posthumous _Exequias de
la lengua castellana_ (printed in the _Biblioteca de autores españoles_,
vol. lxiii.) testifies to his scholarship and taste.



FORRES (Gaelic, _far uis_, "near water"), a royal and police burgh of
Elginshire, Scotland. Pop. (1891) 3971; (1901) 4317. It is situated on
the Findhorn, which sweeps past the town and is crossed by a suspension
bridge about a mile to the W., 11 m. W. of Elgin by the Highland
railway, and 6 m. by road from Findhorn, its port, due north. It is one
of the most ancient towns in the north of Scotland. King Donald
(892-900), son of Constantine, died in Forres, not without suspicion of
poisoning, and in it King Duff (961-967) was murdered. Macbeth is said
to have slain Duncan in the first structure that gave its name to
Castlehill, which was probably the building demolished in 1297 by the
adherents of Wallace. The next castle was a royal residence from 1189 to
1371 and was occupied occasionally by William the Lion, Alexander II.
and David II. It was burned down by the Wolf of Badenoch in 1390. The
ruins on the hill, however, are those of a later edifice and are
surmounted by a granite obelisk, 65 ft. high, raised to the memory of
Surgeon James Thomson, a native of Cromarty, who at the cost of his life
tended the Russian wounded on the field of the Alma. The public
buildings include the town hall, a fine and commodious house on the site
of the old tolbooth; the Falconer museum, containing among other
exhibits several valuable fossils, and named after Dr Hugh Falconer
(1808-1865), the distinguished palaeontologist and botanist, a native of
the town; the mechanics' institute; the agricultural and market hall;
Leanchoil hospital and Anderson's Institution for poor boys. The cross,
in Decorated Gothic, stands beside the town hall. Adjoining the town on
the south-east is the beautifully-wooded Cluny Hill, a favourite public
resort, carrying on its summit the tower, 70 ft. high, which was erected
in 1806 to the memory of Nelson, and on its southern slopes a well-known
hydropathic. An excellent golf-course extends from Kinloss to Findhorn.
The industries comprise the manufacture of chemicals and artificial
manures, granite polishing, flour and sawmills, boot- and shoe-making,
carriage-building and woollen manufactures. There is also considerable
trade in cattle.

Sueno's Stone, about 23 ft. high, probably the finest sculptured
monolith in Scotland, stands in a field to the east of the town. Its
origin and character have given rise to endless surmises. It is carved
with figures of soldiers, priests, slaughtered men and captives on one
side, and on the other with a cross and Runic ornamentation. One theory
is that it is a relic of the early Christian church, symbolizing the
battle of life and the triumph of good over evil. According to an older
tradition it was named after Sueno, son of Harold, king of Denmark, who
won a victory on the spot in 1008. A third conjecture is that it
commemorates the expulsion of the Danes from Moray in 1014. Skene's view
is that it chronicles the struggle in 900 between Sigurd, earl of
Orkney, and Maelbrigd, Maormor of Moray. Another storied stone is called
the Witches' Stone, because it marks the place near Forres where Macbeth
is said to have encountered the weird sisters.

Forres is one of the Inverness district group of parliamentary burghs,
the other members being Nairn, Fortrose and Inverness. The town is
amongst the healthiest in Scotland and has the lowest rainfall in the
county.

Within 2 m. of Forres, to the S.W., lie the beautiful woods of Altyre,
the seat of the Gordon-Cummings. Three miles farther south is Relugas
House, the favourite residence of Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, romantically
situated on a height near the confluence of the Divie and the Findhorn.
Not far away stand the ruins of the old castle of Dunphail. On the left
bank of the Findhorn, 3½ m. W. of Forres, is situated Brodie Castle,
partly ancient and partly modern. The Brodies--the old name of their
estate was Brothie, from the Irish _broth_, a ditch, in allusion to the
trench that ran from the village of Dyke to the north of the house--were
a family of great consequence at the period of the Covenant. Alexander
Brodie (1617-1680), the fourteenth laird, was one of the commissioners
who went to the Hague to treat with Charles II., and afterwards became a
Scottish lord of session and an English judge. He and his son were
regarded as amongst the staunchest of the Presbyterians. Farther south
is the forest of Darnaway, famous for its oaks, in which stands the earl
of Moray's mansion of Darnaway Castle. It occupies the site of the
castle which was built by Thomas Randolph, the first earl. Attached to
it is the great hall, capable of accommodating 1000 men, with an open
roof of fine dark oak, the only remaining portion of the castle that was
erected by Archibald Douglas, earl of Moray, in 1450. Queen Mary held a
council in it in 1562. Earl Randolph's chair, not unlike the coronation
chair, has been preserved. Kinloss Abbey, now in ruins, stands some 2½
m. to the N.E. of Forres. It was founded in 1150 by David I., and
remained in the hands of the Cistercians till its suppression at the
Reformation. Robert Reid, who ruled from 1526 to 1540, was its greatest
abbot. His hobby was gardening, and it is believed that many of the 123
varieties of pears and 146 varieties of apples for which the district is
famous were due to his skill and enterprise. Edward I. stayed in the
abbey for a short time in 1303 and Queen Mary spent two nights in it in
1562.



FORREST, EDWIN (1806-1872), American actor, was born at Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania, on the 9th of March 1806, of Scottish and German descent.
He made his first stage appearance on the 27th of November 1820, at the
Walnut Street theatre, in Home's _Douglas_. In 1826 he had a great
success in New York as Othello. He played at Drury Lane in the
_Gladiator_ in 1836, but his Macbeth in 1845 was hissed by the English
audience, and his affront to Macready in Edinburgh shortly
afterwards--when he stood up in a private box and hissed him,--was fatal
to his popularity in Great Britain. His jealousy of Macready resulted in
the Astor Place riot in 1849. In 1837 he had married Catherine, daughter
of John Sinclair, an English singer, and his divorce suit in 1852 was a
_cause célèbre_ which hurt his reputation and soured his temper. His
last appearance was as Richelieu in Boston in 1871. He died on the 12th
of December 1872. He had amassed a large fortune, much of which he left
by will to found a home for aged actors.

  See Lawrence Barrett's _Edwin Forrest_ (Boston, 1881).



FORREST, SIR JOHN (1847- ), West Australian statesman and explorer, son
of William Forrest, of Bunbury, West Australia, was born near Bunbury,
on the 22nd of August 1847, and educated at Perth, W.A. In 1865 he
became connected with the Government Survey Department at Perth, and in
1869 led an exploring expedition into the interior in search of D.
Leichardt, penetrating through bush and salt-marshes as far inland as
123° E. In 1870 he again made an expedition from Perth to Adelaide,
along the southern shores. In 1874, with his brother Alexander Forrest
(born 1849), he explored eastwards from Champion Bay, following as far
as possible the 26th parallel, and striking the telegraph line between
Adelaide and Port Darwin; a distance of about 2000 m. was covered in
about five months with horses and without carriers, a particularly fine
achievement (see AUSTRALIA: _Exploration_). John Forrest also surveyed
in 1878 the north-western district between the rivers Ashburton and Lady
Grey, and in 1882 the Fitzroy district. In 1876 he was made deputy
surveyor-general, receiving the thanks of the colony for his services
and a grant of 5000 acres of land; for a few months at the end of 1878
he acted as commissioner of crown lands and surveyor-general, being
given the full appointment in 1883 and retaining it till 1890. When the
colony obtained in 1890 its constitution of self-government, Sir John
Forrest (who was made K.C.M.G. in 1891, and G.C.M.G. in 1901) became its
first premier, and he held that position till in 1901 he joined the
Commonwealth government, first as minister for defence, later as
minister for home affairs and postmaster-general, resigning the office
of federal treasurer in July 1907. His influence in West Australia was
one of an almost autocratic character, owing to the robust vigour of his
personality and his success in enforcing his views (see WESTERN
AUSTRALIA: _History_). In 1897 he was made a member of the Privy
Council. Sir John Forrest married in 1876 Margaret Hamersley. He
published _Explorations in Australia_ (1876) and _Notes on Western
Australia_ (1884-1887).



FORREST, NATHAN BEDFORD (1821-1877), Confederate cavalry general in the
American Civil War, was born near Chapel Hill, Tennessee, on the 13th of
July 1821. Before his father's death in 1837 the family had removed to
Mississippi, and for some years thereafter it was supported principally
by Nathan, who was the eldest son. Thus he never received any formal
education (as witnessed by the uncouth phraseology and spelling of his
war despatches), but he managed to teach himself with very fair success,
and is said to have possessed considerable ability as a mathematician.
He was in turn a horse and cattle trader in Mississippi, and a slave
dealer and horse trader in Memphis, until 1859, when he took to cotton
planting in north-western Mississippi, where he acquired considerable
wealth. At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 he volunteered as a
private, raised a cavalry battalion, of which he was lieut.-colonel, and
in February 1862 took part in the defence of Fort Donelson, and
refusing, like Generals Floyd and Pillow, to capitulate with the rest of
the Confederate forces, made his way out, before the surrender, with all
the mounted troops there. He was promptly made a colonel and regimental
commander, and fought at Shiloh with distinction, receiving a severe
wound. Shortly after this he was promoted brigadier-general (July 1862).
At the head of a mounted brigade he took a brilliant part in General
Bragg's autumn campaign, and in the winter of 1862-1863 he was
continually active in raiding the hostile lines of communication. These
raids have been the theme of innumerable discussions, and on the whole
their value seems to have been overrated. At the same time, and apart
from the question of their utility, Forrest's raids were uniformly bold
and skilful, and are his chief title to fame in the history of the
cavalry arm. Indeed, next to Stuart and Sheridan, he was the finest
cavalry leader of the whole war. One of the most remarkable of his
actions was his capture, near Rome, Georgia, after five days of marching
and fighting, of an entire cavalry brigade under Colonel A.D. Streight
(April 1863). He was present at the battle of Chickamauga in September,
after which (largely on account of his criticism of General Bragg, the
army commander) he was transferred to the Mississippi. Forrest was made
a major-general in December 1863. In the winter of 1863-1864 he was as
active as ever, and in the spring of 1864 he raided as far north as
Paducah, Ky. On the 12th of April 1864 he assaulted and captured Fort
Pillow, in Tennessee on the Mississippi; U.S. negro troops formed a
large part of the garrison and according to survivors many were
massacred after the fort had surrendered. The "Massacre of Fort Pillow"
has been the subject of much controversy and there is much conflicting
testimony regarding it, but it seems probable that Forrest himself had
no part in it. On the 10th of June Forrest decisively defeated a
superior Federal force at Brice's Cross Roads, Miss., and throughout the
year, though the greatest efforts were made by the Federals to crush
him, he raided in Mississippi, Tennessee and Alabama with almost
unvarying success. He was once more with the main Confederate army of
the West in the last disastrous campaign of Nashville, and fought
stubborn rearguard actions to cover the retreat of the broken
Confederates. In February 1865 he was made a lieut.-general, but the
struggle was almost at an end and General James H. Wilson, one of the
ablest of the Union cavalry generals, rapidly forced back the few
Confederates, now under Forrest's command, and stormed Selma, Alabama,
on the 2nd of April. The surrender of General Forrest and his whole
command, under the agreement between General Richard Taylor and General
E.S. Canby, followed on the 9th of May. After the war he lived in
Memphis. He sold his cotton plantation in 1867, and for some years was
president of the Selma, Marion and Memphis Railroad. He died at Memphis,
Tennessee, on the 29th of October 1877.

The military character of General Forrest, apart from questions of his
technical skill, horsemastership and detail special to his arm of the
service, was admittedly that of a great leader. He never commanded a
large force of all arms. He was uneducated, and had neither experience
of nor training for the strategical handling of great armies. Yet his
personality and his natural soldierly gifts were such that General
Sherman considered him "the most remarkable man the Civil War produced
on either side." Joseph Johnston, the Confederate general whose
greatness lay above all in calm and critical judgment, said that
Forrest, had he had the advantage of a thorough military training,
"would have been the great central figure of the war."

  See the biographies by J.A. Wyeth (1899) and J.H. Mathes (1902).



FORSKÅL, PETER (1736-1763), Swedish traveller and naturalist, was born
in Kalmar in 1736. He studied at Göttingen, where he published a
dissertation entitled _Dubia de principiis philosophiae recentioris_
(1756). Thence he returned to his native country, which, however, he had
to leave after the publication of a pamphlet entitled _Pensées sur la
liberté civile_ (1759). By Linnaeus he was recommended to Frederick V.
of Denmark, who appointed him to accompany Carsten Niebuhr in an
expedition to Arabia and Egypt in 1761. He died of the plague at Jerim
in Arabia on the 11th of July 1763.

  His friend and companion, Niebuhr, was entrusted with the care of
  editing his MSS., and published in 1775 _Descriptiones animalium,
  avium, amphibiorum, piscium, insectorum, vermium, quae in itin.
  Orient. observavit Petrus Forskål_. In the same year appeared also his
  account of the plants of Arabia Felix and of lower Egypt, under the
  title of _Flora Aegyptiaco-Arabica_.



FORSSELL, HANS LUDVIG (1843-1901), Swedish historian and political
writer, the son of Adolf Forssell, a distinguished mathematician, was
born at Gefle, where his father was professor, on 14th January 1843. At
the age of sixteen he became a student in Upsala University, where he
distinguished himself, and where, in 1866, having taken the degree of
doctor, he was appointed reader in history. At the age of thirty,
however, Forssell, who had already shown remarkable business capacity,
was called to Stockholm, where he filled one important post after
another in the Swedish civil service. In 1875 he was appointed head of
the treasury, and in 1880 was transferred to the department of inland
revenue, of which he continued to be president until the time of his
death. In addition to the responsibilities which these offices devolved
upon him, Forssell was constantly called to serve on royal commissions,
and his political influence was immense. In spite of all these public
duties, which he carried through with the utmost diligence, Forssell
also found leisure for an abundant literary activity. Of his historical
writings the most important were: _The Administrative and Economical
History of Sweden after Gustavus I._ (1869-1875) and _Sweden in 1571_
(1872). He was also for several years, in company with the poet Wirsén,
editor of the _Swedish Literary Review_. He published two volumes of
_Studies and_ _Criticisms_ (1875, 1888). In the year 1881, at the death
of the historian Anders Fryxell, Forssell was elected to the vacant seat
on the Swedish Academy. The energy of Forssell was so great, and he
understood so little the economy of strength, that he unquestionably
overtaxed his vital force. His death, however, which occurred with great
suddenness on the 2nd of August 1901 while he was staying at San
Bernardino in Switzerland, was wholly unexpected. There was little of
the typical Swedish urbanity in Forssell's exterior manner, which was
somewhat dry and abrupt. Like many able men who have from early life
administered responsible public posts, there appeared a certain want of
sympathy in his demands upon others. His views were distinct, and held
with great firmness; for example, he was a free-trader, and his
consistent opposition to what he called "the new system" had a
considerable effect on Swedish policy. He was not exactly an attractive
man, but he was a capable, upright and efficient public servant. In 1867
he married Miss Zulamith Eneroth, a daughter of the well-known
pomologist of Upsala; she survived him, with two sons and two daughters.
     (E. G.)



FORST (originally FORSTA or FORSTE), a town of Germany, in the Prussian
province of Brandenburg, on the Neisse, 44 m. S.E. of Frankfort-on-Oder.
Pop. (1905) 33,757. It has two Evangelical, a Roman Catholic and an Old
Lutheran church; there are two schools and two hospitals in the town.
The chief industry of Forst is the manufacture of cloth, but spinning,
dyeing and the making of artificial flowers are also carried on. Founded
in the 13th century, Forst passed in 1667 to the duke of Saxe-Merseburg,
becoming part of electoral Saxony in 1740. It was ceded to Prussia in
1815.



FORSTER, FRANÇOIS (1790-1872), French engraver, was born at Locle in
Neufchâtel, on the 22nd of August 1790. In 1805 he was apprenticed to an
engraver in Paris, and he also studied painting and engraving
simultaneously in the École des Beaux-Arts. His preference was
ultimately fixed on the latter art, and on his obtaining in 1814 the
first "grand prix de gravure," the king of Prussia, who was then with
the allies in Paris, bestowed on him a gold medal, and a pension of 1500
francs for two years. With the aid of this sum he pursued his studies in
Rome, where his attention was devoted chiefly to the works of Raphael.
In 1844 he succeeded Tardieu in the Academy. He died at Paris on the
27th of June 1872. Forster occupied the first position among the French
engravers of his time, and was equally successful in historical pieces
and in portraits. Among his works may be mentioned--The Three Graces,
and _La Vierge de la légende_, after Raphael; _La Vierge au bas-relief_,
after Leonardo da Vinci; Francis I. and Charles V., after Gros; St
Cecilia, after Paul Delaroche; Albert Dürer and Henry IV., after Porbus;
Wellington, after Gérard; and Queen Victoria, after Winterhalter.



FÖRSTER, FRIEDRICH CHRISTOPH (1791-1868), German historian and poet, was
the second son of Karl Christoph Förster (1751-1811), and consequently a
brother of the painter, Ernest Joachim Förster (1800-1885). Born at
Münchengosserstadt on the Saale on the 24th of September 1791, he
received his early education at Altenburg, and after a course of
theology at Jena, devoted some time to archaeology and the history of
art. At the outbreak of the War of Liberation in 1813, he joined the
army, quickly attaining the rank of captain; and by his war-songs added
to the national enthusiasm. On the conclusion of the war he was
appointed professor at the school of engineering and artillery in
Berlin, but on account of some democratic writings he was dismissed from
this office in 1817. He then became connected with various journals
until about 1829, when he received an appointment at the royal museum in
Berlin, with the title of court councillor (_Hofrat_). He was the
founder and secretary of the _Wissenschaftlicher Kunstverein_ in Berlin,
and died in Berlin on the 8th of November 1868. Förster's principal
works are: _Beiträge zur neueren Kriegsgeschichte_ (Berlin, 1816);
_Grundzüge der Geschichte des preussischen Staates_ (Berlin, 1818); _Der
Feldmarschall Blücher und seine Umgebungen_ (Leipzig, 1820); _Friedrich
der Grosse, Jugendjahre, Bildung und Geist_ (Berlin, 1822); _Albrecht
von Wallenstein_ (Potsdam, 1834); _Friedrich Wilhelm I., König von
Preussen_ (Potsdam, 1834-1835); _Die Höfe und Kabinette Europas im 18.
Jahrhundert_ (Potsdam, 1836-1839); _Leben und Taten Friedrichs des
Grossen_ (Meissen, 1840-1841); _Wallensteins Prozess_ (Leipzig, 1844);
and _Preussens Helden in Krieg und Frieden, neuere und neueste
preussische Geschichte_, 7 volumes (Berlin, 1849-1860). The three
concluding volumes of this work contain the history of the war of
liberation of 1813-14-15. He brought out an edition of Hegel's works,
adapted several of Shakespeare's plays for the theatre, wrote a number
of poems and an historical drama, _Gustav Adolf_ (Berlin, 1832).

  Many of his lesser writings were collected and published as
  _Kriegslieder, Romanzen, Erzählungen und Legenden_ (Berlin, 1838). The
  beginning of an autobiography of Förster, edited by H. Kletke, has
  been published under the title, _Kunst und Leben_ (Berlin, 1873).



FORSTER, JOHANN GEORG ADAM (1754-1794), German traveller and author, was
born at Nassenhuben, a small village near Danzig, on the 27th of
November 1754. His father, Johann Reinhold Forster, a man of great
scientific attainments but an intractable temper, was at that time
pastor of the place; the family are said to have been of Scottish
extraction. In 1765 the elder Forster was commissioned by the empress
Catherine to inspect the Russian colonies in the province of Saratov,
which gave his son an opportunity of acquiring the Russian language and
the elements of a scientific education. After a few years the father
quarrelled with the Russian government, and went to England, where he
obtained a professorship of natural history and the modern languages at
the famous non-conformist academy at Warrington. His violent temper soon
compelled him to resign this appointment, and for two years he and his
son earned a precarious livelihood by translations in London--a
practical education, however, exceedingly useful to the younger Forster,
who became a thorough master of English, and acquired many of the ideas
which chiefly influenced his subsequent life. At length the turning
point in his career came in the shape of an invitation for him and his
father to accompany Captain Cook in his third voyage round the world.
Such an expedition was admirably calculated to call forth Forster's
peculiar powers. His account of Cook's voyage (_A Voyage round the
World_, London, 1777; in German, Berlin, 1778-1780), is almost the first
example of the glowing yet faithful description of natural phenomena
which has since made a knowledge of them the common property of the
educated world. The publication of this work was, however, impeded for
some time by differences with the admiralty, during which Forster
proceeded to the continent to obtain an appointment for his father as
professor at Cassel, and found to his surprise that it was conferred
upon himself. The elder Forster, however, was soon provided for
elsewhere, being appointed professor of natural history at Halle. At
Cassel Forster formed an intimate friendship with the great anatomist
Sömmerring, and about the same time made the acquaintance of Jacobi, who
gave him a leaning towards mysticism from which he subsequently
emancipated himself. The want of books and scientific apparatus at
Cassel induced him to resort frequently to Göttingen, where he became
betrothed to Therese Heyne, the daughter of the illustrious philologist,
a clever and cultivated woman, but ill-suited to be Forster's wife. To
be able to marry he accepted (1784) a professorship at the university of
Wilna, which he did not find to his taste. The penury and barbarism of
Polish circumstances are graphically described in his and his wife's
letters of this period. After a few years' residence at Wilna he
resigned his appointment to participate in a scientific expedition
projected by the Russian government, and upon the relinquishment of this
undertaking became librarian to the elector of Mainz. He actively
promoted the incorporation of the left bank of the Rhine with France and
in 1793 went to Paris to carry on the negotiations. Meanwhile, however,
the Germans seized Mainz, and Forster--already disheartened by the turn
of events in France--was cut off from all return. Domestic sorrows were
added to his political troubles and he died suddenly at Paris on the
10th of January 1794.

Forster's masterpiece is his _Ansichten vom Niederrhein, von Brabant,
Flandern, Holland, England und Frankreich_ (1791-1794), one of the
ablest books of travel of the 18th century. His style is clear and
vivid; his method of describing what he sees extraordinarily plastic;
above all, he has the art of presenting objects to us from their most
interesting and attractive side. The same qualities are also more or
less conspicuous in his minor writings. By his translation (from the
English) of the _Sakuntala_ of Kalidasa (1791), he first awakened German
interest in Indian literature.

  Forster's _Sämtliche Werke_ appeared at Leipzig in 9 vols. in 1843.
  The _Ansichten vom Rhein_, &c., has been frequently reprinted (best
  edition by A. Leitzmann, Halle, 1893); Leitzmann has also published
  (Stuttgart, 1894) a selection of Forster's _Kleine Schriften_, which
  originally appeared in 6 vols. (1789-1797). His correspondence was
  published by his wife (2 vols., Leipzig, 1829); his _Briefwechsel mit
  Sömmerring_ by H. Hettner (Brunswick, 1877). See J. Moleschott, _G.
  Forster, der Naturforscher des Volks_ (1854; 3rd ed., 1874); K. Klein,
  _G. Forster in Mainz_ (Gotha, 1863); A. Leitzmann, _G. Forster_
  (Vorlesung) (Halle, 1893).



FORSTER, JOHN (1812-1876), English biographer and critic, was born on
the 2nd of April 1812 at Newcastle. His father, who was a Unitarian and
belonged to the junior branch of a good Northumberland family, was a
cattle-dealer. After being well grounded in classics and mathematics at
the grammar school of his native town, John Forster was sent in 1828 to
Cambridge, but after only a month's residence he removed to London,
where he attended classes at University College, and was entered at the
Inner Temple. He devoted himself, however, chiefly to literary pursuits.
He contributed to _The True Sun, The Morning Chronicle_ and to _The
Examiner_, for which he acted as literary and dramatic critic; and the
influence of his powerful individuality soon made itself felt. His
_Lives of the Statesmen of the Commonwealth_ (1836-1839) appeared partly
in Lardner's Cyclopaedia. He published the work separately in 1840 with
a _Treatise on the Popular Progress in English History_. Its merits
obtained immediate recognition, and Forster became a prominent figure in
that distinguished circle of literary men which included Bulwer,
Talfourd, Albany, Fonblanque, Landor, Carlyle and Dickens. Forster is
said to have been for some time engaged to Letitia Landon, but the
engagement was broken off, and Miss Landon married George Maclean. In
1843 he was called to the bar but he never became a practising lawyer.
For some years he edited the _Foreign Quarterly Review_; in 1846, on the
retirement of Charles Dickens, he took charge for some months of the
_Daily News_; and from 1847 to 1856 he edited the _Examiner_. From 1836
onwards he contributed to the _Edinburgh Quarterly_ and _Foreign
Quarterly_ Reviews a variety of articles, some of which were republished
in two volumes of _Biographical and Historical Essays_ (1858). In 1848
appeared his admirable _Life and Times of Oliver Goldsmith_ (revised in
1854). Continuing his researches into English history under the early
Stuarts, he published in 1860 the _Arrest of the Five Members by Charles
I.--A Chapter of English History rewritten_, and _The Debates on the
Grand Remonstrance, with an Introductory Essay on English Freedom_.
These were followed by his _Sir John Eliot: a Biography_ (1864),
elaborated from one of his earlier studies for the _Lives of Eminent
British Statesmen_. In 1868 appeared his _Life of Landor_, and, on the
death of his friend Alexander Dyce, Forster undertook the publication of
his third edition of Shakespeare. For several years he had been
collecting materials for a life of Swift, but he interrupted his studies
in this direction to write his standard _Life of Charles Dickens_. He
had long been intimate with the novelist, and it is by this work that
John Forster is now chiefly remembered. The first volume appeared in
1872, and the biography was completed in 1874. Towards the close of 1875
the first volume of his _Life of Swift_ was published; and he had made
some progress in the preparation of the second at the time of his death
on the 2nd of February 1876. In 1855 Forster had been appointed
secretary to the lunacy commission, and from 1861 to 1872 he held the
office of a commissioner in lunacy. His valuable collection of
manuscripts, including the original copies of Charles Dickens's novels,
together with his books and pictures, was bequeathed to South
Kensington Museum.

  An admirable account of him by Henry Morley is prefixed to the
  official handbook (1877) of the Dyce and Forster bequests.



FORSTER, JOHN COOPER (1823-1886), British surgeon, was born in 1823 in
Lambeth, London, where his father and grandfather before him had been
local medical practitioners. He entered Guy's hospital in 1841, was
appointed demonstrator of anatomy in 1850, assistant-surgeon, 1855, and
surgeon, 1870. He became a member of the College of Surgeons in 1844,
fellow in 1849 and president in 1884. He was a prompt and sometimes bold
operator. In 1858 he performed practically the first gastrostomy in
England for a case of cancer of the oesophagus. Among his best-known
papers were discussions of acupressure, syphilis, hydrophobia,
intestinal obstruction, modified obturator hernia, torsion, and colloid
cancer of the large intestine; and he published a book on _Surgical
Diseases of Children_ in 1860, founded on his experience as surgeon to
the hospital for children and women in Waterloo Road. He died suddenly
in London on the 2nd of March 1886.



FORSTER, WILLIAM EDWARD (1818-1886), British statesman, was born of Quaker
parents at Bradpole in Dorsetshire on the 11th of July 1818. He was
educated at the Friends' school at Tottenham, where his father's family
had long been settled, and on leaving school he was put into business. He
declined, however, on principle, to enter a brewery. Becoming in due time
a woollen manufacturer in a large way at Bradford, Yorkshire (from which
after his marriage he moved to Burley-in-Wharfedale), he soon made himself
known as a practical philanthropist. In 1846-1847 he accompanied his
father to Ireland as distributor of the Friends' relief fund for the
famine in Connemara, and the state of the country made a deep impression
on him. In 1849 he wrote a preface to a new edition of Clarkson's _Life of
William Penn_, defending the Quaker statesman against Macaulay's
criticisms. In 1850 he married Jane Martha, eldest daughter of the famous
Dr Arnold of Rugby. She was not a Quaker, and her husband was formally
excommunicated for marrying her, but the Friends who were commissioned to
announce the sentence "shook hands and stayed to luncheon." Forster
thereafter ranked himself as a member of the Church of England, for which,
indeed, he was in later life charged with having too great a partiality.
There were no children of the marriage, but when Mrs Forster's brother,
William Arnold, died in 1859, leaving four orphans, the Forsters adopted
them as their own.

One of these children was Mr H.O. Arnold-Forster (1855-1909), the
well-known Liberal-Unionist member of parliament, who eventually became
a member of Mr Balfour's cabinet; he was secretary to the admiralty
(1900-1903), and then secretary of state for war (1903-1905), and was
the author of numerous educational books published by Cassell & Co., of
which firm he was a director.

W.E. Forster gradually began to take an active part in public affairs by
speaking and lecturing. In 1858 he gave a lecture before the Leeds
Philosophical Institution on "How we Tax India." In 1859 he stood as
Liberal candidate for Leeds, but was beaten. But he was highly esteemed
in the West Riding, and in 1861 he was returned unopposed for Bradford.
In 1865 (unopposed) and in 1868 (at the head of the poll) he was again
returned. He took a prominent part in parliament in the debates on the
American Civil War, and in 1868 was made under-secretary for the
colonies in Earl Russell's ministry. It was then that he first became a
prominent advocate of imperial federation. In 1866 his attitude on
parliamentary reform attracted a good deal of attention. His speeches
were full of knowledge of the real condition of the people, and
contained something like an original programme of Radical legislation.
"We have other things to do," he said, "besides extending the franchise.
We want to make Ireland loyal and contented; we want to get rid of
pauperism in this country; we want to fight against a class which is
more to be dreaded than the holders of a £7 franchise--I mean the
dangerous class in our large towns. We want to see whether we cannot
make for the agricultural labourer some better hope than the workhouse
in his old age. We want to have Old England as well taught as New
England." In these words he heralded the education campaign which
occupied the country for so many years afterwards. Directly the Reform
Bill had passed, the necessity of "inducing our masters to learn their
letters" (in Robert Lowe's phrase) became pressing. Mr Forster and Mr
Cardwell, as private members in opposition, brought in Education Bills
in 1867 and 1868; and in 1868, when the Liberal party returned to
office, Mr Forster was appointed vice-president of the council, with the
duty of preparing a government measure for national education. The
Elementary Education Bill (see EDUCATION) was introduced on the 17th of
February 1870. The religious difficulty at once came to the front. The
Manchester Education Union and the Birmingham Education League had
already formulated in the provinces the two opposing theories, the
former standing for the preservation of denominational interests, the
latter advocating secular rate-aided education as the only means of
protecting Nonconformity against the Church. The Dissenters were by no
means satisfied with Forster's "conscience clause" as contained in the
bill, and they regarded him, the ex-Quaker, as a deserter from their own
side; while they resented the "25th clause," permitting school boards to
pay the fees of needy children at denominational schools out of the
rates, as an insidious attack upon themselves. By the 14th of March,
when the second reading came on, the controversy had assumed threatening
proportions; and Mr Dixon, the Liberal member for Birmingham and
chairman of the Education League, moved an amendment, the effect of
which was to prohibit all religious education in board schools. The
government made its rejection a question of confidence, and the
amendment was withdrawn; but the result was the insertion of the
Cowper-Temple clause as a compromise before the bill passed. Extremists
on both sides abused Forster, but the government had a difficult set of
circumstances to deal with, and he acted like a prudent statesman in
contenting himself with what he could get. An ideal bill was
impracticable; it is to Forster's enduring credit that the bill of 1870,
imperfect as it was, established at last some approach to a system of
national education in England without running absolutely counter to the
most cherished English ideas and without ignoring the principal agencies
already in existence.

Forster's next important work was in passing the Ballot Act of 1872, but
for several years afterwards his life was uneventful. In 1874 he was
again returned for Bradford, in spite of Dissenting attacks, and he took
his full share of the work of the Opposition Front Bench. In 1875, when
Mr Gladstone "retired," he was strongly supported for the leadership of
the Liberal party, but declined to be nominated against Lord Harrington.
In the same year he was elected F.R.S., and made lord rector of Aberdeen
University. In 1876, when the Eastern question was looming large, he
visited Servia and Turkey, and his subsequent speeches on the subject
were marked by studious moderation, distasteful to extremists on both
sides. On Mr Gladstone's return to office in 1880 he was made chief
secretary for Ireland, with Lord Cowper as lord-lieutenant. He carried
the Compensation for Disturbance Bill through the Commons, only to see
it thrown out in the Lords, and his task was made more difficult by the
agitation which arose in consequence. During the gloomy autumn and
winter of 1880-1881 Forster's energy and devotion in grappling with the
situation in Ireland (see IRELAND) were indefatigable, his labour was
enormous, and the personal risks he ran were many; but he enjoyed the
Irish character in spite of all obstacles, and inspired genuine
admiration in all his coadjutors. On the 24th of January 1881 he
introduced a new Coercion Bill in the House of Commons, to deal with the
growth of the Land League, and in the course of his speech declared it
to be "the most painful duty" he had ever had to perform, and one which
would have prevented his accepting his office if he had known that it
would fall upon him. The bill passed, among its provisions being one
enabling the Irish government to arrest without trial persons
"reasonably suspected" of crime and conspiracy. The Irish party used
every opportunity in and out of parliament for resenting this act, and
Forster was kept constantly on the move between Dublin and London,
conducting his campaign against crime and anarchy and defending it in
the House of Commons. His scrupulous conscientiousness and anxiety to
meet every reasonable claim availed him nothing with such antagonists,
and the strain was intense and continuous. He was nicknamed "Buckshot"
by the Nationalist press, on the supposition that he had ordered its use
by the police when firing on a crowd. On the 13th of October Mr Parnell
was arrested, and on the 20th the Land League was proclaimed. From that
time Forster's life was in constant danger, and he had to be escorted by
mounted police when he drove in Dublin. Early in March 1882 he visited
some of the worst districts in Ireland, and addressed the crowd at
Tullamore on the subject of outrages, denouncing the people for their
want of courage in not assisting the government, but adding, "whether
you do or not, it is the duty of the government to stop the outrages,
and stop them we will." Forster's pluck in speaking out like this was
fully appreciated in England, but it was not till after the revelations
connected with the Phoenix Park murders that the dangers he had
confronted were properly realized, and it became known that several
plans to murder him had only been frustrated by the merest accidents. On
the 2nd of May Mr Gladstone announced that the government intended to
release Mr Parnell and his fellow-prisoners in Kilmainham, and that both
Lord Cowper and Mr Forster had in consequence resigned; and the
following Saturday Forster's successor, Lord Frederick Cavendish, was,
with Mr Burke, murdered in Phoenix Park. It was characteristic of the
man that Forster at once offered to go back to Dublin temporarily as
chief secretary, but the offer was declined. His position naturally
attracted universal attention towards him, particularly during the
debates which ensued in parliament on the "Kilmainham Treaty." But Mr
Gladstone's influence with the Liberal party was paramount, in spite of
the damaging appearance of the compact made with Parnell, and Forster's
pointed criticisms only caused thoroughgoing partisans to accuse him of
a desire to avenge himself. It was not till the next session that he
delivered his fiercest attack on Parnell in the debate on the address,
denouncing him for his connexion with the Land League, and quoting
against him the violent speeches of his supporters and the articles of
his newspaper organs. It was on this occasion that Parnell, on Forster's
charging him, not with directly planning or perpetrating outrages or
murder, but with conniving at them, ejaculated "It's a lie"; and,
replying on the next day, the Irish leader, instead of disproving
Forster's charges, bitterly denounced his methods of administration.
Though, during the few remaining years of his life, Forster's political
record covered various interesting subjects, his connexion with these
stormy times in Ireland throws them all into shadow. He died on the 6th
of April 1886, on the eve of the introduction of the Home Rule Bill, to
which he was stoutly opposed. In the interval there had been other
questions on which he found himself at variance with Gladstonian
Liberalism, for instance, as regards the Sudan and the Transvaal, nor
was he inclined to stomach the claims of the Caucus or the Birmingham
programme. When the Redistribution Act divided Bradford into three
constituencies, Forster was returned for the central division, but he
never took his seat in the new parliament.

Forster, like John Bright, was an excellent representative of the
English middle-class in public life. Patriotic, energetic, independent,
incorruptible, shrewd, fair-minded, he was endowed not only with great
sympathy with progress, but also with a full faculty for resistance to
mere democraticism. He was tall (the Yorkshiremen called him "Long
Forster") and strongly though stiffly built, and, with his simple tastes
and straightforward manners and methods, was a typical North-country
figure. His oratory was rough and unpolished, but full of freshness and
force and genuine feeling. It was Forster who, when appealing to the
government at the time of Gordon's danger at Khartum, spoke of Mr
Gladstone as able "to persuade most people of most things, and himself
of almost anything," and though the phrase was much resented by Mr
Gladstone's _entourage_, the truth that underlay it may be taken as
representing the very converse of his own character. His personal
difficulties with some of his colleagues, both in regard to the
Education Act of 1870 and his Irish administration, must be properly
understood if a complete comprehension of his political career is to be
obtained. For an account of them we need only refer to the _Life of the
Right Hon. W.E. Forster_, by Sir T. Wemyss Reid.     (H. Ch.)



FORSYTH, PETER TAYLOR (1848- ), British Nonconformist divine, was born
at Aberdeen in 1848. He took first-class honours in classics at
Aberdeen, subsequently studied at Göttingen (under Ritschl) and at New
College, Hampstead, and entered the Congregational ministry. Having held
pastorates at Shipley, Hackney, Manchester, Leicester and Cambridge, he
became principal of Hackney Theological College, Hampstead, in 1901. In
1907 he delivered the Lyman Beecher lectures on preaching at Yale
University, published as _Positive Preaching and Modern Mind_. Among his
other publications may be mentioned _Religion in Recent Art_, and
articles in the _Contemporary Review_, _Hibbert Journal_, and _London
Quarterly_. He was chairman of the Congregational Union of England and
Wales in 1905.



FORTALEZA (usually called CEARÁ by foreigners), a city and port of
Brazil and the capital of the state of Ceará, on a crescent-shaped
indentation of the coast-line immediately W. of Cape Mucuripe or
Mocoripe, 7½ m. from the mouth of the Ceará river, in lat. 3° 42' S.,
long. 38° 30' W. Pop. (1890) of the municipality, including a large
rural district, 40,902. The city stands on an open sandy plain
overlooking the sea, and is regularly laid out, with broad, well-paved,
gas-lighted streets and numerous squares. Owing to the aridity of the
climate the vegetation is less luxuriant than in most Brazilian cities.
The temperature is usually high, but it is modified by the strong sea
winds. Fortaleza has suffered much from epidemics of yellow-fever,
small-pox and beri-beri, but the climate is considered to be healthy. A
small branch of the Ceará river, called the Pajehú, traverses the city
and divides it into two parts, that on its right bank being locally
known as Outeiro. Fortaleza is the see of a bishopric, created in 1854,
but it has no cathedral, one of its ten churches being used for that
purpose. Its public buildings include the government house, legislative
chambers, bishop's palace, an episcopal seminary, a lyceum (high
school), Misericordia hospital, and asylums for mendicants and the
insane. The custom-house stands nearer the seashore, 1¾ m. from the
railway station in the city, with which it is connected by rail. The
port is the principal outlet for the products of the state, but its
anchorage is an open roadstead, one of the most dangerous on the
northern coast of Brazil, and all ships are compelled to anchor well out
from shore and discharge into lighters. Port improvements designed by
the eminent engineer Sir John Hawkshaw have been under construction for
many years, but have made very slow progress. The Baturité railway,
built by the national government partly to give employment to starving
refugees in times of long-continued droughts, connects the city and its
port with fertile regions to the S.W., and extends to Senador Pompeu,
178 m. distant. The exports include sugar, coffee, rubber, cotton, rum,
rice, beans, fruits, hides and skins.

Fortaleza had its origin in a small village adjoining a fort established
at this point in early colonial times. In 1654 it took the name of Villa
do Forte da Assumpçã, but it was generally spoken of as Fortaleza. In
1810 it became the capital of Ceará, and in 1823 it was raised to the
dignity of a city under the title of Fortaleza da Nova Bragança.



FORT AUGUSTUS, a village of Inverness-shire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 706.
It is delightfully situated at the south-western extremity of Loch Ness,
about 30 m. S.W. of Inverness, on the rivers Oich and Tarff and the
Caledonian Canal. A branch line connects with Spean Bridge on the West
Highland railway via Invergarry. The fort, then called Kilchumin, was
built in 1716 for the purpose of keeping the Highlanders in check, and
was enlarged in 1730 by General Wade. It was captured by the Jacobites
in 1745, but reoccupied after the battle of Culloden, when it received
its present name in honour of William Augustus, duke of Cumberland, the
victorious general. The fort was used as a sanatorium until 1857, when
it was bought by the 12th Lord Lovat, whose son presented it in 1876 to
the English order of Benedictines. Within four years there rose upon its
site a pile of stately buildings under the title of St Benedict's Abbey
and school, a monastic and collegiate institution intended for the
higher education of the sons of the Roman Catholic nobility and gentry.
The series of buildings consists of the college, monastery, hospice and
scriptorium--the four forming a quadrangle connected by beautiful
cloisters. Amongst its benefactors were many Catholic Scots and English
peers and gentlemen whose arms are emblazoned on the windows of the
spacious refectory hall. The summit of the college tower is 110 ft.
high.



FORT DODGE, a city and the county-seat of Webster county, Iowa, U.S.A.,
on the Des Moines river, 85 m. (by rail) N. by W. from Des Moines. Pop.
(1890) 4871; (1900) 12,162; (1905, state census) 14,369, (2269 being
foreign-born); (1910) 15,543. It is served by the Illinois Central, the
Chicago Great Western, the Minneapolis & Saint Louis, and the Fort
Dodge, Des Moines & Southern railways, the last an electric interurban
line. Eureka Springs and Wild Cat Cave are of interest to visitors, and
attractive scenery is furnished by the river and its bordering bluffs.
The river is here spanned by the Chicago Great Western railway steel
bridge, or viaduct, one of the longest in the country. Fort Dodge is the
seat of Tobin College (420 students in 1907-1908), a commercial and
business school, with preparatory, normal and classical departments, and
courses in oratory and music; among its other institutions are St Paul's
school (Evangelical Lutheran), two Roman Catholic schools, Corpus
Christi Academy and the Sacred Heart school, Our Lady of Lourdes convent
and a Carnegie library. Oleson Park and Reynold's Park are the city's
principal parks. Immediately surrounding Fort Dodge is a rich farming
country. To the E. of the city lies a gypsum bed, extending over an area
of about 50 sq. m., and considered to be the most valuable in the United
States; to the S. coal abounds; there are also limestone quarries and
deposits of clay in the vicinity--the clay being, for the most part,
obtained by mining. Fort Dodge is a market for the products of the
surrounding country, and is a shipping centre of considerable
importance. It has various manufactures, including gypsum, plaster,
oatmeal, brick and tile, sewer pipe, pottery, foundry and machine-shop
products, and shoes. In 1905 the value of all the factory products was
$3,025,659, an increase of 200.8% over that for 1900. Fort Clark was
erected on the site in 1850 to protect settlers against the Indians; in
1851 the name was changed by order of the secretary of war to Fort Dodge
in honour of Colonel Henry Dodge (1782-1867), who was a
lieutenant-colonel of Missouri Volunteers in the War of 1812, served
with distinction as a colonel of Michigan Mounted Volunteers in the
Black Hawk War, resigned from the military service in March 1833, was
governor of Wisconsin Territory from 1836 to 1841 and from 1846 to 1848,
and was a delegate from Wisconsin Territory to Congress from 1841 to
1845, and a United States senator from Wisconsin in 1848-1857. The fort
was abandoned in 1853, and in 1854 a town was laid out. It was chartered
as a city in 1869. From the gypsum beds near Fort Dodge was taken in
1868 the block of gypsum from which was modelled the "Cardiff Giant," a
rudely-fashioned human figure, which was buried near Cardiff, Onondaga
county, New York, where it was "discovered" late in 1869. It was then
exhibited in various parts of the country as a "petrified man." The hoax
was finally exposed by Professor Othniel C. Marsh of Yale; and George
Hall of Binghamton, N.Y., confessed to the fraud, his object having been
to discredit belief in the "giants" of Genesis vi. 4. (See "The Cardiff
Giant: the True Story of a Remarkable Deception," by Andrew D. White, in
the _Century Magazine_, vol. xlii., 1902.)



FORT EDWARD, a village of Washington county, New York, U.S.A., in the
township of Fort Edward, on the Hudson river, 56 m. by rail N. of
Albany. Pop. of the village (1900) 3521, of whom 385 were foreign-born;
(1905) 3806; (1910) 3762; of the township, including the village
(1900), 5216; (1905), 5300; (1910), 5740. The village lies mostly at the
foot of a steep hill, is at the junction of the main line and the Glens
Falls branch of the Delaware & Hudson railway, and is also served by
electric line to Albany and Glens Falls; the barge canal connecting Lake
Champlain and the Hudson river enters the Hudson here. The river
furnishes good water-power, which is used in the manufacture of paper
and wood pulp, the leading industry. Shirts and pottery (flower pots,
jars and drain tile) are manufactured also. The village is the seat of
the Fort Edward Collegiate Institute, a non-sectarian school for girls,
which was founded in 1854 and until 1893 was coeducational. The village
owns and operates the waterworks. Indian war parties on their way to
Canada were accustomed to make a portage from this place, the head of
navigation for small boats on the Hudson, to Lake George or Lake
Champlain, and hence it was known as the Great Carrying Place. Governor
(afterwards Sir) Francis Nicholson in 1709, in his expedition against
Canada, built here a stockade which was named Fort Nicholson. Some years
afterwards John Henry Lydius (1693-1791) established a settlement and
protected it by a new fort, named Fort Lydius, but this was destroyed by
the French and Indians in 1745. In 1755, a third fort was built by
General Phineas Lyman (1716-1774), as preliminary to the expedition
against Crown Point under General William Johnson, and was named Fort
Lyman; in 1756 Johnson renamed it Fort Edward in honour of Edward, Duke
of York. In the War for Independence Fort Edward was the headquarters of
General Philip Schuyler while he and his troops were blocking the march
of General Burgoyne's army from Fort Ticonderoga. When a part of
Burgoyne's forces was distant only 3 or 4 m. from Fort Edward, on Fort
Edward Hill, on the 27th of July 1777, the leader of an Indian band
whose assistance the British had sought is supposed to have murdered
Jane McCrea (c. 1757-1777), a young-girl who had been visiting friends
in Fort Edward, and who was to be escorted on that day to the British
camp and there to be married to David Jones, a loyalist serving as a
lieutenant in Burgoyne's army; it is possible that she was shot
accidentally by Americans pursuing her Indian escorts, but her death did
much to rouse local sentiment against Burgoyne and his Indian allies,
and caused many volunteers to join the American army resisting
Burgoyne's invasion. A monument has been erected by the Jane McCrea
Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution near the spot where
she was killed, and she is buried in Union Cemetery in Fort Edward. Fort
Edward township was erected in 1818 from a part of the township of
Argyle. Fort Edward village was incorporated in 1852.

  See R.O. Bascom, _The Fort Edward Book_ (Fort Edward, 1903).



FORTESCUE, SIR JOHN (c. 1394-c. 1476), English lawyer, the second son of
Sir John Fortescue, of an ancient family in Devonshire, was born at
Norris, near South Brent, in Somersetshire. He was educated at Exeter
College, Oxford. During the reign of Henry VI. he was three times
appointed one of the governors of Lincoln's Inn. In 1441 he was made a
king's sergeant at law, and in the following year chief justice of the
king's bench. As a judge Fortescue is highly recommended for his wisdom,
gravity and uprightness; and he seems to have enjoyed great favour with
the king, who is said to have given him some substantial proofs of
esteem and regard. He held his office during the remainder of the reign
of Henry VI., to whom he steadily adhered; and having faithfully served
that unfortunate monarch in all his troubles, he was attainted of
treason in the first parliament of Edward IV. When Henry subsequently
fled into Scotland, he is supposed to have appointed Fortescue, who
appears to have accompanied him in his flight, chancellor of England. In
1463 Fortescue accompanied Queen Margaret and her court in their exile
on the Continent, and returned with them afterwards to England. During
their wanderings abroad the chancellor wrote for the instruction of the
young prince Edward his celebrated work _De laudibus legum Angliae_. On
the defeat of the Lancastrian party he made his submission to Edward
IV., from whom he received a general pardon dated Westminster, October
13, 1471. He died at an advanced age, but the exact date of his death
has not been ascertained.

  Fortescue's masterly vindication of the laws of England, though
  received with great favour by the learned of the profession to whom it
  was communicated, did not appear in print until the reign of Henry
  VIII., when it was published, but without a date. It was subsequently
  many times reprinted. Another valuable and learned work by Fortescue,
  written in English, was published in 1714, under the title of _The
  Difference between an Absolute and a Limited Monarchy_. In the Cotton
  library there is a manuscript of this work, in the title of which it
  is said to have been addressed to Henry VI.; but many passages show
  plainly that it was written in favour of Edward IV. A revised edition
  of this work, with a very valuable historical and biographical
  introduction, was published in 1885 by Charles Plummer, under the
  title _The Governance of England_. All of Fortescue's minor writings
  appear in _The Works of Sir John Fortescue, now first Collected and
  Arranged_, published in 1869 for private circulation, by his
  descendant, Lord Clermont.

  AUTHORITIES.--Plummer's Introduction to _The Governance of England_;
  _Life_ in Lord Clermont's edition; Gairdner's _Paston Letters_; Foss's
  _Lives of the Judges_.



FORTESCUE, SIR JOHN (c. 1531-1607), English statesman, was the eldest
son of Sir Adrian Fortescue (executed in 1539), and of his second wife,
Anne, daughter of Sir William Reade or Rede of Borstall in
Buckinghamshire. The exact date of his birth is unrecorded.[1] He was
restored in blood and to his estate at Shirburn in Oxfordshire in 1551.
Through his father's mother, Alice, daughter of Sir Geoffrey Boleyn, he
was a second cousin once removed from Queen Elizabeth. He acquired early
a considerable reputation as a scholar and was chosen to direct the
Princess Elizabeth's classical studies in Mary's reign. On the accession
of Elizabeth he was appointed keeper of the great wardrobe. He was
returned in 1572 to parliament for Wallingford, in 1586 for Buckingham
borough, in 1588 and 1597 for Buckingham county, and in 1601 for
Middlesex. In 1589 he was appointed chancellor of the exchequer and a
member of the privy council. In 1592 he was knighted, and in November
1601, in addition to his two great offices, he received that of
chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster. By means of his lucrative
employments he amassed great wealth, with which he bought large estates
in Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire, and kept up much state and a large
household. He took a prominent part in public business, was a member of
the court of the star chamber and an ecclesiastical commissioner, sat on
various important commissions, and as chancellor of the exchequer
explained the queen's financial needs and proposed subsidies in
parliament. On the death of Elizabeth he suggested that certain
restrictions should be imposed on James's powers, in order probably to
limit the appointment of Scotchmen to office,[2] but his advice was not
followed. He was deprived by James of the chancellorship of the
exchequer, but evidently did not forfeit his favour, as he retained his
two other offices and entertained James several times at Henden and
Salden. In 1604 Sir John, who stood for Buckinghamshire, was defeated by
Sir Francis Goodwin, whose election, however, was declared void by the
lord chancellor on the ground of a sentence of outlawry under which he
lay, and Fortescue was by a second election returned in his place. This
incident gave rise to a violent controversy, regarding the chancellor's
jurisdiction in deciding disputed elections to parliament, which was
repudiated by the Commons but maintained by the king. The matter after
much debate was ended by a compromise, which, while leaving the
principle unsettled, set aside the elections of both candidates and
provided for the issue of a new writ. Fortescue was then in February
1606 returned for Middlesex, which he represented till his death on the
23rd of December 1607. He was buried in Mursley church in
Buckinghamshire, where a monument was erected to his memory. His long
public career was highly honourable, and he served his sovereign and
country with unswerving fidelity and honesty. His learned attainments
too were considerable--Camden styles him "vir integer, Graece,
Latineque apprime eruditus,"[3] and his scholarship is also praised by
Lloyd, while his friendship with Sir Thomas Bodley procured gifts of
books and manuscripts to the latter's library. Fortescue married (1)
Cecily, daughter of Sir Edmund Ashfield of Ewelme, by whom, besides a
daughter, he had two sons, Sir Francis and Sir William; and (2) Alice,
daughter of Christopher Smyth of Annabels in Hertfordshire, by whom he
had one daughter. His descent in the male line became extinct with the
death of Sir John Fortescue, 3rd baronet, in 1717.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Article in the _Dict. of Nat. Biography_; Lord
  Clermont's _Hist. of the Family of the Fortescues_; _Hist. Notices of
  the Parishes of Swyncombe and Ewelme_, by A. Napier, p. 390; D.
  Lloyd's _State Worthies_ (1670), p. 556; _Add. MSS._ 12497 f. 143
  ("Sir John Fortescue's meanes of gaine by Sir R. Thikstin told me [Sir
  Julius Caesar]"); _Hist. MSS. Comm., Marquis of Salisbury's MSS._;
  Spedding's _Life of Bacon_; Architectural and Archaeological Soc. for
  Bucks, _Records of Bucks_, vol. i. p. 86.     (P. C. Y.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The inscription on his tomb states that he was 76 at his death on
    the 23rd of December 1607 (Lord Clermont's _Hist. of the Family of
    Fortescue_, 377), but according to a statement ascribed to himself,
    he was born the same year as Queen Elizabeth and therefore in 1533
    (Bucks. Architect. and Archaeolog. Soc. _Records of Bucks_, i. p.
    89).

  [2] David Lloyd's _State Worthies_ (1670), 556.

  [3] _Annales_, 613.



FORTEVIOT, a village and parish of Perthshire, Scotland, on the Water of
May, a right-hand affluent of the Earn, 6¾ m. S.W. of Perth. Pop. of
parish (1901) 562. It is a place of remote antiquity, having been a
capital of the Picts, when the district was known as Fortrenn, and
afterwards of the Scots. The army led by Edward Baliol camped here
before the battle of Dupplin (1332), in which the regent, Donald, earl
of Mar, was slain along with 13,000 out of 30,000 men. The parish of
Findo-Gask adjoining it on the N.W. contains remains of a Roman road,
station and outpost, besides the "auld hoose" of Gask in which the
Baroness Nairne was born, and which forms the theme of one of her most
popular songs. The new house in which she died dates from 1801.



FORT GEORGE, a military station of Inverness-shire, Scotland. It lies 12
m. N.E. of Inverness, and is the terminus of the small branch line
connecting with the Highland railway at Gollanfield junction. It
occupies a sandy promontory forming the extreme end of the southern
shore of Inner Moray Firth (also called the Firth of Inverness), which
is here only 1 m. wide. There is communication by ferry with Fortrose on
the opposite coast of the Black Isle. The fort was begun in 1748, partly
after the plan of one of Vauban's works, and named in honour of George
II. Wolfe, who saw it in course of erection in 1751, was much impressed
with it and thought it would, when finished, be "the most considerable
fortress and best situated in Great Britain." It covers 16 acres and
contains accommodation for nearly 2200 men. It is the depot of the
Seaforth Highlanders, and a military training-ground of some size and
importance because the surrounding country gives ample facilities for
exercise and manoeuvres. General Wade's road is maintained in good
order. Fort George, it is said, had almost been chosen as the place of
detention for Napoleon when the claims of St Helena were put forward.
About 2 m. S.E. is the fishing village of Campbelltown, in growing
repute as a seaside resort. Midway between the fort and Inverness stands
Castle Stuart, a shooting-box of the earl of Moray.



FORTH, a river and firth of the east of Scotland. The river is formed by
two head streams, Duchray Water (12 m.) and Avondhu (10 m.), or Laggan
as it is called after it leaves Loch Ard, both rising in the north-east
of Ben Lomond in Stirlingshire, and uniting 1 m. west of Aberfoyle. From
this point till it receives the Kelty, the Forth continues to be a
Perthshire stream, but afterwards it becomes the dividing line between
the counties of Perth and Stirling as far as the confluence of the
Allan. Thence it belongs to Stirlingshire to a point 1½ m. due west of
Cambus, whence it serves as the boundary between the shires of Stirling
and Clackmannan. Owing to the extremely tortuous character of its course
between Gartmore and Alloa--the famous "links of the Forth,"--the actual
length of the river is 66 m., or nearly double the distance in a direct
line (30 m.) between the source of the Duchray and Kincardine, where the
firth begins. The river drains an area of 645 sq. m. Its general
direction is mainly easterly with a gentle trend towards the south, and
the principal tributaries on the left are the Goodie, Teith, Allan and
Devon, and on the right, the Kelty, Boquhan and Bannock. The alluvial
plain extending from Gartmore to the county town is called the Carse of
Stirling. The places of interest on the banks are Aberfoyle, Kippen,
Stirling, Cambuskenneth, Alloa and Kincardine, but after it crosses the
Highland line the Forth does not present many passages of remarkable
beauty. There are bridges at Aberfoyle, Gartmore, Frew, Drip and
Stirling (2), besides railway viaducts at Stirling and Alloa, and there
are ferries at Stirling (for Cambuskenneth), Alloa (for South Alloa) and
Kincardine (for Airth). The tide rises to 4½ m. above Stirling, where
the river is navigable at high water by vessels of 100 tons. There is,
however, a brisk shipping trade at Alloa, where the dock accommodates
vessels of at least 300 tons.

The Firth of Forth extends from Kincardine to the North Sea, that is, to
an imaginary line drawn, just west of the Isle of May, from the East
Neuk of Fife to the mouth of the Tyne in Haddingtonshire--a distance of
48 m. Thus, according to some calculations, the Forth measures from
source to sea 114 m. The width of the firth varies from ½ m. at
Kincardine and 1½ m. at Queensferry to 6½ m. at Leith and 17½ m. at the
mouth. The chief affluents are, on the south, the Carron, Avon, Almond,
Leith, Esk and Tyne, and on the north, the Tiel, Leven, Kiel and Dreel.
The principal ports on the south shore are Grangemouth, Bo'ness, Granton
and Leith, and on the north, Burntisland and Kirkcaldy; but fishery
centres and holiday resorts are very numerous on both coasts. Since the
opening of the Forth Bridge (see Bridges) in 1890 the ferries at
Queensferry and Burntisland have greatly diminished in importance. The
fisheries are still considerable, though the oyster trade is dwindling.
The larger islands are Inchcolm, with the ruins of an abbey, Inchkeith,
with fortifications and a lighthouse, and the Isle of May, with a
lighthouse. The anchorage of St Margaret's Hope, with the naval base of
Rosyth, lies off the shore of Fife immediately to the west of the Forth
Bridge.

The Forth was the _Bodotria_ of Tacitus and the Scots Water of the
chroniclers of the 11th and 12th centuries; while Bede (d. 735) knew the
firth as _Sinus orientalis_ (the Eastern Gulf), and Nennius (fl. 796) as
_Mare Friesicum_ (the Frisian Sea).



FORTIFICATION AND SIEGECRAFT. "Fortification" is the military art of
strengthening positions against attack. The word (Lat. _fortis_, strong,
and _facere_, to make) implies the creation of defences. Thus the boy
who from the top of a mound defies his comrades, or shelters from their
snowballs behind a fence, is merely taking advantage of ground; but if
he puts up a hurdle on his mound and stands behind that he has fortified
his position.

Fortification consists of two elements, viz. _protection_ and
_obstacle_. The protection shields the defender from the enemy's
missiles; the obstacle prevents the enemy from coming to close quarters,
and delays him under fire.

_Protection_ may be of several kinds, direct or indirect. Direct
protection is given by a wall or rampart of earth, strong enough to stop
the enemy's missiles. The value of this is reduced in proportion as the
defender has to expose himself to return the enemy's fire, or to resist
his attempts to destroy the defences. Indirect protection is given by
_distance_, as for instance by a high wall placed on a cliff so that the
defender on the top of the wall is out of reach of the enemy's missiles
if these are of short range, such as arrows. This kind of defence was
very popular in the middle ages. In the present day the same object is
attained by pushing out detached forts to such a distance from the town
they are protecting that the besieger cannot bombard the town as long as
he is outside the forts. Another form of indirect protection of great
importance is concealment.

The _obstacle_ may consist of anything which will impede the enemy's
advance and prevent him from coming to close quarters. In the earliest
forms of fortification the protecting wall was also the obstacle, or it
may be a wet or dry ditch, an entanglement, a swamp, a thorn hedge, a
spiked palisade, or some temporary expedient, such as crows' feet or
chevaux de frise. The two elements must of course be arranged in
combination. The besieged must be able to defend the obstacle from their
protected position, otherwise it can be surmounted or destroyed at
leisure. But a close connexion is no longer essential. The effect of
modern firearms permits of great elasticity in the disposition of the
obstacle; and this simplifies some of the problems of defence.

Protection must be arranged mainly with reference to the enemy's methods
of attack and the weapons he uses. The obstacle, on the other hand,
should be of such a nature as to bring out the best effects of the
defender's weapons. It follows from this that a well-armed force
operating against a badly-armed uncivilized enemy may use with advantage
very simple old-fashioned methods of protection; or even dispense with
it altogether if the obstacle is a good one.

When the assailant has modern weapons the importance of protection is
very great. In fact, it may be said that in proportion as missile
weapons have grown more effective, the importance of protection and the
difficulty of providing it have increased, while the necessity for a
monumental physical obstacle has decreased.

The art of the engineer who is about to fortify consists in appreciating
and harmonizing all the conditions of the problem, such as the weapons
in use, nature of the ground, materials available, temper of assailants
and defenders, strategical possibilities, expenditure to be incurred,
and so forth. Few of these conditions are in themselves difficult to
understand, but they are so many and their reactions are so complex that
a real familiarity with all of them is essential to successful work. The
keynote of the solution should be simplicity; but this is the first
point usually lost sight of by the makers of "systems," especially by
those who during a long period of peace have time to give play to their
imaginations.

Fortification is usually divided into two branches, namely _permanent
fortification_ and _field fortification_. Permanent fortifications are
erected at leisure, with all the resources that a state can supply of
constructive and mechanical skill, and are built of enduring materials.
Field fortifications are extemporized by troops in the field, perhaps
assisted by such local labour and tools as may be procurable, and with
materials that do not require much preparation, such as earth, brushwood
and light timber. There is also an intermediate branch known as
_semi-permanent fortification_. This is employed when in the course of a
campaign it becomes desirable to protect some locality with the best
imitation of permanent defences that can be made in a short time, ample
resources and skilled civilian labour being available.

The _objects of fortification_ are various. The vast enceintes of
Nineveh and Babylon were planned so that in time of war they might give
shelter to the whole population of the country except the field army,
with their flocks and herds and household stuff. The same idea may be
seen to-day in the walls of such cities as Kano. In the middle ages
feudal lords built castles for security against the attacks of their
neighbours, and also to watch over towns or bridges or fords from which
they drew revenue; whilst rich towns were surrounded with walls merely
for the protection of their own inhabitants and their property. The
feudal castles lost their importance when the art of cannon-founding was
fairly developed; and in the leisurely wars of the 17th and 18th
centuries, when roads were few and bad, a swarm of fortified towns,
large and small, played a great part in delaying the march of victorious
armies.

In the present day isolated forts are seldom used, and only for such
purposes as to block passes in mountainous districts. Fortresses are
used either to protect points of vital importance, such as capital
cities, military depots and dockyards, or at strategic points such as
railway junctions. Combinations of fortresses are also used for more
general strategic purposes, as will be explained later.


I. HISTORY


  Ancient methods.

The most elementary type of fortification is the thorn _hedge_, a type
which naturally recurs from age to age under primitive conditions. Thus,
Alexander found the villages of the Hyrcanians defended by thick hedges,
and the same arrangements may be seen to-day among the least civilized
tribes of Africa. The next advance from the hedge is the _bank_ of
earth, with the exterior made steep by revetments of sods or
hurdle-work. This has a double advantage over the hedge, as, besides
being a better obstacle against assault, it gives the defenders an
advantage of position in a hand-to-hand fight. Such banks formed the
defences of the German towns in Caesar's time, and they were constructed
with a high degree of skill. Timber being plentiful, the parapets were
built of alternate layers of stones, earth and tree trunks. The latter
were built in at right angles to the length of the parapet, and were
thus very difficult to displace, while the earth prevented their being
set on fire. The bank was often strengthened by a palisade of tree
trunks or hurdle-work.

After the bank the most important step in advance for a nation
progressing in the arts was the _wall_, of masonry, sun-dried brick or
mud. The history of the development of the wall and of the methods of
attacking it is the history of fortification for several thousand years.

The first necessity for the wall was height, to give security against
escalade. The second-was thickness, so that the defenders might have a
platform on the top which would give them space to circulate freely and
to use their weapons. A lofty wall, thick enough at the top for purposes
of defence, would be very expensive if built of solid masonry; therefore
the plan was early introduced of building two walls with a filling of
earth or rubble between them. The face of the outer wall would be
carried up a few feet above the platform, and crenellated to give
protection against arrows and other projectiles.

The next forward step for the defence was the construction of _towers_
at intervals along the wall. These provided flanking fire along the
front; they also afforded refuges for the garrison in case of a
successful escalade, and from them the platform could be enfiladed.

The evolution of the wall with towers was simple. The main requirements
were despotic power and unlimited labour. Thus the finest examples of
the system known to history are also amongst the earliest. One of these
was Nineveh, built more than 2000 years B.C. The object of its huge
perimeter, more than 50 m., has been mentioned. The wall was 120 ft.
high and 30 ft. thick; and there were 1500 towers.

After this no practical advance in the art of fortification was made for
a very long time, from a constructional point of view. Many centuries
indeed elapsed before the inventive genius of man evolved engines and
methods of attack fit to cope with such colossal obstacles.

The earliest form of attack was of course _escalade_, either by ladders
or by heaping up a ramp of faggots or other portable materials. When the
increasing height of walls made escalade too difficult, other means of
attack had to be invented. Probably the first of these were the _ram_,
for battering down the walls, and _mining_. The latter might have two
objects: (a) to drive an underground gallery below the wall from the
besiegers' position into the fortress, or (b) to destroy the wall itself
by undermining.

The use of missile _engines_ for throwing heavy projectiles probably
came later. They are mentioned in the preparations made for the defence
of Jerusalem against the Philistines in the 8th century B.C. They are
not mentioned in connexion with the siege of Troy. At the sieges of Tyre
and Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in 587 B.C. we first find mention of the
ram and of movable towers placed on mounds to overlook the walls.


  Classical times.

The Asiatics, however, had not the qualities of mind necessary for a
systematic development of siegecraft, and it was left for the Greeks
practically to create this science. Taking it up in the 5th century B.C.
they soon, under Philip of Macedon and Alexander, arrived at a very high
degree of skill. They invented and systematized methods which were
afterwards perfected by the Romans. Alexander's siegecraft was extremely
practical. His successors endeavoured to improve on it by increasing the
size of their missile and other engines, which, however, were so
cumbrous that they were of little use. When the Romans a little later
took up the science they returned to the practical methods of Alexander,
and by the time of Caesar's wars had become past-masters of it. The
highest development of siegecraft before the use of gunpowder was
probably attained in the early days of the Roman empire. The beginning
of the Christian era is therefore a suitable period at which to take a
survey of the arts of fortification and siegecraft as practised by the
ancients.


    Conditions at opening of the Christian era.

  In fortification the wall with towers was still the leading idea. The
  towers were preferred circular in plan, as this form offered the best
  resistance to the ram. The wall was usually reinforced by a ditch,
  which had three advantages: it increased the height of the obstacle,
  made the bringing up of the engines of attack more difficult, and
  supplied material for the filling of the wall. In special cases, as at
  Jerusalem and Rhodes, the enclosure walls were doubled and trebled.
  Citadels were also built on a large scale.

  The typical site preferred by the Romans for a fortified town was on
  high ground sloping to a river on one side and with steep slopes
  falling away on the other three sides. At the highest point was a
  castle serving as citadel. The town enclosure was designed in
  accordance with the character of the surrounding country. Where the
  enemy's approach was easiest, the walls were higher, flanking towers
  stronger and ditches wider and deeper. Some of the towers were made
  high for look-out posts. If there was a bridge over the river, it was
  defended by a bridge-head on the far side; and stockades defended by
  towers were built out from either bank above and below the bridge,
  between which chains or booms could be stretched to bar the passage.

