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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Part 1, Slice 3 - "Banks" to "Bassoon"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they
are listed at the end of the text. Volume and page numbers have been
incorporated into the text of each page as: v.03 p.0001.

[=a] signifies "a with macron"; [)e] "e with breve"; [h.] "h with dot
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THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME III

AUSTRIA LOWER to BISECTRIX

[E-Text Edition of Volume III - Part 1 of 2, Slice 3 of 3 - BANKS to
BASSOON]

       *       *       *       *       *


[v.03 p.0333] BANKS, GEORGE LINNAEUS (1821-1881), British miscellaneous
writer, was born at Birmingham on the 2nd of March 1821. After a brief
experience in a variety of trades, he became at the age of seventeen a
contributor to various newspapers, and subsequently a playwright, being the
author of two plays, a couple of burlesques and several lyrics. Between
1848 and 1864 he edited in succession a variety of newspapers, including
the _Birmingham Mercury_ and the _Dublin Daily Express_, and published
several volumes of miscellaneous prose and verse. He died in London on the
3rd of May 1881.

BANKS, SIR JOSEPH, BART. (1743-1820), English naturalist, was born in
Argyle Street, London, on the 13th of February 1743. His father, William
Banks, was the son of a successful Lincolnshire doctor, who became sheriff
of his county, and represented Peterborough in parliament; and Joseph was
brought up as the son of a rich man. In 1760 he went to Oxford, where he
showed a decided taste for natural science and was the means of introducing
botanical lectures into the university. In 1764 he came into possession of
the ample fortune left by his father, and in 1766 he made his first
scientific expedition to Newfoundland and Labrador, bringing back a rich
collection of plants and insects. Shortly after his return, Captain Cook
was sent by the government to observe the transit of Venus in the Pacific
Ocean, and Banks, through the influence of his friend Lord Sandwich,
obtained leave to join the expedition in the "Endeavour," which was fitted
out at his own expense. He made the most careful preparations, in order to
be able to profit by every opportunity, and induced Dr Daniel Solander, a
distinguished pupil of Linnaeus, to accompany him. He even engaged
draughtsmen and painters to delineate such objects of interest as did not
admit of being transported or preserved. The voyage occupied three years
and many hardships had to be undergone; but the rich harvest of discovery
was more than adequate compensation. Banks was equally anxious to join
Cook's second expedition and expended large sums in engaging assistants and
furnishing the necessary equipment; but circumstances obliged him to
relinquish his purpose. He, however, employed the assistants and materials
he had collected in a voyage to Iceland in 1772, returning by the Hebrides
and Staffa. In 1778 Banks succeeded Sir John Pringle as president of the
Royal Society, of which he had been a fellow from 1766, and held the office
until his death. In 1781 he was made a baronet; in 1795 he received the
order of the Bath; and in 1797 he was admitted to the privy council. He
died at Isleworth on the 19th of June 1820. As president of the Royal
Society he did much to raise the state of science in Britain, and was at
the same time most assiduous and successful in cultivating friendly
relations with scientific men of all nations. It was, however, objected to
him that from his own predilections he was inclined to overlook and
depreciate the labours of the mathematical and physical sections of the
Royal Society and that he exercised his authority somewhat despotically. He
bequeathed his collections of books and botanical specimens to the British
Museum. His fame rests rather on what his liberality enabled other workers
to do than on his own achievements.

See J. H. Maiden, _Sir Joseph Banks_ (1909).

BANKS, NATHANIEL PRENTISS (1816-1894), American politician and soldier, was
born at Waltham, Massachusetts, on the 30th of January 1816. He received
only a common school education and at an early age began work as a
bobbin-boy in a cotton factory of which his father was superintendent.
Subsequently he edited a weekly paper at Waltham, studied law and was
admitted to the bar, his energy and his ability as a public speaker soon
winning him distinction. He served as a Free Soiler in the Massachusetts
house of representatives from 1849 to 1853, and was speaker in 1851 and
1852; he was president of the state Constitutional Convention of 1853, and
in the same year was elected to the national House of Representatives as a
coalition candidate of Democrats and Free Soilers. Although re-elected in
1854 as an American or "Know-Nothing," he soon left this party, and in 1855
presided over a Republican convention in Massachusetts. At the opening of
the Thirty-Fourth Congress the anti-Nebraska men gradually united in
supporting Banks for speaker, and after one of the bitterest and most
protracted speakership contests in the history of congress, lasting from
the 3rd of December 1855 to the 2nd of February 1856, he was chosen on the
133rd ballot. This has been called the first national victory of the
Republican party. Re-elected in 1856 as a Republican, he resigned his seat
in December 1857, and was governor of Massachusetts from 1858 to 1861, a
period marked by notable administrative and educational reforms. He then
succeeded George B. McClellan as president of the Illinois Central railway.
Although while governor he had been a strong advocate of peace, he was one
of the earliest to offer his services to President Lincoln, who appointed
him in 1861 major-general of volunteers. Banks was one of the most
prominent of the volunteer officers. When McClellan entered upon his
Peninsular Campaign in 1862 the important duty of defending Washington from
the army of "Stonewall" Jackson fell to the corps commanded by Banks. In
the spring Banks was ordered to move against Jackson in the Shenandoah
Valley, but the latter with superior forces defeated him at Winchester,
Virginia, on the 25th of May, and forced him back to the Potomac river. On
the 9th of August Banks again encountered Jackson at Cedar Mountain, and,
though greatly outnumbered, succeeded in holding his ground after a very
sanguinary battle. He was later placed in command of the garrison at
Washington, and in November sailed from New York with a strong force to
replace General B. F. Butler at New Orleans as commander of the Department
of the Gulf. Being ordered to co-operate with Grant, who was then before
Vicksburg, he invested the defences of Port Hudson, Louisiana, in May 1863,
and after three attempts to carry the works by storm he began a regular
siege. The garrison surrendered to Banks on the 9th of July, on receiving
word that Vicksburg had fallen. In the autumn of 1863 Banks organized a
number of expeditions to Texas, chiefly for the purpose of preventing the
French in Mexico from aiding the Confederates, and secured possession of
the region near the mouths of the Nueces and the Rio Grande. But his Red
River expedition, March-May 1864, forced upon him by superior authority,
was a complete failure. In August 1865 he was mustered out of the service,
and from 1865 to 1873 he was again a representative in congress, serving as
chairman of the committee on foreign affairs. A personal quarrel with
President Grant led in 1872, however, to his joining the Liberal-Republican
revolt in support of Horace Greeley, and as the Liberal-Republican and
Democratic candidate he was defeated for re-election. In 1874 he was
successful as a Democratic candidate, serving one term (1875-1877). Having
rejoined the Republican party in 1876, he was United States marshal for
Massachusetts from 1879 until 1888, when for the ninth time he was elected
to Congress. He retired at the close of his term (1891) and died at Waltham
on the 1st of September 1894.

BANKS, THOMAS (1735-1805), English sculptor, son of a surveyor who was land
steward to the duke of Beaufort, was born in London on the 29th of December
1735. He was taught drawing by his father, and in 1750 was apprenticed to a
wood-carver. In his spare time he worked at sculpture, and before 1772,
when he obtained a travelling studentship and proceeded to Rome, he had
already exhibited several fine works. Returning to England in 1779 he found
that the taste for classic poetry, ever the source of his inspiration, no
longer existed, and he spent two years in St Petersburg, being employed by
the empress Catherine, who purchased his "Cupid tormenting a Butterfly." On
his return he modelled his colossal "Achilles mourning the loss of
Briseis," a work full of force and passion; and thereupon he was elected,
in 1784, an associate of the Royal Academy and in the following year a full
member. Among other works in St Paul's cathedral are the monuments to
Captain Westcott and Captain Burges, and in Westminster Abbey to Sir Eyre
Coote. His bust of Warren Hastings is in the National Portrait Gallery.
Banks's best-known work is perhaps the colossal group of "Shakespeare
attended by Painting and Poetry," now in the garden of New Place,
Stratford-on-Avon. He died in London on the 2nd of February 1805.

[v.03 p.0334] BANKS AND BANKING. The word "bank," in the economic sense,
covers various meanings which all express one object, a contribution of
money for a common purpose. Thus Bacon, in his essay on _Usury_, while
explaining "how the discommodities of it may be best avoided and the
commodities retained," refers to a "bank or common stock" as an expression
with which his readers would be familiar. Originally connected with the
idea of a mound or bank of earth--hence with that of a _monte_, an Italian
word describing a heap--the term has been gradually applied to several
classes of institutions established for the general purpose of dealing with
money.

[Sidenote: Banking as a business.]

The manner in which a bank prospers is explained by David Ricardo, in his
_Proposals for an Economical and Secure Currency_, in a passage where he
tells us that a bank would never be established if it obtained no other
profits but those derived from the employment of its own capital. The real
advantage of a bank to the community it serves commences only when it
employs the capital of others. The money which a bank controls in the form
of the deposits which it receives and sometimes of the notes which it
issues, is loaned out by it again to those who desire to borrow and can
show that they may be trusted. A bank, in order to carry on business
successfully, must possess a sufficient capital of its own to give it the
standing which will enable it to collect capital belonging to others. But
this it does not hoard. It only holds the funds with which it is entrusted
till it can use them, and the use is found in the advances that it makes.
Some of the deposits merely lie with the bank till the customer draws what
he requires for his ordinary everyday wants. Some, the greater part by far,
of the deposits enable the bank to make advances to men who employ the
funds with which they are entrusted in reproductive industry, that is to
say, in a manner which not only brings back a greater value than the amount
originally lent to them, but assists the business development of the
country by setting on foot and maintaining enterprises of a profitable
description. It is possible that some part may be employed in loans
required through extravagance on the part of the borrower, but these can
only be a small proportion of the whole, as it is only through reproductive
industry that the capital advanced by a banker can really be replaced. A
loan sometimes, it is true, is repaid from the proceeds of the sale of a
security, but this only means a transfer of capital from one hand to
another; money that is not transferred in this way must be made by its
owner. Granted that the security is complete, there is only one absolute
rule as to loans if a bank desires to conduct its business on safe lines,
that the advance should not be of fixed but of floating capital. Nothing
seems simpler than such a business, but no business requires closer
attention or more strong sense and prudence in its conduct. In other ways
also, besides making loans, a well-conducted bank is of much service to the
business prosperity of a country, as for example by providing facilities
for the ready transmission of money from those who owe money to those to
whom it is due. This is particularly obvious when the debtor lives in one
town or district and the creditor in another at a considerable distance,
but the convenience is very great under any circumstances. Where an easy
method of transmission of cash does not exist, we become aware that a "rate
of exchange" exists as truly between one place and another in the same
country as between two places in different countries. The assistance that
banking gives to the industries of a community, apart from these
facilities, is constant and most valuable.

[Sidenote: Historical development.]

With these preliminary remarks on some main features of the business, we
may pass on to a sketch of the history of modern banking. Banks in Europe
from the 16th century onwards may be divided into two classes, the one
described as "exchange banks," the other as "banks of deposits." These last
are banks which, besides receiving deposits, make loans, and thus associate
themselves with the trade and general industries of a country. The exchange
banks included in former years institutions like the Bank of Hamburg and
the Bank of Amsterdam. These were established to deal with foreign exchange
and to facilitate trade with other countries. The others--founded at very
different dates--were established as, or early became, banks of deposit,
like the Bank of England, the Bank of Venice, the Bank of Sweden, the Bank
of France, the Bank of Germany and others. Some reference to these will be
made later. The exchange banks claim the first attention. Important as they
were in their day, the period of their activity is now generally past, and
the interest in their operations has become mainly historical.

In one respect, and that a very important one, the business carried on by
the exchange banks differed from banking as generally understood at the
present time. No exchange bank had a capital of its own nor did it require
any for the performance of the business. The object for which exchange
banks were established was to turn the values with which they were
entrusted into "current money," "bank money" as it was called, that is to
say, into a currency which was accepted immediately by merchants without
the necessity of testing the value of the coin or the bullion brought to
them. The "value" they provided was equal to the "value" they received, the
only difference being the amount of the small charge they made to their
customers, who gained by dealing with them more than equivalent advantages.

Short notices of the Bank of Amsterdam, which was one of the most
important, and of the Bank of Hamburg, which survived the longest, its
existence not terminating till 1873, will suffice to explain the working of
these institutions.

The Amsterdamsche Wisselbank, or exchange bank, known later as the Bank of
Amsterdam, was established by the ordinance of the city of Amsterdam of
31st January 1609. The increased commerce of Holland, which made Amsterdam
a leading city in international dealings, led to the establishment of this
bank, to which any person might bring money or bullion for deposit, and
might withdraw at pleasure the money or the worth of the bullion. The
ordinance which established the bank further required that all bills of 600
gulden (£50), or upwards--this limit was, in 1643, lowered to 300 gulden
(£25)--should be paid through the bank, or in other words, by the transfer
of deposits or credits at the bank. These transfers came afterwards to be
known as "bank money." The charge for making the transfers was the sole
source of income to the bank. The bank was established without any capital
of its own, being understood to have actually in its vaults the whole
amount of specie for which "bank money" was outstanding. This regulation
was not, however, strictly observed. Loans were made at various dates to
the Dutch East India Company. In 1795 a report was issued showing that the
city of Amsterdam was largely indebted to the bank, which held as security
the obligations of the states of Holland and West Friesland. The debt was
paid, but it was too late to revive the bank, and in 1820 "the
establishment which for generations had held the leading place in European
commerce ceased to exist." (See _Chapters on the Theory and History of
Banking_, by Charles F. Dunbar, p. 105.)

Similar banks had been established in Middelburg, (March 28th, 1616), in
Hamburg (1619) and in Rotterdam (February 9th, 1635). Of these the Bank of
Hamburg carried on much the largest business and survived the longest. It
was not till the 15th of February 1873 that its existence was closed by the
act of the German parliament which decreed that Germany should possess a
gold standard, and thus removed those conditions of the local medium of
exchange--silver coins of very different intrinsic values--whose
circulation had provided an ample field for the operations of the bank. The
business of the Bank of Hamburg had been conducted in absolute accordance
with the regulations under which it was founded.

The exchange banks were established to remedy the inconvenience to which
merchants were subject through the uncertain value of the currency of other
countries in reference to that of the city where the exchange bank carried
on its business. The following quotation from _Notes on Banking_, written
in 1873, explains the method of operation in Hamburg. "In this city, the
most vigorous offshoot of the once powerful Hansa, the latest
representative of the free commercial cities of medieval Europe, [v.03
p.0335] there still remains a representative of those older banks which
were once of the highest importance in commercial affairs. Similar
institutions greatly aided the prosperity of Venice, Genoa, Amsterdam and
Nuremberg. The Bank of Hamburg is now the last survivor of these banks,
whose business lay in the assistance of commerce, not by loans, but by the
local manufacture, so to speak, of an international coinage. In a city of
the highest rank of commercial activity, but greatly circumscribed in
territory, continually receiving payments for merchandise in the coin of
other countries, a common standard of value was a matter of primary
necessity. The invention of bank money, that is, of a money of account
which could be transferred at pleasure from one holder to another, enabled
the trade of the place to be carried on without any of those hindrances to
business which must have followed on the delay and expense attendant on the
verification of various coins differing from each other in weight,
intrinsic value, standard of purity of metal, in every point in fact in
which coins can differ from each other. By supplying a currency of
universal acceptation the Bank of Hamburg greatly contributed to the
prosperity of that city." The regulations being strictly carried out, the
currency was purely metallic; the "Mark Banco" being merely the
representative of an equal value of silver.

For the earliest example of a bank for the receipt of deposits carrying on
a business on modern lines, we must turn, as in the case of the exchange
banks, to a great commercial city of the middle ages. Private banking in
Venice began as an adjunct of the business of the _campsores_ or dealers in
foreign moneys. "As early as 1270 it was deemed necessary to require them
to give security to the government as the condition of carrying on their
business, but it is not shown that they were then receiving deposits. In an
act of the 24th of September 1318, however, entitled _Bancherii scriptae
dent plegiarias consulibus_, the receipt of deposits by the _campsores_ is
recognized as an existing practice, and provision is made for better
security for the depositors." From this act it becomes clear that between
1270 and 1318 the money-changers of Venice were becoming bankers, just as
the same class of men became in Amsterdam a couple of centuries later, and
as later still the goldsmiths in London.

[Sidenote: The first public bank in Europe.]

Of the early banks in Europe, the bank in Venice, the Banco di Rialto, was
established by the acts of the Venetian senate of 1584 and 1587. This
appears to have been the first public bank in that city and in Europe. The
senate by the act of the 3rd of May 1619[1] established by the side of the
Banco di Rialto a second public bank known as the Banco Giro, or Banco del
Giro, which ultimately became the only public bank of the city and was for
generations famous throughout Europe as the Bank of Venice. Earlier than
this the _campsores_ or dealers in foreign moneys had carried on the
business. The Bank of Venice (Banco del Giro) appears to have been called
into existence by the natural developments of trade, but some banks have
been established by governments and have been of great service to the
development of the countries in which they have carried on their business.
Of these, the Bank of Sweden (the _Riksbank_), established in 1656, is the
earliest. This bank still exists and has always been the state bank of
Sweden. It was founded by a Swede named Palmstruck, who also invented the
use of the bank note--perhaps adapted for use in Europe is the better
expression to employ, as notes were current in China about A.D. 800. The
first bank note was issued by the _Riksbank_ in 1658. An _enquête_ made by
the French government in 1729 recognizes the priority of Sweden in this
matter, and declares the bank note to be an admirable Swedish invention,
designed to facilitate commerce.

EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

[Sidenote: Foundation of the Bank of England.]

_United Kingdom_.--English banking may be traced back to the dealings in
money carried on by the goldsmiths of London and thus certainly to the 16th
century; but it has been so greatly influenced by the working of the Bank
of England and by the acts of parliament connected with that institution,
that a reference to this bank's foundation and development must precede any
attempt at a detailed history of banking in the United Kingdom. The Bank of
England was founded in 1694.[2] As in the case of some of the earlier
continental banks, a loan to the government was the origin of its
establishment. The loan, which was £1,200,000, was subscribed in little
more than ten days, between Thursday, 21st June, and noon of Monday, 2nd
July 1694. On Tuesday, 10th July, the subscribers appointed Sir John
Houblon the governor, and Michael Godfrey (who was killed during the siege
of Namur on the 17th of July 1695) deputy-governor. Michael Godfrey wrote a
pamphlet explaining the purposes for which the bank was established and the
use it would be to the country. The pamphlet supplies some curious
illustrations of the dangers which some persons had imagined might arise
from the establishment of the bank and its connexion with William III.,
deprecating the fear "lest it should hereafter joyn with the prince to make
him absolute and so render parliaments useless."

The governor and the deputy-governor, having thus been appointed, the first
twenty-four directors were elected on Wednesday, 11th July 1694. Two of
them were brothers of the governor, Sir John Houblon. They were descended
from James Houblon, a Flemish refugee who had escaped from the persecution
of Alva. All the directors were men of high mercantile standing. The
business of the bank was first carried on in the Mercers' chapel. It
continued there till the 28th of September, when they moved to Grocers'
Hall. They were tenants of the Grocers' Hall till 1732. The first stone of
the building now occupied by the bank was laid on the 1st of August 1732.
The bank has remained on the same site ever since. The structure occupied
the space previously covered by the house and gardens of Sir John Houblon,
the first governor, which had been bought for the purpose. Between 1764 and
1788 the wings were erected. In 1780 the directors, alarmed at the
dangerous facilities which the adjacent church of St Christopher le Stocks
might give to a mob, obtained parliamentary powers and acquired the fabric,
on the site of which much of the present building stands. The structure was
developed to its present form about the commencement of the 19th century.

The bank commenced business with fifty-four assistants, the salaries of
whom amounted to £4350. The total number employed in 1847 was upwards of
nine hundred and their salaries exceeded £210,000. Mr Thomson Hankey stated
that in 1867 upwards of one thousand persons were employed, and the
salaries and wages amounted to nearly £260,000, besides pensions to
superannuated clerks of about £20,000 more. The number of persons of all
classes employed in 1906 (head office and eleven branches) was about 1400.

Originally established to advance the government a loan of £1,200,000, the
management of the British national debt has been confided to the Bank of
England from the date of its foundation, and it has remained the banker of
the government ever since. The interest on the stock in which the debt is
inscribed has always been paid by the bank, originally half-yearly, now
quarterly, and the registration of all transfers of the stock itself is
carried on by the bank, which assumes the responsibility of the correctness
of these transfers. The dignity which the position of banker to the
government gives; the monopoly granted to it of being the only joint-stock
bank allowed to exist in England and Wales till 1826, while the liability
of its shareholders was limited to the amount of their holdings, an
advantage which alone of English banks it possessed till 1862; the
privilege of issuing notes which since 1833 have been legal tender in
England and Wales everywhere except at the bank itself; the fact that it is
the banker of the other banks of the country and for many years had the
control of far larger deposits than any one of them individually--all these
privileges gave it early a pre-eminence which it still maintains, though
more than one competitor now holds larger [v.03 p.0336] deposits, and
though, collectively, the deposits of the other banks of the country which
have offices in London many times overpass its own. Some idea of the
strength of its position may be gained from the fact that stocks are now
inscribed in the bank books to an amount exceeding 1250 millions sterling.

[Sidenote: Bank Charter Act.]

In one sense, the power of the Bank of England is greater now than ever. By
the act of 1844, regulating the note-issue of the country, the Bank of
England became the sole source from which legal tender notes can be
obtained; a power important at all times, but pre-eminently so in times of
pressure. The authority to supply the notes required, when the notes needed
by the public exceed in amount the limit fixed by the act of 1844, was
granted by the government at the request of the bank on three occasions
only between 1844 and 1906. Hence the Bank of England becomes the centre of
interest in times of pressure when a "treasury letter" permitting an excess
issue is required, and holds then a power the force of which can hardly be
estimated.

One main feature of the act of 1844 was the manner in which the issue of
notes was dealt with, as described by Sir Robert Peel in parliament on the
6th of May 1844:--"Two departments of the bank will be constituted: one for
the issue of notes, the other for the transaction of the ordinary business
of banking. The bullion now in the possession of the bank will be
transferred to the issue department. The issue of notes will be restricted
to an issue of £14,000,000 upon securities--the remainder being issued upon
bullion and governed in amount by the fluctuations in the stock of
bullion." The bank was required to issue weekly returns in a specified form
(previously to the act of 1844 it was necessary only to publish every month
a balance-sheet for the previous quarter), and the first of such returns
was issued on the 7th of September 1844. The old form of return contained
merely a statement of the liabilities and assets of the bank, but in the
new form the balance-sheets of the Issue Department and the Banking
Department are shown separately. A copy of the weekly return in both the
old and new forms will be found in _A History of the Bank of England_, p.
290, by A. Andréadès (Eng. trans., 1909); see also R. H. I. Palgrave, _Bank
Rate and the Money Market_, p. 297.

One result of the division of the accounts of the bank into two departments
is that, if through any circumstance the Bank of England be called on for a
_larger_ sum in notes or specie than the notes held in its banking
department (technically spoken of as the "Reserve") amount to, permission
has to be obtained from the government to "suspend the Bank Act" in order
to allow the demand to be met, whatever the amount of specie in the "issue
department" may be. Three times since the passing of the Bank Act--during
the crises of 1847, 1857 and 1866--authority has been given for the
suspension of that act. On one of these dates only, in 1857, the limits of
the act were exceeded; on the other two occasions the fact that the
permission had been given stayed the alarm. It should be remembered,
whenever the act of 1844 is criticized, that since it came into force there
has been no anxiety as to payment in specie of the note circulation; but
the division of the specie held into two parts is an arrangement not
without disadvantages. [Sidenote: Bank rate.] Certainly since the act of
1844 became law, the liability to constant fluctuations in the Bank's rate
of discount--one main characteristic of the English money market--has
greatly increased. To charge the responsibility of the increase in the
number of those fluctuations on the Bank Act alone would not be
justifiable, but the working of the act appears to have an influence in
that direction, as the effect of the act is to cut the specie reserve held
by the bank into two parts and to cause the smaller of these parts to
receive the whole strain of any demands either for notes or for specie.
Meanwhile the demands on the English money market are greater and more
continuous than those on any other money market in the world. Of late years
the changes in the bank rate have been frequent, and the fluctuations even
in ordinary years very severe. From the day when the act came into
operation in 1844, to the close of the year 1906, there had been more than
400 changes in the rate. The hopes which Sir Robert Peel expressed in 1844,
that after the act came into force commercial crises would cease, have not
been realized.

The number of changes in the bank rate from 1876[3] to 1906 in England,
France, Germany, Holland and Belgium were as follows:--

  England.  France.  Germany.  Holland.  Belgium.
    183       27       110       55        77

There has been frequent discussion among bankers and occasionally with the
government as to the advantage it might be to grant the Bank of England an
automatic power to augment the note issue on securities when necessary,
similar to that possessed by the Bank of Germany (_Reichsbank_). One of the
hindrances to the success of such a plan has been that the government,
acting on the advice of the treasury, required an extremely high rate of
interest, of which it would reap the advantage, to be paid on the advances
made under these conditions. Those who made these suggestions did not bear
in mind that the mere fact of so high a rate of interest being demanded
intensifies the panic, a high rate being associated as a rule with risks in
business. The object of the arrangement made between the _Reichsbank_ and
the treasury of the empire of Germany is a different one--to provide the
banking accommodation required and to prevent panic, hence a rate of only
5% has been generally charged, though in 1899 the rate was 7% for a short
time. As is often the case in business, a moderate rate has been
accompanied by higher profit. The duty on the extra issue between 1881,
when the circulation of the Bank of Germany first exceeded the authorized
limit, and the close of the year 1906 amounted to £839,052. Thus a
considerable sum was provided for the relief of taxation, while business
proceeded on its normal course. The proposal made by Mr Lowe (afterwards
Lord Sherbrooke) in 1873 was to charge 12%, a rate which presupposes panic.
Hence the negotiations came to nothing. The act of 1844 remains unaltered.
The issue on securities allowed by it to the Bank of England was originally
£14,000,000. This has since been increased under the provisions of the act
to £18,450,000 (29th March 1901). Hence against the notes issued by the
bank less gold by £4,450,000 is now held by the bank than would have been
the case had the arrangements as to the securities remained as they were in
1844.

The Bank of England has, from the date of its establishment, possessed a
practical, though perhaps not an absolutely legal, monopoly of issuing
notes in London. It became gradually surrounded by a circle of private
banks, some of considerable power.

[Sidenote: Early English banking.]

The state papers included in F. G. Hilton Price's _Handbook of London
Bankers_ (1876) contain some of the earliest records about the
establishment of banking in England. The first of these is a petition,
printed in the original Italian, to Queen Elizabeth, of Christopher
Hagenbuck and his partners in November 1581, representing "that he had
found out a method and form in which it will be possible to institute an
office into which shall enter every year a very large sum of money without
expense to your Majesty," so "that not only your Majesty will be able to be
always provided with whatever notable sum of money your Majesty may wish,
but by this means your State and people also; and it shall keep the country
in abundance and remove the extreme usuries that devour your Majesty and
your people." Hagenbuck proposed to explain his plan on condition that he
should receive "6% every year of the whole mass of money" received by the
office for twenty years. The queen agreed "to grant to the said Christopher
and partners 4% for a term of twenty years, and to confirm the said grant
under the great seal." The document is signed by Francis Walsingham, but
nothing further appears to have come of it. When we compare the date of
this document with that of the establishment of the Banco della Piazza di
Rialto at Venice, it is not unlikely that the idea of the establishment of
a bank was floating in the minds of people connected with business and had
become familiar to Hagenbuck from commerce with Venice. Other state papers
in 1621 and 1622 and again in 1662 and 1666 contain somewhat similar
proposals which however were never carried into practice.

The little _London Directory_, 1677, contains a list of goldsmiths
mentioned as keeping "running cashes." Of these firms described in 1677,
five houses were carrying on business in 1876. Three of these, or firms
immediately descended from them, Child & Co. of Temple Bar, Martin & Co. of
Lombard Street (as Martin's Bank, Ltd.), and Hoare & Co. of Fleet Street,
are still carrying on business. Barnetts, Hoare & Co. and Willis, Percival
& Co. have been absorbed since 1876, the first by Lloyds Bank (1884), the
second by the Capital and Counties (1878). Many of the goldsmiths carried
on a considerable business. Thus the books of Edward Blackwell, who was an
eminent goldsmith and banker in the reign of Charles II., show that the
king himself, the queen mother, Henrietta Maria, James, duke of York, the
prince of Orange, Samuel Pepys, the East India Company, the Goldsmiths'
Company and other city companies did business with him. Sir John Houblon,
the first governor of the Bank of England, kept an account with Blackwell,
who was, however, ruined by the closing of the exchequer in 1672. But his
son married into the family of Sir Francis Child, and his grandsons became
partners in Child's Bank.

[v.03 p.0337] Besides the banks in London already mentioned, one in the
provinces claims to have been established before the Bank of England.
Smiths' of Nottingham, since amalgamated with the Union of London Bank, is
stated to have been founded in 1688. Others also claim considerable
antiquity. The old Bank of Bristol (Bailey, Cave & Co.) was founded in
1750; the business amalgamated with Prescott & Co., Ltd., of London. The
Hull Old Bank (Pease & Co.) dated from 1754; this business also still
continues (amalgamated, 1894, with the York Union Banking Co., Ltd., and
since with Barclay & Co., Ltd.). The banks of Gurney & Co., established at
the end of the 18th century in the eastern counties, have with numerous
other banks of similar standing amalgamated with the firm of Barclay & Co.,
Ltd., of Lombard Street.

The business of banking had been carried on by the goldsmiths of the city,
who took deposits from the time of James I. onwards, and thus established
"deposit-banking" as early as that reign. This is described in a pamphlet
published in 1676, entitled _The Mystery of the New-Fashioned Goldsmiths or
Bankers Discovered_, quoted by Adam Anderson in his _History of the Great
Commercial Interests of the British Empire_, vol. ii. p. 402. During the
Civil War "the goldsmiths or new-fashioned bankers began to receive the
rents of gentlemen's estates remitted to town, and to allow them and others
who put cash into their hands some interest for it, if it remained but for
a single month in their hands, or even a lesser time. This was a great
allurement for people to put their money into their hands, which would bear
interest till the day they wanted it. And they could also draw it out by
£100 or £50, &c., at a time, as they wanted it, with infinitely less
trouble than if they had lent it out on either real or personal security.
The consequence was that it quickly brought a great quantity of cash into
their hands; so that the chief or greatest of them were now enabled to
supply Cromwell with money in advance on the revenues as his occasion
required, upon great advantage to themselves."

The Bank of England, as stated before, was incorporated by the act of 1694.
The position of the other banks at that time was defined by that act and
the act of 1697, which declared that no bank, that is, no joint-stock bank,
was "to be established within England during the continuance of the Bank of
England," and also by the act of 1708, which provided that "during the
continuance of the Bank of England, no company or partnership exceeding six
persons in England" should "borrow, owe or take up any sum or sums of money
on their bills or notes payable on demand or at any less time than six
months from the borrowing thereof." This was confirmed by the act of 1800.
No change of importance was made till the act of 1826, which prohibited
"bank notes under £5," and the second Banking Act of that year which
allowed the establishment of co-partnerships of more than six persons,
which necessarily were joint-stock companies, beyond 65 m. from London. The
act of 1833 allowed the establishment of joint-stock banks within the 65 m.
limit, and took away various restrictions of the amounts of notes for less
than £50. But the power of issuing notes was not allowed to joint-stock
banks within the 65 m. radius.

In the early days in England, issuing notes formed, as Bagehot says in his
_Lombard Street_, the introduction to the system of deposit-banking--so
much so, that a bank which had not the power of issuing notes could
scarcely exist out of London.

[Sidenote: Bank notes.]

Bank notes in England originated in goldsmiths' notes. Goldsmiths received
deposits of moneys and gave notes or receipts for such moneys payable on
demand. The London bankers continued to give their customers notes or
deposit-receipts for the sums left by them until about 1781, when in lieu
of such notes they gave them books of cheques. Before the invention of
cheque-books, the practice of issuing notes was considered so essentially
the main feature of banking, that a prohibition of issue was considered an
effectual bar against banking. Accordingly the prohibitory clause in the
act of 6 Anne, c. 50, 1707 (in Record edition), which was repeated in the
Bank of England Act 1708, 7 Anne, c. 30, § 66 (in Record edition),
prohibiting more than six persons from issuing promissory notes, was
intended to prevent any bank being formed with more than six partners, and
was so understood at the time; and it did have the effect of preventing any
joint-stock bank being formed.

The prohibition, as already related, was modified in the year 1826 and
removed in 1833. Even then the privilege of limitation of liability was not
permitted to any other bank but the Bank of England. The result was that
when joint-stock banks were first formed many persons of good means were
kept back from becoming shareholders, that is to say partners, in banks.
For up to the date of the act of 1862 permitting "limited liability," every
shareholder in a joint-stock bank was liable to the extent of the whole of
his means (see the article COMPANY). Even as late as 1858 when the Western
Bank of Scotland and 1878 when the City of Glasgow Bank failed, very great
hardship was inflicted on many persons who had trusted with over confidence
to the management of those banks. The failure of the City of Glasgow Bank
was the cause of the Companies Act of 1879, passed to enable unlimited
companies to adopt limited liability. In limited companies the shareholder
who has paid up the nominal amount of his holding is not liable for any
further amount, unless the company issues bank notes, in which case the
shareholders are liable in the same way as if the company were registered
as an unlimited company. The facilities allowed by this act were used by
almost every joint-stock bank in the United Kingdom except those banks
which were at that date limited by charter or by special act.

[Sidenote: Private banks.]

To return to the early history of banking--thus, as no bank could be formed
with more than six partners during the whole of the period from 1694 to
1826 and 1833, the majority of the banks formed throughout England and
Wales for more than a century were necessarily small and usually isolated
firms. Further, when a partner died, his capital not infrequently went out
of the business; then a fresh partner with sufficient means had to be
found, constant change was the result, and confidence, "a plant of slow
growth," could not thrive, except in those instances when a son or a
relation filled the vacancy.

The banks in the country districts had frequently branches in the small
market-towns close to them; those in London had never more than one office.
These banks were sometimes powerful and generally well managed, a
considerable number being established by members of the Society of Friends.

