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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 2, Slice 2 - "Anjar" to "Apollo"
Author: Various
Language: English
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          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME II, SLICE II

              Anjar to Apollo



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  ANJAR                          ANTIGONUS GONATAS
  ANJOU                          ANTIGONUS OF CARYSTUS
  ANKERITE                       ANTIGUA
  ANKLAM                         ANTILEGOMENA
  ANKLE                          ANTILIA
  ANKOBER                        ANTILLES
  ANKYLOSIS                      ANTILOCHUS
  ANKYLOSTOMIASIS                ANTIMACASSAR
  ANNA, BALDASARRE               ANTIMACHUS
  ANNA (Indian penny)            ANTI-MASONIC PARTY
  ANNA AMALIA                    ANTIMONY
  ANNABERG                       ANTINOMIANS
  ANNABERGITE                    ANTINOMY
  ANNA COMNENA                   ANTINOÜS
  ANNA LEOPOLDOVNA               ANTIOCH
  ANNALISTS                      ANTIOCH IN PISIDIA
  ANNALS                         ANTIOCHUS
  ANNAM                          ANTIOCHUS OF ASCALON
  ANNAN                          ANTIOCHUS OF SYRACUSE
  ANNA PERENNA                   ANTIOPE
  ANNAPOLIS (Maryland, U.S.A.)   ANTIOQUIA
  ANNAPOLIS (Nova Scotia)        ANTIPAROS
  ANN ARBOR                      ANTIPATER
  ANNATES                        ANTIPHANES
  ANNE (queen of Great Britain)  ANTIPHILUS
  ANNE (empress of Russia)       ANTIPHON
  ANNE OF BRITTANY               ANTIPHONY
  ANNE OF CLEVES                 ANTIPODES
  ANNE OF DENMARK                ANTIPYRINE
  ANNE OF FRANCE                 ANTIQUARY
  ANNEALING AND TEMPERING        ANTIQUE
  ANNECY                         ANTI-SEMITISM
  ANNELIDA                       ANTISEPTICS
  ANNET, PETER                   ANTISTHENES
  ANNEXATION                     ANTISTROPHE
  ANNICERIS                      ANTITHESIS
  ANNING, MARY                   ANTITYPE
  ANNISTON                       ANTIUM
  ANNO, SAINT                    ANTIVARI
  ANNOBON                        ANT-LION
  ANNONA                         ANTOFAGASTA
  ANNONAY                        ANTOINE, ANDRÉ
  ANNOY                          ANTONELLI, GIACOMO
  ANNUITY                        ANTONELLO DA MESSINA
  ANNULAR, ANNULATE              ANTONINI ITINERARIUM
  ANNUNCIATION                   ANTONINUS, SAINT
  ANNUNZIO, GABRIELE D'          ANTONINUS LIBERALIS
  ANOA                           ANTONINUS PIUS
  ANODYNE                        ANTONIO
  ANOINTING                      ANTONIO, NICOLAS
  ANOMALY                        ANTONIO DE LEBRIJA
  ANORTHITE                      ANTONIUS
  ANQUETIL, LOUIS PIERRE         ANTONOMASIA
  ANQUETIL, DUPERRON, ABRAHAM    ANTRAIGUES, EMMANUEL HENRI LOUIS
  ANSA                           ANTRIM, RANDAL MACDONNELL
  ANSBACH                        ANTRIM, RANDAL MACDONNELL
  ANSDELL, RICHARD               ANTRIM (county of Ireland)
  ANSELM (archbishop)            ANTRIM (town of Ireland)
  ANSELM (French theologian)     ANTRUSTION
  ANSELME                        ANTWERP (province of Belgium)
  ANSON, GEORGE ANSON            ANTWERP (city of Belgium)
  ANSON, SIR WILLIAM REYNELL     ANU
  ANSONIA                        ANUBIS
  ANSTED, DAVID THOMAS           ANURADHAPURA
  ANSTEY, CHRISTOPHER            ANVIL
  ANSTRUTHER                     ANVILLE, JEAN BAPTISTE BOURGUIGNON D'
  ANSWER                         ANWARI
  ANT                            ANWEILER
  ANTAE                          ANZENGRUBER, LUDWIG
  ANTAEUS                        ANZIN
  ANTALCIDAS                     AONIA
  ANTANÀNARÌVO                   AORIST
  'ANTARA IBN SHADDAD            AOSTA
  ANTARCTIC                      APACHE
  ANTEATER                       APALACHEE
  ANTE-CHAPEL                    APALACHICOLA
  ANTE-CHOIR                     APAMEA
  ANTE-FIXAE                     APARRI
  ANTELOPE                       APATITE
  ANTEMNAE                       APATURIA
  ANTENOR (Athenian sculptor)    APE
  ANTENOR (Trojan elder)         APELDOORN
  ANTEQUERA                      APELLA
  ANTEROS                        APELLES
  ANTHELION                      APELLICON
  ANTHEM                         APENNINES
  ANTHEMION                      APENRADE
  ANTHEMIUS                      APERTURE
  ANTHESTERIA                    APEX
  ANTHIM THE IBERIAN             APHANITE
  ANTHOLOGY                      APHASIA
  ANTHON, CHARLES                APHELION
  ANTHONY, SAINT                 APHEMIA
  ANTHONY OF PADUA, SAINT        APHIDES
  ANTHONY, SUSAN BROWNELL        APHORISM
  ANTHOZOA                       APHRAATES
  ANTHRACENE                     APHRODITE
  ANTHRACITE                     APHTHONIUS
  ANTHRACOTHERIUM                APHTHONIUS, AELIUS FESTUS
  ANTHRAQUINONE                  APICIUS
  ANTHRAX                        APICULTURE
  ANTHROPOID APES                APION
  ANTHROPOLOGY                   APIS
  ANTHROPOMETRY                  APLITE
  ANTHROPOMORPHISM               APNOEA
  ANTI                           APOCALYPSE
  ANTIBES                        APOCALYPSE, KNIGHTS OF THE
  ANTICHRIST                     APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE
  ANTICLIMAX                     APOCATASTASIS
  ANTICOSTI                      APOCRYPHAL LITERATURE
  ANTICYCLONE                    APODICTIC
  ANTICYRA                       APOLDA
  ANTIETAM                       APOLLINARIS
  ANTI-FEDERALISTS               APOLLINARIS, SULPICIUS
  ANTIGO                         APOLLINARIS SIDONIUS, CAIUS SOLLIUS
  ANTIGONE                       APOLLO
  ANTIGONUS CYCLOPS



ANJAR, a fortified town of India, and the capital of a district of the
same name in the native state of Cutch, in the presidency of Bombay. The
country is dry and sandy, and entirely depends on well irrigation for
its water supply. The town is situated nearly 10 miles from the Gulf of
Cutch. It suffered severely from an earthquake in 1819, which destroyed
a large number of houses, and occasioned the loss of several lives. In
1901 the population was 18,014. The town and district of Anjar were both
ceded to the British in 1816, but in 1822 they were again transferred to
the Cutch government in consideration of an annual money payment.
Subsequently it was discovered that this obligation pressed heavily upon
the resources of the native state, and in 1832 the pecuniary equivalent
for Anjar, both prospectively and inclusive of the arrears which had
accrued to that date, was wholly remitted by the British government.



ANJOU, the old name of a French territory, the political origin of which
is traced to the ancient Gallic state of the _Andes_, on the lines of
which was organized, after the conquest by Julius Caesar, the Roman
_civitas_ of the _Andecavi_. This was afterwards preserved as an
administrative district under the Franks with the name first of _pagus_,
then of _comitatus_, or countship of Anjou. This countship, the extent
of which seems to have been practically identical with that of the
ecclesiastical diocese of Angers, occupied the greater part of what is
now the department of Maine-et-Loire, further embracing, to the north,
Craon, Bazouges (Château-Gontier), Le Lude, and to the east,
Château-la-Vallière and Bourgueil, while to the south, on the other
hand, it included neither the present town of Montreuil-Bellay, nor
Vihiers, Cholet, Beaupréau, nor the whole district lying to the west of
the Ironne and Thouet, on the left bank of the Loire, which formed the
territory of the Mauges. It was bounded on the north by the countship of
Maine, on the east by that of Touraine, on the south by that of Poitiers
and by the Mauges, on the west by the countship of Nantes.

From the outset of the reign of Charles the Bald, the integrity of Anjou
was seriously menaced by a two-fold danger: from Brittany and from
Normandy. Lambert, a former count of Nantes, after devastating Anjou in
concert with Nominoé, duke of Brittany, had by the end of the year 851
succeeded in occupying all the western part as far as the Mayenne. The
principality, which he thus carved out for himself, was occupied, on his
death, by Erispoé, duke of Brittany; by him it was handed down to his
successors, in whose hands it remained till the beginning of the 10th
century. All this time the Normans had not ceased ravaging the country;
a brave man was needed to defend it, and finally towards 861, Charles
the Bald entrusted it to Robert the Strong (q.v.), but he unfortunately
met with his death in 866 in a battle against the Normans at Brissarthe.
Hugh the Abbot succeeded him in the countship of Anjou as in most of his
other duties, and on his death (886) it passed to Odo (q.v.), the eldest
son of Robert the Strong, who, on his accession to the throne of France
(888), probably handed it over to his brother Robert. In any case,
during the last years of the 9th century, in Anjou as elsewhere the
power was delegated to a viscount, Fulk the Red (mentioned under this
title after 898), son of a certain Ingelgerius.

In the second quarter of the 10th century Fulk the Red had already
usurped the title of count, which his descendants kept for three
centuries. He was succeeded first by his son Fulk II. the Good (941 or
942-c. 960), and then by the son of the latter, Geoffrey I.
_Grisegonelle_ (Greytunic) (c. 960-21st of July 987), who inaugurated a
policy of expansion, having as its objects the extension of the
boundaries of the ancient countship and the reconquest of those parts of
it which had been annexed by the neighbouring states; for, though
western Anjou had been recovered from the dukes of Brittany since the
beginning of the 10th century, in the east all the district of Saumur
had already by that time fallen into the hands of the counts of Blois
and Tours. Geoffrey Greytunic succeeded in making the count of Nantes
his vassal, and in obtaining from the duke of Aquitaine the concession
in fief of the district of Loudun. Moreover, in the wars of king
Lothaire against the Normans and against the emperor Otto II. he
distinguished himself by feats of arms which the epic poets were quick
to celebrate. His son Fulk III. Nerra (q.v.) (21st of July 987-21st of
June 1040) found himself confronted on his accession with a coalition of
Odo I., count of Blois, and Conan I., count of Rennes. The latter having
seized upon Nantes, of which the counts of Anjou held themselves to be
suzerains, Fulk Nerra came and laid siege to it, routing Conan's army at
Conquereuil (27th of June 992) and re-establishing Nantes under his own
suzerainty. Then turning his attention to the count of Blois, he
proceeded to establish a fortress at Langeais, a few miles from Tours,
from which, thanks to the intervention of the king Hugh Capet, Odo
failed to oust him. On the death of Odo I., Fulk seized Tours (996); but
King Robert the Pious turned against him and took the town again (997).
In 1016 a fresh struggle arose between Fulk and Odo II., the new count
of Blois. Odo II. was utterly defeated at Pontlevoy (6th of July 1016),
and a few years later, while Odo was besieging Montboyau, Fulk surprised
and took Saumur (1026). Finally, the victory gained by Geoffrey Martel
(q.v.) (21st of June 1040-14th of November 1060), the son and successor
of Fulk, over Theobald III., count of Blois, at Nouy (21st of August
1044), assured to the Angevins the possession of the countship of
Touraine. At the same time, continuing in this quarter also the work of
his father (who in 1025 took prisoner Herbert Wake-Dog and only set him
free on condition of his doing him homage), Geoffrey succeeded in
reducing the countship of Maine to complete dependence on himself.
During his father's life-time he had been beaten by Gervais, bishop of
Le Mans (1038), but now (1047 or 1048) succeeded in taking the latter
prisoner, for which he was excommunicated by Pope Leo IX. at the council
of Reims (October 1049). In spite, however, of the concerted attacks of
William the Bastard (the Conqueror), duke of Normandy, and Henry I.,
king of France, he was able in 1051 to force Maine to recognize his
authority, though failing to revenge himself on William.

On the death of Geoffrey Martel (14th of November 1060) there was a
dispute as to the succession. Geoffrey Martel, having no children, had
bequeathed the countship to his eldest nephew, Geoffrey III. the
Bearded, son of Geoffrey, count of Gâtinais, and of Ermengarde, daughter
of Fulk Nerra. But Fulk le Réchin (the Cross-looking), brother of
Geoffrey the Bearded, who had at first been contented with an appanage
consisting of Saintonge and the _châtellenie_ of Vihiers, having allowed
Saintonge to be taken in 1062 by the duke of Aquitaine, took advantage
of the general discontent aroused in the countship by the unskilful
policy of Geoffrey to make himself master of Saumur (25th of February
1067) and Angers (4th of April), and cast Geoffrey into prison at Sablé.
Compelled by the papal authority to release him after a short interval
and to restore the countship to him, he soon renewed the struggle, beat
Geoffrey near Brissac and shut him up in the castle of Chinon (1068). In
order, however, to obtain his recognition as count, Fulk IV. Réchin
(1068-14th of April 1109) had to carry on a long struggle with his
barons, to cede Gâtinais to King Philip I., and to do homage to the
count of Blois for Touraine. On the other hand, he was successful on the
whole in pursuing the policy of Geoffrey Martel in Maine: after
destroying La Flèche, by the peace of Blanchelande (1081), he received
the homage of Robert "Courteheuse" ("Curthose"), son of William the
Conqueror, for Maine. Later, he upheld Elias, lord of La Flèche, against
William Rufus, king of England, and on the recognition of Elias as count
of Maine in 1100, obtained for Fulk the Young, his son by Bertrade de
Montfort, the hand of Eremburge, Elias's daughter and sole heiress.

Fulk V. the Young (14th of April 1109-1129) succeeded to the countship
of Maine on the death of Elias (11th of July 1110); but this increase of
Angevin territory came into such direct collision with the interests of
Henry I., king of England, who was also duke of Normandy, that a
struggle between the two powers became inevitable. In 1112 it broke out,
and Fulk, being unable to prevent Henry I. from taking Alençon and
making Robert, lord of Bellême, prisoner, was forced, at the treaty of
Pierre Pecoulée, near Alençon (23rd of February 1113), to do homage to
Henry for Maine. In revenge for this, while Louis VI. was overrunning
the Vexin in 1118, he routed Henry's army at Alençon (November), and in
May 1119 Henry demanded a peace, which was sealed in June by the
marriage of his eldest son, William the Aetheling, with Matilda, Fulk's
daughter. William the Aetheling having perished in the wreck of the
"White Ship" (25th of November 1120), Fulk, on his return from a
pilgrimage to the Holy Land (1120-1121), married his second daughter
Sibyl, at the instigation of Louis VI., to William Clito, son of Robert
Courteheuse, and a claimant to the duchy of Normandy, giving her Maine
for a dowry (1122 or 1123). Henry I. managed to have the marriage
annulled, on the plea of kinship between the parties (1123 or 1124). But
in 1127 a new alliance was made, and on the 22nd of May at Rouen, Henry
I. betrothed his daughter Matilda, widow of the emperor Henry V., to
Geoffrey the Handsome, son of Fulk, the marriage being celebrated at Le
Mans on the 2nd of June 1129. Shortly after, on the invitation of
Baldwin II., king of Jerusalem, Fulk departed to the Holy Land for good,
married Melisinda, Baldwin's daughter and heiress, and succeeded to the
throne of Jerusalem (14th of September 1131). His eldest son, Geoffrey
IV. the Handsome or "Plantagenet," succeeded him as count of Anjou
(1129-7th of September 1151). From the first he tried to profit by his
marriage, and after the death of Henry I. (1st of December 1135), laid
the foundation of the conquest of Normandy by a series of campaigns:
about the end of 1135 or the beginning of 1136 he entered that country
and rejoined his wife, the countess Matilda, who had received the
submission of Argentan, Domfront and Exmes. Having been abruptly
recalled into Anjou by a revolt of his barons, he returned to the charge
in September 1136 with a strong army, including in its ranks William,
duke of Aquitaine, Geoffrey, count of Vendôme, and William Talvas, count
of Ponthieu, but after a few successes was wounded in the foot at the
siege of Le Sap (October 1) and had to fall back. In May 1137 began a
fresh campaign in which he devastated the district of Hiémois (round
Exmes) and burnt Bazoches. In June 1138, with the aid of Robert of
Gloucester, Geoffrey obtained the submission of Bayeux and Caen; in
October he devastated the neighbourhood of Falaise; finally, in March
1141, on hearing of his wife's success in England, he again entered
Normandy, when he made a triumphal procession through the country. Town
after town surrendered: in 1141, Verneuil, Nonancourt, Lisieux, Falaise;
in 1142, Mortain, Saint-Hilaire, Pontorson; in 1143, Avranches,
Saint-Lô, Cérences, Coutances, Cherbourg; in the beginning of 1144 he
entered Rouen, and on the 19th of January received the ducal crown in
its cathedral. Finally, in 1149, after crushing a last attempt at
revolt, he handed over the duchy to his son Henry "Curtmantel," who
received the investiture at the hands of the king of France.

All the while that Fulk the Young and Geoffrey the Handsome were
carrying on the work of extending the countship of Anjou, they did not
neglect to strengthen their authority at home, to which the unruliness
of the barons was a menace. As regards Fulk the Young we know only a few
isolated facts and dates: about 1109 Doué and L'Île Bouchard were taken;
in 1112 Brissac was besieged, and about the same time Eschivard of
Preuilly subdued; in 1114 there was a general war against the barons who
were in revolt, and in 1118 a fresh rising, which was put down after the
siege of Montbazon: in 1123 the lord of Doué revolted, and in 1124
Montreuil-Bellay was taken after a siege of nine weeks. Geoffrey the
Handsome, with his indefatigable energy, was eminently fitted to
suppress the coalitions of his vassals, the most formidable of which was
formed in 1129. Among those who revolted were Guy of Laval, Giraud of
Montreuil-Bellay, the viscount of Thouars, the lords of Mirebeau,
Amboise, Partbenay and Sablé. Geoffrey succeeded in beating them one
after another, razed the keep of Thouars and occupied Mirebeau. Another
rising was crushed in 1134 by the destruction of Cand and the taking of
L'Île Bouchard. In 1136, while the count was in Normandy, Robert of
Sable put himself at the head of the movement, to which Geoffrey
responded by destroying Briollay and occupying La Suze, and Robert of
Sable himself was forced to beg humbly for pardon through the
intercession of the bishop of Angers. In 1139 Geoffrey took Mirebeau,
and in 1142 Champtoceaux, but in 1145 a new revolt broke out, this time
under the leadership of Elias, the count's own brother, who, again with
the assistance of Robert of Sable, laid claim to the countship of Maine.
Geoffrey took Elias prisoner, forced Robert of Sable to beat a retreat,
and reduced the other barons to reason. In 1147 he destroyed Doue and
Blaison. Finally in 1150 he was checked by the revolt of Giraud, lord of
Montreuil-Bellay: for a year he besieged the place till it had to
surrender: he then took Giraud prisoner and only released him on the
mediation of the king of France.

Thus, on the death of Geoffrey the Handsome (7th of September 1151), his
son Henry found himself heir to a great empire, strong and consolidated,
to which his marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine (May 1152) further added
Aquitaine.

At length on the death of King Stephen, Henry was recognised as king of
England (19th of December 1154). But then his brother Geoffrey, who had
received as appanage the three fortresses of Chinon, Loudun and
Mirebeau, tried to seize upon Anjou, on the pretext that, by the will of
their father, Geoffrey the Handsome, all the paternal inheritance ought
to descend to him, if Henry succeeded in obtaining possession of the
maternal inheritance. On hearing of this, Henry, although he had sworn
to observe this will, had himself released from his oath by the pope,
and hurriedly marched against his brother, from whom in the beginning of
1156 he succeeded in taking Chinon and Mirebeau; and in July he forced
Geoffrey to give up even his three fortresses in return for an annual
pension. Henceforward Henry succeeded in keeping the countship of Anjou
all his life; for though he granted it in 1168 to his son Henry "of the
Short Mantle," when the latter became old enough to govern it, he
absolutely refused to allow him to enjoy his power. After Henry II.'s
death in 1189 the countship, together with the rest of his dominions,
passed to his son Richard I. of England, but on the death of the latter
in 1199, Arthur of Brittany (born in 1187) laid claim to the
inheritance, which ought, according to him, to have fallen to his father
Geoffrey, fourth son of Henry II., in accordance with the custom by
which "the son of the eldest brother should succeed to his father's
patrimony." He therefore set himself up in rivalry with John Lackland,
youngest son of Henry II., and supported by Philip Augustus of France,
and aided by William des Roches, seneschal of Anjou, he managed to enter
Angers (18th of April 1199) and there have himself recognized as count
of the three countships of Anjou, Maine and Touraine, for which he did
homage to the king of France. King John soon regained the upper hand,
for Philip Augustus having deserted Arthur by the treaty of Le Goulet
(22nd of May 1200), John made his way into Anjou; and on the 18th of
June 1200 was recognized as count at Angers. In 1202 he refused to do
homage to Philip Augustus, who, in consequence, confiscated all his
continental possessions, including Anjou, which was allotted by the king
of France to Arthur. The defeat of the latter, who was taken prisoner at
Mirebeau on the ist of August 1202, seemed to ensure John's success, but
he was abandoned by William des Roches, who in 1203 assisted Philip
Augustus in subduing the whole of Anjou. A last effort on the part of
John to possess himself of it, in 1214, led to the taking of Angers
(17th of June), but broke down lamentably at the battle of La
Roche-aux-Moines (2nd of July), and the countship was attached to the
crown of France.

Shortly afterwards it was separated from it again, when in August 1246
King Louis IX. gave it as an appanage to his son Charles, count of
Provence, soon to become king of Naples and Sicily (see NAPLES). Charles
I. of Anjou, engrossed with his other dominions, gave little thought to
Anjou, nor did his son Charles II. the Lame, who succeeded him on the
7th of January 1285. On the 16th of August 1290, the latter married his
daughter Margaret to Charles of Valois, son of Philip III. the Bold,
giving her Anjou and Maine for dowry, in exchange for the kingdoms of
Aragon and Valentia and the countship of Barcelona given up by Charles.
Charles of Valois at once entered into possession of the countship of
Anjou, to which Philip IV. the Fair, in September 1297, attached a
peerage of France. On the 16th of December 1325, Charles died, leaving
Anjou to his eldest son Philip of Valois, on whose recognition as king
of France (Philip VI.) on the 1st of April 1328, the countship of Anjou
was again united to the crown. On the 17th of February 1332, Philip VI.
bestowed it on his son John the Good, who, when he became king in turn
(22nd of August 1350), gave the countship to his second son Louis I.,
raising it to a duchy in the peerage of France by letters patent of the
25th of October 1360. Louis I., who became in time count of Provence and
king of Naples (see Louis I., king of Naples,) died in 1384, and was
succeeded by his son Louis II., who devoted most of his energies to his
kingdom of Naples, and left the administration of Anjou almost entirely
in the hands of his wife, Yolande of Aragon. On his death (29th of April
1417) she took upon herself the guardianship of their young son Louis
III., and in her capacity of regent defended the duchy against the
English. Louis III., who also succeeded his father as king of Naples,
died on the 15th of November 1434, leaving no children. The duchy of
Anjou then passed to his cousin Rene, second son of Louis II. and
Yolande of Aragon, and king of Naples and Sicily (see NAPLES).

Unlike his predecessors, who had rarely stayed long in Anjou, René from
1443 onwards paid long visits to it, and his court at Angers became one
of the most brilliant in the kingdom of France. But after the sudden
death of his son John in December 1470, Rene, for reasons which are not
altogether clear, decided to move his residence to Provence and leave
Anjou for good. After making an inventory of all his possessions, he
left the duchy in October 1471, taking with him the most valuable of his
treasures. On the 22nd of July 1474 he drew up a will by which he
divided the succession between his grandson René II. of Lorraine and his
nephew Charles II., count of Maine. On hearing this, King Louis XI., who
was the son of one of King René's sisters, seeing that his expectations
were thus completely frustrated, seized the duchy of Anjou. He did not
keep it very long, but became reconciled to René in 1476 and restored it
to him, on condition, probably, that René should bequeath it to him.
However that may be, on the death of the latter (10th of July 1480) he
again added Anjou to the royal domain.

Later, King Francis I. again gave the duchy as an appanage to his
mother, Louise of Savoy, by letters patent of the 4th of February 1515.
On her death, in September 1531, the duchy returned into the king's
possession. In 1552 it was given as an appanage by Henry II. to his son
Henry of Valois, who, on becoming king in 1574, with the title of Henry
III., conceded it to his brother Francis, duke of Alençon, at the treaty
of Beaulieu near Loches (6th of May 1576). Francis died on the 10th of
June 1584, and the vacant appanage definitively became part of the royal
domain.

At first Anjou was included in the _gouvernement_ (or military command)
of Orléanais, but in the 17th century was made into a separate one.
Saumur, however, and the Saumurois, for which King Henry IV. had in 1589
created an independent military governor-generalship in favour of
Duplessis-Mornay, continued till the Revolution to form a separate
_gouvernement_, which included, besides Anjou, portions of Poitou and
Mirebalais. Attached to the _généralité_ (administrative circumscription)
of Tours, Anjou on the eve of the Revolution comprised five _êlections_
(judicial districts):--Angers, Beaugé, Saumur, Château-Gontier,
Montreuil-Bellay and part of the _êlections_ of La Flèche and Richelieu.
Financially it formed part of the so-called _pays de grande gabelle_ (see
GABELLE), and comprised sixteen special tribunals, or _greniers à sel_
(salt warehouses):--Angers, Beaugé, Beaufort, Bourgueil, Candé,
Château-Gontier, Cholet, Craon, La Flèche, Saint-Florent-le-Vieil,
Ingrandes, Le Lude, Pouancé, Saint-Remy-la-Varenne, Richelieu, Saumur.
From the point of view of purely judicial administration, Anjou was
subject to the parlement of Paris; Angers was the seat of a presidial
court, of which the jurisdiction comprised the _sénéchaussées_ of Angers,
Saumur, Beaugé, Beaufort and the duchy of Richelieu; there were besides
presidial courts at Château-Gontier and La Flèche. When the Constituent
Assembly, on the 26th of February 1790, decreed the division of France
into departments, Anjou and the Saumurois, with the exception of certain
territories, formed the department of Maine-et-Loire, as at present
constituted.

  AUTHORITIES.--(1) _Principal Sources_: The history of Anjou may be
  told partly with the aid of the chroniclers of the neighbouring
  provinces, especially those of Normandy (William of Poitiers, William
  of Jumièges, Ordericus Vitalis) and of Maine (especially _Actus
  pontificum Cenomannis in urbe degentium_). For the 10th, 11th and 12th
  centuries especially, there are some important texts dealing entirely
  with Anjou. The most important is the chronicle called _Gesta consulum
  Andegavorum_, of which only a poor edition exists (_Chroniques des
  comtes d'Anjou_, published by Marchegay and Salmon, with an
  introduction by E. Mabille, Paris, 1856-1871, collection of the
  _Société de l'histoire de France_). See also with reference to this
  text Louis Halphen, _Êtude sur les chroniques des comtes d'Anjou et
  des seigneurs d'Amboise_ (Paris, 1906). The above may be supplemented
  by some valuable annals published by Louis Halphen, _Recueil d'annales
  angevines et vendómoises_ (Paris, 1903), (in the series _Collection de
  textes pour servir à l'étude et à l'enseignement de l'histoire_). For
  further details see Auguste Molinier, _Les Sources de l'histoire de
  France_ (Paris, 1902), ii. 1276-1310, and the book of Louis Halphen
  mentioned below.

  (2) _Works_: The _Art de vérifier les dates_ contains a history of
  Anjou which is very much out of date, but has not been treated
  elsewhere as a whole. The 11th century only has been treated in detail
  by Louis Halphen, in _Le Comté d'Anjou au XI^e siècle_ (Paris, 1906),
  which has a preface with bibliography and an introduction dealing with
  the history of Anjou in the 10th century. For the 10th, 11th and 12th
  centuries, a good summary will be found in Kate Norgate, _England
  under the Angevin Kings_ (2 vols., London, 1887). On René of Anjou,
  there is a book by A. Lecoy de la Marche, _Le Roi René_ (2 vols.,
  Paris, 1875). Lastly, the work of Célestin Port, _Dictionnaire
  historique, géographique et biographique de Maine-et-Loire_ (3 vols.,
  Paris and Angers, 1874-1878), and its small volume of _Préliminaires_
  (including a summary of the history of Anjou), contain, in addition to
  the biographies of the chief counts of Anjou, a mass of information
  concerning everything connected with Angevin history.     (L. H.*)



ANKERITE, a member of the mineral group of rhombohedral carbonates. In
composition it is closely related to dolomite, but differs from this in
having magnesia replaced by varying amounts of ferrous and manganous
oxides, the general formula being Ca(Mg, Fe, Mn)(CO3)2. Normal ankerite
is Ca2MgFe(CO3)4. The crystallographic and physical characters resemble
those of dolomite and chalybite. The angle between the perfect
rhombohedral cleavages is 73° 48', the hardness 3½ to 4, and the
specific gravity 2.9 to 3.1; but these will vary slightly with the
chemical composition. The colour is white, grey or reddish.

Ankerite occurs with chalybite in deposits of iron-ore. It is one of the
minerals of the dolomite-chalybite series, to which the terms
brown-spar, pearl-spar and bitter-spar are loosely applied. It was first
recognized as a distinct species by W. von Haidinger in 1825, and named
by him after M.J. Anker of Styria.     (L. J. S.)



ANKLAM, or ANCLAM, a town of Germany in the Prussian province of
Pomerania, on the Peene, 5 m. from its mouth in the Kleines Haff, and 53
m. N.W. of Stettin, by the railway to Stralsund. Pop. (1900) 14,602. The
fortifications of Anklam were dismantled in 1762 and have not since been
restored, although the old walls are still standing; formerly, however,
it was a town of considerable military importance, which suffered
severely during the Thirty Years' and the Seven Years' Wars; and this
fact, together with the repeated ravages of fire and of the plague, has
made its history more eventful than is usually the case with towns of
the same size. It does not possess any remarkable buildings, although it
contains several, private as well as public, that are of a quaint and
picturesque style of architecture. The church of St Mary (12th century)
has a modern tower, 335 ft. high. The industries consist of
iron-foundries and factories for sugar and soap; and there is a military
school. The Peene is navigable up to the town, which has a considerable
trade in its own manufactures, as well as in the produce of the
surrounding country, while some shipbuilding is carried on in wharves on
the river.

Anklam, formerly Tanglim, was originally a Slav fortress; it obtained
civic rights in 1244 and joined the Hanseatic league. In 1648 it passed
to Sweden, but in 1676 was retaken by Frederick William I. of
Brandenburg, and after being plundered by the Russians in 1713 was ceded
to Prussia by the peace of Stockholm in 1720.



ANKLE, or ANCLE (a word common, in various forms, to Teutonic languages,
probably connected in origin with the Lat. _angulus_, or Gr. [Greek:
ankulos], bent), the joint which connects the foot with the leg (see
JOINTS).



ANKOBER, a town in, and at one time capital of, the kingdom of Shoa,
Abyssinia, 90 m. N.E. of Adis Ababa, in 9° 34' N., 39° 54' E., on a
mountain about 8500 ft. above the sea. Ankober was made (c. 1890) by
Menelek II. the place of detention of political prisoners. Pop. about
2000.



ANKYLOSIS, or ANCHYLOSIS (from Gr. [Greek: ankulos], bent, crooked), a
stiffness of a joint, the result of injury or disease. The rigidity may
be complete or partial and may be due to inflammation of the tendinous
or muscular structures outside the joint or of the tissues of the joint
itself. When the structures outside the joint are affected, the term
"false" ankylosis has been used in contradistinction to "true"
ankylosis, in which the disease is within the joint. When inflammation
has caused the joint-ends of the bones to be fused together the
ankylosis is termed _osseous_ or complete. Excision of a completely
ankylosed shoulder or elbow may restore free mobility and usefulness to
the limb. "Ankylosis" is also used as an anatomical term, bones being
said to ankylose (or anchylose) when, from being originally distinct,
they coalesce, or become so joined together that no motion can take
place between them.



ANKYLOSTOMIASIS, or ANCHYLOSTOMIASIS (also called helminthiasis,
"miners' anaemia," and in Germany _Wurmkrankheit_), a disease to which
in recent years much attention has been paid, from its prevalence in the
mining industry in England, France, Germany, Belgium, North Queensland
and elsewhere. This disease (apparently known in Egypt even in very
ancient times) caused a great mortality among the negroes in the West
Indies towards the end of the 18th century; and through descriptions
sent from Brazil and various other tropical and sub-tropical regions, it
was subsequently identified, chiefly through the labours of Bilharz and
Griesinger in Egypt (1854), as being due to the presence in the
intestine of nematoid worms (_Ankylostoma duodenalis_) from one-third to
half an inch long. The symptoms, as first observed among the negroes,
were pain in the stomach, capricious appetite, pica (or dirt-eating),
obstinate constipation followed by diarrhoea, palpitations, small and
unsteady pulse, coldness of the skin, pallor of the skin and mucous
membranes, diminution of the secretions, loss of strength and, in cases
running a fatal course, dysentery, haemorrhages and dropsies. The
parasites, which cling to the intestinal mucous membrane, draw their
nourishment from the blood-vessels of their host, and as they are found
in hundreds in the body after death, the disorders of digestion, the
increasing anaemia and the consequent dropsies and other cachectic
symptoms are easily explained. The disease was first known in Europe
among the Italian workmen employed on the St Gotthard tunnel. In 1896,
though previously unreported in Germany, 107 cases were registered
there, and the number rose to 295 in 1900, and 1030 in 1901. In England
an outbreak at the Dolcoath mine, Cornwall, in 1902, led to an
investigation for the home office by Dr Haldane F.R.S. (see especially
the Parliamentary Paper, numbered Cd. 1843), and since then discussions
and inquiries have been frequent. A committee of the British Association
in 1904 issued a valuable report on the subject. After the
Spanish-American War American physicians had also given it their
attention, with valuable results; see Stiles (_Hygienic Laboratory
Bulletin_, No. 10, Washington, 1903). The American parasite described by
Stiles, and called _Uncinaria americana_ (whence the name Uncinariasis
for this disease) differs slightly from the Ankylostoma. The parasites
thrive in an environment of dirt, and the main lines of precaution are
those dictated by sanitary science. Malefern, santonine, thymol and
other anthelmintic remedies are prescribed.



ANNA, BALDASARRE, a painter who flourished during part of the 16th and
17th centuries. He was born at Venice, probably about 1560, and is said
to have been of Flemish descent. The date of his death is uncertain, but
he seems to have been alive in 1639. For a number of years he studied
under Leonardo Corona, and on the death of that painter completed
several works left unfinished by him. His own activity seems to have
been confined to the production of pieces for several of the churches
and a few private houses in Venice, and the old guide-books and
descriptions of the city notice a considerable number of paintings by
him. Scarcely any of these, however, have survived.



ANNA (Hindustani _ana_), an Indian penny, the sixteenth part of a rupee.
The term belongs to the Mahommedan monetary system (see RUPEE). There is
no coin of one anna, but there are half-annas of copper and two-anna
pieces of silver. The term anna is frequently used to express a
fraction. Thus an Anglo-Indian speaks of two annas of dark blood (an
octoroon), a four-anna (quarter) crop, an eight-anna (half) gallop.



ANNA AMALIA (1739-1807), duchess of Saxe-Weimar, daughter of Charles I.,
duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, was born at Wolfenbüttel on the 24th of
October 1739, and married Ernest, duke of Saxe-Weimar, 1756. Her husband
died in 1758, leaving her regent for their infant son, Charles Augustus.
During the protracted minority she administered the affairs of the duchy
with the greatest prudence, strengthening its resources and improving
its position in spite of the troubles of the Seven Years' War. She was a
patroness of art and literature, and attracted to Weimar many of the
most eminent men in Germany. Wieland was appointed tutor to her son; and
the names of Herder, Goethe and Schiller shed an undying lustre on her
court. In 1775 she retired into private life, her son having attained
his majority. In 1788 she set out on a lengthened tour through Italy,
accompanied by Goethe. She died on the 10th of April 1807. A memorial of
the duchess is included in Goethe's works under the title _Zum Andenken
der Furstin Anna-Amalia._

  See F. Bornhak, _Anna Amalia Herzogin von Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach_
  (Berlin. 1892).



ANNABERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, in the
Erzgebirge, 1894 ft. above the sea, 6 m. from the Bohemian frontier, 18½
m. S. by E. from Chemnitz by rail. Pop. (1905) 16,811. It has three
Evangelical churches, among them that of St Anne, built 1499-1525, a
Roman Catholic church, several public monuments, among them those of
Luther, of the famous arithmetician Adam Riese, and of Barbara Uttmann.
Annaberg, together with the neighbouring suburb, Buchholz, is the chief
seat of the braid and lace-making industry in Germany, introduced here
by Barbara Uttmann in 1561, and further developed by Belgian refugees,
who, driven from their country by the duke of Alva, settled here in
1590. The mining industry, for which the town was formerly also famous
and which embraced tin, silver and cobalt, has now ceased. Annaberg has
technical schools for lace-making, commerce and agriculture, in addition
to high grade public schools for boys and girls.



ANNABERGITE, a mineral consisting of a hydrous nickel arsenate,
Ni3(AsO4)2 + 8H2O, crystallizing in the monoclinic system and
isomorphous with vivianite and erythrite. Crystals are minute and
capillary and rarely met with, the mineral occurring usually as soft
earthy masses and encrustations. A fine apple-green colour is its
characteristic feature. It was long known (since 1758) under the name
nickel-ochre; the name annabergite was proposed by H.J. Brooke and W.H.
Miller in 1852, from Annaberg in Saxony, one of the localities of the
mineral. It occurs with ores of nickel, of which it is a product of
alteration. A variety, from Creetown in Kirkcudbrightshire, in which a
portion of the nickel is replaced by calcium, has been called
dudgeonite, after P. Dudgeon, who found it.     (L. J. S.)



ANNA COMNENA, daughter of the emperor Alexius I. Comnenus, the first
woman historian, was born on the 1st of December 1083. She was her
father's favourite and was carefully trained in the study of poetry,
science and Greek philosophy. But, though learned and studious, she was
intriguing and ambitious, and ready to go to any lengths to gratify her
longing for power. Having married an accomplished young nobleman,
Nicephorus Bryennius, she united with the empress Irene in a vain
attempt to prevail upon her father during his last illness to disinherit
his son and give the crown to her husband. Still undeterred, she entered
into a conspiracy to depose her brother after his accession; and when
her husband refused to join in the enterprise, she exclaimed that
"nature had mistaken their sexes, for he ought to have been the woman."
The plot being discovered, Anna forfeited her property and fortune,
though, by the clemency of her brother, she escaped with her life.
Shortly afterwards, she retired into a convent and employed her leisure
in writing the _Alexiad_--a history, in Greek, of her father's life and
reign (1081-1118), supplementing the historical work of her husband. It
is rather a family panegyric than a scientific history, in which the
affection of the daughter and the vanity of the author stand out
prominently. Trifling acts of her father are described at length in
exaggerated terms, while little notice is taken of important
constitutional matters. A determined opponent of the Latin church and an
enthusiastic admirer of the Byzantine empire, Anna Comnena regards the
Crusades as a danger both political and religious. Her models are
Thucydides, Polybius and Xenophon, and her style exhibits the striving
after Atticism characteristic of the period, with the result that the
language is highly artificial. Her chronology especially is defective.

  Editions in Bonn _Corpus Scriptorum Hist. Byz._, by J. Schopen and A.
  Reifferscheid (1839-1878), with Du Cange's valuable commentary; and
  Teubner series, by A. Reifferscheid (1884). See also C. Krumbacher,
  _Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur_ (2nd ed. 1897); C. Neumann,
  _Griechische Geschichtschreiber im 12 Jahrhunderte_ (1888); E. Oster,
  _Anna Komnena_ (Rastatt, 1868-1871); Gibbon, _Decline and Fall_, ch.
  48; Finlay, _Hist, of Greece_, iii. pp. 53, 128 (1877); P. Adam,
  _Princesses byzantines_ (1893); Sir Walter Scott, _Count Robert of
  Paris_; L. du Sommerard, _Anne Comnène ... Agnès de France_ (1907); C.
  Diehl, _Figures byzantines_ (1906).



ANNA LEOPOLDOVNA, sometimes called ANNA CARLOVNA (1718-1746), regent of
Russia for a few months during the minority of her son Ivan, was the
daughter of Catherine, sister of the empress Anne, and Charles Leopold,
duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. In 1739 she married Anton Ulrich (d.
1775), son of Ferdinand Albert, duke of Brunswick, and their son Ivan
was adopted in 1740 by the empress and proclaimed heir to the Russian
throne. A few days after this proclamation the empress died, leaving
directions regarding the succession, and appointing her favourite Ernest
Biren, duke of Courland, as regent. Biren, however, had made himself an
object of detestation to the Russian people, and Anna had little
difficulty in overthrowing his power. She then assumed the regency, and
took the title of grand-duchess, but she knew little of the character of
the people with whom she had to deal, was utterly ignorant of the
approved Russian mode of government, and speedily quarrelled with her
principal supporters. In December 1741, Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the
Great, who, from her habits, was a favourite with the soldiers, excited
the guards to revolt, overcame the slight opposition that was offered,
and was proclaimed empress. Ivan was thrown into prison, where he soon
afterwards perished. Anna and her husband were banished to a small
island in the river Dvina, where on the 18th of March 1746 she died in
childbed.



ANNALISTS (from Lat. _annus_, year; hence _annales_, sc. _libri_, annual
records), the name given to a class of writers on Roman history, the
period of whose literary activity lasted from the time of the Second
Punic War to that of Sulla. They wrote the history of Rome from the
earliest times (in most cases) down to their own days, the events of
which were treated in much greater detail. For the earlier period their
authorities were state and family records--above all, the _annales
maximi_ (or _annales pontificum_), the official chronicle of Rome, in
which the notable occurrences of each year from the foundation of the
city were set down by the pontifex maximus. Although these annals were
no doubt destroyed at the time of the burning of Rome by the Gauls, they
were restored as far as possible and continued until the pontificate of
P. Mucius Scaevola, by whom they were finally published in eighty books.
Two generations of these annalists have been distinguished--an older and
a younger. The older, which extends to 150 B.C., set forth, in bald,
unattractive language, without any pretensions to style, but with a
certain amount of trustworthiness, the most important events of each
successive year. Cicero (_De Oratore_, ii. 12. 53), comparing these
writers with the old Ionic logographers, says that they paid no
attention to ornament, and considered the only merits of a writer to be
intelligibility and conciseness. Their annals were a mere compilation of
facts. The younger generation, in view of the requirements and criticism
of a reading public, cultivated the art of composition and rhetorical
embellishment. As a general rule the annalists wrote in a spirit of
uncritical patriotism, which led them to minimize or gloss over such
disasters as the conquest of Rome by Porsena and the compulsory payment
of ransom to the Gauls, and to flatter the people by exaggerated
accounts of Roman prowess, dressed up in fanciful language. At first
they wrote in Greek, partly because a national style was not yet formed,
and partly because Greek was the fashionable language amongst the
educated, although Latin versions were probably published as well. The
first of the annalists, the father of Roman history, as he has been
called, was Q. FABIUS PICTOR (see FABIUS PICTOR); contemporary with him
was L. CINCIUS ALIMENTUS, who flourished during the Hannibalic war.[1]
Like Fabius Pictor, he wrote in Greek. He was taken prisoner by Hannibal
(Livy xxi. 38), who is said to have given him details of the crossing of
the Alps. His work embraced the history of Rome from its foundation down
to his own days. With M. PORCIUS CATO (q.v.) historical composition in
Latin began, and a livelier interest was awakened in the history of
Rome. Among the principal writers of this class who succeeded Cato, the
following may be mentioned. L. CASSIUS HEMINA (about 146), in the fourth
book of his Annals, wrote on the Second Punic War. His researches went
back to very early times; Pliny (_Nat. Hist_. xiii. 13 [27]) calls him
_vetustissimus auctor annalium_. L. CALPUFNIUS Piso, surnamed _Frugi_
(see under PISO), wrote seven books of annals, relating the history of
the city from its foundation down to his own times. Livy regards him as
a less trustworthy authority than Fabius Pictor, and Niebuhr considers
him the first to introduce systematic forgeries into Roman history. Q.
CLAUDIUS QUADRIGARIUS (about 80 B.C.) wrote a history, in at least
twenty-three books, which began with the conquest of Rome by the Gauls
and went down to the death of Sulla or perhaps later. He was freely used
by Livy in part of his work (from the sixth book onwards). A long
fragment is preserved in Aulus Gellius (ix. 13), giving an account of
the single combat between Manlius Torquatus and the Gaul. His language
was antiquated and his style dry, but his work was considered important.
VALERIUS ANTIAS, a younger contemporary of Quadrigarius, wrote the
history of Rome from the earliest times, in a voluminous work consisting
of seventy-five books. He is notorious for his wilful exaggeration, both
in narrative and numerical statements. For instance, he asserts the
number of the Sabine virgins to have been exactly 527; again, in a
certain year when no Greek or Latin writers mention any important
campaign, Antias speaks of a big battle with enormous casualties.
Nevertheless, Livy at first made use of him as one of his chief
authorities, until he became convinced of his untrustworthiness. C.
LICINIUS MACER (died 66), who has been called the last of the annalists,
wrote a voluminous work, which, although he paid great attention to the
study of his authorities, was too rhetorical, and exaggerated the
achievements of his own family. Having been convicted of extortion, he
committed suicide (Cicero, _De Legibus_, i. 2, _Brutus_, 67; Plutarch,
_Cicero_, 9).

The writers mentioned dealt with Roman history as a whole; some of the
annalists, however, confined themselves to shorter periods. Thus, L.
CAELIUS ANTIPATER (about 120) limited himself to the Second Punic War.
His work was overloaded with rhetorical embellishment, which he was the
first to introduce into Roman history. He was regarded as the most
careful writer on the war with Hannibal, and one who did not allow
himself to be blinded by partiality in considering the evidence of other
writers (Cicero, _De Oratore_, ii. 12). Livy made great use of him in
his third decade. SEMPRONIUS ASELLIO (about 100 B.C.), military tribune
of Scipio Africanus at the siege of Numantia, composed _Rerum Gestanim
Libri_ in at least fourteen books. As he himself took part in the events
he describes, his work was a kind of memoirs. He was the first of his
class who endeavoured to trace the causes of events, instead of
contenting himself with a bare statement of facts. L. CORNELIUS SISENNA
(119-67), legate of Pompey in the war against the pirates, lost his life
in an expedition against Crete. He wrote twenty-three books on the
period between the Social War and the dictatorship of Sulla. His work
was commended by Sallust (_Jugurtha_, 95), who, however, blames him for
not speaking out sufficiently. Cicero remarks upon his fondness for
archaisms (_Brutus_, 74. 259). Sisenna also translated the tales of
Aristides of Miletus, and is supposed by some to have written a
ccmmentary on Plautus. The autobiography of Sulla may also be mentioned.

  See C.W. Nitzsch, _Die römische Annalistik_ (1873); H. Peter, _Zur
  Kritik der Quellen der dlteren romischen Geschichte_ (1879); L.O.
  Brocker, _Moderne Quellenforscher und antike Geschichtschreiber_
  (1882); fragments in H. Peter, _Historicorum Romanorum Reliquiae_
  (1870, 1906), and _Historicorum Romanorum Fragmenta_ (1883); also
  articles ROME, _History_ (ancient) _ad fin_., section "Authorities,'"
  and LIVY, where the use made of the annalists by the historian is
  discussed; Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencydopädie_, art. "Annales"; the
  histories of Roman Literature by M. Schanz and Teuffel-Schwabe;
  Mommsen, _Hist. of Rome_ (Eng. tr.), bk. ii. ch. 9, bk. iii. ch. 14,
  bk. iv. ch. 13, bk. v. ch. 12; C. Wachsmuth, _Einleitung in das
  Studium der alien Geschichte_ (1895); H. Peter, bibliography of the
  subject in Bursian's _Jahresbericht_, cxxvi. (1906).     (J. H. F.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] He is not to be confused with L. Cincius, the author of various
    political and antiquarian treatises (_de Fastis, de Comitiis, de
    Priscis Verbis_), who lived in the Augustan age, to which period
    Mommsen, considering them a later fabrication, refers the Greek
    annals of L. Cincius Alimentus.



ANNALS (_Annales_, from _annus_, a year), a concise historical record in
which events are arranged chronologically, year by year. The chief
sources of information in regard to the annals of ancient Rome are two
passages in Cicero (_De Oratore_, ii. 12. 52) and in Servius (_ad Aen_.
i. 373) which have been the subject of much discussion. Cicero states
that from the earliest period down to the pontificate of Publius Mucius
Scaevola (c. 131 B.C.), it was usual for the pontifex maximus to record
on a white tablet (_album_), which was exhibited in an open place at his
house, so that the people might read it, first, the name of the consuls
and other magistrates, and then the noteworthy events that had occurred
during the year (_per singulos dies_, as Servius says). These records
were called in Cicero's time the _Annales Maximi_. After the pontificate
of Publius, the practice of compiling annals was carried on by various
unofficial writers, of whom Cicero names Cato, Pictor and Piso. The
_Annales_ have been generally regarded as the same with the _Commentarii
Pontificum_ cited by Livy, but there seems reason to believe that the
two were distinct, the _Commentarii_ being fuller and more
circumstantial. The nature of the distinction between annals and history
is a subject that has received more attention from critics than its
intrinsic importance deserves. The basis of discussion is furnished
chiefly by the above-quoted passage from Cicero, and by the common
division of the work of Tacitus into _Annales_ and _Hlstoriae_. Aulus
Gellius, in the _Nodes Alticae_ (v. 18), quotes the grammarian Verrius
Flaccus, to the effect that history, according to its etymology ([Greek:
istorein], _inspicere_, to inquire in person), is a record of events
that have come under the author's own observation, while annals are a
record of the events of earlier times arranged according to years. This
view of the distinction seems to be borne out by the division of the
work of Tacitus into the _Historiae_, relating the events of his own
time, and the _Annales_, containing the history of earlier periods. It
is more than questionable, however, whether Tacitus himself divided his
work under these titles. The probability is, either that he called the
whole _Annales_, or that he used neither designation. (See TACITUS,
CORNELIUS.)

In the middle ages, when the order of the liturgical feasts was partly
determined by the date of Easter, the custom was early established in
the Western Church of drawing up tables to indicate that date for a
certain number of years or even centuries. These Paschal tables were
thin books in which each annual date was separated from the next by a
more or less considerable blank space. In these spaces certain monks
briefly noted the important events of the year. It was at the end of the
7th century and among the Anglo-Saxons that the compiling of these
Annals was first begun. Introduced by missionaries on the continent,
they were re-copied, augmented and continued, especially in the kingdom
of Austrasia. In the 9th century, during the great movement termed the
Carolingian Renaissance, these Annals became the usual form of
contemporary history; it suffices to mention the _Annales Einhardi_, the
_Annales Laureshamenses_ (or "of Lorsch"), and the _Annales S. Bertini_,
officially compiled in order to preserve the memory of the more
interesting acts of Charlemagne, his ancestors and his successors.
Arrived at this stage of development, the Annals now began to lose their
primitive character, and henceforward became more and more
indistinguishable from the Chronicles.

In modern literature the title annals has been given to a large number
of standard works which adhere more or less strictly to the order of
years. The best known are the _Annales Ecclesiastici_, written by
Cardinal Baronius as a rejoinder to and refutation of the _Historia
eccesiastica_ or "Centuries" of the Protestant theologians of Magdeburg
(12 vols., published at Rome from 1788 to 1793; Baronius's work stops at
the year 1197). In the 19th century the annalistic form was once more
employed, either to preserve year by year the memory of passing events
(_Annual Register_, _Annuaire de la Revue des deux mondes_, &c.) or in
writing the history of obscure medieval periods (_Jahrbücher der
deutschen Geschichte_, _Jahrbücher des deutschen Reiches_, Richter's
_Reichsannalen_, &c.).     (C. B.*)



ANNAM, or ANAM, a country of south-eastern Asia, now forming a French
protectorate, part of the peninsula of Indo-China. (See INDO-CHINA,
FRENCH). It is bounded N. by Tongking, E. and S.E. by the China Sea,
S.W. by Cochin-China, and W. by Cambodia and Laos. It comprises a
sinuous strip of territory measuring between 750 and 800 m. in length,
with an approximate area of 52,000 sq. m. The population is estimated at
about 6,124,000.

The country consists chiefly of a range of plateaus and wooded
mountains, running north and south and declining on the coast to a
narrow band of plain varying between 12 and 50 m. in breadth. The
mountains are cut transversely by short narrow valleys, through which
run rivers, most of which are dry in summer and torrential in winter.
The Song-Ma and the Song-Ca in the north, and the Song-Ba, Don-Nai and
Se-Bang-Khan in the south, are alone of any size. The chief harbour is
that afforded by the bay of Tourane at the centre of the coast-line.
South of this point the coast curves outwards and is broken by
peninsulas and indentations; to the north it is concave and bordered in
many places by dunes and lagoons.

_Climate._--In Annam the rainy season begins during September and lasts
for three or four months, corresponding with the north-east monsoon and
also with a period of typhoons. During the rains the temperature varies
from 59 degrees or even lower to 75 degrees F. June, July and August are
the hottest months, the thermometer often reaching 85 degrees or 90
degrees, though the heat of the day is to some degree compensated by the
freshness of the nights. The south-west monsoon which brings rain in
Cochin-China coincides with the dry season in Annam, the reason probably
being that the mountains and lofty plateaus separating the two countries
retain the precipitation.

_Ethnography_.--The Annamese, or, to use the native term, the
_Giao-chi_, are the predominant people not only in Annam but in the
lowland and cultivated parts of Tongking and in Cochin-China and
southern Cambodia. According to their own annals and traditions they
once inhabited southern China, a theory which is confirmed by many of
their habits and physical characteristics; the race has, however, been
modified by crossings with the Chams and other of the previous
inhabitants of Indo-China.

The Annamese is the worst-built and ugliest of all the Indo-Chinese who
belong to the Mongolian race. He is scarcely of middle height and is
shorter and less vigorous than his neighbours. His complexion is tawny,
darker than that of the Chinese, but clearer than that of the Cambodian;
his hair is black, coarse and long; his skin is thick; his forehead low;
his skull slightly depressed at the top, but well developed at the
sides. His face is flat, with highly protruding cheek-bones, and is
lozenge-shaped or eurygnathous to a degree that is nowhere exceeded. His
nose is not only the flattest, but also the smallest among the
Indo-Chinese; his eyes are rarely oblique; his mouth is large and his
lips thick; his teeth are blackened and his gums destroyed by the
constant use of the betel-nut, the areca-nut and lime. His neck is
short, his shoulders slope greatly, his body is thick-set and wanting in
suppleness. Another peculiarity is a separation of the big toe from the
rest, greater than is found in any other people, and sufficiently
general and well marked to serve as an ethnographic test. The Annamese
of Cochin-China are weaker and smaller than those of Tongking, probably
as a result of living amid marshy rice-fields. The Annamese of both
sexes wear wide trousers, a long, usually black tunic with narrow
sleeves and a dark-coloured turban, or in the case of the lower classes,
a wide straw hat; they either go bare-foot or wear sandals or Chinese
boots. The typical Annamese dwelling is open to the gaze of the
passer-by during the day; at night a sort of partition of bamboo is let
down. The roof is supported on wooden pillars and walls are provided
only at the sides. The house consists principally of one large room
opening on the front verandah and containing the altar of the family's
ancestors, a table in the centre and couches placed against the wall.
The chief elements of the native diet are rice, fish and poultry;
vegetables and pork are also eaten. The family is the base of the social
system in Annam and is ruled by its head, who is also priest and judge.
Polygamy is permitted but rarely practised, and the wife enjoys a
position of some freedom.

Though fond of ease the Annamese are more industrious than the
neighbouring peoples. Theatrical and musical entertainments are popular
among them. They show much outward respect for superiors and parents,
but they are insincere and incapable of deep emotion. They cherish great
love of their native soil and native village and cannot remain long from
home. A proneness to gambling and opium-smoking, and a tinge of vanity
and deceitfulness, are their less estimable traits. On the whole they
are mild and easy-going and even apathetic, but the facility with which
they learn is remarkable. Like their neighbours the Cambodians and the
Chinese, the Annamese have a great respect for the dead, and ancestor
worship constitutes the national religion. The learned hold the doctrine
of Confucius, and Buddhism, alloyed with much popular superstition, has
some influence. Like the Chinese the Annamese bury their dead.

Among the savage tribes of the interior there is scarcely any idea of
God and their superstitious practices can scarcely be considered as the
expression of a definite religious idea. Roman Catholics number about
420,000. In the midst of the Annamese live Cambodians and immigrant
Chinese, the latter associated together according to the districts from
which they come and carrying on nearly all the commerce of the country.
In the forests and mountains dwell tribes of savages, chiefly of
Indonesian origin, classed by the Annamese under the name _Moïs_ or
"savages." Some of these tribes show traces of Malay ancestry. Of
greater historical interest are the Chams, who are to be found for the
most part in southern Annam and in Cambodia, and who, judging from the
numerous remains found there, appear to have been the masters of the
coast region of Cochin-China and Annam till they succumbed before the
pressure of the Khmers of Cambodia and the Annamese. They are taller,
more muscular, and more supple than the Annamese. Their language is
derived from Malay, and while some of the Chams are Mussulmans, the
dominant religion is Brahmanism, and more especially the worship of
Siva. Their women have a high reputation for virtue, which, combined
with the general bright and honest character of the whole people,
differentiates them from the surrounding nations.

Evidently derived from the Chinese, of which it appears to be a very
ancient dialect, the Annamese language is composed of monosyllables, of
slightly varied articulation, expressing different ideas according to
the tone in which they are pronounced. It is quite impossible to connect
with our musical system the utterance of the sounds of which the Chinese
and Annamese languages are composed. What is understood by a "tone" in
this language is distinguished in reality, not by the number of sonorous
vibrations which belong to it, but rather by a use of the vocal
apparatus special to each. Thus, the sense will to a native be
completely changed according as the sound is the result of an aspiration
or of a simple utterance of the voice. Thence the difficulty of
substituting our phonetic alphabet for the ideographic characters of the
Chinese, as well as for the ideophonetic writing partly borrowed by the
Annamese from the letters of the celestial empire. To the Jesuit
missionaries is due the introduction of an ingenious though very
complicated system, which has caused remarkable progress to be made in
the employment of phonetic characters. By means of six accents, one bar
and a crotchet it is possible to note with sufficient precision the
indications of tone without which the Annamese words have no sense for
the natives.

_Agriculture and other Industries._--The cultivation of rice, which is
grown mainly in the small deltas along the coast and in some districts
gives two crops annually, and fishing, together with fish-salting and
the preparation of nuoc-mam, a sauce made from decaying fish, constitute
the chief industries of Annam.

Silk spinning and weaving are carried on on antiquated lines, and
silkworms are reared in a desultory fashion. Besides rice, the products
of the country include tea, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, precious woods
and rubber; coffee, pepper, sugar-canes and jute are cultivated to a
minor extent. The exports (total value in 1905 £237,010) comprise tea,
raw silk and small quantities of cotton, rice and sugar-cane. The
imports (£284,824 in 1905) include rice, iron goods, flour, wine, opium
and cotton goods. There are coal-mines at Nong-Son, near Tourane, and
gold, silver, lead, iron and other metals occur in the mountains. Trade,
which is in the hands of the Chinese, is for the most part carried on by
sea, the chief ports being Tourane and Qui-Nhon, which are open to
European commerce.

_Administration._--Annam is ruled in theory by its emperor, assisted by
the "_comat_" or secret council, composed of the heads of the six
ministerial departments of the interior, finance, war, ritual, justice
and public works, who are nominated by himself. The resident superior,
stationed at Hué, is the representative of France and the virtual ruler
of the country. He presides over a council (_Conseil de Protectorat_)
composed of the chiefs of the French services in Annam, together with
two members of the "_comat_"; this body deliberates on questions of
taxation affecting the budget of Annam and on local public works. A
native governor (_tong-doc_ or _tuan-phu_), assisted by a native staff,
administers each of the provinces into which the country is divided, and
native officials of lower rank govern the areas into which these
provinces are subdivided. The governors take their orders from the
imperial government, but they are under the eye of French residents.
Native officials are appointed by the court, but the resident superior
has power to annul an appointment. The mandarinate or official class is
recruited from all ranks of the people by competitive examination. In
the province of Tourane, a French tribunal alone exercises jurisdiction,
but it administers native law where natives are concerned. Outside this
territory the native tribunals survive. The Annamese village is
self-governing. It has its council of notables, forming a sort of
oligarchy which, through the medium of a mayor and two subordinates,
directs the interior affairs of the community--policing, recruiting, the
assignment and collection of taxes, &c.--and has judicial power in less
important suits and crimes. More serious cases come within the purview
of the _an-sat_, a judicial auxiliary of the governor. An assembly of
notables from villages grouped together in a canton chooses a cantonal
representative, who is the mouthpiece of the people and the intermediary
between the government and its subjects. The direct taxes, which go to
the local budget of Annam, consist primarily of a poll-tax levied on all
males over eighteen and below sixty years of age, and of a land-tax
levied according to the quality and the produce of the holding.

The following table summarizes the local budget of Annam for the years
1899 and 1904:--

  +------+-----------------------------------+----------------+
  |  --  |            _Receipts._            | _Expenditure._ |
  +------+-----------------------------------+----------------+
  | 1899 | £203,082 (direct taxes, £171,160) |    £175,117    |
  | 1904 | £247,435 (  "      "    £219,841) |    £232,480    |
  +------+-----------------------------------+----------------+

In 1904 the sum allocated to the expenses of the court, the royal family
and the native administration, the members of which are paid by the
crown, was £85,000, the chief remaining heads of expenditure being the
government house and residencies (£39,709), the native guard (£32,609)
and public works (£24,898).

Education is available to every person in the community. The primary
school, in which the pupils learn only Chinese writing and the precepts
of Confucius, stands at the base of this system. Next above this is the
school of the district capital, where a half-yearly examination takes
place, by means of which are selected those eligible for the course of
higher education given at the capital of the province in a school under
the direction of a _doc-hoc_, or inspector of studies. Finally a great
triennial competition decides the elections. The candidate whose work is
notified as _très bien_ is admitted to the examinations at Hué, which
qualify for the title of doctor and the holding of administrative
offices. The education of a mandarin includes local history, cognizance
of the administrative rites, customs, laws and prescriptions of the
country, the ethics of Confucius, the rules of good breeding, the
ceremonial of official and social life, and the practical acquirements
necessary to the conduct of public or private business. Annamese
learning goes no farther. It includes no scientific idea, no knowledge
of the natural sciences, and neglects even the most rudimentary
instruction conveyed in a European education. The complications of
Chinese writing greatly hamper education. The Annamese mandarin must be
acquainted with Chinese, since he writes in Chinese characters. But the
character being ideographic, the words which express them are dissimilar
in the two languages, and official text is read in Chinese by a Chinese,
in Annamese by an Annamese.

The chief towns of Annam are Hué (pop. about 42,000), seat both of the
French and native governments, Tourane (pop. about 4000), Phan-Thiet
(pop. about 20,000) in the extreme south, Qui-Nhon, and Fai-Fo, a
commercial centre to the south of Tourane. A road following the coast
from Cochin-China to Tongking, and known as the "Mandarin road," passes
through or near the chief towns of the provinces and forms the chief
artery of communication in the country apart from the railways (see
INDO-CHINA, FRENCH).

_History._--The ancient tribe of the Giao-chi, who dwelt on the confines
of S. China, and in what is now Tongking and northern Annam, are
regarded by the Annamese as their ancestors, and tradition ascribes to
their first rulers descent from the Chinese imperial family. These
sovereigns were succeeded by another dynasty, under which, at the end of
the 3rd century B.C., the Chinese invaded the country, and eventually
established there a supremacy destined to last, with little
intermission, till the 10th century A.D. In 968 Dinh-Bo-Lanh succeeded
in ousting the Chinese and founded an independent dynasty of Dinh. Till
this period the greater part of Annam had been occupied by the Chams, a
nation of Hindu civilization, which has left many monuments to testify
to its greatness, but the encroachment of the Annamese during the next
six centuries at last left to it only a small territory in the south of
the country. Three lines of sovereigns followed that of Dinh, under the
last of which, about 1407, Annam again fell under the Chinese yoke. In
1428 an Annamese general Le-Loi succeeded in freeing the country once
more, and founded a dynasty which lasted till the end of the 18th
century. During the greater part of this period, however, the titular
sovereigns were mere puppets, the reality of power being in the hands of
the family of Trinh in Tongking and that of Nguyen in southern Annam,
which in 1568 became a separate principality under the name of
Cochin-China. Towards the end of the 18th century a rebellion overthrew
the Nguyen, but one of its members, Gia-long, by the aid of a French
force, in 1801 acquired sway over the whole of Annam, Tongking and
Cochin-China. This force was procured for him by Pigneau de Béhaine,
bishop of Adran, who saw in the political condition of Annam a means of
establishing French influence in Indo-China and counterbalancing the
English power in India. Before this, in 1787, Gia-long had concluded a
treaty with Louis XVI., whereby in return for a promise of aid he ceded
Tourane and Pulo-Condore to the French. That treaty marks the beginning
of French influence in Indo-China.

  See also Legrand de la Liraye, _Notes historiques sur la nation
  annamite_ (Paris, 1866?); C. Gosselin, _L'Empire d'Annam_ (Paris,
  1904); E. Sombsthay, _Cours de législation et d'administration
  annamites_ (Paris, 1898).



ANNAN, a royal, municipal and police burgh of Dumfriesshire, Scotland,
on the Annan, nearly 2 m. from its mouth, 15 m. from Dumfries by the
Glasgow & South-Western railway. It has a station also on the Caledonian
railway company's branch line from Kirtlebridge to Brayton (Cumberland),
which crosses the Solway Firth at Seafield by a viaduct, 1-1/3 m. long,
constructed of iron pillars girded together by poles, driven through the
sand and gravel into the underlying bed of sandstone. Annan is a
well-built town, red sandstone being the material mainly used. Among its
public buildings is the excellent academy of which Thomas Carlyle was a
pupil. The river Annan is crossed by a stone bridge of three arches
dating from 1824, and by a railway bridge. The Harbour Trust,
constituted in 1897, improved the shipping accommodation, and vessels of
300 tons approach close to the town. The principal industries include
cotton and rope manufactures, bacon-curing, distilling, tanning,
shipbuilding, sandstone quarrying, nursery-gardening and salmon-fishing.
Large marine engineering works are in the vicinity. Annan is a burgh of
considerable antiquity. Roman remains exist in the neighbourhood, and
the Bruces, lords of Annandale, the Baliols, and the Douglases were more
or less closely associated with it. During the period of the Border
lawlessness the inhabitants suffered repeatedly at the hands of
moss-troopers and through the feuds of rival families, in addition to
the losses caused by the English and Scots wars. Edward Irving was a
native of the town. With Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben and
Sanquhar, Annan unites in sending one meniber to parliament. Annan Hill
commands a beautiful prospect. Population (1901) 5805.



ANNA PERENNA, an old Roman deity of the circle or "ring" of the year, as
the name (_per annum_) clearly indicates. Her festival fell on the full
moon of the first month (March 15), and was held at the grove of the
goddess at the first milestone on the Via Flaminia. It was much
frequented by the city _plebs_, and Ovid describes vividly the revelry
and licentiousness of the occasion (_Fasti_. iii. 523 foll.). From
Macrobius we learn (_Sat_. i. 12. 6) that sacrifice was made to her "ut
annare perannareque commode liccat," i.e. that the circle of the year
may be completed happily. This is all we know for certain about the
goddess and her cult; but the name naturally suggested myth-making, and
Anna became a figure in stories which may be read in Ovid (_l.c._) and
in Silius Italicus (8.50 foll.). The coarse myth told by Ovid, in which
Anna plays a trick on Mars when in love with Minerva, is probably an old
Italian folk-tale, poetically applied to the persons of these deities
when they became partially anthropomorphized under Greek influence.
     (W. W. F.*)



ANNAPOLIS, a city and seaport of Maryland, U.S.A., the capital of the
state, the county seat of Anne Arundel county, and the seat of the
United States Naval Academy; situated on the Severn river about 2 m.
from its entrance into Chesapeake Bay, 26 m. S. by E. from Baltimore and
about the same distance E. by N. from Washington. Pop. (1890) 7604;
(1900) 8525, of whom 3002 were negroes; (1910 census) 8609. Annapolis is
served by the Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis (electric) and the
Maryland Electric railways, and by the Baltimore & Annapolis steamship
line. On an elevation near the centre of the city stands the state house
(the corner stone of which was laid in 1772), with its lofty white dome
(200 ft.) and pillared portico. Close by are the state treasury
building, erected late in the 17th century for the House of Delegates;
Saint Anne's Protestant Episcopal church, in later colonial days a state
church, a statue of Roger B. Taney (by W.H. Rinehart), and a statue of
Baron Johann de Kalb. There are a number of residences of 18th century
architecture, and the names of several of the streets--such as King
George's, Prince George's, Hanover, and Duke of Gloucester--recall the
colonial days. The United States Naval Academy was founded here in 1845.
Annapolis is the seat of Saint John's College, a non-sectarian
institution supported in part by the state; it was opened in 1789 as the
successor of King William's School, which was founded by an act of the
Maryland legislature in 1696 and was opened in 1701. Its principal
building, McDowell Hall, was originally intended for a governor's
mansion; although £4000 current money was appropriated for its erection
in 1742, it was not completed until after the War of Independence. In
1907 the college became the school of arts and sciences of the
university of Maryland.

Annapolis, at first called Providence, was settled in 1649 by Puritan
exiles from Virginia. Later it bore in succession the names of Town at
Proctor's, Town at the Severn, Anne Arundel Town, and finally in 1694,
Annapolis, in honour of Princess Anne, who at the time was heir to the
throne of Great Britain. In 1694 also, soon after the overthrow of the
Catholic government of the lord proprietor, it was made the seat of the
new government as well as a port of entry, and it has since remained the
capital of Maryland; but it was not until 1708 that it was incorporated
as a city. From the middle of the 18th century until the War of
Independence, Annapolis was noted for its wealthy and cultivated
society. The _Maryland Gazette_, which became an important weekly
journal, was founded by Jonas Green in 1745; in 1769 a theatre was
opened; during this period also the commerce was considerable, but
declined rapidly after Baltimore, in 1780, was made a port of entry, and
now oyster-packing is the city's only important industry. Congress was
in session in the state house here from the 26th of November 1783 to the
3rd of June 1784, and it was here on the 23rd of December 1783 that
General Washington resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the
Continental Army. In 1786 a convention, to which delegates from all the
states of the Union were invited, was called to meet in Annapolis to
consider measures for the better regulation of commerce (see ALEXANDRIA,
Va.); but delegates came from only five states (New York, Pennsylvania,
Virginia, New Jersey, and Delaware), and the convention--known afterward
as the "Annapolis Convention,"--without proceeding to the business for
which it had met, passed a resolution calling for another convention to
meet at Philadelphia in the following year to amend the articles of
confederation; by this Philadelphia convention the present Constitution
of the United States was framed.

  See D. Ridgely, _Annals of Annapolis from 1649 until the War of 1812_
  (Baltimore, 1841); S.A. Shafer, "Annapolis, Ye Ancient City," in L.P.
  Powell's _Historic Towns of the Southern States_ (New York, 1900); and
  W. Eddis, _Letters from America_ (London, 1792).



ANNAPOLIS, a town of Nova Scotia, capital of Annapolis county and up to
1750 of the entire peninsula of Nova Scotia; situated on an arm of the
Bay of Fundy, at the mouth of the Annapolis river, 95 m. W. of Halifax;
and the terminus of the Windsor & Annapolis railway. Pop. (1901) 1019.
It is one of the oldest settlements in North America, having been
founded in 1604 by the French, who called it Port Royal. It was captured
by the British in 1710, and ceded to them by the treaty of Utrecht in
1713, when the name was changed in honour of Queen Anne. It possesses a
good harbour, and the beauty of the surrounding country makes it a
favourite summer resort. The town is surrounded by apple orchards and in
May miles of blossoming trees make a beautiful sight. The fruit, which
is excellent in quality, is the principal export of the region.



ANN ARBOR, a city and the county-seat of Washtenaw county, Michigan,
U.S.A., on the Huron river, about 38 m. W. of Detroit. Pop. (1890) 9431;
(1900) 14,509, of whom 2329 were foreign-born; (1910) 14,817. It is
served by the Michigan Central and the Ann Arbor railways, and by an
electric line running from Detroit to Jackson and connecting with
various other lines. Ann Arbor is best known as the seat of the
university of Michigan, opened in 1837. The city has many attractive
residences, and the residential districts, especially in the east and
south-east parts of the city, command picturesque views of the Huron
valley. Ann Arbor is situated in a productive agricultural and
fruit-growing region. The river provides good water-power, and among the
manufactures are agricultural implements, carriages, furniture
(including sectional book-cases), pianos and organs, pottery and flour.
In 1824 Ann Arbor was settled, laid out as a town, chosen for the
county-seat, and named in honour of Mrs Ann Allen and Mrs Ann Rumsey,
the wives of two of the founders. It was incorporated as a village in
1833, and was first chartered as a city in 1851.



ANNATES (Lat. _annatae_, from _annus_, "year"), also known as
"first-fruits" (Lat. _primitiae_). in the strictest sense of the word,
the whole of the first year's profits of a spiritual benefice which, in
all countries of the Roman obedience, were formerly paid into the papal
treasury. This custom was only of gradual growth. The _jus deportuum,
annalia_ or _annatae_, was originally the right of the bishop to claim
the first year's profits of the living from a newly inducted incumbent,
of which the first mention is found under Pope Honorius (d. 1227), but
which had its origin in a custom, dating from the 6th century, by which
those ordained to ecclesiastical offices paid a fee or tax to the
ordaining bishop. The earliest records show the _annata_ to have been,
sometimes a privilege conceded to the bishop for a term of years,
sometimes a right based on immemorial precedent. In course of time the
popes, under stress of financial crises, claimed the privilege for
themselves, though at first only temporarily. Thus, in 1305, Clement V.
claimed the first-fruits of all vacant benefices in England, and in 1319
John XXII. those of all Christendom vacated within the next two years.
In those cases the rights of the bishops were frankly usurped by the
Holy See, now regarded as the ultimate source of the episcopal
jurisdiction; the more usual custom was for the pope to claim the
first-fruits only of those benefices of which he had reserved the
patronage to himself. It was from these claims that the papal annates,
in the strict sense, in course of time developed.

These annates may be divided broadly into three classes, though the
chief features are common to all: (1) the _servitia communia_ or
_servitia Camerae Papae_, i.e. the payment into the papal treasury by
every abbot and bishop, on his induction, of one year's revenue of his
new benefice. The _servitia communia_ are traceable to the _oblatio_
paid to the pope when consecrating bishops as metropolitan or patriarch.
When, in the middle of the 13th century, the consecration of bishops
became established as the sole right of the pope, the oblations of all
bishops of the West were received by him and, by the close of the 14th
century, these became fixed at one year's revenue.[1] A small additional
payment, as a kind of notarial fee was added (_servitia minuta_). (2)
The _jus deportuum, fructus medii temporis_, or _annalia_, i.e. the
annates due to the bishop, but in the case of "reserved" benefices paid
by him to the Holy See. (3) The _quindennia, i.e._ annates payable,
under a bull of Paul II. (1469), by benefices attached to a corporation,
every fifteen years and not at every presentation.

The system of annates was at no time worked with absolute uniformity and
completeness throughout the various parts of the church owning obedience
to the Holy See, and it was never willingly submitted to by the clergy.
Disagreements and disputes were continual, and the easy expedient of
rewarding the officials of the Curia and increasing the papal revenue by
"reserving" more and more benefices was met by repeated protests, such
as that of the bishops and barons of England (the chief sufferers),
headed by Robert Grosseteste of Lincoln, at the council of Lyons in
1245.[2] The subject, indeed, frequently became one of national
interest, on account of the alarming amount of specie which was thus
drained away, and hence numerous enactments exist in regard to it by the
various national governments. In England the collection and payment of
annates to the pope was prohibited in 1531 by statute. At that time the
sum amounted to about 3000 pounds a year. In 1534 the annates were,
along with the supremacy over the church in England, bestowed on the
crown; but in February 1704 they were appropriated by Queen Anne to the
assistance of the poorer clergy, and thus form what has since been known
as "Queen Anne's Bounty" (q.v.). The amount to be paid was originally
regulated by a valuation made under the direction of Pope Innocent IV.
by Walter, bishop of Norwich, in 1254, later by one instituted under
commission from Nicholas III. in 1292, which in turn was superseded in
1535 by the valuation, made by commissioners appointed by Henry VIII.,
known as the _King's Books_, which was confirmed on the accession of
Elizabeth and is still that by which the clergy are rated. In France, in
spite of royal edicts--like those of Charles VI., Charles VII., Louis
XI, and Henry II.--and even denunciations of the Sorbonne, at least the
custom of paying the _servitia communia_ held its ground till the famous
decree of the 4th of August during the Revolution of 1789. In Germany it
was decided by the concordat of Constance, in 1418, that bishoprics and
abbacies should pay the _servitia_ according to the valuation of the
Roman chancery in two half-yearly instalments. Those reserved benefices
only were to pay the _annalia_ which were rated above twenty-four gold
florins; and as none were so rated, whatever their annual value may have
been, the annalia fell into disuse. A similar convenient fiction also
led to their practical abrogation in France, Spain and Belgium. The
council of Basel (1431-1443) wished to abolish the _servitia_, but the
concordat of Vienna (1448) confirmed the Constance decision, which, in
spite of the efforts of the congress of Ems (1786) to alter it, still
remains nominally in force. As a matter of fact, however, the revolution
caused by the secularization of the ecclesiastical states in 1803
practically put an end to the system, and the _servitia_ have either
been commuted _via gratiae_ to a moderate fixed sum under particular
concordats, or are the subject of separate negotiation with each bishop
on his appointment. In Prussia, where the bishops receive salaries as
state officials, the payment is made by the government.

In Scotland _annat_ or _ann_ is half a year's stipend allowed by the Act
1672, c. 13, to the executors of a minister of the Church of Scotland
above what was due to him at the time of his death. This is neither
assignable by the clergyman during his life, nor can it be seized by his
creditors.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] For cases see du Cange, _Glossarium_, s. _Servitium Camerae
    Papae_; J.C.L. Gieseler, _Eccles. Hist._, vol. iii. div. iii., notes
    to p. 181, &c. (Eng. trans., Edinburgh, 1853).

  [2] Durandus (Guillaume Durand), in his _de modo generalis concilii
    celebrandi_, represents contemporary clerical hostile opinion and
    attacks the corruptions of the officials of the Curia.



ANNE (1665-1714), queen of Great Britain and Ireland, second daughter of
James, duke of York, afterwards James II., and of Anne Hyde, daughter of
the ist earl of Clarendon, was born on the 6th of February 1665. She
suffered as a child from an affection of the eyes, and was sent to
France for medical treatment, residing with her grandmother, Henrietta
Maria, and on the latter's death with her aunt, the duchess of Orleans,
and returning to England in 1670. She was brought up, together with her
sister Mary, by the direction of Charles II., as a strict Protestant,
and as a child she made the friendship of Sarah Jennings (afterwards
duchess of Marlborough), thus beginning life under the two influences
which were to prove the most powerful in her future career. In 1678 she
accompanied Mary of Modena to Holland, and in 1679 joined her parents
abroad and afterwards in Scotland. On the 28th of July 1683 she married
Prince George of Denmark, brother of King Christian V., an unpopular
union because of the French proclivities of the bridegroom's country,
but one of great domestic happiness, the prince and princess being
conformable in temper and both preferring retirement and quiet to life
in the great world. Sarah Churchill became Anne's lady of the
bedchamber, and, by the latter's desire to mark their mutual intimacy
and affection, all deference due to her rank was abandoned and the two
ladies called each other Mrs Morley and Mrs Freeman.

On the 6th of February 1685 James became king of England. In 1687 a
project of settling the crown on the princess, to the exclusion of Mary,
on the condition of Anne's embracing Roman Catholicism, was rendered
futile by her pronounced attachment to the Church of England, and beyond
sending her books and papers James appears to have made no attempt to
coerce his daughter into a change of faith,[1] and to have treated her
with kindness, while the birth of his son on the 20th of June 1688 made
the religion of his daughters a matter of less political importance.
Anne was not present on the occasion, having gone to Bath, and this gave
rise to a belief that the child was spurious; but it is most probable
that James's desire to exclude all Protestants from affairs of state was
the real cause. "I shall never now be satisfied," Anne wrote to Mary,
"whether the child be true or false. It may be it is our brother, but
God only knows ... one cannot help having a thousand fears and
melancholy thoughts, but whatever changes may happen you shall ever find
me firm to my religion and faithfully yours."[2] In later years,
however, she had no doubt that the Old Pretender was her brother. During
the events immediately preceding the Revolution Anne kept in seclusion.
Her ultimate conduct was probably influenced by the Churchills; and
though forbidden by James, to pay Mary a projected visit in the spring
of 1688, she corresponded with her, and was no doubt aware of William's
plans. Her position was now a very critical and painful one. She refused
to show any sympathy with the king after William had landed in November,
and wrote, with the advice of the Churchills, to the prince, declaring
her approval of his action.[3] Churchill abandoned the king on the 24th,
Prince George on the 25th, and when James returned to London on the 26th
he found that Anne and her lady-in-waiting had during the previous night
followed their husbands' examples. Escaping from Whitehall by a back
staircase they put themselves under the care of the bishop of London,
spent one night in his house, and subsequently arrived on the 1st of
December at Nottingham, where the princess first made herself known and
appointed a council. Thence she passed through Leicester, Coventry and
Warwick, finally entering Oxford, where she met Prince George, in
triumph, escorted by a large company. Like Mary, she was reproached for
showing no concern at the news of the king's flight, but her
justification was that "she never loved to do anything that looked like
an affected constraint." She returned to London on the 19th of December,
when she was at once visited by William. Subsequently the Declaration of
Rights settled the succession of the crown upon her after William and
Mary and their children.

Meanwhile Anne had suffered a series of maternal disappointments.
Between 1684 and 1688 she had miscarried four times and given birth to
two children who died infants. On the 24th of July 1689, however, the
birth, of a son, William, created duke of Gloucester, who survived his
infancy, gave hopes that heirs to the throne under the Bill of Rights
might be forthcoming. But Anne's happiness was soon troubled by quarrels
with the king and queen. According to the duchess of Marlborough the two
sisters, who had lived hitherto while apart on extremely affectionate
terms, found no enjoyment in each other's society. Mary talked too much
for Anne's comfort, and Anne too little for Mary's satisfaction. But
money appears to have been the first and real cause of ill-feeling. The
granting away by William of the private estate of James, amounting to
22,000 pounds a year, to which Anne had some claim, was made a
grievance, and a factious motion brought forward in the House to
increase her civil list pension of 30,000 pounds, which she enjoyed in
addition to 20,000 pounds under her marriage settlement, greatly
displeased William and Mary, who regarded it as a plot to make Anne
independent and the chief of a separate interest in the state, while
their resentment was increased by the refusal of Anne to restrain the
action of her friends, and by its success. The Marlboroughs had been
active in the affair and had benefited by it, the countess (as she then
was) receiving a pension of 1000 pounds, and their conduct was noticed
at court. The promised Garter was withheld from Marlborough, and the
incensed "Mrs Morley" in her letters to "Mrs Freeman" styled the king
"Caliban" or the "Dutch Monster." At the close of 1691 Anne had declared
her approval of the naval expedition in favour of her father, and
expressed grief at its failure.[4] According to the doubtful _Life of
James_, she wrote to him on the 1st of December a "most penitential and
dutiful" letter, and henceforward kept up with him a "fair
correspondence."[5] The same year the breach between the royal sisters
was made final by the dismissal of Marlborough, justly suspected of
Jacobite intrigues, from all his appointments. Anne took the part of her
favourites with great zeal against the court, though in all probability
unaware of Marlborough's treason; and on the dismissal of the countess
from her household by the king and queen she refused to part with her,
and retired with Lady Marlborough to the duke of Somerset's residence at
Sion House. Anne was now in disgrace. She was deprived of her guard of
honour, and Prince George, on entering Kensington Palace, received no
salute, though the drums beat loudly on his departure.[6] Instructions
were given that the court expected no one to pay his respects, and no
attention in the provinces was to be shown to their rank. In May,
Marlborough was arrested on a charge of high treason which subsequently
broke down, and Anne persisted in regarding his disgrace as a personal
injury to herself. In August 1693, however, the two sisters were
temporarily reconciled, and on the occasion of Mary's last illness and
death Anne showed an affectionate consideration.

The death of Mary weakened William's position and made it necessary to
cultivate good relations with the princess. She was now treated with
every honour and civility, and finally established with her own court at
St James's Palace. At the same time William kept her in the background
and refrained from appointing her regent during his absence. In March
1695 Marlborough was allowed to kiss the king's hands, and subsequently
was made the duke of Gloucester's governor and restored to his
employments. In return Anne gave her support to William's government,
though about this time, in 1696--according to James, in consequence of
the near prospect of the throne--she wrote to her father asking for his
leave to wear the crown at William's death, and promising its
restoration at a convenient opportunity.[7] The unfounded rumour that
William contemplated settling the succession after his death on James's
son, provided he were educated a Protestant in England, may possibly
have alarmed her.[8] Meanwhile, since the birth of the duke of
Gloucester, the princess had experienced six more miscarriages, and had
given birth to two children who only survived a few hours, and the last
maternal hope flickered out on the death of the young prince on the 29th
of July 1700. Henceforth Anne signs herself in her letters to Lady
Marlborough as "your poor unfortunate" as well as "faithful Morley." In
default of her own issue, Anne's personal choice would probably have
inclined at this time to her own family at St Germains, but the
necessity of maintaining the Protestant succession caused the enactment
of the Act of Settlement in 1701, and the substitution of the Hanoverian
branch. She wore mourning for her father in 1701, and before his death
James is said to have written to his daughter asking for her protection
for his family; but the recognition of his son by Louis XIV. as king of
England effectually prevented any good offices to which her feelings
might have inclined her.

On the 8th of March 1702 Anne became, by King William's death, queen of
Great Britain, being crowned on the 23rd of April. Her reign was
destined to be one of the most brilliant in the annals of England.
Splendid military triumphs crushed the hereditary national foe. The Act
of Union with Scotland constituted one of the strongest foundations of
the future empire. Art and literature found a fresh renascence.

In her first speech to parliament, like George III. afterwards, Anne
declared her "heart to be entirely English," words which were resented
by some as a reflection on the late king. A ministry, mostly Tory, with
Godolphin at its head, was established. She obtained a grant of 700,000
pounds a year, and hastened to bestow a pension of 100,000 pounds on her
husband, whom she created generalissimo of her forces and lord high
admiral, while Marlborough obtained the Garter, with the
captain-generalship and other prizes, including a dukedom, and the
duchess was made mistress of the robes with the control of the privy
purse. The queen showed from the first a strong interest in church
matters, and declared her intention to keep church appointments in her
own hands. She detested equally Roman Catholics and dissenters, showed a
strong leaning towards the high-church party, and gave zealous support
to the bill forbidding occasional conformity. In 1704 she announced to
the Commons her intention of granting to the church the crown revenues,
amounting to about 16,000 pounds or 17,000 pounds a year, from tenths
and first-fruits (paid originally by the clergy to the pope, but
appropriated by the crown in 1534), for the increase of poor livings;
her gift, under the name of "Queen Anne's Bounty," still remaining as a
testimony of her piety. This devotion to the church, the strongest of
all motives in Anne's conduct, dictated her hesitating attitude towards
the two great parties in the state. The Tories had for this reason her
personal preference, while the Whigs, who included her powerful
favourites the Marlboroughs, identified their interests with the war and
its glorious successes, the queen slowly and unwillingly, but
inevitably, gravitating towards the latter.

In December, the archduke Charles visited Anne at Windsor and was
welcomed as the king of Spain. In 1704 Anne acquiesced in the
resignation of Lord Nottingham, the leader of the high Tory party. In
the same year the great victory of Blenheim further consolidated the
power of the Whigs and increased the influence of Marlborough, upon whom
Anne now conferred the manor of Woodstock. Nevertheless, she declared in
November to the duchess that whenever things leaned towards the Whigs,
"I shall think the church is beginning to be in danger." Next year she
supported the election of the Whig speaker, John Smith, but long
resisted the influence and claims of the _Junto_, as the Whig leaders,
Somers, Halifax, Orford, Wharton and Sunderland, were named. In October
she was obliged to appoint Cowper, a Whig, lord chancellor, with all the
ecclesiastical patronage belonging to the office. Marlborough's
successive victories, and especially the factious conduct of the Tories,
who in November 1705 moved in parliament that the electress Sophia
should be invited to England, drove Anne farther to the side of the
Whigs. But she opposed for some time the inclusion in the government of
Sunderland, whom she especially disliked, only consenting at
Marlborough's intercession in December 1706, when various other offices
and rewards were bestowed upon Whigs, and Nottingham with other Tories
was removed from the council. She yielded, after a struggle, also to the
appointment of Whigs to bishoprics, the most mortifying submission of
all. In 1708 she was forced to dismiss Harley, who, with the aid of Mrs
Masham, had been intriguing against the government and projecting the
creation of a third party. Abigail Hill, Mrs Masham, a cousin of the
duchess of Marlborough, had been introduced by the latter as a poor
relation into Anne's service, while still princess of Denmark. The queen
found relief in the quiet and respectful demeanour of her attendant, and
gradually came to prefer her society to that of the termagant and
tempestuous duchess. Abigail, however, soon ventured to talk "business,"
and in the summer of 1707 the duchess discovered to her indignation that
her protégée had already undermined her influence with the queen and had
become the medium of Harley's intrigue. The strength of the Whigs at
this time and the necessities of the war caused the retirement of
Harley, but he remained Anne's secret adviser and supporter against the
faction, urging upon her "the dangers to the crown as well as to the
church and monarchy itself from their counsels and actions,"[9] while
the duchess never regained her former influence. The inclusion in the
cabinet of Somers, whom she especially disliked as the hostile critic of
Prince George's admiralty administration, was the subject of another
prolonged struggle, ending again in the queen's submission after a
futile appeal to Marlborough in October 1708, to which she brought
herself only to avoid a motion from the Whigs for the removal of the
prince, then actually on his deathbed. His death on the 28th of October
was felt deeply by the queen, and opened the way for the inclusion of
more Whigs. But no reconciliation with the duchess took place, and in
1709 a further dispute led to an angry correspondence, the queen finally
informing the duchess of the termination of their friendship, and the
latter drawing up a long narrative of her services, which she forwarded
to Anne together with suitable passages on the subject of friendship and
charity transcribed from the Prayer Book, the _Whole Duty of Man_ and
from Jeremy Taylor.[10] Next year Anne's desire to give a regiment to
Hill, Mrs Masham's brother, led to another ineffectual attempt in
retaliation to displace the new favourite, and the queen showed her
antagonism to the Whig administration on the occasion of the prosecution
of Sacheverell. She was present at his trial and was publicly acclaimed
by the mob as his supporter, while the Tory divine was consoled
immediately on the expiration of his sentence with the living of St
Andrew's, Holborn. Subsequently the duchess, in a final interview which
she had forced upon the queen, found her tears and reproaches
unavailing. In her anger she had told the queen she wished for no
answer, and she was now met by a stony and exasperating silence, broken
only by the words constantly repeated, "You desired no answer and you
shall have none."

The fall of the Whigs, now no longer necessary on account of the
successful issue of the war, to accomplish which Harley had long been
preparing and intriguing, followed; and their attempt to prolong
hostilities from party motives failed. A friend of Harley, the duke of
Shrewsbury, was first appointed to office, and subsequently the great
body of the Whigs were displaced by Tories, Harley being made chancellor
of the exchequer and Henry St John secretary of state. The queen was
rejoiced at being freed from what she called a long captivity, and the
new parliament was returned with a Tory majority. On the 17th of January
1711, in spite of Marlborough's efforts to ward off the blow, the
duchess was compelled to give up her key of office. The queen was now
able once more to indulge in her favourite patronage of the church, and
by her influence an act was passed in 1712 for building fifty new
churches in London. Later, in 1714, she approved of the Schism Bill. She
gave strong support to Harley, now earl of Oxford and lord treasurer, in
the intrigues and negotiations for peace. Owing to the alliance between
the Tory Lord Nottingham and the Whigs, on the condition of the support
by the latter of the bill against occasional conformity passed in
December 1711, the defeated Whigs maintained a majority in the Lords,
who declared against any peace which left Spain to the Bourbons. To
break down this opposition Marlborough was dismissed on the 31st from
all his employments, while the House of Lords was "swamped" by Anne's
creation of twelve peers,[11] including Mrs Masham's husband. The
queen's conduct was generally approved, for the nation was now violently
adverse to the Whigs and war party; and the peace of Utrecht was finally
signed on the 31st of March 1713, and proclaimed on the 5th of May in
London.

As the queen's reign drew to its close, rumours were rife on the great
subject of the succession to the throne. Various Jacobite appointments
excited suspicion. Both Oxford and Bolingbroke were in communication
with the Pretender's party, and on the 27th of July Oxford, who had
gradually lost influence and quarrelled with Bolingbroke, resigned,
leaving the supreme power in the hands of the latter. Anne herself had a
natural feeling for her brother, and had shown great solicitude
concerning his treatment when a price had been set on his head at the
time of the Scottish expedition in 1708. On the 3rd of March 1714 James
wrote to Anne, Oxford and Bolingbroke, urging the necessity of taking
steps to secure his succession, and promising, on the condition of his
recognition, to make no further attempts against the queen's government;
and in April a report was circulated in Holland that Anne had secretly
determined to associate James with her in the government. The wish
expressed by the Whigs, that a member of the electoral family should be
invited to England, had already aroused the queen's indignation in 1708;
and now, in 1714, a writ of summons for the electoral prince as duke of
Cambridge having been obtained, Anne forbade the Hanoverian envoy, Baron
Schütz, her presence, and declared all who supported the project her
enemies; while to a memorial on the same subject from the electress
Sophia and her grandson in May, Anne replied in an angry letter, which
is said to have caused the death of the electress on the 5th of June,
requesting them not to trouble the peace of her realm or diminish her
authority.

These demonstrations, however, were the outcome not of any returning
partiality for her own family, but of her intense dislike, in which she
resembled Queen Elizabeth, of any "successor," "it being a thing I
cannot bear to have any successor here though but for a week"; and in
spite of some appearances to the contrary, it is certain that religion
and political wisdom kept Anne firm to the Protestant succession.[12]
She had maintained a friendly correspondence with the court of Hanover
since 1705, and in 1706 had bestowed the Garter on the electoral prince
and created him duke of Cambridge; while the Regency Act provided for
the declaration of the legal heir to the crown by the council
immediately on the queen's death, and a further enactment naturalized
the electress and her issue. In 1708, on the occasion of the Scottish
expedition, notwithstanding her solicitude for his safety, she had
styled James in her speech closing the session of parliament as "a
popish pretender bred up in the principles of the most arbitrary
government." The duchess of Marlborough stated in 1713 that all the time
she had known "that thing" (as she now called the queen), "she had never
heard her speak a favourable word of him."[13] No answer appears to have
been sent to James's letter in 1714; on the contrary, a proclamation was
issued (June 23) for his apprehension in case of his arrival in England.
On the 27th of April Anne gave a solemn assurance of her fidelity to the
Hanoverian succession to Sir William Dawes, archbishop of York; in June
she sent Lord Clarendon to Hanover to satisfy the elector.

The sudden illness and death of the queen now frustrated any schemes
which Bolingbroke, or others might have been contemplating. On the 27th,
the day of Oxford's resignation, the discussions concerning his
successor detained the council sitting in the queen's presence till two
o'clock in the morning, and on retiring Anne was instantly seized with
fatal illness. Her adherence to William in 1688 had been a principal
cause of the success of the Revolution, and now the final act of her
life was to secure the Revolution settlement and the Protestant
succession. During a last moment of returning consciousness, and by the
advice of the whole council, who had been joined on their own initiative
by the Whig dukes Argyll and Somerset, she placed the lord treasurer's
staff in the hands of the Whig duke of Shrewsbury, and measures were
immediately taken for assuring the succession of the elector. Her death
took place on the 1st of August, and the security felt by the public,
and perhaps the sense of perils escaped by the termination of the
queen's life, were shown by a considerable rise in the national stocks.
She was buried on the south side of Henry VII.'s chapel in Westminster
Abbey, in the same tomb as her husband and children. The elector of
Hanover, George Louis, son of the electress Sophia (daughter of
Elizabeth, daughter of James I.), peacefully succeeded to the throne as
George I. (q.v.).

According to her physician Arbuthnot, Anne's life was shortened by the
"scene of contention among her servants. I believe sleep was never more
welcome to a weary traveller than death was to her." By character and
temperament unfitted to stand alone, her life had been unhappy and
tragical from its isolation. Separated in early years from her parents
and sister, her one great friendship had proved only baneful and
ensnaring. Marriage had only brought a mournful series of infant
funerals. Constant ill-health and suffering had darkened her career. The
claims of family attachment, of religion, of duty, of patriotism and of
interest, had dragged her in opposite directions, and her whole life had
been a prey to jealousies and factions which closed around her at her
accession to the throne, and surged to their height when she lay on her
deathbed. The modern theory of the relations between the sovereign and
the parties, by which the former identifies himself with the faction for
the time in power while maintaining his detachment from all, had not
then been invented; and Anne, like her Hanoverian successors, maintained
the struggle, though without success, to rule independently finding
support in Harley. During the first year of her reign she made known
that she was "resolved not to follow the example of her predecessor in
making use of a few of her subjects to oppress the rest. She will be
queen of all her subjects, and would have all the parties and
distinctions of former reigns ended and buried in hers."[14] Her motive
for getting rid of the Whigs was not any real dislike of their
administration, but the wish to escape from the domination of the
party,[15] and on the advent to power of the Tories she carefully left
some Whigs in their employments, with the aim of breaking up the party
system and acting upon what was called "a moderate scheme." She attended
debates in the Lords and endeavoured to influence votes. Her struggles
to free herself from the influence of factions only involved her deeper;
she was always under the domination of some person or some party, and
she could not rise above them and show herself the leader of the nation
like Elizabeth.

Anne was a women of small ability, of dull mind, and of that kind of
obstinacy which accompanies weakness of character. According to the
duchess she had "a certain knack of sticking to what had been dictated
to her to a degree often very disagreeable, and without the least sign
of understanding or judgment."[16] "I desire you would not have so ill
an opinion of me," Anne writes to Oxford, "as to think when I have
determined anything in my mind I will alter it."[17] Burnet considered
that "she laid down the splendour of a court too much," which was "as it
were abandoned." She dined alone after her husband's death, but it was
reported by no means abstemiously, the royal family being characterized
in the lines:--

  "King William thinks all.
   Queen Mary talks all,
   Prince George drinks all,
   And Princess Anne eats all."[18]

She took no interest in the art, the drama or the literature of her day.
But she possessed the homely virtues; she was deeply religious, attached
to the Church of England and concerned for the efficiency of the
ministry. One of the first acts of her reign was a proclamation against
vice, and Lord Chesterfield regretted the strict morality of her court.
Instances abound of her kindness and consideration for others. Her
moderation towards the Jacobites in Scotland, after the Pretender's
expedition in 1708, was much praised by Saint Simon. She showed great
forbearance and generosity towards the duchess of Marlborough in the
face of unexampled provocation, and her character was unduly disparaged
by the latter, who with her violent and coarse nature could not
understand the queen's self-restraint in sorrow, and describes her as
"very hard" and as "not apt to cry." According to her small ability she
served the state well, and was zealous and conscientious in the
fulfilment of public duties, in which may be included touching for the
king's evil, which she revived. Marlborough testifies to her energy in
finding money for the war. She surrendered 10,000 pounds a year for
public purposes, and in 1706 she presented 30,000 pounds to the officers
and soldiers who had lost their horses. Her contemporaries almost
unanimously record her excellence and womanly virtues; and by Dean
Swift, no mild critic, she is invariably spoken of with respect, and
named in his will as of "ever glorious, immortal and truly pious memory,
the real nursing-mother of her kingdoms." She deserves her appellation
of "Good Queen Anne," and notwithstanding her failings must be included
among the chief authors and upholders of the great Revolution
settlement. Her person was described by Spanheim, the Prussian
ambassador, as handsome though inclining to stoutness, with black hair,
blue eyes and good features, and of grave aspect.

Anne's husband, Prince George (1653-1708), was the second son of
Frederick III., king of Denmark. Before marrying Anne he had been a
candidate for the throne of Poland. He was created earl of Kendal and
duke of Cumberland in 1689. Some censure, which was directed against the
prince in his capacity as lord high admiral, was terminated by his
death. In religion George remained a Lutheran, and in general his
qualities tended to make him a good husband rather than a soldier or a
statesman.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--_Dict. of Nat. Biography_ (Dr A.W. Ward); A.
  Strickland, _Lives of the Queens of England_ (1852), somewhat
  uncritical; an excellent account written by Spanheim for the king of
  Prussia, printed in the _Eng. Hist. Rev._ ii. 757; histories of
  Stanhope, Lecky, Ranke, Macaulay, Boyes, Burnet, Wyon, and Somerville;
  F.E. Morris, _The Age of Anne_ (London, 1877); _Correspondence and
  Diary of Lord Clarendon_ (1828); _Hatton Correspondence_ (Camden Soc.,
  1878); Evelyn's _Diary_; Sir J. Dalrymple's _Memoirs_ (1790); N.
  Luttrell's _Brief Hist. Relation_ (1857); _Wentworth Papers_ (1883);
  W. Coxe, _Mem. of the Duke of Marlborough_ (1847); Conduct of the
  Dowager Duchess of Marlborough (1742); Ralph, _The other Side of the
  Question_ (1742); _Private Correspondence of Sarah Duchess of
  Marlborough_ (1838); A. T, Thomson, _Mem. of the Duchess and the Court
  of Queen Anne_ (1839); J.S. Clarke's _Life of James II._ (1816); J.
  Macpherson's _Original Papers_ (1775); Swift's _Some Considerations
  upon the Consequences from the Death of the Queen, An Inquiry into the
  Behaviour of the Queen's last Ministry, Hist. of the Four Last Years
  of Queen Anne_, and _Journals and Letters; The Lockhart Papers_
  (1817), i.; F. Salomon, _Geschichte des letzten Ministeriums Konigin
  Annas_ (1894); _Marchmont Papers_, iii. (1831); W. Sichel _Life of
  Bolingbroke_ (1901-1902); _Mem. of Thomas Earl of Ailesbury_
  (Roxburghe Club, 1890); _Eng. Hist. Rev._ i. 470, 756, viii. 740;
  _Royal Hut. Soc. Trans._ N.S. xiv. 69; _Col. of State Papers;
  Treasury; Hist. MSS. Comm. Series, MSS. of Duke of Portland_,
  including _the Harley Papers, Duke of Buccleugh at Montagu House, Lord
  Kenyan, Marq. of Bath at Longleat; Various Collections_, ii. 146,
  _Duke Of Rutland at Belvoir, 7th Rep. app._, and _H.M. the King_
  (_Stuart Papers_, i.); _Stowe MSS._ in Brit. Museum; Sir J.
  Mackintosh's Transcripts, _Add. MSS._ in Brit. Museum, 34, 487-526;
  _Edinburgh Rev._, October 1835, p. 1; _Notes and Queries_, vii. ser.
  iii. 178, viii. ser. i. 72, xii. 368, ix, ser. iv. 282, xi, 254; C.
  Hodgson, _An Account of the Augmentation of Small Livings by the
  Bounty of Queen Anne_ (1845); _Observations of the Governors of Queen
  Anne's Bounty_ (1867); _Somers Tracts_, xii. xiii. (1814-1815); H.
  Paul, _Queen Anne_ (London, 1907).     (P. C. Y.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See also _Hist. MSS. Comm., MSS. of Duke of Rutland at Belvoir_,
    ii. 109.

  [2] Dalrymple's _Memoirs_, ii. 175.

  [3] Dalrymple's _Memoirs_, ii. 249.

  [4] Lord Ailesbury's _Memoirs_, 293.

  [5] Macpherson i. 241; Clarke's _Life of James II_., ii. 476. The
    letter, which is only printed in fragments, is not in Anne's style,
    and if genuine was probably dictated by the Churchills.

  [6] Luttrell ii. 366, 376.

  [7] Macpherson i. 257; Clarke's _James II_., ii. 559. See also
    Shrewsbury's anonymous correbpondent in _Hist. MSS. Comm. Ser.; MSS.
    Duke of Buccleugh at Montagu House_, ii. 169.

  [8] Macaulay iv. 799 _note_

  [9] Swift's _Mem. on the Change of the Ministry._

  [10] _Conduct of the Duchess of Marlborough_, p. 225.

  [11] For their names see Hume and Smollett's _Hist_. (Hughes, 1854)
    viil. 110.

  [12] See also _Hist. MSS. Comm. Ser._ Rep. vii. App. 246b.

  [13] _Ibid. Portland MSS_. v. 338.

  [14] Sir J. Leveson-Gower to Lord Rutland, _Hist. MSS. Comm., Duke of
    Rutland's MSS_. ii. 173.

  [15] See Bolingbroke's _Letter to Sir W. Wyndham_.

  [16] _Private Correspondence_, ii. 120.

  [17] _Hist. MSS. Comm., MSS. of Marq. of Bath at Longleat_, i. 237.

  [18] _Notes and Queries_, xi. 254.



ANNE (1693-1740), empress of Russia, second daughter of Tsar Ivan V.,
Peter the Great's imbecile brother, and Praskovia Saltuikova. Her
girlhood was passed at Ismailovo near Moscow, with her mother, an
ignorant, bigoted tsaritsa of the old school, who neglected and even
hated her daughters. Peter acted as a second father to the Ivanovs, as
Praskovia and her family were called. In 1710 he married Anne to
Frederick William, duke of Courland, who died of surfeit on his journey
home from St Petersburg. The reluctant young widow was ordered to
proceed on her way to Mittau to take over the government of Courland,
with the Russian resident, Count Peter Bestuzhev, as her adviser. He was
subsequently her lover, till supplanted by Biren (q.v.). Anne's
residence at Mittau was embittered by the utter inadequacy of her
revenue, which she keenly felt. It was therefore with joy that she at
once accepted the Russian crown, as the next heir, after the death of
Peter II. (January 30, 1730), when it was offered to her by the members
of the supreme privy council, even going so far as to subscribe
previously nine articles which would have reduced her from an absolute
to a very limited monarch. On the 26th of February she made her public
entry into Moscow under strict surveillance. On the 8th of March a _coup
d'état_, engineered by a party of her personal friends, overthrew the
supreme privy council and she was hailed as autocrat. Her government, on
the whole, was prudent, beneficial and even glorious; but it was
undoubtedly severe and became at last universally unpopular. This was
due in the main to the outrageous insolence of her all-powerful
favourite Biren, who hated the Russian nobility and trampled upon them
mercilessly. Fortunately, Biren was sufficiently prudent not to meddle
with foreign affairs or with the army, and these departments in the able
hands of two other foreigners, who thoroughly identified themselves with
Russia, Andrei Osterman (q.v.) and Burkhardt Münnich (q.v.) did great
things in the reign of Anne. The chief political events of the period
were the War of the Polish Succession and the second[1] Crimean War. The
former was caused by the reappearance of Stanislaus Leszczynski as a
candidate for the Polish throne after the death of Augustus II.
(February 1, 1733). The interests of Russia would not permit her to
recognize a candidate dependent directly on France and indirectly upon
Sweden and Turkey, all three powers being at that time opposed to
Russia's "system." She accordingly united with Austria to support the
candidature of the late king's son, Augustus of Saxony. So far as Russia
was concerned, the War of the Polish Succession was quickly over. Much
more important was the Crimean War of 1736-39. This war marks the
beginning of that systematic struggle on the part of Russia to recover
her natural and legitimate southern boundaries. It lasted four years
and a half, and cost her a hundred thousand men and millions of roubles;
and though invariably successful, she had to be content with the
acquisition of a single city (Azov) with a small district at the mouth
of the Don. Yet more had been gained than was immediately apparent. In
the first place, this was the only war hitherto waged by Russia against
Turkey which had not ended in crushing disaster. Münnich had at least
dissipated the illusion of Ottoman invincibility, and taught the Russian
soldier that 100,000 janissaries and spahis were no match, in a fair
field, for half that number of grenadiers and hussars. In the second
place the Tatar hordes had been well nigh exterminated. In the third
place Russia's signal and unexpected successes in the Steppe had
immensely increased her prestige on the continent. "This court begins to
have a great deal to say in the affairs of Europe," remarked the English
minister, Sir Claudius Rondeau, a year later.

The last days of Anne were absorbed by the endeavour to strengthen the
position of the heir to the throne, the baby cesarevich Ivan, afterwards
Ivan VI., the son of the empress's niece, Anna Leopoldovna, against the
superior claims of her cousin the cesarevna Elizabeth. The empress
herself died three months later (28th of October 1740). Her last act was
to appoint Biren regent during the infancy of her great-nephew.

Anne was a grim, sullen woman, frankly sensual, but as well-meaning as
ignorance and vindictiveness would allow her to be. But she had much
natural good sense, was a true friend and, in her more cheerful moments,
an amiable companion. Lady Rondeau's portrait of the empress shows her
to the best advantage. She is described as a large woman, towering above
all the cavaliers of her court, but very well shaped for her size, easy
and graceful in her person, of a majestic bearing, but with an awfulness
in her countenance which revolted those who disliked her.