  The natural features of the ground were skilfully utilized. Thus when
  a large town was spread over an irregular site broken by hills, the
  enceinte wall would be carried over the top of the hills; and in the
  intervening valleys the wall would not only be made stronger, but
  would be somewhat drawn back to allow of a flanking defence from the
  hill tops on either side. The walls would consist of two strong
  masonry faces, 20 ft. apart, the space between filled with earth and
  stones. Usually when the lie of the ground was favourable, the outside
  of the wall would be much higher than the inside, the parapet walk
  perhaps being but a little above the level of the town. Palisades were
  used to strengthen the ditches, especially before the gates.

  There was little scope, however, in masonry for the genius of Roman
  warfare, which had a better opportunity in the active work of attack
  and defence. For siegecraft the Roman legions were specially apt. No
  modern engineer, civil or military, accustomed to rely on machinery,
  steam and hydraulic apparatus, could hope to emulate the feats of the
  legionaries. In earthworks they excelled; and in such work as building
  and moving about colossal wooden towers under war conditions, they
  accomplished things at which nowadays we can only wonder.

  The attack was carried on mainly by the use of "engines," under which
  head were included all mechanical means of attack--towers, missile
  engines such as catapults and balistae, rams of different kinds,
  "tortoises" (see below), &c. Mining, too, was freely resorted to, also
  approach trenches, the use of which had been introduced by the Greeks.

  The object of mining, as has been said, might be the driving of a
  gallery under the wall into the interior of the place, or the
  destruction of the wall. The latter was effected by excavating large
  chambers under the foundations. These were supported while the
  excavation was proceeding by timber struts and planking. When the
  chambers were large enough the timber supports were burnt and the wall
  collapsed. The besieged replied to the mining attack by countermines.
  With these they would undermine and destroy the besiegers' galleries,
  or would break into them and drive out the workers, either by force of
  arms or by filling the galleries with smoke.

  Breaches in the wall were made by rams. These were of two kinds. For
  dislodging the cemented masonry of the face of the wall, steel-pointed
  heads were used; when this was done, another head, shaped like a ram's
  head, was substituted for battering down the filling of the wall.

  For escalade they used ladders fixed on wheeled platforms; but the
  most important means of attack against a high wall were the movable
  towers of wood. These were built so high that from their tops the
  parapet walk of the wall could be swept with arrows and stones; and
  drawbridges were let down from them, by which a storming party could
  reach the top of the wall. The height of the towers was from 70 to 150
  ft. They were moved on wheels of solid oak or elm, 6 to 12 ft. in
  diameter and 3 to 4 ft. thick. The ground floor contained one or two
  rams. The upper floors, of which there might be as many as fifteen,
  were furnished with missile engines of a smaller kind. The archers
  occupied the top floor. There also were placed reservoirs of water to
  extinguish fire. These were filled by force pumps and fitted with hose
  made of the intestines of cattle. Drawbridges, either hanging or
  worked on rollers, were placed at the proper height to give access to
  the top of the wall, or to a breach, as might be required. Apollodorus
  proposed to place a couple of rams in the upper part of the tower to
  destroy the crenellations of the wall.

  The siege towers had of course to be very solidly built of strong
  timbers to resist the heavy stones thrown by the engines of the
  defence. They were protected against fire by screens of osiers,
  plaited rope or raw hides. Sometimes it was necessary, in order to
  gain greater height, to place them on high terraces of earth. In that
  case they would be built on the site. At the siege of Marseilles,
  described by Caesar, special methods of attack had to be employed on
  account of the strength of the engines used by the besieged and their
  frequent sallies to destroy the siege works. A square fort, with brick
  walls 30 ft. long and 5 ft. thick, was built in front of one of the
  towers of the town to resist sorties. This fort was subsequently
  raised to a height of six storeys, under shelter of a roof which
  projected beyond the walls, and from the eaves of which hung heavy
  mats made of ships' cables. The mats protected the men working at the
  walls, and as these were built up the roof was gradually raised by the
  use of endless screws. The roof was made of heavy beams and planks,
  over which were laid bricks and clay, and the whole was covered with
  mats and hides to prevent the bricks from being dislodged. This
  structure was completed without the loss of a man, and could only have
  been built by the Romans, whose soldiers were all skilled workmen.

  Although these towers were provided with bridges by which storming
  parties could reach the top of the wall, their main object was usually
  to dominate the defence and keep down the fire from the walls and
  towers. Under this protection breaching operations could be carried
  on. The approaches to the wall were usually made under shelter of
  galleries of timber or hurdle-work, which were placed on wheels and
  moved into position as required. When the wall was reached, a shelter
  of stronger construction, known as a "rat," was placed in position
  against it. Under this a ram was swung or worked on rollers; or the
  rat might be used as a shelter for miners or for workmen cutting away
  the face of the wall. The great rat at Marseilles, which extended from
  the tower already described to the base of the tower of the city, was
  60 ft. long, and built largely of great beams 2 ft. square, connected
  by iron pins and bands. It was unusually narrow, the ground sills of
  the side walls being only 4 ft. apart. This was no doubt in order to
  keep down the weight of the structure, which, massive as it was, had
  to be movable. The sloping roof and sides of timber were protected,
  like those of the tower, with bricks and moist clay, hides and wool
  mattresses. Huge stones and barrels of blazing pitch were thrown from
  the wall upon this rat without effect, and under its cover the
  soldiers loosened and removed the foundations of the tower until it
  fell down.

  In order that it might be possible to move these heavy structures, it
  was usually necessary to fill up the ditch or to level the surface of
  the ground. For this purpose an "approach tortoise" was often used.
  This was a shelter, something between the ordinary gallery and the
  rat, which was moved end on towards the wall, and had an open front
  with a hood, under cover of which the earth brought up for filling the
  ditch was distributed.

  The missile engines threw stones up to 600 lb. weight, heavy darts
  from 6 to 12 ft. long, and Greek fire. Archimedes at the siege of
  Syracuse even made some throwing 1800 lb. The ranges varied, according
  to the machine and the weight thrown, up to 600 yds. for direct fire
  and 1000 yds. for curved fire. At the siege of Jerusalem Titus
  employed three hundred catapults of different sizes and forty
  balistae, of which the smallest threw missiles of 75 lb. weight. At
  Carthage Scipio found 120 large and 281 medium catapults, 23 large and
  52 small balistae, and a great number of scorpions and other small
  missile engines.

  Screens and mantlets for the protection of the engine-workers were
  used in great variety.

  In addition to the above, great mechanical skill was shown in the
  construction of many kinds of machines for occasional purposes. A kind
  of jib crane of great height on a movable platform was used to hoist a
  cage containing fifteen or twenty men on to the wall. A long spar with
  a steel claw at the end, swung in the middle from a lofty frame,
  served to pull down the upper parts of parapets and overhanging
  galleries. The defenders on their side were not slow in replying with
  similar devices. Fenders were let down from the wall to soften the
  blow of the ram, or the ram heads were caught and held by cranes.
  Grapnels were lowered from cranes to seize the rats and overturn them.
  Archimedes used the same idea in the defence of Syracuse for lifting
  and sinking the Roman galleys. Wooden towers were built on the walls
  to overtop the towers of the besiegers. Many devices for throwing fire
  were employed. The tradition that Archimedes burnt the Roman fleet, or
  a portion of it, at Syracuse, by focusing the rays of the sun with
  reflectors, is supported by an experiment made by Buffon in 1747. With
  a reflector having a surface of 50 sq. ft., made up of 168 small
  mirrors each 6 by 8 in., lead was melted at a distance of 140 ft. and
  wood was set on fire at 160 ft.

  The development of masonry in permanent fortification had long since
  reached its practical limit, and was no longer proof against the
  destructive methods that had been evolved. The extemporized defences
  were, as is always the case, worn down by a resolute besieger, and the
  attack was stronger than the defence.


  Middle ages.

Through the dark ages the Eastern Empire kept alive the twin sciences of
fortification and siegecraft long enough for the Crusaders to learn from
them what had been lost in the West. Byzantium, however, always a
storehouse of military science, while conserving a knowledge of the
ancient methods and the great missile engines, contributed no new ideas
to fortification, so far as we know. In practice the Byzantines favoured
multiplied enceintes or several concentric lines of defence. This of
course is always a tendency of decadent nations.

In the West the Roman fortifications remained standing, and the
Visigoths, allies of Rome, utilized their principles in the defences of
Carcassonne, Toulouse, &c. in the 5th century. Viollet-le-Duc's
description and illustrations of the defences of Carcassonne will give a
very good idea of the methods then in use:--

  "The Visigoth fortification of the city of Carcassonne, which is still
  preserved, offers an analogous arrangement recalling those described
  by Vegetius. The level of the town is much more elevated than the
  ground outside, and almost as high as the parapet walks. The curtain
  walls, of great thickness, are composed of two faces of small cubical
  masonry alternating with courses of brick; the middle portion being
  filled, not with earth but with rubble run with lime. The towers were
  raised above these curtains, and their communication with the latter
  might be cut off, so as to make of each tower a small independent
  fort; externally these towers are cylindrical, and on the side of the
  town square; they rest, also towards the country, upon a cubical base
  or foundation. We subjoin (fig. 1) the plan of one of these towers
  with the curtains adjoining. A is the plan of the ground-level; B the
  plan of the first storey at the level of the parapet. We see, at C and
  D, the two excavations formed in front of the gates of the tower to
  intercept, when the drawbridges were raised, all communication between
  the town or the parapet walk and the several storeys of the tower.
  From the first storey access was had to the upper crenellated or
  battlemented portion of the tower by a ladder of wood placed
  interiorly against the side of the flat wall. The external
  ground-level was much lower than that of the tower, and also beneath
  the ground-level of the town, from which it was reached by a
  descending flight of from ten to fifteen steps. Fig. 2 shows the tower
  and its two curtains on the side of the town; the bridges of
  communication are supposed to have been removed. The battlemented
  portion at the top is covered with a roof, and open on the side of the
  town in order to permit the defenders of the tower to see what was
  going on therein, and also to allow of their hoisting up stones and
  other projectiles by means of a rope and pulley. Fig. 3 shows the same
  tower on the side towards the country; we have added a postern, the
  sill of which is sufficiently raised above the ground to necessitate
  the use of a scaling or step ladder, to obtain ingress. The postern is
  defended, as was customary, by a palisade or barrier, each gate or
  postern being provided with a work of this kind."

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--Plan of one of the Towers at Carcassonne.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--One of the Towers at Carcassonne, inside view.]

Meanwhile, in western Europe, siegecraft had almost disappeared. Its
perfect development was only possible for an army like that of the
Romans. The Huns and Goths knew nothing of it, and the efforts of
Charlemagne and others of the Frankish kings to restore the art were
hampered by the fact that their warriors despised handicrafts and
understood nothing but the use of their weapons. During the dark ages
the towns of the Gauls retained their old Roman and Visigoth defences,
which no one knew properly how to attack, and accordingly the sieges of
that period dragged themselves out through long years, and if ultimately
successful were so as a rule only through blockade and famine. It was
not until the 11th century that siegecraft was revived in the West on
the ancient lines.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--One of the Towers at Carcassonne, outside view.]


  Castles.

By this time a new departure of great importance had been made in the
seigneurial castle (q.v.), which restored for some centuries a definite
superiority to the defence. Built primarily as strongholds for local
magnates or for small bodies of warriors dominating a conquered country,
the conditions which called them into existence offered several marked
advantages. The defences of a town had to follow the growth of the town,
and would naturally have weak points. It was not to be expected that a
town would develop itself in the manner most suitable for defence; nor
indeed that any position large enough for a town could be found that
would be naturally strong all round. But the site of a castle could be
chosen purely for its natural strength, without regard, except as a
secondary consideration, to the protection of anything outside it; and
as its area was small it was often easy to find a natural position
entirely suited for the purpose. In fact it frequently happened that the
existence of such a position was the _raison d'être_ of the castle. A
small hill with steep sides might well be unapproachable in every
direction by such cumbrous structures as towers and rats, while the
height of the hill, added to the height of the walls, would be too much
for the besiegers' missiles. If the sides of the hill were precipitous
and rocky, mining became impossible, and the site was perfect for
defence. A castle built under such conditions was practically
impregnable; and this was the cause of the independence of the barons in
the 11th and 12th centuries. They could only be reduced by blockade, and
a blockade of long duration was very difficult in the feudal age.

A very instructive example of 12th-century work is the Château Gaillard,
built by Richard Coeur-de-Lion in 1196. This great castle, with ditches
and escarpments cut out of the solid rock, and extensive outworks, was
completed in one year. In the article CASTLE will be found the plan of
the main work, which is here supplemented by an elevation of the donjon
(or keep). The waved face of the inner or main wall of the castle,
giving a divergent fire over the front, is an interesting feature in
advance of the time. So also is the masonry protection of the
machicolation at the top of the donjon, a protection which at that time
was usually given by wooden hoardings. After the death of Richard,
Philip Augustus besieged the château, and carried it after a blockade of
seven months and a regular attack of one month. In this attack the tower
at A was first mined, after which the whole of that outwork was
abandoned by the defenders. The outer enceinte was next captured by
surprise; and finally the gate of the main wall was breached by the
pioneers. When this happened a sudden rush of the besiegers prevented
the remains of the garrison from gaining the shelter of the donjon, and
they had to lay down their arms.

Château Gaillard, designed by perhaps the greatest general of his time,
exemplifies in its brief resistance the weak points of the designs of
the 12th century. It is easy to understand how at each step gained by
the besiegers the very difficulties which had been placed in the way of
their further advance prevented the garrison from reinforcing strongly
the points attacked.

In the 13th century many influences were at work in the development of
castellar fortification. The experience of such sieges as that of
Château Gaillard, and still more that gained in the Crusades, the larger
garrisons at the disposal of the great feudal lords, and the importance
of the interests which they had to protect in their towns, led to a
freer style of design. We must also take note of an essential difference
between the forms of attack preferred by the Roman soldiery and by the
medieval chivalry. The former, who were artisans as well as soldiers,
preferred in siege works the certain if laborious methods of breaching
and mining. The latter, who considered all manual labour beneath them
and whose only ideal of warfare was personal combat, affected the tower
and its bridge, giving access to the top of the wall rather than the rat
and battering-ram. They were also fond of surprises, which the bad
discipline of the time favoured.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Donjon, Château Gaillard.]

We find, therefore, important progress in enlarging the area of defence
and in improving arrangements for flanking. The size and height of all
works were increased. The keep of Coucy Castle, built in 1220, was 200
ft. high. Montargis Castle, also built about this time, had a central
donjon and a large open enclosure, within which the whole garrison could
move freely, to reinforce quickly any threatened point. The effect of
flanking fire was increased by giving more projection to the towers,
whose sides were in some cases made at right angles to the curtain
walls.

We find also a tendency, the influence of which lasted long after
medieval times, towards complexity and multiplication of defences, to
guard against surprise and localize successful assaults. Great attention
was paid to the "step by step" defence. Flanking towers were cut off
from their walls and arranged for separate resistance. Complicated
entrances with traps and many doors were arranged. Almost all defence
was from the tops of the walls and towers, the loopholes on the lower
storeys being mainly for light and air and reconnoitring. Machicouli
galleries (for vertical defence) were protected either by stone walls
built out on corbels, or by strong timber hoardings built in war time,
for which the walls were prepared beforehand by recesses left in the
masonry. Loopholes and crenelles were protected by shutters. Great care
and much ingenuity were expended on details of all kinds.

Already in the 12th century the engineers of the defence had made
provision for countermining, by building chambers and galleries at the
base of the towers and walls. Further protection for the towers against
the pioneer attack was given by carrying out the masonry in front of the
tower in a kind of projecting horn. This was found later to have the
further advantages of doing away with the dead ground in front of the
tower unseen from the curtain, and of increasing the projection and
therefore the flanking power of the tower itself. The arrangement is
seen in several of the towers at Carcassonne, and has in it the germ of
the idea of the bastion.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Plan of Carcassonne, 13th century.]

  The defences of Carcassonne, remodelled in the latter half of the 13th
  century on the old Visigoth foundations, exemplify some of the best
  work of the period. Figs. 5 and 6 (reproduced from Viollet-le-Duc)
  show the plan of the defences of the town and castle, and a bird's-eye
  view of the castle with its two barbicans. The thick black line shows
  the main wall; beyond this are the lists and then the moat. It will be
  noted that the wall of the lists as well as the main wall is defended
  by towers. There are only two gates. That on the east is defended by
  two great towers and a semicircular barbican. The gate of the castle,
  on the west, has a most complicated approach defended by a labyrinth
  of gates and flanking walls, which cannot be shown on this small
  scale, and beyond these is a huge circular barbican in several
  storeys, capable of holding 1500 men. On the side of the town the
  castle is protected by a wide moat, and the entrance is masked by
  another large semicircular barbican. An interesting feature of the
  general arrangement is the importance which the lists have assumed.
  The slight wooden barricade of older times has developed into a wall
  with towers; and the effect is that the besieger, if he gains a
  footing in the lists, has a very narrow space in which to work the
  engines of attack. The castle, after the Roman fashion, adjoins the
  outer wall of the town, so that there may be a possibility of
  communicating with a relieving force from outside after the town has
  fallen. There were also several posterns, small openings made in the
  wall at some height above the ground, for use with rope ladders.

The siegecraft of the period was still that of the ancients. Mining was
the most effective form of attack, and the approach to the walls was
covered by engines throwing great stones against the hoardings of the
parapets, and by cross-bowmen who were sheltered behind light mantlets
moved on wheels. Barrels of burning pitch and other incendiary
projectiles were thrown as before; and at one siege we read of the
carcasses of dead horses and barrels of sewage being thrown into the
town to breed pestilence, which had the effect of forcing a
capitulation.

With all this the attack was inferior to the defence. As Professor
C.W.C. Oman has pointed out, the mechanical application of the three
powers of tension, torsion and counterpoise (in the missile engines) had
its limits. If these engines were enlarged they grew too costly and
unwieldy. If they were multiplied it was impossible on account of their
short range and great bulk to concentrate the fire of enough of them on
a single portion of the wall.


  Introduction of gunpowder.

It is difficult to give anything like an accurate account, in a small
space, of the changes in fortification which took place in the first two
centuries after the introduction of gunpowder. The number of existing
fortifications that had to be modified was infinite, so also was the
number of attempted solutions of the new problems. Engineers had not yet
begun to publish descriptions of their "systems"; also the new names and
terms which came into use with the new works were spread over Europe by
engineers of different countries, and adopted into new languages without
much accuracy.

Artillery was in use for some time before it began to have any effect on
the design of fortification. The earliest cannon threw so very light a
projectile that they had no effect on masonry and were more useful for
the defence than the attack. Later, larger pieces were made, which acted
practically as mortars, throwing stone balls with high elevation, and
barrels of burning composition. In the middle of the 15th century the
art of cannon-founding was much developed by the brothers Bureau in
France. They introduced iron cannon balls and greatly strengthened the
guns. In 1428 the English besieging Orleans were entirely defeated by
the superior artillery of the besieged. By 1450 Charles VII. was
furnished with so powerful a siege train that he captured the whole of
the castles in Normandy from the English in one year.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Carcassonne Castle and Barbican.]

But the great change came after the invasion of Italy by Charles VIII.
with a greatly improved siege train in 1494. The astonishing rapidity
with which castles and fortified towns fell before him proved the
uselessness of the old defences. It became necessary to create a new
system of defences, and, says Cosseron de Villenoisy, "thanks to the
mental activity of the Renaissance and the warlike conditions prevailing
everywhere, the time could not have been more favourable." There is no
doubt that the engineers of Italy as a body were responsible for the
first advance in fortification. There, where vital and mental energy
were at boiling-point, and where the first striking demonstration of the
new force had been given, the greatest intellects, men such as Leonardo
da Vinci, Michelangelo and Machiavelli, busied themselves over the
problem of defence.

It has been claimed that Albert Dürer was the first writer on modern
fortification. This was not so; Dürer's work was published in 1527, and
more than one Italian engineer, certainly Martini of Siena and San
Gallo, had preceded him. Also Machiavelli, writing between 1512 and
1527, had offered some most valuable criticisms and general principles.
Dürer, moreover, had little influence on the progress of fortification;
though we may see in his ideas, if we choose, the germ of the
"polygonal" system, developed long afterwards by Montalembert. Dürer's
work was to some extent a connecting link between the old fortification
and the new. He proposed greatly to enlarge the old towers; and he
provided both them and the curtains with vaulted chambers for guns
(casemates) in several tiers, so as to command both the ditch and the
ground beyond it. His projects were too massive and costly for
execution, but his name is associated with the first practical gun
casemates.

Before beginning to trace the effect of gunpowder on the design of
fortification, it may be noted that two causes weakened the influence of
the castles. First, their owners were slow to adopt the new ideas and
abandon their high strong walls for low extended parapets, and,
secondly, they had not the men necessary for long lines of defence. At
the same time the corporations of the towns had learnt to take an active
part in warfare, and provided trained and disciplined soldiers in large
numbers.

When artillery became strong enough to destroy masonry from a distance
two results followed: it was necessary to modify the masonry defences so
as to make them less vulnerable, and to improve the means of employing
the guns of the defence. For both these purposes the older castles with
their restricted area were little suited, and we must now trace the
development of the fortified towns.


    The bulwark.

  Probably the first form of construction directly due to the appearance
  of the new weapons was the bulwark (_boulevard, baluardo_ or
  _bollwerk_). This was an outwork usually semicircular in plan, built
  of earth consolidated with timber and revetted with hurdles. Such
  works were placed as a shield in front of the gates, which could be
  destroyed even by the early light cannon-balls; and they offered at
  the same time advanced positions for the guns of the defence. They
  were found so useful for gun positions for flanking fire that later
  they were placed in front of towers or at intervals along the walls
  for that purpose.

  This, however, was only a temporary expedient, and we have now to
  consider the radical modifications in designs. These affected both the
  construction and trace of the walls.


    The wall.

  The first lesson taught by improved artillery was that the walls
  should not be set up on high as targets, but in some manner screened.
  One method of doing this in the case of old works was by placing
  bulwarks in front of them. In other cases the lists or outer walls,
  being surrounded by moats, were already partially screened and
  suitable for conversion into the main defence; and as with improved
  flanking defence great height was no longer essential, the tops of the
  walls were in some cases cut down. In new works it was natural to sink
  the wall in a ditch, the earth from which was useful for making
  ramparts.

  As regards resistance to the effect of shot, it was found that thin
  masonry walls with rubble filling behind them were very easily
  destroyed. A bank of earth behind the wall lessened the vibration of
  the shot, but once a breach was made the earth came down, making a
  slope easy of ascent. To obviate this, horizontal layers of brushwood,
  timber and sometimes masonry were built into the earth bank, and
  answered very well (fig. 7).

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.]

  Another expedient of still greater value was the use of counterforts.
  The earliest counterforts were simply buttresses built _inward_ from
  the wall into the rampart instead of _outward_ (fig. 8). Their effect
  was to strengthen the wall and make the breaches more difficult of
  ascent. An alternative arrangement for strengthening the wall was an
  arched gallery built behind it under the rampart (fig. 9). This
  construction was in harmony with the idea, already familiar, of a
  passage in the wall from which countermines could be started; but it
  has the obvious weakness that the destruction of the face wall takes
  away one of the supports of the arch. The best arrangement, which is
  ascribed to Albert Dürer, was the "counter-arched revetment." This
  consisted of a series of arches built between the counterforts, with
  their axes at right angles to the face of the wall. Their advantage
  was that, while supporting the wall and taking all the weight of the
  rampart, they formed an obstacle after the destruction of the wall
  more difficult to surmount than the wall itself and very hard to
  destroy. The counter-arches might be in one, two or three tiers,
  according to the height of the wall (figs. 10 and 11, the latter
  without the earth of the rampart and showing also a countermine
  gallery).


    The rampart.

  A more important question, however, than the improvement of the
  passive defence or obstacle was the development of the active defence
  by artillery. For this purpose it was necessary to find room for the
  working of the guns. At the outset it was of course a question of
  modifying the existing defences at as little cost as possible. With
  this object the roofs of towers were removed and platforms for guns
  substituted, but this only gave room for one or two guns. Also the
  loopholes in the lower storeys of towers were converted into
  embrasures to give a grazing fire over the ditch; this became the
  commonest method of strengthening old works for cannon, but was of
  little use as the resulting field of fire was so small. In some cases
  the towers were made larger, with a semicircular front and side walls
  at right angles to the curtain. Such towers built at Langres early in
  the 16th century had walls 20 ft. thick to resist battering.

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.]

  Even in new works some attempts were made to combine artillery defence
  with pure masonry protection. The works of Albert Dürer in theory, and
  the bridge-head of Schaffhausen in practice, are the best examples of
  this. The Italian engineers also showed much ingenuity in arranging
  for the defence of ditches with masonry caponiers. These were
  developed from external buttresses, and equally with the casemated
  flanking towers of Dürer contained the germs of the idea of
  "polygonal" defence.

  The natural solution, however, which was soon generally adopted, was
  the rampart; that is, a bank of earth thrown up behind the wall,
  which, while strengthening the wall as already indicated, offered
  plenty of space for the disposal of the guns.


    The ditch.

  The _ditch_, which had only been occasionally used in ancient and
  medieval fortification, now became essential and characteristic.
  Serving as it did for the double purpose of supplying earth for a
  rampart and allowing the wall to be sunk for concealment, it was found
  also to have a definite use as an obstacle. Hitherto the wall had
  sufficed for this purpose, the ditch being useful mainly to prevent
  the besieger from bringing up his engines of attack.

  When the wall (or escarp) was lowered, the obstacle offered by the
  ditch was increased by revetting the far side of it with a
  _counterscarp_. Beyond the counterscarp wall some of the earth
  excavated from the ditch was piled up to increase the protection given
  to the escarp wall. This earth was sloped down gently on the outer
  side to meet the natural surface of the ground in such a manner as to
  be swept by the fire from the ramparts and was called the _glacis_.

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.]

  Now, however, a new difficulty arose. In all times a chief element in
  a successful defence has consisted in action by the besieged outside
  the walls. The old ditches, when they existed, had merely a slope on
  the far side leading up to the ground-level; and the ditch was a
  convenient place in which troops preparing for a sortie could assemble
  without being seen by the enemy, and ascend the slope to make their
  attack. The introduction of the counterscarp wall prevented sorties
  from the ditch. At first it was customary, after the introduction of
  the counterscarp, to leave a narrow space on the top of it, behind the
  glacis, for a patrol path. Eventually the difficulty was met by
  widening this patrol path into a space of about 30 ft., in which there
  was room for troops to assemble. This was known as the _covered way_.

  With this last addition the ordinary elements of a profile of modern
  fortification were complete and are exemplified in fig. 12.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.]


  The trace.

Up to the gunpowder period the _trace_ of fortifications, that is, the
plan on which they were arranged on the ground, was very simple. It was
merely a question of an enclosure wall adapted to the site and provided
with towers at suitable intervals. The foot of the wall could be seen
and defended everywhere, from the tops of the towers and the machicoulis
galleries. The introduction of ramparts and artillery made this more
difficult in two ways. The rampart, interposed between the defenders and
the face of the wall, put a stop to vertical defence. Also with the
inferior gun-carriages of the time very little depression could be given
to the guns, and thus the top of the enceinte wall, with or without a
rampart, was not a suitable position for guns intended to flank the
ditch in their immediate neighbourhood. The problem of the "trace"
therefore at the beginning of the 16th century was to rearrange the line
of defence so as to give due opportunity to the artillery of the
besieged, both to oppose the besiegers' breaching batteries and later to
defend the breaches. At the outset the latter rôle was the more
important.

In considering the early efforts of engineers to solve this problem we
must remember that for economical reasons they had to make the best use
they could of the existing walls. At first for flanking purposes
casemates on the ditch level were used, the old flanking towers being
enlarged for the purpose. Masonry galleries were constructed across the
ditch, containing casemates which could fire to either side, and after
this casemates were used in the counterscarps. Some use was also made of
the fire from detached bulwarks. It was soon realized, however, that the
flanking defence of the body of the place ought not to be dependent on
outworks, and that greater freedom was required for guns than was
consistent with casemate defence. The _bulwark_ (which in its earliest
shape suggests that it was in some sort the offspring of the barbican,
placed to protect an entrance) gave plenty of space for guns, but was
too detached for security. The enlarged tower, as an integral part of
the lines, gave security, and its walls at right angles to the curtain
gave direct flanking fire, but the guns in it were too cramped. The
blending of the two ideas produced the _bastion_, an element of
fortification which dominated the science for three hundred years, and
so impressed itself on the imagination that to this day any strong
advanced position in a defensive line is called by that name by
unscientific writers. The word had been in use for a long time in
connexion with extemporized towers or platforms for flanking purposes,
the earliest forms being _bastille_, _bastide_, _bastillon_, and in its
origin it apparently refers rather to the quality of work in the
construction than to its defensive intention.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--Bastion at Troyes.]

  The earliest bastions were modified bulwarks with straight faces and
  flanks, attached to the main wall, for which the old towers often
  acted as keeps; and at first the terms bulwark and bastion were more
  or less interchangeable. Fig. 13, taken from a contemporary MS. by
  Viollet-le-Duc, shows a bastion added to the old wall of Troyes about
  1528. On the other hand, in fig. 14 (taken from an English MS. of
  1559, which again is based on the Italian work of Zanchi published in
  1554), we find _a a_ spoken of as "bulwarks" and _b b_ as
  "bastilions." The triangular works between the bastilions are
  described as "ramparts," intended to protect the curtains from
  breaching fire. (We may also notice in this design the broad ditch,
  the counterscarp with narrow covered way, and loopholes indicating
  counterscarp galleries.)

Towards the end of the 16th century the term "bulwark" began to be
reserved for banks of earth thrown up a little distance in front of the
main wall to protect it from breaching fire, and it thus reverted to its
original defensive intention. The term "bastion" henceforth denoted an
artillery position connected by flanks to the main wall; and the
question of the arrangement of these flanks was one of the main
preoccupations of engineers. Flanks retired, casemated or open, or
sometimes in several tiers were proposed in infinite variety.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.]

Thus, while in the early part of the 16th century the actual
modification of existing defences was proceeding very slowly on account
of the expense involved, the era of theoretical "systems" had begun,
based on the mutual relations of flank and face. These can be grouped
under three heads as follows:--

  1. The _crémaillère_ or indented trace: Faces and flanks succeeding
  each other in regular order (fig. 15).

  [Illustration: FIG. 15.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 16.]

  2. The _tenaille_ trace: Flanks back to back between the faces (fig.
  16). The development of the flanks in this case gives us the _star_
  trace (fig. 17).

  [Illustration: FIG. 17.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 18.]

  3. The _bastioned_ trace: Flanks facing each other and connected by
  curtains (fig. 18).

In comparing these three traces it will be observed that unless
casemates are used the flanking in the first two is incomplete. Guns on
the ramparts of the faces cannot defend the flanks, and therefore there
are "dead" angles in the ditch. In the bastioned trace there is no
"dead" ground, provided the flanks are so far apart that a shot from the
rampart of a flank can reach the ditch at the centre of the curtain.


  The bastioned trace.

Here was therefore the parting of the ways. For those who objected to
casemate fire, the bastioned trace was the way of salvation. They were
soon in the majority; perhaps because the symmetry and completeness of
the idea captivated the imagination. At all events the bastioned trace,
once fairly developed, held the field in one form or another practically
without a rival until near the end of the 18th century. The Italian
engineers, who were supreme throughout most of the 16th century, started
it; the French, who took the lead in the following century, developed
it, and officially never deserted it until late in the 19th century,
when the increasing power of artillery made enceintes of secondary
importance.

  It will be useful at this point to go forward a little, with a couple
  of explanatory figures, in order to get a grasp of the component parts
  of the bastioned trace as ultimately developed, and of its outworks.

  [Illustration: FIG. 19.]

  In fig. 19 ABCD represents part of an imaginary line drawn round the
  place to be fortified, forming a polygon, regular or irregular.

  ABC is an _exterior angle_ or angle of the polygon.

  BC is an _exterior side_.

  _zz_ is an _interior side_.

  _abcdefghijk_ is the trace of the _enceinte_.

  _bcdef_ is a _bastion_.

  _zdef_ is a _demi-bastion_.

  _de_ is a _face_ of the bastion.

  _ef_ is a _flank_ of the bastion.

  _fg_ is the _curtain_.

  _bf_ is the _gorge_.

  (Two demi-bastions with the connecting curtain make the bastioned
  front, _defghi_.)

  _zd_ bisecting the _exterior angle_ ABC is the _capital_ of the
  bastion.

  _xy_ is the _perpendicular_, the proportionate length of which to the
  exterior side BC (usually about one-sixth) is an important element of
  the trace.

  _ef_C is the angle of _defence_.

  BC_f_ is the _diminished angle_.

  _cde_ is the _flanked angle_ or _salient angle_ of the bastion.

  _e_ is the _shoulder_ of the bastion.

  _def_ is the _angle of the shoulder_.

  _efg_ is the _angle of the flank_.

  The line of the escarp is called the _magistral line_ since it
  regulates the trace. When plans of fortifications are given without
  much detail, this line, with that of the counterscarp and the crest of
  the parapet, are often the only ones shown,--the crest of the parapet,
  as being the most important line, whence the fire proceeds, being
  usually emphasized by a thick black line.

  [Illustration: FIG. 20.]

  Fig. 20, reproduced from a French engraving of 1705, shows an
  imaginary place fortified as a hexagon with bastions and all the
  different kinds of outworks then in use. The following is the
  explanation of its figuring and lettering.

  1. _Flat bastion:_ Placed in the middle of a curtain when the lines of
  defence were too long for musketry range.

  2. _Demi-bastion:_ Used generally on the bank of a river.

  3. _Tenaille bastion:_ Used when the flanked angle is too acute; that
  is, less than 70°.

  4. _Redans:_ Used along the bank of a river, or when the parapet of
  the covered way can be taken in reverse from the front.

  A, B. _Ravelins._

  C. _Demi-lunes:_ So called from the shape of the gorge. They differ
  from the ravelins in being placed in front of the bastions instead of
  the curtains.

  D. _Counter-guards:_ Used instead of demi-lunes, which were then going
  out of fashion.

  E. _Simple tenaille._

  F. _Double tenaille_ (see L and M).

  (If the tenaille E is reduced in width towards the gorge, as shown
  alternatively, it is called a _swallow-tail_. If the double tenaille
  is reduced as at G, it is called a _bonnet de prêtre_. Such works
  were rarely used.)

  H. _Hornwork:_ Much used for gates, &c.

  I. _Crown-work._

  K. _Crowned hornwork._

  L. M. New forms of _tenaille_: (N.B.--These are the forms which
  ultimately retained the name.)

  N. New form of work called a _demi-lune lunettée_, the ravelin N being
  protected by two counterguards, O.

  P. _Re-entering places of arms._

  Q. _Traverses._

  R. _Salient places of arms._

  S. _Places of arms_ without _traverses_.

  T. Orillon, to protect the flank V.

  X. A _double bastion_ or _cavalier_.

  Y. A _retrenchment_ with a ditch, of the breach Z.

  &. _Traverses_ to protect the terreplein of the ramparts from
  enfilade.

Turning back now to the middle of the 16th century we find in the early
examples of the use of the bastion that there is no attempt made to
defend its faces by flanking fire, the curtains being considered the
only weak points of the enceinte. Accordingly, the flanks are arranged
at right angles to the curtain, and the prolongation of the faces
sometimes falls near the middle of it. When it was found that the faces
needed protection, the first attempts to give it were made by erecting
_cavaliers_, or raised parapets, behind the parapet of the curtain or in
the bastions.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.]

The first example of the complete bastioned system is found in
Paciotto's citadel of Antwerp, built in 1568 (fig. 21). Here we have
faces, flanks and curtain in due proportion; the faces long enough to
contain a powerful battery, and the flanks able to defend both curtain
and faces. The weak points of this trace, due to its being arranged on a
small pentagon, are that the terreplein or interior space of the
bastions is rather cramped, and the salient angles too acute.


  The 16th century.

In the systems published by Speckle of Strassburg in 1589 we find a
distinct advance. Speckle's actual constructions in fortification are of
no great importance; but he was a great traveller and observer, and in
his work, published just before his death, he has evidently assimilated,
and to some extent improved, the best ideas that had been put forward up
to that time.

Two specimens from Speckle's work are well worth studying as connecting
links between the 16th and 17th centuries.

  Fig. 22 is early 16th-century work much improved. There are no
  outworks, except the covered way, now fully developed, with a battery
  in the re-entering place of arms. The bastions are large, but the
  faces directed on the curtain get little protection from the flanks.
  To make up for this they are flanked by the large cavaliers in the
  middle of the curtain. The careful arrangement of the flank should be
  noted; part of it is retired, with two tiers of fire, some of which is
  arranged to bear on the face of the bastion. The great saliency of the
  bastion is a weak point, but the whole arrangement is simple and
  strong.

  In the second example, known as Speckle's "reinforced trace" (fig.
  23), we find him anticipating the work of the next century. The
  ravelin is here introduced, and made so large that its faces are in
  prolongation of those of the bastions. Speckle's other favourite
  ideas are here: the cavaliers and double parapets and his own
  particular invention of the low batteries behind the re-entering place
  of arms and the gorge of the ravelin. These low batteries did not find
  favour with other writers, being liable to be too easily destroyed by
  the besiegers' batteries crowning the salients of the covered way.

  Speckle's book is of great importance as embodying the best work of
  the period. His own ideas are large and simple, but rather in advance
  of the powers of the artillery of his day.

[Illustration: FIG 22.]


  The 17th century.

At the beginning of the 17th century we find the Italian engineers
following Paciotto in developing the complete bastioned trace; but they
got on to a bad line of thought in trying to reduce everything to
symmetry and system. The era of geometrical fortification (or, as Sir
George Clarke has called it, "drawing-board" fortification) had already
begun with Marchi, and his followers busied themselves entirely in
finding geometrical solutions for the application of symmetrical
bastioned fronts to such imaginary forms of perimeter as the oval, club,
heart, figure of eight, &c. Marchi, however, was one of the first to
think of prolonging the resistance of a place by means of outworks such
as the ravelin. De Villenoisy says that Busca was the first to discuss
the proportions and functions of all the component parts of a front; and
Floriani, about 1630, was the last of the important Italians. The
characteristics of a good deal of Spanish fortification carried out at
this time were, according to the same authority, that the works were
well adapted to sites, and the masonry excellent but too much exposed,
while the bastions were too small. The Dutch and German schools will be
referred to later.

[Illustration: FIG. 23.--Speckle's Reinforced Trace.]

The French engineers now began to take the lead in adapting the
principles already established to actual sites. In the first half of the
century the names of de Ville and Pagan stand out as having contributed
valuable studies to the advancement of the science. In putting forward
their designs they discussed very fully such practical questions as the
length of the line of defence, whether this should be governed by the
range of artillery or musketry fire, the length of flanks, the use in
them of orillons, casemates and retired flanks, the size of bastions,
&c.

It is the latter half of the 17th century, however, which is one of the
most important periods in the history of fortification, chiefly because
it was illuminated by the work of Vauban. It was at this time also that
a prodigious output of purely theoretical fortification began, which
went on till the French Revolution. Many of the "systems" published at
this time were elaborated by men who had no practical knowledge of the
subject, some of them priests who were engaged in educating the sons of
the upper classes, and who had to teach the elements of fortification
among other things. They naturally wrote treatises, which were valuable
for their clearness of style; and with their industry and ingenuity the
elaboration of existing methods was a very congenial task. Most of these
essays took the form of multiplication and elaboration of outworks on an
impossible scale, and they culminated in such fantastic extravagances as
the system of Rhana, published in 1769 (fig. 24). These proposals,
however, were of no practical importance.


  Vauban.

The work of the real masters who knew more than they published can
always be recognized by its comparative simplicity. The greatest of
these was Sebastien le Prestre de Vauban (q.v.). Born in 1633, and
busied from his eighteenth year till his death in 1707 in war or
preparations for war, he earned alike by his genius, his experience, his
industry and his personal character the chief place among modern
military engineers. His experience alone puts him in a category apart
from others. Of this it is enough to say that he took part in
forty-eight sieges, forty of which he directed as chief engineer without
a single failure, and repaired or constructed more than 160 places.
Vauban's genius was essentially practical, and he was no believer in
systems. He would say, "One does not fortify by systems but by common
sense." Of new ideas in fortification he introduced practically none,
but he improved and modified existing ideas with consummate skill in
actual construction. His most original work was in the attack (see
below), which he reduced to a scientific method most certain in its
results. It is therefore one of the ironies of fate that Vauban should
be chiefly known to us by three so-called "systems," known as his
"first," "second" and "third." How far he was from following a system is
shown by de Villenoisy, who reproduces twenty-eight fronts constructed
by him between 1667 and 1698, no two of which are quite alike and most
of which vary very considerably to suit local conditions.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.]

Vauban's "first system," as variously described by other writers even in
his own time, is pieced together from some of the early examples of his
work. The "second system" is the "tower bastion" defence of Belfort and
Landau (1684-1688), obviously suggested by a design of Castriotto's one
hundred years earlier; and the "third system" is the front of
Neu-Breisach (1698), which is merely Landau slightly improved. In other
works, between 1688 and 1698, he did not keep to the tower bastion idea.

It will be convenient to take the "first system," as reproduced in the
Royal Military Academy text book of fortification (fig. 25) as typical
of much of Vauban's work. It may be observed that he sometimes uses the
straight flank, and sometimes the curved flank with orillon. Parapets in
several tiers are never used, nor cavaliers. The ravelin is almost
always used. It is small, having little artillery power and giving no
protection to the shoulders of the bastions. Sometimes it has flanks and
occasionally a keep.

The tenaille is very generally found. In this form, viz. as a shield to
the escarp of the curtain, it was probably invented by him. Fig. 25
shows two forms. In both the parapet of the tenaille had to be kept low,
so that the flanks might defend a breach at the shoulder of the opposite
bastion, with artillery fire striking within 12 ft. of the base of the
escarp. Traverses are used for the first time on the covered way to
guard against enfilade fire; and the re-entering place of arms, to which
Vauban attached considerable importance, is large.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.--Vauban's First System.]

  For the construction of the trace an average length of about 400 yds.
  (which, however, is a matter entirely dependent on the site) may be
  taken for the exterior side. The perpendicular, except for polygons of
  less than six sides, is one-sixth, and the faces of the bastions
  two-sevenths of the exterior side. The flanks are chords of arcs
  struck from the opposite shoulder as centres. An arc described with
  the same radius, but with the angle of the flank as a centre, and
  cutting the perpendicular produced outwardly, gives the salient of the
  ravelin; the prolongations of the faces of the ravelin fall upon the
  faces of the bastions at 11 yds. from the shoulders. The main ditch
  has a width of 38 yds. at the salient of the bastions, and the
  counterscarp is directed upon the shoulders of the adjoining bastions.
  The ditch of the ravelin is 24 yds. wide throughout.

  As regards the profile the bastions and curtain have a command of 25
  ft. over the country, 17 ft. over the crest of the glacis and 8 ft.
  over the ravelin. The ditches are 18 ft. deep throughout. The parapets
  are 18 ft. thick with full revetments. In his later works he used
  demi-revetments.

Fig. 26 shows the tower bastions of Neu-Breisach, or the so-called
"third system." It is worth introducing, simply as showing that even a
mind like Vauban's could not resist in old age the tendency to duplicate
defences. Here the main bastions and tenaille are detached from the
enceinte. The line of the enceinte is broken with flanks and further
flanked by the towers. The ravelin is large and has a keep. The section
through the face of the bastion shows a demi-revetment with wide berm,
and a hedge as an additional obstacle.


  18th and 19th centuries.

After Vauban died, though the theories continued, the valuable additions
to the system were few. Among his successors in the early part of the
18th century Cormontaingne (q.v.) has the greatest reputation, though
his experience and authority fell far short of Vauban's. He was a clear
thinker and writer, and the elements of the system were distinctly
advanced by him. His trace includes an enlarged ravelin with flanks, the
ends of which were intended to close the gaps at the end of the
tenaille, and a keep to the ravelin with flanks. He provides a very
large re-entering place of arms, also with a keep, the ditches of which
are carefully traced so as to be protected from enfilade by the salients
of the ravelin and bastion. He was also in favour of a permanent
retrenchment of the gorge of the bastion. His works were printed, with
many alterations, more than twenty years after his death, to serve as a
text-book for the school of Mézières. This school was established in
1748, and from this time forward there was an official school of
thought, based on Vauban. Cormontaingne's work, therefore, represents
the modifications of Vauban's ideas accepted by French engineers in the
latter part of the 18th century. The school of Mézières was afterwards
replaced by that of Metz, which carried on its traditions. Such schools
are necessarily conservative, and hence, in spite of the gradual
improvement in ordnance and firearms, we find the main elements of the
bastioned system remaining unchanged right up to the period of the
Franco-German War in 1870. Chasseloup-Laubat tells us that, before the
Revolution, to attempt novelties in fortification was to write one's
self down ignorant. How far the general form of the bastion with its
outworks had become crystallized is evident from a cursory comparison of
fig. 27 with Vauban's early work. This figure is the front of the Metz
school in 1822, by General Noizet.

[Illustration: FIG. 26.--Neu-Breisach.]

[Illustration: FIG. 27.--Noizet.]

Since, therefore, the official view was that the general outlines of the
system were sacred, the efforts of orthodox engineers from
Cormontaingne's time onwards were given to improvements of detail, and
mainly to retard breaching operations as long as possible. We find
enormous pains being bestowed on the study of the comparative heights of
the masonry walls and crest levels; with the introduction here and there
of glacis slopes in the ditches, put in both to facilitate their
defence and to protect portions of the escarps.

Among the unorthodox two names deserve mention. The first of these is
Chasseloup-Laubat (q.v.), who served throughout the wars of the Republic
and Empire, and constructed the fortress of Alessandria in Piedmont.

  Chasseloup's main proposals to improve the bastioned system were two:

  First, in order to prevent the bastions from being breached through
  the gaps made by the ditch of the ravelin, he threw forward the
  ravelin and its keep outside the main glacis. This had the further
  advantage of giving great saliency to the ravelin for cross-fire over
  the terrain of the attack. On the other hand, it made the ravelin
  liable to capture by the gorge. It is probable that this system would
  have lent itself to a splendid defence by an able commander with a
  strong force; but under the opposite conditions it has a dangerous
  element of weakness.

  Secondly, in order to get freedom to use longer fronts than those
  admissible for the ordinary bastioned trace, he proposed to extend his
  exterior side up to about 650 yds. and to break the faces of his
  bastions; the portion next the shoulder being defended from the flank
  of the collateral bastion and coinciding with the line of defence, and
  the portion next the salient, up to about 80 yds. in length, being
  defended from a central keep or caponier placed in front of the
  tenaille. The natural criticism of this arrangement is that it
  combines some of the defects of both the bastioned and polygonal
  systems without getting the full advantages of either.

  [Illustration: FIG. 28.--Chasseloup-Laubat.

  Fig. 28 shows a half front of Chasseloup's system, of ordinary length,
  as actually constructed. The section shows an interesting detail, viz.
  the Chasseloup mask--a detached mask with tunnels for the casemate
  guns to fire through, the intention of which is to save them from
  being destroyed from a distance.

The second name is that of Captain Choumara of the French Engineers,
born in 1787, whose work was published in 1827. Two leading ideas are
due to him. The first is that of the "independence of parapets." A
glance at any of the plans that have already been shown will show that
hitherto the crests of parapets had always been traced parallel to the
escarp or magistral line. Choumara pointed out that, while it was
necessary for the escarp to be traced in straight lines with reference
to the flanking arrangements, there was no such necessity as regards the
parapets. By making the crest of the parapet quite independent of the
escarp line he obtained great freedom of direction for his fire. The
second idea is that of the "inner glacis." This was a glacis parapet
placed in the main ditch to shield the escarp; its effect being to
prevent the escarp of the body of the place from being breached in the
usual way by batteries crowning the crest of the covered way.

The need for Choumara's improvements has passed by, but he was in his
time a real teacher. One sentence of his strikes a resounding note:
"What is chiefly required in fortification is simplicity and strength.
It is not on a few little contrivances carefully hidden that one can
rely for a good defence. _The fate of a place should not depend on the
intelligence of a corporal shut up in a small post prepared for his
detachment._"

[Illustration: FIG. 29.--Sedan in 1705.]

  Before leaving the bastioned system it will be of interest to study a
  couple of actual and complete examples, one irregular and one regular.
  Fig. 29 shows the defences of Sedan as they were at the end of the
  17th century. One sees the touch of Vauban here and there, but the
  work is for the most part apparently early 17th century. It will be
  observed that on the river side of the town the defence consists of
  very irregular bastions with duplicated wet ditches (see the Dutch
  style, below); and on the other side, where water is not available,
  strength is sought for by pushing a succession of hornworks far out.

  Fig. 30 is Saarlouis, constructed by Vauban in 1680 in his early
  manner, a remarkable example of symmetry. Vauban of course never
  thought of aiming at symmetry, which is of itself neither good nor
  bad, but it is interesting to note such a perfect example of the
  system.

  It must here be remarked that the reproach of "geometrical"
  fortification is in no way applicable to the works of Vauban and his
  immediate successors. The true geometric fortification, which
  worshipped symmetry as a fetish, marked, as has been already pointed
  out, the decadence of the Italian school. Vauban and his fellows
  excelled in adapting works to sites, the real test of the engineer.

  The bastioned system was the 17th-century solution of the
  fortification problem. Given an artillery and musketry of short range
  and too slow for effective frontal defence, a ditch is necessary as an
  obstacle. What is the best means of flanking the ditch and of
  protecting the flanking arrangements? If Vauban elected for the
  bastion, we must before criticizing his choice remember that he was
  the most experienced engineer of his day, a man of the first ability
  and quite without prejudice. What is matter for regret is that the
  authority of Vauban should have practically paralysed the French
  school during the 18th and most of the 19th century, so that while the
  conditions of attack and defence were gradually altering they could
  admit no change of idea, and their best men, who could not help being
  original, were struggling against the whole weight of official
  opposition.

  Again, such duplication of outworks as we see at Sedan is not
  geometric fortification. It is a definite attempt to retard the
  attack, on ground favourable to it, by successive lines of defence. As
  to the policy of this, no axiom can be laid down. Nowadays most of us
  think, as Machiavelli did, that a single line of defence is best and
  that a second line only serves to suggest the advisability of
  retreat. There are also, of course, the recognized drawbacks of
  outworks, difficulty of retreat, of relief and so forth, and the moral
  effect of their loss. But the engineers of such defences as Ostend and
  Candia might well say, "Oh, if only when we had held on to that
  bastion for so many months we had had a second and a third line of
  permanent retrenchment to fall back upon, we could have held the place
  for ever." And who shall say that they were wrong? Let us at all
  events remember that the leading engineers of that time were men who
  had passed their lives in a state of war, and that we ourselves in
  comparison with them are the theorists.

[Illustration: FIG. 30.]


  The Dutch school.

From the end of the 16th century the Dutch methods of fortification
acquired a great reputation, thanks to the stout resistance offered to
the Spaniards by some of their fortresses, the three years' defence of
Ostend being perhaps the most striking example. Prolonged defences,
which were mainly due to the desperate energy of the besieged, were
credited to the quality of their defences. In point of fact the Dutch
owed more to nature, and more still to their own spirit, than to art;
but they showed a good deal of skill in adapting recent ideas to their
needs.

Three conditions governed the development of the Dutch works at this
time, viz. want of time, want of money and abundance of water. When the
Netherlands began their revolt against Spain, they would no doubt have
been glad enough of expensive masonry fortresses on such models as
Paciotto's citadel of Antwerp. But there was neither time nor money for
such works. Something had to be extemporized, and fortunately for them
they had wet ditches to take the place of high revetted walls.
Everywhere water was near the surface, and rivers or canals were
available for inundations. A wide and shallow ditch, while making a good
obstacle, was also the readiest means of obtaining earth for the
ramparts. High command was, owing to the flatness of the country,
unnecessary and even undesirable, as it did not allow of grazing fire.

What the Dutch actually did in strengthening their towns gives little
evidence of system. Starting as a rule from an existing enceinte,
sometimes a medieval wall, they would provide a broad wet ditch. No
further provision was usually made on the sides of the town which were
additionally protected by a river or inundation. On the other sides the
wet ditch was made still broader, and sometimes contained a
counterguard, sometimes ravelins and lunettes. These were quite
irregular in their design and relation to each other. At the foot of the
glacis would be found another but narrower wet ditch, which was a
peculiarly Dutch feature; and sometimes if the town was in a bend of a
river there would be a canal cut across the bend in a straight line,
strengthened by several redans.

Speaking generally, they endeavoured to provide for the want of a
first-class masonry obstacle by multiplication of wet ditches, and
further to strengthen these obstacles by great quantities of palisading,
for which purpose the timber of old ships was used. They also recognized
the inherent weaknesses of wet ditches, as, for instance, that when
frozen they no longer provide an obstacle; and they studied the means,
not only of causing inundations, but also of arranging to empty as well
as to fill the ditches at will. Simon Stevin was the leader in this
work.

Nevertheless a Dutch school of design did come into existence at this
time. The leaders, early in the 17th century, were Simon Stevin, Maurice
and Henry of Nassau, Marollois and Freitag. The fortress of Coevorden,
constructed by Prince Maurice, of which fig. 31 shows a front, is a
well-known example of this, and the section shows clearly some typical
features of the school.

[Illustration: FIG. 31.--Coevorden.]

  The elements of the plan are those of the early bastioned trace, but
  we find added both ravelins and lunettes, very regular in design.
  There is also the ditch at the foot of the glacis, and surrounding the
  rampart of the enceinte a continuous fausse-braie. This work, which
  partook of the nature of both boulevard and counterguard, served
  several purposes. It was desirable that the weight of the rampart
  should be drawn back a little from the edge of the ditch, and the
  fausse-braie filled what would otherwise have been dead ground at the
  foot of the rampart. It also afforded a grazing fire over the ditch,
  which was very important, and which the rampart supported by a
  plunging fire.


  Coehoorn.

Coehoorn (q.v.), the contemporary and nearest rival to Vauban, was the
greatest light of the Dutch school. Like Vauban he was distinguished as
a fighting engineer, both in attack and defence; but in the attack he
differed from him in relying more on powerful artillery fire than
systematic earthworks. He introduced the Coehoorn mortar. His "first
system," which was employed at Mannheim (fig. 32), is reproduced for the
sake of comparison with the Coevorden front designed a hundred years
earlier. Among other points will be noticed the combination of wet and
dry ditches; the very broad main ditch with counterguard; the roomy keep
of the ravelin; the expansion of the fausse-brais into an independent
low parapet; and the powerful flanking fire in three tiers.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.--Coehoorn's First System.]


  German school.

The "tenaille" system and the "polygonal" system which grew out of it
are mainly identified with the _German school_. That school, says von
Zastrow, does not, like that of France, represent the authoritative
teaching of an official establishment, but rather the general practice
of the German engineers. It was founded on the principles of Dürer,
Speckle and especially Rimpler, and much influenced in execution by
Montalembert. "The German engineers desired a simple trace, a strong
fortification with retrenchments and keeps, bomb-proof accommodation and
an organization suitable for an offensive defence."

These had always been the German principles. Already in the 16th century
the Prussian defences of Kustrin, Spandau and Peitz had large bomb-proof
casemates sufficient for a great part of the garrison. The same thing is
seen in the defences of Giogau, Schweidnitz, &c., built by Frederick the
Great. These works show various applications of the tenaille system. In
1776 Frederick became acquainted with the work of Montalembert, and his
influence is seen in the casemates of Kosel.

Whether through the influence of Albert Dürer or not cannot be said, but
while the bastion was being developed in France the tenaille and the
accompanying casemates from the first found acceptance in Germany, and
thence in eastern and northern Europe. De Groote, who wrote in 1618,
produced a sort of tenaille system, and may have been the inspiration of
Rimpler. Dillich (1640), Landsberg the elder (1648), Griendel d'Aach
(1677), Werthmuller (1685) and others advocated both bastion and
tenaille, sometimes in combination; the German bastion being usually
distinguished by short faces and long flanks.

Rimpler, who was present at the siege of Candia (taken by the Turks in
1669) and died at that of Vienna in 1683, exercised a great influence.
He had been struck by the weakness of the early Italian bastions at
Candia, and published a book in 1673 called _Fortification with Central
Bastions_, which was practically the polygonal trace. Zastrow thinks
that Rimpler inspired Montalembert. He left unfortunately no designs to
illustrate his ideas.

[Illustration: FIG. 33.]

Landsberg the younger (1670-1746), a major-general in the Prussian
service, who saw many sieges, also had a great influence. He appears to
have been the first who frankly advocated the tenaille alone, chiefly on
the ground that the flank, which was the most important part of the
bastioned system, was also the weakest. Fig. 33 shows his system,
published in 1712.


  Montalembert and Carnot.

It was, however, ultimately a Frenchman, Marc René Montalembert (q.v.),
who was the great apostle of the tenaille, though in his later years he
leaned more to the polygonal trace. He objected to the bastioned trace
on many grounds; principally that the bastion was a shell trap, that the
flanks by crossing their fire lost the advantage of the full range of
their weapons, and that the curtain was useless for defence. He took the
view that the bastions with their ravelins constituted practically a
tenaille trace, spoilt by the detachment of the ravelins and cramped by
the presence of the curtains and flanks. His tenaille system consisted
of redans, with salient angles of 60° or more, flanking each other at
right angles; from which he gave to his system the name of
"perpendicular fortification."

Lazare Carnot (q.v.), the "Organizer of Victory," was, in
fortification, a follower of Montalembert, and produced in 1797 a
tenaille system (fig. 34) on strong and simple lines.

[Illustration: FIG. 34.]

  In 1812 Carnot offered three systems. For a dry and level site he
  recommended a bastioned trace; but for wet ditches and for irregular
  ground, tenaille traces. Both of these latter differ from his 1797
  trace in that the re-entering angle is reinforced by a tenaille whose
  faces are parallel to the main faces and reach almost to the salients.
  There are also counterguards in front of the salients, whose ends
  overlap the ends of the tenaille. (N.B. To avoid confusion between the
  _tenaille trace_ and the _tenaille_, it should be noted that the
  latter is a low detached parapet placed in front of the escarp of the
  body of the place, partly as a shield, and partly as an additional
  line of defence. It is used in front of the curtain in the bastioned
  trace, and in the re-entering angle in the tenaille trace.)

  Other important features of Carnot's work were: a continuous general
  retrenchment, or interior parapet, following more or less the lines of
  the main parapet; the use of the detached wall in place of the escarp
  revetment; and the countersloping glacis. This last (of which Carnot
  was not the inventor), instead of sloping gently outwards from a crest
  raised about 8 ft. down to the natural level of the ground, sloped
  inwards from the ground-level to the bottom of the ditch. The
  advantage of the additional obstacle of the counterscarp was thus lost
  to the defence. On the other hand, the besiegers' saps, as they
  progressed down the glacis, were exposed to a plunging fire from the
  parapet.

[Illustration: FIG. 35.--Mortar-casemate and Detached Wall.]

Carnot was also, like Coehoorn, a great believer in the mortar; but
while Coehoorn introduced the small portable mortar that bears his name,
Carnot expected great results from a 13 in. mortar throwing 600 iron
balls at each discharge. He endeavoured to prove mathematically that the
discharge of these mortars would in due course kill off the whole of the
besieging force. These mortars he emplaced in open fronted
mortar-casemates, in concealed positions. Fig. 35 shows in section one
of these mortar-casemates, placed between the parapet of the
retrenchment and a detached wall.

[Illustration: FIG. 36.--Montalembert, 1786.]


  The polygonal trace.

The leading idea of Montalembert was that for a successful defence it
was necessary for the artillery to be superior to that of the enemy.
This idea led him to the adoption of casemates in several tiers; in
preference to open parapets, exposed to artillery fire of all kinds,
high angle, ricochet and reverse. In considering the defects of bastions
he had arrived at the conclusion that for flanking purposes two forms of
trace were preferable; either the tenaille form, connecting the ravelins
with the body of the place, or the form in which the primary flanking
elements, instead of facing each other with overlapping fire, as with
the bastions, should be placed back to back in the middle of the
exterior side. Fig. 36 is an example of this. The central flanking work
resulting from this arrangement is the caponier of the early Italians,
reintroduced and developed; and with it Montalembert laid the foundation
of the polygonal system of our own time.

Montalembert was one of the first to foresee the coming necessity for
detached forts, and it was for these that he chiefly proposed to use
his caponier flanking, preferring the tenaille system for large places.
In abandoning the bastioned trace he was already committed to the
principle of casemate defence for ditches; and the combination of this
principle with his desire for an overwhelming artillery defence led him
in the course of years of controversial writing into somewhat
extravagant proposals. For instance, for a square fort of about 400 yds.
side, he proposed over 1000 casemate guns; and one of his caponier
sections shows 10 tiers of masonry gun-casemates one above the other.
Confiding in the power of such an artillery, he freely exposed the upper
parts of his casemates to direct fire.

Montalembert is said to have contributed more new ideas to fortification
than any other man. His designs must be considered in some ways
unworkable and unsound, but all the best work of the 19th century rests
on his teaching. The Germans, who already used the tenaille system and
made free provision of bomb-proof casemates, took from him the polygonal
trace and the idea of the entrenched camp.

The polygonal system in fortification implies straight or slightly
broken exterior sides, flanked by casemated caponiers. The caponier is
the vital point of the front, and is protected in important works by a
ravelin and keep. The essence of the system is its simplicity, which
allows of its being applied to any sort of ground, level or broken, and
to long or short fronts.

[Illustration: FIG. 37.--Front at Posen.]


  1815-1855, entrenched camps.

The final period of smooth bore artillery is an important one in the
history of fortification. It is true that the many expensive works that
were constructed at this time were obsolete almost as soon as they were
finished; but this was inevitable, thanks to the pace at which the world
was travelling. After the Napoleonic wars the Germanic Confederation
began to strengthen its frontiers; and considering that they had not
derived much strategic advantage from their existing fortresses, the
Germans took up Montalembert's idea of entrenched camps, utilizing at
the same time his polygonal system with modifications for the main
enceintes. The Prussians began with the fortresses of Coblenz and
Cologne; later Posen, Königsberg and other places were treated on the
same lines. The Austrians constructed, among other places, Linz and
Verona. The Germanic Confederation reinforced Mainz with improved works,
and reorganized entirely Rastatt and Ulm. The Bavarians built
Germersheim and Ingolstadt. While all these works were conceived in the
spirit of Rimpler and Montalembert, they showed the differences of
national temperament. The Prussian works, simple in design, relied upon
powerful artillery fire, and exposed a good deal of masonry to the
enemy's view. The Austrians covered part of their masonry with earth and
gave more attention to detail.

The German development of the polygonal system at this time is not of
great importance, since the great masonry caponiers were designed
without sufficient consideration for the increasing powers of artillery.
One example (fig. 37) is given for the sake of historical comparison. It
is a front of Posen.

  "The exterior side of the front is about 650 yds. (600 metres) long.
  It is flanked by a central caponier, which is protected by a _detached
  bastion_.... The main front is broken back to flank the faces of the
  bastion from casemates behind the escarp, as well as from the parapet.


    Posen.

  "The central caponier forms the keep of the whole front and sweeps
  both the interior and the ditch by its flanking fire. It has two
  floors of gun-casemates and one for musketry, and on the top is a
  parapet completely commanding alike the outworks and the body of the
  place. It contains barrack accommodation for a battalion of 1000 men,
  and has a large inner courtyard closed at the gorge by a detached
  wall. The caponier is itself flanked by three small caponiers at the
  head, and one at the inner end of each flank.

  "The escarp of the body of the place is a simple detached wall; that
  of the detached bastion is either a detached wall with piers and
  arches, or a counter-arched revetment. At the salient of the bastion
  there is a mortar battery under the rampart, and a casemated traverse
  for howitzers upon the terreplein. The flanks of the bastion are
  parallel to those of the caponier, and at the same distance from it as
  the faces.

  "Masonry blockhouses, loopholed for musketry, are provided as keeps of
  the re-entering and salient places of arms. In the latter case they
  have stairs leading down into a counterscarp gallery, which serves as
  a base for countermine galleries, and is connected with the detached
  bastion by a gallery under the ditch. The counterscarp is not revetted
  if the ditch is wet.

  "The angle of the polygon should not be less than 160°, in order that
  the prolongation of the main ditch may fall within the salients of the
  detached bastions of the neighbouring fronts, and the masonry of the
  caponiers may thus be hidden from outside view." (R.M.A. _Text-book of
  F. & M.E._, 1886.)


  The detached fort.

We have now reached a period when the "detached fort" becomes of more
importance than the organization of the enceinte. The early conception
of the rôle of detached forts in connexion with the fortress was to form
an entrenched camp within which an army corps could seek safety if
necessary. The idea had occurred to Vauban, who added to the permanent
defences of Toulon a large camp defended by field parapets attached to
one side of the fortress. The substitution of a ring of detached forts,
while giving it the greater safety of permanent instead of field
defences, gave also a wider area and freer scope for the operations of
an army seeking shelter under the guns of a fortress, and at the same
time made siege more difficult by increasing the line of investment. The
use of the detached fort as a means of protecting the body of the place
from bombardment had not yet been made necessary by increased range of
artillery.

When these detached forts were first used by Germany the scope of the
idea had evidently not been realised, as they were placed much too close
to the fortress. Those at Cologne, for instance, were only some 400 or
500 yds. in advance of the ramparts. The same leading idea is seen in
most of these forts as in the new enceintes; i.e. a lunette, with a
casemated keep at the gorge. The keep is the essential part of the work,
the rampart of the lunette serving to protect it from frontal artillery
fire. The keep projects to the rear, so as not only to be able to flank
its own gorge, but to give some support to the neighbouring works with
guns protected from frontal fire. This is a valuable arrangement, which
is still sometimes used. The front ditches of the lunettes were flanked
by caponiers. Some of the larger forts were simple quadrangular works
with casemate barracks and caponier ditch defence.

In 1830, in Austria, the archduke Maximilian made an entirely fresh
departure with the defences of Linz. The idea was to provide an
entrenched camp at the least possible cost, whose works should require
the smallest possible garrison. With this object Linz was surrounded
with a belt of circular towers spaced about 600 yds. apart. The towers,
25 metres in diameter, were enclosed by a ditch and glacis, and
contained 3 tiers of casemates. The masonry was concealed from view by
the ditch and glacis. On the top of the tower was an earth parapet, over
which a battery of 13 guns fired _en barbette_. In order to find room
for so many guns in the restricted space, the whole 13 were placed
parallel and close together on a single specially designed mounting.

This new departure was received with a certain amount of approval at the
time, which is somewhat difficult to account for, as a more faulty
system could hardly be devised; but the experiment was never repeated.

The credit for much of the clear views and real progress made in Germany
during this period is due to General von Brese-Winiari,
inspector-general of the Prussian engineers.

France, for a few years after 1815, could spare little money for
fortifications, and nothing was done but repairs and minor improvements
on the old lines. Belgium, having some money in hand, rebuilt and
improved in detail a number of bastioned fortresses which had fallen
into disrepair.

[Illustration: FIG. 38. The Fortress of Antwerp.]

In 1830 France began to follow the lead of Germany with entrenched
camps. The enceinte of Paris was reconstructed, and detached forts were
added at a cost, according to von Zastrow, of £8,000,000. The Belgian
and German frontiers of France being considered fairly protected by the
existing fortresses, they turned their attention to the Swiss and
Italian frontiers, and constructed three fortresses with detached forts
at Belfort, Besançon and Grenoble. The cost of the new works at Lyons
was, according to the same writer, £1,000,000 without the armament. Here
and elsewhere the enceinte was simplified on account of the advanced
defences. That of Paris, which was influenced by political
considerations, was a simple bastioned trace with rather long fronts and
without ravelins or other outworks; the escarp was high and therefore
exposed, and the counterscarp was not revetted.