The restriction of partners in private banks to the number of six continued
till 1862. By the act of that year they were allowed to be ten. This power,
however, did not extend to issuing private banks, which were restricted to
six partners as before. The power of increasing bank partnerships to ten
has been made but little use of. The difficulties of carrying on business
on a large scale by private firms were augmented by certain legal
technicalities which practically rendered large private banks impossible in
ordinary circumstances. Hence banking business did not begin to assume its
present form till almost half-way through the 19th century. The gradual
change followed the passing of the acts of 1826-1833, of 1844-1845, of 1862
and of 1879. Incidentally the act of 1844 had an unexpected influence on
the constitution of the banking system. After favouring the existence of
small banks for many years, it gradually led, as the time arrived when the
establishment of large and powerful banks in England and Wales became
necessary, to their formation. No new bank of issue whatever was allowed to
be established--restrictions were placed on the English issuing
banks--private issuing banks with not more than six partners were allowed
to remain, to amalgamate with other private issuing banks and to retain
their joint issues. The joint-stock banks which possessed issues were also
allowed to continue these, but when two joint-stock banks amalgamated, the
continuing bank only retained its issue. Also when a private issuing bank
was formed into or joined a joint-stock bank, the issue lapsed.

The greater number of the provincial banks in England and Wales had been
banks of issue up to 1844. The act of 1844 [v.03 p.0338] restricted their
power of issuing notes, which at that date and even subsequently continued
to be of importance to them, in such a manner that, as Sir R. H. Inglis
Palgrave stated in giving evidence before the committee of the House of
Commons at the banking inquiry of 1875, these banks possessed in their
issues a property they could use, but were not able to sell. The statistics
forming part of Appendix 14 to the report of the select committee of the
House of Commons on banks of issue (1875) give interesting information as
to the proportion of notes in circulation to the deposits of banks in
various districts of the country and at various dates. The statements were
supplied by twenty-one banks, some in agricultural districts, some in
places where manufactures flourished, some in mixed districts, commercial
and agricultural, or industrial and manufacturing. In all of these, the
inquiry being carried as far back as 1844, the proportion of the
circulation to the banking deposits had greatly diminished in recent years.
In several cases the deposits had increased three-fold in the time. In one
case it was five times as large, in another nearly seven times, in another
nearly twelve and a half times. The proportion of the circulation to the
deposits had very largely diminished in that time. In one instance, from
being about one-third of the deposits, at which proportion it had remained
for five years consecutively, it fell to 9% at the end of the term. In
another from being 22% it had diminished to 1½% of the total. In all cases
where the detail was given it had diminished greatly.

The Bank Act of 1844 was arranged with the intention of concentrating the
note issues on the Bank of England in order to secure the monopoly of that
bank as the one issuer in England and Wales. The result was that nearly all
the provincial banks in England had by 1906 lost the right of issue.
Doubtless all were destined to do so before long, a result by which banking
in England and the industries of the country must lose the advantage which
the local issues have been to Scotland and Ireland. Had the English country
banks been allowed, as the Scottish banks were, to associate together and
to retain their issues, powerful banks would many years since have been
established throughout England and Wales, and the amalgamations of recent
years would have been carried through at a much earlier date, and on terms
much more favourable to the public.

[Sidenote: Security of note issue.]

No security was ever required to be given for the local issues in the
United Kingdom. The provisions of the acts of 1844-1845 which compel the
Irish and Scottish banks to hold specie against the notes issued beyond the
legal limit, do not make the coin held a security for them. The legislation
of 1879 which made the note issues a first charge, with unlimited
liability, on the total assets of the joint-stock banks which accepted the
principle of limited liability for the rest of their business, has been the
only recognition by the state of the duty to the note-holders of rendering
them secure. It has been a real disadvantage to England that this duty has
never been sufficiently recognized, and that the provincial note issue,
which is a very convenient power for a bank to possess, and incidentally a
considerable advantage to its customers, has been swept away without any
attempt being made to remedy its deficiencies. There may be objections
raised to a note circulation secured by the bonds of the government, but
the security of the note issues of the national banks of the United States
made against such bonds, has scarcely ever been questioned.

A different policy was followed by Sir Robert Peel in Scotland and in
Ireland from that which he established in England. By the acts of 1844-1845
the Scottish and Irish banks were allowed to exceed their authorized issues
on holding specie to the amount of the excess, and no restrictions were
placed on amalgamations among banks in these countries. In Scotland and in
Ireland notes for less than £5 continued to be allowed. The result has been
that the ten large banks in Scotland, and six of the nine banks in Ireland,
possess the power of issuing notes. The large proportion of local branches
in these countries has been greatly assisted by this power.

[Sidenote: Amounts in circulation.]

Originally, besides the Bank of England, nearly all the provincial banks in
England and Wales possessed the privilege of issue. These banks continued
their operations as previously during the time while the Bank Act was
discussed in parliament. When the arrangements which that act created were
made public, nine banks, of which eight were private and one was a
joint-stock bank, ceased to issue their notes prior to the 12th of October
1844, when the act came into operation. Of these, the Western District
Joint-Stock Banking Co. was dissolved, one of the private banks was closed,
the remaining seven issued Bank of England notes and were allowed certain
privileges for doing this. By the act of 1844 the maximum circulation of
the English issuing banks was fixed at the average circulation of the
twelve weeks before the 27th of April 1844.

The number of the banks to which the privilege of circulation was then
allowed and the amount of notes permitted were, in England:--

  207 private banks with an authorized issue of       £5,153,417
   72 joint-stock banks with an authorized issue of    3,478,230
                                                     ------------
                                                      £8,631,647

The actual circulation of the country in October 1844 was as follows:--

_Notes in Circulation_.--The monthly return of the circulation ending the
12th of October 1844 (stamps and taxes, 25th October);

                    _England._
  Bank of England                          £20,228,800
  Private banks                              4,674,162
  Joint-stock banks                          3,331,516

                    _Scotland._
  Chartered, private and joint-stock banks   2,987,665

                    _Ireland._
  Bank of Ireland                            3,597,850
  Private and joint-stock banks              2,456,261
                                           -----------
                     Total                 £37,276,254

In May 1907 the number and amounts were reduced to:--

                       Authorized Issue.     Actual Issue.
  12 private banks          £482,744           £122,536
  17 joint-stock banks     1,084,836            437,693

The reason why the actual circulation of these banks is so far below the
authorized issue is that under existing circumstances their circulation can
only extend over a very limited area. The notes of country banks are now
almost unknown except in the immediate neighbourhood of the places where
they are issued; though they may all be payable in London, yet there is
often considerable difficulty in getting them cashed.

The average circulation in 1906 was as follows:--

  Bank of England                          £28,890,000
  Private banks                                124,000
  Joint-stock banks                            429,000
                                           -----------
              Total in England             £29,443,000
  Scotland                                   7,477,000
  Ireland                                    6,452,000
                                           -----------
              Total in United Kingdom      £43,372,000

This shows an apparent increase of more than £6,000,000 since 1844. The
decrease of the country circulation in England and the increase of the
Scottish and Irish circulations may be set off against each other. The
increase is mainly in the notes of the Bank of England. In 1844 the number
of banking offices in England and Wales was 976, while in 1906 there were
more than 5880. Each of these offices must hold some till-money, and of
this Bank of England notes almost always form a part. Hence it is probable
that a large part of the increase in the circulation of the Bank of England
since 1844 is held in the tills of the banks in England and Wales, and that
the active note circulation of the United Kingdom is but little larger than
it was.

It may be added that the government received from the note circulation for
a typical year (ending 5th of April 1904), out of the profits of issue
(Bank of England) £184,930, 2s. 2d., and also composition for the duties on
the bills and notes of the banks of England and Ireland and of country
bankers, £120,768, 18s. 6d.

In 1906 the banking business of England was carried on practically by about
ten private and sixty joint-stock banks of which more than one was properly
a private firm under a joint-stock form of organization. Though the number
of individual banks had diminished, the offices had greatly increased.

The records of the numbers of banks in the United Kingdom have up to quite
recent years been very imperfect. Such as exist were made by individual
observers. The banks of England and Wales are believed to have been 350 in
number in 1792. Those registered from 1826 to 1842 were:--

[v.03 p.0339] /*    Private. Joint-stock. 1826 554 ... 1827 465 6 1833 416
35 1842 311 118 */

The number of banking offices in England and Wales was estimated by Mr.
William Leatham in 1840 as being 697. The _Banking Almanac_ for 1845 gives
the number in 1844 for England and Wales as 336 private bank offices and
640 joint-stock offices, Scotland 368 offices, Ireland 180 offices.

The number of inhabitants to each office was as follows in 1844 and 1906:--

  +-------------------+-------------+----------------+
  |                   |  Number of  |    Number of   |
  |                   |   Banking   | Inhabitants to |
  |                   |   Offices.  |   Each Office. |
  +-------------------+------+------+---------+------+
  |                   | 1844.| 1906.|   1844. | 1906.|
  | England and Wales |  976 | 5527 |  16,305 | 5885 |
  | Isle of Man       |  ... |   23 |    ...  | 2417 |
  | Scotland          |  368 | 1180 |   7,120 | 3790 |
  | Ireland           |  180 |  777 |  45,417 | 5738 |
  +-------------------+------+------+---------+------+
  | In United Kingdom | 1524 | 7507 |  17,526 | 5530 |
  +-------------------+------+------+---------+------+

In the latter years of the 18th century and the early years of the 19th,
the note circulation was a very important part of the business, but about
that date the deposits began to be, as they have continued since, far more
important. It is unfortunately impossible to give any trustworthy
statistics of the position of banking in the United Kingdom extending back
for more than forty or fifty years. Even the Scottish banks, who have been
less reticent as to their position than the English banks, did not publish
their accounts generally till 1865. The figures of the total deposits and
cash balances in the Irish joint-stock banks were published collectively
from the year 1840 by the care of Dr Neilson Hancock, but it is only of
quite recent years that any statement of the general position other than an
estimate has been possible owing to the long-continued reluctance of many
banks to allow any publication of their balance-sheets. A paper by W.
Newmarch, printed in the _Journal of the Statistical Society_ for 1851,
supplies the earliest basis for a trustworthy estimate. According to this
the total amount of deposits, including the Bank of England, in England and
Wales, Scotland and Ireland, may have been at that date from £250,000,000
to £360,000,000. The estimate in Palgrave's _Notes on Banking_ (1872),
excluding deposits in discount houses and the capitals of banks, was from
£430,000,000 to £450,000,000. The corresponding amounts at the close of
1906 were, in round figures, including acceptances &c., £997,000,000. The
total resources, including capitals and reserves and note circulation (in
round figures £177,500,000), were for 1906:--

  England and Wales--
     Bank of England and other banks   £922,297,000
  Scotland                              135,042,000
  Ireland                                73,707,000
  Isle of Man                               898,000
                                      -------------
                                     £1,131,944,000

The progressive growth in bank deposits since it has been possible to keep
a record of their amounts, affords some means of checking roughly the
correctness of the estimates of 1851 and 1872. Broadly speaking, it may be
said that the bank deposits of the United Kingdom have about doubled since
1872.

[Sidenote: Clearing.]

The purely city banks had associated themselves in a "Clearing House"
certainly by 1776. An entry in the books of the Grasshopper,[4]
namely--"1773 to quarterly charge for use of the Clearing-room of 19/6d.,"
points to an earlier and perhaps less definitely organized system of
settlement. A house was taken for the purpose in 1810, in which year the
number of banking houses who settled their accounts with each other at the
"Clearing House" was forty-six (Gilbart's _History and Principles of
Banking_, p. 78). The Bank of England has never been a member of the
Clearing House, though it "clears on one side," _i.e._ its claim on the
clearing bankers is made through the Clearing House, but the claims of the
clearing bankers on the bank are forwarded direct to Threadneedle Street
twice or thrice daily. Nor did the banks in Fleet Street or at Charing
Cross belong to it. In 1858 the clearing of country cheques was added
through arrangements made by Lord Avebury, then Sir John Lubbock. The
"country clearing" is a great assistance to business, as it enables a
cheque drawn on the most distant village in England to be dealt with as
conveniently as a cheque on London. Of the forty-nine banks in London in
1844, twenty-six were connected with the Clearing House. At that time only
private banks were allowed to be members. In 1854 the joint-stock banks
made their way into that body, and in 1906 the numbers were one private
bank and eighteen joint-stock banks who joined in the clearing--nineteen
banks in all.

Practically at the present time every large transaction in the United
Kingdom is settled by cheque, that is, by a series of ledger transfers,
notes and specie being but the small change by which the fractional amounts
are paid. A large proportion of these transactions are arranged through the
operation of the London Clearing House. This is facilitated by the fact
that every bank in the United Kingdom has an agent in London.

The annual circulation shown by the London Clearing House is more than
£12,000,000,000. No one asks what stock of gold is held by the bank on
which the cheques are drawn, or what the bank itself keeps in reserve. The
whole is taken in faith on a well-founded trust. It is the most easily
worked paper circulation and circulating medium in existence. Like the
marvellous tent of the fairy Paribanou, it expands itself to meet every
want and contracts again the moment the strain is passed. (See the article
by R. H. Inglis Palgrave on "Gold and the Banks," _Quarterly Review_,
January 1906.)

If we add to the returns of the London Clearing House those of the clearing
houses in the large towns of England, Ireland and Scotland, and the
numerous exchanges which occur daily, and the large number which the
different offices of banks with a great many branches settle among
themselves, and the number drawn by one customer of a bank and paid to
another, we may form some notion of the vast amount of the yearly turnover
in cheques. This may be roughly estimated to be at least twice as great as
that registered by the London Clearing House. The earliest authentic
statement as to the clearing is found in the _Appendix to the Second
Report, Committee of House of Commons, Banks of Issue_ (1841).

  In 1839 the figures of the London clearings
    were                                        £954,401,600, 29 banks.
  In 1840        "     "  "     "       "        978,496,800, 29   "
  In 1899        "     "  "     "       "      9,150,269,000, 19   "
  In 1900        "     "  "     "       "      8,960,170,000, 19   "
  In 1906        "     "  "     "       "     12,711,334,000, 18   "

[Sidenote: Scottish banks.]

In 1695, shortly after the establishment of the Bank of England, the
Scottish parliament passed an act for the establishment of a public bank.
Amongst the first names is that of Thomas Coutts, a name still commemorated
in one of the most substantial banks in London. The terms of the
establishment were more favourable than those connected with the
establishment of the Bank of England, for they obtained the exclusive
privilege of banking for twenty-one years without giving any consideration
whatever. It may have been the natural caution of the country, or the fact
that William III. was then king, which led to the Bank of Scotland being
prohibited under a heavy penalty from lending money under any circumstances
to the king. It is the only Scottish bank established by act of parliament.
The directors began at a very early period to receive deposits and to allow
interest thereon, also to grant cash credit accounts, a minute of the
directors respecting the mode of keeping the latter being dated so far back
as 1729.

Though the system of branches forms now so marked a feature of banking in
Scotland, a good many years had to pass before they obtained any hold. It
was not till about the year 1700 that the directors of the Bank of Scotland
established branches at Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dundee and Montrose, but so
little encouragement was given to these branches, the expenses far
exceeding the profits arising from them, that the directors resolved to
close them. In 1731 another attempt was made, and agencies were established
at Glasgow, Aberdeen and Dundee. But after a trial of two years they were
discontinued. It was not till 1774 that branches were again established by
the bank.

Soon after the establishment of the Bank of Scotland the directors began to
issue notes, or, as they were then called, bills or tickets, for £100, £50,
£20, £10, and £5. In 1704 £1 notes were issued for the first time. In 1727
the Royal Bank of Scotland was established by a charter of
incorporation,--which granted them "perpetual succession and a common
seal." There was a great rivalry between the two companies. The British
Linen Company was incorporated in 1746 for the [v.03 p.0340] purpose of
undertaking the manufacture of linen, but by 1763 they found it best to
confine their operations to banking transactions. This bank also was
incorporated by charter.

The note circulation was always an important item in the Scottish banks.
Thus in the case of the Bank of Dundee, the receiving money from the public
did not commence till 1792. Up to that time the whole business of the bank
from 1764 onwards, twenty-eight years in all, had consisted in its issue of
notes, which had varied from about £23,000 to £56,000. The Bank of Dundee
was amalgamated with the Royal Bank of Scotland in 1864, when its deposits
amounted in round figures to £700,000 and its note circulation to £41,000.
After 1792, the money deposited with the banks in Scotland rapidly
increased, but the habit of hoarding savings in a chest up to amounts of
£10 or £20 continued to a much later period (_History of the Dundee Banking
Co._).

Private banking never appears to have had any considerable hold in
Scotland. In 1819 eight private banks were in existence. These had all
disappeared by 1844. In 1906 there were only ten banks of issue in
Scotland, which practically carried on the whole business of the country.
There were two other small banks established comparatively recently. These
ten banks had, in 1906, 1180 branches.