  See R. Nisbet Bain, _The Pupils of Peter the Great_ (London, 1897);
  _Letters from a lady who resided some years in Russia (i.e._ Lady
  Rondeau) (London, 1775); Christoph Hermann Manstein, _Mémoires sur la
  Russie_ (Amsterdam, 1771; English edition, London, 1856); Gerhard
  Anton von Haiem, _Lebensschreibung des Feldm. B.C. Grafen von Münnich_
  (Oldenburg, 1803); Claudius Rondeau, _Diplomatic Despatches from
  Russia, 1728-1739_ (St Petersburg, 1889-1892).     (R. N. B.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Vasily Golitsuin's expedition under the regency of Sophia was the
    first Crimean War (1687-89).



ANNE OF BRITTANY (1477-1514), daughter of Francis II., duke of Brittany,
and Marguerite de Foix. She was scarcely twelve years old when she
succeeded her father as duchess on the 9th of September 1488. Charles
VIII. aimed at establishing his authority over her; Alain d'Albret
wished to marry her; Jean de Rohan claimed the duchy; and her guardian,
the marshal de Rieux, was soon in open revolt against his sovereign. In
1489 the French army invaded Brittany. In order to protect her
independence, Anne concluded an alliance with Maximilian of Austria, and
soon married him by proxy (December 1489). But Maximilian was incapable
of defending her, and in 1491 the young duchess found herself compelled
to treat with Charles VIII. and to marry him. The two sovereigns made a
reciprocal arrangement as to their rights and pretensions to the crown
of Brittany, but in the event of Charles predeceasing her, Anne
undertook to marry the heir to the throne. Nevertheless, in 1492, after
the conspiracy of Jean de Rohan, who had endeavoured to hand over the
duchy to the king of England, Charles VIII. confirmed the privileges of
Brittany, and in particular guaranteed to the Bretons the right of
paying only those taxes to which the assembly of estates consented,
After the death of Charles VIII. in 1498, without any children, Anne
exercised the sovereignty in Brittany, and in January 1499 she married
Louis XII., who had just repudiated Joan of France. The marriage
contract was ostensibly directed in favour of the independence of
Brittany, for it declared that Brittany should revert to the second son
or to the eldest daughter of the two sovereigns, and, failing issue, to
the natural heirs of the duchess. Until her death Anne occupied herself
personally with the administration of the duchy. In 1504 she caused the
treaty of Blois to be concluded, which assured the hand of her daughter,
Claude of France, to Charles of Austria (the future emperor, Charles
V.), and promised him the possession of Brittany, Burgundy and the
county of Blois. But this unpopular treaty was broken, and the queen had
to consent to the betrothal of Claude to Francis of Angoulême, who in
1515 became king of France as Francis I. Thus the definitive reunion of
Brittany and France was prepared.

  See A. de la Borderie, _Choix de documents inédits sur le règne de la
  duchesse Anne en Bretagne_ (Rennes, 1866 and 1902)--extracts from the
  _Mémoires de la Société Archéologique du département
  d'Ille-et-Vilaine_, vols. iv. and vi. (1866 and 1868); Leroux de
  Lincy, _Vie de la reine Anne de Bretagne_ (1860-1861); A. Dupuy, _La
  Reunion de la Bretagne à la France_ (1880); A. de la Borderie, _La
  Bretagne aux derniers siècles du may en âge_ (1893), and _La Bretagne
  aux temps modernes_ (1894).     (H. Se.)



ANNE OF CLEVES (1515-1557), fourth wife of Henry VIII., king of England,
daughter of John, duke of Cleves, and Mary, only daughter of William,
duke of Juliers, was born on the 22nd of September 1515. Her father was
the leader of the German Protestants, and the princess, after the death
of Jane Seymour, was regarded by Cromwell as a suitable wife for Henry
VIII. She had been brought up in a narrow retirement, could speak no
language but her own, had no looks, no accomplishments and no dowry, her
only recommendations being her proficiency in needlework, and her meek
and gentle temper. Nevertheless her picture, painted by Holbein by the
king's command (now in the Louvre, a modern copy at Windsor), pleased
Henry and the marriage was arranged, the treaty being signed on the 24th
of September 1539. The princess landed at Deal on the 27th of December;
Henry met her at Rochester on the 1st of January 1540, and was so much
abashed at her appearance as to forget to present the gift he had
brought for her, but nevertheless controlled himself sufficiently to
treat her with courtesy. The next day he expressed openly his
dissatisfaction at her looks; "she was no better than a Flanders mare."
The attempt to prove a pre-contract with the son of the duke of Lorraine
broke down, and Henry was forced to resign himself to the sacrifice. On
the wedding morning, however, the 6th of January 1540, he declared that
no earthly thing would have induced him to marry her but the fear of
driving the duke of Cleves into the arms of the emperor. Shortly
afterwards Henry had reason to regret the policy which had identified
him so closely with the German Protestantism, and denied reconciliation
with the emperor. Cromwell's fall was the result, and the chief obstacle
to the repudiation of his wife being thus removed, Henry declared the
marriage had not been and could not be consummated; and did not scruple
to cast doubts on his wife's honour. On the 9th of July the marriage was
declared null and void by convocation, and an act of parliament to the
same effect was passed immediately. Henry soon afterwards married
Catherine Howard. On first hearing of the king's intentions, Anne
swooned away, but on recovering, while declaring her case a very hard
and sorrowful one from the great love which she bore to the king,
acquiesced quietly in the arrangements made for her by Henry, by which
she received lands to the value of £4000 a year, renounced the title of
queen for that of the king's sister, and undertook not to leave the
kingdom. In a letter to her brother, drawn up by Gardiner by the king's
direction, she acknowledged the unreality of the marriage and the king's
kindness and generosity. Anne spent the rest of her life happily in
England at Richmond or Bletchingley, occasionally visiting the court,
and being described as joyous as ever, and wearing new dresses every
day! An attempt to procure her reinstalment on the disgrace of Catherine
Howard failed, and there was no foundation for the report that she had
given birth to a child of which Henry was the reputed father. She was
present at the marriage of Henry with Catherine Parr and at the
coronation of Mary. She died on the 28th of July 1557 at Chelsea, and
was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  See _Lives of the Queens of England_, by A. Strickland, iii. (1851);
  _The Wives of Henry VIII_., by M. Hume (1905); _Henry VIII_., by A.F.
  Pollard (1905); _Four Original Documents relating to the Marriage of
  Henry VIII. to Anne of Cleves_, ed. by E. and G. Goldsmid (1886); for
  the pseudo Anne of Cleves see _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_, i.
  467.     (P. C. Y.)



ANNE OF DENMARK (1574-1619), queen of James I. of England and VI. of
Scotland, daughter of King Frederick II. of Denmark and Norway and of
Sophia, daughter of Ulric III., duke of Mecklenburg, was born on the
12th of December 1574. On the 20th of August 1589, in spite of Queen
Elizabeth's opposition, she was married by proxy to King James, without
dower, the alliance, however, settling definitely the Scottish claims to
the Orkney and Shetland Islands. Her voyage to Scotland was interrupted
by a violent storm--for the raising of which several Danish and Scottish
witches were burned or executed--which drove her on the coast of Norway,
whither the impatient James came to meet her, the marriage taking place
at Opslo (now Christiania) on the 23rd of November. The royal couple,
after visiting Denmark, arrived in Scotland in May 1590. The position of
queen consort to a Scottish king was a difficult and perilous one, and
Anne was attacked in connexion with various scandals and deeds of
violence, her share in which, however, is supported by no evidence. The
birth of an heir to the throne (Prince Henry) in 1504 strengthened her
position and influence; but the young prince, much to her indignation,
was immediately withdrawn from her care and entrusted to the keeping of
the earl and countess of Mar at Stirling Castle; in 1595 James gave a
written command, forbidding them in case of his death to give up the
prince to the queen till he reached the age of eighteen. The king's
intention was, no doubt, to secure himself and the prince against the
unruly nobles, though the queen's Roman Catholic tendencies were
probably another reason for his decision. Brought up a Lutheran, and
fond of pleasure, she had shown no liking for Scottish Calvinism, and
soon incurred rebukes on account of her religion, "vanity," absence from
church, "night waking and balling." She had become secretly inclined to
Roman Catholicism, and attended mass with the king's connivance. On the
death of Queen Elizabeth, on the 24th of March 1603, James preceded her
to London. Anne took advantage of his absence to demand possession of
the prince, 'and, on the "flat refusal" of the countess of Mar, fell
into a passion, the violence of which occasioned a miscarriage and
endangered her life. In June she followed the king to England (after
distributing all her effects in Edinburgh among her ladies) with the
prince and the coffin containing the body of her dead infant, and
reached Windsor on the 2nd of July, where amidst other forms of good
fortune she entered into the possession of Queen Elizabeth's 6000
dresses.

On the 24th of July Anne was crowned with the king, when her refusal to
take the sacrament according to the Anglican use created some sensation.
She communicated on one occasion subsequently and attended Anglican
service occasionally; but she received consecrated objects from Pope
Clement VIII., continued to hear mass, and, according to Galluzzi,
supported the schemes for the conversion of the prince of Wales and of
England, and for the prince's marriage with a Roman Catholic princess,
which collapsed on his death in 1612. She was claimed as a convert by
the Jesuits.[1] Nevertheless on her deathbed, when she was attended by
the archbishop of Canterbury and the bishop of London, she used
expressions which were construed as a declaration of Protestantism.
Notwithstanding religious differences she lived in great harmony and
affection with the king, latterly, however, residing mostly apart. She
helped to raise Buckingham to power in the place of Somerset, maintained
friendly relations with him, and approved of his guidance and control of
the king. In spite of her birth and family she was at first favourably
inclined to Spain, disapproved of her daughter Elizabeth's marriage with
the elector palatine, and supported the Spanish marriages for her sons,
but subsequently veered round towards France. She used all her influence
in favour of the unfortunate Raleigh, answering his petition to her for
protection with a personal letter of appeal to Buckingham to save his
life. "She carrieth no sway in state matters," however, it was said of
her in 1605, "and, _praeter rem uxoriam_, hath no great reach in other
affairs." "She does not mix herself up in affairs, though the king tells
her anything she chooses to ask, and loves and esteems her."[2] Her
interest in state matters was only occasional, and secondary to the
pre-occupations of court festivities, masks, progresses, dresses,
jewels, which she much enjoyed; the court being, says Wilson--whose
severity cannot entirely suppress his admiration--"a continued
maskarado, where she and her ladies, like so many nymphs or Nereides,
appeared ... to the ravishment of the beholders," and "made the night
more glorious than the day." Occasionally she even joined in the king's
sports, though here her only recorded exploit was her accidental
shooting of James's "most principal and special hound," Jewel. Her
extravagant expenditure, returned by Salisbury in 1605 at more than
£50,000 and by Chamberlain at her death at more than £84,000, was
unfavourably contrasted with the economy of Queen Elizabeth; in spite of
large allowances and grants of estates which included Oatlands,
Greenwich House and Nonsuch, it greatly exceeded her income, her debts
in 1616 being reckoned at nearly £10,000, while her jewelry and her
plate were valued at her death at nearly half a million. Anne died after
a long illness on the 2nd of March 1619, and was buried in Westminster
Abbey. She was generally regretted. The severe Wilson, while rebuking
her gaieties, allows that she was "a good woman," and that her character
would stand the most prying investigation. She was intelligent and
tactful, a faithful wife, a devoted mother and a staunch friend. Besides
several children who died in infancy she had Henry, prince of Wales, who
died in 1612, Charles, afterwards King Charles I., and Elizabeth,
electress palatine and queen of Bohemia.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--See Dr A.W. Ward's article in the _Dict, of Nat.
  Biography_, with authorities; _Lives of the Queens of England_, by A.
  Strickland (1844), vii.; "Life and Reign of King James I.," by A.
  Wilson, in _History of England_ (1706); _Istoria del Granducato di
  Toscana_, by R. Galluzzi (1781), lib. vi. cap. ii.; _Cal. of State
  Papers--Domestic and Venetian_; _Hist. MSS. Comm. Series, MSS, of
  Marq. of Salisbury_, iii. 420, 438, 454, ix. 54; _Harleian MSS._ 5176,
  art. 22, 293, art. 106. Also see bibliography to the article on JAMES
  I.     (P. C. Y.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _Fasti S. J._, by P. Joannis Drews (pub. 1723), p. 160.

  [2] _Cal. of St. Pap.--Venetian_, x. 513.



ANNE OF FRANCE (1460-1522), dame de Beaujeu, was the eldest daughter of
Louis XI. and Charlotte of Savoy. Louis XI. betrothed her at first to
Nicholas of Anjou, and afterwards offered her hand successively to
Charles the Bold, to the duke of Brittany, and even to his own brother,
Charles of France. Finally she married Pierre de Beaujeu, a younger
brother of the duke of Bourbon. Before his death Louis XI. entrusted to
Pierre de Beaujeu and Anne the entire charge of his son, Charles VIII.,
a lad of thirteen; and from 1483 to 1492 the Beaujeus exercised a
virtual regency. Anne was a true daughter of Louis XI. Energetic,
obstinate, cunning and unscrupulous, she inherited, too, her father's
avarice and rapacity. Although they made some concessions, the Beaujeus
succeeded in maintaining the results of the previous reign, and in
triumphing over the feudal intrigues and coalitions, as was seen from
the meeting of the estates general in 1484, and the results of the "Mad
War" (1485) and the war with Brittany (1488); and in spite of the
efforts of Maximilian of Austria they concluded the marriage of Charles
VIII. and Anne, duchess of Brittany (1491). But a short time afterwards
the king disengaged himself completely from their tutelage, to the great
detriment of the kingdom. In 1488 Pierre de Beaujeu had succeeded to the
Bourbonnais, the last great fief of France. He died in 1503, but Anne
survived him twenty years. From her establishments at Moulins and
Chantelle in the Bourbonnais she continued henceforth vigorously to
defend the Bourbon cause against the royal family. Anne's only daughter,
Suzanne, had married in 1505 her cousin, Charles of Bourbon, count of
Montpensier, the future constable; and the question of the succession of
Suzanne, who died in 1521, was the determining factor of the treason of
the constable de Bourbon (1523). Anne had died some months before, on
the 14th of November 1522.

  See P. Pelicier, _Essai sur le gouvernement de la Dame de Beaujeu_
  (Chartres, 1882).     (J. I.)



ANNEALING, HARDENING AND TEMPERING. Annealing (from the prefix _an_, and
the old English _aélan_, to burn or bake; the meaning has probably also
been modified from the French _nieler_, to enamel black on gold or
silver, from the med. Lat. _nigellare_, to make black; cf. _niello_) is
a process of treating a metal or alloy by heat with the object of
imparting to it a certain condition of ductility, extensibility, or a
certain grade of softness or hardness, with all that is involved in and
follows from those conditions. The effect may be mechanical only, or a
chemical change may take place also. Sometimes the causes are obvious,
in other cases they are more or less obscure. But of the actual facts,
and the immense importance of this operation as well as of the related
ones of tempering and hardening in shop processes, there is no question.

When the treatment is of a mechanical character only, there can be no
reasonable doubt that the common belief is correct, namely, that the
metallic crystals or fibres undergo a molecular rearrangement of some
kind. When it is of a chemical character, the process is one of
cementation, due to the occlusion of gases in the molecules of the
metals.

Numerous examples of annealing due to molecular rearrangement might be
selected from the extensive range of workshop operations. The following
are a few only:--when a boiler-maker bends the edges of a plate of steel
or iron by hammer blows (flanging), he does so in successive stages
(heats), at each of which the plate has to be reheated, with inevitable
cooling down during the time work is being done upon it. The result is
that the plate becomes brittle over the parts which have been subjected
to this treatment; and this brittleness is not uniformly distributed,
but is localized, and is a source of weakness, inducing a liability to
crack. If, however, the plate when finished is raised to a full red
heat, and allowed to cool down away from access of cool air, as in a
furnace, or underneath wood ashes, it resumes its old ductility. The
plate has been annealed, and is as safe as it was before it was flanged.
Again, when a sheet of thin metal is forced to assume a shape very
widely different from its original plane aspect, as by hammering, or by
drawing out in a press--a cartridge case being a familiar example--it is
necessary to anneal it several times during the progress of the
operation. Without such annealing it would never arrive at the final
stage desired, but would become torn asunder by the extension of its
metallic fibres. Cutting tools are made of steel having sufficient
carbon to afford capacity for hardening. Before the process is
performed, the condition in which the carbon is present renders the
steel so hard and tough as to render the preliminary turning or shaping
necessary in many cases (e.g. in milling cutters) a tedious operation.
To lessen this labour, the steel is first annealed. In this case it is
brought to a low red heat, and allowed to cool away from the air. It can
then be machined with comparative ease and be subsequently hardened or
tempered. When a metallic structure has endured long service a state of
fatigue results. Annealing is, where practicable, resorted to in order
to restore the original strength. A familiar illustration is that of
chains which are specially liable to succumb to constant overstrain if
continued for only a year or two. This is so well known that the
practice is regularly adopted of annealing the chains at regular
intervals. They are put into a clear hot furnace and raised to a low red
heat, continued for a few hours, and then allowed to cool down in the
furnace after the withdrawal of the source of heat. Before the annealing
the fracture of a link would be more crystalline than afterwards.

In these examples, and others of which these are typical, two conditions
are essential, one being the grade of temperature, the other the
cooling. The temperature must never be so high as to cause the metal to
become overheated, with risk of burning, nor so low as to prevent the
penetration of the substance with a good volume of heat. It must also be
continued for sufficient time. More than this cannot be said. Each
particular piece of work requires its own treatment and period, and
nothing but experience of similar work will help the craftsman. The
cooling must always be gradual, such as that which results from removing
the source of heat, as by drawing a furnace fire, or covering with
non-conducting substances.

The chemical kind of annealing is specifically that employed in the
manufacture of malleable cast iron. In this process, castings are made
of white iron,--a brittle quality which has its carbon wholly in the
combined state. These castings, when subjected to heat for a period of
ten days or a fortnight, in closed boxes, in the presence of substances
containing oxygen, become highly ductile. This change is due to the
absorption of the carbon by the oxygen in the cementing material, a
comparatively pure soft iron being left behind. The result is that the
originally hard, brittle castings after this treatment may be cut with a
knife, and be bent double and twisted into spirals without fracturing.

The distinction between _hardening_ and _tempering_ is one of degree
only, and both are of an opposite character to annealing. Hardening, in
the shop sense, signifies the making of a piece of steel about as hard
as it can be made--"glass hard"--while tempering indicates some stage in
an infinite range between the fully hardened and the annealed or
softened condition. As a matter of convenience only, hardening is
usually a stage in the work of tempering. It is easier to harden first,
and "let down" to the temper required, than to secure the exact heat for
tempering by raising the material to it. This is partly due to the long
established practice of estimating temperature by colour tints; but this
is being rapidly invaded by new methods in which the temper heat is
obtained in furnaces provided with pyrometers, by means of which exact
heat regulation is readily secured, and in which the heating up is done
gradually. Such furnaces are used for hardening balls for bearings,
cams, small toothed wheels and similar work, as well as for tempering
springs, milling cutters and other kinds of cutting tools. But for the
cutting tools having single edges, as used in engineers' shops, the
colour test is still generally retained.

In the practice of hardening and tempering tools by colour, experience
is the only safe guide. Colour tints vary with degrees of light; steels
of different brands require different treatment in regard to temperature
and quenching; and steels even of identical chemical composition do not
always behave alike when tempered. Every fresh brand of steel has,
therefore, to be treated at first in a tentative and experimental
fashion in order to secure the best possible results. The larger the
masses of steel, and the greater the disparity in dimensions of adjacent
parts, the greater is the risk of cracking and distortion. Excessive
length and the presence of keen angles increase the difficulties of
hardening. The following points have to be observed in the work of
hardening and tempering.

A grade of steel must be selected of suitable quality for the purpose
for which it has to be used. There are a number of such grades, ranging
from about 1½ to ½% content of carbon, and each having its special
utility. Overheating must be avoided, as that burns the steel and
injures or ruins it. A safe rule is never to heat any grade of steel to
a temperature higher than that at which experience proves it will take
the temper required. Heating must be regular and thorough throughout,
and must therefore be slowly done when dealing with thick masses.
Contact with sulphurous fuel must be avoided. Baths of molten alloys of
lead and tin are used when very exact temperatures are required, and
when articles have thick and thin parts adjacent. But the gas furnaces
have the same advantages in a more handy form. Quenching is done in
water, oil, or in various hardening mixtures, and sometimes in solids.
Rain water is the principal hardening agent, but various saline
compounds are often added to intensify its action. Water that has been
long in use is preferred to fresh. Water is generally used cold, but in
many cases it is warmed to about 80° F., as for milling cutters and
taps, warmed water being less liable to crack the cutters than cold. Oil
is preferred to water for small springs, for guns and for many cutters.
Mercury hardens most intensely, because it does not evaporate, and so
does lead or wax for the same reason; water evaporates, and in the
spheroidal state, as steam, leaves contact with the steel. This is the
reason why long and large objects are moved vertically about in the
water during quenching, to bring them into contact with fresh cold
water.

There is a good deal of mystery affected by many of the hardeners, who
are very particular about the composition of their baths, various oils
and salts being used in an infinity of combinations. Many of these are
the result of long and successful experience, some are of the nature of
"fads." A change of bath may involve injury to the steel. The most
difficult articles to harden are springs, milling cutters, taps,
reamers. It would be easy to give scores of hardening compositions.

Hardening is performed the more efficiently the more rapidly the
quenching is done. In the case of thick objects, however, especially
milling cutters, there is risk of cracking, due to the difference of
temperature on the outside and in the central body of metal. Rapid
hardening is impracticable in such objects. This is the cause of the
distortion of long taps and reamers, and of their cracking, and explains
why their teeth are often protected with soft soap and other substances.

The presence of the body of heat in a tool is taken advantage of in the
work of tempering. The tool, say a chisel, is dipped, a length of 2 in.
or more being thus hardened and blackened. It is then removed, and a
small area rubbed rapidly with a bit of grindstone, observations being
made of the changing tints which gradually appear as the heat is
communicated from the hot shank to the cooled end. The heat becomes
equalized, and at the same time the approximate temperature for
quenching for temper is estimated by the appearance of a certain tint;
at that instant the article is plunged and allowed to remain until quite
cold. For every different class of tool a different tint is required.

"Blazing off" is a particular method of hardening applied to small
springs. The springs are heated and plunged in oils, fats, or tallow,
which is burned off previous to cooling in air, or in the ashes of the
forge, or in oil, or water usually. They are hardened, reheated and
tempered, and the tempering by blazing off is repeated for heavy
springs. The practice varies almost infinitely with dimensions, quality
of steel, and purpose to which the springs have to be applied.

The range of temper for most cutting tools lies between a pale straw or
yellow, and a light purple or plum colour. The corresponding range of
temperatures is about 430° F. to 530° F., respectively. "Spring temper"
is higher, from dark purple to blue, or 550° F. to 630° F. In many fine
tools the range of temperature possible between good and poor results
lies within from 5° to 10° F.

There is another kind of hardening which is of a superficial character
only--"case hardening." It is employed in cases where toughness has to
be combined with durability of surface. It is a cementation process,
practised on wrought iron and mild steel, and applied to the link
motions of engines, to many pins and studs, eyes of levers, &c. The
articles are hermetically luted in an iron box, packed with nitrogenous
and saline substances such as potash, bone dust, leather cuttings, and
salt. The box is placed in a furnace, and allowed to remain for periods
of from twelve to thirty-six hours, during which period the surface of
the metal, to a depth of 1/32 to 1/16 in., is penetrated by the
cementing materials, and converted into steel. The work is then thrown
into water and quenched.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Automatic Oil Muffle Furnace.]

A muffle furnace, employed for annealing, hardening and tempering is
shown in fig. 1; the heat being obtained by means of petroleum, which is
contained in the tank A, and is kept under pressure by pumping at
intervals with the wooden handle, so that when the valve B is opened the
oil is vaporized by passing through a heating coil at the furnace
entrance, and when ignited burns fiercely as a gas flame. This passes
into the furnace through the two holes, C, C, and plays under and up
around the muffle D, standing on a fireclay slab. The doorway is closed
by two fireclay blocks at E. A temperature of over 2000° F. can be
obtained in furnaces of this class, and the heat is of course under
perfect control.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Reverbatory Furnace.]

A reverberatory type of gas furnace, shown in fig. 2, differs from the
oil furnace in having the flames brought down through the roof, by pipes
A, A, A, playing on work laid on the fireclay slab B, thence passing
under this and out through the elbow-pipe C. The hinged doors, D, give a
full opening to the interior of the furnace. It will be noticed in both
these furnaces (by Messrs Fletcher, Russell & Co., Ltd.) that the iron
casing is a mere shell, enclosing very thick firebrick linings, to
retain the heat effectively. (J. G. H.)



ANNECY, the chief town of the department of Haute Savoie in France. Pop.
(1906) 10,763. It is situated at a height of 1470 ft., at the northern
end of the lake of Annecy, and is 25 m. by rail N.E. of Aix les Bains.
The surrounding country presents many scenes of beauty. The town itself
is a pleasant residence, and contains a 16th century cathedral church,
an 18th century bishop's palace, a 14th-16th century castle (formerly
the residence of the counts of the Genevois), and the reconstructed
convent of the Visitation, wherein now reposes the body of St François
de Sales (born at the castle of Sales, close by, in 1567; died at Lyons
in 1622), who held the see from 1602 to 1622. There is also a public
library, with 20,000 volumes, and various scientific collections, and a
public garden, with a statue of the chemist Berthollet (1748-1822), who
was born not far off. The bishop's see of Geneva was transferred hither
in 1535, after the Reformation, but suppressed in 1801, though revived
in 1822. There are factories of linen and cotton goods, and of felt
hats, paper mills, and a celebrated bell foundry at Annecy le Vieux.
This last-named place existed in Roman times. Annecy itself was in the
10th century the capital of the counts of the Genevois, from whom it
passed in 1401 to the counts of Savoy, and became French in 1860 on the
annexation of Savoy.

The LAKE OF ANNECY is about 9 m. in length by 2 m. in breadth, its
surface being 1465 ft. above the level of the sea. It discharges its
waters, by means of the Thioux canal, into the Fier, a tributary of the
Rhone.     (W. A. B. C.)



ANNELIDA, a name derived from J.B.P. Lamarck's term _Annélides_, now
used to denote a major phylum or division of coelomate invertebrate
animals. Annelids are segmented worms, and differ from the Arthropoda
(q.v.), which they closely resemble in many respects, by the possession
of a portion of the coelom traversed by the alimentary canal. In the
latter respect, and in the fact that they frequently develop by a
metamorphosis, they approach the Mollusca (q.v.), but they differ from
that group notably in the occurrence of metameric segmentation affecting
many of the systems of organs. The body-wall is highly muscular and,
except in a few probably specialized cases, possesses chitinous spines,
the setae, which are secreted by the ectoderm and are embedded in pits
of the skin. They possess a modified anterior end, frequently with
special sense organs, forming a head, a segmented nervous system,
consisting of a pair of anterior, dorsally-placed ganglia, a ring
surrounding the alimentary canal, and a double ventral ganglionated
chain, a definite vascular system, an excretory system consisting of
nephridia, and paired generative organs formed from the coelomic
epithelium. They are divided as follows: (1) Haplodrili (q.v.) or
Archiannelida; (2) Chaetopoda (q.v.); (3) Myzostomida (q.v.), probably
degenerate Polychaeta; (4) Hirudinea (see CHAETOPODA and LEECH); (5)
Echiuroidea (q.v.).     (P. C. M.)



ANNET, PETER (1693-1769), English deist, is said to have been born at
Liverpool. A schoolmaster by profession, he became prominent owing to
his attacks on orthodox theologians, and his membership of a
semi-theological debating society, the Robin Hood Society, which met at
the "Robin Hood and Little John" in Butcher Row. To him has been
attributed a work called _A History of the Man after God's own Heart_
(1761), intended to show that George II. was insulted by a current
comparison with David. The book is said to have inspired Voltaire's
_Saul_. It is also attributed to one John Noorthouck (Noorthook). In
1763 he was condemned for blasphemous libel in his paper called the
_Free Enquirer_ (nine numbers only). After his release he kept a small
school in Lambeth, one of his pupils being James Stephen (1758-1832),
who became master in Chancery. Annet died on the 18th of January 1769.
He stands between the earlier philosophic deists and the later
propagandists of Paine's school, and "seems to have been the first
freethought lecturer" (J.M. Robertson); his essays (_A Collection of the
Tracts of a certain Free Enquirer_, 1739-1745) are forcible but lack
refinement. He invented a system of shorthand (2nd ed., with a copy of
verses by Joseph Priestley).



ANNEXATION (Lat. _ad_, to, and _nexus_, joining), in international law,
the act by which a state adds territory to its dominions; the term is
also used generally as a synonym for acquisition. The assumption of a
protectorate over another state, or of a sphere of influence, is not
strictly annexation, the latter implying the complete displacement in
the annexed territory of the government or state by which it was
previously ruled. Annexation may be the consequence of a voluntary
cession from one state to another, or of conversion from a protectorate
or sphere of influence, or of mere occupation in uncivilized regions, or
of conquest. The cession of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany by France,
although brought about by the war of 1870, was for the purposes of
international law a voluntary cession. Under the treaty of the 17th of
December 1885, between the French republic and the queen of Madagascar,
a French protectorate was established over this island. In 1896 this
protectorate was converted by France into an annexation, and Madagascar
then became "French territory." The formal annexation of
Bosnia-Herzegovina by Austria (Oct. 5, 1908) was an unauthorized
conversion of an "occupation" authorized by the Treaty of Berlin (1878),
which had, however, for years operated as a _de facto_ annexation. A
recent case of conquest was that effected by the South African War of
1899-1902, in which the Transvaal republic and the Orange Free State
were extinguished, first _de facto_ by occupation of the whole of their
territory, and then _de jure_ by terms of surrender entered into by the
Boer generals acting as a government.

By annexation, as between civilized peoples, the annexing state takes
over the whole succession with the rights and obligations attaching to
the ceded territory, subject only to any modifying conditions contained
in the treaty of cession. These, however, are binding only as between
the parties to them. In the case of the annexation of the territories of
the Transvaal republic and Orange Free State, a rather complicated
situation arose out of the facts, on the one hand, that the ceding
states closed their own existence and left no recourse to third parties
against the previous ruling authority, and, on the other, that, having
no means owing to the _de facto_ British occupation, of raising money by
taxation, the dispossessed governments raised money by selling certain
securities, more especially a large holding of shares in the South
African Railway Company, to neutral purchasers. The British government
repudiated these sales as having been made by a government which the
British government had already displaced. The question of at what point,
in a war of conquest, the state succession becomes operative is one of
great delicacy. As early as the 6th of January 1900, the high
commissioner at Cape Town issued a proclamation giving notice that H.M.
government would "not recognize as valid or effectual" any conveyance,
transfer or transmission of any property made by the government of the
Transvaal republic or Orange Free State subsequently to the 10th of
October 1899, the date of the commencement of the war. A proclamation
forbidding transactions with a state which might still be capable of
maintaining its independence could obviously bind only those subject to
the authority of the state issuing it. Like paper blockades (see
BLOCKADE) and fictitious occupations of territory, such premature
proclamations are viewed by international jurists as not being _jure
gentium_. The proclamation was succeeded, on the 9th of March 1900, by
another of the high commissioner at Cape Town, reiterating the notice,
but confining it to "lands, railways, mines or mining rights." And on
the 1st of September 1900 Lord Roberts proclaimed at Pretoria the
annexation of the territories of the Transvaal republic to the British
dominions. That the war continued for nearly two years after this
proclamation shows how fictitious the claim of annexation was. The
difficulty which arose out of the transfer of the South African Railway
shares held by the Transvaal government was satisfactorily terminated by
the purchase by the British government of the total capital of the
company from the different groups of shareholders (see on this case, Sir
Thomas Barclay, _Law Quarterly Review_, July 1905; and Professor
Westlake, in the same _Review_, October 1905).

In a judgment of the judicial committee of the privy council in 1899
(_Coote_ v. _Sprigg_, A.C. 572), Lord Chancellor Halsbury made an
important distinction as regards the obligations of state succession.
The case in question was a claim of title against the crown, represented
by the government of Cape Colony. It was made by persons holding a
concession of certain rights in eastern Pondoland from a native chief.
Before the grantees had taken up their grant by acts of possession,
Pondoland was annexed to Cape Colony. The colonial government refused to
recognize the grant on different grounds, the chief of them being that
the concession conferred no legal rights before the annexation and
therefore could confer none afterwards, a sufficiently good ground in
itself. The judicial committee, however, rested its decision chiefly on
the allegation that the acquisition of the territory was an act of state
and that "no municipal court had authority to enforce such an
obligation" as the duty of the new government to respect existing
titles. "It is no answer," said Lord Halsbury, "to say that by the
ordinary principles of international law private property is respected
by the sovereign which accepts the cession and assumes the duties and
legal obligations of the former sovereign with respect to such private
property within the ceded territory. All that can be meant by such a
proposition is that according to the well-understood rules of
international law a change of sovereignty by cession ought not to affect
private property, but no municipal tribunal has authority to enforce
such an obligation. And if there is either an express or a
well-understood bargain between the ceding potentate and the government
to which the cession is made that private property shall be respected,
that is only a bargain which can be enforced by sovereign against
sovereign in the ordinary course of diplomatic pressure." In an
editorial note on this case the _Law Quarterly Review_ of Jan. 1900 (p.
1), dissenting from the view of the judicial committee that "no
municipal tribunal has authority to enforce such an obligation," the
writer observes that "we can read this only as meant to lay down that,
on the annexation of territory even by peaceable cession, there is a
total abeyance of justice until the will of the annexing power is
expressly made known; and that, although the will of that power is
commonly to respect existing private rights, there is no rule or
presumption to that effect of which any court must or indeed can take
notice." So construed the doctrine is not only contrary to international
law, but according to so authoritative an exponent of the common law as
Sir F. Pollock, there is no warrant for it in English common law.

An interesting point of American constitutional law has arisen out of
the cession of the Philippines to the United States, through the fact
that the federal constitution does not lend itself to the exercise by
the federal congress of unlimited powers, such as are vested in the
British parliament. The sole authority for the powers of the federal
congress is a written constitution with defined powers. Anything done in
excess of those powers is null and void. The Supreme Court of the United
States, on the other hand, has declared that, by the constitution, a
government is ordained and established "for the United States of
America" and not for countries outside their limits (_Ross's Case_, 140
U.S. 453, 464), and that no such power to legislate for annexed
territories as that vested in the British crown in council is enjoyed by
the president of the United States (_Field_ v. _Clark_, 143 U.S. 649,
692). Every detail connected with the administration of the territories
acquired from Spain under the treaty of Paris (December 10, 1898) has
given rise to minute discussion.

  See Carman F. Randolph, _Law and Policy of Annexation_ (New York and
  London, 1901); Charles Henry Butler, _Treaty-making Power of the
  United States_ (New York, 1902), vol. i. p. 79 et seq.     (T. Ba.)



ANNICERIS, a Greek philosopher of the Cyrenaic school. There is no
certain information as to his date, but from the statement that he was a
disciple of Paraebates it seems likely that he was a contemporary of
Alexander the Great. A follower of Aristippus, he denied that pleasure
is the general end of human life. To each separate action there is a
particular end, namely the pleasure which actually results from it.
Secondly, pleasure is not merely the negation of pain, inasmuch as death
ends all pain and yet cannot be regarded as pleasure. There is, however,
an absolute pleasure in certain virtues such as belong to the love of
country, parents and friends. In these relations a man will have
pleasure, even though it may result in painful and even fatal
consequences. Friendship is not merely for the satisfaction of our
needs, but is in itself a source of pleasure. He maintains further, in
opposition to most of the Cyrenaic school, that wisdom or prudence alone
is an insufficient guarantee against error. The wise man is he who has
acquired a habit of wise action; human wisdom is liable to lapses at any
moment. Diogenes Laertius says that Anniceris ransomed Plato from
Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, for twenty minas. If we are right in
placing Anniceris in the latter half of the 4th century, it is clear
that the reference here is to an earlier Anniceris, who, according to
Aelian, was a celebrated charioteer.



ANNING, MARY (1799-1847), English fossil-collector, the daughter of
Richard Anning, a cabinet-maker, was born at Lyme Regis in May 1799. Her
father was one of the earliest collectors and dealers in fossils,
obtained chiefly from the Lower Lias in that famous locality. When but a
child in 1811 she discovered the first specimen of _Ichthyosaurus_ which
was brought into scientific notice; in 1821 she found remains of a new
saurian, the _Plesiosaurus_ and in 1828 she procured, for the first time
in England, remains of a pterodactyl (_Dimorphodon_). She died on the
9th of March 1847.



ANNISTON, a city and the county seat of Calhoun county, Alabama, U.S.A.,
in the north-eastern part of the state, about 63 m. E. by N. of
Birmingham. Pop. (1890) 9998; (1900), 9695, of whom 3669 were of negro
descent; (1910 census) 12,794. Anniston is served by the Southern, the
Seaboard Air Line, and the Louisville & Nashville railways. The city is
situated on the slope of Blue Mountain, a chain of the Blue Ridge, and
is a health resort. It is the seat of the Noble Institute (for girls),
established in 1886 by Samuel Noble (1834-1888), a wealthy iron-founder,
and of the Alabama Presbyterian College for Men (1905). There are vast
quantities of iron ore in the vicinity of the city, the Coosa
coal-fields being only 25 m. distant. Anniston is an important
manufacturing city, the principal industries being the manufacture of
iron, steel and cotton. In 1905 the city's factory products were valued
at $2,525,455. An iron furnace was established on the site of Anniston
during the Civil War, but it was destroyed by the federal troops in
1865; and in 1872 it was rebuilt on a much larger scale. The city was
founded in 1872 as a private enterprise, by the Woodstock Iron Company,
organized by Samuel Noble and Gen. Daniel Tyler (1799-1882); but it was
not opened for general settlement until twelve years later. It was
chartered as a city in 1879.



ANNO, or HANNO, SAINT (c. 1010-1075), archbishop of Cologne, belonged to
a Swabian family, and was educated at Bamberg. He became confessor to
the emperor Henry III., who appointed him archbishop of Cologne in 1056.
He took a prominent part in the government of Germany during the
minority of King Henry IV., and was the leader of the party which in
1062 seized the person of Henry, and deprived his mother, the empress
Agnes, of power. For a short time Anno exercised the chief authority in
the kingdom, but he was soon obliged to share this with Adalbert,
archbishop of Bremen, retaining for himself the supervision of Henry's
education and the title of _magister_. The office of chancellor of the
kingdom of Italy was at this period regarded as an appanage of the
archbishopric of Cologne, and this was probably the reason why Anno had
a considerable share in settling the papal dispute in 1064. He declared
Alexander II. to be the rightful pope at a synod held at Mantua in May
1064, and took other steps to secure his recognition. Returning to
Germany, he found the chief power in the hands of Adalbert, and as he
was disliked by the young king, he left the court but returned and
regained some of his former influence when Adalbert fell from power in
1066. He succeeded in putting down a rising against his authority in
Cologne in 1074, and it was reported he had allied himself with William
the Conqueror, king of England, against the emperor. Having cleared
himself of this charge, Anno took no further part in public business,
and died at Cologne on the 4th of December 1075. He was buried in the
monastery of Siegburg and was canonized in 1183 by Pope Lucius III. He
was a founder of monasteries and a builder of churches, advocated
clerical celibacy and was a strict disciplinarian. He was a man of great
energy and ability, whose action in recognizing Alexander II. was of the
utmost consequence for Henry IV. and for Germany.

  There is a _Vita Annonis_, written about 1100, by a monk of Siegburg,
  but this is of slight value. It appears in the _Monumenta Germaniae
  historica: Scriptores_, Bd. xi. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826-1892). There
  is an "Epistola ad monachos Malmundarienses" by Anno in the _Neues
  Archiv der Gesellschaft für altere deutsche Geschichtskunde_, Bd. xiv.
  (Hanover, 1876 seq.). See also the _Annolied_, or _Incerti poetae
  Teutonici rhythmus de S. Annone_, written about 1180, and edited by J.
  Kehrein (Frankfort, 1865); Th. Lindner, _Anno II. der Heilige,
  Erzbischof von Koln_ (Leipzig, 1869).



ANNOBON, or ANNO BOM, an island in the Gulf of Guinea, in 1° 24' S. and
5° 35' E., belonging to Spain. It is 110 m. S.W. of St Thomas. Its
length is about 4 m., its breadth 2, and its area 6¾ sq. m. Rising in
some parts nearly 3000 ft. above the sea, it presents a succession of
beautiful valleys and steep mountains, covered with rich woods and
luxuriant vegetation. The inhabitants, some 3000 in number, are negroes
and profess belief in the Roman Catholic faith. The chief town and
residence of the governor is called St Antony (San Antonio de Praia).
The roadstead is tolerably safe, and passing vessels take advantage of
it in order to obtain water and fresh provisions, of which Annobon
contains an abundant supply. The island was discovered by the Portuguese
on the 1st of January 1473, from which circumstance it received its name
(= New Year). Annobon, together with Fernando Po, was ceded to Spain by
the Portuguese in 1778. The islanders revolted against their new masters
and a state of anarchy ensued, leading, it is averred, to an arrangement
by which the island was administered by a body of five natives, each of
whom held the office of governor during the period that elapsed till ten
ships touched at the island. In the latter part of the 19th century the
authority of Spain was re-established.



ANNONA (from Lat. _annus_, year), in Roman mythology, the
personification of the produce of the year. She is represented in works
of art, often together with Ceres, with a _cornucopia_ (horn of plenty)
in her arm, and a ship's prow in the background, indicating the
transport of grain over the sea. She frequently occurs on coins of the
empire, standing between a _modius_ (corn-measure) and the prow of a
galley, with ears of corn in one hand and a _cornucopia_ in the other;
sometimes she holds a rudder or an anchor. The Latin word itself has
various meanings: (1) the produce of the year's harvest; (2) all means
of subsistence, especially grain stored in the public granaries for
provisioning the city; (3) the market-price of commodities, especially
corn; (4) a direct tax in kind, levied in republican times in several
provinces, chiefly employed in imperial times for distribution amongst
officials and the support of the soldiery.

In order to ensure a supply of corn sufficient to enable it to be sold
at a very low price, it was procured in large quantities from Umbria,
Etruria and Sicily. Almost down to the times of the empire, the care of
the corn-supply formed part of the aedile's duties, although in 440 B.C.
(if the statement in Livy iv. 12, 13 is correct, which is doubtful) the
senate appointed a special officer, called _praefectus annonae_, with
greatly extended powers. As a consequence of the second Punic War, Roman
agriculture was at a standstill; accordingly, recourse was had to Sicily
and Sardinia (the first two Roman provinces) in order to keep up the
supply of corn; a tax of one-tenth was imposed on it, and its export to
any country except Italy forbidden. The price at which the corn was sold
was always moderate; the corn law of Gracchus (123 B.C.) made it
absurdly low, and Clodius (58 B.C.) bestowed it gratuitously. The number
of the recipients of this free gift grew so enormously, that both Caesar
and Augustus were obliged to reduce it. From the time of Augustus to the
end of the empire the number of those who were entitled to receive a
monthly allowance of corn on presenting a ticket was 200,000. In the 3rd
century, bread formed the dole. A _praefectus annonae_ was appointed by
Augustus to superintend the corn-supply; he was assisted by a large
staff in Rome and the provinces, and had jurisdiction in all matters
connected with the corn-market. The office lasted till the latest times
of the empire.



ANNONAY, a town of south-eastern France, in the north of the department
of Ardèche, 50 m. S. of Lyons by the Paris-Lyons railway. Pop. (1906)
15,403. Annonay is built on the hill overlooking the meeting of the deep
gorges of the Déôme and the Cance, the waters of which supply power to
the factories of the town. By means of a dam across the Ternay, an
affluent of the Déôme, to the north-west of the town, a reservoir is
provided, in which an additional supply of water, for both industrial
and domestic purposes, is stored. At Annonay there is an obelisk in
honour of the brothers Montgolfier, inventors of the balloon, who were
natives of the place. A tribunal of commerce, a board of
trade-arbitrators, a branch of the Bank of France, and chambers of
commerce and of arts and manufactures are among the public institutions.
Annonay is the principal industrial centre of its department, the chief
manufactures being those of leather, especially for gloves, paper, silk
and silk goods, and flour. Chemical manures, glue, gelatine, brushes,
chocolate and candles are also produced.



ANNOY (like the French _ennui_, a word traced by etymologists to a Lat.
phrase, _in odio esse_, to be "in hatred" or hateful of someone), to vex
or affect with irritation. In the sense of "nuisance," the noun
"annoyance," apart from its obvious meaning, is found in the English
"Jury of Annoyance" appointed by an act of 1754 to report upon
obstructions in the highways.



ANNUITY (from Lat. _annus_, a year), a periodical payment, made
annually, or at more frequent intervals, either for a fixed term of
years, or during the continuance of a given life, or a combination of
lives. In technical language an annuity is said to be payable for an
assigned _status_, this being a general word chosen in preference to
such words as "time," "term" or "period," because it may include more
readily either a term of years certain, or a life or combination of
lives. The magnitude of the annuity is the sum to be paid (and received)
in the course of each year. Thus, if £100 is to be received each year by
a person, he is said to have "an annuity of £100." If the payments are
made half-yearly, it is sometimes said that he has "a half-yearly
annuity of £100"; but to avoid ambiguity, it is more commonly said he
has an annuity of £100, payable by half-yearly instalments. The former
expression, if clearly understood, is preferable on account of its
brevity. So we may have quarterly, monthly, weekly, daily annuities,
when the annuity is payable by quarterly, monthly, weekly or daily
instalments. An annuity is considered as accruing during each instant of
the status for which it is enjoyed, although it is only payable at fixed
intervals. If the enjoyment of an annuity is postponed until after the
lapse of a certain number of years, the annuity is said to be deferred.
If an annuity, instead of being payable at the end of each year,
half-year, &c., is payable in advance, it is called an annuity-due.

If an annuity is payable for a term of years independent of any
contingency, it is called an _annuity certain_; if it is to continue for
ever, it is called a _perpetuity_; and if in the latter case it is not
to commence until after a term of years, it is called a _deferred
perpetuity_. An annuity depending on the continuance of an assigned life
or lives, is sometimes called a life annuity; but more commonly the
simple term "annuity" is understood to mean a life annuity, unless the
contrary is stated. A life annuity, to cease in any event after a
certain term of years, is called a _temporary annuity_. The holder of an
annuity is called an annuitant, and the person on whose life the annuity
depends is called the nominee.

If not otherwise stated, it is always understood that an annuity is
payable yearly, and that the annual payment (or rent, as it is sometimes
called) is £1. It is, however, customary to consider the annual payment
to be, not £1, but simply 1, the reader supplying whatever monetary unit
he pleases, whether pound, dollar, franc, Thaler, &c.

The annuity is the totality of the payments to be made (and received),
and is so understood by all writers on the subject; but some have also
used the word to denote an individual payment (or rent), speaking, for
instance, of the first or second year's annuity,--a practice which is
calculated to introduce confusion and should therefore be carefully
avoided.

Instances of perpetuities are the dividends upon the public stocks in
England, France and some other countries. Thus, although it is usual to
speak of £100 consols, the reality is the yearly dividend which the
government pays by quarterly instalments. The practice of the French in
this, as in many other matters, is more logical. In speaking of their
public funds (_rentes_) they do not mention the ideal capital sum, but
speak of the annuity or annual payment that is received by the public
creditor. Other instances of perpetuities are the incomes derived from
the debenture stocks of railway companies, also the feu-duties commonly
payable on house property in Scotland. The number of years' purchase
which the perpetual annuities granted by a government or a railway
company realize in the open market, forms a very simple test of the
credit of the various governments or railways.

_Terminable Annuities_ are employed in the system of British public
finance as a means of reducing the National Debt (q.v.). This result is
attained by substituting for a perpetual annual charge (or one lasting
until the capital which it represents can be paid off _en bloc_), an
annual charge of a larger amount, but lasting for a short term. The
latter is so calculated as to pay off, during its existence, the capital
which it replaces, with interest at an assumed or agreed rate, and under
specified conditions. The practical effect of the substitution of a
terminable annuity for an obligation of longer currency is to bind the
present generation of citizens to increase its own obligations in the
present and near future in order to diminish those of its successors.
This end might be attained in other ways; for instance, by setting aside
out of revenue a fixed annual sum for the purchase and cancellation of
debt (Pitt's method, in intention), or by fixing the annual debt charge
at a figure sufficient to provide a margin for reduction of the
principal of the debt beyond the amount required for interest (Sir
Stafford Northcote's method), or by providing an annual surplus of
revenue over expenditure (the "Old Sinking Fund"), available for the
same purpose. All these methods have been tried in the course of British
financial history, and the second and third of them are still employed;
but on the whole the method of terminable annuities has been the one
preferred by chancellors of the exchequer and by parliament.

Terminable annuities, as employed by the British government, fall under
two heads:--(a) Those issued to, or held by private persons; (b) those
held by government departments or by funds under government control. The
important difference between these two classes is that an annuity under
(a), once created, cannot be modified except with the holder's consent,
i.e. is practically unalterable without a breach of public faith;
whereas an annuity under (b) can, if necessary, be altered by
interdepartmental arrangement under the authority of parliament. Thus
annuities of class (a) fulfil most perfectly the object of the system as
explained above; while those of class (b) have the advantage that in
times of emergency their operation can be suspended without any
inconvenience or breach of faith, with the result that the resources of
government can on such occasions be materially increased, apart from any
additional taxation. For this purpose it is only necessary to retain as
a charge on the income of the year a sum equal to the (smaller)
perpetual charge which was originally replaced by the (larger)
terminable charge, whereupon the difference between the two amounts is
temporarily released, while ultimately the increased charge is extended
for a period equal to that for which it is suspended. Annuities of class
(a) were first instituted in 1808, but are at present mainly regulated
by an act of 1829. They may be granted either for a specified life, or
two lives, or for an arbitrary term of years; and the consideration for
them may take the form either of cash or of government stock, the latter
being cancelled when the annuity is set up. Annuities (b) held by
government departments date from 1863. They have been created in
exchange for permanent debt surrendered for cancellation, the principal
operations having been effected in 1863, 1867, 1870, 1874, 1883 and
1899. Annuities of this class do not affect the public at all, except of
course in their effect on the market for government securities. They are
merely financial operations between the government, in its capacity as
the banker of savings banks and other funds, and itself, in the capacity
of custodian of the national finances. Savings bank depositors are not
concerned with the manner in which government invests their money, their
rights being confined to the receipt of interest and the repayment of
deposits upon specified conditions. The case is, however, different as
regards forty millions of consols (included in the above figures),
belonging to suitors in chancery, which were cancelled and replaced by a
terminable annuity in 1883. As the liability to the suitors in that case
was for a specified amount of stock, special arrangements were made to
ensure the ultimate replacement of the precise amount of stock
cancelled.

_Annuity Calculations._--The mathematical theory of life annuities is
based upon a knowledge of the rate of mortality among mankind in
general, or among the particular class of persons on whose lives the
annuities depend. It involves a mathematical treatment too complicated
to be dealt with fully in this place, and in practice it has been
reduced to the form of tables, which vary in different places, but which
are easily accessible. The history of the subject may, however, be
sketched. Abraham Demoivre, in his _Annuities on Lives_, propounded a
very simple law of mortality which is to the effect that, out of 86
children born alive, 1 will die every year until the last dies between
the ages of 85 and 86. This law agreed sufficiently well at the middle
ages of life with the mortality deduced from the best observations of
his time; but, as observations became more exact, the approximation was
found to be not sufficiently close. This was particularly the case when
it was desired to obtain the value of joint life, contingent or other
complicated benefits. Therefore Demoivre's law is entirely devoid of
practical utility. No simple formula has yet been discovered that will
represent the rate of mortality with sufficient accuracy.

The rate of mortality at each age is, therefore, in practice usually
determined by a series of figures deduced from observation; and the
value of an annuity at any age is found from these numbers by means of a
series of arithmetical calculations. The mortality table here given is
an example of modern use.

The first writer who is known to have attempted to obtain, on correct
mathematical principles, the value of a life annuity, was Jan De Witt,
grand pensionary of Holland and West Friesland. Our knowledge of his
writings on the subject is derived from two papers contributed by
Frederick Hendriks to the _Assurance Magazine_, vol. ii. p. 222, and
vol. in. p. 93. The former of these contains a translation of De Witt's
report upon the value of life annuities, which was prepared in
consequence of the resolution passed by the states-general, on the 25th
of April 1671, to negotiate funds by life annuities, and which was
distributed to the members on the 30th of July 1671. The latter contains
the translation of a number of letters addressed by De Witt to
Burgomaster Johan Hudde, bearing dates from September 1670 to October
1671. The existence of De Witt's report was well known among his
contemporaries, and Hendriks collected a number of extracts from various
authors referring to it; but the report is not contained in any
collection of his works extant, and had been entirely lost for 180
years, until Hendriks discovered it among the state archives of Holland
in company with the letters to Hudde. It is a document of extreme
interest, and (notwithstanding some inaccuracies in the reasoning) of
very great merit, more especially considering that it was the very first
document on the subject that was ever written.


TABLE OF MORTALITY--HM, HEALTHY LIVES--MALE.

_Number Living and Dying at each Age, out of 10,000 entering at Age 10._

  +------+---------+--------+------+---------+--------+
  | Age. | Living. | Dying. | Age. | Living. | Dying. |
  +------+---------+--------+------+---------+--------+
  |  10  | 10,000  |   79   |  54  |   6791  |   129  |
  |  11  |  9,921  |    0   |  55  |   6662  |   153  |
  |  12  |  9,921  |   40   |  56  |   6509  |   150  |
  |  13  |  9,881  |   35   |  57  |   6359  |   152  |
  |  14  |  9,846  |   40   |  58  |   6207  |   156  |
  |  15  |  9,806  |   22   |  59  |   6051  |   153  |
  |  16  |  9,784  |    0   |  60  |   5898  |   184  |
  |  17  |  9,784  |   41   |  61  |   5714  |   186  |
  |  18  |  9,743  |   59   |  62  |   5528  |   191  |
  |  19  |  9,684  |   68   |  63  |   5337  |   200  |
  |  20  |  9,616  |   56   |  64  |   5137  |   206  |
  |  21  |  9,560  |   67   |  65  |   4931  |   215  |
  |  22  |  9,493  |   59   |  66  |   4716  |   220  |
  |  23  |  9,434  |   73   |  67  |   4496  |   220  |
  |  24  |  9,361  |   64   |  68  |   4276  |   237  |
  |  25  |  9,297  |   48   |  69  |   4039  |   246  |
  |  26  |  9,249  |   64   |  70  |   3793  |   213  |
  |  27  |  9,185  |   60   |  71  |   3580  |   222  |
  |  28  |  9,125  |   71   |  72  |   3358  |   268  |
  |  29  |  9,054  |   67   |  73  |   3090  |   243  |
  |  30  |  8,987  |   74   |  74  |   2847  |   300  |
  |  31  |  8,913  |   65   |  75  |   2547  |   241  |
  |  32  |  8,848  |   74   |  76  |   2306  |   245  |
  |  33  |  8,774  |   73   |  77  |   2061  |   224  |
  |  34  |  8,701  |   76   |  78  |   1837  |   226  |
  |  35  |  8,625  |   71   |  79  |   1611  |   219  |
  |  36  |  8,554  |   75   |  80  |   1392  |   196  |
  |  37  |  8,479  |   81   |  81  |   1196  |   191  |
  |  38  |  8,398  |   87   |  82  |   1005  |   173  |
  |  39  |  8,311  |   88   |  83  |    832  |   172  |
  |  40  |  8,223  |   81   |  84  |    660  |   119  |
  |  41  |  8,142  |   85   |  85  |    541  |   117  |
  |  42  |  8,057  |   87   |  86  |    424  |    92  |
  |  43  |  7,970  |   84   |  87  |    332  |    72  |
  |  44  |  7,886  |   93   |  88  |    260  |    74  |
  |  45  |  7,793  |   97   |  89  |    186  |    36  |
  |  46  |  7,696  |   96   |  90  |    150  |    34  |
  |  47  |  7,600  |  107   |  91  |    116  |    36  |
  |  48  |  7,493  |  106   |  92  |     80  |    36  |
  |  49  |  7,387  |  113   |  93  |     44  |    29  |
  |  50  |  7,274  |  120   |  94  |     15  |     0  |
  |  51  |  7,154  |  124   |  95  |     15  |     5  |
  |  52  |  7,030  |  120   |  96  |     10  |    10  |
  |  53  |  6,910  |  119   |      |         |        |
  +------+---------+--------+------+---------+--------+

It appears that it had long been the practice in Holland for life
annuities to be granted to nominees of any age, in the constant
proportion of double the rate of interest allowed on stock; that is to
say, if the towns were borrowing money at 6%, they would be willing to
grant a life annuity at 12%, and so on. De Witt states that "annuities
have been sold, even in the present century, first at six years'
purchase, then at seven and eight; and that the majority of all life
annuities now current at the country's expense were obtained at nine
years' purchase"; but that the price had been increased in the course of
a few years from eleven years' purchase to twelve, and from twelve to
fourteen. He also states that the rate of interest had been
successively reduced from 6¼ to 5%, and then to 4%. The principal object
of his report is to prove that, taking interest at 4%, a life annuity
was worth at least sixteen years' purchase; and, in fact, that an
annuitant purchasing an annuity for the life of a young and healthy
nominee at sixteen years' purchase, made an excellent bargain. It may be
mentioned that he argues that it is more to the advantage, both of the
country and of the private investor, that the public loans should be
raised by way of grant of life annuities rather than perpetual
annuities. It appears conclusively from De Witt's correspondence with
Hudde, that the rate of mortality assumed as the basis of his
calculations was deduced from careful examination of the mortality that
had actually prevailed among the nominees on whose lives annuities had
been granted in former years. De Witt appears to have come to the
conclusion that the probability of death is the same in any half-year
from the age of 3 to 53 inclusive; that in the next ten years, from 53
to 63, the probability is greater in the ratio of 3 to 2; that in the
next ten years, from 63 to 73, it is greater in the ratio of 2 to 1; and
in the next seven years, from 73 to 80, it is greater in the ratio of 3
to 1; and he places the limit of human life at 80. If a mortality table
of the usual form is deduced from these suppositions, out of 212 persons
alive at the age of 3, 2 will die every year up to 53, 3 in each of the
ten years from 53 to 63, 4 in each of the next ten years from 63 to 73,
and 6 in each of the next seven years from 73 to 80, when all will be
dead.

De Witt calculates the value of an annuity in the following way. Assume
that annuities on 10,000 lives each ten years of age, which satisfy the
Hm mortality table, have been purchased. Of these nominees 79 will die
before attaining the age of 11, and no annuity payment will be made in
respect of them; none will die between the ages of 11 and 12, so that
annuities will be paid for one year on 9921 lives; 40 attain the age of
12 and die before 13, so that two payments will be made with respect to
these lives. Reasoning in this way we see that the annuities on 35 of
the nominees will be payable for three years; on 40 for four years, and
so on. Proceeding thus to the end of the table, 15 nominees attain the
age of 95, 5 of whom die before the age of 96, so that 85 payments will
be paid in respect of these 5 lives. Of the survivors all die before
attaining the age of 97, so that the annuities on these lives will be
payable for 86 years. Having previously calculated a table of the values
of annuities certain for every number of years up to 86, the value of
all the annuities on the 10,000 nominees will be found by taking 40
times the value of an annuity for 2 years, 35 times the value of an
annuity for 3 years, and so on--the last term being the value of 10
annuities for 86 years--and adding them together; and the value of an
annuity on one of the nominees will then be found by dividing by 10,000.
Before leaving the subject of De Witt, we may mention that we find in
the correspondence a distinct suggestion of the law of mortality that
bears the name of Demoivre. In De Witt's letter, dated the 27th of
October 1671 (_Ass. Mag_. vol. iii. p. 107), he speaks of a "provisional
hypothesis" suggested by Hudde, that out of 80 young lives (who, from
the context, may be taken as of the age 6) about 1 dies annually. In
strictness, therefore, the law in question might be more correctly
termed Hudde's than Demoivre's.

De Witt's report being thus of the nature of an unpublished state paper,
although it contributed to its author's reputation, did not contribute
to advance the exact knowledge of the subject; and the author to whom
the credit must be given of first showing how to calculate the value of
an annuity on correct principles is Edmund Halley. He gave the first
approximately correct mortality table (deduced from the records of the
numbers of deaths and baptisms in the city of Breslau), and showed how
it might be employed to calculate the value of an annuity on the life of
a nominee of any age (see _Phil. Trans_. 1693; _Ass. Mag_. vol. xviii.).

Previously to Halley's time, and apparently for many years subsequently,
all dealings with life annuities were based upon mere conjectural
estimates. The earliest known reference to any estimate of the value of
life annuities rose out of the requirements of the Falcidian law, which
(40 B.C.) was adopted in the Roman empire, and which declared that a
testator should not give more than three-fourths of his property in
legacies, so that at least one-fourth must go to his legal
representatives. It is easy to see how it would occasionally become
necessary, while this law was in force, to value life annuities charged
upon a testator's estate. Aemilius Macer (A.D. 230) states that the
method which had been in common use at that time was as follows:--From
the earliest age until 30 take 30 years' purchase, and for each age
after 30 deduct 1 year. It is obvious that no consideration of compound
interest can have entered into this estimate; and it is easy to see that
it is equivalent to assuming that all persons who attain the age of 30
will certainly live to the age of 60, and then certainly die. Compared
with this estimate, that which was propounded by the praetorian prefect
Ulpian was a great improvement. His table is as follows:--

  +-------------+-----------+------------+-----------+
  |     Age.    |   Years'  |    Age.    |  Years'   |
  |             | Purchase. |            | Purchase  |
  +-------------+-----------+------------+-----------+
  | Birth to 20 |    30     |  45 to 46  |     14    |
  |     20 " 25 |    28     |  46  " 47  |     13    |
  |     25 " 30 |    25     |  47  " 48  |     12    |
  |     30 " 35 |    22     |  48  " 49  |     11    |
  |     35 " 40 |    20     |  49  " 50  |     10    |
  |     40 " 41 |    19     |  50  " 55  |      9    |
  |     41 " 42 |    18     |  55  " 60  |      7    |
  |     42 " 43 |    17     |    60 and  |           |
  |     43 " 44 |    16     |    upwards |      5    |
  |     44 " 45 |    15     |            |           |
  +-------------+-----------+------------+-----------+

Here also we have no reason to suppose that the element of interest was
taken into consideration; and the assumption, that between the ages of
40 and 50 each addition of a year to the nominee's age diminishes the
value of the annuity by one year's purchase, is equivalent to assuming
that there is no probability of the nominee dying between the ages of 40
and 50. Considered, however, simply as a table of the average duration
of life, the values are fairly accurate. At all events, no more correct
estimate appears to have been arrived at until the close of the 17th
century.

  The mathematics of annuities has been very fully treated in Demoivre's
  _Treatise on Annuities_ (1725); Simpson's _Doctrine of Annuities and
  Reversions_ (1742); P. Gray, _Tables and Formulae_; Baily's _Doctrine
  of Life Annuities_; there are also innumerable compilations of
  _Valuation Tables_ and _Interest Tables_, by means of which the value
  of an annuity at any age and any rate of interest may be found. See
  also the article INTEREST, and especially that on INSURANCE.

_Commutation tables_, aptly so named in 1840 by Augustus De Morgan (see
his paper "On the Calculation of Single Life Contingencies," _Assurance
Magazine_, xii. 328), show the proportion in which a benefit due at one
age ought to be changed, so as to retain the same value and be due at
another age. The earliest known specimen of a commutation table is
contained in William Dale's _Introduction to the Study of the Doctrine
of Annuities_, published in 1772. A full account of this work is given
by F. Hendriks in the second number of the _Assurance Magazine_, pp.
15-17. William Morgan's _Treatise on Assurances_, 1779, also contains a
commutation table. Morgan gives the table as furnishing a convenient
means of checking the correctness of the values of annuities found by
the ordinary process. It may be assumed that he was aware that the table
might be used for the direct calculation of annuities; but he appears to
have been ignorant of its other uses.

The first author who fully developed the powers of the table was John
Nicholas Tetens, a native of Schleswig, who in 1785, while professor of
philosophy and mathematics at Kiel, published in the German language an
_Introduction to the Calculation of Life Annuities and Assurances_. This
work appears to have been quite unknown in England until F. Hendriks
gave, in the first number of the _Assurance Magazine_, pp. 1-20 (Sept.
1850), an account of it, with a translation of the passages describing
the construction and use of the commutation table, and a sketch of the
author's life and writings, to which we refer the reader who desires
fuller information. It may be mentioned here that Tetens also gave only
a specimen table, apparently not imagining that persons using his work
would find it extremely useful to have a series of commutation tables,
calculated and printed ready for use.

The use of the commutation table was independently developed in
England-apparently between the years 1788 and 1811--by George Barrett,
of Petworth, Sussex, who was the son of a yeoman farmer, and was himself
a village schoolmaster, and afterwards farm steward or bailiff. It has
been usual to consider Barrett as the originator in England of the
method of calculating the values of annuities by means of a commutation
table, and this method is accordingly sometimes called Barrett's method.
(It is also called the commutation method and the columnar method.)
Barrett's method of calculating annuities was explained by him to
Francis Baily in the year 1811, and was first made known to the world in
a paper written by the latter and read before the Royal Society in 1812.

By what has been universally considered an unfortunate error of
judgment, this paper was not recommended by the council of the Royal
Society to be printed, but it was given by Baily as an appendix to the
second issue (in 1813) of his work on life annuities and assurances.
Barrett had calculated extensive tables, and with Baily's aid attempted
to get them published by subscription, but without success; and the only
printed tables calculated according to his manner, besides the specimen
tables given by Baily, are the tables contained in Babbage's
_Comparative View of the various Institutions for the Assurance of
Lives_, 1826.

In the year 1825 Griffith Davies published his _Tables of Life
Contingencies_, a work which contains, among others, two tables, which
are confessedly derived from Baily's explanation of Barrett's tables.

  Those who desire to pursue the subject further can refer to the
  appendix to Baily's _Life Annuities and Assurances_, De Morgan's paper
  "On the Calculation of Single Life Contingencies," _Assurance
  Magazine_, xii. 348-349; Gray's _Tables and Formulae_ chap. viii.; the
  preface to Davies's _Treatise on Annuities_; also Hendriks's papers in
  the _Assurance Magazine_, No. 1, p. 1, and No. 2, p. 12; and in
  particular De Morgan's "Account of a Correspondence between Mr George
  Barrett and Mr Francis Baily," in the _Assurance Magazine_, vol. iv.
  p. 185.

  The principal commutation tables published in England are contained in
  the following works:--David Jones, _Value of Annuities and
  Reversionary Payments_, issued in parts by the Useful Knowledge
  Society, completed in 1843; Jenkin Jones, _New Rate of Mortality_,
  1843; G. Davies, _Treatise on Annuities_, 1825 (issued 1855); David
  Chisholm, _Commutation Tables_, 1858; Nelson's _Contributions to Vital
  Statistics_, 1857; Jardine Henry, _Government Life Annuity Commutation
  Tables_, 1866 and 1873; _Institute of Actuaries Life Tables_, 1872;
  R.P. Hardy, _Valuation Tables_, 1873; and Dr William Farr's
  contributions to the sixth (1844), twelfth (1849), and twentieth
  (1857) _Reports_ of the Registrar General in England (English Tables,
  I. 2), and to the _English Life Table_, 1864.

  The theory of annuities may be further studied in the discussions in
  the English _Journal of the Institute of Actuaries_. The institute was
  founded in the year 1848, the first sessional meeting being held in
  January 1849. Its establishment has contributed in various ways to
  promote the study of the theory of life contingencies. Among these may
  be specified the following:--Before it was formed, students of the
  subject worked for the most part alone, and without any concert; and
  when any person had made an improvement in the theory, it had little
  chance of becoming publicly known unless he wrote a formal treatise on
  the whole subject. But the formation of the institute led to much
  greater interchange of opinion among actuaries, and afforded them a
  ready means of making known to their professional associates any
  improvements, real or supposed, that they thought they had made.
  Again, the discussions which follow the reading of papers before the
  institute have often served, first, to bring out into bold relief
  differences of opinion that were previously unsuspected, and
  afterwards to soften down those differences,--to correct extreme
  opinions in every direction, and to bring about a greater agreement of
  opinion on many important subjects. In no way, probably, have the
  objects of the institute been so effectually advanced as by the
  publication of its _Journal_. The first number of this work, which was
  originally called the _Assurance Magazine_, appeared in September
  1850, and it has been continued quarterly down to the present time. It
  was originated by the public spirit of two well-known actuaries (Mr
  Charles Jellicoe and Mr Samuel Brown), and was adopted as the organ of
  the Institute of Actuaries in the year 1852, and called the _Assurance
  Magazine and Journal of the Institute of Actuaries_, Mr Jellicoe
  continuing to be the editor,--a post he held until the year 1867, when
  he was succeeded by Mr T.B. Sprague (who contributed to the 9th
  edition of this Encyclopaedia an elaborate article on "Annuities," on
  which the above account is based). The name was again changed in 1866,
  the words "Assurance Magazine" being dropped; but in the following
  year it was considered desirable to resume these, for the purpose of
  showing the continuity of the publication, and it is now called the
  _Journal of the Institute of Actuaries and Assurance Magazine_. This
  work contains not only the papers read before the institute (to which
  have been appended of late years short abstracts of the discussions on
  them), and many original papers which were unsuitable for reading,
  together with correspondence, but also reprints of many papers
  published elsewhere, which from various causes had become difficult of
  access to the ordinary reader, among which may be specified various
  papers which originally appeared in the _Philosophical Transactions_,
  the _Philosophical Magazine_, the _Mechanics' Magazine_, and the
  _Companion to the Almanac_; also translations of various papers from
  the French, German, and Danish. Among the useful objects which the
  continuous publication of the _Journal_ of the institute has served,
  we may specify in particular two:--that any supposed improvement in
  the theory was effectually submitted to the criticisms of the whole
  actuarial profession, and its real value speedily discovered; and that
  any real improvement, whether great or small, being placed on record,
  successive writers have been able, one after the other, to take it up
  and develop it, each commencing where the previous one had left off.



ANNULAR, ANNULATE, &c. (Lat. _annulus_, a ring), ringed. "Annulate" is
used in botany and zoology in connexion with certain plants, worms, &c.
(see ANNELIDA), either marked with rings or composed of ring-like
segments. The word "annulated" is also used in, heraldry and
architecture. An annulated cross is one with the points ending in an
"annulet" (an heraldic ring, supposed to be taken from a coat of mail),
while the annulet in architecture is a small fillet round a column,
which encircles the lower part of the Doric capital immediately above
the neck or trachelium. The word "annulus" (for "ring") is itself used
technically in geometry, astronomy, &c., and the adjective "annular"
corresponds. An _annular space_ is that between an inner and outer ring.
The _annular finger_ is the ring finger. An _annular eclipse_ is an
eclipse of the sun in which the visible part of the latter completely
encircles the dark body of the moon; for this to happen, the centres of
the sun and moon, and the point on the earth where the observer is
situated, must be collinear. Certain nebulae having the form of a ring
are also called "annular."



ANNUNCIATION, the announcement made by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin
Mary of the incarnation of Christ (Luke i, 26-38). The Feast of the
Annunciation in the Christian Church is celebrated on the 25th of March.
The first authentic allusions to it are in a canon, of the council of
Toledo (656), and another of the council of Constantinople "in Trullo"
(692), forbidding the celebration of all festivals in Lent, excepting
the Lord's day and the Feast of the Annunciation. An earlier origin has
been claimed for it on the ground that it is mentioned in sermons of
Athanasius and of Gregory Thaumaturgus, but both of these documents are
now admitted to be spurious. A synod held at Worcester, England (1240),
forbade all servile work on this feast day. See further LADY DAY.



ANNUNZIO, GABRIELE D' (1863-   ), Italian novelist and poet, of
Dalmatian extraction, was born at Pescara (Abruzzi) in 1863. The first
years of his youth were spent in the freedom of the open fields; at
sixteen he was sent to school in Tuscany. While still at school he
published a small volume of verses called _Primo Vere_ (1879), in which,
side by side with some almost brutal imitations of Lorenzo Stecchetti,
the then fashionable poet of _Postuma_, were some translations from the
Latin, distinguished by such agile grace that Giuseppe Chiarini on
reading them brought the unknown youth before the public in an
enthusiastic article. The young poet then went to Rome, where he was
received as one of their own by the _Cronaca Bizantina_ group (see
CARDUCCI). Here he published _Canto Nuovo_ (1882), _Terra Vergine_
(1882), _L' Intermezzo di Rime_ (1883), _Il Libro delle Vergini_ (1884),
and the greater part of the short stories that were afterwards collected
under the general title of _San Pantaleone_ (1886). In _Canto Nuovo_ we
have admirable poems full of pulsating youth and the promise of power,
some descriptive of the sea and some of the Abruzzi landscape,
commented on and completed in prose by _Terra Vergine_, the latter a
collection of short stories dealing in radiant language with the peasant
life of the author's native province. With the _Intermezzo di Rime_ we
have the beginning of d'Annunzio's second and characteristic manner. His
conception of style was new, and he chose to express all the most subtle
vibrations of voluptuous life. Both style and contents began to startle
his critics; some who had greeted him as an _enfant prodige_--Chiarini
amongst others--rejected him as a perverter of public morals, whilst
others hailed him as one bringing a current of fresh air and the impulse
of a new vitality into the somewhat prim, lifeless work hitherto
produced.

Meanwhile the Review of Angelo Sommaruga perished in the midst of
scandal, and his group of young authors found itself dispersed. Some
entered the teaching career and were lost to literature, others threw
themselves into journalism. Gabriele d'Annunzio took this latter course,
and joined the staff of the _Tribuna_. For this paper, under the
pseudonym of "Duca Minimo," he did some of his most brilliant work, and
the articles he wrote during that period of originality and exuberance
would well repay being collected. To this period of greater maturity and
deeper culture belongs _Il Libro d' Isotta_ (1886), a love poem, in
which for the first time he drew inspiration adapted to modern
sentiments and passions from the rich colours of the Renaissance. _Il
Libro d' Isotta_ is interesting also, because in it we find most of the
germs of his future work, just as in _Intermezzo melico_ and in certain
ballads and sonnets we find descriptions and emotions which later went
to form the aesthetic contents of _Il Piacere_, _Il Trionfo della
Morte_, and _Elegie Romane_ (1892).

D' Annunzio's first novel _Il Piacere_ (1889)--translated into English
as _The Child of Pleasure_--was followed in 1891 by _L' Innocente_ (_The
Intruder_), and in 1892 by _Giovanni Episcopo_. These three novels
created a profound impression. _L' Innocente_, admirably translated into
French by Georges Herelle, brought its author the notice and applause of
foreign critics. His next work, _Il Trionfo della Morte_ (_The Triumph
of Death_) (1894), was followed at a short distance by _La Vergini della
Roccio_ (1896) and _Il Fuoco_ (1900), which in its descriptions of
Venice is perhaps the most ardent glorification of a city existing in
any language.

D' Annunzio's poetic work of this period, in most respects his finest,
is represented by _Il Poema Paradisiaco_ (1893), the _Odi Navali_
(1893), a superb attempt at civic poetry, and _Laudi_ (1900).

A later phase of d' Annunzio's work is his dramatic production,
represented by _Il Sogno di un mattino di primavera_ (1897), a lyrical
fantasia in one act; his _Cilia Morta_ (1898), written for Sarah
Bernhardt, which is certainly among the most daring and original of
modern tragedies, and the only one which by its unity, persistent
purpose, and sense of fate seems to continue in a measure the traditions
of the Greek theatre. In 1898 he wrote his _Sogno di un Pomeriggio d'
Autunno_ and _La Gioconda_; in the succeeding year _La Gloria_, an
attempt at contemporary political tragedy which met with no success,
probably through the audacity of the personal and political allusions in
some of its scenes; and then _Francesca da Rimini_ (1901), a perfect
reconstruction of medieval atmosphere and emotion, magnificent in style,
and declared by one of the most authoritative Italian critics--Edoardo
Boutet--to be the first real although not perfect tragedy which has ever
been given to the Italian theatre.

The work of d' Annunzio, although by many of the younger generation
injudiciously and extravagantly admired, is almost the most important
literary work given to Italy since the days when the great classics
welded her varying dialects into a fixed language. The psychological
inspiration of his novels has come to him from many sources--French,
Russian, Scandinavian, German--and in much of his earlier work there is
little fundamental originality. His creative power is intense and
searching, but narrow and personal; his heroes and heroines are little
more than one same type monotonously facing a different problem at a
different phase of life. But the faultlessness of his style and the
wealth of his language have been approached by none of his
contemporaries, whom his genius has somewhat paralysed. In his later
work, when he begins drawing his inspiration from the traditions of
bygone Italy in her glorious centuries, a current of real life seems to
run through the veins of his personages. And the lasting merit of
d'Annunzio, his real value to the literature of his country, consists
precisely in that he opened up the closed mine of its former life as a
source of inspiration for the present and of hope for the future, and
created a language, neither pompous nor vulgar, drawn from every source
and district suited to the requirements of modern thought, yet
absolutely classical, borrowed from none, and, independently of the
thought it may be used to express, a thing of intrinsic beauty. As his
sight became clearer and his purpose strengthened, as exaggerations,
affectations, and moods dropped away from his conceptions, his work
became more and more typical Latin work, upheld by the ideal of an
Italian Renaissance.



ANOA, the native name of the small wild buffalo of Celebes, _Bos_
(_Bubalus_) _depressicornis_, which stands but little over a yard at the
shoulder, and is the most diminutive of all wild cattle. It is nearly
allied to the larger Asiatic buffaloes, showing the same reversal of the
direction of the hair on the back. The horns are peculiar for their
upright direction and comparative straightness, although they have the
same triangular section as in other buffaloes. White spots are sometimes
present below the eyes, and there may be white markings on the legs and
back; and the absence or presence of these white markings may be
indicative of distinct races. The horns of the cows are very small. The
nearest allies of the anoa appear to be certain extinct buffaloes, of
which the remains are found in the Siwalik Hills of northern India. In
habits the animal appears to resemble the Indian buffalo.



ANODYNE (from Gr. [Greek: an-], privative, and [Greek: odunê], pain), a
cause which relieves pain. The term is commonly applied to medicines
which lessen the sensibility of the brain or nervous system, such as
morphia, &c.



ANOINTING, or greasing with oil, fat, or melted butter, a process
employed ritually in all religions and among all races, civilized or
savage, partly as a mode of ridding persons and things of dangerous
influences and diseases, especially of the demons (Persian _drug_, Greek
[Greek: kêres], Armenian _dev_) which are or cause those diseases; and
partly as a means of introducing into things and persons a sacramental
or divine influence, a holy emanation, spirit or power. The riddance of
an evil influence is often synonymous with the introduction of the good
principle, and therefore it is best to consider first the use of
anointing in consecrations.

The Australian natives believed that the virtues of one killed could be
transferred to survivors if the latter rubbed themselves with his
caul-fat. So the Arabs of East Africa anoint themselves with lion's fat
in order to gain courage and inspire the animals with awe of themselves.
Such rites are often associated with the actual eating of the victim
whose virtues are coveted. Human fat is a powerful charm all over the
world; for, as R. Smith points out, after the blood the fat was
peculiarly the vehicle and seat of life. This is why fat of a victim was
smeared on a sacred stone, not only in acts of homage paid to it, but in
the actual consecration thereof. In such cases the influence of the god,
communicated to the victim, passed with the unguent into the stone. But
the divinity could by anointing be transferred into men no less than
into stones; and from immemorial antiquity, among the Jews as among
other races, kings were anointed or greased, doubtless with the fat of
the victims which, like the blood, was too holy to be eaten by the
common votaries.

Butter made from the milk of the cow, the most sacred of animals, is
used for anointing in the Hindu religion. A newly-built house is smeared
with it, so are demoniacs, care being taken to smear the latter
downwards from head to foot.

In the Christian religion, especially where animal sacrifices, together
with the cult of totem or holy animals, have been given up, it is usual
to hallow the oil used in ritual anointings with special prayers and
exorcisms; oil from the lamps lit before the altar has a peculiar virtue
of its own, perhaps because it can be burned to give light, and
disappears to heaven in doing so. In any case oil has ever been regarded
as the aptest symbol and vehicle of the holy and illuminating spirit.
For this reason the catechumens are anointed with holy oil both before
and after baptism; the one act (of eastern origin) assists the expulsion
of the evil spirits, the other (of western origin), taken in conjunction
with imposition of hands, conveys the spirit and retains it in the
person of the baptized. In the postbaptismal anointing the oil was
applied to the organs of sense, to the head, heart, and midriff. Such
ritual use of oil as a [Greek: sfragis] or seal may have been suggested
in old religions by the practice of keeping wine fresh in jars and
amphorae by pouring on a top layer of oil; for the spoiling of wine was
attributed to the action of demons of corruption, against whom many
ancient formulae of aversion or exorcism still exist.

The holy oil, chrism, or [Greek: muron], as the Easterns call it, was
prepared and consecrated on Maundy Thursday, and in the Gelasian
sacramentary the formula used runs thus: "Send forth, O Lord, we beseech
thee, thy Holy Spirit the Paraclete from heaven into this fatness of
oil, which thou hast deigned to bring forth out of the green wood for
the refreshing of mind and body; and through thy holy benediction may it
be for all who anoint with it, taste it, touch it, a safeguard of mind
and body, of soul and spirit, for the expulsion of all pains, of every
infirmity, of every sickness of mind and body. For with the same thou
hast anointed priests, kings, and prophets and martyrs with this thy
chrism, perfected by thee, O Lord, blessed, abiding within our bowels in
the name of our Lord Jesus Christ."

In various churches the dead are anointed with holy oil, to guard them
against the vampires or ghouls which ever threaten to take possession of
dead bodies and live in them. In the Armenian church, as formerly in
many Greek churches, a cross is not holy until the Spirit has been
formally led into it by means of prayer and anointing with holy oil. A
new church is anointed at its four corners, and also the altar round
which it is built; similarly tombs, church gongs, and all other
instruments and utensils dedicated to cultual uses. In churches of the
Greek rite a little of the old year's chrism is left in the jar to
communicate its sanctity to that of the new.     (F. C. C.)



ANOMALY (from Gr. [Greek: anomalia], unevenness, derived from [Greek:
an-], privative, and [Greek: homalos], even), a deviation from the
common rule. In astronomy the word denotes the angular distance of a
body from the pericentre of the orbit in which it is moving. Let AB be
the major axis of the orbit, B the pericentre, F the focus or centre of
motion, P the position of the body. The anomaly is then the angle BFP
which the radius vector makes with the major axis. This is the actual or
_true anomaly_. _Mean anomaly_ is the anomaly which the body would have
if it moved from the pericentre around F with a uniform angular motion
such that its revolution would be completed in its actual time (see
ORBIT). _Eccentric anomaly_ is defined thus:--Draw the circumscribing
circle of the elliptic orbit around the centre C of the orbit. Drop the
perpendicular RPQ through P, the position of the planet, upon the major
axis. Join CR; the angle CRQ is then the eccentric anomaly.

[Illustration]

In the ancient astronomy the anomaly was taken as the angular distance
of the planet from the point of the farthest recession from the earth.

_Kepler's Problem_, namely, that of finding the co-ordinates of a planet
at a given time, which is equivalent--given the mean anomaly--to that of
determining the true anomaly, was solved approximately by Kepler, and
more completely by Wallis, Newton and others.

The anomalistic revolution of a planet or other heavenly body is the
revolution between two consecutive passages through the pericentre.
Starting from the pericentre, it is completed on the return to the
pericentre. If the pericentre is fixed, this is an actual revolution;
but if it moves the anomalistic revolution is greater or less than a
complete circumference.

An _Anomalistic year_ is the time (365 days, 6 hours, 13 minutes, 48
seconds) in which the earth (and similarly for any other planet) passes
from perihelion to perihelion, or from any given value of the anomaly to
the same again. Owing to the precession of the equinoxes it is longer
than a tropical or sidereal year by 25 minutes and 2.3 seconds. An
_Anomalistic month_ is the time in which the moon passes from perigee to
perigee, &c.

  For the mathematics of Kepler's problem see E.W. Brown, _Lunar Theory_
  (Cambridge 1896), or the work of Watson or of Bauschinger on
  Theoretical Astronomy.



ANORTHITE, an important mineral of the felspar group, being one of the
end members of the plagioclase (q.v.) series. It is a calcium and
aluminium silicate, CaAl2Si2O3, and crystallizes in the anorthic system.
Like all the felspars, it possesses two cleavages, one perfect and the
other less so, here inclined to one another at an angle of 85° 50'. The
colour is white, greyish or reddish, and the crystals are transparent to
translucent. The hardness is 6-6½, and the specific gravity 2.75.

[Illustration: Anorthite]

Anorthite is an essential constituent of many basic igneous rocks, such
as gabbro and basalt, also of some meteoric stones. The best developed
crystals are those which accompany mica, augite, sanidine, &c., in the
ejected blocks of metamorphosed limestone from Monte Somma, the ancient
portion of Mount Vesuvius; these are perfectly colourless and
transparent, and are bounded by numerous brilliant faces. Distinctly
developed crystals are also met with in the basalts of Japan, but are
usually rare at other localities.

The name anorthite was given to the Vesuvian mineral by G. Rose in 1823,
on account of its anorthic crystallization. The species had, however,
been earlier described by the comte de Bournon under the name indianite,
this name being applied to a greyish or reddish granular mineral forming
the matrix of corundum from the Carnatic in India. Several unimportant
varieties have been distinguished.     (L. J. S.)



ANQUETIL, LOUIS PIERRE (1723-1808), French historian, was born in Paris,
on the 21st of February 1723. He entered the congregation of
Sainte-Geneviève, where he took holy orders and became professor of
theology and literature. Later, he became director of the seminary at
Reims, where he wrote his _Histoire civile et politique de Reims_ (3
vols., 1756-1757), perhaps his best work. He was then director of the
college of Senlis, where he composed his _Esprit de la Ligue ou histoire
politique des troubles de la Fronde pendant le XVI^e et le XVII^e
siècles_ (1767). During the Reign of Terror he was imprisoned at St
Lazare; there he began his _Précis de l'histoire universelle_,
afterwards published in nine volumes. On the establishment of the
national institute he was elected a member of the second group (moral
and political sciences), and was soon afterwards employed in the office
of the ministry of foreign affairs, profiting by his experience to write
his _Motifs des guerres et des traités de paix sous Louis XIV., Louis
XV, et Louis XVI._ He is said to have been asked by Napoleon to write
his _Histoire de France_ (14 vols., 1805), a mediocre compilation at
second or third hand, with the assistance of de Mézeray and of Paul
François Velly (1709-1759). This work, nevertheless, passed through
numerous editions, and by it his name is remembered. He died on the 6th
of September 1808.



ANQUETIL, DUPERRON, ABRAHAM HYACINTHE (1731-1805), French orientalist,
brother of Louis Pierre Anquetil, the historian, was born in Paris on
the 7th of December 1731. He was educated for the priesthood in Paris
and Utrecht, but his taste for Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, and other
languages of the East developed into a passion, and he discontinued his
theological course to devote himself entirely to them. His diligent
attendance at the Royal Library attracted the attention of the keeper of
the manuscripts, the Abbé Sallier, whose influence procured for him a
small salary as student of the oriental languages. He had lighted on
some fragments of the _Vendidad Sade_, and formed the project of a
voyage to India to discover the works of Zoroaster. With this end in
view he enlisted as a private soldier, on the 2nd of November 1754, in
the Indian expedition which was about to start from the port of
L'Orient. His friends procured his discharge, and he was granted a free
passage, a seat at the captain's table, and a salary, the amount of
which was to be fixed by the governor of the French settlement in India.
After a passage of six months, Anquetil landed, on the 10th of August
1755, at Pondicherry. Here he remained a short time to master modern
Persian, and then hastened to Chandernagore to acquire Sanskrit. Just
then war was declared between France and England; Chandernagore was
taken, and Anquetil returned to Pondicherry by land. He found one of his
brothers at Pondicherry, and embarked with him for Surat; but, with a
view of exploring the country, he landed at Mahé and proceeded on foot.
At Surat he succeeded, by perseverance and address in his intercourse
with the native priests, in acquiring a sufficient knowledge of the Zend
and Pahlavi languages to translate the liturgy called the _Vendidad
Sade_ and some other works. Thence he proposed going to Benares, to
study the language, antiquities, and sacred laws of the Hindus; but the
capture of Pondicherry obliged him to quit India. Returning to Europe in
an English vessel, he spent some time in London and Oxford, and then set
out for France. He arrived in Paris on the 14th of March 1762 in
possession of one hundred and eighty oriental manuscripts, besides other
curiosities. The Abbé Barthélemy procured for him a pension, with the
appointment of interpreter of oriental languages at the Royal Library.
In 1763 he was elected an associate of the Academy of Inscriptions, and
began to arrange for the publication of the materials he had collected
during his eastern travels. In 1771 he published his _Zend-Avesta_ (3
vols.), containing collections from the sacred writings of the
fire-worshippers, a life of Zoroaster, and fragments of works ascribed
to him. In 1778 he published at Amsterdam his _Législation orientate_,
in which he endeavoured to prove that the nature of oriental despotism
had been greatly misrepresented. His _Recherches historiques et
géographiques sur l'Inde_ appeared in 1786, and formed part of
Thieffenthaler's _Geography of India_. The Revolution seems to have
greatly affected him. During that period he abandoned society, and lived
in voluntary poverty on a few pence a day. In 1798 he published _L'Inde
en rapport avec l'Europe_ (Hamburg, 2 vols.), which contained much
invective against the English, and numerous misrepresentations. In
1802-1804 he published a Latin translation (2 vols.) from the Persian of
the _Oupnek'hat_ or _Upanishada_. It is a curious mixture of Latin,
Greek, Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit. He died in Paris on the 17th of
January 1805.

  See _Biographie universelle_; Sir William Jones, _Works_ (vol. x.,
  1807); and the _Miscellanies_ of the Philobiblon Society (vol. iii.,
  1856-1857). For a list of his scattered writings see Quérard, _La
  France littéraire_.



ANSA (from Lat. _ansa_, a handle), in astronomy, one of the apparent
ends of the rings of Saturn as seen in perspective from the earth:
so-called because, in the earlier telescopes, they looked like handles
projecting from the planet. In anatomy the word is applied to nervous
structures which resemble loops. In archaeology it is used for the
engraved and ornamented handle of a vase, which has often survived when
the vase itself, being less durable, has disappeared.



ANSBACH, or ANSPACH, originally _Onolzbach_, a town of Germany, in the
kingdom of Bavaria, on the Rezat, 27 m. by rail S.W. of Nuremberg, and
90 m. N. of Munich. Pop. (1900) 17,555. It contains a palace, once the
residence of the margraves of Anspach, with fine gardens, several
churches, the finest of which are those dedicated to St John, containing
the vault of the former margraves, and St Gumbert; a gymnasium; a
picture gallery; a municipal museum and a special technical school.
Ansbach possesses monuments to the poets August, Count von
Platen-Hallermund, and Johann Peter Uz, who were born here, and to
Kaspar Hauser, who died here. The chief manufactures are machinery,
toys, woollen, cotton, and half-silk stuffs, embroideries, earthenware,
tobacco, cutlery and playing cards. There is considerable trade in
grain, wool and flax. In 1791 the last margrave of Anspach sold his
principality to Frederick William II., king of Prussia; it was
transferred by Napoleon to Bavaria in 1806, an act which was confirmed
by the congress of Vienna in 1815.



ANSDELL, RICHARD (1815-1885), English painter, was born in Liverpool,
and first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1840. He was a painter of
genre, chiefly animal and sporting pictures, and he became very popular,
being elected A.R.A. in 1861 and R.A. in 1870. His "Stag at Bay" (1846),
"The Combat" (1847), and "Battle of the Standard" (1848), represent his
best work, in which he showed himself a notable follower of Landseer.



ANSELM (c. 1033-1109), archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Aosta in
Piedmont. His family was accounted noble, and was possessed of
considerable property. Gundulph, his father, was by birth a Lombard, and
seems to have been a man of harsh and violent temper; his mother,
Ermenberga, was a prudent and virtuous woman, from whose careful
religious training the young Anselm derived much benefit. At the age of
fifteen he desired to enter a convent, but he could not obtain his
father's consent. Disappointment brought on an illness, on his recovery
from which he seems for a time to have given up his studies, and to have
plunged into the gay life of the world. During this time his mother
died, and his father's harshness became unbearable. He left home, and
with only one attendant crossed the Alps, and wandered through Burgundy
and France. Attracted by the fame of his countryman, Lanfranc, then
prior of Bec, he entered Normandy, and, after spending some time at
Avranches, settled at the monastery of Bec. There, at the age of
twenty-seven, he became a monk; three years later, when Lanfranc was
promoted to the abbacy of Caen, he was elected prior. This office he
held for fifteen years, and then, in 1078, on the death of Herlwin, the
warrior monk who had founded the monastery, he was made abbot. Under his
rule Bec became the first seat of learning in Europe, a result due not
more to his intellectual powers than to the great moral influence of his
noble character and kindly discipline. It was during these quiet years
at Bec that Anselm wrote his first philosophical and religious works,
the dialogues on Truth and Freewill, and the two celebrated treatises,
the _Monologion_ and _Proslogion_.

Meanwhile the convent had been growing in wealth, as well as in
reputation, and had acquired considerable property in England, which it
became the duty of Anselm occasionally to visit. By his mildness of
temper and unswerving rectitude, he so endeared himself to the English
that he was looked upon and desired as the natural successor to
Lanfranc, then archbishop of Canterbury. But on the death of that great
man, the ruling sovereign, William Rufus, seized the possessions and
revenues of the see, and made no new appointment. About four years
after, in 1092, on the invitation of Hugh, earl of Chester, Anselm with
some reluctance, for he feared to be made archbishop, crossed to
England. He was detained by business for nearly four months, and when
about to return, was refused permission by the king. In the following
year William fell ill, and thought his death was at hand. Eager to make
atonement for his sin with regard to the archbishopric, he nominated
Anselm to the vacant see, and after a great struggle compelled him to
accept the pastoral staff of office. After obtaining dispensation from
his duties in Normandy, Anselm was consecrated in 1093. He demanded of
the king, as the conditions of his retaining office, that he should give
up all the possessions of the see, accept his spiritual counsel, and
acknowledge Urban as pope in opposition to the anti-pope, Clement. He
only obtained a partial consent to the first of these, and the last
involved him in a serious difficulty with the king. It was a rule of the
church that the consecration of metropolitans could not be completed
without their receiving the _pallium_ from the hands of the pope.
Anselm, accordingly, insisted that he must proceed to Rome to receive
the pall. But William would not permit this; he had not acknowledged
Urban, and he maintained his right to prevent any pope being
acknowledged by an English subject without his permission. A great
council of churchmen and nobles, held to settle the matter, advised
Anselm to submit to the king, but failed to overcome his mild and
patient firmness. The matter was postponed, and William meanwhile
privately sent messengers to Rome, who acknowledged Urban and prevailed
on him to send a legate to the king bearing the archiepiscopal pall. A
partial reconciliation was then effected, and the matter of the pall was
compromised. It was not given by the king, but was laid on the altar at
Canterbury, whence Anselm took it.

Little more than a year after, fresh trouble arose with the king, and
Anselm resolved to proceed to Rome and seek the counsel of his spiritual
father. With great difficulty he obtained a reluctant permission to
leave, and in October 1097 he set out for Rome. William immediately
seized on the revenues of the see, and retained them to his death.
Anselm was received with high honour by Urban, and at a great council
held at Bari, he was put forward to defend the doctrine of the
procession of the Holy Ghost against the representatives of the Greek
Church. But Urban was too politic to embroil himself with the king of
England, and Anselm found that he could obtain no substantial result. He
withdrew from Rome, and spent some time at the little village of
Schiavi, where he finished his treatise on the atonement, _Cur Deus
homo_, and then retired to Lyons.

In 1100 William was killed, and Henry, his successor, at once recalled
Anselm. But Henry demanded that he should again receive from him in
person investiture in his office of archbishop, thus making the dignity
entirely dependent on the royal authority. Now, the papal rule in the
matter was plain; all homage and lay investiture were strictly
prohibited. Anselm represented this to the king; but Henry would not
relinquish a privilege possessed by his predecessors, and proposed that
the matter should be laid before the Holy See. The answer of the pope
reaffirmed the law as to investiture. A second embassy was sent, with a
similar result. Henry, however, remained firm, and at last, in 1103,
Anselm and an envoy from the king set out for Rome. The pope, Paschal,
reaffirmed strongly the rule of investiture, and passed sentence of
excommunication against all who had infringed the law, except Henry.
Practically this left matters as they were, and Anselm, who had received
a message forbidding him to return to England unless on the king's
terms, withdrew to Lyons, where he waited to see if Paschal would not
take stronger measures. At last, in 1105, he resolved himself to
excommunicate Henry. His intention was made known to the king through
his sister, and it seriously alarmed him, for it was a critical period
in his affairs. A meeting was arranged, and a reconciliation between
them effected. In 1106 Anselm crossed to England, with power from the
pope to remove the sentence of excommunication from the illegally
invested churchmen. In 1107 the long dispute as to investiture was
finally ended by the king resigning his formal rights. The remaining two
years of Anselm's life were spent in the duties of his archbishopric. He
died on the 21st of April 1109. He was canonized in 1494 by Alexander
VI.

Anselm may, with some justice, be considered the first scholastic
philosopher and theologian. His only great predecessor, Scotus Erigena,
had more of the speculative and mystical element than is consistent with
a schoolman; but in Anselm are found that recognition of the relation of
reason to revealed truth, and that attempt to elaborate a rational
system of faith, which form the special characteristics of scholastic
thought. His constant endeavour is to render the contents of the
Christian consciousness clear to reason, and to develop the intelligible
truths interwoven with the Christian belief. The necessary preliminary
for this is the possession of the Christian consciousness. "He who does
not believe will not experience; and he who has not experienced will not
understand." That faith must precede knowledge is reiterated by him.
_"Negue enim quaero intelligere ut credam, sed credo ut intelligam. Nam
et hoc credo, quia, nisi credidero, non intelligam."_ ("Nor do I seek to
understand that I may believe, but I believe that I may understand. For
this too I believe, that unless I first believe, I shall not
understand.") But after the faith is held fast, the attempt must be made
to demonstrate by reason the truth of what we believe. It is wrong not
to do so. _"Negligentiae mihi esse videtur, si, postquam confirmati
sumus in fide, non studemus quod credimus, intelligere."_ ("I hold it to
be a failure in duty if after we have become steadfast in the faith we
do not strive to understand what we believe.") To such an extent does he
carry this demand for rational explanation that, at times, it seems as
if he claimed for unassisted intelligence the power of penetrating even
to the mysteries of the Christian faith. On the whole, however, the
qualified statement is his real view; merely rational proofs are always,
he affirms, to be tested by Scripture. (_Cur Deus homo_, i. 2 and 38;
_De Fide Trin_. 2.)

The groundwork of his theory of knowledge is contained in the tract _De
Veritate_, in which, from the consideration of truth as in knowledge, in
willing, and in things, he rises to the affirmation of an absolute
truth, in which all other truth participates. This absolute truth is God
himself, who is therefore the ultimate ground or principle both of
things and of thought. The notion of God comes thus into the foreground
of the system; before all things it is necessary that it should be made
clear to reason, that it should be demonstrated to have real existence.
This demonstration is the substance of the _Monologion_ and
_Proslogion_. In the first of these the proof rests on the ordinary
grounds of realism, and coincides to some extent with the earlier theory
of Augustine, though it is carried out with singular boldness and
fulness. Things, he says, are called good in a variety of ways and
degrees; this would be impossible if there were not some absolute
standard, some good in itself, in which all relative goods participate.
Similarly with such predicates as great, just; they involve a certain
greatness and justice. The very existence of things is impossible
without some one Being, by whom they are. This absolute Being, this
goodness, justice, greatness, is God. Anselm was not thoroughly
satisfied with this reasoning; it started from _a posteriori grounds_,
and contained several converging lines of proof. He desired to have some
one short demonstration. Such a demonstration he presented in the
_Proslogion_; it is his celebrated ontological proof. God is that being
than whom none greater can be conceived. Now, if that than which nothing
greater can be conceived existed only in the intellect, it would not be
the absolutely greatest, for we could add to it existence in reality. It
follows, then, that the being than whom nothing greater can be
conceived, i.e. God, necessarily has real existence. This reasoning, in
which Anselm partially anticipated the Cartesian philosophers, has
rarely seemed satisfactory. It was opposed at the time by the monk
Gaunilo, in his _Liber pro Insipiente_, on the ground that we cannot
pass from idea to reality. The same criticism is made by several of the
later schoolmen, among others by Aquinas, and is in substance what Kant
advances against all ontological proof. Anselm replied to the objections
of Gaunilo in his _Liber Apologeticus_. The existence of God being thus
held proved, he proceeds to state the rational grounds of the Christian
doctrines of creation and of the Trinity. With reference to this last,
he says we cannot know God from himself, but only after the analogy of
his creatures; and the special analogy used is the self-consciousness of
man, its peculiar double nature, with the necessary elements, memory and
intelligence, representing the relation of the Father to the Son. The
mutual love of these two, proceeding from the relation they hold to one
another, symbolizes the Holy Spirit. The further theological doctrines
of man, original sin, free will, are developed, partly in the
_Monologion_, partly in other mixed treatises. Finally, in his greatest
work, _Cur Deus homo_, he undertakes to make plain, even to infidels,
the rational necessity of the Christian mystery of the atonement. The
theory rests on three positions: that satisfaction is necessary on
account of God's honour and justice; that such satisfaction can be given
only by the peculiar personality of the God-man; that such satisfaction
is really given by the voluntary death of this infinitely valuable
person. The demonstration is, in brief, this. All the actions of men are
due to the furtherance of God's glory; if, then, there be sin, i.e. if
God's honour be wounded, man of himself can give no satisfaction. But
the justice of God demands satisfaction; and as an insult to infinite
honour is in itself infinite, the satisfaction must be infinite, i.e. it
must outweigh all that is not God. Such a penalty can only be paid by
God himself, and, as a penalty for man, must be paid under the form of
man. Satisfaction is only possible through the God-man. Now this
God-man, as sinless, is exempt from the punishment of sin; His passion
is therefore voluntary, not given as due. The merit of it is therefore
infinite; God's justice is thus appeased, and His mercy may extend to
man. This theory has exercised immense influence on the form of church
doctrine. It is certainly an advance on the older patristic theory, in
so far as it substitutes for a contest between God and Satan, a contest
between the goodness and justice of God; but it puts the whole relation
on a merely legal footing, gives it no ethical bearing, and neglects
altogether the consciousness of the individual to be redeemed. In this
respect it contrasts unfavourably with the later theory of Abelard.

Anselm's speculations did not receive, in the middle ages, the respect
and attention justly their due. This was probably due to their
unsystematic character, for they are generally tracts or dialogues on
detached questions, not elaborate treatises like the great works of
Albert, Aquinas, and Erigena. They have, however, a freshness and
philosophical vigour, which more than makes up for their want of system,
and which raises them far above the level of most scholastic writings.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The main sources for the history of St Anselm and his
  times are Eadmer's _Vita Anselmi_ and his _Historia Novorum_, edited
  by M. Rule in _Rolls Series_ (London, 1884); the best modern work is
  by Père Ragey, _Histoire de Saint Anselme_ (Paris, 1890), and _Saint
  Anselme professeur_ (Paris, 1890). Other appreciations are by A.
  Mohler, _Anselm Erzbischof von Canterbury_ (Regensburg, 1839; Eng.
  trans. by H. Rymer, London, 1842); F.R. Hasse, _Anselm von Canterbury_
  (2 vols., Leipzig, 1842-1853); C. de Rémusat, _S. Anseime de
  Cantorbéry_ (Paris, 1853, new ed. 1868); R.W. Church, _St Anselm_,
  first published in _Sunday Library_ (London, 1870; often reprinted);
  Martin Rule, _Life and Times of St Anselm_ (London, 1883).

  _Works_: The best edition of St Anselm's complete works is that of
  Dom Gerberon (Paris, 1675); reprinted with many notes in 1712;
  incorporated by J. Migne in his _Patrologia Latina_, tomi
  clviii.-clix. (Paris. 1853-1854). Migne's reprint contains many
  errors. The _Cur Deus homo_ may be best studied in the editions
  published by D. Nutt (London, 1885) and by Griffith (1898). The
  _Mariale_, or poems in honour of the Blessed Virgin, has been
  carefully edited by P. Ragey (Tournai, 1885); the _Monologion_ and
  _Proslogion_, by C.E. Ubaghs (Louvain, 1854; Eng. trans. by S.N.
  Deane, Chicago, 1903); the _Meditationes_, many of which are wrongly
  attributed to Anselm, have been frequently reprinted, and were
  included in Methuen's _Library of Devotion_ (London, 1903).

  The best criticism of Anselm's philosophical works is by J.M. Rigg
  (London, 1896), and Domet de Verges (_Grands Philosophes_ series,
  Paris, 1901). For a complete bibliography, see A. Vacant's
  _Dictionnaire de théologie_.



ANSELM, of Laon (d. 1117), French theologian, was born of very humble
parents at Laon before the middle of the 11th century. He is said to
have studied under St Anselm at Bec. About 1076 he taught with great
success at Paris, where, as the associate of William of Champeaux, he
upheld the realistic side of the scholastic controversy. Later he
removed to his native place, where his school for theology and exegetics
rapidly became the most famous in Europe. He died in 1117. His greatest
work, an interlinear gloss on the Scriptures, was one of the great
authorities of the middle ages. It has been frequently reprinted. Other
commentaries apparently by him have been ascribed to various writers,
principally to the great Anselm. A list of them, with notice of Anselm's
life, is contained in the _Histoire littéraire de la France_, x.
170-189.

  The works are collected in Migne's _Patrologia Latina_, tome 162; some
  unpublished _Sententiae_ were edited by G. Lefèvre (Milan, 1894), on
  which see Hauréau in the _Journal des savants_ for 1895.



ANSELME (Father Anselme of the Virgin Mary) (1625-1694), French
genealogist, was born in Paris in 1625. As a layman his name was Pierre
Guibours. He entered the order of the barefooted Augustinians on the
31st of March 1644, and it was in their monastery (called the Couvent
des Petits Pères, near the church of Notre-Dame des Victoires) that he
died, on the 17th of January 1694. He devoted his entire life to
genealogical studies. In 1663 he published _Le Palais de l'honneur_,
which besides giving the genealogy of the houses of Lorraine and Savoy,
is a complete treatise on heraldry, and in 1664 _Le Palais de la
gloire_, dealing with the genealogy of various illustrious French and
European families. These books made friends for him, the most intimate
among whom, Honoré Caille, seigneur du Fourny (1630-1713), persuaded him
to publish his _Histoire généalogique de la maison royale de France, et
des grands officiers de la couronne_ (1674, 2 vols. 4); after Father
Anselme's death, Honoré Caille collected his papers, and brought out a
new edition of this highly important work in 1712. The task was taken up
and continued by two other friars of the Couvent des Petits Pères,
Father Ange de Sainte-Rosalie (François Raffard, 1655-1726), and Father
Simplicien (Paul Lucas, 1683-1759), who published the first and second
volumes of the third edition in 1726. This edition consists of nine
volumes folio; it is a genealogical and chronological history of the
royal house of France, of the peers, of the great officers of the crown
and of the king's household, and of the ancient barons of the kingdom.
The notes were generally compiled from original documents, references to
which are usually given, so that they remain useful to the present day.
The work of Father Anselme, his collaborators and successors, is even
more important for the history of France than is Dugdale's _Baronage of
England_ for the history of England.     (C. B.*)



ANSON, GEORGE ANSON, BARON (1697-1762), British admiral, was born on the
23rd of April 1697. He was the son of William Anson of Shugborough in
Staffordshire, and his wife Isabella Carrier, who was the sister-in-law
of Lord Chancellor Macclesfield, a relationship which proved very useful
to the future admiral. George Anson entered the navy in February 1712,
and by rapid steps became lieutenant in 1716, commander in 1722, and
post-captain in 1724. In this rank he served twice on the North American
station as captain of the "Scarborough" and the "Squirrel" from 1724 to
1730 and from 1733 to 1735. In 1737 he was appointed to the "Centurion,"
60, on the eve of war with Spain, and when hostilities had begun he was
chosen to command as commodore the squadron which was sent to attack her
possessions in South America in 1740. The original scheme was ambitious,
and was not carried out. Anson's squadron, which sailed later than had
been intended, and was very ill-fitted, consisted of six ships, which
were reduced by successive disasters to his flagship the "Centurion."
The lateness of the season forced him to round Cape Horn in very stormy
weather, and the navigating instruments of the time did not allow of
exact observation. Two of his vessels failed to round the Horn, another,
the "Wager," was wrecked in the Golfo de Pañas on the coast of Chile. By
the time Anson reached the island of Juan Fernandez in June 1741, his
six ships had been reduced to three, while the strength of his crews had
fallen from 961 to 335. In the absence of any effective Spanish force on
the coast he was able to harass the enemy, and to capture the town of
Paita on the 13th-15th of November 1741. The steady diminution of his
crew by sickness, and the worn-out state of his remaining consorts,
compelled him at last to collect all the survivors in the "Centurion."
He rested at the island of Tinian, and then made his way to Macao in
November 1742. After considerable difficulties with the Chinese, he
sailed again with his one remaining vessel to cruise for one of the
richly laden galleons which conducted the trade between Mexico and the
Philippines. The indomitable perseverance he had shown during one of the
most arduous voyages in the history of sea adventure was rewarded by the
capture of an immensely rich prize, the "Nuestra Señora de Covadonga,"
which was met off Cape Espiritu Santo on the 20th of June 1743. Anson
took his prize back to Macao, sold her cargo to the Chinese, keeping the
specie, and sailed for England, which he reached by the Cape of Good
Hope on the 15th of June 1744. The prize-money earned by the capture of
the galleon had made him a rich man for life, and under the influence of
irritation caused by the refusal of the admiralty to confirm a
captain's commission he had given to one of his officers, Anson refused
the rank of rear-admiral, and was prepared to leave the service. His
fame would stand nearly as high as it does if he had done so, but he
would be a far less important figure in the history of the navy. By the
world at large he is known as the commander of the voyage of
circumnavigation, in which success was won by indomitable perseverance,
unshaken firmness, and infinite resource. But he was also the severe and
capable administrator who during years of hard work at the admiralty did
more than any other to raise the navy from the state of corruption and
indiscipline into which it had fallen during the first half of the
eighteenth century. Great anger had been caused in the country by the
condition of the fleet as revealed in the first part of the war with
France and Spain, between 1739 and 1747. The need for reform was
strongly felt, and the politicians of the day were conscious that it
would not be safe to neglect the popular demand for it. In 1745 the duke
of Bedford, the new first lord, invited Anson to join the admiralty with
the rank of rear-admiral of the white. As subordinate under the duke, or
Lord Sandwich, and as first lord himself, Anson was at the admiralty
with one short break from 1745 till his death in 1762. His chiefs in the
earlier years left him to take the initiative in all measures of reform,
and supported him in their own interest. After 1751 he was himself first
lord, except for a short time in 1756 and 1757. At his suggestion, or
with his advice, the naval administration was thoroughly overhauled. The
dockyards were brought into far better order, and though corruption was
not banished, it was much reduced. The navy board was compelled to
render accounts, a duty it had long neglected. A system of regulating
promotion to flag rank, which has been in the main followed ever since,
was introduced. The Navy Discipline Act was revised in 1749, and
remained unaltered till 1865. Courts martial were put on a sound
footing. Inspections of the fleet and the dockyards were established,
and the corps of Marines was created in 1755. The progressive
improvement which raised the navy to the high state of efficiency it
attained in later years dates from Anson's presence at the admiralty. In
1747 he, without ceasing to be a member of the board, commanded the
Channel fleet which on the 3rd of May scattered a large French convoy
bound to the East, and West Indies, in an action off Cape Finisterre.
Several men-of-war and armed French Indiamen were taken, but the
overwhelming superiority of Anson's fleet (fourteen men-of-war, to six
men-of-war and four Indiamen) in the number and weight of ships deprives
the action of any strong claim to be considered remarkable. In society
Anson seems to have been cold and taciturn. The sneers of Horace
Walpole, and the savage attack of Smollett in _The Adventures of an
Atom_, are animated by personal or political spite. Yet they would not
have accused him of defects from which he was notoriously free. In
political life he may sometimes have given too ready assent to the
wishes of powerful politicians. He married the daughter of Lord
Chancellor Hardwicke on the 27th of April 1748. There were no children
of the marriage. His title of Baron Anson of Soberton was given him in
1747, but became extinct on his death. The title of Viscount Anson was,
however, created in 1806 in favour of his great-nephew, the grandson of
his sister Janetta and Mr Sambrook Adams, whose father had assumed the
name and arms of Anson. The earldom of Lichfield was conferred on the
family in the next generation. A fine portrait of the admiral by
Reynolds is in the possession of the earl of Lichfield, and there are
copies in the National Portrait Gallery and at Greenwich. Anson's
promotions in flag rank were: rear-admiral in 1745, vice-admiral in
1746, and admiral in 1748. In 1749 he became vice-admiral of Great
Britain, and in 1761 admiral of the fleet. He died on the 6th of June
1762.