As regards the detached forts there was certainly a want of clearness of
conception. Those of Paris were simply fortresses in miniature, square
or pentagonal figures with bastioned fronts and containing defensible
barracks. Those of Lyons were much more carefully designed, but the
authors wavered between two ideas. Unwilling to give up the bastion, but
evidently hankering after the new caponiers, they produced a type which
it is difficult to praise. The larger works were irregular four- or
five-sided figures with bastioned fronts; and practically the whole
interior space was taken up by a large keep, with its ditch, on the
polygonal system. The smaller works, instead of a keep, had defensible
barracks in the gorge.

[Illustration: FIG. 39.]


  Period from 1855 to 1870.

During the period 1855-1870 a considerable impulse was given to the
science of fortification, both by the Crimean War and the arrival of the
rifled gun. One immediate result of these was the condemnation of
masonry exposed to artillery fire. The most important work of the period
was the new scheme of defence of Antwerp, initiated in 1859. This is
chiefly interesting as giving us the last and finest expression of the
medieval enceinte, at a time when the war between the polygonal and
bastioned traces was still raging, though the boom of the long-range
guns had already given warning that a new era had begun. Antwerp is also
associated with the name of General Brialmont (q.v.), of the Belgian
engineers, whom posterity will no doubt regard as the greatest writer on
fortification of the latter half of the 19th century.


  Antwerp.

We give in figs. 38, 39 and 40 the general plan of the 1859 defences of
Antwerp, the plan of a front of the enceinte, and its sections, as
showing almost the last word of fortification before the arrival of high
explosives.

The defences of Antwerp were designed, as the strategic centre of the
national defence of Belgium, for an entrenched camp for 100,000 men. The
length of the enceinte is about 9 m. The detached forts, which on the
sides not defended by inundation are about 1¼ m. apart and from 2 to 3
m. in front of the enceinte, are powerful works, arranged for a garrison
of 1000 men. They have each a frontal crest-line of over 700 yds. and
are intended for an armament of 120 guns and 15 mortars.

[Illustration: FIG. 40.--Sections of fig. 39.]

  The general arrangement of the fronts of the enceinte should be
  compared with the earlier German type of Posen. It will be noticed
  that while the large casemated caponier at Posen breaks the enceinte
  and flanks it both without and within, at Antwerp the caponier is
  detached--a much sounder arrangement--and flanks the front only. The
  defence of the faces rests on the width of the wet ditches and on the
  flanking power of the caponier; there is no attempt to add to it by
  fausse-braie or detached wall. The dimensions are everywhere very
  generous, allowing free movement for the troops of the defence; the
  covered way is 22 yds. wide and there is a double terreplein on the
  face. The parapet of the face is 27 ft. thick. The masonry of the
  casemate guns in the caponier, first flank and low battery, is
  protected by earth, _à la_ Haxo.

In 1859 Austria acknowledged the influence of the new artillery with
some new forts at Verona. The detached forts built by Radetzky in 1848
were only from 1000 to 2000 yds. distant from the ramparts. Those now
added, of which fig. 41 is an example, were from 3000 to 4000 yds. out.

[Illustration: FIG. 41.--Austrian Fort at Verona.]

In the same year the land defences of some of the British dockyards were
taken in hand. These first serious attempts at permanent fortification
in England were received with approval on the continent, as constituting
an advance on anything that had been done before. The detached forts
intended to keep an enemy outside bombarding distance were roomy works
with small keeps. The parapets were organized for artillery and the
ditches were defended by caponiers or counterscarp galleries. The forts
were spaced about a mile apart and arranged so as to support each other
by their fire.


  Period from 1870 to 1885.

The sieges of the Franco-German War of 1870 are alluded to in the
section below dealing with the "Attack of Fortresses." As regards their
effect on the designs of fortification the most important thing to note
is the distance to which it was thought necessary to throw out the
detached forts. These distances were of course influenced by the
character of the ground, but for the most part they were very largely
increased. Thus at Paris the fort at St Cyr was 18,000 yds. from the
enceinte; at Verdun the distances varied from 2300 to 12,000 yds.; at
Belfort the new forts were from 4500 to 11,500 yds. out; at Metz 2300 to
4500; and at Strassburg 5200 to 10,000. One result of these increased
distances was of course to increase very largely the length of the zone
of investment, and therefore the strength necessary for the besieging
force.

As regards the character of the works, the typical shape adopted both in
France and Germany was a very obtuse-angled lunette, shallow from front
to rear. The German type had one parapet only, which was organized for
artillery and heavily traversed, the living casemates being under this
parapet. The ditch defence was provided for by caponiers and a detached
wall (see fig. 42).

The French forts had two parapets, that in the rear being placed over
living casemates (in two tiers, as shown in the section of fig. 43 by a
dotted line), and commanding the front one. There was a long controversy
as to whether the artillery of the fort should be on the upper or the
lower parapet, the advocates of the upper parapet attaching great
importance to the command that the guns would have over the country in
front. The other school, objecting to having guns on the skyline,
preferred to sacrifice the command and place them on the lower parapet,
as in fig. 43, the infantry occupying the upper parapet. It will be
observed that the bastioned trace is abandoned, the ditches, like those
of the German fort, being defended by caponiers.

[Illustration: FIG. 42.--German Fort about 1880.]

[Illustration: FIG. 43.--French Fort about 1880.]

While a great deal of work was done on these lines, a very active
controversy had already begun on the general question as to whether guns
should be employed in forts at all. Some declared that the accuracy and
power of artillery had already developed so far, that guns in fixed and
visible positions must needs be put out of action in a very short time.
The remedy proposed by these was the removal of the guns from the forts
into "wing-batteries" which should be less conspicuous; but soon the
broader idea was put forward of placing the guns in concealed positions
and moving them from one to another by means of previously prepared
roads or railways. Others declared that there was no safety for the guns
outside the forts, and that the use of steel turrets and disappearing
cupolas was the only solution of the difficulty. General Brialmont, who
had by this time become the first European authority on fortification
questions, ranged himself on the side of the turrets. The younger
school were largely in favour of mobility and expressed themselves
eagerly in a shower of pamphlets.

It was at this juncture that a new factor was introduced, namely, the
obus-torpille, or long shell with high-explosive bursting charge. With
its appearance we say good-bye to the old school and enter upon the
consideration of the fortification of to-day.


II. MODERN PERMANENT FORTIFICATION

  High-angle fire with long shell.

Modern fortification dates by universal consent from 1885. The Germans
had begun experiments a year or two before this, with long shell
containing large charges of gun-cotton. But it was the experiments at
Fort Malmaison in France in 1886 that set the military world speculating
on the future of fortification. The fort was used as a target for 8-in.
shell of five calibres length containing large charges of melinite. The
reported effects of these made a tremendous sensation, and it was
thought at first that the days of permanent fortification were over.
Magazine casemates were destroyed by a single shell, and revetment walls
were overturned and practicable breaches made by two or three shells
falling behind them. It must be remembered, however, that the works were
not adapted to meet this kind of fire. The casemates had enough earth
over them to tamp the shell thoroughly, but not enough to prevent it
from coming into contact with the masonry, and the latter was not thick
enough to resist the explosion of the big charges. Other experiments
were made in the same direction in Germany, Holland, Belgium and
Austria. The Germans used shell containing from 60 to 130 lb. of high
explosive.

After the first alarm had subsided foreign engineers set about adapting
their works to meet the new projectiles. Revetments were enormously
strengthened, and designed so that their weight resisted overturning.
Concrete roofs were made from 6 to 10 ft. thick, and in many cases the
surface of the concrete was left bare so as to expose a hard surface to
the shell without any earth tamping. The idea of cupolas and shielded
guns gained ground, and is now practically accepted all over the
continent of Europe. In many cases the main armament, in some only the
safety armament (see below), is in cupolas in the forts.

[Illustration: From Plessix and Legrand's _Manuel complet de la
fortification_, by permission.

FIG. 44.--Metz in 1899.]

But meanwhile Europe had been flooded with literature on the subject,
and the whole policy of fortification as well as its minutest details
were discussed _ab ovo_. The extremists of both sides revelled in their
opportunity. Some declared that, with the use of heavy guns and armour,
fortresses could be made stronger than ever. Others held that modern
fortresses were far too expensive, that their use led to strategic
mistakes, and (arguing from certain well-known examples) that
extemporized field defences could offer as good a resistance as
permanent works.

European military opinion generally is now more or less agreed on the
following lines:--

  1. Important places must be defended by fortresses.

  2. Their girdle of forts must be far enough out to prevent the
  bombardment of the place.

  3. An enceinte is desirable, but need not be elaborate.

  4. A few guns (called "safety armament") should be in the forts, and
  these must be protected by armour.

  5. The bulk of the artillery of the defence should be outside the
  forts; the direct-fire guns preferably in cupolas, the howitzers in
  concealed positions.

  6. The forts should be connected by lines of entrenched infantry
  positions and obstacles, permanent bomb-proof shelters being provided
  for the infantry.

  7. There should be ample communications--radial and
  peripheral--between the place and the forts, both by road and rail.

  8. Special lines of communication--such as mountain passes--should be
  closed by barrier forts.

These considerations will now be taken somewhat more in detail, but
first it will be useful to deal with the plan of Metz in 1899 (fig. 44).


    Metz.

  Here the fortifications of successive periods can be readily
  recognized. First the old enceinte, unaltered by the Germans and now
  _déclassée_. Next the detached forts, begun by the French engineers in
  1868 and still unfinished in 1870, can be readily recognized by their
  bastioned trace. Among them are Fort Manteuffel, formerly St Julien,
  and Fort Goeben (fig. 45), formerly Queuleu. These were not altered in
  their general lines.

  [Illustration: From Plessix and Legrand's _Manuel complet de la
  fortification_, by permission.

  FIG. 45.--Fort Goeben, Metz.]

  This early line of detached forts, less than 3000 yds. from the
  enceinte, was completed by the Germans with forts of polygonal type
  such as Fort Prinz August. The hill of St Quentin (fig. 46), a very
  important point, was converted into a fortified position, with two
  forts and connecting parapets, and a communication running north to
  Fort Alvensleben.

  The arrangement of wing batteries in connexion with the forts can be
  clearly noted at Fort Manteuffel. These are reinforced by other
  batteries either for the defence of the intervals or to dominate
  important lines of approach such as the valley of the Moselle (canal
  battery at Montigny). To these were added later armoured batteries.

  There are also infantry positions, shelters and magazines in connexion
  with this line.

  Finally some new forts of modern type were commenced in 1899 at about
  9000 yds. from the place.


  Fortresses.

Leaving out of consideration at present the strategic use of groups of
fortresses, the places which, as mentioned above, are intrinsically
worth being defended as fortresses are:--

  (a) Centres of national, industrial or military resources.

  (b) Places which may serve as _points d'appui_ for manoeuvres.

  (c) Points of intersection of important railroads.

  (d) Bridges over considerable rivers.

  (e) Certain lines of communication across a frontier.

Examples of (a) are Paris, Antwerp, Lyons, Verdun. Again for (a) and
(b), as is pointed out by Plessix and Legrand, Metz in the hands of the
Germans may serve both as a base of supplies and a _point d'appui_ for
one flank. Strassburg is a bridge-head giving the Germans a secure
retreat across the Rhine if beaten in the plains of Alsace, and an
opportunity of resuming the offensive when they have re-formed behind
the river.

[Illustration: From Plessix and Legrand's _Manuel complet de la
fortification_, by permission.

FIG. 46.--St Quentin position, Metz.]


  The ring of detached forts.

The distance of detached forts from the place depends on the range of
the siege artillery and the distance at which it can usually be
established from the forts, and is variously given by different
continental writers at from 4 to 9 km. (4500 to 10,000 yds.). The
bombarding range of siege howitzers with heavy shells is considered to
be about 8000 yds., and if it is possible for them to be emplaced within
say 2000 yds. of the forts, this would give a minimum distance of 6000
yds. from the forts to the body of the place. Some writers extend the
minimum distance to 7 km., or nearly 8000 yds. In practice, however, it
must happen that the position of the forts is determined to a very large
extent by the lie of the ground. Thus some good positions for forts may
be found within 4000 or 5000 yds. of the place, and no others suitable
on the same front within 15,000 yds. In that case the question of
expense might necessitate choosing the nearer positions. Some examples
of the actual distances of existing forts have already been given.
Others, more recent, are, at Bucharest 7-10 km., Lyons 8-10½, Copenhagen
7-8 and Paris 14-17. _Strategic pivots_ are in a different category from
other fortresses. While not necessarily protected from bombardment, they
may yet have one or two forts thrown out from 9 to 12 km., to get
advantage of ground. Such are Langres, Epinal and Belfort.

  _The Enceinte._--The desirability of this is almost universally
  allowed; but often it is more as a concession to tradition than for
  any solid reason. The idea is that behind the line of forts, which is
  the main defensive position, any favourable points that exist should
  be provisionally fortified to assist in a "step-by-step" defence: and
  behind these again the body of the place should be surrounded by a
  last line of defence, so that the garrison may resist to the last
  moment. It may be remarked that apart from the additional expense of
  an enceinte, such a position would not, under modern conditions, be
  the most favourable for the last stages of a defence. Again, there is
  the difficulty that it is practically impossible to shut in a large
  modern town by a continuous enceinte. It has been proposed to
  construct the enceinte in sections in front of the salient portions of
  the place. This system of course abandons several of the chief
  advantages claimed for an enceinte.

  In actual practice enceintes have been constructed since 1870 in
  France and other countries, consisting of a simple wall 10 or 12 ft.
  high with a banquette and loopholes at intervals. This of course can
  only be looked upon as a measure of police. For war purposes, in face
  of modern artillery, it is a _reductio ad absurdum_.

  _The Safety Armament._--If the bulk of the artillery is to be placed
  in positions prepared on the outbreak of war, it is considered very
  necessary that a few heavy long-range guns should be permanently in
  position ready at any moment to keep an enemy at a distance, forcing
  him to open his first batteries at long range and checking the advance
  of his investment line. Such guns would naturally be in secure
  positions inside the forts, and if they are to be worked from such
  positions they must have armour to shield them from the concentrated
  fire of the numerous field artillery that a besieger could bring to
  bear from the first.


  The question of artillery positions.

Artillery outside the forts constitutes the most important part of the
defence, and there is room for much discussion as to whether it should
have positions prepared for it beforehand or should be placed in
positions selected as the attack develops itself. On the one hand the
preparation of the positions beforehand, which in many cases means the
use of armour and concrete, increases very largely the initial expense
of the defence, and ties the defender somewhat in the special
dispositions that become desirable once the attack has taken shape.
Moreover, such expenditure must be incurred on all the fronts of the
fortress, whereas the results would only be realized on the front or
fronts actually attacked. On the other hand much time and labour are
involved in emplacing heavy and medium artillery with extemporized
protection, and this becomes a serious consideration when one remembers
how much work of all kinds is necessary in preparing a fortress against
attack. Again, to avoid the danger of a successful attack on the
intervals between the forts before their defences have been fully
completed, the fire of the guns in the intermediate positions might be
urgently required. The solution in any given case would no doubt depend
on the importance of the place. In most cases a certain amount of
compromise will come in, some preparation being made for batteries,
without their being completed. Armoured batteries of whatever kind must
in any case be prepared in peace time. It should not be overlooked that
as, whatever theories may exist about successive lines of defence, the
onus of the defence will now lie on the fort line, just as it formerly
did on the enceintes, so that line should be fully prepared, and should
not have to commence its fight in a position of inequality.

[Illustration: From Brialmont's _Progrès de la défense des états et de
la fortification permanente depuis Vauban_, by permission of M. le
Commandant G. Meeüs.

FIG. 47.]

  _Defence of Intervals of Forts._--The frontal fire of the batteries in
  the intervals and the flanking fire of some of the guns in the forts
  will play an important part, but the main reliance should be on
  infantry defence. A fully prepared fortress would have practically a
  complete chain of infantry fighting positions and obstacles between
  the forts, at all events on the fronts likely to be seriously
  attacked. The positions would consist largely of fire trenches, with
  good communications; but it is pretty generally recognized that there
  must be some _points d'appui_ in the shape of redoubts or infantry
  forts, and also bomb-proof shelter for men, ammunition and stores near
  the fighting line. This is usually included in the redoubts. If they
  are to resist the heaviest shell, such shelters must be built in peace
  time.

  _Communications_ are of the first importance, not merely to facilitate
  the movement of the enormous stores of ammunition and materials
  required in the fighting line, but also that defenders may fully
  utilize the advantage of acting on interior lines. They should include
  both railways and roads running from the centre of the place to the
  different sectors of defence, and all round, in rear of the line of
  forts; also ample covered approaches to the fighting line. Concealment
  is essential, and where the lie of the ground does not help, it must
  be got from earth parapets or plantations.


  Barrier forts.

The principal use of barrier forts is in country where the necessary
line of communication cannot be easily diverted. For instance, in a
comparatively flat country a barrier fort commanding a road or railway
is of little use because roads may be found passing round it, or a line
of railway may be diverted for some miles to avoid it. But in
mountainous country, where such diversion is impossible, it will be
necessary for the enemy to capture the fort before he can advance; and
the impossibility of surrounding it, the few positions from which siege
artillery can be brought into play, and the fact that there is
practically only one road of approach to be denied, make these positions
peculiarly suitable for forts with armoured batteries. Italy makes
considerable use of such forts for the defence of frontier passes.

  _General Brialmont's Theoretical Claim for the Defence of a
  Country._--Before going into details, it is worth while to state the
  full claim of strategic fortification advanced by General Brialmont,
  the most thorough of all its advocates. It is as follows:--

  A. Fortify the capital.

  B. Fortify the points where main lines of communication pass a
  strategic barrier.

  C. Make an entrenched camp at the most important centre of
  communication in each zone of invasion: and support it by one or two
  places arranged so as to make a fortified district.

  [Illustration: From Brialmont's _Progrès de la défense des états et de
  la fortification depuis Vauban_, by permission of Commandant G. Meeüs.

  FIG. 48.]

  D. Close with barrier forts the lines necessary to an enemy across
  mountains or marshes.

  E. Make a central place behind a mountain chain as a pivot for the
  army watching it.

  F. Defend mountain roads by provisional fortifications.

  G. Make a large place in each theatre of war which is far from the
  principal theatre, and where the enemy might wish to establish
  himself.

  H. Fortify coasts and harbours.

  Objections to these proposals will be readily supplied by the
  officials of the national treasury and the commanders-in-chief of the
  active armies.


  Types of detached forts.

So many types of detached forts have been proposed by competent
authorities, as well as actually constructed in recent years, that it is
impossible here to consider all of them, and a few only will be
reproduced of those which are most representative of modern continental
thought.

  Taking first the type of heavily armed fort, which contains guns for
  the artillery fight as well as safety armament, we must give
  precedence to General Brialmont. The two works here shown are taken
  from the _Progrès de la défense des états, &c._, published in 1898.
  The pentagonal fort (fig. 47) has two special features. In section 1
  is shown a concrete infantry parapet, with a gallery in which the
  defenders of the parapet may take shelter from the bombardment
  preceding an assault. In section 2 it will be seen that the
  counterscarp galleries flanking the ditch are drawn back from the face
  of the counterscarp. This is to counteract proposals that have been
  made to obscure the view from the flanking galleries, and perhaps
  drive the defenders out of them by throwing smoke-producing materials
  into the ditch at the moment of an assault. The arrangement may save
  the occupants of the galleries from excessive heat and noxious fumes,
  but will not of course prevent the smoke from obscuring the view.

  The following points may be noticed about this design in comparing it
  with earlier types. There is no escarp, the natural slope of the
  rampart being carried down to the bottom of the ditch. There is a
  counterscarp to the faces, but no covered way. The flanks have no
  counterscarp, but a steel fence at the foot of the slope, and the
  covered way which is utilized for a wire entanglement which is under
  the fire of the parapet. The gorge has a very slight bastioned
  indentation, which allows for an efficient flanking of the ditch by a
  couple of machine guns placed in a single casemate on either side.

  The abolition of the covered way as such is noteworthy. It marks an
  essential difference between the fort and the old enceinte profiles;
  showing that offensive action is not expected from the garrison of the
  fort, and is the duty of the troops of the intermediate lines.

  The great central mass of concrete containing all the casemates and
  the gun-cupolas, a very popular feature, is omitted in this design,
  advantage being taken of the great lateral extent of the fort to
  spread the casemates under the faces, flanks and gorge, with a
  communication across the centre of the fort. This arrangement gives
  more freedom to the disposition of the cupolas. The thickness of the
  concrete over the casemate arches is more than 8 ft. Communication
  between the faces and the counterscarp galleries is obtained by
  posterns under the ditch. The armament, which is all protected by
  cupolas, is powerful. It consists of two 150-mm. (6 in.) guns, four
  120-mm. (4.7 in.) guns, two 210-mm. (8.4 in.) howitzers, two 210-mm.
  (8.4 in.) mortars, four 57-mm. Q.F. guns for close defence. There is
  also a shielded electric light projector in the centre.

  This fort is a great advance on General Brialmont's designs before
  1885. These were marked by great complexity of earth parapets and
  various _chicanes_ which would not long survive bombardment. This type
  is simple and powerful. It is also very expensive.

  The second Brialmont fort (fig. 48) is selected because it shows a
  keep or citadel, an inner work designed to hold out after the capture
  of the outer parapet. General Brialmont held strongly to the necessity
  of keeps for all important works. History of course gives instances of
  citadels which have enabled the garrison to recapture the main work
  with assistance, or caused a really useful delay in the progress of
  the general attack. It affords still more instances in which the keeps
  have made no resistance, or none of any value. Some think that the
  existence of a keep encourages the defenders of the main work; others
  that it encourages the idea of retreat. The British school of thought
  is against keeps. In any case they add largely to expense.

  In the present design the keep is a mass of concrete, which depends
  for the defence of its front ditches on counterscarp galleries in the
  main work, the few embrasures for frontal defence being practically
  useless. Its main function is to prevent the attackers from
  establishing themselves on the gorge, thus leaving the way open for a
  reinforcement from outside to enter (assisted by bamboo flying
  bridges) through the passages left for the purpose in the outer and
  inner gorge parapets.

  As regards the main work, the arrangements for defence of the ditch
  and the armament are similar to the design last considered. This
  parapet has no concrete shelter for the defenders. The casemates are
  all collected in the keep and the gorge, with a passage all round
  giving access to the parapet and the cupolas.

  [Illustration: From Brialmont's _Progrès de la défense des états,
  &c._, by permission of Commandant G. Meeüs.

  FIG. 49.--Fort Molsheim, Strassburg.]

  Fig. 49 is a German work, Fort Molsheim at Strassburg. This is a
  simple type of triangular fort. The main mass of concrete rests on the
  gorge, and is divided by a narrow courtyard to give light and air to
  the front casemates. The fort has a medium armament for the artillery
  fight, consisting of four 6-in. howitzers in cupolas. On each face are
  two small Q.F. guns in cupolas for close defence, for which purpose,
  it will be seen, there is also an infantry parapet. At the angles are
  look-out turrets. The ditch has escarp and counterscarp, and is
  defended by counterscarp galleries at the angles. There is no covered
  way. The thickness of concrete over the casemates, where it is
  uncovered, is about 10 ft.

  Fig. 50 is Fort Lyngby at Copenhagen. The new Copenhagen defences are
  very interesting, giving evidence of clear and original thought, and
  effectiveness combined with economy. There is one special feature
  worth noting about the outer ring of forts, of which Lyngby is one.
  These works are intended for the artillery fight only, their main
  armament being four 6-in. guns (in pairs) and three 6-in. howitzers,
  all in cupolas. The armament for immediate defence is trifling,
  consisting of only two 57-mm. guns and a machine-gun. There is no
  provision for infantry defence. The ditch has no escarp or
  counterscarp, and is flanked by counterscarp galleries at the salient.

  It is usual in the case of works so slightly organized for their own
  defence, and intended only for the long-range artillery fight, to
  withdraw them somewhat from the front line. The Danish engineers,
  however, have not hesitated to put these works in the very front line,
  some 2000 metres in front of the permanent intermediate batteries. The
  object of this is to force the enemy to establish his heavy artillery
  at such long ranges that it will be able to afford little assistance
  to the trench attack of the infantry. The intermediate batteries,
  being withdrawn, are comparatively safe. They therefore do not require
  expensive protection, and can reserve their strength to resist the
  advance of the attack. The success of this arrangement will depend on
  the fighting strength of the cupolas under war conditions; and what
  that may be, war alone can tell us.

  In the details of these works, besides the bold cutting down of
  defensive precautions, we may note the skilful and economical use of
  layers of large stones over the casemates to diminish the thickness of
  concrete required. The roofs of the casemates are stiffened underneath
  with steel rails, and steel lathing is used to prevent lumps of
  concrete from falling on the occupants. The living casemates look out
  on the gorge, getting plenty of light and air, while the magazines are
  under the cupolas.

  The forts above described are all armed with a view to their taking an
  important part in the distant artillery fight. The next type to be
  considered (fig. 51) is selected mainly because it is a good example
  of the use of concealed flanking batteries, known on the continent as
  _batteries traditores_, which seem to be growing in popularity.

  This design by Colonel Voorduin of the Dutch engineers has a medium
  armament, which is not intended for the artillery duel, but to command
  the immediate front of the neighbouring forts and the intervals. The
  fort is long and narrow, with small casemate accommodation. It
  contains eight 4.7-in. guns. Two of these are in a cupola concealed
  from view, though not protected, by a bank of earth in front. The
  other six are in an armoured battery behind the cupola. It may be
  remarked that as the cupola gets no real protection from the covering
  mass of earth, it would be better to be able to utilize the fire of
  its guns to the front. The _batterie traditore_, if properly protected
  overhead, would be very difficult to silence, and its flanking fire
  would probably be available up to the last moment. There is very much
  to be said both for and against the policy of so emplacing the guns.
  The immediate defence of the work, with the aid of a broad wet ditch,
  is easy; but the great mass of concrete, which is intended to form an
  indestructible platform and breastwork for the infantry, would seem to
  be a needless expense.

  [Illustration: From Brialmont's _Progrès de la défense des états,
  &c._, by permission of Commandant G. Meeüs.

  FIG. 50.--Fort Lyngby, Copenhagen.]

  [Illustration: From Leithner's _Beständige Befestigung_.

  FIG. 51.]

  Fig. 52, designed by the Austrian lieutenant field-marshal Moritz
  Ritter von Brunner (1839-1904), is selected as a type of the
  intermediate fort which is intended only to be a strong point in the
  infantry line of defence between the main forts. It has a protected
  armament, but this, which consists only of four small Q.F. guns in
  cupolas, is for its own defence, and not to take part in the artillery
  duel. There is also a movable armament of four light Q.F. guns on
  wheels, for which a shelter is provided between the two observatory
  cupolas. The garrison would be a half company of infantry, for whom
  casemates are provided in the gorge. The gorge ditch is flanked by a
  caponier, but there is no flank defence for the front ditch. This is
  defended by a glacis parapet. At the bottom of the ditch is a wire
  entanglement and the glacis slope is planted with thorns. The
  thickness of concrete on the casemates is 2 metres (6 ft. 7 in.). This
  is a strong and simple form of infantry work, but considering its rôle
  it appears to be needlessly expensive.

  Fig. 53 is an Italian type of barrier fort in mountainous country. A
  powerful battery of eight medium guns protected by a Gruson shield
  commands the approach. The fort with its dwelling casemates is
  surrounded by a deep ditch flanked by counterscarp galleries. There
  are certain apparent weaknesses in the type, but the difficulties of
  the attack in such country and its limitations must be borne in mind.

_Modern Details of Protection and Obstacle._--After considering the
above types of fort, it will be of use to note some of the details in
which modern construction has been modified to provide against the
increasing power of artillery.

[Illustration: From Brialmont's _Progrès de la défense des états, &c._,
by permission of Commandant G. Meeüs.

FIG. 52.]


  Bomb-proof protection.

The penetration of projectiles varies according to the nature of the
soil--the lighter the better for protection. Sand offers the greatest
resistance to penetration, clay the least. Since, however, the
penetration of heavy shells fired from long ranges with high elevation
may be 20 ft. or more in ordinary soil, we can no longer look to earth
alone as a source of protection against bombardment. Again a moderate
quantity of earth over a casemate increases the explosive effect of a
shell by "tamping" it, that is by preventing the force of the explosion
from being wasted in the open air. We find therefore that in most modern
designs the tops of casemates are left uncovered, or with only a few
inches of earth over them, in which grass may be grown for concealment.

For the materials of casemates and revetment walls exposed to fire,
concrete (q.v.) has entirely replaced masonry and brickwork, not because
of its convenience in construction, but because it offers the best
resistance. The exact composition of the concrete is a matter that
demands great care and knowledge. It should be, like an armour plate,
hard on the surface and tough within. The great thickness of 10 ft. of
concrete for casemate arches, very generally prescribed on the continent
in important positions, is meant to meet the danger of several
successive shells striking the same spot. To stop a single shell of any
siege calibre in use at present, 5 ft. of good concrete would be enough.
A good deal is expected from the use of "reinforced concrete" (that is
concrete strengthened by steel) both for revetment walls and casemates.


  Parapets.

Parapets are frequently made continuous or glacis-wise, that is the
superior slope is prolonged to the bottom of the ditch so that the whole
rampart can be swept by the fire of the defenders from the crest, and
there is no dead ground in front of it. It is also common to build the
crest of the parapet in solid concrete, with sometimes a concrete
banquette, so that bombardment shall not destroy the line the defenders
have to man in repelling an assault. This concrete parapet may be
further reinforced by hinged steel bullet-proof plates, to give head
cover; which when not in use hang down behind the crest.

[Illustration: From General Rocchi's _Traccia per lo studio della
fortificazione_, by permission.

FIG. 53.]


  Obstacles.

The escarp is falling into disfavour, on account of the great expense of
a revetment that can withstand breaching fire. A counterscarp of very
solid construction is generally used. It is low and gives cover to a
wire entanglement in the ditch. This may be supplemented by a steel
unclimbable fence, and by entanglements or thorn plantations on the
covered way and the lower slopes of the parapet. Entanglements are
attached to steel posts bedded in concrete. The upper parts of
revetments and the foundations of walls are protected against the action
of shells, that falling steeply might act as mines to overturn them, by
thick aprons of large stones. Fig. 54 shows most of these dispositions.


  Search-lights.

Electric search-lights are now used in all important works and
batteries. They are usually placed in disappearing cupolas. They are of
great value for discovering working parties at night, and lighting up
the foreground during an attack; and since only the projector need be
exposed, they are not very vulnerable. Their value, however, must not be
over-estimated. The most powerful search-light can in no way compare
with daylight as an illuminant, and, like all other mechanical
contrivances, they have certain marked drawbacks in war. They may give
rise to a false confidence; an important light may fail at a critical
moment; and in foggy weather they are useless.


  Armour.

The use of armour (see also ARMOUR-PLATES) for coast batteries followed
closely upon its employment for ships, for those were the days of short
ranges and close fighting, and it seemed natural not to leave the
battery in a position of inferiority to the ship in the matter of
protection. In England the coast battery for a generation after the
Crimean War was a combination of masonry and iron; and in 1860 Brialmont
employed armoured turrets at Antwerp in the forts which commanded the
Scheldt. For land defence purposes, however, engineers were very slow to
adopt armour. Apart from all questions of difficulty of manufacture,
expense, &c., the idea was that sea and land fronts were radically
different. It was pointed out that a ship gun, fired from an unsteady
platform, had not enough accuracy to strike repeated blows on the same
spot; so that a shield which was strong enough to resist a single shot
would give complete protection. A battery on a land front, on the other
hand, was exposed to an accurate fire from guns which could strike
successive blows on the same spot, and break down the resistance of the
strongest shield. But in time continental opinion gradually began to
turn in favour of iron protection. Practical types of disappearing and
revolving cupolas were produced, and many engineers were influenced in
their favour by the effect of the big high-explosive shell. Eventually
it was argued that, after all, the object of fortification is not to
obtain a resisting power without limit, but to put the men and guns of a
work in an advantageous position to defend themselves as long as
possible against a superior force; and that from this point of view
armour cannot but add strength to defensive works.

[Illustration: From Deguise's _La Fortification permanente_, by
permission of J. Polleunis.

FIG. 54.]

The question has of course long passed beyond the stage of theory.
Practically every European state uses iron or steel casemates and
cupolas. German, Danish, Italian and other types of forts so armed have
been shown. Recent French types have not been published, but it is known
that cupolas are employed; and Velichko, the Russian authority, long an
uncompromising opponent of armour, in the end changed his views. These
countries have had to proceed gradually, by improving existing
fortresses, and with such resources as could be spared from the needs of
the active armies. Among the smaller states Rumania and Belgium have
entered most freely into the new way. In England, which is less directly
interested, opinion has been led by Sir George Clarke, since the
publication in 1890 of his well-known book on fortification. Having
witnessed officially the experiments at Bucharest in 1885 with a St
Chamond turret and a Gruson cupola, he expressed himself very strongly
against the whole system. Besides pointing out very clearly the
theoretical objections to it, and the weak points of the constructions
under experiment, he added: "The cost of the French turret was about
£10,000 exclusive of its armament, and for this sum about six movable
overbank guns of greater power could be provided." In view of the weight
that belongs of right to his criticisms it is as well to point out that
while this remark is quite true, yet the six guns would require also six
gun detachments, with arrangements for supply, &c.; a consideration
which alters the working of this apparently elementary sum. The whole
object of protection is to enable a few men and guns successfully to
oppose a larger number.

  At the time when Sir George Clarke's first edition came out, such
  extravagances were before the public as Mougin's fort; "a mastless
  turret ship," as he called it, "buried up to the deck-level in the
  ground and manned by mechanics." Such ideas tended to throw discredit
  on the more reasonable use of armour, but whether the system be right
  or wrong, it exists now and has to be taken account of. Nowhere has it
  been applied more boldly than in Rumania. The defences of Bucharest
  (designed by Brialmont) consist of 18 main and 18 small forts, with
  intermediate batteries. The main forts are some 4500 yds. apart, and
  11,000 to 12,000 yds. from the centre of the place. The typical
  armament of a main fort is six 6-in. guns in three cupolas (one for
  indirect fire), two 8.4-in. howitzers in cupolas, one 4.7-in. howitzer
  in a cupola, six small Q.F. guns in disappearing cupolas. The total
  armament of the place (all protected) is eighty-six 6-in. guns,
  seventy-four 8.4-in. howitzers, eighteen 4.7-in. howitzers, 127 small
  calibre Q.F. guns in disappearing cupolas, 476 small calibre Q.F. guns
  in casemates for flanking the ditches. The "Sereth Line" will be
  described later.

_Different Forms of Protection: Casemate, Cupola, &c._--The broad
difference between casemates or shielded batteries and turrets and
cupolas is that the former are fixed while the latter revolve and in
some cases disappear. The casemate thus has the disadvantages that the
arc of fire of the gun, which has to fire through a fixed embrasure or
port-hole, is very limited, and that the muzzle of the gun and the
port-hole, the weak points of the system, are constantly exposed to the
fire of the enemy. The advantage of the casemate lies in its comparative
cheapness and the greater strength of a fixed structure. It is well
suited for barrier forts (fig. 53) and other analogous positions; and
the Italians amongst other nations have so employed it at such places as
the end of the Mont Cenis tunnel. Steel and iron casemates are also
useful as caponiers for ditch flanking (fig. 55).

[Illustration: From Leithner's _Beständige Befestigung_, by permission.

FIG. 55.]

_Turrets and Cupolas._--The difference between a turret and a cupola is
that the former is cylindrical with a flat or nearly flat top and
presents a vertical target; while the latter is a flattened dome, the
vertical supports of which are entirely concealed. The turret appears to
be little used. The object of both forms is at once to give an all-round
arc of fire to the guns and to allow of the weak point of the structure,
the port-hole and muzzle of the gun, being turned away from the enemy in
the intervals of firing. Both usually emerge from a mass of concrete,
which is strengthened round the opening by a collar of chilled cast iron
about 12 to 15 in. thick.


    Cupolas.

  There are four types of cupolas, viz. (a) Disappearing, (b)
  Oscillating, (c) Central pivot, (d) On roller rings.

  (a) Disappearing cupolas are used chiefly for small quick-firing guns,
  on account of the expense of the various systems. They can be used for
  medium guns. The details of the best foreign systems are secret. (b)
  The oscillating turret is a Mougin type, in which the turret is
  supported in the centre by a knife-edge on which it can swing. The
  oscillation is controlled by powerful springs. The effect of it is
  that after firing, the front of the cupola with the port-hole swings
  downwards under cover, and is held there until the gun is ready to
  fire again. (c) Schumann's centre pivot is understood to be approved
  in Germany. It has been adopted in Rumania and Belgium for howitzer
  cupolas. It is only suitable for a single piece; d is strong and
  steady--the best cupola for coast batteries; c and d are best for
  rapid fire because they can be loaded without lowering. They are
  suited for long guns.

  The following types are illustrated as being generally representative
  of the different classes of cupola.

  [Illustration: FIG. 56.--Cupola for 6-in. gun (Friedr. Krupp A.G.).]

  Fig. 56 is a section of Messrs Krupp's typical cupola for one 6-in.
  gun. The shield is of nickel steel, the collar of cast steel. A small
  space is left between the cupola and its collar to prevent the
  possibility of the shield jamming after being damaged. The guns are
  muzzle-pivoting and thickened out near the muzzle by the addition of a
  ring, so as to close the port as much as possible. The recoil is
  controlled within narrow limits both to economize space and to prevent
  the smoke from the muzzle from getting into the cupola. To facilitate
  the elevation and depression of the gun (with muzzle pivotings the
  breech has of course to be moved through a much larger arc than with
  ordinary mountings) it is balanced by a counterweight. The cupola
  rests on a roller ring and is traversed by a winch. It can be turned
  through a complete circle in about one minute.

  [Illustration: From Leithner's _Beständige Befestigung_.

  FIG. 57.--Gruson Spherical Mortar.]

  Fig. 57 shows a Schumann shielded mortar (sphere-mortar,
  _Kugelmörser_). In this case it will be observed that the cupola is
  replaced by an enlargement of the encircling collar; and the mortar
  (8.4-in. calibre) is enclosed in a sphere of cast iron, so as to close
  completely the opening of the collar in any position.

  Fig. 58 shows a Gruson cupola for one 4.7-in. Q.F. howitzer.

  Fig. 59 shows a disappearing turret for an electric light projector.

  Fig. 60 shows a Krupp transportable cupola for a 5.7-cm. gun. This is
  drawn on a four-wheeled carriage, and when coming into action slides
  on rollers on to a platform in the parapet. It weighs about 2½ tons,
  and with carriage and platform about 4 tons.

  The mechanism of these cupolas is for the most part simpler than it
  appears. Counterweights and hand winches are much in use for the
  lighter natures of guns. The armouring of course keeps pace with
  improvements in manufacture. The chilled cast iron first made popular
  by the Gruson firm is now little used except for such purposes as the
  collar round a cupola. Wrought iron, steel and compound plates for the
  tops of cupolas have all been tried, the most recent Krupp-Gruson
  designs being of nickel steel.

  The sighting in some cases may be done by sights on the gun, with
  suitable enlargements in the port-hole; in others by sights affixed to
  the cupola itself (which of course can give horizontal direction
  only); in others training and elevation are given in accordance with
  the readings on electric dials, or instructions by telephone or
  speaking tube. There is of course nothing unreasonable in this in the
  case of indirect fire guns and howitzers, for if not firing from
  cupolas they would be behind the shelter of some wood or quarry.

  _Schumann's System: "Armoured Fronts."_--Lieut.-Colonel Maximilian
  Schumann (1827-1889) of the Prussian engineers, who took a very
  prominent part in the design and advocacy of armoured defences,
  eventually produced a system which dispensed entirely with forts and
  relied on the fire of protected guns. It consists of several lines of
  batteries for Q.F. guns and howitzers in cupolas. He considered that
  such batteries would be able to defend their own front, and the
  infantry garrison was not to be called into action except in the case
  of the enemy breaking through at some point of the line.

  This system was actually adopted by Rumania (1889-1892) for the Sereth
  Line. There are three routes by which the Russians can enter the
  country across the Sereth river: through Focshani, Nemolassa and
  Galatz. These three routes are barred by bridge-heads, those at
  Focshani, the most important, being on the left bank of the Milkov, a
  tributary of the Sereth.

  The Focshani works consist of 71 batteries arranged on a semicircular
  front about 12 m. long and from 8000 to 10,000 yds. in advance of the
  bridges. The batteries are placed in three lines, which are about 500
  yds. apart, and are subdivided into groups. The normal group consists
  of 5 batteries, of which 3 are in the first line, 1 in the second, and
  1 in the third. The first-line batteries each contain five small Q.F.
  guns in travelling cupolas. The second-line batteries, each six small
  Q.F. guns in disappearing cupolas. The third-line batteries have one
  120-mm. gun in a cupola, and two 210-mm. spherical mortars with Gruson
  shields. The immediate defence of the batteries consists of a glacis
  planted with thorn bushes and a wire entanglement.

  [Illustration: From Leithner's _Beständige Befestigung_.

  FIG. 58.--Cupola for 4.7-in. Howitzer.]

  The fortification of these three bridge-heads are said to have cost
  about £1,100,000. But the system of "armoured fronts" is never likely
  to be reproduced, having been condemned by all authoritative
  continental opinion. Its defects have been summarized by Schroeter as
  follows: weakness of artillery at long ranges, want of security
  against a surprise rush, the neglect of the use of infantry in the
  defence, and the difficulty of command. This last is the most serious
  of all. It is indeed difficult to conceive that any one should expect
  half-a-dozen expert gunners, each shut up in an iron box with a gun,
  to stop the rush of a thousand men, even by day. But imagine the
  feelings of the gunner on the night of a big attack, alone in his box,
  his nerves already strained by a preliminary bombardment and nights of
  watching. He hears the sounds of battle all around; he knows nothing
  of the progress of the attack, but expects everything, and feels every
  moment the door of his box being opened and the bayonet entering his
  back. No wise commander would submit his troops to such a test.

_Sir George Clarke and Unarmoured Systems._--Before leaving the subject
of fortresses it is necessary to consider the ideas of those who, while
recognizing the necessity for places permanently organized for defence,
prefer to treat them more from the point of view of perfected field
defences. It is to the credit of English military science that Sir
George Clarke may be taken as the representative of this school of
thought. His study of fortification, as he tells us, began with a
history of the defence of Plevna (q.v.). He was led to compare the
resistance made behind extemporized defences at such places as
Sevastopol, Kars and Plevna, with those at other places fortified in the
most complete manner known to science. From this comparison he drew the
conclusion that the true strength of fortification does not depend on
great masonry works intricately pieced together at vast expense, but on
organization, communications and invisibility. In his 1907 edition he
says:--

  "Future defences will divide themselves naturally into the following
  categories: (1) Permanent works wholly constructed in peace time and
  forming the key points of the position. (2) Gun emplacements,
  magazines and shelters for men in rear of the main line, all concrete
  structures and platforms to be completed, though some earthwork may be
  left until the position is placed in a state of defence. (3) Field
  works, trenches, &c., guarding the intervals between the permanent
  defences in the main line, or providing rear positions. These should
  be deliberately planned in time of peace ready to be put in hand at
  short notice. The essence of a well-fortified position is that the
  weapons of the defender shall obtain the utmost possible scope of
  action, and that those of the attacker shall have the minimum chances
  of effecting injury."

[Illustration: Drawn from illustration in Leithner's _Beständige
Befestigung_, by permission.

FIG. 59.--Disappearing Turret for Searchlight.]


  Infantry redoubts.

Since Sir George Clarke published his first edition in 1890 continental
ideas have expanded a good deal. The foregoing statement as to the three
categories of defences would be accepted anywhere now: the differences
of opinion come in when we reach the stage of classifying under the
first head the permanent works to be constructed in peace time. In most
countries these would include forts with guns for the artillery duel,
forts with safety armaments, fixed batteries with or without armour, and
forts for infantry only. Sir George Clarke will have no armour for guns
except in certain special cases of barrier forts. Heavy guns and
howitzers requiring permanent emplacements (concrete platforms, &c.)
must either be well concealed or be provided with alternative positions.
The only permanent works which he admits are for infantry. They are
redoubts of simple form intended for 350 or 400 men, with casemate
accommodation for three-fourths of that number. Fig. 61 shows the
design:--two rows of casemates, one under the front parapet, one under a
parados; frontal musketry defence; obstacle consisting of entanglements,
mines, &c., with or without escarp and counterscarp.

[Illustration: FIG. 60.--Transportable Cupola for 5.7-cm. Gun (Friedr.
Krupp A.G.).]

  "The intervals (he says) between the infantry redoubts may be about
  2500 yds.; but this will necessarily depend upon the conformation of
  the ground. Where there are good artillery positions falling within
  the sphere of protection of the redoubts, large intervals will be
  permissible. Thus, in the case of an extended line of defence where
  the ground offers marked tactical features, the idea of a continuous
  chain of permanent works may be abandoned in favour of groups of
  redoubts guarding the artillery positions. In this case, the redoubts
  in a group might be distributed on a curve bent back in approximately
  horse-shoe form."

[Illustration: From Sir George S. Clarke's Fortification, by permission
of John Murray.

FIG. 61.]

The keystones of the close defence of the fighting line in future will
undoubtedly be these infantry redoubts, and therefore it is of great
interest to compare with the above types two studies put forward by
Schroeter (_Die Festung in der heutigen Kriegführung_), one in his first
edition in 1898 (fig. 62), and the other in the second in 1905 (fig.
63). In both these the defensive arrangements are merely trenches of
field profile with entanglements, the command and the obstacle being
less than in Sir George Clarke's work; and it will be noticed that in
the 1905 type, published after the Russo-Japanese War, the plan is much
less simple and arrangements for close flanking defence have been
introduced. But these works of Schroeter's are merely infantry
supporting points in a line which contains forts of the triangular type
with guns, and armoured batteries, as well as a very complete
arrangement of field defences and communications; while Sir G. Clarke's
redoubts are the only permanent works giving casemate protection in the
front line.

[Illustration: From Schoeter's Die Festung in der heutigen Kriegführung,
by permission of E.S. Mittler u. Sohn.

FIG. 62.]

The comparative merits of either design for an infantry redoubt are not
of much importance. It is agreed that the main line of defence must
consist of a more or less continuous line of field defences and
obstacles, and that at some points in the line there should be infantry
supporting points with bomb-proof protection capable of resisting big
shells. The open question is, what additional works, if any, are
required for the artillery, whether for the medium and heavy guns that
will take part in the "artillery duel," or for the lighter natures that
will help in the close fight and defence of the intervals. Is it best
for the defenders to rely on armoured protection or on concealment for
his guns?


  Opposing views as to armour, gun positions, &c.

Official opinion outside England has certainly sanctioned armour, since
all over the continent it is to some extent adopted in practice.
National practice is usually based on the advice of the most
distinguished officers of the day, and therefore it is unsafe to condemn
it hastily. Sir George Clarke and those who are with him--and they are
many, both in Great Britain and abroad--object entirely to armour. He
says (_Fortification_, ed. 1907, p. 96): "The great advantage possessed
by the attack in all ages has been the employment of a mobile artillery
against armaments cribbed, cabined and confined by fortification. It is
necessary to perpetuate this advantage?" Of course the effect of
long-range weapons, in increasing the length of front that can be held
by a given force, has given much greater freedom of action to the
defence and this should be taken full advantage of.

[Illustration: From Schroeter's _Die Festung in der heutigen
Kriegführung_, by permission of E.S. Mittler u. Sohn.

FIG. 63.]

The argument as to the vulnerability of shielded guns is not at present
strong. Sir George says (ib. p. 94), "If the high angle fire ... is ever
to find a favourable opportunity, it will surely be against a cupola,
the site of which can generally be determined with accuracy." On the
other hand he says (p. 90), "During the long and costly experiments
carried on at Bucharest in 1885-1886, 164 rounds were fired from the
Krupp 21 cm. mortar at targets of about 40 sq. metres area" (about 430
sq. ft.) "without obtaining a single hit. The range was 2700 yds.; the
targets were towers built upon a level plain; the shooting conditions
were ideal, and the fall of each shell was telephoned back to the firing
point; but it must have been evident to the least instructed observer
that to attempt to group 6 or 8 shells on an invisible area 2 metres
square would have been absolutely futile." These facts are adduced to
prove that it is not necessary to give great thickness to concrete
casemates, to resist successive bursts of shells in the same place; but
surely they are equally applicable to cupolas. Again (p. 252), "The
experience gained at Port Arthur was not altogether encouraging as
regards the use of high angle fire. The Russian vessels in the harbour
were sunk by opening their sea-valves.... Fire was subsequently directed
upon them from 11 in. howitzers at ranges up to about 7500 yds. This was
deliberate practice from siege batteries at stationary targets; but the
effect was distinctly disappointing." The cupolas therefore can hardly
be considered ideal targets: and the probability is that they would hold
their own against both direct and indirect fire for a long time. There
are other and stronger arguments against the general use of them, all of
which are clearly set forth by Sir George Clarke.

The worst objections to the cupola are the military disadvantages of
isolation and immobility, and the multiplication of mechanical
arrangements. For a successful round from a disappearing cupola, the
elevating and traversing arrangements, the elevating and loading gear of
the gun, and the telephone communication, must all be in good order. At
night the successful co-operation of the searchlight is also in many
cases necessary.

The teaching of history is all against immobile mechanical defences.
Initiative, surprise, unforeseen offensive action, keeping the besieger
in ignorance of the dispositions of the garrison, and of what progress
he is making: all these, with their influence on the morale of both
sides, tend towards successful defences and do not point towards the use
of armour.

It may further be said that the use of armour as a general rule is
unnecessary, because a concealed battery is a protected one; and with
the long ranges now usual for heavy guns and howitzers, there is not
generally much difficulty about concealment.

In the opinion, however, of the present writer an exception must be made
for guns intended to flank the line of defence, which would generally
need bomb-proof over-head cover. Further, when we leave theory and come
to the consideration of actual problems of defence, it will often be
found that it is necessary to place guns in certain positions where good
concealment cannot be got. In such cases some form of protection must be
given if the guns are to engage the concealed batteries of the attack.


III. THE ATTACK OF FORTRESSES

In considering the history of siegecraft since the introduction of
gunpowder, there are three main lines of development to follow, viz. the
gradually increasing power of artillery, the systematizing of the works
of attack, and in recent times the change that has been brought about by
the effect of modern small-arm fire.

Cannon appear to have been first used in sieges as mortars, to destroy
hoardings by throwing round stones and barrels of burning composition.
Early in the 15th century we find cannon throwing metal balls, not only
against hoarding and battlements, but also to breach the bases of the
walls. It was only possible to work the guns very slowly, and archers or
crossbowmen were needed in support of them, to drive the defenders from
the crenellations or loopholes of the battlements. At that period the
artillery was used in place of the medieval siege engines and in much
the same manner. The guns of the defence were inaccurate, and being
placed high on the walls were made ineffective by bad mountings, which
did not allow of proper depression. The besieger therefore could place
his guns close to the walls, with only the protection of a few large
gabions filled with earth, set up on the ground on either side of the
muzzle.

In the course of the 15th century the power of artillery was largely
increased, so that walls and gates were destroyed by it in an
astonishingly short time. Three results shortly followed. The guns of
the defence having gained equally in effectiveness, greater protection
was needed for the attack batteries; bastions and outworks were
introduced to keep the besieger at a distance from the inner walls; and
the walls were sunk in ditches so that they could only be breached by
batteries placed on the edge of the glacis.

Early in the 16th century fortresses were being rapidly remodelled on
these lines, and the difficulties of the attack were at once very much
increased. The tendency of the assailants was still to make for the
curtain, which had always been considered the weak point; but the
besiegers now found that they had to bring their guns right up to the
edge of the ditch before they could make a breach, and in doing so had
to pass over ground which was covered by the converging fire from the
faces of the bastions. Towards the end of the century the attack of the
curtain was delayed and the cross-fire over the ground in front
increased by the introduction of ravelins.

The slight gabion protection for the siege batteries was at first
replaced by strong timber shelters. These were found inadequate; but a
still greater difficulty was that of bringing up the siege guns to their
positions, emplacing them and maintaining communication with them under
fire. In addition to this, the guns of the defence until they could be
overpowered (a slow process) dominated a wide belt of ground in front of
the fortress; and unless the besiegers could find some means of
maintaining a strong guard close to their batteries these were liable to
be destroyed by sorties from the covered way.


  Siegecraft before Vauban.

Gradually the whole problem of siege work centred round the artillery.
The besiegers found that they had first to bring up enough guns to
overpower those of the defence; then to advance their guns to positions
from which they could breach the walls; and throughout these operations
to protect them against sorties. Breaches once made, the assault could
follow on the old lines.

The natural solution of the difficulty of approach to the battery
positions was the use of trenches. The Turks were the first to make
systematic use of them, having probably inherited the idea from the
Eastern Empire. The soldiers of Christendom, however, strongly disliked
digging, and at first great leaders like Bayard and Montluc had
themselves to use pick and shovel, to give their men an example. In due
course the necessity of the trenches was recognized, but the soldiers
never took kindly to them, and the difficulty was dealt with in a manner
reminiscent of the feudal ages, by impressing large bodies of peasantry
as workmen whenever a siege was in contemplation.

Through the 16th and most of the 17th century, therefore, we find the
attack being conducted by means of trenches leading to the batteries,
and supported by redoubts often called "places of arms" also made by
trench work. During this period the result of a siege was always
doubtful. Both trenches and batteries were arranged more or less at
haphazard without any definite plan; and naturally it often happened
that offensive action by the besieged against the trenches would
disorder the attack and at times delay it indefinitely. Fig. 64, taken
from a late 17th-century print by de Fer of Paris, gives a good idea of
the general practice of that day when Vauban's methods were not yet
generally known.

Another weak point about the attack was that after the escarp walls had
been strengthened to resist artillery fire as has been described, there
was no clear idea as to how they should be breached. The usual process
was merely an indiscriminate pounding from batteries established on the
crest of the glacis. Thus there were cases of sieges being abandoned
after they had been carried as far as the attempt to breach.

It is in no way strange that this want of method should have
characterized the attack for two centuries after artillery had begun to
assert its power. At the outset many new ideas had to be assimilated.
Guns were gradually growing in power; sieges were conducted under all
sorts of conditions, sometimes against medieval castles, sometimes
against various and widely-differing examples of the new fortification;
and the military systems of the time were not favourable to the
evolution of method. It is the special feature of Vauban's practical
genius for siege warfare that he introduced order into this chaos and
made the issue of a siege under normal conditions, a mere matter of
time, usually a very short time.


  Vauban's teaching.

The whole of Vauban's teaching and practice cannot be condensed into the
limits of this article, but special reference must be made to several
points. The most important of these is his general arrangement of the
attack. The ultimate object of the attack works was to make a breach for
the assaulting columns. To do this it was necessary to establish
breaching batteries on the crest of the glacis; and before this could be
done it was necessary to overpower the enemy's artillery. This
preliminary operation is nowadays called the "artillery duel." In
Vauban's day the effective range of guns was 600 to 700 yds. He tells us
that it was customary to establish batteries at 1000 yds. from the
place, but that at that range they did little more than make a great
deal of noise. The first object of the attack, therefore, after the
preliminary operations of investment, &c., had been completed, was to
establish batteries within 600 or 700 yds. of the place, to
counter-batter or enfilade all the faces bearing on the front of attack;
and to protect these batteries against sorties. After the artillery of
the defences had been subdued--if it could not be absolutely
silenced--it was necessary to push trenches to the front so that guns
might be conveyed to the breaching positions and emplaced there in
batteries. Throughout these processes it was necessary to protect the
working parties and the batteries against sorties.

[Illustration: FIG. 64.--Siege-works of the 17th century.]

For this purpose Vauban devised the _Places d'armes_ or _lignes
parallèles_. He tells us that they were first used in 1673 at the siege
of Maestricht, where he conducted the attack, and which was captured in
thirteen days after the opening of the trenches. The object of these
parallels was to provide successive positions for the guard of the
trenches, where they could be at hand to repel sorties. The latter were
most commonly directed against the trenches and batteries, to destroy
them and drive out the working parties. The most vulnerable points were
the heads of the approach trenches. It was necessary, therefore, that
the guard of the trenches should be in a position to reach the heads of
the approaches more quickly than the besieged could do so from the
covered way. This was provided for as follows.

The first parallel was usually established at about 600 yds. from the
place, this being considered the limiting range of action of a sortie.
The parallel was a trench 12 to 15 ft. wide and 3 ft. deep, the
excavated earth being thrown forward to make a parapet 3 or 4 ft. high.
In front of the first parallel and close to it were placed the batteries
of the "first artillery position."


  The attack.

While these batteries were engaged in silencing the enemy's artillery,
for which purpose most of them were placed in prolongation of the faces
of the fortress so as to enfilade them, the "Approach Trenches" were
being pushed forward. The normal attack included a couple of bastions
and the ravelin between, with such faces of the fortress as could
support them; and the approach trenches (usually three sets) were
directed on the capitals of the bastions and ravelin, advancing in a
zigzag so arranged that the prolongations of the trenches always fell
clear of the fortress and could not be enfiladed.

Fig. 65, taken from Vauban's _Attack and Defence of Places_, shows
clearly the arrangement of trenches and batteries.

  After the approach trenches had been carried forward nearly half-way
  to the most advanced points of the covered way, the "second parallel"
  was constructed, and again the approach trenches were pushed forward.
  Midway between the second parallel and the covered way, short branches
  called _Demi-parallels_ were thrown out to either flank of the
  attacks: and finally at the foot of the glacis came the third
  parallel. Thus there was always a secure position for a sufficient
  guard of the trenches. Upon an alarm the working parties could fall
  back and the guard would advance.

  Trenches were either made by _common trenchwork, flying trenchwork or
  sap_. In the first two a considerable length of trench was excavated
  at one time by a large working party extended along the trench: flying
  trenchwork (formerly known as flying sap) being distinguished from
  common trenchwork by the use of gabions, by the help of which
  protection could be more quickly obtained. Both these kinds of
  trenchwork were commenced at night, the position of the trench having
  been previously marked out by tape. The "tasks" or quantities of earth
  to be excavated by each man were so calculated that by daybreak the
  trench would afford a fair amount of cover. Flying trenchwork was
  generally used for the 2nd parallel and its approaches, and as far
  beyond it as possible. In proportion as the attack drew nearer to the
  covered way, the fire of the defenders' small-arms and wall-pieces
  naturally grew more effective, though by this time most of their
  artillery would have been dismounted by the fire of the siege
  batteries. It therefore became necessary before reaching the 3rd
  parallel to have recourse to sap.

  [Illustration: FIG. 65.--Regular Attack (Vauban).]


    Sapping.

  Sapping required trained men. It consisted in gradually pushing
  forward the end of a narrow trench in the desired direction. At the
  sap-head was a squad of sappers. The leading man excavated a trench 1
  ft. 6 in. wide and deep. To protect the head of the trench he had a
  shield on wheels, under cover of which he placed the gabions in
  position one after another as the sap-head progressed. Other men
  following strengthened the parapet with fascines, and increased the
  trench to a depth of 3 ft., and a width of 2 ft. 6 in. to 3 ft. Fig.
  66, taken from Vauban's treatise on the attack, shows the process
  clearly. The sap after being completed to this extent could be widened
  at leisure to ordinary trench dimensions by infantry working parties.

  [Illustration: FIG. 66.--Sapping (Vauban).]

  As the work at the sap-head was very dangerous, Vauban encouraged his
  sappers by paying them on the spot at piecework rates, which increased
  rapidly in proportion to the risk. He thus stimulated all concerned to
  do their best, and reckoned that under average conditions he could
  depend on a rate of progress for an ordinary sap of about 50 yds. in
  24 hours.

  It is interesting to compare the more recent method of sapping with
  that above described (fig. 67 taken from the _Instruction in Military
  Engineering_, 1896). It is no longer possible to place gabions in
  position at the sap-head under fire. Accordingly the leading sapper
  excavates to the full depth of 4 ft. 6 in., and the rate of progress
  is retarded proportionately, so that an advance of only 15 to 30 yds.
  in 24 hours can be reckoned on instead of 50. The head of the sap is
  protected by a number of half-filled sandbags, which the leading
  sapper throws forward as he goes on.

  The nearer the approaches drew to the covered way, the more oblique
  became the zig-zags, so that little forward progress was made in
  proportion to the length of the trench. The approaches were then
  carried straight to the front, by means of the "double sap," which
  consisted of two single saps worked together with a parapet on each
  side (fig. 68). To protect these from being enfiladed from the front,
  traverses had to be left at intervals, usually by turning the two saps
  at right angles to right or left for a few feet, then forward, and so
  on as shown in fig. 69, the distance apart of these traverses being of
  course regulated by the height from which the enemy's fire commanded
  the trench.


  Later stages of the attack.

The later stages in the attack are illustrated in fig. 70. From the
third parallel the attack was pushed forward up the glacis by means of
the double sap. It was then pushed right and left along the glacis, a
little distance from the crest of the covered way. This was called
"crowning" the covered way, and on the position thus gained breaching
batteries were established in full view of the escarp. While the escarp
was being breached, if it was intended to use a systematic attack
throughout, a mine gallery (see _Mining_ below) was driven under the
covered way and an opening made through the counterscarp into the ditch.
The sap was then pushed across the ditch, and if necessary up the
breach, the defenders' resistance being kept under by musketry and
artillery fire from the covered way. The ravelin and bastions were thus
captured successively, and where the bastions had been retrenched the
same methods were used against the retrenchment.

[Illustration: From _Military Engineering_, by permission of the
Controller of H.M. Stationery Office.

FIG. 67.--"Deep" Sap.]

Vauban showed how to breach the escarp with the least expenditure of
ammunition. This was done by making, with successive shots placed close
together (which was feasible even in those days from a position so close
as the crest of the covered way) horizontal and vertical cuts through
the revetment wall. The portion of revetment enclosed by the cuts being
thus detached from support was overturned by the pressure of the earth
from the rampart. Ricochet fire was also the invention of Vauban. He
showed how, in enfilading the face of a work, by using greatly reduced
charges a shot could be made to drop over the crest of the parapet and
skim along the terreplein, dismounting guns and killing men as it went.


  18th-century principles of defence.

The constant success of Vauban must be ascribed to method and thorough
organization. There was a deadly certainty about his system that gave
rise to the saying "Place assiégée, place prise." He left nothing to
chance, and preferred as a rule the slow and certain progress of saps
across the ditch and up the breach to the loss and delay that might
follow an unsuccessful assault. His contemporary and nearest rival
Coehoorn tried to shorten sieges by heavy artillery fire and attacks
across the open; but in the long run his sieges were slower than
Vauban's.

So much a matter of form did the attack become under these conditions,
that in comparing the supposed defensive powers of different systems of
fortification it was usual to calculate the number of days that would be
required in each case before the breach was opened, the time being
measured by the number of hours of work required for the construction of
the various trenches and batteries. It began to be taken as a matter of
course that no place under any circumstances could hold out more than a
given number of days; and naturally, when the whole question had become
one of formula, it is not surprising to find that places were very often
surrendered without more than a perfunctory show of resistance.

The theory of defence at this time appeared to be that since it was
impossible to arrest the now methodical and protected progress of the
besiegers' trenches, no real resistance was possible until after they
had reached the covered way, and this idea is at the root of the
extraordinary complications of outworks and multiplied lines of ramparts
that characterized the "systems" of this period. No doubt if a successor
to Vauban could have brought the same genius to bear on the actual
defence of places as he did on the attack, he would have discovered that
the essence of successful defence lay in offensive action outside the
body of the place, viz. with trench against trench. For want of such a
man the engineers of the defence resigned themselves contentedly to the
loss of the open ground outside their walls, and relied either upon
successive permanent lines of defence, or if these did not exist, upon
extemporized retrenchments, usually at the gorge of the bastion.

[Illustration: FIG. 68.--Double Sap.]

It is curious that such experienced soldiers as most of them were should
not have realized the fatal effect upon the minds of the defenders which
this almost passive abandonment of line after line must needs produce.
Even a civilian--Machiavelli--had seen into the truth of the matter
years before when he said (_Treatise on the Art of War_, Book vii.):
"And here I ought to give an advice ... to those who are constructing a
fortress, and that is, not to establish within its circuit
fortifications which may serve as a retreat to troops who have been
driven back from the first line.... I maintain that there is no greater
danger for a fortress than rear fortifications whither troops can retire
in case of a reverse; for once the soldier knows that he has a secure
retreat after he has abandoned the first post, he does in fact abandon
it and so causes the loss of the entire fortress."

[Illustration: FIG. 69.--Direct advance by Double Sap.]

It must, however, be remembered that in those days when soldiers were
mostly of a separate or professional caste, the whole thing had become a
matter of business. Fighting was so much regulated by the laws and
customs of war that men thought nothing of giving up a place if,
according to accepted opinion, the enemy had advanced so far that they
could no longer hope to defend it successfully. Once this idea had set
in it became hopeless to expect successful defences, save now and then
when some officer of very unusual resolution was in command. This is the
real reason for the feeble resistance so often made by fortresses in the
17th and 18th centuries, which has been attributed to inherent weakness
in fortifications. Custom exacted that a commandant should not give up a
place until there was an open breach or, perhaps, until he had stood at
least one assault. Even Napoleon recognized this limitation of the
powers of the defence when in the later years of his reign he was trying
to impress upon his governors the importance of their charge. The
limitation was perfectly unnecessary, for history at that time could
have afforded plenty of instances of places that had been successfully
defended for many months after breaches were opened, and assault after
assault repulsed on the same breach. But the same soldiers of the 17th
and 18th centuries who had created this artificial condition of affairs,
established it by making it an understood thing that a garrison which
surrendered without giving too much trouble after a breach had been
opened should have honourable consideration; while if they put the
besiegers to the pains of storming the breach, they were liable to be
put to the sword.

[Illustration: FIG. 70.--Later Stages of the Attack (Vauban).]


  Peninsular War.

It has been necessary to dwell at some length on the siegecraft of
Vauban and his time, not merely for its historical interest, but because
the system he introduced was practically unaltered until the end of the
19th century. The sieges of the Peninsular War were conducted on his
lines; so was that of Antwerp in 1830; and as far as the disposition of
siege trenches was concerned, the same system remained in the Crimea,
the Franco-German War and the Russo-Turkish War. The sieges in the
Napoleonic wars were few, except in the Iberian peninsula. These last
differed from those of the Vauban period and the 18th century in this,
that instead of being deliberately undertaken with ample means, against
fortresses that answered to the requirements of the time, they were
attempted with inadequate forces and materials, against out-of-date
works. The fortresses that Wellington besieged in Spain had rudimentary
outworks, and escarps that could be seen and breached from a distance.
At that time, though the power of small arms had increased very slightly
since the last century, there had been a distinct improvement in
artillery, so that it was possible to breach a visible revetment at
ranges from 500 to 1000 yds. Wellington was very badly off for
engineers, siege artillery and material. Trench works could only be
carried out on a small scale and slowly. Time being usually of great
importance, as in the first two sieges of Badajoz, his technical
advisers endeavoured to shorten sieges by breaching the escarp from a
distance--a new departure--and launching assaults from trenches that had
not reached the covered way. Under these circumstances the direct
attacks on breaches failed several times, with great loss of life.
Wellington in one or two earlier despatches reflected on his engineers
for not establishing their batteries on the crest of the glacis. The
failures are, however, clearly due to attempts to push sieges to a
conclusion without proper preparation.