The history of the growth and expansion of Scottish banking since 1826 is,
as far as can be traced, as follows:--

  +------+---------------+----------------------------------------+
  | Date.|   Deposits.   |        Number of Offices.              |
  +------+---------------+----------------------------------------+
  | 1826 | £21,000,000   |   167 = 1 to every 13,170 inhabitants. |
  |      |               |                                        |
  | 1841 |  27,000,000   |   380 = 1 to every  6,600 inhabitants. |
  |      |               |                                        |
  | 1856 |  63,000,000   |   585 = 1 to every  5,230 inhabitants. |
  |      | and capital   |                                        |
  |      |               |                                        |
  | 1872 |  92,000,000   |   790 = 1 to every  4,250 inhabitants. |
  |      | including all |                                        |
  |      | liabilities   |                                        |
  |      | and capital   |                                        |
  |      |               |                                        |
  | 1906 | 135,042,000   | 1,180 = 1 to every  3,790 inhabitants. |
  |      | including all |                                        |
  |      | liabilities   |                                        |
  |      | and capital   |                                        |
  +------+---------------+----------------------------------------+

Against every note issued in excess of the limit allowed by the acts of
1844-1845, gold has to be held at the offices of the issuing banks in
Scotland and Ireland. The amount of the specie to be thus held was, as
explained by Sir Robert Peel in his speech of the 25th of April 1845, to be
ascertained by the average amount of the note-issue for four weeks
preceding. The object of the holding of this amount of specie by the bank
which issued the notes was designed by Sir Robert Peel to cause the
circulating medium of the country, being partly of notes and partly of
specie, to fluctuate in the same manner as if it had been a metallic
circulation only. The specie held in Scotland and Ireland against the
note-issue is not a special security for the note circulation, but is
placed in the banks there for this purpose. The influence ascribed to the
working of the note circulation in the earlier part of the 19th century
accounts for this legislation, which, as Sir Robert Peel stated in his
speech of the 6th of May 1844, was intended to "ensure the uniform
equivalency of bank notes to coin." It is not applicable to the present
position of the circulating medium of the United Kingdom, which now
consists mainly of a circulation of cheques. This differs absolutely from
what was contemplated by Sir Robert Peel; no attempt is or can be made to
cause such a paper circulation to fluctuate as if it were one of specie
only. One result of the limitation of the power of note-issue to the banks
in Scotland which possessed that power in 1845 has been that no important
bank has been established in that country since. Notes are so largely
employed in ordinary business in Scotland that a bank which does not
possess the power, practically cannot carry on business and supply the
needs of its customers. This limitation in the number of the banks has,
however, not been accompanied by any deficiency in the supply of banking
accommodation to the people. There is a larger number of banking offices in
proportion to the population in Scotland than in England and Wales or
Ireland.

The large number of branches must, however, be a cause of great expense,
and in several other respects it is obvious that a business carried on in
such thinly peopled districts as are found in many parts of Scotland, must
be conducted at a disadvantage in comparison with those banks which deal
with more active centres of commerce. Although the profit derived from
their large issue of notes may be thought to be considerable, yet, when we
consider the many expenses incurred in conducting a large note circulation,
the cost of printing, stamp duty, and the charges on importing gold from
London when the circulation exceeds the limit fixed by the act of 1845. no
small deductions must be made from the apparent profit to be derived from
this head, if there is any direct profit at all.

On the other hand, the great number of branches possessed by the Scottish
banks tends beyond doubt to their stability and prosperity. The network of
banks on the surface of Scotland is as important to the development of the
prosperity of the country as the network of the railways. It has caused a
great economy of capital, as the universal practice of people, even of the
most moderate means, is to lodge their money with the banks.

[Sidenote: Irish banks.]

The early history of banking in Ireland was marked by legislation even less
favourable to the formation of a steady and dependable system than in
England, and in 1695 several of the principal merchants in Dublin met
together for the purpose of forming a public bank for Ireland on the model
of the Bank of England. For many years this proposal met with no favour. It
was not till 1783 that the Bank of Ireland was established and commenced
its business. The first governor was David La Touche, junior, and two other
members of his family were amongst the first board of directors. The bank
met with very great success, but the jealousy against rival establishments
was extreme. By the act forming the Bank of Ireland it was enacted that no
company or society exceeding six in number, except the Bank of Ireland,
should borrow or take up money on their bills or notes payable on demand.
In the year 1821 the act was so far modified as to permit the establishment
of banking companies exceeding six in number at a distance of 50 m. from
Dublin. In 1824, in consequence of the ambiguity of that act, an act had to
be passed to explain it. It was not till 1845 that the restriction as to
the 50-m. limit was withdrawn.

The establishment of any other bank but the Bank of Ireland was for a long
time hindered by the legislation on the subject. Some of the restrictions
were so extraordinary that it will be interesting to refer to three of the
more important acts.

1741, 15 Geo. II.--Partnerships authorized for the purpose of trade and
manufacture; but such partnerships were not to exceed nine in number, nor
was the capital stock of such co-partnership to exceed, at any time, the
sum of £10,000.

1780-1781, 21 and 22 Geo. III.--"Anonymous Partnership Act,"--limited
liability not to exceed £50,000, but "business of banking or discounters of
money" expressly excluded.

1759, 33 Geo. II.--By this act a person while he continued a banker could
not make a marriage settlement on a son or daughter, a grandson or
granddaughter, so as to be good against his creditors, though for a
valuable consideration, and though such creditors were not creditors at the
time the grant was made. This act gave power to creditors over all
conveyances by bankers affecting real estates; and all dispositions after
the 10th of May 1760 by bankers of real or leasehold interest therein to or
for children were made void as against creditors, though for valuable
consideration and though not creditors at the time. No banker to issue
notes or receipts bearing interest after the 10th of May 1760. Some of
these enactments appear to be in force at the present day; suggestions have
been made, though apparently unsuccessfully, for their repeal.

So extraordinary were the views of the common people that a banker in
Dublin of the name of Beresford having made himself very unpopular, a
"large assemblage of ignorant country people having previously collected a
quantity of Beresford's notes, publicly burnt them, crying out with
enthusiasm while the promises to pay on demand were consuming, 'What will
he do now; his bank will surely break.'"

The number of banks which failed in Ireland in earlier times was
extraordinary; thus Sir Robert Peel in his speech of the 9th of June 1845
on the Bank Act of that year, made a quotation "from the report of the
committee of Irish exchanges, which sat in 1804. At that period there were
fifty registered banks, but they all failed, and their failures, I know
personally, led to the most fearful distress." Since the legislation of
1845, however, the business has been carried on with equally extraordinary
steadiness and success, and at the present time is on a footing fully equal
to that of any other part of the United Kingdom.

The earlier history of banking in Ireland pursued very closely the same
process of development as in England. Circulation preceded and fed
deposits. The credit which the banks obtained [v.03 p.0341] by the ready
acceptance of their notes brought customers to their counters, and thus the
existing system, fortunate in excellent managers, was built up gradually
and surely.

Alone in the three kingdoms, Ireland maintains the same limit of authorized
circulation as that established by Peel's Act of 1845. Not one of the six
banks which had the privilege of issue at that period has lost it since.

The names of the banks carrying on business in Ireland, the years when they
were established and their position in 1906, are as follows:--

        CAPITAL OF IRISH JOINT-STOCK BANKS IN 1906
  +---------------------------+------------+------------+
  |                           |            | Rate of    |
  | Name of Bank and Year     |   Capital  | Dividend   |
  | when established.         |   paid-up. | per annum. |
  +---------------------------+------------+------------+
  | Bank of Ireland      1783 | £2,769,230 |    11      |
  | Hibernian Bank*      1824 |    500,000 |    10      |
  | Provincial Bank      1825 |    540,000 |    20      |
  | Northern Banking Co. 1825 |    500,000 |    18½     |
  | Belfast Banking Co.  1827 |    500,000 |    36      |
  | National Bank        1835 |  1,500,000 |     8      |
  | Ulster Banking Co.   1836 |    500,000 |    18      |
  | Royal Bank*          1836 |    300,000 |    12      |
  | Munster Bank, Ltd.*  1864 |    200,000 |     8      |
  +---------------------------+------------+------------+
           * Thus marked are not banks of issue.

[Sidenote: Banking crises]

Banking, like every other business, has to pass through periods of
difficulty. The severity of these in the case of banking is intensified by
the vast number of interests affected. These, on the one hand, are
world-wide in their scope, on the other they touch every home in the
country. The stringency of such a time in England has since the passing of
the act of 1844 been greatly enhanced by a doubt being sometimes felt as to
whether a relaxation of the act of 1844 would be allowed. In any case, some
little time must elapse before the assent of the ministers of the crown to
the request of the Bank of England can be known. Since 1844 there have been
five periods of pressure,--during 1847, 1857, 1866, 1870 and 1890. Of these
in three, 1847, 1857 and 1866, the difficulties reached panic.

The crisis of 1847 was brought on by the speculation in railway enterprise
which had gone on since 1845. So little had the anxieties of the autumn
been anticipated that the bank rate of discount was 3% on the 1st of
January. It was raised to 3½% on the 14th and to 4% on the 21st. It became
5% on 8th April, 5½% on 5th August, 6% on 30th September and 8% on 25th
October. This was the highest. It was lowered to 7% on 22nd November, on
2nd December to 6% and on 23rd December to 5%. An announcement was made on
the 1st of October that no advances would be made on public securities.
This was followed by general anxiety and alarm.

The reserve of the bank was rapidly reduced to a very low ebb.

  _Bank of England Reserve of Specie._
  1847, 16th October ....  £3,070,000
    "   23rd October ....   1,990,000
    "   30th October ....   1,600,000

Meanwhile the anxiety and alarm prevailing were causing a general hoarding
of coin and bank notes, and it really appeared not unlikely that the
banking department of the Bank of England might be compelled to stop
payment while there was more than £6,000,000 of specie in the issue
department. The chancellor of the exchequer (Sir C. Wood, afterwards Lord
Halifax) was urged by many deputations and remonstrances to relax the Bank
Act, but he declined. At last, on the 22nd or 23rd of October, some of the
leading city bankers had an interview with the prime minister (Lord John,
afterwards Earl, Russell), and on their explaining the necessities of the
position, the desired relaxation was given. The official letter (25th
October) recommended "the directors of the Bank of England, in the present
emergency, to enlarge the amount of their discounts and advances upon
approved security." A high rate, 8%, was to be charged to keep these
operations within reasonable limits; a bill of indemnity was promised if
the arrangement led to a breach of the law. The extra profit derived was to
be for the benefit of the public. The effect of the government letter in
allaying the panic was complete.

The crisis of 1857 was the last occasion of an official inquiry. This is
contained in the _Report and Evidence of the Select Committee of the House
of Commons on the Bank Acts_ (1857, 1858). The evidence given by Mr
Sheffield Neave, the governor, and Mr Bonamy Dobree, deputy-governor of the
bank in 1858, gives a vivid picture not only of what occurred, but of what
might be expected to recur on such occasions. The wildest alarm prevailed,
exchequer bills were scarcely saleable, and the bank itself sold £3,000,000
government securities at a considerable loss.

The extreme pressure was relaxed by the letter issued by the government on
the 12th of November 1857, signed by Lord Palmerston, then premier, and Sir
G. C. Lewis, which allowed a temporary relaxation of the Bank Act of 1844.
The public alarm, however, was so great that it was not until the 21st of
November that the severity of the pressure was in any way diminished. On
the 20th of November the notes issued to the public on securities beyond
the statutory limit (then £14,475,000) reached the sum of £928,000. By the
next week the issue was almost down to the limit, and in the week following
it was within the limit. On the 1st of January 1858 the bank rate was
lowered to 8% and the anxiety gradually passed away. Had the treasury
letter been issued earlier, the pressure might not have been so severe, and
the governor of the bank expressed a strong opinion that, if it had been
later, it would not have been sufficient. November 1857 was the only
occasion when the limits of the Bank Act as to issue were actually passed.

During the crisis of May 1866 £4,000,000 left the bank on one day in notes
and coin, and the reserve of the bank was reduced in the return of the 1st
of June of that year to £415,000. The bank rate was raised to 10% and
permission was given by the government to suspend the act. This, however,
was not done. Tradition says that the bank asked the bankers, during the
period of heaviest pressure of that terrible crisis--pressure more severe
than anything that had taken place before or that has occurred since, to
pay in every night the notes they had drawn out in the morning which were
still in their tills at the close of the day, and that hence the legal
limit was never exceeded. But it was not till the 6th of August that the
rate was reduced to 8%.

The effect of the crisis of October 1890 was far less severe. This was due
to the judgment and skill displayed by the governor (Mr Lidderdale) and the
directors of the bank, who imported £3,000,000 in gold from Paris. The
reserve in that year never dropped below £10,000,000, and before the end of
November the anxiety had greatly passed away. "Caution prevailed, but not
panic, and the distinction is a very clear one." (See arts. on "Crises,"
_Dictionary of Political Economy_, vol. i.)

The most important requirement of banking in the United Kingdom is still
the establishment of an efficient specie reserve. The reserve in the
banking department of the Bank of England averaged:--

    £8,500,000 in 1845.   £11,600,000 in 1875.
     8,400,000 in 1855.    15,100,000 in 1885.
     8,000,000 in 1865.    29,900,000 in 1895.
              £23,500,000 in 1906.

[Sidenote: The "Reserve" question.]

This provides but a narrow basis for the whole business requirements of the
country. Though much larger than in several previous years, it cannot be
regarded as adequate. The figures fluctuate more severely than these
decennial averages show, and the progress has not been one of uniform
increase. Thus the £15,100,000 in 1885 was followed by £12,700,000 in 1888.
The £29,900,000 of 1895 was followed by £34,600,000 in 1896 and £21,200,000
in 1899.

Beyond, or side by side with, the reserve of the Bank of England there are
the reserves held by the other banks. Part of these are held in the form of
balances at the Bank of England, part in specie and bank notes in their own
tills. The latter, hence, are not unlikely to be estimated twice over. The
published figures on this point are meagre.

The expectations expressed by Sir Robert Peel in his speech [v.03 p.0342]
on the bank charter and the currency of the 6th of May 1844 have not yet
been fulfilled. "I rejoice," he said, "on public grounds, in the hope that
the wisdom of parliament will at length devise measures which shall inspire
just confidence in the medium of exchange, shall put a check on improvident
speculations, and shall ensure the just reward of industry and the
legitimate profit of commercial enterprise conducted with integrity and
controlled by provident calculation."

The extreme measures which have been required since the act af 1844 point
out for themselves the necessity for reform. Three times since the date of
the Bank Act of 1844 it has been needful to give permission for the
suspension of that act which forms the very foundation of the monetary
system of Great Britain. This, whenever it has occurred, has exercised a
very injurious effect on credit abroad, as well as on prosperity at home.

The British money-market, the clearing-house of the world, is, in
consequence of the smallness of its reserve, exposed to greater
fluctuations than that of any other country. These fluctuations may arise
from the need of meeting the requirements of other countries for specie or
those arising from domestic trade. The recorded excess of imports over
exports, £147,000,000 in 1906, though the difference is eventually balanced
by the "invisible" exports, gives foreign nations at times a power over the
British money-market greater than has ever previously been the case. The
current must always have a tendency to flow outwards; this is enhanced by
the great increase in the number of foreign banks which have branches in
England. The need of providing sufficient reserves to meet requirements
thus occasioned is obvious.

[Sidenote: British banking abroad.]

As regards the banks in which British interests are concerned in British
colonies and other countries we can only speak briefly. It must not be
overlooked that in the Dominion of Canada there are 29 banks, many of them
large, managed much on the Scottish principle with capitals of nearly
£19,000,000 and deposits of about £140,000,000. These banks have more than
1200 offices. In Australia and New Zealand there are 24 banks with capitals
of nearly £18,000,000 and deposits of about £130,000,000. The number of
offices is nearly 1700. There are, including the three Presidency banks,
about 15 banks doing business mainly in India--in some cases connecting
neighbouring countries and places like Bangkok, Hong-Kong and Zanzibar.
These banks have capitals of more than £5,000,000 and deposits of fully
£36,000,000 and over 210 offices. There are at least 8 banks in South and
West Africa with capitals of nearly £5,000,000, deposits of nearly
£50,000,000 and nearly 370 offices. There are 5 banks, including the
Colonial Bank, in other British territories with capitals of about
£1,000,000 and deposits of £3,300,000, and about 25 offices. There are
thus, besides many private firms doing very considerable business, more
than 80 joint-stock British banks working in the colonies with capitals
amounting to £48,000,000, deposits £360,000,000 and offices 3505. Outside
British territories there are 6 banks, principally in South America, with
nearly £4,000,000 capital, £36,000,000 deposits and about 60 offices. There
are 6 large banks doing business principally in the East with more than
£6,700,000 capitals, £77,000,000 deposits and 106 offices: and 7 other
banks, including Barings, with about £4,500,000 capitals and £22,000,000
deposits There are thus about 20 British banks doing business in foreign
countries with capitals amounting to £15,200,000, deposits £135,000,000 and
offices 173.

In this statement we have included only the more important banks, which
collectively wield about £63,000,000 capital and more than £495,000,000
deposits--in all about £560,000,000 of resources operating at about 3700
offices situated in places as different from each other and as widely
separated as California and Hong-Kong, Constantinople and New Zealand.