  A life of Lord Anson, inaccurate in some details but valuable and
  interesting, was published by Sir John Barrow in 1839. The standard
  account of his voyage round the world is that by his chaplain Richard
  Walter, 1748, often reprinted. A share in the work has been claimed on
  dubious grounds for Benjamin Robins, the mathematician. Another and
  much inferior account was published in 1745 by Pascoe Thomas, the
  schoolmaster of the "Centurion."     (D. H.)



ANSON, SIR WILLIAM REYNELL, BART. (1843-   ), English jurist, was born
on the 14th of November 1843, at Walberton, Sussex, son of the second
baronet. Educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, he took a first
class in the final classical schools in 1866, and was elected to a
fellowship of All Souls in the following year. In 1869 he was called to
the bar, and went the home circuit until 1873, when he succeeded to the
baronetcy. In 1874 he became Vinerian reader in English law at Oxford, a
post which he held until he became, in 1881, warden of All Souls
College. He identified himself both with local and university interests;
he became an alderman of the city of Oxford in 1892, chairman of quarter
sessions for the county in 1894, was vice-chancellor of the university
in 1898-1899, and chancellor of the diocese of Oxford in 1899. In that
year he was returned, without opposition, as M.P. for the university in
the Liberal Unionist interest, and consequently resigned the
vice-chancellorship. In parliament he preserved an active interest in
education, being a member of the newly created consultative committee of
the Board of Education in 1900, and in 1902 he became parliamentary
secretary. He took an active part in the foundation of a school of law
at Oxford, and his volumes on _The Principles of the English Law of
Contract_, (1884, 11th ed. 1906), and on _The Law and Custom of the
Constitution_ in two parts, "The Parliament" and "The Crown" (1886-1892.
3rd ed. 1907, pt. i. vol. ii.), are standard works.



ANSONIA, a city of New Haven county, Connecticut, U.S.A., coextensive
with the township of the same name, on the Naugatuck river, immediately
N. of Derby and about 12 m. N.W. of New Haven. It is served by the New
York, New Haven & Hartford railway, and by interurban electric lines
running N., S. and E. Pop. (1900) 12,681, of whom 4296 were foreign
born; (1910 census) 13,152. Land area about 5.4 sq. m. The city has
extensive manufactures of heavy machinery, electric supplies, brass and
copper products and silk goods. In 1905 the capital invested in
manufacturing was $7,625,864, and the value of the products was
$19,132,455. Ansonia, Derby and Shelton form one of the most important
industrial communities in the state. The city, settled in 1840 and named
in honour of the merchant and philanthropist, Anson Green Phelps
(1781-1853), was originally a part of the township of Derby; it was
chartered as a borough in 1864 and as a city in 1893, when the township
of Ansonia, which had been incorporated in 1889, and the city were
consolidated.



ANSTED, DAVID THOMAS (1814-1880), English geologist, was born in London
on the 5th of February 1814. He was educated at Jesus College,
Cambridge, and after taking his degree of M.A. in 1839 was elected to a
fellowship of the college. Inspired by the teachings of Adam Sedgwick,
his attention was given to geology, and in 1840 he was elected professor
of geology in King's College, London, a post which he held until 1853.
Meanwhile he became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1844, and from that
date until 1847 he was vice-secretary of the Geological Society and
edited its Quarterly Journal. The practical side of geology now came to
occupy his chief attention, and he visited various parts of Europe and
the British Islands as a consulting geologist and mining engineer. He
was also in 1868 and for many years examiner in physical geography to
the science and art department. He died at Melton near Woodbridge, on
the 13th of May 1880.

  PUBLICATIONS.--_Geology, Introductory, Descriptive and Practical_ (2
  vols., 1844); _The Ionian Islands_ (1863); _The Applications of
  Geology to the Arts and Manufactures_ (1865); _Physical Geography_
  (1867); _Water and Water Supply_ (Surface Water) (1878); and _The
  Channel Islands_ (with R.G. Latham) (1862).



ANSTEY, CHRISTOPHER (1724-1805), English poet, was the son of the rector
of Brinkley, Cambridgeshire, where he was born on the 31st of October
1724. He was educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge, where he
distinguished himself for his Latin verses. He became a fellow of his
college (1745); but the degree of M.A. was withheld from him, owing to
the offence caused by a speech made by him beginning: "Doctores sine
doctrina, magistri artium sine artibus, et baccalaurei baculo potius
quam lauro digni." In 1754 he succeeded to the family estates and left
Cambridge; and two years later he married the daughter of Felix Calvert
of Albury Hall, Herts. For some time Anstey published nothing of any
note, though he cultivated letters as well as his estates. Some visits
to Bath, however, where later, in 1770, he made his permanent home,
resulted in 1766 in his famous rhymed letters, _The New Bath Guide_ or
_Memoirs of the B ... r ... d_ [_Blunderhead_] _Family_..., which had
immediate success, and was enthusiastically praised for its original
kind of humour by Walpole and Gray. The _Election Ball, in Poetical
Letters from Mr Inkle at Bath to his Wife at Gloucester_ (1776)
sustained the reputation won by the Guide. Anstey's other productions in
verse and prose are now forgotten. He died on the 3rd of August 1805.
His _Poetical Works_ were collected in 1808 (2 vols.) by the author's
son John (d. 1819), himself author of _The Pleader's Guide_ (1796), in
the same vein with the _New Bath Guide_.



ANSTRUTHER (locally pronounced _Anster_), a seaport of Fifeshire,
Scotland. It comprises the royal and police burghs of Anstruther Easter
(pop. 1190), Anstruther Wester (501) and Kilrenny (2542), and lies 9 m.
S.S.E. of St Andrews, having a station on the North British railway
company's branch line from Thornton Junction to St Andrews. The chief
industries include coast and deep-sea fisheries, shipbuilding, tanning,
the making of cod-liver oil and fish-curing. The harbour was completed
in 1877 at a cost of £80,000. The two Anstruthers are divided only by a
small stream called Dreel Burn. James Melville (1556-1614), nephew of
the more celebrated reformer, Andrew Melville, who was minister of
Kilrenny, has given in his _Diary_ a graphic account of the arrival at
Anstruther of a weatherbound ship of the Armada, and the tradition of
the intermixture of Spanish and Fifeshire blood still prevails in the
district. Anstruther fair supplied William Tennant (1784-1848), who was
born and buried in the town, with the subject of his poem of "Anster
Fair." Sir James Lumsden, a soldier of fortune under Gustavus Adolphus,
who distinguished himself in the Thirty Years' War, was born in the
parish of Kilrenny about 1598. David Martin (1737-1798), the painter and
engraver; Thomas Chalmers (1780-1847), the great divine; and John
Goodsir (1814-1867), the anatomist, were natives of Anstruther. Little
more than a mile to the west lies the royal and police burgh of
Pittenweem (Gaelic, "the hollow of the cave"), a quaint old fishing town
(pop. 1863), with the remains of a priory. About 2 m. still farther
westwards is the fishing town of St Monans or Abercromby (pop. 1898),
with a fine old Gothic church, picturesquely perched on the rocky shore.
These fisher towns on the eastern and south-eastern coasts of Fifeshire
furnish artists with endless subjects. Archibald Constable (1774-1827),
Sir Walter Scott's publisher, was born in the parish of Carnbee, about 3
m. to the north of Pittenweem. The two Anstruthers, Kilrenny and
Pittenweem unite with St Andrews, Cupar and Crail, in sending one member
to parliament.



ANSWER (derived from _and_, against, and the same root as _swear_),
originally a solemn assertion in opposition to some one or something,
and thus generally any counter-statement or defence, a reply to a
question or objection, or a correct solution of a problem. In English
law, the "answer" in pleadings was, previous to the Judicature Acts
1873-1875, the statement of defence, especially as regards the facts and
not the law. Its place is now taken by a "statement of defence."
"Answer" is the term still applied in divorce proceedings to the reply
of the respondent (see PLEADING). The famous Latin _Responsa Prudentum_
("answers of the learned") were the accumulated views of many successive
generations of Roman lawyers, a body of legal opinion which gradually
became authoritative. In music an "answer" is the technical name in
counterpoint for the repetition by one part or instrument of a theme
proposed by another.



ANT (O. Eng. _aémete_, from Teutonic a, privative, and _maitan_, cut or
bite off, i.e. "the biter off"; _aémete_ in Middle English became
differentiated in dialect use to _amete_, then _amte_, and so _ant_, and
also to _emete_, whence the synonym "emmet," now only used provincially,
"ant" being the general literary form). The fact that the name of the
ant has come down in English from a thousand years ago shows that this
class of insects impressed the old inhabitants of England as they
impressed the Hebrews and Greeks. The social instincts and industrious
habits of ants have always made them favourite objects of study, and a
vast amount of literature has accumulated on the subject of their
structure and their modes of life.

_Characters._--An ant is easily recognized both by the casual observer
and by the student of insects. Ants form a distinct and natural family
(_Formicidae_) of the great order _Hymenoptera_, to which bees, wasps
and sawflies also belong. The insects of this order have mandibles
adapted for biting, and two pairs of membranous wings are usually
present; the first abdominal segment (propodeum) becomes closely
associated with the fore-body (thorax), of which it appears to form a
part. In all ants the second (apparently the first) abdominal segment is
very markedly constricted at its front and hind edges, so that it forms
a "node" at the base of the hind-body (fig. 1), and in many ants the
third abdominal segment is similarly "nodular" in form (fig. 3, _b,
c._). It is this peculiar "waist" that catches the eye of the observer,
and makes the insects so easy of recognition. Another conspicuous and
well-known feature of ants is the wingless condition of the "workers,"
as the specialized females, with undeveloped ovaries, which form the
largest proportion of the population of ant-communities, are called.
Such "workers" are essential to the formation of a social community of
Hymenoptera, and their wingless condition among the ants shows that
their specialization has been carried further in this family than among
the wasps and bees. Further, while among wasps and bees we find some
solitary and some social genera, the ants as a family are social, though
some aberrant species are dependent on the workers of other ants. It is
interesting and suggestive that in a few families of digging Hymenoptera
(such as the _Mutillidae_), allied to the ants, the females are
wingless. The perfect female or "queen" ants (figs. 1, 1, 3, a) often
cast their wings (fig. 3, b) after the nuptial flight; in a few species
the females, and in still fewer the males, never develop wings. (For the
so-called "white ants," which belong to an order far removed from the
_Hymenoptera_, see TERMITE.)

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Wood Ant (_Formica rufa_). 1, Queen; 2, male; 3,
worker.]

_Structure._--The head of an ant carries a pair of elbowed feelers, each
consisting of a minute basal and an elongate second segment, forming the
stalk or "scape," while from eight to eleven short segments make up the
terminal "flagellum." These segments are abundantly supplied with
elongate tooth-like projections connected with nerve-endings probably
olfactory in function. The brain is well developed and its
"mushroom-bodies" are exceptionally large. The mandibles, which are
frequently used for carrying various objects, are situated well to the
outside of the maxillae, so that they can be opened and shut without
interfering with the latter. The peculiar form and arrangement of the
anterior abdominal segments have already been described. The fourth
abdominal segment is often very large, and forms the greater part of the
hind-body; this segment is markedly constricted at its basal (forward)
end, where it is embraced by the small third segment. In many of those
ants whose third abdominal segment forms a second "node," the basal
dorsal region of the fourth segment is traversed by a large number of
very fine transverse striations; over these the sharp hinder edge of the
third segment can be scraped to and fro, and the result is a
stridulating organ which gives rise to a note of very high pitch. For
the appreciation of the sounds made by these stridulators, the ants are
furnished with delicate organs of hearing (chordotonal organs) in the
head, in the three thoracic and two of the abdominal segments and in the
shins of the legs.

The hinder abdominal segments and the stings of the queens and workers
resemble those of other stinging Hymenoptera. But there are several
subfamilies of ants whose females have the lancets of the sting useless
for piercing, although the poison-glands are functional, their secretion
being ejected by the insect, when occasion may arise, from the greatly
enlarged reservoir, the reduced sting acting as a squirt.

_Nests._--The nests of different kinds of ants are constructed in very
different situations; many species (_Lasius_, for example) make
underground nests; galleries and chambers being hollowed out in the
soil, and opening by small holes on the surface, or protected above by a
large stone. The wood ant (_Formica rufa_, fig. 1) piles up a heap of
leaves, twigs and other vegetable refuse, so arranged as to form an
orderly series of galleries, though the structure appears at first sight
a chaotic heap. Species of _Camponotus_ and many other ants tunnel in
wood. In tropical countries ants sometimes make their nests in the
hollow thorns of trees or on leaves; species with this habit are
believed to make a return to the tree for the shelter that it affords by
protecting it from the ravages of other insects, including their own
leaf-cutting relations.

_Early Stages._--The larvae of ants (fig. 3, e) are legless and helpless
maggots with very small heads (fig. 3, f), into whose mouths the
requisite food has to be forced by the assiduous "nurse" workers. The
maggots are tended by these nurses with the greatest care, and carried
to those parts of the nest most favourable for their health and growth.
When fully grown, the maggot spins an oval silken cocoon within which it
pupates (fig. 3, g). These cocoons, which may often be seen carried
between the mandibles of the workers, are the "ants' eggs" prized as
food for fish and pheasants. The workers of a Ceylonese ant (_Oecophylla
smaragdina_) are stated by D. Sharp to hold the maggots between their
mandibles and induce them to spin together the leaves of trees from
which they form their shelters, as the adult ants have no silk-producing
organs.

_Origin of Societies._--Ant-colonies are founded either by a single
female or by several in association. The foundress of the nest lays eggs
and at first feeds and rears the larvae, the earliest of which develop
into workers. C. Janet observed that in a nest of _Lasius alienus_,
established by a single female, the first workers emerged from their
cocoons on the 102nd day. These workers then take on themselves the
labour of the colony, some collecting food, which they transfer to their
comrades within the nest whose duty is to tend and feed the larvae. The
foundress-queen is now waited on by the workers, who supply her with
food and spare her all cares of work, so that henceforth she may devote
her whole energies to egg-laying. The population of the colony increases
fast, and a well-grown nest contains several "queens" and males, besides
a large number of workers. One of the most interesting features of
ant-societies is the dimorphism or polymorphism that may often be seen
among the workers, the same species being represented by two or more
forms. Thus the British "wood ant" (_Formica rufa_) has a smaller and a
larger race of workers ("minor" and "major" forms), while in _Ponera_ we
find a blind race of workers and another race provided with eyes, and in
_Atta_, _Eciton_ and other genera, four or five forms of workers are
produced, the largest of which, with huge heads and elongate trenchant
mandibles, are known as the "soldier" caste. The development of such
diversely-formed insects as the offspring of the unmodified females
which show none of their peculiarities raises many points of difficulty
for students in heredity. It is thought that the differences are, in
part at least, due to differences in the nature of the food supplied to
larvae, which are apparently all alike. But the ovaries of worker ants
are in some cases sufficiently developed for the production of eggs,
which may give rise parthenogenetically to male, queen or worker
offspring.

_Food._--Different kinds of ants vary greatly in the substances which
they use for food. Honey forms the staple nourishment of many ants, some
of the workers seeking nectar from flowers, working it up into honey
within their stomachs and regurgitating it so as to feed their comrades
within the nest, who, in their turn, pass it on to the grubs. A curious
specialization of certain workers in connexion with the transference of
honey has been demonstrated by H.C. McCook in the American genus
_Myrmecocystus_, and by later observers in Australian and African
species of _Plagiolepis_ and allied genera. The workers in question
remain within the nest, suspended by their feet, and serve as living
honey-pots for the colony, becoming so distended by the supplies of
honey poured into their mouths by their foraging comrades that their
abdomens become sub-globular, the pale intersegmental membrane being
tightly stretched between the widely-separated dark sclerites. The
"nurse" workers in the nest can then draw their supplies from these
"honey-pots." Very many ants live by preying upon various insects, such
as the British "red ants" with well-developed stings (_Myrmica rubra_),
and the notorious "driver ants" of Africa and America, the old-world
species of which belong to _Dorylus_ and allied genera, and the
new-world species to _Eciton_ (fig. 2, _2, 3_). In these ants the
difference between the large, heavy, winged males and females, and the
small, long-legged, active workers, is so great, that various forms of
the same species have been often referred to distinct genera; in
_Eciton_, for example, the female has a single petiolate abdominal
segment, the worker two. The workers of these ants range over the
country in large armies, killing and carrying off all the insects and
spiders that they find and sometimes attacking vertebrates. They have
been known to enter human dwellings, removing all the verminous insects
contained therein. These driver ants shelter in temporary nests made in
hollow trees or similar situations, where the insects may be seen,
according to T. Belt, "clustered together in a dense mass like a great
swarm of bees hanging from the roof."

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Leaf-cutting and Foraging Ants. 1. _Atta
cephalus_; 2. _Eciton drepanophora_; 3. _Eciton erratica_.]

The harvesting habits of certain ants have long been known, the
subterranean store-houses of Mediterranean species of _Aphaenogaster_
having been described by J.T. Moggridge and A. Forel, and the complex
industries of the Texan _Pogonomyrmex barbatus_ by H.C. McCook and W.M.
Wheeler. The colonies of _Aphaenogaster_ occupy nests extending over an
area of fifty to a hundred square yards several feet below the surface
of the ground. Into these underground chambers the ants carry seeds of
grasses and other plants of which they accumulate large stores. The
species of _Pogonomyrmex_ strip the husks from the seeds and carry them
out of the nest, making a refuse heap near the entrance. The seeds are
harvested from various grasses, especially from _Aristida oligantha_, a
species known as "ant rice," which often grows in quantity close to the
site selected for the nest, but the statement that the ants deliberately
sow this grass is an error, due, according to Wheeler, to the sprouting
of germinating seeds which the ants have turned out of their
store-chambers.

Perhaps no ants have such remarkable habits as those of the genus
_Atta_,--the leaf-cutting ants of tropical America (fig. 2, 1). There
are several forms of worker in these species, some with enormous heads,
which remain in the underground nests, while their smaller comrades
scour the country in search of suitable trees, which they ascend, biting
off small circular pieces from the leaves, and carrying them off to the
nests. Their labour often results in the complete defoliation of the
tree. The tracks along which the ants carry the leaves to their nests
are often in part subterranean. H.C. McCook describes an almost straight
tunnel, nearly 450 ft. long, made by _Atta fervens_.

Within the nest, the leaves are cut into very minute fragments and
gathered into small spherical heaps forming a spongy mass,
which--according to the researches of A. Möller--serves as the
substratum for a special fungus (_Rozites gongylophora_), the staple
food of the ants. The insects cultivate their fungus, weeding out mould
and bacterial growths, and causing the appearance, on the surface of
their "mushroom garden," of numerous small white bodies formed by
swollen ends of the fungus hyphae. When the fungus is grown elsewhere
than in the ants' nest it produces gonidia instead of the white masses
on which the ants feed, hence it seems that these masses are indeed
produced as the result of some unknown cultural process. Other genera of
South American ants--_Apterostigma_ and _Cyphomyrmex_--make similar
fungal cultivations, but they use wood, grain or dung as the substratum
instead of leaf fragments. Each kind of ant is so addicted to its own
particular fungal food that it refuses disdainfully, even when hungry,
the produce of an alien nest.

_Guests of Ants._--Many ants feed largely and some almost entirely on the
saccharine secretions of other insects, the best known of which are the
Aphides (plant-lice or "green-fly"). This consideration leads us to one
of the most remarkable and fascinating features of ant-communities--the
presence in the nests of insects and other small arthropods, which are
tended and cared for by the ants as their "guests," rendering to the ants
in return the sweet food which they desire. The relation between ants and
aphids has often been compared to that between men and milch cattle. Sir
J. Lubbock (Lord Avebury) states that the common British yellow ants
(_Lasius flavus_) collect flocks of root-feeding aphids in their
underground nests, protect them, build earthen shelters over them, and
take the greatest care of their eggs. Other ants, such as the British
black garden species (_L. niger_), go after the aphids that frequent the
shoots of plants. Many species of aphid migrate from one plant to another
at certain stages in their life-cycle when their numbers have very
largely increased, and F.M. Webster has observed ants, foreseeing this
emigration, to carry aphids from apple trees to grasses. It has been
shown by M. Büsgen that the sweet secretion (honey-dew) of the aphids is
not derived, as generally believed, from the paired cornicles on the
fifth abdominal segment, but from the intestine, whence it exudes in
drops and is swallowed by the ants.

Besides the aphids, other insects, such as scale insects (_Coccidae_),
caterpillars of blue butterflies (_Lycaenidae_), and numerous beetles,
furnish the ants with nutrient secretions. The number of species of
beetles that inhabit ants' nests is almost incredibly large, and most of
these are never found elsewhere, being blind, helpless and dependent on
the ants' care for protection and food; these beetles belong for the
most part to the families _Pselaphidae, Paussidae_ and _Staphylinidae_.
Spring-tails and bristle-tails (order _Aptera_) of several species also
frequent ants' nests. While some of these "guest" insects produce
secretions that furnish the ants with food, some seem to be useless
inmates of the nest, obtaining food from the ants and giving nothing in
return. Others again play the part of thieves in the ant society; C.
Janet observed a small bristle-tail (_Lepismima_) to lurk beneath the
heads of two Lasius workers, while one passed food to the other, in
order to steal the drop of nourishment and to make off with it. The same
naturalist describes the association with Lasius of small mites
(_Antennophorus_) which are carried about by the worker ants, one of
which may have a mite beneath her mouth, and another on either side of
her abdomen. On patting their carrier or some passing ant, the mites are
supplied with food, no service being rendered by them in return for the
ants' care. Perhaps the ants derive from these seemingly useless guests
the same satisfaction as we obtain by keeping pet animals. Recent
advance in our knowledge of the guests and associates of ants is due
principally to E. Wasmann, who has compiled a list of nearly 1500
species of insects, arachnids and crustaceans, inhabiting ants' nests.
The warmth, shelter and abundant food in the nests, due both to the
fresh supplies brought in by the ants and to the large amount of waste
matter that accumulates, must prove strongly attractive to the various
"guests." Some of the inmates of ants' nests are here for the purpose of
preying upon the ants or their larvae, so that we find all kinds of
relations between the owners of the nests and their companions, from
mutual benefit to active hostility.

Among these associations or guests other species of ants are not
wanting. For example, a minute species (_Solenopsis fugax_) lives in a
compound nest with various species of _Formica_, forming narrow
galleries which open into the larger galleries of its host. The
_Solenopsis_ can make its way into the territory of the _Formica_ to
steal the larvae which serve it as food, but the _Formica_ is too large
to pursue the thief when it returns to its own galleries.

_Slaves._--Several species of ants are found in association with another
species which stands to them in the relation of slave to master.
_Formica sanguinea_ is a well-known European slave-making ant that
inhabits England; its workers raid the nests of _F. fusca_ and other
species, and carry off to their own nests pupae from which workers are
developed that live contentedly as slaves of their captors. _F.
sanguinea_ can live either with or without slaves, but another European
ant (_Polyergus rufescens_) is so dependent on its slaves--various
species of _Formica_--that its workers are themselves unable to feed the
larvae. The remarkable genus _Anergates_ has no workers, and its
wingless males and females are served by communities of _Tetramorium
cespitum_ (fig. 3).

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Ant, _Tetramorium cespitum_ (Linn.), a, Female;
b, female after loss of wings; c, male; d, worker; e, larva; g, pupa; f,
head of larva more highly magnified. After Marlatt, _Bull_. 4 (n.s.)
_Div. Ent. U.S. Dept. Agriculture_]

_Senses and Intelligence of Ants._--That ants possess highly developed
senses and the power of communicating with one another has long been
known to students of their habits; the researches of P. Huber and Sir J.
Lubbock (Lord Avebury) on these subjects are familiar to all
naturalists. The insects are guided by light, being very sensitive to
ultra-violet rays, and also by scent and hearing. Recent experiments by
A.M. Fielde show that an ant follows her own old track by a scent
exercised by the tenth segment of the feeler, recognizes other inmates
of her nest by a sense of smell resident in the eleventh segment, is
guided to the eggs, maggots and pupae, which she has to tend, by
sensation through the eighth and ninth segments, and appreciates the
general smell of the nest itself by means of organs in the twelfth
segment. Lubbock's experiments of inducing ants to seek objects that had
been removed show that they are guided by scent rather than by sight,
and that any disturbance of their surroundings often causes great
uncertainty in their actions. Ants invite one another to work, or ask
for food from one another, by means of pats with the feelers; and they
respond to the solicitations of their guest--beetles or mites, who ask
for food by patting the ants with their feet. In all probability the
actions of ants are for the most part instinctive or reflex, and some
observers, such as A. Bethe, deny them all claim to psychical qualities.
But it seems impossible to doubt that in many cases ants behave in a
manner that must be considered intelligent, that they can learn by
experience and that they possess memory. Lubbock goes so far as to
conclude the account of his experiments with the remark that "It is
difficult altogether to deny them the gift of reason ... their mental
powers differ from those of men, not so much in kind as in degree."
Wasmann considers that ants are neither miniature human beings nor mere
reflex automata, and most students of their habits will probably accept
this intermediate position as the most satisfactory. C.L. Morgan sums up
a discussion on Lubbock's experiments in which the ants failed to
utilize particles of earth for bridge-making, with the suggestive remark
that "What these valuable experiments seem to show is that the ant,
probably the most intelligent of all insects, has no claim to be
regarded as a rational being." Nevertheless, ants can teach "rational
beings" many valuable lessons.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The literature on ants is so vast that it is only
  possible to refer the reader to a few of the most important works on
  the family. Pierre Huber's _Traité des moeurs des fourmis indigènes_
  (Genève, 1810) is the most famous of the older memoirs. H.W. Bates, _A
  Naturalist on the Amazons_; T. Belt, _A Naturalist in Nicaragua_; H.C.
  McCook, _Agricultural Ant of Texas_ (Philadelphia, 1880); and A.
  Moller's paper in _Botan. Mitt, aus den Tropen_, (1893), contain
  classical observations on American species. Sir J. Lubbock's (Lord
  Avebury) _Ants, Bees and Wasps_ (London 1882), dealing with British
  and European species, has been followed by numerous important papers
  by A. Forel and C. Emery in various Swiss and German periodicals, and
  especially by C. Janet in his _Êtudes sur les fourmis, les guêpes et
  les abeilles_ (Paris, &c., 1893-1904). Forel (_Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg._
  xlvii., 1893, _Journ. Bomnay N.H. Soc._ 1900-1903, and _Biologia Cent.
  Americana_) and Emery (_Zool. Jahrb. Syst._ viii., 1896) have written
  on the classification of the _Formicidae_. Among recent American
  writers on habit may be mentioned W.M. Wheeler (_American Naturalist_,
  1900-1902) and A.M. Fielde (_Proc. Acad. Sci. Philadelphia_, 1901); E.
  Wasmann (_Kritisches Verzeichniss der myrmecophilen und termitophilen
  Arthropoden_, Berlin, 1894, and _3^me Congrès Intern. Zool._ 1895) is
  the great authority on ant-guests and associates. D. Sharp's general
  account of ants in the _Cambridge Nat. Hist_. (vol. vi., 1898) is
  excellent. For discussions on intelligence see A. Bethe, _Journ. f. d.
  ges. Physiol._ lxx. (1898); Wasmann, _Die psychischen Fahigkeiten der
  Ameisen_ (Stuttgart, 1899); C. Ll. Morgan, _Animal Behaviour_ (London,
  1900.)     (G. H. C.)



ANTAE (a Lat. plural word, possibly from _ante_, before), an
architectural term given to slightly projecting pilaster strips which
terminate the winged walls of the naos of a Greek temple. They owe their
origin to the vertical posts of timber employed in the primitive palaces
or temples of Greece, as at Tiryns and in the Heraeum at Olympia, to
carry the roof timbers, as no reliance could be placed on the walls
built with unburnt brick or in rubble masonry with clay mortar. When
between these winged walls there are columns to carry the architrave, so
as to form a porch, the latter is said to be in-antis. (See TEMPLE.)



ANTAEUS, in Greek mythology, a giant of Libya, the son of Poseidon and
Gaea. He compelled all strangers passing through the country to wrestle
with him, and as, when thrown, he derived fresh strength from each
successive contact with his mother earth, he proved invincible. With the
skulls of those whom he had slain he built a temple to his father.
Heracles, in combat with him, discovered the source of his strength, and
lifting him up from the earth crushed him to death (Apollodorus ii. 5;
Hyginus, _Fab_. 31). The struggle between Antaeus and Heracles is a
favourite subject in ancient sculpture.



ANTALCIDAS, Spartan soldier and diplomatist. In 393 (or 392 B.C.) he was
sent to Tiribazus, satrap of Sardis, to undermine the friendly relations
then existing between Athens and Persia by offering to recognize Persian
claims to the whole of Asia Minor. The Athenians sent an embassy under
Conon to counteract his efforts. Tiribazus, who was favourable to
Sparta, threw Conon into prison, but Artaxerxes II. (Mnemon) disapproved
and recalled his satrap. In 388 Antalcidas, then commander of the
Spartan fleet, accompanied Tiribazus to the Persian court, and secured
the active assistance of Persia against Athens. The success of his naval
operations in the neighbourhood of the Hellespont was such that Athens
was glad to accept terms of peace (the "Peace of Antalcidas"), by which
(1) the whole of Asia Minor, with the islands of Clazomenae and Cyprus,
was recognized as subject to Persia, (2) all other Greek cities--so far
as they were not under Persian rule--were to be independent, except
Lemnos, Imbros and Scyros, which were to belong, as formerly, to the
Athenians. The terms were announced to the Greek envoys at Sardis in the
winter 387-386, and were finally accepted by Sparta in 386. Antalcidas
continued in favour with Artaxerxes, until the annihilation of Spartan
supremacy at Leuctra diminished his influence. A final mission to
Persia, probably in 367, was a failure, and Antalcidas, deeply chagrined
and fearful of the consequences, is said to have starved himself to
death. (See SPARTA.)



ANTANÀNARÌVO, i.e. "town of a thousand" (Fr. spelling _Tananarive_), the
capital of Madagascar, situated centrally as regards the length of the
island, but only about 90 m. distant from the eastern coast, in 18° 55'
S., 47° 30' E. It is 135 m. W.S.W. of Tamatave, the principal seaport of
the island, with which it is connected by railway, and for about 60 m.
along the coast lagoons, a service of small steamers. The city occupies
a commanding position, being chiefly built on the summit and slopes of a
long and narrow rocky ridge, which extends north and south for about 2½
m., dividing to the north in a Y-shape, and rising at its highest point
to 690 ft. above the extensive rice plain to the west, which is itself
4060 ft. above sea-level. For long only the principal village of the
Hova chiefs, Antananarivo advanced in importance as those chiefs made
themselves sovereigns of the greater part of Madagascar, until it became
a town of some 80,000 inhabitants. Until 1869 all buildings within the
city proper were of wood or rush, but even then it possessed several
timber palaces of considerable size, the largest being 120 ft. high.
These crown the summit of the central portion of the ridge; and the
largest palace, with its lofty roof and towers, is the most conspicuous
object from every point of view. Since the introduction of stone and
brick, the whole city has been rebuilt and now contains numerous
structures of some architectural pretension, the royal palaces, the
houses formerly belonging to the prime minister and nobles, the French
residency, the Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals, several stone
churches, as well as others of brick, colleges, schools, hospitals,
courts of justice and other government buildings, and hundreds of good
dwelling-houses. Since the French conquest in 1895 good roads have been
constructed throughout the city, broad flights of steps connect places
too steep for the formation of carriage roads, and the central space,
called Andohalo, has become a handsome _place_, with walks and terraces,
flower-beds and trees. A small park has been laid out near the
residency, and the planting of trees and the formation of gardens in
various parts of the city give it a bright and attractive appearance.
Water is obtained from springs at the foot of the hill, but it is
proposed to bring an abundant supply from the river Ikopa, which skirts
the capital to the south and west. The population, including that of the
suburbs, is 69,000 (1907). The city is guarded by two forts built on
hills to the east and south-west respectively. Including an Anglican and
a Roman Catholic cathedral, there are about fifty churches in the city
and its suburbs, as well as a Mahommedan mosque.     (J. Si.*)



'ANTARA IBN SHADDAD, Arabian poet and warrior of the 6th century, was
famous both for his poetry and his adventurous life. His chief poem is
contained in the _Mo'allakât_. The account of his life forms the basis
of a long and extravagant romance. His father Shaddad was a soldier, his
mother Zabuba a negro slave. Neglected at first, he soon claimed
attention and respect for himself, and by his remarkable personal
qualities and courage in battle he gained his freedom and the
acknowledgment of his father. He took part in the great war between the
related tribes of Abs and Dhubyan, which began over a contest of horses
and was named after them the war of Dahis and Ghabra. He died in a
fight against the tribe of Tai. His poems, which are chiefly concerned
with fighting or with his love for Abla, are published in W. Ahlwardt's
_The Diwans of the six ancient Arabic Poets_ (London, 1870); they have
also been published separately at Beirût (1888). As regards their
genuineness, cf. W. Ahlwardt's _Bemerkungen uber die Aechtheit der alten
arabichen Gedichte_ (Greifswald, 1872), pp. 50 ff. _The Romance of
'Antar_ (Sîrat 'Antar ibn Shaddad) is a work which was long handed down
by oral tradition only, has grown to immense proportions and has been
published in 32 vols. at Cairo, 1307 (A.D. 1889), and in 10 vols. at
Beirût, 1871. It was partly translated by Terrick Hamilton under the
title _'Antar, a Bedoueen Romance_ (4 vols., London, 1820).

  For an account of the poet and his works see H. Thorbeckes, _Antarah,
  ein vorislamischer Dichter_ (Leipzig, 1867), and cf. the _Book of
  Songs_ (see ABULFARAJ), vol. vii. pp. 148-153.     (G. W. T.)



ANTARCTIC (Gr. [Greek: anti], opposite, and [Greek: arktos], the Bear,
the northern constellation of _Ursa Major_), the epithet applied to the
region (including both the ocean and the lands) round the South Pole.
The Antarctic circle is drawn at 66° 30' S., but polar conditions of
climate, &c., extend considerably north of the area thus enclosed. (See
POLAR REGIONS.)



ANTEATER, a term applied to several mammals, but (zoologically at any
rate) specially indicating the tropical American anteaters of the family
_Myrmecophagidae_ (see EDENTATA). The typical and largest representative
of the group is the great anteater or ant-bear (_Myrmecophaga jubata_),
an animal measuring 4 ft. in length without the tail, and 2 ft. in
height at the shoulder. Its prevailing colour is grey, with a broad
black band, bordered with white, commencing on the chest, and passing
obliquely over the shoulder, diminishing gradually in breadth as it
approaches the loins, where it ends in a point. It is extensively
distributed in the tropical parts of South and Central America,
frequenting low swampy savannas, along the banks of rivers, and the
depths of the humid forests, but is nowhere abundant. Its food consists
mainly of termites, to obtain which it opens their nests with its
powerful sharp anterior claws, and as the insects swarm to the damaged
part of their dwelling, it draws them into its mouth by means of its
long, flexible, rapidly moving tongue covered with glutinous saliva. The
great anteater is terrestrial in habits, not burrowing underground like
armadillos. Though generally an inoffensive animal, when attacked it can
defend itself vigorously and effectively with its sabre-like anterior
claws. The female produces a single young at a birth. The tamandua
anteaters, as typified by _Tamandua_ (or _Uroleptes_) _tetradactyla_,
are much smaller than the great anteater, and differ essentially from it
in their habits, being mainly arboreal. They inhabit the dense primeval
forests of South and Central America. The usual colour is
yellowish-white, with a broad black lateral band, covering nearly the
whole of the side of the body.

The little or two-toed anteater (_Cyclopes_ or _Cycloturus didactylus_)
is a native of the hottest parts of South and Central America, and about
the size of a rat, of a general yellowish colour, and exclusively
arboreal in its habits. The name scaly anteater is applied to the
pangolin (q.v.); the banded anteater (_Myrmecobius fasciatus_) is a
marsupial, and the spiny anteater (_Echidna_) is one of the monotremes
(see MARSUPIALIA and MONOTREMATA).



ANTE-CHAPEL, the term given to that portion of a chapel which lies on
the western side of the choir screen. In some of the colleges at Oxford
and Cambridge the ante-chapel is carried north and south across the west
end of the chapel, constituting a western transept or narthex. This
model, based on Merton College chapel (13th century), of which only
chancel and transept were built though a nave was projected, was
followed at Wadham, New and Magdalen Colleges, Oxford, in the new chapel
of St John's College, Cambridge, and in Eton College. In Jesus College,
Cambridge, the transept and a short nave constitute the ante-chapel; in
Clare College an octagonal vestibule serves the same purpose; and in
Christ's, Trinity and King's Colleges, Cambridge, the ante-chapel is a
portion of the main chapel, divided off from the chancel by the choir
screen.



ANTE-CHOIR, the term given to the space enclosed in a church between the
outer gate or railing of the rood screen and the door of the screen;
sometimes there is only one rail, gate or door, but in Westminster Abbey
it is equal in depth to one bay of the nave. The ante-choir is also
called the "fore choir."



ANTE-FIXAE (from Lat. _antefigere_, to fasten before), the vertical
blocks which terminate the covering tiles of the roof of a Greek temple;
as spaced they take the place of the cymatium and form a cresting along
the sides of the temple. The face of the ante-fixae was richly carved
with the anthemion (q.v.) ornament.



ANTELOPE, a zoological name which, so far as can be determined, appears
to trace its origin, through the Latin, to _Pantholops_, the old Coptic,
and _Antholops_, the late Greek name of the fabled unicorn. Its adoption
by the languages of Europe cannot apparently be traced farther back than
the 4th century of our era, at which date it was employed to designate
an imaginary animal living on the banks of the Euphrates. By the earlier
English naturalists, and afterwards by Buffon, it was, however, applied
to the Indian blackbuck, which is thus entitled to rank as _the_
antelope. It follows that the subfamily typified by this species, in
which are included the gazelles, is the one to which alone the term
antelopes should be applied if it were employed in a restricted and
definable sense.

Although most people have a general vague idea of what constitutes an
"antelope," yet the group of animals thus designated is one that does
not admit of accurate limitations or definition. Some, for instance, may
consider that the chamois and the so-called white goat of the Rocky
Mountains are entitled to be included in the group; but this is not the
view held by the authors of the _Book of Antelopes_ referred to below;
and, as a matter of fact, the term is only a vague designation for a
number of more or less distinct groups of hollow-horned ruminants which
do not come under the designation of cattle, sheep or goats; and in
reality there ought to be a distinct English group-name for each
subfamily into which "antelopes" are subdivided.

The great majority of antelopes, exclusive of the doubtful chamois group
(which, however, will be included in the present article), are African,
although the gazelles are to a considerable extent an Asiatic group.
They include ruminants varying in size from a hare to an ox; and
comprise about 150 species, although this number is subject to
considerable variation according to personal views as to the limitations
of species and races. No true antelopes are American, the prongbuck
(_Antilocapra_), which is commonly called "antelope" in the United
States, representing a distinct group; while, as already mentioned, the
Rocky Mountain or white goat stands on the borderland between antelopes
and goats.

The first group, or _Tragelaphinae_, is represented by the African
elands (_Taurotragus_), bongo (_Boöcercus_), kudus (_Strepsiceros_) and
bushbucks or harnessed antelopes (_Tragelaphus_), and the Indian nilgai
(_Boselaphus_). Except in the bongo and elands, horns are present only
in the males, and these are angulated and generally spirally twisted,
and without rings. The muzzle is naked, small glands are present on the
face below the eyes, and the tail is comparatively long. The colours are
often brilliant; white spots and stripes being prevalent. The harnessed
antelopes, or bushbucks, are closely allied to the kudus, from which
they chiefly differ by the spiral formed by the horns generally having
fewer turns. They include some of the most brilliantly coloured of all
antelopes; the ornamentation taking the form of vertical white lines and
rows of spots. Usually the sexes differ in colour. Whereas most of the
species have hoofs of normal shape, in some, such as the nakong, or
situtunga (_Tragelaphus spekei_), these are greatly elongated, in order
to be suited for walking in soft mud, and these have accordingly been
separated as _Limnotragus_. The last-named species spends most of its
time in water, where it may be observed not infrequently among the reeds
with all but its head and horns submerged. The true or smaller
bushbucks, represented by the widely spread _Tragelaphus scriptus_, with
several local races (fig. 1) are sometimes separated as _Sylvicapra_,
leaving the genus _Tragelaphus_ to be represented by the larger _T.
angasi_ and its relatives. The genus _Strepsiceros_ is represented by
the true or great kudu (_S. capensis_ or _S. strepsiceros_), fig. 2,
ranging from the Cape to Somaliland, and the smaller _S. imberbis_ of
North-East Africa, which has no throat-fringe. The large and brightly
coloured bongo (_Boöcercus euryceros_) of the equatorial
forest-districts serves in some respects to connect the bushbucks with
the elands, having horns in both sexes, and a tufted tail, but a
brilliant orange coat with vertical white stripes. Still larger are the
elands, of which the typical _Taurotragus oryx_ of the Cape is uniformly
sandy-coloured, although stripes appear in the more northern _T. o.
livingstonei_, while the black-necked eland (_T. derbianus_) of
Senegambia and the Bahr-el-Ghazal district is a larger and more
brilliantly coloured animal. The small horns and bluish-grey colour of
the adult bulls serve to distinguish the Indian nilgai (q.v.),
_Boselaphus tragocamdus_, from the other members of the subfamily.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Female Bushbuck (_Tragelaphus scriptus_).]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Male Kudu (_Strepsicero capensis_).]

The second group, which is mainly African, but also represented in
Syria, is that of the _Hippotraginae_, typified by the sable antelope
(_Hippotragus niger_) and roan antelope (_H. equinus_), but also
including the oryxes (_Oryx_) and addax. These are for the most part
large antelopes, with long cylindrical horns, which are present in both
sexes, hairy muzzles, no face-glands, long tufted tails and tall thick
molars of the ox-type. In _Hippotragus_ the stout and thickly ringed
horns rise vertically from a ridge above the eyes at an obtuse angle to
the plane of the lower part of the face, and then sweep backwards in a
bold curve; while there are tufts of long white hairs near the eyes. The
sable antelope is a southern species in which both sexes are black or
blackish when adult, while the lighter-coloured and larger roan antelope
has a much wider distribution. The South African blauwbok (_H.
leucophaeus_) is extinct. In the addax (_Addax nasomaculatus_), which is
a distinct species common to North Africa and Syria, the ringed horns
form an open spiral ascending in the plane of the face, and there is
long, shaggy, dark hair on the fore-quarters in winter. The various
species of oryx differ from _Hippotragus_ by the absence of the white
eye-tufts, and by the horns sloping backwards in the plane of the face.
In the South African gemsbuck (_Oryx gazella_), fig. 3, the East African
beisa or true oryx (_O. beisa_), and the white Arabian (_O. beatrix_)
the horns are straight, but in the North African white oryx or algazel
(_O. leucoryx_ or _O. algazal_) they are scimitar-shaped, the colour of
this species being white and pale chestnut (see ADDAX, ORYX, and SABLE
ANTELOPE).

The third subfamily is the _Antilopinae_, the members of which have a
much wider geographical range than either of the foregoing groups. The
subfamily is characterized by the narrow crowns of the molars, which are
similar to those of sheep, and the hairy muzzle. Generally there are
face-glands below the eyes; and the tail is moderate or short. Pits are
present in the forehead of the skull, and the horns are ringed for part
of their length, with a compressed base, their form being often lyrate,
but sometimes spiral. Lateral hoofs are generally present.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Gemsbuck, or Cape Oryx (_Oryx gazella_).]

Gazelles (_Gazella_), which form by far the largest genus of the
subfamily, are inhabitants of open and frequently more or less desert
districts. They are mostly of a sandy colour, with dark and light
markings on the face, and often a dark band on the flanks. The horns are
more or less lyrate, and generally developed in both sexes; there are
frequently brushes of hair on the knees. Gazelles may be divided into
groups. The one to which the North African _G. dorcas_ belongs is
characterized by the presence of lyrate or sub-lyrate horns in both
sexes, and by the white of the buttocks not extending on to the
haunches. Nearly allied is the group including the Indian _G. bennetti_
and the Arabian _G. arabica_, in which the horns have a somewhat
S-shaped curvature in profile. In the group represented by the African
_G. granti_, _G. thomsoni_, _G. mohr_, &c., the white of the buttocks
often sends a prolongation on to the flanks, the horns are long and the
size is large. Lastly, the Central Asian _G. gutturosa_, _G.
subgutturosa_ and _G. picticaudata_ form a group in which the females
are hornless and the face-markings inconspicuous or wanting.

The South African springbuck (_Antidorcas euchore_) is nearly related to
the gazelles, from which it is distinguished by the presence on the
middle line of the loins of an evertible pouch, lined with long white
hairs capable of erection. It has also one premolar tooth less in the
lower jaw. Formerly these beautiful antelopes existed in countless
numbers on the plains of South Africa, and were in the habit of
migrating in droves which completely filled entire valleys. Now they are
comparatively rare.

The dibatag or Clarke's gazelle (_Ammodorcas clarkei_), of Somaliland,
forms a kind of connecting link between the true gazelles and the
gerenuk, this being especially shown in the skull. The face has the
ordinary gazelle-markings; but the rather short horns--which are wanting
in the female--have a peculiar upward and forward curvature, unlike that
obtaining in the gazelles and somewhat resembling that of the reedbuck.
The neck is longer and more slender than in ordinary gazelles, and the
tail is likewise relatively long. Although local, these animals are
fairly common in the interior of Somaliland, where they are known by the
name of dibatag. In running, the head and neck are thrown backwards,
while the tail is turned forwards over the back.

The East African gerenuk (q.v.), or Waller's gazelle (_Lithocranius
walleri_), of which two races have been named, is a very remarkable
ruminant, distinguished not only by its exceedingly elongated neck and
limbs, but also by the peculiar hooked form of the very massive horns of
the bucks, the dense structure and straight profile of the skull, and
the extreme slenderness of the lower jaw.

A still more aberrant gazelle is a small North-East African species
known as the beira (_Dorcatragus melanotis_), with very short horns,
large hoofs and a general appearance recalling that of some of the
members of the subfamily _Neotraginae_, although in other respects
gazelle-like. The blackbuck (_Antilope cervicapra_ or _A. bezoartica_)
of India, a species taking its name from the deep black coat assumed by
the adult bucks, and easily recognized by the graceful, spirally twisted
horns ornamenting the heads of that sex, is now the sole representative
of the genus _Antilope_, formerly taken to embrace the whole of the true
antelopes. Large face-glands are characteristic of the species, which
inhabits the open plains of India in large herds. They leap high in the
air, like the springbuck, when on the move.

With the palla (q.v.), or impala (_Aepyceros melampus_), we reach an
exclusively African genus, characterized by the lyrate horns of the
bucks, the absence of lateral hoofs, and the presence of a pair of
glands with black tufts of hair on the hind-feet.

The sheep-like saiga (q.v.), _Saiga tatarica_, of the Kirghiz steppes
stands apart from all other antelopes by its curiously puffed and
trunk-like nose, which can be wrinkled up when the animal is feeding and
has the nostrils opening downwards. More or less nearly related to the
saiga is the chiru (q.v.), _Pantholops hodgsoni_ of Tibet, characterized
by the long upright black horns of the bucks, and the less convex nose,
in which the nostrils open anteriorly instead of downwards.

The _Neotraginae_ (or _Nanotraginae_) form an exclusively African group
of small-sized antelopes divided into several, for the most part nearly
related, genera. Almost the only characters they possess in common are
the short and spike-like horns of the bucks, which are ringed at the
base, with smooth tips, and the large size of the face-gland, which
opens by a circular aperture. _Neotragus_ is represented by the pigmy
royal antelope (_N. pygmaeus_) of Guinea; _Hylarnus_ includes one
species from Cameroon and a second from the Semliki forest; while
_Nesotragus_ comprises the East African suni antelopes, _N. moschatus_
and _N. livingstonianus_. All three might, however, well be included in
_Neotragus_. The royal antelope is the smallest of the Bovidae.

The steinbok (_Rhaphiceros campestris_) and the _grysbok_ (_R.
melanotis_) are the best-known representatives of a group characterized
by the vertical direction of the horns and the small gland-pit in the
skull; lateral hoofs being absent in the first-named and present in the
second. A bare gland-patch behind the ear serves to distinguish the
oribis or ourebis, as typified by _Oribia montana_ of the Cape; lateral
hoofs being present and the face-pit large.

From all the preceding the tiny dik-diks (_Madoqua_) of North-East
Africa differ by their hairy noses, expanded in some species into short
trunks; while the widely spread klipspringer (q.v.), _Oreotragus
saltator_, with its several local races, is unfailingly distinguishable
by its rounded blunt hoofs and thick, brittle, golden-flecked hair.

In some respects connecting the last group with the _Cervicaprinae_ is
the rhebok, or vaal-rhebok (_Pelea capreolus_), a grey antelope of the
size of a roebuck, with small upright horns in the bucks recalling those
of the last group, and small lateral hoofs, but no face-glands. In size
and several structural features it approximates to the more typical
_Cervicaprinae_, as represented by the reedbuck (_Cervicapra_), and the
waterbucks and kobs (_Cobus_ or _Kobus_), all of which are likewise
African. These are medium-sized or large antelopes with naked muzzles,
narrow sheep-like upper molars, fairly long tails, rudimentary or no
face-glands, and pits in the frontal bones of the skull. Reedbuck
(q.v.), or rietbok (_Cervicapra_), are foxy-red antelopes ranging in
size from a fallow-deer to a roe, with thick bushy tails, forwardly
curving black horns, and a bare patch of glandular skin behind each ear.
They keep to open country near water. The waterbuck (q.v.), _Cobus_, on
the other hand, actually seek refuge from pursuit in the water. They
have heavily fringed necks, tufted tails, long lyrate horns in the bucks
(fig. 4) but no glandular ear-patches. The true waterbuck (_C.
ellipsiprymnus_), and the defassa or sing-sing (_C. defassa_), are the
two largest species, equal in size to red deer, and grey or reddish in
colour. Of the smaller forms or kobs, _C. maria_ and _C. leucotis_ of
the swamps of the White Nile are characterized by the black coats of the
adult bucks; the West African _C. cob_, and its East African
representative _C. thomasi_, are wholly red antelopes of the size of
roedeer; the lichi or lechwe (_C. lichi_) is characterized by its long
horns, black fore-legs and superior size; while the puku (_C. vardoni_),
which is also a swamp-loving species from South-Central Africa, differs
from the three preceding species by the fore-legs being uniformly foxy.

[Ilustration: FIG. 4.--Waterbuck (_Cobus ellipsiprymnus_).]

The duikers, or duikerboks (_Cephalophus_), of Africa, which range in
size from a large hare to a fallow-deer, typify the subfamily
_Cephalophinae_, characterized by the spike-like horns of the bucks, the
elongated aperture of the face-glands, the naked muzzle, the relatively
short tail, and the square-crowned upper molars; lateral hoofs being
present. In the duikers themselves the single pair of horns is set in
the midst of a tuft of long hairs, and the face-gland opens in a long
naked line on the side of the face above the muzzle. The group is
represented in India by the chousingha or four-horned antelope
(_Tetraceros quadricornis_), generally distinguished by the feature from
which it takes its name (see DUIKER).

The last section of the true antelopes is the _Bubalinae_, represented
by the hartebeest (q.v.), _Bubalis_, blesbok and sassaby (_Damaliscus_),
and the gnu (q.v.) or wildebeest (_Connochaetes_, also called
_Catoblepas_), all being African with the exception of one or two
hartebeests which range into Syria. All these are large and generally
more or less uniformly coloured antelopes with horns in both sexes, long
and more or less hairy tails, high withers, small face-glands, naked
muzzles, tall, narrow upper molars, and the absence of pits in the
frontal bones. The long face, high crest for the horns, which are
ringed, lyrate and more or less strongly angulated, and the moderately
long tail, are the distinctive features of the hartebeests. They are
large red antelopes (fig. 5), often with black markings on the face and
limbs. In _Damaliscus_, which includes, among many other species, the
blesbok and bontebok (_D. albifrons_ and _D. pygargus_) and the sassaby
or bastard hartebeest (_D. lunatus_), the face is shorter, and the horns
straighter and set on a less elevated crest. The colour, too, of these
antelopes tends in many cases to purple, with white markings. From the
hartebeest the gnus (fig. 6) differ by their smooth and outwardly or
downwardly directed horns, broad bristly muzzles, heavy manes and long
horse-like tails. There are two chief types, the white-tailed gnu or
black wildebeest (_Connochaetes gnu_) of South Africa, now nearly
extinct (fig. 6), and the brindled gnu, or blue wildebeest (_C.
taurinus_), which, with some local variation, has a large range in South
and East Africa.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Cape Hartebeest (_Bubalis cama_).]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--White-tailed Gnu, or Black Wildebeest
(_Connochaetes gnu_).]

In concluding this survey of living antelopes, reference may be made to
the subfamily _Rupicaprinae_ (typified by the European chamois), the
members of which, as already stated, are in some respects intermediate
between antelopes and goats. They are all small or medium-sized mountain
ruminants, for the most part European and Asiatic, but with one North
American representative. They are heavily built ruminants, with horns of
nearly equal size in both sexes, short tapering tails, large hoofs,
narrow goat-like upper molars, and usually small face-glands. The horns
are generally rather small, upright, ringed at the base, and more or
less curved backwards, but in the takin they are gnu-like. The group is
represented by the European chamois or gemse (_Rupicapra tragus_ or _R.
rupicapra_), broadly distinguished by its well-known hook-like horns,
and the Asiatic gorals (_Urotragus_) and serows (_Nemorhaedus_), which
are represented by numerous species ranging from Tibet, the Himalaya,
and China, to the Malay Peninsula and islands, being in the two latter
areas the sole representatives of both antelopes and goats. In the
structure of its horns the North American white Rocky Mountain goat
(_Oreamnus_) is very like a serow, from which it differs by its
extremely short cannon-bones. In the latter respect this ruminant
resembles the takin (_Budorcas_) of Tibet, which, as already mentioned,
has horns recalling those of the white-tailed gnu. Possibly the Arctic
musk-ox (_Ovibos_) may be connected with the takin by means of certain
extinct ruminants, such as the North American Pleistocene
_Euceratherium_ and the European Pliocene _Criotherium_ (see CHAMOIS,
GORAL, SEROW, ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT and TAKIN).

_Extinct Antelopes._--Only a few lines can be devoted to extinct
antelopes, the earliest of which apparently date from the European
Miocene. An antelope from the Lower Pliocene of Northern India known as
_Bubalis_, or _Damaliscus, palaeindicus_ indicates the occurrence of the
hartebeest group in that country. _Cobus_ also occurs in the same
formation, as does likewise _Hippotragus_. _Palaeoryx_ from the
corresponding horizon in Greece and Samos is to some extent intermediate
between _Hippotragus_ and _Oryx_. Gazelles are common in the Miocene and
Pliocene of both Europe and Asia. Elands and kudus appear to have been
represented in India during the Pliocene; the European _Palaeoreas_ of
the same age seems to be intermediate between the two, while
_Protragelaphus_ is evidently another European representative of the
group. _Helicophora_ is another spiral-horned European Pliocene
antelope, but of somewhat doubtful affinity; the same being the case
with the large _Criotherium_ of the Samos Pliocene, in which the short
horns are curiously twisted. As already stated, there is a possibility
of this latter ruminant being allied both to the takin and the musk-ox.
_Palaeotragus_ and _Tragoceros_, of the Lower Pliocene of Greece, at one
time regarded as antelopes, are now known to be ancestors of the okapi.

  For antelopes in general, see P.L. Sclater and O. Thomas, _The Book of
  Antelopes_ (4 vols., London, 1894-1900).     (R. L.*)



ANTEMNAE (Lat. _ante amnem_, sc. _Anienem_; Varro, _Ling. Lat_. v. 28),
an ancient village of Latium, situated on the W. of the Via Salaria, 2
m. N. of Rome, where the Anio falls into the Tiber. It is said to have
been conquered by Romulus after the rape of the Sabine women, and to
have assisted the Tarquins. Certainly it soon lost its independence, and
in Strabo's time was a mere village. The site is one of great strength,
and is now occupied by a fort, in the construction of which traces of
the outer walls and of huts, and several wells and a cistern, all
belonging to the primitive village, were discovered, and also the
remains of a villa of the end of the Republic.

  See T. Ashby in _Papers of the British School at Rome_, iii. 14.



ANTENOR, an Athenian sculptor, of the latter part of the 6th century
B.C. He was the author of the group of the tyrannicides Harmodius and
Aristogeiton, set up by the Athenians on the expulsion of the
Peisistratidae, and carried away to Persia by Xerxes. A basis with the
signature of Antenor, son of Eumares, has been shown to belong to one of
the dedicated female figures of archaic style which have been found on
the Acropolis of Athens.

  See GREEK ART; and E.A. Gardner's _Handbook of Greek Sculpture_, i. p.
  182.



ANTENOR, in Greek legend, one of the wisest of the Trojan elders and
counsellors. He advised his fellow-townsmen to send Helen back to her
husband, and showed himself not unfriendly to the Greeks and an advocate
of peace. In the later story, according to Dares and Dictys, he was said
to have treacherously opened the gates of Troy to the enemy; in return
for which, at the general sack of the city, his house, distinguished by
a panther's skin at the door, was spared by the victors. Afterwards,
according to various versions of the legend, he either rebuilt a city
on the site of Troy, or settled at Cyrene, or became the founder of
Patavium.

  Homer, _Iliad_, iii. 148, vii. 347; Horace, _Epp_. i. 2. 9; Livy i. 1;
  Pindar, _Pythia_, v. 83; Virgil, _Aen_. i. 242.



ANTEQUERA (the ancient _Anticaria_), a town of southern Spain, in the
province of Málaga; on the Bobadilla-Granada railway. Pop. (1900)
31,609. Antequera overlooks the fertile valley bounded on the S. by the
Sierra de los Torcales, and on the N. by the river Guadalhorce. It
occupies a commanding position, while the remains of its walls, and of a
fine Moorish castle on a rock that overhangs the town, show how
admirably its natural defences were supplemented by art. Besides several
interesting churches and palaces, it contains a fine arch, erected in
1595 in honour of Philip II., and partly constructed of inscribed Roman
masonry. In the eastern suburbs there is one of the largest grave-mounds
in Spain, said to be of prehistoric date, and with subterranean chambers
excavated to a depth of 65 ft. The Peña de los Enamorados, or "Lovers'
Peak," is a conspicuous crag which owes its name to the romantic legend
adapted by Robert Southey (1774-1843) in his _Laila and Manuel_. Woollen
fabrics are manufactured, and the sugar industry established in 1890
employs several thousand hands; but the majority of the inhabitants are
occupied by the trade in grain, fruit, wine and oil. Marble is quarried;
and at El Torcal, 6 m. south, there is a very curious labyrinth of red
marble rocks. Antequera was captured from the Moors in 1410, and became
until 1492 one of the most important outposts of the Christian power in
Spain.

  See C. Fernandez, _Historia de Antequera, desde su fondacion_ (Malaga,
  1842).



ANTEROS, pope for some weeks at the end of the year 235. He died on the
3rd of January 236. His original epitaph was discovered in the
Catacombs.



ANTHELION (late Gr. [Greek: anthelios], opposite the sun), the luminous
ring or halo sometimes seen in Alpine or polar regions surrounding the
shadow of the head of an observer cast upon a bank of cloud or mist. The
halo diminishes in brightness from the centre outwards, and is probably
due to the diffraction of light. Under favourable conditions four
concentric rings may be seen round the shadow of the observer's head,
the outermost, which seldom appears, having an angular radius of 40°.



ANTHEM, derived from the Gr. [Greek: antiphona], through the Saxon
_antefn_, a word which originally had the same meaning as antiphony
(q.v.). It is now, however, generally restricted to a form of church
music, particularly in the service of the Church of England, in which it
is appointed by the rubrics to follow the third collect at both morning
and evening prayer, "in choirs and places where they sing." It is just
as usual in this place to have an ordinary hymn as an anthem, which is a
more elaborate composition than the congregational hymns. Several
anthems are included in the English coronation service. The words are
selected from Holy Scripture or in some cases from the Liturgy, and the
music is generally more elaborate and varied than that of psalm or hymn
tunes. Anthems may be written for solo voices only, for the full choir,
or for both, and according to this distinction are called respectively
_Verse, Full_, and _Full with Verse_. Though the anthem of the Church of
England is analogous to the _motet_ of the Roman Catholic and Lutheran
Churches, both being written for a trained choir and not for the
congregation, it is as a musical form essentially English in its origin
and development. The English school of musicians has from the first
devoted its chief attention to this form, and scarcely a composer of any
note can be named who has not written several good anthems. Tallis, Tye,
Byrd, and Farrant in the 16th century; Orlando Gibbons, Blow, and
Purcell in the 17th, and Croft, Boyce, James Kent, James Nares, Benjamin
Cooke, and Samuel Arnold in the 18th were famous composers of anthems,
and in more recent times the names are too numerous to mention.



ANTHEMION (from the Gr. [Greek: anthemion], a flower), the conventional
design of flower or leaf forms which was largely employed by the Greeks
to decorate (1) the fronts of ante-fixae, (2) the upper portion of the
stele or vertical tombstones, (3) the necking of the Ionic columns of
the Erechtheum and its continuation as a decorative frieze on the walls
of the same, and (4) the cymatium of a cornice. Though generally known
as the honeysuckle ornament, from its resemblance to that flower, its
origin will be found in the flower of the acanthus plant.



ANTHEMIUS, Greek mathematician and architect, who produced, under the
patronage of Justinian (A.D. 532), the original and daring plans for the
church of St Sophia in Constantinople, which strikingly displayed at
once his knowledge and his ignorance. He was one of five brothers--the
sons of Stephanus, a physician of Tralles--who were all more or less
eminent in their respective departments. Dioscorus followed his father's
profession in his native place; Alexander became at Rome one of the most
celebrated medical men of his time; Olympius was deeply versed in Roman
jurisprudence; and Metrodorus was one of the distinguished grammarians
of the great Eastern capital. It is related of Anthemius that, having a
quarrel with his next-door neighbour Zeno, he annoyed him in two ways.
First, he made a number of leathern tubes the ends of which he contrived
to fix among the joists and flooring of a fine upper-room in which Zeno
entertained his friends, and then subjected it to a miniature earthquake
by sending steam through the tubes. Secondly, he simulated thunder and
lightning, the latter by flashing in Zeno's eyes an intolerable light
from a slightly hollowed mirror. Certain it is that he wrote a treatise
on burning-glasses. A fragment of this was published under the title
[Greek: Peri paradoxon maechonaematon] by L. Dupuy in 1777, and also
appeared in 1786 in the forty-second volume of the _Hist. de l'Acad. des
Inscr_.; A. Westermann gave a revised edition of it in his [Greek:
Paradoxographoi] (_Scriptores rerum mirabilium Graeci_), 1839. In the
course of constructions for surfaces to reflect to one and the same
point (1) all rays in whatever direction passing through another point,
(2) a set of parallel rays, Anthemius assumes a property of an ellipse
not found in Apollonius (the equality of the angles subtended at a focus
by two tangents drawn from a point), and (having given the focus and a
double ordinate) he uses the focus and directrix to obtain any number of
points on a parabola--the first instance on record of the practical use
of the directrix.

  On Anthemius generally, see Procopius, _De Aedific_. i. 1; Agathias,
  _Hist_. v. 6-9; _Gibbon's Decline and Fall_, cap. xl.     (T. L. H.)



ANTHESTERIA, one of the four Athenian festivals in honour of Dionysus,
held annually for three days (11th-13th) in the month of Anthesterion
(February-March). The object of the festival was to celebrate the
maturing of the wine stored at the previous vintage, and the beginning
of spring. On the first day, called _Pithoigia_ (opening of the casks),
libations were offered from the newly opened casks to the god of wine,
all the household, including servants and slaves, joining in the
festivities. The rooms and the drinking vessels in them were adorned
with spring flowers, as were also the children over three years of age.
The second day, named _Choës_ (feast of beakers), was a time of
merrymaking. The people dressed themselves gaily, some in the disguise
of the mythical personages in the suite of Dionysus, and paid a round of
visits to their acquaintances. Drinking clubs met to drink off matches,
the winner being he who drained his cup most rapidly. Others poured
libations on the tombs of deceased relatives. On the part of the state
this day was the occasion of a peculiarly solemn and secret ceremony in
one of the sanctuaries of Dionysus in the Lenaeum, which for the rest of
the year was closed. The basilissa (or basilinna), wife of the archon
basileus for the time, went through a ceremony of marriage to the wine
god, in which she was assisted by fourteen Athenian matrons, called
_geraerae_, chosen by the basileus and sworn to secrecy. The days on
which the Pithoigia and Choës were celebrated were both regarded as
[Greek: apophrades] (_nefasti_) and [Greek: miarai] ("defiled"),
necessitating expiatory libations; on them the souls of the dead came up
from the underworld and walked abroad; people chewed leaves of
whitethorn and besmeared their doors with tar to protect themselves from
evil. But at least in private circles the festive character of the
ceremonies predominated. The third day was named _Chytri_ (feast of
pots, from [Greek: chytros], a pot), a festival of the dead. Cooked
pulse was offered to Hermes, in his capacity of a god of the lower
world, and to the souls of the dead. Although no performances were
allowed at the theatre, a sort of rehearsal took place, at which the
players for the ensuing dramatic festival were selected.

The name Anthesteria, according to the account of it given above, is
usually connected with [Greek: anthos] ("flower," or the "bloom" of the
grape), but A.W. Verrall (_Journal of Hellenic Studies_, xx., 1900, p.
115) explains it as a feast of "revocation" (from [Greek:
anathessasthai], to "pray back" or "up"), at which the ghosts of the
dead were recalled to the land of the living (_cp._ the Roman _mundus
patet_). J.E. Harrison (_ibid_. 100, 109, and _Prolegomena_), regarding
the Anthesteria as primarily a festival of all souls, the object of
which was the expulsion of ancestral ghosts by means of placation,
explains [Greek: pithoigia] as the feast of the opening of the graves
([Greek: pithos] meaning a large urn used for burial purposes), [Greek:
choes] as the day of libations, and [Greek: chutroi] as the day of the
grave-holes (not "pots," which is [Greek: chutrai]), in point of time
really anterior to the [Greek: pithoigia]. E. Rohde and M.P. Nilsson,
however, take the [Greek: chutroi] to mean "water vessels," and connect
the ceremony with the Hydrophoria, a libation festival to propitiate the
dead who had perished in the flood of Deucalion.

  See F. Hiller von Gartringen in Pauly-Wissowa's _Realencyclopadie_
  (s.v.); J. Girard in Daremberg and Saglio, _Dictionnaire des
  antiquités_ (s.v. "Dionysia"); and F.A. Voigt in Roscher's _Lexikon
  der Mythologie_ (s.v. "Dionysos"); J.E. Harrison, _Prolegomena to the
  Study of Greek Religion_ (1903); M.P. Nilsson, _Studia de Dionysiis
  Atticis_ (1900) and _Griechische Feste_ (1906); G.F. Schömann,
  _Griechische Alterthümer_, ii. (ed. J.H. Lipsius, 1902), p. 516; A.
  Mommsen, _Feste der Stadt Athen_ (1898); E. Rohde, _Psyche_ (4th ed.,
  1907), p. 237.



ANTHIM THE IBERIAN, a notable figure in the ecclesiastical history of
Rumania. A Georgian by birth, he came to Rumania early in the second
half of the 17th century, as a simple monk. He became bishop of Râmnicu
in 1705, and in 1708 archbishop of Walachia. Taking a leading part in
the political movements of the time, he came into conflict with the
newly appointed Greek hospodars, and was exiled to Rumelia. But on his
crossing the Danube in 1716 he was thrown into the water and drowned, as
it is alleged, at the instigation of the prince of Walachia. He was a
man of great talents and spoke and wrote many Oriental and European
languages. Though a foreigner, he soon acquired a thorough knowledge of
Rumanian, and was instrumental in helping to introduce that language
into the church as its official language. He was a master printer and an
artist of the first order. He cut the wood blocks for the books which he
printed in Tirgovishtea, Râmnicu, Snagov and Bucharest. He was also the
first to introduce Oriental founts of type into Rumania, and he printed
there the first Arabic missal for the Christians of the East (Râmnicu,
1702). He also trained Georgians in the art of printing, and cut the
type with which under his pupil Mihail Ishtvanovitch they printed the
first Georgian Gospels (Tiflis, 1709). A man of great oratorical power,
Anthim delivered a series of sermons (Didahii), and some of his pastoral
letters are models of style and of language as well as of exact and
beautiful printing. He also completed a whole _corpus_ of lectionaries,
missals, gospels, &c.

  See M. Gaster, _Chrestomathie roumaine_ (1881), and "Gesch. d.
  rumänischen Litteratur," in Grober, _Grundriss d. rom. Philologie_,
  vol. ii. (1899); and E. Picot, _Notice sur Anthim d'Ivir_ (Paris,
  1886).     (M. G.)



ANTHOLOGY. The term "anthology," literally denoting a garland or
collection of flowers, is figuratively applied to any selection of
literary beauties, and especially to that great body of fugitive poetry,
comprehending about 4500 pieces, by upwards of 300 writers, which is
commonly known as the _Greek Anthology_.

_Literary History of the Greek Anthology._--The art of occasional poetry
had been cultivated in Greece from an early period,--less, however, as
the vehicle of personal feeling, than as the recognized commemoration of
remarkable individuals or events, on sepulchral monuments and votive
offerings: Such compositions were termed epigrams, i.e. inscriptions.
The modern use of the word is a departure from the original sense, which
simply indicated that the composition was intended to be engraved or
inscribed. Such a composition must necessarily be brief, and the
restraints attendant upon its publication concurred with the simplicity
of Greek taste in prescribing conciseness of expression, pregnancy of
meaning, purity of diction and singleness of thought, as the
indispensable conditions of excellence in the epigrammatic style. The
term was soon extended to any piece by which these conditions were
fulfilled. The transition from the monumental to the purely literary
character of the epigram was favoured by the exhaustion of more lofty
forms of poetry, the general increase, from the general diffusion of
culture, of accomplished writers and tasteful readers, but, above all,
by the changed political circumstances of the times, which induced many
who would otherwise have engaged in public affairs to addict themselves
to literary pursuits. These causes came into full operation during the
Alexandrian era, in which we find every description of epigrammatic
composition perfectly developed. About 60 B.C., the sophist and poet,
Meleager of Gadara, undertook to combine the choicest effusions of his
predecessors into a single body of fugitive poetry. Collections of
monumental inscriptions, or of poems on particular subjects, had
previously been formed by Polemon Periegetes and others; but Meleager
first gave the principle a comprehensive application. His selection,
compiled from forty-six of his predecessors, and including numerous
contributions of his own, was entitled _The Garland_ ([Greek:
Stephanos]); and in an introductory poem each poet is compared to some
flower, fancifully deemed appropriate to his genius. The arrangement of
his collection was alphabetical, according to the initial letter of each
epigram.

In the age of the emperor Tiberius (or Trajan, according to others) the
work of Meleager was continued by another epigrammatist, Philippus of
Thessalonica, who first employed the term anthology. His collection,
which included the compositions of thirteen writers subsequent to
Meleager, was also arranged alphabetically, and contained an
introductory poem. It was of inferior quality to Meleager's. Somewhat
later, under Hadrian, another supplement was formed by the sophist
Diogenianus of Heracleia (2nd century A.D.), and Strato of Sardis
compiled his elegant but tainted [Greek: Mousa Paidikê] (Musa Puerilis)
from his productions and those of earlier writers. No further collection
from various sources is recorded until the time of Justinian, when
epigrammatic writing, especially of an amatory character, experienced a
great revival at the hands of Agathias of Myrina, the historian, Paulus
Silentiarius, and their circle. Their ingenious but mannered productions
were collected by Agathias into a new anthology, entitled _The Circle_
([Greek: Kyklos]); it was the first to be divided into books, and
arranged with reference to the subjects of the pieces.

These and other collections made during the middle ages are now lost.
The partial incorporation of them into a single body, classified
according to the contents in 15 books, was the work of a certain
Constantinus Cephalas, whose name alone is preserved in the single MS.
of his compilation extant, but who probably lived during the temporary
revival of letters under Constantine Porphyrogenitus, at the beginning
of the 10th century. He appears to have merely made excerpts from the
existing anthologies, with the addition of selections from Lucillius,
Palladas, and other epigrammatists, whose compositions had been
published separately. His arrangement, to which we shall have to recur,
is founded on a principle of classification, and nearly corresponds to
that adopted by Agathias. His principle of selection is unknown; it is
only certain that while he omitted much that he should have retained, he
has preserved much that would otherwise have perished. The extent of our
obligations may be ascertained by a comparison between his anthology and
that of the next editor, the monk Maximus Planudes (A.D. 1320), who has
not merely grievously mutilated the anthology of Cephalas by omissions,
but has disfigured it by interpolating verses of his own. We are,
however, indebted to him for the preservation of the epigrams on works
of art, which seem to have been accidentally omitted from our only
transcript of Cephalas.

  The Planudean (in seven books) was the only recension of the anthology
  known at the revival of classical literature, and was first published
  at Florence, by Janus Lascaris, in 1494. It long continued to be the
  only accessible collection, for although the Palatine MS., the sole
  extant copy of the anthology of Cephalas, was discovered in the
  Palatine library at Heidelberg, and copied by Saumaise (Salmasius) in
  1606, it was not published until 1776, when it was included in
  Brunck's _Analecta Veterum Poetarum Graecorum_. The MS. itself had
  frequently changed its quarters. In 1623, having been taken in the
  sack of Heidelberg in the Thirty Years' War, it was sent with the rest
  of the Palatine Library to Rome as a present from Maximilian I. of
  Bavaria to Gregory XV., who had it divided into two parts, the first
  of which was by far the larger; thence it was taken to Paris in 1797.
  In 1816 it went back to Heidelberg, but in an incomplete state, the
  second part remaining at Paris. It is now represented at Heidelberg by
  a photographic facsimile. Brunck's edition was superseded by the
  standard one of Friedrich Jacobs (1794-1814, 13 vols.), the text of
  which was reprinted in a more convenient form in 1813-1817, and
  occupies three pocket volumes in the Tauchnitz series of the classics.
  The best edition for general purposes is perhaps that of Dubner in
  Didot's _Bibliotheca_ (1864-1872), which contains the Palatine
  Anthology, the epigrams of the Planudean Anthology not comprised in
  the former, an appendix of pieces derived from other sources, copious
  notes selected from all quarters, a literal Latin prose translation by
  Boissonade, Bothe, and Lapaume and the metrical Latin versions of Hugo
  Grotius. A third volume, edited by E. Cougny, was published in 1890.
  The best edition of the Planudean Anthology is the splendid one by van
  Bosch and van Lennep (1795-1822). There is also a complete edition of
  the text by Stadlmuller in the Teubner series.

_Arrangement._--The Palatine MS., the archetype of the present text, was
transcribed by different persons at different times, and the actual
arrangement of the collection does not correspond with that signalized
in the index. It is as follows: Book 1. Christian epigrams; 2.
Christodorus's description of certain statues; 3. Inscriptions in the
temple at Cyzicus; 4. The prefaces of Meleager, Philippus, and Agathias
to their respective collections; 5. Amatory epigrams; 6. Votive
inscriptions; 7. Epitaphs; 8. The epigrams of Gregory of Nazianzus; 9.
Rhetorical and illustrative epigrams; 10. Ethical pieces; 11. Humorous
and convivial; 12. Strata's Musa Puerilis; 13. Metrical curiosities; 14.
Puzzles, enigmas, oracles; 15. Miscellanies. The epigrams on works of
art, as already stated, are missing from the _Codex Palatinus_, and must
be sought in an appendix of epigrams only occurring in the Planudean
Anthology. The epigrams hitherto recovered from ancient monuments and
similar sources form appendices in the second and third volumes of
Dübner's edition.

_Style and Value._--One of the principal claims of the Anthology to
attention is derived from its continuity, its existence as a living and
growing body of poetry throughout all the vicissitudes of Greek
civilization. More ambitious descriptions of composition speedily ran
their course, and having attained their complete development became
extinct or at best lingered only in feeble or conventional imitations.
The humbler strains of the epigrammatic muse, on the other hand,
remained ever fresh and animated, ever in intimate union with the spirit
of the generation that gave them birth. To peruse the entire collection,
accordingly, is as it were to assist at the disinterment of an ancient
city, where generation has succeeded generation on the same site, and
each stratum of soil enshrines the vestiges of a distinct epoch, but
where all epochs, nevertheless, combine to constitute an organic whole,
and the transition from one to the other is hardly perceptible. Four
stages may be indicated:--1. The Hellenic proper, of which Simonides of
Ceos (c. 556-469 B.C.), the author of most of the sepulchral
inscriptions on those who fell in the Persian wars, is the
characteristic representative. This is characterized by a simple dignity
of phrase, which to a modern taste almost verges upon baldness, by a
crystalline transparency of diction, and by an absolute fidelity to the
original conception of the epigram. Nearly all the pieces of this era
are actual _bona fide_ inscriptions or addresses to real personages,
whether living or deceased; narratives, literary exercises, and sports
of fancy are exceedingly rare. 2. The epigram received a great
development in its second or Alexandrian era, when its range was so
extended as to include anecdote, satire, and amorous longing; when
epitaphs and votive inscriptions were composed on imaginary persons and
things, and men of taste successfully attempted the same subjects in
mutual emulation, or sat down to compose verses as displays of their
ingenuity. The result was a great gain in richness of style and general
interest, counterbalanced by a falling off in purity of diction and
sincerity of treatment. The modification--a perfectly legitimate one,
the resources of the old style being exhausted--had its real source in
the transformation of political life, but may be said to commence with
and to find its best representative in the playful and elegant Leonidas
of Tarentum, a contemporary of Pyrrhus, and to close with Antipater of
Sidon, about 140 B.C. (or later). It should be noticed, however, that
Callimachus, one of the most distinguished of the Alexandrian poets,
affects the sternest simplicity in his epigrams, and copies the
austerity of Simonides with as much success as an imitator can expect.
3. By a slight additional modification in the same direction, the
Alexandrian passes into what, for the sake of preserving the parallelism
with eras of Greek prose literature, we may call the Roman style,
although the peculiarities of its principal representative are decidedly
Oriental. Meleager of Gadara was a Syrian; his taste was less severe,
and his temperament more fervent than those of his Greek predecessors;
his pieces are usually erotic, and their glowing imagery sometimes
reminds us of the Song of Solomon. The luxuriance of his fancy
occasionally betrays him into far-fetched conceits, and the lavishness
of his epithets is only redeemed by their exquisite felicity. Yet his
effusions are manifestly the offspring of genuine feeling, and his
epitaph on himself indicates a great advance on the exclusiveness of
antique Greek patriotism, and is perhaps the first clear enunciation of
the spirit of universal humanity characteristic of the later Stoic
philosophy. His gaiety and licentiousness are imitated and exaggerated
by his somewhat later contemporary, the Epicurean Philodemus, perhaps
the liveliest of all the epigrammatists; his fancy reappears with
diminished brilliancy in Philodemus's contemporary, Zonas, in
Crinagoras, who wrote under Augustus, and in Marcus Argentarius, of
uncertain date; his peculiar gorgeousness of colouring remains entirely
his own. At a later period of the empire another _genre_, hitherto
comparatively in abeyance, was developed, the satirical. Lucillius, who
flourished under Nero, and Lucian, more renowned in other fields of
literature, display a remarkable talent for shrewd, caustic epigram,
frequently embodying moral reflexions of great cogency, often lashing
vice and folly with signal effect, but not seldom indulging in mere
trivialities, or deformed by scoffs at personal blemishes. This style of
composition is not properly Greek, but Roman; it answers to the modern
definition of epigram, and has hence attained a celebrity in excess of
its deserts. It is remarkable, however, as an almost solitary example of
direct Latin influence on Greek literature. The same style obtains with
Palladas, an Alexandrian grammarian of the 4th century, the last of the
strictly classical epigrammatists, and the first to be guilty of
downright bad taste. His better pieces, however, are characterized by an
austere ethical impressiveness, and his literary position is very
interesting as that of an indignant but despairing opponent of
Christianity. 4. The fourth or Byzantine style of epigrammatic
composition was cultivated by the _beaux-esprits_ of the court of
Justinian. To a great extent this is merely imitative, but the
circumstances of the period operated so as to produce a species of
originality. The peculiarly ornate and _recherché_ diction of Agathias
and his compeers is not a merit in itself, but, applied for the first
time, it has the effect of revivifying an old form, and many of their
new locutions are actual enrichments of the language. The writers,
moreover, were men of genuine poetical feeling, ingenious in invention,
and capable of expressing emotion with energy and liveliness; the
colouring of their pieces is sometimes highly dramatic.

It would be hard to exaggerate the substantial value of the Anthology,
whether as a storehouse of facts bearing on antique manners, customs and
ideas, or as one among the influences which have contributed to mould
the literature of the modern world. The multitudinous votive
inscriptions, serious and sportive, connote the phases of Greek
religious sentiment, from pious awe to irreverent familiarity and
sarcastic scepticism; the moral tone of the nation at various periods is
mirrored with corresponding fidelity; the sepulchral inscriptions admit
us into the inmost sanctuary of family affection, and reveal a depth
and tenderness of feeling beyond the province of the historian to
depict, which we should not have surmised even from the dramatists; the
general tendency of the collection is to display antiquity on its most
human side, and to mitigate those contrasts with the modern world which
more ambitious modes of composition force into relief. The constant
reference to the details of private life renders the Anthology an
inexhaustible treasury for the student of archaeology; art, industry and
costume receive their fullest illustration from its pages. Its influence
on European literatures will be appreciated in proportion to the
inquirer's knowledge of each. The further his researches extend, the
greater will be his astonishment at the extent to which the Anthology
has been laid under contribution for thoughts which have become
household words in all cultivated languages, and at the beneficial
effect of the imitation of its brevity, simplicity, and absolute verbal
accuracy upon the undisciplined luxuriance of modern genius.

  _Translations, Imitations, &c._--The best versions of the Anthology
  ever made are the Latin renderings of select epigrams by Hugo Grotius.
  They have not been printed separately, but will be found in Bosch and
  Lennep's edition of the Planudean _Anthology_, in the Didot edition,
  and in Dr Wellesley's _Anthologia Polyglotta_. The number of more or
  less professed imitations in modern languages is infinite, that of
  actual translations less considerable. French and Italian, indeed, are
  ill adapted to this purpose, from their incapacity of approximating to
  the form of the original, and their poets have usually contented
  themselves with paraphrases or imitations, often exceedingly
  felicitous. F.D. Dehèque's French prose translation, however (1863),
  is most excellent and valuable. The German language alone admits of
  the preservation of the original metre--a circumstance advantageous to
  the German translators, Herder and Jacobs, who have not, however,
  compensated the loss inevitably consequent upon a change of idiom by
  any added beauties of their own. Though unfitted to reproduce the
  precise form, the English language, from its superior terseness, is
  better adapted to preserve the spirit of the original than the German;
  and the comparative ill success of many English translators must be
  chiefly attributed to the extremely low standard of fidelity and
  brevity observed by them. Bland, Merivale, and their associates
  (1806-1813), are often intolerably diffuse and feeble, from want, not
  of ability, but of taking pains. Archdeacon Wrangham's too rare
  versions are much more spirited; and John Sterling's translations of
  the inscriptions of Simonides deserve high praise. Professor Wilson
  (_Blackwood's Magazine_, 1833-1835) collected and commented upon the
  labours of these and other translators, with his accustomed critical
  insight and exuberant geniality, but damaged his essay by burdening it
  with the indifferent attempts of William Hay. In 1849 Dr Wellesley,
  principal of New Inn Hall, Oxford, published his _Anthologia
  Polyglotta_, a most valuable collection of the best translations and
  imitations in all languages, with the original text. In this appeared
  some admirable versions by Goldwin Smith and Dean Merivale, which,
  with the other English renderings extant at the time, will be found
  accompanying the literal prose translation of the _Public School
  Selections_, executed by the Rev. George Burges for Bohn's Classical
  Library (1854). This is a useful volume, but the editor's notes are
  worthless. In 1864 Major R.G. Macgregor published an almost complete
  translation of the Anthology, a work whose stupendous industry and
  fidelity almost redeem the general mediocrity of the execution.
  _Idylls and Epigrams_, by R. Garnett (1869, reprinted 1892 in the
  Cameo series), includes about 140 translations or imitations, with
  some original compositions in the same style. Recent translations
  (selections) are: J.W. Mackail, _Select Epigrams from the Greek
  Anthology_ (with text, introduction, notes, and prose translation),
  1890, revised 1906, a most charming volume; Graham R. Tomson (Mrs
  Marriott Watson), _Selections from the Greek Anthology_ (1889); W.H.D.
  Rouse, _Echo of Greek Song_ (1899); L.C. Perry, _From the Garden of
  Hellas_ (New York, 1891); W.R. Paton, _Love Epigrams_ (1898). An
  agreeable little volume on the Anthology, by Lord Neaves, is one of
  Collins's series of _Ancient Classics for Modern Readers_. The earl of
  Cromer, with all the cares of Egyptian administration upon him, found
  time to translate and publish an elegant volume of selections (1903).
  Two critical contributions to the subject should be noticed, the Rev.
  James Davies's essay on Epigrams in the _Quarterly Review_ (vol.
  cxvii.), especially valuable for its lucid illustration of the
  distinction between Greek and Latin epigram; and the brilliant
  disquisition in J.A. Symonds's _Studies of the Greek Poets_ (1873; 3rd
  ed., 1893).

_Latin Anthology._--The _Latin Anthology_ is the appellation bestowed
upon a collection of fugitive Latin verse, from the age of Ennius to
about A.D. 1000, formed by Peter Burmann the Younger. Nothing
corresponding to the Greek anthology is known to have existed among the
Romans, though professional epigrammatists like Martial published their
volumes on their own account, and detached sayings were excerpted from
authors like Ennius and Publius Syrus, while the _Priapeïa_ were
probably but one among many collections on special subjects. The first
general collection of scattered pieces made by a modern scholar was
Scaliger's _Catalecta veterum Poetarum_ (1573), succeeded by the more
ample one of Pithoeus, _Epigrammata et Poemata e Codicibus et Lapidibus
collecta_ (1590). Numerous additions, principally from inscriptions,
continued to be made, and in 1759-1773 Burmann digested the whole into
his _Anthologia veterum Latinorum Epigrammatum et Poematum_. This,
occasionally reprinted, was the standard edition until 1869, when
Alexander Riese commenced a new and more critical recension, from which
many pieces improperly inserted by Burmann are rejected, and his
classified arrangement is discarded for one according to the sources
whence the poems have been derived. The first volume contains those
found in MSS., in the order of the importance of these documents; those
furnished by inscriptions following. The first volume (in two parts)
appeared in 1869-1870, a second edition of the first part in 1894, and
the second volume, _Carmina Epigraphica_ (in two parts), in 1895-1897,
edited by F. Bücheler. An _Anthologiae Latinae Supplementa_, in the same
series, followed. Having been formed by scholars actuated by no
aesthetic principles of selection, but solely intent on preserving
everything they could find, the Latin anthology is much more
heterogeneous than the Greek, and unspeakably inferior. The really
beautiful poems of Petronius and Apuleius are more properly inserted in
the collected editions of their writings, and more than half the
remainder consists of the frigid conceits of pedantic professional
exercises of grammarians of a very late period of the empire, relieved
by an occasional gem, such as the apostrophe of the dying Hadrian to his
spirit, or the epithalamium of Gallienus. The collection is also, for
the most part, too recent in date, and too exclusively literary in
character, to add much to our knowledge of classical antiquity. The
epitaphs are interesting, but the genuineness of many of them is very
questionable.     (R. G.)



ANTHON, CHARLES (1797-1867), American classical scholar, was born in New
York city on the 19th of November 1797. After graduating with honours at
Columbia College in 1815, he began the study of law, and in 1819 was
admitted to the bar, but never practised. In 1820 he was appointed
assistant professor of Greek and Latin in his old college, full
professor ten years later, and at the same time headmaster of the
grammar school attached to the college, which post he held until 1864.
He died at New York on the 29th of July 1867. He produced for use in
colleges and schools a large number of classical works, which enjoyed
great popularity, although his editions of classical authors were by no
means in favour with schoolmasters, owing to the large amount of
assistance, especially translations, contained in the notes.



ANTHONY, SAINT, the first Christian monk, was born in Egypt about 250.
At the age of twenty he began to practise an ascetical life in the
neighbourhood of his native place, and after fifteen years of this life
he withdrew into solitude to a mountain by the Nile, called Pispir, now
Der el Memun, opposite Arsinoë in the Fayum. Here he lived strictly
enclosed in an old fort for twenty years. At last in the early years of
the 4th century he emerged from his retreat and set himself to organize
the monastic life of the crowds of monks who had followed him and taken
up their abode in the caves around him. After a time, again in pursuit
of more complete solitude, he withdrew to the mountain by the Red Sea,
where now stands the monastery that bears his name (Der Mar Antonios).
Here he died about the middle of the 4th century. His _Life_ states that
on two occasions he went to Alexandria, to strengthen the Christians in
the Diocletian persecution and to preach against Arianism. Anthony is
recognized as the first Christian monk and the first organizer and
father of Christian monachism (see MONASTICISM). Certain letters and
sermons are attributed to him, but their authenticity is more than
doubtful. The monastic rule which bears his name was not written by him,
but was compiled out of these writings and out of discourses and
utterances put into his mouth in the _Life_ and the _Apophthegmata
Patrum_. According to this rule live a number of Coptic Syrian and
Armenian monks to this day. The chief source of information about St
Anthony is the _Life_, attributed to St Athanasius. This attribution, as
also the historical character of the book, and even the very existence
of St Anthony, were questioned and denied by the sceptical criticism of
thirty years ago; but such doubts are no longer entertained by critical
scholars.

  The Greek _Vita_ is among the works of St Athanasius; the almost
  contemporary Latin translation is among Rosweyd's _Vitae Patrum_
  (Migne, _Patrol. Lat_. lxxiii.); an English translation is in the
  Athanasius volume of the "Nicene and Post-Nicene Library." Accounts of
  St Anthony are given by Card. Newman, _Church of the Fathers_
  (Historical Sketches) and Alban Butler, _Lives of the Saints_ (Jan.
  17). Discussions of the historical and critical questions raised will
  be found in E.C. Butler's _Lausiac History of Palladius_ (1898, 1904),
  Part I. pp. 197, 215-228; Part II. pp. ix.-xii.     (E. C. B.)



ANTHONY OF PADUA, SAINT (1195-1231), the most celebrated of the
followers of Saint Francis of Assisi, was born at Lisbon on the 15th of
August 1195. In his fifteenth year he entered the Augustinian order, and
subsequently joined the Franciscans in 1220. He wished to devote himself
to missionary labours in North Africa, but the ship in which he sailed
was cast by a storm on the coast of Sicily, whence he made his way to
Italy. He taught theology at Bologna, Toulouse, Montpellier and Padua,
and won a great reputation as a preacher throughout Italy. He was the
leader of the rigorous party in the Franciscan order against the
mitigations introduced by the general Elias. His death took place at the
convent of Ara Coeli, near Padua, on the 13th of June 1231. He was
canonized by Gregory IX. in the following year, and his festival is kept
on the 13th of June. He is regarded as the patron saint of Padua and of
Portugal, and is appealed to by devout clients for finding lost objects.
The meagre accounts of his life which we possess have been supplemented
by numerous popular legends, which represent him as a continuous worker
of miracles, and describe his marvellous eloquence by pictures of fishes
leaping out of the water to hear him. There are many confraternities
established in his honour throughout Christendom, and the number of
"pious" biographies devoted to him would fill many volumes.

  The most trustworthy modern works are by A. Lepître, _St Antoine de
  Padoue_ (Paris, 1902, in _Les Saints_ series: good bibliography; Eng.
  trans. by Edith Guest, London, 1902), and by Léopold de Chérancé, _St
  Antoine de Padoue_ (Paris, 1895; Eng. trans., London, 1896). His
  works, consisting of sermons and a mystical commentary on the Bible,
  were published in an appendix to those of St Francis, in the _Annales
  Minorum_ of Luke Wadding (Antwerp, 1623), and are also reproduced by
  Horoy, _Medii aevi bibliotheca patristica_ (1880, vi. pp. 555 et
  sqq.); see art. "Antonius von Padua" in Herzog-Hauck,
  _Realencyklopadie_.



ANTHONY, SUSAN BROWNELL (1820-1906), American reformer, was born at
Adams, Massachusetts, on the 15th of February 1820, the daughter of
Quakers. Soon after her birth, her family moved to the state of New
York, and after 1845 she lived in Rochester. She received her early
education in a school maintained by her father for his own and
neighbours' children, and from the time she was seventeen until she was
thirty-two she taught in various schools. In the decade preceding the
outbreak of the Civil War she took a prominent part in the anti-slavery
and temperance movements in New York, organizing in 1852 the first
woman's state temperance society in America, and in 1856 becoming the
agent for New York state of the American Anti-slavery Society. After
1854 she devoted herself almost exclusively to the agitation for woman's
rights, and became recognized as one of the ablest and most zealous
advocates, both as a public speaker and as a writer, of the complete
legal equality of the two sexes. From 1868 to 1870 she was the
proprietor of a weekly paper, _The Revolution_, published in New York,
edited by Mrs Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and having for its motto, "The
true republic--men, their rights and nothing more; women, their rights
and nothing less." She was vice-president-at-large of the National
Woman's Suffrage Association from the date of its organization in 1869
until 1892, when she became president. For casting a vote in the
presidential election of 1872, as, she asserted, the Fourteenth
Amendment to the Federal Constitution entitled her to do, she was
arrested and fined $100, but she never paid the fine. In collaboration
with Mrs Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Mrs Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Mrs Ida
Husted Harper, she published _The History of Woman Suffrage_ (4 vols.,
New York, 1884-1887). She died at Rochester, New York, on the 13th of
March 1906.

  See Mrs Ida Husted Harper's _Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony_ (3
  vols., Indianapolis, 1898-1908).



ANTHOZOA (i.e. "flower-animals"), the zoological name for a class of
marine polyps forming "coral" (q.v.). Although corals have been familiar
objects since the days of antiquity, and the variety known as the
precious red coral has been for a long time an article of commerce in
the Mediterranean, it was only in the 18th century that their true
nature and structure came to be understood. By the ancients and the
earlier naturalists of the Christian era they were regarded either as
petrifactions or as plants, and many supposed that they occupied a
position midway between minerals and plants. The discovery of the animal
nature of red coral is due to J.A. de Peyssonel, a native of Marseilles,
who obtained living specimens from the coral fishers on the coast of
Barbary and kept them alive in aquaria. He was thus able to see that the
so-called "flowers of coral" were in fact nothing else than minute
polyps resembling sea-anemones. His discovery, made in 1727, was
rejected by the Academy of Sciences of France, but eventually found
acceptance at the hands of the Royal Society of London, and was
published by that body in 1751. The structure and classification of
polyps, however, were at that time very imperfectly understood, and it
was fully a century before the true anatomical characters and systematic
position of corals were placed on a secure basis.

The hard calcareous substance to which the name coral is applied is the
supporting skeleton of certain members of the _Anthozoa_, one of the
classes of the phylum Coelentera. The most familiar Anthozoan is the
common sea-anemone, _Actinia equina_, L., and it will serve, although it
does not form a skeleton or _corallum_, as a good example of the
structure of a typical Anthozoan polyp or zooid. The individual animal
or zooid of _Actinia equina_ has the form of a column fixed by one
extremity, called the _base_, to a rock or other object, and bearing at
the opposite extremity a crown of _tentacles_. The tentacles surround an
area known as the _peristome_, in the middle of which there is an
elongated mouth-opening surrounded by tumid lips. The mouth does not
open directly into the general cavity of the body, as is the case in a
hydrozoan polyp, but into a short tube called the _stomodaeum_, which in
its turn opens below into the general body-cavity or _coelenteron_. In
Actinia and its allies, and most generally, though not invariably, in
Anthozoa, the stomodaeum is not circular, but is compressed from side to
side so as to be oval or slit-like in transverse section. At each end of
the oval there is a groove lined by specially long vibratile cilia.
These grooves are known as the _sulcus_ and _sulculus_, and will be more
particularly described hereafter. The elongation of the mouth and
stomodaeum confer a bilateral symmetry on the body of the zooid, which
is extended to other organs of the body. In Actinia, as in all Anthozoan
zooids, the coelenteron is not a simple cavity, as in a Hydroid, but is
divided by a number of radial folds or curtains of soft tissue into a
corresponding number of radial chambers. These radial folds are known as
_mesenteries_, and their position and relations may be understood by
reference to figs. 1 and 2. Each mesentery is attached by its upper
margin to the peristome, by its outer margin to the body-wall, and by
its lower margin to the basal disk. A certain number of mesenteries,
known as complete mesenteries, are attached by the upper parts of their
internal margins to the stomodaeum, but below this level their edges
hang in the coelenteron. Other mesenteries, called incomplete, are not
attached to the stomodaeum, and their internal margins are free from the
peristome to the basal disk. The lower part of the free edge of every
mesentery, whether complete or incomplete, is thrown into numerous
puckers or folds, and is furnished with a glandular thickening known as
a _mesenterial filament_. The reproductive organs or gonads are borne
on the mesenteries, the germinal cells being derived from the inner
layer or endoderm.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. Diagrammatic longitudinal section of an Anthozoan
zooid,

  m, Mesentery.             s, Stoma.
  t, Tentacles.             lm, Longitudinal muscle.
  st, Stomodaeum.           d, Diagonal Muscle.
  sc, Sulcus.               go, Gonads.
  r, Rotteken's muscle.]

In common with all Coelenterate animals, the walls of the columnar body
and also the tentacles and peristome of Actinia are composed of three
layers of tissue. The external layer, or ectoderm, is made up of cells,
and contains also muscular and nervous elements. The preponderating
elements of the ectodermic layer are elongated columnar cells, each
containing a nucleus, and bearing cilia at their free extremities.
Packed in among these are _gland cells, sense cells_, and _cnidoblasts_.
The last-named are specially numerous on the tentacles and on some other
regions of the body, and produce the well-known "thread cells," or
_nematocysts_, so characteristic of the Coelentera. The inner layer or
endoderm is also a cellular layer, and is chiefly made up of columnar
cells, each bearing a cilium at its free extremity and terminating
internally in a long muscular fibre. Such cells, made up of epithelial
and muscular components, are known as epithelio-muscular or
myo-epithelial cells. In Actinians the epithelio-muscular cells of the
endoderm are crowded with yellow spherical bodies, which are unicellular
plants or Algae, living symbiotically in the tissues of the zooid. The
endoderm contains in addition gland cells and nervous elements. The
middle layer or mesogloea is not originally a cellular layer, but a
gelatinoid structureless substance, secreted by the two cellular layers.
In the course of development, however, cells from the ectoderm and
endoderm may migrate into it. In _Actinia equina_ the mesogloea consists
of fine fibres imbedded in a homogeneous matrix, and between the fibres
are minute branched or spindle-shaped cells. For further details of the
structure of Actinians, the reader should consult the work of O. and R.
Hertwig.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--1, Portion of epithelium from the tentacle of an
Actinian, showing three supporting cells and one sense cell (sc); 2, a
cnidoblast with enclosed nematocyst from the same specimen; 3 and 4 two
forms of gland cell from the stomodaeum; 5a, 5b, epithelio-muscular
cells from the tentacle in different states of contraction; 5c, an
epithelio-muscular cell from the endoderm, containing a symbiotic
zooxanthella; 6, a ganglion cell from the ectoderm of the peristome.
(After O. and R. Hertwig.)]

The Anthozoa are divisible into two sub-classes, sharply marked off from
one another by definite anatomical characters. These are the ALCYONARIA
and the ZOANTHARIA. To the first-named belong the precious red coral and
its allies, the sea-fans or Gorgoniae, to the second belong the white or
Madreporarian corals.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--An expanded Alcyonarian zooid, showing the mouth
surrounded by eight pinnate tentacles. st, Stomodaeum in the the centre
of the transparent body; m, mesenteries; asm, asulcar mesenteries; B,
spicules, enlarged.]

  Alcyonaria.--In this sub-class the zooid has very constant anatomical
  characters, differing in some important respects from the Actinian
  zooid, which has been taken as a type. There is only one ciliated
  groove, the sulcus, in the stomodaeum. There are always eight
  tentacles, which are hollow and fringed on their sides, with hollow
  projections or pinnae; and always eight mesenteries, all of which are
  complete, i.e. inserted on the stomodaeum. The mesenteries are
  provided with well-developed longitudinal retractor muscles, supported
  on longitudinal folds or plaits of the mesogloea, so that in
  cross-section they have a branched appearance. These _muscle-banners_,
  as they are called, have a highly characteristic arrangement; they are
  all situated on those faces of the mesenteries which look towards the
  sulcus. (fig. 4). Each mesentery has a filament; but two of them,
  namely, the pair farthest from the sulcus, are longer than the rest,
  and have a different form of filament. It has been shown that these
  asulcar filaments are derived from the ectoderm, the remainder from
  the endoderm. The only exceptions to this structure are found in the
  arrested or modified zooids, which occur in many of the colonial
  Alcyonaria. In these the tentacles are stunted or suppressed and the
  mesenteries are ill-developed, but the sulcus is unusually large and
  has long cilia. Such modified zooids are called siphonozooids, their
  function being to drive currents of fluid through the canal-systems of
  the colonies to which they belong. With very few exceptions a
  calcareous skeleton is present in all Alcyonaria; it usually consists
  of spicules of carbonate of lime, each spicule being formed within an
  ectodermic cell (fig. 3, B). Most commonly the spicule-forming cells
  pass out of the ectoderm and are imbedded in the mesogloea, where they
  may remain separate from one another or may be fused together to form
  a strong mass. In addition to the spicular skeleton an organic horny
  skeleton is frequently present, either in the form of a horny external
  investment (_Cornularia_), or an internal axis (_Gorgonia_), or it may
  form a matrix in which spicules are imbedded (_Keroeides, Meistodes_).

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--Transverse section of an Alcyonarian zooid mm,
  Mesenteries; mb, muscle banners; sc, sulcus; st, stomodaeum.]

  Nearly all the Alcyonaria are colonial. Four solitary species have
  been described, viz. _Haimea funebris_ and _H. hyalina, Hartea
  elegans_, and _Monoxenia Darwinii_; but it is doubtful whether these
  are not the young forms of colonies. For the present the solitary
  forms may be placed in a grade, _Protal-cyonacea_, and the colonial
  forms may be grouped in another grade, _Synalcyonacea_. Every
  Alcyonarian colony is developed by budding from a single parent zooid.
  The buds are not direct outgrowths of the body-wall, but are formed on
  the courses of hollow out growths of the base or body-wall, called
  _solenia_. These form a more or less complicated canal system, lined
  by endoderm, and communicating with the cavities of the zooids. The
  most simple form of budding is found in the genus _Cornularia_, in
  which the mother zooid gives off from its base one or more simple
  radiciform outgrowths. Each outgrowth contains a single tube or
  solenium, and at a longer or shorter distance from the mother zooid a
  daughter zooid is formed as a bud. This gives off new outgrowths, and
  these, branching and anastomosing with one another, may form a
  network, adhering to stones, corals, or other objects, from which
  zooids arise at intervals. In _Clavularia_ and its allies each
  outgrowth contains several solenia, and the outgrowths may take the
  form of flat expansions, composed of a number of solenial tubes felted
  together to form a lamellar surface of attachment. Such outgrowths are
  called _stolons_, and a stolon may be simple, i.e. contain only one
  solenium, as in _Cornularia_, or may be complex and built up of many
  solenia, as in _Clavularia_. Further complications arise when the
  lower walls of the mother zooid become thickened and interpenetrated
  with solenia, from which buds are developed, so that lobose, tufted,
  or branched colonies are formed. The chief orders of the Synalcyonacea
  are founded upon the different architectural features of colonies
  produced by different modes of budding. We recognize six orders--the
  STOLONIFERA, ALCYONACEA, PSEUDAXONIA, AXIFERA, STELECHOTOKEA, and
  CORNOTHECALIA.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.

  A. Skeleton of a young colony of _Tubipora purpurea_. st, Stolon; p,
  platform.

  B. Diagrammatic longitudinal section of a corallite, showing two
  platforms, p and cup-shaped tabulae, t. (After S.J. Hickson.)]

  In the order STOLONIRERA the zooids spring at intervals from branching
  or lamellar stolons, and are usually free from one another, except at
  their bases, but in some cases horizontal solenia arising at various
  heights from the body-wall may place the more distal portions of the
  zooids in communication with one another. In the genus _Tubipora_
  these horizontal solenia unite to form a series of horizontal
  platforms (fig. 5). The order comprises the families _Cornulamdae,
  Syringopordae, Tubipondae_, and _Favositidae_. In the first-named, the
  zooids are united only by their bases and the skeleton consists of
  loose spicules. In the _Tubipondae_ the spicules of the proximal part
  of the body-wall are fused together to form a firm tube, the
  corallite, into which the distal part of the zooid can be retracted.
  The corallites are connected at intervals by horizontal platforms
  containing solenia, and at the level of each platform the cavity of
  the corallite is divided by a transverse calcareous partition, either
  flat or cup-shaped, called a _tabula_. Formerly all corals in which
  tabulae are present were classed together as Tabulata, but Tubipora is
  an undoubted Alcyonarian with a lamellar stolon, and the structure of
  the fossil genus Syringopora, which has vertical corallites united by
  horizontal solenia, clearly shows its affinity to Tubipora. The
  Favositidae, a fossil family from the Silurian and Devonian, have a
  massive corallum composed of numerous polygonal corallites closely
  packed together. The cavities of adjacent corallites communicate by
  means of numerous perforations, which appear to represent solenia, and
  numerous transverse tabulae are also present. In _Favosites
  hemisphaerica_ a number of radial spines, projecting into the cavity
  of the corallite, give it the appearance of a madreporarian coral.

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.--Portion of a colony of _Coralinum rubrum_,
  showing expanded and contracted zooids. In the lower part of the
  figure the cortex has been cut away to show the _axis_, ax, and the
  longitudinal canals, lc, surrounding it.]

  In the order ALCYONACEA the colony consists of bunches of elongate
  cylindrical zooids, whose proximal portions are united by solenia and
  compacted, by fusion of their own walls and those of the solenia, into
  a fleshy mass called the coenenchyma. Thus the coenenchyma forms a
  stem, sometimes branched, from the surface of which the free portions
  of the zooids project. The skeleton of the Alcyonacea consists of
  separate calcareous spicules, which are often, especially in the
  Nephthyidae, so abundant and so closely interlocked as to form a
  tolerably firm and hard armour. The order comprises the families
  _Xeniidae, Alcyonidae_ and _Nephthyidae_. _Alcyonium digitatum_, a
  pink digitate form popularly known as "dead men's fingers," is common
  in 10-20 fathoms of water off the English coasts.