  So much has been written of late years in criticism of the
  fortification to what may be called the Vauban period that it is
  important to note what were the preparations considered necessary for
  a siege at that time (_Journals of Sieges in Spain, 1811 to 1814_).
  Sir John Jones summarizes his own experience in Spain and the data
  accumulated by practical engineers in former sieges from the time of
  Vauban onwards, in the following conclusions: The actual work of
  entrenching, sapping, &c., on the front attacked was much the same
  whether the fortress contained 5000 or 10,000 men. On the other hand
  the guard of the trenches was proportionate to the fighting men inside
  the fortress. (The total number of men had of course to be sufficient
  to allow three or four complete shifts or "reliefs" for all work and
  duties.) Adding a proportion of men for camp and other duties, he
  calculates, for the vigorous siege of an ordinary place situated in
  open country and containing 5000 men, a corps of 32,080 effectives,
  and remarks further that this force would be greatly exhausted after a
  month's service. The same place held by 10,000 would call for a
  besieging army of 50,830 men (guards and duties increasing, but not
  working parties). Thus the besieger should if possible have a
  superiority of 7 to 1 if the garrison numbered 5000, 6 to 1 if 10,000
  and 5 to 1 if 15,000 and so on. As regards artillery, he should have
  as many, and if possible twice as many, guns as those of the defender
  on the front of attack, as well as howitzers for sweeping every line
  subject to enfilade and mortars for destroying traverses, &c. Later in
  the siege, more howitzers and mortars to clear the covered way and
  places of arms, and finally, after the covering of the covered way,
  fifty additional battering guns would be required. It is apparent from
  this that the practical engineers of the day looked upon a siege as a
  serious matter, and did not find permanent fortifications wanting in
  defensive strength.


  Crimea.

During the long peace that followed the Napoleonic wars, one advance was
made in siegecraft. In England in 1824 successful experiments were
carried out in breaching an unseen wall by curved or indirect fire from
howitzers. At Antwerp in 1830 the increasing power and range of
artillery, and especially of howitzers, were used for bombarding
purposes, the breaches there being mostly made by mines. Then came one
of the world's great sieges; that of Sevastopol in 1854-1855 (see
CRIMEAN WAR). The outstanding lesson of Sevastopol is the value of an
active defence; of going out to meet the besieger, with countertrench
and countermine. This lesson has increased in value for us in proportion
to the increased power of the rifle.

  In comparing the resistance made behind the earthworks of Sevastopol
  with the recorded defences of permanent works, it is essential to
  remember that the conditions there were quite abnormal. Sir John Jones
  has told us what the relative forces of besiegers and besieged should
  be, and the necessary preponderance of artillery for the attack. The
  following quotations may be added:

  "The siege corps should be sufficiently strong--(1) To invest the
  fortress completely, and maintain the investment against all the
  efforts of the garrison. (2) If a regular siege is contemplated, to
  execute and guard all the siege works required for it. Complete
  investment may sometimes be impossible, but experience has repeatedly
  shown that the difficulties of a siege are enormously increased if the
  garrison are able to draw fresh troops and supplies from outside, and
  to rid themselves of their sick and wounded." (Lewis). Again as
  regards artillery: "In a regular attack, where every point is gained
  inch by inch, it is impossible to succeed without overpowering the
  defensive artillery"; and "it is useless to attempt to sap near a
  place till its artillery fire is subdued..." (Jones).

  These conditions were so far from being fulfilled at Sevastopol that
  (a) there was no investment--in fact the Russians came nearer to
  investing the Allies; (b) the Russians had the preponderance in guns
  almost throughout; (c) the Russian force in and about Sevastopol was
  numerically superior to that of the Allies. We must add to this that
  Todleben had been able to get rid of most of his civilian population,
  and those who remained were chiefly dockyard workmen, able to give
  most valuable assistance on the defence works. The circumstances were
  therefore exceptionally favourable to an active defence. The weak
  point about the extemporized earthworks, which eventually led to the
  fall of the place, was the want of good bomb-proof cover near the
  parapets.


  Franco-German War.

The Franco-German War of 1870 produced no great novelty. The Germans
were not anxious to undertake siege operations when it could be avoided.
In several cases minor fortresses surrendered after a slight
bombardment. In others, after the bombardment failed, the Germans
contented themselves with establishing a blockade or detaching a small
observing force. By far the most interesting siege was that of Belfort
(q.v.). Here Colonel Denfert-Rochereau employed the active defence so
successfully by extemporizing detached redoubts and fortifying outlying
villages, that he obliged the besiegers (who, however, were a small
force at first) to take up an investing line 25 m. long; and succeeded
in holding the village of Danjoutin, 2000 yds. in advance of the
enceinte, for two months after the siege began. He also used indirect
fire, withdrawing guns from the ramparts and placing them in the
ditches, in the open spaces of the town, &c. At Paris the French found
great advantage in placing batteries in inconspicuous positions outside
the forts. Their direct fire guns were at a disadvantage in being fired
through embrasures. These had served their purpose when artillery fire
was very inaccurate, but had now for a long time been recognized by the
best engineers as out of date. The Germans since the siege of Düppel in
1864 had mounted their siege guns on "overbank" carriages; that is, high
carriages which made it possible to fire the guns over the parapet of
the battery without embrasures. The guns in the Paris forts which were
further handicapped by conspicuous parapets and the bad shooting of the
gunners were easily silenced.

At Strassburg indirect fire against escarps was used. The escarp of
Lunette 53 was successfully breached by this method. The breaching
battery was 870 yds. distant, and the shot struck the face of the wall
at an angle (horizontally) of 55°, the effect being observed and
reported from the counterscarp. 1000 rounds from 60-pounder guns
sufficed to make a breach 30 yds. wide.

  Fig. 71 is a good example of the attack in the late stages. It will be
  observed that batteries for mortars and field guns are established in
  the captured lunettes. The narrow wet ditch of Lunette 53 was crossed
  by a dam of earth and fascines, the headway protected by a parapet or
  screen of sandbags.

  "Lunette 52 was unrevetted, and its ditch was more than 60 yds. wide,
  and 6 to 9 ft. deep.... It was determined to effect the passage by a
  cask bridge, for which the casks were furnished by breweries near at
  hand.... The formation of the bridge was begun at nightfall. A pioneer
  swam across, hauled over a cable, and made it fast to the hedge on the
  berm. Four men were stationed in the water, close to the covered way,
  the casks were rolled down to them one after the other, and fitted
  with saddles, so as to form piers ... these piers were successively
  boomed out along the line of the cable.... In two hours the bridge was
  finished, and the lunette was entered.... The work had not been
  discovered by the besieged, and the formation of lodgments inside the
  lunette was already begun, when the noise made by some troops in
  passing the bridge attracted attention, and drew a fire which cost the
  besiegers about 50 men. A dam was afterwards substituted for the
  bridge, as it was repeatedly struck by shells." (_R.E. Professional
  Papers_, vol. xix.)

  It is curious to realize that this happened at so recent a time. Such
  operations would be impossible now, as long as any defending guns
  remained in action.


  Modern siege warfare.

On the whole it may be said that siegecraft gained practically nothing
from the Franco-German War. The Russo-Turkish war taught less, Plevna
(q.v.) having been defended by field works and attacked by the
old-fashioned methods. For the last ten years of the 19th century
military opinion was quite at a loss as to how the sieges of the future
would work out. As guns and projectiles continued to improve the
"attaque brusquée" proposed by von Sauer had many adherents. It was
thought that a heavy bombardment would paralyse resistance and open the
way for an attack, to be delivered by great numbers and with special
appliances for crossing obstacles. Others thought that the strength of
the defence, as manifested by the Plevna field works, would be greater
than ever when the field works were backed by permanent works, good
communications and the resources of a fortress. One thing was
obvious--namely, that as long as the artillery of the place, of even the
smallest calibres, remained unsubdued, the difficulty of trenchwork and
sapping would be enormously increased, and no one seemed to have formed
a clear conception of how that difficulty was to be met. A lecture
delivered in Germany about 1895 is worth quoting as a fair example of
the vagueness of idea then prevailing: "For the attack, the following is
the actual procedure: Accumulation and preparation of material for
attack before the fortress: advance of attacking artillery, covered by
infantry. Artillery duel. Throwing forward of infantry: destruction of
the capability for defence of the position attacked; when possible by
long-range artillery fire, otherwise by the aid of the engineers.
Occupation of the defensive position. Assault on the inner lines of the
fortress." That seemed quite a simple prescription, but the necessary
drugs were wanting. And even since Port Arthur great uncertainty as to
the future of the attack remains.

[Illustration: From _Textbook of Fortification_, by permission of the
Controller H.M. Stationery Office.

FIG. 71.--Strassburg, Lunettes 52 and 53, 1870.]

  Modern artillery has much simplified the construction of siege
  batteries. Formerly siege batteries and rampart batteries opposed each
  other with direct fire at ranges not too long for the unaided human
  eye, and the shells, travelling with low velocity, bit into the
  parapets, and, exploding, produced their full effect. Accordingly the
  task of the gunners was, by accurate fire, to destroy the parapets and
  embrasures, and to dismount the guns. The parapets of siege batteries
  were therefore made from 18 to 30 ft. thick, and the construction of
  such batteries, with traverses, &c., involved much work. The height of
  parapet necessary for proper protection being 7 ft. 6 in. to 8 ft., a
  great deal of labour could be saved by sinking the gun-platforms about
  4 ft. below the surface level, but of course this was only possible
  where rock or water were not near the surface.

  The effect of modern projectiles was to reduce the thickness of earth
  necessary for parapets. High velocity projectiles are very easily
  deflected upwards by even a slight bank of earth. This is especially
  the case with sand. Loose earth is better than compacted earth, and
  clay offers the least resistance to penetration. These facts were
  taken note of in England more than on the Continent in the design of
  instructional siege batteries.

  The construction of batteries is moreover vastly simplified by the
  long ranges at which artillery will fight in future. It will as a rule
  be possible to place howitzer batteries in such positions that even
  from balloons it will be difficult to locate them; and even direct
  fire batteries can easily be screened from view. This renders parapets
  unnecessary, and probably no more protection will be used than light
  splinter-proof screens to stop shrapnel bullets or fragments of common
  shell. Moreover batteries can be constructed at leisure and by
  daylight.

  The most important point about the modern battery is the gun platform
  for the larger natures of guns and howitzers. These require very solid
  construction to resist the heavy shock of discharge. Not long ago it
  was thought that the defence would have larger ordnance than the
  attack, as anything heavier than an 8 in. howitzer required a concrete
  bed, which could not be made at short notice. The Japanese, however,
  at Port Arthur made concrete platforms for 11 in. howitzers. It may be
  remarked that difficulties which loom largely in peace are often
  overcome easily enough under the stress of war.

  Another gain to the attack is in connexion with magazines. The old
  powder magazines were particularly dangerous adjuncts to batteries,
  and had to be very carefully bomb-proofed. Such propellants as
  cordite, however, are comparatively harmless in the open. They are
  very difficult to detonate, and if set on fire do not explode like
  gunpowder. It is therefore unnecessary to provide bomb-proof magazines
  for them in connexion with the batteries.

  In future sieges the question of supply will be more important than it
  has ever been. Leaving out of the question the bringing up of supplies
  from the base of operations, the task of distribution at the front is
  a very large one. The Paris siege manoeuvres of 1894 furnish some
  instructive data on this point. The main siege park was at Meaux, 10
  m. from the 1st artillery position, and the average distance from the
  1st artillery position to the principal fort attacked was 5000 yds.
  The front of attack on Fort Vaujours and its collateral batteries
  covered 10,000 yds. There were 24 batteries in the 1st artillery
  position; say 100 guns, spread over a front of 4000 yds. To connect
  Meaux with the front, the French laid some 30 m. of narrow gauge
  railway largely along existing roads. The line was single, with
  numerous branches and sidings. They ran 11 regular trains to the front
  daily and half-a-dozen supplementary. The amount of artillery material
  sent up was over 5000 tons, without any projectiles; but it can easily
  be imagined that large demands were also made on transport for other
  purposes. For instance, one complete bakery train was sent up daily.
  The amount of ammunition sent up would be limited only by the power of
  transporting it. A siege train of 100 pieces could probably dispose of
  from 500 to 1000 tons of ammunition a day, at the maximum rate of
  firing.

  But the most important question affecting the sieges of the future
  (putting aside accidental circumstances) will be the configuration of
  the ground. Assuming that local conditions do not specially favour the
  artillery of either side, it is highly probable that the artillery
  duel will result in a deadlock. If the besiegers' guns do not succeed
  in silencing those of the defence from the 1st or distant artillery
  position (which, whether they are in cupolas or in concealed
  positions, will in any case be an extremely difficult task), it will
  be necessary for the infantry to press in; to feel for weak points,
  and to fight for those that offer better positions for fire and
  observation. In doing this they will have to face the defenders'
  infantry, entrenched, backed by their unsilenced guns, and having
  secure places of assembly from which to deliver counter-attacks. The
  distance to which they can work forward and establish themselves under
  these conditions will depend on the ground. It will then be for the
  engineers to cross the remaining space by sap. This, under present
  conditions, will be a tedious process, and may even take long enough
  to cause the failure of the siege.

  As to the manner of the sap, it will certainly be "deep," as long as
  the defence retains any artillery power. When the 4 ft. 6 in. sap
  already described was first introduced, it was known as a "deep sap";
  but the sieges of the future will probably necessitate a true deep
  sap, that is one in which the whole of the necessary cover is got
  below the surface of the earth.

  Such a sap may consist of an open trench, about 6 ft. deep, the whole
  of the excavated earth being carried away through the trench to the
  rear; or a blinded trench, covered in as it progresses by
  splinter-proof timbers and earth; or a tunnelled trench, leaving a
  foot or so of surface earth undisturbed. In either case nothing should
  be visible from the front to attract artillery fire. As the sap is
  completed, it will sometimes be necessary to add a slight parapet in
  places, to give command over the foreground for the rifles of the
  guard of the trenches.

  The sap will have to be pushed up quite close to the defenders'
  trenches and obstacles. After that further progress must either be
  made by mining, or as seems very probable, by getting the better of
  the defenders in a contest with shells from short-range mortars.

  Just as in the feudal ages a castle was built on some solitary
  eminence which lent itself to the defensive methods of the time, so in
  the future the detached forts and supporting points in the girdle of
  a fortress will be sited where smooth and gentle slopes of ground give
  the utmost opportunity to the defenders' fire, and the least chance of
  concealment to the enemy. There will be considerable latitude of
  choice in the defensive positions; though not, of course, the same
  latitude as when the existence of a precipitous hill was the _raison
  d'être_ of the castle. In some places, as at Port Arthur, the whole
  country-side may by reason of its steep and broken slopes be
  unfavourable to the defence, though even then genius will turn the
  difficulties to account. But wherever it is possible the defender will
  provide for a space of 1000 yds. or so, swept by fire and illuminated
  by searchlights, in front of his lines. That space will have to be
  crossed by sap, and it needs little imagination to realize how great
  the task will be for the besieger.

  There are other modern methods of siege warfare to be noticed, the use
  of which is common to besiegers and besieged. Much is expected of
  balloons; but the use of these in war is unlikely to correspond to
  peace expectations. They must be kept at a considerable distance from
  the enemy's guns, a distance which will increase as the means of
  range-finding improve; and as the height from which they can observe
  usefully is limited, so is the observers' power to search out hidden
  objects behind vertical screens. Thus, suppose a captive balloon at a
  height of 2000 ft., and distant 4000 yds. from an enemy's howitzer
  battery: and suppose the battery placed behind a steep hill-side or a
  grove of trees, at such a distance that a shell fired with 30°
  elevation can just clear this screen. The line of sight from the
  observer to the battery is inclined to the horizontal at {2000/3 x
  4000}, that is 1/6, or roughly 10°. It is obvious, therefore, that
  the observer cannot see the battery.

  Balloon observers are expected to assist the batteries by marking the
  effects of their fire. For this to be done on any practical scale a
  balloon would be required for each battery: that is, for only 100
  guns, some 20 or 25 balloons. These would require an equal number of
  highly skilled observers (of whom there are not too many in
  existence), besides the other balloon personnel and accessories, and
  the means of making gas, which is too much to expect, even if an enemy
  were obliging enough to give notice of his intentions.

  Telephones and all other means of transmitting intelligence rapidly
  are now of the utmost importance to both attack and defence. Maps
  marked with numbered squares are necessary for directing artillery
  fire, especially from cupolas. Organization in every branch will give
  better results than ever before, and the question of communication and
  transport from the base of supplies right up to the front needs
  detailed study, in view of the great weight of ammunition and supplies
  that will have to be handled.

  The use of light mortars for the trenches, introduced by Coehoorn and
  revived with extemporized means at Port Arthur, needs great attention.
  It may be prophesied that the issue of important sieges in the future,
  when skilfully conducted on both sides with sufficient resources, will
  depend mainly on the energy of the defenders in trench work, on mining
  and countermining in connexion with the trenches, and on the use of
  light mortars made to throw large charges of high explosive for short
  distances with great accuracy.

  For a brief narrative of the siege of Port Arthur in 1904, one of the
  greatest sieges of history, both as regards its epic interest and its
  military importance, the reader is referred to the article
  RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR.

  DEFINITIONS.--The following definitions may be useful, but have no
  place in the evolution of the attack, to which this section is mainly
  devoted.

  _Investment._--This most necessary, almost indispensable operation of
  every siege consists in surrounding the fortress about to be besieged,
  so as to cut off its communications with the outside world.
  _Preliminary investment_ which is carried out by cavalry and light
  troops before the arrival of the besieging force, consists in closing
  the roads so as to shut out supplies and reinforcements. _Close
  investment_ should be of such a character as to prevent any sort of
  communication, even by single messengers or spies. The term
  "_blockade_" is sometimes loosely used instead of investment.

  _Lines of Circumvallation and Contravallation._--These now obsolete
  terms were in great use until the 19th century. The _circumvallation_
  was a line of parapet which the besieger made outside the investing
  position of his own force, to protect it when there was a chance of
  attack by a relieving army. The line of _contravallation_ was the line
  of parapet and trench sometimes made by the besieger all round the
  town he was attacking, to check the sorties of the garrison.

  _Observing Force._--When circumstances make the reduction of a
  particular fortress in the theatre of operations unnecessary a force
  is often detached to "observe" it. The duty of this force will be to
  watch the garrison and prevent any hostile action such as raids on the
  lines of communications.

  _Bombardment._--This operation, common to all ages, consists in a
  general (sometimes an indiscriminate) fire against either the whole
  target offered by the fortress or a particular section of that target.
  In ancient and medieval times the effect of a bombardment--whether of
  ordinary missiles, of incendiary projectiles, or of poisonous matters
  tending to breed pestilence--upon a population closely crowded within
  its walls was very powerful. In the present day little military
  importance is attached to bombardment, since under modern conditions
  it cannot do much real harm.


IV. MILITARY MINING

It has been noted already that mining is one of the most ancient
resources of siege warfare. The use of gunpowder in mining operations
dates from the end of the 15th century. When Shakespeare makes Fluellen
say, at Henry V.'s siege of Harfleur, "th'athversary is digt himself
four yards under the countermines; I think 'a will plow up all, if there
is not better directions," he is anticipating the development of
siegecraft by nearly 100 years. Pedro di Navarro, a Spanish officer, is
credited with the first practical use of explosive mines. He employed
them with great success at the siege of Naples in 1503; and afterwards,
when rebuilding the Castello Nuovo after the siege, was probably the
first to make permanent provision for their use in countermines.
Countermining had been a measure of defence against the earlier methods
of attack-mining; the object being to break into the besiegers'
galleries and fight hand to hand for the possession of them. When the
explosive mine was introduced, it became the object of the defenders to
establish their countermines near the besiegers' galleries and destroy
them by the effect of the explosion. In the 400 years or so that have
passed this branch of warfare has changed less than any other. Methods
of mining have not advanced much, and the increased power of high
explosives as compared with gunpowder has its least advantage in moving
masses of earth.

When a besieger has arrived by means of trenches within a certain
distance of the enemy's works without having subdued their fire, he may
find that the advance by sap becomes too slow and too dangerous. He can
then advance underground by means of mine galleries, and by exploding
large charges at the heads of these galleries can make a series of
craters. These craters are then occupied by infantry, and are connected
with each other and with the parallel in rear by trenches, thus forming
a new parallel. If not interfered with by the defenders the besieger can
advance in this way until he reaches the counterscarp. His mines will
now be turned to a new purpose, viz. to breach the counterscarp and
afterwards the escarp. This is done by placing suitable charges at
intervals behind the scarps at such a height above the foundations that
the pressure of the earth above the mine will more than counterbalance
the resistance of the masonry.


  Mines and countermines.

But if the defenders are active, they will countermine. There is as a
general rule this broad difference between the mines of the defence and
those of the attack, that the defenders do not wish the surface of the
ground broken, lest increased opportunities of getting cover should be
offered to the besiegers. The object of the defence, therefore, is to
destroy the besiegers' galleries without forming craters, and for this
purpose they generally endeavour to get underneath the attack galleries.
The defenders may, however, wish, if the opportunity is allowed them, to
explode mines under the attack parallels, in which case there is of
course no objection to disturbing the surface.

  "At the commencement of the subterranean war the main object of the
  defence is to force the besieger to take to mining operations as early
  as possible, as it is a tedious operation and will prolong the siege.
  Every endeavour must be made to push forward countermines so as to
  meet and check the attack. On the approach of the opponents to each
  other careful listening for the enemy must be resorted to. To this end
  it is necessary at _irregular_ intervals to suspend all work for some
  minutes at a time, closing doors of communication and employing
  experienced listeners at the heads of the countermines. This matter is
  a most important one, as a premature explosion of the defender's mines
  is a double loss to the defender, a loss of a mine and an advantage to
  the enemy in more than one way. As soon as the overcharged mines of
  the besieger have been fired, a heavy fire should be brought to bear
  on the craters, and if possible sorties should be made to prevent the
  enemy occupying them. At the same time every effort should be made
  underground to surround with galleries, and as it were isolate, the
  craters so as to prevent the besieger making a new advance from them.
  The efforts of the attack at this stage will probably be directed to
  the formation of what are called "Boule shafts" (i.e. shafts partially
  lined in which charges are hastily fired with little or no tamping),
  and to meet these in time the defender may resort to the use of boring
  tools, and so place charges somewhere in advance of the heads of the
  countermines. His great object must be to prevent as long as possible
  the besieger from getting underground again; and these occasions, when
  the power of resistance is temporarily equal to, if not greater than,
  that of the attack, should be made the most of by the defence."
  (Lewis, _Text-book on Fortification, &c._, 1893.)

The defence has the advantage, in the case of fortresses, of being able
to establish beforehand a system of countermine galleries in masonry.
Many systems have been worked out for this purpose. A good typical
arrangement is that of General Marescot, published in 1799, shown in
fig. 72.

[Illustration: From _Textbook of Fortification_, by permission of the
Controller H.M. Stationery Office.

FIG. 72.]

The main galleries (those running out in a straight line from the
counterscarp gallery _e_ to three of the points _a_) fall gently to the
front to a depth of 30 or 40 ft. below the surface--the deeper they are
the less they will suffer from the enemy's mines. Branch galleries
(marked _c b + d c_) run obliquely upward from them to right and to
left, leading to the mines, which are placed at various depths,
according to circumstances.

Two main points must be observed in any system of countermines: the
branch galleries must run obliquely forward, so as not to present their
sides to the action of the enemy's mines; and the distance between the
ends of the branches from adjacent main galleries should be such that
the enemy cannot pass between them unheard. This distance will vary with
the nature of the soil, but may be taken roughly as 20 yds. A convenient
size for main galleries is 6 ft. high by 3 ft. wide: branch galleries
may be 5 ft. by 3 ft. When the enemy is approaching, other branch
galleries, called _listeners_, will be pushed out from main and branch
galleries. The section to fig. 1 of fig. 72 shows openings left for the
purpose.

Another use of mines in defence is in connexion with breaches. A
permanent arrangement for this purpose, by General Dufour, is shown in
fig. 72. Yet another use, on which much ingenuity was expended in the
18th century, is to extemporize retrenchments.


  Different kinds of mines.

The charges of mines depend of course upon the effect which is desired.
When the charge is strong enough to produce a crater, the radius of the
circular opening on the surface of the ground is called the _radius of
the crater_. The line drawn from the centre of the charge to the nearest
surface, which is expressed in feet, is called the _line of least
resistance_ (L.L.R.). When a mine produces a crater the diameter of
which is equal to the line of least resistance, it is called a one-lined
crater; when the diameter is double the L.L.R., a _two-lined crater_ and
so on. _Common mines_ are those which produce a two-lined crater.
_Over-charged mines_ produce craters greater than two-lined, and
_undercharged mines_ less. A _camouflet_ does not produce a crater; it
is used when the object is to destroy an enemy's gallery without
breaking the surface. Fig. 73 shows sections of the different kinds of
mines, with their craters and the effect they will produce downwards and
horizontally in ordinary earth.

[Illustration: Action of a Common Mine

Probable spheroids of rupture for overcharged Mines

From _Instructions in Military Engineering_, by permission of the
Controller of H.M. Stationery Office.

FIG. 73.--Mines.]

Consideration of this figure will show that it is possible to place a
long charge at such a depth below the surface that it will destroy all
galleries of the enemy within a considerable radius, without much
disturbing the surface of the ground.

  Bored mines, which have been alluded to above, are a comparatively
  recent innovation. When the enemy is heard at work in one of his
  galleries and his position approximately determined by the sound, it
  is necessary to drive a branch gallery with all speed in that
  direction, and when it has advanced as far as appears necessary, to
  load, tamp and discharge a mine before the enemy can fire his own
  mine. This is one of the most delicate and dangerous operations of
  war, and success will fall to those who are at the same time most
  skilful and most determined. The work can be hastened and made less
  dangerous as follows: Instead of driving a branch gallery, a hole
  several inches in diameter is bored in the required direction. With
  suitable tools there is no difficulty in driving a straight bore hole
  20 or 30 ft. long. A small charge of high explosives is then pushed up
  to the end of the borehole and fired. This forms a small camouflet
  chamber by compressing the earth around it. Into this chamber the
  charge for the mine is passed up the bore-hole. No tamping of course
  is required.

Mine warfare is slow, dangerous and uncertain in its results. It will
certainly delay the besiegers' advance very much and may do so
indefinitely. One point is distinctly in favour of the defence, namely
that when ground has been much mined it becomes charged with poisonous
gases. Some explosives are less noxious than others in this way, and it
will be advantageous for the attack, but not necessarily for the
defence, to make use of these.

  _Calculation of Charges._--The quantity of powder required for a
  charge is expressed in lbs. in terms of L.L.R.³, and the following
  formulae are used:

  l = L.L.R. in feet, r = radius of crater in feet, c = powder charge in
  pounds, s = a variable dependent on the nature of the soil.

                        s
  For a common mine c = -- l³
                        10
                              s
  For an overcharged mine c = -- {l + .9(r - l)}³.
                              10

                               s
  For an undercharged mine c = -- {l - .9(l - r)}³.
                               10

  The values to be given to s are:

       Nature of Soil.            Value of s.
    Very light earth                 0.80
    Common earth                     1.00
    Hard sand                        1.25
    Earth mixed with stones          1.40
    Clay mixed with loam             1.55
    Inferior brickwork               1.66
    Rock or good new brickwork       2.25
    Very good old brickwork          2.50

Military mining is carried on by means of vertical _shafts_ and
horizontal or inclined _galleries_. When the soil is very stiff, very
little or even no lining is required for shafts and galleries; but
usually they have to be lined either with cases or frames.

  Cases make a complete lining of 2 in. planking. Frames are used at
  intervals of 4 or 5 ft. to support a partial lining of planks. Cases
  are of course preferable in other respects; but in ordinary soil they
  take up more timber.


    Shafts and galleries.

  There are two kinds of gallery in ordinary use in the British service,
  namely the _common gallery_ whose interior dimensions with cases are 5
  ft. 6 in. × 2 ft., and the _branch gallery_ which is 4 ft. × 2 ft. The
  _shaft_ has about the same dimensions as a branch gallery. Formerly it
  was sometimes necessary in the systematic attack of a fortress to get
  guns down into the ditch. For this purpose a "great gallery" was used,
  6 ft. 6 in. in height and 6 ft. 8 in. wide, internal dimensions.

  _Miners' Tools._--These are few and simple. The pick and shovel differ
  from the ordinary types in having rather shorter helves suitable for
  the confined space in which they are used. There is also a
  _push-pick_, an implement with a straight helve and a pointed shovel
  head 6 in. long and 3½ in. wide. The _miner's truck_, used for drawing
  the earth from the end of the gallery to the bottom of the shaft, is a
  small wooden truck holding about 2 cub. ft. of earth. Formerly the
  noise of the wheels of the truck passing over the uneven wooden floor
  of the gallery was very liable to be heard by the enemy. To obviate
  this they now have leather tyres and should run on battens nailed to
  the floor. The _miner's bucket_ is a small canvas bucket with a couple
  of ropes attached, by which the earth can be drawn up the shaft.
  Nowadays, however, the truck itself has chains attached to it, by
  which it is drawn up, with the aid of a windlass, to the surface. By
  this method more earth can be taken up in one lift, and time and
  labour are not wasted in transferring the contents of the truck to the
  bucket.

  _Ventilation_ is an important point. The breath of the miners and the
  burning of their candles (when electric light is not available)
  vitiates the air in the galleries; so that even in clean ground a
  gallery should not be driven more than 60 ft. without providing some
  means of renewing the air. This is usually done by forcing fresh air,
  by means of a pump or bellows, through a flexible hose to the head of
  the gallery. Where mines have been fired close by, there is great
  danger from poisonous gases filtering through the soil into the
  gallery. This difficulty is nowadays met by the use of special
  apparatus, such as helmets into which fresh air is pumped, so that the
  wearers need not breathe the air of the gallery at all. Ventilation
  can also be assisted by boring holes vertically to the surface of the
  ground.

  Where a point has been reached at which it is proposed to fire a mine,
  a chamber just large enough to hold the charge is cut in the side of
  the gallery. The object of this is to keep the charge out of the
  direct line of the gallery and thus increase the force of the
  explosion. The charge may be placed in canvas bags, barrels or boxes,
  precautions being taken against damp.


    Charging mines.

  The operation of loading is of the first importance, for if the mine
  is not exploded with success, not only is valuable time lost, which
  may give the enemy his opportunity, but it will probably be necessary
  to untamp the mine in order to renew the fuze; an operation attended
  by considerable danger. The loading of the mine should therefore be
  done by the officer in charge with his own hands. He has to work in a
  very cramped position and practically in the dark (unless with
  electric light) as of course no naked lights can be allowed near
  powder. Everything should therefore be prepared beforehand to
  facilitate the loading of the mine and placing of the fuze. At Chatham
  a 1000 lb. mine, at the end of a gallery 136 ft. long, has been loaded
  in 30 minutes. The powder was passed up the gallery by hand in
  sandbags, and emptied into a box of the required size.

  Whatever method of firing (see below) is employed, the officer who
  loads the mine must be careful to see that it is so arranged as to
  make firing certain, and that the leads passing out of the gallery are
  not liable to damage in the process of tamping.

  _Tamping._--This operation consists in filling up the head of the
  gallery solidly, for such a distance that there shall be no
  possibility of the charge wasting its force along the gallery. The
  distance depends on the charge and on the solidity of the tamping. For
  a common mine it should extend to about 3/2 L.L.R. from the charge,
  when the tamping is of earth in sandbags; for a 3-lined crater, to
  about 2 L.L.R. Tamping can be improved by jamming pieces of timber
  across the shaft or gallery among the other filling.

  _Firing._--This may be done electrically, or by means of _safety_ or
  _instantaneous fuze_ or _powder hose_.

  Electric firing is the safest and best, and allows of the charge being
  exploded at any given moment. For this purpose _electric fuzes_ (for
  powder) or _electric detonators_ (for guncotton or other high
  explosive) are employed. The current that fires them is passed through
  copper wire leads.

  The safety fuze used in the British service burns at the rate of about
  3 ft. a minute. Instantaneous fuze burns at the rate of a mile a
  minute. Both can be fired under water. They are often used in
  conjunction, a considerable length of instantaneous fuze, leading from
  the charge, being connected to a short length of safety fuze.

  Powder hose, an old-time expedient, can be extemporized by making a
  tube of strong linen, say 1 in. in diameter, and filling it with
  powder. It burns at the rate of 10 to 20 ft. per second.

  _Explosives._--The old-fashioned gunpowder of the grained black
  variety is still the best for most kinds of military mines. Pebble and
  prism powders do not give as good results, presumably because their
  action is so slow that some of the gases of explosion can escape
  through the pores of the earth. High explosives, with their quick
  shattering and rending effect, are little more effective than
  gunpowder in actually moving large quantities of earth. Most of them
  give off much more poisonous fumes than gunpowder. Some recent high
  explosives, however, have been specially designed to be comparatively
  innocuous in this respect.


  Effects of mines.

Some formulae have been given above for the calculation of charges. It
will, however, simplify matters for the reader to record some actual
instances of charges fired both in peace and war.

  In the matter of scientific experiment we find Vauban as usual leading
  the way, and the following results among others were obtained by him
  at Tournay in 1686 and 1689: A charge of 162 lb. placed 13 ft. below
  the surface produced a crater of 13 ft. radius (a two-lined crater, or
  "common mine"). Galleries were destroyed at distances equal to the
  L.L.R. in both horizontal and vertical directions. Double the charge,
  placed at double the depth, i.e. 324 lb. with an L.L.R. of 27 ft. made
  no crater, but like the first destroyed galleries below it and on each
  side at distances equal to the L.L.R. A charge of 3828 lb. with L.L.R.
  of 37 ft. made a two-lined crater and destroyed a gallery distant 61
  ft. horizontally.

  Bernard Forest de Belidor, a French engineer, made many experiments at
  La Fère about 1732, and 20 years later, as a general officer and
  inspector of miners, continued them on a larger scale. His experiments
  were directed towards destroying an enemy's galleries at greater
  distances than had hitherto been supposed possible, by means of very
  large charges (in proportion to the L.L.R.) which he called "globes of
  compression." In one of them a charge of 4320 lb. of powder placed
  only 15 ft. 9 in. below the surface damaged or "compressed" a gallery
  distant 65 ft. horizontally. The radius of the crater was 34 ft. 8 in.

  At Frederick the Great's siege of Schweidnitz in 1762 some very large
  charges were exploded. One of them, of 5400 lb. with an L.L.R. of 16
  ft. 3 in., made a crater of 42 ft. 3 in. radius. Readers of Carlyle's
  _Frederick the Great_ may recall his description of the contest of the
  rival engineers on this occasion.

  At Graudenz in 1862 (experiments) a charge of 1031 lb. of powder
  placed 10 ft. deep, untamped, in a vertical shaft, made a crater of 15
  ft. 6 in. radius. A charge of 412 lb. of guncotton, calculated as
  being equivalent to the above charge of powder and placed under the
  same conditions, made a crater of 14 ft. radius. The absence of
  tamping in both cases of course placed the gunpowder at a
  disadvantage.


    The Petersburg Mine, 1864.

  Perhaps the most interesting mine ever fired was that at the siege of
  Petersburg in the American Civil War, in June 1864. The circumstances
  were all abnormal, and the untechnical account of it in _Battles and
  Leaders of the Civil War_ (vol. iv.) is well worth perusal. No mining
  tools or materials and no military miners were available; and no one
  had any confidence in the success of the attempt except its
  originator, Lieut.-Colonel Pleasants, a mining engineer by profession,
  his regiment which was recruited from a mining population, and General
  Burnside the corps commander. The opposing entrenchments were 130 yds.
  apart. The mine gallery was started behind the Federal lines and
  driven a distance of 510 ft. till it came under a field redoubt in the
  Confederate lines. There two branches were made right and left, each
  about 38 ft. long, and in them eight mines aggregating 8000 lb. of
  powder were placed. The first attempt to fire them failed, and an
  officer and a sergeant volunteered to enter the gallery to seek the
  cause of the failure. A defective splice in two lengths of fuze was
  thus discovered and repaired. At the second attempt all the mines were
  fired simultaneously with success, and made a gigantic crater 170 ft.
  long by 60 ft. wide and 30 ft. deep. The occupants of the redoubt, at
  least several hundred men (they have been stated at 1000), were blown
  up and mostly killed. The assault which followed, however, failed
  completely, for want of organization. The infantry was drawn up in
  readiness to advance, but no outlets had been provided from the
  parallel, and this and other causes delayed the occupation of the
  crater and gave the defending artillery a moment's respite. Thus the
  assailants gained the crater but could not advance beyond it in face
  of the defenders' fire, nor could they establish themselves within it,
  on its steep clay sides, for want of entrenching tools. A good many
  troops were sent forwards in support, but being in many cases of
  inferior quality, they could not be induced to go forward, and huddled
  in disorder in the already overcrowded crater. Over 1000 of these were
  captured when the Confederates retook the crater by a counter-attack
  and the total loss of the Federals in the attack was nearly 4000.

The wars of the last generation have done little or nothing to advance
the science of military mining, but a good deal has been done in peace
to improve the means. Electric lighting and electric firing of mines
will be a great help; modern drilling machines may be used to go through
rock; ventilating arrangements are much improved; and the use of bored
mines is sure to have great developments. The Russo-Japanese War taught
nothing new in mine-warfare, or as to the effects of mines, but the
siege of Port Arthur had this moral among others; just as in future, in
the frontal attack of positions, trench must oppose trench, so in
fortress warfare mines will be more necessary than ever. It appears that
they will be essential to destroy both the ditch-flanking arrangements
of forts and the escarp or other permanent obstacle beyond the ditch.


V. FIELD FORTIFICATION

_Field Fortifications_, now more often spoken of as field defences, are
those which are constructed at short notice, with the means locally
available, usually when the enemy is near at hand. Subject to the
question of time, a very high degree of strength can be given to them,
if the military situation makes it worth while to expend sufficient
labour. A century or more ago, the dividing line between permanent and
field fortification was very rigidly drawn, since in those days a high
masonry escarp surmounted by a rampart was essential to a permanent
fortress, and these could naturally not be extemporized. Works without
masonry, in other ways made as strong as possible with deep ditches and
heavy timbers,--such as would require about six weeks for their
construction--were known as _semi-permanent_, and were used for the
defence of places which acquired strategic importance in the course of a
war, but were not immediately threatened. The term _field_ fortification
was reserved for works constructed of lighter materials, with parapets
and ditches of only moderate development. Redoubts of this class
required a fortnight at most for their construction.

In modern fortification if cupolas and deep revetted ditches were
essential to permanent defences, the dividing line would be equally
clear. But as has been shown, this is not universally admitted, and
where the resources exist, the use of our present means of
construction, such as steel joists, railway rails, reinforced concrete
and wire, in conjunction with the defensive power of modern firearms,
makes it possible to extemporize in a very short time works having much
of the resisting power of a permanent fortress. Further, such works can
be expanded from the smallest beginnings; and, if the site is not too
exposed, in the presence of the enemy.

Field fortification offers, as regards the actual constructions, a very
limited scope to the engineer; and a little consideration will show that
its defensive possibilities were not greatly affected by the change from
machine-thrown projectiles to those fired by rude smooth-bore guns.
There is therefore nothing in the history of this branch of the subject
that is worth tracing, from the earliest ages to about the end of the
18th century. One or two points may be noticed. The use of obstacles is
probably one of the earliest measures of defence. Long before missile
weapons had acquired such an importance as to make it worth while to
seek shelter from them, it would obviously have been found desirable to
have some means of checking the onrush of an enemy physically or
numerically superior. Hence the use by savage tribes, to this day, of
pits, pointed stakes hidden in the grass, entanglements and similar
obstacles. In this direction the ages have made no change, and the most
highly civilized nations still use the same obstacles on occasion.

Another use of field defences common to all ages is the protection of
camps at night, where small forces are operating against an enemy more
numerous but inferior in arms and discipline. In daylight such an enemy
is not feared, but at night his numbers might be dangerous. Hence the
Roman practice of making each foot-soldier carry a couple of stakes for
palisades; and the simple defence of a thorn zariba used by the British
for their camps in the Sudan.

Palisades and trenches, abatis and sharpened stakes have always been
used. Except wire, there is practically no new material. As to methods,
the laagers of the Boers are preceded by the wagon-forts of the
Hussites, and those no doubt by similar arrangements of British or
Assyrian war chariots; and so in almost every direction it will be found
that the expedient of to-day has had its forerunners in those of the
countless yesterdays. The only really marked change in the arrangements
of field defences has been caused not by gunpowder but by quick-firing
rifled weapons. For that reason it is worth while to consider briefly
what were the principles of field fortification at the end of the 18th
century. That period has been chosen because it gives us the result of a
couple of centuries of constant fighting between disciplined troops with
fairly effective firearms. The field defences of the 19th century are
transitional in character. Based mainly on the old methods, they show
only faint attempts at adaptation to new conditions, and it was not till
quite the end of the century that the methods now accepted began to take
shape.

The essential elements of fieldworks up to the time of the Peninsular
War were _command_ and _obstacle_; now they are _protection_ and
_concealment_.


  Old type of field defences.

The command and obstacle were as necessary in the days of smooth-bore
muskets and guns as in those of javelins and arrows. When the enemy
could get close up to a work without serious loss, and attack in close
order, the defenders needed a really good obstacle in front of them.
Moreover, since they could not rely on their fire alone to repulse the
attack, they needed a two-deep line, with reserves close at hand, to
meet it with the "arme blanche." For this purpose a parapet 7 or 8 ft.
high, with a steep slope, perhaps palisaded, up which the attackers must
climb after passing the obstacle, was excellent. The defenders after
firing their last volley could use their bayonets from the top of the
parapet with the advantage of position. The high parapet had also the
advantage that the attackers could not tell what was going on inside the
redoubt, and the defenders were sheltered from their fire as well from
view until the last moment.

The strength of a fortified line in the 18th century depended
principally on its redoubts. Lines of shelter trenches had little power
of defence at the time, unless they held practically as many men as
would have sufficed to fight in the open. Obstacles on the other hand
had a greater value, against the inelastic tactics of the time, than
they have now. A good position therefore was one which offered good
fire-positions for redoubts and plenty of facilities for creating
obstacles. Strong redoubts which could resist determined assaults; good
obstacles in the intervals, guns in the redoubts to sweep the intervals,
and troops in formed bodies kept in reserve for counter-strokes--these
were the essentials in the days of the smooth-bore.

The redoubts were liable to a heavy cannonade by field-guns before the
attack. To withstand this, the parapets had to be made of a suitable
thickness--from 4 or 5 ft. upwards--according to the time available, the
resisting nature of the soil, and the severity of the bombardment
expected.

The whole of the earth for the parapet was as a rule obtained from the
ditch, in order to make as much as possible of this obstacle. The
garrison in all parts of the interior of the redoubt were to be
sheltered, if possible, from the enemy's fire, and with this object
great pains were bestowed on the principle of "defilade." The object of
defilade, which was a great fetish in theoretical works, was so to
arrange the height of the parapet with reference to the terreplein of a
work that a straight line (not, be it observed, the trajectory of the
projectiles) passing from the muzzle of a musket or gun on the most
commanding point of the enemy's position, over the crest of the parapet,
should just clear the head of a defender standing in any part of the
work. This problem of defilade became quite out of date after the
development of time shrapnel, but was nevertheless taught with great
rigour till within the last twenty years.

The sectional area of the ditch was calculated so that with an addition
of about 10% for expansion it would equal that of the parapet. If a
wider and deeper ditch was considered necessary, the surplus earth could
be used to form a glacis.

The interior of the redoubt had to afford sufficient space to allow the
garrison to sleep in it, which was sometimes a matter of some difficulty
if a small irregularly shaped work had to contain a strong garrison.
Consideration of the plan and sections of these works will show that the
banquette for infantry with its slopes, and the gun platforms, took off
a good deal from the interior space within the crest-line. Guns were
usually placed at the salients, where they could get the widest field of
fire. They were sometimes placed on the ground level, firing through
embrasures in the parapet, and sometimes on platforms so as to fire over
the parapet (_en barbette_).

As in permanent fortification, immense pains were taken to elaborate
theoretically the traces of works. A distinction was made between forts
and redoubts, the former being those which were arranged to flank their
own ditches, while the redoubts did not. Redoubts again were classed as
"closed," those which had an equally strong defence all round; and
"half-closed," those which had only a slight parapet or timber stockade
for the gorge or rear faces. Open works (those which had no gorge
defence) were named according to their trace, as _redans_ and
_lunettes_. A redan is a work with two faces making a salient angle. It
was frequently used in connexion with straight lines of trench or
breastwork. A lunette is a work with two faces, usually forming an
obtuse angle, and two flanks.

The forts described in the text-books, as might be expected, were
designed with great ingenuity, with bastioned or demi-bastioned fronts,
star traces, and so forth, and in the same books intricate calculations
were entered into to balance the _remblai_ and _déblai_, that is, the
amount of earth in the parapets with that excavated from the ditches. In
practice such niceties of course disappeared, though occasionally when
the ground allowed of it star forts and bastioned fronts were employed.

On irregular ground the first necessity was to fit the redoubt to the
ground on which it stood, so as to sweep the whole of the foreground,
and this was generally a sufficiently difficult matter without adding
the complications of flanking defences. Sir John Jones, speaking of the
traces of the several works in the Torres Vedras lines, says:--


    Torres Vedras.

  "The redoubts were made of every capacity, from that of fig. 74 a,
  limited by want of space on the ground it occupied to 50 men and two
  pieces of artillery, to that of fig. 74 b, for 500 men and six pieces
  of artillery, the importance of the object to be attained being the
  only guide in forming the dimensions. Many of the redoubts first
  thrown up, even some of the smallest, were shaped like stars, under
  the idea of procuring a flank defence for the ditches; but this
  construction was latterly rejected, it being found to cut up the
  interior space, and to be almost fallacious with respect to flank
  defence, the breadth of the exterior slopes being in some cases equal
  to the whole length of the flanks so obtained. Even when, from the
  greater size of the work, some flanking fire was thus gained, the
  angle formed by the faces was generally so obtuse that it demanded
  more coolness in the defenders than ought reasonably to be expected to
  aim along the ditch of the opposite face: and further, this
  construction prevented the fire of the work being more powerful in
  front than in rear.

  [Illustration: FIG. 74.--Torres Vedras Works.]

  In order to decide on the proper trace of a work, it is necessary to
  consider whether its object be to prevent an enemy establishing
  himself on the ground on which it is to be placed, or whether it be to
  insure a heavy fire of artillery on some other point in its vicinity.
  In the first case every consideration should be sacrificed to that of
  adding to its powers of self-defence by flanks or other expedients. In
  the second, its powers of resistance are secondary to the
  establishment of a powerful offensive fire and its trace cannot be too
  simple. Latterly, the shape of the redoubts was invariably that most
  fitted to the ground, or such as best parried the enfilade fire or
  musketry plunge of neighbouring heights, care being taken to present
  the front of fire deemed necessary towards the pass, or other object
  to be guarded; and such will generally be found the best rule of
  proceeding.

  This recommendation, however, is not intended to apply to isolated
  works of large dimensions, and more particularly to those considered
  the key of any position. No labour or expense should be spared to
  render such works capable of resisting the most furious assaults,
  either by breaking the parapet into flanks, or forming a flank defence
  in the ditch; for the experience gained in the Peninsula shows that an
  unflanked work of even more than an ordinary field profile, if
  skilfully and determinedly assaulted, will generally be carried....
  Nor does the serious evil of curtailing the interior space, which
  renders breaks in the outline so objectionable in small works, apply
  to works of large dimensions.... Under this view the great work on
  Monte Agraça (fig. 75) must be considered as very defective, the flank
  defence being confined to an occasional break of a few feet in the
  trace, caused by a change of direction in the contour of the height,
  whilst the interior space is more than doubly sufficient for the
  number of its allotted garrison to encamp.

  [Illustration: FIG. 75.--Monte Agraça, Torres Vedras.]

  _Interior and other Defences._--This work, however, had some of its
  salient points ... cut off by earthen lines of parapet, steeply
  revetted externally, and so traced as to serve for traverses to the
  interior. It had also three or four small enclosed posts formed within
  it; and the work at Torres Vedras (fig. 76) had each of its salient
  points formed into an independent post. These interior defences and
  retrenchments were intended to guard against a general panic amongst
  the garrison, which would necessarily be composed in part of
  indifferent troops, and also to prevent the loss of the work by the
  entry of the assailants at any weak or ill-defended point. Such
  interior lines to rally on are absolutely essential to the security of
  a large field-work. They serve as substitutes for a blockhouse or
  tower, placed in the interior of all well-constructed permanent
  earthen works, and merit far more attention than they generally
  receive.

  [Illustration: FIG. 76.--Torres Vedras Works.]

  The small circular windmills of stone, which were frequently found
  occupying salient knolls ... readily converted into admirable interior
  posts of that nature. The profile of the several works varied on every
  face and flank, according to its liability to be attacked or
  cannonaded; the only general rule enforced being that all ditches
  should be at least 15 ft. wide at top and 10 ft. in depth, and the
  crest of the parapet have at least 5 ft. command over the crest of the
  counterscarp. No parapet exceeded 10 ft. in thickness, unless exposed
  to be severely cannonaded, and few more than 6 or 8 ft.; and some, on
  high knolls, where artillery could not by any possibility be brought
  against them, were made of stone or rubble less than 2 ft. in
  thickness, to gain more interior space, and allow full liberty for the
  use of the defenders' bayonets."

  Fig. 77 gives two typical sections of these works.

[Illustration: FIG. 77.]

The works of Torres Vedras have been chosen for illustration because
they offer very good historical examples, and also because of the value
of the critical remarks of Sir John Jones, who as a captain was the
engineer in charge of their construction. At the same time it must be
remembered that they differ from ordinary field-works in having an
unusual degree of strength, plenty of time and civilian labour having
been available for their construction. In this respect they approximate
more to semi-permanent works, the main reason why they did not receive
under the circumstances a greater development of ditch and parapet being
that in addition to the large number of works required, much labour was
expended in abatis, inundations, scarping hill-sides and constructing
roads.

Some further remarks of Sir John on the _situations of the works_ are
very instructive:--

  "Many of the redoubts were placed on very elevated situations on the
  summit of steep hills, which gave them a most imposing appearance;
  but it was in reality a defect ... for the fire of their artillery on
  the object to be guarded became so plunging as to lose half its
  powers; the musketry could not be made to scour the face of the hill
  sufficiently; and during the night both arms became of most uncertain
  effect.

  "The domineering situation of the redoubts, however, gave confidence
  to the young troops which composed their garrisons, protected them
  from a cannonade, and screened their interior from musketry, unless
  fired at a high angle, and consequently at random. These
  considerations perhaps justify the unusually elevated sites selected
  for most of the redoubts on the lines, though they cannot induce an
  approval of them as a general measure."

The chief principle of the period was thus that the redoubts were the
most important features of lines of defence, and that they combined
physical obstacle and protection with good musketry and artillery
positions. The value of concealment was not ignored, but it was as a
rule subordinated to other considerations.


  19th century.

The principles of this time remained unaltered until after the Crimean
War. In the American Civil War the power of the rifle began to assert
itself, and it was found that a simple breastwork defended by a double
rank of men could protect itself by its fire against an ordinary
assault. This power of the rifle gave greatly enhanced importance to any
defences that could be hastily extemporized behind walls, hedges or any
natural cover. About the period of the Franco-German War other
considerations came in. The increased velocity of artillery projectiles
reduced in some ways their destructive effects against earth parapets,
because the shell had an increasing tendency to deflect upwards on
striking a bank of loose earth. Also the use of shrapnel made it
impossible for troops to find cover on the terreplein of a work some
distance behind the parapet.

These considerations, however, were not fully realized at that time. The
reason was partly a want of touch between the engineers and the
non-technical branches of most armies, and partly that original writers
from the Napoleonic wars to the present day have been more occupied with
the primary question of the value of field defences as a matter of
tactics than with their details considered from the standpoint of
fortification.

There was always an influential school of writers who declaimed against
all defences, as being injurious to the offensive spirit so essential to
success. Those writers who treated of the arrangements of defences
devoted themselves to theoretical details of trace quite after the old
style; discussing the size and shape of typical redoubts, their distance
apart and relation to lines of trenches, &c. The profiles--the thick
parapet with command of 7 ft. or more, the deep ditch, and the
inadequate cover behind the parapet--remained as they had been for a
century.

The American Civil War showed the power of rifles behind slight
defences. Plevna in 1877 taught a further lesson. It proved the great
resisting power of extemporized lines; but more than that, we begin to
find new arrangements for protection against shell fire (see plans and
sections in Greene's _The Russian Army and its Campaign in Turkey_). The
trace of the works and the sections of parapet and ditch suggest Torres
Vedras; but a multiplication of interior traverses and splinter-proof
shelters show the necessity for a different class of protection. The
parapet was designed according to the old type, for want of a better;
the traverses and shelters were added later, to meet the necessities of
the case. The Turks also used two or three tiers of musketry fire, as
for instance one from the crest of the glacis, one from the parapet, and
one from a traverse in rear of it. This, however, is a development which
will not be necessary in future, thanks to magazine rifles.


  Principles of modern field defences.

From 1877 to 1899 the efficiency of rifles and guns rapidly increased,
and certain new principles, causing the field defences of the present
day to differ radically from those of the 18th century, remained to be
developed. These may be considered under the following heads: the nature
of protection required, the diminished need of obstacle, and the
adaptation of works to ground.

The principle that _thickness_ of parapet is no longer required, to
resist artillery fire, was first laid down at Chatham in 1896. The
distance at which guns now engage makes direct hits on parapets
comparatively rare. Further, a shell striking near the crest of a
parapet may perhaps kill one man if he is in the way, and displace a
bushel of earth. That is nothing. It is the contents of the shell,
whether shrapnel or explosive, that is the source of danger and not the
shell itself. Thus the enemy's object is to burst his common shell
immediately behind the parapet, or his shrapnel a short distance in
front of it, in order to get searching effect. It follows that a parapet
is thick enough if it suffices to stop rifle bullets, since the same
thickness will _a fortiori_ keep out shrapnel bullets or splinters of
shell. For this purpose 3 ft. is enough.

Real protection is gained by a trench close in rear of the parapet, deep
enough to give shelter from high angle shrapnel, and narrow enough to
minimize the chance of a common shell dropping into it. This protection
is increased by frequent traverses across the trench.

The most essential point of all is _concealment_. In gaining this we say
good-bye finally to the old type of work. Protection is now given by the
trench rather than the parapet; command and the ditch-obstacle (which
furnished the earth for the high parapet) are alike unnecessary.
Concealment can therefore be studied by keeping the parapet down to the
lowest level above the surface from which the foreground can be seen.
This may be 18 in. or less.

The need of obstacle, in daylight and when the defenders are not
abnormally few, has practically disappeared. For night work, or when the
assailant is so strong as to be able to force home his attack in face of
protected rifle fire, what is needed is not a deep ditch immediately in
front of the parapet, difficult to climb, but also difficult to flank,
but an obstacle that will detain him under fire at short range. It may
be an entanglement, an abatis, an inundation: anything that will check
the rush and make him move slowly.

In the _adaptation of works to ground_, the governing factor is the
power of the rifle in frontal defence. We have seen that in Peninsular
times great reliance was placed on the flanking defence of lines by guns
in redoubts. Infantry extended behind a simple line of trench could not
resist a strong attack without such support. Now, however, infantry
behind a slight trench, with a good field of fire should be able to
defend themselves against any infantry attack.

This being so, the enemy's artillery seeks to locate the trenches and to
cover them with a steady hail of shells, so as to force the defenders to
keep down under cover. If they can succeed in doing this, it is possible
for the attacking infantry to advance, and the artillery fire is kept up
until the last moment, so that the attack may have the narrowest
possible space to cover after the defenders have manned their parapets
and opened fire. Fig. 78 shows the action of various natures of
projectiles.

[Illustration: From _Mil. Engineering_, by permission of the Controller
of H.M. Stationery Office.

FIG. 78.--Effect of Projectiles.]

We need not here discuss the rôle of the defenders' artillery in
replying to that of the enemy and playing on the attack; nor for the
moment consider how far the defence of the trenches while under
artillery fire can be made easier by overhead cover. The main question
is--what is, in view of the nature of the attack, the best disposition
of lines of trench; and do they require the addition of redoubts?

The most important point, with the object of protection, is that the
trenches must not be conspicuous; this is the best defence against
artillery. With the object of resistance by their own fire they must
have a good view, or, as it is generally described, no _dead ground_ in
front of them. For this purpose 300 or 400 yds. may be enough if the
ground is even and affords no cover.

This necessity for invisibility, together with the shallowness of the
zone that suffices for producing a decisive fire effect, has of late
years very much affected the choice of ground for a line of trenches.


    Siting of trenches.

  For a defensive position on high ground, it was usually laid down
  until the South African War that a line of trenches should be on the
  "military crest" (Fr. _crête militaire_), _i.e._ the highest point on
  the hill from which the whole of the slopes in front can be seen. Thus
  in the three sections of ground shown in fig. 79 it would be at a, b
  and c respectively. The simplicity of this prescription made it
  attractive and it came to be rather abused in the text-books. There
  were, even before the improvements in artillery, objections to it,
  because on most slopes the military crest would be found at very
  different elevations on different parts of the line, so that by a
  strict adherence to the rule some of the trenches would be placed near
  the top of the hill, and some in dangerous isolation near the bottom.
  Moreover a rounded hill has no military crest.

  [Illustration: FIG. 79.]

  Further, we have to consider nowadays not only the position of the
  fire-trenches, but those of supports, reserves and artillery, and the
  whole question is extremely difficult.

  For instance, considering the sections alone, as if they did not vary
  along the line, the positions at _a_ and _b_, fig. 79, are bad because
  they are on the sky-line and therefore a good mark for artillery. That
  at _b_ is especially bad because the slope in front is so steep that
  the defenders would have to expose themselves very much to fire down
  it, and the artillery fire against them can be kept up until the very
  last moment. The position _c_ has the advantage of not being on the
  sky-line, but the position of the supports in rear is exposed.

  [Illustration: FIG. 80.]

  Such a position as that at _d_, fig. 80, is good, but protected or
  concealed communications must be made for the supports coming from _e_
  over the brow of the hill.

  [Illustration: FIG. 81.]

  Another possible position for the infantry line is at _f_, fig. 81,
  with the guns on the high ground behind. They might easily be quite
  concealed from the enemy's artillery. The drawback is that no
  retirement up the exposed slope would be possible for them, except at
  night. The fire from _f_ will be _grazing_, which will be a great
  advantage as compared with the _plunging_ fire that would be obtained
  from a position up the hill.

  It is idle, however, to give more than the most cursory consideration
  to sections of imaginary positions. It is only by actual practice on
  the ground that skill can be attained in laying out positions, and
  only a trained soldier with a good eye can succeed in it. Briefly, the
  advantages of view and position given by high ground must be paid for
  in some degree by exposure to the enemy's artillery; and at least as
  much consideration--possibly as much labour--must be given to
  communications with the fire-trenches as to the trenches themselves.
  Irregular ground simplifies the question of concealment but also gives
  cover to the enemy's approach. The lie of the ground will itself
  dictate the position of the trenches, subject to the predispositions
  of the responsible officer. On flat featureless ground the general
  trace of the trenches should be irregular. This makes a more difficult
  target for artillery, and affords a certain amount of cross and
  flanking fire, which is a very great advantage. Great care should,
  however, be taken not to expose the trenches to oblique or enfilade
  fire; or at least to protect them, if so exposed, by traversing.

  [Illustration: FIG. 82.]


    Trenches.

  Concealment of trenches is generally attempted by covering the freshly
  turned earth of the small parapet with sods, leafy branches or grass.
  In this connexion it should be remembered that after a day or two cut
  leaves and grass wither and may become conspicuous against a green
  surface. Where the ground is so even that a good view of the
  foreground is possible from the surface level, the trench may be made
  without a parapet; but this entails great labour in removing and
  disposing of the excavated earth. A common device is to conceal the
  parapet as well as possible and to make a dummy trench some distance
  away to draw fire.

  Besides the direct concealment of trenches, care must be taken that
  the site is not conspicuous. Thus a trench should not be placed along
  the meeting line of two different kinds of cultivation, or along the
  edge of a belt of heather on a hill-side, or where a difference of
  gradient is sharply defined; or where any conspicuous landmark would
  help the enemy's artillery to get the range.

  [Illustration: FIG. 83.]

  Trenches are broadly distinguished as "fire trenches" and "cover
  trenches," according as they are for the firing line or supporting
  troops. The following simple types are taken from the 1908 edition of
  _Military Engineering_ (part 1): "Field Defences."

  Fig. 82 is the most common form of fire trench, in which labour is
  saved by equalizing trench and parapet. This would take 1½ to 2 hours
  in ordinary soil. Fig. 83 shows the same trench improved by 2 or 3
  hours' more work. Fig. 84 shows a fire trench without parapet, with
  cover trench and communication.

  [Illustration: From _Mil. Engineering: Field Defences_ (1908), by
  permission of the Controller H. M. Stationery Office.

  FIG. 84.]

  The addition of a loophole of sandbags on the top for concealment
  (called _head-cover_), gives increased protection, but at the cost of
  greater prominence for the parapet (fig. 85). Overhead cover can only
  be provided in fire trenches by giving the parapet still greater
  height and it is not usually done. Portions of the trench not used for
  firing can, however, be given splinter-proof protection by putting
  over them branches or bundles, covered with a few inches of earth: or
  by boards, or sheets of corrugated iron if they can be had. A better
  plan when time permits is to provide cover trenches immediately behind
  and communicating with the fire trench.

  [Illustration: From _Mil. Engineering: Field Defences_, by permission
  of the Controller H. M. Stationery Office.

  FIG. 85.]


    Redoubts.

  The question of redoubts has been a vexed one for years; partly they
  were thought to be unnecessary in view of the resisting power of a
  line of trenches, but chiefly because the redoubt was always imagined
  as one of the older type, with a high conspicuous parapet. Of course a
  redoubt of such a nature would be readily identified and made
  untenable. But the idea of a redoubt does not necessarily imply
  command. Its object is that it shall be capable of all-round defence.
  There can be no doubt that as there is always a possibility of lines
  being pierced somewhere, it is desirable, unless the whole line is to
  be thrown into confusion and forced back, to have some point at which
  the defenders can maintain themselves. This is not possible unless at
  such points there is provision for defence towards both flanks and
  rear, that is to say, when there are redoubts, which can hold on after
  certain portions of the line have been lost and thereby can localize
  the enemy's success and simplify the action of supporting troops. In
  order that redoubts may exercise this function, all that is necessary
  is that their defenders should be able to see the ground for a furlong
  in front of them in every direction. Their parapets, therefore, need
  be in no way more conspicuous than those of the neighbouring fire
  trenches, and in that case there is no fear of their drawing special
  attention from the enemy's artillery. Whatever theories may have been
  put forward en the subject, in practice they are constantly used, and
  in the Russo-Japanese War, where the experience of South Africa was
  already available, we find them in the fighting lines on both sides.

  [Illustration: FIG. 86.]

  The modern type of field redoubt is a fire trench, no more conspicuous
  than the others, in any simple form adapted to the ground that will
  give effective all-round fire, such as a square with blunted angles.
  Enhanced strength may be given by deepening the trenches and improving
  the overhead cover; and special use may here be made of obstacles.

  [Illustration: FIG. 87.]

  Within the redoubt cover may be provided for men in excess of those
  required to man the parapet, by means of cover trenches and field
  casemates. Fig. 86 gives the general idea of such a redoubt, and figs.
  87, 88 the plan and section of the interior shelters. Such a work can
  easily be made quite invisible from a distance. It gives excellent
  cover against shrapnel, but would not be tenable against howitzer
  common shell, if the enemy did manage to bring an accurate fire to
  bear on it.

  [Illustration: FIG. 88.]

  Fig. 89 shows the section of a parapet with two shelters behind it for
  a work with a high command of 5 or 6 ft. This work would require a
  concealed position, which can often be found a little in rear of the
  firing line.

  [Illustration: From _Mil. Engineering: Field Defences_ (1908), by
  permission of the Controller H.M. Stationery Office.

  FIG. 89.]


    Boer, Russian and Japanese types.

  In the South African War a good deal of interest was excited by a type
  of trench used by the Boers. It was very narrow at the surface, giving
  only just room for a man to stand; but undercut or hollowed out below,
  so that he could sit down with very good cover. Such a section is
  only possible in very firm soil. Apart from this, the type is really
  only suited to rifle pits, as a trench proper should have room for
  officers and N.C.O's to move along within it. The Boers showed great
  skill in concealing their trenches. One good point was that there was
  generally something making a background immediately behind the men's
  heads, so that they did not stand out in relief when raised above the
  parapet.

  [Illustration: From _Russo-Japanese War: British Officers' Reports_,
  vol. ii., by permission of the Controller H.M. Stationery Office.

  FIGS. 90 and 91.]

  In the Russo-Japanese War the Russian trenches at the outset were of
  old-fashioned type and very conspicuous. Later on better types were
  evolved. Figs. 90 and 91 are a couple of sections from Port Arthur;
  the first borrowed from the Boers but wider at the top. The Japanese
  appear to have taken their type mainly from the latest British
  official books, but applied them with great skill to the ground
  studying especially invisibility. In their prepared positions they
  used large redoubts manned by several companies.

  [Illustration: From _Mil. Engineering: Field Defences_, by permission
  of the Controller H. M. Stationery Office.

  FIG. 92.--Gun-pit.]

  _Cover for Guns._--Some degree of cover for guns, in addition to the
  shield, is always desirable. If the gun stands on the natural surface
  of the ground, the cover is called an epaulment. In that case a bank
  is thrown up in front of the gun, about 1 ft. high in the centre, and
  3 ft. 6 in. high at the ends. On either side of the gun and close up
  to the bank is a small pit for the gunners. The rest of the earth for
  the epaulment is got from a trench in front. If the gun is sunk, the
  shelter is called a gun-pit.

  In this case there is no bank immediately in front of the gun. Shelter
  can be got more quickly with a pit than an epaulment, but it is
  generally undesirable to break the surface of the ground.


    Obstacles.

  The commonest forms of _obstacle_ now used are _abatis_ and _wire
  entanglements_. Fig. 93 shows a well-finished type of abatis. The
  branches are stripped and pointed, and the butts are buried and pegged
  firmly down. Wire entanglement may be added to this with advantage. An
  abatis should be protected from artillery fire, which is sometimes
  done by placing it in a shallow excavation with the earth thrown up in
  front of it.

  [Illustration: From _Mil. Engineering: Field Defences_, by permission
  of the Controller H.M. Stationery Office.

  FIG. 93.--Abatis.]

  Wire may be used as a _high_ or _low entanglement_ or as a fence or
  trip wire or concealed obstacle. The usual form of high wire
  entanglement consists of several rows of stout stakes 4 or 5 ft. long,
  driven firmly into the ground about 6 ft. apart, and connected
  horizontally and diagonally with barbed wire.

  [Illustration: FIG. 94.--Crows' Feet.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 95.--Plan and section of Trous-de-loup.]

  _Palisades_ are still used, and need no description. They were
  formerly often made bullet-proof, but this is no longer possible.
  _Fraises_ are seldom heard of now, though they may appear occasionally
  in a modified form. They were much used in connexion with deep
  ditches, and are palisades placed so as to project horizontally from
  the escarp, or sloping forward in the bottom of the ditch. _Military
  pits_ both _deep_ and _shallow_ (the latter, shown in fig. 95, called
  _trous de loup_) are not so much used as formerly, because the
  obstacle is hardly worth the labour expended on it. Both, however,
  were employed in the Russo-Japanese War. _Crows' feet_, formerly much
  used as a defence against cavalry, are practically obsolete. They
  consisted of four iron spikes joined together at their bases in such a
  manner that however they were thrown down one point would always be
  pointing upwards (fig. 94). _Chevaux-de-frise_ (q.v.) were formerly a
  much-used type of obstacle.

  The best obstacle is that which can be made to fulfil a given object
  with the least expenditure of time and labour. From this point of view
  barbed wire is far the best. One of its greatest advantages is that it
  gives no cover whatever to the enemy.