_France_.--In France the first bank of issue, originally called the _Banque
Générale_, was established in 1716 by John Law, the author of the
_Mississippi Scheme_ and the _Système_. Law's bank, which had been
converted into the _Banque Royale_ in 1718, and its notes guaranteed by the
king (Louis XV.), came to an end in 1721; an attempt at reconstruction was
made in 1767, but the bank thus established was suppressed in 1793. Other
banks, some issuing notes, then carried on operations with limited success,
but these never attained any real power. There were many negotiations on
the subject of the establishment of a bank in 1796. The financial
difficulties of the times prevented any immediate result, but the advice of
those engaged in this plan was of great assistance to Napoleon I., who,
aided by his minister Mollien, founded in 1800 the Bank of France, which
has remained from that time to the present by far the most powerful
financial institution in the country. The objects for which it was
established were to support the trade and industry of France and to supply
the use of loanable capital at a moderate charge. These functions it has
exercised ever since with great vigour and great judgment, extending itself
through its branches and towns attached to branches over the whole country.
At its establishment and for some time subsequently the operations of the
bank did not extend over the whole of France. Departmental banks with the
privilege of issue had been formed under a law adopted in 1803. At the
close of 1847 there were nine of these banks existing in as many of the
larger towns. In 1848, however, they were absorbed into the Bank of France,
which has since possessed an exclusive privilege of issue, and in 1863 took
over the Bank of Savoy after that province was united to France.

The Bank of France has successfully surmounted many political as well as
financial troubles both during and since the times of Napoleon I. The
overthrow of the government of Louis Philippe in 1848, the war with Germany
in 1870, the many difficulties that followed when the Commune reigned in
Paris in 1871, the payment of the war indemnity--not completed till
1873--were all happily overcome. Great pains, too, have been taken,
especially of recent years, to render services to large and small
businesses and to agricultural industry. In 1877 the offices of the Bank of
France were 78 in number; in 1906 they were 447, including the towns
"connected with the branches"--an arrangement which, without putting the
bank to the expense of opening a branch, gives the place connected many of
the advantages which a branch confers. The quantity of commercial paper
discounted is very large. More than 20,000,000 bills were discounted in
1906, the total amount being £559,234,996. The advances on securities were
in the same year £106,280,124. The rate of discount in Paris is as a rule
lower and the number of alterations fewer than in London. From May 1900 to
January 1906 there was no change, the rate remaining uniformly at 3%. Bills
as low as 4s. 2d. are admitted to discount, including those below 8s.;
about 232,000 of this class were discounted in 1906. Since the 27th of
March 1890 loans of as small an amount as £10 are granted. In most cases
three "names" must be furnished for each bill, or suitable guarantees or
security given, but these necessary safeguards have not to be furnished in
such a manner as to hamper applicants for loans unduly. In this manner the
Bank of France is of great service to the industry of the country. It has
never succeeded, however, in attracting deposits on anything like the scale
of the Bank of England or the banks of the English-speaking peoples, but it
held, as stated in the balance-sheet for the 23rd of December 1906, about
£35,000,000 in deposits, of which £14,000,000 was on account of the
treasury and £21,000,000 for individuals, and the amount held in this
manner gradually increases. The report for 1904 says "each year the
movement in these increases, and this economical and safe mode of effecting
receipts and payments is more and more appreciated by the public." In one
respect the Bank of France stands at a great advantage in connexion with
this branch of its business. The average amount held in this manner for
individuals during 1906 was about £23,000,000. As the accounts numbered
77,159 the average for each account was comparatively small. Accounts so
subdivided give a great probability of permanence. The figures of the
accounts for 1904 were as follows:--

        11,178 current accounts, with power of discount.
         4,576 simple current accounts.
        26,709 current accounts, with advances.
        24,106 accounts, deposits.

  Total 66,569 accounts, against 59,182 at the end of 1903.

At the present time the Bank of France operates chiefly through its
enormous note circulation (averaging in 1906 £186,300,000), by means of
which most business transactions in France are carried on.

The limits of the circulation of the Bank of France and the dates when it
has been extended are as follows:--

  +--------------------------+-------------+-------------------+
  |      Dates               | Millions of |  Converting the   |
  |                          |   Francs    | Franc as 25 = £1. |
  +--------------------------+-------------+-------------------+
  | 15th March 1848          |     350     |     £14,000,000   |
  | 27th April, 2nd May 1848 |     452     |      18,000,000   |
  | 2nd December 1849        |     525     |      21,000,000   |
  | 12th August 1870         |    1800     |      32,000,000   |
  | 14th August 1870         |    2400     |      96,000,000   |
  | 29th December 1871       |    2800     |     112,000,000   |
  | 15th July 1872           |    3200     |     128,000,000   |
  | 30th January 1884        |    3500     |     140,000,000   |
  | 25th January 1893        |    4000     |     160,000,000   |
  | 17th December 1897       |    5000     |     200,000,000   |
  |   In 1906                |    5800     |     232,000,000   |
  +--------------------------+-------------+-------------------+

[v.03 p.0343] Most business transactions in France are liquidated, not in
cheques as in England, but in notes of the Bank of France. These, owing to
their convenience, are preferred to specie. This is accumulated in the
vaults of the Bank of France, which in 1906 held on average £115,000,000
gold and £42,000,000 silver. The gold held by the Bank of France is
generally considerably larger in amount than that held by the Bank of
England, which in the autumn of 1890 had to borrow £3,000,000 in gold from
the Bank of France at the time of the Baring crisis. The large specie
reserve of the bank has given stability to the trade of France, and has
enabled the bank to manage its business without the numerous fluctuations
in the rate of discount which are constantly occurring in England. It is
true that the holding this very large amount of specie imposes a very heavy
burden on the shoulders of the shareholders of the bank, but they do not
complain. The advantage to business from the low rate of interest which has
to be paid for the use of borrowed capital in France is a great advantage
to the trade and industry of that country.

The mass of the reserve in France is so great that the movements of the
precious metals, when they are the result only of natural causes, are
allowed to go on without corresponding movements in the discount rate. But
it must be remembered that this large reserve is held in part against a
gigantic note issue, and also that the trade activity and enterprise of the
French people are less intense than in either the United Kingdom or
Germany; thus it is much easier for the Bank of France to maintain a steady
rate of discount.

Besides the Bank of France, several great credit institutions carry on
business in the country; as the _Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas_ (capital
and reserve, £3,729,000; other liabilities, deposits, &c., £14,842,000),
the _Banque Française pour le Commerce et l'Industrie_ (£2,450,000; and
£3,505,000), the _Crédit Lyonnais_ (£14,000,000; and £82,570,000), the
_Comptoir National d'Escompte de Paris_ (£6,772,000; and £47,593,000), the
_Société Générale pour favoriser le développement du Commerce et de
l'Industrie en France_ (£7,469,000; and £45,800,000), and the _Société
Générale de Crédit Industriel et Commercial_ (£1,600,000; and £10,060,000).

There is also the _Crédit Foncier de France_ with a very considerable
capital, but the business done is so largely that of mortgages that it can
hardly be included among banks, though it carries on in some measure the
business of banking.

Besides the six important joint-stock banks mentioned above, there exists
in France a large number of banks, principally in the provinces, carrying
on a very considerable business. Little is known as to their deposits, but
their business appears to be conducted with great prudence and discretion.
One hundred and eighty-two of these firms were members of the French
Country Bankers' Association in 1898. They carry on business in 66 out of
the 86 departments into which France is divided. More than one of these
banks has several offices--one possessing 18, including the head office.
These branches are situated in the small towns in the vicinity. In this the
business follows more the English method of small branches. The French
Country Bankers' Association holds its meetings in Paris, where matters of
interest to bankers are discussed. (See _Bankers' Magazine_, July 1898.)

_Germany_.--Besides the Imperial Bank of Germany, the "Reichsbank," there
are about 140 banks doing business in the states which form the German
empire. These credit and industrial banks with their large resources have
had an immense influence in bringing about the astonishing industrial
development of their country. Five banks possess the right of uncovered
note-issue; these are:--

  The Imperial Bank of Germany with right of issue £23,641,450
  The Bank of Saxony          "       "       "        838,500
  The Bank of Bavaria         "       "       "      1,600,000
  The Bank of Württemberg     "       "       "        500,000
  The Bank of Baden           "       "       "        500,000
                                                   -----------
                                                   £27,079,950

At the Bank of Germany the coin and bullion held is sometimes larger than
at the Bank of England. The statement of the specie in the weekly accounts
includes silver. The amounts held in gold and silver are only separated
once a year, when the balance-sheet is published. The figures of the
balance-sheet for the 31st of December 1906 showed in round numbers
£24,000,000 gold and £9,000,000 silver. As far as the capital is concerned
the £18,000,000 of the Bank of England considerably exceeds the £9,000,000
of the Bank of France and the £12,200,000 of the Bank of Germany. The note
circulation of both the other banks is considerably larger than that of the
Bank of England, that of the Bank of France being £186,300,000, and of the
Imperial Bank of Germany £69,000,000 in 1906.

The capitals and reserves of the German banks, including those of banks
established to do business in other countries, as South America and the Far
East, and of the Bank of Germany, are about £133,000,000, with further
resources, including deposits, notes and mortgage bonds, amounting to fully
£414,000,000. The amount of the capital compares very closely with that of
the capitals of the banks of the United Kingdom. The deposits are
increasing. The deposits, however, are not the whole of the resources of
the German banks. The banks make use, besides, of their acceptances in a
manner which is not practised by the banks of other countries, and the
average note circulation of the Reichsbank, included in the statement given
above, is between £60,000,000 and £70,000,000.

A large and apparently increasing proportion of the resources of the German
banks is employed in industrial concerns, some of which are beyond the
boundaries of the empire. The dangers of this practice have called forth
many criticisms in Germany, among which may be quoted the remarks of Caesar
Strauss and of Dr R. Koch, the president of the Reichsbank. Dr Koch
especially points out the need of the development of powerful banks in
Germany unconnected with speculative business of this kind. The object of
employing their funds thus is the higher rate of interest to be obtained
from these investments than from discounting bills or making loans at home.
But such an employment of the resources of a bank is opposed to all regular
rules of business and of banking tradition, which abstains from making
fixed investments of any large part of the resources of a bank. On the
other hand, Dr Koch observes that the risks of the one "reserve system"
mentioned by Bagehot are not to be feared in Germany.[5] The recent
movement in favour of concentration among the banks has been described by
Dr E. Depitre and Dr Riesser, who give particulars of the business done by
these banks, which does not correspond with banking as practised in the
United Kingdom, being more of an industrial character.

There are also many private banking firms in Germany which do a
considerable amount of business.

The Reichsbank, by far the most powerful banking institution in Germany, is
managed by the bank directory appointed by the chancellor of the empire.
The shareholders join in the management through a committee, of which each
member must be qualified by holding not less than three shares. The
government exercises complete powers of control through the chancellor of
the empire. The influence of the Imperial Bank now permeates, by means of
its branches, all the separate kingdoms of the empire--the uniformity of
coinage introduced through the laws of 1871-1873 rendering this possible.
The Imperial Bank assists business principally in two ways--first, through
the clearing system (_Giro-Verkehr_), which it has greatly developed, and
secondly, through the facilities given to business by its note circulation.
The Imperial Bank also receives deposits, and cheques are drawn against
these, but in Germany notes are principally used in payments for ordinary
business.

Before the Reichsbank was established, Hamburg was the first, and for a
long time the only, example of a clearing in Germany. This was taken up by
the Reichsbank when it established its office in Hamburg in the
time-honoured building which had belonged to the Hamburg Clearing House.
Similar business had long been undertaken by the Bank of Prussia. This was
absorbed and developed by the Reichsbank in 1876. Through the "clearing
system" money can be remitted from any of the 443 places in which there is
an office of the Reichsbank, to any of these places, without charge either
to the sender or the receiver. It is sufficient that the person to whom the
money is to be remitted should have an account at the bank. Any person
owing him money in the remotest parts of the empire may go to the office of
the bank which is most convenient to him and pay in the amount of his debt,
which is credited on the following day at the office of the bank, without
charge, to the account of his creditor wherever he may reside. The person
who makes the payment need not have any account with the bank. The impetus
given to business by this arrangement has been very considerable. It
practically amounts to a money-order system without charge or risk of loss
in transmission. From Hamburg and Bremen to the frontiers of Russia, from
the shores of the Baltic to the frontiers of Switzerland, the whole of the
empire of Germany has thus become for monetary purposes one country only.
The amount of these transfers for the year 1906 exceeded £1,860,000,000.

The note circulation is also a powerful factor of the business of the
Reichsbank. It is governed by the law of 1875 and the amending law of 1899,
corresponding in some degree to Peel's act of 1844, which regulates the
note circulation of the Bank of England. An uncovered limit, originally
£12,500,000, increased to £14,811,450 by the lapse of the issues of other
banks allowed to it, has been extended by these and by the act of the 5th
of June 1902 to £23,641,450. Against the notes thus issued which are not
represented by specie, treasury notes (_Reichskassenscheine_, the legal
tender notes of the [v.03 p.0344] empire)[6] and notes of the issuing banks
which are allowed to be reckoned as specie or discounted bills, must be
held--maturing not later than three months after being taken--with, as a
rule, three, but never less than two, good indorsements. There is also a
provision that at least one-third of the notes in circulation must be
covered by current German notes, money, notes of the imperial treasury, and
gold in bullion or foreign coin reckoned at £69, 12s. per pound fine. The
Reichsbank is bound by law to redeem its notes in current German money. It
is stated that this may be gold coin or silver thalers, or bar-gold at the
rate of 1392 marks (£69, 12s. reckoning marks as 20 = £1) the pound fine of
gold. In practice, however, facilities have not always been given by the
Reichsbank for the payment of its obligations in gold, though the
importance of this is admitted. In the balance-sheet for 1906 the bills
held amounted to £67,000,000, and the loans and advances to £14,200,000.
The notes issued averaged for the year £69,000,000. The gold held amounted,
30th December 1906, to £24,069,000. If the condition of business requires
that the notes in circulation should exceed the limits allowed by the law,
the bank is permitted to do this on the payment of 5% on the surplus. In
this respect the German act differs from the English act, which allows no
such automatic statutory power of overpassing the limit of issue. Some good
authorities consider that this arrangement is an advantage for the German
bank, and the fact that it has been made use of annually since 1895 appears
to show that it is needed by the business requirements of the country. Of
late years the excess of issue of the Reichsbank has been annual and large,
having been £25,267,000 on the 29th of September 1906 and £28,632,000 on
the 31st of December of the same year. The amount of the duty paid on the
excess issue in the year 1906 was £184,764, and the total amount paid thus
from 1876 to 1906 was £839,052. The increase of the uncovered limit
(untaxed limit of issue called in Germany the "note reserve") has not been
sufficient to obviate the need for an excess of issue beyond the limit.

In accordance with a law passed in 1906 the Imperial Bank issues notes
(_Reichsbanknoten_) of the value of 20 marks (£1), and 50 marks (£2, 10s.)
in addition to the 5, 10, 100 and 1000 mark notes (5s., 10s., £5, £50)
previously in circulation. Imperial paper currency of the value of 20 or 50
marks (£1 and £2, 10s.) had previously existed only in the form of treasury
notes (_Reichskassenscheine_); these will in consequence be withdrawn from
circulation.

The amendment of the banking law of Germany, passed in 1899, not only
affects the position of the Reichsbank, but that of the four other
note-issuing banks. The capital of the Reichsbank has been raised by the
bill of that year to £9,000,000. The reserve fund has been raised out of
surplus profits to £3,240,000. This exceeds the amount required by the act
of 1899, which was £3,000,000. The amending act further diminishes the
dividend receivable by the stockholders of the Reichsbank and increases the
share which the government will obtain.

The arrangement with the four note-issuing banks is designed to cause them
to work in harmony with the Reichsbank when the Reichsbank has to raise its
bank-rate in order to protect its gold reserves. The official published
rate of discount of the Reichsbank is to be binding on the private
note-issuing banks after it has reached or when it reaches 4%. At other
times they are not to discount at more than ¼% below the official rate of
the Reichsbank, or in case the Reichsbank itself discounts at a lower rate
than the official rate, at more than 1/8% below that rate. If the
Reichsbank discounts below the official rate, it is to announce that fact
in the _Gazette_.

The subject being important, we quote from the amending act the sections
governing the discount rate:--_Gesetz, betreffend die Abänderung des
Bankgesetzes vom 14. März 1875; vom 7. Juni 1899, Artikel 7, S. 1_. The
private note-issuing banks are bound by _Artikel 7, S. 2_, after the 1st of
January 1901:--"(1) Not to discount below the rate published in S. 15 of
the bank law, so long as this rate attains or exceeds 4%, and (2) moreover,
not to discount at more than ¼% below the Reichsbank rate, published in S.
15 of the bank law, or in case the Reichsbank itself discounts at a lower
rate, not to discount at more than 1/8% below that rate."

It remains to be seen whether the note-issuing banks will find these
conditions too onerous, and rather than be bound by them will give up their
right of issuing notes. The object of the enactment is apparently to
protect the specie reserve of the Reichsbank, but it may be doubted
whether, considering the importance of the other banks of Germany--none of
which is bound by similar conditions--relatively to the note-issuing banks,
the restrictions put on the note-issuing banks will have any practical
effect.

Since 1870 banking has made immense progress in Germany, but it may be some
time before the habit of making payments by cheque instead of specie or
notes becomes general.