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.--The sea-fan (_Gorgonia cavolinii_).]

  In the order PSEUDAXONIA the colonies are upright and branched,
  consisting of a number of short zooids whose proximal ends are
  imbedded in a coenenchyma containing numerous ramifying solenia and
  spicules. The coenenchyma is further differentiated into a medullary
  portion and a cortex. The latter contains the proximal moieties of the
  zooids and numerous but separate spicules. The medullary portion is
  densely crowded with spicules of different shape from those in the
  cortex, and in some forms the spicules are cemented together to form a
  hard supporting axis. There are four families of Pseudaxonia--the
  _Briareidae, Sclerogorgidae, Melitodidae_, and _Corallidae_. In the
  first-named the medulla is penetrated by solenia and forms an
  indistinct axis; in the remainder the medulla is devoid of solenia,
  and in the _Melitodidae_ and _Corallidae_ it forms a dense axis, which
  in the _Melitodidae_ consists of alternate calcareous and horny
  joints. The precious red coral of commerce, _Corallium rubrum_ (fig.
  6), a member of the family _Corallidae_, is found at depths varying
  from 15 to 120 fathoms the Mediterranean Sea, chiefly on the African
  coast. It owes its commercial value to the beauty of its hard red
  calcareous axis which in life is covered by a cortex in which the
  proximal moieties of the zooids are imbedded. _Corallium rubrum_ has
  been the subject of a beautifully-illustrated memoir by de
  Lacaze-Duthiers, which should be consulted for details of anatomy.

  The AXIFERA comprise those corals that have a horny or calcified axis,
  which in position corresponds to the axis of the Pscudaxonia, but,
  unlike it, is never formed of fused spicules; the most familiar
  example is the pink sea-fan, _Gorgonia cavolinii_, which is found in
  abundance in 10-25 fathoms of water off the English coasts (fig. 7).
  In this order the axis is formed as an ingrowth of the ectoderm of the
  base of the mother zooid of the colony, the cavity of the ingrowth
  being filled by a horny substance secreted by the ectoderm. In
  _Gorgonia_ the axis remains horny throughout life, but in many forms
  it is further strengthened by a deposit of calcareous matter In the
  family _Isidinae_ the axis consists of alternate segments of horny and
  calcareous substance, the latter being amorphous. The order contains
  six families--the _Dasygorgidae, Isidae, Primnoidae, Muriceidae,
  Plexauridae_, and _Gorgoniaae_.

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.

  A. Colony of _Pennatula phosphorea_ from the metarachidial aspect. p,
  The peduncle.

  B. Section of the rachis bearing a single pinna, a, Axis; b,
  metarachidial; c, prorachidial; d, pararachidial stem canals.]

  In the order STELECHOTOKEA the colony consists of a stem formed by a
  greatly-elongated mother zooid, and the daughter zooids are borne as
  lateral buds on the stem. In the section _Asiphonacea_ the colonies
  are upright and branched, springing from membranous or ramifying
  stolons. They resemble and are closely allied to certain families of
  the Cornulariidae, differing from them only in mode of budding and in
  the dispostion of the daughter zooids round a central, much-elongated
  mother zooid. The section contains two families, the _Telestidae_ and
  the _Coelogorgidae_. The second section comprises the _Pennatulacea_
  or sea-pens, which are remarkable from the fact that the colony is not
  fixed by the base to a rock or other object, but is imbedded in sand
  or mud by the proximal portion of the stem known as the peduncle. In
  the typical genus, Pennatula (fig. 8), the colony looks like a feather
  having a stem divisible into an upper moiety or rachis, bearing
  lateral central leaflets (pinnae), and a lower peduncle, which is
  sterile and imbedded in sand or mud. The stem represents a greatly
  enlarged and elongated mother zooid. It is divided longitudinally by a
  partition separating a so-called "ventral" or prorachidial canal from
  a so-called "dorsal" or metarachidial canal. A rod-like supporting
  axis of peculiar texture is developed in the longitudinal partition,
  and a longitudinal canal is hollowed out on either side of the axis in
  the substance of the longitudinal partition, so that there are four
  stem-canals in all. The prorachidial and metarachidial aspects of the
  rachis are sterile, but the sides or pararachides bear numerous
  daughter zooids of two kinds--(1) fully-formed autozooids, (2) small
  stunted siphonozooids. The pinnae are formed by the elongated
  autozooids, whose proximal portions are fused together to form a
  leaf-like expansion, from the upper edge of which the distal
  extremities of the zooids project. The siphonozooids are very numerous
  and lie between the bases at the pinnae on the pararachides; they
  extend also on the prorachidial and metarachidial surfaces. The
  calcareous skeleton of the Pennatulacea consists of scattered
  spicules, but in one species, _Protocaulon molle_, spicules are
  absent. Although of great interest the Pennatulacea do not form an
  enduring skeleton or "coral," and need not be considered in detail in
  this place.

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.

  A, Portion of the surface of a colony of _Heliopora coerulea_
  magnified, showing two calices and the surrounding coenenchymal tubes.

  B, Single zooid with the adjacent soft tissues as seen after removal
  of the skeleton by decalcification. Z¹, the distal, and Z², the
  proximal or intracalicular portion of the zooid; ec, ectoderm; ct,
  coenenchymal tubes; sp, superficial network of solenia.]

  The order COENOTHECALIA is represented by a single living species,
  _Heliopora coerulea_, which differs from all recent Alcyonaria in the
  fact that its skeleton is not composed of spicules, but is formed as a
  secretion from a layer of cells called calicoblasts, which originate
  from the ectoderm. The corallum of Heliopora is of a blue colour, and
  has the form of broad, upright, lobed, or digitate masses flattened
  from side to side. The surfaces are pitted all over with perforations
  of two kinds, viz. larger star-shaped cavities, called _calices_, in
  which the zooids are lodged, and very numerous smaller round or
  polygonal apertures, which in life contain as many short unbranched
  tubes, known as the _coenenchymal tubes_ (fig. 9, A). The walls of the
  calices and coenenchymal tubes are formed of flat plates of calcite,
  which are so disposed that the walls of one tube enter into the
  composition of the walls of adjacent tubes, and the walls of the
  calices are formed by the walls of adjacent coenenchymal tubes. Thus
  the architecture of the Helioporid colony differs entirely from such
  forms as Tubipora or Favosites, in which each corallite has its own
  distinct and proper wall. The cavities both of the calices and
  coenenchymal tubes of Heliopora are closed below by horizontal
  partitions or _tabulae_, hence the genus was formerly included in the
  group Tabulata, and was supposed to belong to the madreporarian
  corals, both because of its lamellar skeleton, which resembles that of
  a Madrepore, and because each calicle has from twelve to fifteen
  radial partitions or septa projecting into its cavity. The structure
  of the zooid of Heliopora, however, is that of a typical Alcyonarian,
  and the septa have only a resemblance to, but no real homology with,
  the similarly named structures in madreporarian corals. _Heliopora
  coerulea_ is found between tide-marks on the shore platforms of coral
  islands. The order was more abundantly represented in Palaeozoic times
  by the _Heliolitidae_ from the Upper and Lower Silurian and the
  Devonian, and by the _Thecidae_ from the Wenlock limestone. In
  _Heliolites porosus_ the colonies had the form of spheroidal masses;
  the calices were furnished with twelve pseudosepta, and the
  coenenchymal tubes were more or less regularly hexagonal.

  [Illustration with caption: FIG. 10.

  A, _Edwardsia claparedii_ (after A. Andres). Cap, capitulum; sc,
  scapus; ph, physa.

  B, Transverse section of the same, showing the arrangement of the
  mesenteries, s, Sulcus; sl, sulculus.

  C, Transverse section of _Halcampa_. d, d, Directive mesenteries; st,
  stomodaeum.]

  Zoantharia.--In this sub-class the arrangement of the mesenteries is
  subject to a great deal of variation, but all the types hitherto
  observed may be referred to a common plan, illustrated by the living
  genus _Edwardsia_ (fig. 10, A, B). This is a small solitary
  Zoantharian which lives embedded in sand. Its body is divisible into
  three portions, an upper _capitulum_ bearing the mouth and tentacles,
  a median _scapus_ covered by a friable cuticle, and a terminal physa
  which is rounded. Both capitulum and physa can be retracted within the
  scapus. There are from sixteen to thirty-two simple tentacles, but
  only eight mesenteries, all of which are complete. The stomodaeum is
  compressed laterally, and is furnished with two longitudinal grooves,
  a sulcus and a sulculus. The arrangement of the muscle-banners on the
  mesenteries is characteristic. On six of the mesenteries the
  muscle-banners have the same position as in the Alcyonaria, namely, on
  the sulcar faces; but in the two remaining mesenteries, namely, those
  which are attached on either side of the sulcus, the muscle-banners
  are on the opposite or sulcular faces. It is not known whether all the
  eight mesenteries of _Edwardsia_ are developed simultaneously or not,
  but in the youngest form which has been studied all the eight
  mesenteries were present, but only two of them, namely the
  sulco-laterals, bore mesenterial filaments, and so it is presumed that
  they are the first pair to be developed. In the common sea-anemone,
  _Actinia equina_ (which has already been quoted as a type of Anthozoan
  structure), the mesenteries are numerous and are arranged in cycles.
  The mesenteries of the first cycle are complete (i.e. are attached to
  the stomodaeum), are twelve in number, and arranged in couples,
  distinguishable by the position of the muscle-banners. In the four
  couples of mesenteries which are attached to the sides of the
  elongated stomodaeum the muscle-banners of each couple are turned
  towards one another, but in the sulcar and sulcular couples, known as
  the directive mesenteries, the muscle-banners are on the outer faces
  of the mesenteries, and so are turned away from one another (see fig.
  10, C). The space enclosed between two mesenteries of the same couple
  is called an _entocoele_; the space enclosed between two mesenteries
  of adjacent couples is called an _exocoele_. The second cycle of
  mesenteries consists of six couples, each formed in an exocoele of the
  primary cycle, and in each couple the muscle-banners are _vis-à-vis_.
  The third cycle comprises twelve couples, each formed in an exocoele
  between the primary and secondary couples and so on, it being a
  general rule (subject, however, to exceptions) that new mesenterial
  couples are always formed in the exocoeles, and not in the entocoeles.

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.--A, Diagram showing the sequence of
  mesenterial development in an Actinian. B, Diagrammatic transverse
  section of _Gonactinia prolifera_.]

  While the mesenterial couples belonging to the second and each
  successive cycle are formed simultaneously, those of the first cycle
  are formed in successive pairs, each member of a pair being placed on
  opposite sides of the stomodaeum. Hence the arrangement in six couples
  is a secondary and not a primary feature. In most Actinians the
  mesenteries appear in the following order:--At the time when the
  stomodaeum is formed, a single pair of mesenteries, marked I, I in the
  diagram (fig. 11, A), makes its appearance, dividing the coelenteric
  cavity into a smaller sulcar and a large sulcular chamber. The
  muscle-banners of this pair are placed on the sulcar faces of the
  mesenteries. Next, a pair of mesenteries, marked II, II in the
  diagram, is developed in the sulcular chamber, its muscle-banners
  facing the same way as those of I, I. The third pair is formed in the
  sulcar chamber, in close connexion with the sulcus, and in this case
  the muscle-banners are on the _sulcular_ faces. The fourth pair,
  having its muscle-banners on the sulcar faces, is developed at the
  opposite extremity of the stomodaeum in close connexion with the
  sulculus. There are now eight mesenteries present, having exactly the
  same arrangement as in Edwardsia. A pause in the development follows,
  during which no new mesenteries are formed, and then the six-rayed
  symmetry characteristic of a normal Actinian zooid is completed by the
  formation of the mesenteries V, V in the lateral chambers, and VI, VI
  in the sulco-lateral chambers, their muscle-banners being so disposed
  that they form couples respectively with II, II and I, I. In _Actinia
  equina_ the Edwardsia stage is arrived at somewhat differently. The
  mesenteries second in order of formation form the sulcular directives,
  those fourth in order of formation form with the fifth the
  sulculo-lateral couples of the adult.

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.

  A, Zoanthid colony, showing the expanded zooids.

  B, Diagram showing the arrangement of mesenteries in a young Zoanthid.

  C, Diagram showing the arrangement of mesenteries in an adult
  Zoanthid. 1, 2, 3, 4, Edwardsian mesenteries.]

  As far as the anatomy of the zooid is concerned, the majority of the
  stony or madreporarian corals agree exactly with the soft-bodied
  Actinians, such as _Actinia equina_, both in the number and
  arrangement of the adult mesenteries and in the order of development
  of the first cycle. The few exceptions will be dealt with later, but
  it may be stated here that even in these the first cycle of six
  couples of mesenteries is always formed, and in all the cases which
  have been examined the course of development described above is
  followed. There are, however, several groups of Zoantharia in which
  the mesenterial arrangement of the adult differs widely from that just
  described. But it is possible to refer all these cases with more or
  less certainty to the Edwardsian type.

  The order ZOANTHIDEA comprises a number of soft-bodied Zoantharians
  generally encrusted with sand. Externally they resemble ordinary
  sea-anemones, but there is only one ciliated groove, the sulcus, in
  the stomodaeum, and the mesenteries are arranged on a peculiar
  pattern. The first twelve mesenteries are disposed in couples, and do
  not differ from those of Actinia except in size. The mesenterial pairs
  I, II and III are attached to the stomodaeum, and are called
  macromesenteries (fig. 12, B), but IV, V and VI are much shorter, and
  are called micromesenteries. The subsequent development is peculiar to
  the group. New mesenteries are formed only in the sulco-lateral
  exocoeles. They are formed in couples, each couple consisting of a
  macromesentery and a micromesentery, disposed so that the former is
  nearest to the sulcar directives. The derivation of the Zoanthidea
  from an Edwardsia form is sufficiently obvious.

  The order CERIANTHIDEA comprises a few soft-bodied Zoantharians with
  rounded aboral extremities pierced by pores. They have two circlets of
  tentacles, a labial and a marginal, and there is only one ciliated
  groove in the stomodaeum, which appears to be the sulculus. The
  mesenteries are numerous, and the longitudinal muscles, though
  distinguishable, are so feebly developed that there are no
  muscle-banners. The larval forms of the type genus _Cerianthus_ float
  freely in the sea, and were once considered to belong to a separate
  genus, _Arachnactis_. In this larva four pairs of mesenteries having
  the typical Edwardsian arrangement are developed, but the fifth and
  sixth pairs, instead of forming couples with the first and second,
  arise in the sulcar chamber, the fifth pair inside the fourth, and the
  sixth pair inside the fifth. New mesenteries are continually added in
  the sulcar chamber, the seventh pair within the sixth, the eighth pair
  within the seventh, and so on (fig. 13). In the Cerianthidea, as in
  the Zoanthidea, much as the adult arrangement of mesenteries differs
  from that of Actinia, the derivation from an Edwardsia stock is
  obvious.

  [Illustration: FIG. 13.

  A, _Cerianthus solitarius_ (after A. Andres).

  B, Transverse section of the stomodaeum, showing the sulculus, sl, and
  the arrangement of the mesenteries.

  C, Oral aspect of _Arachnactis brachiolata_, the larva of
  _Cerianthus_, with seven tentacles.

  D, Transverse section of an older larva. The numerals indicate the
  order of development of the mesenteries.]

  The order ANTIPATHIDEA is a well-defined group whose affinities are
  more obscure. The type form, _Antipathes dichotoma_ (fig. 14), forms
  arborescent colonies consisting of numerous zooids arranged in a
  single series along one surface of a branched horny axis. Each zooid
  has six tentacles; the stomodaeum is elongate, but the sulcus and
  sulculus are very feebly represented. There are ten mesenteries in
  which the musculature is so little developed as to be almost
  indistinguishable. The sulcar and sulcular pairs of mesenteries are
  short, the sulco-lateral and sulculo-lateral pairs are a little
  longer, but the two transverse are very large and are the only
  mesenteries which bear gonads. As the development of the Antipathidea
  is unknown, it is impossible to say what is the sequence of the
  mesenterial development, but in _Leiopathes glaberrima_, a genus with
  twelve mesenteries, there are distinct indications of an Edwardsia
  stage.

  [Illustration: FIG. 14.

  A, Portion of a colony of _Antipathes dichotoma_.

  B, Single zooid and axis of the same magnified. m, Mouth; mf
  mesenterial filament; ax, axis.

  C, Transverse section through the oral cone of _Antipathella minor_,
  st, Stomodaeum; ov, ovary.]

  There are, in addition to these groups, several genera of Actinians
  whose mesenterial arrangement differs from the normal type. Of these
  perhaps the most interesting is _Gonactinia prolifera_ (fig. 11, B),
  with eight macromesenteries arranged on the Edwardsian plan. Two pairs
  of micromesenteries form couples with the first and second Edwardsian
  pairs, and in addition there is a couple of micromesenteries in each
  of the sulculo-lateral exocoeles. Only the first and second pairs of
  Edwardsian macromesenteries are fertile, i.e. bear gonads.

  The remaining forms, the ACTINIIDEA, are divisible into the
  Malacactiniae, or soft-bodied sea-anemones, which have already been
  described sufficiently in the course of this article, and the
  Scleractiniae (= Madreporaria) or true corals.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--Corallum of _Caryophyllia_; semi-diagrammatic.
th, Theca; c, costae; sp, septa; p, palus; col, columella.]

All recent corals, as has already been said, conform so closely to the
anatomy of normal Actinians that they cannot be classified apart from
them, except that they are distinguished by the possession of a
calcareous skeleton. This skeleton is largely composed of a number of
radiating plates or _septa_, and it differs both in origin and structure
from the calcareous skeleton of all Alcyonaria except Heliopora. It is
formed, not from fused spicules, but as a secretion of a special layer
of cells derived from the basal ectoderm, and known as _calicoblasts_.
The skeleton or corallum of a typical solitary coral--the common
Devonshire cup-coral _Caryophyllia smithii_ (fig. 15) is a good
example--exhibits the followings parts:--(1) The _basal plate_, between
the zooid and the surface of attachment. (2) The _septa_, radial plates
of calcite reaching from the periphery nearly or quite to the centre of
the coral-cup or calicle. (3) The _theca_ or wall, which in many corals
is not an independent structure, but is formed by the conjoined
thickened peripheral ends of the septa. (4) The _columella_, a structure
which occupies the centre of the calicle, and may arise from the basal
plate, when it is called essential, or may be formed by union of
trabecular offsets of the septa, when it is called unessential. (5) The
_costae_, longitudinal ribs or rows of spines on the outer surface of
the theca. True costae always correspond to the septa, and are in fact
the peripheral edges of the latter. (6) _Epitheca_, an offset of the
basal plate which surrounds the base of the theca in a ring-like manner,
and in some corals may take the place of a true theca. (7) _Pali_,
spinous or blade-like upgrowths from the bottom of the calicle, which
project between the inner edges of certain septa and the columella. In
addition to these parts the following structures may exist in
corals:--_Dissepiments_ are oblique calcareous partitions, stretching
from septum to septum, and closing the interseptal chambers below. The
whole system of dissepiments in any given calicle is often called
_endotheca_. _Synapticulae_ are calcareous bars uniting adjacent septa.
_Tabulae_ are stout horizontal partitions traversing the centre of the
calicle and dividing it into as many superimposed chambers. The septa in
recent corals always bear a definite relation to the mesenteries, being
found either in every entocoele or in every entocoele and exocoele.
Hence in corals in which there is only a single cycle of mesenteries the
septa are correspondingly few in number; where several cycles of
mesenteries are present the septa are correspondingly numerous. In some
cases--e.g. in some species of _Madrepora_--only two septa are fully
developed, the remainder being very feebly represented.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.--Tangential section of a larva of _Astroides
calicularis_ which has fixed itself on a piece of cork. ec, Ectoderm;
en, endoderm; mg, mesogloea; m, m, mesenteries; s, septum; b, basal
plate formed of ellipsoids of carbonate of lime secreted by the basal
ectoderm; ep, epitheca. (After von Koch.)]

Though the corallum appears to live within the zooid, it is
morphologically external to it, as is best shown by its developmental
history. The larvae of corals are free swimming ciliated forms known as
planulae, and they do not acquire a corallum until they fix themselves.
A ring-shaped plate of calcite, secreted by the ectoderm, is then
formed, lying between the embryo and the surface of attachment. As the
mesenteries are formed, the endoderm of the basal disk lying above the
basal plate is raised up in the form of radiating folds. There may be
six of these folds, one in each entocoele of the primary cycle of
mesenteries, or there may be twelve, one in each exocoele and entocoele.
The ectoderm beneath each fold becomes detached from the surface of the
basal plate, and both it and the mesogloea are folded conformably with
the endoderm. The cells forming the limbs of the ectodermic folds
secrete nodules of calcite, and these, fusing together, give rise to six
(or twelve) vertical radial plates or septa. As growth proceeds new
septa are formed simultaneously with the new couples of secondary
mesenteries. In some corals, in which all the septa are entocoelic, each
new system is embraced by a mesenteric couple; in others, in which the
septa are both entocoelic and exocoelic, three septa are formed in every
chamber between two primary mesenterial couples, one in the entocoele of
the newly formed mesenterial couple of the secondary cycle, and one in
each exocoele between a primary and a secondary couple. These latter are
in turn embraced by the couples of the tertiary cycle of mesenteries,
and new septa are formed in the exocoeles on either side of them, and so
forth.

[Illustration: FIG. 17.--Transverse section through a zooid of
_Cladocora_. The corallum shaded with dots, the mesogloea represented by
a thick line. Thirty-two septa are present, six in the entocoeles of the
primary cycle of mesenteries, I; six in the entocoeles of the secondary
cycle of mesenteries, II; four in the entocoeles of the tertiary cycle
of mesenteries, III, only four pairs of the latter being developed; and
sixteen in the entocoeles between the mesenterial pairs. D, D, Directive
mesenteries; st, stomodaeum. (After Duerden.)]

It is evident from an inspection of figs. 16 and 17 that every septum
is covered by a fold of endoderm, mesogloea, and ectoderm, and is in
fact pushed into the cavity of the zooid from without. The zooid then
is, as it were, moulded upon the corallum. When fully extended, the
upper part of the zooid projects for some distance out of the calicle,
and its wall is reflected for some distance over the lip of the latter,
forming a fold of soft tissue extending to a greater or less distance
over the theca, and containing in most cases a cavity continuous over
the lip of the calicle with the coelenteron. This fold of tissue is
known as the _edge-zone_ In some corals the septa are solid imperforate
plates of calcite, and their peripheral ends are either firmly welded
together, or are united by interstitial pieces so as to form imperforate
theca. In others the peripheral ends of the septa are united only by
bars or trabeculae, so that the theca is perforate, and in many such
perforate corals the septa themselves are pierced by numerous
perforations. In the former, which have been called aporose corals, the
only communication between the cavity of the edge-zone and the general
cavity of the zooid is by way of the lip of the calicle; in the latter,
or perforate corals, the theca is permeated by numerous branching and
anastomosing canals lined by endoderm, which place the cavity of the
edge-zone in communication with the general cavity of the zooid.

[Illustration: FIG. 18.

A, Schematic longitudinal section through a zooid and bud of _Stylophora
digitata_. In A, B, and C the thick black lines represent the soft
tissues; the corallum is dotted. s, Stomodaeum; c, c, coenosarc; col,
columella, T tabulae.

B, Similar section through a single zooid and bud of _Astroides
calicularis_.

C, Similar section through three corallites of _Lophohelia prolifera_.
ez, Edge-zone.

D, Diagram illustrating the process of budding by unequal division.

E, Section through a dividing calicle of _Mussa_, showing the union of
two septa in the plane of division and the origin of new septa at right
angles to them.

(C original; the rest after von Koch.)]

A large number of corals, both aporose and perforate, are colonial. The
colonies are produced by either budding or division. In the former case
the young daughter zooid, with its corallum, arises wholly outside the
cavity of the parent zooid, and the component parts of the young
corallum, septa, theca, columella, &c., are formed anew in every
individual produced. In division a vertical constriction divides a zooid
into two equal or unequal parts, and the several parts of the two corals
thus produced are severally derived from the corresponding parts of the
dividing corallum. In colonial corals a bud is always formed from the
edge-zone, and this bud develops into a new zooid with its corallum. The
cavity of the bud in an aporose coral (fig. 18, A, C) does not
communicate directly with that of the parent form, but through the
medium of the edge-zone. As growth proceeds, and parent and bud become
separated farther from one another, the edge-zone forms a sheet of soft
tissue, bridging over the space between the two, and resting upon
projecting spines of the corallum. This sheet of tissue is called the
_coenosarc_. Its lower surface is clothed with a layer of calicoblasts
which continue to secrete carbonate of lime, giving rise to a secondary
deposit which more or less fills up the spaces between the individual
coralla, and is distinguished as _coenenchyme_. This coenenchyme may be
scanty, or may be so abundant that the individual corallites produced by
budding seem to be immersed in it. Budding takes place in an analogous
manner in perforate corals (fig. 18, B), but the presence of the canal
system in the perforate theca leads to a modification of the process.
Buds arise from the edge-zone which already communicate with the cavity
of the zooid by the canals. As the buds develop the canal system becomes
much extended, and calcareous tissue is deposited between the network of
canals, the confluent edge-zones of mother zooid and bud forming a
coenosarc. As the process continues a number of calicles are formed,
imbedded in a spongy tissue in which the canals ramify, and it is
impossible to say where the theca of one corallite ends and that of
another begins. In the formation of colonies by division a constriction
at right angles to the long axis of the mouth involves first the mouth,
then the peristome, and finally the calyx itself, so that the previously
single corallite becomes divided into two (fig. 18, E). After division
the corallites continue to grow upwards, and their zooids may remain
united by a bridge of soft tissue or coenosarc. But in some cases, as
they grow farther apart, this continuity is broken, each corallite has
its own edge-zone, and internal continuity is also broken by the
formation of dissepiments within each calicle, all organic connexion
between the two zooids being eventually lost. Massive meandrine corals
are produced by continual repetition of a process of incomplete
division, involving the mouth and to some extent the peristome: the
calyx, however, does not divide, but elongates to form a characteristic
meandrine channel containing several zooid mouths.

Corals have been divided into _Aporosa_ and _Perforata_, according as
the theca and septa are compact and solid, or are perforated by pores
containing canals lined by endoderm. The division is in many respects
convenient for descriptive purposes, but recent researches show that it
does not accurately represent the relationships of the different
families. Various attempts have been made to classify corals according
to the arrangement of the septa, the characters of the theca, the
microscopic structure of the corallum, and the anatomy of the soft
parts. The last-named method has proved little more than that there is a
remarkable similarity between the zooids of all recent corals, the
differences which have been brought to light being for the most part
secondary and valueless for classificatory purposes. On the other hand,
the study of the anatomy and development of the zooids has thrown much
light upon the manner in which the corallum is formed, and it is now
possible to infer the structure of the soft parts from a microscopical
examination of the septa, theca, &c., with the result that unexpected
relationships have been shown to exist between corals previously
supposed to stand far apart. This has been particularly the case with
the group of Palaeozoic corals formerly classed together as _Rugosa_. In
many of these so-called rugose forms the septa have a characteristic
arrangement, differing from that of recent corals chiefly in the fact
that they show a tetrameral instead of a hexameral symmetry. Thus in the
family _Stauridae_ there are four chief septa whose inner ends unite in
the middle of the calicle to form a false columella, and in the
_Zaphrentidae_ there are many instances of an arrangement, such as that
depicted in fig. 19, which represents the septal arrangement of
_Streptelasma corniculum_ from the lower Silurian. In this coral the
calicle is divided into quadrants by four principal septa, the _main
septum, counter septum_, and two _alar septa_. The remaining septa are
so disposed that in the quadrants abutting on the chief septum they
converge towards that septum, whilst in the other quadrants they
converge towards the alar septa. The secondary septa show a regular
gradation in size, and, assuming that the smallest were the most
recently formed, it will be noticed that in the chief quadrants the
youngest septa lie nearest to the main septum; in the other quadrants
the youngest septa lie nearest to the alar septa. This arrangement,
however, is by no means characteristic even of the Zaphrentidae, and in
the family _Cyathophyllidae_ most of the genera exhibit a radial
symmetry in which no trace of the bilateral arrangement described above
is recognizable, and indeed in the genus _Cyathophyllum_ itself a radial
arrangement is the rule. The connexion between the Cyathophyllidae and
modern Astraeidae is shown by _Moseleya latistellata_, a living
reef-building coral from Torres Strait. The general structure of this
coral leaves no doubt that it is closely allied to the Astraeidae, but
in the young calicles a tetrameral symmetry is indicated by the presence
of four large septa placed at right angles to one another. Again, in the
family _Amphiastraeidae_ there is commonly a single septum much larger
than the rest, and it has been shown that in the young calicles, e.g. of
_Thecidiosmilia_, two septa, corresponding to the main- and
counter-septa of Streptelasma, are first formed, then two alar septa,
and afterwards the remaining septa, the latter taking on a generally
radial arrangement, though the original bilaterality is marked by the
preponderance of the main septum. As the microscopic character of the
corallum of these extinct forms agrees with that of recent corals, it
may be assumed that the anatomy of the soft parts also was similar, and
the tetrameral arrangement, when present, may obviously be referred to a
stage when only the first two pairs of Edwardsian mesenteries were
present and septa were formed in the intervals between them.

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--Diagram of the arrangement of the septa in a
Zaphrentid coral. m, Main septum; c, counter septum; t, t, alar septa.]

Space forbids a discussion of the proposals to classify corals after the
minute structure of their coralla, but it will suffice to say that it
has been shown that the septa of all corals are built up of a number of
curved bars called trabeculae, each of which is composed of a number of
nodes. In many secondary corals (_Cyclolites, Thamnastraea_) the
trabeculae are so far separate that the individual bars are easily
recognizable, and each looks something like a bamboo owing to the
thickening of the two ends of each node. The trabeculae are united
together by these thickened internodes, and the result is a fenestrated
septum, which in older septa may become solid and aporose by continual
deposit of calcite in the fenestrae. Each node of a trabecula may be
simple, i.e. have only one centre of calcification, or may be compound.
The septa of modern perforate corals are shown to have a structure
nearly identical with that of the secondary forms, but the trabeculae
and their nodes are only apparent on microscopical examination. The
aporose corals, too, have a practically identical structure, their
compactness being due to the union of the trabeculae throughout their
entire lengths instead of at intervals, as in the Perforata. Further,
the trabeculae may be evenly spaced throughout the septum, or may be
grouped together, and this feature is probably of value in estimating
the affinities of corals. (For an account of coral formations see
CORAL-REEFS.)

In the present state of our knowledge the Zoantharia in which a primary
cycle of six couples of mesenteries is (or may be inferred to be)
completed by the addition of two pairs to the eight Edwardsian
mesenteries, and succeeding cycles are formed in the exocoeles of the
pre-existing mesenterial cycles, may be classed in an order ACTINIIDEA,
and this may be divided into the suborders _Malacactiniae_, comprising
the soft-bodied Actinians, such as _Actinia, Sagartia, Bunodes_, &c.,
and the _Scleractiniae_, comprising the corals. The Scleractiniae may
best be divided into groups of families which appear to be most closely
related to one another, but it should not be forgotten that there is
great reason to believe that many if not most of the extinct corals must
have differed from modern Actiniidea in mesenterial characters, and may
have only possessed Edwardsian mesenteries, or even have possessed only
four mesenteries, in this respect showing close affinities to the
Stauromedusae. Moreover, there are some modern corals in which the
secondary cycle of mesenteries departs from the Actinian plan. For
example, J.E. Duerden has shown that in _Porites_ the ordinary zooids
possess only six couples of mesenteries arranged on the Actinian plan.
But some zooids grow to a larger size and develop a number of additional
mesenteries, which arise either in the sulcar or the sulcular entocoele,
much in the same manner as in Cerianthus. Bearing this in mind, the
following arrangement may be taken to represent the most recent
knowledge of coral structure:--


    GROUP A.

  Family I. ZAPHRENTIDAE.--Solitary Palaeozoic corals with an epithecal
  wall. Septa numerous, arranged pinnately with regard to four principal
  septa. Tabulae present. One or more pits or fossulae present in the
  calicle. Typical genera--_Zaphrentis_, Raf. _Amplexus_, M. Edw. and H.
  _Streptelasma_, Hall. _Omphyma_, Raf.

  Family 2. TURBINOLIDAE.--Solitary, rarely colonial corals, with
  radially arranged septa and without tabulae. Typical
  genera--_Flabellum_, Lesson. _Turbinolia_, M. Edw. and H.
  _Caryophyllia_, Lamarck. _Sphenotrochus_, Moseley, &c.

  Family 3. AMPHIASTRAEIDAE.--Mainly colonial, rarely solitary corals,
  with radial septa, but bilateral arrangement indicated by persistence
  of a main septum. Typical genera--_Amphiastraea_, Étallon.
  _Thecidiosmilia_.

  Family 4. STYLINIDAE.--Colonial corals allied to the Amphiastraeidae,
  but with radially symmetrical septa arranged in cycles. Typical
  genera--_Stylina_, Lamarck (Jurassic). _Convexastraea_, D'Orb.
  (Jurassic). _Isastraea_, M. Edw. and H.(Jurassic). Ogilvie refers the
  modern genus _Galaxea_ to this family.


    GROUP B.

  Family 5. OCULINIDAE.--Branching or massive aporose corals, the
  calices projecting above the level of a compact coenenchyme formed
  from the coenosarc which covers the exterior of the corallum. Typical
  genera--_Lophohelia_, M. Edw. and H. _Oculina_, M. Edw. and H.

  Family 6. POCILLOPORIDAE.--Colonial branching aporose corals, with
  small calices sunk in the coenenchyme. Tabulae present, and two larger
  septa, an axial and abaxial, are always present, with traces of ten
  smaller septa. Typical genera--_Pocillopora_, Lamarck. _Seriatopora_,
  Lamarck.

  Family 7. MADREPORIDAE.--Colonial branching or palmate perforate
  corals, with abundant trabecular coenenchyme. Theca porous; septa
  compact and reduced in number. Typical genera--_Madrepora_, Linn.
  _Turbinaria_, Oken. _Montipora_, Quoy and G.

  Family 8. PORITIDAE.--Incrusting or massive colonial perforate corals;
  calices usually in contact by their edges, sometimes disjunct and
  immersed in coenenchyme. Theca and septa perforate. Typical
  genera--_Porites_, M. Edw. and H. _Goniopora_, Quoy and G.
  _Rhodaraea_, M. Edw. and H.


    GROUP C.

  Family 9. CYATHOPHYLLIDAE.--Solitary and colonial aporose corals.
  Tabulae and vesicular endotheca present. Septa numerous, generally
  radial, seldom pinnate. Typical genera--_Cyathophyllum_, Goldfuss
  (Devonian and Carboniferous). _Moseleya_, Quelch (recent).

  Family 10. ASTRAEIDAE.--Aporpse, mainly colonial corals, massive,
  branching, or maeandroid. Septa radial; dissepiments present; an
  epitheca surrounds the base of massive or maeandroid forms, but only
  surrounds individual corallites in simple or branching forms. Typical
  genera--_Goniastraea_, M. Edw. and H. _Heliastraea_, M. Edw. and H.
  _Maeandrina_, Lam. _Coeloria_, M. Edw. and H. _Favia_, Oken.

  Family 11. FUNGIDAE.--Solitary and colonial corals, with numerous
  radial septa united by synapticulae. Typical genera--_Lophoseris_, M.
  Edw. and H. _Thamnastraea_, Le Sauvage. _Leptophyllia_, Reuss
  (Jurassic and Cretaceous). _Fungia_, Dana. _Siderastraea_, Blainv.


    GROUP D.

  Family 12. EUPSAMMIDAE.--Solitary or colonial perforate corals,
  branching, massive, or encrusting. Septa radial; the primary septa
  usually compact, the remainder perforate. Theca perforate. Synapticula
  present in some genera. Typical genera--_Stephanophyllia_, Michelin.
  _Eupsammia_, M. Edw. and H. _Astroides_, Blainv. _Rhodopsammia_, M.
  Edw. and H. _Dendrophyllia_, M. Edw. and H.


    GROUP E.

  Family 13. CYSTIPHYLLIDAE.--Solitary corals with rudimentary septa,
  and the calicle filled with vesicular endotheca.
  Genera--_Cystiphyllum_, Lonsdale (Silurian and Devonian).
  _Goniophyllum_, M. Edw. and H. (In this Silurian genus the calyx is
  provided with a movable operculum, consisting of four paired
  triangular pieces, the bases of each being attached to the sides of
  the calyx, and their apices meeting in the middle when the operculum
  is closed). _Calcecla_, Lam. (In this Devonian genus there is a single
  semicircular operculum furnished with a stout median septum and
  numerous feebly developed secondary septa. The calyx is triangular in
  section, pointed below, and the operculum is attached to it by
  hinge-like teeth.)

  AUTHORITIES.--The following list contains only the names of the more
  important and more general works on the structure and classification
  of corals and on coral reefs. For a fuller bibliography the works
  marked with an asterisk should be consulted: * A. Andres, _Fauna und
  Flora des Golfes von Neapel_, ix. (1884); H.M. Bernard, "Catalogue of
  Madreporarian Corals" in Brit. Museum, ii. (1896), iii. (1897); * G.C.
  Bourne, "Anthozoa," in E. Ray Lankester's _Treatise on Zoology_, vol.
  ii. (London, 1900); G. Brook, "_Challenger_ Reports," _Zoology_,
  xxxii. (1899) (_Antipatharia_); "Cat. Madrep. Corals," Brit. Museum,
  i. (1893); D.C. Danielssen, "Report Norwegian North Atlantic Exploring
  Expedition," _Zoology_, xix. (1890); J.E. Duerden, "Some Results on
  the Morphology and Development of Recent and Fossil Corals," _Rep.
  Brit. Association_, 1903, pp. 684-685; "The Morphology of the
  Madreporaria," _Biol. Bullet_, vii. pp. 79-104; P.M. Duncan, _Journ.
  Linnean Soc._ xviii. (1885); P.H. Gosse, _Actinologia britannica_
  (London, 1860); O. and R. Hertwig, _Die Actinien_ (Jena, 1879); R.
  Hertwig, "_Challenger_ Reports," _Zoology_, vi. (1882) and xxvi.
  (1888); * C.B. Klunzinger, _Die Korallthiere des Rothen Meeres_
  (Berlin, 1877); * G. von Koch, _Fauna und Flora des Golfes van
  Neapel_, xv. (1887); _Mitth. Zool. Stat. Neapel_, ii. (1882) and xii.
  (1897); _Palaeontographica_, xxix. (1883); (also many papers in the
  _Morphol. Jahrbuch_ from 1878 to 1898); F. Koby, "Polypiers
  jurassiques de la Suisse," _Mem. Soc. Palaeont. Suisse_, vii.-xvi.
  (1880-1889); A. von Kölliker, "Die Pennatuliden," _Abh. d. Senck.
  Naturf. Gesell_. vii.; * "_Challenger_ Reports," _Zoology_, i.
  _Pennatulidae_ (1880); Koren and Danielssen, _Norske Nordhaus Exped.,
  Alcyonida_ (1887); H. de Lacaze-Duthiers, _Hist. nat. du corail_
  (Paris, 1864); H. Milne-Edwards and J. Haime, _Hist. nat. des
  coralliaires_ (Paris, 1857); H.N. Moseley, "_Challenger_ Reports,"
  _Zoology_, ii. (1881); H.A. Nicholson, _Palaeozoic Tabulate Corals_
  (Edinburgh, 1879); M.M. Ogilvie, _Phil. Transactions_, clxxxvii.
  (1896); E. Pratz, _Palaeontographica_, xxix. (1882); J.J. Quelch,
  "_Challenger_ Reports," _Zoology_, xvi. (1886); * P.S. Wright and Th.
  Studer, "_Challenger_ Reports," _Zoology_, xxxi. (1889).
       (G. C. B.)



ANTHRACENE (from the Greek [Greek: anthrax], coal), C14H10, a
hydrocarbon obtained from the fraction of the coal-tar distillate
boiling between 270° and 400° C. This high boiling fraction is allowed
to stand for some days, when it partially solidifies. It is then
separated in a centrifugal machine, the low melting-point impurities are
removed by means of hot water, and the residue is finally hot-pressed.
The crude anthracene cake is purified by treatment with the higher
pyridine bases, the operation being carried out in large steam-jacketed
boilers. The whole mass dissolves on heating, and the anthracene
crystallizes out on cooling. The crystallized anthracene is then removed
by a centrifugal separator and the process of solution in the pyridine
bases is repeated. Finally the anthracene is purified by sublimation.

Many synthetical processes for the preparation of anthracene and its
derivatives are known. It is formed by the condensation of acetylene
tetrabromide with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride:--

        Br·CH·Br                     /CH\
  C6H6 +   |    + C6H6 = 4HBr + C6H4< |  >C6H4,
        Br·CH·Br                     \CH/

and similarly from methylene dibromide and benzene, and also when benzyl
chloride is heated with aluminium chloride to 200° C. By condensing
ortho-brombenzyl bromide with sodium, C.L. Jackson and J.F. White
(_Ber_., 1879, 12, p. 1965) obtained dihydro-anthracene

       /CH2Br           Br\                     /CH2\
  C6H4<       + 4Na +      >C6H4 = 4NaBr + C6H4<     >C6H4.
       \Br           BrCH2/                     \CH2/

Anthracene has also been obtained by heating ortho-tolylphenyl ketone
with zinc dust

       /CH8                 /CH \
  C6H4<        = H2O + C6H4<  |  >C6H4.
       \COC6H5              \CH /

Anthracene crystallizes in colourless monoclinic tables which show a
fine blue fluorescence. It melts at 213° C. and boils at 351° C. It is
insoluble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol and ether, but readily
soluble in hot benzene. It unites with picric acid to form a picrate,
C14H10·C6H2(NO2)3·OH, which crystallizes in needles, melting at 138° C.
On exposure to sunlight a solution of anthracene in benzene or xylene
deposits para-anthracene (C14H10)2, which melts at 244° C. and passes
back into the ordinary form. Chlorine and bromine form both addition and
substitution products with anthracene; the addition product, anthracene
dichloride, C14H10Cl2, being formed when chlorine is passed into a cold
solution of anthracene in carbon bisulphide. On treatment with potash,
it forms the substitution product, monochlor-anthracene, C14H9Cl.
Nitro-anthracenes are not as yet known. The mono-oxyanthracenes
(anthrols), C14H9OH or

       /CH\
  C6H4<  | >C6H3OH
       \CH/

([alpha]) and ([beta]) resemble the phenols, whilst

       /C(OH)\
  C6H4<  |    >C6H4
       \CH   /

([gamma]) (anthranol) is a reduction product of anthraquinone.
[beta]-anthrol and anthranol give the corresponding amino compounds
(anthramines) when heated with ammonia.

Numerous sulphonic acids of anthracene are known, a monosulphonic acid
being obtained with dilute sulphuric acid, whilst concentrated sulphuric
acid produces mixtures of the anthracene disulphonic acids. By the
action of sodium amalgam on an alcoholic solution of anthracene, an
anthracene dihydride, C14H12, is obtained, whilst by the use of stronger
reducing agents, such as hydriodic acid and amorphous phosphorus,
hydrides of composition C14H16 and C14H24 are produced.

Methyl and phenyl anthracenes are known; phenyl anthranol (phthalidin)
being somewhat closely related to the phenolphthaleins (q.v.). Oxidizing
agents convert anthracene into anthraquinone (q.v.); the production of
this substance by oxidizing anthracene in glacial acetic acid solution,
with chromic acid, is the usual method employed for the estimation of
anthracene.



ANTHRACITE (Gr. [Greek: anthrax], coal), a term applied to those
varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon
vapours when heated below their point of ignition; or, in other words,
which burn with a smokeless and nearly non-luminous flame. Other terms
having the same meaning are, "stone coal" (not to be confounded with the
German _Steinkohle_) or "blind coal" in Scotland, and "Kilkenny coal" in
Ireland. The imperfect anthracite of north Devon, which however is only
used as a pigment, is known as _culm_, the same term being used in
geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is
found, and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries which are known
as the Culm Measures. In America, culm is used as an equivalent for
waste or slack in anthracite mining.

Physically, anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its
greater hardness, higher density, 1.3-1.4, and lustre, the latter being
often semi-metallic with a somewhat brownish reflection. It is also free
from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when
rubbed. Structurally it shows some alteration by the development of
secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original
stratification lines are not always easily seen. The thermal
conductivity is also higher, a lump of anthracite feeling perceptibly
colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous coal
at the same temperature. The chemical composition of some typical
anthracites is given in the article COAL.

Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary
bituminous coal and graphite, produced by the more or less complete
elimination of the volatile constituents of the former; and it is found
most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable
earth-movements, such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. The
largest and most important anthracite region, that of the north-eastern
portion of the Pennsylvania coal-field, is a good example of this; the
highly contorted strata of the Appalachian region produce anthracite
exclusively, while in the western portion of the same basin on the Ohio
and its tributaries, where the strata are undisturbed, free-burning and
coking coals, rich in volatile matter, prevail. In the same way the
anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion
west of Swansea and Llanelly, the central and eastern portions
producing steam, coking and house coals.

Anthracites of newer, tertiary or cretaceous age, are found in the
Crow's Nest part of the Rocky Mountains in Canada, and at various points
in the Andes in Peru.

The principal use of anthracite is as a smokeless fuel. In the eastern
United States, it is largely employed as domestic fuel, usually in close
stoves or furnaces, as well as for steam purposes, since, unlike that
from South Wales, it does not decrepitate when heated, or at least not
to the same extent. For proper use, however, it is necessary that the
fuel should be supplied in pieces as nearly uniform in size as possible,
a condition that has led to the development of the breaker which is so
characteristic a feature in American anthracite mining (see COAL). The
large coal as raised from the mine is passed through breakers with
toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces, which are separated
into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves, placed in
descending order. Each size can be perfectly well burnt alone on an
appropriate grate, if kept free from larger or smaller admixtures. The
common American classification is as follows:--

Lump, steamboat, egg and stove coals, the latter in two or three sizes,
all three being above 1½ in. size on round-hole screens.

  Chestnut      below 1½ inch     above 7/8 inch.
  Pea             "   7/8  "        "   9/16  "
  Buckwheat       "   9/16 "        "   3/8   "
  Rice            "   3/8  "        "   3/16  "
  Barley          "   3/16 "        "   3/32  "

From the pea size downwards the principal use is for steam purposes. In
South Wales a less elaborate classification is adopted; but great care
is exercised in hand-picking and cleaning the coal from included
particles of pyrites in the higher qualities known as best malting
coals, which are used for kiln-drying malt and hops.

Formerly, anthracite was largely used, both in America and South Wales,
as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting, but for this purpose it has
been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in
the latter. An important application has, however, been developed in the
extended use of internal combustion motors driven by the so-called
"mixed," "poor," "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the
gasification of anthracite with air and a small proportion of steam.
This is probably the most economical method of obtaining power known;
with an engine as small as 15 horse-power the expenditure of fuel is at
the rate of only 1 lb per horse-power hour, and with larger engines it
is proportionately less. Large quantities of anthracite for power
purposes are now exported from South Wales to France, Switzerland and
parts of Germany. (H. B.)



ANTHRACOTHERIUM ("coal-animal," so called from the fact of the remains
first described having been obtained from the Tertiary lignite-beds of
Europe), a genus of extinct artiodactyle ungulate mammals, characterized
by having 44 teeth, with five semi-crescentic cusps on the crowns of the
upper molars. In many respects, especially the form of the lower jaw,
_Anthracotherium_, which is of Oligocene and Miocene age in Europe, and
typifies the family _Anthracotheriidae_, is allied to the hippopotamus,
of which it is probably an ancestral form. The European _A. magnum_ was
as large as the last-mentioned animal, but there were several smaller
species and the genus also occurs in Egypt, India and North America.
(See ARTIODACTYLA.)



ANTHRAQUINONE, C14H8O2, an important derivative of anthracene, first
prepared in 1834 by A. Laurent. It is prepared commercially from
anthracene by stirring a sludge of anthracene and water in horizontal
cylinders with a mixture of sodium bichromate and caustic soda. This
suspension is then run through a conical mill in order to remove all
grit, the cones of the mill fitting so tightly that water cannot pass
through unless the mill is running; the speed of the mill when working
is about 3000 revolutions per minute. After this treatment, the mixture
is run into lead-lined vats and treated with sulphuric acid, steam is
blown through the mixture in order to bring it to the boil, and the
anthracene is rapidly oxidized to anthraquinone. When the oxidation is
complete, the anthraquinone is separated in a filter press, washed and
heated to 120° C. with commercial oil of vitriol, using about 2½ parts
of vitriol to 1 of anthraquinone. It is then removed to lead-lined tanks
and again washed with water and dried; the product obtained contains
about 95% of anthraquinone. It may be purified by sublimation. Various
synthetic processes have been used for the preparation of anthraquinone.
A. Behr and W.A. v. Dorp (_Ber._, 1874, 7, p. 578) obtained orthobenzoyl
benzoic acid by heating phthalic anhydride with benzene in the presence
of aluminium chloride. This compound on heating with phosphoric
anhydride loses water and yields anthraquinone,

       /CO\   C6H6     /CO·C6H6         /CO\
  C6H4<    >O ->  C6H4<         -> C6H4<    >C6H4.
       \CO/            \COOH            \CO/

It may be prepared in a similar manner by heating phthalyl chloride with
benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride. Dioxy- and
tetraoxy-anthraquinones are obtained when meta-oxy- and
dimeta-dioxy-benzoic acids are heated with concentrated sulphuric acid.

Anthraquinone crystallizes in yellow needles or prisms, which melt at
277° C. It is soluble in hot benzene, sublimes easily, and is very
stable towards oxidizing agents. On the other hand, it is readily
attacked by reducing agents. With zinc dust in presence of caustic soda
it yields the secondary alcohol oxan-thranol, C6H4 : CO·CHOH : C6H4,
with tin and hydrochloric acid, the phenolic compound anthranol, C6H4 :
CO·C(OH) : C6H4; and with hydriodic acid at 150° C. or on distillation
with zinc dust, the hydrocarbon anthracene, C14H10. When fused with
caustic potash, it gives benzoic acid. It behaves more as a ketone than
as a quinone, since with hydroxylamine it yields an oxime, and on
reduction with zinc dust and caustic soda it yields a secondary alcohol,
whilst it cannot be reduced by means of sulphurous acid. Various
sulphonic acids of anthraquinone are known, as well as oxy-derivatives,
for the preparation and properties of which see ALIZARIN.



ANTHRAX (the Greek for "coal," or "carbuncle," so called by the ancients
because they regarded it as burning like coal; cf. the French equivalent
_charbon_; also known as _fièvre charbonneuse, Milzbrand_, splenic
fever, and malignant pustule), an acute, specific, infectious, virulent
disease, caused by the _Bacillus anthracis_, in animals, chiefly cattle,
sheep and horses, and frequently occurring in workers in the wool or
hair, as well as in those handling the hides or carcases, of beasts
which have been affected.

_Animals._--As affecting wild as well as domesticated animals and man,
anthrax has been widely diffused in one or more of its forms, over the
surface of the globe. It at times decimates the reindeer herds in
Lapland and the Polar regions, and is only too well known in the tropics
and in temperate latitudes. It has been observed and described in
Russia, Siberia, Central Asia, China, Cochin-China, Egypt, West Indies,
Peru, Paraguay, Brazil, Mexico, and other parts of North and South
America, in Australia, and on different parts of the African continent,
while for other European countries the writings which have been
published with regard to its nature, its peculiar characteristics, and
the injury it inflicts are innumerable. Countries in which are extensive
marshes, or the subsoil of which is tenacious or impermeable, are
usually those most frequently and seriously visited. Thus there have
been regions notorious for its prevalence, such as the marshes of
Sologne, Dombes and Bresse in France; certain parts of Germany, Hungary
and Poland; in Spain the half-submerged valleys and the maritime coasts
of Catalonia, as well as the Romagna and other marshy districts of
Italy; while it is epizootic, and even panzootic, in the swampy regions
of Esthonia, Livonia, Courland, and especially of Siberia, where it is
known as the _Sibirskaja jaswa_ (Siberian boil-plague). The records of
anthrax go back to a very ancient date. It is supposed to be the murrain
of Exodus. Classical writers allude to anthrax as if it were the only
cattle disease worthy of mention (see Virgil, _Georg._ iii.). It figures
largely in the history of the early and middle ages as a devastating
pestilence attacking animals, and through them mankind; the oldest
Anglo-Saxon manuscripts contain many fantastic recipes, leechdoms,
charms and incantations for the prevention or cure of the "blacan
blezene" (black blain) and the relief of the "elfshot" creatures. In the
18th and 19th centuries it sometimes spread like an epizootic over the
whole of Europe, from Siberia to France. It was in this malady that
disease-producing germs (_bacteria_) were first discovered, in 1840, by
Pollender of Wipperfürth, and, independently, by veterinary surgeon
Brauell of Dorpat, and their real character afterwards verified by C.J.
Davaine (1812-1882) of Alfort in 1863; and it was in their experiments
with this disease that Toussaint, Pasteur and J.B. Chauveau first showed
how to make the morbific poison its own antidote. (See VIVISECTION.)

The symptoms vary with the species of animal, the mode of infection, and
the seat of the primary lesion, internal or external. In all its forms
anthrax is an inoculable disease, transmission being surely and promptly
effected by this means, and it may be conveyed to nearly all animals by
inoculation of a wound of the skin or through the digestive organs.
Cattle, sheep and horses nearly always owe their infection to spores or
bacilli ingested with their food or water, and pigs usually contract the
disease by eating the flesh of animals dead of anthrax.

Internal anthrax, of cattle and sheep, exhibits no premonitory symptoms
that can be relied on. Generally the first indication of an outbreak is
the sudden death of one or more of the herd or flock. Animals which do
not die at once may be noticed to stagger and tremble; the breathing
becomes hurried and the pulse very rapid, while the heart beats
violently; the internal temperature of the body is high, 104° to 106°
F.; blood oozes from the nose, mouth and anus, the visible mucous
membranes are dusky or almost black. The animal becomes weak and
listless, the temperature falls and death supervenes in a few hours,
being immediately preceded by delirium, convulsions or coma. While death
is usually rapid or sudden when the malady is general, constituting what
is designated splenic apoplexy, internal anthrax in cattle is not
invariably fatal. In some cases the animal rallies from a first attack
and gradually recovers.

In the external or localized form, marked by the formation of carbuncles
before general infection takes place, death may not occur for several
days. The carbuncles may appear in any part of the body, being preceded
or accompanied by fever. They are developed in the subcutaneous
connective tissue where this is loose and plentiful, in the interstices
of the muscles, lymphatic glands, in the mucous membranes of the mouth
and tongue (glossanthrax of cattle), pharynx and larynx (_anthrax
angina_ of horses and pigs), and the rectum. They begin as small
circumscribed swellings which are warm, slightly painful and oedematous.
In from two to eight hours they attain a considerable size, are cold,
painless and gangrenous, and when they are incised a quantity of a
blood-stained gelatinous exudate escapes. When the swellings have
attained certain proportions symptoms of general infection appear, and,
running their course with great rapidity, cause death in a few hours.
Anthrax of the horse usually begins as an affection of the throat or
bowel. In the former there is rapid obstructive oedema of the mucous
membrane of the pharynx and larynx with swelling of the throat and neck,
fever, salivation, difficulty in swallowing, noisy breathing, frothy
discharge from the nose and threatening suffocation. General invasion
soon ensues, and the horse may die in from four to sixteen hours. The
intestinal form is marked by high temperature, great prostration, small
thready pulse, tumultuous action of the heart, laboured breathing and
symptoms of abdominal pain with straining and diarrhoea. When moved the
horse staggers and trembles. Profuse sweating, a falling temperature and
cyanotic mucous membranes indicate the approach of a fatal termination.

In splenic fever or splenic apoplexy, the most marked alterations
observed after death are--the effects of rapid decomposition, evidenced
by the foul odour, disengagement of gas beneath the skin and in the
tissues and cavities of the body, yellow or yellowish-red gelatinous
exudation into and between the muscles, effusion of citron or
rust-coloured fluid in various cavities, extravasations of blood and
local congestions throughout the body, the blood in the vessels
generally being very dark and tar-like. The most notable feature,
however, in the majority of cases is the enormous enlargement of the
spleen, which is engorged with blood to such an extent that it often
ruptures, while its tissue is changed into a violet or black fluid mass.

The bacillus of anthrax, under certain conditions, retains its vitality
for a long time, and rapidly grows when it finds a suitable field in
which to develop, its mode of multiplication being by scission and the
formation of spores, and depending, to a great extent at least, on the
presence of oxygen. The morbid action of the bacillus is indeed said to
be due to its affinity for oxygen; by depriving the red corpuscles of
the blood of that most essential gas, it renders the vital fluid unfit
to sustain life. Albert Hoffa and others assert that the fatal lesions
are produced by the poisonous action of the toxins formed by the bacilli
and not by the blocking up of the minute blood-vessels, or the
abstraction of oxygen from the blood by the bacilli.

It was by the cultivation of this micro-organism, or attenuation of the
virus, that Pasteur was enabled to produce a prophylactic remedy for
anthrax. His discovery was first made with regard to the cholera of
fowls, a most destructive disorder which annually carries off great
numbers of poultry. Pasteur produced his inoculation material by the
cultivation of the bacilli at a temperature of 42° C. in oxygen. Two
vaccines are required. The first or weak vaccine is obtained by
incubating a bouillon culture for twenty-four days at 42° C., and the
second or less attenuated vaccine by incubating a bouillon culture, at
the same temperature, for twelve days. Pasteur's method of protective
inoculation comprises two inoculations with an interval of twelve days
between them. Immunity, established in about fifteen days after the
injection of the second vaccine, lasts from nine months to a year.

Toussaint had, previous to Pasteur, attenuated the virus of anthrax by
the action of heat; and Chauveau subsequently corroborated by numerous
experiments the value of Toussaint's method, demonstrating that,
according to the degree of heat to which the virus is subjected, so is
its inocuousness when transferred to a healthy creature. In outbreaks of
anthrax on farms where many animals are exposed to infection immediate
temporary protection can be conferred by the injection of anthrax serum.

_Human Beings._--For many years cases of sudden death had been observed
to occur from time to time among healthy men engaged in woollen
manufactories, particularly in the work of sorting or combing wool. In
some instances death appeared to be due to the direct inoculation of
some poisonous material into the body, for a form of malignant pustule
was observed upon the skin; but, on the other hand, in not a few cases
without any external manifestation, symptoms of blood-poisoning, often
proving rapidly fatal, suggested the probability of other channels for
the introduction of the disease. In 1880 the occurrence of several such
cases among woolsorters at Bradford, reported by Dr J.H. Bell of that
town, led to an official inquiry in England by the Local Government
Board, and an elaborate investigation into the pathology of what was
then called "woolsorters' disease" was at the same time conducted at the
Brown Institution, London, by Professor W.S. Greenfield. Among the
results of this inquiry it was ascertained: (1) that the disease
appeared to be identical with that occurring among sheep and cattle; (2)
that in the blood and tissues of the body was found in abundance, as in
the disease in animals, the _Bacillus anthracis_, and (3) that the
skins, hair, wool, &c., of animals dying of anthrax retain this
infecting organism, which, under certain conditions, finds ready access
to the bodies of the workers.

Two well-marked forms of this disease in man are recognized, "external
anthrax" and "internal anthrax." In external anthrax the infecting agent
is accidentally inoculated into some portion of skin, the seat of a
slight abrasion, often the hand, arm or face. A minute swelling soon
appears at the part, and develops into a vesicle containing serum or
bloody matter, and varying in size, but seldom larger than a shilling.
This vesicle speedily bursts and leaves an ulcerated or sloughing
surface, round about which are numerous smaller vesicles which undergo
similar changes, and the whole affected part becomes hard and tender,
while the surrounding surface participates in the inflammatory action,
and the neighbouring lymphatic glands are also inflamed. This condition,
termed "malignant pustule," is frequently accompanied with severe
constitutional disturbance, in the form of fever, delirium,
perspirations, together with great prostration and a tendency to death
from septicaemia, although on the other hand recovery is not uncommon.
It was repeatedly found that the matter taken from the vesicle during
the progress of the disease, as well as the blood in the body after
death, contained the _Bacillus anthracis_, and when inoculated into
small animals produced rapid death, with all the symptoms and
post-mortem appearances characteristic of che disease as known to affect
them.

In internal anthrax there is no visible local manifestation of the
disease, and the spores or bacilli appear to gain access to the system
from the air charged with them, as in rooms where the contaminated wool
or hair is unpacked, or again during the process of sorting. The
symptoms usually observed are those of rapid physical prostration, with
a small pulse, somewhat lowered temperature (rarely fever), and
quickened breathing. Examination of the chest reveals inflammation of
the lungs and pleura. In some cases death takes place by collapse in
less than one day, while in others the fatal issue is postponed for
three or four days, and is preceded by symptoms of blood-poisoning,
including rigors, perspirations, extreme exhaustion, &c. In some cases
of internal anthrax the symptoms are more intestinal than pulmonary, and
consist in severe exhausting diarrhoea, with vomiting and rapid sinking.
Recovery from the internal variety, although not unknown, is more rare
than from the external, and its most striking phenomena are its sudden
onset in the midst of apparent health, the rapid development of physical
prostration, and its tendency to a fatal termination despite treatment.
The post-mortem appearances in internal anthrax are such as are usually
observed in septicaemia, but in addition evidence of extensive
inflammation of the lungs, pleura and bronchial glands has in most cases
been met with. The blood and other fluids and the diseased tissues are
found loaded with the _Bacillus anthracis_.

Treatment in this disease appears to be of but little avail, except as
regards the external form, where the malignant pustule may be excised or
dealt with early by strong caustics to destroy the affected textures.
For the relief of the general constitutional symptoms, quinine,
stimulants and strong nourishment appear to be the only available means.
An anti-anthrax serum has also been tried. As preventive measures in
woollen manufactories, the disinfection of suspicious material, or the
wetting of it before handling, is recommended as lessening the risk to
the workers.     (J. Mac.)



ANTHROPOID APES, or MANLIKE APES, the name given to the family of the
Simiidae, because, of all the ape-world, they most closely resemble man.
This family includes four kinds, the gibbons of S.E. Asia, the orangs of
Borneo and Sumatra, the gorillas of W. Equatorial Africa, and the
chimpanzees of W. and Central Equatorial Africa. Each of these apes
resembles man most in some one physical characteristic: the gibbons in
the formation of the teeth, the orangs in the brain-structure, the
gorillas in size, and the chimpanzees in the sigmoid flexure of the
spine. In general structure they all closely resemble human beings, as
in the absence of tails; in their semi-erect position (resting on
finger-tips or knuckles); in the shape of vertebral column, sternum and
pelvis; in the adaptation of the arms for turning the palm uppermost at
will; in the possession of a long vermiform appendix to the short caecum
of the intestine; in the size of the cerebral hemispheres and the
complexity of their convolutions. They differ in certain respects, as in
the proportion of the limbs, in the bony development of the eyebrow
ridges, and in the opposable great toe, which fits the foot to be a
climbing and grasping organ.

Man differs from them in the absence of a hairy coat; in the development
of a large lobule to the external ear; in his fully erect attitude; in
his flattened foot with the non-opposable great toe; in the straight
limb-bones; in the wider pelvis; in the marked sigmoid flexure of his
spine; in the perfection of the muscular movements of the arm; in the
delicacy of hand; in the smallness of the canine teeth and other dental
peculiarities; in the development of a chin; and in the small size of
his jaws compared to the relatively great size of the cranium. Together
with man and the baboons, the anthropoid apes form the group known to
science as Catarhini, those, that is, possessing a narrow nasal septum,
and are thus easily distinguishable from the flat-nosed monkeys or
Platyrhini. The anthropoid apes are arboreal and confined to the Old
World. They are of special interest from the important place assigned to
them in the arguments of Darwin and the Evolutionists. It is generally
admitted now that no fundamental anatomical difference can be proved to
exist between these higher apes and man, but it is equally agreed that
none probably of the Simiidae is in the direct line of human ancestry.
There is a great gap to be bridged between the highest anthropoid and
the lowest man, and much importance has been attached to the discovery
of an extinct primate, Pithecanthropus (q.v.), which has been regarded
as the "missing link."

  See Huxley's _Man's Place in Nature_ (1863); Robt. Hartmann's
  _Anthropoid Apes_ (1883; London, 1885); A.H. Keane's _Ethnology_
  (1896); Darwin's _Descent of Man_ (1871; pop. ed., 1901); Haeckel's
  _Anthropogeny_ (Leipzig, 1874, 1903; Paris, 1877; Eng. ed., 1883);
  W.H. Flower and Rich. Lydekker, _Mammals Living and Extinct_ (London,
  1891).



ANTHROPOLOGY (Gr. [Greek: anthropos] man, and [Greek: logos], theory or
science), the science which, in its strictest sense, has as its object
the study of man as a unit in the animal kingdom. It is distinguished
from ethnology, which is devoted to the study of man as a _racial_ unit,
and from ethnography, which deals with the _distribution_ of the races
formed by the aggregation of such units. To anthropology, however, in
its more general sense as the natural history of man, ethnology and
ethnography may both be considered to belong, being related as parts to
a whole.

Various other sciences, in conformity with the above definition, must be
regarded as subsidiary to anthropology, which yet hold their own
independent places in the field of knowledge. Thus anatomy and
physiology display the structure and functions of the human body, while
psychology investigates the operations of the human mind. Philology
deals with the general principles of language, as well as with the
relations between the languages of particular races and nations. Ethics
or moral science treats of man's duty or rules of conduct toward his
fellow-men. Sociology and the science of culture are concerned with the
origin and development of arts and sciences, opinions, beliefs, customs,
laws and institutions generally among mankind within historic time;
while beyond the historical limit the study is continued by inferences
from relics of early ages and remote districts, to interpret which is
the task of prehistoric archaeology and geology.

I. _Man's Place in Nature._--In 1843 Dr J.C. Prichard, who perhaps of
all others merits the title of founder of modern anthropology, wrote in
his _Natural History of Man_:--

  "The organized world presents no contrasts and resemblances more
  remarkable than those which we discover on comparing mankind with the
  inferior tribes. That creatures should exist so nearly approaching to
  each other in all the particulars of their physical structure, and yet
  differing so immeasurably in their endowments and capabilities, would
  be a fact hard to believe, if it were not manifest to our observation.
  The differences are everywhere striking: the resemblances are less
  obvious in the fulness of their extent, and they are never
  contemplated without wonder by those who, in the study of anatomy and
  physiology, are first made aware how near is man in his physical
  constitution to the brutes. In all the principles of his internal
  structure, in the composition and functions of his parts, man is but
  an animal. The lord of the earth, who contemplates the eternal order
  of the universe, and aspires to communion with its invisible Maker, is
  a being composed of the same materials, and framed on the same
  principles, as the creatures which he has tamed to be the servile
  instruments of his will, or slays for his daily food. The points of
  resemblance are innumerable; they extend to the most recondite
  arrangements of that mechanism which maintains instrumentally the
  physical life of the body, which brings forward its early development
  and admits, after a given period, its decay, and by means of which is
  prepared a succession of similar beings destined to perpetuate the
  race."

The acknowledgment of man's structural similarity with the
anthropomorphous species nearest approaching him, viz.: the higher or
anthropoid apes, had long before Prichard's day been made by Linnaeus,
who in his _Systema Naturae_ (1735) grouped them together as the highest
order of Mammalia, to which he gave the name of Primates. The
_Amoenitates Academicae_ (vol. vi., Leiden, 1764), published under the
auspices of Linnaeus, contains a remarkable picture which illustrates a
discourse by his disciple Hoppius, and is here reproduced (see Plate,
fig. 1). In this picture, which shows the crudeness of the zoological
notions current in the 18th century as to both men and apes, there are
set in a row four figures: (a) a recognizable orang-utan, sitting and
holding a staff; (b) a chimpanzee, absurdly humanized as to head, hands,
and feet; (c) a hairy woman, with a tail a foot long; (d) another woman,
more completely coated with hair. The great Swedish naturalist was
possibly justified in treating the two latter creatures as quasi-human,
for they seem to be grotesque exaggerations of such tailed and hairy
human beings as really, though rarely, occur, and are apt to be
exhibited as monstrosities (see Bastian and Hartmann, _Zeitschrift für
Ethnologie_, Index, "Geschwänzte Menschen"; Gould and Pile, _Anomalies
and Curiosities of Medicine_, 1897). To Linnaeus, however, they
represented normal anthropomorpha or man-like creatures, vouched for by
visitors to remote parts of the world. This opinion of the Swedish
naturalist seems to have been little noticed in Great Britain till it
was taken up by the learned but credulous Scottish judge, Lord Monboddo
(see his _Origin and Progress of Language_, 1774, &c.; _Antient
Metaphysics_, 1778). He had not heard of the tailed men till he met with
them in the work of Linnaeus, with whom he entered into correspondence,
with the result that he enlarged his range of mankind with races of
sub-human type. One was founded on the description by the Swedish sailor
Niklas Köping of the ferocious men with long tails inhabiting the
Nicobar Islands. Another comprised the orang-utans of Sumatra, who were
said to take men captive and set them to work as slaves. One of these
apes, it was related, served as a sailor on board a Jamaica ship, and
used to wait on the captain. These are stories which seem to carry their
own explanation. When the Nicobar Islands were taken over by the British
government two centuries later, the native warriors were still wearing
their peculiar loin-cloth hanging behind in a most tail-like manner
(E.H. Man, _Journal Anthropological Institute_, vol. xv. p. 442). As for
the story of the orang-utan cabin boy, this may even be verbally true,
it being borne in mind that in the Malay languages the term
_orang-utan_, "man of the forest," was originally used for inland forest
natives and other rude men, rather than for the _miyas_ apes to which it
has come to be generally applied by Europeans. The speculations as to
primitive man connected with these stories diverted the British public,
headed by Dr Johnson, who said that Monboddo was "as jealous of his tail
as a squirrel." Linnaeus's primarily zoological classification of man
did not, however, suit the philosophical opinion of the time, which
responded more readily to the systems represented by Buffon, and later
by Cuvier, in which the human mind and soul formed an impassable wall of
partition between him and other mammalia, so that the definition of
man's position in the animal world was treated as not belonging to
zoology, but to metaphysics and theology. It has to be borne in mind
that Linnaeus, plainly as he recognized the likeness of the higher
simian and the human types, does not seem to have entertained the
thought of accounting for this similarity by common descent. It
satisfied his mind to consider it as belonging to the system of nature,
as indeed remained the case with a greater anatomist of the following
century, Richard Owen. The present drawing, which under the authority of
Linnaeus shows an anthropomorphic series from which the normal type of
man, the _Homo sapiens_, is conspicuously absent, brings zoological
similarity into view without suggesting kinship to account for it. There
are few ideas more ingrained in ancient and low civilization than that
of relationship by descent between the lower animals and man. Savage and
barbaric religions recognize it, and the mythology of the world has
hardly a more universal theme. But in educated Europe such ideas had
long been superseded by the influence of theology and philosophy, with
which they seemed too incompatible. In the 19th century, however,
Lamarck's theory of the development of new species by habit and
circumstance led through Wallace and Darwin to the doctrines of the
hereditary transmission of acquired characters, the survival of the
fittest, and natural selection. Thenceforward it was impossible to
exclude a theory of descent of man from ancestral beings whom zoological
similarity connects also, though by lines of descent not at all clearly
defined, with ancestors of the anthropomorphic apes. In one form or
another such a theory of human descent has in our time become part of an
accepted framework of zoology, if not as a demonstrable truth, at any
rate as a working hypothesis which has no effective rival.

The new development from Linnaeus's zoological scheme which has thus
ensued appears in Huxley's diagram of simian and human skeletons (fig.
2, (a) gibbon; (b) orang; (c) chimpanzee; (d) gorilla; (e) man).
Evidently suggested by the Linnean picture, this is brought up to the
modern level of zoology, and continued on to man, forming an
introduction to his zoological history hardly to be surpassed. Some of
the main points it illustrates may be briefly stated here, the reader
being referred for further information to Huxley's _Essays_. In tracing
the osteological characters of apes and man through this series, the
general system of the skeletons, and the close correspondence in number
and arrangement of vertebrae and ribs, as well as in the teeth, go far
towards justifying the opinion of hereditary connexion. At the same
time, the comparison brings into view differences in human structure
adapted to man's pre-eminent mode of life, though hardly to be accounted
its chief causes. It may be seen how the arrangement of limbs suited for
going on all-fours belongs rather to the apes than to man, and walking
on the soles of the feet rather to man than the apes. The two modes of
progression overlap in human life, but the child's tendency when
learning is to rest on the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands,
unlike the apes, which support themselves on the sides of the feet and
the bent knuckles of the hands. With regard to climbing, the long
stretch of arm and the grasp with both hands and feet contribute to the
arboreal life of the apes, contrasting with what seem the mere remains
of the climbing habit to be found even among forest savages. On the
whole, man's locomotive limbs are not so much specialized to particular
purposes, as generalized into adaptation to many ends. As to the
mechanical conditions of the human body, the upright posture has always
been recognized as the chief. To it contributes the balance of the skull
on the cervical vertebrae, while the human form of the pelvis provides
the necessary support to the intestines in the standing attitude. The
marked curvature of the vertebral column, by breaking the shock to the
neck and head in running and leaping, likewise favours the erect
position. The lowest coccygeal vertebrae of man remain as a rudimentary
tail. While it is evident that high importance must be attached to the
adaptation of the human body to the life of diversified intelligence and
occupation he has to lead, this must not be treated as though it were
the principal element of the superiority of man, whose comparison with
all lower genera of mammals must be mainly directed to the intellectual
organ, the brain. Comparison of the brains of vertebrate animals (see
BRAIN) brings into view the immense difference between the small, smooth
brain of a fish or bird and the large and convoluted organ in man. In
man, both size and complexity contribute to the increased area of the
cortex or outer layer of the brain, which has been fully ascertained to
be the seat of the mysterious processes by which sensation furnishes the
groundwork of thought. Schäfer (_Textbook of Physiology_, vol. ii. p.
697) thus defines it: "The cerebral cortex is the seat of the
intellectual functions, of intelligent sensation or consciousness, of
ideation, of volition, and of memory."

The relations between man and ape are most readily stated in comparison
with the gorilla, as on the whole the most anthropomorphous ape. In the
general proportions of the body and limbs there is a marked difference
between the gorilla and man. The gorilla's brain-case is smaller, its
trunk larger, its lower limbs shorter, its upper limbs longer in
proportion than those of man. The differences between a gorilla's skull
and a man's are truly immense. In the gorilla, the face, formed largely
by the massive jaw-bones, predominates over the brain-case or cranium;
in the man these proportions are reversed. In man the occipital foramen,
through which passes the spinal cord, is placed just behind the centre
of the base of the skull, which is thus evenly balanced in the erect
posture, whereas the gorilla, which goes habitually on all fours, and
whose skull is inclined forward, in accordance with this posture has the
foramen farther back. In man the surface of the skull is comparatively
smooth, and the brow-ridges project but little, while in the gorilla
these ridges overhang the cavernous orbits like penthouse roofs. The
absolute capacity of the cranium of the gorilla is far less than that of
man; the smallest adult human cranium hardly measuring less than 63 cub.
in., while the largest gorilla cranium measured had a content of only
34½ cub. in. The largest proportional size of the facial bones, and the
great projection of the jaws, confer on the gorilla's skull its small
facial angle and brutal character, while its teeth differ from man's in
relative size and number of fangs. Comparing the lengths of the
extremities, it is seen that the gorilla's arm is of enormous length, in
fact about one-sixth longer than the spine, whereas a man's arm is
one-fifth shorter than the spine; both hand and foot are proportionally
much longer in the gorilla than in man; the leg does not so much differ.
The vertebral column of the gorilla differs from that of man in its
curvature and other characters, as also does the conformation of its
narrow pelvis. The hand of the gorilla corresponds essentially as to
bones and muscles with that of man, but is clumsier and heavier; its
thumb is "opposable" like a human thumb, that is, it can easily meet
with its extremity the extremities of the other fingers, thus possessing
a character which does much to make the human hand so admirable an
instrument; but the gorilla's thumb is proportionately shorter than
man's. The foot of the higher apes, though often spoken of as a hand, is
anatomically not such, but a prehensile foot. It has been argued by Sir
Richard Owen and others that the position of the great toe converts the
foot of the higher apes into a hand, an extremely important distinction
from man; but against this Professor T.H. Huxley maintained that it has
the characteristic structure of a foot with a very movable great toe.
The external unlikeness of the apes to man depends much on their
hairiness, but this and some other characteristics have no great
zoological value. No doubt the difference between man and the apes
depends, of all things, on the relative size and organization of the
brain. While similar as to their general arrangement to the human brain,
those of the higher apes, such as the chimpanzee, are much less complex
in their convolutions, as well as much less in both absolute and
relative weight--the weight of a gorilla's brain hardly exceeding 20
oz., and a man's brain hardly weighing less thin 32 oz., although the
gorilla is considerably the larger animal of the two.

These anatomical distinctions are undoubtedly of great moment, and it is
an interesting question whether they suffice to place man in a
zoological order by himself. It is plain that some eminent zoologists,
regarding man as absolutely differing as to mind and spirit from any
other animal, have had their discrimination of mere bodily differences
unconsciously sharpened, and have been led to give differences, such as
in the brain or even the foot of the apes and man, somewhat more
importance than if they had merely distinguished two species of apes.
Many naturalists hold the opinion that the anatomical differences which
separate the gorilla or chimpanzee from man are in some respects less
than those which separate these man-like apes from apes lower in the
scale. Yet all authorities class both the higher and lower apes in the
same order. This is Huxley's argument, some prominent points of which
are the following: As regards the proportion of limbs, the hylobates or
gibbon is as much longer in the arms than the gorilla as the gorilla is
than the man, while on the other hand, it is as much longer in the legs
than the man as the man is than the gorilla. As to the vertebral column
and pelvis, the lower apes differ from the gorilla as much as, or more
than, it differs from man. As to the capacity of the cranium, men differ
from one another so extremely that the largest known human skull holds
nearly twice the measure of the smallest, a larger proportion than that
in which man surpasses the gorilla; while, with proper allowance for
difference of size of the various species, it appears that some of the
lower apes fall nearly as much below the higher apes. The projection of
the muzzle, which gives the character of brutality to the gorilla as
distinguished from the man, is yet further exaggerated in the lemurs, as
is also the backward position of the occipital foramen. In characters of
such importance as the structure of the hand and foot, the lower apes
diverge extremely from the gorilla; thus the thumb ceases to be
opposable in the American monkeys, and in the marmosets is directed
forwards, and armed with a curved claw like the other digits, the great
toe in these latter being insignificant in proportion. The same argument
can be extended to other points of anatomical structure, and, what is of
more consequence, it appears true of the brain. A series of the apes,
arranged from lower to higher orders, shows gradations from a brain
little higher that that of a rat, to a brain like a small and imperfect
imitation of a man's; and the greatest structural break in the series
lies not between man and the man-like apes, but between the apes and
monkeys on one side, and the lemurs on the other. On these grounds
Huxley, restoring in principle the Linnean classification, desired to
include man in the order of _Primates_. This order he divided into seven
families: first, the _Anthropini_, consisting of man only; second, the
_Catarhini_ or Old World apes; third, the _Platyrhini_, all New World
apes, except the marmosets; fourth, the _Arclopithecini_, or marmosets;
fifth, the _Lemurini_, or lemurs; sixth and seventh, the _Cheiromyini_
and _Galeopithecini_.

It is in assigning to man his place in nature on psychological grounds
that the greater difficulty arises. Huxley acknowledged an immeasurable
and practically infinite divergence, ending in the present enormous
psychological gulf between ape and man. It is difficult to account for
this intellectual chasm as due to some minor structural difference. The
opinion is deeply rooted in modern as in ancient thought, that only a
distinctively human element of the highest import can account for the
severance between man and the highest animal below him. Differences in
the mechanical organs, such as the perfection of the human hand as an
instrument, or the adaptability of the human voice to the expression of
human thought, are indeed of great value. But they have not of
themselves such value, that to endow an ape with the hand and vocal
organs of a man would be likely to raise it through any large part of
the interval that now separates it from humanity. Much more is to be
said for the view that man's larger and more highly organized brain
accounts for those mental powers in which he so absolutely surpasses the
brutes.

The distinction does not seem to lie principally in the range and
delicacy of direct sensation, as may be judged from such well-known
facts as man's inferiority to the eagle in sight, or to the dog in
scent. At the same time, it seems that the human sensory organs may have
in various respects acuteness beyond those of other creatures. But,
beyond a doubt, man possesses, and in some way possesses by virtue of
his superior brain, a power of co-ordinating the impressions of his
senses, which enables him to understand the world he lives in, and by
understanding to use, resist, and even in a measure rule it. No human
art shows the nature of this human attribute more clearly than does
language. Man shares with the mammalia and birds the direct expression
of the feelings by emotional tones and interjectional cries; the
parrot's power of articulate utterance almost equals his own; and, by
association of ideas in some measure, some of the lower animals have
even learnt to recognize words he utters. But, to use words in
themselves unmeaning, as symbols by which to conduct and convey the
complex intellectual processes in which mental conceptions are
suggested, compared, combined, and even analysed, and new ones
created--this is a faculty which is scarcely to be traced in any lower
animal. The view that this, with other mental processes, is a function
of the brain, is remarkably corroborated by modern investigation of the
disease of aphasia, where the power of thinking remains, but the power
is lost of recalling the word corresponding to the thought, and this
mental defect is found to accompany a diseased state of a particular
locality of the brain (see APHASIA). This may stand among the most
perfect of the many evidences that, in Professor Bain's words, "the
brain is the principal, though not the sole organ of mind." As the
brains of the vertebrate animals form an ascending scale, more and more
approaching man's in their arrangement, the fact here finds its
explanation, that lower animals perform mental processes corresponding
in their nature to our own, though of generally less power and
complexity. The full evidence of this correspondence will be found in
such works as Brehm's _Thierleben_; and some of the salient points are
set forth by Charles Darwin, in the chapter on "Mental Powers," in his
_Descent of Man_. Such are the similar effects of terror on man and the
lower animals, causing the muscled to tremble, the heart to palpitate,
the sphincters to be relaxed, and the hair to stand on end. The
phenomena of memory, as to both persons and places, is strong in
animals, as is manifest by their recognition of their masters, and their
returning at once to habits of which, though disused for many years,
their brain has not lost the stored-up impressions. Such facts as that
dogs "hunt in dreams," make it likely that their minds are not only
sensible to actual events, present and past, but can, like our minds,
combine revived sensations into ideal scenes in which they are
actors,--that is to say, they have the faculty of imagination. As for
the reasoning powers in animals, the accounts of monkeys learning by
experience to break eggs carefully, and pick off bits of shell, so as
not to lose the contents, or of the way in which rats or martens after a
while can no longer be caught by the same kind of trap, with innumerable
similar facts, show in the plainest way that the reason of animals goes
so far as to form by new experience a new hypothesis of cause and effect
which will henceforth guide their actions. The employment of mechanical
instruments, of which instances of monkeys using sticks and stones
furnish the only rudimentary traces among the lower animals, is one of
the often-quoted distinctive powers of man. With this comes the whole
vast and ever-widening range of inventive and adaptive art, where the
uniform hereditary instinct of the cell-forming bee and the
nest-building bird is supplanted by multiform processes and
constructions, often at first rude and clumsy in comparison to those of
the lower instinct, but carried on by the faculty of improvement and new
invention into ever higher stages. "From the moment," writes A.R.
Wallace (_Natural Selection_), "when the first skin was used as a
covering, when the first rude spear was formed to assist in the chase,
when fire was first used to cook his food, when the first seed was sown
or shoot planted, a grand revolution was effected in nature, a
revolution which in all the previous ages of the earth's history had had
no parallel; for a being had arisen who was no longer necessarily
subject to change with the changing universe,--a being who was in some
degree superior to nature, inasmuch as he knew how to control and
regulate her action, and could keep himself in harmony with her, not by
a change in body, but by an advance of mind."

As to the lower instincts tending directly to self-preservation, it is
acknowledged on all hands that man has them in a less developed state
than other animals; in fact, the natural defencelessness of the human
being, and the long-continued care and teaching of the young by the
elders, are among the commonest themes of moral discourse. Parental
tenderness and care for the young are strongly marked among the lower
animals, though so inferior in scope and duration to the human
qualities; and the same may be said of the mutual forbearance and
defence which bind together in a rudimentary social bond the families
and herds of animals. Philosophy seeking knowledge for its own sake;
morality, manifested in the sense of truth, right, and virtue; and
religion, the belief in and communion with superhuman powers ruling and
pervading the universe, are human characters, of which it is instructive
to trace, if possible, the earliest symptoms in the lower animals, but
which can there show at most only faint and rudimentary signs of their
wondrous development in mankind. That the tracing of physical and even
intellectual continuity between the lower animals and our own race, does
not necessarily lead the anthropologist to lower the rank of man in the
scale of nature, may be shown by citing A.R. Wallace. Man, he considers,
is to be placed "apart, as not only the head and culminating point of
the grand series of organic nature, but as in some degree a new and
distinct order of being."

To regard the intellectual functions of the brain and nervous system as
alone to be considered in the psychological comparison of man with the
lower animals, is a view satisfactory to those thinkers who hold
materialistic views. According to this school, man is a machine, no
doubt the most complex and wonderfully adapted of all known machines,
but still neither more nor less than an instrument whose energy is
provided by force from without, and which, when set in action, performs
the various operations for which its structure fits it, namely, to live,
move, feel, and think. This view, however, always has been strongly
opposed by those who accept on theological grounds a spiritualistic
doctrine, or what is, perhaps, more usual, a theory which combines
spiritualism and materialism in the doctrine of a composite nature in
man, animal as to the body and in some measure as to the mind, spiritual
as to the soul. It may be useful, as an illustration of one opinion on
this subject, to continue here the citation of Dr Prichard's comparison
between man and the lower animals:--

  "If it be inquired in what the still more remarkable difference
  consists, it is by no means easy to reply. By some it will be said
  that man, while similar in the organization of his body to the lower
  tribes, is distinguished from them by the possession of an immaterial
  soul, a principle capable of conscious feeling, of intellect and
  thought. To many persons it will appear paradoxical to ascribe the
  endowment of a soul to the inferior tribes in the creation, yet it is
  difficult to discover a valid argument that limits the possession of
  an immaterial principle to man. The phenomena of feeling, of desire
  and aversion, of love and hatred, of fear and revenge, and the
  perception of external relations manifested in the life of brutes,
  imply, not only through the analogy which they display to the human
  faculties, but likewise from all that we can learn or conjecture of
  their particular nature, the superadded existence of a principle
  distinct from the mere mechanism of material bodies. That such a
  principle must exist in all beings capable of sensation, or of
  anything analogous to human passions and feelings, will hardly be
  denied by those who perceive the force of arguments which
  metaphysically demonstrate the immaterial nature of the mind. There
  may be no rational grounds for the ancient dogma that the souls of the
  lower animals were imperishable, like the soul of man: this is,
  however, a problem which we are not called upon to discuss; and we may
  venture to conjecture that there may be immaterial essences of divers
  kinds, and endowed with various attributes and capabilities. But the
  real nature of these unseen principles eludes our research: they are
  only known to us by their external manifestations. These
  manifestations are the various powers and capabilities, or rather the
  habitudes of action, which characterize the different orders of being,
  diversified according to their several destinations."

Dr Prichard here puts forward distinctly the time-honoured doctrine
which refers the mental faculties to the operation of the soul. The view
maintained by a distinguished comparative anatomist, Professor St George
Mivart, in his _Genesis of Species_, ch. xii., may fairly follow. "Man,
according to the old scholastic definition, is 'a rational animal'
(_animal rationale_), and his animality is distinct in nature from his
rationality, though inseparably joined, during life, in one common
personality. Man's animal body must have had a different source from
that of the spiritual soul which informs it, owing to the distinctness
of the two orders to which those two existences severally belong." The
two extracts just given, however, significant in themselves, fail to
render an account of the view of the human constitution which would
probably, among the theological and scholastic leaders of public
opinion, count the largest weight of adherence. According to this view,
not only life but thought are functions of the animal system, in which
man excels all other animals as to height of organization: but beyond
this, man embodies an immaterial and immortal spiritual principle which
no lower creature possesses, and which makes the resemblance of the apes
to him but a mocking simulance. To pronounce any absolute decision on
these conflicting doctrines is foreign to our present purpose, which is
to show that all of them count among their adherents men of high rank in
science.

II. _Origin of Man._--Opinion as to the genesis of man is divided
between the theories of creation and evolution. In both schools, the
ancient doctrine of the contemporaneous appearance on earth of all
species of animals having been abandoned under the positive evidence of
geology, it is admitted that the animal kingdom, past and present,
includes a vast series of successive forms, whose appearances and
disappearances have taken place at intervals during an immense lapse of
ages. The line of inquiry has thus been directed to ascertaining what
formative relation subsists among these species and genera, the last
link of the argument reaching to the relation between man and the lower
creatures preceding him in time. On both the theories here concerned it
would be admitted, in the words of Agassiz (_Principles of Zoology_, pp.
205-206), that "there is a manifest progress in the succession of beings
on the surface of the earth. This progress consists in an increasing
similarity of the living fauna, and, among the vertebrates especially,
in their increasing resemblance to man." Agassiz continues, however, in
terms characteristic of the creationist school: "But this connexion is
not the consequence of a direct lineage between the faunas of different
ages. There is nothing like parental descent connecting them. The fishes
of the Palaeozoic age are in no respect the ancestors of the reptiles of
the Secondary age, nor does man descend from the mammals which preceded
him in the Tertiary age. The link by which they are connected is of a
higher and immaterial nature; and their connexion is to be sought in the
view of the Creator himself, whose aim in forming the earth, in allowing
it to undergo the successive changes which geology has pointed out, and
in creating successively all the different types of animals which have
passed away, was to introduce man upon the surface of our globe. Man is
the end towards which all the animal creation has tended from the first
appearance of the first Palaeozoic fishes." The evolutionist, on the
contrary (see EVOLUTION), maintains that different successive species of
animals are in fact connected by parental descent, having become
modified in the course of successive generations. The result of Charles
Darwin's application of this theory to man may be given in his own words
(_Descent of Man_, part i. ch. 6):--

  "The Catarhine and Platyrhine monkeys agree in a multitude of
  characters, as is shown by their unquestionably belonging to one and
  the same order. The many characters which they possess in common can
  hardly have been independently acquired by so many distinct species;
  so that these characters must have been inherited. But an ancient form
  which possessed many characters common to the Catarhine and Platyrhine
  monkeys, and others in an intermediate condition, and some few perhaps
  distinct from those now present in either group, would undoubtedly
  have been ranked, if seen by a naturalist, as an ape or a monkey. And
  as man under a genealogical point of view belongs to the Catarhine or
  Old World stock, we must conclude, however much the conclusion may
  revolt our pride, that our early progenitors would have been properly
  thus designated. But we must not fall into the error of supposing that
  the early progenitor of the whole Simian stock, including man, was
  identical with, or even closely resembled, any existing ape or
  monkey."

The problem of the origin of man cannot be properly discussed apart from
the full problem of the origin of species. The homologies between man
and other animals which both schools try to account for; the explanation
of the intervals, with apparent want of intermediate forms, which seem
to the creationists so absolute a separation between species; the
evidence of useless "rudimentary organs," such as in man the external
shell of the ear, and the muscle which enables some individuals to
twitch their ears, which rudimentary parts the evolutionists claim to be
only explicable as relics of an earlier specific condition,--these,
which are the main points of the argument on the origin of man, belong
to general biology. The philosophical principles which underlie the two
theories stand for the most part in strong contrast, the theory of
evolution tending toward the supposition of ordinary causes, such as
"natural selection," producing modifications in species, whether by
gradual accumulation or more sudden leaps, while the theory of creation
has recourse to acts of supernatural intervention (see the duke of
Argyll, _Reign of Law_, ch. v.). St George Mivart (_Genesis of Species_)
propounded a theory of a natural evolution of man as to his body,
combined with a supernatural creation as to his soul; but this attempt
to meet the difficulties on both sides seems to have satisfied neither.

The wide acceptance of the Darwinian theory, as applied to the descent
of man, has naturally roused anticipation that geological research,
which provides evidence of the animal life of incalculably greater
antiquity, would furnish fossil remains of some comparatively recent
being intermediate between the anthropomorphic and the anthropic types.
This expectation has hardly been fulfilled, but of late years the notion
of a variety of the human race, geologically ancient, differing from any
known in historic times, and with characters approaching the simian, has
been supported by further discoveries. To bring this to the reader's
notice, top and side views of three skulls, as placed together in the
human development series in the Oxford University Museum, are
represented in the plate, for the purpose of showing the great size of
the orbital ridges, which the reader may contrast with his own by a
touch with his fingers on his forehead. The first (fig. 3) is the famous
Neanderthal skull from near Düsseldorf, described by Schaafhausen in
Müller's _Archiv_, 1858; Huxley in Lyell, _Antiquity of Man_, p. 86, and
in _Man's Place in Nature_. The second (fig. 4) is the skull from the
cavern of Spy in Belgium (de Puydt and Lohest, _Compte rendu du Congrès
de Namur_, 1886). The foreheads of these two skulls have an ape-like
form, obvious on comparison with the simian skulls of the gorilla and
other apes, and visible even in the small-scale figures in the Plate,
fig. 2. Among modern tribes of mankind the forehead of the Australian
aborigines makes the nearest approach to this type, as was pointed out
by Huxley. This brief description will serve to show the importance of a
later discovery. At Trinil, in Java, in an equatorial region where, if
anywhere, a being intermediate between the higher apes and man would
seem likely to be found, Dr Eugene Dubois in 1891-1892 excavated from a
bed, considered by him to be of Sivalik formation (Pliocene), a
thighbone which competent anatomists decide to be human, and a
remarkably depressed calvaria or skull-cap (fig. 5), bearing a certain
resemblance in its proportions to the corresponding part of the simian
skull. These remains were referred by their discoverer to an animal
intermediate between man and ape, to which he gave the name of
_Pithecanthropus erectus_ (q.v.), but the interesting discussions on the
subject have shown divergence of opinion among anatomists. At any rate,
classing the Trinil skull as human, it may be described as tending
towards the simian type more than any other known.

III. _Races of Mankind._--The classification of mankind into a number of
permanent varieties or races, rests on grounds which are within limits
not only obvious but definite. Whether from a popular or a scientific
point of view, it would be admitted that a Negro, a Chinese, and an
Australian belong to three such permanent varieties of men, all plainly
distinguishable from one another and from any European. Moreover, such a
division takes for granted the idea which is involved in the word race,
that each of these varieties is due to special ancestry, each race thus
representing an ancient breed or stock, however these breeds or stocks
may have had their origin. The anthropological classification of mankind
is thus zoological in its nature, like that of the varieties or species
of any other animal group, and the characters on which it is based are
in great measure physical, though intellectual and traditional
peculiarities, such as moral habit and language, furnish important aid.
Among the best-marked race-characters are the colour of the skin, eyes
and hair; and the structure and arrangement of the latter. Stature is by
no means a general criterion of race, and it would not, for instance, be
difficult to choose groups of Englishmen, Kaffirs, and North American
Indians, whose mean height should hardly differ. Yet in many cases it is
a valuable means of distinction, as between the tall Patagonians and the
stunted Fuegians, and even as a help in minuter problems, such as
separating the Teutonic and Celtic ancestry in the population of
England (see Beddoe, "Stature and Bulk of Man in the British Isles," in
_Mem. Anthrop. Soc. London_, vol. iii.) Proportions of the limbs,
compared in length with the trunk, have been claimed as constituting
peculiarities of African and American races; and other anatomical
points, such as the conformation of the pelvis, have speciality. But
inferences of this class have hardly attained to sufficient certainty
and generality to be set down in the form of rules. The conformation of
the skull is second only to the colour of the skin as a criterion for
the distinction of race; and the position of the jaws is recognized as
important, races being described as prognathous when the jaws project
far, as in the Australian or Negro, in contradistinction to the
orthognathous type, which is that of the ordinary well-shaped European
skull. On this distinction in great measure depends the celebrated
"facial angle," measured by Camper as a test of low and high races; but
this angle is objectionable as resulting partly from the development of
the forehead and partly from the position of the jaws. The capacity of
the cranium is estimated in cubic measure by filling it with sand, &c.,
with the general result that the civilized white man is found to have a
larger brain than the barbarian or savage. Classification of races on
cranial measurements has long been attempted by eminent anatomists, and
in certain cases great reliance may be placed on such measurements. Thus
the skulls of an Australian and a Negro would be generally distinguished
by their narrowness and the projection of the jaw from that of any
Englishman; but the Australian skull would usually differ perceptibly
from the Negroid in its upright sides and strong orbital ridges. The
relation of height to breadth may also furnish a valuable test; but it
is acknowledged by all experienced craniologists, that the shape of the
skull may vary so much within the same tribe, and even the same family,
that it must be used with extreme caution, and if possible only in
conjunction with other criteria of race. The general contour of the
face, in part dependent on the form of the skull, varies much in
different races, among whom it is loosely defined as oval,
lozenge-shaped, pentagonal, &c. Of particular features, some of the most
marked contrasts to European types are seen in the oblique Chinese eyes,
the broad-set Kamchadale cheeks, the pointed Arab chin, the snub Kirghiz
nose, the fleshy protuberant Negro lips, and the broad Kalmuck ear.
Taken altogether, the features have a typical character which popular
observation seizes with some degree of correctness, as in the
recognition of the Jewish countenance in a European city.

Were the race-characters constant in degree or even in kind, the
classification of races would be easy; but this is not so. Every
division of mankind presents in every character wide deviations from a
standard. Thus the Negro race, well marked as it may seem at the first
glance, proves on closer examination to include several shades of
complexion and features, in some districts varying far from the accepted
Negro type; while the examination of a series of native American tribes
shows that, notwithstanding their asserted uniformity of type, they
differ in stature, colour, features and proportions of skull. (See
Prichard, _Nat. Hist. of Man_; Waitz, _Anthropology_, part i. sec. 5.)
Detailed anthropological research, indeed, more and more justifies
Blumenbach's words, that "innumerable varieties of mankind run into one
another by insensible degrees." This state of things, due partly to
mixture and crossing of races, and partly to independent variation of
types, makes the attempt to arrange the whole human species within
exactly bounded divisions an apparently hopeless task. It does not
follow, however, that the attempt to distinguish special races should be
given up, for there at least exist several definable types, each of
which so far prevails in a certain population as to be taken as its
standard. L.A.J. Quetelet's plan of defining such types will probably
meet with general acceptance as the scientific method proper to this
branch of anthropology. It consists in the determination of the standard
or typical "mean man" (_homme moyen_) of a population, with reference to
any particular quality, such as stature, weight, complexion, &c. In the
case of stature, this would be done by measuring a sufficient number of
men, and counting how many of them belong to each height on the scale.
If it be thus ascertained, as it might be in an English district, that
the 5 ft. 7 in. men form the most numerous group, while the 5 ft. 6 in.
and 5 ft. 8 in. men are less in number, and the 5 ft. 5 in. and 5 ft. 9
in. still fewer, and so on until the extremely small number of extremely
short or tall individuals of 5 ft. or 7 ft. is reached, it will thus be
ascertained that the stature of the mean or typical man is to be taken
as 5 ft. 7 in. The method is thus that of selecting as the standard the
most numerous group, on both sides of which the groups decrease in
number as they vary in type. Such classification may show the existence
of two or more types, in a community, as, for instance, the population
of a Californian settlement made up of Whites and Chinese might show two
predominant groups (one of 5 ft. 8 in., the other of 5 ft. 4 in.)
corresponding to these two racial types. It need hardly be said that
this method of determining the mean type of a race, as being that of its
really existing and most numerous class, is altogether superior to the
mere calculation of an average, which may actually be represented by
comparatively few individuals, and those the exceptional ones. For
instance, the average stature of the mixed European and Chinese
population just referred to might be 5 ft. 6 in.--a worthless and indeed
misleading result. (For particulars of Quetelet's method, see his
_Physique sociale_ (1869), and _Anthropométrie_ (1871).)

Classifications of man have been numerous, and though, regarded as
systems, most of them are unsatisfactory, yet they have been of great
value in systematizing knowledge, and are all more or less based on
indisputable distinctions. J.F. Blumenbach's division, though published
as long ago as 1781, has had the greatest influence. He reckons five
races, viz. Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, Malay. The
ill-chosen name of Caucasian, invented by Blumenbach in allusion to a
South Caucasian skull of specially typical proportions, and applied by
him to the so-called white races, is still current; it brings into one
race peoples such as the Arabs and Swedes, although these are scarcely
less different than the Americans and Malays, who are set down as two
distinct races. Again, two of the best-marked varieties of mankind are
the Australians and the Bushmen, neither of whom, however, seems to have
a natural place in Blumenbach's series. The yet simpler classification
by Cuvier into Caucasian, Mongol and Negro corresponds in some measure
with a division by mere complexion into white, yellow and black races;
but neither this threefold division, nor the ancient classification into
Semitic, Hamitic and Japhetic nations can be regarded as separating the
human types either justly or sufficiently (see Prichard, _Natural
History of Man_, sec. 15; Waitz, _Anthropology_, vol. i. part i. sec.
5). Schemes which set up a larger number of distinct races, such as the
eleven of Pickering, the fifteen of Bory de St Vincent and the sixteen
of Desmoulins, have the advantage of finding niches for most
well-defined human varieties; but no modern naturalist would be likely
to adopt any one of these as it stands. In criticism of Pickering's
system, it is sufficient to point out that he divides the white nations
into two races, entitled the Arab and the Abyssinian (Pickering, _Races
of Man_, ch. i.). Agassiz, Nott, Crawfurd and others who have assumed a
much larger number of races or species of man, are not considered to
have satisfactorily defined a corresponding number of distinguishable
types. On the whole, Huxley's division probably approaches more nearly
than any other to such a tentative classification as may be accepted in
definition of the principal varieties of mankind, regarded from a
zoological point of view, though anthropologists may be disposed to
erect into separate races several of his widely-differing sub-races. He
distinguishes four principal types of mankind, the Australioid, Negroid,
Mongoloid and Xanthochroic ("fair whites"), adding a fifth variety, the
Melanochroic ("dark whites").

In determining whether the races of mankind are to be classed as
varieties of one species, it is important to decide whether every two
races can unite to produce fertile offspring. It is settled by
experience that the most numerous and well-known crossed races, such as
the Mulattos, descended from Europeans and Negroes--the Mestizos, from
Europeans and American indigenes--the Zambos, from these American
indigenes and Negroes, &c., are permanently fertile. They practically
constitute sub-races, with a general blending of the characters of the
two parents, and only differing from fully-established races in more or
less tendency to revert to one or other of the original types. It has
been argued, on the other hand, that not all such mixed breeds are
permanent, and especially that the cross between Europeans and
Australian indigenes is almost sterile; but this assertion, when
examined with the care demanded by its bearing on the general question
of hybridity, has distinctly broken down. On the whole, the general
evidence favours the opinion that any two races may combine to produce a
new sub-race, which again may combine with any other variety. Thus, if
the existence of a small number of distinct races of mankind be taken as
a starting-point, it is obvious that their crossing would produce an
indefinite number of secondary varieties, such as the population of the
world actually presents. The working out in detail of the problem, how
far the differences among complex nations, such as those of Europe, may
have been brought about by hybridity, is still, however, a task of
almost hopeless intricacy. Among the boldest attempts to account for
distinctly-marked populations as resulting from the intermixture of two
races, are Huxley's view that the Hottentots are hybrid between the
Bushmen and the Negroes, and his more important suggestion, that the
Melanochroic peoples of southern Europe are of mixed Xanthochroic and
Australioid stock.

The problem of ascertaining how the small number of races, distinct
enough to be called primary, can have assumed their different types, has
been for years the most disputed field of anthropology, the
battle-ground of the rival schools of monogenists and polygenists. The
one has claimed all mankind to be descended from one original stock, and
generally from a single pair; the other has contended for the several
primary races being separate species of independent origin. The great
problem of the monogenist theory is to explain by what course of
variation the so different races of man have arisen from a single stock.
In ancient times little difficulty was felt in this, authorities such as
Aristotle and Vitruvius seeing in climate and circumstance the natural
cause of racial differences, the Ethiopian having been blackened by the
tropical sun, &c. Later and closer observations, however, have shown
such influences to be, at any rate, far slighter in amount and slower in
operation than was once supposed. A. de Quatrefages brings forward
(_Unité de l'espèce humaine_) his strongest arguments for the
variability of races under change of climate, &c. (_action du milieu_),
instancing the asserted alteration in complexion, constitution and
character of Negroes in America, and Englishmen in America and
Australia. But although the reality of some such modification is not
disputed, especially as to stature and constitution, its amount is not
enough to upset the counter-proposition of the remarkable permanence of
type displayed by races, ages after they have been transported to
climates extremely different from that of their former home. Moreover,
physically different peoples, such as the Bushmen and Negroes in Africa,
show no signs of approximation under the influence of the same climate;
while, on the other hand, the coast tribes of Tierra del Fuego and
forest tribes of tropical Brazil continue to resemble one another, in
spite of extreme differences of climate and food. Darwin is moderate in
his estimation of the changes produced on races of man by climate and
mode of life within the range of history (_Descent of Man_, part i. ch.
4 and 7). The slightness and slowness of variation in human races having
become known, a great difficulty of the monogenist theory was seen to
lie in the apparent shortness of the Biblical chronology. Inasmuch as
several well-marked races of mankind, such as the Egyptian, Phoenician,
Ethiopian, &c., were much the same three or four thousand years ago as
now, their variation from a single stock in the course of any like
period could hardly be accounted for without a miracle. This difficulty
the polygenist theory escaped, and in consequence it gained ground.
Modern views have however tended to restore, though under a new aspect,
the doctrine of a single human stock. The fact that man has existed
during a vast period of time makes it more easy to assume the
continuance of very slow natural variation as having differentiated even
the white man and the Negro among the descendants of a common
progenitor. On the other hand it does not follow necessarily from a
theory of evolution of species that mankind must have descended from a
single stock, for the hypothesis of development admits of the argument,
that several simian species may have culminated in several races of man.
The general tendency of the development theory, however, is against
constituting separate species where the differences are moderate enough
to be accounted for as due to variation from a single type. Darwin's
summing-up of the evidence as to unity of type throughout the races of
mankind is as distinctly a monogenist argument as those of Blumenbach,
Prichard or Quatrefages--

  "Although the existing races of man differ in many respects, as in
  colour, hair, shape of skull, proportions of the body, &c., yet, if
  their whole organization be taken into consideration, they are found
  to resemble each other closely in a multitude of points. Many of these
  points are of so unimportant, or of so singular a nature, that it is
  extremely improbable that they should have been independently acquired
  by aboriginally distinct species or races. The same remark holds good
  with equal or greater force with respect to the numerous points of
  mental similarity between the most distinct races of man.... Now, when
  naturalists observe a close agreement in numerous small details of
  habits, tastes and dispositions between two or more domestic races, or
  between nearly allied natural forms, they use this fact as an argument
  that all are descended from a common progenitor who was thus endowed;
  and, consequently, that all should be classed under the same species.
  The same argument may be applied with much force to the races of
  man."--(Darwin, _Descent of Man_, part i. ch. 7.)

The main difficulty of the monogenist school has ever been to explain
how races which have remained comparatively fixed in type during the
long period of history, such as the white man and the Negro, should, in
even a far longer period, have passed by variation from a common
original. To meet this A.R. Wallace suggests that the remotely ancient
representatives of the human species, being as yet animals too low in
mind to have developed those arts of maintenance and social ordinances
by which man holds his own against influences from climate and
circumstance, were in their then wild state much more plastic than now
to external nature; so that "natural selection" and other causes met
with but feeble resistance in forming the permanent varieties or races
of man, whose complexion and structure still remained fixed in their
descendants (see Wallace, _Contributions to the Theory of Natural
Selection_, p. 319). On the whole, it may be asserted that the doctrine
of the unity of mankind stands on a firmer basis than in previous ages.
It would be premature to judge how far the problem of the origin of
races may be capable of exact solution; but the experience gained since
1871 countenances Darwin's prophecy that before long the dispute between
the monogenists and the polygenists would die a silent and unobserved
death.

IV. _Antiquity of Man._--Until the 10th century man's first appearance
on earth was treated on a historical basis as matter of record. It is
true that the schemes drawn up by chronologists differed widely, as was
natural, considering the variety and inconsistency of their documentary
data. On the whole, the scheme of Archbishop Usher, who computed that
the earth and man were created in 4004 B.C., was the most popular (see
CHRONOLOGY). It is no longer necessary, however, to discuss these
chronologies. Geology has made it manifest that our earth must have been
the seat of vegetable and animal life for an immense period of time;
while the first appearance of man, though comparatively recent, is
positively so remote, that an estimate between twenty and a hundred
thousand years may fairly be taken as a minimum. This geological claim
for a vast antiquity of the human race is supported by the similar
claims of prehistoric archaeology and the science of culture, the
evidence of all three departments of inquiry being intimately connected,
and in perfect harmony.