  _Fougasses_ have always for convenience been classed as obstacles. A
  fougasse is a charge of powder buried at the bottom of a sloping pit.
  Over the powder is a wooden shield, 3 or 4 in. thick, and over the
  shield a quantity of stones are piled. The illustration, fig. 96,
  gives a clear idea of the arrangement. A fougasse of this form,
  charged with 80 lb. of powder, will throw 5 tons of stones over a
  surface 160 yds. long by 120 wide. They may be fired by powder hose,
  fuze or electricity. Their actual effect is very often a matter of
  chance, but the moral effect is usually considerable.

  _Dams_ are most effective obstacles, when circumstances allow of their
  use. They are constructed by military engineers as small temporary
  dams would be in civil works.


    Illumination.

  A most important question, especially in connexion with obstacles, is
  that of lighting up the foreground at night. Portable electric
  searchlights are most valuable, especially for detecting the enemy's
  movements at some distance; but their use will naturally always be
  restricted. Star shells and parachute lights fired from guns are not
  of much use for the immediate foreground, and do not burn very long.
  They were formerly chiefly of use in siege works, to light up an
  enemy's working parties. Germany has introduced lightballs fired from
  pistols, which will probably have a considerable future.

  Various civilian forms of _flare-light_ would be very useful to
  illuminate obstacles, but cannot well be carried in the field.
  _Bonfires_ are very useful when material is available. They require
  careful treatment, _e.g._ they must be so arranged that they can be
  lighted instantaneously (they may be lighted automatically, by means
  of a trip wire and a fuze); they must give a bright light at once
  (this can be ensured with shavings or straw sprinkled with petroleum);
  they must be firmly built so that the enemy cannot destroy them
  easily; and if possible there should be a screen arranged behind them
  so that they may not light up the defence as well as the attack.


    Blockhouses.

  Blockhouses are familiar to the public from the part they played in
  the South African War of 1899-1902. In the old-fashioned permanent
  fortification they were used as keeps in such positions as re-entering
  places of arms and built of masonry. Stone blockhouses have long been
  used in the Balkans for frontier outposts; they are sometimes built
  cruciform, so as to get some flanking defence. In the form of
  bullet-proof log-cabins they have played a great part in warfare
  between pioneer settlers and savages.

  [Illustration: From _Mil. Engineering_, by permission of the
  Controller H.M. Stationery Office.

  FIG. 96.--Fougasse.]

  In the 19th century blockhouses were usually designed to give partial
  protection against field artillery; the walls being built of two
  thicknesses of logs with earth between them, the roof flat and covered
  with 2 or 3 ft. of earth, and earth being piled against the walls up
  to the loopholes. Nowadays they are employed only in positions where
  it is not likely that artillery will be brought against them: but they
  may be made tenable for a while even under artillery fire if they are
  surrounded by a trench and parapet.

  Blockhouses are especially useful for small posts protecting such
  points as railway bridges, which the enemy may attempt to destroy by
  cavalry raids. The essential feature is a bullet-proof loopholed wall,
  arranged for all-round fire, with enough interior space for the
  garrison to sleep in. The roof may be simply weatherproof. Some
  arrangement for storing water must be provided. Circular blockhouses
  were very popular in South Africa. They were made of sheets of
  corrugated iron fastened 6 in. apart on a wooden framework, the space
  between the sheets being filled with small stones. The loopholes were
  made of sheet-iron frames inserted in the walls. Fig. 97 shows a
  section of one of these blockhouses.

  [Illustration: By permission of the Controller H.M. Stationery Office.

  FIG. 97.--Blockhouse, South Africa, 1900-1902.]


    Woods.

  The defence of woods was formerly an important branch of field
  defences. Abatis and entanglements could readily be extemporized,
  trunks of trees made strong breastworks, and the wood concealed the
  numbers of the defenders. A wood was therefore generally considered a
  useful addition to a line of defence. It was customary to hold the
  front edge of the wood, the irregularities of the outline being
  utilized for frontal and flanking fire, while obstacles were disposed
  some 50 yds. in front. In a carefully prepared position, clearings
  would be made parallel to the front and some distance back from it,
  for support positions, and great attention was paid (in theory at
  least) to clearing communications, erections, signposts, &c., so that
  the defending troops might move freely in any desired direction.

  Woods, however, had their inherent drawbacks. The ground is hard to
  dig, clearing involves great labour; and communication, at the best,
  is cramped. Nowadays a wood can hardly be considered a strong
  defensive element in a line. The front of it is an excellent ranging
  mark for artillery, and positions within the wood are not easily made,
  because of the difficulty of trenching, and the fact that no
  reasonable amount of timber will make a breastwork proof against the
  modern bullet. Once an enemy gets a footing within a wood, the
  position is more favourable to offensive than to defensive action. If
  a wood has to be occupied in a line of defence, it is probable that in
  most cases the rear edge or a line slightly behind it would be the
  best to fortify, though the front edge would no doubt be held by the
  fighting line at the outset.


    Villages.

  The defence of villages is another question which has been much
  affected by recent improvements in artillery. Formerly villages were
  very important adjuncts to a line of defence, and strong points for a
  detached force to hold. There were indeed always drawbacks. The
  preparations for defence entailed a good deal of labour, and the
  defending force was scattered in houses and enclosures, so that
  control and united action were difficult. But the value of the
  ready-made protection afforded by walls was so great--and sometimes
  even decisive--that villages were occupied as a matter of course. This
  is certainly now changed, but precisely to what extent it will be
  impossible to say, until after the next European war. A village under
  fire is not now an ideal defensive position. A single shrapnel
  penetrating the outer wall may kill all the occupants of a room; a
  single field-howitzer shell may practically ruin a house. At the same
  time, a house or line of houses may (without any preliminary labour at
  all) give very good protection against shell fire to troops _behind_
  them. Further, the value to the defence of the slightest cover, once
  the infantry attack has developed, is so great that the ruins of walls
  and houses occupied at the right moment may prove an impregnable
  stronghold. This class of fighting, however, does not properly come
  under the present heading. For the details of the defence of walls,
  houses, &c., see the official _Mil. Engineering_ (1908).

  _Entrenching under Fire._--Progress in this direction has been delayed
  by the reluctance of military authorities to add a portable
  entrenching tool to the heavy burden already carried by the infantry
  soldier. Further delay has resulted from the attempts of enthusiastic
  inventors to produce a tool that shall weigh nothing, go easily in the
  pocket, and be available as a pick, shovel, saw, hand-axe or
  corkscrew. A tool that will serve more than one use is seldom
  satisfactory for any.


    Extemporized cover.

  The object of entrenching under fire is to enable attacking infantry,
  when their advance is checked by the enemy's fire, to maintain the
  ground they have won by extemporizing cover where none exists. The
  need of this was first felt in the American Civil War, and towards the
  close of it a small entrenching spade 22 in. long and weighing only 1½
  lb. was introduced by Brigadier-General H.W. Benham into the Army of
  the Potomac. Since that time a great number of patterns have been
  tried, including shovel, trowel and adze types. The most popular of
  these has been the Linnemann spade, which is used by most continental
  armies and by the Japanese. The Austrian form of this tool is a
  rectangular spade with straight handle. The length over all is a
  little less than 20 in. The blade is 8 in. long by 6 wide. One side of
  it has a saw edge, and the other a cutting edge. For carriage, the
  blade is enclosed in a leather case, which is strapped to the pack or
  the waist-belt. In the British army the Wallace combined pick and
  shovel was used for some time, but was eventually dropped. There was
  always great doubt whether the utility of a portable entrenching tool
  was such as to justify the inconvenience caused to the soldier in
  carrying it. But the experience of the Russo-Japanese War seems to
  have finally established the necessity of it, and also the fact that
  it must generally be used lying down. For this purpose and for
  convenience in carrying it on the person, a very light short-handled
  tool is required.

  The soldier lying down cannot attempt to dig a trench, but can make a
  little hole by his side as he lies, and put the earth in front of his
  head. A method introduced by the Japanese is that at each check in the
  advance the front line should do this, and, as they go forward, the
  supporting lines in succession should improve the cover thus
  commenced.


    General remarks.

  There are few things that soldiers dislike more, in the way of
  training, than trenchwork. For men unused to it, it is tiring and
  tedious work, and it is difficult for them to realize its importance.
  At the same time it is a commonplace of recent history that men who
  have been in action a few times develop a great affection for the
  shovel. The need of trenches grows with the growth of firearms, and
  the latest feature of modern tactics is the use of them in attack as
  well as in defence. The observation has often been made--with what
  truth as a general proposition we cannot here discuss--that modern
  battles tend more and more to resemble a siege. The weaker side, it is
  said, entrenches itself; the other bombards and attacks. After gaining
  as much ground as they can, the attacking troops wait for nightfall
  and entrench; perhaps making a further advance and entrenchment before
  dawn. In the last stage the attack might even be reduced to gaining
  ground by sapping. In open and featureless ground, where the rifle and
  gun have full play, the trench is to the modern soldier very much what
  the breast-plate was to the man-at-arms, an absolute essential.

  The most important point in connexion with modern field fortification
  is the effect on both strategy and tactics of the increased resisting
  power of the defence. A small force well entrenched can check the
  frontal attack of a very much larger force, and while holding its
  position can make itself felt over a wider radius than ever before.
  This must needs have a marked effect on strategy, and it is quite
  possible to foresee such an ultimate triumph of field fortification as
  that one force should succeed in surrounding another stronger than
  itself, and by entrenching prevent the latter from breaking out and
  compel its surrender.


VI. CONCLUSION

In tracing the history of the science of fortification and in outlining
the practice of our own time it has been necessary to dwell chiefly on
the material means of defence and attack. The human element has had to
be almost ignored. But here comes in the paradox, that the material
means are after all the least important element of defence. Certainly it
is inconceivable that the designer of a fortress should not try to make
it as strong as is consistent with the object in view and the means at
his disposal. And yet while engineers in all ages have sought eagerly
for strength and refinements of strength, the fact remains that the best
defences recorded in history owed little to the builder's art. The
splendid defence in 1667 of Candia, whose enceinte, of early Italian
design, was already obsolete but whose capture cost the Turks 100,000
men; the three years defence of Ostend in 1601; the holding of Arcot by
Clive, are instances that present themselves to the memory at once. The
very weight of the odds against them sometimes calls out the best
qualities of the defenders; and the _man_ when at his best is worth many
times more than the _rampart_ behind which he fights. But it would be a
poor dependence deliberately to make a place weak in order to evoke
these qualities. One cannot be sure that the garrison will rise to the
occasion, and the weakness of the place has very often been found an
excuse for giving it up with little or no resistance.

Very much depends on the governor. Hence the French saying, "tant vaut
l'homme, tant vaut la place." Among modern men we think of Todleben (not
governor, but the soul of the defence) at Sevastopol, Fenwick Williams
at Kars, Denfert-Rochereau at Belfort, and Osman Pasha at Plevna. The
sieges of the 16th and 17th centuries offer many instances in which the
event turned absolutely on the personal qualities of the governor; in
some cases distinguished by courage, skill and foresight, in others by
incapacity, cowardice or treachery. The reader is referred to Carnot's
_Défense des places fortes_ for a most interesting summary of such
cases, one or two of which are quoted below.


  The spirit of the defence.

Naarden was besieged by the prince of Orange in September 1673 and
defended by Philippe de Procé, sieur Dupas. The duke of Luxemburg
visited the place some hours before it was invested, and arranged with
Dupas to relieve him as soon as he had collected his cavalry. But the
governor lost his head when he saw the enemy encamped round the place,
and surrendered it before he had even lost the covered way. He was
subsequently tried by a council of war and sentenced to be degraded
before the troops and imprisoned for life. The reason the court gave for
not condemning him to death was that they could find no regulation which
condemned a man to loss of life for being a coward. (At that period the
decapitation of a governor who was considered to have failed in his duty
was not uncommon.) This man, however, was not wanting in physical
courage. He was in prison at Grave when it was besieged a year later,
obtained leave to serve as a volunteer in the defence, fought well and
was killed.

A similar case occurred in the English Civil War. In 1645 the young
governor of the royal post at Bletchingdon House was entertaining a
party of ladies from Oxford, when Cromwell appeared and summoned him to
surrender. The attacking force had no firearm more powerful than a
carbine, but the governor, overawed by Cromwell's personality, yielded.
Charles I., who was usually merciful to his officers, caused this
governor to be shot.

A defence of another kind was that of Quilleboeuf in 1592. Henry IV. had
occupied it and ordered it to be fortified. Before the works had been
well begun, Mayenne sent 5000 men to retake it. Bellegarde undertook its
defence, with 115 soldiers, 45 gentlemen and a few inhabitants. He had
ammunition but not much provisions. With these forces and a line of
defence a league in length, he sustained a siege, beat off an assault on
the 17th day, and was relieved immediately afterwards. The relieving
forces were astonished to find that he had been defending not a
fortified town but a village, with a ditch which, in the places where it
had been begun, measured no more than 4 ft. wide and deep.

At that period the business aspect of siege warfare already alluded to
had been recognized, but many commanders retained the old spirit of
chivalry in their reluctance to say the "loth word." The gallant Marshal
d'Essé, who feared nothing but the idea of dying in his bed, was lying
ill at his country house when he was sent for by the king. He was
ordered to take command at Thérouanne, then threatened by Charles V.,
and made his farewell with these words, which remind us somewhat of
Grenville: "Sire, je m'y en vais donc de bon et loyal coeur; mais j'ai
ouï dire que la place est mal envitaillée, non pas seulement pourvue de
palles, de tranches, ni de hottes pour remparer et remuer la terre; mais
lors, quand entendrez que Thérouanne est prise, dites hardiment que
d'Essé est guéri de sa jaunisse et mort." And he made good his word, for
he was killed at the breach by a shot from the arquebus of a Spanish
soldier.

Sometimes the ardour of defence inspired the whole body of the
inhabitants. Fine examples of this are the defences of Rochelle (1627)
and Saint-Jean de Lône (1636), but these are too long to quote. We may,
however, mention Livron, which is curious. In 1574 Henry III. sent one
of his favourites, Saint Lary Bellegarde, against the Huguenots in the
Dauphiné. Being entrusted with a good army, this gentleman hoped to
achieve some distinction. He began by attacking the little town of
Livron, which had no garrison and was defended only by the inhabitants.
But he was repulsed in three assaults, and the women of the town
conceived such a contempt for him that they came in crowds to empty
their slops at the breach by way of insult. This annoyed him very much,
and he ordered a fresh assault. The women alone sustained this one,
repulsed it lightheartedly, and the siege was raised.


  Arcot.

The history of siege warfare has more in it of human interest than any
other branch of military history. It is full of the personal element, of
the nobility of human endurance and of dramatic surprises. And more than
any battles in the open field, it shows the great results of the courage
of men fighting at bay. Think of Clive at Arcot. With 4 officers, 120
Europeans and 200 sepoys, with two 18-pounders and 8 lighter guns, he
held the fort against 150 Europeans and some 10,000 native troops. "The
fort" (says Orme) "seemed little capable of sustaining the impending
siege. Its extent was more than a mile in circumference. The walls were
in many places ruinous; the rampart too narrow to admit the firing of
artillery; the parapet low and slightly built; several of the towers
were decayed, and none of them capable of receiving more than one piece
of cannon; the ditch was in most places fordable, in others dry and in
some choked up," &c. These feeble ramparts were commanded almost
everywhere by the enemy's musketry from the houses of the city outside
the fort, so that the defenders were hardly able to show themselves
without being hit, and much loss was suffered in this way. Yet with his
tiny garrison, which timbered about one man for every 7 yds. of the
enclosure, Clive sustained a siege of 50 days, ending with a really
severe assault on two large open breaches, which was repulsed, and after
which the enemy hastily decamped.

Such feats as this make arguments about _successive lines of defence_
and the _necessity of keeps_ seem very barren. History, as far as the
writer knows, shows no instances where successive lines have been held
with such brilliant results.

Clive's defence of his breaches, which by all the then accepted rules of
war were untenable, brings us to another point which has been already
mentioned, namely, that a garrison might honourably make terms when
there was an open breach in their main line of defence. This is a
question upon which Carnot delivers himself very strongly in
endeavouring to impress upon French officers the necessity of defence to
the last moment. Speaking of Cormontaingne's imaginary _Journal of the
Attack of a Fortress_ (which is carried up to the 35th day, and finishes
by the words "It is now time to surrender"), he says with great scorn:
"Crillon would have cried, 'It is time to begin fighting.' He would have
said as at the siege of Quilleboeuf, 'Crillon is within, the enemy is
without.' Thus when Bayard was defending the shattered walls of
Mézières, M. de Cormontaingne, if he had been there, would have said,
'It is time to surrender.' Thus when Guise was repairing the breaches
of Metz under the redoubled fire of the enemy, M. de Cormontaingne, if
he had been there, would have said, 'It is time to surrender.'" Carnot
of course allows that Cormontaingne was personally brave. His scorn is
for the accepted principle, not for the man.


  Resisting "to the last."

It is interesting to contrast with this passage some remarks by Sir John
Jones, made in answer to Carnot's book. He says in the notes to the
second volume of the _Journals of the Sieges in Spain_: "When the breach
shall be pushed properly forward, if the governor insists upon the
ceremony of his last retrenchment being stormed, as by so doing he
spills the blood of many brave men without a justifiable object, his
life and the lives of the garrison should be made the forfeit. A system
enforced by terror must be counteracted by still greater terror.
Humanity towards an enemy in such a case is cruelty to one's own
troops.... The principle to be combated is not the obligation to resist
behind the breach--for where there is a good retrenchment the bastion
should be disputed equally with the counter-guard or the ravelin and can
as safely be so--but the doctrine that surrender shall not take place
when successful resistance becomes hopeless."

Carnot's word is "fight to the last." Sir John Jones says the commander
has no right to provoke further carnage when resistance is hopeless. The
question of course is, When is resistance hopeless? Sir John Jones's
reputation leaves little doubt that if he had been commanding a fortress
on British soil he would not have thought resistance hopeless as long as
there was anything whatever left to defend. The reason why these two men
of similar temper are found in opposition is quite simple. When Carnot
wrote, the French army occupied most of the important fortresses of
Europe, and it was to the interest of the emperor that if attacked they
should be held to the last moment, in order to cause the enemy as much
delay and loss as possible. Jones, on the other hand, was one of the
engineers who were engaged in besieging those fortresses, and his
arguments were prompted by sympathy for his own countrymen whose lives
were sacrificed by the prolongation of such resistance.

A century has passed since Carnot and Jones wrote, and the ideas in
which they had been educated were those of the pre-Napoleonic era. In
the 18th century fortresses were many, good roads few, and campaigns for
the most part leisurely. To the European nations of that time,
inheritors of a perennial state of war, the idea of concentrating the
national resources on a short and decisive campaign had not occurred.
The "knock-out blow" had not been invented. All these conditions are now
so changed that new standards must be and indeed have been set up, both
for the defence of places and the general employment of fortification.

As regards the conduct of the defence, the massacre of a garrison as a
penalty for holding out too long would meet with no sympathy in the
present day. On the other hand, the issue of modern wars is worked out
so rapidly that if a fortress is well defended, with the advantage of
the present weapons, there is always a chance of holding out till the
close of the war. If the place is worth holding, it should as a rule be
held to the bitter end on the chance of a favourable turn in affairs;
moreover, the maintenance of an important siege under modern conditions
imposes a severe strain on the enemy and immobilizes a large number of
his troops.


  Permanent defences.

In concluding this article some elementary considerations in connexion
with the use of permanent defences may be noticed, though the general
question of strategic fortification is outside its scope. The objects of
fortification differ, as has been shown, from age to age. In former
times a peaceful people exposed to the raids of piratical Norsemen might
find their refuge tower essential; later, a robber-baron might look on
his castle as so much capital invested; a wealthy medieval town might
prove the value of its walls more than once in a generation; a country
without a standing army might gain time for preparation by means of
fortresses barring the roads across the frontier. But how does the
question stand to-day among European countries which can mobilize their
full fighting strength at a few hours' notice? It can only be answered
when the circumstances of a particular country are examined.


  The use and abuse of fortresses.

If we assume such an impossible case as that of two nations of equal
fighting strength and equal resources standing ready in arms to defend a
common frontier, and that the theatre of war presents no difficulties on
either side, then the use of permanent fortifications, merely as an
adjunct to military strength, is wrong. Fortresses do not decide the
issue of a campaign; they can only influence it. It is better,
therefore, to put all the money the fortress would have cost, and all
the man-power that its maintenance implies, into the increase and
equipment of the active army. For the fate of the fortress must depend
ultimately on the result of the operations of the active armies.
Moreover, the very assumption that resources on both sides are equal
means that the nation which has spent money on permanent fortifications
will have the smaller active army, and therefore condemns itself
beforehand to a defensive rôle.

This general negation is only useful as a corrective to the tendency to
over-fortify, for such a case cannot occur. In practice there will
always be occasion for some use of fortification. A mountain range may
lend itself to an economical defence by a few men and some inexpensive
barrier forts. A nation may have close to its frontier an important
strategic centre, such as a railway junction, or a town of the first
manufacturing importance, which must be protected. In such a case it may
be necessary to guard against accidents by means of a fortress. Again,
if one nation is admittedly slower in mobilization than the other, it
may be desirable to guard one portion of the frontier by fortresses so
as to force invasion into a district where concentration against it is
easiest.

As for the defence of a capital, this cannot become necessary if it
stands at a reasonable distance from the frontier until the active
armies have arrived at some result. If the fighting strength of the
country has been practically destroyed, it is not of much use to stand a
siege in the capital. There can be but one end, and it is better, as
business men say, to cut losses. If the fighting strength is not
entirely destroyed and can be recruited within a reasonable time, say
two or three months, then it appears that under modern conditions the
capital might be held for that time by means of extemporized defences.
The question is one that can only be decided by going into the
circumstances of each particular case.

The case of a weak country with powerful and aggressive neighbours is in
a different category. If she stands alone she will be eaten up in time,
fortifications or no fortifications; but if she can reckon on assistance
from outside, it may be worth while to expend most of the national
resources on permanent defences.

These hypothetical cases have, however, no value, except as
illustrations to the most elementary arguments. The actual problems that
soldiers and statesmen have to consider are too complex to be dealt with
in generalities, and no mere treatise can supply the place of knowledge,
thought and practice.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The more important works on the subject are: Dürer,
  _Unterricht zur Befestigung_ (Nüremberg, 1527); Speckle, _Architectur
  von Festungen_ (Strassburg, 1589); Fritach, _L'Architecture mil. ou la
  f. nouvelle_ (Paris, 1637); Pagan, _Les Fortif._ (Paris, 1689); de
  Ville, _Les Fortif._ (Lyons, 1629); de Fer, _Introduction à la
  fortification_ (Paris, 1723); B.F. de Belidor, _Science des
  Ingénieurs, &c._ (Paris, 1729); works of Coehoorn, Vauban,
  Montalembert, Cormontaingne; Mandar, _De l'architecture des
  forteresses_ (Paris, 1801); Chasseloup-Laubat, _Essais sur quelques
  parties de l'artil. et de la fortification_ (Milan, 1811); Carnot,
  _Défense des places fortes_ (Paris, 1812); Jones, _Journals of Sieges
  in Spain_ (3rd ed., London, 1846); T. Choumara, _Mémoire sur la
  fortification_ (1847); A. von Zastrow, _Geschichte der beständigen
  Befestigung_ (N.D., Fr. trans.); works of Sir C. Pasley; Noizet,
  _Principes de fortif._ (Paris, 1859); Dufour, _De la fortif.
  permanente_ (Paris, 1850); E. Viollet le Duc, _L'Architecture
  militaire au moyen âge_ (Paris, 1854); Cosseron de Villenoisy, _Essai
  historique sur la fortification_ (Paris, 1869); works of Brialmont
  (_q.v._); Delambre, _La Fortification dans ses rapports avec la
  tactique et la stratégie_ (Paris, 1887); v. Sauer, _Angriff und
  Verteidigung fester Plätze_ (Berlin, 1885); Schroeter, _Die Festung in
  der heutigen Kriegführung_ (Berlin, 1898-1906); Baron E. v. Leithner,
  _Die beständige Befestigung und der Festungskrieg_ (Vienna,
  1894-1899); W. Stavenhagen, _Grundriss der Befestigungslehre_ (Berlin,
  1900-1909); Plessix and Legrand, _Manuel complet de fortification_
  (Paris, 1900, new edition 1909); Ritter v. Brunner, _Die beständige
  Befestigung_ (Vienna, 1909), _Die Feldbefestigung_ (Vienna, 1904);
  Rocchi, _Traccia per lo studio della fortificazione permanente_
  (Turin, 1902); Sir G.S. Clarke, _Fortification_ (1907); V. Deguise,
  _La Fortification permanente contemporaine_ (Brussels, 1908); Royal
  Military Academy, _Text-book of Fortification_, pt. ii. (London,
  1893); British official _Instruction in Military Engineering_, pts.
  i., ii. and iv. (London, 1900-1908).     (L. J.)



FORTLAGE, KARL (1806-1881), German philosopher, was born at Osnabrück.
After teaching in Heidelberg and Berlin, he became professor of
philosophy at Jena (1846), a post which he held till his death.
Originally a follower of Hegel, he turned to Fichte and Beneke (q.v.),
with whose insistence on psychology as the basis of all philosophy he
fully agreed. The fundamental idea of his psychology is impulse, which
combines representation (which presupposes consciousness) and feeling
(i.e. pleasure). Reason is the highest thing in nature, i.e. is divine
in its nature, God is the absolute Ego and the empirical egos are his
instruments.

  Fortlage's chief works are: _Genetische Geschichte d. Philos. seit
  Kant_ (Leipzig, 1852); _System d. Psych, als empirische Wissenschaft_
  (2 vols., Leipzig, 1855); _Darstellung und Kritik der Beweise für das
  Dasein Gottes_ (Heidelberg, 1840); _Beiträge zur Psych. als
  Wissenschaft_ (Leipzig, 1875).



FORT LEE, a borough of Bergen county, New Jersey, U.S.A., in the N.E.
part of the state, on the W. bank of the Hudson river, opposite the
northern part of New York City. Pop. (1905) 3433; (1910) 4472. It is
connected with the neighbouring towns and cities by electric railways,
and by ferry with New York City, of which it is a residential suburb.
The main part of the borough lies along the summit of the Palisades;
north of Fort Lee is an Interstate Palisades Park. Early in the War of
Independence the Americans erected here a fortification, first called
Fort Constitution but later renamed Fort Lee, in honour of General
Charles Lee. The name of the fort was subsequently applied to the
village that grew up in its vicinity. From the 15th of September until
the 20th of November 1776 Fort Lee was held by Gen. Nathanael Greene
with a garrison of 3500 men, but the capture by the British of Fort
Washington on the opposite bank of the river and the crossing of the
Hudson by Lord Cornwallis with 5000 men made it necessary for Greene to
abandon this post and join Washington in the famous "retreat across the
Jerseys." An attempt to recapture Fort Lee was made by General Anthony
Wayne in 1780, but was unsuccessful. On the site of the fort a monument,
designed by Carl E. Tefft and consisting of heroic figures of a
Continental trooper and drummer boy, was erected in 1908. The borough of
Fort Lee was incorporated in 1904.



FORT MADISON, a city and the county-seat of Lee county, Iowa, U.S.A., on
the Mississippi river, in the S.E. corner of the state, and about 20 m.
S.W. of Burlington. Pop. (1890) 7901; (1900) 9278, of whom 1025 were
foreign-born; (1905) 8767; (1910) 8900. Fort Madison is served by the
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé (which has repair shops here) and the
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railways. The city has various
manufactures, including canned goods, chairs, paper and farm implements;
the value of its factory product in 1905 was $2,378,892, an increase of
50.8% over that of 1900. Fort Madison is the seat of one of Iowa's
penitentiaries. A stockade fort was erected on the site of the city in
1808, but was burned in 1813. Permanently settled in 1833, Fort Madison
was laid out as a town in 1836, and was chartered as a city in 1839.



FORTROSE (Gaelic for _t'rois_, "the wood on the promontory"), a royal
and police burgh, and seaport of the county of Ross and Cromarty,
Scotland. Pop. (1901) 1179. It is situated on the south-eastern coast of
the peninsula of the Black Isle, 8 m. due N.N.E. of Inverness, 26¼ m. by
rail. It is the terminus of the Black Isle branch of the Highland
railway; there is communication by steamer with Inverness and also with
Fort George, 2½ m. distant, by ferry from Chanonry Ness. Fortrose
consists of the two towns of Rosemarkie and Chanonry, about 1 m. apart,
which were united into a free burgh by James II. in 1455 and created a
royal burgh in 1590. It is a place of considerable antiquity, a
monastery having been established in the 6th century by St Moluag, a
friend of Columba's, and St Peter's church built in the 8th century. In
1124 David I. instituted the bishopric of Ross, with its seat here, and
the town acquired some fame for its school of theology and law. The
cathedral is believed to have been founded in 1330 by the countess of
Ross (her canopied tomb, against the chancel wall, still exists) and
finished in 1485 by Abbot Fraser, whose previous residence at Melrose is
said to account for the Perpendicular features of his portion of the
work. It was Early Decorated in style, cruciform in plan, and built of
red sandstone, but all that is left are the south aisles of the nave and
the chancel, with the chapter-house, a two-storeyed structure, standing
apart near the north-eastern corner. The cathedral and bishop's palace
were destroyed by order of Cromwell, who used the stones for his great
fort at Inverness. Another relic of the past survives in the bell of
1460. These ruins form the chief object of interest in the town, but
other buildings include the academy and the Black Isle combination
poorhouse. The town is an agricultural centre of some consequence, and
the harbour is kept in repair. Rosemarkie, in the churchyard of which is
an ancient Celtic cross, is much resorted to for sea-bathing, and there
is a golf course in Chanonry Ness. The burgh belongs to the Inverness
district group of parliamentary burghs.



FORT SCOTT, a city and the county-seat of Bourbon county, Kansas,
U.S.A., on the Marmaton river, about 100 m. S. of Kansas City, Missouri.
Pop. (1880) 5372; (1890) 11,946; (1900) 10,322, of whom 1205 were
negroes; (1910 census) 10,463. It is the point of intersection of the
Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis (St Louis & San Francisco system), the
Missouri, Kansas & Texas, and the Missouri Pacific railways, and has in
consequence a large traffic. The city is built on a rolling plain. Among
its institutions are an Epworth house (1899), Mercy hospital (1889), the
Goodlander home, and a Carnegie library. Near the city there is a
national cemetery. Fort Scott is in the midst of the Kansas mineral
fields, and its trade in bituminous coal is especially important.
Building stones, cement rock, clays, oil and gas, lead and zinc are also
found in the neighbourhood. An excellent white sulphur water is procured
from artesian wells about 800 ft. deep, and there is a mineral-water
bath house. The city is also a trading centre for a rich farming region,
and is a horse and mule market of considerable importance. Among its
manufactures are mattresses, syrup, bricks, pottery, cement and foundry
products. In 1905 the total value of the city's factory product was
$1,349,026, being an increase of 89% since 1900. The city owns and
operates its waterworks. The fort after which the city is named was
established by the Federal government in 1842, at a time when the whole
of eastern Kansas was still parcelled out among Indian tribes; it was
abandoned in 1855. The town was platted in 1857, and Fort Scott was
chartered as a city in 1860.



FORT SMITH, a city and the county-seat of Sebastian county, on the
extreme W. border of Arkansas, U.S.A., lying about 440 ft. above
sea-level, on the S. bank of the Arkansas river, at its junction with
the Poteau, and at the point where the Arkansas breaks through the
Boston mountains. Pop. (1890) 11,311; (1900) 11,587, of whom 2407 were
of negro descent and 684 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 23,975.
Transportation is afforded by the river and by six railways, the St
Louis & San Francisco, the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, the
Arkansas Central, the Fort Smith & Western, the Midland Valley and the
Kansas City Southern. A belt line round the business centre of the city
facilitates freight transfers. Some of the business streets are
unusually broad, and the streets in the residential district are well
shaded. Fort Smith is the business centre of a fine agricultural country
and of the Arkansas coal and natural gas region. It has extensive
wholesale jobbing interests and a large miscellaneous trade, partly in
its own manufactures, among which are cotton and timber products,
chairs, mattresses and other furniture, wagons, brooms and bricks. In
1905 the total value of the factory product was $2,329,454, an increase
of 66.2% since 1900. The public schools have a rich endowment: the
proceeds of lands (about 200 acres) once belonging to the local
military reservation, which--except the part occupied by a national
cemetery--was given by Congress to the city in 1884. Near the centre of
the city are a Catholic academy, convent and infirmary; and there is a
Carnegie library. A United States army post was established here in
1817; the town was laid out in 1821; and the county was created in 1851.
Fort Smith was incorporated as a town in 1842, and was chartered as a
city in 1845. All transportation was by river and wagon until 1876, when
the railway was completed from Little Rock. The military post, in
earlier years the chief depôt for the western forts, was abandoned in
1871. During the Civil War Fort Smith was strongly in sympathy with the
Confederacy. The fort was seized by state troops in April 1861, and was
reoccupied by the Union forces in September 1863. There was considerable
unrest due to border "bushwhacking" throughout the war, and several
skirmishes took place here in 1864. The area of the city was more than
doubled in 1905.



FORTUNA (FORTUNE), an Italian goddess of great antiquity, but apparently
not native at Rome, where, according to universal Roman tradition, she
was introduced by the king Servius Tullius as Fors Fortuna, and
established in a temple on the Etruscan side of the Tiber outside the
city, and also under other titles in other shrines. In Latium she had
two famous places of worship, one at Praeneste, where there was an
oracle of _Fortuna primigenia_ (the first-born), frequented especially
by women who, as we may suppose, desired to know the fortunes of their
children or their own fortune in child-birth; the other at Antium, well
known from Horace's ode (i. 35). It is highly probable that Fortuna was
never a deity of the abstract idea of chance, but represented the hopes
and fears of men and especially of women at different stages of their
life and experience; thus we find her worshipped as time went on under
numerous cult-titles, such as _muliebris_, _virilis_, _hujusce diei_,
_equestris_, _redux_, &c., which connected her supposed powers with
individuals, groups of individuals, or particular occasions. Gradually
she became more or less closely identified with the Gr. [Greek: Tychê],
and was represented on coins, &c., with a cornucopia as the giver of
prosperity, a rudder as the controller of destinies, and with a wheel,
or standing on a ball, to indicate the uncertainty of fortune. In this
semi-Greek form she came to be worshipped over the whole empire, and
Pliny (_N.H._ ii. 22) declares that in his day she was invoked in all
places and every hour. She even became identified with Isis, and as
_Panthea_ was supposed to combine the attributes of all other deities.

  The best account of this difficult subject is to be found in Roscher's
  _Mythological Lexicon_ (s.v.); see also Wissowa, _Religion und Kultus
  der Römer_, p. 206 foll.     (W. W. F.*)



FORTUNATIANUS, ATILIUS, Latin grammarian, flourished in the 4th century
A.D. He was the author of a treatise on metres, dedicated to one of his
pupils, a youth of senatorial rank, who desired to be instructed in the
Horatian metres. The manual opens with a discussion of the fundamental
ideas of metre and the chief rules of prosody, and ends with a detailed
analysis of the metres of Horace. The chief authorities used are Caesius
Bassus and the Latin adaptation by Juba the grammarian of the [Greek:
Technê] of Heliodorus. Fortunatianus being a common name in the African
provinces, it is probable that the author was a countryman of Juba,
Terentianus Maurus and Victorinus.

  Editions of the _Ars_ in H. Keil, _Grammatici Latini_, vi., and
  separately by him (1885).



FORTUNATUS, the legendary hero of a popular European chap-book. He was a
native, says the story, of Famagusta in Cyprus, and meeting the goddess
of Fortune in a forest received from her a purse which was continually
replenished as often as he drew from it. With this he wandered through
many lands, and at Cairo was the guest of the sultan. Among the
treasures which the sultan showed him was an old napless hat which had
the power of transporting its wearer to any place he desired. Of this
hat he feloniously possessed himself, and returned to Cyprus, where he
led a luxurious life. On his death he left the purse and the hat to his
sons Ampedo and Andelosia; but they were jealous of each other, and by
their recklessness and folly soon fell on evil days. The moral of the
story is obvious: men should desire reason and wisdom before all the
treasures of the world. In its full form the history of Fortunatus
occupies in Karl Simrock's _Die deutschen Volksbücher_, vol. iii.,
upwards of 158 pages. The scene is continually shifted--from Cyprus to
Flanders, from Flanders to London, from London to France; and a large
number of secondary characters appear. The style and allusions indicate
a comparatively modern date for the authorship; but the nucleus of the
legend can be traced back to a much earlier period. The stories of
Jonathas and the three jewels in the _Gesta Romanorum_, of the emperor
Frederick and the three precious stones in the _Cento Novelle antiche_,
of the Mazin of Khorassan in the _Thousand and one Nights_, and the
flying scaffold in the _Bahar Danush_, have all a certain similarity.
The earliest known edition of the German text of Fortunatus appeared at
Augsburg in 1509, and the modern German investigators are disposed to
regard this as the original form. Innumerable versions occur in French,
Italian, Dutch and English. The story was dramatized by Hans Sachs in
1553, and by Thomas Dekker in 1600; and the latter's comedy appeared in
a German translation in _Englische Komödien und Tragödien_, 1620. Ludwig
Tieck has utilized the legend in his _Phantasus_, and Adelbert von
Chamisso in his _Peter Schlemihl_; and Ludwig Uhland left an unfinished
narrative poem entitled "Fortunatus and his Sons."

  See Dr Fr. W.V. Schmidt's _Fortunatus und seine Söhne, eine
  Zauber-Tragödie, von Thomas Decker, mit einem Anhang_, &c. (Berlin,
  1819); Joseph Johann Görres, _Die deutschen Volksbücher_ (1807).



FORTUNATUS, VENANTIUS HONORIUS CLEMENTIANUS (530-609), bishop of
Poitiers, and the chief Latin poet of his time, was born near Ceneda in
Treviso in 530. He studied at Milan and Ravenna, with the special object
of excelling as a rhetorician and poet, and in 565 he journeyed to
France, where he was received with much favour at the court of Sigbert,
king of Austrasia, whose marriage with Brunhild he celebrated in an
_epithalamium_. After remaining a year or two at the court of Sigbert he
travelled in various parts of France, visiting persons of distinction,
and composing short pieces of poetry on any subject that occurred to
him. At Poitiers he visited Queen Radegunda, who lived there in
retirement, and she induced him to prolong his stay in the city
indefinitely. Here he also enjoyed the friendship of the famous Gregory
of Tours and other eminent ecclesiastics. He was elected bishop of
Poitiers in 599, and died about 609. The later poems of Fortunatus were
collected in 11 books, and consist of hymns (including the _Vexilla
regis prodeunt_, Englished by J.M. Neale as "The royal banners forward
go"), epitaphs, poetical epistles, and verses in honour of his patroness
Radegunda and her sister Agnes, the abbess of a nunnery at Poitiers. He
also wrote a large poem in 4 books in honour of St Martin, and several
lives of the saints in prose. His prose is stiff and mechanical, but
most of his poetry has an easy rhythmical flow.

  An edition of the works of Fortunatus was published by C. Brower at
  Fulda in 1603 (2nd ed., Mainz, 1617). The edition of M.A. Luschi
  (Rome, 1785) was afterwards reprinted in Migne's _Patrologiae cursus
  completus_, vol. lxxxviii. See the edition by Leo and Krusch (Berlin,
  1881-1885). There are French lives by Nisard (1880) and Leroux (1885).



FORTUNE, ROBERT (1813-1880), Scottish botanist and traveller, was born
at Kelloe in Berwickshire on the 16th of September 1813. He was employed
in the botanical garden at Edinburgh, and afterwards in the Royal
Horticultural Society's garden at Chiswick, and upon the termination of
the Chinese War in 1842 was sent out by the Society to collect plants in
China. His travels resulted in the introduction to Europe of many
beautiful flowers; but another journey, undertaken in 1848 on behalf of
the East India Company, had much more important consequences,
occasioning the successful introduction into India of the tea-plant. In
subsequent journeys he visited Formosa and Japan, described the culture
of the silkworm and the manufacture of rice paper, and introduced many
trees, shrubs and flowers now generally cultivated in Europe. The
incidents of his travels were related in a succession of interesting
books. He died in London on the 13th of April 1880.



FORTUNY, MARIANO JOSE MARIA BERNARDO (1838-1874), Spanish painter, was
born at Reus on the 11th of June 1838. His parents, who were in poor
circumstances, sent him for education to the primary school of his
native town, where he received some instruction in the rudiments of art.
When he was twelve years old his parents died and he came under the care
of his grandfather, who, though a joiner by trade, had made a collection
of wax figures, with which he was travelling from town to town. In the
working of this show the boy took an active part, modelling and painting
many of the figures; and two years later, when he reached Barcelona, the
cleverness of his handiwork made so much impression on some people in
authority there that they induced the municipality to make him an
allowance of forty-two francs monthly, so that he might be enabled to go
through a systematic course of study. He entered the Academy of
Barcelona and worked there for four years under Claudio Lorenzale, and
in March 1857 he gained a scholarship that entitled him to complete his
studies in Rome. Then followed a period of more than two years, during
which he laboured steadily at copies of the old pictures to which he had
access at Rome. To this period an end was put by the outbreak of the war
between Spain and the emperor of Morocco, as Fortuny was sent by the
authorities of Barcelona to paint the most striking incidents of the
campaign. The expedition lasted for about six months only, but it made
upon him an impression that was powerful enough to affect the whole
course of his subsequent development, and to implant permanently in his
mind a preference for the glitter and brilliancy of African colour. He
returned to Spain in the summer of 1860, and was commissioned by the
city of Barcelona to paint a large picture of the capture of the camps
of Muley-el-Abbas and Muley-el-Hamed by the Spanish army. After making a
large number of studies he went back to Rome, and began the composition
on a canvas fifteen metres long; but though it occupied much of his time
during the next few years, he never finished it. He busied himself
instead with a wonderful series of pictures, mostly of no great size, in
which he showed an astonishing command over vivacities of technique and
modulations of colour. He visited Paris in 1868 and shortly afterwards
married the daughter of Federico Madrazo, the director of the royal
museum at Madrid. Another visit to Paris in 1870 was followed by a two
years' stay at Granada, but then he returned to Rome, where he died
somewhat suddenly on the 21st of November 1874 from an attack of
malarial fever, contracted while painting in the open air at Naples and
Portici in the summer of 1874.

The work which Fortuny accomplished during his short life is
distinguished by a superlative facility of execution and a marvellous
cleverness in the arrangement of brilliant hues, but the qualities of
his art are those that are attainable by a master of technical resource
rather than by a deep thinker. His insight into subtleties of
illumination was extraordinary, his dexterity was remarkable in the
extreme, and as a colourist he was vivacious to the point of
extravagance. At the same time in such pictures as "La Vicaria" and
"Choosing a Model," and in some of his Moorish subjects, like "The Snake
Charmers" and "Moors playing with a Vulture," he showed himself to be
endowed with a sensitive appreciation of shades of character and a
thorough understanding of the peculiarities of a national type. His love
of detail was instinctive, and he chose motives that gave him the
fullest opportunity of displaying his readiness as a craftsman.

  See Davillier, _Fortuny, sa vie, son oeuvre, sa correspondance, &c._
  (Paris, 1876); C. Yriarte, _Fortuny_ (_Artistes célèbres_ series)
  (Paris, 1889).     (A. L. B.)



FORT WAYNE, a city and the county-seat of Allen county, Indiana, U.S.A.,
102 m. N.E. of Indianapolis, at the point where the St Joseph and St
Mary's rivers join to form the Maumee river. Pop. (1880) 26,880; (1890)
35,393; (1900) 45,115, of whom 6791 were foreign-born; (1910, census)
63,933. It is served by the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, the Fort
Wayne, Cincinnati & Louisville, the Grand Rapids & Indiana, the Lake
Shore & Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago & St Louis, the
Pennsylvania and the Wabash railways, and also by interurban electric
lines. The site of the city is high (about 770 ft. above sea-level) and
level, and its land area was in 1906 a little more than 6 sq. m. The
streets are laid out on a rectangular plan and bordered by a profusion
of shade trees. The city has several parks, including Lawton Park (31
acres), in which there is a monument in honour of Major-General Henry
Ware Lawton (1843-1899), who lived in Fort Wayne for a time, Lake Side
Park (22 acres), Reservoir Park (13 acres), Piqua Park (1 acre), and Old
Fort Park (¼ acre), which is on the site of Old Fort Wayne. The
educational institutions include the German Concordia Collegium
(Lutheran), founded in 1839, and having 220 students in 1908, and the
state school for feeble-minded youth (1879). The city has a Carnegie
library. Fort Wayne is one of the most important railway centres in the
Middle West, and several railways maintain here their principal car and
repair shops, which add greatly to the value of its manufacturing
industries; in 1905 it ranked first among the cities of the state in the
value of cars constructed and repaired by steam-railway companies. The
other manufactories include foundries and machine shops, iron and steel
mills, knitting mills, planing mills, sash and door, car-wheel,
electrical machinery, and woodenware factories and flour mills. In 1905
the total value of the factory product of the city was $15,129,562,
showing an increase of 34.3% since 1900.

The Miami Indians had several villages in the immediate neighbourhood,
and the principal one, Kekionaga (Miami Town or Great Miami Village),
was situated on the E. bank of the St Joseph river, within the limits of
the present city. On the E. bank of the St Mary's a French trading post
was built about 1680. In 1749-1750 the French fort (Fort Miami) was
moved to the E. bank of the St Joseph. The English occupied the fort in
1760 and Pontiac captured it in May 1763, after a siege of more than
three months. In 1790 the Miami villages were destroyed. In September
1794 General Anthony Wayne built on the S. bank of the Maumee river the
stockade fort which was named in his honour, the site of which forms the
present Old Fort Park. By the treaty of Greenville, concluded by General
Wayne on the 3rd of August 1795, a piece of land 6 sq. m. in area,
including the tract of the Miami towns, was ceded to the United States,
and free passage to Fort Wayne and down the Maumee to Lake Erie was
guaranteed to the people of the United States by the Indians. By the
treaty of Fort Wayne, concluded by General W.H. Harrison on the 7th of
June 1803, the tract about Vincennes reserved to the United States by
the treaty of Greenville was described and defined; by the second treaty
of Fort Wayne, concluded by Harrison on the 30th of September 1809, the
Indians sold to the United States about 2,900,000 acres of land, mostly
S.E. of the Wabash river. In September 1813 Fort Wayne was besieged by
Indians, who withdrew on the arrival, on the 12th of September, of
General Harrison with about 2700 men from Kentucky and Ohio. The fort
was abandoned on the 19th of April 1819 and no trace of it remains. The
first permanent settlement here was made in 1815, and the village was an
important fur-trading depôt until 1830. The opening of the Wabash & Erie
canal in 1843 stimulated its growth. A town was platted and was made the
county-seat in 1824; and in 1840 Fort Wayne was chartered as a city.

  See W.A. Brice, _History of Fort Wayne_ (Ft. Wayne, 1868); John B.
  Dillon, _History of Indiana, from its Earliest Exploration by
  Europeans to the Close of the Territorial Government in 1816_
  (Indianapolis, Ind., 1859); and Charles E. Slocum, _History of the
  Maumee River Basin, from the Earliest Accounts to its Organization
  into Counties_ (Defiance, Ohio, 1905).



FORT WILLIAM, the principal town of Thunder Bay district, Ontario,
Canada, 426 m. (by rail) E.S.E. of Winnipeg, on the Kaministiquia river,
about a mile from Lake Superior. It is the lake terminus of the Canadian
Pacific railway, of the new Grand Trunk Pacific railway, and of several
steamship lines. Port Arthur, the terminus of the Canadian Northern
railway, lies 4 m. to the N.E. Fort William contains numerous grain
elevators, railway repair shops and docks, and has a large export trade
in grain and other farm produce. Minerals are also exported from the
mining district, of which it is the centre. Industries, such as saw,
planing and flour mills, have also sprung up. The population was 4800 in
1901, but has since increased with great rapidity.



FORT WILLIAM, a police burgh of Inverness-shire, Scotland. Pop. (1901)
2087. It lies at the north-eastern end of Loch Linnhe, an arm of the
sea, about 62 m. S.S.W. of Inverness by road or canal, and was, in
bygone days, one of the keys of the Highlands. It is 122½ m. N.E. of
Glasgow by the West Highland railway. The fort, at first called
Kilmallie, was built by General Monk in 1655 to hold the Cameron men in
subjection, and was enlarged in 1690 by General Hugh Mackay, who renamed
it after William III., the burgh then being known as Maryburgh in honour
of his queen. Here the perpetrators of the massacre of Glencoe met to
share their plunder. The Jacobites unsuccessfully besieged it in 1715
and 1746. The fort was dismantled in 1860, and demolished in 1890 to
provide room for the railway and the station. Amongst the public
buildings are the Belford hospital, public hall, court house and the
low-level meteorological observatory, constructed in 1891, which was in
connexion with the observatory on the top of Ben Nevis, until the latter
was closed in 1904. Its great industry is distilling, and the
distilleries, about 2 m. N.E., are a familiar feature in the landscape.
Beyond the railway station stands the obelisk to the memory of Ewen
Maclachlan (1775-1822), the Gaelic poet, who was born in the parish.
Fort William is a popular tourist resort and place of call for the
steamers passing through the Caledonian canal. The town is the point
from which the ascent of Ben Nevis--4½ m. E.S.E. as the crow flies--is
commonly made. At Corpach, about 2 m. N., the Caledonian canal begins,
the series of locks between here and Banavie--within little more than a
mile--being known as "Neptune's Staircase." Both the Lochy and the Nevis
enter Loch Linnhe immediately to the north of Fort William. A mile and a
half from the town, on the Lochy, stands the grand old ruin of
Inverlochy Castle, a massive quadrangular pile with a round tower at
each corner, a favourite subject with landscape painters. Close by is
the scene of the battle of the 2nd of February 1645, in which Montrose
completely defeated the earl of Argyll. The modern castle, in the
Scottish Baronial style, 1½ m. to the N.E. of this stronghold and
farther from the river, is the seat of Lord Abinger.



FORT WORTH, a city and the county-seat of Tarrant county, Texas, U.S.A.,
about 30 m. W. of Dallas, on the S. bank of the West Fork of the Trinity
river. Pop. (1880) 6663; (1890) 23,076; (1900) 26,688, of whom 1793 were
foreign-born and 4249 were negroes; (1910, census) 73,312. It is served
by the Chicago, Rock Island & Gulf, the Fort Worth & Denver City, the
Fort Worth & Rio Grande, and the St Louis, San Francisco & Texas of the
"Frisco" system, the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fé, the Houston & Texas
Central, the International & Great Northern, the Missouri, Kansas &
Texas, the St Louis South-Western, the Texas & Pacific, and the Trinity
& Brazos Valley (Colorado & Southern) railways. Fort Worth is
beautifully situated on a level space above the river. It is the seat of
Fort Worth University (coeducational), a Methodist Episcopal
institution, which was established as the Texas Wesleyan College in
1881, received its present name in 1889, comprises an academy, a college
of liberal arts and sciences, a conservatory of music, a law school, a
medical school, a school of commerce, and a department of oratory and
elocution, and in 1907 had 802 students; the Polytechnic College
(coeducational; Methodist Episcopal, South), which was established in
1890, has preparatory, collegiate, normal, commercial, and fine arts
departments and a summer school, and in 1906 had 12 instructors and
(altogether) 696 students; the Texas masonic manual training school; a
kindergarten training school; St Andrews school (Protestant Episcopal),
and St Ignatius Academy (Roman Catholic). There are several good
business, municipal and county buildings, and a Carnegie library. On the
3rd of April 1909 a fire destroyed ten blocks in the centre of the city.
Fort Worth lies in the midst of a stock-raising and fertile
agricultural region; there is an important stockyard and packing
establishment just outside the city; and considerable quantities of
cotton are raised in the vicinity. Among the products are packed meats,
flour, beer, trunks, crackers, candy, paint, ice, paste, cigars,
clothing, shoes, mattresses, woven wire beds, furniture and overalls;
and there are foundries, iron rolling mills and tanneries. In 1905 the
total value of the city's factory product was $5,668,391, an increase of
62.5% since 1900; Fort Worth in 1900 ranked fifth among the cities of
the state in the value of its factory product; in 1905 it ranked fourth.
Fort Worth's numerous railways have given it great importance as a
commercial centre. The municipality owns and operates the waterworks and
the electric-lighting plant.

A military post was established here in 1849, being called first Camp
Worth and then Fort Worth. It was abandoned in 1853. A settlement grew
up about the fort, and the city was incorporated in 1873. The fort and
the settlement were named in honour of General William Jenkins Worth
(1794-1849), a native of Hudson, New York, who served in the War of
1812, commanded the United States forces against the Seminole Indians in
1841-1842, served under both General Taylor and General Scott in the
Mexican War, distinguishing himself at Monterey (where he earned the
brevet of major-general) and in other engagements, and later commanded
the department of Texas. In 1907 Fort Worth adopted a commission form of
government.



FORTY, the cardinal number equal to four tens. The word is derived from
the O. Eng. _feówertig_, a combination of _feówer_, four, and _tig_, an
old form of "ten," used as a suffix, cf. Icel. _tiu_, Dan. _ti_, ten,
and Ger. _vierzig_, forty. The name "The Forty" has been given to
various bodies composed of that number of members, particularly to a
judicial body in ancient Athens, who tried small cases in the rural
districts, and to a court of criminal jurisdiction and two civil appeal
courts in the Venetian republic. The French Academy (see ACADEMIES) has
also been known as "The Forty" or "The Forty Immortals." The period just
before the repeal of the corn laws in the United Kingdom is frequently
alluded to, particularly by the free trade school, as the "hungry
forties"; and the "roaring forties" is a sailor's name for the stormy
region between the 40th and 50th latitudes N. and S., but more
particularly applied to the portion of the north Atlantic lying between
those latitudes.



FORUM (Lat. from _foris_, "out of doors"), in Roman antiquity, any open
place used, like the Greek [Greek: agora], for the transaction of
mercantile, judicial or political business, sometimes merely as a
promenade. It was level, rectangular in form, surrounded by porticoes,
basilicas, courts of law and other public buildings. In the laws of the
Twelve Tables the word is used of the vestibule of a tomb (Cicero, _De
legibus_, ii. 24); in a Roman camp the forum was an open place
immediately beside the praetorium; and the term was no doubt originally
applied generally to the space in front of any public building or
gateway. In Rome (q.v.) itself, however, during the period of the early
history, forum was almost a proper name, denoting the flat and formerly
marshy space between the Palatine and Capitoline hills (also called
Forum Romanum), which probably even during the regal period afforded the
accommodation necessary for such public meetings as could not be held
within the area Capitolina. In early times the Forum Romanum was used
for athletic games, and over the porticoes were galleries for
spectators; there were also shops of various kinds. But with the growth
of the city and the increase of provincial business, more than one forum
became necessary, and under the empire a considerable number of
_civilia_ (judicial) and _venalia_ (mercantile) fora came into
existence. In addition to the Forum Romanum, the Fora of Caesar and
Augustus belonged to the former class; the Forum _boarium_ (cattle),
_holitorium_ (vegetable), _piscarium_ (fish), _pistorium_ (bread),
_vinarium_ (wine), to the latter. The Fora of Nerva (also called
_transitorium_ or _pervium_, because a main road led through it to the
Forum Romanum), Trajan, and Vespasian, although partly intended to
facilitate the course of public business, were chiefly erected to
embellish the city. The construction of separate markets was not,
however, necessarily the rule in the provincial fora; thus, in Pompeii,
at the north-east end of the forum, there was a _macellum_ (market), and
shops for provisions and possibly money changers, and on the east side a
building supposed to have been the clothworkers' exchange, and at Timgad
in North Africa (a military colony founded under Trajan) the whole of
the south side of the forum was occupied by shops. The forum was usually
paved, and although on festal occasions chariots were probably driven
through, it was not a thoroughfare and was enclosed by gates at the
entrances, of which traces have been found at Pompeii. When the sites
for new towns were being selected, that for the forum was in the centre,
and the two main streets crossed one another close to but not through
it. At Timgad the main streets are some 5 or 6 ft. lower than the forum.
The word _forum_ frequently appears in the names of Roman market towns;
as, for example, in Forum Appii, Forum Julii (_Fréjus_), Forum Livii
(_Forli_), Forum Sempronii (_Fossombrone_). These _fora_ were
distinguished from mere _vici_ by the possession of a municipal
organization, which, however, was less complete than that of a
prefecture. In legal phraseology, which distinguishes the _forum
commune_ from the _forum privilegiatum_, and the _forum generale_ from
the _forum speciale_, the word is practically equivalent to "court" or
"jurisdiction."

  For the fora at Rome, see ROME: _Archaeology_, and works quoted.



FORUM APPII, an ancient post station on the Via Appia, 43 m. S.E. of
Rome, founded, no doubt, by the original constructor of the road. Horace
mentions it as the usual halt at the end of the first day's journey from
Rome, and describes it as full of boatmen and cheating innkeepers. The
presence of the former was due to the fact that it was the
starting-point of a canal which ran parallel to the road through the
Pomptine Marshes, and was used instead of it at the time of Strabo and
Horace (see APPIA, VIA). It is mentioned also as a halting place in the
account of Paul's journey to Rome (Acts xxviii. 15). Under Nerva and
Trajan the road was repaired; one inscription records expressly the
paving with silex (replacing the former gravelling) of the section from
Tripontium, 4 m. N.W., to Forum Appii; the bridge near Tripontium was
similarly repaired, and that at Forum Appii, though it bears no
inscription, is of the same style. Only scanty relics of antiquity have
been found here; a post station was placed here by Pius VI. when the Via
Appia was reconstructed.     (T. As.)



FORUM CLODII, a post station on the Via Clodia, about 23 m. N.W. of Rome
(not 32 m. as in the _Antonine Itinerary_), situated above the western
bank of the Lacus Sabatinus (mod. Lake of Bracciano), and connected with
the Via Cassia at Vacanae by a branch road which ran round the N. side
of the lake (_Ann. Inst._, 1859, 43). The site is marked by the church
of SS. Marcus, Marcianus and Liberatus, which was founded in the 8th or
9th century A.D. Inscriptions mentioning the Foro-Clodienses have come
to light on the spot; and an inscription of the Augustan period, which
probably stood over the door of a villa, calls the place Pausilypon--a
name justified by the beauty of the site.

  See _Notizie degli scavi_ (1889), 5; D. Vaglieri, ibid. (1895), 342.



FORUM TRAIANI (mod. _Fordongianus_), an ancient town of Sardinia, on the
river Thyrsus (Tirso), and a station on the Roman road through the
centre of the island from Carales to Olbia and Turris Libisonis. Many of
its ruins have been destroyed since 1860. The best preserved are the
baths, erected over hot mineral springs. The tanks for collecting the
water and the large central _piscina_ are noteworthy. The bridge over
the Tirso has been to some extent modernized. On the opposite bank are
the scanty remains of an amphitheatre. Not far off is a group of
_nuraghi_, of which that of St Barbara in the commune of Villanova
Truschedda is one of the finest.

  See Taramelli in _Notizie degli scavi_ (1903), 469.



FOSBROKE, THOMAS DUDLEY (1770-1842), English antiquary, was born in
London on the 27th of May 1770. He was educated at St Paul's school and
Pembroke College, Oxford, graduating M.A. in 1792. In that year he was
ordained and became curate of Horsley, Gloucestershire, where he
remained till 1810. He then removed to Walford in Herefordshire, and
remained there the rest of his life, as curate till 1830, and afterwards
as vicar. His first important work, _British Monachism_ (2 vols., 1802),
was a compilation, from manuscripts in the British Museum and Bodleian
libraries, of facts relating to English monastic life. In 1799 Fosbroke
had been elected fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. The work for
which he is best remembered, the _Encyclopaedia of Antiquities_,
appeared in 1824. A sequel to this, _Foreign Topography_, was published
in 1828. Fosbroke published many other volumes. He died at Walford on
the 1st of January 1842.



FOSCARI, FRANCESCO (1373-1457), doge of Venice, belonged to a noble
Venetian family, and held many of the highest offices of the
republic--ambassador, president of the Forty, member of the Council of
Ten, inquisitor, procurator of St Mark, _avvogadore di comun_, &c. His
first wife was Maria Priuli and his second Maria Nani; of his many
children all save one son (Jacopo) died young. But although a capable
administrator he was ambitious and adventurous, and the reigning doge
Tommaso Mocenigo, when speaking on his deathbed of the various
candidates for the succession, warned the council against electing
Foscari, who, he said, would perpetually plunge the republic into
disastrous and costly wars. Nevertheless Foscari was elected (1423) and
reigned for thirty-four years. In proclaiming the new doge the customary
formula which recognized the people's share in the appointment and asked
for their approval--the last vestige of popular government--was finally
dropped.

Foscari's reign bore out Mocenigo's warning and was full of wars on the
_terra ferma_, and through the doge's influence Venice joined the
Florentines in their campaign against Milan, which was carried on with
varying success for eight years. In 1430 an attempt was made on
Foscari's life by a noble to whom he had refused an appointment; and
three years later a conspiracy of young bloods to secure the various
offices for themselves by illicit intrigues was discovered. These
events, as well as the long and expensive wars and the unsatisfactory
state of Venetian finances, induced Foscari to ask permission to
abdicate, which was, however, refused. In 1444 began that long domestic
tragedy by which the name of Foscari has become famous. The doge's son
Jacopo, a cultivated and intelligent but frivolous and irresponsible
youth, was in that year accused of the serious crime of having accepted
presents from various citizens and foreign princes who either desired
government appointments or wished to influence the policy of the
republic. Jacopo escaped, but was tried in contumacy before the Council
of Ten and condemned to be exiled to Napoli di Romania (Nauplia) and to
have his property confiscated. But the execution of the sentence was
delayed, as he was lying ill at Trieste, and eventually the penalty was
commuted to banishment at Treviso (1446). Four years later Ermolao
Donato, a distinguished official who had been a member of the Ten at the
time of the trial, was assassinated and Jacopo Foscari was suspected of
complicity in the deed. After a long inquiry he was brought to trial for
the second time, and although all the evidence clearly pointed to his
guilt the judges could not obtain a confession from the accused, and so
merely banished him to Candia for the rest of his life, with a pension
of two hundred ducats a year. In 1456 the council received information
from the rector (governor) of Candia to the effect that Jacopo Foscari
had been in treasonable correspondence with the duke of Milan and the
sultan of Turkey. He was summoned to Venice, tried and condemned to a
year's imprisonment, to be followed by a return to his place of exile.
His aged father was allowed to see him while in prison, and to Jacopo's
entreaties that he should obtain a full pardon for him, he replied
advising him to bear his punishment without protest. When the year was
up Jacopo returned to Candia, where he died in January 1457. The doge
was overwhelmed with grief at this bereavement and became quite
incapable of attending to business. Consequently the council decided to
ask him to abdicate; at first he refused, but was finally obliged to
conform to their wishes and retired on a yearly pension of 1500 ducats.
Within a week Pasquale Malipiero was elected in his place and two days
later (1st of November 1457) Francesco Foscari was dead.

  The story is a very sad and pathetic one, but legend has added many
  picturesque though quite apocryphal details, most of them tending to
  show the iniquity and harshness of Jacopo's judges and accusers,
  whereas, as we have shown, he was treated with exceptional leniency.
  The most accurate account is contained in S. Romanin's _Storia
  documentata di Venezia_, lib. x. cap. iv. vii. and x. (Venice, 1855);
  where the original authorities are quoted; see also Berlan, _I due
  Foscari_ (Turin, 1852). Among the poetical works on the subject
  Byron's tragedy is the most famous (1821), and Roger's poem _Italy_
  (1821); Giuseppe Verdi composed an opera on the subject entitled _I
  due Foscari_.     (L. V.*)



FOSCOLO, UGO (1778-1827), Italian writer, was born at Zante in the
Ionian Isles on the 26th of January 1778. On the death of his father, a
physician at Spalatro, in Dalmatia, the family removed to Venice, and in
the University of Padua Foscolo prosecuted the studies begun in the
Dalmatian grammar school. The fact that amongst his Paduan masters was
the abbé Cesarotti, whose version of Ossian had made that work highly
popular in Italy, was not without influence on Foscolo's literary
tastes, and his early knowledge of modern facilitated his studies in
ancient Greek. His literary ambition revealed itself by the appearance
in 1797 of his tragedy _Tieste_--a production which obtained a certain
degree of success. Foscolo, who, from causes not clearly explained, had
changed his Christian name Niccolo to that of Ugo, now began to take an
active part in the stormy political discussions which the fall of the
republic of Venice had provoked. He was a prominent member of the
national committees, and addressed an ode to Napoleon the liberator,
expecting from the military successes of the French general, not merely
the overthrow of the effete Venetian oligarchy, but the establishment of
a free republican government.

The treaty of Campo Formio (17th Oct. 1797), by which Napoleon handed
Venice over to the Austrians, gave a rude shock to Foscolo, but did not
quite destroy his hopes. The state of mind produced by that shock is
reflected in the _Letters of Jacopo Ortis_ (1798), a species of
political _Werther_,--for the hero of Foscolo embodies the mental
sufferings and suicide of an undeceived Italian patriot just as the hero
of Goethe places before us the too delicate sensitiveness embittering
and at last cutting short the life of a private German scholar. The
story of Foscolo, like that of Goethe, had a groundwork of melancholy
fact. Jacopo Ortis had been a real personage; he was a young student of
Padua, and committed suicide there under circumstances akin to those
described by Foscolo. At this period Foscolo's mind appears to have been
only too familiar with the thought of suicide. Cato and the many
classical examples of self-destruction scattered through the pages of
Plutarch appealed to the imaginations of young Italian patriots as they
had done in France to those of the heroes and heroines of the Gironde.
In the case of Foscolo, as in that of Goethe, the effect produced on the
writer's mind by the composition of the work seems to have been
beneficial. He had seen the ideal of a great national future rudely
shattered; but he did not despair of his country, and sought relief in
now turning to gaze on the ideal of a great national poet. At Milan,
whither he repaired after the fall of Venice, he was engaged in other
literary pursuits besides the composition of _Ortis_. The friendship
formed there with the great poet Parini was ever afterwards remembered
with pride and gratitude. The friendship formed with another celebrated
Milanese poet soon gave place to a feeling of bitter enmity. Still
hoping that his country would be freed by Napoleon, he served as a
volunteer in the French army, took part in the battle of the Trebbia and
the siege of Genoa, was wounded and made prisoner. When released he
returned to Milan, and there gave the last touches to his _Ortis_,
published a translation of and commentary upon _Callimachus_, commenced
a version of the _Iliad_, and began his translation of Sterne's
_Sentimental Journey_. The result of a memorandum prepared for Lyons,
where, along with other Italian delegates, he was to have laid before
Napoleon the state of Italy, only proved that the views cherished by him
for his country were too bold to be even submitted to the dictator of
France. The year 1807 witnessed the appearance of his _Carme sui
sepolcri_, of which the entire spirit and language may be described as a
sublime effort to seek refuge in the past from the misery of the present
and the darkness of the future. The mighty dead are summoned from their
tombs, as ages before they had been in the masterpieces of Greek
oratory, to fight again the battles of their country. The inaugural
lecture on the origin and duty of literature, delivered by Foscolo in
January 1809 when appointed to the chair of Italian eloquence at Pavia,
was conceived in the same spirit. In this lecture Foscolo urged his
young countrymen to study letters, not in obedience to academic
traditions, but in their relation to individual and national life and
growth. The sensation produced by this lecture had no slight share in
provoking the decree of Napoleon by which the chair of national
eloquence was abolished in all the Italian universities. Soon afterwards
Foscolo's tragedy of _Ajax_ was represented but with little success at
Milan, and its supposed allusions to Napoleon rendering the author an
object of suspicion, he was forced to remove from Milan to Tuscany. The
chief fruits of his stay in Florence are the tragedy of _Ricciarda_, the
_Ode to the Graces_, left unfinished, and the completion of his version
of the _Sentimental Journey_ (1813). His version of Sterne is an
important feature in his personal history. When serving with the French
he had been at the Boulogne camp, and had traversed much of the ground
gone over by Yorick; and in his memoir of Didimo Cherico, to whom the
version is ascribed, he throws much curious light on his own character.
He returned to Milan in 1813, until the entry of the Austrians; thence
he passed into Switzerland, where he wrote a fierce satire in Latin on
his political and literary opponents; and finally he sought the shores
of England at the close of 1816.