AUTHORITIES.--_Parliamentary Papers: Report, together with Minutes of
Evidence and Accounts, from the Select Committee on the High Price of Gold
Bullion_, House of Commons, 8th of June 1810; _Reports, Committee of
Secrecy on Bank of England Charter_, House of Commons, 1832; _Select
Committee on Banks of Issue_, House of Commons, 1840; _First and Second
Reports, Select Committee on Banks of Issue_, House of Commons, 1841;
_First and Second Reports, Secret Committee on Commercial Distress_, House
of Commons, 1848; _Report, Select Committee on Bank Acts_, House of
Commons, 1857; _Report, Select Committee on Bank Acts_, House of Commons,
1858; _Report, Select Committee on Banks of Issue_, House of Commons, 1875;
_Report from Secret Committee of the House of Lords on the Causes of the
Distress which has for some time prevailed among the Commercial Classes,
and how far it had been affected by the Laws for regulating the Issue of
Bank Notes payable on demand_, session 1847-1848; _Analysis of the Minutes
of Evidence taken before the Select Committee of the House of Commons on
Banks of Issue, 1875, with a selection from the evidence_, by R. H. Inglis
Palgrave, London, 1876 (printed for private circulation).

GENERAL INFORMATION.--Articles on banking, &c., _Dictionary of Political
Economy_, edited by R. H. Inglis Palgrave (Macmillan & Co., 1894-1906);
_Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschaften_, edited by Conrad, Elster, Lexis
and Löning, 1899; _Wörterbuch der Volkswirthschaft_, 2 vols. (ed. Elster,
1898); _Dictionnaire des finances_, edited under the direction of Léon Say,
by L. Foyot and A. Lanjalley (1889); _Dictionnaire du commerce, de
l'industrie et de la banque_, edited by A. Raffalovich and Yves Guyot;
_Bankers' Magazine_, commenced 1844, to present time; _Journal of the
Institute of Bankers_, commenced 1879, to present time; _Bankers' Magazine_
(New York); _Economist_ newspaper, commenced 1843, to present time;
_Banking Almanac_, commenced 1845, to present time; _Reports of the
Comptroller of the Currency_ (Washington).

EARLY.--_De Monetarum Augmento, variatione et diminutione, Tractatus varii_
(1509); _A proposal to supply His Majesty with twelve or fourteen Millions
of Money (or more if requir'd)_, by A. D. of Grey's Inn, Esq., and some
Others, his Friends (1697); Hayes' _Negociators' Magazine of Monies and
Exchanges_, 1730; Lord King, _Thoughts on Bank Restrictions_ (1804); _The
Theory of Money with considerations on the Bank of England_ (1811); William
Cobbett, _Paper against Gold and Glory against Prosperity_, 2 vols. (1815);
_Circulating Credit with Hints for improving the Banking System of Britain,
by a Scottish Banker_ (1832); W. Leckie, _Bank Restriction_ (1841);
_Debates in the House of Commons on Sir R. Peel's Bank Bills of 1844 and
1845_, reprinted verbatim from "Hansard's Parliamentary Debates," 1875;
_Gilbart's Works_, 6 vols. (1865); _The History, Principles and Practice of
Banking_, by J. W. Gilbart, edited and revised by A. S. Michie, 1882;
Thomson Hankey, _Principles of Banking_ (1867); Walter Bagehot, _Lombard
Street_ (1873), a brilliant picture of the city at that date (new ed.,
1906); A. S. Cobb, _Threadneedle Street, a reply to "Lombard Street"_
(1891); John Dun, _British Banking Statistics_ (1876); R. H. Inglis
Palgrave, _Notes on Banking_; George Rae, _The Country Banker_ (1886), and
several editions later (many sound hints on practice); J. George Kiddy,
_The Country Banker's Handbook_, 4th ed. (1903); C. F. Dunbar, _Chapters on
the Theory and History of Banking_ (1891); Charles Gairdner, _The Making of
the Gold Reserves_ (1891); J. B. Attfield, _English and Foreign Banks_
(1893) (refers to management of banks); T. B. Moxon, _English Practical
Banking_, 10th ed. (1899); A. Crump, _The Key to the London Money Market_
(1872); W. Y. Duncan, _Notes on the Rate of Discount in London_, 3 vols.,
1822-1856, 1856-1866, 1866-1873, privately printed, Edinburgh, 1856, 1867
and 1877; R. H. Inglis Palgrave, _Bank Rate and the Money Market in
England, France, Germany, Holland and Belgium_, 1844-1900 (1903); Ernest
Seyd, _The Bank of England Note Issue and its Error_ (1874); Ernest Seyd,
_London Banking and Bankers' Clearing House System_; Ernest Seyd, _The
Silver Question in 1893_; Walter Bagehot, _Depreciation of Silver_ (1877);
Ernest Seyd, _Bullion and the Foreign Exchanges_ (1868); Clare, _The A B C
of the Foreign Exchanges_ (1895, 2nd ed. 1895); _Tracts_, by Lord Overstone
(1837-1857); _Select Tracts on Money, &c._, reprinted privately by Lord
Overstone, 1856-1859 (containing much valuable and interesting information
on early history); A. Crump, _A Practical Treatise on Banking, Currency and
the Exchanges_ (1866); Bonamy Price, _Currency and Banking_ (1876) (the
interest of this volume to the student of banking is found mainly in the
correspondence between Mr Henry Hucks Gibbs (Lord Aldenham) and Professor
Bonamy Price on the reserve of the Bank of England); R. H. Inglis Palgrave,
_On the Influence of a Note Circulation in the Conduct of Banking
Business_, read before the Manchester Statistical Society, 1877; Edgar
Jaffé, _Das englische Bankwesen_ (Leipzig, 1905); _A History of Banks_
(1837); D. Hardcastle, _Banks and Bankers_ (1843); W. J. Lawson, _The
History of Banking_ (1850); R. Baxter, _The Panic of 1866_ (1866); F. G. H.
Price, _A Handbook of London Bankers_ (1876); Conant, _History of Modern
Banks of Issue_ (New York, 1896); _History of Banking in all Leading
Nations_, 4 vols. (New York, 1896); Viscount Goschen, _Essays and Addresses
on Economic Questions, 1865-1893_ (1905), (arts. on "Seven per cent," "Two
per cent," "Our cash reserves and central stock of gold"); C. F. Dunbar,
_Economic Essays_, edited by O. M. W. Sprague (1904), (containing many
articles on banking, particularly in the United States).

BANK OF ENGLAND.--T. Fortune, _A Concise and Authentic History of the Bank
of England_ (1802); John Francis, _History of the Bank of England_ (1847);
J. E. Thorold Rogers, _The First Nine Years of [v.03 p.0345] the Bank of
England_ (1887); B. B. Turner, _Chronicles of the Bank of England_ (1897);
T. A. Stephens, _Bibliography of the Bank of England_ (1897); A. Andréadès,
_Histoire de la banque d'Angleterre_ (1904; Eng. trans., 1909); Sir F.
Schuster, _The Bank of England and the State_ (1906).

HISTORY OF BANKING HOUSES.--L. H. Grindon, _Manchester Banks and Bankers_
(1877); J. B. Martin, _"The Grasshopper" in Lombard Street_ (1892); M.
Phillips, _Banks, Bankers, and Banking in Northumberland, Durham and North
Yorkshire_ (1894); C. H. Cave, _History of Banking in Bristol_ (1899);
Bidwell, _Annals of an East Anglian Bank_ (1900); Richardson, _Coutts &
Co., Bankers, Edinburgh and London_; H. T. Easton, _History of a Banking
House_ (Smith, Payne & Smiths) (1903); J. Hughes, _Liverpool Banks and
Bankers, 1760-1837_ (1906).

SCOTLAND.--W. H. Logan, _The Scottish Banker_ (1847); Robert Somers, _The
Scotch Banks and System of Issue_ (1873); W. Mitchell, _Scotch Banks and
Limited Liability_ (1879); A. W. Kerr, _History of Scotch Banking_ (1884);
A. W. Kerr, _Scottish Banking, 1865-1896_ (1898); Boase, _A Century of
Banking in Dundee_ (1867).

IRELAND.--Malcolm Dillon, _History and Development of Banking in Ireland_
(1889).

BRITISH COLONIES.--Edward B. Hamilton, _A Manual of the Law and Practice of
Banking in Australia and New Zealand_ (1880); _Banking in Australasia_
(1883); _The Canadian System of Banking and the National Banking System of
the United States_ (Toronto, 1890); _Journal of the Canadian Bankers'
Association_ (Montreal).

FRANCE.--Annuaire-Chaix, _Les Principales Sociétés par actions_ (1905); A.
Raffalovich, _Le Marché financier_ (1905).

GERMANY.--Dr W. Scharling, _Bank Politik_ (Jena, 1900); _Die Reichsbank,
1876-1900_ (a history and description of the operations of the bank); Dr
Adolf Weber, _Depositenbanken und Spekulationsbanken, Ein Vergleich
deutschen und englischen Bankwesens_ (Leipzig, 1902); Dr Felix Hecht, _Die
Mannheimer Banken, 1870 bis 1900_ (Leipzig, 1902); Siegfried Buff, _Das
Kontokurrentgeschaft im deutschen Bankwerbe_ (Stuttgart and Berlin, 1904);
Dr Riesser, _Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der deutschen Grossbanken mit
besonderer Rucksicht auf die Konzentrationsbestrebungen_ (1905); G. M.
Boissevain, _Duitsche en Engelsche Deposito-Banken_ (1905).

ITALY.--_La Banca Popolare di Milano_ (1881).

AUSTRIA.--Compass, _Finanzielles Jahrbuch für Österreich-Ungarn_ (Vienna).

JAPAN.--_The House of Mitsui_ (Tokio); _The Law and the By-Laws of the
Nippon Kogyo Ginko (The Industrial Bank of Japan)_ (1903).

H. W. Wolff, _People's Banks_ (1893). (On systems worked by
Schulze-Delitzsch, Raiffeisen, Luzzatti, Banche Popolari, Dr Wollemborg,
Popular Banks in Belgium, Switzerland, France, England).

(R. H. I. P.)

UNITED STATES

The early history of the American colonies is strewn, like that of most new
countries, with many crude experiments in banking and currency issues. Most
of these colonial enterprises, however, were projects for the issue of
paper money rather than the creation of commercial banks. Speculative
banking was checked to a large extent in the colonies by the Bubble Act (6
Geo. I. c. 18), which was passed in England after the bursting of the South
Sea Bubble. This act, which forbade the formation of banking companies
without a special charter, was in 1740 extended to the colonies.

The serious history of banking in the United States may be said to have
begun with the foundation of the Bank of Pennsylvania. This bank originated
in the project of a number of the citizens of Philadelphia to supply the
continental army with rations. The first bills, issued in 1780, were
nothing more than interest-bearing notes payable at a future time. The
advances in continental money made by the shareholders were secured by
bills of exchange for £150,000, drawn on the American envoys in Europe, but
not intended to be negotiated.

A further outgrowth of the needs of the continental government was the Bank
of North America, which was authorized by congress on May 26, 1781. The act
gave to Robert Morris, the financier, power to create a bank with a capital
of $400,000, to be increased if desirable. Morris arranged with the Bank of
Pennsylvania to take over its holdings of foreign bills and paid in cash
its claims against the Federation. The Bank of North America did not begin
business until the 7th of January 1782, and there was so much doubt of the
power of the continental congress to charter a bank that it was thought
advisable to obtain a charter from the state of Pennsylvania. Under this
charter the bank continued to operate until it was absorbed in the national
banking system in 1863, and it may be considered the oldest organized
banking institution in the United States.

The bank did much, during the first eight years after its organization, to
restore order to the chaos of Federation finances. It loaned to Morris, as
government superintendent of finance, $1,249,975, of which $996,581 was
repaid in cash and the remainder by surrendering the stock in the bank
owned by the government.

_The Bank of the United States._--A national bank of issue was one of the
essential parts of the system built up by Alexander Hamilton in organizing
the finances of the Federal government under the constitution of 1789. The
first "Bank of the United States" was accordingly incorporated in 1791,
with a capital of $10,000,000, divided into 25,000 shares of $400 each.
This bank issued circulating notes, discounted commercial paper and aided
the government in its financial operations. The government subscribed
one-fifth of the capital, but paid for it by a roundabout process which
actually resulted in the loan of the amount by the bank to the treasury.
Other loans were made by the bank to the government, which gradually
carried the obligation by the end of 1795 to $6,200,000. In order to meet
these obligations, the government gradually disposed of its bank stock,
until by 1802 its entire holdings had been disposed of at a profit of
$671,860. The bank did not publish regular reports, but a statement
submitted by Gallatin to congress for January 24, 1811, showed resources of
$24,183,046, of which $14,578,294 was in loans and discounts, $2,750,000 in
United States stock and $5,009,567 in specie.

The expiration of the charter of the bank in 1811 was the occasion of a
party contest, which prevented renewal and added greatly to the financial
difficulties of the government in the war with Great Britain which began in
the next year. Although foreign shareholders were not permitted to vote by
proxy, and the twenty-five directors were required to be citizens of the
United States, the bank was attacked on the ground of foreign ownership as
well as on the constitutional ground that congress had no power to create
such an institution.

The government was compelled in the war of 1812 to rely on the state banks.
Their suspension of specie payments, in 1814, made it very difficult for
the treasury to transfer funds from one part of the Union to the other,
because the notes of one section did not circulate readily in another.
Gallatin left on record the opinion that the suspension of specie payments
"might have been prevented at the time when it took place, had the former
Bank of the United States been still in existence."

The financial condition of the government became so bad during the war that
the second Bank of the United States was authorized in April 1816. The
general project was that of Alexander J. Dallas, who in October 1814 had
become secretary of the treasury. The capital of the new bank was
$35,000,000, and the government again appeared as owner of one-fifth of the
stock, which was paid in a stock note. The president of the United States
was authorized to appoint five of the twenty-five directors and public
funds were to be deposited in the bank, "unless the secretary of the
treasury shall at any time otherwise order and direct." The right of
congress to charter the bank came before the Supreme Court in 1819 in the
famous case of _McCulloch_ v. _Maryland_. Chief Justice Marshall rendered
the decision that the right to create the bank was within the implied
powers granted by the Federal constitution, and that it was not competent
for the states to levy taxes upon the circulating notes of the bank or upon
its property except in common with other property.

The second Bank of the United States was not well managed in the early part
of its career, but was upon a firmer foundation under the presidency of
Langdon Cheves in 1819. Its policy greatly benefited commerce, but invited
bitter complaints from the private dealers in exchange, who had been
enabled to make excessive profits while the currency was below par, because
of its different values in different states and the constant fluctuations
in these values. The Bank, in the language of the report of Senator Samuel
Smith of Maryland in 1832, furnished "a currency as safe as silver, more
convenient, and more valuable [v.03 p.0346] than silver, which through the
whole western and southern and interior parts of the Union, is eagerly
sought in exchange for silver; which, in those sections, often bears a
premium paid in silver; which is, throughout the Union, equal to silver, in
payment to the government, and payments to individuals in business."

The bank in 1835 had attained a circulation of $23,075,422; loans of
$59,232,445; and deposits of $5,061,456. The institution was ultimately
destroyed by the open enmity of President Jackson, who in 1833 had
suspended the deposit of public money in its custody. This policy known as
the "removal of the deposits," excited a bitter political controversy in
which Clay and Webster led the opposition, but Jackson was supported by the
public (see JACKSON, ANDREW). The Federal charter of the bank expired in
1836. Under a charter obtained by President Nicholas Biddle from the state
of Pennsylvania, the bank continued its business, but without success, and
in 1841 it went into liquidation.

_The State Banks_.--The Bank of the United States found powerful rivals
during its life and successors after its death in the banks chartered by
the separate states. In the undeveloped state of the country in the early
days there was much unsound and speculative banking. The most successful
systems were those of New York and New England, where the surplus capital
of the country in the early days was chiefly concentrated. The least
successful banking systems were those in the newer and poorer sections of
the country, and they grew progressively worse as poverty and inexperience
added to the difficulty of setting aside capital for investment in the
tools of exchange.

The termination of the first charter of the Bank of the United States was
followed by a banking mania. In Pennsylvania a bill authorizing 41 new
banks was passed over the veto of the governor, and 37 of them were in
operation in 1814. Similar movements in other states increased the number
of banks in four years (1811-1815) from 88 to 208. The amount of specie was
not adequate to support the mass of credit which these banks created, and
what there was in the country drifted to New England, which was upon a
metallic basis. A number of banks collapsed in 1814, and business
prostration was prolonged for several years.

The banking laws of the states varied considerably. Some states authorized
the issue of notes upon state bonds, many of which, especially at the
outbreak of the Civil War, proved valueless. In New England, however, a
system prevailed which required the prompt redemption of the banks' notes
at par. The New England Bank was the pioneer of this movement in 1814. In
1824 what was known as the "Suffolk system" of redemption came into
operation. This system provided for the deposit by a bank in the Suffolk
Bank in Boston of a redemption fund, from which the notes were redeemed and
afterwards sent home by the Suffolk Bank for collection. This system, with
slight modifications, continued in successful operation until 1858. The
circulation of the New England banks in 1858 was less than $40,000,000 and
the redemptions in the course of the year through the Suffolk Bank were
$400,000,000. It was the essential merit claimed for the system that it
tended to keep the volume of the circulation constantly adjusted to the
requirements of business. A branch redemption agency was established at
Providence. Legal sanction was given to the system in Vermont by an act of
1842, which levied a tax of 1% upon bank capital, but remitted this tax to
any bank which should "keep a sufficient deposit of funds in the city of
Boston, and should at that city uniformly cause its bills to be redeemed at
par."