Human bones and objects of human manufacture have been found in such
geological relation to the remains of fossil species of elephant,
rhinoceros, hyena, bear, &c., as to lead to the distinct inference that
man already existed at a remote period in localities where these
mammalia are now and have long been extinct. The not quite conclusive
researches of Tournal and Christol in limestone caverns of the south of
France date back to 1828. About the same time P.C. Schmerling of Liége
was exploring the ossiferous caverns of the valley of the Meuse, and
satisfied himself that the men whose bones he found beneath the
stalagmite floors, together with bones cut and flints shaped by human
workmanship, had inhabited this Belgian district at the same time with
the cave-bear and several other extinct animals whose bones were
imbedded with them (_Recherches sur les ossements fossiles découverts
dans les cavernes de la province de Liége_ (Liége, 1833-1834)). This
evidence, however, met with little acceptance among scientific men. Nor,
at first, was more credit given to the discovery by M. Boucher de
Perthes, about 1841, of rude flint hatchets in a sand-bed containing
remains of mammoth and rhinoceros at Menchecourt near Abbeville, which
first find was followed by others in the same district (see Boucher de
Perthes, _De l'Industrie primitive, ou les arts à leur origine_ (1846);
_Antiquités celtiques et antédiluviennes_ (Paris, 1847), &c.). Between
1850 and 1860 French and English geologists were induced to examine into
the facts, and found irresistible the evidence that man existed and used
rude implements of chipped flint during the Quaternary or Drift period.
Further investigations were then made, and overlooked results of older
ones reviewed. In describing Kent's Cavern (q.v.) near Torquay, R.A.C.
Godwin-Austen had maintained, as early as 1840 (_Proc. Geo. Soc.
London_, vol. iii. p. 286), that the human bones and worked flints had
been deposited indiscriminately together with the remains of fossil
elephant, rhinoceros, &c. Certain caves and rock-shelters in the
province of Dordogne, in central France, were examined by a French and
an English archaeologist, Edouard Lartet and Henry Christy, the remains
discovered showing the former prevalence of the reindeer in this region,
at that time inhabited by savages, whose bone and stone implements
indicate a habit of life similar to that of the Eskimos. Moreover, the
co-existence of man with a fauna now extinct or confined to other
districts was brought to yet clearer demonstration by the discovery in
these caves of certain drawings and carvings of the animals done by the
ancient inhabitants themselves, such as a group of reindeer on a piece
of reindeer horn, and a sketch of a mammoth, showing the elephant's long
hair, on a piece of a mammoth's tusk from La Madeleine (Lartet and
Christy, _Reliquiae Aquitanicae_, ed. by T.R. Jones (London, 1865),
&c.).

This and other evidence (which is considered in more detail in the
article ARCHAEOLOGY) is now generally accepted by geologists as carrying
back the existence of man into the period of the post-glacial drift, in
what is now called the Quaternary period, an antiquity at least of tens
of thousands of years. Again, certain inferences have been tentatively
made from the depth of mud, earth, peat, &c., which has accumulated
above relics of human art imbedded in ancient times. Among these is the
argument from the numerous borings made in the alluvium of the Nile
valley to a depth of 60 ft., where down to the lowest level fragments of
burnt brick and pottery were always found, showing that people advanced
enough in the arts to bake brick and pottery have inhabited the valley
during the long period required for the Nile inundations to deposit 60
ft. of mud, at a rate probably not averaging more than a few inches in a
century. Another argument is that of Professor von Morlot, based on a
railway section through a conical accumulation of gravel and alluvium,
which the torrent of the Tinière has gradually built up where it enters
the Lake of Geneva near Villeneuve. Here three layers of vegetable soil
appear, proved by the objects imbedded in them to have been the
successive surface soils in two prehistoric periods and in the Roman
period, but now lying 4, 10 and 19 ft. underground. On this it is
computed that if 4 ft. of soil were formed in the 1500 years since the
Roman period, we must go 5000 years farther back for the date of the
earliest human inhabitants. Calculations of this kind, loose as they
are, deserve attention.

The interval between the Quaternary or Drift period and the period of
historical antiquity is to some extent bridged over by relics of various
intermediate civilizations, e.g. the Lake-dwellings (q.v.) of
Switzerland, mostly of the lower grades, and in some cases reaching back
to remote dates. And further evidence of man's antiquity is afforded by
the kitchen-middens or shell-heaps (q.v.), especially those in Denmark.
Danish peat-mosses again show the existence of man at a time when the
Scotch fir was abundant; at a later period the firs were succeeded by
oaks, which have again been almost superseded by beeches, a succession
of changes which indicate a considerable lapse of time.

Lastly, chronicles and documentary records, taken in connexion with
archaeological relics of the historical period, carry back into distant
ages the starting-point of actual history, behind which lies the
evidently vast period only known by inferences from the relations of
languages and the stages of development of civilization. The most recent
work of Egyptologists proves a systematic civilization to have existed
in the valley of the Nile at least 6000 to 7000 years ago (see
CHRONOLOGY).

It was formerly held that the early state of society was one of
comparatively high culture, and thus there was no hesitation in
assigning the origin of man to a time but little beyond the range of
historical records and monuments. But the researches of anthropologists
in recent years have proved that the civilization of man has been
gradually developed from an original stone-age culture, such as
characterizes modern savage life. To the 6000 years to which ancient
civilization dates back must be added a vast period during which the
knowledge, arts and institutions of such a civilization as that of
ancient Egypt attained the high level evidenced by the earliest records.
The evidence of comparative philology supports the necessity for an
enormous time allowance. Thus, Hebrew and Arabic are closely related
languages, neither of them the original of the other, but both sprung
from some parent language more ancient than either. When, therefore, the
Hebrew records have carried back to the most ancient admissible date the
existence of the Hebrew language, this date must have been long preceded
by that of the extinct parent language of the whole Semitic family;
while this again was no doubt the descendant of languages slowly shaping
themselves through ages into this peculiar type. Yet more striking is
the evidence of the Indo-European (formerly called Aryan) family of
languages. The Hindus, Medes, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Germans, Celts
and Slavs make their appearance at more or less remote dates as nations
separate in language as in history. Nevertheless, it is now acknowledged
that at some far remoter time, before these nations were divided from
the parent stock, and distributed over Asia and Europe, a single
barbaric people stood as physical and political representative of the
nascent Aryan race, speaking a now extinct Aryan language, from which,
by a series of modifications not to be estimated as possible within many
thousands of years, there arose languages which have been mutually
unintelligible since the dawn of history, and between which it was only
possible for an age of advanced philology to trace the fundamental
relationship.

From the combination of these considerations, it will be seen that the
farthest date to which documentary or other records extend is now
generally regarded by anthropologists as but the earliest distinctly
visible point of the historic period, beyond which stretches back a vast
indefinite series of prehistoric ages.

V. _Language._--In examining how the science of language bears on the
general problems of anthropology, it is not necessary to discuss at
length the critical questions which arise, the principal of which are
considered elsewhere (see LANGUAGE). Philology is especially appealed to
by anthropologists as contributing to the following lines of argument. A
primary mental similarity of all branches of the human race is evidenced
by their common faculty of speech, while at the same time secondary
diversities of race-character and history are marked by difference of
grammatical structure and of vocabularies. The existence of groups or
families of allied languages, each group being evidently descended from
a single language, affords one of the principal aids in classifying
nations and races. The adoption by one language of words originally
belonging to another, proving as it does the fact of intercourse between
two races, and even to some extent indicating the results of such
intercourse, affords a valuable clue through obscure regions of the
history of civilization.

Communication by gesture-signs, between persons unable to converse in
vocal language, is an effective system of expression common to all
mankind. Thus, the signs used to ask a deaf and dumb child about his
meals and lessons, or to communicate with a savage met in the desert
about game or enemies, belong to codes of gesture-signals identical in
principle, and to a great extent independent both of nationality and
education; there is even a natural syntax, or order of succession, in
such gesture-signs. To these gestures let there be added the use of the
interjectional cries, such as _oh! ugh! hey!_ and imitative sounds to
represent the cat's _mew_, the _click_ of a trigger, the _clap_ or
_thud_ of a blow, &c. The total result of this combination of gesture
and significant sound will be a general system of expression, imperfect
but serviceable, and naturally intelligible to all mankind without
distinction of race. Nor is such a system of communication only
theoretically conceivable; it is, and always has been, in practical
operation between people ignorant of one another's language, and as such
is largely used in the intercourse of savage tribes. It is true that to
some extent these means of utterance are common to the lower animals,
the power of expressing emotion by cries and tones extending far down in
the scale of animal life, while rudimentary gesture-signs are made by
various mammals and birds. Still, the lower animals make no approach to
the human system of natural utterance by gesture-signs and
emotional-imitative sounds, while the practical identity of this human
system among races physically so unlike as the Englishman and the native
of the Australian bush indicates extreme closeness of mental similarity
throughout the human species.

When, however, the Englishman and the Australian speak each in his
native tongue, only such words as belong to the interjectional and
imitative classes will be naturally intelligible, and as it were
instinctive to both. Thus the savage, uttering the sound _waow!_ as an
explanation of surprise and warning, might be answered by the white man
with the not less evidently significant _sh!_ of silence, and the two
speakers would be on common ground when the native indicated by the name
_bwirri_ his cudgel, flung _whirring_ through the air at a flock of
birds, or when the native described as a _jakkal-yakkal_ the bird called
by the foreigner a _cockatoo_. With these, and other very limited
classes of natural words, however, resemblance in vocabulary practically
ceases. The Australian and English languages each consist mainly of a
series of words having no apparent connexion with the ideas they
signify, and differing utterly; of course, accidental coincidences and
borrowed words must be excluded from such comparisons. It would be easy
to enumerate other languages of the world, such as Basque, Turkish,
Hebrew, Malay, Mexican, all devoid of traceable resemblance to
Australian and English, and to one another. There is, moreover, extreme
difference in the grammatical structure both of words and sentences in
various languages. The question then arises, how far the employment of
different vocabularies, and that to a great extent on different
grammatical principles, is compatible with similarity of the speakers'
minds, or how far does diversity of speech indicate diversity of mental
nature? The obvious answer is, that the power of using words as signs to
express thoughts with which their sound does not directly connect them,
in fact as arbitrary symbols, is the highest grade of the special human
faculty in language, the presence of which binds together all races of
mankind in substantial mental unity. The measure of this unity is, that
any child of any race can be brought up to speak the language of any
other race.

Under the present standard of evidence in comparing languages and
tracing allied groups to a common origin, the crude speculations as to a
single primeval language of mankind, which formerly occupied so much
attention, are acknowledged to be worthless. Increased knowledge and
accuracy of method have as yet only left the way open to the most widely
divergent suppositions. For all that known dialects prove to the
contrary, on the one hand, there may have been one primitive language,
from which the descendant languages have varied so widely, that neither
their words nor their formation now indicate their unity in long past
ages, while, on the other hand, the primitive tongues of mankind may
have been numerous, and the extreme unlikeness of such languages as
Basque, Chinese, Peruvian, Hottentot and Sanskrit may arise from
absolute independence of origin.

The language spoken by any tribe or nation is not of itself absolute
evidence as to its race-affinities. This is clearly shown in extreme
cases. Thus the Jews in Europe have almost lost the use of Hebrew, but
speak as their vernacular the language of their adopted nation, whatever
it may be; even the Jewish-German dialect, though consisting so largely
of Hebrew words, is philologically German, as any sentence shows: "_Ich
hab noch hoiom lo geachelt_," "I have not yet eaten to-day." The mixture
of the Israelites in Europe by marriage with other nations is probably
much greater than is acknowledged by them; yet, on the whole, the race
has been preserved with extraordinary strictness, as its physical
characteristics sufficiently show. Language thus here fails
conspicuously as a test of race and even of national history. Not much
less conclusive is the case of the predominantly Negro populations of
the West India Islands, who, nevertheless, speak as their native tongues
dialects of English or French, in which the number of intermingled
native African words is very scanty: "_Dem hitti netti na ini watra
bikasi dem de fisiman_," "They cast a net into the water, because they
were fishermen." (Surinam Negro-Eng.) "_Bef pas ca jamain lasse poter
cônes li_," "Le boeuf n'est jamais las de porter ses cornes." (Haitian
Negro-Fr.) If it be objected that the linguistic conditions of these two
races are more artificial than has been usual in the history of the
world, less extreme cases may be seen in countries where the ordinary
results of conquest-colonization have taken place. The Mestizos, who
form so large a fraction of the population of modern Mexico, numbering
several millions, afford a convenient test in this respect, inasmuch as
their intermediate complexion separates them from both their ancestral
races, the Spaniard, and the chocolate-brown indigenous Aztec or other
Mexican. The mother-tongue of this mixed race is Spanish, with an
infusion of Mexican words; and a large proportion cannot speak any
native dialect. In most or all nations of mankind, crossing or
intermarriage of races has thus taken place between the conquering
invader and the conquered native, so that the language spoken by the
nation may represent the results of conquest as much or more than of
ancestry. The supersession of the Celtic Cornish by English, and of the
Slavonic Old-Prussian by German, are but examples of a process which has
for untold ages been supplanting native dialects, whose very names have
mostly disappeared. On the other hand, the language of the warlike
invader or peaceful immigrant may yield, in a few generations, to the
tongue of the mass of the population, as the Northman's was replaced by
French, and modern German gives way to English in the United States.
Judging, then, by the extirpation and adoption of languages within the
range of history, it is obvious that to classify mankind into, races,
Aryan, Semitic, Turanian, Polynesian, Kaffir, &c., on the mere evidence
of language, is intrinsically unsound.

VI. _Development of Civilization._--The conditions of man at the lowest
and highest known levels of culture are separated by a vast interval;
but this interval is so nearly filled by known intermediate stages, that
the line of continuity between the lowest savagery and the highest
civilization is unbroken at any critical point.

An examination of the details of savage life shows not only that there
is an immeasurable difference between the rudest man and the highest
lower animal, but also that the least cultured savages have themselves
advanced far beyond the lowest intellectual and moral state at which
human tribes can be conceived as capable of existing, when placed under
favourable circumstances of warm climate, abundant food, and security
from too severe destructive influences. The Australian black-fellow or
the forest Indian of Brazil, who may be taken as examples of the lowest
modern savage, had, before contact with whites, attained to rudimentary
stages in many of the characteristic functions of civilized life. His
language, expressing thoughts by conventional articulate sounds, is the
same in essential principle as the most cultivated philosophic dialect,
only less exact and copious. His weapons, tools and other appliances
such as the hammer, hatchet, spear, knife, awl, thread, net, canoe, &c.,
are the evident rudimentary analogues of what still remains in use among
Europeans. His structures, such as the hut, fence, stockade, earthwork,
&c., may be poor and clumsy, but they are of the same nature as our own.
In the simple arts of broiling and roasting meat, the use of hides and
furs for covering, the plaiting of mats and baskets, the devices of
hunting, trapping and fishing, the pleasure taken in personal ornament,
the touches of artistic decoration on objects of daily use, the savage
differs in degree but not in kind from the civilized man. The domestic
and social affections, the kindly care of the young and the old, some
acknowledgment of marital and parental obligation, the duty of mutual
defence in the tribe, the authority of the elders, and general respect
to traditional custom as the regulator of life and duty, are more or
less well marked in every savage tribe which is not disorganized and
falling to pieces. Lastly, there is usually to be discerned amongst such
lower races a belief in unseen powers pervading the universe, this
belief shaping itself into an animistic or spiritualistic theology,
mostly resulting in some kind of worship. If, again, high savage or low
barbaric types be selected, as among the North American Indians,
Polynesians, and Kaffirs of South Africa, the same elements of culture
appear, but at a more advanced stage, namely, a more full and accurate
language, more knowledge of the laws of nature, more serviceable
implements, more perfect industrial processes, more definite and fixed
social order and frame of government, more systematic and philosophic
schemes of religion and a more elaborate and ceremonial worship. At
intervals new arts and ideas appear, such as agriculture and pasturage,
the manufacture of pottery, the use of metal implements and the device
of record and communication by picture writing. Along such stages of
improvement and invention the bridge is fairly made between savage and
barbaric culture; and this once attained to, the remainder of the series
of stages of civilization lies within the range of common knowledge.

The teaching of history, during the three to four thousand years of
which contemporary chronicles have been preserved, is that civilization
is gradually developed in the course of ages by enlargement and
increased precision of knowledge, invention and improvement of arts, and
the progression of social and political habits and institutions towards
general well-being. That processes of development similar to these were
in prehistoric times effective to raise culture from the savage to the
barbaric level, two considerations especially tend to prove. First,
there are numerous points in the culture even of rude races which are
not explicable otherwise than on the theory of development. Thus, though
difficult or superfluous arts may easily be lost, it is hard to imagine
the abandonment of contrivances of practical daily utility, where little
skill is required and materials are easily accessible. Had the
Australians or New Zealanders, for instance, ever possessed the potter's
art, they could hardly have forgotten it. The inference that these
tribes represent the stage of culture before the invention of pottery is
confirmed by the absence of buried fragments of pottery in the districts
they inhabit. The same races who were found making thread by the
laborious process of twisting with the hand, would hardly have disused,
if they had ever possessed, so simple a labour-saving device as the
spindle, which consists merely of a small stick weighted at one end; the
spindle may, accordingly, be regarded as an instrument invented
somewhere between the lowest and highest savage levels (Tylor, _Early
Hist. of Mankind_, p. 193). Again, many devices of civilization bear
unmistakable marks of derivation from a lower source; thus the ancient
Egyptian and Assyrian harps, which differ from ours in having no front
pillar, appear certainly to owe this remarkable defect to having grown
up through intermediate forms from the simple strung bow, the still used
type of the most primitive stringed instrument. In this way the history
of numeral words furnishes actual proof of that independent intellectual
progress among savage tribes which some writers have rashly denied. Such
words as _hand, hands, foot, man_, &c., are used as numerals signifying
5, 10, 15, 20, &c., among many savage and barbaric peoples; thus
Polynesian _lima_, i.e. "hand," means 5; Zulu _tatisitupa_, i.e. "taking
the thumb," means 6; Greenlandish _arfersanek-pingasut_, i.e. "on the
other foot three," means 18; Tamanac _tevin itoto_, i.e. "one man,"
means 20, &c., &c. The existence of such expressions demonstrates that
the people who use them had originally no spoken names for these
numbers, but once merely counted them by gesture on their fingers and
toes in low savage fashion, till they obtained higher numerals by the
inventive process of describing in words these counting-gestures.
Second, the process of "survival in culture" has caused the preservation
in each stage of society of phenomena, belonging to an earlier period,
but kept up by force of custom into the later, thus supplying evidence
of the modern condition being derived from the ancient. Thus the mitre
over an English bishop's coat-of-arms is a survival which indicates him
as the successor of bishops who actually wore mitres, while armorial
bearings themselves, and the whole craft of heraldry, are survivals
bearing record of a state of warfare and social order whence our present
state was by vast modification evolved. Evidence of this class, proving
the derivation of modern civilization, not only from ancient barbarism,
but beyond this, from primeval savagery, is immensely plentiful,
especially in rites and ceremonies, where the survival of ancient habits
is peculiarly favoured. Thus the modern Hindu, though using civilized
means for lighting his household fires, retains the savage "fire-drill"
for obtaining fire by friction of wood when what he considers pure or
sacred fire has to be produced for sacrificial purposes; while in Europe
into modern times the same primitive process has been kept up in
producing the sacred and magical "need-fire," which was lighted to
deliver cattle from a murrain. Again, the funeral offerings of food,
clothing, weapons, &c., to the dead are absolutely intelligible and
purposeful among savage races, who believe that the souls of the
departed are ethereal beings capable of consuming food, and of receiving
and using the souls or phantoms of any objects sacrificed for their use.
The primitive philosophy to which these conceptions belong has to a
great degree been discredited by modern science; yet the clear survivals
of such ancient and savage rites may still be seen in Europe, where the
Bretons leave the remains of the All Souls' supper on the table for the
ghosts of the dead kinsfolk to partake of, and Russian peasants set out
cakes for the ancestral manes on the ledge which supports the holy
pictures, and make dough ladders to assist the ghosts of the dead to
ascend out of their graves and start on their journey for the future
world; while other provision for the same spiritual journey is made when
the coin is still put in the hand of the corpse at an Irish wake. In
like manner magic still exists in the civilized world as a survival from
the savage and barbaric times to which it originally belongs, and in
which is found the natural source and proper home of utterly savage
practices still carried on by ignorant peasants in Great Britain, such
as taking omens from the cries of animals, or bewitching an enemy by
sticking full of pins and hanging up to shrivel in the smoke an image or
other object, that similar destruction may fall on the hated person
represented by the symbol (Tylor, _Primitive Culture_, ch. i., iii.,
iv., xi., xii.; _Early Hist. of Man_, ch. vi.).

The comparative science of civilization thus not only generalizes the
data of history, but supplements its information by laying down the
lines of development along which the lowest prehistoric culture has
gradually risen to the highest modern level. Among the most clearly
marked of these lines is that which follows the succession of the Stone,
Bronze, and Iron Ages (see ARCHAEOLOGY). The Stone Age represents the
early condition of mankind in general, and has remained in savage
districts up to modern times, while the introduction of metals need not
at once supersede the use of the old stone hatchets and arrows, which
have often long continued in dwindling survival by the side of the new
bronze and even iron ones. The Bronze Age had its most important place
among ancient nations of Asia and Europe, and among them was only
succeeded after many centuries by the Iron Age; while in other
districts, such as Polynesia and Central and South Africa, and America
(except Mexico and Peru), the native tribes were moved directly from the
Stone to the Iron Age without passing through the Bronze Age at all.
Although the three divisions of savage, barbaric, and civilized man do
not correspond at all perfectly with the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages,
this classification of civilization has proved of extraordinary value in
arranging in their proper order of culture the nations of the Old World.

Another great line of progress has been followed by tribes passing from
the primitive state of the wild hunter, fisher and fruit-gatherer to
that of the settled tiller of the soil, for to this change of habit may
be plainly in great part traced the expansion of industrial arts and the
creation of higher social and political institutions. These, again, have
followed their proper lines along the course of time. Among such is the
immense legal development by which the primitive law of personal
vengeance passed gradually away, leaving but a few surviving relics in
the modern civilized world, and being replaced by the higher doctrine
that crime is an offence against society, to be repressed for the public
good. Another vast social change has been that from the patriarchal
condition, in which the unit is the family under the despotic rule of
its head, to the systems in which individuals make up a society whose
government is centralized in a chief or king. In the growth of
systematic civilization, the art of writing has had an influence so
intense, that of all tests to distinguish the barbaric from the
civilized state, none is so generally effective as this, whether they
have but the failing link with the past which mere memory furnishes, or
can have recourse to written records of past history and written
constitutions of present order. Lastly, still following the main lines
of human culture, the primitive germs of religious institutions have to
be traced in the childish faith and rude rites of savage life, and
thence followed in their expansion into the vast systems administered by
patriarchs and priests, henceforth taking under their charge the
precepts of morality, and enforcing them under divine sanction, while
also exercising in political life an authority beside or above the civil
law.

The state of culture reached by Quaternary man is evidenced by the stone
implements in the drift-gravels, and other relics of human art in the
cave deposits. His drawings on bone or tusk found in the caves show no
mean artistic power, as appears by the three specimens copied in the
Plate. That representing two deer (fig. 6) was found so early as 1852 in
the breccia of a limestone cave on the Charente, and its importance
recognized in a remarkable letter by Prosper Merimée, as at once
historically ancient and geologically modern (_Congrès d'anthropologie
et d'archéologie préhistoriques_, Copenhagen (1869), p. 128). The other
two are the famous mammoth from the cave of La Madeleine, on which the
woolly mane and huge tusks of _Elephas primigenius_ are boldly drawn
(fig. 7); and the group of man and horses (fig. 8). There has been found
one other contemporary portrait of man, where a hunter is shown stalking
an aurochs.

That the men of the Quaternary period knew the savage art of producing
fire by friction, and roasted the flesh on which they mainly subsisted,
is proved by the fragments of charcoal found in the cave deposits, where
also occur bone awls and needles, which indicate the wearing of skin
clothing, like that of the modern Australians and Fuegians. Their bone
lance-heads and dart-points were comparable to those of northern and
southern savages. Particular attention has to be given to the stone
implements used by these earliest known of mankind. The division of
tribes in the stone implement stage into two classes, the Palaeolithic
or Old Stone Age, and the Neolithic or New Stone Age, according to their
proficiency in this most important art furnishes in some respects the
best means of determining their rank in general culture.

In order to put this argument clearly before the reader, a few selected
implements are figured in the Plate. The group in fig. 9 contains tools
and weapons of the Neolithic period such as are dug up on European soil;
they are evident relics of ancient populations who used them till
replaced by metal. The stone hatchets are symmetrically shaped and edged
by grinding, while the cutting flakes, scrapers, spear and arrow heads
are of high finish. Direct knowledge of the tribes who made them is
scanty, but implements so similar in make and design having been in use
in North and South America until modern times, it may be assumed for
purposes of classification that the Neolithic peoples of the New World
were at a similar barbarous level in industrial arts, social
organization, moral and religious ideas. Such comparison, though needing
caution and reserve, at once proved of great value to anthropology.
When, however, there came to light from the drift-gravels and limestone
caves of Europe the Palaeolithic implements, of which some types are
shown in the group (fig. 10), the difficult problem presented itself,
what degree of general culture these rude implements belonged to. On
mere inspection, their rudeness, their unsuitability for being hafted,
and the absence of shaping and edging by the grindstone, mark their
inferiority to the Neolithic implements. Their immensely greater
antiquity was proved by their geological position and their association
with a long extinct fauna, and they were not, like the Neoliths,
recognizable as corresponding closely to the implements used by modern
tribes. There was at first a tendency to consider the Palaeoliths as the
work of men ruder than savages, if, indeed, their makers were to be
accounted human at all. Since then, however, the problem has passed into
a more manageable state. Stone implements, more or less approaching the
European Palaeolithic type, were found in Africa from Egypt southwards,
where in such parts as Somaliland and Cape Colony they lie about on the
ground, as though they had been the rough tools and weapons of the rude
inhabitants of the land at no very distant period. The group in fig. 11
in the Plate shows the usual Somaliland types. These facts tended to
remove the mystery from Palaeolithic man, though too little is known of
the ruder ancient tribes of Africa to furnish a definition of the state
of culture which might have co-existed with the use of Palaeolithic
implements. Information to this purpose, however, can now be furnished
from a more outlying region. This is Tasmania, where as in the adjacent
continent of Australia, the survival of marsupial animals indicates long
isolation from the rest of the world. Here, till far on into the 19th
century, the Englishmen could watch the natives striking off flakes of
stone, trimming them to convenient shape for grasping them in the hand,
and edging them by taking off successive chips on one face only. The
group in fig. 12 shows ordinary Tasmanian forms, two of them being finer
tools for scraping and grooving. (For further details reference may be
made to H. Ling Roth, _The Tasmanians_, (2nd ed., 1899); R. Brough
Smyth, _Aborigines of Victoria_ (1878), vol. ii.; _Papers and
Proceedings of Royal Society of Tasmania_; and papers by the present
writer in _Journal of the Anthropological Institute_.) The Tasmanians,
when they came in contact with the European explorers and settlers, were
not the broken outcasts they afterwards became. They were a savage
people, perhaps the lowest in culture of any known, but leading a
normal, self-supporting, and not unhappy life, which had probably
changed little during untold ages. The accounts, imperfect as they are,
which have been preserved of their arts, beliefs and habits, thus
present a picture of the arts, beliefs and habits of tribes whose place
in the Stone Age was a grade lower than that of Palaeolithic man of the
Quaternary period.

[Illustration: PLATE

FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3 FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 7. FIG. 8. FIG. 9.
FIG 10. FIG. 11. FIG. 12.]

The Tasmanian stone implements, figured in the Plate, show their own use
when it is noticed that the rude chipping forms a good hand-grip above,
and an effective edge for chopping, sawing, and cutting below. But the
absence of the long-shaped implements, so characteristic of the
Neolithic and Palaeolithic series, and serviceable as picks, hatchets,
and chisels, shows remarkable limitation in the mind of these savages,
who made a broad, hand-grasped knife their tool of all work to cut, saw,
and chop with. Their weapons were the wooden club or waddy notched to
the grasp, and spears of sticks, often crooked but well balanced, with
points sharpened by tool or fire, and sometimes jagged. No spear thrower
or bow and arrow was known. The Tasmanian savages were crafty warriors
and kangaroo-hunters, and the women climbed the highest trees by
notching, in quest of opossums. Shell-fish and crabs were taken, and
seals knocked on the head with clubs, but neither fish-hook nor
fishing-net was known, and indeed swimming fish were taboo as food. Meat
and vegetable food, such as fern-root, was broiled over the fire, but
boiling in a vessel was unknown. The fire was produced by the ordinary
savage fire-drill. Ignorant of agriculture, with no dwellings but rough
huts or breakwinds of sticks and bark, without dogs or other domestic
animals, these savages, until the coming of civilized man, roamed after
food within their tribal bounds. Logs and clumsy floats of bark and
grass enabled them to cross water under favourable circumstances. They
had clothing of skins rudely stitched together with bark thread, and
they were decorated with simple necklaces of kangaroo teeth, shells and
berries. Among their simple arts, plaiting and basket-work was one in
which they approached the civilized level. The pictorial art of the
Tasmanians was poor and childish, quite below that of the Palaeolithic
men of Europe. The Tasmanians spoke a fairly copious agglutinating
language, well marked as to parts of speech, syntax and inflexion.
Numeration was at a low level, based on counting fingers on one hand
only, so that the word for man (_puggana_) stood also for the number 5.
The religion of the Tasmanians, when cleared from ideas apparently
learnt from the whites, was a simple form of animism based on the shadow
(_warrawa_) being the soul or spirit. The strongest belief of the
natives was in the power of the ghosts of the dead, so that they carried
the bones of relatives to secure themselves from harm, and they fancied
the forest swarming with malignant demons. They placed weapons near the
grave for the dead friend's soul to use, and drove out disease from the
sick by exorcising the ghost which was supposed to have caused it. Of
greater special spirits of Nature we find something vaguely mentioned.
The earliest recorders of the native social life set down such features
as their previous experience of rude civilized life had made them judges
of. They notice the self-denying affection of the mothers, and the hard
treatment of the wives by the husbands, polygamy and the shifting
marriage unions. But when we meet with a casual remark as to the
tendency of the Tasmanians to take wives from other tribes than their
own, it seems likely that they had some custom of exogamy which the
foreigners did not understand. Meagre as is the information preserved of
the arts, thoughts, and customs of these survivors from the lower Stone
Age, it is of value as furnishing even a temporary and tentative means
of working out the development of culture on a basis not of conjecture
but of fact.

_Conclusion._--To-day anthropology is grappling with the heavy task of
systematizing the vast stores of knowledge to which the key was found by
Boucher de Perthes, by Lartet, Christy and their successors. There have
been recently no discoveries to rival in novelty those which followed
the exploration of the bone-caves and drift-gravels, and which effected
an instant revolution in all accepted theories of man's antiquity,
substituting for a chronology of centuries a vague computation of
hundreds of thousands of years. The existence of man in remote
geological time cannot now be questioned, but, despite much effort made
in likely localities, no bones, with the exception of those of the
much-discussed _Pithecanthropus_, have been found which can be regarded
as definitely bridging the gulf between man and the lower creation. It
seems as if anthropology had in this direction reached the limits of its
discoveries. Far different are the prospects in other directions where
the work of co-ordinating the material and facts collected promises to
throw much light on the history of civilization. Anthropological
researches undertaken all over the globe have shown the necessity of
abandoning the old theory that a similarity of customs and
superstitions, of arts and crafts, justifies the assumption of a remote
relationship, if not an identity of origin, between races. It is now
certain that there has ever been an inherent tendency in man, allowing
for difference of climate and material surroundings, to develop culture
by the same stages and in the same way. American man, for example, need
not necessarily owe the minutest portion of his mental, religious,
social or industrial development to remote contact with Asia or Europe,
though he were proved to possess identical usages. An example in point
is that of pyramid-building. No ethnical relationship can ever have
existed between the Aztecs and the Egyptians; yet each race developed
the idea of the pyramid tomb through that psychological similarity which
is as much a characteristic of the species man as is his physique.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--J.C. Prichard, _Natural History of Man_ (London, 1843);
  T.H. Huxley, _Man's Place in Nature_ (London, 1863); and "Geographical
  Distribution of Chief Modifications of Mankind," in _Journal
  Ethnological Society_ for 1870; E.B. Tylor, _Early History of Man_
  (London, 1865), _Primitive Culture_ (London, 1871), and _Anthropology_
  (London, 1881); A. de Quatrefages, _Histoire générale des races
  humaines_ (Paris, 1889), _Human Species_ (Eng. trans., 1879); Lord
  Avebury, _Prehistoric Times_ (1865, 6th ed. 1900) and _Origin of
  Civilization_ (1870, 6th ed. 1902), Theo. Waitz, _Anthropologie der
  Naturvolker_ (1859-1871), E.H. Haeckel, _Anthropogenie_ (Leipzig,
  1874-1891), Eng. trans., 1879; O. Peschel, _Volkerkunde_ (Leipzig,
  1874-1897); P. Topinard, _L'Anthropologie_ (Paris, 1876); _Éleménts
  d'anthropologie générale_ (Paris, 1885); D.G. Brinton, _Races and
  Peoples_ (1890); A.H. Keane, _Ethnology_ (1896), and _Man: Past and
  Present_ (1899); G. Sergi, _The Mediterranean Race_ (Eng. ed., 1889);
  F. Ratzel, _History of Mankind_ (Eng. trans., 1897); G. de Mortillet,
  _Le Préhistorique_ (Paris, 1882); A.C. Haddon, _Study of Man_ (1897);
  J. Deniker, _The Races of Man_ (London, 1900); W.Z. Ripley, _The Races
  of Europe_ (1900, with long bibliography); _The Journal of the
  Anthropological Institute of Great Britain_; _Revue d'anthropologie_
  (Paris); _Zeitschrift für Ethnologie_ (Berlin). See also
  bibliographies under separate ethnological headings (AUSTRALIA,
  AFRICA, ARABS, AMERICA, &c.).     (E. B. T.)



ANTHROPOMETRY (Gr. [Greek: anthropos], man, and [Greek: metron],
measure), the name given by the French savant, Alphonse Bertillon (b.
1853), to a system of identification (q.v.) depending on the unchanging
character of certain measurements of parts of the human frame. He found
by patient inquiry that several physical features and the dimensions of
certain bones or bony structures in the body remain practically constant
during adult life. He concluded from this that when these measurements
were made and recorded systematically every single individual would be
found to be perfectly distinguishable from others. The system was soon
adapted to police methods, as the immense value of being able to fix a
person's identity was fully realized, both in preventing false
personation and in bringing home to any one charged with an offence his
responsibility for previous wrongdoing. "Bertillonage," as it was
called, became widely popular, and after its introduction into France in
1883, where it was soon credited with highly gratifying results, was
applied to the administration of justice in most civilized countries.
England followed tardily, and it was not until 1894 that an
investigation of the methods used and results obtained was made by a
special committee sent to Paris for the purpose. It reported favourably,
especially on the use of the measurements for primary classification,
but recommended also the adoption in part of a system of "finger prints"
as suggested by Francis Galton, and already practised in Bengal.

M. Bertillon selected the following five measurements as the basis of
his system: (1) head length; (2) head breadth; (3) length of middle
finger; (4) of left foot, and (5) of cubit or forearm from the elbow to
the extremity of the middle finger. Each principal heading was further
subdivided into three classes of "small," "medium" and "large," and as
an increased guarantee height, length of little finger, and the colour
of the eye were also recorded. From this great mass of details, soon
represented in Paris by the collection of some 100,000 cards, it was
possible, proceeding by exhaustion, to sift and sort down the cards till
a small bundle of half a dozen produced the combined facts of the
measurements of the individual last sought. The whole of the information
is easily contained in one cabinet of very ordinary dimensions, and most
ingeniously contrived so as to make the most of the space and facilitate
the search. The whole of the record is independent of names, and the
final identification is by means of the photograph which lies with the
individual's card of measurements.

Anthropometry, however, gradually fell into disfavour, and it has been
generally supplanted by the superior system of finger prints (q.v.).
Bertillonage exhibited certain defects which were first brought to light
in Bengal. The objections raised were (1) the costliness of the
instruments employed and their liability to get out of order; (2) the
need for specially instructed measurers, men of superior education; (3)
the errors that frequently crept in when carrying out the processes and
were all but irremediable. Measures inaccurately taken, or wrongly read
off, could seldom, if ever, be corrected, and these persistent errors
defeated all chance of successful search. The process was slow, as it
was necessary to repeat it three times so as to arrive at a mean result.
In Bengal measurements were already abandoned by 1897, when the finger
print system was adopted throughout British India. Three years later
England followed suit; and as the result of a fresh inquiry ordered by
the Home Office, finger prints were alone relied upon for
identification.

  AUTHORITIES.--Lombroso, _Antropometria di 400 delinquenti_ (1872);
  Roberts, _Manual of Anthropometry_ (1878); Ferri, _Studi comparati di
  antropometria_ (2 vols., 1881-1882); Lombroso, _Rughe anomale speciali
  ai criminali_ (1890); Bertillon, _Instructions signalétiques pour
  l'identification anthropométrique_ (1893); Livi, _Anthropometria_
  (Milan, 1900); Fürst, _Indextabellen zum anthropometrischen Gebrauch_
  (Jena, 1902); _Report of Home Office Committee on the Best Means of
  Identifying Habitual Criminals_ (1893-1894).     (A. G.)



ANTHROPOMORPHISM (Gr. [Greek: anthropos], man, [Greek: morphae], form),
the attribution (a) of a human body, or (b) of human qualities
generally, to God or the gods. The word anthropomorphism is a modern
coinage (possibly from 18th century French). The _New English
Dictionary_ is misled by the 1866 reprint of Paul Bayne on Ephesians
when it quotes "anthropomorphist" as 17th century English. Seventeenth
century editions print "anthropomorphits," i.e. anthropomorphites, in
sense (a). The older abstract term is "anthropopathy," literally
"attributing human feelings," in sense (b).

Early religion, among its many objects of worship, includes beasts (see
ANIMAL-WORSHIP), considered, in the more refined theology of the later
Greeks and Romans, as metamorphoses of the great gods. Similarly we find
"therianthropic" forms--half animal, half human--in Egypt or
Assyria-Babylonia. In contrast with these, it is considered one of the
glories of the Olympian mythology of Greece that it believed in happy
manlike beings (though exempt from death, and using special rarefied
foods, &c.), and celebrated them in statues of the most exquisite art.
Israel shows us animal images, doubtless of a ruder sort, when Yahweh is
worshipped in the northern kingdom under the image of a steer. (Some
scholars think the title "mighty one of Jacob," Psalm cxxxii., 2, 5, _et
al_., [Hebrew: abir] as if from [Hebrew: avir] is really "steer"
[Hebrew: abir] "of Jacob.") But the higher religion of Israel inclined
to morality more than to art, and forbade image worship altogether. This
prepared the way for the conception of God as an immaterial Spirit. True
mythical anthropomorphisms occur in early parts of the Old Testament
(e.g. Genesis iii. 8, cf. vi. 2), though in the majority of Old
Testament passages such expressions are merely verbal (e.g. Isaiah lix.
1). In the Christian Church (and again in early Mahommedanism) simple
minds believed in the corporeal nature of God. Gibbon and other writers
quote from John Cassian the tale of the poor monk, who, being convinced
of his error, burst into tears, exclaiming, "You have taken away my God!
I have none now whom I can worship!" According to a fragment of Origen
(on Genesis i. 26), Melito of Sardis shared this belief. Many have
thought Melito's work, [Greek: peri ensomatou theou], must have been a
treatise on the Incarnation; but it is hard to think that Origen could
blunder so. Epiphanius tells of Audaeus of Mesopotamia and his
followers, Puritan sectaries in the 4th century, who were orthodox
except for this belief and for Quartodecimanism (see EASTER).
Tertullian, who is sometimes called an anthropomorphist, stood for the
Stoical doctrine, that all reality, even the divine, is in a sense
material.

The reaction against anthropomorphism begins in Greek philosophy with
the satirical spirit of Xenophanes (540 B.C.), who puts the case as
broadly as any. The "greatest God" resembles man "neither in form nor in
mind." In Judaism--unless we should refer to the prophets' polemic
against images--a reaction is due to the introduction of the codified
law. God seemed to grow more remote. The old sacred name Yahweh is never
pronounced; even "God" is avoided for allusive titles like "heaven" or
"place." Still, amid all this, the God of Judaism remains a personal,
almost a limited, being. In Philo we see Jewish scruples uniting with
others drawn from Greek philosophy. For, though the quarrel with popular
anthropomorphism was patched up, and the gods of the Pantheon were
described by Stoics and Epicureans as manlike in form, philosophy
nevertheless tended to highly abstract conceptions of supreme, or real,
deity. Philo followed out the line of this tradition in teaching that
God cannot be named. How much exactly he meant is disputed. The same
inheritance of Greek philosophy appears in the Christian fathers,
especially Origen. He names and condemns the "anthropomorphites," who
ascribe a human body to God (on Romans i., _sub fin_.; Rufinus' Latin
version). In Arabian philosophy the reaction sought to deny that God had
any attributes. And, under the influence of Mahommedan Aristotelianism,
the same paralysing speculation found entrance among the learned Jews of
Spain (see MAIMONIDES).

Till modern times the philosophical reaction was not carried out with
full vigour. Spinoza (_Ethics_, i. 15 and 17), representing here as
elsewhere both a Jewish inheritance and a philosophical, but advancing
further, sweeps away all community between God and man. So later J.G.
Fichte and Matthew Arnold ("a magnified and non-natural
man"),--strangely, in view of their strong belief in an objective moral
order. For the use of the _word_ "anthropomorphic," or kindred forms, in
this new spirit of condemnation for all conceptions of God as
manlike--sense (b) noted above--see J.J. Rousseau in _Émile_ iv. (cited
by Littré),--_Nous sommes pour la plupart de vrais anthropomorphites_.
Rousseau is here speaking of the language of Christian theology,--a
divine Spirit: divine Persons. At the present day this usage is
universal. What it means on the lips of pantheists is plain. But when
theists charge one another with "anthropomorphism," in order to rebuke
what they deem unduly manlike conceptions of God, they stand on slippery
ground. All theism implies the assertion of kinship between man,
especially in his moral being, and God. As a brilliant theologian, B.
Duhm, has said, physiomorphism is the enemy of Christian faith, not
anthropomorphism.

The latest extension of the word, proposed in the interests of
philosophy or psychology, uses it of the principle according to which
man is said to interpret all things (not God merely) through himself.
Common-sense intuitionalism would deny that man does this, attributing
to him immediate knowledge of reality. And idealism in all its forms
would say that man, interpreting through his reason, does rightly, and
reaches truth. Even here then the use of the word is not colourless. It
implies blame. It is the symptom of a philosophy which confines
knowledge within narrow limits, and which, when held by Christians (e.g.
Peter Browne, or H.L. Mansel), believes only in an "analogical"
knowledge of God.     (R. Ma.)



ANTI, or CAMPA, a tribe of South American Indians of Arawakan stock,
inhabiting the forests of the upper Ucayali basin, east of Cuzco, on the
eastern side of the Andes, south Peru. The Antis, who gave their name to
the eastern province of Antisuyu, have always been notorious for
ferocity and cannibalism. They are of fine physique and generally
good-looking. Their dress is a robe with holes for the head and arms.
Their long hair hangs down over the shoulders, and round their necks a
toucan beak or a bunch of feathers is worn as an ornament.



ANTIBES, a seaport town in the French department of the Alpes-Maritimes
(formerly in that of the Var, but transferred after the Alpes-Maritimes
department was formed in 1860 out of the county of Nice). Pop. (1906) of
the town, 5730; of the commune, 11,753. It is 12½ m. by rail S.W. of
Nice, and is situated on the E. side of the Garoupe peninsula. It was
formerly fortified, but all the ramparts (save the Fort Carré, built by
Vauban) have now been demolished, and a new town is rising on their
site. There is a tolerable harbour, with a considerable fishing
industry. The principal exports are dried fruits, salt fish and oil.
Much perfume distilling is done here, as the surrounding country
produces an abundance of flowers. Antibes is the ancient Antipolis. It
is said to have been founded before the Christian era (perhaps about 340
B.C.) by colonists from Marseilles, and is mentioned by Strabo. It was
the seat of a bishopric from the 5th century to 1244, when the see was
transferred to Grasse.     (W. A. B. C.)



ANTICHRIST ([Greek: antichristos]). The earliest mention of the name
Antichrist, which was probably first coined in Christian eschatological
literature, is in the Epistles of St John (I. ii. 18, 22, iv. 3; II. 7),
and it has since come into universal use. The conception, paraphrased in
this word, of a mighty ruler who will appear at the end of time, and
whose essence will be enmity to God (Dan. xi. 36; cf. 2 Thess. ii. 4;
[Greek: o antikeimenos]), is older, and traceable to Jewish eschatology.
Its origin is to be sought in the first place in the prophecy of Daniel,
written at the beginning of the Maccabean period. The historical figure
who served as a model for the "Antichrist" was Antiochus IV. Epiphanes,
the persecutor of the Jews, and he has impressed indelible traits upon
the conception. Since then ever-recurring characteristics of this figure
(cf. especially Dan xi. 40, &c.) are, that he would appear as a mighty
ruler at the head of gigantic armies, that he would destroy three rulers
(the three horns, Dan. vii. 8, 24), persecute the saints (vii. 25), rule
for three and a half years (vii. 25, &c.), and subject the temple of God
to a horrible devastation ([Greek: bdelugma tes eremoseos]). When the
end of the world foretold by Daniel did not take place, but the book of
Daniel retained its validity as a sacred scripture which foretold future
things, the personality of the tyrant who was God's enemy disengaged
itself from that of Antiochus IV., and became merely a figure of
prophecy, which was applied now to one and now to another historical
phenomenon. Thus for the author of the _Psalms of Solomon_ (c. 60 B.C.),
Pompey, who destroyed the independent rule of the Maccabees and stormed
Jerusalem, was the Adversary of God (cf. ii. 26, &c.); so too the tyrant
whom the _Ascension of Moses_ (c. A.D. 30) expects at the end of all
things, possesses, besides the traits of Antiochus IV., those of Herod
the Great. A further influence on the development of the eschatological
imagination of the Jews was exercised by such a figure as that of the
emperor Caligula (A.D. 37-41), who is known to have given the order,
never carried out, to erect his statue in the temple of Jerusalem. In
the little Jewish Apocalypse, the existence of which is assumed by many
scholars, which in Mark xiii. and Matt. xxiv. is combined with the words
of Christ to form the great eschatological discourse, the prophecy of
the "abomination of desolation" (Mark xiii. 14 et seq.) may have
originated in this episode of Jewish history. Later Jewish and Christian
writers of Apocalypses saw in Nero the tyrant of the end of time. The
author of the Syriac _Apocalypse of Baruch_ (or his source), cap. 36-40,
speaks in quite general terms of the last ruler of the end of time. In 4
Ezra v. 6 also is found the allusion: _regnabit quem non sperant_.

The roots of this eschatological fancy are to be sought perhaps still
deeper in a purely mythological and speculative expectation of a battle
at the end of days between God and the devil, which has no reference
whatever to historical occurrences. This idea has its original source in
the apocalypses of Iran, for these are based upon the conflict between
Ahura-Mazda (Auramazda, Ormazd) and Angro-Mainyush (Ahriman) and its
consummation at the end of the world. This Iranian dualism is proved to
have penetrated into the late Jewish eschatology from the beginning of
the 1st century before Christ, and did so probably still earlier. Thus
the opposition between God and the devil already plays a part in the
Jewish groundwork of the _Testaments of the Patriarchs_, which was
perhaps composed at the end of the period of the Maccabees. In this the
name of the devil appears, besides the usual form ([Greek: satanas,
diabolos]), especially as Belial (Beliar, probably, from Ps. xviii. 4,
where the rivers of Belial are spoken of, originally a god of the
underworld), a name which also plays a part in the Antichrist tradition.
In the _Ascension of Moses_ we already hear, at the beginning of the
description of the latter time (x. 1): "And then will God's rule be made
manifest over all his creatures, then will the devil have an end" (cf.
Matt. xii. 28; Luke xi. 20; John xii. 31, xiv. 30, xvi. 11).[1] This
conception of the strife of God with the devil was further interwoven,
before its introduction into the Antichrist myth, with another idea of
different origin, namely, the myth derived from the Babylonian religion,
of the battle of the supreme God (Marduk) with the dragon of chaos
(Tiamat), originally a myth of the origin of things which, later
perhaps, was changed into an eschatological one, again under Iranian
influence.[2] Thus it comes that the devil, the opponent of God, appears
in the end often also in the form of a terrible dragon-monster; this
appears most clearly in Rev. xii. Now it is possible that the whole
conception of Antichrist has its final roots in this already complicated
myth, that the form of the mighty adversary of God is but the equivalent
in human form of the devil or of the dragon of chaos. In any case,
however, this myth has exercised a formative influence on the conception
of Antichrist. For only thus can we explain how his figure acquires
numerous superhuman and ghostly traits, which cannot be explained by any
particular historical phenomenon on which it may have been based. Thus
the figure of Antiochus IV. has already become superhuman, when in Dan.
viii. 10, it is said that the little horn "waxed great, even to the host
of heaven; and cast down some of the host and of the stars to the
ground." Similarly Pompey, in the second psalm of Solomon, is obviously
represented as the dragon of chaos, and his figure exalted into myth.
Without this assumption of a continual infusion of mythological
conceptions, we cannot understand the figure of Antichrist. Finally, it
must be mentioned that Antichrist receives, at least in the later
sources, the name originally proper to the devil himself.[3]

From the Jews, Christianity took over the idea. It is present quite
unaltered in certain passages, specifically traceable to Judaism, e.g.
(Rev. xi.). "The Beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit" and,
surrounded by a mighty host of nations, slays the "two witnesses" in
Jerusalem, is the entirely superhuman Jewish conception of Antichrist.
Even if the beast (ch. xiii.), which rises from the sea at the summons
of the devil, be interpreted as the Roman empire, and, specially, as any
particular Roman ruler, yet the original form of the malevolent tyrant
of the latter time is completely preserved.

A fundamental change of the whole idea from the specifically Christian
point of view, then, is signified by the conclusion of ch. ii. of the
Second Epistle to the Thessalonians.[4] There can, of course, be no
doubt as to the identity of the "man of sin, the son of perdition" here
described with the dominating figure of Jewish eschatology (cf. ii. 3
&c., [Greek: o anthropos tes anomias], i.e. Beliar (?), [Greek: o
antikeimenos]--the allusion that follows to Dan xi. 36). But Antichrist
here appears as a tempter, who works by signs and wonders (ii. 9) and
seeks to obtain divine honours; it is further signified that this "man
of sin" will obtain credence, more especially among the Jews, because
they have not accepted the truth. The conception, moreover, has become
almost more superhuman than ever (cf. ii. 4, "showing himself that he is
God"). The destruction of the Adversary is drawn from Isaiah xi. 4,
where it is said of the Messiah: "with the breath of his lips shall he
slay the wicked."[5] The idea that Antichrist was to establish himself
in the temple of Jerusalem (ii. 4) is very enigmatical, and has not yet
been explained. The "abomination of desolation" has naturally had its
influence upon it; possibly also the experience of the time of Caligula
(see above). Remarkable also is the allusion to a power which still
retards the revelation of Antichrist (2 Thess. ii. 6 &c., [Greek: to
katechon; o katechon]), an allusion which, in the tradition of the
Fathers of the church, came to be universally, and probably correctly,
referred to the Roman empire. In this then consists the significant turn
given by St Paul in the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians to the whole
conception, namely, in the substitution for the tyrant of the latter
time who should persecute the Jewish people, of a pseudo-Messianic
figure, who, establishing himself in the temple of God, should find
credence and a following precisely among the Jews. And while the
originally Jewish idea led straight to the conception, set forth in
Revelation, of the Roman empire or its ruler as Antichrist, here, on the
contrary, it is probably the Roman empire that is the power which still
retards the reign of Antichrist. With this, the expectation of such an
event at last separates itself from any connexion with historical fact,
and becomes purely ideal. In this process of transformation of the idea,
which has become of importance for the history of the world, is revealed
probably the genius of Paul, or at any rate, that of the young
Christianity which was breaking its ties with Judaism and establishing
itself in the world of the Roman empire.

This version of the figure of Antichrist, who may now really for the
first time be described by this name, appears to have been at once
widely accepted in Christendom. The idea that the Jews would believe in
Antichrist, as punishment for not having believed in the true Christ,
seems to be expressed by the author of the fourth gospel (v. 43). The
conception of Antichrist as a perverter of men, leads naturally to his
connexion with false doctrine (1 John ii. 18, 22; iv. 3; 2 John 7). The
_Teaching of the Apostles_ (xvi. 4) describes his form in the same way
as 2 Thessalonians ([Greek: kai tote phainaesetai o kosmoplanos os uios
theoy kai poiei saemeia kai terata]). In the late Christian Sibylline
fragment (iii. 63 &c.) also, "Beliar" appears above all as a worker of
wonders, this figure having possibly been influenced by that of Simon
Magus. Finally the author of the Apocalypse of St John also has made use
of the new conception of Antichrist as a wonder-worker and seducer, and
has set his figure beside that of the "first" Beast which was for him
the actual embodiment of Antichrist (xiii. II &c.). Since this second
Beast could not appear along with the first as a power demanding worship
and directly playing the part of Antichrist, he made out of him the
false prophet (xvi. 13, xix. 20, xx. 10) who seduces the inhabitants of
the earth to worship the first Beast, and probably interpreted this
figure as applying to the Roman provincial priesthood.[6]

But this version of the idea of Antichrist, hostile to the Jews and
better expressing the relation of Christianity to the Roman empire, was
prevented from obtaining an absolute ascendancy in Christian tradition
by the rise of the belief in the ultimate return of Nero, and by the
absorption of this outcome of pagan superstition into the
Jewish-Christian apocalyptic conceptions. It is known that soon after
the death of Nero rumours were current that he was not dead. This report
soon took the more concrete form that he had fled to the Parthians and
would return thence to take vengeance on Rome. This expectation led to
the appearance of several pretenders who posed as Nero; and as late as
A.D. 100 many still held the belief that Nero yet lived.[7] This idea of
Nero's return was in the first instance taken up by the Jewish
apocalyptic writers. While the Jewish author of the fourth Sibylline
book (c. A.D. 80) still only refers simply to the heathen belief, the
author of the (Jewish?) original of the 17th chapter of the Apocalypse
of St John expects the return of Nero with the Parthians to take
vengeance on Rome, because she had shed the blood of the Saints
(destruction of Jerusalem!). In the fifth Sibylline book, which, with
the exception of verses 1-51, was mainly composed by a Jewish writer at
the close of the first century, the return of Nero plays a great part.
Three times the author recurs to this theme, 137-154; 214-227; 361-385.
He sees in the coming again of Nero, whose figure he endows with
supernatural and daemonic characteristics, a judgment of God, in whose
hand the revivified Nero becomes a rod of chastisement. Later, the
figure of Nero _redivivus_ became, more especially in Christian thought,
entirely confused with that of Antichrist. The less it became possible,
as time went on, to believe that Nero yet lived and would return as a
living ruler, the greater was the tendency for his figure to develop
into one wholly infernal and daemonic. The relation to the Parthians is
also gradually lost sight of; and from being the adversary of Rome, Nero
becomes the adversary of God and of Christ. This is the version of the
expectation of Nero's second coming preserved in the form given to the
prophecy, under Domitian, by the collaborator in the Apocalypse of John
(xiii., xvii.). Nero is here the beast that returns from the bottomless
pit, "that was, and is not, and yet is"; the head "as it were wounded to
death" that lives again; the gruesome similitude of the Lamb that was
slain, and his adversary in the final struggle. The number of the Beast,
666, points certainly to Nero ([Hebrew: keisar neron] = 666, or [Hebrew:
keisar nero] = 616). In the little apocalypse of the _Ascensio Jesaiae_
(iii. 13b-iv. 18), which dates perhaps from the second, perhaps only
from the first, decade of the third century,[8] it is said that Beliar,
the king of this world, would descend from the firmament in the human
form of Nero. In the same way, in _Sibyll._ v. 28-34, Nero and
Antichrist are absolutely identical (mostly obscure reminiscences,
_Sib._ viii. 68 &c., 140 &c., 151 &c.). Then the Nero-legend gradually
fades away. But Victorinus of Pettau, who wrote during the persecution
under Diocletian, still knows the relation of the Apocalypse to the
legend of Nero; and Commodian, whose _Carmen Apologeticum_ was perhaps
not written until the beginning of the 4th century, knows two
Antichrist-figures, of which he still identifies the first with Nero
_redivivus_.

In proportion as the figure of Nero again ceased to dominate the
imagination of the faithful, the wholly unhistorical, unpolitical and
anti-Jewish conception of Antichrist, which based itself more especially
on 2 Thess. ii., gained the upper hand, having usually become associated
with the description of the universal conflagration of the world which
had also originated in the Iranian eschatology. On the strength of
exegetical combinations, and with the assistance of various traditions,
it was developed even in its details, which it thenceforth maintained
practically unchanged. In this form it is in great part present in the
eschatological portions of the _Adv. Haereses_ of Irenaeus, and in the
_de Antichristo_ and commentary on Daniel of Hippolytus. In times of
political excitement, during the following centuries, men appealed again
and again to the prophecy of Antichrist. Then the foreground scenery of
the prophecies was shifted; special prophecies, having reference to
contemporary events, are pushed to the front, but in the background
remains standing, with scarcely a change, the prophecy of Antichrist
that is bound up with no particular time. Thus at the beginning of the
_Testamentum Domini_, edited by Rahmani, there is an apocalypse,
possibly of the time of Decius, though it has been worked over (Harnack,
_Chronol. der altchrist. Litt._ ii. 514 &c.) In the third century, the
period of Aurelianus and Gallienus, with its wild warfare of Romans and
Persians, and of Roman pretenders one with another, seems especially to
have aroused the spirit of prophecy. To this period belongs the Jewish
apocalypse of Elijah (ed. Buttenwieser), of which the Antichrist is
possibly Odaenathus of Palmyra, while _Sibyll._ xiii., a Christian
writing of this period, glorifies this very prince. It is possible that
at this time also the Sibylline fragment (iii. 63 &c.) and the Christian
recension of the two first Sibylline books were written.[9] To this time
possibly belongs also a recension of the Coptic apocalypse of Elijah,
edited by Steindorff (_Texte und Untersuchungen_, N. F. ii. 3). To the
4th century belongs, according to Kamper (_Die deutsche Kaiseridee_,
1896, p. 18) and Sackur (_Texte und Forschungen_, 1898, p. 114 &c.), the
first nucleus of the "Tiburtine" Sibyl, very celebrated in the middle
ages, with its prophecy of the return of Constans, and its dream, which
later on exercised so much influence, that after ruling over the whole
world he would go to Jerusalem and lay down his crown upon Golgotha. To
the 4th century also perhaps belongs a series of apocalyptic pieces and
homilies which have been handed down under the name of Ephraem. At the
beginning of the Mahommedan period, then, we meet with the most
influential and the most curious of these prophetic books, the
_Pseudo-Methodius_,[10] which prophesied of the emperor who would awake
from his sleep and conquer Islam. From the _Pseudo-Methodius_ are
derived innumerable Byzantine prophecies (cf. especially Vassiliev,
_Anecdota Graeco-Byzantina_) which follow the fortunes of the Byzantine
emperors and their governments. A prophecy in verse, adorned with
pictures, which is ascribed to Leo VI. the Philosopher (Migne, _Patr.
Gracca_, cvii. p. 1121 &c.), tells of the downfall of the house of the
Comneni and sings of the emperor of the future who would one day awake
from death and go forth from the cave in which he had lain. Thus the
prophecy of the sleeping emperor of the future is very closely connected
with the Antichrist tradition. There is extant a Daniel prophecy which,
in the time of the Latin empire, foretells the restoration of the Greek
rule.[11] In the East, too, Antichrist prophecies were extraordinarily
flourishing during the period of the rise of Islam and of the Crusades.
To these belong the apocalypses in Arabic, Ethiopian and perhaps also in
Syrian, preserved in the so-called _Liber Clementis discipuli S. Petri_
(_Petri apostoli apocalypsis per Clementem_), the late Syrian apocalypse
of Ezra (Bousset, _Antichrist_, 45 &c.), the Coptic (14th) vision of
Daniel (in the appendix to Woide's edition of the _Codex Alexandrinus_;
Oxford, 1799), the Ethiopian _Wisdom of the Sibyl_, which is closely
related to the Tiburtine Sibyl (see Basset, _Apocryphes éthiopiennes_,
x.); in the last mentioned of these sources long series of Islamic
rulers are foretold before the final time of Antichrist. Jewish
apocalypse also awakes to fresh developments in the Mahommedan period,
and shows a close relationship with the Christian Antichrist literature.
One of the most interesting apocalypses is the Jewish _History of
Daniel_, handed down in Persian.[12]

This whole type of prophecy reached the West above all through the
_Pseudo-Methodius_, which was soon translated into Latin. Especially
influential, too, in this respect was the letter which the monk Adso in
954 wrote to Queen Gerberga, _De ortu et tempere Antichristi_. The old
Tiburtine Sibylla went through edition after edition, in each case being
altered so as to apply to the government of the monarch who happened to
be ruling at the time. Then in the West the period arrived in which
eschatology, and above all the expectation of the coming of Antichrist,
exercised a great influence on the world's history. This period, as is
well known, was inaugurated, at the end of the 12th century, by the
apocalyptic writings of the abbot Joachim of Floris. Soon the word
Antichrist re-echoed from all sides in the embittered controversies of
the West. The pope bestowed this title upon the emperor, the emperor
upon the pope, the Guelphs on the Ghibellines and the Ghibellines on the
Guelphs. In the contests between the rival powers and courts of the
period, the prophecy of Antichrist played a political part. It gave
motives to art, to lyrical, epic and dramatic poetry.[13] Among the
visionary Franciscans, enthusiastic adherents of Joachim's prophecies,
arose above all the conviction that the pope was Antichrist, or at least
his precursor. From the Franciscans, influenced by Abbot Joachim, the
lines of connexion are clearly traceable with Milic of Kremsier
(_Libellus de Antichristo_) and Matthias of Janow. For Wycliffe and his
adherent John Purvey (probably the author of the _Commentarius in
Apocalypsin ante centum annos editus_, edited in 1528 by Luther), as on
the other hand for Hus, the conviction that the papacy is essentially
Antichrist is absolute. Finally, if Luther advanced in his contest with
the papacy with greater and greater energy, he did so because he was
borne on by the conviction that the pope in Rome was Antichrist. And if
in the _Augustana_. the expression of this conviction was suppressed for
political reasons, in the Articles of Schmalkalden, drawn up by him,
Luther propounded it in the most uncompromising fashion. This sentence
was for him an _articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesiae_. To write the
history of the idea of Antichrist in the last centuries of the middle
ages, would be almost to write that of the middle ages themselves.

  AUTHORITIES.--See, for the progress of the idea in Jewish and New
  Testament times, the modern commentaries on Revelation and the 2nd
  Epistle to the Thessalonians; Bousset, _Antichrist_ (1895), and the
  article "Antichrist" in the _Encyclop. Biblica_; R.H. Charles,
  _Ascension of Isaiah_, Introduction, li.-lxxiii. For the history of
  the legend of Nero, see J. Geffcken, _Nachrichten der Göttinger
  Gesellschaft der Wisscnschaft_ (1899), p. 446 &c.; Th. Zahn,
  _Zeitschrift für kirchliche Wissenschaft und kirchliches Leben_
  (1886), p. 337 &c.; Bousset, _Kritisch-exegetisches Kommentar zur
  Offenbarung Johannis_, cap. 17, and the article "Sibyllen" in
  Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopadie für Theologie und Kirche_ (3rd ed.),
  xviii. 265 &c.; Nordmeyer, _Der Tod Neros in der Legende_, a
  _Festschrift_ of the Gymnasium of Moos. For the later history of the
  legend, see Bousset, _Antichrist_, where will be found a more detailed
  discussion of nearly all the sources named; Bousset, "Beiträge zur
  Geschichte der Eschatologie," in _Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte_,
  xx. 2, and especially xx. 3, on the later Byzantine prophecies;
  Vassiliev, _Anecdota Graeco-Byzantina_, i. (Moscow, 1893), which gives
  the texts of a series of Byzantine prophecies; E. Sackur,
  _Sibyllinische Texte und Forschungen_ (1898), containing (i)
  _Pseudo-Methodius_, Latin text, (2) _Epistola Adsonis_, (3) the
  _Tiburtine Sibylla_; V. Istrin, _The Apocalypse of Methodius of Patara
  and the Apocryphal Visions of Daniel in Byzantine and Slavo-Russian
  Literature_, Russian (Moscow, 1897); J. Kampers, _Die deutsche
  Kaiseridee in Prophetie und Sage_ (Munich, 1896), and "Alexander der
  Grosse und die Idee des Weltimperiums," in H. Grauert's _Studien und
  Darstellungen aus dem Gebiet der Geschichte_, vol. i. 2-3 (Freiburg,
  1901); E. Wadstein, _Die eschatologische Ideengruppe, Antichrist,
  Weltsabbat, Weltende und Welgericht_ (Leipzig, 1896), which contains
  excellent material for the history of the idea in the West during the
  middle ages; W. Meyer, "Ludus de Antichristo," in _Sitzberichl der
  Münchener Akad._ (Phil. hist. Klasse 1882, H. i.); Kropatschek, _Das
  Schriftprincip der lutherischen Kirche_, i. 247 &c. (Leipzig, 1904);
  H. Preuss, _Die Vorstellungen vom Antichrist im späteren Mittelalter,
  bei Luther u. i. d. Konfessionellen Polemik_ (Leipzig, 1906).
       (W. Bo.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See further, Bousset, _Religion des Judentums_, ed. ii. pp. 289
    &c., 381 &c., 585 &c.

  [2] See Gunkel, _Schöpfung und Chaos_ (1893).

  [3] It is, of course, uncertain whether this phenomenon already
    occurs in 2 Cor. vi. 15, since here Belial might still be Satan; cf.
    however, _Ascensio Jesaiae_ iv. 2 &c.; _Sibyll_. iii. 63 &c., ii. 167
    &c.

  [4] It is not necessary to decide whether the epistle is by St Paul
    or by a pupil of Paul, although the former seems to the present
    writer to be by far the more probable, in spite of the brilliant
    attack on the genuineness of the epistle by Wrede in _Texte und
    Übersetzungen_, N.F. ix. 2.

  [5] Cf. 2 Thess. ii. 8; the Targum also, in its comment on the
   passage of Isaiah, applies "the wicked" to Antichrist.

  [6] See Bousset, _Kommentar zur Offenbarung Johannis_, on these
    passages.

  [7] _Ibid._ ch. xvii.: and Charles, _Ascension of Isaiah_, lvii. sq.

  [8] Harnack, _Chronologie der altchristlichen Literatur_, i. 573

  [9] See Bousset, in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklop. für Theologie und
    Kirsche_ (ed. 3), xviii. 273 &c.

  [10] Latin text by Sackur, cf. _op. cit._ 1 &c.; Greek text by V.
    Istrin.

  [11] See Bousset, _Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte_, xx. p. 289 &c.

  [12] Published in Merx, _Archiv zur Erforschung des Alten Testament_.

  [13] See especially the _Ludus de Antichristo_, ed. W. Meyer.



ANTICLIMAX (i.e. the opposite to "climax"), in rhetoric, an abrupt
declension (either deliberate or unintended) on the part of a speaker or
writer from the dignity of idea which he appeared to be aiming at; as in
the following well-known distich:--

  "The great Dalhousie, he, the god of war,
   _Lieutenant-colonel to the earl of Mar_."

An anticlimax can be intentionally employed only for a jocular or
satiric purpose. It frequently partakes of the nature of antithesis,
as--

  "Die and endow a _college_ or a _cat_."

It is often difficult to distinguish between "anticlimax" and "bathos";
but the former is more decidedly a relative term. A whole speech may
never rise above the level of bathos; but a climax of greater or less
elevation is the necessary antecedent of an anticlimax.



ANTICOSTI, an island of the province of Quebec, Canada, situated in the
Gulf of St Lawrence, between 49° and 50° N., and between 61° 40' and 64°
30' W., with a length of 135 m. and a breadth of 30 m. Population 250,
consisting chiefly of the keepers of the numerous lighthouses erected by
the Canadian government. The coast is dangerous, and the only two
harbours, Ellis Bay and Fox Bay, are very indifferent. Anticosti was
sighted by Jacques Cartier in 1534, and named Assomption. In 1763 it was
ceded by France to Britain, and in 1774 became part of Canada. Wild
animals, especially bears, are numerous, but prior to 1896 the fish and
game had been almost exterminated by indiscriminate slaughter. In that
year Anticosti and the shore fisheries were leased to M. Menier, the
French chocolate manufacturer, who converted the island into a game
preserve, and attempted to develop its resources of lumber, peat and
minerals.

  See Logan, _Geological Survey of Canada, Report of Progress from its
  Commencement to 1863_ (Montreal, 1863-1865); E. Billings, _Geological
  Survey of Canada: Catalogue of the Silurian Fossils of Anticosti_
  (Montreal, 1866); J. Schmitt, _Anticosti_ (Paris, 1904).



ANTICYCLONE (i.e. opposite to a cyclone), an atmospheric system in which
there is a descending movement of the air and a relative increase in
barometric pressure over the part of the earth's surface affected by it.
At the surface the air tends to flow outwards in all directions from the
central area of high pressure, and is deflected on account of the
earth's rotation (see FERREL'S LAW) so as to give a spiral movement in
the direction of the hands of a watch face upwards in the northern
hemisphere, against that direction in the southern hemisphere. Since the
air in an anticyclone is descending, it becomes warmed and dried, and
therefore transmits radiation freely whether from the sun to the earth
or from the earth into space. Hence in winter anticyclonic weather is
characterized by clear air with periods of frost, causing fogs in towns
and low-lying damp areas, and in summer by still cloudless days with
gentle variable airs and fine weather.



ANTICYRA, the ancient name of three cities of Greece, (1) (Mod.
_Aspraspitia_), in Phocis, on the bay of Anticyra, in the Corinthian
gulf; some remains are still visible. It was a town of considerable
importance in ancient times; was destroyed by Philip of Macedon;
recovered its prosperity; and was captured by T. Quinctius Flamininus in
198 B.C. The city was famous for its black hellebore, a herb which was
regarded as a cure for insanity. This circumstance gave rise to a number
of proverbial expressions, like [Greek: Antikuras se dei] or "naviget
Anticyram," and to frequent allusions in the Greek and Latin writers.
Hellebore was likewise considered beneficial in cases of gout and
epilepsy. (2) In Thessaly, on the right bank of the river Spercheus,
near its mouth. (3) In Locris, on the north side of the entrance to the
Corinthian gulf, near Naupactus.



ANTIETAM, the name of a Maryland creek, near which, on the 16th-17th of
September 1862, was fought the battle of Antietam or Sharpsburg (see
AMERICAN CIVIL WAR), between the Federals under McClellan and the
Confederates commanded by Lee. General McClellan had captured the passes
of South Mountain farther east on the 14th, and his Army of the Potomac
marched to meet Lee's forces which, hitherto divided, had, by the 16th,
successfully concentrated between the Antietam and the Potomac. The
Confederate Army of Northern Virginia occupied a position which, in
relation to the surrounding country, may be compared to the string of a
bow in the act of being drawn, Lee's left wing forming the upper half of
the string, his right the lower, and the Potomac in his rear the bow
itself. The town of Sharpsburg represents the fingers of the archer
drawing the bow. The right wing of the position was covered by the
Antietam as it approaches the Potomac, the upper course of that stream
formed no part of the battlefield. Generals Longstreet and Jackson
commanded the right and left wings. The division of A.P. Hill was at
Harper's Ferry, but had received orders to rejoin Lee. McClellan's
troops appeared late on the 16th, and Hooker was immediately sent across
the upper Antietam. He had a sharp fight with Jackson's men, but night
soon put an end to the contest. Early on the 19th the corps of Sumner
and Mansfield followed Hooker across the upper stream whilst McClellan's
left wing (Burnside's corps) drew up opposite Lee's extreme right. The
Federal leader intended to hold back his centre whilst these two forces
were rolling up Lee's wings. The battle began with a furious assault on
the extreme right by Hooker's corps. After a very severe struggle he was
repulsed with the loss of a quarter of his men, Jackson's divisions
suffering even more severely and losing nearly all their generals and
colonels. It was only the arrival of Hood and D.H. Hill which enabled
Stonewall Jackson's corps to hold its ground, and had the other Federal
corps been at hand to support Hooker the result might have been very
different. Mansfield next attacked farther to the left and with better
fortune. Mansfield was killed, but his successor led the corps well, and
after heavy fighting Hood and D.H. Hill were driven back. Again want of
support checked the Federals and the fight became stationary, both sides
losing many men. Sumner now came into action, and overhaste involved him
in a catastrophe, his troops being attacked in front and flank and
driven back in great confusion with nearly half their number killed and
wounded; and their retreat involved the gallant remnants of Mansfield's
corps. Soon afterwards the Federal divisions of French and Richardson
attacked D.H. Hill, whose men were now exhausted by continuous fighting.
Here occurred the fighting in the "Bloody Lane," north of Sharpsburg
which French and Richardson eventually carried. Opposed as they were by
D.H. Hill, whose men had fought the battle of South Mountain and had
already been three times engaged _à fond_ on this day, proper support
must have enabled the Federals to crush Lee's centre, but Franklin and
Porter in reserve were not allowed by McClellan to move forward and the
opportunity passed. Burnside, on the southern wing, had received his
orders late, and acted on them still later. The battle was over on the
right before he fired a shot, and Lee had been able to use nearly all
his right wing troops to support Jackson. At last Burnside moved
forward, and, after a brilliant defence by the handful of men left to
oppose him, forced the Antietam and began to roll up Lee's right, only
to be attacked in rear himself by A.P. Hill's troops newly arrived from
Harper's Ferry. The repulse of Burnside ended the battle. Pressure was
brought to bear on McClellan to renew the fight, but he refused and Lee
retired across the Potomac unmolested. The Army of the Potomac had lost
11,832 men out of 46,000 engaged; the cavalry and two corps in reserve
had only lost 578. Lee's 31,200 men lost over 8000 of their number.

  See the bibliography appended to AMERICAN CIVIL WAR, and also General
  Palfrey's _Antietam and Fredericksburg_.



ANTI-FEDERALISTS, the name given in the political history of the United
States to those who, after the formation of the federal Constitution of
1787, opposed its ratification by the people of the several states. The
"party" (though it was never regularly organized as such) was composed of
states rights, particularistic, individualistic and radical democratic
elements; that is, of those persons who thought that a stronger
government threatened the sovereignty and prestige of the states, or the
special interests, individual or commercial, of localities, or the
liberties of individuals, or who fancied they saw in the government
proposed a new centralized, disguised "monarchic" power that would only
replace the cast-off despotism of Great Britain. In every state the
opposition to the Constitution was strong, and in two--North Carolina and
Rhode Island--it prevented ratification until the definite establishment
of the new government practically forced their adhesion. The
individualistic was the strongest element of opposition; the necessity,
or at least the desirability, of a bill of rights was almost universally
felt. Instead of accepting the Constitution upon the condition of
amendments,--in which way they might very likely have secured large
concessions,--the Anti-Federalists stood for unconditional rejection, and
public opinion, which went against them, proved that for all its
shortcomings the Constitution was regarded as preferable to the Articles
of Confederation. After the inauguration of the new government, the
composition of the Anti-Federalist party changed. The Federalist (q.v.)
party gradually showed broad-construction, nationalistic tendencies; the
Anti-Federalist party became a strict-construction party and advocated
popular rights against the asserted aristocratic, centralizing tendencies
of its opponent, and gradually was transformed into the
Democratic-Republican party, mustered and led by Thomas Jefferson, who,
however, had approved the ratification of the Constitution and was not,
therefore, an Anti-Federalist in the original sense of that term.

  See O.G. Libby, _Geographical Distribution of the Vote ... on the
  Federal Constitution, 1787-1788_ (University of Wisconsin, Bulletin,
  1894); S.B. Harding, _Contest over the Ratification of the Federal
  Constitution in ... Massachusetts_ (Harvard University Studies, New
  York, 1896); and authorities on political and constitutional history
  in the article UNITED STATES.



ANTIGO, a city and the county-seat of Langlade county, Wisconsin,
U.S.A., about 160 m. N.W. of Milwaukee. Pop. (1890) 4424; (1900) 5145,
of whom 965 were foreign-born; (1905) 6663; (1910) 7196. It is served by
the Chicago & North Western railway. Antigo is the centre of a good
farming and lumbering district, and its manufactures consist principally
of lumber, chairs, furniture, sashes, doors and blinds, hubs and
spokes, and other wood products. The city has a Carnegie library. Antigo
was first settled in 1880, and was chartered as a city in 1885. Its name
is said to be part of an Indian word, _neequee-antigo-sebi_, meaning
"evergreen."



ANTIGONE, (1) in Greek legend, daughter of Oedipus and Iocaste
(Jocasta), or, according to the older story, of Euryganeia. When her
father, on discovering that Iocaste, the mother of his children, was
also his own mother, put his eyes out and resigned the throne of Thebes,
she accompanied him into exile at Colonus. After his death she returned
to Thebes, where Haemon, the son of Creon, king of Thebes, became
enamoured of her. When her brothers Eteocles and Polyneices had slain
each other in single combat, she buried Polyneices, although Creon had
forbidden it. As a punishment she was sentenced to be buried alive in a
vault, where she hanged herself, and Haemon killed himself in despair.
Her character and these incidents of her life presented an attractive
subject to the Greek tragic poets, especially Sophocles in the
_Antigone_ and _Oedipus at Colonus_, and Euripides, whose _Antigone_,
though now lost, is partly known from extracts incidentally preserved in
later writers, and from passages in his _Phoenissae_. In the order of
the events, at least, Sophocles departed from the original legend,
according to which the burial of Polyneices took place while Oedipus was
yet in Thebes, not after he had died at Colonus. Again, in regard to
Antigone's tragic end Sophocles differs from Euripides, according to
whom the calamity was averted by the intercession of Dionysus and was
followed by the marriage of Antigone and Haemon. In Hyginus's version of
the legend, founded apparently on a tragedy by some follower of
Euripides, Antigone, on being handed over by Creon to her lover Haemon
to be slain, was secretly carried off by him, and concealed in a
shepherd's hut, where she bore him a son Maeon. When the boy grew up, he
went to some funeral games at Thebes, and was recognized by the mark of
a dragon on his body. This led to the discovery that Antigone was still
alive. Heracles pleaded in vain with Creon for Haemon, who slew both
Antigone and himself, to escape his father's vengeance. On a painted
vase the scene of the intercession of Heracles is represented
(Heydermann, _Über eine nacheuripideische Antigone_, 1868). Antigone
placing the body of Polyneices on the funeral pile occurs on a
sarcophagus in the villa Pamfili in Rome, and is mentioned in the
description of an ancient painting by Philostratus (_Imag._ ii. 29), who
states that the flames consuming the two brothers burnt apart,
indicating their unalterable hatred, even in death.

(2) A second Antigone was the daughter of Eurytion, king of Phthia, and
wife of Peleus. Her husband, having accidentally killed Eurytion in the
Calydonian boar hunt, fled and obtained expiation from Acastus, whose
wife made advances to Peleus. Finding that her affection was not
returned, she falsely accused Peleus of infidelity to his wife, who
thereupon hanged herself (Apollodorus, iii. 13).



ANTIGONUS CYCLOPS (or MONOPTHALMOS; so called from his having lost an
eye) (382-301 B.C.), Macedonian king, son of Philip, was one of the
generals of Alexander the Great. He was made governor of Greater Phrygia
in 333, and in the division of the provinces after Alexander's death
(323) Pamphylia and Lycia were added to his command. He incurred the
enmity of Perdiccas, the regent, by refusing to assist Eumenes (q.v.) to
obtain possession of the provinces allotted to him. In danger of his
life he escaped with his son Demetrius into Greece, where he obtained
the favour of Antipater, regent of Macedonia (321); and when, soon
after, on the death of Perdiccas, a new division took place, he was
entrusted with the command of the war against Eumenes, who had joined
Perdiccas against the coalition of Antipater, Antigonus, and the other
generals. Eumenes was completely defeated, and obliged to retire to Nora
in Cappadocia, and a new army that was marching to his relief was routed
by Antigonus. Polyperchon succeeding Antipater (d. 319) in the regency,
to the exclusion of Cassander, his son, Antigonus resolved to set
himself up as lord of all Asia, and in conjunction with Cassander and
Ptolemy of Egypt, refused to recognize Polyperchon. He entered into
negotiations with Eumenes; but Eumenes remained faithful to the royal
house. Effecting his escape from Nora, he raised an army, and formed a
coalition with the satraps of the eastern provinces. He was at last
delivered up to Antigonus through treachery in Persia and put to death
(316). Antigonus again claimed authority over the whole of Asia, seized
the treasures at Susa, and entered Babylonia, of which Seleucus was
governor. Seleucus fled to Ptolemy, and entered into a league with him
(315), together with Lysimachus and Cassander. After the war had been
carried on with varying success from 315 to 311, peace was concluded, by
which the government of Asia Minor and Syria was provisionally secured
to Antigonus. This agreement was soon violated on the pretext that
garrisons had been placed in some of the free Greek cities by Antigonus,
and Ptolemy and Cassander renewed hostilities against him. Demetrius
Poliorcetes, the son of Antigonus, wrested part of Greece from
Cassander. At first Ptolemy had made a successful descent upon Asia
Minor and on several of the islands of the Archipelago; but he was at
length totally defeated by Demetrius in a naval engagement off Salamis,
in Cyprus (306). On this victory Antigonus assumed the title of king,
and bestowed the same upon his son, a declaration that he claimed to be
the heir of Alexander. Antigonus now prepared a large army, and a
formidable fleet, the command of which he gave to Demetrius, and
hastened to attack Ptolemy in his own dominions. His invasion of Egypt,
however, proved a failure; he was unable to penetrate the defences of
Ptolemy, and was obliged to retire. Demetrius now attempted the
reduction of Rhodes, which had refused to assist Antigonus against
Egypt; but, meeting with obstinate resistance, he was obliged to make a
treaty upon the best terms that he could (304). In 302, although
Demetrius was again winning success after success in Greece, Antigonus
was obliged to recall him to meet the confederacy that had been formed
between Cassander, Seleucus and Lysimachus. A decisive battle was fought
at Ipsus, in which Antigonus fell, in the eighty-first year of his age.

  Diodorus Siculus xviii., xx. 46-86; Plutarch, _Demetrius, Eumenes_;
  Nepos, _Eumenes_; Justin xv. 1-4. See MACEDONIAN EMPIRE; and Köhler,
  "Das Reich des Antigonos," in the _Sitzungsberichte d. Berl. Akad._,
  1898, p. 835 f.



ANTIGONUS GONATAS (c. 319-239 B.C.), Macedonian king, was the son of
Demetrius Poliorcetes, and grandson of Antigonus Cyclops. On the death
of his father (283), he assumed the title of king of Macedonia, but did
not obtain possession of the throne till 276, after it had been
successively in the hands of Pyrrhus, Lysimachus, Seleucus, and Ptolemy
Ceraunus. Antigonus repelled the invasion of the Gauls, and continued in
undisputed possession of Macedonia till 274, when Pyrrhus returned from
Italy, and (in 273) made himself master of nearly all the country. On
the advance of Pyrrhus into Peloponnesus, he recovered his dominions. He
was again (between 263 and 255) driven out of his kingdom by Alexander,
the son of Pyrrhus, and again recovered it. The latter part of his reign
was comparatively peaceful, and he gained the affection of his subjects
by his honesty and his cultivation of the arts. He gathered round him
distinguished literary men--philosophers, poets, and historians. He died
in the eightieth year of his age, and the forty-fourth of his reign. His
surname was usually derived by later Greek writers from the name of his
supposed birthplace, Gonni (Gonnus) in Thessaly; some take it to be a
Macedonian word signifying an iron plate for protecting the knee;
neither conjecture is a happy one, and in our ignorance of the
Macedonian language it must remain unexplained.

  Plutarch, _Demetrius, Pyrrhus, Aratus_; Justin xxiv. 1; xxv. 1-3;
  Polybius ii. 43-45, ix. 29, 34. See Thirlwall, _History of Greece_,
  vol viii. (1847); Holm, _Griech. Gesch._ vol. iv. (1894); Niese,
  _Gesch. d. griech. u. maked. Staaten_, vols. i. and ii. (1893, 1899);
  Beloch, _Griech. Gesch._ vol. iii. (1904); also
  Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, _Antigonos von Karystos_ (1881).



ANTIGONUS OF CARYSTUS (in Euboea), Greek writer on various subjects,
flourished in the 3rd century B.C. After some time spent at Athens and
in travelling, he was summoned to the court of Attalus I. (241-197) of
Pergamum. His chief work was the _Lives of Philosophers_ drawn from
personal knowledge, of which considerable fragments are preserved in
Athenaeus and Diogenes Laertius. We still possess his _Collection of
Wonderful Tales_, chiefly extracted from the [Greek: Thaumasia
Akousmata] attributed to Aristotle and the [Greek: Thaumasia] of
Callimachus. It is doubtful whether he is identical with the sculptor
who, according to Pliny (_Nat. Hist._ xxxiv. 19), wrote books on his
art.

  Text in Keller, _Rerum Naturalium Scriptores Graeci Minores_, i.
  (1877); see Kopke, _De Antigono Carystio_ (1862);
  Wilamowitz-Möllendorff, "A. von Karystos," in _Philologische
  Untersuchungen_, iv. (.1881).



ANTIGUA, an island in the British West Indies, forming, with Barbuda and
Redonda, one of the five presidencies in the colony of the Leeward
Islands. It lies 50 m. E. of St Kitts, in 17° 6' N. and 61° 45' W., and
is 54 m. in circumference, with an area of 108 sq. m. The surface is
comparatively flat, and there is no central range of mountains as in
most other West Indian islands, but among the hills in the south-west an
elevation of 1328 ft. is attained. Owing to the absence of rivers, the
paucity of springs, and the almost complete deforestation, Antigua is
subject to frequent droughts, and although the average rainfall is 45.6
in., the variations from year to year are great. The dryness of the air
proves very beneficial to persons suffering from pulmonary complaints.
The high rocky coast is much indented by bays and arms of the sea,
several of which form excellent harbours, that of St John being safe and
commodious, but inferior to English Harbour, which, although little
frequented, is capable of receiving vessels of the largest size. The
soil, especially in the interior, is very fertile. Sugar and pineapples
are the chief products for export, but sweet potatoes, yams, maize and
guinea corn are grown for local consumption. Antigua is the residence of
the governor of the Leeward Islands, and the meeting place of the
general legislative council, but there is also a local legislative
council of 16 members, half official and half unofficial. Until 1898,
when the Crown Colony system was adopted, the legislative council was
partly elected, partly nominated. Elementary education is compulsory.
Agricultural training is given under government control, and the
Cambridge local examinations and those of the University of London are
held annually. Antigua is the see of a bishop of the Church of England,
the members of which predominate here, but Moravians and Wesleyans are
numerous. There is a small volunteer defence force. The island has
direct steam communication with Great Britain, the United States and
Canada, and is also served by the submarine cable. The three chief towns
are St John, Falmouth and Parham. St John (pop. about 10,000), the
capital, situated on the north-west, is an exceedingly picturesque town,
built on an eminence overlooking one of the most beautiful harbours in
the West Indies. Although both Falmouth and Parham have good harbours,
most of the produce of the island finds its way to St John for shipment.
The trade is chiefly with the United States, and the main exports are
sugar, molasses, logwood, tamarinds, turtles, and pineapples. The
cultivation of cotton has been introduced with success, and this also is
exported. The dependent islands of Barbuda and Redonda have an area of
62 sq. m. Pop. of Antigua (1901), 34,178; of the presidency, 35,073.

Antigua was discovered in 1493 by Columbus, who is said to have named it
after a church in Seville, called Santa Maria la Antigua. It remained,
however, uninhabited until 1632, when a body of English settlers took
possession of it, and in 1663 another settlement of the same nation was
effected under the direction of Lord Willoughby, to whom the entire
island was granted by Charles II. It was ravaged by the French in 1666,
but was soon after reconquered by the British and formally restored to
them by the treaty of Breda. Since then it has been a British
possession.



ANTILEGOMENA ([Greek: antilegomena], contradicted or disputed), an
epithet used by the early Christian writers to denote those books of the
New Testament which, although sometimes publicly read in the churches,
were not for a considerable time admitted to be genuine, or received
into the canon of Scripture. They were thus contrasted with the
_Homologoumena_, or universally acknowledged writings. Eusebius (_Hist.
Eccl._ iii. 25) applies the term _Antilegomena_ to the Epistle of James,
the Epistle of Jude, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, the Acts of Paul, the
Shepherd of Hermas, the Teaching of the Apostles, the Apocalypse of
John, and the Gospel according to the Hebrews. In later usage it
describes those of the New Testament books which have obtained a
doubtful place in the Canon. These are the Epistles of James and Jude, 2
Peter, 2 and 3 John, the Apocalypse of John, and the Epistle to the
Hebrews.



ANTILIA or ANTILLIA, sometimes called the Island of the Seven Cities
(Portuguese _Isla das Sete Cidades_), a legendary island in the Atlantic
ocean. The origin of the name is quite uncertain. The oldest suggested
etymology (1455) fancifully connects it with the name of the Platonic
Atlantis, while later writers have endeavoured to derive it from the
Latin _anterior_ (i.e. the island that is reached "before" Cipango), or
from the _Jezirat al Tennyn_, "Dragon's Isle," of the Arabian
geographers. Antilia is marked in an anonymous map which is dated 1424
and preserved in the grand-ducal library at Weimar. It reappears in the
maps of the Genoese B. Beccario or Beccaria (1435), and of the Venetian
Andrea Bianco (1436), and again in 1455 and 1476. In most of these it is
accompanied by the smaller and equally legendary islands of Royllo, St
Atanagio, and Tanmar, the whole group being classified as _insulae de
novo repertae_, "newly discovered islands." The Florentine Paul
Toscanelli, in his letters to Columbus and the Portuguese court (1474),
takes Antilia as the principal landmark for measuring the distance
between Lisbon and the island of Cipango or Zipangu (Japan). One of the
chief early descriptions of Antilia is that inscribed on the globe which
the geographer Martin Behaim made at Nuremberg in 1492 (see MAP:
_History_). Behaim relates that in 734--a date which is probably a
misprint for 714--and after the Moors had conquered Spain and Portugal,
the island of Antilia or "Septe Cidade" was colonized by Christian
refugees under the archbishop of Oporto and six bishops. The inscription
adds that a Spanish vessel sighted the island in 1414. According to an
old Portuguese tradition each of the seven leaders founded and ruled a
city, and the whole island became a Utopian commonwealth, free from the
disorders of less favoured states. Later Portuguese tradition localized
Antilia in the island of St Michael's, the largest of the Azores. It is
impossible to estimate how far this legend commemorates some actual but
imperfectly recorded discovery, and how far it is a reminiscence of the
ancient idea of an elysium in the western seas which is embodied in the
legends of the Isles of the Blest or Fortunate Islands.



ANTILLES, a term of somewhat doubtful origin, now generally used,
especially by foreign writers, as synonymous with the expression "West
India Islands." Like "Brazil," it dates from a period anterior to the
discovery of the New World, "Antilia," as stated above, being one of
those mysterious lands, which figured on the medieval charts sometimes
as an archipelago, sometimes as continuous land of greater or lesser
extent, constantly fluctuating in mid-ocean between the Canaries and
East India. But it came at last to be identified with the land
discovered by Columbus. Later, when this was found to consist of a vast
archipelago enclosing the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, _Antilia_
assumed its present plural form, _Antilles_, which was collectively
applied to the whole of this archipelago.

A distinction is made between the Greater Antilles, including Cuba,
Jamaica, Haiti, and Porto Riro; and the Lesser Antilles, covering the
remainder of the islands.



ANTILOCHUS, in Greek legend, son of Nestor, king of Pylos. One of the
suitors of Helen, he accompanied his father to the Trojan War. He was
distinguished for his beauty, swiftness of foot, and skill as a
charioteer; though the youngest among the Greek princes, he commanded
the Pylians in the war, and performed many deeds of valour. He was a
favourite of the gods, and an intimate friend of Achilles, to whom he
was commissioned to announce the death of Patroclus. When his father was
attacked by Memnon, he saved his life at the sacrifice of his own
(Pindar, _Pyth._ vi. 28), thus fulfilling an oracle which had bidden him
"beware of an Ethiopian." His death was avenged by Achilles. According
to other accounts, he was slain by Hector (Hyginus, _Fab._ 113), or by
Paris in the temple of the Thymbraean Apollo together with Achilles
(Dares Phrygius 34). His ashes, with those of Achilles and Patroclus,
were deposited in a mound on the promontory of Sigeum, where the
inhabitants of Ilium offered sacrifice to the dead heroes (_Odyssey_,
xxiv. 72; Strabo xiii. p. 596). In the _Odyssey_ (xi. 468) the three
friends are represented as united in the underworld and walking together
in the fields of asphodel; according to Pausanias (iii. 19) they dwell
together in the island of Leuke.



ANTIMACASSAR, a separate covering for the back of a chair, or the head
or cushions of a sofa, to prevent soiling of the permanent fabric. The
name is attributable to the unguent for the hair commonly used in the
early 19th century,--Byron calls it "thine incomparable oil, Macassar."
The original antimacassar was almost invariably made of white
crochet-work, very stiff, hard, and uncomfortable, but in the third
quarter of the 19th century it became simpler and less inartistic, and
was made of soft coloured stuffs, usually worked with a simple pattern
in tinted wools or silk.



ANTIMACHUS, of Colophon or Claros, Greek poet and grammarian, flourished
about 400 B.C. Scarcely anything is known of his life. His poetical
efforts were not generally appreciated, although he received
encouragement from his younger contemporary Plato (Plutarch, _Lysander_,
18). His chief works were: a long-winded epic _Thebais_, an account of
the expedition of the Seven against Thebes and the war of the Epigoni;
and an elegiac poem _Lyde_, so called from the poet's mistress, for
whose death he endeavoured to find consolation by ransacking mythology
for stories of unhappy love affairs (Plutarch, _Consol. ad Apoll._ 9;
Athenaeus xiii. 597). Antimachus was the founder of "learned" epic
poetry, and the forerunner of the Alexandrian school, whose critics
allotted him the next place to Homer. He also prepared a critical
recension of the Homeric poems.

  Fragments, ed. Stoll (1845); Bergk, _Poetae Lyrici Graeci_ (1882);
  Kinkel, _Fragmenta epicorum Graecorum_ (1877).



ANTI-MASONIC PARTY, an American political organization which had its
rise after the mysterious disappearance, in 1826, of William Morgan (c.
1776-c. 1826), a Freemason of Batavia, New York, who had become
dissatisfied with his Order and had planned to publish its secrets. When
his purpose became known to the Masons, Morgan was subjected to frequent
annoyances, and finally in September 1826 he was seized and
surreptitiously conveyed to Fort Niagara, whence he disappeared. Though
his ultimate fate was never known, it was generally believed at the time
that he had been foully dealt with. The event created great excitement,
and led many to believe that Masonry and good citizenship were
incompatible. Opposition to Masonry was taken up by the churches as a
sort of religious crusade, and it also became a local political issue in
western New York, where early in 1827 the citizens in many mass meetings
resolved to support no Mason for public office. In New York at this time
the National Republicans, or "Adams men," were a very feeble
organization, and shrewd political leaders at once determined to utilize
the strong anti-Masonic feeling in creating a new and vigorous party to
oppose the rising Jacksonian Democracy. In this effort they were aided
by the fact that Jackson was a high Mason and frequently spoke in praise
of the Order. In the elections of 1828 the new party proved unexpectedly
strong, and after this year it practically superseded the National
Republican party in New York. In 1829 the hand of its leaders was shown,
when, in addition to its antagonism to the Masons, it became a champion
of internal improvements and of the protective tariff. From New York the
movement spread into other middle states and into New England, and
became especially strong in Pennsylvania and Vermont. A national
organization was planned as early as 1827, when the New York leaders
attempted, unsuccessfully, to persuade Henry Clay, though a Mason, to
renounce the Order and head the movement. In September 1831 the party at
a national convention in Baltimore nominated as its candidates for the
presidency and vice-presidency William Wirt of Maryland and Amos
Ellmaker (1787-1851) of Pennsylvania; and in the election of the
following year it secured the seven electoral votes of the state of
Vermont. This was the high tide of its prosperity; in New York in 1833
the organization was moribund, and its members gradually united with
other opponents of Jacksonian Democracy in forming the Whig party. In
other states, however, the party survived somewhat longer, but by 1836
most of its members had united with the Whigs. Its last act in national
politics was to nominate William Henry Harrison for president and John
Tyler for vice-president at a convention in Philadelphia in November
1838.

The growth of the anti-Masonic movement was due to the political and
social conditions of the time rather than to the Morgan episode, which
was merely the torch that ignited the train. Under the name of
"Anti-Masons" able leaders united those who were discontented with
existing political conditions, and the fact that William Wirt, their
choice for the presidency in 1832, was not only a Mason but even
defended the Order in a speech before the convention that nominated him,
indicates that simple opposition to Masonry soon became a minor factor
in holding together the various elements of which the party was
composed.

  See Charles McCarthy, _The Antimasonic Party: A Study of Political
  Anti-Masonry in the United States, 1827-1840_, in the Report of the
  American Historical Association for 1902 (Washington, 1903); the
  _Autobiography of Thurlow Weed_ (2 vols., Boston, 1884); A.G. Mackey
  and W.R. Singleton, _The History of Freemasonry_, vol. vi. (New York,
  1898); and J.D. Hammond, _History of Political Parties in the State of
  New York_ (2 vols., Albany, 1842).



ANTIMONY (symbol Sb, atomic weight 120.2), one of the metallic chemical
elements, included in the same natural family of the elements as
nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, and bismuth. Antimony, in the form of its
sulphide, has been known from very early times, more especially in
Eastern countries, reference to it being made in the Old Testament. The
Arabic name for the naturally occurring stibnite is "kohl"; Dioscorides
mentions it under the term [Greek: stimmi], Pliny as _stibium_; and
Geber as _antimonium_. By the German writers it is called _Speissglanz_.
Basil Valentine alludes to it in his _Triumphal Car of Antimony_ (circa
1600), and at a later date describes the preparation of the metal.

Native mineral antimony is occasionally found, and as such was first
recognized in 1748. It usually occurs as lamellar or glanular masses,
with a tin-white colour and metallic lustre, in limestone or in mineral
veins often in association with ores of silver. Distinct crystals are
rarely met with; these are rhombohedral and isomorphous with arsenic and
bismuth; they have a perfect cleavage parallel to the basal plane, c
(111), and are sometimes twinned on a rhombohedral plane, e (110).
Hardness 3-3½ specific gravity 6.63-6.72. Sala in Sweden, Allemont in
Dauphine, and Sarawak in Borneo may be mentioned as some of the
localities for this mineral.

Antimony, however, occurs chiefly as the sulphide, stibnite; to a much
smaller extent it occurs in combination with other metallic sulphides in
the minerals wolfsbergite, boulangerite, bournonite, pyrargyrite, &c.
For the preparation of metallic antimony the crude stibnite is first
liquated, to free it from earthy and siliceous matter, and is then
roasted in order to convert it into oxide. After oxidation, the product
is reduced by heating with carbon, care being taken to prevent any loss
through volatilization, by covering the mass with a layer of some
protective substance such as potash, soda or glauber salt, which also
aids the refining. For rich ores the method of roasting the sulphide
with metallic iron is sometimes employed; carbon and salt or sodium
sulphate being used to slag the iron. Electrolytic methods, in which a
solution of antimony sulphide in sodium sulphide is used as the
electrolyte, have been proposed (see German Patent 67973, and also
Borcher's _Electro-Metallurgie_), but do not yet appear to have been
used on the large scale.

Antimony combines readily with many other metals to form alloys, some of
which find extensive application in the arts. Type-metal is an alloy of
lead with antimony and tin, to which occasionally a small quantity of
copper or zinc is added. The presence of the antimony in this alloy
gives to it hardness, and the property of expanding on solidification,
thus allowing a sharp cast of the letter to be taken. An alloy of tin
and antimony forms the basis of Britannia-metal, small quantities of
copper, lead, zinc or bismuth being added. It is a white metal of bluish
tint and is malleable and ductile. For the linings of brasses, various
white metals are used, these being alloys of copper, antimony and tin,
and occasionally lead.

Antimony is a silvery white, crystalline, brittle metal, and has a high
lustre. Its specific gravity varies from 6.7 to 6.86; it melts at 432°
C. (Dalton), and boils between 1090-1600° C. (T. Carnelley), or above
1300° (V. Meyer). Its specific heat is 0.0523 (H. Kopp). The vapour
density of antimony at 1572° C. is 10.74, and at 1640° C. 9.78 (V.
Meyer, _Berichte_, 1889, 22, p. 725), so that the antimony molecule is
less complex than the molecules of the elements phosphorus and arsenic.
An amorphous modification of antimony can be prepared by heating the
metal in a stream of nitrogen, when it condenses in the cool part of the
apparatus as a grey powder of specific gravity 6.22, melting at 614° C.
and containing 98-99% of antimony (F. Herard, _Comptes Rendus_, 1888,
cvii. 420).

Another form of the metal, known as explosive antimony, was discovered
by G. Gore (_Phil. Trans._, 1858, p. 185; 1859, p. 797; 1862, p. 623),
on electrolysing a solution of antimony trichloride in hydrochloric
acid, using a positive pole of antimony and a negative pole of copper or
platinum wire. It has a specific gravity of 5.78 and always contains
some unaltered antimony trichloride (from 6 to 20%, G. Gore). It is very
unstable, a scratch causing it instantaneously to pass into the stable
form with explosive violence and the development of much heat. Similar
phenomena are exhibited in the electrolysis of solutions of antimony
tribromide and tri-iodide, the product obtained from the tribromide
having a specific gravity of 5.4, and containing 18-20% of antimony
tribromide, whilst that from the tri-iodide has a specific gravity of
5.2-5.8 and contains about 22% of hydriodic acid and antimony
tri-iodide.

The atomic weight of antimony has been determined by the analysis of the
chloride, bromide and iodide. J.P. Cooke (_Proc. Amer. Acad._, 1878,
xiii. i) and J. Bongartz (_Berichte_, 1883, 16, p. 1942) obtained the
value 120, whilst F. Pfeiffer (_Ann. Chim. et Phys._ ccix. 173) obtained
the value 121 from the electrolysis of the chloride.

Pure antimony is quite permanent in air at ordinary temperatures, but
when heated in air or oxygen it burns, forming the trioxide. It
decomposes steam at a red heat, and burns (especially when finely
powdered) in chlorine. Dilute hydrochloric acid is without action on it,
but on warming with the concentrated acid, antimony trichloride is
formed; it dissolves in warm concentrated sulphuric acid, the sulphate
Sb2(SO4)3 being formed. Nitric acid oxidizes antimony either to the
trioxide Sb4O6 or the pentoxide Sb2O5, the product obtained depending on
the temperature and concentration of the acid. It combines directly with
sulphur and phosphorus, and is readily oxidized when heated with
metallic oxides (such as litharge, mercuric oxide, manganese dioxide,
&c.). Antimony and its salts may be readily detected by the orange
precipitate of antimony sulphide which is produced when sulphuretted
hydrogen is passed through their acid solutions, and also by the Marsh
test (see ARSENIC); in this latter case the black stain produced is not
soluble in bleaching powder solution. Antimony compounds when heated on
charcoal with sodium carbonate in the reducing flame give brittle beads
of metallic antimony, and a white incrustation of the oxide. The
antimonious compounds are decomposed on addition of water, with
formation of basic salts.

Antimony may be estimated quantitatively by conversion into the
sulphide; the precipitate obtained is dried at 100° C. and heated in a
current of carbon dioxide, or it may be converted into the tetroxide by
nitric acid.

Antimony, like phosphorus and arsenic, combines directly with hydrogen.
The compound formed, antimoniuretted hydrogen or stibine, SbH3, may also
be prepared by the action of hydrochloric acid on an alloy of antimony
and zinc, or by the action of nascent hydrogen on antimony compounds. As
prepared by these methods it contains a relatively large amount of
hydrogen, from which it can be freed by passing through a tube immersed
in liquid air, when it condenses to a white solid. It is a poisonous
colourless gas, with a characteristic offensive smell. In its general
behaviour it resembles arsine, burning with a violet flame and being
decomposed by heat into its constituent elements. When passed into
silver nitrate solution it gives a black precipitate of silver
antimonide, SbAg3. It is decomposed by the halogen elements and also by
sulphuretted hydrogen. All three hydrogen atoms are replaceable by
organic radicals and the resulting compounds combine with compounds of
the type RCl, RBr and RI to form stibonium compounds.

  There are three known oxides of antimony, the trioxide Sb4O6 which is
  capable of combining with both acids and bases to form salts, the
  tetroxide Sb2O4 and the pentoxide Sb2O5. Antimony trioxide occurs as
  the minerals valentinite and senarmontite, and can be artificially
  prepared by burning antimony in air; by heating the metal in steam to
  a bright red heat; by oxidizing melted antimony with litharge; by
  decomposing antimony trichloride with an aqueous solution of sodium
  carbonate, or by the action of dilute nitric acid on the metal. It is
  a white powder, almost insoluble in water, and when volatilized,
  condenses in two crystalline forms, either octahedral or prismatic. It
  is insoluble in sulphuric and nitric acids, but is readily soluble in
  hydrochloric and tartaric acids and in solutions of the caustic
  alkalies. On strongly heating in air it is converted into the
  tetroxide. The corresponding hydroxide, orthoantimonious acid,
  Sb(OH)3, can be obtained in a somewhat impure form by precipitating
  tartar emetic with dilute sulphuric acid; or better by decomposing
  antimonyl tartaric acid with sulphuric acid and drying the
  precipitated white powder at 100° C. Antimony tetroxide is formed by
  strongly heating either the trioxide or pentoxide. It is a nonvolatile
  white powder, and has a specific gravity of 6.6952; it is insoluble in
  water and almost so in acids--concentrated hydrochloric acid
  dissolving a small quantity. It is decomposed by a hot solution of
  potassium bitartrate. Antimony pentoxide is obtained by repeatedly
  evaporating antimony with nitric acid and heating the resulting
  antimonic acid to a temperature not above 275° C.; by heating antimony
  with red mercuric oxide until the mass becomes yellow (J. Berzelius);
  or by evaporating antimony trichloride to dryness with nitric acid. It
  is a pale yellow powder (of specific gravity 6.5), which on being
  heated strongly gives up oxygen and forms the tetroxide. It is
  insoluble in water, but dissolves slowly in hydrochloric acid. It
  possesses a feeble acid character, giving metantimoniates when heated
  with alkaline carbonates.

  Orthoantimonic acid, H3SbO4, is obtained by the decomposition of its
  potassium salt with nitric acid (A. Geuther); or by the addition of
  water to the pentachloride, the precipitate formed being dried over
  sulphuric acid (P. Conrad, _Chem. News_, 1879, xl. 198). It is a white
  powder almost insoluble in water and nitric acid, and when heated, is
  first converted into metantimonic acid, HSbO3, and then into the
  pentoxide Sb2O5. Pyroantimonic acid, H4Sb2O7 (the metantimonic acid of
  E. Frémy), is obtained by decomposing antimony pentachloride with hot
  water, and drying the precipitate so obtained at 100° C. It is a white
  powder which is more soluble in water and acids than orthoantimonic
  acid. It forms two series of salts, of the types M2H2Sb2O7 and
  M4Sb2O7. Metantimonic acid, HSbO3, can be obtained by heating
  orthoantimonic acid to 175° C., or by long fusion of antimony with
  antimony sulphide and nitre. The fused mass is extracted with water,
  nitric acid is added to the solution, and the precipitate obtained
  washed with water (J. Berzelius). It is a white powder almost
  insoluble in water. On standing with water for some time it is slowly
  converted into the ortho-acid.

  Compounds of antimony with all the halogen elements are known, one
  atom of the metal combining with three or five atoms of the halogen,
  except in the case of bromine, where only the tribromide is known. The
  majority of these halide compounds are decomposed by water, with the
  formation of basic salts. Antimony trichloride ("Butter of Antimony"),
  SbCl3, is obtained by burning the metal in chlorine; by distilling
  antimony with excess of mercuric chloride; and by fractional
  distillation of antimony tetroxide or trisulphide in hydrochloric acid
  solution. It is a colourless deliquescent solid of specific gravity
  3.06; it melts at 73.2° C. (H. Kopp) to a colourless oil; and boils at
  223° (H. Capitaine). It is soluble in alcohol and in carbon
  bisulphide, and also in a small quantity of water; but with an excess
  of water it gives a precipitate of various oxychlorides, known as
  powder of algaroth (q.v.). These precipitated oxychlorides on
  continued boiling with water lose all their chlorine and ultimately
  give a residue of antimony trioxide. It combines with chlorides of the
  alkali metals to form double salts, and also with barium, calcium,
  strontium, and magnesium chlorides. Antimony pentachloride, SbCl5 is
  prepared by heating the trichloride in a current of chlorine. It is a
  nearly colourless fuming liquid of unpleasant smell, which can be
  solidified to a mass of crystals melting at -6°C. It dissociates into
  the trichloride and chlorine when heated. It combines with water,
  forming the hydrates SbCl5·H2O and SbCl5·4H2O; it also combines with
  phosphorus oxychloride, hydrocyanic acid, and cyanogen chloride. In
  chloroform solution it combines with anhydrous oxalic acid to form a
  compound, Sb2Cl8(C2O4), which is to be considered as
  tetra-chlorstibonium oxalate

    COOSbCl4
    |
    COOSbCl4

  (R. Anschütz and Evans, _Annalen_, 1887, ccxxxix. 235). Antimonyl
  chloride, SbOCl, is produced by the decomposition of one part of the
  trichloride with four parts of water. Prepared in this way it contains
  a small quantity of the unaltered chloride, which can be removed by
  ether or carbon bisulphide. It is a white powder insoluble in water,
  alcohol and ether. On heating, it is converted into the oxychloride
  Sb4O5Cl2 (Sb2O3·SbOCl). Antimony oxychloride, SbOCl3, is formed by
  addition of the calculated quantity of water to ice-cooled antimony
  pentachloride, SbCl5 + H2O = SbOCl3 + 2HCl. It forms a yellowish
  crystalline precipitate which in moist air goes to a thick liquid.
  Compounds of composition, SbOCl3·2SbCl5 and SbO2Cl·2SbOCl3, have also
  been described (W.C. Williams, _Chem. News_. 1871, xxiv. 234).