During the eleven years passed by Foscolo in London, until his death
there, he enjoyed all the social distinction which the most brilliant
circles of the English capital confer on foreigners of political and
literary renown, and experienced all the misery which follows on a
disregard of the first conditions of domestic economy. His contributions
to the _Edinburgh_ and _Quarterly Reviews_, his dissertations in Italian
on the text of Dante and Boccaccio, and still more his English essays on
Petrarch, of which the value was enhanced by Lady Dacre's admirable
translations of some of Petrarch's finest sonnets, heightened his
previous fame as a man of letters. But his want of care and forethought
in pecuniary matters involved him in much embarrassment, and at last
consigned him to a prison; and when released he felt bitterly the change
in his social position, and the coldness now shown to him by many whom
he had been accustomed to regard as friends. His general bearing in
society--if we may accept on this point the testimony of so keen an
observer and so tolerant a man as Sir Walter Scott--had unhappily not
been such as to gain and retain lasting friendships. He died at Turnham
Green on the 10th of October 1827. Forty-four years after his death, in
1871, his remains were brought to Florence, and with all the pride, pomp
and circumstance of a great national mourning, found their final
resting-place beside the monuments of Machiavelli and Alfieri, of
Michelangelo and Galileo, in Italy's Westminster Abbey, the church of
Santa Croce. To that solemn national tribute Foscolo was fully entitled.
For the originality of his thoughts and the splendour of his diction his
country honours him as a great classic author. He had assigned to the
literature of his nation higher aims than any which it previously
recognized. With all his defects of character, and through all his
vicissitudes of fortune, he was always a sincere and courageous patriot.

  Ample materials for the study of Foscolo's character and career may be
  found in the complete series of his works published in Florence by Le
  Monnier. The series consists of _Prose letterarie_, (4 vols., 1850);
  _Epistolario_ (3 vols., 1854); _Prose politiche_ (1 vol., 1850);
  _Poesie_ (1 vol., 1856); _Lettere di Ortis_ (1 vol., 1858); _Saggi di
  critica storico-letteraria_ (1st vol., 1859; 2nd vol., 1862). To this
  series must be added the very interesting work published at Leghorn in
  1876, _Lettere inedite del Foscolo, del Giordani, e della Signora di
  Staël, a Vincenzo Monti_. The work published at Florence in the summer
  of 1878, _Vita di Ugo Foscolo, di Pellegrino Artusi_, throws much
  doubt on the genuineness of the text in Foscolo's writings as given in
  the complete Florence edition, whilst it furnishes some curious and
  original illustrations of Foscolo's familiarity with the English
  language.     (J. M. S.)



FOSS, EDWARD (1787-1870), English lawyer and biographer, was born in
London on the 16th of October 1787. He was a solicitor by profession,
and on his retirement from practice in 1840, he devoted himself to the
study of legal antiquities. His _Judges of England_ (9 vols., 1848-1864)
is a standard work, characterized by accuracy and extensive research.
_Biographia Juridica_, _a Biographical Dictionary of English Judges_,
appeared shortly after his death. He assisted in founding the
Incorporated Law Society, of which he was president in 1842 and 1843. He
died of apoplexy on the 27th of July 1870.



FOSSANO, a town and episcopal see of Piedmont, Italy, in the province of
Cuneo, 15 m. N.E. of it by rail, 1180 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901)
7696 (town), 18,175 (commune). It has an imposing castle with four
towers, begun by Filippo d'Acaia in 1314. The cathedral was
reconstructed at the end of the 18th century. The place began to acquire
some importance in the 13th century. It appears as a commune in 1237,
but in 1251 had to yield to Asti. It finally surrendered in 1314 to
Filippo d'Acaia, whose successor handed it over to the house of Savoy.
It lies on the main line from Turin to Cuneo, and has a branch line to
Mondovì.



FOSSANUOVA, an abbey of Italy, in the province of Rome, near the railway
station of Sonnino, 64 m. S.E. of Rome. It is the finest example of a
Cistercian abbey, and of the Burgundian Early Gothic style, in Italy,
and dates from the end of the 12th to the end of the 13th century. The
church (1187-1208) is closely similar to that of Casamari. The other
conventual buildings also are noteworthy. Thomas Aquinas died here in
1274.

  See C. Enlart, _Origines françaises de l'architecture gothique en
  Italie_ (Paris, 1894) (_Bibliothèque des écoles françaises d'Athènes
  et de Rome_, fasc. 66).



FOSSE (or FOSS) WAY, the Early English name of a Roman road or series of
roads in Britain, used later by the English, running from Lincoln by
Leicester and Bath to Exeter. Almost all the Roman line is still in use
as modern road or lane. It passes from Lincoln through Newark and
Leicester (the Roman _Ratae_) to High Cross (_Venonae_), where it
intersects Watling Street at a point often called "the centre of
England." Hence it runs to Moreton-in-the-Marsh, Cirencester, Bath and
Ilchester, crosses the hills near Chard, Axminster and Honiton, and
enters Exeter. Antiquaries have taken it farther, usually to Totnes, but
without warrant. (See further under ERMINE STREET.)     (F. J. H.)



FOSSICK (probably an English dialectical expression, meaning fussy or
troublesome), a term applied by the gold diggers of Australia to the
search for gold by solitary individuals, in untried localities or in
abandoned diggings. A "fossicker," or pocket miner, is one who buys up
the right to search old claims, in the hope of finding gold overlooked
by previous diggers.



FOSSOMBRONE (anc. _Forum Sempronii_), a town and episcopal see of the
Marches, Italy, in the province of Pesaro and Urbino, 11 m. E.S.E. of
the latter by road, 394 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901) town, 7531,
commune, 10,847. The town is situated in the valley of the Metauro, in
the centre of fine scenery, at the meeting-point of roads to Fano, to
the Furlo pass and Fossato di Vico (the ancient Via Flaminia), to Urbino
and to Sinigaglia, the last crossing the river by a fine bridge. The
cathedral, rebuilt in 1772-1784, contains the chief work of the sculptor
Domenico Rosselli of Rovezzano, a richly sculptured _ancona_ of 1480. S.
Francesco has a lunette by him over the portal. The library, founded by
a nephew of Cardinal Passionei, contains some antiquities. Above the
town is a medieval castle. There is a considerable trade in silk.

The ancient Forum Sempronii lay about 2 m. to the N.E. at S. Martino al
Piano, where remains still exist. It was a station on the Via Flaminia
and a _municipium_. The date of its foundation is not known. Excavations
in 1879-1880 led to the discovery of a house and of other buildings on
the ancient road (A. Vernarecci in _Notizie degli scavi_, 1880, 458).
It already had a bishop in the years 499-502. In 1295 the Malatesta
obtained possession of it, and kept it until 1444, when it was sold,
with Pesaro, to Federico di Montefeltro of Urbino, and with the latter
it passed to the papacy under Urban VIII. in 1631.



FOSSOMBRONI, VITTORIO, COUNT (1754-1844), Tuscan statesman and
mathematician, was born at Arezzo. He was educated at the university of
Pisa, where he devoted himself particularly to mathematics. He obtained
an official appointment in Tuscany in 1782, and twelve years later was
entrusted by the grand duke with the direction of the works for the
drainage of the Val di Chiana, on which subject he had published a
treatise in 1789. In 1796 he was made minister for foreign affairs, but
on the French occupation of Tuscany in 1799 he fled to Sicily. On the
erection of the grand duchy into the ephemeral kingdom of Etruria, under
the queen-regent Maria Louisa, he was appointed president of the
commission of finance. In 1809 he went to Paris as one of the senators
for Tuscany to pay homage to Napoleon. He was made president of the
legislative commission on the restoration of the grand duke Ferdinand
III. in 1814, and subsequently prime minister, which position he
retained under the grand duke Leopold II. His administration, which was
only terminated by his death, greatly contributed to promote the
well-being of the country. He was the real master of Tuscany, and the
bases of his rule were equality of all subjects before the law, honesty
in the administration of justice and toleration of opinion, but he
totally neglected the moral improvement of the people. At the age of
seventy-eight he married, and twelve years afterwards died, in 1844.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Gino Capponi, _Il Conte V. Fossombroni_, A. von
  Reumont, _Geschichte Toscanas unter dem Hause Lothringen-Habsburg_
  (Gotha, 1877); Zobi, _Storia civile delta Toscana_ (Florence,
  1850-1853); Galeotti, _Delle Leggi e dell' amministrazione della
  Toscana_ (Florence, 1847); Baldasseroni, _Leopoldo II_. (Florence,
  1871); see also under CAPPONI, GINO; FERDINAND III., of Tuscany, and
  LEOPOLD II., of Tuscany.     (L. V.*)



FOSTER, SIR CLEMENT LE NEVE (1841-1904), English geologist and
mineralogist, the second son of Peter Le Neve Foster (for many years
secretary of the Society of Arts), was born at Camberwell on the 23rd of
March 1841. After receiving his early education at Boulogne and Amiens,
he studied successively at the Royal School of Mines in London and at
the mining college of Freiburg in Saxony. In 1860 he joined the
Geological Survey in England, working in the Wealden area and afterwards
in Derbyshire. Conjointly with William Topley (1841-1894) he
communicated to the Geological Society of London in 1865 the now classic
paper "On the superficial deposits of the Valley of the Medway, with
remarks on the Denudation of the Weald." In this paper the sculpturing
of the Wealden area by rain and rivers was ably advocated. Retiring from
the Geological Survey in 1865, Foster devoted his attention to
mineralogy and mining in Cornwall, Egypt and Venezuela. In 1872 he was
appointed an inspector of mines under the home office for the S.W. of
England, and in 1880 he was transferred to the N. Wales district. In
1890 he was appointed professor of mining at the Royal College of
Science and he held this post until the close of his life. His later
work is embodied largely in the reports of mines and quarries issued
annually by the home office. He was distinguished for his extensive
scientific and practical knowledge of metalliferous mining and stone
quarrying. He was elected F.R.S. in 1892 and was knighted in 1903. While
investigating the cause of a mining disaster in the Isle of Man in 1897
his constitution suffered much injury from carbonic-oxide gas, and he
never fully recovered from the effects. He died in London on the 19th of
April 1904. He published _Ore and Stone Mining_, 1894 (ed. 5, 1904); and
_The Elements of Mining and Quarrying_, 1903.



FOSTER, GEORGE EULAS (1847- ), Canadian politician and financier, was
born in New Brunswick on the 3rd of September 1847, of U.E. Loyalist
descent. After a brilliant university career at the university of
Brunswick, at Edinburgh and Heidelberg, he returned to Canada and taught
in various local schools, eventually becoming professor of classics and
history in the local university. In 1882 he became Conservative member
for King's County, N.B., in the Dominion parliament, and in 1885 entered
the cabinet of Sir John Macdonald as minister of marine and fisheries;
in 1888 he became minister of finance, which position he held till the
defeat of his party in 1896. A careful and even brilliant financier, and
a keen debater, he became known as a strong believer in protection for
Canadian industries and in preferential trade within the British empire.



FOSTER, JOHN (1770-1843), English author and dissenting minister,
generally known as the "Essayist," was born in a small farmhouse near
Halifax, Yorkshire, on the 17th of September 1770. Partly from
constitutional causes, but partly also from the want of proper
companions, as well as from the grave and severe habits of his parents,
his earlier years were enshrouded in a somewhat gloomy and sombre
atmosphere, which was never afterwards wholly dissipated. His youthful
energy, finding no proper outlet, developed within him a tendency to
morbid intensity of thought and feeling; and, according to his own
testimony, before he was twelve years old he was possessed of a "painful
sense of an awkward but entire individuality."

The small income accruing to Foster's parents from their farm they
supplemented by weaving, and at an early age he began to assist them by
spinning wool by the hand wheel, and from his fourteenth year by weaving
double stuffs. Even "when a child," however, he had the "feelings of a
foreigner in the place"; and though he performed his monotonous task
with conscientious diligence, he succeeded so indifferently in fixing
his wandering thoughts upon it that his work never without difficulty
passed the ordeal of inspection. He had acquired a great taste for
reading, to gratify which he sometimes shut himself up alone in a barn,
afterwards working at his loom "like a horse," to make up for lost time.
He had also at this period "a passion for making pictures with a pen."
Shortly after completing his seventeenth year he became a member of the
Baptist church at Hebden Bridge, with which his parents were connected;
and with the view of preparing himself for the ministerial office he
began about the same time to attend a seminary at Brearley Hall
conducted by his pastor Dr Fawcett.

After remaining three years at Brearley Hall he was admitted to the
Baptist College, Bristol, and on finishing his course of study at this
institution he obtained an engagement at Newcastle-on-Tyne, where he
preached to an audience of less than a hundred persons, in a small and
dingy room situated near the river at the top of a flight of steps
called Tuthill Stairs. At Newcastle he remained only three months. In
the beginning of 1793 he proceeded to Dublin, where, after failing as a
preacher, he attempted to revive a classical and mathematical school,
but with so little success that he did not prosecute the experiment for
more than eight or nine months. From 1797 to 1799 he was minister of a
Baptist church at Chichester, but though he applied himself with more
earnestness and perseverance than formerly to the discharge of his
ministerial duties, his efforts produced little apparent impression, and
the gradual diminution of his hearers necessitated his resignation.
After employing himself for a few months at Battersea in the instruction
of twenty African youths brought to England by Zachary Macaulay, with
the view of having them trained to aid as missionaries to their
fellow-countrymen, he in 1800 accepted the charge of a small
congregation at Downend, Bristol, where he continued about four years.
In 1804, chiefly through the recommendation of Robert Hall, he became
pastor of a congregation at Frome, but a swelling in the thyroid gland
compelled him in 1806 to resign his charge. In the same year he
published the volume of _Essays_ on which his literary fame most largely
if not mainly rests. They were written in the form of letters addressed
to the lady whom he afterwards married, and consist of four papers,--"On
a Man writing Memoirs of himself"; "On Decision of Character"; "On the
Application of the Epithet Romantic"; and "On some Causes by which
Evangelical Religion has been rendered unacceptable to Men of Cultivated
Taste." The success of this work was immediate, and was so considerable
that on resigning his charge he determined to adopt literature as his
profession. The _Eclectic Review_ was the only periodical with which he
established a connexion; but his contributions to that journal, which
were begun in 1807, number no fewer than 185 articles. On his marriage
in May 1808 he removed to Bourton-on-the-Water, a small village in
Gloucestershire, where he remained till 1817, when he returned to
Downend and resumed his duties to his old congregation. Here he
published in 1820 his _Essay on Popular Ignorance_, which was the
enlargement of a sermon originally preached on behalf of the British and
Foreign School Society. In 1821 he removed to Stapleton near Bristol,
and in 1822 he began a series of fortnightly lectures at Broadmead
chapel, Bristol, which were afterwards published. On the settlement of
Robert Hall at Bristol this service was discontinued, as in such
circumstances it appeared to Foster to be "altogether superfluous and
even bordering on impertinent." The health of Foster during the later
years of his life was somewhat infirm, the result chiefly of the toil
and effort of literary composition; and the death of his only son, his
wife and the greater number of his most intimate friends combined with
his bodily ailments to lend additional sombreness to his manner of
regarding the events and arrangements of the present world--the "visage
of death" being almost his "one remaining luminary." He died at
Stapleton on the 15th of October 1843.

The cast of Foster's mind was meditative and reflective rather than
logical or metaphysical, and though holding moderately Calvinistic
views, his language even in preaching very seldom took the mould of
theological forms. Though always retaining his connexion with the
Baptist denomination, the evils resulting from organized religious
communities seemed to him so great that he came to be "strongly of
opinion that churches are useless and mischievous institutions, and the
sooner they are dissolved the better." The only Christian observances
which he regarded as of any importance were public worship and the
Lord's Supper, and it so happened that he never administered the
ordinance of baptism. His cast of thought is largely coloured by a
constant reference to the "endless future." He was a firm believer in
supernatural appearances, and cherished a longing hope that a ray of
light from the other world might sometimes in this way be vouchsafed to
mortals. As a writer he was most painstaking and laborious in his choice
of diction, and his style has its natural consequent defects, though the
result is eloquent in its way.

  Besides the works already alluded to, Foster was the author of a
  _Discourse on Missions_ (1818); "Introductory Essay" to Doddridge's
  _Rise and Progress of Religion_ (1825); "Observations on Mr Hall's
  Character as a Preacher," prefixed to the collected edition of Hall's
  _Works_ (1832); an "Introduction" to a pamphlet by Mr Marshman on the
  Serampore Missionaries; several political letters to the _Morning
  Chronicle_, and contributions to the _Eclectic Review_, published
  posthumously in 2 vols., 1844. _His Life and Correspondence_, edited
  by J.E. Ryland, was published in 1846.



FOSTER, SIR MICHAEL (1836-1907), English physiologist, was born at
Huntingdon on the 8th of March 1836. After graduating in medicine at
London University in 1859, he began to practise in his native town, but
in 1867 he returned to London as teacher of practical physiology at
University College, where two years afterwards he became professor. In
1870 he was appointed by Trinity College, Cambridge, to its
praelectorship in physiology, and thirteen years later he became the
first occupant of the newly-created chair of physiology in the
university, holding it till 1903. He excelled as a teacher and
administrator, and had a very large share in the organization and
development of the Cambridge biological school. From 1881 to 1903 he was
one of the secretaries of the Royal Society, and in that capacity
exercised a wide influence on the study of biology in Great Britain. In
1899 he was created K.C.B., and served as president of the British
Association at its meeting at Dover. In the following year he was
elected to represent the university of London in parliament. Though
returned as a Unionist, his political action was not to be dictated by
party considerations, and he gravitated towards Liberalism; but he
played no prominent part in parliament and at the election of 1906 was
defeated. His chief writings were a _Textbook of Physiology_ (1876),
which became a standard work, and _Lectures on the History of Physiology
in the 16th, 17th and 18th Centuries_ (1901), which consisted of
lectures delivered at the Cooper Medical College, San Francisco, in
1900. He died suddenly in London on the 29th of January 1907.



FOSTER, MYLES BIRKET (1825-1899), English painter, was born at North
Shields. At the age of sixteen he entered the workshop of Ebenezer
Landells, a wood engraver, with whom he worked for six years as an
illustrative draughtsman, devoting himself mainly to landscape. During
the succeeding fifteen years he became famous as a prolific and
accomplished illustrator, but about 1861 abandoned illustration for
painting, and gained wide popularity by his pictures, chiefly in water
colours, of landscapes and rustic subjects, with figures, mainly of
children. He was elected in 1860 associate and in 1862 full member of
the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours. His work is memorable
for its delicacy and minute finish, and for its daintiness and
pleasantness of sentiment.

  See _Birket Foster, his Life and Work_ (extra number of the _Art
  Journal_) by Marcus B. Huish (1890), an interesting sketch; and
  _Birket Foster, R.W.S._, by H.M. Cundall (London, 1906), a very
  complete and fully illustrated biography.



FOSTER, STEPHEN COLLINS (1826-1864), American song and ballad writer,
was born near Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, on the 4th of July 1826. He was
the youngest child of a merchant of Irish descent who became a member of
the state legislature and was related by marriage to President Buchanan.
Stephen early showed talent for music, and played upon the flageolet,
the guitar and the banjo; he also acquired a fair knowledge of French
and German. He was sent to school in Towanda, Pennsylvania, and later to
Athens, Pennsylvania, and when thirteen years old he wrote the song
"Sadly to Mine Heart Appealing." At sixteen he wrote "Open thy Lattice,
Love"; at seventeen he entered his brother's business house, Cincinnati,
Ohio, where he remained about three years, composing meanwhile such
popular pieces as "Old Uncle Ned," "O Susannah!" and others. He then
adopted song-writing as a profession. His chief successes were songs
written for the negro melodists or Christy minstrels. Besides those
mentioned the following attained great popularity: "Nelly was a Lady,"
"Old Kentucky Home," "Old Folks at Home," "Massa's in de Cold, Cold
Ground," &c. For these and other songs the composer received
considerable sums, "Old Folks at Home" bringing him, it is said, 15,000
dollars. For most of his songs Foster wrote both songs and music. In
1850 he married and moved to New York, but soon returned to Pittsburg.
His reputation rests chiefly on his negro melodies, many of which have
been popular on both sides of the Atlantic and sung in many tongues.
"Old Black Joe," the last of these negro melodies, appeared in 1861. His
later songs were sentimental ballads. Among these are "Old Dog Tray,"
"Gentle Annie," "Willie, we have missed you," &c. His "Come where my
Love lies Dreaming" is a well known vocal quartet. Although as a
musician and composer Foster has little claim to high rank, his
song-writing gives him a prominent place in the modern developments of
popular music. He died at New York on the 13th of January 1864.



FOSTORIA, a city, partly in Seneca, partly in Hancock, and partly in
Wood county, Ohio, U.S.A., 35 m. S. by E. of Toledo. Pop. (1890) 7070;
(1900) 7730 (584 foreign-born); (1910) 9597. It is served by the
Baltimore & Ohio, the New York, Chicago & St Louis, the Ohio Central,
the Lake Erie & Western, and the Hocking Valley railways, and by two
interurban electric lines. The city is situated in an agricultural
region, and oil abounds in the vicinity. Among the city's manufactures
are glass, flour, planing mill products, brass and iron, carriages,
barrels, incandescent lamps, carbons, wire nails and fences, automobile
engines and parts, railway torpedoes and muslin underwear. The
waterworks are owned and operated by the municipality. In 1832, upon the
coming of the first settlers, two towns, Rome and Risdon, were laid out
on the site of what is now Fostoria. A bitter rivalry arose between
them, but they were finally united under one government, and the city
thus formed was named in honour of Charles W. Foster, whose son Charles
Foster (1828-1904), governor of the state from 1880 to 1884 and
secretary of the United States treasury from 1891 to 1893, did much to
promote its growth. Fostoria was chartered as a city in 1854.



FOTHERGILL, JOHN (1712-1780), English physician, was born of a Quaker
family on the 8th of March 1712 at Carr End in Yorkshire. He took the
degree of M.D. at Edinburgh in 1736, and after visiting the continent of
Europe he in 1740 settled in London, where he gained an extensive
practice. In the epidemics of influenza in 1775 and 1776 he is said to
have had sixty patients daily. In his leisure he made a study of
conchology and botany; and at Upton, near Stratford, he had an extensive
botanical garden where he grew many rare plants obtained from various
parts of the world. He was the patron of Sidney Parkinson, the South Sea
voyager. A translation of the Bible (1764 sq.) by Anthony Purver, a
Quaker, was made and printed at his expense. His pamphlet entitled
"Account of the Sore Throat attended with Ulcers" (1748) contains one of
the first descriptions of diphtheria in English, and was translated into
several languages. He died in London on the 26th of December 1780.



FOTHERINGHAY, a village of Northamptonshire, England, picturesquely
situated on the left bank of the river Nene, 1½ m. from Elton station on
the Peterborough branch of the London & North-Western railway. The
castle, of which nothing but the earthworks and foundations remain, is
famous as the scene of the imprisonment of Mary queen of Scots from
September 1586 to her trial and execution on the 8th of February 1587.
The earthworks, commanding a ford of the river, are apparently of very
early date, and probably bore a castle from Norman times. It became an
important stronghold of the Plantagenets from the time of Edward III.,
and was the birthplace of Richard III. in 1452. The church of St Mary
and All Saints, originally collegiate, is Perpendicular, and only the
nave with aisles, and the tower surmounted by an octagon, remain; but
the building is in the best style of its period. Edward, second duke of
York, who was killed at the battle of Agincourt in 1415, Richard, the
third duke, and his duchess, Cicely (d. 1495), also his son the earl of
Rutland, who with Richard himself, fell at the battle of Wakefield in
1460, are buried in the church. Their monuments were erected by Queen
Elizabeth, who found the choir and tombs in ruins.



FOUCAULT, JEAN BERNARD LÉON (1819-1868), French physicist, was the son
of a publisher at Paris, where he was born on the 18th of September
1819. After an education received chiefly at home, he studied medicine,
which, however, he speedily abandoned for physical science, the
improvement of L.J.M. Daguerre's photographic processes being the object
to which he first directed his attention. During three years he was
experimental assistant to Alfred Donné (1801-1878) in his course of
lectures on microscopic anatomy. With A.H.L. Fizeau he carried on a
series of investigations on the intensity of the light of the sun, as
compared with that of carbon in the electric arc, and of lime in the
flame of the oxyhydrogen blowpipe; on the interference of heat rays, and
of light rays differing greatly in lengths of path; and on the chromatic
polarization of light. In 1849 he contributed to the _Comptes Rendus_ a
description of an electromagnetic regulator for the electric arc lamp,
and, in conjunction with H.V. Regnault, a paper on binocular vision. By
the use of a revolving mirror similar to that used by Sir Charles
Wheatstone for measuring the rapidity of electric currents, he was
enabled in 1850 to demonstrate the greater velocity of light in air than
in water, and to establish that the velocity of light in different media
is inversely as the refractive indices of the media. For his
demonstration in 1851 of the diurnal motion of the earth by the rotation
of the plane of oscillation of a freely suspended, long and heavy
pendulum exhibited by him at the Pantheon in Paris, and again in the
following year by means of his invention the gyroscope, he received the
Copley medal of the Royal Society in 1855, and in the same year he was
made physical assistant in the imperial observatory at Paris. In
September of that year he discovered that the force required for the
rotation of a copper disk becomes greater when it is made to rotate
with its rim between the poles of a magnet, the disk at the same time
becoming heated by the eddy or "Foucault currents" induced in its metal.
Foucault invented in 1857 the polarizer which bears his name, and in the
succeeding year devised a method of giving to the speculum of reflecting
telescopes the form of a spheroid or a paraboloid of revolution. With
Wheatstone's revolving mirror he in 1862 determined the absolute
velocity of light to be 298,000 kilometres (about 185,000 m.) a second,
or 10,000 kilom. less than that obtained by previous experimenters. He
was created in that year a member of the Bureau des Longitudes and an
officer of the Legion of Honour, in 1864 a foreign member of the Royal
Society of London, and next year a member of the mechanical section of
the Institute. In 1865 appeared his papers on a modification of Watt's
governor, upon which he had for some time been experimenting with a view
to making its period of revolution constant, and on a new apparatus for
regulating the electric light; and in the following year (_Compt. Rend._
lxiii.) he showed how, by the deposition of a transparently thin film of
silver on the outer side of the object glass of a telescope, the sun
could be viewed without injuring the eye by excess of light. Foucault
died of paralysis on the 11th of February 1868 at Paris. From the year
1845 he edited the scientific portion of the _Journal des Débats_. His
chief scientific papers are to be found in the _Comptes Rendus_,
1847-1869.

  See _Revue cours scient._ vi. (1869), pp. 484-489; _Proc. Roy. Soc._
  xvii. (1869), pp. lxxxiii.-lxxxiv.; Lissajous, _Notice historique sur
  la vie et les travaux de Léon Foucault_ (Paris, 1875).



FOUCHÉ, JOSEPH, DUKE OF OTRANTO (1763-1820), French statesman, was born
in a small village near Nantes on the 21st of May 1763. His father, a
seafaring man, destined him for the sea; but the weakness of his frame
and the precocity of his talents soon caused this idea to be given up.
He was educated at the college of the Oratorians at Nantes, and showed
marked aptitude for studies both literary and scientific. Desiring to
enter the teaching profession he was sent to an institution kept by
brethren of the same order at Paris. There also he made rapid progress,
and soon entered upon tutorial duties at the colleges of Niort, Saumur,
Vendôme, Juilly and Arras. At Arras he had some dealings with
Robespierre at the time of the beginning of the French Revolution
(1789).

In October 1790 he was transferred by the Oratorians to their college at
Nantes, owing to irregularities due to his zeal for revolutionary
principles; but at Nantes he showed even more democratic fervour. His
abilities and the zeal with which he espoused the most subversive
notions brought him into favour with the populace at Nantes; he became a
leading member of the local Jacobin club; and on the dissolution of the
college of the Oratorians at Nantes in May 1792, Fouché gave up all
connexion with the church, whose major vows he had not taken. After the
downfall of the monarchy on the 10th of August 1792, he was elected as
deputy for the department of the Lower Loire to the National Convention
which met at the autumnal equinox and proclaimed the republic. The
literary and pedagogic sympathies of Fouché at first brought him into
touch with Condorcet and the party, or group, of the Girondists; but
their vacillation at the time of the trial and execution of Louis XVI.
(December 1792-January 21, 1793) led him to espouse the cause of the
Jacobins, the less scrupulous and more thoroughgoing champions of
revolutionary doctrine. On the question of the execution of the king,
Fouché, after some preliminary hesitations, expressed himself with the
utmost vigour in favour of immediate execution, and denounced those who
"wavered before the shadow of a king."

The crisis which resulted from the declaration of war by the Convention
against England and Holland (Feb. 1, 1793), and a little later against
Spain, brought Fouché into notoriety as one of the fiercest of the
Jacobinical fanatics who then held power at Paris. While the armies of
the first coalition threatened the north-east of France, a revolt of the
royalist peasants of Brittany and la Vendée menaced the Convention on
the west. That body deputed Fouché with a colleague, Villers, to proceed
to the west as commissioners invested with almost dictatorial powers
for the crushing of the revolt of "the whites." The vigour with which he
carried out these duties earned him other work, and he soon held the
post of commissioner of the republic in the department of the Nièvre.
Together with Chaumette, he helped to initiate the atheistical movement,
the founders of which in the autumn of 1793 began to aim at the
extinction of Christianity in France. In the department of the Nièvre he
ransacked the churches, sent their spoils to the treasury and
established the cult of the goddess of Reason. Over the cemeteries, he
ordered these words to be inscribed: "Death is an eternal sleep." He
also waged war against luxury and wealth, and desired to abolish the use
of money. The new cult was inaugurated at Paris at Notre Dame by the
strange orgy known as "The Festival of Reason" (November 10, 1793).

Fouché then proceeded to Lyons to execute the vengeance of the
Convention on that city, which had revolted against the new Jacobin
tyranny. Preluding his work by a festival remarkable for its obscene
parody of religious rites, he then, along with his colleague, Collot
d'Herbois, set the guillotine and cannon to work with a rigour which
made his name odious. Modern research, however, proves that at the close
of those horrors Fouché exercised a moderating influence. Outwardly his
conduct was marked by the utmost rigour, and on his return to Paris
early in April 1794, he thus characterised his policy: "The blood of
criminals fertilises the soil of liberty and establishes power on sure
foundations." By that time Robespierre had struck down the other leaders
of the atheistical party; but early in June 1794, at the time of the
"Festival of the Supreme Being," Fouché ventured to mock at the theistic
revival which Robespierre then inaugurated. Sharp passages of arms took
place between them, and Robespierre procured the ejection of Fouché from
the Jacobin Club (July 14, 1794). Fouché, however, was working with his
customary skill and energy, and along with Tallien and others, managed
to effect the overthrow of the theistic dictator on Thermidor 10 (July
28), 1794. The ensuing reaction in favour of more merciful methods of
government threatened to sweep away the group of Terrorists who had been
mainly instrumental in carrying through the _coup d'état_ of Thermidor;
but, thanks largely to the skill of Fouché in intrigue, they managed for
a time to keep at the head of affairs. Discords, however, crept in which
left him for a time almost isolated, and it needed all his ability to
withstand the attacks of the moderates. A vigorous attack on him by
Boissy d'Anglas, on the 9th of August 1795, caused him to be arrested,
but the troubles which ensued in Vendémiaire averted the doom that
seemed to be pending; and he owed his release to the amnesty which was
passed on the proclamation of the new constitution of the year 1795.

In the ensuing period, known as that of the Directory (1795-1799),
Fouché remained at first in obscurity, but the relations which he had
with the communists, once headed by Chaumette and now by François N.
("Gracchus") Babeuf (q.v.), helped him to rise once more. He is said to
have betrayed to the director Barras the secret of the strange plot
which Babeuf and a few accomplices hatched in the year 1796; but recent
research has tended to throw doubt on the assertion. His rise from
poverty was slow, but in 1797 he gained an appointment for the supply of
military _matériel_, which offered opportunities direct and indirect.
After offering his services to the royalists, whose movement was then
gathering force, he again decided to support the Jacobins and the
director Barras (q.v.). In the _coup d'état_ of Fructidor 1797 he made
himself serviceable to Barras, who in 1798 appointed him to be French
ambassador to the Cisalpine republic. At Milan he carried matters with
so high a hand against the Gallophobes of that government that his
actions were disavowed and he himself was removed; but in the confused
state in which matters then were, he was able for a time to hold his own
and to intrigue successfully against his successor. Early in 1799 he
returned to Paris, and after a brief tenure of office as ambassador at
The Hague, he became minister of police at Paris (July 20, 1799). The
newly elected director, Sieyès (q.v.), was then in the ascendant and
desired to curb the excesses of the Jacobins, who had recently reopened
their club. Fouché, casting consistency to the winds, closed the
Jacobins club in a manner at once daring and clever. Thereupon he hunted
down the pamphleteers and editors, whether Jacobins or royalists, who
were obnoxious to the government, so that at the time of the return of
Bonaparte from Egypt (October 1799) the ex-Jacobin was one of the most
powerful men in France.

Knowing well the unpopularity of the directors, Fouché lent himself to
the schemes of Bonaparte and Sieyès for their overthrow. His activity in
furthering the _coup d'état_ of Brumaire 18-19 (November 9-10), 1799,
procured him the favour of Bonaparte, who kept him in office (v.
Napoleon I.). In the ensuing period of the Consulate (1799-1804) Fouché
behaved with the utmost adroitness. While curbing the royalists and
extreme Jacobins who at first alone opposed Bonaparte, Fouché was
careful to temper as far as possible the arbitrary actions of the new
master of France. In this difficult task he acquitted himself with so
much skill as to earn at times the gratitude even of the royalists.
Thus, while countermining a foolish intrigue of theirs in which the
duchesse de Guiche was the chief agent, Fouché took care that she should
escape. Equally skilful was his action in the affair of the so-called
Aréna-Ceracchi plot, in which the _agents provocateurs_ of the police
were believed to have played a sinister part. The chief "conspirators"
were easily ensnared and were executed when the affair of Nivôse
(December 1800) enabled Bonaparte to act with rigour. This far more
serious attempt (in which royalist conspirators exploded a bomb near the
First Consul's carriage with results disastrous to the bystanders) was
soon seen by Fouché to be the work of royalists; and when the First
Consul, eager to entrap the still formidable Jacobins, sought to fasten
the blame on them, Fouché firmly declared that he would not only assert
but would prove that the outrage was the work of royalists. All his
efforts, however, failed to avert the punishment which Bonaparte was
resolved to inflict on the leading Jacobins. In other matters
(especially in that known as the Plot of the Placards in the spring of
1802) Fouché was thought to have secured the Jacobins concerned from the
vengeance of the First Consul. In any case the latter resolved to rid
himself of a man who had too much power and too much skill in intrigue
to be desirable as a subordinate. On the proclamation of Bonaparte as
First Consul for life (August 1, 1802) Fouché was deprived of his
office; but the blow was softened by the suppression of the ministry of
police and by the attribution of most of its duties to an extended
ministry of justice. Fouché also became a senator and received half of
the reserve funds of the police which had accumulated during his tenure
of office. He continued, however, to intrigue through his spies, whose
information was so superior to that of the new minister of police as to
render great services to Napoleon at the time of the Cadoudal-Pichegru
conspiracy (February-March 1804).

As a result Napoleon, now emperor, brought back Fouché to the
re-constituted ministry of police (July 1804); he also later on
entrusted to him that of the interior. His work was no less important
than at the time of the Consulate. His police agents were ubiquitous,
and the terror which Napoleon and Fouché inspired, owing to their proven
ability to benefit by plots, partly accounts for the absence of
conspiracies after 1804. After Austerlitz (December 1805) Fouché uttered
the _mot_ of the occasion: "Sire, Austerlitz has shattered the old
aristocracy; the boulevard St Germain no longer conspires."

That Napoleon retained some feeling of distrust, or even of fear, of
Fouché was proved by his conduct in the early days of 1808. While
engaged in the campaign of Spain, the emperor heard rumours that Fouché
and Talleyrand, once bitter enemies, were having interviews at Paris in
which Murat, king of Naples, was concerned. At once the sensitive
autocrat hurried to Paris, but found nothing to incriminate Fouché. In
that year Fouché received the title of duke of Otranto. During the
absence of Napoleon in Austria in the campaign of 1809, the British
Walcheren expedition threatened for a time the safety of Antwerp.
Fouché thereupon issued an order to the prefects of the northern
departments of the empire for the mobilization of 60,000 National
Guards. He added to the order a statement in which occurred the words:
"Let us prove to Europe that although the genius of Napoleon can throw
lustre on France, his presence is not necessary to enable us to repulse
the enemy." The emperor's approval of the measure was no less marked
than his disapproval of the words just quoted. The next months brought
further causes of friction between emperor and minister. The latter,
knowing the desire of his master for peace at the close of the year
1809, undertook on his own account to make secret overtures to the
British ministry. A little later Napoleon opened negotiations and found
that Fouché had forestalled him. His rage against his minister was
extreme, and on the 3rd of June 1810 he dismissed him from his office.
However, as it was not the emperor's custom completely to disgrace a man
who might again be useful, Fouché received the governorship of Rome. He
went thither, not as governor but as fugitive, for on receiving the
emperor's order to give up certain important documents of his former
ministry, he handed over only a few, declaring that the rest were
destroyed. At this the emperor's anger burst forth again, and Fouché on
learning, after his arrival at Florence, that the storm was still raging
at Paris, prepared to sail to the United States. Compelled, however, by
stress of weather and sickness to put back again, he found a mediator in
Elisa Bonaparte, grand duchess of Tuscany, thanks to whom he was allowed
to settle at Aix and finally to return to his domain of Point Carré. In
1812 he sought vainly to turn Napoleon from the projected invasion of
Russia; and on the return of the emperor in haste from Smorgoni to Paris
at the close of that year, the ex-minister of police was suspected of
complicity in the conspiracy of General Malet, which came so strangely
near to success. From this suspicion Fouché cleared himself and gave the
emperor useful advice concerning internal affairs and the diplomatic
situation. Nevertheless, the emperor, still distrustful of the
arch-intriguer, ordered him to undertake the government of the Illyrian
provinces. On the break-up of the Napoleonic system in Germany in
October 1813 Fouché was ordered to repair to Rome and thence to Naples,
in order to watch the movements of Murat. Before Fouché arrived at
Naples Murat threw off the mask and invaded the Roman territory,
whereupon Fouché received orders to return to France. He arrived at
Paris on the 10th of April 1814 at the time when Napoleon was being
constrained by his marshals to abdicate.

The conduct of Fouché at this crisis was characteristic. As senator he
advised the senate to send a deputation to the comte d'Artois, brother
of Louis XVIII., with a view to a reconciliation between the monarchy
and the nation. A little later he addressed to Napoleon, then at Elba, a
letter begging him in the interests of peace and of France to withdraw
to the United States. To the new sovereign Louis XVIII. he sent an
appeal in favour of liberty and recommending the adoption of measures
which would conciliate all interests. It was not successful, but Fouché
remained unmolested.

This was far from satisfying him, and when he found that there were no
hopes of advancement, he entered into relations with conspirators who
sought the overthrow of the Bourbons. Lafayette and Davout were
concerned in the affair, but their refusal to take the course desired by
Fouché and other bold spirits led to nothing being done. Soon Napoleon
escaped from Elba and made his way in triumph to Paris. Shortly before
his arrival at Paris (March 19, 1815) Louis XVIII. sent to Fouché an
offer of the ministry of police, which he declined, saying, "It is too
late; the only plan to adopt is to retreat." He then foiled an attempt
of the royalists to arrest him, and on the arrival of Napoleon he
received for the third time the portfolio of police. That, however, did
not prevent him from entering into secret relations with Metternich at
Vienna, his aim being then, as always, to prepare for all eventualities.
Meanwhile he used all his powers to induce the emperor to popularise his
rule, and he is said to have caused the insertion of the words "The
sovereignty resides in the people; it is the source of power" in the
declaration of the council of state. But the autocratic tendencies of
Napoleon could scarcely be held in check, and Fouché seeing the fall of
the emperor to be imminent, took measures to expedite it and secure his
own interests. On the 22nd of June Napoleon abdicated for the second
time, and Fouché was next day elected president of the commission which
provisionally governed France. Already he was in touch with Louis
XVIII., then at Ghent, and now secretly received the overtures of his
agent at Paris. While ostensibly working for the recognition of Napoleon
II., he facilitated the success of the Bourbon cause, and thus procured
for himself a place in the ministry of Louis XVIII. Even his skill,
however, was unequal to the task of conciliating hot-headed royalists
who remembered his vote as regicide and his fanaticism as terrorist. He
resigned office, and after acting for a brief space as ambassador at
Dresden, he retired to Prague. Finally he settled at Trieste, where he
died on the 25th of December 1820. He had accumulated great wealth.

Marked at the outset by fanaticism, which, though cruel, was at least
conscientious, Fouché's character deteriorated in and after the year
1794 into one of calculating cunning. The transition represented all
that was worst in the life of France during the period of the Revolution
and Empire. In Fouché the enthusiasm of the earlier period appeared as a
cold, selfish and remorseless fanaticism; in him the bureaucracy of the
period 1795-1799 and the autocracy of Napoleon found their ablest
instrument. Yet his intellectual pride prevented him sinking to the
level of a mere tool. His relations to Napoleon were marked by a certain
aloofness. He multiplied the means of resistance even to that
irresistible autocrat, so that though removed from office, he was never
wholly disgraced. Despised by all for his tergiversations, he
nevertheless was sought by all on account of his cleverness. He repaid
the contempt of his superiors and the adulation of his inferiors by a
mask of impenetrable reserve or scorn. He sought for power and neglected
no means to make himself serviceable to the party whose success appeared
to be imminent. Yet, while appearing to be the servant of the victors,
present or prospective, he never gave himself to any one party. In this
versatility he resembles Talleyrand, of whom he was a coarse replica.
Both professed, under all their shifts and turns, to be desirous of
serving France. Talleyrand certainly did so in the sphere of diplomacy;
Fouché may occasionally have done so in the sphere of intrigue.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Fouché wrote some political pamphlets and reports, the
  chief of which are _Réflexions sur le jugement de Louis Capet_ (1793);
  _Réflexions sur l'éducation publique_ (1793); _Rapport et projet de
  loi relatif aux collèges_ (1793); _Rapport sur la situation de
  Commune-Affranchie_ [_Lyons_] (1794); _Lettre aux préfets concernant
  les prêtres_, &c. (1801); also the letters of 1815 noted above, and a
  _Lettre au duc de Wellington_ (1817). The best life of Fouché is that
  by L. Madelin, _Fouché_ (2 vols., Paris, 1901). The so-called _Fouché
  Memoirs_ are not genuine, but they were apparently compiled, at least
  in part, from notes written by Fouché, and are often valuable, though
  their account of events (e.g. of the negotiations of 1809-1810) is not
  seldom untrustworthy. For those negotiations see Coquelle, _Napoléon
  et l'Angleterre_ (Paris, 1903, Eng. trans., London, 1904). For the
  plots with which Fouché had to deal see E. Daudet, _La Police et les
  Chouans sous le Consulat et l'Empire_ (Paris, 1895); P.M.C. Desmarest,
  _Témoignages historiques, ou quinze ans de haute police_ (Paris, 1833,
  2nd ed., 1900); É. Picard, _Bonaparte et Moreau_ (Paris, 1905); G.A.
  Thierry, _Conspirateurs et gens de police_; _le complot de libelles_
  (Paris, 1903) (Eng. trans., London, 1903); H. Welschinger, _Le Duc
  d'Enghien_ (Paris, 1888); E. Guillon, _Les Complots militaires sous le
  Consulat et l'Empire_ (Paris, 1894).     (J. Hl. R.)



FOUCHER, SIMON (1644-1696), French philosopher, was born at Dijon on the
1st of March 1644. He was the son of a merchant, and appears to have
taken orders at a very early age. For some years he held the position of
honorary canon at Dijon, but this he resigned in order to take up his
residence in Paris. He graduated at the Sorbonne, and spent the
remainder of his life in literary work in Paris, where he died on the
27th of April 1696. In his day Foucher enjoyed considerable repute as a
keen opponent of Malebranche. His philosophical standpoint was one of
scepticism in regard to external perception. He revived the old
arguments of the Academy, and advanced them with much ingenuity against
Malebranche's doctrine. Otherwise his scepticism is subordinate to
orthodox belief, the fundamental dogmas of the church seeming to him
intuitively evident. His object was to reconcile his religious with his
philosophical creed, and to remain a Christian without ceasing to be an
academician. His writings against Malebranche were collected under the
title _Dissertations sur la recherche de la vérité_, 1693.

  See F. Rabbe, _L'Abbé Simon Foucher_ (1867); C. Jourdain in
  _Dictionnaire des sciences philosophiques_ (1875), pp. 557-559.



FOUCQUET, JEAN, or JEHAN (c. 1415-1485), French painter, born at Tours,
is the most representative and national French painter of the 15th
century. Of his life little is known, but it is certain that he was in
Italy about 1437, where he executed the portrait of Pope Eugenius IV.,
and that upon his return to France, whilst retaining his purely French
sentiment, he grafted the elements of the Tuscan style, which he had
acquired during his sojourn in Italy, upon the style of the Van Eycks,
which was the basis of early 15th-century French art, and thus became
the founder of an important new school. He was court painter to Louis
XI. Though his supreme excellence as an illuminator and miniaturist, of
exquisite precision in the rendering of the finest detail, and his power
of clear characterization in work on this minute scale, have long since
procured him an eminent position in the art of his country, his
importance as a painter was only realized when his portraits and
altarpieces were for the first time brought together from various parts
of Europe in 1904, at the exhibition of the French Primitives held at
the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. One of Foucquet's most important
paintings is the diptych, formerly at Notre Dame de Melun, of which one
wing, depicting Agnes Sorel as the Virgin, is now at the Antwerp Museum
and the other in the Berlin Gallery. The Louvre has his oil portraits of
Charles VII., of Count Wilczek, and of Jouvenal des Ursins, besides a
portrait drawing in crayon; whilst an authentic portrait from his brush
is in the Liechtenstein collection. Far more numerous are his
illuminated books and miniatures that have come down to us. The
Brentano-Laroche collection at Frankfort contains forty miniatures from
a Book of Hours, painted in 1461 for Etienne Chevalier who is portrayed
by Foucquet on the Berlin wing of the Melun altarpiece. From Foucquet's
hand again are eleven out of the fourteen miniatures illustrating a
translation of Josephus at the Bibliothèque Nationale. The second volume
of this MS., unfortunately with only one of the original thirteen
miniatures, was discovered and bought in 1903 by Mr Henry Yates Thompson
at a London sale, and restored by him to France.

  See _Oeuvres de Jehan Foucquet_ (Curmer, Paris, 1866-1867); A. de
  Champeaux and P. Gauchery, _Oeuvres d'art exécutées pour le duc de
  Berry_; "Facsimiles of two histories by Jean Foucquet" from vols. i.
  and ii. of the _Anciennetés des Juifs_ (London, 1902); Charles Blanc,
  _Histoire des peintres de toutes les écoles_ (introduction); and
  Georges Lafenestre, _Jehan Fouquet_ (Paris, 1902).



FOUGÈRES, a town of north-western France, capital of an arrondissement
in the department of Ille-et-Vilaine, 30 m. N.E. of Rennes by rail. Pop.
(1906) 21,847. Fougères is built on the summit and slopes of a hill on
the left bank of the Nançon, a tributary of the Couesnon. It was
formerly one of the strongest places on the frontier towards Normandy,
and it still preserves some portions of its medieval fortifications,
notably a gateway of the 15th century known as the Porte St Sulpice. The
castle, which is situated in the lower part of the town, directly
overlooking the Nançon, is now a picturesque ruin, but gives abundant
evidence in its towers and outworks of its former strength and
magnificence. The finest of the towers was erected in 1242 by Hugues of
Lusignan, and named after Mélusine, the mythical foundress of the
family. The churches of St Léonard and St Sulpice both date, at least in
part, from the 15th century. An hôtel de ville and a belfry, both of the
15th century, are of architectural interest, and the town possesses many
curious old houses. There is a statue of General B. de Lari Coisière (d.
1812), born in the town. Fougères is the seat of a subprefect, and has a
tribunal of first instance, a chamber of commerce and a communal
college. It is the chief industrial town of its department, being a
centre for the manufacture of boots and shoes; tanning and
leather-dressing and the manufacture of sail-cloth and other fabrics
are also important industries. Trade is in dairy produce and in the
granite of the neighbouring quarries. Fougères frequently figures in
Breton history from the 11th to the 15th century. It was taken by the
English in 1166, and again in 1448; and the name of Surienne, the captor
on the second occasion, is still borne by one of the towers of the
castle. In 1488 it was taken by the troops of Charles VIII. under la
Trémoille. In the middle ages Fougères was a lordship of some
importance, which in the 13th century passed into the possession of the
family of Lusignan, and in 1307 was confiscated by the crown and
afterwards changed hands many times. In 1793, during the wars of the
Vendée, it was occupied by the insurgents.



FOUILLÉE, ALFRED JULES EMILE (1838-   ), French philosopher, was born at
La Pouëze on the 18th of October 1838. He held several minor
philosophical lectureships, and from 1864 was professor of philosophy at
the lycées of Douai, Montpellier and Bordeaux successively. In 1867 and
1868 he was crowned by the Academy of Moral Science for his work on
Plato and Socrates. In 1872 he was elected master of conferences at the
École Normale, and was made doctor of philosophy in recognition of his
two treatises, _Platonis Hippias Minor sive Socratica contra liberum
arbitrium argumenta_ and _La Liberté et le déterminisme_. The strain of
the next three years' continuous work undermined his health and his
eyesight, and he was compelled to retire from his professorship. During
these years he had published works on Plato and Socrates and a history
of philosophy (1875); but after his retirement he further developed his
philosophical position, a speculative eclecticism through which he
endeavoured to reconcile metaphysical idealism with the naturalistic and
mechanical standpoint of science. In _L'Évolutionnisme des idées-forces_
(1890), _La Psychologie des idées-forces_ (1893), and _La Morale des
idées-forces_ (1907), is elaborated his doctrine of _idées-forces_, or
of mind as efficient cause through the tendency of ideas to realize
themselves in appropriate movement. Ethical and sociological
developments of this theory succeed its physical and psychological
treatment, the consideration of the antinomy of freedom being especially
important. Fouillée's wife, who by a previous marriage was the mother of
the poet and philosopher Jean Marie Guyau (1854-1888), is well known,
under the pseudonym of "G. Bruno," as the author of educational books
for children.

  His other chief works are: _L'Idée moderne du droit en Allemagne, en
  Angleterre et en France_ (Paris, 1878); _La Science sociale
  contemporaine_ (1880); _La Propriété sociale et la démocratie_ (1884);
  _Critique des systèmes de morale contemporains_ (1883); _La Morale,
  l'art et la religion d'après Guyau_ (1889); _L'Avenir de la
  métaphysique fondée sur l'expérience_ (1889); _L'Enseignement au point
  de vue national_ (1891); _Descartes_ (1893); _Tempérament et
  caractère_ (2nd ed., 1895); _Le Mouvement positiviste et la conception
  sociologique du monde_ (1896); _Le Mouvement idéaliste et la réaction
  contre la science positive_ (1896); _La Psychologie du peuple
  français_ (2nd ed., 1898); _La France au point de vue moral_ (1900);
  _L'Esquisse psychologique des peuples européens_ (1903); _Nietzsche et
  l' "immoralisme"_ (1903); _Le Moralisme de Kant_ (1905).



FOULD, ACHILLE (1800-1867), French financier and politician, was born at
Paris on the 17th of November 1800. The son of a rich Jewish banker, he
was associated with and afterwards succeeded his father in the
management of the business. As early as 1842 he entered political life,
having been elected in that year as a deputy for the department of the
Hautes Pyrénées. From that time to his death he actively busied himself
with the affairs of his country. He readily acquiesced in the revolution
of February 1848, and is said to have exercised a decided influence in
financial matters on the provisional government then formed. He shortly
afterwards published two pamphlets against the use of paper money,
entitled, _Pas d'Assignats!_ and _Observations sur la question
financière_. During the presidency of Louis Napoleon he was four times
minister of finance, and took a leading part in the economical reforms
then made in France. His strong conservative tendencies led him to
oppose the doctrine of free trade, and disposed him to hail the _coup
d'état_ and the new empire. On the 25th of January 1852, in consequence
of the decree confiscating the property of the Orleans family, he
resigned the office of minister of finance, but was on the same day
appointed senator, and soon after rejoined the government as minister of
state and of the imperial household. In this capacity he directed the
Paris exhibition of 1855. The events of November 1860 led once more to
his resignation, but he was recalled to the ministry of finance in
November of the following year, and retained office until the
publication of the imperial letter of the 19th of January 1867, when
Émile Ollivier became the chief adviser of the emperor. During his last
tenure of office he had reduced the floating debt, which the Mexican war
had considerably increased, by the negotiation of a loan of 300 millions
of francs (1863). Fould, besides uncommon financial abilities, had a
taste for the fine arts, which he developed and refined during his youth
by visiting Italy and the eastern coasts of the Mediterranean. In 1857
he was made a member of the Academy of the Fine Arts. He died at Tarbes
on the 5th of October 1867.



FOULIS, ANDREW (1712-1775) and ROBERT (1707-1776), Scottish printers and
publishers, were the sons of a Glasgow maltman. Robert was apprenticed
to a barber; but his ability attracted the attention of Dr Francis
Hutcheson, who strongly recommended him to establish a printing press.
After spending 1738 and 1739 in England and France in company with his
brother Andrew, who had been intended for the church and had received a
better education, he started business in 1741 in Glasgow, and in 1743
was appointed printer to the university. In this same year he brought
out _Demetrius Phalereus de elocutione_, in Greek and Latin, the first
Greek book ever printed in Glasgow; and this was followed in 1774 by the
famous 12mo edition of Horace which was long but erroneously believed to
be immaculate: though the successive sheets were exposed in the
university and a reward offered for the discovery of any inaccuracy, six
errors at least, according to T.F. Dibdin, escaped detection. Soon
afterwards the brothers entered into partnership, and they continued for
about thirty years to issue carefully corrected and beautifully printed
editions of classical works in Latin, Greek, English, French and
Italian. They printed more than five hundred separate publications,
among them the small editions of Cicero, Tacitus, Cornelius Nepos,
Virgil, Tibullus and Propertius, Lucretius and Juvenal; a beautiful
edition of the Greek Testament, in small 4to; Homer (4 vols. fol.,
1756-1758); Herodotus, Greek and Latin (9 vols. 12mo, 1761); Xenophon,
Greek and Latin (12 vols. 12mo, 1762-1767); Gray's Poems; Pope's Works;
Milton's Poems. The Homer, for which Flaxman's designs were executed, is
perhaps the most famous production of the Foulis press. The brothers
spared no pains, and Robert went to France to procure manuscripts of the
classics, and to engage a skilled engraver and a copper-plate printer.
Unfortunately it became their ambition to establish an institution for
the encouragement of the fine arts; and though one of their chief
patrons, the earl of Northumberland, warned them to "print for posterity
and prosper," they spent their money in collecting pictures, pieces of
sculpture and models, in paying for the education and travelling of
youthful artists, and in copying the masterpieces of foreign art. Their
countrymen were not ripe for such an attempt, and the "Academy" not only
proved a failure but involved the projectors in ruin. Andrew died on the
18th of September 1775, and his brother went to London, hoping to
realize a large sum by the sale of his pictures. They were sold for much
less than he anticipated, and Robert returned broken-hearted to
Scotland, where he died at Edinburgh on the 2nd of June 1776. Robert was
the author of a _Catalogue of Paintings with Critical Remarks_. The
business was afterwards carried on under the same name by Robert's son
Andrew.

  See W.J. Duncan, _Notices and Documents illustrative of the Literary
  History of Glasgow_, printed for the Maitland Club (1831), which
  _inter alia_ contains a catalogue of the works printed at the Foulis
  press, and another of the pictures, statues and busts in plaster of
  Paris produced at the "Academy" in the university of Glasgow.



FOULLON, JOSEPH FRANÇOIS (1717-1789), French administrator, was born at
Saumur. During the Seven Years' War he was intendant-general of the
armies, and intendant of the army and navy under Marshal de Belle-Isle.
In 1771 he was appointed intendant of finances. In 1789, when Necker
was dismissed, Foullon was appointed minister of the king's household,
and was thought of by the reactionary party as a substitute. But he was
unpopular on all sides. The farmers-general detested him on account of
his severity, the Parisians on account of his wealth accumulated in
utter indifference to the sufferings of the poor; he was reported,
probably quite without foundation, to have said, "If the people cannot
get bread, let them eat hay." After the taking of the Bastille on the
14th of July, he withdrew to his estate at Vitry and attempted to spread
the news of his death; but he was recognized, taken to Paris, carried
off with a bundle of hay tied to his back to the hôtel de ville, and, in
spite of the intervention of Lafayette, was dragged out by the populace
and hanged to a lamp-post on the 22nd of July 1789.

  See Eugène Bonnemère, _Histoire des paysans_ (4th ed., 1887), tome
  iii.; C.L. Chassin, _Les Élections et les cahiers de Paris en 1789_.
  (Paris, 1889), tomes iii. and iv.



FOUNDATION (Lat. _fundatio_, from _fundare_, to found), the act of
building, constituting or instituting on a permanent basis; especially
the establishing of any institution by endowing or providing it with
funds for its continual maintenance. The word is thus applied also to
the institutions so established, such as a college, monastery or
hospital; and the terms "on the foundation," or "foundationer," are used
of members of such a college or society who enjoy, as fellows, scholars,
&c., the benefits of the endowment. Formerly "foundation" also meant the
charter or incorporation of any such institution or society, and it is
still applied to the funds used for the endowment of such institutions.

The terms "old foundation" and "new foundation" used in connexion with
the organizing of English cathedral chapters have no reference to the
age of the cathedrals. At the time of the Reformation under Henry VIII.
the old college chapters were left unchanged, and are referred to as the
"old foundations," but the monastic chapters were all suppressed,
consequently new chapters had to be formed for their cathedrals and
these constitute the "new foundations."

"Foundation" also means the base (natural or artificial) on which any
erection is built up; generally made below the level of the ground (see
FOUNDATIONS below). A foundation-stone is one of the stones at the base
of a building, generally a corner-stone, frequently laid with a public
ceremony to celebrate the commencement of the building. The term is also
applied to the ground-work of any structure, such as, in dress-making,
the underskirt over which the real skirt is hung, any material used for
stiffening purposes, as "foundation muslin or net." In knitting or
crochet the first stitches onto which all the rest are worked are called
the "foundation chain." In gem-cutting the "foundation-square" is the
first of eight squares round the edges of a brilliant made in bevel
planes and from which the angles are all removed to form three-corner
facets.



FOUNDATIONS, in building. The object of foundations is to distribute the
weight of a structure equally over the ground. In the construction of a
building the weights are concentrated at given points on piers, columns,
&c., and these foundations require to be spread so as to reduce the
weight to an average. In the preparation of a foundation care must be
taken to prevent the lateral escape of the soil or the movement of a bed
upon sloping ground, and it is also necessary to provide against any
damage by the action of the atmosphere. The soils met with in ordinary
practice, such as rock, gravel, chalk, clay and sand, vary as to their
capabilities of bearing weight. There is no provision in any English
building acts as to the load that may be placed on any of these soils,
but under the New York Building Code it is provided that, where no test
of the sustaining power of the soil is made, different soils, excluding
mud, at the bottom of the footings shall be deemed to safely sustain the
following loads to the superficial foot:

                                                      per sq. ft.
  Soft clay                                             1 ton.
  Ordinary soft clay and sand, together in layers,
    wet and springy                                     2 tons.
  Loam, clay or fine sand, firm and dry                 3 tons.
  Very firm coarse sand, stiff gravel or hard clay      4 tons.


  Load on foundation.

A comparison of the pressure exerted on an ordinary foundation by the
walls of the several thicknesses and heights provided for by the London
Building Act of 1894, and a comparison of a few of the principal
authorities, will be found useful in helping us to arrive at a decision
as to what can safely be allowed. Take as an example a wall of the
warehouse class, 70 ft. high, whose section at the base for a height of
27 ft. is 2½ bricks thick (or 22½ in.), and for the same distance in
height again is 2 bricks thick (or 18 in.), the remainder to the top
being 1½ bricks thick (or 14 in.). The weight of brickwork per foot run
of such a wall is 4.05 tons on any area of 3.75 ft. super. of brickwork.
According to the act the concrete is to project 4 in. on each side; we
have then an additional area of .66 ft. super. to add, thus making the
total foundation area of each foot run of wall 4.41 ft. super. to take a
weight of 4.05 tons or nearly a ton per foot super. (viz. .9 ton.)

Another factor must, however, be taken into consideration, viz. the
weight distributed from the loaded floor and from the roof. In this case
there would be at least six floors, and the entire weight could hardly
be taken at less than 6 tons, which would give a total weight of 10.05
tons on an area of 4.41 ft. super. or a load of 2.28 tons per foot
super. This is on the assumption that no extra weight has been thrown on
the foundations by openings or piers, or by girders, &c., in which case,
in addition to the work being executed in cement, the foundations should
be increased in area. Piers always involve a great increase of weight on
the foundations, and in very many instances this increased weight,
instead of being provided for by increasing the area of the foundations
and so reducing the weight per foot super., is only partly met by the
improper method of merely increasing the depth of the concrete, while
keeping the same projection of concrete round the footings as for the
walls. As an example take an iron column to carry a safe load of 80
tons, standing on a York stone template, and in turn supported by a
brick pier 22½ in. square. In this case we should have, after allowing
for the projection of concrete on either side, an area of 4 ft. 5 in.
square, or 19.6 ft. super., and this would give a pressure of 4.1 tons
per foot on the foundations, or almost twice as much as in the previous
example of a warehouse wall. Here, instead of increasing the depth of
the concrete, it would be necessary to increase its width; if it were
made 6 ft. square, we should have an area of 36 ft. super. to take the
80 tons, and thus the pressure would only be 2.2 tons per foot, and the
cost of the foundation be much the same.

If we compare a section of wall of the dwelling-house class, as
prescribed by the London Building Act, we find that, taking a wall 50
ft. high and having a thickness at base of 22½ in. as for the warehouse
wall to which we have referred, we have a wall weighing 3.75 tons per
foot super. on an area of 4.41 feet super., or .85 ton per foot without
weight of floors and roof as against the .9 ton in the warehouse
example. To this must be added the weight of, say, 5 floors and roof at
a total of 3 tons per foot run of wall, and we then have an aggregate of
6.75 tons per foot run and 1.50 tons per foot super. as against 2.28
tons in the warehouse class.

If we turn from the act to text-books we find that Colonel Seddon in the
_Aide Memoir_ gives the load which ordinary foundations will bear as a
safe load per foot super. as follows:

                                                         tons.
  Rock, moderately hard                                   9
  Rock of strength of good concrete                       3
  Rock, very soft                                       1.8
  Firm earth                                             1 to 1½
  Hard clay                                              1 to 1½
  Clean dry gravel and clean sharp sand prevented from
    spreading sideways                                   1 to 1½

Most of the work in London may be classed under one of the latter heads,
and according to this table we have, when we erect walls in accordance
with the building act, to overload our foundations.

As to the possibility of spreading weights, we have as an example the
chimney at Adkin's Soap Works in Birmingham, 312 ft. high, so arranged
that its pressure on the foundations is only 1½ tons per foot super.;
also the great St Rollox chimney at Glasgow, which has a pressure of 1¾
tons; the weight of the Eiffel Tower (7500 tons) is so spread over 4
bases, each 130 ft. square, that the pressure is only .117 ton, or
2-1/3 cwt., per foot super. The Tower Bridge has a load of 16 tons per
foot on the granite bed under the columns of towers, reduced by
spreading to an actual pressure on the clay foundation of 4 tons. The
piers under the Holborn Viaduct have a load of 2¼ tons only, those of
the Imperial Institute 2¼ tons, and those of the destructor cells and
chimney shaft at Great Yarmouth 4 tons 6¾ cwt. per foot super. From
these various examples it would appear that on sound clay or gravel
foundation a load of from 2¼ to 4 tons may be employed with safety.


    Trial borings.

  One of the first and most important requirements in preparing drawings
  for a large building is to ascertain the nature of the subsoil and
  strata at different levels over the proposed site, so as to be able to
  arrange the footings accordingly at the various depths and to decide
  as to the various forms and methods to be employed. For this purpose
  trial holes or borings are sunk until a suitable bed or bottom is
  found, upon which the concrete foundation may safely be put. If no
  such solid bottom is found, as often happens near the water side,
  special foundations must be employed, such as dock, gridiron,
  cantilever and pile foundations, &c., all of which will be described
  hereafter. As examples of the varying subsoils we may mention the
  following, in which will be noticed the great depths dug before
  getting through the made ground: At the Bank of England there were 22
  ft. of made ground resting on 4 ft. of gravel. Some of the made ground
  was of ancient date, and preserved relics of Roman occupation. In some
  parts the subsoils have been excavated for ballast or gravel, as at
  Kensington, or for brick earth, as at Highbury, and the pits filled in
  with rubbish. Rock, which forms an excellent and unchanging foundation
  in one situation, may prove a dangerous foundation in another. Thus
  chalk forms a good limestone foundation in certain positions, but when
  it dips towards a slope or a cliff with an outcrop of the gault or
  underlying clay, it is a very unsuitable foundation for any building,
  as the landslips in the Isle of Wight and on the Dorsetshire coast
  bear witness. A boring made in Tallis Street, near the Thames
  embankment, showed: (1) 18 in. ballast, dirty; (2) 6 in. greensand,
  wet and dirty; (3) 2 ft. peat clay; (4) 6 in. greensand; (5) 5½ ft.
  peaty bog; (6) 9 ft. running sand; and (7) 4 ft. clean ballast,
  resting at a depth of 23 ft. below the ground line upon blue clay. A
  boring at Highbury New Park gave: (1) 2 ft. made ground, (2) 18 ft.
  loam, (3) 9 ft. sand, (4) 4 ft. peat, and (5) 8 ft. gravel and sand.
  These examples show that while trial holes should always be made
  before designing a foundation, to ascertain the nature of the subsoil,
  care must be taken not to calculate upon uniformity. Thus at the block
  2 of the admiralty extension new buildings (London), one of the trial
  holes upon the south-west side of the old buildings showed the clay to
  be about 29½ ft. below the surface of the ground, while actual
  excavation proved the dip of the clay to be such that in the execution
  of the new building it became necessary to underpin the north-west
  corner of the old building at the deepest part 42 ft. below the
  ground. The foundations of block 1 of the new admiralty buildings are
  placed in a dock, built upon the London clay at a depth of 30 ft. in
  solid concrete 6 ft. thick. At the Hotel Victoria, in Northumberland
  Avenue (London), the various subsoils are as follows: (1) 38½ ft. made
  ground clay and gravel mixed, (2) 4 ft. gravel and sand, (3) 6 ft.
  rising sand; (4) 2 ft. fine ballast, and at a depth of 50 ft. blue
  clay. At the south end the clay was 43 ft. down and at the north end
  37 ft. The front wall was constructed on a concrete bed 9 ft. wide.
  The site was surrounded by a similar wall of concrete about 6 ft.
  wide, forming a species of boxes, and the whole was covered with a
  depth of 6 ft. of concrete upon which the walls were raised. The
  foundation for 53 Parliament Street, where running sand was
  encountered, was constructed with short piles, 7 or 8 ft. long and 6
  in. diam., pointed and placed as close together as possible over the
  whole foundation, the tops were then sawn off level, and a concrete
  raft, 7 or 8 ft. thick, was built over the whole area. At the
  Institution of Civil Engineers, Great George Street, Westminster, the
  foundations to the two party walls upon each side of the building were
  carried down about 22 ft. below the pavement level, that on the west
  side being 22 ft. deep and that on the east side 24 ft.