The period from 1836 to 1842 was a trying one for American banking. It was
preceded by another great expansion in financial ventures, made without
sufficient circulating capital or adherence to conservative banking
methods. Foreign capital had come into the country in considerable amounts
after the English crisis of 1825, the entire debt of the general government
was paid off and a tremendous speculation occurred in public lands, which
were expected to advance rapidly in value as the result of immigration and
the growth of the country. The sales of public lands in 1836, on the eve of
the crisis, reached 20,074,870 acres and brought receipts to the treasury
of $25,167,833. How essentially speculative was the mass of these sales is
indicated by the fact that such receipts declined in 1842 to only
$1,417,972. President Jackson pricked the bubble of speculation by the
"Specie circular" of July 11, 1836, requiring payments for public lands to
be made only in specie or notes of specie value. Practically every bank in
the Union stopped payment, and banking capital fell from $358,442,692 in
1840 to $196,894,309 in 1846. As usual in periods of business collapse the
shrinkage of capital did not follow at once the outbreak of the panic, but
was the result of gradual liquidation. Specie payments were resumed in
1838, but there was another crash in 1842, after the United States Bank
finally suspended.

In New York, which was becoming the chief commercial state of the Union,
the banks of New York City were generally sound, but several different
systems were tried of securing the circulating notes. The "safety-fund
system," inaugurated in 1829, provided for a contribution by each bank
towards a fund to meet the deficit of any contributing bank which might
fail with assets insufficient to meet its liabilities. It was the intention
of the act to protect by this fund only the bank-notes, but it was treated
as a fund for the payment of all the liabilities of a failed bank and in
consequence the fund was exhausted by important failures which occurred in
the panics of 1837 and 1857. Before 1843 the issue of notes was not
controlled by the state, so that in several cases there were illegal
over-issues.

What was called the "free-banking system" was inaugurated in New York by
the act of 1838. This system permitted any body of persons, complying with
the requirements of the law, to form a bank and issue circulation secured
by the deposit of various classes of public bonds. This system was in
operation at the outbreak of the Civil War, was imitated in several other
states, and became in a measure the model of the national banking system.
The state banks of Indiana and Ohio were among the most successful of the
state banks, being modelled somewhat on the European plan of a central
bank. They held in their states an exclusive charter for issuing notes and
had branches at important points throughout the state. Under the management
of Hugh McCulloch, afterwards secretary of the treasury, the bank of
Indiana weathered the crisis of 1857 without suspending specie payments,
and retired its circulation when gold went to a premium in 1862.

One of the defects of the state system of note-issues was the inconvenience
which it occasioned. Notes issued outside a state could not safely be
received without careful scrutiny as to the responsibility of their
issuers. The systems prevailing in New England, in Louisiana, in Ohio and
in Indiana were eminently successful, and proved the soundness of the issue
of bank-notes upon the assets of a well-conducted commercial bank. But the
speculation fostered by loose banking laws in some other states, and the
need for uniformity, cast a certain degree of discredit upon the state
banks, and prepared the way for the acceptance of a uniform banking system
in 1864.

The power of note-issue formed a more important part of banking resources
before the Civil War than in later years, because the deposit system had
not attained its full development. Thus in 1835 circulation and capital of
state banks combined were about $335,000,000 and deposits were only
$83,000,000, in 1907 circulation and capital of national banks
$1,430,000,000, while deposits were $4,322,000,000--in the earlier period
deposits forming less than one-third of the other two items and in the
later period three times the other items. The circulation of the state
banks fluctuated widely at different periods. A maximum of $149,185,890 was
attained in 1837, to decline to $106,968,572 three years later and to a
minimum of $58,563,608 in 1843. From this point there was a tendency
upward, with some variations, which put the circulation in 1845 at
$89,608,711; 1848, $128,506,091; 1850, $131,366,526; 1854, $204,689,207;
1856, $195,747,950; 1858, $155,208,344; 1860, $207,102,477; 1863,
$238,677,218.

Other leading items of the accounts of the state banks for representative
years are as follows:--

[v.03 p.0347]

        _State Banking Progress_, 1835-1863.
  +------+--------+---------------+-------------+-------------+
  |      | No. of |               |  Loans and  |             |
  | Year.| Banks. | Capital Stock.|  Discounts. |  Deposits.  |
  +------+--------+---------------+-------------+-------------+
  | 1835 |   704  |  $231,250,337 |$365,163,834 | $83,081,365 |
  | 1845 |   707  |   206,045,969 | 288,617,131 |  88,020,646 |
  | 1850 |   824  |   217,317,211 | 364,204,078 | 109,586,595 |
  | 1855 |  1307  |   332,177,288 | 576,144,758 | 190,400,342 |
  | 1860 |  1562  |   421,880,095 | 691,945,580 | 253,802,129 |
  | 1863 |  1466  |   405,045,829 | 648,601,863 | 393,686,226 |
  +------+--------+---------------+-------------+-------------+

_The National Banking System._--The creation of the national banking system
was mainly the outcome of the financial necessities of the Federal
government in the Civil War. It was found difficult to float government
bonds at profitable rates, and Mr Chase, the secretary of the treasury,
devised the scheme of creating a compulsory market for the bonds by
offering special privileges to banks organized under Federal charters,
which would issue circulating notes only when secured by the deposit of
government bonds. But this plan, authorized by the act of 25th February
1863 (supplemented by the act of 3rd June 1864), was not sufficient to give
predominance to the national banks. The state banking systems in the older
states were so firmly entrenched in the confidence of the commercial
community that it became necessary to provide for imposing a tax of 10%
upon the face-value of the notes of state banks in circulation after the
1st of July 1866. The state banks were thus driven out of the note-issuing
business, some being converted into national banks, while others continued
their commercial business under state laws without the privilege of
note-issue. A remarkable growth in the national banking system took place;
in 1864 there were 453 national banks with an aggregate capital of
$79,366,950, and in 1865 there were 1014 banks with an aggregate capital of
$242,542,982.

The national banking system was specially marked by the issue of
circulating notes upon United States bonds. Any national bank desiring to
issue notes might by law deposit with the United States treasurer bonds of
the United States to an amount not exceeding its capital stock, and upon
such bonds it might receive circulation equal to 90% of their par-value. No
bank could be established which did not invest one-third of its capital in
bonds. This was changed in 1874 so as to reduce the requirement to 25%,
with a maximum mandatory requirement of $50,000. Notes were taxed at the
rate of 1% per annum. The banks obtained from the provision for circulation
the benefit of what was described by critics as "double interest," being
credited with the interest on bonds in the custody of the treasury
department, and being also able to lend their notes to the public. But
several deductions had to be made: notes could not be issued to the full
par-value of the bonds; the tax of 1% upon circulation reduced by that
amount the profit which would otherwise be earned; and the banks had to set
aside in gold or other lawful money what was needed for redemption purposes
and for reserves. As the banks suspended specie payments at the close of
1861 and great masses of government paper-money were issued, gold ceased to
be a medium of exchange except in California, and the new banks redeemed
their notes in government paper. The gold-value of the bank-notes,
therefore, rose and fell with that of government notes until the resumption
of payments in specie by the national treasury on the 1st of January 1879.

The amount of bank-notes in circulation proved in practice to be influenced
largely by the price of bonds. The maximum originally set for bank
circulation was $300,000,000. This was increased in 1870 by $54,000,000,
and in 1875 the limit was removed. The circulation reached $362,651,169 on
the 1st of January 1883, but afterwards declined materially as bonds became
scarce and the price rose. The fact that circulation could be issued to
only 90% of the par-value of the bonds greatly reduced the net profits on
circulation when the price of 4% bonds rose in 1889 above 129 and other
classes of bonds rose in like ratio. The circulation of bank-notes fell as
low as $167,927,574 on the 1st of July 1891, but afterwards increased
somewhat as the supply of bonds was increased to meet the treasury
deficiencies of 1894-1896 and the expenses of the war with Spain.

The national banks supported the government cordially in the measures taken
to bring about resumption of gold payments on the 1st of January 1879 under
the law of 1875. The banks held more than $125,000,000 in legal tender
notes, of which sum nearly one-third was held in New York City. A run upon
the treasury for the redemption of these notes would have exhausted the
gold funds laboriously accumulated by secretary Sherman and compelled a new
suspension. But the banks appointed a committee to co-operate with the
treasury, declined to receive gold longer as a special deposit, and
resolved to receive and pay balances without discrimination between gold
and government notes. Thus resumption was accomplished without jar, and as
early as the 17th of December 1878 gold sold at par in paper.

The silver legislation enacted by Congress in 1878 and 1890 caused
uneasiness in banking circles, and the banks discriminated against silver
dollars and silver certificates in their cash. When the treasury began to
lose gold heavily, however, in 1893, a combination of leading bankers in
New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Chicago turned over a large
part of their holdings to replenish the government reserves. About 150
national banks suspended during the panic of 1893, but 84 of these
afterwards resumed business. As in former periods of depression, the system
suffered the greatest decline during the years of liquidation following the
actual panic, the number of banks falling from 3856 on the 1st of June 1893
to 3585 on the 1st of June 1899, and aggregate capital falling during the
same period from $698,454,665 to $610,028,895.

A new extension was given to the national banking system by the provisions
of the gold standard law of 14th March 1900. Banks were authorized to issue
circulation to the full par-value of bonds deposited, and the tax upon
circulation was reduced from 1% to ½ of 1% in the case of circulation which
was secured by the 2% refunding bonds, which were authorized by this law.
By issuing 2% bonds in exchange for those paying a higher interest, at
approximately the market-price, it became possible to obtain a given amount
of notes upon a smaller investment in bonds, independent of other
provisions of the law. Under these provisions the volume of notes
outstanding, secured by bonds, which stood on the 31st of October 1899 at
$207,920,774, reached on the same date in 1900, $298,829,064; in 1901,
$328,198,613; in 1902, $335,783,189; in 1903, $380,650,821; in 1904,
$424,530,581; in 1905, $490,037,806; in 1906, $536,933,169; and in 1907
$562,727,614.

The lowest denomination of national bank-notes authorized by law is $5, and
not more than one-third of any bank's issues can be of this denomination.
The government issues notes for $1 and $2, as well as for higher
denominations. The largest amount of bank-notes of one denomination is in
bills for $10, which on the 31st of October 1907 constituted $249,946,530
in total outstanding issues of $609,905,441. Of this total circulation
$562,727,614 was secured by bonds, and the remainder, $47,252,852, was
covered by lawful money in the government treasury, deposited for the
redemption and retirement of the notes as they might be received.

An important extension of the national system resulted from the authority
given by the act of 1900 to incorporate national banks with a capital as
low as $25,000, in places having a population not in excess of 3000. The
previous minimum limit had been $50,000. Under this provision there were
incorporated to the 31st of October 1907 2389 national banks with capitals
of less than $50,000, with aggregate capital of $62,312,500, of which 272
banks were conversions of state and private institutions, 752 were
reorganizations and 1365 were new institutions.

The national banks possess most of the powers of commercial banks, but are
not permitted to hold real estate other than their banking houses, unless
taken for debt. Five reports are required each year to the comptroller of
the currency at dates selected by him without notice, and each bank is
subject to the visitation of bank examiners acting under the comptroller.
No reserves against notes are required by existing law except 5%, which is
[v.03 p.0348] kept in Washington for current redemption purposes. The
redemption system is defective in that redemptions are not authorized at
other places, and the notes reach the treasury on an average only about
once in two years. For many years the banks were prohibited from retiring
more than $3,000,000 of notes monthly, but the limit was raised by an act
of 4th March 1907 to $9,000,000 per month.

Reserves are required against deposits to the amount of 25% in so-called
"reserve cities," and 15% in what are called the "country banks" outside of
reserve cities. Not all these amounts, however, are required to be kept in
cash. The three central reserve cities, where cash is required, with only
trifling deductions, are New York, Chicago and St Louis. In other reserve
cities, which in 1908 numbered forty, the banks are permitted to deposit
half their cash in national banks in central reserve cities, while country
banks may deposit three-fifths of their cash in any reserve city. The
shareholders of national banks are subject in case of liquidation to double
liability upon their shares, and this is now the rule in most of the
conservative state banking systems. National bank-notes are not legal
tender, but are receivable by the government for all obligations except
customs dues.

The panic of 1907 imposed a severe strain upon the cash resources of the
banks of New York City, but did not cause any such considerable number of
failures as occurred in 1893.

Payment of cheques in currency was suspended in New York on the 28th of
October 1907, and continued until about the beginning of the year 1908. The
panic was precipitated by over-speculation by a group of national banks,
followed by the suspension of the Knickerbocker Trust Company on the 22nd
of October with deposits of $48,000,000. Then came runs on other companies,
a deficit in the required reserves of New York banks of $38,838,825 in the
week of 2nd November, and arrangements for the importation of foreign gold
to an amount which soon approached $100,000,000. With an increase during
the autumn of about $77,000,000 in national bank circulation, a transfer of
$72,000,000 from the treasury to the banks, and a further decline in
required reserves in New York during the next week, the amount of currency
which was added to the circulation or disappeared during a few weeks of the
panic amounted to more than $275,000,000, or nearly one-tenth of the usual
volume of circulation in the country. The total bank-note circulation on
the 28th of December 1907 had risen to $687,340,835; but this amount was
abnormal and was reduced somewhat during the spring of 1908.

The position of the trust companies, especially those of the city of New
York, was one of the disturbing features of the panic. These companies were
comparatively a small factor in New York finance at the time of the panic
of 1893. The capitalization of all the trust companies in the United
States, even as late as 1897, was only $106,968,253, and individual
deposits were $566,922,205. The capital of these companies had risen in
1907 to $276,146,081 and their deposits to $2,061,623,035. The trust
companies of New York were required by the law of the state to maintain
only 5% of their demand deposits in cash in their vaults. Whilst most of
them had also large amounts on deposit in national banks, these reserves
proved inadequate to sustain the vast mass of credit which was built upon
them. The absolute amount of the reserves, however, was perhaps less
important than the class of business to which some of the less conservative
of these companies had committed themselves. Instead of keeping their
assets liquid by purchases of commercial paper and loans on first-class
negotiable securities, they had in some cases engaged in speculative
underwritings and had locked up their funds in enterprises requiring a long
time for their consummation.

It was these combined influences which led to distrust of the Knickerbocker
Trust Company, and to the runs upon that company and others during the late
days of October and early November. The result was to reduce the total
resources of the forty-eight trust companies of Greater New York from
$1,205,019,700 on the 22nd of August 1907 to $858,674,000 on the 19th of
December 1907. Individual deposits subject to cheque fell from $692,744,900
to $437,733,400. Such a reduction of resources within so short a time, most
of it being accomplished within a few weeks, has hardly ever been recorded
in the history of banking, and the fact that the stronger companies were
able to call in their cash and meet such demands was evidence to a certain
extent that the criticisms upon them were exaggerated. The necessity for
stronger reserves and for greater safeguards against speculative operations
was so strongly impressed upon the public mind, however, that several
restrictive measures were enacted at the session of the New York
legislature in 1908, designed to prevent any abuses of this sort in the
future.

The function of issuing notes, which is exclusively a privilege of national
banks, has diminished in importance in America, as other methods of
transferring credit have attained a wide development. This has not only
been true of the national banks themselves, but has accounted for the
development alongside the national banking system of state banks, private
banks and trust companies, which have not had the privilege of note-issue,
but have obtained other privileges sometimes greater than those of the
national banks.

The aggregate resources of all classes of banks in the United States have
greatly increased in recent years. The following table shows the increase
in the chief items of the accounts of national banks for representative
years from the reports made nearest to the beginning of the year:--

           PROGRESS OF NATIONAL BANKS, 1865-1908
  +--------+----------+-------------------+-----------------+
  |        |  No of   |     Loans and     |    Individual   |
  | Year.  |  Banks   |     Discounts.    |     Deposits    |
  +--------+----------+-------------------+-----------------+
  | 1865   |    638   |    $166,448,718   |    $183,479,636 |
  | 1870   |   1615   |     688,875,203   |     546,236,881 |
  | 1875   |   2027   |     955,862,580   |     682,846,607 |
  | 1880   |   2052   |     933,543,661   |     755,459,966 |
  | 1885   |   2664   |   1,234,202,226   |     987,649,055 |
  | 1890   |   3326   |   1,811,686,891   |   1,436,402,685 |
  | 1895   |   3737   |   1,991,913,123   |   1,695,489,346 |
  | 1897   |   3661   |   1,901,160,110   |   1,639,688,393 |
  | 1899   |   3590   |   2,214,394,838   |   2,225,269,813 |
  | 1900   |   3602   |   2,479,819,494   |   2,380,610,361 |
  | 1901   |   3942   |   2,706,534,643   |   2,623,997,521 |
  | 1902   |   4291   |   3,038,255,447   |   2,964,417,965 |
  | 1903   |   4666   |   3,303,148,091   |   3,152,878,796 |
  | 1904   |   5180   |   3,469,195,043   |   3,300,619,898 |
  | 1905   |   5528   |   3,728,166,086   |   3,612,499,598 |
  | 1906   |   5911   |   4,071,041,164   |   4,088,420,135 |
  | 1907   |   6288   |   4,463,267,629   |   4,115,650,294 |
  | 1908   |   6625   |   4,585,337,094   |   4,176,873,717 |
  +--------+----------+-------------------+-----------------+

The combined returns of state and private banks, savings banks and loan and
trust companies in the United States show a growth within a few years which
is indicated by the principal items of their accounts:--

      RESOURCES OF STATE BANKS, TRUST COMPANIES, &c.