  Antimony tribromide, SbBr3, and tri-iodide, SbI3, may be prepared by
  the action of antimony on solutions of bromine or iodine in carbon
  bisulphide. The tribromide is a colourless crystalline mass of
  specific gravity 4.148 (23°), melting at 90° to 94° C. and boiling at
  275.4° C. (H. Kopp). The tri-iodide forms red-coloured crystals of
  specific gravity 4.848 (26°), melting at 165° to 167° C. and boiling
  at 401° C. By the action of water they give oxybromides and oxyiodides
  SbOBr, Sb4O5Br2, SbOI. Antimony penta-iodide, SbI5, is formed by
  heating antimony with excess of iodine, in a sealed tube, to a
  temperature not above 130°C. It forms a dark brown crystalline mass,
  melting at 78° to 79° C., and is easily dissociated on heating.
  Antimony trifluoride, SbF3, is obtained by dissolving the trioxide in
  aqueous hydrofluoric acid or by distilling antimony with mercuric
  fluoride. By rapid evaporation of its solution it may be obtained in
  small prisms. The pentafluoride SbF5 results when metantimonic acid is
  dissolved in hydrofluoric acid, and the solution is evaporated. It
  forms an amorphous gummy mass, which is decomposed by heat.
  Oxyfluorides of composition SbOF and SbOF3 are known.

  Two sulphides of antimony are definitely known, the trisulphide Sb2S3
  and the pentasulphide Sb2S5; a third, the tetrasulphide Sb2S4, has
  also been described, but its existence is doubtful. Antimony
  trisulphide, Sb2S3, occurs as the mineral antimonite or stibnite, from
  which the commercial product is obtained by a process of liquation.
  The amorphous variety may be obtained from the crystalline form by
  dissolving it in caustic potash or soda or in solutions of alkaline
  sulphides, and precipitating the hot solution by dilute sulphuric
  acid. The precipitate is then washed with water and dried at 100° C.,
  by which treatment it is obtained in the anhydrous form. On
  precipitating antimony trichloride or tartar emetic in acid solution
  with sulphuretted hydrogen, an orange-red precipitate of the hydrated
  sulphide is obtained, which turns black on being heated to 200° C The
  trisulphide heated in a current of hydrogen is reduced to the metallic
  state; it burns in air forming the tetroxide, and is soluble in
  concentrated hydrochloric acid, in solutions of the caustic alkalis,
  and in alkaline sulphides. By the union of antimony trisulphide with
  basic sulphides, livers of antimony are obtained. These substances are
  usually prepared by fusing their components together, and are dark
  powders which are less soluble in water the more antimony they
  contain. These thioantimonites are used in the vulcanizing of rubber
  and in the preparation of matches. Antimony pentasulphide, Sb2S5, is
  prepared by precipitating a solution of the pentachloride with
  sulphuretted hydrogen, by decomposing "Schlippe's salt" (q.v.) with an
  acid, or by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into water containing
  antimonic acid. It forms a fine dark orange powder, insoluble in
  water, but readily soluble in aqueous solutions of the caustic alkalis
  and alkaline carbonates. On heating in absence of air, it decomposes
  into the trisulphide and sulphur.

  An antimony phosphide and arsenide are known, as is also a
  thiophosphate, SbPS4, which is prepared by heating together antimony
  trichloride and phosphorus pentasulphide.

  Many organic compounds containing antimony are known. By distilling an
  alloy of antimony and sodium with mythyl iodide, mixed with sand,
  trimethyl stibine, Sb(CH3)3, is obtained; this combines with excess of
  methyl iodide to form tetramethyl stibonium iodide, Sb(CH3)4I. From
  this iodide the trimethyl stibine may be obtained by distillation with
  an alloy of potassium and antimony in a current of carbon dioxide. It
  is a colourless liquid, slightly soluble in water, and is
  spontaneously inflammable. The stibonium iodide on treatment with
  moist silver oxide gives the corresponding tetramethyl stibonium
  hydroxide, Sb(CH3)4OH, which forms deliquescent crystals, of alkaline
  reaction, and absorbs carbon dioxide readily. On distilling trimethyl
  stibine with zinc methyl, antimony tetra-methyl and penta-methyl are
  formed. Corresponding antimony compounds containing the ethyl group
  are known, as is also a tri-phenyl stibine, Sb(C6H5)3, which is
  prepared from antimony trichloride, sodium and monochlorbenzene. See
  Chung Yu Wang, _Antimony_ (1909).

_Antimony in Medicine._--So far back as Basil Valentine and Paracelsus,
antimonial preparations were in great vogue as medicinal agents, and
came to be so much abused that a prohibition was placed upon their
employment by the Paris parlement in 1566. Metallic antimony was
utilized to make goblets in which wine was allowed to stand so as to
acquire emetic properties, and "everlasting" pills of the metal,
supposed to act by contact merely, were administered and recovered for
future use after they had fulfilled their purpose. Antimony compounds
act as irritants both externally and internally. Tartar emetic (antimony
tartrate) when swallowed, acts directly on the wall of the stomach,
producing vomiting, and after absorption continues this effect by its
action on the medulla. It is a powerful cardiac depressant, diminishing
both the force and frequency of the heart's beat. It depresses
respiration, and in large doses lowers temperature. It depresses the
nervous system, especially the spinal cord. It is excreted by all the
secretions and excretions of the body. Thus as it passes out by the
bronchial mucous membrane it increases the amount of secretion and so
acts as an expectorant. On the skin its action is that of a diaphoretic,
and being also excreted by the bile it acts slightly as a cholagogue.
Summed up, its action is that of an irritant, and a cardiac and nervous
depressant. But on account of this depressant action it is to be avoided
for women and children and rarely used for men.

_Toxicology._--Antimony is one of the "protoplasmic" poisons, directly
lethal to all living matter. In acute poisoning by it the symptoms are
almost identical with those of arsenical poisoning, which is much
commoner (See ARSENIC). The post-mortem appearances are also very
similar, but the gastro-intestinal irritation is much less marked and
inflammation of the lungs is more commonly seen. If the patient is not
already vomiting freely the treatment is to use the stomach-pump, or
give sulphate of zinc (gr. 10-30) by the mouth or apomorphine (gr.
1/20-1/10) subcutaneously. Frequent doses of a teaspoonful of tannin
dissolved in water should be administered, together with strong tea and
coffee and mucilaginous fluids. Stimulants may be given subcutaneously,
and the patient should be placed in bed between warm blankets with
hot-water bottles. Chronic poisoning by antimony is very rare, but
resembles in essentials chronic poisoning by arsenic. In its
medico-legal aspects antimonial poisoning is of little and lessening
importance.



ANTINOMIANS (Gr. [Greek: anti], against, [Greek: nomos], law), a term
apparently coined by Luther to stigmatize Johannes Agricola (q.v.) and
his following, indicating an interpretation of the antithesis between
law and gospel, recurrent from the earliest times. Christians being
released, in important particulars, from conformity to the Old Testament
polity as a whole, a real difficulty attended the settlement of the
limits and the immediate authority of the remainder, known vaguely as
the moral law. Indications are not wanting that St Paul's doctrine of
justification by faith was, in his own day, mistaken or perverted in the
interests of immoral licence. Gnostic sects approached the question in
two ways. Marcionites, named by Clement of Alexandria _Antitactae_
(revolters against the Demiurge) held the Old Testament economy to be
throughout tainted by its source; but they are not accused of
licentiousness. Manichaeans, again, holding their spiritual being to be
unaffected by the action of matter, regarded carnal sins as being, at
worst, forms of bodily disease. Kindred to this latter view was the
position of sundry sects of English fanatics during the Commonwealth,
who denied that an elect person sinned, even when committing acts in
themselves gross and evil. Different from either of these was the
Antinomianism charged by Luther against Agricola. Its starting-point was
a dispute with Melanchthon in 1527 as to the relation between repentance
and faith. Melanchthon urged that repentance must precede faith, and
that knowledge of the moral law is needed to produce repentance.
Agricola gave the initial place to faith, maintaining that repentance is
the work, not of law, but of the gospel-given knowledge of the love of
God. The resulting Antinomian controversy (the only one within the
Lutheran body in Luther's lifetime) is not remarkable for the precision
or the moderation of the combatants on either side. Agricola was
apparently satisfied in conference with Luther and Melanchthon at
Torgau, December 1527. His eighteen _Positiones_ of 1537 revived the
controversy and made it acute. Random as are some of his statements, he
was consistent in two objects: (1) in the interest of solifidian
doctrine, to place the rejection of the Catholic doctrine of good works
on a sure ground; (2) in the interest of the New Testament, to find all
needful guidance for Christian duty in its principles, if not in its
precepts. From the latter part of the 17th century charges of
Antinomianism have frequently been directed against Calvinists, on the
ground of their disparagement of "deadly doing" and of "legal
preaching." The virulent controversy between Arminian and Calvinistic
Methodists produced as its ablest outcome Fletcher's _Checks to
Antinomianism_ (1771-1775).

  See G. Kawerau, in A. Hauck's _Realencyklopadie_ (1896); Riess, in I.
  Goschler's _Dict. Encyclop. de la théol. cath._ (1858); J.H. Blunt
  _Dict. of Doct. and Hist. Theol._ (1872); J.C.L. Gieseler, _Ch. Hist._
  (New York ed. 1868, vol. iv.).



ANTINOMY (Gr. [Greek: anti], against, [Greek: nomos], law), literally,
the mutual incompatibility, real or apparent, of two laws. The term
acquired a special significance in the philosophy of Kant, who used it
to describe the contradictory results of applying to the universe of
pure thought the categories or criteria proper to the universe of
sensible perception (phenomena). These antinomies are four--two
mathematical, two dynamical--connected with (1) the limitation of the
universe in respect of space and time, (2) the theory that the whole
consists of indivisible atoms (whereas, in fact, none such exist), (3)
the problem of freedom in relation to universal causality, (4) the
existence of a universal being--about each of which pure reason
contradicts the empirical, as thesis and antithesis. Kant claimed to
solve these contradictions by saying, that in no case is the
contradiction real, however really it has been intended by the opposing
partisans, or must appear to the mind without critical enlightenment. It
is wrong, therefore, to impute to Kant, as is often done, the view that
human reason is, on ultimate subjects, at war with itself, in the sense
of being impelled by equally strong arguments towards alternatives
contradictory of each other. The difficulty arises from a confusion
between the spheres of phenomena and noumena. In fact no rational
cosmology is possible.

  See John Watson, _Selections from Kant_ (trans. Glasgow, 1897), pp.
  155 foll.; W. Windelband, _History of Philosophy_ (Eng. trans. 1893);
  H. Sidgwick, _Philos. of Kant_, lectures x. and xi. (Lond., 1905); F.
  Paulsen, _I. Kant_ (Eng. trans. 1902), pp. 216 foll.



ANTINOÜS, a beautiful youth of Claudiopolis in Bithynia, was the
favourite of the emperor Hadrian, whom he accompanied on his journeys.
He committed suicide by drowning himself in the Nile (A.D. 130), either
in a fit of melancholy or in order to prolong his patron's life by his
voluntary sacrifice. After his death, Hadrian caused the most
extravagant respect to be paid to his memory. Not only were cities
called after him, medals struck with his effigy, and statues erected to
him in all parts of the empire, but he was raised to the rank of the
gods, temples were built for his worship in Bithynia, Mantineia in
Arcadia, and Athens, festivals celebrated in his honour and oracles
delivered in his name. The city of Antinoöpolis was founded on the ruins
of Besa where he died (Dio Cassius lix. 11; Spartianus, _Hadrian_). A
number of statues, busts, gems and coins represented Antinoüs as the
ideal type of youthful beauty, often with the attributes of some special
god. We still possess a colossal bust in the Vatican, a bust in the
Louvre, a bas-relief from the Villa Albani, a statue in the Capitoline
museum, another in Berlin, another in the Lateran, and many more.

  See Levezow, _Über den Antinous_ (1808); Dietrich, _Antinoos_ (1884);
  Laban, _Der Gemütsausdruck des Antinoos_ (1891); _Antinoüs, A Romance
  of Ancient Rome_, from the German of A. Hausrath, by M. Saftord (New
  York, 1882); Ebers, _Der Kaiser_ (1881).



ANTIOCH. There were sixteen cities known to have been founded under this
name by Hellenistic monarchs; and at least twelve others were renamed
Antioch. But by far the most famous and important in the list was
[Greek: Antiocheia ê epi Daphnae] (mod. _Antakia_), situated on the left
bank of the Orontes, about 20 m. from the sea and its port, Seleucia of
Pieria (_Suedia_). Founded as a Greek city in 300 B.C. by Seleucus
Nicator, as soon as he had assured his grip upon western Asia by the
victory of Ipsus (301), it was destined to rival Alexandria in Egypt as
the chief city of the nearer East, and to be the cradle of gentile
Christianity. The geographical character of the district north and
north-east of the elbow of Orontes makes it the natural centre of Syria,
so long as that country is held by a western power; and only Asiatic,
and especially Arab, dynasties have neglected it for the oasis of
Damascus. The two easiest routes from the Mediterranean, lying through
the Orontes gorge and the Beilan Pass, converge in the plain of the
Antioch Lake (_Balük Geut_ or _El Bahr_) and are met there by (1) the
road from the Amanic Gates (Baghche Pass) and western Commagene, which
descends the valley of the Kara Su, (2) the roads from eastern Commagene
and the Euphratean crossings at Samosata (Samsat) and Apamea Zeugma
(Birejik), which descend the valleys of the Afrin and the Kuwaik, and
(3) the road from the Euphratean ford at Thapsacus, which skirts the
fringe of the Syrian steppe. Travellers by all these roads must proceed
south by the single route of the Orontes valley. Alexander is said to
have camped on the site of Antioch, and dedicated an altar to Zeus
Bottiaeus, which lay in the north-west of the future city. But the first
western sovereign practically to recognize the importance of the
district was Antigonus, who began to build a city, Antigonia, on the
Kara Su a few miles north of the situation of Antioch; but, on his
defeat, he left it to serve as a quarry for his rival Seleucus. The
latter is said to have appealed to augury to determine the exact site of
his projected foundation; but less fantastic considerations went far to
settle it. To build south of the river, and on and under the last east
spur of Casius, was to have security against invasion from the north,
and command of the abundant waters of the mountain. One torrent, the
Onopniktes ("donkey-drowner"), flowed through the new city, and many
other streams came down a few miles west into the beautiful suburb of
Daphne. The site appears not to have been found wholly uninhabited. A
settlement, _Meroe_, boasting a shrine of Anait, called by the Greeks
the "Persian Artemis," had long been located there, and was ultimately
included in the eastern suburbs of the new city; and there seems to have
been a village on the spur (Mt. Silpius), of which we hear in late
authors under the name _Io_, or _Iopolis_. This name was always adduced
as evidence by Antiochenes (e.g. Libanius) anxious to affiliate
themselves to the Attic Ionians--an anxiety which is illustrated by the
Athenian types used on the city's coins. At any rate, Io may have been a
small early colony of trading Greeks (_Javan_). John Malalas mentions
also a village, Bottia, in the plain by the river.

The original city of Seleucus was laid out in imitation of the
"gridiron" plan of Alexandria by the architect, Xenarius. Libanius
describes the first building and arrangement of this city (i. p. 300.
17). The citadel was on Mt. Silpius and the city lay mainly on the low
ground to the north, fringing the river. Two great colonnaded streets
intersected in the centre. Shortly afterwards a second quarter was laid
out, probably on the east and by Antiochus I., which, from an expression
of Strabo, appears to have been the native, as contrasted with the
Greek, town. It was enclosed by a wall of its own. In the Orontes, north
of the city, lay a large island, and on this Seleucus II. Callinicus
began a third walled "city," which was finished by Antiochus III. A
fourth and last quarter was added by Antiochus IV. Epiphanes (175-164
B.C.); and thenceforth Antioch was known as _Tetrapolis_. From west to
east the whole was about 4 m. in diameter and little less from north to
south, this area including many large gardens. Of its population in the
Greek period we know nothing. In the 4th century A.D. it was about
200,000 according to Chrysostom, who probably did not reckon slaves.
About 4 m. west and beyond the suburb, Heraclea, lay the paradise of
Daphne, a park of woods and waters, in the midst of which rose a great
temple to the Pythian Apollo, founded by Seleucus I. and enriched with a
cult-statue of the god, as Musagetes, by Bryaxis. A companion sanctuary
of Hecate was constructed underground by Diocletian. The beauty and the
lax morals of Daphne were celebrated all over the western world; and
indeed Antioch as a whole shared in both these titles to fame. Its
amenities awoke both the enthusiasm and the scorn of many writers of
antiquity.

Antioch became the capital and court-city of the western Seleucid empire
under Antiochus I., its counterpart in the east being Seleucia-on-Tigris;
but its paramount importance dates from the battle of Ancyra (240 B.C.),
which shifted the Seleucid centre of gravity from Asia Minor, and led
indirectly to the rise of Pergamum. Thenceforward the Seleucids resided
at Antioch and treated it as their capital _par excellence_. We know
little of it in the Greek period, apart from Syria (q.v.), all our
information coming from authors of the late Roman time. Among its great
Greek buildings we hear only of the theatre, of which substructures still
remain on the flank of Silpius, and of the royal palace, probably
situated on the island. It enjoyed a great reputation for letters and the
arts (Cicero _pro Archia_, 3); but the only names of distinction in these
pursuits during the Seleucid period, that have come down to us, are
Apollophanes, the Stoic, and one Phoebus, a writer on dreams. The mass of
the population seems to have been only superficially Hellenic, and to
have spoken Aramaic in non-official life. The nicknames which they gave
to their later kings were Aramaic; and, except Apollo and Daphne, the
great divinities of north Syria seem to have remained essentially native,
such as the "Persian Artemis" of Meroe and Atargatis of Hierapolis
Bambyce. We may infer, from its epithet, "Golden," that the external
appearance of Antioch was magnificent; but the city needed constant
restoration owing to the seismic disturbances to which the district has
always been peculiarly liable. The first great earthquake is said by the
native chronicler John Malalas, who tells us most that we know of the
city, to have occurred in 148 B.C., and to have done immense damage. The
inhabitants were turbulent, fickle and notoriously dissolute. In the many
dissensions of the Seleucid house they took violent part, and frequently
rose in rebellion, for example against Alexander Balas in 147 B.C., and
Demetrius II. in 129. The latter, enlisting a body of Jews, punished his
capital with fire and sword. In the last struggles of the Seleucid house,
Antioch turned definitely against its feeble rulers, invited Tigranes of
Armenia to occupy the city in 83, tried to unseat Antiochus XIII. in 65,
and petitioned Rome against his restoration in the following year. Its
wish prevailed, and it passed with Syria to the Roman Republic in 64
B.C., but remained a _civitas libera_.

The Romans both felt and expressed boundless contempt for the hybrid
Antiochenes; but their emperors favoured the city from the first, seeing
in it a more suitable capital for the eastern part of the empire than
Alexandria could ever be, thanks to the isolated position of Egypt. To a
certain extent they tried to make it an eastern Rome. Caesar visited it
in 47 B.C., and confirmed its freedom. A great temple to Jupiter
Capitolinus rose on Silpius, probably at the instance of Octavian, whose
cause the city had espoused. A forum of Roman type was laid out.
Tiberius built two long colonnades on the south towards Silpius. Agrippa
and Tiberius enlarged the theatre, and Trajan finished their work.
Antoninus Pius paved the great east to west artery with granite. A
circus, other colonnades and great numbers of baths were built, and new
aqueducts to supply them bore the names of Caesars, the finest being the
work of Hadrian. The Roman client, King Herod, erected a long _stoa_ on
the east, and Agrippa encouraged the growth of a new suburb south of
this. Under the empire we chiefly hear of the earthquakes which shook
Antioch. One, in A.D. 37, caused the emperor Caligula to send two
senators to report on the condition of the city. Another followed in the
next reign; and in 115, during Trajan's sojourn in the place with his
army of Parthia, the whole site was convulsed, the landscape altered,
and the emperor himself forced to take shelter in the circus for several
days. He and his successor restored the city; but in 526, after minor
shocks, the calamity returned in a terrible form, and thousands of lives
were lost, largely those of Christians gathered to a great church
assembly. We hear also of especially terrific earthquakes on the 29th of
November 528 and the 31st of October 588.

At Antioch Germanicus died in A.D. 19, and his body was burnt in the
forum. Titus set up the Cherubim, captured from the Jewish temple, over
one of the gates. Commodus had Olympic games celebrated at Antioch, and
in A.D. 266 the town was suddenly raided by the Persians, who slew many
in the theatre. In 387 there was a great sedition caused by a new tax
levied by order of Theodosius, and the city was punished by the loss of
its metropolitan status. Zeno, who renamed it Theopolis, restored many
of its public buildings just before the great earthquake of 526, whose
destructive work was completed by the Persian Chosroes twelve years
later. Justinian made an effort to revive it, and Procopius describes
his repairing of the walls; but its glory was past.

The chief interest of Antioch under the empire lies in its relation to
Christianity. Evangelized perhaps by Peter, according to the tradition
upon which the Antiochene patriarchate still rests its claim for primacy
(cf. Acts xi.), and certainly by Barnabas and Saul, its converts were
the first to be called "Christians." They multiplied exceedingly, and by
the time of Theodosius were reckoned by Chrysostom at about 100,000
souls. Between 252 and 300 A.D. ten assemblies of the church were held
at Antioch and it became the residence of the patriarch of Asia. When
Julian visited the place in 362 the impudent population railed at him
for his favour to Jewish and pagan rites, and to revenge itself for the
closing of its great church of Constantine, burned down the temple of
Apollo in Daphne. The emperor's rough and severe habits and his rigid
administration prompted Antiochene lampoons, to which he replied in the
curious satiric _apologia_, still extant, which he called _Misopogon_.
His successor, Valens, who endowed Antioch with a new forum having a
statue of Valentinian on a central column, reopened the great church,
which stood till the sack of Chosroes in 538. Antioch gave its name to a
certain school of Christian thought, distinguished by literal
interpretation of the Scriptures and insistence on the human limitations
of Jesus. Diodorus of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia were the leaders
of this school. The principal local saint was Simeon Stylites, who
performed his penance on a hill some 40 m. east. His body was brought to
the city and buried in a building erected under the emperor Leo. In A.D.
635, during the reign of Heraclius, Antioch passed into Saracen hands,
and decayed apace for more than 300 years; but in 969 it was recovered
for Byzantium by Michael Burza and Peter the Eunuch. In 1084 the Seljuk
Turks captured it but held it only fourteen years, yielding place to the
crusaders, who besieged it for nine months, enduring frightful
sufferings. Being at last betrayed, it was given to Bohemund, prince of
Tarentum, and it remained the capital of a Latin principality for nearly
two centuries. It fell at last to the Egyptian, Bibars, in 1268, after a
great destruction and slaughter, from which it never revived. Little
remains now of the ancient city, except colossal ruins of aqueducts and
part of the Roman walls, which are used as quarries for modern Antakia;
but no scientific examination of the site has been made. A statue in the
Vatican and a silver statuette in the British Museum perpetuate the type
of its great effigy of the civic Fortune of Antioch--a majestic seated
figure, with Orontes as a youth issuing from under her feet.

ANTAKIA, the modern town, is still of considerable importance. Pop.
about 25,000, including Ansarieh, Jews, and a large body of Christians
of several denominations about 8000 strong. Though superseded by Aleppo
(q.v.) as capital of N. Syria, it is still the centre of a large
district, growing in wealth and productiveness with the draining of its
central lake, undertaken by a French company. The principal cultures are
tobacco, maize and cotton, and the mulberry for silk production.
Liquorice also is collected and exported. In 1822 (as in 1872) Antakia
suffered by earthquake, and when Ibrahim Pasha made it his headquarters
in 1835, it had only some 5000 inhabitants. Its hopes, based on a
Euphrates valley railway, which was to have started from its port of
Suedia (Seleucia), were doomed to disappointment, and it has suffered
repeatedly from visitations of cholera; but it has nevertheless grown
rapidly and will resume much of its old importance when a railway is
made down the lower Orontes valley. It is a centre of American mission
enterprise, and has a British vice-consul.

  See C.O. Miiller, _Antiquitates Antiochenae_ (1839); A. Freund,
  _Beiträge zur antiochenischen ... Stadtchronik_ (1882); R. Forster, in
  _Jahrbuch_ of Berlin Arch. Institute, xii. (1897). Also authorities
  for SYRIA.     (D. G. H.)

SYNODS OF ANTIOCH. Beginning with three synods convened between 264 and
269 in the matter of Paul of Samosata, more than thirty councils were
held in Antioch in ancient times. Most of these dealt with phases of the
Arian and of the Christological controversies. The most celebrated took
place in the summer of 341 at the dedication of the golden Basilica, and
is therefore called _in encaeniis_ ([Greek: en egkainiois]), _in
dedicatione_. Nearly a hundred bishops were present, all from the
Orient, but the bishop of Rome was not represented. The emperor
Constantius attended in person. The council approved three creeds (Hahn,
§§ 153-155). Whether or no the so-called "fourth formula" (Hahn, § 156)
is to be ascribed to a continuation of this synod or to a subsequent but
distinct assembly of the same year, its aim is like that of the first
three; while repudiating certain Arian formulas it avoids the Athanasian
shibboleth "homoousios." The somewhat colourless compromise doubtless
proceeded from the party of Eusebius of Nicomedia, and proved not
inacceptable to the more nearly orthodox members of the synod. The
twenty-five canons adopted regulate the so-called metropolitan
constitution of the church. Ecclesiastical power is vested chiefly in
the metropolitan (later called archbishop), and the semi-annual
provincial synod (cf. Nicaea, canon 5), which he summons and over which
he presides. Consequently the powers of country bishops (_chorepiscopi_)
are curtailed, and direct recourse to the emperor is forbidden. The
sentence of one judicatory is to be respected by other judicatories of
equal rank; re-trial may take place only before that authority to whom
appeal regularly lies (see canons 3, 4, 6). Without due invitation, a
bishop may not ordain, or in any other way interfere with affairs lying
outside his proper territory; nor may he appoint his own successor.
Penalties are set on the refusal to celebrate Easter in accordance with
the Nicene decree, as well as on leaving a church before the service of
the Eucharist is completed. The numerous objections made by eminent
scholars in past centuries to the ascription of these twenty-five canons
to the synod _in encaeniis_ have been elaborately stated and probably
refuted by Hefele. The canons formed part of the _Codex canonum_ used at
Chalcedon in 451 and passed over into the later collections of East and
West.

  The canons are printed in Greek by Mansi ii. 1307 ff., Bruns i. 80
  ff., Lauchert 43 ff., and translated by Hefele, _Councils_, ii. 67 ff.
  and by H.R. Percival in the _Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers_, 2nd
  series, xiv. 108 ff. The four dogmatic formulas are given by G. Ludwig
  Hahn, _Bibliothek der Symbole_, 3rd edition (Breslau, 1897), 183 ff.;
  for translations compare the _Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers_, 2nd
  series, iv. 461 ff., ii. 39 ff., ix. 12, ii. 44, and Hefele, ii. 76
  ff. For full titles see COUNCILS.     (W. W. R.*)



ANTIOCH IN PISIDIA, an ancient city, the remains of which, including
ruins of temples, a theatre and a fine aqueduct, were found by Arundell
in 1833 close to the modern Yalovach. It was situated on the lower
southern slopes of the Sultan Dagh, in the Konia vilayet of Asia Minor,
on the right bank of a stream, the ancient Anthius, which flows into the
Hoiran Geul. It was probably founded on the site of a Phrygian
sanctuary, by Seleucus Nicator, before 280 B.C. and was made a free city
by the Romans in 189 B.C. It was a thoroughly Hellenized, Greek-speaking
city, in the midst of a Phrygian people, with a mixed population that
included many Jews. Before 6 B.C. Augustus made it a colony, with the
title Caesarea, and it became the centre of civil and military
administration in south Galatia, the romanization of which was
progressing rapidly in the time of Claudius, A.D. 41-54, when Paul
visited it (Acts xiii. 14, xiv. 21, xvi. 6, xviii. 23). In 1097 the
crusaders found rest and shelter within its walls. The ruins are
interesting, and show that Antioch was a strongly fortified city of
Hellenic and Roman type.



ANTIOCHUS, the name of thirteen kings of the Seleucid dynasty in Nearer
Asia. The most famous are Antiochus III. the Great (223-187 B.C.) who
sheltered Hannibal and waged war with Rome, and his son Antiochus IV.
Epiphanes (176-164 B.C.) who tried to suppress Judaism by persecution
(see SELEUCID DYNASTY).

The name was subsequently borne by the kings of Commagene (69 B.C.-A.D.
72), whose house was affiliated to the Seleucid.

ANTIOCHUS I. of Commagene, who without sufficient reason has been
identified with the Seleucid Antiochus XIII. Asiaticus, made peace on
advantageous terms with Pompey in 64 B.C. Subsequently he fought on
Pompey's side in the Civil War, and later still repelled an attack on
Samosata by Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony.) He died before 31 B.C. and
was succeeded by one Mithradates I. This Mithradates was succeeded by an

ANTIOCHUS II., who was executed by Augustus in 29 B.C. After another
Mithradates we know of an ANTIOCHUS III., on whose death in A.D. 17
Commagene became a Roman province. In 38 his son ANTIOCHUS IV. EPIPHANES
was made king by Caligula, who deposed him almost immediately. Restored
by Claudius in 41, he reigned until 72 as an ally of Rome against
Parthia. In that year he was deposed on suspicion of treason and retired
to Rome. Several of his coins are extant.

  On all the above see "Antiochos" in Pauly-Wissowa's _Realencyclopadie
  der classischen Altertumswissenschaft_, i. part ii. (1894).



ANTIOCHUS OF ASCALON (1st century B.C.), Greek philosopher. His
philosophy consisted in an attempt to reconcile the doctrines of his
teachers Philo of Larissa and Mnesarchus the Stoic. Against the
scepticism of the former, he held that the intellect has in itself a
sufficient test of truth; against Mnesarchus, that happiness, though its
main factor is virtue, depends also on outward circumstances. This
electicism is known as the Fifth Academy (see ACADEMY, GREEK). His
writings are lost, and we are indebted for information to Cicero (_Acad.
Pr._ ii. 43), who studied under him at Athens, and Sextus Empiricus
(_Pyrrh. hyp._ i. 235). Antiochus lectured also in Rome and Alexandria.

  See R. Hoyer, _De Antiocho Ascalonita_ (Bonn, 1883).



ANTIOCHUS OF SYRACUSE, Greek historian, flourished about 420 B.C.
Nothing is known of his life, but his works, of which only fragments
remain, enjoyed a high reputation. He wrote a _History of Sicily_ from
the earliest times to 424, which was used by Thucydides, and the
_Colonizing of Italy_, frequently referred to by Strabo and Dionysius of
Halicarnassus.

  Müller, _Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum_, i.; Wölfflin, _Antiochos
  von Syrakus_, 1872.



ANTIOPE. (1) In Greek legend, the mother of Amphion and Zethus, and,
according to Homer (_Od_. xi. 260), a daughter of the Boeotian river-god
Asopus. In later poems she is called the daughter of Nycteus or
Lycurgus. Her beauty attracted Zeus, who, assuming the form of a satyr,
took her by force (Apollodorus iii. 5). After this she was carried off
by Epopeus, king of Sicyon, who would not give her up till compelled by
her uncle Lycus. On the way home she gave birth, in the neighbourhood of
Eleutherae on Mount Cithaeron, to the twins Amphion and Zethus, of whom
Amphion was the son of the god, and Zethus the son of Epopeus. Both were
left to be brought up by herdsmen. At Thebes Antiope now suffered from
the persecution of Dirce, the wife of Lycus, but at last escaped towards
Eleutherae, and there found shelter, unknowingly, in the house where her
two sons were living as herdsmen. Here she was discovered by Dirce, who
ordered the two young men to tie her to the horns of a wild bull. They
were about to obey, when the old herdsman, who had brought them up,
revealed his secret, and they carried out the punishment on Dirce
instead (Hyginus, _Fab._ 8). For this, it is said, Dionysus, to whose
worship Dirce had been devoted, visited Antiope with madness, which
caused her to wander restlessly all over Greece till she was cured, and
married by Phocus of Tithorca, on Mount Parnassus, where both were
buried in one grave (Pausanias ix. 17, x. 32).

(2) A second Antiope, daughter of Ares, and sister of Hippolyte, queen
of the Amazons, was the wife of Theseus. There are various accounts of
the manner in which Theseus became possessed of her, and of her
subsequent fortunes. Either she gave herself up to him out of love, when
with Heracles he captured Themiscyra, the seat of the Amazons, or she
fell to his lot as a captive (Diodorus iv. 16). Or again, Theseus
himself invaded the dominion of the Amazons and carried her off, the
consequence of which was a counter-invasion of Attica by the Amazons.
After four months of war peace was made, and Antiope left with Theseus
as a peace-offering. According to another account, she had joined the
Amazons against him because he had been untrue to her in desiring to
marry Phaedra. She is said to have been killed by another Amazon,
Molpadia, a rival in her affection for Theseus. Elsewhere it was
believed that he had himself killed her, and fulfilled an oracle to that
effect (Hyginus, _Fab_. 241). By Theseus she had a son, the well-known
Hippolytus (Plutarch, _Theseus_).



ANTIOQUIA, an interior department of the republic of Colombia, lying S.
of Bolivar, W. of the Magdalena river, and E. of Cauca. Area, 22,870 sq.
m.; pop. (est. 1899) 464,887. The greater part of its territory lies
between the Magdalena and Cauca rivers and includes the northern end of
the Central Cordillera. The country is covered with valuable forests,
and its mineral wealth renders it one of the most important mining
regions of the republic. The capital, Medellin (est. pop. 53,000 in
1902), is a thriving mining centre, 4822 ft. above sea-level, and 125 m.
from Puerto Berrió on the Magdalena. Other important towns are Manizales
(18,000) in the extreme south, the commercial centre of a rich gold and
grazing region; Antioquia, the old capital, on the Cauca; and Puerto
Berrió on the Magdalena, from which a railway has been started to the
capital.



ANTIPAROS (anc. _Oliaros_), an island of the kingdom of Greece, in the
modern eparchy of Naxos, separated by a strait (about 1½ m. wide at the
narrowest point) from the west coast of Pares. It is 7 m. long by 3
broad, and contains about 700 inhabitants, most of whom live in Kastro,
a village on the north coast, and are employed in agriculture and
fishing. Formerly piracy was common. The only remarkable feature in the
island is a stalactite cavern on the south coast, which is reached by a
narrow passage broken by two steep and dangerous descents which are
accomplished by the aid of rope-ladders. The grotto itself, which is
about 150 ft. by 100, and 50 ft. high (not all can be seen from any
part, and probably some portions are still unexplored), shows many
remarkable examples of stalactite formations and incrustations of
dazzling brilliance. It is not mentioned by ancient writers; the first
western traveller to visit it was the marquis de Nointel (ambassador of
Louis XIV. to the Porte) who descended it with a numerous suite and held
high mass there on Christmas day 1673. There is, however, in the
entrance of the cavern an inscription recording the names of visitors in
ancient times.

  See J.P. de Tournefort, _Relation d'un voyage au Levant_ (1717);
  English edition, 1718, vol. i. p. 146, and guide-books to Greece.



ANTIPATER (398?-319 B.C.), Macedonian general, and regent of Macedonia
during Alexander's Eastern expedition (334-323). He had previously (346)
been sent as ambassador by Philip to Athens and negotiated peace after
the battle of Chaeroneia (338). About 332 he set out against the
rebellious tribes of Thrace; but before this insurrection was quelled,
the Spartan king Agis had risen against Macedonia. Having settled
affairs in Thrace as well as he could, Antipater hastened to the south,
and in a battle near Megalopolis (331) gained a complete victory over
the insurgents (Diodorus xvii. 62). His regency was greatly troubled by
the ambition of Olympias, mother of Alexander, and he was nominally
superseded by Craterus. But, on the death of Alexander in 323, he was,
by the first partition of the empire, left in command of Macedonia, and
in the Lamian War, at the battle of Crannon (322), crushed the Greeks
who had attempted to re-assert their independence. Later in the same
year he and Craterus were engaged in a war against the Aetolians, when
the news arrived from Asia which induced Antipater to conclude peace
with them; for Antigonus reported that Perdiccas contemplated making
himself sole master of the empire. Antipater and Craterus accordingly
prepared for war against Perdiccas, and allied themselves with Ptolemy,
the governor of Egypt. Antipater crossed over into Asia in 321; and
while still in Syria, he received information that Perdiccas had been
murdered by his own soldiers. Craterus fell in battle against Eumenes
(Diodorus xviii. 25-39). Antipater, now sole regent, made several new
regulations, and having quelled a mutiny of his troops and commissioned
Antigonus to continue the war against Eumenes and the other partisans of
Perdiccas, returned to Macedonia, where he arrived in 320 (Justin xiii.
6). Soon after he was seized by an illness which terminated his active
career, 319. Passing over his son Cassander, he appointed the aged
Polyperchon regent, a measure which gave rise to much confusion and
ill-feeling (Diodorus xvii., xviii).



ANTIPHANES, the most important writer of the Middle Attic comedy with
the exception of Alexis, lived from about 408 to 334 B.C. He was
apparently a foreigner who settled in Athens, where he began to write
about 387. He was extremely prolific: more than 200 of the 365 (or 260)
comedies attributed to him are known to us from the titles and
considerable fragments preserved in Athenaeus. They chiefly deal with
matters connected with the table, but contain many striking sentiments.

  Fragments in Koch, _Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta_, ii. (1884); see
  also Clinton, _Philological Museum_, i. (1832); Meineke, _Historia
  Critica Comicorum Graecorum_ (1839).



ANTIPHILUS, a Greek painter, of the age of Alexander. He worked for
Philip of Macedon and Ptolemy I. of Egypt. Thus he was a contemporary of
Apelles, whose rival he is said to have been, but he seems to have
worked in quite another style. Quintilian speaks of his facility: the
descriptions of his works which have come down to us show that he
excelled in light and shade, in genre representations, and in
caricature.

  See Brunn, _Geschichte der griechischen Kunstler_, ii. p. 249.



ANTIPHON, of Rhamnus in Attica, the earliest of the "ten" Attic orators,
was born in 480 B.C. He took an active part in political affairs at
Athens, and, as a zealous supporter of the oligarchical party, was
largely responsible for the establishment of the Four Hundred in 411
(see THERAMENES); on the restoration of the democracy he was accused of
treason and condemned to death. Thucydides (viii. 68) expresses a very
high opinion of him. Antiphon may be regarded as the founder of
political oratory, but he never addressed the people himself except on
the occasion of his trial. Fragments of his speech then delivered in
defence of his policy (called [Greek: Peri metastaseos]) have been
edited by J. Nicole (1907) from an Egyptian papyrus. His chief business
was that of a professional speech-writer ([Greek: logographos]), for
those who felt incompetent to conduct their own cases--as all disputants
were obliged to do--without expert assistance. Fifteen of Antiphon's
speeches are extant: twelve are mere school exercises on fictitious
cases, divided into tetralogies, each consisting of two speeches for
prosecution and defence--accusation, defence, reply, counter-reply;
three refer to actual legal processes. All deal with cases of homicide
([Greek: phonikai dikai]). Antiphon is also said to have composed a
[Greek: Techne] or art of Rhetoric.

  Edition, with commentary, by Maetzner (1838); text by Blass (1881);
  Jebb, _Attic Orators_; Plutarch, _Vitae X. Oratorum_; Philostratus,
  _Vit. Sophistarum_, i. 15; van Cleef, _Index Antiphonteus_, Ithaca,
  N.Y. (1895); see also RHETORIC.



ANTIPHONY (Gr. [Greek: anti], and [Greek: phone], a voice), a species of
psalmody in which the choir or congregation, being divided into two
parts, sing alternately. The peculiar structure of the Hebrew psalms
renders it probable that the antiphonal method originated in the service
of the ancient Jewish Church. According to the historian Socrates, its
introduction into Christian worship was due to Ignatius (died 115 A.D.),
who in a vision had seen the angels singing in alternate choirs. In the
Latin Church it was not practised until more than two centuries later,
when it was introduced by Ambrose, bishop of Milan, who compiled an
antiphonary, or collection of words suitable for antiphonal singing. The
antiphonary still in use in the Roman Catholic Church was compiled by
Gregory the Great (590 A.D.).



ANTIPODES (Gr. [Greek: anti], opposed to, and [Greek: podes], feet), a
term applied strictly to any two peoples or places on opposite sides of
the earth, so situated that a line drawn from the one to the other
passes through the centre of the globe and forms a true diameter. Any
two places having this relation--as London and, approximately, Antipodes
Island, near New Zealand--must be distant from each other by 180° of
longitude, and the one must be as many degrees to the north of the
equator as the other is to the south, in other words, the latitudes are
numerically equal, but one is _north_ and the other _south_. Noon at the
one place is midnight at the other, the longest day corresponds to the
shortest, and mid-winter is contemporaneous with midsummer. In the
calculation of days and nights, midnight on the one side may be regarded
as corresponding to the noon either of the _previous_ or of the
_following_ day. If a voyager sail eastward, and thus anticipate the
sun, his dating will be twelve hours in advance, while the reckoning of
another who has been sailing westward will be as much in arrear. There
will thus be a difference of twenty-four hours between the two when they
meet. To avoid the confusion of dates which would thus arise, it is
necessary to determine a meridian at which dates should be brought into
agreement, i.e. a line the crossing of which would involve the changing
of the name of the day either forwards, when proceeding westwards, or
backwards, when proceeding eastwards. Mariners have generally adopted
the meridian 180° from Greenwich, situated in the Pacific Ocean, as a
convenient line for co-ordinating dates. The so-called "International
Date Line," which is, however, practically only due to American
initiative, is designed to remove certain objections to the meridian of
180° W., the most important of which is that groups of islands lying
about this meridian differ in date by a day although only a few miles
apart. Several forms have been suggested; these generally agree in
retaining the meridian of 180° in the mid Pacific, with a bend in the
north in order to make the Aleutian Islands and Alaska of the same time
as America, and also in the south so as to bring certain of the South
Sea islands into line with Australia and New Zealand.



ANTIPYRINE (phenyldimethyl pyrazolone) (C11H12N2O), is prepared by the
condensation of phenylhydrazine with aceto-acetic ester, the resulting
phenyl methyl pyrazolone being heated with methyl iodide and methyl
alcohol to 100-110° C.:

        CH3·C=N \               CH3·C-N·CH3
                 >N·C6H5   ->       || >N·C6H5
         CH2-CO /                HC-CO
  Phenyl methyl pyrazolone        Antipyrine

On the large scale phenylhydrazine is dissolved in dilute sulphuric
acid, the solution warmed to about 40° C. and the aceto-acetic ester
added. When the reaction is complete the acid is neutralized with soda,
and the phenyl methyl pyrazolone extracted with ether and distilled _in
vacuo_. The portion distilling at about 200° C. is then methylated by
means of methyl alcohol and methyl iodide at 100-110° C., the excess of
methyl alcohol removed and the product obtained decolorized by sulphuric
acid. The residue is treated with a warm concentrated solution of soda,
and the oil which separates is removed by shaking with benzene. The
benzene layer on evaporation deposits the anti-pyrine as a colourless
crystalline solid which melts at 113° C. and is soluble in water. It is
basic in character, and gives a red coloration on the addition of ferric
chloride. In medicine anti-pyrine ("phenazonum") has been used as an
analgesic and antipyretic. The dose is 5-20 grs., but on account of its
depressant action on the heart, and the toxic effects to which it
occasionally gives rise, it is now but little used. It is more safely
replaced by phenacetine.



ANTIQUARY, a person who devotes himself to the study of ancient learning
and "antiques," i.e. ancient objects of art or science. The London
Society of Antiquaries was formed in the 18th century to promote the
study of antiquities. As early as 1572 a society had been founded by
Bishop Matthew Parker, Sir Robert Cotton, William Camden and others for
the preservation of national antiquities. This body existed till 1604,
when it fell under suspicion of being political in its aims, and was
abolished by James I. Papers read at their meetings are preserved in the
Cottonian library and were printed by Thomas Hearne in 1720 under the
title _A Collection of Curious Discourses_, a second edition appearing
in 1771. In 1707 a number of English antiquaries began to hold regular
meetings for the discussion of their hobby and in 1717 the Society of
Antiquaries was formally reconstituted, finally receiving a charter from
George II. in 1751. In 1780 George III. granted the society apartments
in Somerset House, Strand. The society is governed by a council of
twenty and a president who is _ex officio_ a trustee of the British
Museum. The present headquarters of the society are at Burlington House,
Piccadilly.

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland was founded in 1780, and has the
management of a large national antiquarian museum in Edinburgh. In
Ireland a society was founded in 1849 called the Kilkenny Archaeological
Society, holding its meetings at Kilkenny. In 1869 its name was changed
to the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland, and
in 1890 to the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, its office being
transferred to Dublin. In France _La Société Nationale des Antiquaires
de France_ was formed in 1814 by the reconstruction of the _Acadêmie
Celtique_, which had existed since 1805. The American Antiquarian
Society was founded in 1812, with its headquarters at Worcester, Mass.
It has a library of upwards of 100,000 volumes and its transactions have
been published bi-annually since 1849. In Germany the _Gesamtverein der
Deutschen Geschichtsund Altertumsvereine_ was founded in 1852. _La
Société Royale des Antiquaires du Nord_ at Copenhagen is among the best
known of European antiquarian societies.



ANTIQUE (Lat. _antiquus_, old), a term conventionally restricted to the
remains of ancient art, such as sculptures, gems, medals, seals, &c. In
a limited sense it applies only to Greek and Roman art, and includes
neither the artistic remains of other ancient nations nor any product of
classical art of a later date than the fall of the western empire.



ANTI-SEMITISM. In the political struggles of the concluding quarter of
the 19th century an important part was played by a religious, political
and social agitation against the Jews, known as "Anti-Semitism." The
origins of this remarkable movement already threaten to become obscured
by legend. The Jews contend that anti-Semitism is a mere atavistic
revival of the Jew-hatred of the middle ages. The extreme section of the
anti-Semites, who have given the movement its quasi-scientific name,
declare that it is a racial struggle--an incident of the eternal
conflict between Europe and Asia--and that the anti-Semites are engaged
in an effort to prevent what is called the Aryan race from being
subjugated by a Semitic immigration, and to save Aryan ideals from being
modified by an alien and demoralizing oriental _Anschauung_. There is no
essential foundation for either of these contentions. Religious
prejudices reaching back to the dawn of history have been reawakened by
the anti-Semitic agitation, but they did not originate it, and they have
not entirely controlled it. The alleged racial divergence is, too, only
a linguistic hypothesis on the physical evidence of which
anthropologists are not agreed (Topinard, _Anthropologie_, p. 444;
Taylor, _Origins of Aryans_, cap. i.), and, even if it were proved, it
has existed in Europe for so many centuries, and so many ethnic
modifications have occurred on both sides, that it cannot be accepted as
a practical issue. It is true that the ethnographical histories of the
Jews and the nations of Europe have proceeded on widely diverging lines,
but these lines have more than once crossed each other and become
interlaced. Thus Aryan elements are at the beginning of both; European
morals have been ineradicably semitized by Christianity, and the Jews
have been Europeans for over a thousand years, during which their
character has been modified and in some respects transformed by the
ecclesiastical and civil polities of the nations among whom they have
made their permanent home. Anti-Semitism is then exclusively a question
of European politics, and its origin is to be found, not in the long
struggle between Europe and Asia, or between the Church and the
Synagogue, which filled so much of ancient and medieval history, but in
the social conditions resulting from the emancipation of the Jews in the
middle of the 19th century.

If the emancipated Jews were Europeans in virtue of the antiquity of
their western settlements, and of the character impressed upon them by
the circumstances of their European history, they none the less
presented the appearance of a strange people to their Gentile
fellow-countrymen. They had been secluded in their ghettos for
centuries, and had consequently acquired a physical and moral
physiognomy differentiating them in a measure from their former
oppressors. This peculiar physiognomy was, on its moral side, not
essentially Jewish or even Semitic. It was an advanced development of
the main attributes of civilized life, to which Christendom in its
transition from feudalism had as yet only imperfectly adapted itself.
The ghetto, which had been designed as a sort of quarantine to safeguard
Christendom against the Jewish heresy, had in fact proved a storage
chamber for a portion of the political and social forces which were
destined to sweep away the last traces of feudalism from central Europe.
In the ghetto, the pastoral Semite, who had been made a wanderer by the
destruction of his nationality, was steadily trained, through centuries,
to become an urban European, with all the parasitic activities of urban
economics, and all the democratic tendencies of occidental
industrialism. Excluded from the army, the land, the trade corporations
and the artisan gilds, this quondam oriental peasant was gradually
transformed into a commercial middleman and a practised dealer in money.
Oppressed by the Church, and persecuted by the State, his theocratic and
monarchical traditions lost their hold on his daily life, and he became
saturated with a passionate devotion to the ideals of democratic
politics. Finally, this former bucolic victim of Phoenician exploitation
had his wits preternaturally sharpened, partly by the stress of his
struggle for life, and partly by his being compelled in his urban
seclusion to seek for recreation in literary exercises, chiefly the
subtle dialectics of the Talmudists (Loeb, _Juif de l'histoire_;
Jellinek, _Der Jüdische Stamm_). Thus, the Jew who emerged from the
ghetto was no longer a Palestinian Semite, but an essentially modern
European, who differed from his Christian fellow-countrymen only in the
circumstances that his religion was of the older Semitic form, and that
his physical type had become sharply defined through a slightly more
rigid exclusiveness in the matter of marriages than that practised by
Protestants and Roman Catholics (Andree, _Volkskunde der Juden_, p. 58).

Unfortunately, these distinctive elements, though not very serious in
themselves, became strongly accentuated by concentration. Had it been
possible to distribute the emancipated Jews uniformly throughout
Christian society, as was the case with other emancipated religious
denominations, there would have been no revival of the Jewish question.
The Jews, however, through no fault of their own, belonged to only one
class in European society--the industrial _bourgeoisie_. Into that class
all their strength was thrown, and owing to their ghetto preparation,
they rapidly took a leading place in it, politically and socially. When
the mid-century revolutions made the _bourgeoisie_ the ruling power in
Europe, the semblance of a Hebrew domination presented itself. It was
the exaggeration of this apparent domination, not by the _bourgeoisie_
itself, but by its enemies among the vanquished reactionaries on the one
hand, and by the extreme Radicals on the other, which created modern
anti-Semitism as a political force.


  Germany.

The movement took its rise in Germany and Austria. Here the
concentration of the Jews in one class of the population was aggravated
by their excessive numbers. While in France the proportion to the total
population was, in the early'seventies, 0.14%, and in Italy, 0.12%, it
was 1.22% in Germany, and 3.85% in Austria-Hungary; Berlin had 4.36% of
Jews, and Vienna 6.62% (Andree, _Volkskunde_, pp. 287, 291, 294, 295).
The activity of the Jews consequently manifested itself in a far more
intense form in these countries than elsewhere. This was apparent even
before the emancipations of 1848. Towards the middle of the 18th
century, a limited number of wealthy Jews had been tolerated as
_Schutz-Juden_ outside the ghettos, and their sons, educated as Germans
under the influence of Moses Mendelssohn and his school (see JEWS),
supplied a majority of the leading spirits of the revolutionary
agitation. To this period belong the formidable names of Ludwig Börne
(1786-1837), Heinrich Heine (1799-1854), Edward Ganz (1798-1839),
Gabriel Riesser (1806-1863), Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-1864), Karl Marx
(1818-1883), Moses Hess (1812-1875), Ignatz Kuranda (1811-1884), and
Johann Jacobi (1805-1877). When the revolution was completed, and the
Jews entered in a body the national life of Germany and Austria, they
sustained this high average in all the intellectual branches of
middle-class activity. Here again, owing to the accidents of their
history, a further concentration became apparent. Their activity was
almost exclusively intellectual. The bulk of them flocked to the
financial and the distributive (as distinct from the productive) fields
of industry to which they had been confined in the ghettos. The
sharpened faculties of the younger generation at the same time carried
everything before them in the schools, with the result that they soon
crowded the professions, especially medicine, law and journalism
(Nossig, _Statistik des Jüd. Stammes_, pp. 33-37; Jacobs, _Jew.
Statistics_, pp. 41-69). Thus the "Semitic domination," as it was
afterwards called, became every day more strongly accentuated. If it was
a long time in exciting resentment and jealousy, the reason was that it
was in no sense alien to the new conditions of the national life. The
competition was a fair one. The Jews might be more successful than their
Christian fellow-citizens, but it was in virtue of qualities which
complied with the national standards of conduct. They were as
law-abiding and patriotic as they were intelligent. Crime among them was
far below the average (Nossig, p. 31). Their complete assimilation of
the national spirit was brilliantly illustrated by the achievements in
German literature, art and science of such men as Heinrich Heine and
Berthold Auerbach (1812-1882), Felix Mendelssohn (-Bartholdy)
(1809-1847), and Jacob Meyerbeer (1794-1864), Karl Gustav Jacobi the
mathematician (1804-1851), Gabriel Gustav Valentin the physiologist
(1810-1883), and Moritz Lazarus (1824-1903) and Heymann Steinthal
(1823-1899) the national psychologists. In politics, too, Edward Lasker
(1829-1884) and Ludwig Bamberger (1823-1899) had shown how Jews could
put their country before party, when, at the turning-point of German
imperial history in 1866, they led the secession from the
_Fortschritts-Partei_ and founded the National Liberal party, which
enabled Prince Bismarck to accomplish German unity. Even their
financiers were not behind their Christian fellow-citizens in
patriotism. Prince Bismarck himself confessed that the money for
carrying on the 1866 campaign was obtained from the Jewish banker
Bleichroeder, in face of the refusal of the money-market to support the
war. Hence the voice of the old Jew-hatred--for in a weak way it was
still occasionally heard in obscurantist corners--was shamed into
silence, and it was only in the European twilight--in Russia and
Rumania--and in lands where medievalism still lingered, such as northern
Africa and Persia, that oppression and persecution continued to dog the
steps of the Jews.

The signal for the change came in 1873, and was given unconsciously by
one of the most distinguished Jews of his time, Edward Lasker, the
gifted lieutenant of Bennigsen in the leadership of the National Liberal
party. The unification of Germany in 1870, and the rapid payment of the
enormous French war indemnity, had given an unprecedented impulse to
industrial and financial activity throughout the empire. Money became
cheap and speculation universal. A company mania set in which was
favoured by the government, who granted railway and other concessions
with a prodigal hand. The inevitable result of this state of things was
first indicated by Jewish politicians and economists. On the 14th of
January 1873, Edward Lasker called the attention of the Prussian diet to
the dangers of the situation, while his colleague, Ludwig Bamberger, in
an able article in the _Preussischen Jahrbücher_, condemned the policy
which had permitted the milliards to glut the country instead of being
paid on a plan which would have facilitated their gradual digestion by
the economic machinery of the nation. Deeply impressed by the gravity of
the impending crisis, Lasker instituted a searching inquiry, with the
result that he discovered a series of grave company scandals in which
financial promoters and aristocratic directors were chiefly involved.
Undeterred by the fact that the leading spirit in these abuses, Bethel
Henry Strousberg (1823-1884), was a Jew, Lasker presented the results of
his inquiry to the diet on the 7th of February 1873, in a speech of
great power and full of sensational disclosures. The dramatic results of
this speech need not be dwelt upon here (for details see Blum, _Das
deutsche Reich zur Zelt Bismarcks_, pp. 153-181). It must suffice to say
that in the following May the great Vienna "Krach" occurred, and the
colossal bubble of speculation burst, bringing with it all the ruin
foretold by Lasker and Bamberger. From the position occupied by the Jews
in the commercial class, and especially in the financial section of that
class, it was inevitable that a considerable number of them should
figure in the scandals which followed. At this moment an obscure Hamburg
journalist, Wilhelm Marr, who as far back as 1862 had printed a
still-born tract against the Jews (_Judenspiegel_), published a
sensational pamphlet entitled _Der Sieg des Judenthums uber das
Germanthum_ ("The Victory of Judaism over Germanism"). The book fell
upon fruitful soil. It applied to the nascent controversy a theory of
nationality which, under the great sponsorship of Hegel, had seized on
the minds of the German youth, and to which the stirring events of 1870
had already given a deep practical significance. The state, according to
the Hegelians, should be rational, and the nation should be a unit
comprising individuals speaking the same language and of the same racial
origin. Heterogeneous elements might be absorbed, but if they could not
be reduced to the national type they should be eliminated. This was the
pseudo-scientific note of the new anti-Semitism, the theory which
differentiated it from the old religious Jew-hatred and sought to give
it a rational place in modern thought. Marr's pamphlet, which reviewed
the facts of the Jewish social concentration without noticing their
essentially transitional character, proved the pioneer of this teaching.
It was, however, in the passions of party politics that the new crusade
found its chief sources of vitality. The enemies of the _bourgeoisie_ at
once saw that the movement was calculated to discredit and weaken the
school of Manchester Liberalism, then in the ascendant. Agrarian
capitalism, which had been dethroned by industrial capitalism in 1848,
and had burnt its fingers in 1873, seized the opportunity of paying off
old scores. The clericals, smarting under the _Kutlturkampj_, which was
supported by the whole body of Jewish liberalism, joined eagerly in the
new cry. In 1876 another sensational pamphlet was published, Otto
Glogau's _Die Börsen und Grundergeschwindel in Berlin_ ("The Bourses and
the Company Swindles in Berlin"), dealing in detail with the Jewish
participation in the scandals first revealed by Lasker. The agitation
gradually swelled, its growth being helped by the sensitiveness and
_cacoëthes scribendi_ of the Jews themselves, who contributed two
pamphlets and a much larger proportion of newspaper articles for every
one supplied by their opponents (Jacobs. _Bibliog. Jew. Question_, p.
xi.). Up to 1879, however, it was more of a literary than a political
agitation, and was generally regarded only as an ephemeral craze or a
passing spasm of popular passion.

Towards the end of 1879 it spread with sudden fury over the whole of
Germany. This outburst, at a moment when no new financial scandals or
other illustrations of Semitic demoralization and domination were before
the public, has never been fully explained. It is impossible to doubt,
however, that the secret springs of the new agitation were more or less
directly supplied by Prince Bismarck himself. Since 1877 the relations
between the chancellor and the National Liberals had gradually become
strained. The deficit in the budget had compelled the government to
think of new taxes, and in order to carry them through the Reichstag the
support of the National Liberals had been solicited. Until then the
National Liberals had faithfully supported the chancellor in nursing the
consolidation of the new empire, but the great dream of its leaders,
especially of Lasker and Bamberger, who had learnt their politics in
England, was to obtain a constitutional and economic _régime_ similar to
that of the British Isles. The organization of German unity was now
completed, and they regarded the new overtures of Prince Bismarck as an
opportunity for pressing their constitutional demands. These were
refused, the Reichstag was dissolved and Prince Bismarck boldly came
forward with a new fiscal policy, a combination of protection and state
socialism. Lasker and Bamberger thereupon led a powerful secession of
National Liberals into opposition, and the chancellor was compelled to
seek a new majority among the ultra-Conservatives and the Roman Catholic
Centre. This was the beginning of the famous "journey to Canossa."
Bismarck did not hide his mortification. He began to recognize in
anti-Semitism a means of "dishing" the Judaized liberals, and to his
creatures who assisted him in his press campaigns he dropped significant
hints in this sense (Busch, _Bismarck_, ii. 453-454, iii. 16). He even
spoke of a new _Kulturkampf_ against the Jews (_ibid_. ii. p. 484). How
these hints were acted upon has not been revealed, but it is
sufficiently instructive to notice that the final breach with the
National Liberals took place in July 1879, and that it was immediately
followed by a violent revival of the anti-Semitic agitation. Marr's
pamphlet was reprinted, and within a few months ran through nine further
editions. The historian Treitschke gave the sanction of his great name
to the movement. The Conservative and Ultramontane press rang with the
sins of the Jews. In October an anti-Semitic league was founded in
Berlin and Dresden (for statutes of the league see _Nineteenth Century_,
February 1881, p. 344).

The leadership of the agitation was now definitely assumed by a man who
combined with social influence, oratorical power and inexhaustible
energy, a definite scheme of social regeneration and an organization for
carrying it out. This man was Adolf Stöcker (b. 1835), one of the court
preachers. He had embraced the doctrines of Christian socialism which
the Roman Catholics, under the guidance of Archbishop Ketteler, had
adopted from the teachings of the Jew Lassalle (Nitti, _Catholic
Socialism_, pp. 94-96, 122, 127), and he had formed a society called
"The Christian Social Working-man's Union." He was also a conspicuous
member of the Prussian diet, where he sat and voted with the
Conservatives. He found himself in strong sympathy with Prince
Bismarck's new economic policy, which, although also of Lassallian
origin (Kohut, _Ferdinand Lassalle_, pp. 144 et seq.), was claimed by
its author as being essentially Christian (Busch, p. 483). Under his
auspices the years 1880-1881 became a period of bitter and scandalous
conflict with the Jews. The Conservatives supported him, partly to
satisfy their old grudges against the Liberal _bourgeoisie_ and partly
because Christian Socialism, with its anti-Semitic appeal to ignorant
prejudice, was likely to weaken the hold of the Social Democrats on the
lower classes. The Lutheran clergy followed suit, in order to prevent
the Roman Catholics from obtaining a monopoly of Christian Socialism,
while the Ultramontanes readily adopted anti-Semitism, partly to
maintain their monopoly, and partly to avenge themselves on the Jewish
and Liberal supporters of the _Kulturkampf_. In this way a formidable
body of public opinion was recruited for the anti-Semites. Violent
debates took place in the Prussian diet. A petition to exclude the Jews
from the national schools and universities and to disable them from
holding public appointments was presented to Prince Bismarck. Jews were
boycotted and insulted. Duels between Jews and anti-Semites, many of
them fatal, became of daily occurrence. Even unruly demonstrations and
street riots were reported. Pamphlets attacking every phase and aspect
of Jewish life streamed by the hundred from the printing-press. On their
side the Jews did not want for friends, and it was owing to the strong
attitude adopted by the Liberals that the agitation failed to secure
legislative fruition. The crown prince (afterwards Emperor Frederick)
and crown princess boldly set themselves at the head of the party of
protest. The crown prince publicly declared that the agitation was "a
shame and a disgrace to Germany." A manifesto denouncing the movement as
a blot on German culture, a danger to German unity and a flagrant
injustice to the Jews themselves, was signed by a long list of
illustrious men, including Herr von Forckenbeck, Professors Mommsen,
Gneist, Droysen, Virchow, and Dr Werner Siemens (_Times_, November 18,
1880). During the Reichstag elections of 1881 the agitation played an
active part, but without much effect, although Stöcker was elected. This
was due to the fact that the great Conservative parties, so far as
their political organizations were concerned, still remained chary of
publicly identifying themselves with a movement which, in its essence,
was of socialistic tendency. Hence the electoral returns of that year
supplied no sure guide to the strength of anti-Semitic opinion among the
German people.

The first severe blow suffered by the German anti-Semites was in 1881,
when, to the indignation of the whole civilized world, the barbarous
riots against the Jews in Russia and the revival of the medieval Blood
Accusation in Hungary (see _infra_) illustrated the liability of
unreasoning mobs to carry into violent practice the incendiary doctrines
of the new Jew-haters. From this blow anti-Semitism might have recovered
had it not been for the divisions and scandals in its own ranks, and the
artificial forms it subsequently assumed through factitious alliances
with political parties bent less on persecuting the Jews than on
profiting by the anti-Jewish agitation. The divisions showed themselves
at the first attempt to form a political party on an anti-Semitic basis.
Imperceptibly the agitators had grouped themselves into two classes,
economic and ethnological anti-Semites. The impracticable racial views
of Marr and Treitschke had not found favour with Stöcker and the
Christian Socialists. They were disposed to leave the Jews in peace so
long as they behaved themselves properly, and although they carried on
their agitation against Jewish malpractices in a comprehensive form
which seemed superficially to identify them with the root-and-branch
anti-Semites, they were in reality not inclined to accept the racial
theory with its scheme of revived Jewish disabilities (Huret, _La
Question Sociale_--interview with Stöcker). This feeling was
strengthened by a tendency on the part of an extreme wing of the racial
anti-Semites to extend their campaign against Judaism to its offspring,
Christianity. In 1879 Professor Sepp, arguing that Jesus was of no human
race, had proposed that Christianity should reject the Hebrew Scriptures
and seek a fresh historical basis in the cuneiform inscriptions. Later
Dr Eugen Dübring, in several brochures, notably _Die Judenfrage als
Frage des Rassencharakters_ (1881, 5th ed. Berlin, 1901), had attacked
Christianity as a manifestation of the Semitic spirit which was not
compatible with the theological and ethical conceptions of the
Scandinavian peoples. The philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche had also
adopted the same view, without noticing that it was a _reductio ad
absurdum_ of the whole agitation, in his _Menschliches,
Allzumenschliches_ (1878), _Jenseits von Gut und Böse_ (1886),
_Genealogie der Moral_ (1887). With these tendencies the Christian
Socialists could have no sympathy, and the consequence was that when in
March 1881 a political organization of anti-Semitism was attempted, two
rival bodies were created, the "Deutsche Volksverein," under the
Conservative auspices of Herr Liebermann von Sonnenberg (b. 1848) and
Herr Förster, and the "Sociale Reichsverein," led by the racial and
Radical anti-Semites, Ernst Henrici (b. 1854) and Otto Böckel (b. 1859).
In 1886, at an anti-Semitic congress held at Cassel a reunion was
effected under the name of the "Deutsche antisemitische Verein," but
this only lasted three years. In June 1889 the anti-Semitic Christian
Socialists under Stöcker again seceded.

Meanwhile racial anti-Semitism with its wholesale radical proposals had
been making considerable progress among the ignorant lower classes. It
adapted itself better to popular passions and inherited prejudice than
the more academic conceptions of the Christian Socialists. The latter,
too, were largely Conservatives, and their points of contact with the
proletariat were at best artificial. Among the Hessian peasantry the
inflammatory appeals of Böckel secured many adherents. This paved the
way for a new anti-Semitic leader, Herrmann Ahlwardt (b. 1846), who,
towards the end of the 'eighties, eclipsed all the other anti-Semites by
the sensationalism and violence with which he prosecuted the campaign.
Ahlwardt was a person of evil notoriety. He was loaded with debt. In the
Manché decoration scandals it was proved that he had acted first as a
corrupt intermediary and afterwards as the betrayer of his confederates.
His anti-Semitism was adopted originally as a means of _chantage_, and
it was only when it failed to yield profit in this form that he came out
boldly as an agitator. The wildness, unscrupulousness, and
full-bloodedness of his propaganda enchanted the mob, and he bid fair to
become a powerful democratic leader. His pamphlets, full of scandalous
revelations of alleged malpractices of eminent Jews, were read with
avidity. No fewer than ten of them were written and published during
1892. Over and over again he was prosecuted for libel and convicted, but
this seemed only to strengthen his influence with his followers. The
Roman Catholic clergy and newspapers helped to inflame the popular
passions. The result was that anti-Jewish riots broke out. At Neustettin
the Jewish synagogue was burnt, and at Xanten the Blood Accusation was
revived, and a Jewish butcher was tried on the ancient charge of
murdering a Christian child for ritual purposes. The man was, of course,
acquitted, but the symptoms it revealed of reviving medievalism strongly
stirred the liberal and cultured mind of Germany. All protest, however,
seemed powerless, and the barbarian movement appeared destined to carry
everything before it.

German politics at this moment were in a very intricate state. Prince
Bismarck had retired, and Count Caprivi, with a programme of general
conciliation based on Liberal principles, was in power. Alarmed by the
non-renewal of the anti-Socialist law, and by the conclusion of
commercial treaties which made great concessions to German industry, the
landed gentry and the Conservative party became alienated from the new
chancellor. In January 1892 the split was completed by the withdrawal by
the government of the Primary Education bill, which had been designed to
place primary instruction on a religious basis. The Conservatives saw
their opportunity of posing as the party of Christianity against the
Liberals and Socialists, who had wrecked the bill, and they began to
look towards Ahlwardt as a possible ally. He had the advantages over
Stöcker that he was not a Socialist, and that he was prepared to lead
his apparently large following to assist the agrarian movement and
weaken the Social Democrats. The intrigue gradually came to light.
Towards the end of the year Herr Liebknecht, the Social Democratic
leader, denounced the Conservatives to the Reichstag as being concerned
"in using the anti-Semitic movement as a bastard edition of Socialism
for the use of stupid people." (1st December). Two days later the charge
was confirmed. At a meeting of the party held on the 3rd of December the
following plank was added to the Conservative programme: "We combat the
oppressive and disintegrating Jewish influence on our national life; we
demand for our Christian people a Christian magistracy and Christian
teachers for Christian pupils; we repudiate the excesses of
anti-Semitism." In pursuance of the resolution Ahlwardt was returned to
the Reichstag at a by-election by the Conservative district of
Arnswalde-Friedeberg. The coalition was, however, not yet completed. The
intransigeant Conservatives, led by Baron von Hammerstein, the editor of
the _Kreuz-Zeitung_, justly felt that the concluding sentence of the
resolution of the 3rd of December repudiating "the excesses of
anti-Semitism" was calculated to hinder a full and loyal co-operation
between the two parties. Accordingly on the 9th of December another
meeting of the party was summoned. Twelve hundred members met at the
Tivoli Hall in Berlin, and with only seven dissentients solemnly
expunged the offending sentence from the resolution. The history of
political parties may be searched in vain for a parallel to this
discreditable transaction.

The capture of the Conservative party proved the high-water mark of
German anti-Semitism. From that moment the tide began to recede. All
that was best in German national life was scandalized by the cynical
tactics of the Conservatives. The emperor, strong Christian though he
was, was shocked at the idea of serving Christianity by a compact with
unscrupulous demagogues and ignorant fanatics. Prince Bismarck growled
out a stinging sarcasm from his retreat at Friedrichsruh. Even Stöcker
raised his voice in protest against the "Ahlwardtismus" and
"Böckelianismus," and called upon his Conservative colleagues to
distinguish between "respectable and disreputable anti-Semitism." As for
the Liberals and Socialists, they filled the air with bitter laughter,
and declared from the housetops that the stupid party had at last been
overwhelmed by its own stupidity. The Conservatives began to suspect
that they had made a false step, and they were confirmed in this belief
by the conduct of their new ally in the Reichstag. His debut in
parliament was the signal for a succession of disgraceful scenes. His
whole campaign of calumny was transferred to the floor of the house, and
for some weeks the Reichstag discussed little else than his so-called
revelations. The Conservatives listened to his wild charges in
uncomfortable silence, and refused to support him. Stöcker opposed him
in a violent speech. The Radicals and Socialists, taking an accurate
measure of the shallow vanity of the man, adopted the policy of giving
him "enough rope." Shortly after his election he was condemned to five
months' imprisonment for libel, and he would have been arrested but for
the interposition of the Socialist party, including five Jews, who
claimed for him the immunities of a member of parliament. When he moved
for a commission to inquire into his revelations, it was again the
Socialist party which supported him, with the result that all his
charges, without exception, were found to be absolutely baseless.
Ahlwardt was covered with ridicule, and when in May the Reichstag was
dissolved, he was marched off to prison to undergo the sentence for
libel from which his parliamentary privilege had up to that moment
protected him.

His hold on the anti-Semitic populace was, however, not diminished. On
the contrary, the action of the Conservatives at the Tivoli congress
could not be at once eradicated from the minds of the Conservative
voters, and when the electoral campaign began it was found impossible to
explain to them that the party leaders had changed their minds. The
result was that Ahlwardt, although in prison, was elected by two
constituencies. At Arnswalde-Friedeberg he was returned in the teeth of
the opposition of the official Conservatives, and at Neustettin he
defeated no less a person than his anti-Semitic opponent Stöcker.
Fifteen other anti-Semites, all of the Ahlwardtian school, were elected.
This, however, represented little in the way of political influence; for
henceforth the party had to stand alone as one of the many minor
factions in the Reichstag, avoided by all the great parties, and too
weak to exercise any influence on the main course of affairs.

During the subsequent seven years it became more and more discredited.
The financial scandals connected with Förster's attempt to found a
Christian Socialist colony in Paraguay, the conviction of Baron von
Hammerstein, the anti-Semitic Conservative leader, for forgery and
swindling (1895-1896), and several minor scandals of the same unsavoury
character, covered the party with the very obloquy which it had
attempted to attach to the Jews. At the same time the Christian
Socialists who had remained with the Conservative party also suffered.
After the elections of 1893, Stöcker was dismissed from his post of
court preacher, and publicly reprimanded for speaking familiarly of the
empress. Two years later the Christian Socialist, Pastor Neumann,
observing the tendency of the Conservatives to coalesce with the
moderate Liberals in antagonism to Social Democracy, declared against
the Conservative party. The following year the emperor publicly
condemned Christian Socialism and the "political pastors," and Stöcker
was expelled from the Conservative party for refusing to modify the
socialistic propanganda of his organ, _Das Volk_. His fall was completed
by a quarrel with the Evangelical Social Union. He left the Union and
appealed to the Lutheran clergy to found a new church social
organization, but met with no response. Another blow to anti-Semitism
came from the Roman Catholics. They had become alarmed by the unbridled
violence of the Ahlwardtians, and when in 1894 Förster declared in an
address to the German anti-Semitic Union that anarchical outrages like
the murder of President Carnot were as much due to the "Anarchismus von
oben" as the "Anarchismus von unten," the Ultramontane _Germania_
publicly washed its hands of the Jew-baiters (1st of July 1894). Thus
gradually German anti-Semitism became stripped of every adventitious
alliance; and at the general election of 1898 it only managed to return
twelve members to the Reichstag, and in 1903 its party strength fell to
nine. A remarkable revival in its fortunes, however, took place between
1905 and 1907. Identifying itself with the extreme Chauvinists and
Anglophobes it profited by the anti-national errors of the Clericals and
Socialists, and won no fewer than twelve by-elections. At the general
election of 1907 its jingoism and aggressive Protestantism were rewarded
with twenty-five seats. It is clear, however, from the figures of the
second ballots that these successes owed far more to the tendencies of
the party in the field of general politics than to its anti-Semitism.
Indeed the specifically anti-Semitic movement has shown little activity
since 1893.

The causes of the decline of German anti-Semitism are not difficult to
determine. While it remained a theory of nationality and a fad of the
metaphysicians, it made considerable noise in the world, but without
exercising much practical influence. When it attempted to play an active
part in politics it became submerged by the ignorant and superstitious
voters, who could not understand its scientific justification, but who
were quite ready to declaim and riot against the Jew bogey. It thus
became a sort of Jacquerie which, being exploited by unscrupulous
demagogues, soon alienated all its respectable elements. Its moments of
real importance have been due not to inherent strength but to the uses
made of it by other political parties for their own purposes. These
coalitions are no longer of perilous significance so far as the Jews are
concerned, chiefly because, in face of the menace of democratic
socialism and its unholy alliance with the Roman Catholic Centrum, all
supporters of the present organization of society have found it
necessary to sink their differences. The new social struggle has
eclipsed the racial theory of nationality. The Social Democrat became
the enemy, and the new reaction counted on the support of the rich Jews
and the strongly individualist Jewish middle class to assist it in
preserving the existing social structure. Hence in Prince Billow's
"Bloc" (1908) anti-Semites figured side by side with Judeophil Radicals.


  Russia.

More serious have been the effects of German anti-Semitic teachings on
the political and social life of the countries adjacent to the
empire--Russia, Austria and France. In Russia these effects were first
seriously felt owing to the fury of autocratic reaction to which the
tragic death of the tsar Alexander II. gave rise. This, however, like
the Strousberg _Krach_ in Germany, was only the proximate cause of the
outbreak. There were other elements which had created a _milieu_
peculiarly favourable to the transplantation of the German craze. In the
first place the medieval anti-Semitism was still an integral part of the
polity of the empire. The Jews were cooped up in one huge ghetto in the
western provinces, "marked out to all their fellow-countrymen as aliens,
and a pariah caste set apart for special and degrading treatment"
(_Persecution of the Jews in Russia_, 1891, p.5). In the next place,
owing to the emancipation of the serfs which had half ruined the
landowners, while creating a free but moneyless peasantry, the Jews, who
could be neither nobles nor peasants, had found a vocation as
money-lenders and as middlemen between the grain producers, and the
grain consumers and exporters. There is no evidence that this function
was performed, as a rule, in an exorbitant or oppressive way. On the
contrary, the fall in the value of cereals on all the provincial
markets, after the riots of 1881, shows that the Jewish competition had
previously assured full prices to the farmers (Schwabacher,
_Denkschrift_, 1882, p. 27). Nevertheless, the Jewish activity or
"exploitation," as it was called, was resented, and the ill-feeling it
caused among landowners and farmers was shared by non-Jewish middlemen
and merchants who had thereby been compelled to be satisfied with small
profits. Still there was but little thought of seeking a remedy in an
organized anti-Jewish movement. On the contrary, the abnormal situation
aggravated by the disappointments and depression caused by the Turkish
war, had stimulated a widespread demand for constitutional changes which
would enable the people to adopt a state-machinery more exactly suited
to their needs. Among the peasantry this demand was promoted and
fomented by the Nihilists, and among the landowners it was largely
adopted as a means of checking what threatened to become a new Jacquerie
(Walcker, _Gegertwärtige Lage Russlands_, 1873; _Innere Krisis
Russlands_, 1876). The tsar, Alexander II., strongly sympathized with
this movement, and on the advice of Count Loris-Melikov and the council
of ministers a rudimentary scheme of parliamentary government had been
drafted and actually signed when the emperor was assassinated. Meanwhile
a nationalist and reactionary agitation, originating like its German
analogue in the Hegelianism of a section of the lettered public, had
manifested itself in Moscow. After some early vicissitudes, it had been
organized, under the auspices of Alexis Kireiev, Chomyakov, Aksakov and
Kochelev, into the Slavophil party, with a Romanticist programme of
reforms based on the old traditions of the pre-Petrine epoch. This party
gave a great impetus to Slav nationalism. Its final possibilities were
sanguinarily illustrated by Muraviev's campaign in Poland in 1863, and
in the war against Turkey in 1877, which was exclusively its handiwork
(Statement by General Kireiev: Schütz, _Das heutige Russland_, p. 104).
After the assassination of Alexander II. the Slavophil teaching, as
expounded by Ignatiev and Pobêdonostsev, became paramount in the
government, and the new tsar was persuaded to cancel the constitutional
project of his father. The more liberal views of a section of the
Slavophils under Aksakov, who had been in favour of representative
institutions on traditional lines, were displaced by the reactionary
system of Pobêdonostsev, who took his stand on absolutism, orthodoxy and
the racial unity of the Russian people. This was the situation on the
eve of Easter 1881. The hardening nationalism above, the increasing
discontent below, the economic activity of the Hebrew heretics and
aliens, and the echoes of anti-Semitism from over the western border
were combining for an explosion.

A scuffle in a tavern at Elisabethgrad in Kherson sufficed to ignite
this combustible material. The scuffle grew into a riot, the tavern was
sacked, and the drunken mob, hounded on by agitators who declared that
the Jews were using Christian blood for the manufacture of their Easter
bread, attacked and looted the Jewish quarter. The outbreak spread
rapidly. On the 7th of May there was a similar riot at Smiela, near
Cherkasy, and the following day there was a violent outbreak at Kiev,
which left 2000 Jews homeless. Within a few weeks the whole of western
Russia, from the Black Sea to the Baltic, was smoking with the ruins of
Jewish homes. Scores of Jewish women were dishonoured, hundreds of men,
women and children were slaughtered, and tens of thousands were reduced
to beggary and left without a shelter. Murderous riots or incendiary
outrages took place in no fewer than 167 towns and villages, including
Warsaw, Odessa and Kiev. Europe had witnessed no such scenes of mob
savagery since the Black Death massacres in the 14th century. As the
facts gradually filtered through to the western capitals they caused a
thrill of horror everywhere. An indignation meeting held at the Mansion
House in London, under the presidency of the lord mayor, was the signal
for a long series of popular demonstrations condemning the persecutions,
held in most of the chief cities of England and the continent.

Except as stimulated by the Judeophobe revival in Germany the Russian
outbreak in its earlier forms does not belong specifically to modern
anti-Semitism. It was essentially a medieval uprising animated by the
religious fanaticism, gross superstition and predatory instincts of a
people still in the medieval stage of their development. This is proved
by the fact that, although the Russian peasant was supposed to be a
victim of unbearable Jewish "exploitation," he was not moved to riot
until he had been brutalized by drink and excited by the old fable of
the Blood Accusation. The modern anti-Semitic element came from above
and followed closely on the heels of the riots. It has been freely
charged against the Russian government that it promoted the riots in
1881 in order to distract popular attention from the Nihilist propaganda
and from the political disappointments involved in the cancellation of
the previous tsar's constitutional project (Lazare, _L'Antisémitisme_,
p. 211). This seems to be true of General Ignatiev, then minister of the
interior, and the secret police (Séménoff, _The Russian Government and
the Massacres_, pp. 17, 32, 241). It is certain that the local
authorities, both civil and military, favoured the outbreak, and took no
steps to suppress it, and that the feudal bureaucracy who had just
escaped a great danger were not sorry to see the discontented populace
venting their passions on the Jews. In the higher circles of the
government, however, other views prevailed. The tsar himself was at
first persuaded that the riots were the work of Nihilists, and he
publicly promised his protection to the Jews. On the other hand, his
ministers, ardent Slavophils, thought they recognized in the outbreak an
endorsement of the nationalist teaching of which they were the apostles,
and, while reprobating the acts of violence, came to the conclusion that
the most reasonable solution was to aggravate the legal disabilities of
the persecuted aliens and heretics. To this view the tsar was won over,
partly by the clamorous indignation of western Europe, which had wounded
his national _amour propre_ to the quick, and partly by the strongly
partisan report of a commission appointed to inquire, not into the
administrative complaisance which had allowed riot to run loose over the
western and southern provinces, but into the "exploitation" alleged
against the Jews, the reasons why "the former laws limiting the rights
of the Jews" had been mitigated, and how these laws could be altered so
as "to stop the pernicious conduct of the Jews" (Rescript of the 3rd of
September 1881). The result of this report was the drafting of a
"Temporary Order concerning the Jews" by the minister of the interior,
which received the assent of the tsar on the 3rd of May 1882. This
order, which was so little temporary that it has not yet been repealed,
had the effect of creating a number of fresh ghettos within the pale of
Jewish settlement. The Jews were cooped up within the towns, and their
rural interests were arbitrarily confiscated. The doubtful incidence of
the order gave rise to a number of judgments of the senate, by which all
its persecuting possibilities were brought out, with the result that the
activities of the Jews were completely paralysed, and they became a prey
to unparalleled cruelty. As the gruesome effect of this legislation
became known, a fresh outburst of horror and indignation swelled up from
western Europe. It proved powerless. Count Ignatiev was dismissed owing
to the protests of high-placed Russians, who were disgusted by the new
_Kulturkampf_, but his work remained, and, under the influence of
Pobêdonostsev, the procurator of the Holy Synod, the policy of the "May
Laws," as they were significantly called, was applied to every aspect of
Jewish life with pitiless rigour. The temper of the tsar may be judged
by the fact that when an appeal for mercy from an illustrious personage
in England was conveyed to him at Fredensborg through the gracious
medium of the tsaritsa, he angrily exclaimed within the hearing of an
Englishman in the ante-room who was the bearer of the message, "Never
let me hear you mention the name of that people again!"

The Russian May Laws are the most conspicuous legislative monument
achieved by modern anti-Semitism. It is true that they re-enacted
regulations which resemble the oppressive statutes introduced into
Poland through the influence of the Jesuits in the 16th century
(Sternberg, _Gesch. d. Juden in Polen_, pp. 141 et seq.), but their
Orthodox authors were as little conscious of this irony of history as
they were of the Teutonic origins of the whole Slavophil movement. These
laws are an experimental application of the political principles
extracted by Marr and his German disciples from the metaphysics of
Hegel, and as such they afford a valuable means of testing the practical
operation of modern anti-Semitism. Their result was a widespread
commercial depression which was felt all over the empire. Even before
the May Laws were definitely promulgated the passport registers showed
that the anti-Semitic movement had driven 67,900 Jews across the
frontier, and it was estimated that they had taken with them 13,000,000
roubles, representing a minimum loss of 60,000,000 roubles to the annual
turnover of the country's trade. Towards the end of 1882 it was
calculated that the agitation had cost Russia as much as the whole
Turkish war of 1877. Trade was everywhere paralysed. The enormous
increase of bankruptcies, the transfer of investments to foreign funds,
the consequent fall in the value of the rouble and the prices of Russian
stocks, the suspension of farming operations owing to advances on
growing crops being no longer available, the rise in the prices of the
necessaries of life, and lastly, the appearance of famine, filled half
the empire with gloom. Banks closed their doors, and the great
provincial fairs proved failures. When it was proposed to expel the Jews
from Moscow there was a loud outcry all over the sacred city, and even
the Orthodox merchants, realizing that the measure would ruin their
flourishing trade with the south and west, petitioned against it. The
Moscow Exhibition proved a failure. Nevertheless the government
persisted with its harsh policy, and Jewish refugees streamed by tens of
thousands across the western frontier to seek an asylum in other lands.
In 1891 the alarm caused by this emigration led to further protests from
abroad. The citizens of London again assembled at Guildhall, and
addressed a petition to the tsar on behalf of his Hebrew subjects. It
was handed back to the lord mayor by the Russian ambassador, with a curt
intimation that the emperor declined to receive it. At the same time
orders were defiantly given that the May Laws should be strictly
enforced. Meanwhile the Russian minister of finance was at his wits'
ends for money. Negotiations for a large loan had been entered upon with
the house of Rothschild, and a preliminary contract had been signed,
when, at the instance of the London firm, M. Wyshnigradski, the finance
minister, was informed that unless the persecutions of the Jews were
stopped the great banking-house would be compelled to withdraw from the
operation. Deeply mortified by this attempt to deal with him _de
puissance à puissance_, the tsar peremptorily broke off the
negotiations, and ordered that overtures should be made to a non-Jewish
French syndicate. In this way anti-Semitism, which had already so
profoundly influenced the domestic politics of Europe, set its mark on
the international relations of the powers, for it was the urgent need of
the Russian treasury quite as much as the termination of Prince
Bismarck's secret treaty of mutual neutrality which brought about the
Franco-Russian alliance (Daudet, _Hist. Dipl. de l'Alliance
Franco-Russe_, pp. 259 et. seq.).

For nearly three years more the persecutions continued. Elated by the
success of his crusade against the Jews, Pobêdonostsev extended his
persecuting policy to other non-Orthodox denominations. The legislation
against the Protestant Stundists became almost as unbearable as that
imposed on the Jews. In the report of the Holy Synod, presented to the
tsar towards the end of 1893, the procurator called for repressive
measures against Roman Catholics, Moslems and Buddhists, and denounced
the rationalist tendency of the whole system of secular education in the
empire (_Neue Freie Presse_, 31st January 1894). A year later, however,
the tsar died, and his successor, without repealing any of the
persecuting laws, let it gradually be understood that their rigorous
application might be mitigated. The country was tired and exhausted by
the persecution, and the tolerant hints which came from high quarters
were acted upon with significant alacrity.

A new era of conflict dawned with the great constitutional struggle
towards the end of the century. The conditions, however, were very
different from those which prevailed in the 'eighties. The May Laws had
avenged themselves with singular fitness. By confining the Jews to the
towns at the very moment that Count Witte's policy of protection was
creating an enormous industrial proletariat they placed at the disposal
of the disaffected masses an ally powerful in numbers and intelligence,
and especially in its bitter sense of wrong, its reckless despair and
its cosmopolitan outlook and connexions. As early as 1885 the Jewish
workmen assisted by Jewish university students led the way in the
formation of trades unions. They also became the _colporteurs_ of
western European socialism, and they played an important part in the
organization of the Russian Social Democratic Federation which their
"Arbeiter Bund" joined in 1898 with no fewer than 30,000 members. The
Jewish element in the new democratic movement excited the resentment of
the government, and under the minister of the interior, M. Sipiaguine,
the persecuting laws were once more rigorously enforced. The "Bund"
replied in 1901 by proclaiming itself frankly political and
revolutionary, and at once took a leading place in the revolutionary
movement. The reactionaries were not slow to profit by this
circumstance. With the support of M. Plehve, the new minister of the
interior, and the whole of the bureaucratic class they denounced the
revolution as a Jewish conspiracy, engineered for exclusively Jewish
purposes and designed to establish a Jewish domination over the Russian
people. The government and even the intimates of the tsar became
persuaded that only by the terrorization of the Jews could the
revolutionary movement be effectually dealt with. For this purpose a
so-called League of True Russians was formed. Under high patronage, and
with the assistance of the secret police and a large number of the local
authorities, it set itself to stir up the populace, chiefly the fanatics
and the hooligans, against the Jews. Incendiary proclamations were
prepared and printed in the ministry of the interior itself, and were
circulated by the provincial governors and the police (Prince Urussov's
speech in the Duma, June 8 (21), 1906). The result was another series of
massacres which began at Kishinev in 1903 and culminated in wholesale
butchery at Odessa and Bielostok in October 1905. An attempt was made to
picture and excuse these outbreaks as a national upheaval against the
Jew-made revolution but it failed. They only embittered the
revolutionists and "intellectuals" throughout the country, and won for
them a great deal of outspoken sympathy abroad. The artificiality of the
anti-Jewish outbreak was illustrated by the first Duma elections.
Thirteen Jews were elected and every constituency which had been the
scene of a _pogrom_ returned a liberal member. Unfortunately the Jews
benefited little by the new parliamentary constitution. The privileges
of voting for members of the Duma and of sitting in the new assembly
were granted them, but all their civil and religious disabilities were
maintained. Both the first and the second Duma proposed to emancipate
them, but they were dissolved before any action could be taken. By the
modification of the electoral law under which the third Duma was elected
the voting power of the Jews was diminished and further restrictions
were imposed upon them through official intimidation during the
elections. The result was that only two Jews were elected, while the
reactionary tendency of the new electorate virtually removed the
question of their emancipation from the field of practical politics.


  Rumania.

The only other country in Europe in which a legalized anti-Semitism
exists is Rumania. The conditions are very similar to those which obtain
in Russia, with the important difference that Rumania is a
constitutional country, and that the Jewish persecutions are the work of
the elected deputies of the nation. Like the _Bourgeois Gentilhomme_ who
wrote prose all his life without knowing it, the Rumanians practised the
nationalist doctrines of the Hegelian anti-Semites unconsciously long
before they were formulated in Germany. In the old days of Turkish
domination the lot of the Rumanian Jews was not conspicuously unhappy.
It was only when the nation began to be emancipated, and the struggle in
the East assumed the form of a crusade against Islam that the Jews were
persecuted. Rumanian politicians preached a nationalism limited
exclusively to indigenous Christians, and they were strongly supported
by all who felt the commercial competition of the Jews. Thus, although
the Jews had been settled in the land for many centuries, they were by
law declared aliens. This was done in defiance of the treaty of Paris of
1856 and the convention of 1858 which declared all Rumans to be equal
before the law. Under the influence of this distinction the Jews became
persecuted, and sanguinary riots were of frequent occurrence. The
realization of a Jewish question led to legislation imposing
disabilities on the Jews. In 1878 the congress of Berlin agreed to
recognize the independence of Rumania on condition that all religious
disabilities were removed. Rumania agreed to this condition, but
ultimately persuaded the powers to allow her to carry out the
emancipation of the Jews gradually. Persecutions, however, continued,
and in 1902 they led to a great exodus of Jews. The United States
addressed a strong remonstrance to the Rumanian government, but the
condition of the Jews was in no way improved. Their emancipation was in
1908 as far off as ever, and their disabilities heavier than those of
their brethren in Russia. For this state of things the example of the
anti-Semites in Germany, Russia, Austria and France was largely to
blame, since it had justified the intolerance of the Rumans. Owing,
also, to the fact that of late years Rumania had become a sort of
_annexe_ of the Triple Alliance, it was found impossible to induce the
signatories of the treaty of Berlin to take action to compel the state
to fulfil its obligations under that treaty.


  Austria-Hungary.

In Austria-Hungary the anti-Semitic impulses came almost simultaneously
from the North and East. Already in the 'seventies the doctrinaire
anti-Semitism of Berlin had found an echo in Budapest. Two members of
the diet, Victor Istoczy and Geza Onody, together with a publicist named
Georg Marczianyi, busied themselves in making known the doctrine of Marr
in Hungary. Marczianyi, who translated the German Judeophobe pamphlets
into Magyar, and the Magyar works of Onody into German, was the chief
medium between the northern and southern schools. In 1880 Istoczy tried
to establish a "Nichtjuden Bund" in Hungary, with statutes literally
translated from those of the German anti-Semitic league. The movement,
however, made no progress, owing to the stalwart Liberalism of the
predominant political parties, and of the national principles inherited
from the revolution of 1848. The large part played by the Jews in that
struggle, and the fruitful patriotism with which they had worked for the
political and economic progress of the country, had created, too, a
strong claim on the gratitude of the best elements in the nation.
Nevertheless, among the ultramontane clergy, the higher aristocracy, the
ill-paid minor officials, and the ignorant peasantry, the seeds of a
tacit anti-Semitism were latent. It was probably the aversion of the
nobility from anything in the nature of a demagogic agitation which for
a time prevented these seeds from germinating. The news of the uprising
in Russia and the appearance of Jewish refugees on the frontier, had the
effect of giving a certain prominence to the agitation of Istoczy and
Onody and of exciting the rural communities, but it did not succeed in
impressing the public with the pseudo-scientific doctrines of the new
anti-Semitism. It was not until the agitators resorted to the Blood
Accusation--that never-failing decoy of obscurantism and
superstition--that Hungary took a definite place in the anti-Semitic
movement. The outbreak was short and fortunately bloodless, but while it
lasted its scandals shocked the whole of Europe.

Dr August Rohling, professor of Hebrew at the university of Prague, a
Roman Catholic theologian of high position but dubious learning, had for
some years assisted the Hungarian anti-Semites with _réchauffés_ of
Eisenmenger's _Enidecktes Judenthum_ (Frankfurt a/M. 1700). In 1881 he
made a solemn deposition before the Supreme Court accusing the Jews of
being bound by their law to work the moral and physical ruin of
non-Jews. He followed this up with an offer to depose on oath that the
murder of Christians for ritual purposes was a doctrine secretly taught
among Jews. Professor Delitzsch and other eminent Hebraists, both
Christian and Jewish, exposed and denounced the ignorance and
malevolence of Rohling, but were unable to stem the mischief he was
causing. In April 1882 a Christian girl named Esther Sobymossi was
missed from the Hungarian village of Tisza Eszlar, where a small
community of Jews were settled. The rumour got abroad that she had been
kidnapped and murdered by the Jews, but it remained the burden of idle
gossip, and gave rise to neither judicial complaint nor public
disorders. At this moment the question of the Bosnian Pacification
credits was before the diet. The unpopularity of the task assumed by
Austria-Hungary, under the treaty of Berlin, which was calculated to
strengthen the disaffected Croat element in the empire, had reduced the
government majority to very small proportions, and all the reactionary
factions in the country were accordingly in arms. The government was
violently and unscrupulously attacked on all sides. On the 23rd of May
there was a debate in the diet when M. Onody, in an incendiary harangue,
told the story of the missing girl at Tisza Eszlar, and accused
ministers of criminal indulgence to races alien to the national spirit.
In the then excited state of the public mind on the Croat question, the
manoeuvre was adroitly conceived. The government fell into the trap, and
treated the story with lofty disdain. Thereupon the anti-Semites set to
work on the case, and M. Joseph Bary, the magistrate at Nyiregyhaza, and
a noted anti-Semite, was induced to go to Tisza Eszlar and institute an
inquiry. All the anti-liberal elements in the country now became banded
together in this effort to discredit the liberal government, and for the
first time the Hungarian anti-Semites found themselves at the head of a
powerful party. Fifteen Jews were arrested and thrown into prison. No
pains were spared in preparing the case for trial. Perjury and even
forgery were freely resorted to. The son of one of the accused, a boy of
fourteen, was taken into custody by the police, and by threats and
cajoleries prevailed upon to give evidence for the prosecution. He was
elaborately coached for the terrible _rôle_ he was to play. The trial
opened at Nyiregyhaza on the 19th of June, and lasted till the 3rd of
August. It was one of the most dramatic _causes celèbres_ of the
century. Under the brilliant cross-examination of the advocates for the
defence the whole of the shocking conspiracy was gradually exposed. The
public prosecutor thereupon withdrew from the case, and the four
judges--the chief of whom held strong anti-Semitic opinions--unanimously
acquitted all the prisoners. The case proved the death-blow of Hungarian
anti-Semitism. Although another phase of the Jewish question, which will
be referred to presently, had still to occupy the public mind, the shame
brought on the nation by the Tisza Eszlar conspiracy effectually
prevented the anti-Semites from raising their voices with any effect
again.

Meanwhile a more formidable and complicated outburst was preparing in
Austria itself. Here the lines of the German agitation were closely
followed, but with far more dramatic results. It was exclusively
political--that is to say, it appealed to anti-Jewish prejudices for
party purposes while it sought to rehabilitate them on a
pseudo-scientific basis, racial and economic. At first it was confined
to sporadic pamphleteers. By their side there gradually grew up a school
of Christian Socialists, recruited from the ultra-Clericals, for the
study and application of the doctrines preached at Mainz by Archbishop
Ketteler. This constituted a complete Austrian analogue to the
Evangelical-Socialist movement started in Germany by Herr Stöcker. For
some years the two movements remained distinct, but signs of
approximation were early visible. Thus one of the first complaints of
the anti-Semites was that the Jews were becoming masters of the soil.
This found an echo in the agrarian principles of the Christian
Socialists, as expounded by Rudolph Meyer, in which individualism in
landed property was admitted on the condition that the landowners were
"the families of the nation" and not "cosmopolitan financiers." A
further indication of anti-Semitism is found in a speech delivered in
1878 by Prince Alois von Liechtenstein (b. 1846), the most prominent
disciple of Rudolph Meyer, who denounced the national debt as a tribute
paid by the state to cosmopolitan rentiers (Nitti, _Catholic Socialism_,
pp. 200, 201, 211, 216). The growing disorder in parliament, due to the
bitter struggle between the German and Czech parties, served to bring
anti-Semitism into the field of practical politics. Since 1867 the
German Liberals had been in power. They had made enemies of the
Clericals by tampering with the concordat, and they had split up their
own party by the federalist policy adopted by Count Taaffe. The Radical
secessionists in their turn found it difficult to agree, and an
ultra-national German wing formed itself into a separate party under the
leadership of Ritter von Schonerer (b. 1842), a Radical nationalist of
the most violent type. In 1882 two anti-Semitic leagues had been founded
in Vienna, and to these the Radical nationalists now appealed for
support. The growing importance of the party led the premier, Count
Taaffe, to angle for the support of the Clericals by accepting a portion
of the Christian Socialist programme. The hostility this excited in the
liberal press, largely written by Jews, served to bring the feudal
Christian Socialists and Radical anti-Semites together. In 1891 these
strangely assorted factions became consolidated, and during the
elections of that year Prince Liechtenstein came forward as an
anti-Semitic candidate and the acknowledged leader of the party. The
elections resulted in the return of fifteen anti-Semites to the
Reichsrath, chiefly from Vienna.

Although Prince Liechtenstein and the bulk of the Christian Socialists
had joined the anti-Semites with the support of the Clerical organ, the
_Vaterland_, the Clerical party as a whole still held aloof from the
Jew-baiters. The events of 1892-1895 put an end to their hesitation. The
Hungarian government, in compliance with long-standing pledges to the
liberal party, introduced into the diet a series of ecclesiastical
reform bills providing for civil marriage, freedom of worship, and the
legal recognition of Judasim on an equality with other denominations.
These proposals, which synchronized with Ahlwardt's turbulent agitation
in Germany, gave a great impulse to anti-Semitism and served to drive
into its ranks a large number of Clericals. The agitation was taken in
hand by the Roman Catholic clergy, and the pulpits resounded with
denunciations of the Jews. One clergyman, Father Deckert, was prosecuted
for preaching the Blood Accusation and convicted (1894). Cardinal
Schlauch, bishop of Grosswardein, declared in the Hungarian House of
Magnates that the Liberals were in league with "cosmopolitans" for the
ruin of the country. In October 1894 the magnates adopted two of the
ecclesiastical bills with amendments, but threw out the Jewish bill by a
majority of six. The crown sided with the magnates, and the ministry
resigned, although it had a majority in the Lower House. An effort was
made to form a Clerical cabinet, but it failed. Baron Banffy was then
entrusted with the construction of a fresh Liberal ministry. The
announcement that he would persist with the ecclesiastical bills lashed
the Clericals and anti-Semites into a fury, and the agitation broke out
afresh. The pope addressed a letter to Count Zichy encouraging the
magnates to resist, and once more two of the bills were amended, and the
third rejected. The papal nuncio, Mgr. Agliardi, now thought proper to
pay a visit to Budapest, where he allowed himself to be interviewed on
the crisis. This interference in the domestic concerns of Hungary was
deeply resented by the Liberals, and Baron Banffy requested Count
Kalnoky, the imperial minister of foreign affairs, to protest against it
at the Vatican. Count Kalnoky refused and tendered his resignation to
the emperor. Clerical sympathies were predominant in Vienna, and the
emperor was induced for a moment to decline the count's resignation. It
soon became clear, however, that the Hungarians were resolved to see the
crisis out, and that in the end Vienna would be compelled to give way.
The emperor accordingly retraced his steps, Count Kalnoky's resignation
was accepted, the papal nuncio was recalled, a batch of new magnates
were created, and the Hungarian ecclesiastical bills passed.

Simultaneously with this crisis another startling phase of the
anti-Semitic drama was being enacted in Vienna itself. Encouraged by the
support of the Clericals the anti-Semites resolved to make an effort to
carry the Vienna municipal elections. So far the alliance of the
Clericals with the anti-Semites had been unofficial, but on the eve of
the elections (January 1895) the pope, influenced partly by the
Hungarian crisis and partly by an idea of Cardinal Rampolla that the
best antidote to democratic socialism would be a clerically controlled
fusion of the Christian Socialists and anti-Semites, sent his blessing
to Prince Liechtenstein and his followers. This action alarmed the
government and a considerable body of the higher episcopate, who felt
assured that any permanent encouragement given to the anti-Semites would
in the end strengthen the parties of sedition and disorder. Cardinal
Schönborn was despatched in haste to Rome to expostulate with the
pontiff, and his representations were strongly supported by the French
and Belgian bishops. The mischief was however, done, and although the
pope sent a verbal message to Prince Liechtenstein excluding the
anti-Semites from his blessing, the elections resulted in a great
triumph for the Jew-haters. The municipal council was immediately
dissolved by the government, and new elections were ordered, but these
only strengthened the position of the anti-Semites, who carried 92 seats
out of a total of 138. A cabinet crisis followed, and the premiership
was entrusted to the Statthalter of Galicia, Count Badeni, who assumed
office with a pledge of war to the knife against anti-Semitism. In
October the new municipal council elected as burgomaster of Vienna Dr
Karl Lueger (b. 1844), a vehement anti-Semite, who had displaced Prince
Liechtenstein as leader of the party. The emperor declined to sanction
the election, but the council repeated it in face of the imperial
displeasure. Once more a dissolution was ordered, and for three months
the city was governed by administrative commissioners. In February 1896
elections were again held, and the anti-Semites were returned with an
increased majority. The emperor then capitulated, and after a temporary
arrangement, by which for one year Dr Lueger acted as vice-burgomaster
and handed over the burgomastership to an inoffensive nominee, permitted
the municipal council to have its way. The growing anarchy in parliament
at this moment served still further to strengthen the anti-Semites, and
their conquest of Vienna was speedily followed by a not less striking
conquest of the Landtag of Lower Austria (November 1896).

Since then a reaction of sanity has slowly but surely asserted itself.
In 1908 the anti-Semites had governed Vienna twelve years, and, although
they had accomplished much mischief, the millennium of which they were
supposed to be the heralds had not dawned. On the contrary, the
commercial interests of the city had suffered and the rates had been
enormously increased (_Neue Freie Presse_, 29th March 1901), while the
predatory hopes which secured them office had only been realized on a
small and select scale. The spectacle of a Clerico-anti-Semitic tammany
in Vienna had strengthened the resistance of the better elements in the
country. Time had also shown that Christian Socialism is only a disguise
for high Toryism, and that the German Radicals who were originally
induced to join the anti-Semites had been victimized by the Clericals.
The fruits of this disillusion began to show themselves in the general
elections of 1900-1901, when the anti-Semites lost six seats in the
Reichsrath. The elections were followed (26th January 1901) by a papal
encyclical on Christian democracy, in which Christian Socialism was
declared to be a term unacceptable to the Church, and the faithful were
adjured to abstain from agitation of a demagogic and revolutionary
character, and "to respect the rights of others." Nevertheless, in 1907
the Christian Socialists trebled their representation in the Reichsrath.
This, however, was due more to their alliance with the German national
parties than to any large increase of anti-Semitism in the electorate.


  France.

The last country in Europe to make use of the teachings of German
anti-Semitism in its party politics was France. The fact that the
movement should have struck root in a republican country, where the
ideals of democratic freedom have been so passionately cultivated, has
been regarded as one of the paradoxes of our latter-day history. As a
matter of fact, it is more surprising that it was not adopted earlier.
All the social and political conditions which produced anti-Semitism in
Germany were present in France, but in an aggravated form due primarily
to the very republican _régime_ which at first sight seemed to be a
guarantee against it. In the monarchical states the dominance of the
_bourgeoisie_ was tempered in a measure by the power of the crown and
the political activity of the aristocracy, which carried with them a
very real restraining influence in the matter of political honour and
morality. In France these restraining influences were driven out of
public life by the republic. The nobility both of the _ancien régime_
and the empire stood aloof, and politics were abandoned for the most
part to professional adventurers, while the _bourgeoisie_ assumed the
form of an omnipotent plutocracy. This naturally attracted to France all
the financial adventurers in Europe, and in the train of the immigration
came not a few German Jews, alienated from their own country by the
agitation of Marr and Stöcker. Thus the _bourgeoisie_ was not only more
powerful in France than in other countries, but the obnoxiousness of its
Jewish element was accentuated by a tinge of the national enemy. The
anti-clericalism of the _bourgeois_ republic and its unexampled series
of financial scandals, culminating in the Panama "Krach," thus sufficed
to give anti-Semitism a strong hold on the public mind.

Nevertheless, it was not until 1882 that the anti-Jewish movement was
seriously heard of in France. Paul Bontoux (b. 1820), who had formerly
been in the employ of the Rothschilds, but had been obliged to leave
the firm in consequence of his disastrous speculations, had joined the
Legitimist party, and had started the Union Générale with funds obtained
from his new allies. Bontoux promised to break up the alleged financial
monopoly of the Jews and Protestants and to found a new plutocracy in
its stead, which should be mainly Roman Catholic and aristocratic. The
bait was eagerly swallowed. For five years the Union Générale, with the
blessing of the pope, pursued an apparently prosperous career. Immense
schemes were undertaken, and the 123-fr. shares rose gradually to 3200
francs. The whole structure, however, rested on a basis of audacious
speculation, and in January 1882 the Union Générale failed, with
liabilities amounting to 312,000,000 francs. The cry was at once raised
that the collapse was due to the manoeuvres of the Jews, and a strong
anti-Semitic feeling manifested itself in clerical and aristocratic
circles. In 1886 violent expression was given to this feeling in a book
since become famous, _La France juive_, by Edouard Drumont (b. 1844).
The author illustrated the theories of German anti-Semitism with a
_chronique scandaleuse_ full of piquant personalities, in which the
corruption of French national life under Jewish influences was painted
in alarming colours. The book was read with avidity by the public, who
welcomed its explanations of the obviously growing debauchery. The
Wilson scandals and the suspension of the Panama Company in the
following year, while not bearing out Drumont's anti-Semitism, fully
justified his view of the prevailing corruption. Out of this condition
of things rose the Boulangist movement, which rallied all the
disaffected elements in the country, including Drumont's following of
anti-Semites. It was not, however, until the flight of General Boulanger
and the ruin of his party that anti-Semitism came forward as a political
movement.

The chief author of the rout of Boulangism was a Jewish politician and
journalist, Joseph Reinach (b. 1856), formerly private secretary to
Gambetta, and one of the ablest men in France. He was a Frenchman by
birth and education, but his father and uncles were Germans, who had
founded an important banking establishment in Paris. Hence he was held
to personify the alien Jewish domination in France, and the
ex-Boulangists turned against him and his co-religionists with fury. The
Boulangist agitation had for a second time involved the Legitimists in
heavy pecuniary losses, and under the leadership of the marquis de Morès
they now threw all their influence on the side of Drumont. An
anti-Semitic league was established, and with Royalist assistance
branches were organized all over the country. The Franco-Russian
alliance in 1891, when the persecutions of the Jews by Pobêdonostsev
were attracting the attention of Europe, served to invest Drumont's
agitation with a fashionable and patriotic character. It was a sign of
the spiritual approximation of the two peoples. In 1892 Drumont founded
a daily anti-Semitic newspaper, _La Libre Parole_. With the organization
of this journal a regular campaign for the discovery of scandals was
instituted. At the same time a body of aristocratic swashbucklers, with
the marquis de Morès and the comte de Lamase at their head, set
themselves to terrorize the Jews and provoke them to duels. At a meeting
held at Neuilly in 1891, Jules Guérin, one of the marquis de Morès's
lieutenants, had demanded rhetorically _un cadavre de Juif_. He had not
long to wait. Anti-Semitism was most powerful in the army, which was the
only branch of the public service in which the reactionary classes were
fully represented. The republican law compelling the seminarists to
serve their term in the army had strengthened its Clerical and Royalist
elements, and the result was a movement against the Jewish officers, of
whom 500 held commissions. A series of articles in the _Libre Parole_
attacking these officers led to a number of ferocious duels, and these
culminated in 1892 in the death of an amiable and popular Jewish
officer, Captain Armand Mayer, of the Engineers, who fell, pierced
through the lungs by the marquis de Morès. This tragedy, rendered all
the more painful by the discovery that Captain Mayer had chivalrously
fought to shield a friend, aroused a great deal of popular indignation
against the anti-Semites, and for a moment it was believed that the
agitation had been killed with its victim.