    Construction.

  The London Building Act and the model by-laws prohibit the erection of
  buildings on sites that have been used as "shoots" for faecal matter
  or vegetable refuse, and in such cases the objectionable material must
  be removed prior to the commencement of building operations, and the
  holes from which it was taken filled up with dry brick or other
  rubbish well rammed. Foundations are usually executed by excavators or
  navvies, and the tools and implements used are boning rods, level
  pegs, lines, spirit level, pickaxe, various shovels, wheel-barrow,
  rammer or punner, &c. In digging the ordinary trenches and
  excavations, should the ground be loose, planking and strutting have
  to be employed. This consists of rough boarding put along the sides of
  the trenches and wedged tight with waling pieces and struts; this work
  is done by navvies. Figs. 1 and 2 show the general forms of planking
  and strutting for the different soils.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.]

  In very large works of excavation in soft soil a steam digger is used
  for the bulk of the work. It consists of a large steel bucket with a
  cutting edge; this is lowered by means of a crane into the excavation,
  and on being withdrawn cuts off a portion of soil which is hoisted and
  deposited in carts for removal to any desired position within the
  radius commanded by the crane. The work of trimming the excavation to
  a regular shape must always be done by manual labour.

  Concrete for filling into the foundations is usually mixed by navvies;
  for large works it is sometimes mixed by machinery.

  In order that the work of excavating and constructing the foundations
  may proceed in a water-logged site, pumps have to be employed, and
  where the inrush of water is great it is usual to sink a sump hole
  lower than the depth required for the foundations, and to use a steam
  pump kept going day and night.

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.]

  The foundation of a wall is required to be as follows in accordance
  with the London Building and Amendment Acts: "The projection of the
  bottom of the footings of every wall on each side of the wall shall be
  at least equal to half of the thickness of the wall at its base,
  unless an adjoining wall interferes, in which case the projection may
  be omitted where that wall adjoins, and the diminution of the footings
  of every wall shall be formed in regular offsets and the height from
  the bottom of such footing to the base of the wall shall be at least
  equal to two-thirds of the thickness of the wall at its base." (See
  BRICKWORK.) The base of a wall is the thickness above the footing; the
  footing is the brickwork built directly on the top of the concrete and
  diminishing in width in every course. Thus: "The projection of the
  bottom footing to be equal to one-half the thickness of wall on both
  sides" means that a 13½-in. wall would require to have three courses
  of footings, the bottom one being 27 in. wide. "The height from the
  bottom of such footing to the base of the wall shall be at least equal
  to two-thirds the thickness of wall at its base" means that in the
  case of a 13½-in. wall the height of footings would have to be 9 in.,
  or three courses of brickwork, each measuring 3 in.

  The New York Building Code enters more fully into the requirements for
  the foundation of walls as regards depth than that in use in London.
  Section 25, Part 5, requires that every building, except buildings
  erected upon solid rock, or upon wharves and piers on the water front,
  shall have foundations of brick, stone, iron or concrete laid not less
  then 4 ft. below the surface of the earth, on the solid ground or
  level surface of rock, or upon piles or ranging timbers when solid
  earth or rock is not found. Piles intended to sustain a wall, pier or
  post, shall be spaced not more than 36 in. nor less than 20 in. on
  centres; they must be driven to a solid bearing if practicable, and
  their number must be sufficient to support the superstructure
  proposed. No pile shall be used of less dimensions than 5 in. at the
  small end and 10 in. at the butt for short piles, or piles 20 ft. or
  less in length. No pile shall be weighted with a load exceeding 40,000
  lb. When a pile is not driven to refusal, its safe sustaining power
  shall be determined by the following formula: twice the weight of the
  hammer in tons multiplied by the height of the fall in feet divided by
  the least penetration of pile under the last blow in inches plus one.
  There are also further requirements as to piles, &c., and the
  commissioner of buildings must be notified when the piles are to be
  driven.

  The New York Code, Section 26, further goes on to say that foundation
  walls shall be constructed to include all walls and piers built below
  the curb level or nearest tier of beams to the curb, to serve as
  supports for the walls, piers, columns, girders, posts or beams.
  Foundation walls shall be built of stone, brick, Portland cement
  concrete, iron or steel. If built of rubble stone or Portland cement
  concrete, they shall be at least 8 in. thicker than the wall above
  them to a depth of 12 ft. below the curb level, and for every
  additional 10 ft. or part thereof deeper, they shall be increased 4
  in. in thickness. If built of brick, they shall be at least 4 in.
  thicker than the wall next above them to a depth of 12 ft. below the
  curb level, and for every additional 10 ft. or part thereof deeper,
  they shall be increased 4 in. in thickness. The footing or base course
  shall be of stone or concrete, or both, or of concrete and stepped up
  brickwork of sufficient thickness and area to bear safely the weight
  to be imposed thereon. If the footing or base course be of concrete,
  the concrete shall not be less than 12 in. thick; if of stone, the
  stones shall not be less than 2×3 ft. and at least 8 in. in thickness
  for walls, and not less than 10 in. in thickness if under piers,
  columns or posts. The footing or base course, whether formed of
  concrete or stone, shall be at least 12 in. wider than the bottom
  width of walls, and at least 12 in. wider on all sides than the bottom
  width of said piers, columns or posts. If the superimposed load is
  such as to cause undue transverse strain on a footing projecting 12
  in., the thickness of such footing is to be increased so as to carry
  the load with safety. For small structures and for small piers
  sustaining light loads the commissioner of buildings having
  jurisdiction may, in his discretion, allow a reduction in the
  thickness and projection specified for footing or base courses. All
  base stones shall be bedded and laid crosswise, edge to edge. If
  stepped-up footing of brick is used in place of stone above the
  concrete, the offsets if laid in single courses shall each not exceed
  1½ in., or, if laid in double courses, then each shall not exceed 3
  in. offsetting the first course of brickwork back one-half the
  thickness of the concrete base, so as properly to distribute the load
  to be imposed thereon. It will be seen by the foregoing that the
  American acts are far more extensive than in London. The London
  Building Act mentions that the footings of a wall shall rest upon the
  solid ground or concrete or upon other solid substructure. The
  building act amendment says: "The foundations of the walls of every
  house or building shall be formed of a bed of good concrete not less
  than 9 in. thick, and projecting at least 4 in. on each side of the
  lowest course of footings."

  _Various Types of Foundations._--The most natural foundations for
  walls are those constructed where the walls are built directly upon
  the ground; this is only possible where the ground is very hard or
  consists of rock, and in either of these cases the ground is simply
  levelled and the building commenced.

  The next and most universally recognized method, which might safely be
  said to be adopted in 95% of all modern buildings, is the system of
  placing a bed of concrete under the walls, digging trenches where the
  walls are to come until a solid bottom is reached, and in these laying
  the concrete. The London Building Act requires this concrete bed to be
  at least 4 in. wider than the bottom course of footings on each side
  of the wall, but it is generally made 6 in. wider on each side and in
  general circumstances the depth of the concrete is varied according to
  the weight placed upon it.

  Where a site is in close proximity to a river or old water-course,
  &c., where deep basements are excavated, or where the ground lies low,
  naturally water is met with, and where water is the ground is soft. It
  is here that special foundations are required.


    Concrete piers, legs, or stilts.

  In certain cases it is necessary to use concrete legs or stilts. These
  are placed in such positions as to take the weights of the building,
  and sunk to depths of 40 ft. more or less as the case may require
  according to the nature of the ground; and on the tops of these stilts
  concrete arches or lintels are turned over (fig. 3). As an example of
  the stilt principle, mention may be made of some premises at Stratford
  and a church at South Bermondsey, London, in which concrete piers were
  sunk at 12 ft. centres apart and 4½ ft. square, in pot holes dug out
  of made ground; then concrete arches were formed over the intervening
  untrustworthy ground with a minimum thickness of 18 in. or the piers
  were connected by concrete lintels 3 ft. thick in which steel joists
  were embedded. At Sion College, Victoria Embankment, London, the
  foundations were formed with cement concrete stilts or piers 8 ft.
  square, and going down to the London clay; from the tops of these
  stilts brick arches were turned, spanning the spaces between the
  piers, and upon these arches the walls were built.


    Pile foundations.

  Pile foundations, used in the case of soft ground, for small works,
  consist either of stout scaffold poles or of timbers varying from 6
  in. to 12 in. square according to requirements (fig. 4). The bottom
  ends of these timbers have an iron shoe with a point, so as to be
  easily driven into the ground, and the tops of the timbers have an
  iron band round, so that when the timbers are being driven in the
  band prevents them from splitting (fig. 5). The methods of driving
  these piles are various. The usual plan is to erect a temporary
  structure, upon one side of which is a guide path faced with
  sheet-iron so as to give a smooth face. Up and down this guide path a
  heavy iron weight, called a monkey, is worked; the monkey is hoisted
  to the top of the guide path by means of a crab worked by hand or
  steam, and when released descends with a good force, and so drives the
  piles into the ground. The monkey usually weighs from 2 cwt. to 10
  cwt. and is allowed a drop of 15 to 40 ft.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.]

  Piles are driven all round under the walls at varying intervals or
  under piers where the weights of a building are to be concentrated. In
  the erection of the Chicago public library four Norway pine piles,
  each with an average diameter of 13 in., were driven to a depth of 52½
  ft. and loaded with a dead load of 50.7 tons per pile for a period of
  two weeks, and no settlement taking place 30 tons per pile was adopted
  as a safe load. The following are some examples of loads used in
  practice: passenger station, Harrison Street, Chicago, piles 50 ft. in
  length, each carrying 25 tons; elevator, Buffalo, N.Y., piles 20 ft.
  in length, weight 25 tons; Trinity church, Boston, 2 tons; Schiller
  building, Chicago, 55 tons per pile, but in this case the building
  settled considerably. All timber grillage and the tops of all piles
  should be kept below the lowest water level, and be capped with
  concrete or stone. In Boston it is obligatory to cap with blocks of
  granite.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.]


    Concrete piles.

  Another form of foundation takes the shape of Portland cement concrete
  blocks, and is used chiefly for bridges and in marshy land, &c. In
  some cases cylinders of brickwork are built, and the centres are
  filled with blocks of concrete and grouted in. The Yarmouth destructor
  cells and chimney shaft were built in this way; the cylinders were
  constructed of 9 in. brickwork built in Portland cement, the lower 4
  ft. being encased in a wooden drum with cutting edge sunk into the
  gravel and sand at least 2 ft. The cylinders were sunk by the aid of
  a grab, the bottom being levelled and the concrete blocks laid by a
  diver. Use is also made of piles consisting of Portland cement
  concrete having steel rods embedded in it, and provided with iron
  shoes and head for driving (fig. 6).

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.]

  Cast iron screw piles (fig. 7) used in very loose sandy soils, consist
  of large hollow cast iron columns with flat screw blades cast on the
  lower ends. The projection of this screw from the pile may vary from 9
  in. to 18 in. with a pitch of from one-quarter to one-half of the
  projection, the blade making a little over one turn round the shaft.
  For most requirements a diameter of screw from 3½ to 4½ ft. will be
  found sufficient, a sandy foundation requiring the largest. The lower
  end of the tube is generally left open, the edge being bevelled and
  occasionally provided with teeth to assist in cutting into and
  penetrating the soil.

  Another system of piling known as sheet piling (fig. 8), consists in
  driving piles into the ground at intervals, and between these, also
  driven into the ground, are timbers measuring 3 in. by 9 in., which
  form a wall to keep the soft earth up under the building. In this way
  the earth is prevented from spreading out and so causing the building
  to settle unevenly.


    Plank foundations.

  Another kind of foundation, known as plank foundation (fig. 9),
  consists of elm planks, about 9 in. by 3 in. laid across the trench
  and spiked together; on the top of these are laid similar planks but
  at right angles to the last, and upon the platform thus formed the
  wall is built. This method is used in soft ground.

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.]


    Caissons.

  Caissons are usually employed by engineers for the construction of the
  foundations of bridge piers, but instances of their use in foundations
  for buildings are to be found in the American Surety and the Manhattan
  Life Insurance buildings, New York City. The latter building is 242
  ft. high to the parapet, and the dome and tower rise 108 ft. higher.
  The building is carried on 16 solid masonry piers, taken down 54 ft.
  below the street level to solid rock, and these piers support the 34
  cast iron columns upon which the building is erected. The piers to
  each building were constructed by the pneumatic caisson process (see
  CAISSON).


    Well foundations.

  A good plan for foundations when the ground is loose and sandy is to
  build upon wells of brickwork, a method which has been successfully
  practised in Madras. The wells are made circular, about 3 ft. in
  diameter and one brick thick. The first course is laid and cemented
  together on the surface of the ground when it is dry, and the earth is
  excavated inside and round about it to allow it to sink. Then another
  is laid over it and again sunk. The well is thus built downwards. The
  brickwork is sunk bodily to a depth of 10 ft. or more, according to
  building to be erected upon it, and the interior is filled up with
  rubble work. All the public buildings at Madras were erected upon
  foundations of this kind. Well foundations were employed under the
  city hall, Kansas City, and the Stock Exchange, Chicago.

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.]


    Coffer dams.

  Coffer dams are wooden structures used to keep back the water whilst
  putting in foundations on the waterside, and are constructed with two
  rows of timbers, 12 in. square as piles spaced about 6 ft. apart, and
  filled in between with a double row of 2 in. or 3 in. boards, the
  space between the rows being packed with clay puddle (fig. 10). The
  general rule for the thickness of a coffer dam is to make it equal to
  the depth of water. An interesting example of a coffer dam is that at
  the Keyham dock extension, where piles varied in length from 65 ft. to
  85 ft. They were driven in a double row 5 ft. apart, and over 13,000
  were used.

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.]


    Dock foundations.

  Dock foundations are constructed after the fashion of a large concrete
  tank, and are adapted to large sites where a difficulty arises as to
  the ingress of water. They are considered the best method of
  constructing a building on soft ground and of keeping a building dry
  (fig. 11). This type of foundation was used at the new colonial
  office, Whitehall, London, and the new admiralty buildings at St
  James's Park, London. A few buildings treated after the style of a
  dock, but in some instances without the enclosing walls, are the
  following: At the admiralty buildings already mentioned a concrete
  retaining wall completely surrounds the exterior below the ground, and
  is joined up to the underpinning work; the whole site being covered
  with concrete 6 ft. thick, a huge tank is formed of an average inside
  clear depth of 20 ft. in which the basements are built. The new "Old
  Bailey" buildings in Newgate Street, London, are constructed on a
  concrete table 5 ft. thick, as also are the Army and Navy Auxiliary
  Stores, Victoria Street. At Kennet's Wharf, near Southwark Bridge, a
  concrete table, 8 ft. thick, was spread all over the site, with an
  extra thickness under the walls. Foundations formed similarly to dock
  foundations, but in addition having steel joists and rods inserted in
  the thickness of the concrete table, to tie the whole together, are
  known as _gridiron_ foundations.

  In the Hennebique concrete system, all beams, &c., are formed with
  small rods and then surrounded with concrete; it is designed for
  floors and for spreading the weight of a building over an extended
  foundation on soft ground.


    Cantilever foundations.

  Where a heavy wall is to be built against an old one and there is not
  sufficient room for the foundations, the plan is adopted of building
  pier foundations at some distance from the proposed new wall. On the
  top of these piers rest steel cantilevers over steel pin rockers upon
  cast iron bedplates; the cantilevers are secured at one end to a
  column, while the other ends go through the full thickness of the new
  wall. Upon these last ends is placed a steel girder upon which the
  wall is built. This construction (fig. 12) has been used in America,
  and in the Ritz Hotel, Piccadilly, London.

  Another form of cantilever foundations was employed in the case of
  some premises at Carr's Lane, Birmingham, partly built over the Great
  Western railway tunnel (fig. 13). In this instance large piers were
  built below the ground at the side of the tunnel. From the tops of
  these piers large steel cantilevers were erected projecting over the
  crown of the tunnel, and on these steel girders were fixed and the
  building constructed upon them.


    Foundations in Tunis.

  In modern Tunis, a section of which city is built on marshy ground,
  the subsoil is an oozy sediment, largely deposited by the sewage water
  from the ancient or Arab quarter of the city, which is situated on an
  adjacent hill. This semi-fluid mud has a depth of about 33 ft. To
  prepare the soil for supporting an ordinary house, pits from 8 ft. to
  10 ft. square are excavated to a depth of about 10 ft., to the level
  of the ground water. A mixture is made of the excavated soil and
  powdered fat lime, procured from clinkers and unburnt stone from the
  lime-kilns, which soon crumbles to fine dust when exposed to the air.
  The mixture is thrown into pits in layers about 12 in. thick and
  rammed down for a very long time by specially trained labourers. A
  gang of 15 or 20 men will work at least 10 or 12 days ramming for the
  foundations of a moderate-sized house. An extremely hard bed is thus
  obtained, reaching to within 18 in. of the surface of the ground, and
  on this artificial bed the foundations of the building are laid.
  Although this method of construction is crude, it is stated that the
  practical results are superior to those obtained by using piles,
  concrete or other recognized methods, and in all cases the cost is
  much less, for labour is cheap.

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.]


    Building on sand.

  A novel and interesting foundation was designed for a signal station
  at Cape Henlopen, Delaware. This is built on top of the highest
  sandhill at Cape Henlopen, so that the observer may have an
  unobstructed view; it rises about 80 ft. above the level of the sea
  and is exposed to all winds and weather, while it is absolutely
  required that it shall stand firmly planted in such a way that even a
  hurricane shall not shake it or make it tremble, since that would
  affect the sight of the telescope in the observatory. The usual mode
  of securing such a building is by means of a foundation of screw piles
  or of heavy timbers sunk into the sand; this method, however, has the
  disadvantage that if the wind shifts the sand away from around the
  foundation, it becomes undermined and its effect is destroyed. To
  avoid such an accident, recourse was had to the following design,
  which was considered to be cheap and at the same time to provide an
  effective anchorage. The building is entirely of wood; it has a
  cellar, above which are two rooms one above the other, and the whole
  is surmounted by the observatory proper. First, the ground sill is a
  square of 20 ft., made of yellow pine sticks mortised together and
  pinned with stout trunnels. The sill of the observatory is made
  likewise of heavy timbers, 12 ft. long. The two sills are joined
  together by four stout yellow pine corner posts, which in turn are
  mortised into both sills. The posts are 26 ft. in length. Five feet
  above the lower sill is the sill which supports the floor of the first
  room. Ten feet above this is the sill which supports the upper room.
  Both these sills again are mortised into the corner posts. The
  structure is sheathed outside with German siding, and inside with
  rough boards covered with felt, and again by tongued and grooved
  yellow pine boards. The observatory proper, octagonal in shape, is
  securely mortised into the top sill and covered with a corrugated iron
  roof conical in shape. The cellar is floored with 3 in. wood, and
  boarded all round on the inside of the posts. A pit was first dug in
  the sand about 6 ft. deep and fully 20 ft. wide on the bottom. The
  cellar sill was laid on this bottom, and the structure built upon it;
  thus the whole depth of cellar is sunk below the top of the hill or
  the level of the sand. The cellar was then filled up with sand and
  packed solid all round, consequently the building is anchored in its
  place by the load in the cellar, about 100 tons in weight.

  [Illustration: FIG. 13.--Cantilever Foundation over Railway Tunnel.]

  The subject of foundations, being naturally of the first importance,
  is one that calls for most careful study. It is not of so much
  importance that the ground be hard or even rocky as that it be compact
  and of similar consistency throughout. It is not always that a site
  answers to this description, and the problem of what will be the best
  form of foundation to use in placing a building, more especially if
  that building be of large dimensions and consequently great weight, on
  a site of soft yielding soil, is one that is often most difficult of
  solution. The foregoing article indicates in a brief manner some of
  the obstacles the architect or engineer is required to surmount before
  his work can even be started on its way to completion.

  AUTHORITIES.--The principal books for reference on this subject are:
  _A Practical Treatise on Foundations_, by W.M. Patron, C. E.;
  _Building Construction and Superintendence_, part i., by F.E. Kidder;
  _Notes on Building Construction_, vols. i. ii. and iii.; _Aide
  Memoir_, vol. ii., by Colonel Seddon, R.E.; _Advanced Building
  Construction_, by C.F. Mitchell; _Modern House Construction_, by G.L.
  Sutcliffe; _Building Construction_, by Professor Henry Adams;
  _Practical Building Construction_, by J.P. Allen.     (J. Bt.)



FOUNDING (from Lat. _fundere_, to pour), the process of casting in
metal, of making a reproduction of a given object by running molten
metal into a mould taken in sand, loam or plaster from that object. To
enable the founder to prepare a mould for the casting, he must receive a
pattern similar to the casting required. Some few exceptions occur, to
be noted presently, but the above statement is true of perhaps 98% of
all castings produced. The construction of such patterns gives
employment to a large number of highly skilled men, who can only acquire
the necessary knowledge through an apprenticeship lasting from five to
seven years. A knowledge of two trades at least is involved in the work
of pattern construction--that of the craft itself and that of the
moulder and founder. Patterns have to be constructed strongly. They are
generally of wood, and they thus require skill in the use of woodworking
tools and the making of timber joints, together with a knowledge of the
behaviour of timber, &c. Some few patterns are made in iron, brass or
white metal alloys. They have to be embedded in a matrix of sand by the
founder, and being enclosed, they have to be withdrawn without
inflicting any damage in the way of fracture in the sand. Since cast
work involves shapes that are often very intricate, including
projections and hollow spaces of all forms, it is obvious that the
withdrawal of the patterns without entailing tearing up and fracture of
the sand must involve many difficult problems that have to be as fully
understood by the pattern-maker as by the moulder. It is from this point
of view that the work of the pattern-maker should be approached in the
first place. No closed mould can possibly be made without one or more
joints, for if a pattern is wholly enclosed in a matrix of sand it
cannot be withdrawn except by making a parting in the sand, and it is
not difficult to conceive that the parting in the pattern might
advantageously be made to coincide, either exactly or approximately,
with that of the mould. Nor must obstacles exist to the free withdrawal
of patterns. They must therefore not be wider or larger in the lower
than in the upper parts; actually they are made a trifle smaller or
"tapered." Nor may they have any lateral extensions into the lower sand,
unless these can be made to withdraw separately from the main portion of
the pattern. Finally, there are many internal spaces which cannot be
formed by a pattern directly in the sand, but provision for which must
be made by some means extraneous to the pattern, as by cores.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

  A single example must illustrate the main principles which have just
  been stated. The object selected is a bracket which involves questions
  of joints, of cores, of pattern construction and of moulding. The
  casting, the pattern, and its mould are illustrated. Fig. 1
  illustrates in plan the casting of a double bracket, the end elevation
  of which is seen in fig. 2; the pattern of which presents obvious
  difficulties in the way of withdrawal from a mould, supposing it were
  made just like its casting. But if it be made as in fig. 3, with the
  open spaces A, B, in fig. 2, occupied with core prints, and the pieces
  A, A in fig. 3 left loosely skewered on, everything will "deliver"
  freely. Moreover the pattern might be made solidly as shown in fig. 3,
  or else jointed and dowelled in the plane a-a, as in fig. 4, or along
  the upper faces of the prints b-b, fig. 3. The timber shadings in
  figs. 3 and 4 illustrate points in the most suitable arrangement of
  material. The prints are "boxed up." Fig. 4 shows a certain stage of
  the moulding, in which one half of the pattern has been "rammed" in
  sand, and turned over in the "bottom box," and the upper half is ready
  to be rammed in the "top box," with "runner pin" or "git stick" A, set
  in place. The lower loose piece has had its skewer removed during the
  ramming. Fig. 5 illustrates the mould completed and ready for pouring.
  The boxes have been parted, the pattern has been withdrawn, cores
  inserted in the impressions left by the prints, vents taken from the
  central body of cinders, the pouring basin made and the boxes cottered
  together.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.]

  Every single detail now briefly noted in connexion with this bracket
  is applied and modified in an almost infinite number of ways to suit
  the ever varying character of foundry work. Yet this process does not
  touch some of the great subdivisions of moulding and casting. There is
  a large volume of large and heavy work for which complete patterns and
  core boxes are never made, because of the great expense that would be
  involved in the pattern construction. There are also some cases in
  which the methods adopted would not permit of the use of patterns, as
  in that group of work in which the sand or loam is "swept" to the form
  required for the moulds and cores by means of striking boards, loam
  boards, core boards or strickles. In these classes of moulding the
  loose green sands and core sands are not much used; instead, loam--a
  wet and plastic sand mixture--is employed, supported against bricks
  (loam moulds) or against core bars and plates, and hay ropes (loam
  cores). All heavy marine engine cylinders are thus made by sweeping,
  and all massive cores for engine cylinders and large pipes, besides
  much large circular and cylindrical work, as foundation cylinders,
  soap pans, lead pans, mortar pans, large propeller blades, &c. In
  these cases the edge of the striking board is a counterpart of the
  profile of the work swept up. Joints also have to be made in such
  moulds, not of course in order to provide for the removal of a
  pattern, but for the exposure of the separate parts in course of
  construction, and for closing them up, or putting them together in
  their due relations. These joints also are swept by the boards,
  generally cut to produce suitable "checks," or "registers" to ensure
  that they accurately fit together. Fig. 6, showing a portion of a
  swept-up mould, illustrates the general arrangement. A plate, A,
  carries a quantity of bricks, B, which are embedded in loam, and break
  joint. To a striking bar, C, supported in a step, a striking board or
  sweeping board, D, is bolted, and is swept round against plastic loam,
  which is afterwards dried. The check on the board at A corresponds
  with a similar check on the board which strikes the interior of the
  pan, and by which top and bottom portions of the mould are registered
  together. This is indicated in dotted outline. Its mould also is swept
  on bricks, and turned over into place, and the metal is poured into
  the space b, b, between the two moulds. There is also a large group of
  swept-up work which is not symmetrical about a centre of rotation.
  Then the movements of the sweeping boards are controlled by the edges
  of "core plates," or of "core irons" (fig. 7). Bend pipes, and the
  volute casings of centrifugal pumps and pipes, afford examples of this
  kind. In fig. 7, A is the core iron, held down by weights, and B the
  "strickle," sweeping up the half bend C, two such halves pasted
  together completing the core.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.]

  Core-making is a special department of foundry work, often involving
  as much detail as the construction and moulding of patterns. Two
  perfectly plain boxes are shown in figs. 8 and 9, in both of which
  provision exists for removing the box parts from the core after the
  latter has been rammed. Core boxes are jointed and tapered, and often
  have loose pieces within them, and also prints, into the impressions
  of which other cores are inserted.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

_Machine-moulding._--There is a development of modern methods of
founding which is effecting radical changes in some departments of
foundry practice, namely, moulding by machines. The advantages of this
method are manifold, and its limitations are being lessened
continually. There are two broad departments between which
machine-moulding is divided. One, of less importance, is that of toothed
wheels; the other is that of general work, except of a very massive
character.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]

Gear-wheel moulding machines are essentially a special adaptation of the
mechanism of the dividing engine, by means of which, instead of using a
complete pattern of a toothed wheel, two or three pattern teeth are
used, and the machine takes charge of the correct pitching or division
of the teeth moulded therefrom, leaving to the moulder the work only of
turning the handle of the division plate, and ramming the sand around
the pattern teeth. The result is accurate pitching, and the use of two
or three teeth instead of a full pattern, together with any core boxes
and striking boards that are necessary for the arms.

The other department of machine moulding includes nearly every
conceivable class of work of small and medium dimensions. There are some
dozens of distinct types of machines in use, for no one type is suitable
for all classes of moulds, while some are designed specially for one or
two kinds only.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

  The fundamental principles of operation are briefly these: The pattern
  parts constitute, by their method of attachment to a plate or table A
  (fig. 10), an integral portion of the machine, so that they must
  partake of certain movements which are imparted to it. Often patterns
  mounted, as in fig. 10, are moulded by hand, without any aid from a
  machine, by methods of "plate-moulding." The delivery of the pattern
  from the sand is invariably accomplished by a perpendicular movement
  of a portion of the machine (fig. 11), withdrawing either the pattern
  from the mould or the mould from the pattern. The important point is
  that the perpendicular movement, being under the coercion of the
  vertical guides provided in the hand machines, or the hydraulic ram in
  fig. 11, is free from the unsteadiness which is incidental to
  withdrawal by the hands of the moulder; and if the machine performed
  nothing more than this it would justify its existence. Little or no
  taper is required in the pattern, and the moulds are more nearly
  uniform in dimensions than hand-made moulds. But there are other
  advantages. In machine-moulding the joint faces for parting moulds
  are produced by the faces of the plates on which the pattern is
  mounted (figs. 10 and 11), instead of by the hands and trowel of the
  moulder. When the joint face is of irregular outline, as it often is,
  this item alone saves a good deal of time, which again is multiplied
  by the number of moulds repeated, often amounting to thousands.
  Further, provision is generally made on machine plates for the ingates
  and runners (fig. 10) through which the metal enters the mould, the
  preparation of which in hand work occupies a considerable amount of
  time. Another great advantage applies especially to the case of deep
  moulds. These give much trouble in hand-moulding in consequence of the
  liability of the sand to become torn up during the withdrawal of the
  pattern. But in machine-moulding such patterns are encircled by a
  plate, termed a "stripping plate," which is pierced to allow the
  patterns to pass through, and which, being maintained firmly on the
  sand during the lifting of the pattern, prevents it from becoming torn
  up. This is not merely a matter of convenience, but is a necessity in
  numerous instances. The most familiar example is that of the teeth of
  gear wheels, in which even a very slight amount of taper interferes
  with accurate engagement, and this is representative of many other
  portions of mechanism. These stripping plates are of metal, but in
  order to save the cost of filing them in iron or steel, many are
  cheaply made by casting a white metal alloy round the actual pattern
  itself in the first place, the white metal being enclosed and retained
  in a plain iron frame which forms the body of the plate. Lastly, many
  machines, but not the majority, include provision for mechanically
  ramming the sand around the pattern by power instead of by hand. This
  is really the least valuable feature of a moulding machine, because it
  is not applicable to any but rather shallow moulds. It is commonly
  used for these, but the consistence and homogeneity of a mass of sand
  round a pattern having deep perpendicular sides can only be ensured by
  careful hand ramming.

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.]

  The highest economies of machine-moulding are obtained when (1)
  several small patterns are mounted and moulded at once on a single
  plate (fig. 10); (2) when top and bottom parts of a mould are produced
  on different machines, carrying each its moiety of the pattern; (3)
  when the machine and pattern details are simplified so much that the
  labour of trained moulders is displaced by that of unskilled
  attendants who are taught in a month or two the few simple operations
  required. That is the direction in which repetitive casting is now
  rapidly tending.

  In fig. 11 A is the plate, which in its essentials corresponds with
  the plate A in fig. 10, but which in the machine is made to swivel so
  as to bring each half of the pattern B, B in turn uppermost for
  ramming in the box parts C, C. The ramming is done by hand, the final
  squeeze being imparted against the presser D by the action of the
  hydraulic ram E pushing the plate, mould and box up against D. The
  plate being then lowered, and turned over, the further descent of the
  ram withdraws the bottom box from the pattern, which is the stage seen
  in the illustration. Then the half mould is run away on the carriage
  F, provided with wheels to run on rails.

  Though casting in iron, steel, the bronzes, aluminium, &c., is
  carried on by different men in distinct shops, yet the foregoing
  principles and methods apply to all alike. Work is done in green, i.e.
  moist sand, in dry sand (the moulds being dried before being used),
  and in plastic loam (which is subsequently dried). Hand and machine
  moulding are practised in each, the last-named excepted. The
  differences in working are those due to the various characteristics of
  the different metals and alloys, which involve differences in the sand
  mixtures used, in the dimensions of the pouring channels, of the
  temperature at which the metal or alloy must be poured, of the fluxing
  and cleansing of the metal, and other details of a practical
  character. Hence the practice which is suitable for one department
  must be modified in others. Many castings in steel would inevitably
  fracture if poured into moulds prepared for iron, many iron castings
  would fracture if poured into moulds suitable for brass, and neither
  brass nor steel would fill a mould having ingates proportioned
  suitably for iron.

  A special kind of casting is that into "chill moulds," adopted in a
  considerable number of iron castings, such as the railway wheels in
  the United States, ordinary tramway wheels, the rolls of iron and
  steel rolling mills, the bores of cast wheel hubs, &c. The chill
  ranges in depth from ¼ in. to 1 in., and is produced by pouring a
  special mixture of mottled, or strong, iron against a cold iron
  surface, the parts of the casting which are not required to be chilled
  being surrounded by an ordinary mould of sand. The purpose of
  chill-casting is to produce a surface hardness in the metal.

  The shrinkage of metal is a fact which has to be taken account of by
  the pattern-maker and moulder. A pattern and mould are made larger
  than the size of the casting required by the exact amount that the
  metal will shrink in cooling from the molten to the cold state. This
  amount varies from 1/8 in. in 15 in., in thin iron castings, to 1/8
  in. in 12 in. in heavy ones. It ranges from 3/16 in. to 5/16 in. per
  foot in steel, brass and aluminium. Its variable amount has to be
  borne in mind in making light and heavy-castings, and castings with or
  without cores, for massive cores retard shrinkage. It is also a
  fruitful cause of fracture in badly proportioned castings,
  particularly of those in steel. Brass is less liable to suffer in this
  respect than iron, and iron much less than steel.     (J. G. H.)



FOUNDLING HOSPITALS, originally institutions for the reception of
"foundlings," i.e. children who have been abandoned or exposed, and left
for the public to find and save. The early history of such institutions
is connected with the practice of infanticide, and in western Europe
where social disorder was rife and famine of frequent occurrence,
exposure and extensive sales of children were the necessary
consequences. Against these evils, which were noticed by several
councils, the church provided a rough system of relief, children being
deposited (_jactati_) in marble shells at the church doors, and tended
first by the _matricularii_ or male nurses, and then by the _nutricarii_
or foster-parents.[1] But it was in the 7th and 8th centuries that
definite institutions for foundlings were established in such towns as
Trèves, Milan and Montpellier. In the 15th century Garcias, archbishop
of Valencia, was a conspicuous figure in this charitable work; but his
fame is entirely eclipsed by that of St Vincent de Paul, who in the
reign of Louis XIII., with the help of the countess of Joigny, Mme le
Gras and other religious ladies, rescued the foundlings of Paris from
the horrors of a primitive institution named La Couche (rue St Landry),
and ultimately obtained from Louis XIV. the use of the Bicêtre for their
accommodation. Letters patent were granted to the Paris hospital in
1670. The Hôtel-Dieu of Lyons was the next in importance. No provision,
however, was made outside the great towns; the houses in the cities were
overcrowded and administered with laxity; and in 1784 Necker prophesied
that the state would yet be seriously embarrassed by this increasing
evil.[2] From 1452 to 1789 the law had imposed on the _seigneurs de
haute justice_ the duty of succouring children found deserted on their
territories. The first constitutions of the Revolution undertook as a
state debt the support of every foundling. For a time premiums were
given to the mothers of illegitimate children, the "enfants de la
patrie." By the law of 12 Brumaire, An II. "Toute recherche de la
paternité est interdite," while by art. 341 of the Code Napoléon, "la
recherche de la matérnité est admise."

  _France._--The laws of France relating to this part of what is called
  L'Assistance Publique are the decree of January 1811, the instruction
  of February 1823, the decree of the 5th of March 1852, the law of the
  5th of May 1869, the law of the 24th of July 1889 and the law of the
  27th of June 1904. These laws carry out the general principles of the
  law of 7 Frimaire An V., which completely decentralized the system of
  national poor relief established by the Revolution. The _enfants
  assistés_ include, besides (1) orphans and (2) foundlings proper, (3)
  children abandoned by their parents, (4) ill-treated, neglected or
  morally abandoned children whose parents have been deprived of their
  parental rights by the decision of a court of justice, (5) children,
  under sixteen years of age, of parents condemned for certain crimes,
  whose parental rights have been delegated by a tribunal to the state.
  Children classified under 1-5 are termed _pupilles de l'assistance_,
  "wards of public charity," and are distinguished by the law of 1904
  from children under the protection of the state, classified as: (1)
  _enfants secourus_, i.e. children whose parents or relatives are
  unable, through poverty, to support them; (2) _enfants en dépôt_, i.e.
  children of persons undergoing a judicial sentence and children
  temporarily taken in while their parents are in hospital, and (3)
  _enfants en garde_, i.e. children who have either committed or been
  the victim of some felony or crime and are placed under state care by
  judicial authority. The asylum which receives all these children is a
  departmental (_établissement dépositaire_), and not a communal
  institution. The établissement dépositaire is usually the ward of an
  hospice, in which--with the exception of children _en dépôt_--the stay
  is of the shortest, for by the law of 1904, continuing the principle
  laid down in 1811, all children under thirteen years of age under the
  guardianship of the state, except the mentally or physically infirm,
  must be boarded out in country districts. They are generally
  apprenticed to some one engaged in the agricultural industry, and
  until majority they remain under the guardianship of the
  administrative commissioners of the department. The state pays the
  whole of the cost of inspection and supervision. The expenses of
  administration, the "home" expenses, for the nurse (_nourrice
  sédentaire_) or the wet nurse (_nourrice au sein_), the _prime de
  survie_ (premium on survival), washing, clothes, and the "outdoor"
  expenses, which include (1) temporary assistance to unmarried mothers
  in order to prevent desertion; (2) allowances to the foster-parents
  (_nourriciers_) in the country for board, school-money, &c.; (3)
  clothing; (4) travelling-money for nurses and children; (5) printing,
  &c.; (6) expenses in time of sickness and for burials and apprentice
  fees--are borne in the proportion of two-fifths by the state
  two-fifths by the department, and the remaining fifth by the communes.
  The following figures show the number of children (exclusive of
  _enfants secourus_) relieved at various periods:

    Year.       Number relieved.
    1890             95,701
    1895            121,201
    1900            138,308
    1905            149,803

  The _droit de recherche_ is conceded to the parent on payment of a
  small fee. The decree of 1811 contemplated the repayment of all
  expenses by a parent reclaiming a child. The same decree directed a
  _tour_ or revolving box (_Drehcylinder_ in Germany) to be kept at each
  hospital. These have been discontinued. The "Assistance Publique" of
  Paris is managed by a "directeur" appointed by the minister of the
  interior, and associated with a representative _conseil de
  surveillance_. The Paris Hospice des Enfants-Assistés contains about
  700 beds. There are also in Paris numerous private charities for the
  adoption of poor children and orphans. It is impossible here to give
  even a sketch of the long and able controversies which have occurred
  in France on the principles of management of foundling hospitals, the
  advantages of _tours_ and the system of admission _à bureau ouvert_,
  the transfer of orphans from one department to another, the hygiene
  and service of hospitals and the inspection of nurses, the education
  and reclamation of the children and the rights of the state in their
  future. Reference may be made to the works noticed at the end of this
  article.

  _Belgium._--In this country the arrangements for the relief of
  foundlings and the appropriation of public funds for that purpose very
  much resemble those in France, and can hardly be usefully described
  apart from the general questions of local government and poor law
  administration. The Commissions des Hospices Civiles, however, are
  purely communal bodies, although they receive pecuniary assistance
  from both the departments and the state. A decree of 1811 directed
  that there should be an asylum and a wheel for receiving foundlings in
  every arrondissement. The last "wheel," that of Antwerp, was closed in
  1860. (See _Des Institutions de bienfaisance et de prévoyance en
  Belgique_, 1850 à 1860, par M.P. Lentz.)

  _Italy_ is very rich in foundling hospitals, pure and simple, orphans
  and other destitute children being separately provided for. (See
  _Della carità preventiva in Italia_, by Signor Fano.) In Rome one
  branch of the Santo Spirito in Sassia (so called from the Schola
  Saxonum built in 728 by King Ina in the Borgo) has, since the time of
  Pope Sixtus IV., been devoted to foundlings. The average annual number
  of foundlings supported is about 3000. (See _The Charitable
  Institutions of Rome_, by Cardinal Morichini.) In Venice the Casa
  degli Esposti or foundling hospital, founded in 1346, and receiving
  450 children annually, is under provincial administration. The
  splendid legacy of the last doge, Ludovico Manin, is applied to the
  support of about 160 children by the "Congregazione di Carità" acting
  through 30 parish boards (_deputazione fraternate_).

  _Austria._--In Austria foundling hospitals occupied a very prominent
  place in the general instructions which, by rescript dated 16th of
  April 1781, the emperor Joseph II. issued to the charitable endowment
  commission. In 1818 foundling asylums and lying-in houses were
  declared to be state institutions. They were accordingly supported by
  the state treasury until the fundamental law of 20th October 1860
  handed them over to the provincial committees. They are now local
  institutions, depending on provincial funds, and are quite separate
  from the ordinary parochial poor institute. Admission is gratuitous
  when the child is actually found on the street, or is sent by a
  criminal court, or where the mother undertakes to serve for four
  months as nurse or midwife in an asylum, or produces a certificate
  from the parish priest and "poor-father" (the parish inspector of the
  poor-law administration) that she has no money. In other cases
  payments of 30 to 100 florins are made. When two months old the child
  is sent for six or ten years to the houses in the neighbourhood of
  respectable married persons, who have certificates from the police or
  the poor-law authorities, and who are inspected by the latter and by a
  special medical officer. These persons receive a constantly
  diminishing allowance, and the arrangement may be determined by 14
  days' notice on either side. The foster-parents may retain the child
  in their service or employment till the age of twenty-two, but the
  true parents may at any time reclaim the foundling on reimbursing the
  asylum and compensating the foster-parents.

  _Russia._--Under the old Russian system of Peter I. foundlings were
  received at the church windows by a staff of women paid by the state.
  But since the reign of Catherine II. the foundling hospitals have been
  in the hands of the provincial officer of public charity (prykaz
  obshestvennago pryzrenya). The great central institutions
  (Vospitatelnoi Dom), at Moscow and St Petersburg (with a branch at
  Gatchina), were founded by Catherine. When a child is brought the
  baptismal name is asked, and a receipt is given, by which the child
  may be reclaimed up to the age of ten. The mother may nurse her child.
  After the usual period of six years in the country very great care is
  taken with the education, especially of the more promising children.
  The hospital is a valuable source of recruits for the public service.
  Malthus (_The Principles of Population_, vol. i. p. 434) has made a
  violent attack on these Russian charities. He argues that they
  discourage marriage and therefore population, and that the best
  management is unable to prevent a high mortality. He adds: "An
  occasional child murder from false shame is saved at a very high price
  if it can be done only by the sacrifice of some of the best and most
  useful feelings of the human heart in a great part of the nation." It
  does not appear, however, that the rate of illegitimacy in Russia is
  comparatively high; it is so in the two great cities. The rights of
  parents over the children were very much restricted, and those of the
  government much extended by a ukase issued by the emperor Nicholas in
  1837. The most eminent Russian writer on this subject is M. Gourov.
  See his _Recherches sur les enfants trouvés_, and _Essai sur
  l'histoire des enfants trouvés_ (Paris, 1829).

  In _America_, foundling hospitals, which are chiefly private
  charities, exist in most of the large cities.

  _Great Britain._--The Foundling Hospital of London was incorporated by
  royal charter in 1739 "for the maintenance and education of exposed
  and deserted young children." The petition of Captain Thomas Coram,
  who is entitled to the whole credit of the foundation,[3] states as
  its objects "to prevent the frequent murders of poor miserable
  children at their birth, and to suppress the inhuman custom of
  exposing new-born infants to perish in the streets." At first no
  questions were asked about child or parent, but a distinguishing mark
  was put on each child by the parent. These were often marked coins,
  trinkets, pieces of cotton or ribbon, verses written on scraps of
  paper. The clothes, if any, were carefully recorded. One entry is,
  "Paper on the breast, clout on the head." The applications became too
  numerous, and a system of balloting with red, white and black balls
  was adopted. In 1756 the House of Commons came to a resolution that
  all children offered should be received, that local receiving places
  should be appointed all over the country, and that the funds should be
  publicly guaranteed. A basket was accordingly hung outside the
  hospital; the maximum age for admission was raised from two to twelve
  months, and a flood of children poured in from the country workhouses.
  In less than four years 14,934 children were presented, and a vile
  trade grew up among vagrants of undertaking to carry children from the
  country to the hospital,--an undertaking which, like the French
  _meneurs_, they often did not perform or performed with great cruelty.
  Of these 15,000 only 4400 lived to be apprenticed out. The total
  expense was about £500,000. This alarmed the House of Commons. After
  throwing out a bill which proposed to raise the necessary funds by
  fees from a general system of parochial registration, they came to the
  conclusion that the indiscriminate admission should be discontinued.
  The hospital, being thus thrown on its own resources, adopted a
  pernicious system of receiving children with considerable sums (e.g.
  £100), which sometimes led to the children being reclaimed by the
  parent. This was finally stopped in 1801; and it is now a fundamental
  rule that no money is received. The committee of inquiry must now be
  satisfied of the previous good character and present necessity of the
  mother, and that the father of the child has deserted it and the
  mother, and that the reception of the child will probably replace the
  mother in the course of virtue and in the way of an honest livelihood.
  All the children at the Foundling hospital are those of unmarried
  women, and they are all first children of their mothers. The principle
  is in fact that laid down by Fielding in _Tom Jones_--"Too true I am
  afraid it is that many women have become abandoned and have sunk to
  the last degree of vice by being unable to retrieve the first slip."
  At present the hospital supports about 500 children up to the age of
  fifteen. The average annual number of applications is over 200, and of
  admissions between 40 and 50. The children used to be named after the
  patrons and governors, but the treasurer now prepares a list. Children
  are seldom taken after they are twelve months old. On reception they
  are sent down to the country, where they stay until they are about
  four or five years old. At sixteen the girls are generally apprenticed
  as servants for four years, and the boys at the age of fourteen as
  mechanics for seven years. There is a small benevolent fund for
  adults. The musical service, which was originally sung by the blind
  children only, was made fashionable by the generosity of Handel, who
  frequently had the "Messiah" performed there, and who bequeathed to
  the hospital a MS. copy (full score) of his greatest oratorio. The
  altar-piece is West's picture of Christ presenting a little Child. In
  1774 Dr Burney and Signor Giardini made an unsuccessful attempt to
  form in connexion with the hospital a public music school, in
  imitation of the Conservatorium of the Continent. In 1847, however, a
  successful "Juvenile Band" was started. The educational effects of
  music have been found excellent, and the hospital supplies many
  musicians to the best army and navy bands. The early connexion between
  the hospital and the eminent painters of the reign of George II. is
  one of extreme interest. The exhibitions of pictures at the Foundling,
  which were organized by the Dilettanti Club, undoubtedly led to the
  formation of the Royal Academy in 1768. Hogarth painted a portrait of
  Captain Coram for the hospital, which also contains his March to
  Finchley, and Roubillac's bust of Handel. (See _History and Objects of
  the Foundling Hospital, with Memoir of its Founder_, by J. Brownlow.)

  In 1704 the Foundling hospital of Dublin was opened. No inquiry was
  made about the parents, and no money received. From 1500 to 2000
  children were received annually. A large income was derived from a
  duty on coal and the produce of car licences. In 1822 an admission fee
  of £5 was charged on the parish from which the child came. This
  reduced the annual arrivals to about 500. In 1829 the select committee
  on the Irish miscellaneous estimates recommended that no further
  assistance should be given. The hospital had not preserved life or
  educated the foundlings. The mortality was nearly 4 in 5, and the
  total cost £10,000 a year. Accordingly in 1835 Lord Glenelg (then
  Irish Secretary) closed the institution.

  Scotland never seems to have possessed a foundling hospital. In 1759
  John Watson left funds which were to be applied to the pious and
  charitable purpose "of preventing child murder" by the establishment
  of a hospital for receiving pregnant women and taking care of their
  children as foundlings. But by an act of parliament in 1822, which
  sets forth "doubts as to the propriety" of the original purpose, the
  money was given to trustees to erect a hospital for the maintenance
  and education of destitute children.

  AUTHORITIES.--_Histoire statistique et morale des enfants trouvés_ by
  MM. Terme et Montfalcon (Paris, 1837) (the authors were eminent
  medical men at Lyons, connected with the administration of the
  foundling hospital); Remacle, _Des hospices d'enfants trouvés en
  Europe_ (Paris, 1838); Hügel _Die Findelhäuser und das Findelwesen
  Europas_ (Vienna, 1863); Emminghaus, "Das Armenwesen und die
  Armengesetzgebung," in _Europäischen Staaten_ (Berlin, 1870);
  Sennichon, _Histoire des enfants abandonnés_ (Paris, 1880); the annual
  _Rapport sur le service des enfants assistés du département de la
  Seine_; Epstein, _Studien zur Frage der Findelanstalten_ (Prague,
  1882); Florence D. Hill, _Children of the State_ (2nd ed., 1889). For
  United States, see H. Folks, _Care of Neglected and Dependent
  Children_ (1901); A.G. Warner, _American Charities_ (enlarged, 1908)
  and _Reports of Massachusetts State Board of Charities_. Information
  may also be got in the _Reports on Poor Laws in Foreign Countries_,
  communicated to the Local Government Board by the foreign secretary;
  _Accounts and Papers_ (1875), vol. lxv. c. 1225; _Report of Committee
  on the Infant Life Protection Bill_ (1890); _Report of Lords Committee
  on the Infant Life Protection Bill_ (1896). (See also CHARITY AND
  CHARITIES.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See _Capitularia regum Francorum_, ii. 474.

  [2] _De l'administration des finances_, iii. 136; see also the
    article "Enfant exposé" in Diderot's _Encyclopédie_, 1755, and
    Chamousset's _Mémoire politique sur les enfants,_ 1757.

  [3] Addison had suggested such a charity (_Guardian_, No. 3).



FOUNTAIN (Late Lat. _fontana_, from _fons_, a spring), a term applied in
a restricted sense to such outlets of water as, whether fed by natural
or artificial means, have contrivances of human art at a point where the
water emerges. A very early existing example is preserved in the carved
Babylonian basin (about 3000 B.C.) found at Tello, the ancient Lagash,
and Layard mentions an Assyrian fountain, found by him in a gorge of the
river Gomel, which consists of a series of basins cut in the solid rock
and descending in steps to the stream. The water had been originally led
from one to the other by small conduits, the lowest of which was
ornamented by two rampant lions in relief. The term is applied equally
to the simpler arrangements for letting water gush into an ornamental
basin or to the more elaborate ones by which water is mechanically
forced into high jets; and a "fountain" may be either the ornamental
receptacle or the jet of water itself. In modern times the examples of
ornamental or useful fountains are legion, and it will suffice here to
mention some of the more important facts of historical interest.

Among the Greeks fountains were very common in the cities. Springs being
very plentiful in Greece, little engineering skill was required to
convey the water from place to place. Receptacles of sufficient size
were made for it at the springs; and to maintain its purity, structures
were raised enclosing and covering the receptacle. In Greece they were
dedicated to gods and goddesses, nymphs and heroes, and were frequently
placed in or near temples. That of Pirene at Corinth (mentioned also by
Herodotus) was formed of white stone, and contained a number of cells
from which the pleasant water flowed into an open basin. Legend connects
it with the nymph Pirene, who shed such copious tears, when bewailing
her son who had been slain by Diana, that she was changed into a
fountain. The city of Corinth possessed many fountains. In one near the
statues of Diana and Bellerophon the water flowed through the hoofs of
the horse Pegasus. The fountain of Glauce, enclosed in the Odeum, was
dedicated to Glauce, because she was said to have thrown herself into it
believing that its waters could counteract the poisons of Medea. Another
Corinthian fountain had a bronze statue of Poseidon standing on a
dolphin from which the water flowed. The fountain constructed by
Theagenes at Megara was remarkable for its size and decorations, and for
the number of its columns. One at Lerna was surrounded with pillars, and
the structure contained a number of seats affording a cool summer
retreat. Near Pharae was a grove dedicated to Apollo, and in it a
fountain of water. Pausanias gives a definite architectural detail when
he says that a fountain at Patrae was reached from without by descending
steps. Mystical, medicinal, surgical and other qualities, as well as
supernatural origin, were ascribed to fountains. One at Cyane in Lycia
was said to possess the quality of endowing all persons descending into
it with power to see whatever they desired to see; while the legends of
fountains and other waters with strange powers to heal are numerous in
many lands. The fountain Enneacrunus at Athens was called Callirrhoe
before the time the water was drawn from it by the nine pipes from which
it took its later name. Two temples were above it, according to
Pausanias, one dedicated to Demeter and Persephone, and the other to
Triptolemus. The fountain in the temple of Erechtheus at Athens was
supplied by a spring of salt water, and a similar spring supplied that
in the temple of Poseidon Hippios at Mantinea.

The water-supply of Rome and the works auxiliary to it were on a scale
to be expected from a people of such great practical power. The remains
of the aqueducts which stretched from the city across the Campagna are
amongst the most striking monuments of Italy. Vitruvius (book viii.)
gives minute particulars concerning the methods to be employed for the
discovery, testing and distribution of water, and describes the
properties of different waters with great care, proving the importance
which was attached to these matters by the Romans. The aqueducts
supplied the baths and the public fountains, from which last all the
populace, except such as could afford to pay for a separate pipe to
their houses, obtained their water. These fountains were therefore of
large size and numerous. They were formed at many of the _castella_ of
the aqueducts. According to Vitruvius, each _castellum_ should have
three pipes,--one for public fountains, one for baths and the third for
private houses. Considerable revenue was drawn from the possessors of
private water-pipes. The Roman fountains were generally decorated with
figures and heads. Fountains were often also the ornament of Roman
villas and country houses; in those so situated the water generally
ally fell from above into a large marble basin, with at times a second
fall into a still lower receptacle. Two adjacent houses in Pompeii had
very remarkable fountains. One, says Gell, "is covered with a sort of
mosaic consisting of vitrified tesserae of different colours, but in
which blue predominates. These are sometimes arranged in not inelegant
patterns, and the grand divisions as well as the borders are entirely
formed and ornamented with real sea-shells, neither calcined by the heat
of the eruption nor changed by the lapse of so many centuries"
(_Pompeiana_, i. 196). Another of large size was similarly decorated
with marine shells, and is supposed to have borne two sculptured
figures, one of which, a bronze, is in the museum at Naples. This
fountain projects 5 ft. 7 in. from the wall against which it is placed,
and is 7 ft. wide in front, while the height of the structure up to the
eaves of the pediment is 7 ft. 7 in. On a central column in the piscina
was a statue of Cupid, with a dove, from the mouth of which water
issued. Cicero had, at his villa at Formiae, a fountain which was
decorated with marine shells.

Fountains were very common in the open spaces and at the crossways in
Pompeii. They were supplied by leaden pipes from the reservoirs, and had
little ornament except a human or animal head, from the mouth of which
it was arranged that the water should issue. Not only did simple running
fountains exist, but the remains of _jets d'eau_ have been found; and a
drawing exists representing a vase with a double jet of water, standing
on a pedestal placed in what is supposed to have been the impluvium of a
house. There was also a _jet d'eau_ at the eastern end of the peristyle
of the Fullonica at Pompeii.

As among the Greeks, so with the early Celts, traces of superstitious
beliefs and usages with relation to fountains can be traced in
monumental and legendary remains. Near the village of Primaleon in
Brittany was a very remarkable monument,--one possibly unique, as giving
distinct proof of the existence of an ancient cult of fountains. Here is
a dolmen composed of a horizontal table supported by two stones only,
one at each end. All the space beneath this altar is occupied by a long
square basin formed of large flat stones, which receives a fountain of
water. At Lochrist is another vestige of the Celtic cult of fountains.
Beneath the church, and at the foot of the hill upon which it is built,
is a sacred fountain, near which is erected an ancient chapel, which
with its ivy-covered walls has a most romantic appearance. A Gothic
vault protects this fountain. Miraculous virtues are still attributed to
its water, and on certain days the country people still come with
offerings to draw it (see La Poix de Freminville, _Antiquités de la
Bretagne_, i. p. 101). In the enchanted forest of Brochelande, so famous
from its connexion with Merlin, was the fountain of Baranton, which was
said to possess strange characteristics. Whoever drew water from it, and
sprinkled the steps therewith, produced a tremendous storm of thunder
and hail, accompanied with thick darkness.

Christianity transferred to its own uses the ancient religious feeling
concerning fountains. Statues of the Virgin or of saints were erected
upon the rude structures that collected the water and preserved its
purity. There is some uniformity in the architectural characteristics of
these structures during the middle ages. A very common form in rural
districts was that in which the fountain was reached by descending steps
(_fontaine grotte_). A large basin received the water, sometimes from a
spout, but often from the spring itself. This basin was covered by a
sort of porch or vault, with at times moulded arches and sculptured
figures and escutcheons. On the bank of the Clain at Poitiers is a
fountain of this kind, the Fontaine Joubert, which though restored in
1597 was originally a structure of the 14th century. This kind of
fountain is frequently decorated with figures of the Virgin or of
saints, or with the family arms of its founder; often, too, the water is
the only ornament of the structure, which bears a simple inscription. A
large number of these fountains are to be found in Brittany and indeed
throughout France, and the great antiquity of some of them is proved by
the superstitions regarding them which still exist amongst the
peasantry. A form more common in populous districts was that of a large
open basin, round, square, polygonal, or lobed in form, with a columnar
structure at the centre, from the lower part of which it was arranged
that spouts should issue, playing into an open basin, and supplying
vessels brought for the purpose in the cleanest and quickest manner. The
columns take very various forms, from that of a simple regular
geometrical solid, with only grotesque masks at the spouts, to that of
an elaborate and ornate Gothic structure, with figures of virgins,
saints and warriors, with mouldings, arches, crockets and finials. At
Provins there is a fountain said to be of the 12th century, which is in
form an hexagonal vase with a large column in the centre, the capital of
which is pierced by three mouths, which are furnished with heads of
bronze projecting far enough to cast the water into the basin. In the
public market-place at Brunswick is a fountain of the 15th century, of
which the central structure is made of bronze. Many fountains are still
existing in France and Germany which, though their actual present
structure may date no earlier than the 15th or 16th century, have been
found on the place of, and perhaps may almost be considered as
restorations of, pre-existing fountains. Except in Italy few fountains
are of earlier date than the 14th century. Two of that date are at the
abbey of Fontaine Daniel, near Mayenne, and another, of granite, is at
Limoges. Some of these middle-age fountains are simple, open reservoirs
enclosed in structures which, however plain, still carry the charm that
belongs to the stone-work of those times. There is one of this kind at
Cully, Calvados, walled on three sides, and fed from the spring by two
circular openings. Its only ornamentation is a small empty niche with
mouldings. At Lincoln is a fountain of the time of Henry VIII., in front
of the church of St Mary Wickford. At Durham is one of octangular plan,
which bears a statue of Neptune.

The decay of architectural taste in the later centuries is shown by the
fountain of Limoges. It is in form a rock representing Mount Parnassus,
upon which are carved in relief Apollo, the horse Pegasus, Philosophy
and the Nine Muses. At the top Apollo, in the 16th-century costume,
plays a harp. Rocks, grass and sheep fill up the scene.

Purely ornamental fountains and _jets d'eau_ are found in or near many
large cities, royal palaces and private seats. The celebrated Fontana di
Trevi, at Rome, was erected early in the 18th century under Pope Clement
XII., and has all the characteristics of decadence. La Fontana Paolina
and those in the piazza of St Peter's are perhaps next in celebrity to
that of Trevi, and are certainly in better taste. At Paris the Fontaine
des Innocens (the earliest) and those of the Place Royal, of the Champs
Elysées and of the Place de la Concorde are the most noticeable. The
fountain of the lions and other fountains in the Alhambra palace are,
with their surroundings, a very magnificent sight. The largest _jets
d'eau_ are those at Versailles, at the Sydenham Crystal Palace and at
San Ildefonso.

About the earliest drawing of any drinking fountain in England occurs in
Moxon's _Tutor to Astronomie and Geographie_ (1659); it is "surmounted
by a diall, which was made by Mr John Leak, and set upon a composite
column at Leadenhall corner, in the majoralty of Sir John Dethick,
Knight." The water springs from the top and base of the column, which
stands upon a square pedestal and bears four female figures, one at
least of which represents the costume of the period.

In the East the public drinking fountains are a very important
institution. In Cairo alone there are three hundred. These "sebeels" are
not only to be seen in the cities, but are plentiful in the fields and
villages.

The Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association (1859) has done much to
provide facilities in London for both man and beast to get water to
drink in the streets. And in the United States liberal provision has
also been made by private and public enterprise.



FOUNTAINS ABBEY, one of the most celebrated ecclesiastical ruins in
England. It lies in the sequestered valley of the river Skell, 3 m. S.W.
of the city of Ripon in Yorkshire. The situation is most beautiful. The
little Skell descends from the uplands of Pateley Moor to the west a
clear swift stream, traversing a valley clothed with woods, conspicuous
among which are some ancient yew trees which may have sheltered the
monks who first sought retreat here. Steep rocky hills enclose the vale.
Mainly on the north side of the stream, in an open glade, rise the
picturesque and extensive ruins, the church with its stately tower, and
the numerous remnants of domestic buildings which enable the great abbey
to be almost completely reconstructed in the mind. The arrangements are
typical of a Cistercian house (see ABBEY). Building began in earnest
about 1135, and was continued steadily until the middle of the 13th
century, after which the only important erection was Abbot Huby's tower
(c. 1500). The demesne of Studley Royal (marquess of Ripon) contains the
ruins. It is in part laid out in the formal Dutch style, the work of
John Aislabie, lord of the manor in the early part of the 18th century.
Near the abbey is the picturesque Jacobean mansion of Fountains Hall.

In 1132 the prior and twelve monks of St Mary's abbey, York, being
dissatisfied with the easy life they were living, left the monastery and
with the assistance of Thurstan, archbishop of York, founded a house in
the valley of the Skell, where they adopted the Cistercian rule. While
building their monastery the monks are said to have lived at first under
an elm and then under seven yew trees called the Seven Sisters. Two
years later they were joined by Hugh, dean of St Peter's, York, who
brought with him a large sum of money and a valuable collection of
books. His example was followed by Serlo, a monk of St Mary's abbey,
York, and by Tosti, a canon of York, and others. Henry I. and succeeding
sovereigns granted them many privileges. During the reign of Edward I.
the monks appear to have again suffered from poverty, partly no doubt
owing to the invasion of the Scots, but partly also through their own
"misconduct and extravagance." On account of this Edward I. in 1291
appointed John de Berwick custodian of the abbey so that he might pay
their debts from the issues of their estates, allowing them enough for
their maintenance, and Edward II. in 1319 granted them exemption from
taxes. After the Dissolution Henry VIII. sold the manor and site of the
monastery to Sir Richard Gresham, and from him after passing through
several families it came to the marquess of Ripon.

  See _Victoria County History, Yorkshire_; Dugdale, _Monasticon_;
  Surtees Society, _Memorials of the Abbey of St Mary of Fountains_,
  collected and edited by J.R. Walbran (1863-78).



FOUQUÉ, FERDINAND ANDRÉ (1828-1904), French geologist and petrologist,
was born at Mortain, dept. of La Manche, on the 21st of June 1828. At
the age of twenty-one he entered the _École Normale_ in Paris, and from
1853 to 1858 he held the appointment of keeper of the scientific
collections. In 1877 he became professor of natural history at the
_Collège de France_, in Paris, and in 1881 he was elected a member of
the Academy of Sciences. As a stratigraphical geologist he rendered much
assistance on the Geological Survey of France, but in the course of time
he gave his special attention to the study of volcanic phenomena and
earthquakes, to minerals and rocks; and he was the first to introduce
modern petrographical methods into France. His studies of the eruptive
rocks of Corsica, Santorin and elsewhere; his researches on the
artificial reproduction of eruptive rocks, and his treatise on the
optical characters of felspars deserve special mention; but he was
perhaps best known for the joint work which he carried on with his
friend Michel Lévy. He died on the 7th of March 1904. His chief
publications were: _Santorin et ses éruptions_, 1879; (with A. Michel
Lévy) _Minéralogie micrographique, Roches éruptives françaises_ (2
vols., 1879); and _Synthèse des minéraux et des roches_ (1882).



FOUQUÉ, FRIEDRICH HEINRICH KARL DE LA MOTTE, BARON (1777-1843), German
writer of the romantic movement, was born on the 12th of February 1777
at Brandenburg. His grandfather had been one of Frederick the Great's
generals and his father was a Prussian officer. Although not originally
intended for a military career, Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué ultimately
gave up his university studies at Halle to join the army, and he took
part in the Rhine campaign of 1794. The rest of his life was devoted
mainly to literary pursuits. Like so many of the younger romanticists,
Fouqué owed his introduction to literature to A.W. Schlegel, who
published his first book, _Dramatische Spiele von Pellegrin_ in 1804.
His next work, _Romanzen vom Tal Ronceval_ (1805), showed more plainly
his allegiance to the romantic leaders, and in the _Historie vom edlen
Ritter Galmy_ (1806) he versified a 16th-century romance of medieval
chivalry. _Sigurd der Schlangentöter, ein Heldenspiel_ (1808), the first
modern German dramatization of the _Nibelungen_ saga, attracted
attention to him, and influenced considerably subsequent versions of the
story, such as Hebbel's _Nibelungen_ and Wagner's _Ring des Nibelungen_.
These early writings indicate the lines which Fouqué's subsequent
literary activity followed; his interests were divided between medieval
chivalry on the one hand and northern mythology on the other. In 1813,
the year of the rising against Napoleon, he again fought with the
Prussian army, and the new patriotism awakened in the German people left
its mark upon his writings.

Between 1810 and 1815 Fouqué's popularity was at its height; the many
romances and novels, plays and epics, which he turned out with
extraordinary rapidity, appealed exactly to the mood of the hour. The
earliest of these are the best--_Undine_, which appeared in 1811, being,
indeed, one of the most charming of all German _Märchen_ and the only
work by which Fouqué's memory still lives to-day. A more comprehensive
idea of his powers may, however, be obtained from the two romances _Der
Zauberring_ (1813) and _Die Fahrten Thiodulfs des Isländers_ (1815).
From 1820 onwards the quality of Fouqué's work rapidly degenerated,
partly owing to the fatal ease with which he wrote, partly to his
inability to keep pace with the changes in German taste. He remained the
belated romanticist, who, as the reading world turned to new interests,
clung the more tenaciously to the paraphernalia of romanticism; but in
the cold, sober light of the post-romantic age, these appeared merely
flimsy and theatrical. The vitalizing imaginative power of his early
years deserted him, and the sobriquet of a "Don Quixote of Romanticism"
which his enemies applied to him was not unjustified.

Fouqué's first marriage had been unhappy and soon ended in divorce. His
second wife, Karoline von Briest (1773-1831) enjoyed some reputation as
a novelist in her day. After her death Fouqué married a third time. Some
consolation for the ebbing tide of popular favour was afforded him by
the munificence of Frederick William IV. of Prussia, who granted him a
pension which allowed him to spend his later years in comfort. He died
in Berlin on the 23rd of January 1843.

  Fouqué's _Ausgewählte Werke_, edited by himself, appeared in 12 vols.
  (Berlin, 1841); a selection, edited by M. Koch, will be found in
  Kürschner's _Deutsche Nationalliteratur_, vol. 146, part ii.
  (Stuttgart, 1893); _Undine_, _Sintram_, &c., in innumerable reprints.
  Bibliography in Goedeke's _Grundriss zur Geschichte der deutschen
  Dichtung_ (2nd ed., vi. pp. 115 ff., Dresden, 1898). Most of Fouqué's
  works have been translated, and the English versions of _Aslauga's
  Knight_ (by Carlyle), _Sintram and his Companions_ and _Undine_, have
  been frequently republished. For Fouqué's life cp. _Lebensgeschichte
  des Baron Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué. Aufgezeichnet durch ihn
  selbst_ (Halle, 1840), (only to the year 1813), and also the
  introduction to Koch's selections in the _Deutsche Nationalliteratur_.
       (J. G. R.)