Towards the end of 1892, the discovery of the widespread corruption
practised by the Panama Company gave a fresh impulse to anti-Semitism.
The revelations were in a large measure due to the industry of the
_Libre Parole_; and they were all the more welcome to the readers of
that journal since it was discovered that three Jews were implicated in
the scandals, one of whom, baron de Reinach, was uncle and father-in-law
to the hated destroyer of Boulangism. The escape of the other two, Dr
Cornelius Herz and M. Arton, and the difficulties experienced in
obtaining their extradition, deepened the popular conviction that the
authorities were implicated in the scandals, and kept the public eye for
a long time absorbed by the otherwise restricted Jewish aspects of the
scandals. In 1894 the military side of the agitation was revived by the
arrest of a prominent Jewish staff officer, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, on a
charge of treason. From the beginning the hand of the anti-Semite was
flagrant in the new sensation. The first hint of the arrest appeared in
the _Libre Parole_; and before the facts had been officially
communicated to the public that journal was busy with a campaign against
the war minister, based on the apprehension that, in conspiracy with the
_Juiverie_ and his republican colleagues, he might exert himself to
shield the traitor. Anti-Semitic feeling was now thoroughly aroused.
Panama had prepared the people to believe anything; and when it was
announced that a court-martial, sitting in secret, had convicted
Dreyfus, there was a howl of execration against the Jews from one end of
the country to the other, although the alleged crime of the convict and
the evidence by which it was supported were quite unknown. Dreyfus was
degraded and transported for life amid unparalleled scenes of public
excitement.

The Dreyfus Case registers the climax not only of French, but of
European anti-Semitism. It was the most ambitious and most unscrupulous
attempt yet made to prove the nationalist hypothesis of the
anti-Semites, and in its failure it afforded the most striking
illustration of the dangers of the whole movement by bringing France to
the verge of revolution. For a few months after the Dreyfus
court-martial there was a comparative lull; but the highly strung
condition of popular passion was illustrated by a violent debate on "The
Jewish Peril" in the Chamber of Deputies (25th April 1895), and by two
outrages with explosives at the Rothschild bank in Paris. Meanwhile the
family of Dreyfus, absolutely convinced of his innocence, were casting
about for the means of clearing his character and securing his
liberation. They were wealthy, and their activity unsettled the public
mind and aroused the apprehensions of the conspirators. Had the latter
known how to preserve silence, the mystery would perhaps have been yet
unsolved; but in their anxiety to allay all suspicions they made one
false step, which proved the beginning of their ruin. Through their
friends in the press they secured the publication of a facsimile of a
document known as the _Bordereau_--a list of documents supposed to be in
Dreyfus's handwriting and addressed apparently to the military attaché
of a foreign power, which was alleged to constitute the chief evidence
against the convict. It was hoped by this publication to put an end to
the doubts of the so-called Dreyfusards. The result, however, was only
to give them a clue on which they worked with remarkable ingenuity. To
prove that the _Bordereau_ was not in Dreyfus's handwriting was not
difficult. Indeed, its authorship was recognized almost on the day of
publication; but the Dreyfusards held their hands in order to make
assurance doubly sure by further evidence. Meanwhile one of the officers
of the general staff, Colonel Picquart, had convinced himself by an
examination of the _dossier_ of the trial that a gross miscarriage of
justice had taken place. On mentioning his doubts to his superiors, who
were animated partly by anti-Semitic feeling and partly by reluctance to
confess to a mistake, he was ordered to the Tunisian hinterland on a
dangerous expedition. Before leaving Paris, however, he took the
precaution to confide his discovery to his legal adviser. Harassed by
their anxieties, the conspirators made further communications to the
newspapers; and the government, questioned and badgered in parliament,
added to the revelations. The new disclosures, so far from stopping the
Dreyfusards, proved to them, among other things, that the conviction had
been partially based on documents which had not been communicated to the
counsel for the defence, and hence that the judges had been tampered
with by the ministry of war behind the prisoner's back. So far, too, as
these documents related to correspondence with foreign military
attachés, it was soon ascertained that they were forgeries. In this way
a terrible indictment was gradually drawn up against the ministry of
war. The first step was taken towards the end of 1897 by a brother of
Captain Dreyfus, who, in a letter to the minister of war, denounced
Major Esterhazy as the real author of the _Bordereau_. The authorities,
supported by parliament, declined to reopen the Dreyfus Case, but they
ordered a court-martial on Esterhazy, which was held with closed doors
and resulted in his acquittal. It now became clear that nothing short of
an appeal to public opinion and a full exposure of all the iniquities
that had been perpetrated would secure justice at the hands of the
military chiefs. On behalf of Dreyfus, Émile Zola, the eminent novelist,
formulated the case against the general staff of the army in an open
letter to the president of the republic, which by its dramatic
accusations startled the whole world. The letter was denounced as wild
and fantastic even by those who were in favour of revision. Zola was
prosecuted for libel and convicted, and had to fly the country; but the
agitation he had started was taken in hand by others, notably M.
Clémenceau, M. Reinach and M. Yves Guyot. In August 1898 their efforts
found their first reward. A re-examination of the documents in the case
by M. Cavaignac, then minister of war, showed that one was undoubtedly
forged. Colonel Henry, of the intelligence department of the war office,
then confessed that he had fabricated the document, and, on being sent
to Mont Valérien under arrest, cut his throat.

In spite of this damaging discovery the war office still persisted in
believing Dreyfus guilty, and opposed a fresh inquiry. It was supported
by three successive ministers of war, and apparently an overwhelming
body of public opinion. By this time the question of the guilt or
innocence of Dreyfus had become an altogether subsidiary issue. As in
Germany and Austria, the anti-Semitic crusade had passed into the hands
of the political parties. On the one hand the Radicals and Socialists,
recognizing the anti-republican aims of the agitators and alarmed by the
clerical predominance in the army, had thrown in their lot with the
Dreyfusards; on the other the reactionaries, anxious to secure the
support of the army, took the opposite view, denounced their opponents
as _sans patrie_, and declared that they were conspiring to weaken and
degrade the army in the face of the national enemy. The controversy was,
consequently, no longer for or against Dreyfus, but for or against the
army, and behind it was a life-or-death struggle between the republic
and its enemies. The situation became alarming. Rumours of military
plots filled the air. Powerful leagues for working up public feeling
were formed and organized; attempts to discredit the republic and
intimidate the government were made. The president was insulted; there
were tumults in the streets, and an attempt was made by M. Déroulède to
induce the military to march on the Elysée and upset the republic. In
this critical situation France, to her eternal honour, found men with
sufficient courage to do the right. The Socialists, by rallying to the
Radicals against the reactionaries, secured a majority for the defence
of the republic in parliament. Brisson's cabinet transmitted to the
court of cassation an application for the revision of the case against
Dreyfus; and that tribunal, after an elaborate inquiry, which fully
justified Zola's famous letter, quashed and annulled the proceedings of
the court-martial, and remitted the accused to another court-martial, to
be held at Rennes. Throughout these proceedings the military party
fought tooth and nail to impede the course of justice; and although the
innocence of Dreyfus had been completely established, it concentrated
all its efforts to secure a fresh condemnation of the prisoner at
Rennes. Popular passion was at fever heat, and it manifested itself in
an attack on M. Labori, one of the counsel for the defence, who was shot
and wounded on the eve of his cross-examination of the witnesses for the
prosecution. To the amazement and indignation of the whole world outside
France, the Rennes court-martial again found the prisoner guilty; but
all reliance on the conscientiousness of the verdict was removed by a
rider, which found "extenuating circumstances," and by a reduction of
the punishment to ten years' imprisonment, to which was added a
recommendation to mercy. The verdict was evidently an attempt at a
compromise, and the government resolved to advise the president of the
republic to pardon Dreyfus. This lame conclusion did not satisfy the
accused; but his innocence had been so clearly proved, and on political
grounds there were such urgent reasons for desiring a termination of the
affair, that it was accepted without protest by the majority of moderate
men.

The rehabilitation of Dreyfus, however, did not pass without another
effort on the part of the reactionaries to turn the popular passions
excited by the case to their own advantage. After the failure of
Déroulède's attempt to overturn the republic, the various Royalist and
Boulangist leagues, with the assistance of the anti-Semites, organized
another plot. This was discovered by the government, and the leaders
were arrested. Jules Guérin, secretary of the anti-Semitic league, shut
himself up in the league offices in the rue Chabrol, Paris, which had
been fortified and garrisoned by a number of his friends, armed with
rifles. For more than a month these anti-Semites held the authorities at
bay, and some 5000 troops were employed in the siege. The conspirators
were all tried by the senate, sitting as a high court, and Guérin was
sentenced to ten years' imprisonment. The evidence showed that the
anti-Semitic organization had taken an active part in the
anti-republican plot (see the report of the Commission d'Instruction in
the _Petit Temps_, 1st November 1899).

The government now resolved to strike at the root of the mischief by
limiting the power of the religious orders, and with this view a drastic
Association bill was introduced into the chambers. This anti-clerical
move provoked the wildest passions of the reactionaries, but it found an
overwhelming support in the elections of 1902 and the bill became law.
The war thus definitely reopened soon led to a revival of the Dreyfus
controversy. The nationalists flooded the country with incendiary
defamations of "the government of national treason," and Dreyfus on his
part loudly demanded a fresh trial. It was clear that conciliation and
compromise were useless. Early in 1905 M. Jaurès urged upon the chamber
that the demand of the Jewish officer should be granted if only to
tranquillize the country. The necessary _faits nouveaux_ were speedily
found by the minister of war, General André, and having been examined by
a special commission of revision were ordered to be transmitted to the
court of cassation for final adjudication. On the 12th of July 1906, the
court, all chambers united, gave its judgment. After a lengthy review of
the case it declared unanimously that the whole accusation against
Dreyfus had been disproved, and it quashed the judgment of the Rennes
court-martial _sans renvoi_. The explanation of the whole case is that
Esterhazy and Henry were the real culprits; that they had made a trade
of supplying the German government with military documents; and that
once the _Bordereau_ was discovered they availed themselves of the
anti-Jewish agitation to throw suspicion on Dreyfus.

Thus ended this famous case, to the relief of the whole country and with
the approval of the great majority of French citizens. Except a knot of
anti-Semitic monomaniacs all parties bowed loyally to the judgment of
the court of cassation. The government gave the fullest effect to the
judgment. Dreyfus and Picquart were restored to the active list of the
army with the ranks respectively of major and general of brigade.
Dreyfus was also created a knight of the Legion of Honour, and received
the decoration in public in the artillery pavilion of the military
school. Zola, to whose efforts the triumph of truth was chiefly due, had
not been spared to witness the final scene, but the chambers decided to
give his remains a last resting-place in the Pantheon. When three months
later M. Clémenceau formed his first cabinet he appointed General
Picquart minister of war. Nothing indeed was left undone to repair the
terrible series of wrongs which had grown out of the Dreyfus case.
Nevertheless its destructive work could not be wholly healed. For over
ten years it had been a nightmare to France, and it now modified the
whole course of French history. In the ruin of the French Church, which
owed its disestablishment very largely to the Dreyfus conspiracy, may be
read the most eloquent warning against the demoralizing madness of
anti-Semitism.

In sympathy with the agitation in France there has been a similar
movement in Algeria, where the European population have long resented
the admission of the native Jews to the rights of French citizenship.
The agitation has been marked by much violence, and most of the
anti-Semitic deputies in the French parliament, including M. Drumont,
have found constituencies in Algeria. As the local anti-Semites are
largely Spaniards and Levantine riff-raff, the agitation has not the
peculiar nationalist bias which characterizes continental anti-Semitism.
Before the energy of the authorities it has lately shown signs of
subsiding.


  Great Britain, &c.

While the main activity of anti-Semitism has manifested itself in
Germany, Russia, Rumania, Austria-Hungary and France, its vibratory
influences have been felt in other countries when conditions favourable
to its extension have presented themselves. In England more than one
attempt to acclimatize the doctrines of Marr and Treitschke has been
made. The circumstance that at the time of the rise of German
anti-Semitism a premier of Hebrew race, Lord Beaconsfield, was in power
first suggested the Jewish bogey to English political extremists. The
Eastern crisis of 1876-1878, which was regarded by the Liberal party as
primarily a struggle between Christianity, as represented by Russia, and
a degrading Semitism, as represented by Turkey, accentuated the
anti-Jewish feeling, owing to the anti-Russian attitude adopted by the
government. Violent expression to the ancient prejudices against the
Jews was given by Sir J.G. Tollemache Sinclair (_A Defence of Russia_,
1877). Mr T.P. O'Connor, in a life of Lord Beaconsfield (1878), pictured
him as the instrument of the Jewish people, "moulding the whole policy
of Christendom to Jewish aims." Professor Goldwin Smith, in several
articles in the _Nineteenth Century_ (1878, 1881 and 1882), sought to
synthetize the growing anti-Jewish feeling by adopting the nationalist
theories of the German anti-Semites. This movement did not fail to find
an equivocal response in the speeches of some of the leading Liberal
statesmen; but on the country generally it produced no effect. It was
revived when the persecutions in Russia threatened England with a great
influx of Polish Jews, whose mode of life was calculated to lower the
standard of living in the industries in which they were employed, and it
has left its trace in the anti-alien legislation of 1905. In 1883
Stöcker visited London, but received a very unflattering reception.
Abortive attempts to acclimatize anti-Semitism have also been made in
Switzerland, Belgium, Greece and the United States.

Anti-Semitism made a great deal of history during the thirty years up to
1908, but has left no permanent mark of a constructive kind on the
social and political evolution of Europe. It is the fruit of a great
ethnographic and political error, and it has spent itself in political
intrigues of transparent dishonesty. Its racial doctrine is at best a
crude hypothesis: its nationalist theory has only served to throw into
striking relief the essentially economic bases of modern society, while
its political activity has revealed the vulgarity and ignorance which
constitute its main sources of strength. So far from injuring the Jews,
it has really given Jewish racial separatism a new lease of life. Its
extravagant accusations, as in the Tisza Eszlar and Dreyfus cases, have
resulted in the vindication of the Jewish character. Its agitation
generally, coinciding with the revival of interest in Jewish history,
has helped to transfer Jewish solidarity from a religious to a racial
basis. The bond of a common race, vitalized by a new pride in Hebrew
history and spurred on to resistance by the insults of the anti-Semites,
has given a new spirit and a new source of strength to Judaism at a
moment when the approximation of ethical systems and the revolt against
dogma were sapping its essentially religious foundations. In the whole
history of Judaism, perhaps, there have been no more numerous or
remarkable instances of reversions to the faith than in the period in
question. The reply of the Jews to anti-Semitism has taken two
interesting practical forms. In the first place there is the so-called
Zionist movement, which is a kind of Jewish nationalism and is vitiated
by the same errors that distinguish its anti-Semitic analogue (see
ZIONISM). In the second place, there is a movement represented by the
Maccabaeans' Society in London, which seeks to unite the Jewish people
in an effort to raise the Jewish character and to promote a higher
consciousness of the dignity of the race. It lays no stress on
orthodoxy, but welcomes all who strive to render Jewish conduct an
adequate reply to the theories of the anti-Semites. Both these movements
are elements of fresh vitality to Judaism, and they are probably
destined to produce important fruit in future years. A splendid spirit
of generosity has also been displayed by the Jewish community in
assisting and relieving the victims of the Jew-haters. Besides countless
funds raised by public subscription, Baron de Hirsch founded a colossal
scheme for transplanting persecuted Jews to new countries under new
conditions of life, and endowed it with no less a sum than £9,000,000
(see HIRSCH, MAURICE DE).

Though anti-Semitism has been unmasked and discredited, it is to be
feared that its history is not yet at an end. While there remain in
Russia and Rumania over six millions of Jews who are being
systematically degraded, and who periodically overflow the western
frontier, there must continue to be a Jewish question in Europe; and
while there are weak governments, and ignorant and superstitious
elements in the enfranchized classes of the countries affected, that
question will seek to play a part in politics.

  LITERATURE.--No impartial history of modern anti-Semitism has yet been
  written. The most comprehensive works on the subject, _Israel among
  the Nations_, by A. Leroy-Beaulieu (1895), and _L'Antisémitisme, son
  histoire et ses causes_, by Bernard Lazare (1894), are collections of
  studies rather than histories. M. Lazare's work will be found most
  useful by the student on account of its detached standpoint and its
  valuable bibliographical notes. A good list of works relating to
  Jewish ethnography will be found at the end of M. Isidor Loeb's
  valuable article, "Juifs," in the _Dictionnaire universel de
  géographie_ (1884). To these should be added, Adolf Jellinek, _Der
  Jüdische Stamm_ (1869); Chwolson, _Die semitischen Volker_ (1872);
  Nossig, _Materialien zur Statistik_ (1887); Jacobs, _Jewish
  Statistics_ (1891); and Andree, _Zur Volkskunde der Juden_ (1881). A
  bibliography of the Jewish question from 1875 to 1884 has been
  published by Mr Joseph Jacobs (1885). Useful additions and
  rectifications will be found in the _Jewish World_, 11th September
  1885. During the period since 1885 the anti-Semitic movement has
  produced an immense pamphlet literature. Some of these productions
  have already been referred to; others will be found in current
  bibliographies under the names of the personages mentioned, such as
  Stöcker, Ahlwardt, &c. On the Russian persecutions, besides the works
  quoted by Jacobs, see the pamphlet issued by the Russo-Jewish
  Committee in 1890, and the annual reports of the Russo-Jewish Mansion
  House Fund; _Les Juifs de Russie_ (Paris, 1891); _Report of the
  Commissioners of Immigration upon the Causes which incite Immigration
  to the United States_ (Washington, 1892); _The New Exodus_, by Harold
  Frederic (1892); _Les Juifs russes_, by Leo Errera (Brussels, 1893).
  The most valuable collection of facts relating to the persecutions of
  1881-1882 are to be found in the _Feuilles Jaunes_ (52 nos.), compiled
  and circulated for the information of the European press by the
  Alliance Israélite of Paris. Complete collections are very scarce. For
  the struggle during the past decade the _Russische Correspondenz_ of
  Berlin should be consulted, together with its French and English
  editions. See also the publications of the _Bund_ (Geneva; Imprimerie
  Israélite); Séménoff, _The Russian Government and the Massacres_, and
  _Quarterly Review_, October 1906. On the Rumanian question, see
  Bluntschli, _Roumania and the Legal Status of the Jews_ (London,
  1879); _Wir Juden_ (Zürich, 1883); Schloss, _The Persecution of the
  Jews in Roumania_ (London, 1885); Schloss, _Notes of Information_
  (1886); Sincerus, _Juifs en Roumanie_ (London, 1901); Plotke, _Die
  rumanischen Juden unter dem Fürsten u. Konig Karl_ (1901); Dehn,
  _Diplomatic u. Hochfinanz in der rumanischen Judenfrage_ (1901);
  Conybeare, "Roumania as a Persecuting Power," _Nat. Rev_., February
  1901. On Hungary and the Tisza Eszlar Case, see (besides the
  references in Jacobs) Nathan, _Der Prozess van Tisza Eszlar_ (Berlin,
  1892). On this case and the Blood Accusation generally, see Wright,
  "The Jews and the Malicious Charge of Human Sacrifice," _Nineteenth
  Century_, 1883. The origins of the Austrian agitation are dealt with
  by Nitti, _Catholic Socialism_ (1895). This work, though inclining to
  anti-Semitism, should be consulted for the Christian Socialist
  elements in the whole continental agitation. The most valuable source
  of information on the Austrian movement is the _Österreichische
  Wochenschrift_, edited by Dr Bloch. See also pamphlets and speeches by
  the anti-Semitic leaders, Liechtenstein, Lueger, Schoenerer, &c. The
  case of the French anti-Semites is stated by E. Drumont in his _France
  juive_. and other works; the other side by Isidor Loeb, Bernard
  Lazare, Leonce Reynaud, &c. Of the Dreyfus Case there is an enormous
  literature: see especially the reports of the Zola and Picquart
  trials, the revision case before the Court of Cassation, the
  proceedings of the Rennes court-martial, and the final judgment of the
  Court of Cassation printed in full in the _Figaro_, July 15, 1906;
  also Reinach, _Histoire de l'affaire Dreyfus_ (Paris, 1908, 6 vols.),
  and the valuable series of volumes by Captain Paul Marin, MM.
  Clémenceau, Lazare, Yves Guyot, Paschal Grousset, Urbain Gohier, de
  Haime, de Pressensé, and the remarkable letters of Dreyfus (_Lettres
  d'un innocent_). An English history of the case was published by F.C.
  Conybeare (1898), whose articles and those of Sir Godfrey Lushington
  and L.J. Maxse in the _National Review_, 1897-1900, will be found
  invaluable by the student. On the Algerian question, see M. Wahl in
  the _Revue des études juives_; L. Forest, _Naturalisation des
  Israélites algériens_; and E. Audinet in the _Revue générale de droit
  international publique_, 1897, No. 4. On the history of the
  anti-Semitic movement generally, see the annual reports of the
  Alliance Israélite of Paris and the Anglo-Jewish Association of
  London, also the annual summaries published at the end of the Jewish
  year by the _Jewish Chronicle_ of London. The connexion of the
  movement with general party politics must be followed in the
  newspapers. The present writer has worked with a collection of
  newspaper cuttings numbering several thousands and ranging over thirty
  years.     (L. W.)



ANTISEPTICS (Gr. [Greek: anti], against, and [Greek: saeptikos],
putrefactive), the name given to substances which are used for the
prevention of bacterial development in animal or vegetable matter. Some
are true germicides, capable of destroying the bacteria, whilst others
merely prevent or inhibit their growth. The antiseptic method of
treating wounds (see SURGERY) was introduced by Lord Lister, and was an
outcome of Pasteur's germ theory of putrefaction. For the growth of
bacteria there must be a certain food supply, moisture, in most cases
oxygen, and a certain minimum temperature (see BACTERIOLOGY). These
conditions have been specially studied and applied in connexion with the
preserving of food (see FOOD PRESERVATION) and in the ancient practice
of embalming the dead, which is the earliest illustration of the
systematic use of antiseptics (see EMBALMING). In early inquiries a
great point was made of the prevention of putrefaction, and work was
done in the way of finding how much of an agent must be added to a given
solution, in order that the bacteria accidentally present might not
develop. But for various reasons this was an inexact method, and to-day
an antiseptic is judged by its effects on pure cultures of definite
pathogenic microbes, and on their vegetative and spore forms. Their
standardization has been effected in many instances, and a water
solution of carbolic acid of a certain fixed strength is now taken as
the standard with which other antiseptics are compared. The more
important of those in use to-day are carbolic acid, the perchloride and
biniodide of mercury, iodoform, formalin, salicylic acid, &c. Carbolic
acid is germicidal in strong solution, inhibitory in weaker ones. The
so-called "pure" acid is applied to infected living tissues, especially
to tuberculous sinuses or wounds, after scraping them, in order to
destroy any part of the tuberculous material still remaining. A solution
of 1 in 20 is used to sterilize instruments before an operation, and
towels or lint to be used for the patient. Care must always be taken to
avoid absorption (see CARBOLIC ACID). The perchloride of mercury is
another very powerful antiseptic used in solutions of strength 1 in
2000, 1 in 1000 and 1 in 500. This or the biniodide of mercury is the
last antiseptic applied to the surgeon's and assistants' hands before an
operation begins. They are not, however, to be used in the disinfection
of instruments, nor where any large abraded surface would favour
absorption. Boracic acid receives no mention here; though it is
popularly known as an antiseptic, it is in reality only a soothing
fluid, and bacteria will flourish comfortably in contact with it. Of the
dry antiseptics iodoform is constantly used in septic or tuberculous
wounds, and it appears to have an inhibitory action on _Bacillus
tuberculosis_. Its power depends on the fact that it is slowly
decomposed by the tissues, and free iodine given off. Among the more
recently introduced antiseptics, chinosol, a yellow substance freely
soluble in water, and lysol, another coal-tar derivative, are much used.
But every antiseptic, however good, is more or less toxic and irritating
to a wounded surface. Hence it is that the "antiseptic" method has been
replaced in the surgery of to-day by the "aseptic" method (see SURGERY),
which relies on keeping free from the invasion of bacteria rather than
destroying them when present.



ANTISTHENES (c. 444-365 B.C.), the founder of the Cynic school of
philosophy, was born at Athens of a Thracian mother, a fact which may
account for the extreme boldness of his attack on conventional thought.
In his youth he studied rhetoric under Gorgias, perhaps also under
Hippias and Prodicus. Gomperz suggests that he was originally in good
circumstances, but was reduced to poverty. However this may be, he came
under the influence of Socrates, and became a devoted pupil. So eager
was he to hear the words of Socrates that he used to walk daily from
Peiraeus to Athens, and persuaded his friends to accompany him. Filled
with enthusiasm for the Socratic idea of virtue, he founded a school of
his own in the Cynosarges, the hall of the bastards ([Greek: nothoi]).
Thither he attracted the poorer classes by the simplicity of his life
and teaching. He wore a cloak and carried a staff and a wallet, and this
costume became the uniform of his followers. Diogenes Laertius says that
his works filled ten volumes, but of these fragments only remain. His
favourite style seems to have been the dialogue, wherein we see the
effect of his early rhetorical training. Aristotle speaks of him as
uneducated and simple-minded, and Plato describes him as struggling in
vain with the difficulties of dialectic. His work represents one great
aspect of Socratic philosophy, and should be compared with the Cyrenaic
and Megarian doctrines.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Charles Chappuis, _Antisthène_ (Paris, 1854); A.
  Müller, _De Antisthenis cynici vita et scriptis_ (Dresden, 1860); T.
  Gomperz, _Greek Thinkers_ (Eng. trans., 1905), vol. ii. pp. 142 ff.,
  150 ff. For his philosophy see CYNICS, and for his pupils, Diogenes
  and Crates, see articles under these headings.



ANTISTROPHE, the portion of an ode which is sung by the chorus in its
returning movement from west to east, in response to the strophe, which
was sung from east to west. It is of the nature of a reply, and balances
the effect of the strophe. Thus, in Gray's ode called "The Progress of
Poesy," the strophe, which dwelt in triumphant accents on the beauty,
power and ecstasy of verse, is answered by the antistrophe, in a
depressed and melancholy key--

  "Man's feeble race what ills await,
   Labour, and Penury, the racks of Pain,
   Disease and Sorrow's weeping Train,
   And Death, sad refuge from the storms of Fate," &c.

When the sections of the chorus have ended their responses, they unite
and close in the epode, thus exemplifying the triple form in which the
ancient sacred hymns of Greece were composed, from the days of
Stesichorus onwards. As Milton says, "strophe, antistrophe and epode
were a kind of stanza framed only for the music then used with the
chorus that sang."



ANTITHESIS (the Greek for "setting opposite"), in rhetoric, the bringing
out of a contrast in the meaning by an obvious contrast in the
expression, as in the following:--"When there is need of silence, you
speak, and when there is need of speech, you are dumb; when present, you
wish to be absent, and when absent, you desire to be present; in peace
you are for war, and in war you long for peace; in council you descant
on bravery, and in the battle you tremble." Antithesis is sometimes
double or alternate, as in the appeal of Augustus:--"Listen, young men,
to an old man to whom old men were glad to listen when he was young."
The force of the antithesis is increased if the words on which the beat
of the contrast falls are alliterative, or otherwise similar in sound,
as--"The fairest but the falsest of her sex." There is nothing that
gives to expression greater point and vivacity than a judicious
employment of this figure; but, on the other hand, there is nothing more
tedious and trivial than a pseudo-antithetical style. Among English
writers who have made the most abundant use of antithesis are Pope,
Young, Johnson, and Gibbon; and especially Lyly in his _Euphues_. It is,
however, a much more common feature in French than in English; while in
German, with some striking exceptions, it is conspicuous by its absence.



ANTITYPE (Gr. [Greek: antitupos]), the correlative of "type," to which
it corresponds as the stamp to the die, or vice versa. In the sense of
copy or likeness the word occurs in the Greek New Testament (Heb. ix.
24; 1 Peter iii. 21), English "figure." By theological writers antitype
is employed to denote the reality of which a type is the prophetic
symbol. Thus, Christ is the antitype of many of the types of the Jewish
ritual. By the fathers of the Greek church (e.g. Gregory Nazianzen)
antitype is employed as a designation of the bread and wine in the
sacrament of the Lord's Supper.



ANTIUM (mod. _Anzio_), an ancient Volscian city on the coast of Latium,
about 33 m. S. of Rome. The legends as to its foundation, and the
accounts of its early relations with Rome, are untrustworthy; but Livy's
account of wars between Antium and Rome, early in the 4th century B.C.,
may perhaps be accepted. Antium is named with Ardea, Laurentum and
Circeii, as under Roman protection, in the treaty with Carthage in 348
B.C. In 341 it lost its independence after a rising with the rest of
Latium against Rome, and the beaks (_rostra_) of the six captured
Antiatine ships decorated and gave their name to the orators' tribunal
in the Roman Forum. At the end of the Republican period it became a
resort of wealthy Romans, and the Julian and Claudian emperors
frequently visited it; both Caligula and Nero were born there. The
latter founded a colony of veterans and built a new harbour, the
projecting moles of which are still extant. In the middle ages it was
deserted in favour of Nettuno: at the end of the 17th century Innocent
XII. and Clement XI. restored the harbour, not on the old site but to
the east of it, with the opening to the east, a mistake which leads to
its being frequently silted up; it has a depth of about 15 ft. Remains
of Roman villas are conspicuous all along the shore, both to the east
and to the north-west of the town. That of Nero cannot be certainly
identified, but is generally placed at the so-called Arco Muto, where
remains of a theatre (discovered in 1712 and covered up again) also
exist. Many works of art have been found. Of the famous temple of
Fortune (Horace, _Od_. i. 35) no remains are known. The sea is
encroaching slightly at Anzio, but some miles farther north-west the old
Roman coast-line now lies slightly inland (see TIBER). The Volscian city
stood on higher ground and somewhat away from the shore, though it
extended down to it. It was defended by a deep ditch, which can still be
traced, and by walls, a portion of which, on the eastern side,
constructed of rectangular blocks of tufa, was brought to light in 1897.
The modern place is a summer resort and has several villas, among them
the Villa Borghese.

  See A. Nibby, _Dintorni di Roma_, i. 181; _Notizie degli scavi,
  passim_.     (T. As.)



ANTIVARI (Montenegrin _Bar_, so called by the Venetians from its
position opposite Bari in Italy), a seaport of Montenegro which until
1878 belonged to Turkey. Pop. (1900) about 2500. The old town is built
inland, on a strip of country running between the Adriatic Sea and the
Sutorman range of mountains, overshadowed by the peak of Rumiya (5148
ft.). At a few hundred yards' distance it is invisible, hidden among
dense olive groves. Within, there is a ruinous walled village, and the
shell of an old Venetian fortress, surrounded by mosques and bazaars;
for Antivari is rather Turkish than Montenegrin. The fine bay of
Antivari, with Prstan, its port, is distant about one hour's drive
through barren and forbidding country, shut in by mountains. At the
northern horn of the bay stands Spizza, an Austrian military station.
Antivari contains the residence of its Roman Catholic archbishop, and,
in the centre of the shore, Topolitsa, the square undecorated palace of
the crown prince. Antivari is the name applied both to Prstan and the
old town. The Austrian Lloyd steamers call at times, and the "Puglia"
S.S. Company runs a regular service of steamers to and from Bari. As an
outlet for Montenegrin commerce, however, Antivari cannot compete with
the Austrian Cattaro, the harbour being somewhat difficult of access in
stormy weather. Fishing and olive-oil refining are the main industries.



ANT-LION, the name given to neuropterous insects of the family
_Myrmeleonidae_, with relatively short and apically clubbed antennae and
four large densely reticulated wings in which the apical veins enclose
regular oblong spaces. The perfect insects are for the most part
nocturnal and are believed to be carnivorous. The best-known species,
_Myrmeleon formicarius_, which may be found adult in the late summer,
occurs in many countries on the European continent, though like the rest
of this group it is not indigenous in England. Strictly speaking,
however, the term ant-lion applies to the larval form, which has been
known scientifically for over two hundred years, on account of its
peculiar and forbidding appearance and its skilful and unique manner of
entrapping prey by means of a pitfall. The abdomen is oval, sandy-grey
in hue and beset with warts and bristles; the prothorax forms a mobile
neck for the large square head, which carries a pair of long and
powerful toothed mandibles. It is in dry and sandy soil that the
ant-lion lays its trap. Having marked out the chosen site by a circular
groove, it starts to crawl backwards, using its abdomen as a plough to
shovel up the soil. By the aid of one front leg it places consecutive
heaps of loosened particles upon its head, then with a smart jerk throws
each little pile clear of the scene of operations. Proceeding thus it
gradually works its way from the circumference towards the centre. When
the latter is reached and the pit completed, the larva settles down at
the bottom, buried in the soil with only the jaws projecting above the
surface. Since the sides of the pit consist of loose sand they afford an
insecure foothold to any small insect that inadvertently ventures over
the edge. Slipping to the bottom the prey is immediately seized by the
lurking ant-lion; or if it attempt to scramble again up the treacherous
walls of the pit, is speedily checked in its efforts and brought down by
showers of loose sand which are jerked at it from below by the larva. By
means of similar head-jerks the skins of insects sucked dry of their
contents are thrown out of the pit, which is then kept clear of refuse.
A full-grown larva digs a pit about 2 in. deep and 3 in. wide at the
edge. The pupa stage of the ant-lion is quiescent. The larva makes a
globular case of sand stuck together with fine silk spun, it is said,
from a slender spinneret at the posterior end of the body. In this it
remains until the completion of the transformation into the sexually
mature insect, which then emerges from the case, leaving the pupal
integument behind. In certain species of _Myrmeleonidae_, such as
_Dendroleon pantheormis_, the larva, although resembling that of
_Myrmeleon_ structurally, makes no pitfall, but seizes passing prey from
any nook or crevice in which it shelters.

The exact meaning of the name ant-lion (Fr. _fourmilion_) is uncertain.
It has been thought that it refers to the fact that ants form a large
percentage of the prey of the insect, the suffix "lion" merely
suggesting destroyer or eater. Perhaps, however, the name may only
signify a large terrestrial biting apterous insect, surpassing the ant
in size and predatory habits.     (R. I. P.)



ANTOFAGASTA, a town and port of northern Chile and capital of the
Chilean province of the same name, situated about 768 m. N. of
Valparaiso in 23° 38' 39" S. lat. and 70° 24' 39" W. long. Pop. (est.
1902) 16,084. Antofagasta is the seaport for a railway running to Oruro,
Bolivia, and is the only available outlet for the trade of the
south-western departments of that republic. The smelting works for the
neighbouring silver mines are located here, and a thriving trade with
the inland mining towns is carried on. The town was founded in 1870 as a
shipping port for the recently discovered silver mines of that vicinity,
and belonged to Bolivia until 1879, when it was occupied by a Chilean
military force.

The province of ANTOFAGASTA has an area of 46,611 sq. m. lying within
the desert of Atacama and between the provinces of Tarapacá and Atacama.
It is rich in saline and other mineral deposits, the important Caracoles
silver mines being about 90 m. north-east of the port of Antofagasta.
Like the other provinces of this region, Antofagasta produces for export
copper, silver, silver ores, lead, nitrate of soda, borax and salt.
Iron and manganese ores are also found. Besides Antofagasta the
principal towns are Taltal, Mejillones, Cobija (the old capital) and
Tocopilla. Up to 1879 the province belonged to Bolivia, and was known as
the department of Atacama, or the Litoral. It fell into the possession
of Chile in the war of 1879-82, and was definitely ceded to that
republic in 1885.



ANTOINE, ANDRÉ (1858-   ), French actor-manager, was born at Limoges,
and in his early years was in business. But he was an enthusiastic
amateur actor, and in 1887 he founded in Paris the Théâtre Libre, in
order to realize his ideas as to the proper development of dramatic art.
For an account of his work, which had enormous influence on the French
stage, see DRAMA: _France_. In 1894 he gave up the direction of this
theatre, and became connected with the Gymnase, and later (1896) with
the Odéon.



ANTONELLI, GIACOMO (1806-1876), Italian cardinal, was born at Sonnino on
the 2nd of April 1806. He was educated for the priesthood, but, after
taking minor orders, gave up the idea of becoming a priest, and chose an
administrative career. Created secular prelate, he was sent as apostolic
delegate to Viterbo, where he early manifested his reactionary
tendencies in an attempt to stamp out Liberalism. Recalled to Rome in
1841, he entered the office of the papal secretary of state, but four
years later was appointed pontifical treasurer-general. Created cardinal
(11th June 1847), he was chosen by Pius IX. to preside over the council
of state entrusted with the drafting of the constitution. On the 10th of
March 1848 Antonelli became premier of the first constitutional ministry
of Pius IX., a capacity in which he displayed consummate duplicity. Upon
the fall of his cabinet Antonelli created for himself the governorship
of the sacred palaces in order to retain constant access to and
influence over the pope. After the assassination of Pellegrino Rossi
(15th November 1848) he arranged the flight of Pius IX. to Gaeta, where
he was appointed secretary of state. Notwithstanding promises to the
powers, he restored absolute government upon returning to Rome (12th
April 1850) and violated the conditions of the surrender by wholesale
imprisonment of Liberals. In 1855 he narrowly escaped assassination. As
ally of the Bourbons of Naples, from whom he had received an annual
subsidy, he attempted, after 1860, to facilitate their restoration by
fomenting brigandage on the Neapolitan frontier. To the overtures of
Ricasoli in 1861, Pius IX., at Antonelli's suggestion, replied with the
famous "_Non possumus_," but subsequently (1867) accepted, too late,
Ricasoli's proposal concerning ecclesiastical property. After the
September Convention (1864) Antonelli organized the Legion of Antibes to
replace French troops in Rome, and in 1867 secured French aid against
Garibaldi's invasion of papal territory. Upon the reoccupation of Rome
by the French after Mentana, Antonelli again ruled supreme, but upon the
entry of the Italians in 1870 was obliged to restrict his activity to
the management of foreign relations. He wrote, with papal approval, the
letter requesting the Italians to occupy the Leonine city, and obtained
from the Italians payment of the Peter's pence (5,000,000 lire)
remaining in the papal exchequer, as well as 50,000 scudi--the first and
only instalment of the Italian allowance (subsequently fixed by the Law
of Guarantees, March 21, 1871) ever accepted by the Holy See. At
Antonelli's death the Vatican finances were found to be in disorder,
with a deficit of 45,000,000 lire. His personal fortune, accumulated
during office, was considerable, and was bequeathed almost entirely to
members of his family. To the Church he left little and to the pope only
a trifling souvenir. From 1850 until his death he interfered little in
affairs of dogma and church discipline, although he addressed to the
powers circulars enclosing the Syllabus (1864) and the acts of the
Vatican Council (1870). His activity was devoted almost exclusively to
the struggle between the papacy and the Italian _Risorgimento_, the
history of which is comprehensible only when the influence exercised by
his unscrupulous, grasping and sinister personality is fully taken into
account. He died on the 6th of November 1876.



ANTONELLO DA MESSINA (c. 1430-1479), Italian painter, was probably born
at Messina about the beginning of the 15th century, and laboured at his
art for some time in his native country. Happening to see at Naples a
painting in oil by Jan Van Eyck, belonging to Alphonso of Aragon, he was
struck by the peculiarity and value of the new method, and set out for
the Netherlands to acquire a knowledge of the process from Van Eyck's
disciples. He spent some time there in the prosecution of his art;
returned with his secret to Messina about 1465; probably visited Milan;
removed to Venice in 1472, where he painted for the Council of Ten; and
died there in the middle of February 1479 (see Venturi's article in
Thieme-Becker, _Kunstlerlexikon_, 1907). His style is remarkable for its
union--not always successful--of Italian simplicity with Flemish love of
detail. His subjects are frequently single figures, upon the complete
representation of which he bestows his utmost skill. There are
extant--besides a number more or less dubious--twenty authentic
productions, consisting of renderings of "Ecce Homo," Madonnas, saints,
and half-length portraits, many of them painted on wood. The finest of
all is said to be the nameless picture of a man in the Berlin museum.
The National Gallery, London, has three works by him, including the "St
Jerome in his Study." Antonello exercised an important influence on
Italian painting, not only by the introduction of the Flemish invention,
but also by the transmission of Flemish tendencies.



ANTONINI ITINERARIUM, a valuable register, still extant, of the stations
and distances along the various roads of the Roman empire, seemingly
based on official documents, which were probably those of the survey
organized by Julius Caesar, and carried out under Augustus. Nothing is
known with certainty as to the date or author. It is considered probable
that the date of the original edition was the beginning of the 3rd
century, while that which we possess is to be assigned to the time of
Diocletian. If the author or promoter of the work is one of the
emperors, it is most likely to be Antoninus Caracalla.

  Editions by Wesseling, 1735, Parthey and Pindar, 1848. The portion
  relating to Britain was published under the title _Iter Britanniarum_,
  with commentary by T. Reynolds, 1799.



ANTONINUS, SAINT [ANTONIO PIEROZZI, also called DE FORCIGLIONI]
(1389-1459), archbishop of Florence, was born at that city on the 1st of
March 1389. He entered the Dominican order in his 16th year, and was
soon entrusted, in spite of his youth, with the government of various
houses of his order at Cortona, Rome, Naples and Florence, which he
laboured zealously to reform. He was consecrated archbishop of Florence
in 1446, and won the esteem and love of his people, especially by his
energy and resource in combating the effects of the plague and
earthquake in 1448 and 1453. He died on the 2nd of May 1459, and was
canonized by Pope Adrian VI. in 1523. His feast is annually celebrated
on the 13th of May. Antoninus had a great reputation for theological
learning, and sat as papal theologian at the council of Florence (1439).
Of his various works, the list of which is given in Quétif-Echard, _De
Scriptoribus Ord. Praedicat_., i. 818, the best-known are his _Summa
theologica_ (Venice, 1477; Verona, 1740) and the _Summa confessionalis_
(Mondovi, 1472), invaluable to confessors.

  See Bolland, _Acta Sanctorum_, i., and U. Chevalier, _Rep. des. s.
  hist._ (1905), pp. 285-286.



ANTONINUS LIBERALIS, Greek grammarian, probably flourished about A.D.
150. He wrote a collection of forty-one tales of mythical metamorphoses
([Greek: Metamorphoseon Synagogein]), chiefly valuable as a source of
mythological knowledge.

  Westermann, _Mythographi Graeci_ (1843); Oder, _De Antonino Liberali_
  (1886).



ANTONINUS PIUS [TITUS AURELIUS FULVUS BOIONIUS ARRIUS ANTONINUS], (A.D.
86-161), Roman emperor A.D. 138-161, the son of Aurelius Fulvus, a Roman
consul whose family had originally belonged to Nemausus (Nîmes), was born
near Lanuvium on the 19th of September 86. After the death of his father,
he was brought up under the care of Arrius Antoninus, his maternal
grandfather, a man of integrity and culture, and on terms of friendship
with the younger Pliny. Having filled with more than usual success the
offices of quaestor and praetor, he obtained the consulship in 120; he
was next chosen one of the four consulars for Italy, and greatly
increased his reputation by his conduct as proconsul of Asia. He acquired
much influence with the emperor Hadrian, who adopted him as his son and
successor on the 25th of February 138, after the death of his first
adopted son Aelius Verus, on condition that he himself adopted Marcus
Annius Verus, his wife's brother's son, and Lucius, son of Aelius Verus,
afterwards the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Aelius Verus
(colleague of Marcus Aurelius). A few months afterwards, on Hadrian's
death, he was enthusiastically welcomed to the throne by the Roman
people, who, for once, were not disappointed in their anticipation of a
happy reign. For Antoninus came to his new office with simple tastes,
kindly disposition, extensive experience, a well-trained intelligence and
the sincerest desire for the welfare of his subjects. Instead of
plundering to support his prodigality, he emptied his private treasury to
assist distressed provinces and cities, and everywhere exercised rigid
economy (hence the nickname [Greek: kuminopristaes], "cummin-splitter").
Instead of exaggerating into treason whatever was susceptible of
unfavourable interpretation, he turned the very conspiracies that were
formed against him into opportunities of signalizing his clemency.
Instead of stirring up persecution against the Christians, he extended to
them the strong hand of his protection throughout the empire. Rather than
give occasion to that oppression which he regarded as inseparable from an
emperor's progress through his dominions, he was content to spend all the
years of his reign in Rome, or its neighbourhood. Under his patronage the
science of jurisprudence was cultivated by men of high ability, and a
number of humane and equitable enactments were passed in his name. Of the
public transactions of this period we have but scant information, but, to
judge by what we possess, those twenty-two years were not remarkably
eventful. One of his first acts was to persuade the senate to grant
divine honours to Hadrian, which they had at first refused; this gained
him the title of Pius (dutiful in affection). He built temples, theatres,
and mausoleums, promoted the arts and sciences, and bestowed honours and
salaries upon the teachers of rhetoric and philosophy. His reign was
comparatively peaceful. Insurrections amongst the Moors, Jews, and
Brigantes in Britain were easily put down. The one military result which
is of interest to us now is the building in Britain of the wall of
Antoninus from the Forth to the Clyde. In his domestic relations
Antoninus was not so fortunate. His wife, Faustina, has almost become a
byword for her lack of womanly virtue; but she seems to have kept her
hold on his affections to the last. On her death he honoured her memory
by the foundation of a charity for orphan girls, who bore the name of
_Alimentariae Faustinianae_. He had by her two sons and two daughters;
but they all died before his elevation to the throne, except Annia
Faustina, who became the wife of Marcus Aurelius. Antoninus died of fever
at Lorium in Etruria, about 12 m. from Rome, on the 7th of March 161,
giving the keynote to his life in the last word that he uttered when the
tribune of the night-watch came to ask the password--_aequanimitas_.

  The only account of his life handed down to us is that of Julius
  Capitolinus, one of the _Scriptores Historiae Augustae_. See
  Bossart-Mueller, _Zur Geschichte des Kaisers A._ (1868); Lacour-Gayet,
  _A. le Pieux et son Temps_ (1888); Bryant, _The Reign of Antonine_
  (Cambridge Historical Essays, 1895); P.B. Watson, _Marcus Aurelius
  Antoninus_ (London, 1884), chap. ii.



ANTONIO, known as "THE PRIOR OF CRATO" (1531-1595), claimant of the
throne of Portugal, was the natural son of Louis (Luis), duke of Beja,
by Yolande (Violante) Gomez, a Jewess, who is said to have died a nun.
His father was a younger son of Emanuel, king of Portugal (1495-1521).
Antonio was educated at Coimbra, and was placed in the order of St John.
He was endowed with the wealthy priory of Crato. Little is known of his
life till 1578. In that year he accompanied King Sebastian (1557-1578)
in his invasion of Morocco, and was taken prisoner by the Moors at the
battle of Alcazar-Kebir, in which the king was slain. Antonio is said to
have secured his release on easy terms by a fiction. He was asked the
meaning of the cross of St John which he wore on his doublet, and
replied that it was the sign of a small benefice which he held from the
pope, and would lose if he were not back by the 1st of January. His
captor, believing him to be a poor man, allowed him to escape for a
small ransom. On his return to Portugal he found that his uncle, the
cardinal Henry, only surviving son of King John III. (1521-1557), had
been recognized as king. The cardinal was old, and was the last
legitimate male representative of the royal line (see PORTUGAL:
_History_). The succession was claimed by Philip II. of Spain. Antonio,
relying on the popular hostility to a Spanish ruler, presented himself
as a candidate. He had endeavoured to prove that his father and mother
had been married after his birth. There was, however, no evidence of the
marriage. Antonio's claim, which was inferior not only to that of Philip
II., but to that of the duchess of Braganza, was not supported by the
nobles or gentry. His partisans were drawn exclusively from the inferior
clergy, the peasants and workmen. The prior endeavoured to resist the
army which Philip II. marched into Portugal to enforce his pretensions,
but was easily routed by the duke of Alva, the Spanish commander, at
Alcantara, on the 25th of August 1580. At the close of the year, or in
the first days of 1581, he fled to France carrying with him the crown
jewels, which included many valuable diamonds. He was well received by
Catherine de' Medici, who had a claim of her own on the crown of
Portugal, and looked upon him as a convenient instrument to be used
against Philip II. By promising to cede the Portuguese colony of Brazil
to her, and by the sale of part of his jewels, Antonio secured means to
fit out a fleet manned by Portuguese exiles and French and English
adventurers. As the Spaniards had not yet occupied the Azores he sailed
to them, but was utterly defeated at sea by the marquis of Santa Cruz
off Saint Michael's on the 27th of July 1582. He now returned to France,
and lived for a time at Ruel near Paris. Peril from the assassins
employed by Philip II. to remove him drove Antonio from one refuge to
another, and he finally came to England. Elizabeth favoured him for much
the same reasons as Catherine de' Medici. In 1589, the year after the
Armada, he accompanied an English expedition under the command of Drake
and Norris to the coast of Spain and Portugal. The force consisted
partly of the queen's ships, and in part of privateers who went in
search of booty. Antonio, with all the credulity of an exile, believed
that his presence would provoke a general rising against Philip II., but
none took place, and the expedition was a costly failure. In 1590 the
pretender left England and returned to France, where he fell into
poverty. His remaining diamonds were disposed of by degrees. The last
and finest was acquired by M. de Sancy, from whom it was purchased by
Sully and included in the jewels of the crown. During his last days he
lived as a private gentleman on a small pension given him by Henry IV.,
and he died in Paris on the 26th of August 1595. He left two
illegitimate sons, and his descendants can be traced till 1687. In
addition to papers published to defend his claims Antonio was the author
of the _Panegyrus Alphonsi Lusitanorum Regis_ (Coimbra, 1550), and of a
cento of the Psalms, _Psalmi Confessionales_ (Paris 1592), which was
translated into English under the title of _The Royal Penitent_ by
Francis Chamberleyn (London, 1659), and into German as _Heilige
Betrachtungen_ (Marburg, 1677).

  AUTHORITIES.--Antonio is frequently mentioned in the French, English,
  and Spanish state papers of the time. A life of him, attributed to
  Gomes Vasconcellos de Figueredo, was published in a French translation
  by Mme de Sainctonge at Amsterdam (1696). A modern account of him, _Un
  prétendant portugais au XVI. siècle_, by E. Fournier (Paris, 1852), is
  based on authentic sources. See also _Dom Antonio Prior de
  Crato--notas de bibliographia_, by J. de Aranjo (Lisbon, 1897).
       (D. H.)



ANTONIO, NICOLAS (1617-1684), Spanish bibliographer, was born at Seville
on the 31st of July 1617. After taking his degree at Salamanca
(1636-1639), he returned to his native city, wrote his treatise _De
Exilio_ (which was not printed till 1659), and began his monumental
register of Spanish writers. The fame of his learning reached Philip
IV., who conferred the order of Santiago on him in 1645, and sent him as
general agent to Rome in 1654. Returning to Spain in 1679, Antonio died
at Madrid in the spring of 1684. His _Bibliotheca Hispana nova_, dealing
with the works of Spanish authors who flourished after 1500, appeared at
Rome in 1672; the _Bibliotheca Hispana vetus_, a literary history of
Spain from the time of Augustus to the end of the 15th century, was
revised by Manuel Martí, and published by Antonio's friend, Cardinal
José Saenz de Aguirre at Rome in 1696. A fine edition of both parts,
with additional matter found in Antonio's manuscripts, and with
supplementary notes by Francisco Perez Bayer, was issued at Madrid in
1787-1788. This great work, incomparably superior to any previous
bibliography, is still unsuperseded and indispensable.

  Of Antonio's miscellaneous writings the most important is the
  posthumous _Censura de historias fabulosas_ (Valencia, 1742), in which
  erudition is combined with critical insight. His _Bibliotheca Hispana
  rabinica_ has not been printed; the manuscript is in the national
  library at Madrid.



ANTONIO DE LEBRIJA [ANTONIUS NEBRISSENSIS], (1444-1522), Spanish
scholar, was born at Lebrija in the province of Andalusia. After
studying at Salamanca he resided for ten years in Italy, and completed
his education at Bologna University. On his return to Spain (1473), he
devoted himself to the advancement of classical learning amongst his
countrymen. After holding the professorship of poetry and grammar at
Salamanca, he was transferred to the university of Alcalá de Henares,
where he lectured until his death in 1522, at the age of seventy-eight.
His services to the cause of classical literature in Spain have been
compared with those rendered by Valla, Erasmus and Budaeus to Italy,
Holland and France. He produced a large number of works on a variety of
subjects, including a Latin and Spanish dictionary, commentaries on
Sedulius and Persius, and a Compendium of Rhetoric, based on Aristotle,
Cicero and Quintilian. His most ambitious work was his chronicle
entitled _Rerum in Hispania Gestarum Decades_ (published in 1545 by his
son as an original work by his father), which twenty years later was
found to be merely a Latin translation of the Spanish chronicle of
Pulgar, which was published at Saragossa in 1567. De Lebrija also took
part in the production of the Complutense polyglot Bible published under
the patronage of Cardinal Jimenes.

  Antonio, _Bibliotheca Hispana Nova_, i. 132 (1888); Prescott, _History
  of Ferdinand and Isabella_, i. 410 (note); MacCrie, _The Reformation
  in Spain in the Sixteenth Century_ (1829).



ANTONIUS, the name of a large number of prominent citizens of ancient
Rome, of the gens Antonia. Antonius the triumvir claimed that his family
was descended from Anton, son of Heracles. Of the Antonii the following
are important.

1. MARCUS ANTONIUS (143-87 B.C.), one of the most distinguished Roman
orators of his time, was quaestor in 113, and praetor in 102 with
proconsular powers, the province of Cilicia being assigned to him. Here
he was so successful against the pirates that a naval triumph was
awarded him. He was consul in 99, censor 97, and held a command in the
Marsic War in 90. An adherent of Sulla, he was put to death by Marius
and Cinna when they obtained possession of Rome (87). Antonius's
reputation for eloquence rests on the authority of Cicero, none of his
orations being extant. He is one of the chief speakers in Cicero's _De
Oratore_.

  Velleius Paterculus ii. 22; Appian, _Bell. Civ._ i. 72; Dio Cassius
  xlv. 47; Plutarch, _Marius_, 44; Cicero, _Orator_, 5, _Brutus_, 37;
  Quintilian, _Instit._ iii. 1, 19; O. Enderlein, _De M. Antonio
  oratore_ (Leipzig, 1882).

2. MARCUS ANTONIUS, nicknamed CRETICUS in derision, elder son of Marcus
Antonius, the "orator," and father of the triumvir. He was praetor in 74
B.C., and received an extraordinary command (similar to that bestowed
upon Pompey by the Gabinian law) to clear the sea of pirates, and
thereby assist the operations against Mithradates VI. He failed in the
task, and made himself unpopular by plundering the provinces (Sallust,
_Hist._ iii., fragments ed. B. Maurenbrecher, p. 108; Velleius
Paterculus ii. 31; Cicero, _In Verrem_, iii. 91). He attacked the
Cretans, who had made an alliance with the pirates, but was totally
defeated, most of his ships being sunk. Diodorus Siculus (xl. 1) states
that he only saved himself by a disgraceful treaty. He died soon
afterwards (72-71) in Crete. All authorities are agreed as to his
avarice and incompetence.

3. GAIUS ANTONIUS, nicknamed HYBRIDA from his half-savage disposition
(Pliny, _Nat. Hist._ viii. 213), second son of Marcus Antonius, the
"orator," and uncle of the triumvir. He was one of Sulla's lieutenants
in the Mithradatic War, and, after Sulla's return, remained in Greece to
plunder with a force of cavalry. In 76 he was tried for his
malpractices, but escaped punishment; six years later he was removed
from the senate by the censors, but soon afterwards reinstated. In spite
of his bad reputation, he was elected tribune in 71, praetor in 66, and
consul with Cicero in 63. He secretly supported Catiline, but Cicero won
him over by promising him the rich province of Macedonia. On the
outbreak of the Catilinarian conspiracy, Antonius was obliged to lead an
army into Etruria, but handed over the command on the day of battle to
Marcus Petreius on the ground of ill-health. He then went to Macedonia,
where he made himself so detested by his oppression and extortions that
he left the province, and was accused in Rome (59) both of having taken
part in the conspiracy and of extortion in his province. It was said
that Cicero had agreed with Antonius to share his plunder. Cicero's
defence of Antonius two years before in view of a proposal for his
recall, and also on the occasion of his trial, increased the suspicion.
In spite of Cicero's eloquence, Antonius was condemned, and went into
exile at Cephallenia. He seems to have been recalled by Caesar, since he
was present at a meeting of the senate in 44, and was censor in 42.

  Cicero, _In Cat._ iii. 6, _pro Flacco_, 38; Plutarch, _Cicero_, 12;
  Dio Cassius xxxvii. 39, 40; xxxviii. 10. On his trial see article in
  Pauly-Wissowa's _Realencyclopadie_.

4. MARCUS ANTONIUS, commonly called MARK ANTONY, the Triumvir, grandson
of Antonius the "orator" and son of Antonius Creticus, related on his
mother's side to Julius Caesar, was born about 83 B.C. Under the
influence of his stepfather, Cornelius Lentulus Sura, he spent a
profligate youth. For a time he co-operated with P. Clodius Pulcher,
probably out of hostility to Cicero, who had caused Lentulus Sura to be
put to death as a Catilinarian; the connexion was severed by a
disagreement arising from his relations with Clodius's wife, Fulvia. In
58 he fled to Greece to escape his creditors. After a short time spent
in attendance on the philosophers at Athens, he was summoned by Aulus
Gabinius, governor of Syria, to take part in the campaigns against
Aristobulus in Palestine, and in support of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt. In
54 he was with Caesar in Gaul. Raised by Caesar's influence to the
offices of quaestor, augur, and tribune of the plebs, he supported the
cause of his patron with great energy, and was expelled from the
senate-house when the Civil War broke out. Deputy-governor of Italy
during Caesar's absence in Spain (49), second in command in the decisive
battle of Pharsalus (48), and again deputy-governor of Italy while
Caesar was in Africa (47), Antony was second only to the dictator, and
seized the opportunity of indulging in the most extravagant excesses,
depicted by Cicero in the _Philippics_. In 46 he seems to have taken
offence because Caesar insisted on payment for the property of Pompey
which Antony professedly had purchased, but had in fact simply
appropriated. The estrangement was not of long continuance; for we find
Antony meeting the dictator at Narbo the following year, and rejecting
the suggestion of Trebonius that he should join in the conspiracy that
was already on foot. In 44 he was consul with Caesar, and seconded his
ambition by the famous offer of the crown at the festival of Lupercalia
(February 15). After the murder of Caesar on the 15th of March, Antony
conceived the idea of making himself sole ruler. At first he seemed
disposed to treat the conspirators leniently, but at the same time he so
roused the people against them by the publication of Caesar's will and
by his eloquent funeral oration, that they were obliged to leave the
city. He surrounded himself with a bodyguard of Caesar's veterans, and
forced the senate to transfer to him the province of Cisalpine Gaul,
which was then administered by Decimus Junius Brutus, one of the
conspirators. Brutus refused to surrender the province, and Antony set
out to attack him in October 44, But at this time Octavian, whom Caesar
had adopted as his son, arrived from Illyria, and claimed the
inheritance of his "father." Octavian obtained the support of the senate
and of Cicero; and the veteran troops of the dictator flocked to his
standard. Antony was denounced as a public enemy, and Octavian was
entrusted with the command of the war against him. Antony was defeated
at Mutina (43) where he was besieging Brutus. The consuls Aulus Hirtius
and C. Vibius Pansa, however, fell in the battle, and the senate became
suspicious of Octavian, who, irritated at the refusal of a triumph and
the appointment of Brutus to the command over his head, entered Rome at
the head of his troops, and forced the senate to bestow the consulship
upon him (August 19th). Meanwhile, Antony escaped to Cisalpine Gaul,
effected a junction with Lepidus and marched towards Rome with a large
force of infantry and cavalry. Octavian betrayed his party, and came to
terms with Antony and Lepidus. The three leaders met at Bononia and
adopted the title of _Triumviri reipublicae constituendae_ as joint
rulers. Gaul was to belong to Antony, Spain to Lepidus, and Africa,
Sardinia and Sicily to Octavian. The arrangement was to last for five
years. A reign of terror followed; proscriptions, confiscations, and
executions became general; some of the noblest citizens were put to
death, and Cicero fell a victim to Antony's revenge. In the following
year (42) Antony and Octavian proceeded against the conspirators Cassius
and Brutus, and by the two battles of Philippi annihilated the
senatorial and republican parties. Antony proceeded to Greece, and
thence to Asia Minor, to procure money for his veterans and complete the
subjugation of the eastern provinces. On his passage through Cilicia in
41 he fell a victim to the charms of Cleopatra, in whose company he
spent the winter at Alexandria. At length he was aroused by the Parthian
invasion of Syria and the report of an outbreak between Fulvia his wife
and Lucius his brother on the one hand and Octavian on the other. On
arriving in Italy he found that Octavian was already victorious; on the
death of Fulvia, a reconciliation was effected between the triumvirs,
and cemented by the marriage of Antony with Octavia, the sister of his
colleague. A new division of the Roman world was made at Brundusium,
Lepidus receiving Africa, Octavian the west, and Antony the east.
Returning to his province Antony made several attempts to subdue the
Parthians, without any decided success. In 39 he visited Athens, where
he behaved in a most extravagant manner, assuming the attributes of the
god Dionysus. In 37 he crossed over to Italy, and renewed the
triumvirate for five years at a meeting with Octavian. Returning to
Syria, he resumed relations with Cleopatra. His treatment of Octavia,
her brother's desire to get rid of him, and the manner in which he
disposed of kingdoms and provinces in favour of Cleopatra alienated his
supporters. In 32 the senate deprived him of his powers and declared war
against Cleopatra. After two years spent in preparations, Antony was
defeated at the battle of Actium (2nd September 31). Once more he sought
refuge in the society of Cleopatra, who had escaped with sixty ships to
Egypt. He was pursued by his enemies and his troops abandoned him.
Thereupon he committed suicide in the mistaken belief that Cleopatra had
already done so (30 B.C.). Antony had been married in succession to
Fadia, Antonia, Fulvia and Octavia, and left behind him a number of
children.

  See ROME, _History_, II. "The Republic" (_ad fin._); Caesar, _De Bella
  Gallico, De Bella Civili_; Plutarch, Lives of _Antony, Brutus, Cicero,
  Caesar_; Cicero, _Letters_ (ed. Tyrrell and Purser) and _Philippics_;
  Appian, _Bell. Civ._ i.-v.; Dio Cassius xli.-liii. In addition to the
  standard histories, see V. Gardthausen, _Augustus und seine Zeit_
  (Leipzig, 1891-1904); W. Drumann, _Geschichte Roms_ (2nd ed. P.
  Groebe, 1899), i. pp. 46-384; article by Groebe in Pauly-Wissowa's
  _Realencyclopadie_; and a short but vivid sketch by de Quincey in his
  _Essay on the Caesars_.

5. LUCIUS ANTONIUS, youngest son of Marcus Antonius Creticus, and
brother of the triumvir. In 44, as tribune of the people, he brought
forward a law authorizing Caesar to nominate the chief magistrates
during his absence from Rome. After the murder of Caesar, he supported
his brother Marcus. He proposed an agrarian law in favour of the people
and Caesar's veterans, and took part in the operations at Mutina (43).
In 41 he was consul, and had a dispute with Octavian, which led to the
so-called Perusian War, in which he was supported by Fulvia (Mark
Antony's wife), who was anxious to recall her husband from Cleopatra's
court. Later, observing the bitter feelings that had been evoked by the
distribution of land among the veterans of Caesar, Antonius and Fulvia
changed their attitude, and stood forward as the defenders of those who
had suffered from its operation. Antonius marched on Rome, drove out
Lepidus, and promised the people that the triumvirate should be
abolished. On the approach of Octavian, he retired to Perusia in
Etruria, where he was besieged by three armies, and compelled to
surrender (winter of 41). His life was spared, and he was sent by
Octavian to Spain as governor. Nothing is known of the circumstances or
date of his death. Cicero, in his _Philippics_, actuated in great
measure by personal animosity, gives a highly unfavourable view of his
character.

  Appian, _Bellum Civile_, v. 14 ff.; Dio Cassius xlviii. 5-14.

6. GAIUS ANTONIUS, second son of Marcus Antonius Creticus, and brother
of the triumvir. In 49 he was legate of Caesar and, with P. Cornelius
Dolabella, was entrusted with the defence of Illyricum against the
Pompeians. Dolabella's fleet was destroyed; Antonius was shut up in the
island of Curicta and forced to surrender. In 44 he was city praetor,
his brothers Marcus and Lucius being consul and tribune respectively in
the same year. Gaius was appointed to the province of Macedonia, but on
his way thither fell into the hands of M. Junius Brutus on the coast of
Illyria. Brutus at first treated him generously, but ultimately put him
to death (42).

  Plutarch, _Brutus_, 28; Dio Cassius xlvii. 21-24. On the whole family,
  see the articles in Pauly-Wissowa's _Realencyclopadie_, i. pt. 2
  (1894).



ANTONOMASIA, in rhetoric, the Greek term for a substitution of any
epithet or phrase for a proper name; as "Pelides," or "the son of
Peleus," for Achilles; "the Stagirite" for Aristotle; "the author of
_Paradise Lost_" for Milton; "the little corporal" for Napoleon I.;
"Macedonia's madman" for Alexander the Great, &c. &c. The opposite
substitution of a proper name for some generic term is also sometimes
called antonomasia; as "a Cicero" for an orator.



ANTRAIGUES, EMMANUEL HENRI LOUIS ALEXANDRE DE LAUNAY, COMTE D' (c.
1755-1812), French publicist and political adventurer, was a nephew of
François Emmanuel de Saint-Priest (1735-1821), one of the last ministers
of Louis XVI. He was a cavalry captain, but, having little taste for the
army, left it and travelled extensively, especially in the East. On his
return to Paris, he sought the society of philosophers and artists,
visited Voltaire at Ferney for three months, but was more attracted by
J.J. Rousseau, with whom he became somewhat intimate. He published a
_Mémoire sur les états-généraux_, supported the Revolution
enthusiastically when it broke out, was elected deputy, and took the
oath to the constitution; but he suddenly changed his mind completely,
became a defender of the monarchy and emigrated in 1790. He was the
secret agent of the comte de Provence (Louis XVIII.) at different courts
of Europe, and at the same time received money from the courts he
visited. He published a number of pamphlets, _Des monstres ravagent
partout_, _Point d'accommodement_, &c. At Venice, where he was attaché
to the Russian legation, he was arrested in 1797, but escaped to Russia.
Sent as Russian attaché to Dresden, he published a violent pamphlet
against Napoleon I., and was expelled by the Saxon government. He then
went to London, and it was universally believed that he betrayed the
secret articles of the treaty of Tilsit to the British cabinet, but his
recent biographer, Pingaud, contests this. In 1812 he and his wife
Madame Saint-Huberty, an operatic singer, were assassinated by an
Italian servant whom they had dismissed. It has never been known whether
the murder was committed from private or political motives.

  See H. Vaschalde, _Notice bibliographique sur Louis Alexandre de
  Launay, comte d'Antraigues, sa vie et ses oeuvres_; Léonce Pingaud,
  _Un Agent secret sous la révolution et l'empire, le comte
  d'Antraigues_ (Paris, 1893); Édouard de Goncourt, _La Saint-Huberty et
  l'opéra au XVIII^e siècle_.



ANTRIM, RANDAL MACDONNELL, 1ST EARL OF (d. 1636), called "Arranach,"
having been brought up in the Scottish island of Arran by the Hamiltons,
was the 4th son of Sorley Boy MacDonnell (q.v.), and of Mary, daughter
of Conn O'Neill, 1st earl of Tyrone. He fought at first against the
English government, participating in his brother James's victory over
Sir John Chichester at Carrickfergus in November 1597, and joining in
O'Neill's rebellion in 1600. But on the 16th of December he signed
articles with Sir Arthur Chichester and was granted protection; in 1601
he became head of his house by his elder brother's death, his pardon
being confirmed to him; and in 1602 he submitted to Lord Mountjoy and
was knighted. On the accession of James I. in 1603 he obtained a grant
of the Route and the Glynns (Glens) districts, together with the island
of Rathlin, and remained faithful to the government in spite of the
unpopularity he thereby incurred among his kinsmen, who conspired to
depose him. In 1607 he successfully defended himself against the charge
of disloyalty on the occasion of the flight of the earls of Tyrone and
Tyrconnell, and rendered services to the government by settling and
civilizing his districts, being well received the following year by
James in London. In 1618 he was created Viscount Dunluce, and
subsequently he was appointed a privy councillor and lord-lieutenant of
the county of Antrim. On the 12th of December 1620 he was created earl
of Antrim. In 1621 he was charged with harbouring Roman Catholic
priests, confessed his offence and was pardoned. He offered his
assistance in 1625 during the prospect of a Spanish invasion, but was
still regarded as a person that needed watching. His arbitrary conduct
in Ireland in 1627 was suggested as a fit subject for examination by the
Star Chamber, but his fidelity to the government was strictly maintained
to the last. In 1631 he was busy repairing Protestant churches, and in
1634 he attended the Irish parliament. He made an important agreement in
1635 for the purchase from James Campbell, Lord Cantire, of the lordship
of Cantire, or Kintyre, of which the MacDonnells had been dispossessed
in 1600 by Argyll; but his possession was successfully opposed by Lord
Lorne. He died on the 10th of December 1636. Antrim married Alice,
daughter of Hugh O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, by whom, besides six
daughters, he had Randal, 2nd earl and 1st marquess of Antrim (q.v.),
and Alexander, 3rd earl. Three other sons, Maurice, Francis and James,
were probably illegitimate. The earldom has continued in the family down
to the present day, the 11th earl (b. 1851) succeeding in 1869.

  See also _An Historical Account of the MacDonnells of Antrim_, by G.
  Hill (1873).



ANTRIM, RANDAL MACDONNELL, 1ST MARQUESS of (1609-1683), son of the 1st
earl of Antrim, was born in 1609 and educated as a Roman Catholic. He
travelled abroad, and on his return in 1634 went to court, next year
marrying Katherine Manners, widow of the 1st duke of Buckingham, and
living on her fortune for some years in great splendour. In 1639, on the
outbreak of the Scottish war, he initiated a scheme of raising a force
in Ireland to attack Argyll in Scotland and recover Kintyre (or
Cantire), a district formerly possessed by his family; but the plan,
discouraged and ridiculed by Strafford, miscarried.[1] Soon afterwards
he returned to Ireland, and sought in 1641 to create a diversion,
together with Ormonde, for Charles I. against the parliament. He joined
in his schemes Lord Slane and Sir Phelim O'Neill, later leaders of the
rebellion, but on the outbreak of the rebellion in the autumn he
dissociated himself from his allies and retired to his castle at
Dunluce. His suspicious conduct, however, and his Roman Catholicism,
caused him to be regarded as an enemy by the English party. In May 1642
he was captured at Dunluce Castle by the parliamentary general Robert
Munro, and imprisoned at Carrickfergus. Escaping thence he joined the
queen at York; and subsequently, having proceeded to Ireland to
negotiate a cessation of hostilities, he was again captured with his
papers in May 1643 and confined at Carrickfergus, thence once more
escaping and making his way to Kilkenny, the headquarters of the Roman
Catholic confederation. He returned to Oxford in December with a scheme
for raising 10,000 Irish for service in England and 2000 to join
Montrose in Scotland, which through the influence of the duchess of
Buckingham secured the consent of the king. On the 26th of January 1644
Antrim was created a marquess. He returned to Kilkenny in February, took
the oath of association, and was made a member of the council and
lieutenant-general of the forces of the Catholic confederacy. The
confederacy, however, giving him no support in his projects, he threw up
his commission, and with Ormonde's help despatched about 1600 men in
June to Montrose's assistance in Scotland, subsequently returning to
Oxford and being sent by the king in 1645 with letters for the queen at
St Germains. He proceeded thence to Flanders and fitted out two frigates
with military stores, which he brought to the prince of Wales at
Falmouth. He visited Cork and afterwards in July 1646 joined his troops
in Scotland, with the hope of expelling Argyll from Kintyre; but he was
obliged to retire by order of the king, and returning to Ireland threw
himself into the intrigues between the various factions. In 1647 he was
appointed with two others by the confederacy to negotiate a treaty with
the prince of Wales in France, and though he anticipated his companions
by starting a week before them, he failed to secure the coveted
lord-lieutenancy, which was confirmed to Ormonde. He now ceased to
support the Roman Catholics or the king's cause; opposed the treaty
between Ormonde and the confederates; supported the project of union
between O'Neill and the parliament; and in 1649 entered into
communications with Cromwell, for whom he performed various services,
though there appears no authority to support Carte's story that Antrim
was the author of a forged agreement for the betrayal of the king's army
by Lord Inchiquin.[2] Subsequently he joined Ireton, and was present at
the siege of Carlow. He returned to England in December 1650, and in
lieu of his confiscated estate received a pension of £500 and later of
£800, together with lands in Mayo. At the Restoration Antrim was
excluded from the Act of Oblivion on account of his religion, and on
presenting himself at court was imprisoned in the Tower, subsequently
being called before the lords justices in Ireland. In 1663 he succeeded,
in spite of Ormonde's opposition, in securing a decree of innocence from
the commissioners of claims. This raised an outcry from the adventurers
who had been put in possession of his lands, and who procured a fresh
trial; but Antrim appealed to the king, and through the influence of the
queen mother obtained a pardon, his estates being restored to him by the
Irish, Act of Explanation in 1665.[3] Antrim died on the 3rd of February
1683. He is described by Clarendon as of handsome appearance but "of
excessive pride and vanity and of a marvellous weak and narrow
understanding." He married secondly Rose, daughter of Sir Henry O'Neill,
but had no children, being succeeded in the earldom by his brother
Alexander, 3rd earl of Antrim.

  See _Hibernia Anglicana_, by R. Cox (1689-1690) esp. app. xlix. vol.
  ii. 206; _History of the Irish Confederation_, by J.T. Gilbert
  (1882-1891); _Aphorismical Discovery_ (Irish Archaeological Society,
  1879-1880); _Thomason Tracts_ (Brit. Mus.), E 59 (18), 149 (12), 138
  (7), 153 (19), 61 (23); _Murder will out, or the King's Letter
  justifying the Marquess of Antrim_ (1689); _Hist. MSS. Comm.
  Series--MSS. of Marq. of Ormonde._     (P. C. Y.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] Strafford's _Letters_, ii. 300.

  [2] _Life of Ormonde_, iii. 509; see also _Cal. of State Papers,
    Ireland, 1660-1662_, pp. 294, 217; _Cal. of Clarendon St. Pap._, ii.
    69, and Gardiner's _Commonwealth_, i. 153.

  [3] Hallam, _Const. Hist._, iii. 396 (ed. 1855).



ANTRIM, a county in the north-east corner of Ireland, in the province of
Ulster. It is bounded N. and E. by the narrow seas separating Ireland
from Scotland, the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea, S. by Belfast Lough and
the Lagan river dividing it from the county Down, W. by Lough Neagh,
dividing it from the counties Armagh and Tyrone, and by county
Londonderry, the boundary with which is the river Bann.

The area is 751,965 acres or about 1175 sq. m. A large portion of the
county is hilly, especially in the east, where the highest elevations
are attained, though these are nowhere great. The range runs north and
south, and, following this direction the highest points are Knocklayd
(1695 ft.), Slieveanorra (1676), Trostan (1817), Slemish (1457), and
Divis (1567). The inland slope is gradual, but on the northern shore the
range terminates in abrupt and almost perpendicular declivities, and
here, consequently, some of the finest coast scenery in the island is
found, widely differing, with its unbroken lines of cliffs, from the
indented coast-line of the west. The most remarkable cliffs are those
formed of perpendicular basaltic columns, extending for many miles, and
most strikingly displayed in Fair Head and the celebrated Giant's
Causeway. From the eastern coast the hills rise instantly but less
abruptly, and the indentations are wider and deeper. On both coasts
there are several frequented watering-places, of which may be mentioned
on the north Portrush (with well-known golf links), Port Ballintrae and
Ballycastle; on the east Cushendun, Cushendall and Milltown on Red Bay,
Carn Lough and Glenarm, Larne, and Whitehead on Belfast Lough. All are
somewhat exposed to the easterly winds prevalent in spring. The only
island of size is Rathlin, off Ballycastle, 6½ m. in length by 1½ in
breadth, 7 m. from the coast, and of similar basaltic and limestone
formation to that of the mainland. It is partially arable, and supports
a small population. The so-called Island Magee is a peninsula separating
Larne Lough from the Irish Channel.

The valleys of the Bann and Lagan, with the intervening shores of Lough
Neagh, form the fertile lowlands. These two rivers, both rising in
county Down, are the only ones of importance. The latter flows to
Belfast Lough, the former drains Lough Neagh, which is fed by a number
of smaller streams, among them the Crumlin, whose waters have petrifying
powers. The fisheries of the Bann and of Lough Neagh (especially for
salmon) are of value both commercially and to sportsmen, the small town
of Toome, at the outflow of the river, being the centre. Immediately
below this point lies Lough Beg, the "Small Lake," about 15 ft. lower
than Lough Neagh, which it excels in the pleasant scenery of its banks.
The smaller streams are of great use in working machinery.

_Geology._--On entering the county at the south, a scarped barrier of
hills is seen beyond the Lagan valley, marking the edge of the basaltic
plateaus, and running almost continuously round the coast to Red Bay.
Below it, Triassic beds are exposed from Lisburn to Island Magee, giving
sections of red sands and marls. Above these, marine Rhaetic beds appear
at intervals, notably near Larne, where they are succeeded by Lower Lias
shales and limestones. At Portrush, the Lower Lias is seen on the shore,
crowded with ammonites, but silicified and metamorphosed by invading
dolerite. The next deposits, as the scarps are approached, are
greensands of "Selbornian" age, succeeded by Cenomanian, and locally by
Turonian, sands. The Senonian series is represented by the White
Limestone, a hardened chalk with flints, which is often glauconitic and
conglomeratic at the base. Denudation in earliest Eocene times has
produced flint gravels above the chalk, and an ancient stream deposit of
chalk pebbles occurs at Ballycastle. The volcanic fissures that allowed
of the upwelling of basalt are represented by numerous dykes, many
cutting the earlier lava-flows as well as all the beds below them. The
accumulations of lava gave rise to the plateaus which form almost the
whole interior of the county. In a quiet interval, the Lower Eocene
plant-beds of Glenarm and Ballypalady were formed in lakes, where
iron-ores also accumulated. Rhyolites were erupted locally near Tardree,
Ballymena and Glenarm. The later basalts are especially marked by
columnar jointing, which determines the famous structures of the Giant's
Causeway and the coast near Bengore Head. Volcanic necks may be
recognized at Carrick-a-rede, in the intrusive mass of dolerite at
Slemish, at Carnmoney near Belfast, and a few other points. Fair Head is
formed of intrusive dolerite, presenting a superb columnar seaward face.
Faulting, probably in Pliocene times, lowered the basaltic plateaus to
form the basin of Lough Neagh, leaving the eastern scarp at heights
ranging up to 1800 ft. The glens of Antrim are deep notches cut by
seaward-running streams through the basalt scarp, their floors being
formed of Triassic or older rocks. Unlike most Irish counties, Antrim
owes its principal features to rocks of Mesozoic and Cainozoic age. At
Cushendun, however, a coarse conglomerate is believed to be Devonian,
while Lower Carboniferous Sandstones, with several coal-seams, form a
small productive basin at Ballycastle. The dolerite of Fair Head sends
off sheets along the bedding-planes of these carboniferous strata.
"Dalradian" schists and gneisses, with some dark limestones, come out in
the north-east of the county, forming a moorland-region between
Cushendun and Ballycastle. The dome of Knocklayd, capped by an outlier
of chalk and basalt, consists mostly of this far more ancient series.
Glacial gravels are well seen near Antrim town, and as drumlins between
Ballymena and Ballycastle. The drift-phenomena connected with the flow
of ice from Scotland are of special interest. Recently elevated marine
clays, of post-glacial date, fringe the south-eastern coast, while
gravels with marine shells, side by side with flint implements chipped
by early man, have been lifted some 20 ft. above sea-level near Larne.

Rock-salt some 80 ft. thick is mined in the Trias near Carrickfergus.
The Keuper clays yield material for bricks. Bauxite, probably derived
from the decay of lavas, is found between Glenarm and Broughshane,
associated with brown and red pisolitic iron-ores; both these materials
are worked commercially. Bauxite occurs also near Ballintoy. The
Ballycastle coal is raised and sold locally.

_Industries._--The climate is very temperate. The soil varies greatly
according to the district, being in some cases a rich loam, in others a
chalky marl, and elsewhere showing a coating of peat. The proportion of
barren land to the total area is roughly as 1 to 9; and of tillage to
pasture as 2 to 3. Tillage is therefore, relatively to other counties,
well advanced, and oats and potatoes are largely, though decreasingly,
cultivated. Flax is a less important crop than formerly. The numbers of
cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry are generally increasing. Dutch,
Ayrshire and other breeds are used to improve the breed of cattle by
crossing. Little natural wood remains in the county, but plantations
flourish on the great estates, and orchards have proved successful.

The linen manufacture is the most important industry. Cotton-spinning by
jennies was first introduced by Robert Joy and Thomas M'Cabe of Belfast
in 1777; and an estimate made twenty-three years later showed upwards of
27,000 hands employed in this industry within 10 m. of Belfast, which
remains the centre for it. Women are employed in the working of patterns
on muslin. There are several paper-mills at Bushmills in the north;
whisky-distilling is carried on; and there are valuable sea-fisheries
divided between the district of Ballycastle and Carrickfergus, while the
former is the headquarters of a salmon-fishery district. The workings at
the Ballycastle collieries are probably the oldest in Ireland. In 1770
the miners accidentally discovered a complete gallery, which has been
driven many hundred yards into the bed of coal, branching into
thirty-six chambers dressed quite square, and in a workman-like manner.
No tradition of the mine having been formerly worked remained in the
neighbourhood. The coal of some of the beds is bituminous, and of others
anthracite.

_Communications._--Except that the Great Northern railway line from
Belfast to the south and west runs for a short distance close to the
southern boundary of the county, with a branch from Lisburn to the town
of Antrim, the principal lines of communication are those of the
Northern Counties system, under the control of the Midland railway of
England. The chief routes are:--Belfast, Antrim, Ballymena (and thence
to Coleraine and Londonderry); a line diverging from this at White Abbey
to Carrickfergus and Larne, the port for Stranraer in Scotland; branches
from Ballymena to Larne and to Parkmore; and from Coleraine to Portrush.
The Ballycastle railway runs from Ballymoney to Ballycastle on the north
coast; and the Giant's Causeway and Portrush is an electric railway (the
first to be worked in the United Kingdom). The Lagan Canal connects
Lough Neagh with Belfast Lough.

_Population and Administration._--The population in 1891 was 208,010,
and in 1901, 196,090. The county is among those least seriously affected
by emigration. Of the total about 50% are Presbyterians, about 20% each
Protestant Episcopalians and Roman Catholics; Antrim being one of the
most decidedly Protestant counties in Ireland. Of the Presbyterians the
greater part are in connexion with the General Synod of Ulster, and the
other are Remonstrants, who separated from the Synod in 1829, or United
Presbyterians. The principal towns are Antrim (pop. 1826), Ballymena
(10,886), Ballymoney (2952), Carrickfergus (4208), Larne (6670), Lisburn
(11,461) and Portrush (1941). Belfast though constituting a separate
county ranks as the metropolis of the district. Ballyclare, Bushmills,
Crumlin, Portglenone and Randalstown are among the lesser towns. Belfast
and Larne are the chief ports. The county comprises 14 baronies and 79
civil parishes and parts of parishes. The constabulary force has its
headquarters at Ballymena. The assize town is Belfast, and quarter
sessions are held at Ballymena, Ballymoney, Belfast, Larne and Lisburn.
The county is divided between the Protestant dioceses of Derry and Down,
and the Roman Catholic dioceses of Down and Connor, and Dromore. It is
divided into north, mid, east and south parliamentary divisions, each
returning one member.

_History and Antiquities._--At what date the county of Antrim was formed
is not known, but it appears that a certain district bore this name
before the reign of Edward II. (early 14th century), and when the
shiring of Ulster was undertaken by Sir John Perrot in the 16th century,
Antrim and Down were already recognized divisions, in contradistinction
to the remainder of the province. The earliest known inhabitants were of
Celtic origin, and the names of the townlands or subdivisions, supposed
to have been made in the 13th century, are pure Celtic. Antrim was
exposed to the inroads of the Danes, and also of the northern Scots, who
ultimately effected permanent settlements. The antiquities of the county
consist of cairns, mounts or forts, remains of ecclesiastical and
military structures, and round towers. The principal cairns are: one on
Colin mountain, near Lisburn; one on Slieve True, near Carrickfergus;
and two on Colinward. The cromlechs most worthy of notice are: one near
Cairngrainey, to the north-east of the old road from Belfast to
Templepatrick; the large cromlech at Mount Druid, near Ballintoy; and
one at the northern extremity of Island Magee. The mounts, forts and
intrenchments are very numerous. There are three round towers: one at
Antrim, one at Armoy, and one on Ram Island in Lough Neagh, only that at
Antrim being perfect. There are some remains of the ecclesiastic
establishments at Bonamargy, where the earls of Antrim are buried,
Kells, Glenarm, Glynn, Muckamore and White Abbey. The noble castle of
Carrickfergus is the only one in perfect preservation. There are,
however, remains of other ancient castles, as Olderfleet, Cam's,
Shane's, Glenarm, Garron Tower, Redbay, &c., but the most interesting of
all is the castle of Dunluce, remarkable for its great extent and
romantic situation. Mount Slemish, about 8 m. east of Ballymena, is
notable as being the scene of St Patrick's early life. Island Magee had,
besides antiquarian remains, a notoriety as a home of witchcraft, and
was the scene of an act of reprisal for the much-disputed massacre of
Protestants about 1641, by the soldiery of Carrickfergus.



ANTRIM, a market-town in the west of the county Antrim, Ireland, in the
south parliamentary division, on the banks of the Six-Mile Water, half a
mile from Lough Neagh, in a beautiful and fertile valley. Pop. (1901)
1826. It is 21¾ m. north-west of Belfast by the Northern Counties
(Midland) railway, and is also the terminus of a branch of the Great
Northern railway from Lisburn. There is nothing in the town specially
worthy of notice, but the environs, including Shane's Castle and Antrim
Castle, possess features of considerable interest. About a mile from the
town is one of the most perfect of the round towers of Ireland, 93 ft.
high and 50 in circumference at the base. It stands in the grounds of
Steeple, a neighbouring seat, where is also the "Witches' Stone," a
prehistoric monument. A battle was fought near Antrim between the
English and Irish in the reign of Edward III.; and in 1642 a naval
engagement took place on Lough Neagh, for Viscount Massereene and
Ferrard (who founded Antrim Castle in 1662) had a right to maintain a
fighting fleet on the lough. On the 7th of June 1798 there was a smart
action in the town between the king's troops and a large body of rebels,
in which the latter were defeated, and Lord O'Neill mortally wounded.
Before the Union Antrim returned two members to parliament by virtue of
letters patent granted in 1666 by Charles II. There are manufactures of
paper, linen, and woollen cloth. The government is in the hands of town
commissioners.



ANTRUSTION, the name of the members of the bodyguard or military
household of the Merovingian kings. The word, of which the formation has
been variously explained, is derived from the O.H.Germ. _trost_,
comfort, aid, fidelity, trust, through the latinized form _trustis_. Our
information about the antrustions is derived from one of the _formulae_
of Marculfus (i. 18, ed. Zeumer, p. 55) and from various provisions of
the Salic law (see du Cange, _Glossarium, s._ "trustis"). Any one
desiring to enter the body of Antrustions had to present himself armed
at the royal palace, and there, with his hands in those of the king,
take a special oath or _trustis_ and _fidelitas_, in addition to the
oath of fidelity sworn by every subject at the king's accession. This
done, he was considered to be _in truste dominica_ and bound to the
discharge of all the services this involved. In return for these, the
antrustion enjoyed certain valuable advantages, as being specially
entitled to the royal assistance and protection; his _wergeld_ is three
times that of an ordinary Frank; the slayer of a Frank paid compensation
of 200 _solidi_, that of an antrustion had to find 600. The antrustion
was always of Frankish descent, and only in certain exceptional cases
were Gallo-Romans admitted into the king's bodyguard. These Gallo-Romans
then took the name of _convivae regis_, and the _wergeld_ of 300
_solidi_ was three times that of a _homo romanus_. The antrustions,
belonging as they did to one body, had strictly defined duties towards
one another; thus one antrustion was forbidden to bear witness against
another under penalty of 15 _solidi_ compensation.

The antrustions seem to have played an important part at the time of
Clovis. It was they, apparently, who formed the army which conquered the
land, an army composed chiefly of Franks, and of a few Gallo-Romans who
had taken the side of Clovis. After the conquest, the role of the
antrustions became less important. For each of their expeditions, the
kings raised an army of citizens in which the Gallo-Romans mingled more
and more with the Franks; they only kept one small permanent body which
acted as their bodyguard (_trustis dominica_), some members of which
were from time to time told off for other tasks, such as that of forming
garrisons in the frontier towns. The institution seems to have
disappeared during the anarchy with which the 8th century opened. It has
wrongly been held to be the origin of vassalage. Only the king had
antrustions; every lord could have vassals. The antrustions were a
military institution; vassalage was a social institution, the origins of
which are very complex.

  All historians of Merovingian institutions and law have treated of the
  antrustions, and each one has his different system. The principal
  authorities are:--Waitz, _Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte_, 3rd ed.
  vol. ii. pp. 335 et seq.; Brunner, _Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte_, vol.
  ii. p. 97 et seq.; Fustel de Coulanges, _La Monarchie franque_, p. 80
  et seq.; Maxirne Deloche, _La Trustis et Vantrustion royal sous les
  deux premieres races_ (Paris, 1873), collecting and discussing the
  principal texts; Guilhermoz, _Les Origines de la noblesse_ (Paris,
  1902), suggesting a system which is new in part.     (C. Pf.)



ANTWERP, the most northern of the nine provinces of Belgium. It is
conterminous with the Dutch frontier on the north. Malines, Lierre and
Turnhout are among the towns of the province. Its importance, however,
is derived from the fact that it contains the commercial metropolis of
Belgium. It is divided into three administrative districts
(_arrondissements_), viz. Antwerp, Malines and Turnhout. These are
subdivided into 25 cantons and 152 communes. The area is 707,932 acres
or 1106 sq. m. Pop. (1904) 888,980, showing an average of 804
inhabitants to the square mile.



ANTWERP (Fr. _Anvers_), capital of the above province, an important city
on the right bank of the Scheldt, Belgium's chief centre of commerce and
a strong fortified position.

Modern Antwerp is a finely laid out city with a succession of broad
avenues which mark the position of the first enceinte. There are long
streets and terraces of fine houses belonging to the merchants and
manufacturers of the city which amply testify to its prosperity, and
recall the 16th century distich that Antwerp was noted for its moneyed
men ("Antwerpia nummis"). Despite the ravages of war and internal
disturbances it still preserves some memorials of its early grandeur,
notably its fine cathedral. This church was begun in the 14th century,
but not finished till 1518. Its tower of over 400 ft. is a conspicuous
object to be seen from afar over the surrounding flat country. A second
tower which formed part of the original plan has never been erected. The
proportions of the interior are noble, and in the church are hung three
of the masterpieces of Rubens, viz. "The Descent from the Cross," "The
Elevation of the Cross," and "The Assumption." Another fine church in
Antwerp is that of St James, far more ornate than the cathedral, and
containing the tomb of Rubens, who devoted himself to its embellishment.
The Bourse or exchange, which claims to be the first distinguished by
the former name in Europe, is a fine new building finished in 1872, on
the site of the old Bourse erected in 1531 and destroyed by fire in
1858. Fire has destroyed several other old buildings in the city,
notably in 1891 the house of the Hansa League on the northern quays. A
curious museum is the Maison Plantin, the house of the great printer C.
Plantin (q.v.) and his successor Moretus, which stands exactly as it did
in the time of the latter. The new picture gallery close to the southern
quays is a fine building divided into ancient and modern sections. The
collection of old masters is very fine, containing many splendid
examples of Rubens, Van Dyck, Titian and the chief Dutch masters.
Antwerp, famous in the middle ages and at the present time for its
commercial enterprise, enjoyed in the 17th century a celebrity not less
distinct or glorious in art for its school of painting, which included
Rubens, Van Dyck, Jordaens, the two Teniers and many others.

_Commerce._--Since 1863, when Antwerp was opened to the trade of the
outer world by the purchase of the Dutch right to levy toll, its
position has completely changed, and no place in Europe has made greater
progress in this period than the ancient city on the Scheldt. The
following figures for the years 1904 and 1905 show that its trade is
still rapidly increasing:--

  +------+-------------------------+-------------------------+
  |      |         Exports.        |         Imports         |
  | Year.+-----------+-------------+-----------+-------------+
  |      |  Tonnage. |    Value.   |  Tonnage. |     Value.  |
  +------+-----------+-------------+-----------+-------------+
  | 1904 | 6,578,558 | £71,349,678 | 8,427,894 | £79,539,100 |
  | 1905 | 7,153,655 | £80,032,355 | 9,061,781 | £91,194,517 |
  +------+-----------+-------------+-----------+-------------+

The growth of its commerce in recent times may be measured by a
comparison of the following figures. In 1888, 4272 ships entered the
port and 4302 sailed from it. In 1905, 6095 entered the port and 6065
sailed from it--an increase of nearly 50%. In 1888 the total tonnage was
7,800,000; in 1905 it had risen to 19,662,000. These figures explain how
and why Antwerp has outgrown its dock accommodation. The eight principal
basins or docks already existing in 1908 were (1) the Little or
Bonaparte dock; (2) the Great dock, also constructed in Napoleon's time;
(3) the Kattendijk, built in 1860 and enlarged in 1881; (4) the Wood
dock; (5) the Campine dock, used especially for minerals; (6) the Asia
dock, which is in direct communication with the Meuse by a canal as well
as with the Scheldt; (7) the Lefebvre dock; and (8) the America dock,
which was only opened in 1905. Two new docks, called "intercalary"
because they would fit into whatever scheme might be adopted for the
rectification of the course of the Scheldt, were still to be
constructed, leading out of the Lefebvre dock and covering 70 acres.
With the completion of the new maritime lock, ships drawing 30 ft. of
water would be able to enter these new docks and also the Lefebvre and
America docks. In connexion with the projected _grande coupure_ (that
is, a cutting through the neck of the loop in the river Scheldt
immediately below Antwerp), the importance of these four docks would be
greatly increased because they would then flank the new main channel of
the river. When the Belgian Chambers voted in February 1906 the sums
necessary for the improvement of the harbour of Antwerp no definite
scheme was sanctioned, the question being referred to a special mixed
commission. The improvements at Antwerp are not confined to the
construction of new docks. The quays flanking the Scheldt are 3½ m. in
length. They are constructed of granite, and no expense has been spared
in equipping them with hydraulic cranes, warehouses, &c.

_Fortifications._--Besides being the chief commercial port of Belgium,
Antwerp is the greatest fortress of that country. Nothing, however,
remains of the former enceinte or even of the famous old citadel
defended by General Chassé in 1832, except the _Steen_, which has been
restored and contains a museum of arms and antiquities. After the
establishment of Belgian independence Antwerp was defended only by the
citadel and an enceinte of about 2½ m. round the city. No change
occurred till 1859, when the system of Belgian defence was radically
altered by the dismantlement of seventeen of the twenty-two fortresses
constructed under Wellington's supervision in 1815-1818. At Antwerp the
old citadel and enceinte were removed. A new enceinte 8 m. in length was
constructed, and the villages of Berchem and Borgerhout, now parishes of
Antwerp, were absorbed within the city. This enceinte still exists, and
is a fine work of art. It is protected by a broad wet ditch (plans in
article FORTIFICATION), and in the caponiers are the magazines and store
chambers of the fortress. The enceinte is pierced by nineteen openings
or gateways, but of these seven are not used by the public. As soon as
the enceinte was finished eight detached forts from 2 to 2½ m. distant
from the enceinte were constructed. They begin on the north near
Wyneghem and the zone of inundation, and terminate on the south at
Hoboken. In 1870 Fort Merxem and the redoubts of Berendrecht and
Oorderen were built for the defence of the area to be inundated north of
Antwerp. In 1878, in consequence of the increased range of artillery and
the more destructive power of explosives, it was recognized that the
fortifications of Antwerp were becoming useless and out of date. It was
therefore decided to change it from a fortress to a fortified position
by constructing an outer line of forts and batteries at a distance
varying from 6 to 9 m. from the enceinte. This second line was to
consist of fifteen forts, large and small. Up to 1898 only five had been
constructed, but in that and the two following years five more were
finished, leaving another five to complete the line. A mixed commission
selected the points at which they were to be placed. With the completion
of this work, which in 1908 was being rapidly pushed on, Antwerp might
be regarded as one of the best fortified positions in Europe, and so
long as its communications by sea are preserved intact it will be
practically impregnable.

Two subsidiary or minor problems remained over. (1) The much-discussed
removal of the existing enceinte in order to give Antwerp further
growing space. If it were removed there arose the further question,
should a new enceinte be made at the first line of outer forts, or
should an enceinte be dispensed with? An enceinte following the line of
those forts would be 30 m. in length. Then if the city grew up to this
extended enceinte the outer forts would be too near. To screen the city
from bombardment they would have to be carried 3 m. further out, and the
whole Belgian army would scarcely furnish an adequate garrison for this
extended position. A new enceinte, or more correctly a rampart of a less
permanent character, connecting the eight forts of the inner line and
extending from Wyneghem to a little south of Hoboken, was decided upon
in 1908. (2) The second problem was the position on the left bank of the
Scheldt. All the defences enumerated are on the right bank. On the left
bank the two old forts Isabelle and Marie alone defend the Scheldt. It
is assumed (probably rightly) that no enemy could get round to this side
in sufficient strength to deliver any attack that the existing forts
could not easily repel. The more interesting question connected with
the left bank is whether it does not provide, as Napoleon thought, the
most natural outlet for the expansion of Antwerp. Proposals to connect
the two banks by a tunnel under the Scheldt have been made from time to
time in a fitful manner, but nothing whatever had been done by 1908 to
realize what appears to be a natural and easy project.

_Population._--The following statistics show the growth of population in
and since the 19th century. In 1800 the population was computed not to
exceed 40,000. At the census of 1846 the total was 88,487; of 1851,
95,501; of 1880, 169,100; of 1900, 272,830; and of 1904, 291,949. To
these figures ought to be added the populations (1904) of Borgerhout
(43,391) and Berchem (26,383), as they are part of the city, which would
give Antwerp a total population of 361,723.

_History._--The suggested origin of the name Antwerp from _Hand-werpen_
(hand-throwing), because a mythical robber chief indulged in the
practice of cutting off his prisoners' hands and throwing them into the
Scheldt, appeared to Motley rather far-fetched, but it is less
reasonable to trace it, as he inclines to do, from _an t werf_ (on the
wharf), seeing that the form _Andhunerbo_ existed in the 6th century on
the separation of Austrasia and Neustria. Moreover, hand-cutting was not
an uncommon practice in Europe. It was perpetuated from a savage past in
the custom of cutting off the right hand of a man who died without heir,
and sending it as proof of _main-morte_ to the feudal lord. Moreover,
the two hands and a castle, which form the arms of Antwerp, will not be
dismissed as providing no proof by any one acquainted with the
scrupulous care that heralds displayed in the golden age of chivalry
before assigning or recognizing the armorial bearings of any claimant.

In the 4th century Antwerp is mentioned as one of the places in the
second Germany, and in the 11th century Godfrey of Bouillon was for some
years best known as marquis of Antwerp. Antwerp was the headquarters of
Edward III. during his early negotiations with van Artevelde, and his
son Lionel, earl of Cambridge, was born there in 1338.

It was not, however, till after the closing of the Zwyn and the decay of
Bruges that Antwerp became of importance. At the end of the 15th century
the foreign trading gilds or houses were transferred from Bruges to
Antwerp, and the building assigned to the English nation is specifically
mentioned in 1510. In 1560, a year which marked the highest point of its
prosperity, six nations, viz. the Spaniards, the Danes and the Hansa
together, the Italians, the English, the Portuguese and the Germans,
were named at Antwerp, and over 1000 foreign merchants were resident in
the city. Guicciardini, the Venetian envoy, describes the activity of
the port, into which 500 ships sometimes passed in a day, and as
evidence of the extent of its land trade he mentioned that 2000 carts
entered the city each week. Venice had fallen from its first place in
European commerce, but still it was active and prosperous. Its envoy, in
explaining the importance of Antwerp, states that there was as much
business done there in a fortnight as in Venice throughout the year.

The religious troubles that marked the second half of the 16th century
broke out in Antwerp as in every other part of Belgium excepting Liége.
In 1576 the Spanish soldiery plundered the town during what was called
"the Spanish Fury," and 6000 citizens were massacred. Eight hundred
houses were burnt down, and over two millions sterling of damage was
wrought in the town on that occasion.

In 1585 a severe blow was struck at the prosperity of Antwerp when Parma
captured it after a long siege and sent all its Protestant citizens into
exile. The recognition of the independence of the United Provinces by
the treaty of Munster in 1648 carried with it the death-blow to
Antwerp's prosperity as a place of trade, for one of its clauses
stipulated that the Scheldt should be closed to navigation. This
impediment remained in force until 1863, although the provisions were
relaxed during French rule from 1795 to 1814, and also during the time
Belgium formed part of the kingdom of the Netherlands (1815 to 1830).
Antwerp had reached the lowest point of its fortunes in 1800, and its
population had sunk under 40,000, when Napoleon, realizing its
strategical importance, assigned two millions for the construction of
two docks and a mole.

One other incident in the chequered history of Antwerp deserves mention.
In 1830 the city was captured by the Belgian insurgents, but the citadel
continued to be held by a Dutch garrison under General Chasse. For a
time this officer subjected the town to a periodical bombardment which
inflicted much damage, and at the end of 1832 the citadel itself was
besieged by a French army. During this attack the town was further
injured. In December 1832, after a gallant defence, Chasse made an
honourable surrender.

  See J.L. Motley's _Rise of the Dutch Republic_; C. Scribanii,
  _Origines Antwerpiensium_; Gens, _Hist. de la ville d'Anvers_; Mertens
  and Torfs, _Geschiedenis van Antwerp_; Genard, _Anvers a travers les
  ages_; _Annuaire statisgue de la Belgigue_.     (D. C. B.)



ANU, a Babylonian deity, who, by virtue of being the first figure in a
triad consisting of Anu, Bel and Ea, came to be regarded as the father
and king of the gods. Anu is so prominently associated with the city of
Erech in southern Babylonia that there are good reasons for believing
this place to have been the original seat of the Anu cult. If this be
correct, then the goddess Nana (or Ishtar) of Erech was presumably
regarded as his consort. The name of the god signifies the "high one"
and he was probably a god of the atmospheric region above the
earth--perhaps a storm god like Adad (q.v.), or like Yahweh among the
ancient Hebrews. However this may be, already in the old-Babylonian
period, i.e. before Khammurabi, Anu was regarded as the god of the
heavens and his name became in fact synonymous with the heavens, so that
in some cases it is doubtful whether, under the term, the god or the
heavens is meant. It would seem from this that the grouping of the
divine powers recognized in the universe into a triad symbolizing the
three divisions, heavens, earth and the watery-deep, was a process of
thought which had taken place before the third millennium. To Anu was
assigned the control of the heavens, to Bel the earth, and to Ea the
waters. The doctrine once established remained an inherent part of the
Babylonian-Assyrian religion and led to the more or less complete
disassociation of the three gods constituting the triad from their
original local limitations. An intermediate step between Anu viewed as
the local deity of Erech (or some other centre), Bel as the god of
Nippur, and Ea as the god of Eridu is represented by the prominence
which each one of the centres associated with the three deities in
question must have acquired, and which led to each one absorbing the
qualities of other gods so as to give them a controlling position in an
organized pantheon. For Nippur we have the direct evidence that its
chief deity, En-lil or Bel, was once regarded as the head of an
extensive pantheon. The sanctity and, therefore, the importance of Eridu
remained a fixed tradition in the minds of the people to the latest
days, and analogy therefore justifies the conclusion that Anu was
likewise worshipped in a centre which had acquired great prominence. The
summing-up of divine powers manifested in the universe in a threefold
division represents an outcome of speculation in the schools attached to
the temples of Babylonia, but the selection of Anu, Bel and Ea for the
three representatives of the three spheres recognized, is due to the
importance which, for one reason or the other, the centres in which Anu,
Bel and Ea were worshipped had acquired in the popular mind. Each of the
three must have been regarded in his centre as the most important member
in a larger or smaller group, so that their union in a triad marks also
the combination of the three distinctive pantheons into a harmonious
whole.

In the astral theology of Babylonia and Assyria, Anu, Bel and Ea became
the three zones of the ecliptic, the northern, middle and southern zone
respectively. The purely theoretical character of Anu is thus still
further emphasized, and in the annals and votive inscriptions as well as
in the incantations and hymns, he is rarely introduced as an active
force to whom a personal appeal can be made. His name becomes little
more than a synonym for the heavens in general and even his title as
king or father of the gods has little of the personal element in it. A
consort Antum (or as some scholars prefer to read, Anatum) is assigned
to him, on the theory that every deity must have a female associate, but
Antum is a purely artificial product--a lifeless symbol playing even
less of a part in what may be called the active pantheon than Anu.

  For works of reference see BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN RELIGION.
       (M. Ja.)



ANUBIS (in Egyptian _Anup_, written _Inpw_ in hieroglyphs), the name of
one of the most important of the Egyptian gods. There were two types of
canine divinities in Egypt, their leading representatives being
respectively Anubis and Ophois (Wp-w'-wt, "opener of the ways"): the
former type is symbolized by the recumbent animal [Hieroglyph], the
other by a similar animal (in a stiff standing attitude), carried as an
emblem on a standard [Hieroglyph] in war or in religious processions.
The former comprised two beneficent gods of the necropolis; the latter
also were beneficent, but warlike, divinities. They thus corresponded,
at any rate in some measure, respectively to the fiercer and milder
aspects of the dog-tribe. In late days the Greeks report that [Greek:
kunes] (dogs) were the sacred animals of Anubis while those of Ophois
were [Greek: lykoi] (wolves). The above figure [Hieroglyph] is coloured
black as befits a funerary and nocturnal animal: it is more attenuated
than even a greyhound, but it has the bushy tail of the fox or the
jackal. Probably these were the original genii of the necropolis, and in
fact the same lean animal figured _passant_ [Hieroglyph] is s'b "jackal"
or "fox." The domestic dog would be brought into the sacred circle
through the increased veneration for animals, and the more pronounced
view in later times of Anubis as servant, messenger and custodian of the
gods.

Anubis was the principal god in the capitals of the XVIIth and XVIIIth
nomes of Upper Egypt, and secondary god in the XIIIth and probably in
the XIIth nome; but his cult was universal. To begin with, he was the
god of the dead, of the cemetery, of all supplies for the dead, and
therefore of embalming when that became customary. In very early
inscriptions the funerary prayers in the tombs are addressed to him
almost exclusively, and he always took a leading place in them. In the
scene of the weighing of the soul before Osiris, dating from the New
kingdom onwards, Anubis attends to the balance while Thoth registers the
result. Anubis was believed to have been the embalmer of Osiris: the
mummy of Osiris, or of the deceased, on a bier, tended by this god, is a
very common subject on funerary tablets of the late periods. Anubis came
to be considered especially the attendant of the gods and conductor of
the dead, and hence was commonly identified with Hermes (cf. the name
Hermanubis); but the role of Hermes as the god of eloquence, inventor of
arts and recorder of the gods was taken by Thoth. In those days Anubis
was considered to be son of Osiris by Nephthys; earlier perhaps he was
son of Re, the sun-god. In the 2nd century A.D. his aid was "compelled"
by the magicians and necromancers to fetch the gods and entertain them
with food (especially in the ceremony of gazing into the bowl of oil),
and he is invoked by them sometimes as the "Good Ox-herd." The cult of
Anubis must at all times have been very popular in Egypt, and, belonging
to the Isis and Serapis cycle, was introduced into Greece and Rome.

  See Erman, _Egyptian Religion_; Budge, _Gods of the Egyptians_; Meyer,
  in _Zeits. f. Aeg. Spr._ 41-97.     (F. Ll. G.)



ANURADHAPURA, a ruined city of Ceylon, famous for its ancient monuments.
It is situated in the North-central province. Anuradhapura became the
capital of Ceylon in the 5th century B.C., and attained its highest
magnificence about the commencement of the Christian era. In its prime
it ranked beside Nineveh and Babylon in its colossal proportions--its
four walls, each 16 m. long, enclosing an area of 256 sq. m.,--in the
number of its inhabitants, and the splendour of its shrines and public
edifices. It suffered much during the earlier Tamil invasions, and was
finally deserted as a royal residence in A.D. 769. It fell completely
into decay, and it is only of recent years that the jungle has been
cleared away, the ruins laid bare, and some measure of prosperity
brought back to the surrounding country by the restoration of hundreds
of village tanks. The ruins consist of three classes of buildings,
_dagobas_, monastic buildings, and _pokunas_. The _dagobas_ are
bell-shaped masses of masonry, varying from a few feet to over 1100 in
circumference. Some of them contain enough masonry to build a town for
twenty-five thousand inhabitants. Remains of the monastic buildings are
to be found in every direction in the shape of raised stone platforms,
foundations and stone pillars. The most famous is the Brazen Palace
erected by King Datagamana about 164 B.C. The _pokunas_ are
bathing-tanks or tanks for the supply of drinking-water, which are
scattered everywhere through the jungle. The city also contains a sacred
Bo-tree, which is said to date back to the year 245 B.C. The railway was
extended from Matale to Anuradhapura in 1905. Population: town, 3672;
province, 79,110.