FOUQUET (or FOUCQUET), NICOLAS (1615-1680), viscount of Melun and of
Vaux, marquis of Belle-Isle, superintendent of finance in France under
Louis XIV., was born at Paris in 1615. He belonged to an influential
family of the _noblesse de la robe_, and after some preliminary
schooling with the Jesuits, at the age of thirteen was admitted as
_avocat_ at the parlement of Paris. While still in his teens he held
several responsible posts, and in 1636, when just twenty, he was able to
buy the post of _maître des requêtes_. From 1642 to 1650 he held various
intendancies at first in the provinces and then with the army of
Mazarin, and, coming thus in touch with the court, was permitted in 1650
to buy the important position of _procureur général_ to the parlement of
Paris. During Mazarin's exile Fouquet shrewdly remained loyal to him,
protecting his property and keeping him informed of the situation at
court.

Upon the cardinal's return, Fouquet demanded and received as reward the
office of superintendent of the finances (1653), a position which, in
the unsettled condition of the government, threw into his hands not
merely the decision as to which funds should be applied to meet the
demands of the state's creditors, but also the negotiations with the
great financiers who lent money to the king. The appointment was a
popular one with the moneyed class, for Fouquet's great wealth had been
largely augmented by his marriage in 1651 with Marie de Castille, who
also belonged to a wealthy family of the legal nobility. His own credit,
and above all his unfailing confidence in himself, strengthened the
credit of the government, while his high position at the parlement (he
still remained _procureur général_) secured financial transactions from
investigation. As minister of finance, he soon had Mazarin almost in the
position of a suppliant. The long wars, and the greed of the courtiers,
who followed the example of Mazarin, made it necessary at times for
Fouquet to meet the demands upon him by borrowing upon his own credit,
but he soon turned this confusion of the public purse with his own to
good account. The disorder in the accounts became hopeless; fraudulent
operations were entered into with impunity, and the financiers were kept
in the position of clients by official favours and by generous aid
whenever they needed it. Fouquet's fortune now surpassed even Mazarin's,
but the latter was too deeply implicated in similar operations to
interfere, and was obliged to leave the day of reckoning to his agent
and successor Colbert. Upon Mazarin's death Fouquet expected to be made
head of the government; but Louis XIV. was suspicious of his poorly
dissembled ambition, and it was with Fouquet in mind that he made the
well-known statement, upon assuming the government, that he would be his
own chief minister. Colbert fed the king's displeasure with adverse
reports upon the deficit, and made the worst of the case against
Fouquet. The extravagant expenditure and personal display of the
superintendent served to intensify the ill-will of the king. Fouquet had
bought the port of Belle Isle and strengthened the fortifications, with
a view to taking refuge there in case of disgrace. He had spent enormous
sums in building a palace on his estate of Vaux, which in extent,
magnificence, and splendour of decoration was a forecast of Versailles.
Here he gathered the rarest manuscripts, the finest paintings, jewels
and antiques in profusion, and above all surrounded himself with artists
and authors. The table was open to all people of quality, and the
kitchen was presided over by Vatel. Lafontaine, Corneille, Scarron, were
among the multitude of his clients. In August 1661 Louis XIV., already
set upon his destruction, was entertained at Vaux with a _fête_ rivalled
in magnificence by only one or two in French history, at which Molière's
_Les Fâcheux_ was produced for the first time. The splendour of the
entertainment sealed Fouquet's fate. The king, however, was afraid to
act openly against so powerful a minister. By crafty devices Fouquet was
induced to sell his office of _procureur général_, thus losing the
protection of its privileges, and he paid the price of it into the
treasury.

Three weeks after his visit to Vaux the king withdrew to Nantes, taking
Fouquet with him, and had him arrested when he was leaving the presence
chamber, flattered with the assurance of his esteem. The trial lasted
almost three years, and its violation of the forms of justice is still
the subject of frequent monographs by members of the French bar. Public
sympathy was strongly with Fouquet, and Lafontaine, Madame de Sévigné
and many others wrote on his behalf; but when Fouquet was sentenced to
banishment, the king, disappointed, "commuted" the sentence to
imprisonment for life. He was sent at the beginning of 1665 to the
fortress of Pignerol, where he undoubtedly died on the 23rd of March
1680.[1] Louis acted throughout "as though he were conducting a
campaign," evidently fearing that Fouquet would play the part of a
Richelieu. Fouquet bore himself with manly fortitude, and composed
several mediocre translations in prison. The devotional works bearing
his name are apocryphal. A report of his trial was published in Holland,
in 15 volumes, in 1665-1667, in spite of the remonstrances which Colbert
addressed to the States-General. A second edition under the title of
_Oeuvres de M. Fouquet_ appeared in 1696.

  See Chéruel, _Mémoires sur la vie publique et privée de Fouquet...
  d'après ses lettres et des pièces inédites_ (2 vols., Paris, 1864); J.
  Lair, _Nicolas Foucquet, procureur général, surintendant des finances,
  ministre d'État de Louis XIV_ (2 vols., Paris, 1890); U.V. Châtelain,
  _Le Surintendant Nicolas Fouquet, protecteur des lettres, des arts et
  des sciences_ (Paris, 1905); R. Pfnor et A. France, _Le Château de
  Vaux-le-Vicomte dessiné et gravé_ (Paris, 1888).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Fouquet has been identified with the "Man with the Iron Mask"
    (see IRON MASK), but this theory is quite impossible.



FOUQUIER-TINVILLE, ANTOINE QUENTIN (1746-1795), French revolutionist,
was born at Hérouel, a village in the department of the Aisne.
Originally a _procureur_ attached to the Châtelet at Paris, he sold his
office in 1783, and became a clerk under the lieutenant-general of
police. He seems to have early adopted revolutionary ideas, but little
is known of the part he played at the outbreak of the Revolution. When
the Revolutionary Tribunal of Paris was established on the 10th of March
1793, he was appointed public prosecutor to it, an office which he
filled until the 28th of July 1794. His activity during this time earned
him the reputation of one of the most terrible and sinister figures of
the Revolution. His function as public prosecutor was not so much to
convict the guilty as to see that the proscriptions ordered by the
faction for the time being in power were carried out with a due regard
to a show of legality. He was as ruthless and as incorrupt as
Robespierre himself; he could be moved from his purpose neither by pity
nor by bribes; nor was there in his cruelty any of that quality which
made the ordinary Jacobin _enragé_ by turns ferocious and sentimental.
It was this very quality of passionless detachment that made him so
effective an instrument of the Terror. He had no forensic eloquence; but
the cold obstinacy with which he pressed his charges was more convincing
than any rhetoric, and he seldom failed to secure a conviction.

His horrible career ended with the fall of Robespierre and the
terrorists on the 9th Thermidor. On the 1st of August 1794 he was
imprisoned by order of the Convention and brought to trial. His defence
was that he had only obeyed the orders of the Committee of Public
Safety; but, after a trial which lasted forty-one days, he was condemned
to death, and guillotined on the 7th of May 1795.

  See _Mémoire pour A.Q. Fouquier ex-accusateur public près le tribunal
  révolutionnaire_, &c. (Paris, 1794); Domenget, _Fouquier-Tinville et
  le tribunal révolutionnaire_ (Paris, 1878); H. Wallon, _Histoire du
  tribunal révolutionnaire de Paris_ (1880-1882) (a work of general
  interest, but not always exact); George Lecocq, _Notes et documents
  sur Fouquier-Tinville_ (Paris, 1885). See also the documents relating
  to his trial enumerated by M. Tourneux in _Bibliographie de l'histoire
  de Paris pendant la Révolution Française_, vol. i. Nos. 4445-4454
  (1890).



FOURCHAMBAULT, a town of central France in the department of Nièvre, on
the right bank of the Loire, 4½ m. N.W. of Nevers, on the Paris-Lyon
railway. Pop. (1906) 4591. It owes its importance to its extensive
iron-works, established in 1821, which give employment to 2000 workmen
and produce engineering material for railway, military and other
purposes. Among the more remarkable _chefs-d'oeuvre_ which have been
produced at Fourchambault are the metal portions of the Pont du
Carrousel, the iron beams of the roof of the cathedral at Chartres, and
the vast spans of the bridge over the Dordogne at Cubzac. A small canal
unites the works to the Lateral canal of the Loire.



FOURCROY, ANTOINE FRANÇOIS, COMTE DE (1755-1809), French chemist, the
son of an apothecary in the household of the duke of Orleans, was born
at Paris on the 15th of June 1755. He took up medical studies by the
advice of the anatomist Félix Vicq d'Azyr (1748-1794), and after many
difficulties caused by lack of means finally in 1780 obtained his
doctor's diploma. His attention was specially turned to chemistry by
J.B.M. Bucquet (1746-1780), the professor of chemistry at the Medical
School of Paris, and in 1784 he was chosen to succeed P.J. Macquer
(1718-1784) as lecturer in chemistry at the college of the Jardin du
Roi, where his lectures attained great popularity. He was one of the
earliest converts to the views of Lavoisier, which he helped to
promulgate by his voluminous writings, but though his name appears on a
large number of chemical and also physiological and pathological
memoirs, either alone or with others, he was rather a teacher and an
organizer than an original investigator. A member of the committees for
public instruction and public safety, and later, under Napoleon,
director general of instruction, he took a leading part in the
establishment of schools for both primary and secondary education,
scientific studies being especially provided for. Fourcroy died at Paris
on the 16th of December 1809, the very day on which he had been created
a count of the French empire. By his conduct as a member of the
Convention he has been accused of contributing to the death of
Lavoisier. Baron Cuvier in his _Éloge historique_ of Fourcroy repels the
charge, but he can scarcely be acquitted of time-serving indifference,
if indeed active, though secret, participation be not proved against
him.

  The Royal Society's _Catalogue of Scientific Papers_ enumerates 59
  memoirs by Fourcroy himself, and 58 written jointly by him and others,
  mostly L.N. Vauquelin.



FOURIER, FRANÇOIS CHARLES MARIE (1772-1837), French socialist writer,
was born at Besançon in Franche-Comté on the 7th of April 1772. His
father was a draper in good circumstances, and Fourier received an
excellent education at the college in his native town. After completing
his studies there he travelled for some time in France, Germany and
Holland. On the death of his father he inherited a considerable amount
of property, which, however, was lost when Lyons was besieged by the
troops of the Convention. Being thus deprived of his means of livelihood
Fourier entered the army, but after two years' service as a chasseur was
discharged on account of ill-health. In 1803 he published a remarkable
article on European politics which attracted the notice of Napoleon,
some of whose ideas were foreshadowed in it. Inquiries were made after
the author, but nothing seems to have come of them. After leaving the
army Fourier entered a merchant's office in Lyons, and some years later
undertook on his own account a small business as broker. He obtained in
this way just sufficient to supply his wants, and devoted all his
leisure time to the elaboration of his first work on the organization of
society.

During the early part of his life, and while engaged in commerce, he had
become deeply impressed with the conviction that social arrangements
resulting from the principles of individualism and competition were
essentially imperfect and immoral. He proposed to substitute for these
principles co-operation or united effort, by means of which full and
harmonious development might be given to human nature. The scheme,
worked out in detail in his first work, _Théorie des quatre mouvements_
(2 vols., Lyons, 1808, published anonymously), has for foundation a
particular psychological proposition and a special economical doctrine.
Psychologically Fourier held what may with some laxity of language be
called natural optimism,--the view that the full, free development of
human nature or the unrestrained indulgence of human passion is the only
possible way to happiness and virtue, and that misery and vice spring
from the unnatural restraints imposed by society on the gratification of
desire. This principle of harmony among the passions he regarded as his
grandest discovery--a discovery which did more than set him on a level
with Newton, the discoverer of the principle of attraction or harmony
among material bodies. Throughout his works, in uncouth, obscure and
often unintelligible language, he endeavours to show that the same
fundamental fact of harmony is to be found in the four great
departments,--society, animal life, organic life and the material
universe. In order to give effect to this principle and obtain the
resulting social harmony, it was needful that society should be
reconstructed; for, as the social organism is at present constituted,
innumerable restrictions are imposed upon the free development of human
desire. As practical principle for such a reconstruction Fourier
advocated co-operative or united industry. In many respects what he says
of co-operation, in particular as to the enormous waste of economic
force which the actual arrangements of society entail, still deserves
attention, and some of the most recent efforts towards extension of the
co-operative method, e.g. to house-keeping, were in essentials
anticipated by him. But the full realization of his scheme demanded much
more than the mere admission that co-operation is economically more
efficacious than individualism. Society as a whole must be organized on
the lines requisite to give full scope to co-operation and to the
harmonious evolution of human nature. The details of this reorganization
of the social structure cannot be given briefly, but the broad outlines
may be thus sketched. Society, on his scheme, is to be divided into
departments or _phalanges_, each _phalange_ numbering about 1600
persons. Each _phalange_ inhabits a _phalanstère_ or common building,
and has a certain portion of soil allotted to it for cultivation. The
_phalanstères_ are built after a uniform plan, and the domestic
arrangements are laid down very elaborately. The staple industry of the
_phalanges_ is, of course, agriculture, but the various _series_ and
_groupes_ into which the members are divided may devote themselves to
such occupations as are most to their taste; nor need any occupation
become irksome from constant devotion to it. Any member of a group may
vary his employment at pleasure, may pass from one task to another. The
tasks regarded as menial or degrading in ordinary society can be
rendered attractive if advantage is taken of the proper principles of
human nature: thus children, who have a natural affinity for dirt, and a
fondness for "cleaning up," may easily be induced to accept with
eagerness the functions of public scavengers. It is not, on Fourier's
scheme, necessary that private property should be abolished, nor is the
privacy of family life impossible within the _phalanstère_. Each family
may have separate apartments, and there may be richer and poorer
members. But the rich and poor are to be locally intermingled, in order
that the broad distinction between them, which is so painful a feature
in actual society, may become almost imperceptible. Out of the common
gain of the _phalange_ a certain portion is deducted to furnish to each
member the minimum of subsistence; the remainder is distributed in
shares to labour, capital and talent,--five-twelfths going to the first,
four-twelfths to the second and three-twelfths to the third. Upon the
changes requisite in the private life of the members Fourier was in his
first work more explicit than in his later writings. The institution of
marriage, which imposes unnatural bonds on human passion, is of
necessity abolished; a new and ingeniously constructed system of licence
is substituted for it. Considerable offence seems to have been given by
Fourier's utterances with regard to marriage, and generally the later
advocates of his views are content to pass the matter over in silence or
to veil their teaching under obscure and metaphorical language.

The scheme thus sketched attracted no attention when the _Théorie_ first
appeared, and for some years Fourier remained in his obscure position at
Lyons. In 1812 the death of his mother put him in possession of a small
sum of money, with which he retired to Bellay in order to perfect his
second work. The _Traité de l'association agricole domestique_ was
published in 2 vols. at Paris in 1822, and a summary appeared in the
following year. After its publication the author proceeded to Paris in
the hope that some wealthy capitalist might be induced to attempt the
realization of the projected scheme. Disappointed in this expectation he
returned to Lyons. In 1826 he again visited Paris, and as a considerable
portion of his means had been expended in the publication of his book,
he accepted a clerkship in an American firm. In 1829 and 1830 appeared
what is probably the most finished exposition of his views, _Le Nouveau
Monde industriel_. In 1831 he attacked the rival socialist doctrines of
Saint-Simon and Owen in the small work _Pièges et charlatanisme de deux
sectes, St Simon et Owen_. His writings now began to attract some
attention. A small body of adherents gathered round him, and the most
ardent of them was Victor Considérant (q.v.). In 1832 a newspaper, _Le
Phalanstère ou la réforme industrielle_ was started to propagate the
views of the school, but its success was not great. In 1833 it declined
from a weekly to a monthly, and in 1834 it died of inanition. It was
revived in 1836 as _Le Phalange_, and in 1843 became a daily paper, _La
Démocratie pacifique_. In 1850 it was suppressed.

Fourier did not live to see the success of his newspaper, and the only
practical attempt during his lifetime to establish a _phalanstère_ was a
complete failure. In 1832 M. Baudet Dulary, deputy for Seine-et-Oise,
who had become a convert, purchased an estate at Condé-sur-Vesgre, near
the forest of Rambouillet, and proceeded to establish a socialist
community. The capital supplied was, however, inadequate, and the
community broke up in disgust. Fourier was in no way discouraged by this
failure, and till his death, on the 10th of October 1837, he lived in
daily expectation that wealthy capitalists would see the merits of his
scheme and be induced to devote their fortunes to its realization. It
may be added that subsequent attempts to establish the _phalanstère_
have been uniformly unsuccessful.[1]

Fourier seems to have been of an extremely retiring and sensitive
disposition. He mixed little in society, and appeared, indeed, as if he
were the denizen of some other planet. Of the true nature of social
arrangements, and of the manner in which they naturally grow and become
organized, he must be pronounced extremely ignorant. The faults of
existing institutions presented themselves to him in an altogether
distorted manner, and he never appears to have recognized that the evils
of actual society are immeasurably less serious than the consequences of
his arbitrary scheme. Out of the chaos of human passion he supposed
harmony was to be evolved by the adoption of a few theoretically
disputable principles, which themselves impose restraints even more
irksome than those due to actual social facts. With regard to the
economic aspects of his proposed new method, it is of course to be
granted that co-operation is more effective than individual effort, but
he has nowhere faced the question as to the probable consequences of
organizing society on the abolition of those great institutions which
have grown with its growth. His temperament was too ardent, his
imagination too strong, and his acquaintance with the realities of life
too slight to enable him justly to estimate the merits of his fantastic
views. That this description of him is not expressed in over-strong
language must be clear to any one who not only considers what is true in
his works,--and the portion of truth is by no means a peculiar discovery
of Fourier's,--but who takes into account the whole body of his
speculations, the cosmological and historical as well as the economical
and social. No words can adequately describe the fantastic nonsense
which he pours forth, partly in the form of general speculation on the
universe, partly in the form of prophetic utterances with regard to the
future changes in humanity and its material environment. From these
extraordinary writings it is no extreme conclusion that there was much
of insanity in Fourier's mental constitution.

  AUTHORITIES.--Ch. Pellarin, _Fourier, sa vie et sa théorie_ (5th ed.,
  1872); Sargant, _Social Innovators_ (1859); Reybaud, _Réformateurs
  modernes_ (7th ed., 1864); Stein, _Socialismus und Communismus des
  heutigen Frankreichs_ (2nd ed., 1848); A.J. Booth, _Fortnightly
  Review_, N. S., vol. xii.; Czynski, _Notice bibliographique sur C.
  Fourier_ (1841); Ferraz, _Le Socialisme, le naturalisme et le
  positivisme_ (1877); Considérant, _Exposition abrégée du système de
  Fourier_ (1845); Transon, _Théorie sociétaire de Charles Fourier_
  (1832); Stein, _Geschichte der sozialen Bewegung in Frankreich_
  (1850); Marlo, _Untersuchungen über die Organisation der Arbeit_
  (1853); J.H. Noyes, _History of American Socialisms_ (1870); Bebel,
  _Charles Fourier_ (1888); Varschauer, _Geschichte des Sozialismus und
  Kommunismus im 19. Jahrhundert_ (1903); Sambuc, _Le Socialisme de
  Fourier_ (1900); M. Hillquit, _History of Socialism in the United
  States_ (1903); H. Bourgin, _Fourier, contribution à l'étude de
  socialisme français_ (1905).     (R. Ad.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Several experiments were made to this end in the United States
    (see COMMUNISM) by American followers of Fourier, whose doctrines
    were introduced there by Albert Brisbane (1809-1890). Indeed, in the
    years between 1840 and 1850, during which the movement waxed and
    waned, no fewer than forty-one _phalanges_ were founded, of which
    some definite record can be found. The most interesting of all the
    experiments, not alone from its own history, but also from the fact
    that it attracted the support of many of the most intellectual and
    cultured Americans was that of Brook Farm (q.v.).



FOURIER, JEAN BAPTISTE JOSEPH (1768-1830), French mathematician, was
born at Auxerre on the 21st of March 1768. He was the son of a tailor,
and was left an orphan in his eighth year; but, through the kindness of
a friend, admission was gained for him into the military school of his
native town, which was then under the direction of the Benedictines of
Saint-Maur. He soon distinguished himself as a student and made rapid
progress, especially in mathematics. Debarred from entering the army on
account of his lowness of birth and poverty, he was appointed professor
of mathematics in the school in which he had been a pupil. In 1787 he
became a novice at the abbey of St Benoît-sur-Loire; but he left the
abbey in 1789 and returned to his college, where, in addition to his
mathematical duties, he was frequently called to lecture on other
subjects,--rhetoric, philosophy and history. On the institution of the
École Normale at Paris in 1795 he was sent to teach in it, and was
afterwards attached to the École Polytechnique, where he occupied the
chair of analysis. Fourier was one of the savants who accompanied
Bonaparte to Egypt in 1798; and during this expedition he was called to
discharge important political duties in addition to his scientific ones.
He was for a time virtually governor of half Egypt, and for three years
was secretary of the Institut du Caire; he also delivered the funeral
orations for Kléber and Desaix. He returned to France in 1801, and in
the following year he was nominated prefect of Isère, and was created
baron and chevalier of the Legion of Honour. He took an important part
in the preparation of the famous _Description de l'Égypte_ and wrote the
historical introduction. He held his prefecture for fourteen years; and
it was during this period that he carried on his elaborate and fruitful
investigations on the conduction of heat. On the return of Napoleon from
Elba, in 1815, Fourier published a royalist proclamation, and left
Grenoble as Napoleon entered it. He was then deprived of his prefecture,
and, although immediately named prefect of the Rhone, was soon after
again deprived. He now settled at Paris, was elected to the Académie des
Sciences in 1816, but in consequence of the opposition of Louis XVIII.
was not admitted till the following year, when he succeeded the Abbé
Alexis de Rochon. In 1822 he was made perpetual secretary in conjunction
with Cuvier, in succession to Delambre. In 1826 Fourier became a member
of the French Academy, and in 1827 succeeded Laplace as president of the
council of the École Polytechnique. In 1828 he became a member of the
government commission established for the encouragement of literature.
He died at Paris on the 16th of May 1830.

As a politician Fourier achieved uncommon success, but his fame chiefly
rests on his strikingly original contributions to science and
mathematics. The theory of heat engaged his attention quite early, and
in 1812 he obtained a prize offered by the Académie des Sciences with a
memoir in two parts, _Théorie des mouvements de la chaleur dans les
corps solides_. The first part was republished in 1822 as _La Théorie
analytique de la chaleur_, which by its new methods and great results
made an epoch in the history of mathematical and physical science (see
below: FOURIER'S SERIES). An English translation has been published by
A. Freeman (Cambridge, 1872), and a German by Weinstein (Berlin, 1884).
His mathematical researches were also concerned with the theory of
equations, but the question as to his priority on several points has
been keenly discussed. After his death Navier completed and published
Fourier's unfinished work, _Analyse des équations indéterminées_ (1831),
which contains much original matter. In addition to the works above
mentioned, Fourier wrote many memoirs on scientific subjects, and
_éloges_ of distinguished men of science. His works have been collected
and edited by Gaston Darboux with the title _Oeuvres de Fourier_ (Paris,
1889-1890).

  For a list of Fourier's publications see the _Catalogue of Scientific
  Papers of the Royal Society of London_. Reference may also be made to
  Arago, "Joseph Fourier," in the _Smithsonian Report_ (1871).



FOURIER'S SERIES, in mathematics, those series which proceed according
to sines and cosines of multiples of a variable, the various multiples
being in the ratio of the natural numbers; they are used for the
representation of a function of the variable for values of the variable
which lie between prescribed finite limits. Although the importance of
such series, especially in the theory of vibrations, had been recognized
by D. Bernoulli, Lagrange and other mathematicians, and had led to some
discussion of their properties, J.B.J. Fourier (see above) was the first
clearly to recognize the arbitrary character of the functions which the
series can represent, and to make any serious attempt to prove the
validity of such representation; the series are consequently usually
associated with the name of Fourier. More general cases of
trigonometrical series, in which the multiples are given as the roots of
certain transcendental equations, were also considered by Fourier.

  Before proceeding to the consideration of the special class of series
  to be discussed, it is necessary to define with some precision what is
  to be understood by the representation of an arbitrary function by an
  infinite series. Suppose a function of a variable x to be arbitrarily
  given for values of x between two fixed values a and b; this means
  that, corresponding to every value of x such that a <= x <= b, a
  definite arithmetical value of the function is assigned by means of
  some prescribed set of rules. A function so defined may be denoted by
  [f](x); the rules by which the values of the function are determined
  may be embodied in a single explicit analytical formula, or in several
  such formulae applicable to different portions of the interval, but it
  would be an undue restriction of the nature of an arbitrarily given
  function to assume _à priori_ that it is necessarily given in this
  manner, the possibility of the representation of such a function by
  means of a single analytical expression being the very point which we
  have to discuss. The variable x may be represented by a point at the
  extremity of an interval measured along a straight line from a fixed
  origin; thus we may speak of the point c as synonymous with the value
  x = c of the variable, and of [f](c) as the value of the function
  assigned to the point c. For any number of points between a and b the
  function may be discontinuous, i.e. it may at such points undergo
  abrupt changes of value; it will here be assumed that the number of
  such points is finite. The only discontinuities here considered will
  be those known as ordinary discontinuities. Such a discontinuity
  exists at the point c if [f](c + [epsilon]), [f](c - [epsilon]) have
  distinct but definite limiting values as [epsilon] is indefinitely
  diminished; these limiting values are known as the limits on the right
  and on the left respectively of the function at c, and may be denoted
  by [f](c + 0), [f](c - 0). The discontinuity consists therefore of a
  sudden change of value of the function from [f](c - 0) to [f](c + 0),
  as x increases through the value c. If there is such a discontinuity
  at the point x = 0, we may denote the limits on the right and on the
  left respectively by [f](+0), [f](-0).

  Suppose we have an infinite series u1(x) + u2(x) + ... + u_n(x) + ...
  in which each term is a function of x, of known analytical form; let
  any value x = c(a = c = b) be substituted in the terms of the series,
  and suppose the sum of n terms of the arithmetical series so obtained
  approaches a definite limit as n is indefinitely increased; this limit
  is known as the sum of the series. If for every value of c such that a
  <= c <= b the sum exists and agrees with the value of [f](c), the
  series [Sigma] [1 to [oo]] u_n(x) is said to represent the function
  ([f]x) between the values a, b of the variable. If this is the case
  for all points within the given interval with the exception of a
  finite number, at any one of which either the series has no sum, or
  has a sum which does not agree with the value of the function, the
  series is said to represent "in general" the function for the given
  interval. If the sum of n terms of the series be denoted by S_n(c),
  the condition that S_n(c) converges to the value [f](c) is that,
  corresponding to any finite positive number [delta] as small as we
  please, a value n1 of n can be found such that if n >= n_1, |[f](c) -
  Sn(c)| < [delta].

  Functions have also been considered which for an infinite number of
  points within the given interval have no definite value, and series
  have also been discussed which at an infinite number of points in the
  interval cease either to have a sum, or to have one which agrees with
  the value of the function; the narrower conception above will however
  be retained in the treatment of the subject in this article, reference
  to the wider class of cases being made only in connexion with the
  history of the theory of Fourier's Series.

  _Uniform Convergence of Series._--If the series u1(x) + u2(x) + ... +
  u2(x) + ... converge for every value of x in a given interval a to b,
  and its sum be denoted by S(x), then if, corresponding to a finite
  positive number [delta], as small as we please, a finite number n1 can
  be found such that the arithmetical value of S(x) - S_n(x), where n =>
  n1 is less than [delta] for every value of x in the given interval,
  the series is said to converge uniformly in that interval. It may
  however happen that as x approaches a particular value the number of
  terms of the series which must be taken so that |S(x) - S_n(x)| may be
  < [delta], increases indefinitely; the convergence of the series is
  then infinitely slow in the neighbourhood of such a point, and the
  series is not uniformly convergent throughout the given interval,
  although it converges at each point of the interval. If the number of
  such points in the neighbourhood of which the series ceases to
  converge uniformly be finite, they may be excluded by taking intervals
  of finite magnitude as small as we please containing such points, and
  considering the convergence of the series in the given interval with
  such sub-intervals excluded; the convergence of the series is now
  uniform throughout the remainder of the interval. The series is said
  to be _in general_ uniformly convergent within the given interval a to
  b if it can be made uniformly convergent by the exclusion of a finite
  number of portions of the interval, each such portion being
  arbitrarily small. It is known that the sum of an infinite series of
  continuous terms can be discontinuous only at points in the
  neighbourhood of which the convergence of the series is not uniform,
  but non-uniformity of convergence of the series does not necessarily
  imply discontinuity in the sum.

  _Form of Fourier's Series._--If it be assumed that a function [f](x)
  arbitrarily given for values of x such that o[<=]x[<=]l is capable of
  being represented in general by an infinite series of the form

           [pi]x          2[pi]x                 n[pi]x
    A1 sin ----- + A2 sin ------ + ... + A_n sin ------ + ...,
             l              l                      l

  and if it be further assumed that the series is in general uniformly
  convergent throughout the interval 0 to l, the form of the
  coefficients A can be determined. Multiply each term of the series by
  sin n[pi]x/l, and integrate the product between the limits 0 and l,
  then in virtue of the property [int][l to 0] sin n[pi]x/l sin
  n'[pi]x/l dx=0, or ½l, according as n' is not, or is, equal to n, we
  have ½lA_n= [int][0 to l] [f](x) sin n[pi]x/l dx, and thus the series
  is of the form
                             _
    2       [oo]    n[pi]x  / l        n[pi]x
    -- [Sigma]  sin ------  |   [f](x) ------ dx.        (1)
    l        1         l   _/ 0           l

  This method of determining the coefficients in the series would not be
  valid without the assumption that the series is in general uniformly
  convergent, for in accordance with a known theorem the sum of the
  integrals of the separate terms of the series is otherwise not
  necessarily equal to the integral of the sum. This assumption being
  made, it is further assumed that [f](x) is such that [integral][0 to
  l] [f](x)sin n[pi]x/l dx has a definite meaning for every value of n.

  Before we proceed to examine the justification for the assumptions
  made, it is desirable to examine the result obtained, and to deduce
  other series from it. In order to obtain a series of the form

                [pi]x          2[pi]x                 n[pi]x
    B0 + B1 cos ----- + B2 cos ------ + ... + B_n cos ------ + ...
                  l               l                      l

  for the representation of [f](x) in the interval 0 to l, let us apply
  the series (1) to represent the function [f](x) sin [pi]x/l; we thus
  find
                           _
    2      [oo]    n[pi]x / l          [pi]x     n[pi]x
    -- [Sigma] sin ------ |  [f](x)sin ----- sin ------ dx,
    l        1       l   _/ 0            l          l

  or
                           _         _                                   _
    1      [oo]    n[pi]x / l       |     (n - 1)[pi]x       (n + 1)[pi]x |
    -- [Sigma] sin ------ |  [f](x) | cos ------------ - cos ------------ | dx.
    l        1        l  _/ 0       |_         l                   l     _|

  On rearrangement of the terms this becomes
                  _                                              _
    1      [pi]x / l            2              [pi]x     n[pi]x / l           n[pi]x
    -- sin ----- |  [f](x) dx + -- [Sigma] sin ----- cos ------ |  [f](x) cos ------ dx.
    l        l  _/ 0            l                l         l   _/ 0              l

  hence [f](x) is represented for the interval 0 to l by the series of cosines
        _                                    _
    1  / l            2      [oo]    n[pi]x / l           n[pi]x
    -- |  [f](x) dx + -- [Sigma] cos ------ |  [f](x) cos ------ dx ... (2)
    l _/ 0            l         1      l   _/ 0              l

  We have thus seen, that with the assumptions made, the arbitrary
  function [f](x) may be represented, for the given interval, either by
  a series of sines, as in (1), or by a series of cosines, as in (2).
  Some important differences between the two series must, however, be
  noticed. In the first place, the series of sines has a vanishing sum
  when x=o or x=l; it therefore does not represent the function at the
  point x=o, unless [f](0) = 0, or at the point x=l, unless [f](l) = 0,
  whereas the series (2) of cosines may represent the function at both
  these points. Again, let us consider what is represented by (1) and
  (2) for values of x which do not lie between 0 and l. As [f](x) is
  given only for values of x between 0 and l, the series at points
  beyond these limits have no necessary connexion with [f](x) unless we
  suppose that [f](x) is also given for such general values of x in such
  a way that the series continue to represent that function. If in (1)
  we change x into -x, leaving the coefficients unaltered, the series
  changes sign, and if x be changed into x + 2l, the series is
  unaltered; we infer that the series (1) represents an odd function of
  x and is periodic of period 2l; thus (1) will represent [f](x) in
  general for values of x between ±[oo], only if [f](x) is odd and has a
  period 2l. If in (2) we change x into -x, the series is unaltered, and
  it is also unaltered by changing x into x + 2l; from this we see that
  the series (2) represents [f](x) for values of x between ±[oo], only
  if [f](x) is an even function, and is periodic of period 2l. In
  general a function [f](x) arbitrarily given for all values of x
  between ±[oo] is neither periodic nor odd, nor even, and is therefore
  not represented by either (1) or (2) except for the interval 0 to l.

  From (1) and (2) we can deduce a series containing both sines and
  cosines, which will represent a function [f](x) arbitrarily given in
  the interval -l to l, for that interval. We can express by (1) the
  function ½{[f](x) - [f](-x)} which is an odd function, and thus this
  function is represented for the interval -l to +l by
                           _
    2              n[pi]x / l                         n[pi]x
    -- [Sigma] sin ------ |  ½ {[f](x) - [f](-x)} sin ------ dx;
    l                 l  _/ 0                            l

  we can also express ½ {[f](x) + [f](-x)}, which is an even function,
  by means of (2), thus for the interval -l to +l this function is
  represented by

        _                                                   _
    1  / l                           2      [oo]    n[pi]x / l                          n[pi]x
    -- |   ½ {[f](x) + [f](-x)} dx + -- [Sigma] cos ------ |   ½ {[f](x) + [f](-x)} cos ------ dx.
    l _/ 0                           l         1       l  _/ 0                             l

  It must be observed that [f](-x) is absolutely independent of [f](x),
  the former being not necessarily deducible from the latter by putting
  -x for x in a formula; both [f](x) and [f](-x) are functions given
  arbitrarily and independently for the interval 0 to l. On adding the
  expressions together we obtain a series of sines and cosines which
  represents [f](x) for the interval -l to l. The integrals
      _                          _
     / l            n[pi]x      / l            n[pi]x
     |  [f](-x) cos ------ dx,  |  [f](-x) sin ------ dx
    _/ 0               l       _/ 0               l

  are equivalent to
       _                          _
      /-l          n[pi]x        /-l           n[pi]x
    - | [f](x) cos ------ dx,  + |  [f](x) sin ------ dx,
     _/0              l         _/ 0              l

  thus the series is
        _                                   _                                             _
    1  / l           1      [oo]    n[pi]x / l         n[pi]x      1      [oo]    n[pi]x / l           n[pi]x
    -- |  [f](x)dx + -- [Sigma] cos ------ |  f(x) cos ------ dx + -- [Sigma] sin ------ |  [f](x) sin ------ dx,
    2l_/-l           l         1       l  _/-l            l        l         1       l  _/-l              l

  which may be written
        _                            _
    1  / l              1      [oo] / l            n[pi](x - x')
    -- |  [f](x') dx' + -- [Sigma]  |  [f](x') cos ------------- dx'.  (3)
    2l_/-l              l        1 _/-l                  l

  The series (3), which represents a function [f](x) arbitrarily given
  for the interval -l to l, is what is known as Fourier's Series; the
  expressions (1) and (2) being regarded as the particular forms which
  (3) takes in the two cases, in which [f](-x) = -[f](x), or [f](-x) =
  f(x) respectively. The expression (3) does not represent f(x) at
  points beyond the interval -l to l, unless [f](x) has a period 2l. For
  a value of x within the interval, at which [f](x) is discontinuous,
  the sum of the series may cease to represent [f](x), but, as will be
  seen hereafter, has the value ½ {[f](x + 0) + [f](x - 0)}, the mean of
  the limits at the points on the right and the left. The series
  represents the function at x=o, unless the function is there
  discontinuous, in which case the series is ½ {[f](+0) + [f](-0)}; the
  series does not necessarily represent the function at the points l and
  -l, unless [f](l) = [f](-l). Its sum at either of these points is ½
  {[f](l) + [f](-l)}.

  _Examples of Fourier's Series._--(a) Let [f](x) be given from 0 to l,
  by [f](x)=c, when 0 <= x < ½l, and by f(x)= -c from ½l to l; it is
  required to find a sine series, and also a cosine series, which shall
  represent the function in the interval.

  We have
      _                           _                     _
     / l           n[pi]x        /½l     n[pi]x        / l    n[pi]x
     |  [f](x) sin ------ dx = c |   sin ------ dx - c |  sin ------ dx
    _/ 0              l         _/ 0        l         _/½l       l

          cl
      = ----- (cos n[pi] - 2 cos ½n[pi] + 1).
        n[pi]

  This vanishes if n is odd, and if n = 4m, but if n = 4m + 2 it is
  equal to 4cl/n[pi]; the series is therefore

     4c   /l      2[pi]x   1      6[pi]x   1      10[pi]x      \
    ---- ( -- sin ------ + -- sin ------ + -- sin ------- + ... ).
    [pi]  \2         l     3         l     5         l         /

  For unrestricted values of x, this series represents the ordinates of
  the series of straight lines in fig. 1, except that it vanishes at the
  points 0, ½l, l, (3/2)l ...

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.]

  We find similarly that the same function is represented by the series

     4c   /    [pi]x   1      3[pi]x   1      5[pi]x        \
    ---- ( cos ----- - -- cos ------ + -- cos ------ - + ... )
    [pi]  \      l     3         l     5         l          /

  during the interval 0 to l; for general values of x the series
  represents the ordinate of the broken line in fig. 2, except that it
  vanishes at the points ½l, (3/2)l....

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.]

  (b) Let [f](x) = x from 0 to ½l, and f(x) = l - x, from ½l to l; then
      _                       _                     _
     / l          n[pi]x     / ½l      n[pi]x      / l           n[pi]x
     |  [f](x)sin ------ dx= |   x sin ------ dx + |  (l - x)sin ------ dx
    _/ 0             l      _/ 0          l       _/½l              l

            l²       n[pi]      l²       n[pi]    l²n   /   n[pi]            \
      = - ------ cos ----- + ------- sin ----- + ----- (cos ----- - cos n[pi] )
          2n[pi]       2     n²[pi]²       2     n[pi]  \     2              /

          l²                l²        n[pi]     l²        n[pi]     2l²       n[pi]
      + ----- cos n[pi] - ------ cos ------ + ------- sin ----- = ------- sin -----
        n[pi]             2n[pi]        2     n²[pi]²       2     n²[pi]²       2

  hence the sine series is

      4l   /   nx   1      3[pi]x   1      5[pi]x      \
    ----- (sin -- - -- sin ------ + -- sin ------ - ... )
    [pi]²  \   l    3²        l     5²        l        /

  For general values of x, the series represents the ordinates of the
  row of broken lines in fig. 3.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.]

  The cosine series, which represents the same function for the interval
  0 to l, may be found to be

    1        2l   /   2[pi]x   1      6[pi]x   1      10[pi]x      \
    -- l - ----- (cos ------ + -- cos ------ + -- cos ------- + ... )
    4      [pi]²  \      l     3²        l     5²        l         /

  This series represents for general values of x the ordinate of the set
  of broken lines in fig. 4.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.]

  _Dirichlet's Integral._--The method indicated by Fourier, but first
  carried out rigorously by Dirichlet, of proving that, with certain
  restrictions as to the nature of the function [f](x), that function is
  in general represented by the series (3), consists in finding the sum
  of n+1 terms of that series, and then investigating the limiting value
  of the sum, when n is increased indefinitely. It thus appears that the
  series is convergent, and that the value towards which its sum
  converges is ½ {[f](x + 0) + [f](x - 0)}, which is in general equal to
  [f](x). It will be convenient throughout to take -[pi] to [pi] as the
  given interval; any interval -l to l may be reduced to this by
  changing x into lx/[pi], and thus there is no loss of generality.

  We find by an elementary process that

    ½ + cos (x - x') + cos 2(x - x') + ... + cos n(x - x')

          2n + 1
      sin ------ (x' - x)
             2
    = -------------------.
        2 sin ½(x' - x)

  Hence, with the new notation, the sum of the first n+1 terms of (3) is
          _
     1   / [pi]        sin (2n + 1)/2 (x' - x)
    ---- |     [f](x') ----------------------- dx'.
    [pi]_/-[pi]            2 sin ½ (x' - x)

  If we suppose [f](x) to be continued beyond the interval -[pi] to
  [pi], in such a way that [f](x) = [f](x + 2[pi]), we may replace the
  limits in this integral by x + [pi], x-[pi] respectively; if we then
  put x' - x = 2z, and let [f](x') = [F](z), the expression becomes
  1/[pi] [int][-[pi]/2 to [pi]/2] F(z) (sin mz/sin z) dz, where m = 2n +
  1; this expression may be written in the form
          _                            _
     1   /[pi]/2     sin mz        1  /[pi]/2      sin mz
    ---- |      F(z) ------ dz + ---- |      F(-z) ------ dz.  (4)
    [pi]_/ 0          sin z      [pi]_/ 0           sin z

  We require therefore to find the limiting value, when m is
  indefinitely increased, of [int][0 to [pi]/2] F(z)(sin mz/sin z) dz;
  the form of the second integral being essentially the same. This
  integral, or rather the slightly more general one [int][0 to h]
  F(z)(sin mz/sin z) dz, when 0 < h <= ½[pi], is known as Dirichlet's
  integral. If we write X(z)= F(z)(z/sin z), the integral becomes
  [int][0 to h] X(z)(sin mz/z) dz, which is the form in which the
  integral is frequently considered.

  _The Second Mean-Value Theorem._--The limiting value of Dirichlet's
  integral may be conveniently investigated by means of a theorem in the
  integral calculus known as the second mean-value theorem. Let a, b be
  two fixed finite numbers such that a 0, |  |       ----------- d[theta] | cannot exceed
                     | _/[alpha]  [theta]            |

  ½[pi]. For by the mean-value theorem
        _
    |  / h     sin[theta]          |      2      2
    |  |       ---------- d[theta] | < ------- + --,
    | _/[alpha]  [theta]           |   [alpha]   h
                     _
        |           / h      sin[theta]          |       2
  hence | Lh = [oo] |        ---------- d[theta] | <= -------;
        |          _/[alpha]   [theta]           |    [alpha]
                                       _
                                   |  /[oo]   sin[theta]          |     2     [pi]
  in particular if [alpha] >= [pi] |  |       ---------- d[theta] | <= ---- < ----.
                                   | _/[alpha]  [theta]           |    [pi]     2
                  _
            d    /[oo]    sin[theta]              sin[alpha]
  Again -------- |        ---------- d[theta] = - ----------, [alpha] > 0,
        d[alpha]_/[alpha]   [theta]                 [alpha]
             _
            /[oo]  sin[theta]
  therefore |      ---------- d[theta] increases as [alpha] diminishes,
           _/[alpha] [theta]

  when [theta] < [alpha] < [pi]; but lim
             _                                           _
            /[oo]  sin[theta]            [pi]        |  /[oo]  sin[theta]          |   [pi]
            |      ---------- d[theta] = ----, hence |  |      ---------- d[theta] | < ----,
  [alpha]=0_/[alpha] [theta]               2         | _/[alpha] [theta]           |    2

  where [alpha] < [pi], and < [pi]/2 where [alpha] >= [pi]. It follows that
        _
    |  / ß     sin[theta]          |
    |  |       ---------- d[theta] | <= [pi], provided 0 <= [alpha] < ß.
    | _/[alpha]  [theta]           |
                        _
                       /[pi]/2     sin mz
  To find the limit of |      F(z) ------ dz, we observe that it may be
                      _/ 0          sin z

  written in the form
          _                   _
         /[pi]/2 sin mz      / µ                sin mz
    F(0) |       ------ dz + |    {F(z) - F(0)} ------ dz
        _/        sin z     _/ 0                 sin z
         _
        /[pi]/2             sin mz
      + |     {F(z) - F(0)} ------ dz
       _/ µ                  sin z

  where µ is a fixed number as small as we please; hence if we use
  lemma (1), and apply the second mean-value theorem,
      _
     /[pi]/2    sin mz      [pi]
     |     F(z) ------ dz - ---- F(0)
    _/ 0         sin z        2
         _
        / µ                  z   sin mz
      = |    {F(z) - F(0)} ----- ------ dz
       _/ [0]              sin z    z
                           _                                         _
                          /[xi]¹ sin mz                             /[pi]/2 sin mz
      + {F(µ + 0) - F(0)} |      ------ dz + {F (½[pi] - 0) - F(0)} |       ------ dz
                         _/ µ     sin z                            _/[xi]¹   sin z

  when [xi]¹ lies between µ and ½[pi]. When m is indefinitely increased,
  the two last integrals have the limit zero in virtue of lemma (2). To
  evaluate the first integral on the right-hand side, let G/z = {F(z) -
  F(0)} (sin z/z), and observe that G(z) increases as z increases from 0
  to [mu], hence if we apply the mean value theorem
        _                            _
    |  / µ       sin mz   |   |     / µ   sin mz   |
    |  |    G(µ) ------ dz| = |G(µ) |     ------ dz|
    | _/ 0          z     |   |    _/[xi]    z     |
               _
        |     / mµ   sin[theta]         |
      = |G(µ) |      ---------- d[theta]| < [pi] G(µ),
        |    _/m[xi]   [theta]          |

  where 0 < [xi] < µ, since G(z) has the limit zero when z = 0. If
  [epsilon] be an arbitrarily chosen positive number, a fixed value of
  µ may be so chosen that [pi]G([mu)] < ½[epsilon], and thus that
        _
    |  /µ        sin mz   |
    |  |    G(z) ------ dz| < ½[epsilon].
    | _/0           z     |

  When µ has been so fixed, m may now be so chosen that
        _
    |  /½[pi]     sin mz      [pi]     |
    |  |     F(z) ------ dz - ---- F(0)| < [epsilon].
    | _/0          sin z       2       |

  It has now been shown that when m is indefinitely increased
      _
     /[pi]/2     sin mz      [pi]
     |      F(z) ------ dz - ---- F(0) has the limit zero.
    _/ 0          sin z        2

  Returning to the form (4), we now see that the limiting value of
          _                             _
      1  /[pi]/2     sin mz         1  /[pi]/2      sin mz
    ---- |      F(z) ------ dz  + ---- |      F(-z) ------ dz
    [pi]_/ 0          sin z       [pi]_/ 0           sin z

  ½{F(+0) + F(-0)}; hence the sum of n + 1 terms of the series
         _                         _
    1   / l            1          / l            n[pi](x - x¹)
    --  |  [f](x) dx + -- [Sigma] |  [f](x¹) cos ------------- dx
    2l _/-l            l         _/-l                  l

  converges to the value ½ {[f](x + 0) + [f](x - 0)}, or to [f](x) at a
  point where [f](x) is continuous, provided [f](x) satisfies
  Dirichlet's conditions for the interval from -l to l.

  _Proof that Fourier's Series is in General Uniformly Convergent._--To
  prove that Fourier's Series converges uniformly to its sum for all
  values of x, provided that the immediate neighbourhoods of the points
  of discontinuity of [f](x) are excluded, we have
        _
    |  /[pi]/2   sin mz      [pi]     |                  4
    |  |     F(z)------ dz - ---- F(0)| < [pi]G (µ) + ------- {F(µ + 0) - F(0)}
    | _/          sin z        2      |               m sin µ

             4
      + ----------- {F(½[pi] - 0) - F(0)}
        m sin [xi]¹

      [pi]µ                             4
    < ----- {[f](x + 2µ) - [f](x)} + ------- {[f](x + 2µ) - [f](x)}
      sin µ                          m sin µ

             4
      + ----------- {[f](x + [pi]) - [f](x)}
        m sin [xi]¹

  Using this inequality and the corresponding one for F(-z), we have

    |S_(2n+1)(x) - [f](x)| < µ cosec µ [|[f](x + 2µ) - [f](x)|
      + |[f](x - 2µ) - [f](x)|] + A|m cosec µ,

  where A is some fixed number independent of m. In any interval (a, b)
  in which [f](x) is continuous, a value µ1 of µ can be chosen such
  that, for every value of x in (a, b), |[f](x + 2µ) - [f](x)|, |[f](x -
  2µ) - [f](x)| are less than an arbitrarily prescribed positive number
  [epsilon], provided µ = µ1. Also a value µ2 of µ can be so chosen that
  [epsilon]µ2 cosec µ2 < ½[eta], where [eta] is an arbitrarily assigned
  positive number. Take for µ the lesser of the numbers µ1, µ2, then
  |S_(2n+1) - [f](x)| < [eta] + A|m cosec µ for every value of x in
  (a, b). It follows that, since [eta] and m are independent of x,
  |S_(2n+1) - [f](x)| < 2[epsilon], provided n is greater than some
  fixed value n1 dependent only on [epsilon]. Therefore S_(2n+1)
  converges to [f](x) uniformly in the interval (a, b).

  _Case of a Function with Infinities._--The limitation that [f](x) must
  be numerically less than a fixed positive number throughout the
  interval may, under a certain restriction, be removed. Suppose F(z) is
  indefinitely great in the neighbourhood of the point z = c, and is

   such that the limits of the two integrals [int][c to c±[epsilon]] F(z)
  dz are both zero, as [epsilon] is indefinitely diminished, then
      _
     /[pi]/2     sin mz
     |      F(z) ------ dz
    _/ 0          sin z

  denotes the limit when [epsilon] = 0, [epsilon]¹ = 0 of
      _                          _
     /c-[epsilon]   sin mz      /[pi]/2           sin mz
     |         F(z) ------ dx + |            F(z) ------ dz,
    _/ 0             sin z     _/c+[epsilon]¹      sin z

  both these limits existing; the first of these integrals has
  ½[pi]F(+0) for its limiting value when m is indefinitely increased,
  and the second has zero for its limit. The theorem therefore holds if
  F(z) has an infinity up to which it is absolutely integrable; this
  will, for example, be the case if F(z) near the point C is of the form
  x(z)(z - c)^-µ + [psi](z), where [chi](c), [psi](c) are finite, and
  0 < µ < 1. It is thus seen that [f](x) may have a finite number of
  infinities within the given interval, provided the function is
  integrable through any one of these points; the function is in that
  case still representable by Fourier's Series.

  _The Ultimate Values of the Coefficients in Fourier's Series._--If
  [f](x) is everywhere finite within the given interval -[pi] to +[pi],
  it can be shown that a_n, b_n, the coefficients of cos nx, sin nx in
  the series which represent the function, are such that na_n, nb_n,
  however great n is, are each less than a fixed finite quantity. For
  writing [f](x) = [f]1(x) - [f]2(x), we have
      _                                       _                             _
     /[pi]                                   /[xi]                         /[pi]
     |    [f]1(x) cos nxdx = [f]1(-[pi] + 0) |   cos nxdx + [f]1([pi] - 0) |   cos nxdx
    _/-[pi]                                 _/-[pi]                       _/[xi]

  hence
      _
     /[pi]                                   sin n[xi]                  sin n[xi]
     |    [f]1(x) cos nxdx = [f]1(-[pi] + 0) --------- + [f]1([pi] - 0) ---------
    _/-[pi]                                      n                          n

  with a similar expression, with [f]2(x) for [f]1(x), [xi] being
  between [pi] and -[pi]; the result then follows at once, and is
  obtained similarly for the other coefficient.

  If [f](x) is infinite at x = c, and is of the form [phi](x)/(x - c)^K
  near the point c, where 0 < K < 1, the integral
      _
     /[pi]
     |    [f](x)cos nxdx contains portions of the form
    _/-[pi]
      _                                       _
     /[epsilon]+[epsilon]  [phi](x)          / c           [phi](x)
     |                    --------- cos nxdx |            --------- cos nxdx;
    _/ [c]                (x - c)^K         _/c-[epsilon] (x - c)^K

  consider the first of these, and put x = c + u, it thus becomes
      _
     /[epsilon] [phi](c + u)
     |          ------------ cos n(c + u) du, which is of the form
    _/  0            u^K
                                 _
                                /[epsilon] cos n(c + u)
    [phi](c + [theta][epsilon]) |          ------------ du;
                               _/  0           u^K

  now let nu = v, the integral becomes
                                 _           _                                _                  _
                                |  cos nc   /n[epsilon]  cos v      sin nc   /n[epsilon] sin v    |
    [phi](c + [theta][epsilon]) |  -------  |            ----- dv - -------  |           ----- dv |;
                                |_ n^(1-K) _/ 0           v^K       n^(1-K) _/ 0          v^K    _|

  hence n^(1-K) [int]([pi] to -[pi]) [f](x) cos nxdx becomes, as n is
  definitely increased, of the form
              _        _                       _            _
             |        /[oo] cos v             /[oo] sin v    |
    [phi](c) | cos nc |     ----- dv - sin nc |     ----- dv |
             |_      _/ 0    v^K             _/ 0    v^K    _|

  which is finite, both the integrals being convergent and of known
  value. The other integral has a similar property, and we infer that
  n^(1-K) a_n, n^(1-K) b_n are less than fixed finite numbers.

  _The Differentiation of Fourier's Series._--If we assume that the
  differential coefficient of a function [f](x) represented by a
  Fourier's Series exists, that function [f]'(x) is not necessarily
  representable by the series obtained by differentiating the terms of
  the Fourier's Series, such derived series being in fact not
  necessarily convergent. Stokes has obtained general formulae for
  finding the series which represent f'(x), [f]"(x)--the successive
  differential coefficients of a limited function [f](x). As an example
  of such formulae, consider the sine series (1); [f](x) is represented
  by
                           _
    2              n[pi]x /l            n[pi]x
    -- [Sigma] sin ------ |  [f](x) sin ------ dx;
    l                 l  _/0               l
                                   _
                                  /l          n[pi]x
  on integration by parts we have | [f](x)sin ------ dx
                                 _/0             l
             _                                                                               _
        l   |                                    n[pi]a                                       |
    = ----  | [f](+0) ± [f](l - 0) + [Sigma] cos ------ {[f]([alpha] + 0) - [f]([alpha] - 0)} |
      n[pi] |_                                      l                                        _|
                _
          l    /l             n[pi]x
      + -----  |  [f]'(x) cos ------ dx
        n[pi] _/0                l

  where [alpha] represent the points where [f](x) is discontinuous.
  Hence if f(x) is represented by the series [Sigma]a_n sin (n[pi]x/l),
  and [f]'(x) by the series [Sigma]b_n cos (n[pi]x/l), we have the
  relation
                                _                                                                                  _
          n[pi]             2  |                                   n[pi][alpha]                                     |
    b_n = ----- [alpha]_n - -- | [f](+0) ± [f](l - 0) + [Sigma]cos ------------ {[f]([alpha] + 0) - [f](alpha - 0)} |
            l               l  |_                                        l                                         _|

  hence only when the function is everywhere continuous, and [f](+0)
  [f](l - 0) are both zero, is the series which represents [f]'(x)
  obtained at once by differentiating that which represents [f](x). The
  form of the coefficient [alpha]_n discloses the discontinuities of the
  function and of its differential coefficients, for on continuing the
  integration by parts we find
                       _                                                                                     _
                  2   |                                    n[pi][alpha]                                       |
    [alpha]_n = ----- | [f](+0) ± [f](l - 0) + [Sigma] cos ------------ {[f]([alpha] + 0) - [f]([alpha] - 0)} |
                n[pi] |_                                        l                                            _|
                  _                                                                       _
           2l    |                                      n[pi]ß                             |
      + -------  | [f]'(+0) ± [f]'(l - 0) + [Sigma] sin ------ {[f]'(ß + 0) - [f]'(ß - 0)} | + &c.
        n²[pi]²  |_                                        l                              _|

  where ß are the points at which [f]'(x) is discontinuous.


  HISTORY AND LITERATURE OF THE THEORY

  The history of the theory of the representation of functions by series
  of sines and cosines is of great interest in connexion with the
  progressive development of the notion of an arbitrary function of a
  real variable, and of the peculiarities which such a function may
  possess; the modern views on the foundations of the infinitesimal
  calculus have been to a very considerable extent formed in this
  connexion (see FUNCTION). The representation of functions by these
  series was first considered in the 18th century, in connexion with the
  problem of a vibrating cord, and led to a controversy as to the
  possibility of such expansions. In a memoir published in 1747
  (_Memoirs of the Academy of Berlin_, vol. iii.) D'Alembert showed that
  the ordinate y at any time t of a vibrating cord satisfies a
  differential equation of the form [delta]^y/[delta]t² = a²
  [delta]^y/[delta]x², where x is measured along the undisturbed length
  of the cord, and that with the ends of the cord of length l fixed, the
  appropriate solution is y = [f](at + x) - [f](at - x), where [f] is a
  function such that [f](x) = [f](x + 2l); in another memoir in the same
  volume he seeks for functions which satisfy this condition. In the
  year 1748 (_Berlin Memoirs_, vol. iv.) Euler, in discussing the
  problem, gave [f](x) = [alpha] sin [pi]x/l + ß sin 2[pi]x/l + ...
  as a particular solution, and maintained that every curve, whether
  regular or irregular, must be representable in this form. This was
  objected to by D'Alembert (1750) and also by Lagrange on the ground
  that irregular curves are inadmissible. D. Bernoulli (_Berlin
  Memoirs_, vol. ix., 1753) based a similar result to that of Euler on
  physical intuition; his method was criticized by Euler (1753). The
  question was then considered from a new point of view by Lagrange, in
  a memoir on the nature and propagation of sound (_Miscellanea
  Taurensia_, 1759; [_OE]uvres_, vol. i.), who, while criticizing
  Euler's method, considers a finite number of vibrating particles, and
  then makes the number of them infinite; he did not, however, quite
  fully carry out the determination of the coefficients in Bernoulli's
  Series. These mathematicians were hampered by the narrow conception of
  a function, in which it is regarded as necessarily continuous; a
  discontinuous function was considered only as a succession of several
  different functions. Thus the possibility of the expansion of a broken
  function was not generally admitted. The first cases in which rational
  functions are expressed in sines and cosines were given by Euler
  (_Subsidium calculi sinuum_, Novi Comm. Petrop., vol. v., 1754-1755),
  who obtained the formulae

    ½ [phi] = sin [phi] - ½ sin 2[phi] + 1/3 sin 3[phi] ...

    [pi]²   [phi]²
    ----- - ------ = cos [phi] - ¼ cos 2[phi] + 1/9 cos 3[phi] ...
     12       4

  In a memoir presented to the Academy of St Petersburg in 1777, but not
  published until 1798, Euler gave the method afterwards used by
  Fourier, of determining the coefficients in the expansions; he
  remarked that if [Phi] is expansible in the form
                                                         _                           _
                                                   1    /[pi]                  2    /[pi]
    A + B cos[phi] + C cos 2[phi] + ..., then A = ----  |    [Phi]d[phi], B = ----  |   cos [phi]d[phi], &c.
                                                  [pi] _/ 0                   [pi] _/ 0

  The second period in the development of the theory commenced in 1807,
  when Fourier communicated his first memoir on the Theory of Heat to
  the French Academy. His exposition of the present theory is contained
  in a memoir sent to the Academy in 1811, of which his great treatise
  the _Théorie analytique de la chaleur_, published in 1822, is, in the
  main, a reproduction. Fourier set himself to consider the
  representation of a function given graphically, and was the first
  fully to grasp the idea that a single function may consist of detached
  portions given arbitrarily by a graph. He had an accurate conception
  of the convergence of a series, and although he did not give a
  formally complete proof that a function with discontinuities is
  representable by the series, he indicated in particular cases the
  method of procedure afterwards carried out by Dirichlet. As an
  exposition of principles, Fourier's work is still worthy of careful
  perusal by all students of the subject. Poisson's treatment of the
  subject, which has been adopted in English works (see the _Journal de
  l'école polytechnique_, vol. xi., 1820, and vol. xii., 1823, and also
  his treatise, _Théorie de la chaleur_, 1835), depends upon the equality
      _
     /[pi]                          1 - h²
     |    [f]([alpha]) ----------------------------- d[alpha]
    _/-[pi]            1 - 2h cos (x - [alpha]) + h²
                _                                            _
          1    /[pi]                          1             /[pi]
      = -----  |    [f]([alpha]) d[alpha] + ---- [Sigma]h^n |     [f]([alpha]) cos n(x - [alpha]) d[alpha]
        2[pi] _/-[pi]                       [pi]           _/-[pi]

  where 0 < h < 1; the limit of the integral on the left-hand side is
  evaluated when h=1, and found to be ½ {[f](x + 0) + [f](x - 0)}, the
  series on the right-hand side becoming Fourier's Series. The equality
  of the two limits is then inferred. If the series is assumed to be
  convergent when h = 1, by a theorem of Abel's its sum is continuous
  with the sum for values of h less than unity, but a proof of the
  convergency for h = 1 is requisite for the validity of Poisson's
  proof; as Poisson gave no such proof of convergency, his proof of the
  general theorem cannot be accepted. The deficiency cannot be removed
  except by a process of the same nature as that afterwards applied by
  Dirichlet. The definite integral has been carefully studied by Schwarz
  (see two memoirs in his collected works on the integration of the
  equation [delta]²u/[delta]x² + [delta]²u/[delta]y² = 0), who showed
  that the limiting value of the integral depends upon the manner in
  which the limit is approached. Investigations of Fourier's Series were
  also given by Cauchy (see his "Mémoire sur les développements des
  fonctions en séries périodiques," _Mém. de l'Inst_., vol. vi., also
  _Oeuvres complètes_, vol. vii.); his method, which depends upon a use
  of complex variables, was accepted, with some modification, as valid
  by Riemann, but one at least of his proofs is no longer regarded as
  satisfactory. The first completely satisfactory investigation is due
  to Dirichlet; his first memoir appeared in _Crelle's Journal_ for
  1829, and the second, which is a model of clearness, in Dove's
  _Repertorium der Physik_. Dirichlet laid down certain definite
  sufficient conditions in regard to the nature of a function which is
  expansible, and found under these conditions the limiting value of the
  sum of n terms of the series. Dirichlet's determination of the sum of
  the series at a point of discontinuity has been criticized by Schläfli
  (see _Crelle's Journal_, vol. lxxii.) and by Du Bois-Reymond (_Mathem.
  Annalen_, vol. vii.), who maintained that the sum is really
  indeterminate. Their objection appears, however, to rest upon a
  misapprehension as to the meaning of the sum of the series; if x1 be
  the point of discontinuity, it is possible to make x approach x1,
  and n become indefinitely great, so that the sum of the series takes
  any assigned value in a certain interval, whereas we ought to make x =
  x1 first and afterwards n = [oo], and no other way of going to the
  double limit is really admissible. Other papers by Dircksen (_Crelle_,
  vol. iv.) and Bessel (_Astronomische Nachrichten_, vol. xvi.), on
  similar lines to those by Dirichlet, are of inferior importance. Many
  of the investigations subsequent to Dirichlet's have the object of
  freeing a function from some of the restrictions which were imposed
  upon it in Dirichlet's proof, but no complete set of necessary and
  sufficient conditions as to the nature of the function has been
  obtained. Lipschitz ("De explicatione per series trigonometricas,"
  _Crelle's Journal_, vol. lxiii., 1864) showed that, under a certain
  condition, a function which has an infinite number of maxima and
  minima in the neighbourhood of a point is still expansible; his
  condition is that at the point of discontinuity ß, |[f](ß + [delta])
  -f(ß)| < B[delta]^[alpha] as [delta] converges to zero, B being a
  constant, and a a positive exponent. A somewhat wider condition is

    {[f](ß + [delta]) - [f](ß)} log [delta]) = 0,
                        [delta] = 0

  for which Lipschitz's results would hold. This last condition is
  adopted by Dini in his treatise (_Sopra la serie di Fourier_, &c.,
  Pisa, 1880).

  The modern period in the theory was inaugurated by the publication by
  Riemann in 1867 of his very important memoir, written in 1854, _Über
  die Darstellbarkeit einer Function durch eine trigonometrische Reihe_.
  The first part of his memoir contains a historical account of the work
  of previous investigators; in the second part there is a discussion of
  the foundations of the Integral Calculus, and the third part is mainly
  devoted to a discussion of what can be inferred as to the nature of a
  function respecting the changes in its value for a continuous change
  in the variable, if the function is capable of representation by a
  trigonometrical series. Dirichlet and probably Riemann thought that
  all continuous functions were everywhere representable by the series;
  this view was refuted by Du Bois-Reymond (_Abh. der Bayer. Akad._ vol.
  xii. 2). It was shown by Riemann that the convergence or
  non-convergence of the series at a particular point x depends only
  upon the nature of the function in an arbitrarily small neighbourhood
  of the point x. The first to call attention to the importance of the
  theory of uniform convergence of series in connexion with Fourier's
  Series was Stokes, in his memoir "On the Critical Values of the Sums
  of Periodic Series" (_Camb. Phil. Trans._, 1847; _Collected Papers_,
  vol. i.). As the method of determining the coefficients in a
  trigonometrical series is invalid unless the series converges in
  general uniformly, the question arose whether series with coefficients
  other than those of Fourier exist which represent arbitrary functions.
  Heine showed (_Crelle's Journal_, vol. lxxi., 1870, and in his
  treatise _Kugelfunctionen_, vol. i.) that Fourier's Series is in
  general uniformly convergent, and that if there is a uniformly
  convergent series which represents a function, it is the only one of
  the kind. G. Cantor then showed (_Crelle's Journal_, vols. lxxii.
  lxxiii.) that even if uniform convergence be not demanded, there can
  be but one convergent expansion for a function, and that it is that of
  Fourier. In the _Math. Ann._ vol. v., Cantor extended his
  investigation to functions having an infinite number of
  discontinuities. Important contributions to the theory of the series
  have been published by Du Bois-Reymond (_Abh. der Bayer. Akademie_,
  vol. xii., 1875, two memoirs, also in Crelle's Journal, vols. lxxiv.
  lxxvi. lxxix.), by Kronecker (_Berliner Berichte_, 1885), by O. Hölder
  (_Berliner Berichte_, 1885), by Jordan (_Comptes rendus_, 1881, vol.
  xcii.), by Ascoli (_Math. Annal._, 1873, and _Annali di matematica_,
  vol. vi.), and by Genocchi (_Atti della R. Acc. di Torino_, vol. x.,
  1875). Hamilton's memoir on "Fluctuating Functions" (_Trans. R.I.A._,
  vol. xix., 1842) may also be studied with profit in this connexion. A
  memoir by Brodén (_Math. Annalen_, vol. lii.) contains a good
  investigation of some of the most recent results on the subject. The
  scope of Fourier's Series has been extended by Lebesgue, who
  introduced a conception of integration wider than that due to Riemann.
  Lebesgue's work on Fourier's Series will be found in his treatise,
  _Leçons sur les séries trigonométriques_ (1906); also in a memoir,
  "Sur les séries trigonométriques," _Annales sc. de l'école normale
  supérieure_, series ii. vol. xx. (1903), and in a paper "Sur la
  convergence des séries de Fourier," _Math. Annalen_, vol. lxiv.
  (1905).

  AUTHORITIES.--The foregoing historical account has been mainly drawn
  from A. Sachse's work, "Versuch einer Geschichte der Darstellung
  willkürlicher Functionen einer Variabeln durch trigonometrische
  Reihen," published in _Schlömilch's Zeitschrift für Mathematik_,
  Supp., vol. xxv. 1880, and from a paper by G.A. Gibson "On the History
  of the Fourier Series" (_Proc. Ed. Math. Soc._ vol. xi.). Reiff's
  _Geschichte der unendlichen Reihen_ may also be consulted, and also
  the first part of Riemann's memoir referred to above. Besides Dini's
  treatise already referred to, there is a lucid treatment of the
  subject from an elementary point of view in C. Neumann's treatise,
  _Über die nach Kreis-, Kugel- und Cylinder-Functionen fortschreitenden
  Entwickelungen_. Jordan's discus