ANVIL (from Anglo-Saxon _anfilt_ or _onfilti_, either that on which
something is "welded" or "folded," cf. German _falzen_, to fold, or
connected with other Teutonic forms of the word, cf. German _amboss_, in
which case the final syllable is from "beat," and the meaning is "that
on which something is beaten"), a mass of iron on which material is
supported while being shaped under the hammer (see FORGING). The common
blacksmith's anvil is made of wrought iron, often in America of cast
iron, with a smooth working face of hardened steel. It has at one end a
projecting conical _beak_ or _bick_ for use in hammering curved pieces
of metal; occasionally the other end is also provided with a bick, which
is then partly rectangular in section. There is also a square hole in
the face, into which tools, such as the anvil-cutter or chisel, can be
dropped, cutting edge uppermost. For power hammers the anvil proper is
supported on an anvil block which is of great massiveness, sometimes
weighing over 200 tons for a 12-ton hammer, and this again rests on a
strong foundation of timber and masonry or concrete. In anatomy the term
anvil is applied to one of the bones of the middle ear, the _incus_,
which is articulated with the _malleus_.



ANVILLE, JEAN BAPTISTE BOURGUIGNON D' (1697-1782), perhaps the greatest
geographical author of the 18th century, was born at Paris on the 11th
of July 1697. His passion for geographical research displayed itself
from early years: at the age of twelve he was already amusing himself by
drawing maps for Latin authors. Later, his friendship with the
antiquarian, Abbé Longuerue, greatly aided his studies. His first
serious map, that of Ancient Greece, was published when he was fifteen,
and at the age of twenty-two he was appointed one of the king's
geographers, and began to attract the attention of the first
authorities. D'Anville's studies embraced everything of geographical
nature in the world's literature, as far as he could master it: for this
purpose he not only searched ancient and modern historians, travellers
and narrators of every description, but also poets, orators and
philosophers. One of his cherished objects was to reform geography by
putting an end to the blind copying of older maps, by testing the
commonly accepted positions of places through a rigorous examination of
all the descriptive authority, and by excluding from cartography every
name inadequately supported. Vast spaces, which had before been covered
with countries and cities, were thus suddenly reduced almost to a blank.

D'Anville was at first employed in the humbler task of illustrating by
maps the works of different travellers, such as Marchais, Charlevoix,
Labat and Duhalde. For the history of China by the last-named writer he
was employed to make an atlas, which was published separately at the
Hague in 1737. In 1735 and 1736 he brought out two treatises on the
figure of the earth; but these attempts to solve geometrical problems by
literary material were, to a great extent, refuted by Maupertuis'
measurements of a degree within the polar circle. D'Anville's historical
method was more successful in his 1743 map of Italy, which first
indicated numerous errors in the mapping of that country, and was
accompanied by a valuable memoir (a novelty in such work), showing in
full the sources of the design. A trigonometrical survey which Benedict
XIV. soon after had made in the papal states strikingly confirmed the
French geographer's results. In his later years d'Anville did yeoman
service for ancient and medieval geography, accomplishing something like
a revolution in the former; mapping afresh all the chief countries of
the pre-Christian civilizations (especially Egypt), and by his _Mémoire
et abrégé de géographie ancienne et générale_ and his _États formés en
Europe après la chute de l'empire romain en occident_ (1771) rendering
his labours still more generally useful. In 1754, at the age of
fifty-seven, he became a member of the Académie des Inscriptions et
Belles Lettres, whose transactions he enriched with many papers. In 1775
he received the only place in the Académie des Sciences which is
allotted to geography; and in the same year he was appointed, without
solicitation, first geographer to the king. His last employment
consisted in arranging his collection of maps, plans and geographical
materials. It was the most extensive in Europe, and had been purchased
by the king, who, however, left him the use of it during his life. This
task performed, he sank into a total imbecility both of mind and body,
which continued for two years, till his death in January 1782.

  D'Anville's published memoirs and dissertations amounted to 78, and
  his maps to 211. A complete edition of his works was announced in 1806
  by de Manne in 6 vols. quarto, only two of which had appeared when the
  editor died in 1832. See Dacier's _Éloge de d'Anville_ (Paris, 1802).
  Besides the separate works noticed above, d'Anville's maps executed
  for Rollin's _Histoire ancienne_ and _Histoire romaine_, and his
  _Traité des mesures anciennes et modernes_ (1769), deserve special
  notice.



ANWARI [Auhad-uddin Ali Anwari], Persian poet, was born in Khorasan
early in the 12th century. He enjoyed the especial favour of the sultan
Sinjar, whom he attended in all his warlike expeditions. On one
occasion, when the sultan was besieging the fortress of Hazarasp, a
fierce poetical conflict was maintained between Anwari and his rival
Rashidi, who was within the beleaguered castle, by means of verses
fastened to arrows. Anwari died at Balkh towards the end of the 12th
century. The _Diwan_, or collection of his poems, consists of a series
of long poems, and a number of simpler lyrics. His longest piece, _The
Tears of Khorassan_, was translated into English verse by Captain
Kirkpatrick (see also PERSIA. _Literature_).



ANWEILER, or ANNWEILER, a town of Germany, in the Bavarian Palatinate,
on the Queich, 8 m. west of Landau, and on the railway from that place
to Zweibrücken. Pop. 3700. It is romantically situated in the part of
the Haardt called the Pfälzer Schweiz (Palatinate Switzerland), and is
surrounded by high hills which yield a famous red sandstone. On the
Sonnenberg (1600 ft.) lie the ruins of the castle of Trifels, in which
Richard Coeur de Lion was imprisoned in 1193. The industries include
cloth-weaving, tanning, dyeing and saw mills. There is also a
considerable trade in wine.



ANZENGRUBER, LUDWIG (1839-1889), Austrian dramatist and novelist, was
born at Vienna on the 29th of November 1839. He was educated at the
_Realschule_ of his native town, and then entered a bookseller's shop;
from 1860 to 1867 he was an actor, without, however, displaying any
marked talent, although his stage experience later stood him in good
stead. In 1869 he became a clerk in the Viennese police department, but
having in the following year made a success with his anti-clerical
drama, _Der Pfarrer von Kirchfeld_, he gave up his appointment and
devoted himself entirely to literature. He died at Vienna on the both of
December 1889. Anzengruber was exceedingly fertile in ideas, and wrote a
great many plays. They are mostly of Austrian peasant life, and although
somewhat melancholy in tone are interspersed with bright and witty
scenes. Among the best known are _Der Meineidbauer_ (1871), _Die
Kreuzelschreiber_ (1872), _Der G'wissenswurm_ (1874), _Hand und Herz_
(1875), _Doppelselbstmord_ (1875), _Das vierte Gebot_ (1877), and _Der
Fleck auf der Ehr'_ (1889). Anzengruber also published a novel of
considerable merit, _Der Schandfleck_ (1876; remodelled 1884); and
various short stories and tales of village life collected under the
title _Wolken und Sunn'schein_ (1888).

  Anzengruber's collected works, with a biography, were published in 10
  vols. in 1890 (3rd ed. 1897); his correspondence has been edited by A.
  Bettelheim (1902). See A. Bettelheim, _L. Anzengruber_ (1890); L.
  Rosner, _Erinnerungen an L. Anzengruber_ (1890): H. Sittenberger,
  _Studien zur Dramaturgie der Gegenwart_ (1899); S. Friedmann, _L.
  Anzengruber_ (1902).



ANZIN, a town of northern France, in the department of Nord, on the
Scheldt, 1½ m. N.W. of Valenciennes, of which it is a suburb. Pop.
(1906) 14,077. Anzin is the centre of important coal-mines of the
Valenciennes basin belonging to the Anzin Company, the formation of
which dates to 1717. The metallurgical industries of the place are
extensive, and include iron and copper founding and the manufacture of
steam-engines, machinery, chain-cables and a great variety of heavy iron
goods. There are also glass-works and breweries.



AONIA, a district of ancient Boeotia, containing the mountains Helicon
and Cithaeron, and thus sacred to the Muses, who are called by Pope the
"Aonian maids."



AORIST (from Gr. [Greek: aoristos], indefinite), the name given in Greek
grammar to certain past tenses of verbs (first aorist, second aorist).



AOSTA (anc. _Augusta Praetoria Salassorum_), a town and episcopal see of
Piedmont, Italy, in the province of Turin, 80 m. N.N.W. by rail of the
town of Turin, and 48 m. direct, situated 1910 ft. above sea-level, at
the confluence of the Buthier and the Dora Baltea, and at the junction
of the Great and Little St Bernard routes. Pop. (1901) 7875. The
cathedral, reconstructed in the 11th century (to which one of its
campanili and some architectural details belong), was much altered in
the 14th and 17th; it has a rich treasury including an ivory diptych of
406 with a representation of Honorius. The church of St Ours, founded in
425, and rebuilt in the 12th century, has good cloisters (1133); the
15th-century priory is picturesque. The castle of Bramafam (11th
century) is interesting. Cretinism is common in the district.

After the fall of the Roman empire the valley of Aosta fell into the
hands of the Burgundian kings; and after many changes of masters, it
came under the rule of Count Humbert I. of Savoy (Biancamano) in 1032.
The privilege of holding the assembly of the states-general was granted
to the inhabitants in 1189. An executive council was nominated from this
body in 1536, and continued to exist until 1802. After the restoration
of the rule of Savoy it was reconstituted and formally recognized by
Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, at the birth of his grandson Prince
Amedeo, who was created duke of Aosta. Aosta was the birthplace of
Anselm. For ancient remains see AUGUSTA PRAETORIA SALASSORUM.



APACHE (apparently from the Zuni name, = "enemy," given to the Navaho
Indians), a tribe of North American Indians of Athapascan stock. The
Apaches formerly ranged over south-eastern Arizona and south-western
Mexico. The chief divisions of the Apaches were the Arivaipa,
Chiricahua, Coyotero, Faraone Gileno, Llanero, Mescalero, Mimbreno,
Mogollon, Naisha, Tchikun and Tchishi. They were a powerful and warlike
tribe, constantly at enmity with the whites. The final surrender of the
tribe took place in 1886, when the Chiricahuas, the division involved,
were deported to Florida and Alabama, where they underwent military
imprisonment. The Apaches are now in reservations in Arizona, New Mexico
and Oklahoma, and number between 5000 and 6000.

  For details see _Handbook of American Indians_, ed. F.W. Hodge,
  (Washington, 1907); also INDIANS, NORTH AMERICAN.



APALACHEE (apparently a Choctaw name, = "people on the other side"), a
tribe of North American Indians of Muskhogean stock. They have been
known since the 16th century, and formerly ranged the country around
Apalachee Bay, Florida. About 1600 the Spanish Franciscans founded a
successful mission among them, but early in the 18th century the tribe
suffered defeat at the hands of the British, the mission churches were
burnt, the priests killed, and the tribe practically annihilated, more
than one thousand of them being sold as slaves.

  See _Handbook of American Indians_, ed. F.W. Hodge (Washington, 1907).



APALACHICOLA, a city, port of entry, and the county-seat of Franklin
county, Florida, U.S.A., in the N.W. part of the state, on Apalachicola
Bay and at the mouth of the Apalachicola river. Pop. (1890) 2727; (1900)
3077, of whom 1589 were of negro descent; (1905, state census) 3244. It
is served by the Apalachicola Northern railway (to Chattahoochee,
Florida), and by river steamers which afford connexion with railways at
Carrabelle about 25 m. distant, at Chatahoochee (or River Junction), and
at Columbus and Bainbridge, Georgia, and by ocean-going vessels with
American and foreign ports. The city has a monument (1900) to John
Gorrie (1803-1855), a physician who discovered the cold-air process of
refrigeration in 1849 (and patented an ice-machine in 1850), as the
result of experiments to lower the temperatures of fever patients. The
bay is well protected by St Vincent, Flag, Sand, and St George's
islands; and the shipping of lumber, naval stores and cotton, which
reach the city by way of the river, forms the principal industry. Before
the development of railways in the Gulf states, Apalachicola was one of
the principal centres of trade in the southern states, ranking third
among the Gulf ports in 1835. In 1907 the Federal government projected a
channel across the harbour bar 100 ft. wide and 10 ft. deep and a
channel 150 ft. wide and 18 ft. deep for Link Channel and the West Pass.
In 1907 the exports were valued at $317,838; the imports were
insignificant. The value of the total domestic and foreign commerce of
the port for the year ending on the 30th of June 1907 was estimated at
$1,240,000 (76,000 tons). The fishery products, including oysters,
tarpon, sturgeon, caviare and sponges, are also important.



APAMEA, the name of several towns in western Asia.

1. A treasure city and stud-depot of the Seleucid kings in the valley of
the Orontes. It was so named by Seleucus Nicator, after Apama, his wife.
Destroyed by Chosroes in the 7th century A.D.. it was partially rebuilt
and known as _Famia_ by the Arabs; and overthrown by an earthquake in
1152. It kept its importance down to the time of the Crusades. The
acropolis hill is now occupied by the ruins of Kalat el-Mudik.

  See R.F. Burton and T. Drake, _Unexplored Syria_; E. Sachau, _Reise in
  Syrien_, 1883.

2. A city in Phrygia, founded by Antiochus Soter (from whose mother,
Apama, it received its name), near, but on lower ground than, Celaenae.
It was situated where the Marsyas leaves the hills to join the Maeander,
and it became a seat of Seleucid power, and a centre of Graeco-Roman and
Graeco-Hebrew civilization and commerce. There Antiochus the Great
collected the army with which he met the Romans at Magnesia, and there
two years later the treaty between Rome and the Seleucid realm was
signed. After Antiochus' departure for the East, Apamea lapsed to the
Pergamenian kingdom and thence to Rome in 133, but it was resold to
Mithradates V., who held it till 120. After the Mithradatic wars it
became and remained a great centre for trade, largely carried on by
resident Italians and by Jews. In 84 Sulla made it the seat of a
_conventus_ of the Asian province, and it long claimed primacy among
Phrygian cities. Its decline dates from the local disorganization of the
empire in the 3rd century A.D.; and though a bishopric, it was not an
important military or commercial centre in Byzantine times. The Turks
took it first in 1070, and from the 13th century onwards it was always
in Moslem hands. For a long period it was one of the greatest cities of
Asia Minor, commanding the Maeander road; but when the trade routes were
diverted to Constantinople it rapidly declined, and its ruin was
completed by an earthquake. A Jewish tradition, possibly arising from a
name _Cibotus_ (ark), which the town bore, identified a neighbouring
mountain with Ararat. The famous "Noah" coins of the emperor Philip
commemorate this belief. The site is now partly occupied by _Dineir_
(q.v., sometimes locally known also as _Geiklar_, "the gazelles,"
perhaps from a tradition of the Persian hunting-park, seen by Xenophon
at Celaenae), which is connected with Smyrna by railway; there are
considerable remains, including a great number of important Graeco-Roman
inscriptions.

  See W.M. Ramsay, _Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia_, vol. ii.; G.
  Weber, _Dineir-Celènes_ (1892); D.G. Hogarth in _Journ, Hell. Studies_
  (1888); O. Hirschfeld in _Trans. Berlin Academy_ (1875).
       (D. G. H.)

3. A town on the left bank of the Euphrates, at the end of a bridge of
boats (_zeugma_); the Til-Barsip of the Assyrian inscriptions, now
Birejik (q.v.).

4. The earlier Myrlea of Bithynia, now Mudania (q.v.), the port of
Brusa. The name was given it by Prusias I., who rebuilt it.

5. A city mentioned by Stephanus and Pliny as situated near the Tigris,
the identification of which is still uncertain.

6. A Greek city in Parthia, near Rhagae.



APARRI, a town of the province of Cagayán, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on
the Grande de Cagayán river near, its mouth, about 55 m. N. of
Tuguegarao, the capital. Pop. (1903) 18,252. The valley is one of the
largest tobacco-producing sections in the Philippines; and the town has
a considerable coastwise trade. Here, too, is a meteorological station.



APATITE, a widely distributed mineral, which, when found in large
masses, is of considerable economic value as a phosphate. As a mineral
species it was first recognized by A.G. Werner in 1786 and named by him
from the Greek [Greek: apatan], to deceive, because it had previously
been mistaken for other minerals, such as beryl, tourmaline, chrysolite,
amethyst, &c. Although long known to consist mainly of calcium
phosphate, it was not until 1827 that G. Rose found that fluorine or
chlorine is an essential constituent. Two chemical varieties of apatite
are to be distinguished, namely a fluor-apatite, (CaF)Ca4P3O12, and a
chlor-apatite, (CaCl)Ca4P3O12: the former, which is much the commoner,
contains 42.3% of phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) and 3.8% fluorine, and the
latter 4.10 P2O5 and 6.8% chlorine. Fluorine and chlorine replace each
other in indefinite proportions, and they may also be in part replaced
by hydroxyl, so that the general formula becomes [Ca (F, Cl, OH)]
Ca4P3O12, in which the univalent group Ca(F, Cl, OH) takes the place of
one hydrogen atom in orthophosphoric acid H3PO4. The formula is
sometimes written in the form 3Ca3(PO4)2 + CaF2. Mangan-apatite is a
variety in which calcium is largely replaced by manganese (up to 10%
MnO). Cerium, didymium, yttrium, &c., oxides may also sometimes be
present, in amounts up to 5%.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

Apatite frequently occurs as beautifully developed crystals, sometimes a
foot or more in length, belonging to that division of the hexagonal
system in which there is pyramidal hemi-hedrism. In this type of
symmetry, of which apatite is the best example, there is only one plane
of symmetry, which is perpendicular to the hexad axis. The arrangement
of the pyramidal faces n and u in fig. 2 show the hemihedral character
and absence of the full number of planes and axes of symmetry. Fig. 2
represents a highly modified crystal from St Gotthard; a more common
form is shown in fig. 1, which is bounded by the hexagonal prism m,
hexagonal bipyramid x and basal pinacoid c.

In its general appearance, apatite exhibits wide variations. Crystals
may be colourless and transparent or white and opaque, but are often
coloured, usually some shade of green or brown, occasionally violet,
sky-blue, yellow, &c. The lustre is vitreous, inclining to sub-resinous.
There is an imperfect cleavage parallel to the basal pinacoid, and the
fracture is conchoidal. Hardness 5, specific gravity 3.2.

Yellowish-green prismatic crystals from Jumilla in Murcia in Spain have
long been known under the name asparagus-stone. Lazurapatite is a
sky-blue variety found as crystals with lapis-lazuli in Siberia; and
moroxite is the name given to dull greenish-blue crystals from Norway
and Canada. Francolite, from Wheal Franco, near Tavistock in Devonshire,
and also from several Cornish mines, occurs as crystallized stalactitic
masses. In addition to these crystallized varieties, there are massive
varieties, fibrous, concretionary, stalactitic, or earthy in form, which
are included together under the name phosphorite (q.v.), and it is these
massive varieties, together with various rock-phosphates (phosphatic
nodules, coprolites, guano, &c.) which are of such great economic
importance: crystallized apatite is mined for phosphates only in Norway
and Canada.

With regard to its mode of occurrence, apatite is found under a variety
of conditions. In igneous rocks of all kinds it is invariably present in
small amounts as minute acicular crystals, and was one of the first
constituents of the rock to crystallize out from the magma. The
extensive deposits of chlor-apatite near Kragerö and Bamle, near Brevik,
in southern Norway, are in connexion with gabbro, the felspar of which
has been altered, by emanations containing chlorine, to scapolite, and
titanium minerals have been developed. The apatite occurring in
connexion with granite and veins of tin-stone is, on the other hand, a
fluor-apatite, and, like the other fluorine-bearing minerals
characteristic of tin-veins, doubtless owes its origin to the emanations
of tin fluoride which gave rise to the tin-ore. Special mention may be
here made of the beautiful violet crystals of fluor-apatite which occur
in the veins of tin-ore in the Erzgebirge, and of the brilliant
bluish-green crystals encrusting cavities in the granite of Luxullian in
Cornwall. Another common mode of occurrence of apatite is in metamorphic
crystalline rocks, especially in crystalline limestones: in eastern
Canada extensive beds of apatite occur in the limestones associated with
the Laurentian gneisses. Still another mode of occurrence is presented
by beautifully developed and transparent crystals found with crystals of
felspar and quartz lining the crevices in the gneiss of the Alps.
Crystallized apatite is also occasionally found in metalliferous veins,
other than those of tin, and in beds of iron ore; whilst if the massive
varieties (phosphorite) be considered many other modes of occurrence
might be cited.     (L. J. S.)



APATURIA ([Greek: Apatouria]), an ancient Greek festival held annually
by all the Ionian towns except Ephesus and Colophon (Herodotus i. 147).
At Athens it took place in the month of Pyanepsion (October to
November), and lasted three days, on which occasion the various
phratries (i.e. clans) of Attica met to discuss their affairs. The name
is a slightly modified form of [Greek: apatoria = hamapatoria,
homopatoria], the festival of "common relationship." The ancient
etymology associated it with [Greek: apatê] (deceit), a legend existing
that the festival originated in 1100 B.C. in commemoration of a single
combat between a certain Melanthus, representing King Thymoetes of
Attica, and King Xanthus of Boeotia, in which Melanthus successfully
threw his adversary off his guard by crying that a man in a black goat's
skin (identified with Dionysus) was helping him (Schol. Aristophanes,
_Acharnians_, 146). On the first day of the festival, called Dorpia or
Dorpeia, banquets were held towards evening at the meeting-place of the
phratries or in the private houses of members. On the second, Anarrhysis
(from [Greek: anarruein], to draw back the victim's head), a sacrifice
of oxen was offered at the public cost to Zeus Phratrius and Athena. On
the third day, Cureotis ([Greek: koureotis]), children born since the
last festival were presented by their fathers or guardians to the
assembled phratores, and, after an oath had been taken as to their
legitimacy and the sacrifice of a goat or a sheep, their names were
inscribed in the register. The name [Greek: koureotis] is derived either
from [Greek: kouros], that is, the day of the young, or less probably
from [Greek: keiro], because on this occasion young people cut their
hair and offered it to the gods. The victim was called [Greek: meion].
On this day also it was the custom for boys still at school to declaim
pieces of poetry, and to receive prizes (Plato, _Timaeus_, 21 B).
According to Hesychius these three days of the festival were followed by
a fourth, called [Greek: epibda], but this is merely a general term for
the day after any festival.



APE (Old Eng. _apa_; Dutch _aap_; Old Ger. _affo_; Welsh _epa_; Old
Bohemian _op_; a word of uncertain origin, possibly an imitation of the
animal's chatter), the generic English name, till the 16th century, for
animals of the monkey tribe, and still used specifically for the
tailless, manlike representatives of the order Primates (q.v.). The word
is now generally a synonym for "monkey," but the common verb for both
(as transferred figuratively to human beings) is "to ape," i.e. to
imitate.



APELDOORN, a town in the province of Gelderland, Holland, and a junction
station 26½ m. by rail W. of Amersfoort. It is connected by canal north
and south with Zwolle and Zutphen respectively. Pop. (1900) 25,834. The
neighbourhood of Apeldoorn is very picturesque and well wooded. The
Protestant church was restored after a fire in 1890. Close by is the
favourite country-seat of the royal family of Holland called the Loo. It
was originally a hunting-lodge of the dukes of Gelderland, but in its
present form dates chiefly from the time of the Stadtholder William
III., king of England. Apeldoorn possesses large paper-mills.



APELLA, the official title of the popular assembly at Sparta,
corresponding to the ecclesia in most other Greek states. Every full
citizen who had completed his thirtieth year was entitled to attend the
meetings, which, according to Lycurgus's ordinance, must be held at the
time of each full moon within the boundaries of Sparta. They had in all
probability taken place originally in the Agora, but were later
transferred to the neighbouring building known as the Skias (Paus. iii.
12. 10). The presiding officers were at first the kings, but in
historical times the ephors, and the voting was conducted by shouts; if
the president was doubtful as to the majority of voices, a division was
taken and the votes were counted. Lycurgus had ordained that the apella
must simply accept or reject the proposals submitted to it, and though
this regulation fell into neglect, it was practically restored by the
law of Theopompus and Polydorus which empowered the kings and elders to
set aside any "crooked" decision of the people (Plut. _Lycurg._ 6). In
later times, too, the actual debate was almost, if not wholly, confined
to the kings, elders, ephors and perhaps the other magistrates. The
apella voted on peace and war, treaties and foreign policy in general:
it decided which of the kings should conduct a campaign and settled
questions of disputed succession to the throne: it elected elders,
ephors and other magistrates, emancipated helots and perhaps voted on
legal proposals. There is a single reference (Xen. _Hell._ iii. 3. 8) to
a "small assembly" ([Greek: ê mikra kaloumenê ekklêsia]) at Sparta, but
nothing is known as to its nature or competence. The term apella does
not occur in extant Spartan inscriptions, though two decrees of Gythium
belonging to the Roman period refer to the [Greek: megalai apellai] (Le
Bas-Foucart, _Voyage archéologique_, ii., Nos. 242a, 243).

  See G. Gilbert, _Constitutional Antiquities of Sparta and Athens_
  (Eng, trans., 1895), pp. 49 ff.; _Studien zur altspartanischen
  Geschichte_ (Göttingen, 1872), pp. 131 ff.; G.F. Schömann,
  _Antiquities of Greece: The State_ (Eng. trans., 1880), pp. 234 ff.;
  _De ecdesiis Lacedaemoniorum_ (Griefswald, 1836) [= _Opusc. academ._
  i. pp. 87 ff.]; C.O. Müller, _History and Antiquities of the Doric
  Race_ (Eng. trans., 2nd ed. 1839), book iii. ch. 5, §§ 8-10; G.
  Busolt, _Die griechischen Staats- und Rechtsaltertümer_, 1887 (in Iwan
  Müller's _Handbuch der klassischen Altertumsiuissenschaft_, iv. 1), §
  90; _Griechische Geschichte_ (2nd ed.), i. p. 552 ff.     (M. N. T.)



APELLES, probably the greatest painter of antiquity. He lived from the
time of Philip of Macedon till after the death of Alexander. He was of
Ionian origin, but after he had attained some celebrity he became a
student at the celebrated school of Sicyon, where he worked under
Pamphilus. He thus combined the Dorian thoroughness with the Ionic
grace. Attracted to the court of Philip, he painted him and the young
Alexander with such success that he became the recognized court painter
of Macedon, and his picture of Alexander holding a thunderbolt ranked
with the Alexander with the spear of the sculptor Lysippus. Other works
of Apelles had a great reputation in antiquity, such as the portraits of
the Macedonians Clitus, Archelaus and Antigonus, the procession of the
high priest of Artemis at Ephesus, Artemis amid a chorus of maidens, a
great allegorical picture representing Calumny, and the noted painting
representing Aphrodite rising out of the sea. Of none of these works
have we any copy, unless indeed we may consider a painting of Alexander
as Zeus in the house of the Vettii at Pompeii as a reminiscence of his
work; but some of the Italian artists of the Renaissance repeated the
subjects, in a vain hope of giving some notion of the composition of
them.

Few things are more hopeless than the attempt to realize the style of a
painter whose works have vanished. But a great wealth of stories, true
or invented, clung to Apelles in antiquity; and modern archaeologists
have naturally tried to discover what they indicate. We are told, for
example, that he attached great value to the drawing of outlines,
practising every day. The tale is well known of his visit to Protogenes,
and the rivalry of the two masters as to which could draw the finest and
steadiest line. The power of drawing such lines is conspicuous in the
decoration of red-figured vases of Athens. Apelles is said to have
treated his rival with generosity, for he increased the value of his
pictures by spreading a report that he meant to buy them and sell them
as his own. Apelles allowed the superiority of some of his
contemporaries in particular matters: according to Pliny he admired the
_dispositio_ of Melanthius, i.e. the way in which he spaced his figures,
and the _mensurae_ of Asclepiodorus, who must have been a great master
of symmetry and proportion. It was especially in that undefinable
quality "grace" that Apelles excelled. He probably used but a small
variety of colours, and avoided elaborate perspective: simplicity of
design, beauty of line and charm of expression were his chief merits.
When the naturalism of some of his works is praised--for example, the
hand of his Alexander is said to have stood out from the picture--we
must remember that this is the merit always ascribed by ignorant critics
to works which they admire. In fact the age of Alexander was one of
notable idealism, and probably Apelles succeeded in a marked degree in
imparting to his figures a beauty beyond nature.

Apelles was also noted for improvements which he introduced in
technique. He had a dark glaze, called by Pliny _atramentum_, which
served both to preserve his paintings and to soften their colour. There
can be little doubt that he was one of the most bold and progressive, of
artists.     (P. G.)



APELLICON, a wealthy native of Teos, afterwards an Athenian citizen, a
famous book collector. He not only spent large sums in the acquisition
of his library, but stole original documents from the archives of Athens
and other cities of Greece. Being detected, he fled in order to escape
punishment, but returned when Athenion (or Aristion), a bitter opponent
of the Romans, had made himself tyrant of the city with the aid of
Mithradates. Athenion sent him with some troops to Delos, to plunder the
treasures of the temple, but he showed little military capacity. He was
surprised by the Romans under the command of Orobius (or Orbius), and
only saved his life by flight. He died a little later, probably in 84
B.C.

Apellicon's chief pursuit was the collection of rare and important
books. He purchased from the family of Neleus of Skepsis in the Troad
manuscripts of the works of Aristotle and Theophrastus (including their
libraries), which had been given to Neleus by Theophrastus himself,
whose pupil Neleus had been. They had been concealed in a cellar to
prevent their falling into the hands of the book-collecting princes of
Pergamum, and were in a very dilapidated condition. Apellicon filled in
the lacunae, and brought out a new, but faulty, edition. In 84 Sulla
removed Apellicon's library to Rome (Strabo xiii. p. 609; Plutarch,
_Sulla_, 26). Here the MSS. were handed over to the grammarian
Tyrannion, who took copies of them, on the basis of which the
peripatetic philosopher Andronicus of Rhodes prepared an edition of
Aristotle's works. Apellicon's library contained a remarkable old copy
of the _Iliad_. He is said to have published a biography of Aristotle,
in which the calumnies of other biographers were refuted.



APENNINES (Gr. [Greek: Apenninos], Lat. _Appenninus_--in both cases used
in the singular), a range of mountains traversing the entire peninsula
of Italy, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. The name
is probably derived from the Celtic _pen_, a mountain top: it originally
belonged to the northern portion of the chain, from the Maritime Alps to
Ancona; and Polybius is probably the first writer who applied it to the
whole chain, making, indeed, no distinction between the Apennines and
the Maritime Alps, and extending the former name as far as Marseilles.
Classical authors do not differentiate the various parts of the chain,
but use the name as a general name for the whole. The total length is
some 800 m. and the maximum width 70 to 80 m.

_Divisions._--Modern geographers divide the range into three parts,
northern, central and southern.

1. The northern Apennines are generally distinguished (though there is
no real solution of continuity) from the Maritime Alps at the Bocchetta
dell' Altare, some 5 m. W. of Savona on the high road to Turin.[1] They
again are divided into three parts--the Ligurian, Tuscan and Umbrian
Apennines. The Ligurian Apennines extend as far as the pass of La Cisa
in the upper valley of the Magra (anc. _Macra_) above Spezia; at first
they follow the curve of the Gulf of Genoa, and then run east-south-east
parallel to the coast. On the north and north-east lie the broad plains
of Piedmont and Lombardy, traversed by the Po, the chief tributaries of
which from the Ligurian Apennines are the Scrivia (_Olumbria_), Trebbia
(_Trebia_) and Taro (_Tarus_). The Tanaro (_Tanarus_), though largely
fed by tributaries from the Ligurian Apennines, itself rises in the
Maritime Alps, while the rivers on the south and south-west of the range
are short and unimportant. The south side of the range rises steeply
from the sea, leaving practically no coast strip: its slopes are
sheltered and therefore fertile and highly cultivated, and the coast
towns are favourite winter resorts (see RIVIERA). The highest point (the
Monte Bue) reaches 5915 ft. The range is crossed by several
railways--the line from Savona to Turin (with a branch at Ceva for
Acqui), that from Genoa to Ovada and Acqui, the main lines from Genoa to
Novi, the junction for Turin and Milan (both of which[2] pass under the
Monte dei Giovi, the ancient Mons loventius, by which the ancient Via
Postumia ran from Genua to Dertona), and that from Spezia to Parma under
the pass of La Cisa.[3] All these traverse the ridge by long
tunnels--that on the new line from Genoa to Honco is upwards of 5 m. in
length.

The Tuscan Apennines extend from the pass of La Cisa to the sources of
the Tiber. The main chain continues to run in an east-south-east
direction, but traverses the peninsula, the west coast meanwhile turning
almost due south. From the northern slopes many rivers and streams run
north and north-north-east into the Po, the Secchia (_Secia_) and Panaro
(_Scultenna_) being among the most important, while farther east most of
the rivers are tributaries of the Reno (anc. _Rhenus_). Other small
streams, e.g. the Ronco (_Bedesis_) and Montone (_Utis_), which flow
into the sea together east of Ravenna, were also tributaries of the Po;
and the Savio (_Sapis_) and the Rubicon seem to be the only streams from
this side of the Tuscan Apennines that ran directly into the sea in
Roman days. From the south-west side of the main range the Arno (q.v.)
and Serchio run into the Mediterranean. This section of the Apennines is
crossed by two railways, from Pistoia to Bologna and from Florence to
Faenza, and by several good high roads, of which the direct road from
Florence to Bologna over the Futa pass is of Roman origin; and certain
places in it are favourite summer resorts. The highest point of the
chain is Monte Cimone (7103 ft.). The so-called Alpi Apuane (the
_Apuani_ were an ancient people of Liguria), a detached chain south-west
of the valley of the Serchio, rise to a maximum height of 6100 ft. They
contain the famous marble quarries of Carrara. The greater part of
Tuscany, however, is taken up by lower hills, which form no part of the
Apennines, being divided from the main chain by the valleys of the Arno,
Chiana (_Clanis_) and Paglia (_Pallia_), Towards the west they are rich
in minerals and chemicals, which the Apennines proper do not produce.

The Umbrian Apennines extend from the sources of the Tiber to (or
perhaps rather beyond) the pass of Scheggia near Cagli, where the
ancient Via Flaminia crosses the range. The highest point is the Monte
Nerone (5010 ft.). The chief river is the Tiber itself: the others,
among which the Foglia (_Pisaurus_), Metauro (_Metaurus_) and Esino[4]
may be mentioned, run north-east into the Adriatic, which is some 30 m.
from the highest points of the chain. This portion of the range is
crossed near its southern termination by a railway from Foligno to
Ancona (which at Fabriano has a branch to Macerata and Porto Civitanova,
on the Adriatic coast railway), which may perhaps be conveniently
regarded as its boundary.[5] By some geographers, indeed, it is treated
as a part of the central Apennines.

2. The central Apennines are the most extensive portion of the chain,
and stretch as far as the valley of the Sangro (_Sangrus_). To the north
are the Monti Sibillini, the highest point of which is the Monte Vettore
(8128 ft.). Farther south three parallel chains may be traced, the
westernmost of which (the Monti Sabini) culminates to the south in the
Monte Viglio (7075 ft.), the central chain in the Monte Terminillo (7260
ft.), and farther south in the Monte Velino (8160 ft.), and the eastern
in the Gran Sasso d'Italia (9560 ft.), the highest summit of the
Apennines, and the Maiella group (Monte Amaro, 9170 ft.). Between the
western and central ranges are the plain of Rieti, the valley of the
Salto (_Himella_), and the Lago Fucino; while between the central and
eastern ranges are the valleys of Aquila and Sulmona. The chief rivers
on the west are the Nera (_Nar_), with its tributaries the Velino
(_Velinus_) and Salto, and the Anio, both of which fall into the Tiber.
On the east there is at first a succession of small rivers which flow
into the Adriatic, from which the highest points of the chain are some
25 m. distant, such as the Potenza (_Flosis_), Chienti (_Cluentus_),
Tenna (_Tinna_), Tronto (_Truentus_), Tordino (_Helvinus_), Vomano
(_Vomanus_), &c. The Pescara (_Aternus_), which receives the Aterno from
the north-west and the Gizio from the south-east, is more important; and
so is the Sangro.

The central Apennines are crossed by the railway from Rome to
Castelammare Adriatico via Avezzano and Sulmona: the railway from Orte
to Terni (and thence to Foligno) follows the Nera valley; while from
Terni a line ascends to the plain of Rieti, and thence crosses the
central chain to Aquila, whence it follows the valley of the Aterno to
Sulmona. In ancient times the Via Salaria, Via Caecilia and Via
Valeria-Claudia all ran from Rome to the Adriatic coast. The volcanic
mountains of the province of Rome are separated from the Apennines by
the Tiber valley, and the Monti Lepini, or Volscian mountains, by the
valleys of the Sacco and Liri.

3. In the southern Apennines, to the south of the Sangro valley, the
three parallel chains are broken up into smaller groups; among them may
be named the Matese, the highest point of which is the Monte Miletto
(6725 ft.). The chief rivers on the south-west are the Liri or
Garigliano (anc. _Liris_) with its tributary the Sacco (_Trerus_), the
Volturno (_Volturnus_), Sebeto (_Sabatus_), Sarno (_Sarnus_), on the
north the Trigno (_Trinius_), Biferno (_Tifernus_), and Fortore
(_Frento_). The promontory of Monte Gargano, on the east, is completely
isolated, and so are the volcanic groups near Naples. The district is
traversed from north-west to south-east by the railway from Sulmona to
Benevento and on to Avellino, and from south-west to north-east by the
railways from Caianello via Isernia to Campobasso and Termoli, from
Caserta to Benevento and Foggia, and from Nocera and Avellino to
Rocchetta S. Antonio, the junction for Foggia, Spinazzola (for Barletta,
Bari, and Taranto) and Potenza. Roman roads followed the same lines as
the railways: the Via Appia ran from Capua to Benevento, whence the
older road went to Venosa and Taranto and so to Brindisi, while the Via
Traiana ran nearly to Foggia and thence to Bari.

The valley of the Ofanto (_Aufidus_), which runs into the Adriatic close
to Barletta, marks the northern termination of the first range of the
Lucanian Apennines (now Basilicata), which runs from east to west, while
south of the valleys of the Sele (on the west) and Basiento (on the
east)-which form the line followed by the railway from Battipaglia via
Potenza to Metaponto--the second range begins to run due north and south
as far as the plain of Sibari (_Sybaris_). The highest point is the
Monte Pollino (7325 ft.). The chief rivers are the Sele
(_Silarus_)--joined by the Negro (_Tanager_) and Calore (_Calor_)--on
the west, and the Bradano (_Bradanus_), Basiento (_Casuentus_), Agri
(_Aciris_), Sinni (_Siris_) on the east, which flow into the gulf of
Taranto; to the south of the last-named river there are only unimportant
streams flowing into the sea east and west, inasmuch as here the width
of the peninsula diminishes to some 40 m. The railway running south from
Sicignano to Lagonegro, ascending the valley of the Negro, is planned to
extend to Cosenza, along the line followed by the ancient Via Popilia,
which beyond Cosenza reached the west coast at Terina and thence
followed it to Reggio. The Via Herculia, a branch of the Via Traiana,
ran from Aequum Tuticum to the ancient Nerulum. At the narrowest point
the plain of Sibari, through which the rivers Coscile (_Sybaris_) and
Crati (_Crathis_) flow to the sea, occurs on the east coast, extending
halfway across the peninsula. Here the limestone Apennines proper cease
and the granite mountains of Calabria (anc. _Bruttii_) begin. The first
group extends as far as the isthmus formed by the gulfs of S. Eufemia
and Squillace; it is known as the Sila, and the highest point reached is
6330 ft. (the Botte Donato). The forests which covered it in ancient
times supplied the Greeks and Sicilians with timber for shipbuilding.
The railway from S. Eufemia to Catanzaro and Catanzaro Marina crosses
the isthmus, and an ancient road may have run from Squillace to
Monteleone. The second group extends to the south end of the Italian
peninsula, culminating in the Aspromonte (6420 ft.) to the east of
Reggio di Calabria. In both groups the rivers are quite unimportant.

_Character_.--The Apennines are to some extent clothed with forests,
though these were probably more extensive in classical times (Pliny
mentions especially pine, oak and beech woods, _Hist. Nat_. xvi. 177);
they have indeed been greatly reduced in comparatively modern times by
indiscriminate timber-felling, and though serious attempts at
reafforestation have been made by the government, much remains to be
done. They also furnish considerable summer pastures, especially in the
Abruzzi: Pliny (_Hist. Nat_. xi. 240) praises the cheese of the
Apennines. In the forests wolves were frequent, and still are found, the
flocks being protected against them by large sheep-dogs; bears, however,
which were known in Roman times, have almost entirely disappeared. Nor
are the wild goats called _rotae_, spoken of by Varro (_R. R._ II. i.
5), which may have been either chamois or steinbock, to be found.
Brigandage appears to have been prevalent in Roman times in the remoter
parts of the Apennines, as it was until recently: an inscription found
near the Furlo pass was set up in A.D. 246 by an _evocatus Augusti_ (a
member of a picked corps) on special police duty with a detachment of
twenty men from the Ravenna fleet (G. Henzen in _Römische Mitteilungen_,
1887, 14). Snow lies on the highest peaks of the Apennines for almost
the whole year. The range produces no minerals, but there are a
considerable number of good mineral springs, some of which are thermal
(such as Bagni di Lucca, Monte Catini, Monsummano, Porretta, Telese,
&c.), while others are cool (such as Nocera, Sangemini, Cinciano, &c.),
the water of which is both drunk on the spot and sold as table water
elsewhere.     (T. As.)

_Geology_.--The Apennines are the continuation of the Alpine chain, but
the individual zones of the Alps cannot be traced into the Apennines.
The zone of the Brianconnais (see ALPS) may be followed as far as the
Gulf of Genoa, but scarcely beyond, unless it is represented by the
Trias and older beds of the Apuan Alps. The inner zone of crystalline
and schistose rocks which forms the main chain of the Alps, is absent in
the Apennines except towards the southern end. The Apennines, indeed,
consist almost entirely of Mesozoic and Tertiary beds, like the outer
zones of the Alps. Remnants of a former inner zone of more ancient rocks
may be seen in the Apuan Alps, in the islands off the Tuscan coast; in
the Catena Metallifera, Cape Circeo and the island of Zannone, as well
as in the Calabrian peninsula. These remnants lie at a comparatively low
level, and excepting the Apuan Alps and the Calabrian peninsula they do
not now form any part of the Apennine chain. But that in Tertiary times
there was a high interior zone of crystalline rocks is indicated by the
character of the Eocene beds in the southern Apennines. These are formed
to a large extent of thick conglomerates which are full of pebbles and
boulders of granite and schist. Many of the boulders are of considerable
size and they are often still angular. There is now no crystalline
region from which they could reach their present position; and this and
other considerations have led the followers of E. Suess to conclude that
even in Tertiary times a large land mass consisting of ancient rocks
occupied the space which is now covered by the southern portion of the
Tyrrhenian Sea. This old land mass has been called Tyrrhenis, and
probably extended from Sicily into Latium and as far west as Sardinia.
On the Italian border of this land there was raised a mountain chain
with an inner crystalline zone and an outer zone of Mesozoic and
Tertiary beds. Subsequent faulting has caused the subsidence of the
greater part of Tyrrhenis, including nearly the whole of the inner zone
of the mountain chain, and has left only the outer zones standing as the
present Apennines.

Be this as it may, the Apennines, excepting in Calabria, are formed
chiefly of Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene and Miocene beds. In
the south the deposits, from the Trias to the middle Eocene, consist
mainly of limestones, and were laid down, with a few slight
interruptions, upon a quietly subsiding sea-floor. In the later part of
the Eocene period began the folding which gave rise to the existing
chain. The sea grew shallow, the deposits became conglomeratic and
shaly, volcanic eruptions began, and the present folds of the Apennines
were initiated. The folding and consequent elevation went on until the
close of the Miocene period when a considerable subsidence took place
and the Pliocene sea overspread the lower portions of the range.
Subsequent elevation, without folding, has raised these Pliocene
deposits to a considerable height--in some cases over 3000 ft. and they
now lie almost undisturbed upon the older folded beds. This last
elevation led to the formation of numerous lakes which are now filled up
by Pleistocene deposits. Both volcanic eruptions and movements of
elevation and depression continue to the present day on the shores of
the Tyrrhenian Sea. In the northern Apennines the elevation of the sea
floor appears to have begun at an earlier period, for the Upper
Cretaceous of that part of the chain consists largely of sandstones and
conglomerates. In Calabria the chain consists chiefly of crystalline and
schistose rocks; it is the Mesozoic and Tertiary zone which has here
been sunk beneath the sea. Similar rocks are found beneath the Trias
farther north, in some of the valleys of Basilicata. Glaciers no longer
exist in the Apennines, but Post-Pliocene moraines have been observed in
Basilicata.

  REFERENCES.--G. de Lorenzo, "Studi di geologia nell' Appennino
  Meridionale," _Atti d. R. Accad. d. Sci, Fis. e Mat._, Napoli, ser. 2,
  vol. viii., no. 7 (1896); F. Sacco, "L' Appennino settentrionale,"
  _Boll. Soc. geol. Ital._ (1893-1899).     (P. La.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The ancient Via Aemilia, built in 109 B.C., led over this pass,
    but originally turned east to Dertona (mod. _Tortona_).

  [2] There are two separate lines from Sampierdarena to Ronco.

  [3] This pass was also traversed by a nameless Roman road.

  [4] This river (anc. Aesis) was the boundary of Italy proper in the
    3rd and 2nd centuries B.C.

  [5] The Monte Conero, to the south of Ancona, was originally an
    island of the Pliocene sea.



APENRADE, a town of Germany in the Prussian province of Schleswig,
beautifully situated on the Apenrade Fjord, an arm of the Little Belt,
38 m. N. of the town of Schleswig. Pop. (1900) 5952. It is connected by
a branch line with the main railway of Schleswig, and possesses a good
harbour, which affords shelter for a large carrying trade. Fishing,
shipbuilding and various small factories provide occupation for the
population. The town is a bathing resort, as is Elisenlund close by.



APERTURE (from Lat. _aperire_, to open), an opening. In optics, it is
that portion of the diameter of an object-glass or mirror through which
light can pass free from obstruction. It is equal to the actual diameter
of the cylinder of rays admitted by a telescope.



APEX, the Latin word (pl. _apices_) for the top, tip or peak of
anything. A diminutive "apiculus" is used in botany.



APHANITE, a name given (from the Gr. [Greek: aphanês], invisible) to
certain dark-coloured igneous rocks which are so fine-grained that their
component minerals are not detected by the unaided eye. They consist
essentially of plagioclase felspar, with hornblende or augite, and may
contain also biotite, quartz and a limited amount of orthoclase.
Although a few authorities still recognize the aphanites as a distinct
class, most systematic petrologists, at the present time, have discarded
it, and regard these rocks as merely structural facies of other species.
Those which contain hornblende are uniform, fine-grained diorites,
vogesites, &c., while when pyroxene predominates they are ascribed to
the dolerites, quartz-dolerites, &c. Hence, any rock which is compact,
crystalline and fine grained, is frequently said to be _aphanitic_,
without implying exactly to which of the principal rock groups it really
belongs.



APHASIA[1] (from Gr. [Greek: a], privative, and [Greek: phasis],
speech), a term which means literally inability to speak, and is used to
denote various defects in the comprehension and expression of both
spoken and written language which result from lesions of the brain.
Aphasic disorders may be classed in two groups:--first, receptive or
sensory aphasia, which comprises (a) inability to understand spoken
language (auditory aphasia), and (b) inability to read (visual aphasia,
or _alexia_); second, emissive or motor aphasia, under which category
are included (a) inability to speak (motor vocal aphasia, or _aphemia_),
and (b) inability to write (motor graphic aphasia, or _agraphia_). It
has been shown that each of these defects is produced by destruction of
a special region of the cortex of the brain. These regions, which are
termed the speech centres, are, in right-handed people, situated in the
left cerebral hemisphere; this is the reason why aphasia is so commonly
associated with paralysis of the right side of the body.

A study of the acquisition of the faculty of speech throws light upon
the education of the speech centres, and helps to elucidate their
physiological interaction and the phenomena of aphasia. The auditory
speech centre is the first to show signs of functional activity, for
within a few months of birth the child begins to _understand_ spoken
language. Some months later the motor vocal speech centre begins to
functionate. The memories of the auditory word images which are stored
up in the auditory speech centre play a most important part in the
process of learning to speak. The child born deaf grows up mute. The
visual speech centre comes into activity when the child is taught to
read. Again, when he learns to write and thus begins to educate his
graphic centre, he is constantly calling upon his visual speech centre
for the visual images of the words he wishes to produce. From these
remarks it will be seen that there is a very intimate association
between the auditory speech centre and the motor vocal speech centre,
also between the visual speech centre and the graphic centre.

_Auditory Aphasia._--The auditory speech centre is situated in the
posterior part of the first and second temporo-sphenoidal convolutions
on the left side of the brain. Destruction of this centre causes
"auditory aphasia." Hearing is unimpaired but spoken language is quite
unintelligible. The subject of auditory aphasia may be compared to an
individual who is listening to a foreign language of which he does not
understand a word. Word deafness, a term often used as synonymous with
auditory aphasia, is misleading and should be abandoned. Auditory
aphasia commonly interferes with vocal expression, for the majority of
people when they speak do so by recalling the auditory memories of words
stored up in the auditory speech centre. _Amnesia verbalis_ is employed
to designate failure to call up in the memory the images of words which
are needed for purposes of vocal expression or silent thought.

_Visual Aphasia or Alexia._--The visual speech centre, which is located
in the left angular gyrus, is connected with the two centres for vision
which are situated one in either occipital lobe. Destruction of the
visual speech centre produces visual aphasia or alexia. Word blindness,
sometimes used as the equivalent of visual aphasia, is, like word
deafness, a misleading term. The individual is not blind, he sees the
words and letters perfectly, but they appear to him as unintelligible
cyphers. When the visual speech centre is destroyed, the memories of the
visual images of words are obliterated and interference with writing, a
consequence of _amnesia verbalis_, results. On the other hand, when the
lesion is situated deeply in the occipital lobe, and does not implicate
the cortex, but merely cuts off the connexions of the angular gyrus with
both visual centres, agraphia is not produced, for the visual word
centre and its connexion with the graphic centre are still intact (pure,
or sub-cortical word blindness).

_Motor Vocal Aphasia or Aphemia._--The centre for motor vocal speech is
situated in the posterior part of the third left frontal convolution and
extends on to the foot of the left ascending frontal convolution
(Broca's convolution). Complete destruction of this region produces loss
of speech, although it often happens that a few words, such as "yes" and
"no," and, it may be, emotional exclamations such as "Oh! dear!" and the
like are retained. The utterance of unintelligible sounds is still
possible, however, and there is neither defective voice production
(_aphonia_) nor paralysis of the mechanism of articulation. The
individual can recall the auditory and visual images of the words which
he wishes to use, but his memory for the complicated, co-ordinated
movements which he acquired in the process of learning to speak, and
which are necessary for vocal expression, has been blotted out. In the
great majority of cases of motor vocal aphasia there is associated
agraphia, a circumstance which is perhaps to be accounted for by the
proximity of the graphic centre. When the lesion is situated below the
cortex of Broca's convolution but destroys the fibres which pass from it
towards the internal capsule, agraphia is not produced (sub-cortical or
pure motor vocal aphasia). Destruction of the auditory speech centre is,
as we have seen, commonly accompanied by more or less interference with
vocal speech, a consequence of _amnesia verbalis_.

_Agraphia._--Discussion still rages as to the presence of a special
writing centre. Those who favour the separate existence of a graphic
centre locate it in the second left frontal convolution. It may be that
the want of unanimity as to the graphic centre is to be explained by an
anatomical relationship so close between the graphic centre and that for
the fine movement of the hand that a lesion in this situation which
produces agraphia must at the same time cause a paralysis of the hand.
Destruction of the visual speech centre by obliterating the visual
memories of words (_amnesia verbalis_) produces agraphia. Further,
several instances are on record in which agraphia has followed
destruction of the commissure between the visual speech centre and the
graphic centre. As already mentioned, agraphia is very often associated
with motor vocal aphasia.

A number of aphasic defects are met with in addition to those already
mentioned. Thus _paraphasia_ is a condition in which the patient makes
use of words other than those he intends. He may mix up his words so
that his conversation is quite unintelligible. In the most pronounced
forms he gabbles away, employing unrecognizable sounds in place of words
(_jargon and gibberish aphasia_). _Paragraphia_ is a similar defect
which occurs in writing. Both paraphasia and paragraphia may be produced
by partial lesions of the sensory speech centres or of the commissures
which connect these with the motor centres. _Object blindness_ (syn.
mind-blindness) refers to an inability to recognize an object or its
uses by the aid of sight alone. The probable explanation would seem to
be that the ordinary centre for vision has been isolated from the other
sensory centres with which it is connected. Not uncommonly there is
associated visual aphasia. _Optic aphasia_ was introduced to designate a
somewhat similar state in which, although the uses of an object are
recognized, the patient cannot name it at sight, yet, if it is of such a
nature that it appeals directly to one of the other senses, he may at
once be able to name it. _Tactile aphasia_, is a rare defect in which
there exists an inability to recognize an object by touch alone although
the qualities which, under normal circumstances, suffice for its
detection can be accurately described. _Amusia_, or loss of the musical
faculty, may occur in association with or independent of aphasia. There
is reason for believing that special receptive and emissive centres
exist for the musical sense exactly analogous to those for speech.

The speech centres are all supplied by the left middle cerebral artery.
When this artery is blocked close to its origin by an _embolus_ or
_thrombus_, total aphasia results. It may be, however, that only one of
the smaller branches of the artery is obstructed, and, according to the
region of the brain to which this branch is distributed, one or more of
the speech centres may be destroyed. Occlusion of the left posterior
cerebral artery causes extensive softening of the occipital lobe and
produces pure word blindness. Further, a tumour, abscess, haemorrhage or
meningitis may be so situated as to damage or destroy the individual
speech centres or their connecting commissures. The amount of recovery
to be expected in any given case depends upon the nature, situation and
extent of the lesion, and upon the age of the patient. Even after
complete destruction of the speech centres, perfect recovery may take
place, for the centres in the right hemisphere of the brain are capable
of education. This is only possible in young individuals. In the great
majority of instances the nature of the lesion is such as to render
futile all treatment directed towards its removal. In suitable cases,
however, the education of the right side of the brain may be very
greatly assisted by an intelligent application of scientific methods.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Broca, _Bulletin de la Société anatomique_ (1861);
  Wernicke, _Der Aphasische Symptomen-complex_ (Breslau, 1874);
  Kussmaul, _Ziemssen's Cyclopaedia_, vol. xiv. p. 759; Wyllie, _The
  Disorders of Speech_ (1895); Elder, _Aphasia and the Cerebral Speech
  Mechanism_ (1897); Collins, _The Faculty of Speech_ (1897); Bastian,
  _Aphasia and other Speech Defects_ (1898); Byrom Bramwell,
  "Will-making and Aphasia," _British Medical Journal_ (1897); "The
  Morison Lectures on Aphasia," _The Lancet_ (1906). See also the works
  of Charcot, Hughlings Jackson, Dejerine, Lichtheim, Pitres, Grasset,
  Ross, Broadbent, Mills, Bateman, Mirallié, Exner, Marie and others.
       (J. B. T.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In 1906 Pierre Marie of Paris expressed views (_La Semaine
    medicale_, May 23 and October 17, and elsewhere) upon the question of
    aphasia which have given rise to much animated controversy, since
    they are in many respects at complete variance with the classical
    conception which has been represented in the present article. Marie
    holds that Broca's convolution plays no special role in the function
    of speech. He admits that a lesion in the region of the lenticular
    nucleus is followed by inability to speak, but this defect is, in his
    opinion, to be regarded as an anarthria. He further admits the
    production of sensory aphasia--the aphasia of Wernicke, as he prefers
    to call it after its discoverer--by lesions which destroy the angular
    and supramarginal gyri, and the upper two temporo-sphenoidal
    convolutions, but he regards the essential foundation of sensory
    aphasia as a diminution of intelligence. There are, in his opinion,
    no sensory images of language. Motor aphasia is, he believes, nothing
    more than a combination of sensory aphasia and anarthria. These
    conclusions have been vigorously attacked, more especially by
    Dejerine of Paris (_La Presse medicale_, July 1906 and elsewhere).



APHELION (from Gr. [Greek: apo], from, and [Greek: hêlios], sun), in
astronomy, that point of the orbit of a planet at which it is most
distant from the sun. Apogee, Apocentre, Aposaturnium, &c. are terms
applied to those points of the orbit of a body moving around a centre of
force--as the Earth, Saturn, &c.--at which it is farthest from the
central body.



APHEMIA (from Gr. [Greek: a], without, and [Greek: phêmê], speech), in
pathology, the loss of the power of speech (see APHASIA).



APHIDES (pl. of Aphis), minute insects, also known as "plant-lice,"
"blight," and "green-fly," belonging to the homopterous division of the
order Hemiptera, with long antennae and legs, two-jointed, two-clawed
tarsi, and usually a pair of abdominal tubes through which a waxy
secretion is exuded. These tubes were formerly supposed to secrete the
sweet substance known as "honey-dew" so much sought after by ants; but
this is now known to come from the alimentary canal. Both winged and
wingless forms of both sexes occur, and the wings when present are
normal in number, that is to say two pairs. Apart from their importance
from the economic standpoint, Aphides are chiefly remarkable for the
phenomena connected with the propagation of the species. The following
brief summary of what takes place in the plant-louse of the rose (_Aphis
rosae_), may be regarded as typical of the family, though exceptions
occur in other species: Eggs produced in the autumn by fertilized
females remain on the plant through the winter and hatching in the
spring give rise to female individuals which may be winged or wingless.
From these females are born parthenogenetically, that is to say without
the intervention of males, and by a process that has been compared to
internal budding, large numbers of young resembling their parents in
every particular except size, which themselves reproduce their kind in
the same way. This process continues throughout the summer, generation
after generation being produced until the number of descendants from a
single individual of the spring-hatched brood may amount to very many
thousands. In the autumn winged males appear, union between the sexes
takes place and the females lay the fertilized eggs which are destined
to carry the species through the cold months of winter. If, however, the
food-plant is grown in a conservatory where protection against cold is
afforded, the aphides may go on reproducing agamogenetically without
cessation for many years together. Not the least interesting features
connected with this strange life-history are the facts that the young
may be born by the oviparous or viviparous methods and either
gamogenetically or agamogenetically, and may develop into winged forms
or remain wingless, and that the males only appear in any number at the
close of the season. Although the factors which determine these
phenomena are not clearly understood, it is believed that the appearance
of the males is connected with the increasing cold of autumn and the
growing scarcity of food, and that the birth of winged females is
similarly associated with decrease in the quantity or vitiation of the
quality of the nourishment imbibed. Sometimes the winged females migrate
from the plant they were born on to start fresh colonies on others often
of quite a different kind. Thus the apple blight (_Aphis mali_) after
producing many generations of apterous females on its typical food-plant
gives rise to winged forms which fly away and settle upon grass or
corn-stalks.

Closely related to the typical aphides is _Phylloxera vastatrix_, the
insect which causes enormous loss by attacking the leaves and roots of
vines. Its life-history is somewhat similar to that of _Aphis rosae_
summarized above. In the autumn a single fertile egg is laid by apterous
females in a crevice of the bark of the vine where it is protected
during the winter. From this egg in the spring emerges an apterous
female who makes a gall in the new leaf and lays therein a large number
of eggs. Some of the apterous young that are hatched from these form
fresh galls and continue to multiply in the leaves, others descend to
the root of the plant, becoming what are known as root-forms. These,
like the parent form of spring, reproduce parthenogenetically, giving
rise to generation after generation of egg-laying individuals. In the
course of the summer, from some of these eggs are hatched females which
acquire wings and lay eggs from which wingless males and females are
born. From the union of the sexes comes the fertile egg from which the
parent form of spring is hatched.

  See generally G.B. Buckton, _British Aphides_ (Ray Soc. 1876-1883);
  also ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY.     (R. I. P.)



APHORISM (from the Gr. [Greek: aphorizein], to define), literally a
distinction or a definition, a term used to describe a principle
expressed tersely in a few telling words or any general truth conveyed
in a short and pithy sentence, in such a way that when once heard it is
unlikely to pass from the memory. The name was first used in the
_Aphorisms_ of Hippocrates, a long series of propositions concerning the
symptoms and diagnosis of disease and the art of healing and medicine.
The term came to be applied later to other sententious statements of
physical science, and later still to statements of all kinds of
principles. Care must be taken not to confound _aphorisms_ with
_axioms_. Aphorisms came into being as the result of experience, whereas
axioms are self-evident truths, requiring no proof, and appertain to
pure reason. Aphorisms have been especially used in dealing with
subjects to which no methodical or scientific treatment was applied till
late, such as art, agriculture, medicine, jurisprudence and politics.
The _Aphorisms_ of Hippocrates form far the most celebrated as well as
the earliest collection of the kind, and it may be interesting to quote
a few examples. "Old men support abstinence well: people of a ripe age
less well: young folk badly, and children less well than all the rest,
particularly those of them who are very lively." "Those who are very fat
by nature are more exposed to die suddenly than those who are thin."
"Those who eject foaming blood, eject it from the lung." "When two
illnesses arrive at the same time, the stronger silences the weaker."
The first aphorism, perhaps the best known of all, which serves as a
kind of introduction to the book, runs as follows:--"Life is short, art
is long, opportunity fugitive, experimenting dangerous, reasoning
difficult: it is necessary not only to do oneself what is right, but
also to be seconded by the patient, by those who attend him, by external
circumstances." Another famous collection of aphorisms is that of the
school of Salerno in Latin verse, in which Joannes de Meditano, one of
the most celebrated doctors of the school of medicine of Salerno, has
summed up the precepts of this school. The book was dedicated to a king
of England. It is a disputed point as to which king, some authorities
dating the publication as at 1066, others assigning a later date. The
dedication gives the following excellent advice:--

  "Anglorum regi scribit schola tota Salernae.
   Si vis incolumem, si vis te reddere sanum,
   Curas tolle graves: irasci crede profanum:
   Parce mero: coenato parum; non sit tibi vanum
   Surgere post epulas: somnum fuge meridianum:
   Ne mictum retine, nec comprime fortiter anum:
   Haec bene si serves, tu longo tempore vives."

Another collection of aphorisms, also medical and also in Latin, is that
of the Dutchman Hermann Boerhaave, published at Leiden in the year 1709;
it gives a terse summary of the medical knowledge prevailing at the
time, and is of great interest to the student of the history of
medicine.



APHRAATES (a Greek form of the Persian name Aphrahat or Pharhadh), a
Syriac writer belonging to the middle of the 4th century A.D., who
composed a series of twenty-three expositions or homilies on points of
Christian doctrine and practice. The first ten were written in 337, the
following twelve in 344, and the last in 345.[1] The author was early
known as _hakkima pharsaya_ ("the Persian sage"), was a subject of Sapor
II., and was probably of heathen parentage and himself a convert from
heathenism. He seems at some time in his life to have assumed the name
of Jacob, and is so entitled in the colophon to a MS. of A.D. 512 which
contains twelve of his homilies. Hence he was already by Gennadius of
Marseilles (before 496) confused with Jacob, bishop of Nisibis; and the
ancient Armenian version of nineteen of the homilies has been published
under this latter name. But (1) Jacob of Nisibis, who attended the
council of Nicaea, died in 338; and (2) our author, being a Persian
subject, cannot have lived at Nisibis, which became Persian only by
Jovian's treaty of 363. That his name was Aphrahat or Pharhadh we learn
from comparatively late writers--Bar Bahlul (10th century), Elias of
Nisibis (11th), Bar-Hebraeus, and 'Abhd-isho'. George, bishop of the
Arabs, writing in A.D. 714 to a friend who had sent him a series of
questions about the "Persian sage," confesses ignorance of his name,
home and rank, but infers from his homilies that he was a monk, and of
high esteem among the clergy. The fact that in 344 he was selected to
draw up a circular letter from a council of bishops and other clergy to
the churches of Seleucia and Ctesiphon and elsewhere--included in our
collection as homily 14--is held by Dr W. Wright and others to prove
that he was a bishop. According to a marginal note in a 14th-century MS.
(B.M. Orient. 1017), he was "bishop of Mar Mattai," a famous monastery
near Mosul, but it is unlikely that this institution existed so early.
The homilies of Aphraates are intended to form, as Professor Burkitt has
shown, "a full and ordered exposition of the Christian faith." The
standpoint is that of the Syriac-speaking church, before it was touched
by the Arian controversy. Beginning with faith as the foundation, the
writer proceeds to build up the Structure of doctrine and duty. The
first ten homilies, which form one division completed in 337, are
without polemical reference; their subjects are faith, love, fasting,
prayer, wars (a somewhat mysterious setting forth of the conflict
between Rome and Persia under the imagery of Daniel), the sons of the
covenant (monks or ascetics), penitents, the resurrection, humility,
pastors. Those numbered 11-22, written in 344, are almost all directed
against the Jews; the subjects are circumcision, passover, the sabbath,
persuasion (the encyclical letter referred to above), distinction of
meats, the substitution of the Gentiles for the Jews, that Christ is the
Son of God, virginity and holiness, whether the Jews have been finally
rejected or are yet to be restored, provision for the poor, persecution,
death and the last times. The 23rd homily, on the "grape kernel" (Is.
lxv. 8), written in 344, forms an appendix on the Messianic fulfilment
of prophecy, together with a treatment of the chronology from Adam to
Christ. Aphraates impresses a reader favourably by his moral
earnestness, his guilelessness, his moderation in controversy, the
simplicity of his style and language, his saturation with the ideas and
words of Scripture. On the other hand, he is full of cumbrous
repetition, he lacks precision in argument and is prone to digression,
his quotations from Scripture are often inappropriate, and he is greatly
influenced by Jewish exegesis. He is particularly fond of arguments
about numbers. How wholly he and his surroundings were untouched by the
Arian conflict may be judged from the 17th homily--"that Christ is the
Son of God." He argues that, as the name "God" or "Son of God" was given
in the O.T. to men who were worthy, and as God does not withhold from
men a share in His attributes--such as sovereignty and fatherhood--it
was fitting that Christ who has wrought salvation for mankind should
obtain this highest name. From the frequency of his quotations,
Aphraates is a specially important witness to the form in which the
Gospels were read in the Syriac church in his day; Zahn and others have
shown that he--mainly at least--used the _Diatessaron_. Finally, he
bears important contemporary witness to the sufferings of the Christian
church in Persia under Sapor (Shapur) II. as well as the moral evils
which had infected the church, to the sympathy of Persian Christians
with the cause of the Roman empire, to the condition of early monastic
institutions, to the practice of the Syriac church in regard to Easter,
&c.

  Editions by W. Wright (London, 1869), and J. Parisot (with Latin
  translation, Paris, 1894); the ancient Armenian version of 19 homilies
  edited, translated into Latin, and annotated by Antonelli (Rome,
  1756). Besides translations of particular homilies by G. Bickell and
  E.W. Budge, the whole have been translated by G. Bert (Leipzig, 1888).
  Cf. also C.J.F. Sasse, _Proleg, in Aphr. Sapientis Persae sermones
  homileticos_ (Leipzig, 1879); J. Forget, _De Vita et Scriptis
  Aphraatis_ (Louvain, 1882); F.C. Burkitt, _Early Eastern Christianity_
  (London, 1904); J. Labourt, _Le Christianisme dans l'empire perse_
  (Paris, 1904); J. Zahn, _Forschungen_ I.; "Aphraates and the
  Diatessaron," vol. ii. pp. 180-186 of Burkitt's _Evangelion
  Da-Mepharreshe_ (Cambridge, 1904); articles on "Aphraates and
  Monasticism," by R.H. Connolly and Burkitt in _Journal of Theological
  Studies_ (1905) pp. 522-539; (1906) pp. 10-15.     (N. M.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Hom. 1-22 begin with the letters of the Syriac alphabet in
    succession. Their present order in the Syriac MSS. is therefore
    right. The ancient Armenian version, published by Antonelli in 1756,
    has only 19 of the homilies, and those in a somewhat different order.



APHRODITE,[1] the Greek goddess of love and beauty, counterpart of the
Roman Venus. Although her myth and cult were essentially Semitic, she
soon became Hellenized and was admitted to a place among the deities of
Olympus. Some mythologists hold that there already existed in the Greek
system an earlier goddess of love, of similar attributes, who was
absorbed by the Asiatic importation; and one writer (A. Enmann) goes so
far as to deny the oriental origin of Aphrodite altogether. It is
therefore necessary first to examine the nature and characteristics of
her Eastern prototype, and then to see how far they reappear in the
Greek Aphrodite.

Among the Semitic peoples (with the notable exception of the Hebrews) a
supreme female deity was worshipped under different names--the Assyrian
Ishtar, the Phoenician Ashtoreth (Astarte), the Syrian Atargatis
(Derketo), the Babylonian Belit (Mylitta), the Arabian Ilat (Al-ilat).
The article "Aphrodite" in Roscher's _Lexikon der Mythologie_ is based
upon the theory that all these were originally moon-goddesses, on which
assumption all their functions are explained. This view, however, has
not met with general acceptance, on the ground that, in Semitic
mythology, the moon is always a male divinity; and that the full moon
and crescent, found as attributes of Astarte, are due to a
misinterpretation of the sun's disk and cow's horns of Isis, the result
of the dependence of Syrian religious art upon Egypt. On the other hand,
there is some evidence in ancient authorities (Herodian v. 6, 10;
Lucian, _De Dea Syria_, 4) that Astarte and the moon were considered
identical.

This oriental Aphrodite was worshipped as the bestower of all animal and
vegetable fruitfulness, and under this aspect especially as a goddess of
women. This worship was degraded by repulsive practices (e.g. religious
prostitution, self-mutilation), which subsequently made their way to
centres of Phoenician influence, such as Corinth and Mount Eryx in
Sicily. In this connexion may be mentioned the idea of a divinity, half
male, half female, uniting in itself the active and passive functions of
creation, a symbol of luxuriant growth and productivity. Such was the
bearded Aphrodite of Cyprus, called Aphrodites by Aristophanes according
to Macrobius, who mentions a statue of the androgynous divinity in his
_Saturnalia_ (iii. 8. 2; see also HERMAPHRODITUS). The moon, by its
connexion with menstruation, and as the cause of the fertilizing dew,
was regarded as exercising an influence over the entire animal and
vegetable creation.

The Eastern Aphrodite was closely related to the sea and the element of
moisture; in fact, some consider that she made her first appearance on
Greek soil rather as a marine divinity than as a nature goddess.
According to Syrian ideas, as a fish goddess, she represented the
fructifying power of water. At Ascalon there was a lake full of fish
near the temple of Atargatis-Derketo, into which she was said to have
been thrown together with her son Ichthys (fish) as a punishment for her
arrogance, and to have been devoured by fishes; according to another
version, ashamed of her amour with a beautiful youth, which resulted in
the birth of Semiramis, she attempted to drown herself, but was changed
into a fish with human face (see ATARGATIS). At Hierapolis (Bambyce)
there was a pool with an altar in the middle, sacred to the goddess,
where a festival was held, at which her images were carried into the
water. Her connexion with the sea is explained by the influence of the
moon on the tides, and the idea that the moon, like the sun and the
stars, came up from the ocean.

The oriental Aphrodite is connected with the lower world, and came to be
looked upon as one of its divinities. Thus, Ishtar descends to the
kingdom of Ilat the queen of the dead, to find the means of restoring
her favourite Tammuz (Adon, Adonis) to life. During her stay all animal
and vegetable productivity ceases, to begin again with her return to
earth--a clear indication of the conception of her as a goddess of
fertility. This legend, which strikingly resembles that of Persephone,
probably refers to the decay of vegetation in winter, and the
reawakening of nature in spring (cf. HYACINTHUS). The lunar theory
connects it with the disappearance of the moon at the time of change or
during an eclipse.

Another aspect of her character is that of a warlike goddess, armed with
spear or bow, sometimes wearing a mural crown, as sovereign lady and
protectress of the locality where she was worshipped. The spear and
arrows are identified with the beams of the sun and moon.

The attributes of the goddess were the ram, the he-goat, the dove,
certain fish, the cypress, myrtle and pomegranate, the animals being
symbolical of fertility, the plants remedies against sterility.

The worship of Aphrodite at an early date was introduced into Cyprus,
Cythera and Crete by Phoenician colonists, whence it spread over the
whole of Greece, and as far west as Italy and Sicily. In Crete she has
been identified with Ariadne, who, according to one version of her
story, was put ashore in Cyprus, where she died and was buried in a
grove called after the name of Ariadne-Aphrodite (L.R. Farnell, _Cults
of the Greek States_, ii. p. 663). Cyprus was regarded as her true home
by the Greeks, and Cythera was one of the oldest seats of her worship
(cf. her titles Cytherea, Cypris, Paphia, Amathusia, Idalia--the last
three from places in Cyprus). In both these islands there lingered a
definite tradition of a connexion with the cult of the oriental
Aphrodite Urania, an epithet which will be referred to later. The
oriental features of her worship as practised at Corinth are due to its
early commercial relations with Asia Minor; the fame of her temple
worship on Mount Eryx spread to Carthage, Rome and Latium.

In the _Iliad_, Aphrodite is the daughter of Zeus and Dione, a name by
which she herself is sometimes called. This has been supposed to point
to a confusion between Aphrodite and Hebe, the daughter of Zeus and
Hera, Dione being an Epirot name for the last-named goddess. In the
_Odyssey_, she is the wife of Hephaestus, her place being taken in the
_Iliad_ by Charis, the personification of grace and divine skill,
possibly supplanted by Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty. Her
amour with Ares, by whom she became the mother of Harmonia, the wife of
Cadmus, is famous (_Od._ viii. 266). From her relations with these
acknowledged Hellenic divinites it is argued that there once existed a
primitive Greek goddess of love. This view is examined in detail and
rejected by Farnell (_Cults_, ii. pp. 619-626).

It is admitted that few traces remain of direct relations of the Greek
goddess to the moon, although such possibly survive in the epithets
[Greek: pasiphês, asteria, ourania]. It is suggested that this is due to
the fact that, at the time of the adoption of the oriental goddess, the
Greeks already possessed lunar divinities in Hecate, Selene, Artemis.
But, although her connexion with the moon has practically disappeared,
in all other aspects a development from the Semitic divinity is clearly
manifest.

Aphrodite as the goddess of all fruitfulness in the animal and vegetable
world is especially prominent. In the Homeric hymn to Aphrodite she is
described as ruling over all living things on earth, in the air, and in
the water, even the gods being subject to her influence. She is the
goddess of gardens, especially worshipped in spring and near lowlands
and marshes, favourable to the growth of vegetation. As such in Crete
she is called Antheia ("the flower-goddess"), at Athens [Greek: en
kepois] ("in the gardens"), and [Greek: en kalamois] ("in the
reed-beds") or [Greek: en elei] ("in the marsh") at Samos. Her character
as a goddess of vegetation is clearly shown in the cult and ritual of
Adonis (q.v.; also Farnell, ii. p. 644) and Attis (q.v.). In the animal
world she is the goddess of sexual impulse; amongst men, of birth,
marriage, and family life. To this aspect may be referred the names
Genetyllis ("bringing about birth"), Arma ([Greek: aro], "to join,"
i.e., in marriage, cf. Harmonia), Nymphia ("bridal goddess"),
Kourotrophos ("rearer of boys"). Aphrodite Apaturus (see G.M. Hirst in
_Journal of Hellenic Studies_, xxiii., 1903) refers to her connexion
with the clan and the festival Apaturia, at which children were admitted
to the _phratria_. It is pointed out by Farnell that this cult of
Aphrodite, as the patroness of married life, is probably a native
development of the Greek religion, the oriental legends representing her
by no means as an upholder of the purer relations of man and woman. As
the goddess of the grosser form of love she inspires both men and women
with passion ([Greek: epistrophia], "turning them to" thoughts of love),
or the reverse ([Greek: apostrophia], "turning them away"). Upon her
male favourites (Paris, Theseus) she bestows the fatal gift of seductive
beauty, which generally leads to disastrous results in the case of the
woman (Helen, Ariadne). As [Greek: mechanitis] ("contriver") she acts as
an intermediary for bringing lovers together, a similar idea being
expressed in [Greek: prêis] (of "success" in love, or=_creatrix_). The
two epithets [Greek: androphonos] ("man-slayer") and [Greek: sosandra]
("man-preserver") find an illustration in the pseudo-Plautine (in the
_Mercator_) address to Astarte, who is described as the life and death,
the saviour and destroyer of men and gods. It was natural that a
personality invested with such charms should be regarded as the ideal of
womanly beauty, but it is remarkable that the only probable instance in
which she appears as such is as Aphrodite [Greek: morpho] ("form") at
Sparta (O. Gruppe suggests the meaning "ghost," C. Tumpel the "dark
one," referring to Aphrodite's connexion with the lower world). The
function of Aphrodite as the patroness of courtesans represents the most
degraded form of her worship as the goddess of love, and is certainly of
Phoenician or Eastern origin. In Corinth there were more than a thousand
of these [Greek: ierodouloi] ("temple slaves"), and wealthy men made it
a point of honour to dedicate their most beautiful slaves to the service
of the goddess.

Like her oriental prototype, the Greek Aphrodite was closely connected
with the sea. Thus, in the Hesiodic account of her birth, she is
represented as sprung from the foam which gathered round the mutilated
member of Uranus, and her name has been explained by reference to this.
Further proof may be found in many of her titles--[Greek: anaduomenê]
("rising from the sea"), [Greek: enploia] ("giver of prosperous
voyages"), [Greek: galenaia] ("goddess of fair weather"), [Greek:
kataskopia] ("she who keeps a look-out from the heights")--in the
attribute of the dolphin, and the veneration in which she was held by
seafarers. Aphrodite Aineias, the protectress of the Trojan hero, is
probably also another form of the maritime goddess of the East (see E.
Worner, article "Aineias" in Roscher's _Lexikon_, and Farnell, ii. p.
638), which originated in the Troad, where Aphrodite Aineias may have
been identical with the earth-goddess Cybele. The title [Greek:
ephippos] is connected with the legend of Aeneas, who is said to have
dedicated to his mother a statue that represented her on horseback.
Remembering the importance of the horse in the cult of the sea-god
Poseidon, it is natural to associate it with Aphrodite as the
sea-goddess, although it may be explained with reference to her
character as a goddess of vegetation, the horse being an embodiment of
the corn-spirit (see J.G. Frazer, _The Golden Bough_, ii., 1900, p.
281).

Like Ishtar, Aphrodite was connected with the lower world. Thus, at
Delphi there was an image of Aphrodite [Greek: epitumbia] ("Aphrodite of
the tomb"), to which the dead were summoned to receive libations; the
epithets [Greek: tumboruchos] ("grave-digger"), [Greek: muchia]
("goddess of the depths"), [Greek: melainis] ("the dark one"), the grave
of Ariadne-Aphrodite at Amathus, and the myth of Adonis, point in the
same direction.

The cult of the armed Aphrodite probably belongs to the earlier period
of her worship in Greece, and down to the latest period of Greek history
she retained this character in some of the Greek states. The cult is
found not only where oriental influence was strongest, but in places
remote from it, such as Sparta, where she was known by the name of Areia
("the warlike"), and there are numerous references in the _Anthology_ to
an Aphrodite armed with helmet and spear. It is possible that the
frequent association of Aphrodite with Ares is to be explained by an
armed Aphrodite early worshipped at Thebes, the most ancient seat of the
worship of Ares.

The most distinctively oriental title of the Greek Aphrodite is Urania,
the Semitic "queen of the heavens." It has been explained by reference
to the lunar character of the goddess, but more probably signifies "she
whose seat is in heaven," whence she exercises her sway over the whole
world--earth, sea, and air alike. Her cult was first established in
Cythera, probably in connexion with the purple trade, and at Athens it
is associated with the legendary Porphyrion, the purple king. At Thebes,
Harmonia (who has been identified with Aphrodite herself) dedicated
three statues, of Aphrodite Urania, Pandemos, and Apostrophia. A few
words must be added on the second of these titles. There is no doubt
that Pandemos was originally an extension of the idea of the goddess of
family and city life to include the whole people, the political
community. Hence the name was supposed to go back to the time of
Theseus, the reputed author of the reorganization of Attica and its
demes. Aphrodite Pandemos was held in equal regard with Urania; she was
called [Greek: semuê] ("holy"), and was served by priestesses upon whom
strict chastity was enjoined. In time, however, the meaning of the term
underwent a change, probably due to the philosophers and moralists, by
whom a radical distinction was drawn between Aphrodite Urania and
Pandemos. According to Plato (_Symposium_, 180), there are two
Aphrodites, "the elder, having no mother, who is called the heavenly
Aphrodite--she is the daughter of Uranus; the younger, who is the
daughter of Zeus and Dione--her we call common." The same distinction is
found in Xenophon's _Symposium_ (viii. 9), although the author is
doubtful whether there are two goddesses, or whether Urania and Pandemos
are two names for the same goddess, just as Zeus, although one and the
same, has many titles; but in any case, he says, the ritual of Urania is
purer, more serious, than that of Pandemos. The same idea is expressed
in the statement (quoted by Athenaeus, 569d, from Nicander of Colophon)
that after Solon's time courtesans were put under the protection of
Aphrodite Pandemos. But there is no doubt that the cult of Aphrodite was
on the whole as pure as that of any other divinities, and although a
distinction may have existed in later times between the goddess of legal
marriage and the goddess of free love, these titles do not express the
idea. Aphrodite Urania was represented in Greek art on a swan, a
tortoise or a globe; Aphrodite Pandemos as riding on a goat, symbolical
of wantonness. (For the legend of Theseus and Aphrodite hepitagia, "on
the goat," see Farnell, _Cults_, ii. p. 633.)

To her oriental attributes the following may be added: the sparrow and
hare (productivity), the wry-neck (as a love-charm, of which Aphrodite
was considered the inventor), the swan and dolphin (as a marine
divinity), the tortoise (explained by Plutarch as a symbol of
domesticity, but connected by Gruppe with the marine deity), the rose,
the poppy, and the lime tree.

In ancient art Aphrodite was at first represented clothed, sometimes
seated, but more frequently standing; then naked, rising from the sea,
or after the bath. Finally, all idea of the divine vanished, and the
artists merely presented her as the type of a beautiful woman, with oval
face, full of grace and charm, languishing eyes, and laughing mouth,
which replaced the dignified severity and repose of the older forms. The
most famous of her statues in ancient times was that at Cnidus, the work
of Praxiteles, which was imitated on the coins of that town, and
subsequently reproduced in various copies, such as the Vatican and
Munich. Of existing statues the most famous is the Aphrodite of Melos
(Venus of Milo), now in the Louvre, which was found on the island in
1820 amongst the ruins of the theatre; the Capitoline Venus at Rome and
the Venus of Capua, represented as a goddess of victory (these two
exhibit a lofty conception of the goddess); the Medicean Venus at
Florence, found in the porticus of Octavia at Rome and (probably
wrongly) attributed to Cleomenes; the Venus stooping in the bath, in the
Vatican; and the Callipygos at Naples, a specimen of the most sensual
type.

  For the oriental Aphrodite, see E. Meyer, article "Astarte" in W.H.
  Roscher's _Lexikon der Mythologie_, and Wolf Baudissin, articles
  "Astarte" and "Atargatis" in Herzog-Hauck's _Realencyklopadie für
  protestantische Theologie_; for the Greek, articles m Roscher's
  _Lexikon_ and Pauly-Wissowa's _Realencyclopadie_; L. Preller,
  _Griechische Mythologie_ (4th ed. by C. Robert); L.R. Farnell, _Cults
  of the Greek States_, ii. (1896); O. Gruppe, _Griechische Mythologie
  und Religionsgeschichte_, ii. (1906); L. Dyer, _The Gods in Greece_
  (1891); A. Enmann, _Kypros und der Ursprung des Aphrodite-Kults_
  (1886). W.H. Engel, _Kypros_, ii. (1841), and J.B. Lajard, _Recherches
  sur le culte de Venus_ (1837), may still be consulted with advantage.
  For Aphrodite in art see J.J. Bernoulli, _Aphrodite_ (1873); W.J.
  Stillman, _Venus and Apollo in Painting and Sculpture_ (1897). In the
  article GREEK ART, figs. 71 (pl. v.) and 77 (pi. vi.) represent
  Aphrodite of Cridus and Melos respectively.     (J. H. F.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] No satisfactory etymology of the name has been given; although
    the first part is usually referred to [Greek: aphros] ("the sea
    foam"), it is equally probable that it is of Eastern origin. F.
    Homoll (_Jahrbücher für classische Philologie_, cxxv., 1882) explains
    it as a corruption of Ashtoreth; for other derivations see O. Gruppe,
    _Griechische Mythologie_, ii. p. 1348, note 2.



APHTHONIUS, of Antioch, Greek sophist and rhetorician, flourished in the
second half of the 4th century A.D., or even later. Nothing is known of
his life, except that he was a friend of Libanius and of a certain
Eutropius, perhaps the author of the epitome of Roman history. We
possess by him [Greek: Progumnhasmata], a text-book on the elements of
rhetoric, with exercises for the use of the young before they entered
the regular rhetorical schools. They apparently formed an introduction
to the [Greek: Thechnê] of Hermogenes. His style is pure and simple, and
ancient critics praise his "Atticism." The book maintained its
popularity as late as the 17th century, especially in Germany. A
collection of forty fables by Aphthonius, after the style of Aesop, is
also extant.

  Spengel, _Rhetores Graeci_, ii.; Finckh, _Aphthonii Progytnnasmata_
  (1865); Hoppichler, _De Theone, Hermogene, Aphthonioque
  Pro-gymnasmatum Scriptoribus_ (1884); edition of the fables by Furia
  (1810).



APHTHONIUS, AELIUS FESTUS, Latin grammarian, possibly of African origin,
lived in the 4th century A.D. He wrote a metrical handbook in four
books, which has been incorporated by Marius Victorinus in his system of
grammar.

  Keil, _Gratnmatici Latini_, vi.; Schultz, _Quibus Auctoribus Aelius
  Festus Aphthonius usus sit_ (1885).



APICIUS, the name of three celebrated Roman epicures. The second of
these, M. Gavius Apicius, who lived under Tiberius, is the most famous
(Seneca, Consol. ad Helviam, 10). He invented various cakes and sauces,
and is said to have written on cookery. The extant _De Re Coquinaria_
(ed. Schuch, 1874), a collection of receipts, ascribed to one Caelius
Apicius, is founded on Greek originals, and belongs to the 3rd century
A.D. It is probable that the real title was Caelii _Apicius_, Apicius
being the name of the work (cp. Taciti _Agricola_), and _De Re
Coquinaria_ a sub-title.



APICULTURE (from Lat. _apis_, a bee), bee-keeping (see BEE). So also
other compounds of _api_-. _Apiarium_ or apiary, a bee-house or hive, is
used figuratively by old writers for a place of industry, e.g. a
college.



APION, Greek grammarian and commentator on Homer, born at Oasis in
Libya, flourished in the first half of the 1st century A.D. He studied
at Alexandria, and headed a deputation sent to Caligula (in 38) by the
Alexandrians to complain of the Jews: his charges were answered by
Josephus in his _Contra Apionem_. He settled at Rome--it is uncertain
when--and taught rhetoric till the reign of Claudius. Apion was a man of
great industry and learning, but extremely vain. He wrote several works,
which are lost. The well-known story of Androclus and the lion,
preserved in Aulus Gellius, is from his [Greek: Aiguptiaka]; fragments
of his [Greek: Ilossy Omêrikai] are printed in the _Etymologicum
Gudianum_, ed. Sturz, 1818.



APIS or HAPIS, the sacred bull of Memphis, in Egyptian _Hp, Hope, Hope_.
By Manetho his worship is said to have been instituted by Kaiechos of
the Second Dynasty. Hape is named on very early monuments, but little is
known of the divine animal before the New Kingdom. He was entitled "the
renewal of the life" of the Memphite god Ptah: but after death he became
Osorapis, i.e. the Osiris Apis, just as dead men were assimilated to
Osiris, the king of the underworld. This Osorapis was identified with
Serapis, and may well be really identical with him (see SERAPIS): and
Greek writers make the Apis an incarnation of Osiris, ignoring the
connexion with Ptah. Apis was the most important of all the sacred
animals in Egypt, and, like the others, its importance increased as time
went on. Greek and Roman authors have much to say about Apis, the marks
by which the black bull-calf was recognized, the manner of his
conception by a ray from heaven, his house at Memphis with court for
disporting himself, the mode of prognostication from his actions, the
mourning at his death, his costly burial and the rejoicings throughout
the country when a new Apis was found. Mariette's excavation of the
Serapeum at Memphis revealed the tombs of over sixty animals, ranging
from the time of Amenophis III. to that of Ptolemy Alexander. At first
each animal was buried in a separate tomb with a chapel built above it.
Khamuis, the priestly son of Rameses II. (c. 1300 B.C.), excavated a
great gallery to be lined with the tomb chambers; another similar
gallery was added by Psammetichus I. The careful statement of the ages
of the animals in the later instances, with the regnal dates for their
birth, enthronization and death have thrown much light on the chronology
from the XXIInd dynasty onwards. The name of the mother-cow and the
place of birth are often recorded. The sarcophagi are of immense size,
and the burial must have entailed enormous expense. It is therefore
remarkable that the priests contrived to bury one of the animals in the
fourth year of Cambyses.

  See Jablonski, _Pantheon_, ii.; Budge, _Gods of the Egyptians_, ii.
  350; Mariette-Maspero, _Le Sérapéum de Memphis_.     (F. Ll. G.)



APLITE, in petrology, the name given to intrusive rock in which quartz
and felspar are the dominant minerals. Aplites are usually very
fine-grained, white, grey or flesh-coloured, and their constituents are
visible only with the help of a magnifying lens. Dykes and threads of
aplite are very frequently to be observed traversing granitic bosses;
they occur also, though in less numbers, in syenites, diorites,
quartz-diabases and gabbros. Without doubt they have usually a genetic
affinity to the rocks they intersect. The aplites of granite areas, for
example, are the last part of the magma to crystallize, and correspond
in composition to the quartzo-felspathic aggregates which fill up the
interspaces between the early minerals in the main body of the rock.
They bear a considerable resemblance to the eutectic mixtures which are
formed on the cooling of solutions of mineral salts, and remain liquid
till the excess of either of the components has separated out, finally
solidifying _en masse_ when the proper proportions of the constituents
and a suitable temperature are reached. The essential components of the
aplites are quartz and alkali felspar (the latter usually orthoclase or
microperthite). Crystallization has been apparently rapid (as the rocks
are so fine-grained), and the ingredients have solidified almost at the
same time. Hence their crystals are rather imperfect and fit closely to
one another in a sort of fine mosaic of nearly equi-dimensional grains.
Porphyritic felspars occur occasionally and quartz more seldom; but the
relation of the aplites to quartz-porphyries, granophyres and felsites
is very close, as all these rocks have nearly the same chemical
composition. Yet the aplites associated with diorites and
quartz-diabases differ in minor respects from the common aplites, which
accompany granites. The accessory minerals of these rocks are
principally oligoclase, muscovite, apatite and zircon. Biotite and all
ferromagnesian minerals rarely appear in them, and never are in
considerable amount. Riebeckite-granites (paisanites) have close
affinities to aplites, shown especially in the prevalence of alkali
felspars. Tourmaline also occurs in some aplites. The rocks of this
group are very frequent in all areas where masses of granite are known.
They form dykes and irregular veins which may be only a few inches or
many feet in diameter. Less frequently aplite forms stocks or bosses, or
occupies the edges or irregular portions of the interior of outcrops of
granite. The syenite-aplites consist mainly of alkali felspar; the
diorite-aplites of plagioclase; there are nepheline-bearing aplites
which intersect some elaeolite-syenites. In all cases they bear the same
relation to the parent masses. By increase of quartz aplites pass
gradually, in a few localities, through highly quartzose modifications
(beresite, &c.) into quartz veins. (J. S. F.)



APNOEA (Gr. [Greek: apnoia], from [Greek: a-], privative, [Greek:
pneein], to breathe), a technical term for suspension of breathing.



APOCALYPSE (Gr. [Greek: apokalupsis], disclosure), a term applied to the
disclosure to certain privileged persons of something hidden from the
mass of men. The Greek root corresponds in the Septuagint to the Heb.
_galah_, to reveal. The last book of the New Testament bears in Greek
the title [Greek: Apokalypsis Ioannou], and is frequently referred to as
the Apocalypse of John, but in the English Bible it appears as the
Revelation of St John the Divine (see REVELATION). Earlier among the
hellenistic Jews the term was used of a number of writings which
depicted in a prophetic and parabolic way the end or future state of the
world (e.g. _Apocalypse of Baruch_), the whole class is now commonly
known as Apocalyptic Literature (q.v.).



APOCALYPSE, KNIGHTS OF THE, a secret society founded in Italy in 1693 to
defend the church against the expected Antichrist. Agostino Gabrino, the
son of a merchant of Brescia, was its founder. On Palm Sunday 1693, when
the choir of St Peter's was chanting _Quis est iste Rex Gloriae?_
Gabrino sword in hand, rushed to the altar crying _Ego sum Rex Gloriae._
Though Gabrino was treated as a madman, the society flourished, until a
member denounced it to the Inquisition, who arrested the knights. Though
chiefly mechanics they always carried swords even when at work, and wore
on their breasts a star with seven rays. Gabrino styled himself monarch
of the Holy Trinity. He was credited by his enemies with a desire to
introduce polygamy.



APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE. The Apocalyptic literature of Judaism and
Christianity embraces a considerable period, from the centuries
following the exile down to the close of the middle ages. In the present
survey we shall limit ourselves to the great formative periods in this
literature--in Judaism to 200 B.C. to A.D. 100, and in Christianity to
A.D. 50 to 350 or thereabouts.

The transition from prophecy to apocalyptic ([Greek: apokalyptein], to
reveal something hidden) was gradual and already accomplished within the
limits of the Old Testament. Beginning in the bosom of prophecy, and
steadily differentiating itself from it in its successive developments,
it never came to stand in absolute contrast to it. Apocalyptical
elements disclose themselves in the prophetical books of Ezekiel, Joel,
Zechariah, while in Isaiah xxiv.-xxvii. and xxxiii. we find
well-developed apocalypses; but it is not until we come to Daniel that
we have a fully matured and classical example of this class of
literature. The way, however, had in an especial degree been prepared
for the apocalyptic type of thought and literature by Ezekiel, for with
him the word of God had become identical with a written book (ii. 9-iii.
3) by the eating of which he learnt the will of God, just as primitive
man conceived that the eating of the tree in Paradise imparted spiritual
knowledge. When the divine word is thus conceived as a written message,
the sole office of the prophet is to communicate what is written. Thus
the human element is reduced to zero, and the conception of prophecy
becomes mechanical. And as the personal element disappears in the
conception of the prophetic calling, so it tends to disappear in the
prophetic view of history, and the future comes to be conceived not as
the organic result of the present under the divine guidance, but as
mechanically determined from the beginning in the counsels of God, and
arranged under artificial categories of time. This is essentially the
apocalyptic conception of history, and Ezekiel may be justly represented
as in certain essential aspects its founder in Israel.

We shall now consider (I.) Apocalyptic, its origin and general
characteristics; (II.) Old Testament Apocalyptic; (III.) New Testament
Apocalyptic.


I. APOCALYPTIC--ITS ORIGIN AND GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

i. _Sources of Apocalyptic._--The origin of Apocalyptic is to be sought
in (a) unfulfilled prophecy and in (b) traditional elements drawn from
various sources.

(a) The origin of Apocalyptic is to be sought in _unfulfilled prophecy_.
That certain prophecies relating to the coming kingdom of God had
clearly not been fulfilled was a matter of religious difficulty to the
returned exiles from Babylon. The judgments predicted by the pre-exilic
prophets had indeed been executed to the letter, but where were the
promised glories of the renewed kingdom and Israel's unquestioned
sovereignty over the nations of the earth? One such unfulfilled prophecy
Ezekiel takes up and reinterprets in such a way as to show that its
fulfilment is still to come. The prophets Jeremiah (iv.-vi.) and
Zephaniah had foretold the invasion of Judah by a mighty people from the
north. But as this northern foe had failed to appear Ezekiel re-edited
this prophecy in a new form as a final assault of Gog and his hosts on
Jerusalem, and thus established a permanent dogma in Jewish apocalyptic,
which in due course passed over into Christian.

But the non-fulfilment of prophecies relating to this or that individual
event or people served to popularize the methods of apocalyptic in a
very slight degree in comparison with the non-fulfilment of the greatest
of all prophecies--the advent of the Messianic kingdom. Thus, though
Jeremiah had promised that after seventy years (xxv. 11., xxix. 10)
Israel should be restored to their own land (xxiv. 5, 6), and then enjoy
the blessings of the Messianic kingdom under the Messianic king (xxiii.
5, 6), this period passed by and things remained as of old. Haggai and
Zechariah explained the delay by the failure of Judah to rebuild the
temple, and so generation after generation the hope of the kingdom
persisted, sustained most probably by ever-fresh reinterpretations of
ancient prophecy, till in the first half of the 2nd century the delay is
explained in the Books of Daniel and Enoch as due not to man's
shortcomings but to the counsels of God. The 70 years of Jeremiah are
interpreted by the angel in Daniel (ix. 25-27) as 70 weeks of years, of
which 69½ have already expired, while the writer of Enoch (lxxxv.-xc.)
interprets the 70 years of Jeremiah as the 70 successive reigns of the
70 angelic patrons of the nations, which are to come to a close in his
own generation.

But the above periods came and passed by, and again the expectations of
the Jews were disappointed. Presently the Greek empire of the East was
overthrown by Rome, and in due course this new phenomenon, so full of
meaning for the Jews, called forth a new interpretation of Daniel. The
fourth and last empire which, according to Daniel vii. 10-25, was to be
Greek, was now declared to be Roman by the Apocalypse of Baruch
(xxxvi.-xl.) and 4 Ezra (x. 60-xii. 35). Once more such ideas as those
of "the day of Yahweh" and the "new heavens and a new earth" were
constantly re-edited with fresh nuances in conformity with their new
settings. Thus the inner development of Jewish apocalyptic was always
conditioned by the historical experiences of the nation.

(b) Another source of apocalyptic was _primitive mythological and
cosmological traditions_, in which the eye of the seer could see the
secrets of the future no less surely than those of the past. Thus the
six days of the world's creation, followed by a seventh of rest, were
regarded as at once a history of the past and a forecasting of the
future. As the world was made in six days its history would be
accomplished in six thousand years, since each day with God was as a
thousand years and a thousand years as one day; and as the six days of
creation were followed by one of rest, so the six thousand years of the
world's history would be followed by a rest of a thousand years (2 Enoch
xxxii. 2-xxxiii. 2). Of primitive mythological traditions we might
mention the primeval serpent, leviathan, behemoth, while to ideas native
to or familiar in apocalyptic belong those of the seven archangels, the
angelic patrons of the nations (Deut. xxxii. 8, in LXX.; Isaiah xxiv.
21; Dan. x. 13, 20, &c.), the mountain of God in the north (Isaiah xiv.
13; Ezek. i. 4, &c.), the garden of Eden.

ii. _Object and Contents of Apocalyptic._--The object of this literature
in general was to solve the difficulties connected with the
righteousness of God and the suffering condition of His righteous
servants on earth. The righteousness of God postulated according to the
law the temporal prosperity of the righteous and the _temporal_
prosperity of necessity; for as yet there was no promise of life or
recompense beyond the grave. But this connexion was not found to obtain
as a rule in life, and the difficulties arising from this conflict
between promise and experience centred round the lot of the righteous as
a community and the lot of the righteous man as an individual. Old
Testament prophecy had addressed itself to both these problems, though
it was hardly conscious of the claims of the latter. It concerned itself
essentially with the present, and with the future only as growing
organically out of the present. It taught the absolute need of personal
and national righteousness, and foretold the ultimate blessedness of the
righteous nation on the present earth. But its views were not systematic
and comprehensive in regard to the nations in general, while as regards
the individual it held that God's service here was its own and adequate
reward, and saw no need of postulating another world to set right the
evils of this. But later, with the growing claims of the individual and
the acknowledgment of these in the religious and intellectual life, both
problems, and especially the latter, pressed themselves irresistibly on
the notice of religious thinkers, and made it impossible for any
conception of the divine rule and righteousness to gain acceptance,
which did not render adequate satisfaction to the claims of both
problems. To render such satisfaction was the task undertaken by
apocalyptic, as well as to vindicate the righteousness of God alike in
respect of the individual and of the nation. To justify their contention
they sketched in outline the history of the world and mankind, the
origin of evil and its course, and the final consummation of all things.
Thus they presented in fact a theodicy, a rudimentary philosophy of
religion. The righteous as a nation should yet possess the earth, even
in this world the faithful community should attain its rights in an
eternal Messianic kingdom on earth, or else in temporary blessedness
here and eternal blessedness hereafter. So far as regards the righteous
community. It was, however, in regard to the destiny of the individual
that apocalyptic rendered its chief service. Though the individual might
perish amid the disorders of this world, he would not fail, apocalyptic
taught, to attain through resurrection the recompense that was his due
in the Messianic kingdom or in heaven itself. Apocalyptic thus forms the
indispensable preparation for the religion of the New Testament.

iii. _Form of Apocalyptic._--The form of apocalyptic is a literary form;
for we cannot suppose that the writers experienced the voluminous and
detailed visions we find in their books. On the other hand the reality
of the visions is to some extent guaranteed by the writer's intense
earnestness and by his manifest belief in the divine origin of his
message. But the difficulty of regarding the visions as actual
experiences, or as in any sense actual, is intensified, when full
account is taken of the artifices of the writer; for the major part of
his visions consists of what is to him really past history dressed up in
the guise of prediction. Moreover, the writer no doubt intended that his
reader should take the accuracy of the prediction (?) already
accomplished to be a guarantee for the accuracy of that which was still
unrealized. How, then, it may well be asked, can this be consistent with
reality of visionary experience? Are we not here obliged to assume that
the visions are a literary invention and nothing more?

However we may explain the inconsistency, we are precluded by the moral
earnestness of the writer from assuming the visions to be pure
inventions. But the inconsistency has in part been explained by Gunkel,
who has rightly emphasized that the writer did not freely invent his
materials but derived them in the main from tradition, as he held that
these mysterious traditions of his people were, if rightly expounded,
forecasts of the time to come. Furthermore, the visionary who is found
at most periods of great spiritual excitement was forced by the
prejudice of his time, which refused to acknowledge any inspiration in
the present, to ascribe his visionary experiences and reinterpretations
of the mysterious traditions of his people to some heroic figure of the
past. Moreover, there will always be a difficulty in determining what
belongs to his actual vision and what to the literary skill or free
invention of the author, seeing that the visionary must be dependent on
memory and past experience for the forms and much of the matter of the
actual vision.

iv. _Apocalyptic as distinguished from Prophecy._--We have already dwelt
on certain notable differences between apocalyptic and prophecy; but
there are certain others that call for attention.

(a) _In the Nature of its Message._--The message of the prophets was
primarily a preaching of repentance and righteousness if the nation
would escape judgment; the message of the apocalyptic writers was of
patience and trust for that deliverance and reward were sure to come.

(b) _By its dualistic Theology._--Prophecy believes that this world is
God's world and that in this world His goodness and truth will yet be
vindicated. Hence the prophet prophesies of a definite future arising
out of and organically connected with the present. The apocalyptic
writer on the other hand despairs of the present, and directs his hopes
absolutely to the future, to a new world standing in essential
opposition to the present. (_Non fecit Altissimus unum saeculum sed
duo_, 4 Ezra vii. 50.) Here we have essentially a dualistic principle,
which, though it can largely be accounted for by the interaction of
certain inner tendencies and outward sorrowful experience on the part of
Judaism, may ultimately be derived from Mazdean influences. This
principle, which shows itself clearly at first in the conception that
the various nations are under angelic rulers, who are in a greater or
less degree in rebellion against God, as in Daniel and Enoch, grows in
strength with each succeeding age, till at last Satan is conceived as
"the ruler of this world" (John xii. 31) or "the god of this age" (2
Cor. iv. 4). Under the guidance of such a principle the writer naturally
expected the world's culmination in evil to be the immediate precursor
of God's intervention on behalf of the righteous, and every fresh growth
in evil to be an additional sign that the time was at hand. The natural
concomitant in conduct of such a belief is an uncompromising asceticism.
He that would live to the next world must shun this. Visions are
vouchsafed only to those who to prayer have added fasting.

(c) _By pseudonymous Authorship._--We have already touched on this
characteristic of apocalyptic. The prophet stood in direct relations
with his people; his prophecy was first spoken and afterwards written.
The apocalyptic writer could obtain no hearing from his contemporaries,
who held that, though God spoke in the past, "there was no more any
prophet." This pessimism and want of faith limited and defined the form
in which religious enthusiasm should manifest itself, and prescribed as
a condition of successful effort the adoption of pseudonymous
authorship. The apocalyptic writer, therefore, professedly addressed his
book to future generations. Generally directions as to the hiding and
sealing of the book (Dan. xii. 4, 9; 1 Enoch i. 4; Ass. Mos. i. 16-18)
were given in the text in order to explain its publication so long after
the date of its professed period. Moreover, there was a sense in which
such books were not wholly pseudonymous. Their writers were students of
ancient prophecy and apocalyptical tradition, and, though they might
recast and reinterpret them, they could not regard them as their own
inventions. Each fresh apocalypse would in the eyes of its writer be in
some degree but a fresh edition of the traditions naturally attaching
themselves to great names in Israel's past, and thus the books named
respectively Enoch, Noah, Ezra would to some slight extent be not
pseudonymous.

(d) _By its comprehensive and deterministic Conception of
History._--Apocalyptic took an indefinitely wider view of the world's
history than prophecy. Thus, whereas prophecy had to deal with temporary
reverses at the hands of some heathen power, apocalyptic arose at a time
when Israel had been subject for generations to the sway of one or other
of the great world-powers. Hence to harmonize such difficulties with
belief in God's righteousness, it had to take account of the rôle of
such empires in the counsels of God, the rise, duration and downfall of
each in turn, till finally the lordship of the world passed into the
hands of Israel, or the final judgment arrived. These events belonged in
the main to the past, but the writer represented them as still in the
future, arranged under certain artificial categories of time definitely
determined from the beginning in the counsels of God and revealed by Him
to His servants the prophets. Determinism thus became a leading
characteristic of Jewish apocalyptic, and its conception of history
became severely mechanical.


II. OLD TESTAMENT APOCALYPTIC

i. Canonical:--

  Isaiah xxiv.-xxvii.; xxxiii.; xxxiv.-xxxv.
  (Jeremiah xxxiii. 14-26?)
  Ezekiel ii. 8; xxxviii.-xxxix.
  Joel iii. 9-17.
  Zech. xii--xiv.
  Daniel.

We cannot enter here into a discussion of the above passages and
books.[1] All are probably pseudepigraphic except the passages from
Ezekiel and Joel. Of the remaining passages and books Daniel belongs
unquestionably to the Maccabean period, and the rest possibly to the
same period. Isaiah xxxiii. was probably written about 163 B.C. (Duhm
and Marti); Zech. xii.-xiv. about 160 B.C., Isaiah xxiv.-xxvii. about
128 B.C., and xxxiv.-xxxv. sometime in the reign of John Hyrcanus.
Jeremiah xxxiii. 14-26 is assigned by Marti to Maccabean times, but this
is highly questionable.

ii. Extra-canonical:--

(a) _Palestinian_:--

    (200-100 B.C.)
  Book of Noah.
  1 Enoch vi.-xxxvi.; lxxii.-xc.
  Testaments of the XII. Patriarchs.

    (100 B.C. to 1 B.C.)
  1 Enoch i.-v.; xxxvii.-lxxi.; xci.-civ.
  Testaments of the XII. Patriarchs, i.e. T. Lev. x., xiv.-xvi., T. Jud.
    xxi. 6-xxiii, T. Zeb. ix., T. Dan. v. 6, 7.
  Psalms of Solomon.

    (A.D. 1-100 and later.)
  Assumption of Moses.
  Apocalypse of Baruch.
  4 Ezra.
  Greek Apocalypse of Baruch.
  Apocalypse of Zephaniah.
  Apocalypse of Abraham.
  Prayer of Joseph.
  Book of Eldad and Modad.
  Apocalypse of Elijah.

(b) _Hellenistic_:--

  2 Enoch.
  Oracles of Hystaspes.
  Testament of Job.
  Testaments of the III. Patriarchs.
  Sibylline Oracles (excluding Christian portions).

_Book of Noah._--Though this book has not come down to us independently,
it has in large measure been incorporated in the Ethiopic Book of Enoch,
and can in part be reconstructed from it. The Book of Noah is mentioned
in Jubilees x. 13, xxi. 10. Chapters lx., lxv.-lxix. 25 of the Ethiopic
Enoch are without question derived from it. Thus lx. 1 runs: "In the
year 500, in the seventh month ... in the life of Enoch." Here the
editor simply changed the name Noah in the context before him into
Enoch, for the statement is based on Gen. v. 32, and Enoch lived only
365 years. Chapters vi.-xi. are clearly from the same source; for they
make no reference to Enoch, but bring forward Noah (x. 1) and treat of
the sin of the angels that led to the flood, and of their temporal and
eternal punishment. This section is compounded of the Semjaza and Azazel
myths, and in its present composite form is already presupposed by 1
Enoch lxxxviii.-xc. Hence these chapters are earlier than 166 B.C.
Chapters cvi.-cvii. of the same book are probably from the same source;
likewise liv. 7-lv. 2, and Jubilees vii. 20-39, x. 1-15. In the