  +-----------------------+------------------+----------------+
  |   Items.              |     1897.        |     1907.      |
  +-----------------------+------------------+----------------+
  | Capital stock         |   $380,090,778   |   $807,178,262 |
  | Surplus and profits   |    382,436,990   |    924,655,010 |
  | Loans                 |  2,231,013,262   |  6,099,897,535 |
  | Deposits              |  3,324,254,807   |  8,776,755,207 |
  | Total Resources       |  4,258,677,065   | 11,168,514,516 |
  +-----------------------+------------------+----------------+

The aggregate banking power of the United States, as computed by the
comptroller of the currency in his annual report for 1907, increased from
$5,150,000,000 in 1890 to $17,824,800,000 in 1907, and the banking power of
foreign countries from $10,835,000,000 to $27,034,200,000, representing an
increase for all reporting countries from $15,985,000,000 to
$44,859,000,000.

The system of clearing cheques has attained a higher development in the
United States than in any other country, except perhaps, Great Britain.
Clearing-houses exist in about 112 leading cities, and the aggregate
clearings for the year ending 30th September 1907 reached $154,662,515,258.
The New York Clearing-House inevitably does a large proportion of this
business; its clearings constituted in 1906 67.2% of the total clearings in
55 of the larger cities. The volume of clearings fluctuates greatly with
the volume of stock-exchange transactions and with the business prosperity
of the country. An indication of these fluctuations at New York is afforded
by the following table, taken from Conant's _Principles of Money and
Banking_, brought down to 1907.

[v.03 p.0349]

  VARIATIONS IN CLEARINGS AT NEW YORK

  +------+-------------+-------------+-----------------------------+
  |      |   Average   |  Per cent   |                             |
  |Year. |    Daily    | Balances to |          Remarks.           |
  |      |  Clearings. |  Clearings. |                             |
  +------+-------------+-------------+-----------------------------+
  | 1870 | $90,274,479 |    3.72     |                             |
  | 1873 | 115,885,794 |    4.15     | Great business activity.    |
  | 1874 |  74,692,574 |    5.62     | Industrial depression.      |
  | 1881 | 159,232,191 |    3.66     | Renewal of railway building.|
  | 1885 |  82,789,480 |    5.12     | Results of bank panic.      |
  | 1890 | 123,074,139 |    4.65     | Business expansion.         |
  | 1894 |  79,704,426 |    6.54     | Depression following panic. |
  | 1896 |  96,232,442 |    6.28     | Free silver panic.          |
  | 1899 | 189,961,029 |    5.37     | Renewed confidence and      |
  |      |             |             |   activity.                 |
  | 1901 | 254,193,639 |    4.56     | Culmination of industrial   |
  |      |             |             |   flotations.               |
  | 1904 | 195,648,514 |    5.20     | Diminished stock-exchange   |
  |      |             |             |   and business activity.    |
  | 1906 | 342,422,773 |    3.69     | Stock-market activity.      |
  +------+-------------+-------------+-----------------------------+

The Clearing-House Committee of the New York Clearing-House exercises a
powerful influence over the banking situation through its ability to refuse
aid in emergencies to a bank which is unwisely conducted. This power was
used in the panic of 1907 to eliminate several important, but speculative,
financial interests from control of national banks. Only national and state
banks and the sub-Treasury were members of the Clearing-House at this time.
Their weekly reports of condition were awaited every Saturday as an index
of the state of the money-market and the exchanges; but this index was
incomplete and sometimes misleading, because regular weekly reports were
not made by trust companies. It was announced early in 1908 by the state
superintendent of banking that he would exercise a power vested in him by
law to require weekly reports in future from trust companies, so that the
two classes of reports would present a substantially complete mirror of
banking conditions in New York.

AUTHORITIES.--William M. Gouge, _A History of Paper Money and Banking in
the United States_ (Philadelphia, 1833); Condy Raguet, _A Treatise on
Currency and Banking_ (Philadelphia, 1840); J. S. Gibbons, _The Banks of
New York, their Dealers, the Clearing-House and the Panic of 1857_ (New
York, 1858); Albert S. Bolles. _Financial History of the United States_ (3
vols., New York, 1884-1886); Charles F. Dunbar, _Chapters on the Theory and
History of Banking_ (New York and London, 1891); Horace White, _Money and
Banking_ (Boston, 1902); Charles A. Conant, _A History of Modern Banks of
Issue_ (New York, 1896); Alexander D. Noyes, _Thirty Years of American
Finance_ (New York, 1898); Davis Rich Dewey, _Financial History of the
United States_ (New York and London, 1903); John C. Schwab, _The
Confederate States of America_, 1861-1865 (New York, 1901); David Kinley,
_The Independent Treasury of the United States_ (New York, 1893); _Report
of the Monetary Commission of the Indianapolis Convention_ (Chicago, 1898);
Charles A. Conant, _The Principles of Money and Banking_ (2 vols., New
York, 1905); William G. Sumner, _A History of American Currency_ (New York,
1884); Amos Kidder Fiske, _The Modern Bank_ (New York, 1904); William G.
Sumner, _A History of Banking in the United States_ (New York, 1896), being
vol. i. in _A History of Banking in All the Leading Nations_; John Jay
Knox, _History of Banking in the United States_ (rev. ed., New York, 1900);
and R. C. H. Catterall, _The Second Bank of the United States_ (Chicago,
1903).

Much statistical information is contained in the annual reports of the
comptroller of the currency of the United States, published annually at
Washington.

(C. A. C.)

ENGLISH LAW AFFECTING BANKS AND THEIR CUSTOMERS

_Issue of Notes_.--The legislation which culminated in the Bank Charter
Acts of 1844 and 1845 secured to the Bank of England the absolute monopoly
of the note issue within the city of London and a 3-m. radius. Outside that
radius, and within 65 m. of the city, there is a concurrent right in banks,
consisting of six or less than six persons, established before 1844, and
issuing notes at that date; beyond the 65-m. radius the privilege may be
exercised by all banks established before 1844, and then issuing notes, who
have not since lost their right to do so by bankruptcy, abandonment of
business, or temporary suspension of issue. According to some authorities,
the effect of 20 and 21 Vict. cap. 49, sec. 12 [re-enacted Companies
Consolidation Act 1908, sec. 286 (d)] was to sanction the increase in the
constitution of any bank issuing notes outside the 3-m. and within the
65-m. radius from six to ten persons without affecting the power to issue
notes. The rule as formulated above is, however, that enunciated by Bowen
J. in _Capital and Counties Bank_ v. _Bank of England_, 1889; 61 L.T. 516.
The increase in the number of joint-stock banks and the gradual absorption
of the smaller and older concerns have had the effect of minimizing the
output of notes other than those issued by the Bank of England, and, as
exemplified by the case of _The Attorney-General_ v. _Birkbeck_, 12 Q.B.D.
57, it would seem impossible to devise any scheme by which the note-issuing
power of an absorbed bank could be continued to the new or amalgamated
body. But a bank having the right would not necessarily lose it by
absorbing other banks (_Capital and Counties Bank_ v. _Bank of England_).
Foreign banks may establish branches in Great Britain on complying with the
regulations imposed on them by the Companies Consolidation Act 1908, but
cannot apparently issue notes, even though payable abroad.

[Sidenote: Relation between banker and customer.]

_Deposit Business_.--The term "bank of deposit" gives a mistaken idea of
the real relation between banker and customer. So long ago as 1848 it was
decided by the House of Lords in _Foley_ v. _Hill_, 2 H. of L. 28, that the
real relation between banker and customer was that of debtor and creditor,
not in any sense that of trustee and _cestui que trust_, or depositee and
depositor, as had been formerly supposed and contended. The ordinary
process by which a man pays money in to his account at his banker's is in
law simply lending the money to the banker; it fixes the banker with no
fiduciary relation, and he is in no way responsible to the customer for the
use he may make of the money so paid in. And as being a mere debt, a
customer's right to recover money paid in is barred on the expiration of
six years by the Statute of Limitations, if there has been no payment
meantime on account of principal or interest, and no acknowledgment
sufficient to bar the statute (_Pott_ v. _Clegg_, 16 M. & W. 321). Such a
state of affairs, however, is hardly likely to arise, inasmuch as, in the
absence of specific appropriation, earlier drawings out are attributed to
the earlier payments in, as in the ordinary case of current accounts, and
so the items on the credit and debit side cancel each other. An apparent
exception to this system of appropriation exists in cases where a man
wrongfully pays into his own account moneys held by him in a fiduciary
capacity. In such circumstances he is presumed to have drawn out his own
moneys rather than those affected by the trust, and so long as the account
is in credit, any balance will be attributed to the trust money. As between
contending claims to the money, based on different breaches of trust, the
ordinary rule of appropriation will apply.

[Sidenote: Cheques.]

It has often been suggested that the only method of withdrawing money from
a banker is by cheque, that the presentation of a cheque is a condition
precedent to the liability of the banker to repay. This is not so; such
view being inconsistent with the cases establishing the effect of the
Statute of Limitations on money left in a banker's hands, and with the
numerous cases in which a balance at a bank has been attached as a simple
and unconditional debt by a garnishee order, as, for instance, in _Rogers_
v. _Whiteley_, 1892, A.C. 118. The banker's position with regard to cheques
is that, superadded to the relation of debtor and creditor, there is an
obligation to honour the customer's cheques provided the banker has a
sufficient and available balance in his hands for the purpose (_Foley_ v.
_Hill_). If, having such funds in his hands, the banker dishonours a
cheque, he is liable to the customer in substantial damages without proof
of actual injury having accrued (_Rolin_ v. _Steward_, 14 C.B. 595). Where
several cheques are presented simultaneously and the available balance is
insufficient to pay all, the banker should pay as many as the funds will
cover, and is not bound to discriminate between particular cheques. It
would seem a legitimate condition that a cheque should be drawn in the
ordinary recognized form, not in one raising any question or doubt as to
its validity or effect. Cheques drawn to "wages or order," "petty cash or
order," or the like, are common, and are sometimes regarded as payable to
bearer. Such payees are not, however, "fictitious or non-existent persons,"
so as to render the cheques payable to the bearer under sec. 7, subs. 3 of
the Bills of Exchange Act 1882, nor can such payees endorse. Some banks
refuse to pay such cheques, and it is conceived they are justified in so
doing. Money paid in so shortly before the presentation of the cheque that
there would not have been time to pass it through the books of the bank
would not be treated as available for drawing against. If a person have an
account at one branch of a bank, he is not entitled to draw cheques on
another branch [v.03 p.0350] where he has either no account or is
overdrawn, but the bank has, as against the customer, the right to combine
accounts at different branches and treat them as one account (_Garnet_ v.
_McEwen_, L.R. 8 Ex. 10). Funds are not available so long as a garnishee
order, founded on a judgment against the customer, is pending, since it
attaches all moneys on current account irrespective of the amount of the
judgment (_Rogers_ v. _Whiteley_).

The very questionable practice of post-dating cheques has been the source
of considerable doubt and inconvenience to bankers. The use of such
documents enables the drawer to obtain the results of a bill at a fixed
future date without the expense of a regular bill-stamp. But the Bills of
Exchange Act 1882, sec. 13, subs. 1, provides that "a bill is not invalid
by reason only that it is ante-dated or post-dated, or that it bears date
on a Sunday." The banker cannot therefore refuse to pay a cheque presented
after the apparent date of its issue on the ground that he knows it to have
been post-dated. On the other hand, he is entitled and indeed bound to
refuse payment if such a cheque is presented before the apparent date of
its issue (_Morley_ v. _Culverwell_, 7 M. & W. at p. 178). Revocation of
authority to pay a cheque must come to the banker's conscious knowledge and
be unequivocal both in terms and method of communication. He is not bound
to act on an unconfirmed telegram (_Curtice_ v. _London City & Midland
Bank_ [1908], 1 K.B. 293). The banker's authority to pay cheques is
terminated by the death, insanity or bankruptcy of the customer, or by
notice of an available act of bankruptcy committed by him.

The banker is bound to observe secrecy with respect to the customer's
account, unless good cause exists for disclosure, and the obligation does
not cease if the account becomes overdrawn (_Hardy_ v. _Veasey_, L.R. 3 Ex.
107). In England a cheque is not an assignment of funds in the banker's
hands (Bills of Exchange Act 1882, sec. 53). The holder of the cheque has
therefore no claim on the banker in the event of payment being refused, his
remedy being against the drawer and endorser, if any. On this section is
also based the custom of English bankers not to pay part of the amount of a
cheque where there are funds, though not sufficient to meet the whole
amount. The section does not apply to Scotland, where it would seem that
the bank is bound to pay over what funds it has towards satisfaction of the
cheque. A banker is entitled to hold paid cheques as vouchers until there
has been a settlement of account between him and the customer. The entries
in a pass-book constitute _prima facie_ evidence against the banker, and
when returned by the customer without comment, against him; but the
proposition that such return constitutes a settlement of account has been
much disputed. Indeed where forgery is the ground of repudiation of a
cheque, no dealings or omissions of the customer with regard to the
pass-book would seem to preclude him from objecting to being debited and
throwing the loss on the banker (_Kepitigalla Rubber Co._ v. _National Bank
of India_, 25 Times L.R. 402). As against the banker, however, credit
entries in the pass-book cannot be disputed if the customer has altered his
position in reliance thereon, and cheques drawn against an apparent balance
must be honoured (_Holland_ v. _Manchester & Liverpool District Bank_, 25
Times L.R. 386).

The rule by which the holder of a cheque has no direct recourse against the
banker who dishonours it, holds good even where the banker has before issue
marked the cheque as good for the amount, such marking not amounting to an
acceptance by the banker. As between banker and banker, however, such
marking or certifying probably amounts to a binding representation that the
cheque will be paid, and, if done by request of the drawer, the latter
cannot subsequently revoke the authority to pay. In certain circumstances,
marking at the instance of the person presenting the cheque for payment may
amount to an undertaking by the banker to hold the money for his benefit
(_In re Beaumont_ [1902], 1 Ch. p. 895).

A banker either paying or collecting money on a cheque to which the person
tendering it for payment or collection has no title or a defective title is
_prima facie_ liable to the true owner for conversion or money had and
received, notwithstanding he acted in perfect good faith and derived no
benefit from the operation. Payment of an open cheque, payable to bearer
either originally or by endorsement, is, however, in all cases a good
payment and discharge (_Charles_ v. _Blackwell_, 2 C.P.D. at p. 158).
Limited protection in other cases has been extended by legislation to the
banker with regard to both payment and collection of cheques, usually on
the principle of counterbalancing some particular risk imposed on him by
enactments primarily designed to safeguard the public.

By sec. 19 of the Stamp Act 1853, the banker paying a draft or order
payable to order on demand, drawn upon him, was relieved from liability in
the event of the endorsement having been forged or unauthorized. This
enactment was not repealed by the Bills of Exchange Act 1882, and, in
_London City & Midland Bank_ v. _Gordon_ (1903), A.C. 240, was held to
cover the case of drafts drawn by a branch of a bank on its head office.
Sec. 60 of the Bills of Exchange Act 1882 extends like protection to the
banker in the case of cheques, the definition of which therein as "bills
drawn on a banker payable on demand" debars drafts of the above-mentioned
description. Such definition, involving the unconditional character of the
instrument, also precludes from the protection of this section the
documents now frequently issued by corporations and others, which direct
bankers to make payments on a specific attached receipt being duly signed
(_London City & Midland Bank_ v. _Gordon_). Sec. 17 of the Revenue Act
1883, however, applies to these documents the crossed cheques sections of
the Bills of Exchange Act 1882 (see _Bavius, Jr., & Sims_ v. _London &
South-Western Bank_ [1900], 1 Q.B. 270), while denying them the position of
negotiable instruments, and a banker paying one of them crossed, in
accordance with the crossing and in the absence of any indication of its
having been transferred, could probably claim immunity under sec. 80. The
Bills of Exchange Act 1882 contains no direct prohibition against a banker
paying a crossed cheque otherwise than in accordance with the crossing, but
if he do so he is liable to the true owner for any loss suffered by him in
consequence of such payment (sec. 79), and is probably unable to charge his
customer with the amount. A banker paying a crossed cheque in accordance
with its ostensible tenor obtains protection under sec. 80 and the proviso
to sec. 79. Questions have arisen as to the bearing of the crossed cheques
sections when a crossed cheque drawn on one branch of a bank is paid in for
collection by a customer at another branch; but the transaction is so
obviously a legitimate and necessary one that either by the collecting
branch may be regarded as a separate bank for this purpose, or sec. 79 may
be ignored as inapplicable (_Gordon_ v. _London City & Midland Bank_
[1902], 1 K.B. 242 C.A.).

The collection of crossed cheques for a customer being virtually incumbent
on a banker, qualified immunity is accorded him in so doing by sec. 82, a
final exposition of which was given by the House of Lords in _London City &
Midland Bank_ v. _Gordon_ (1903), A.C. 240. To come within its provisions,
the banker must fulfil the following conditions. He must receive the cheque
from, and the money for, a customer, _i.e._ a person with whom he has
definite and existing business relations (see _Great Western Ry. Co._ v.
_London & County Bank_ [1901], A.C. 414). He must take the cheque already
crossed generally or specially to himself. His own crossing under sec. 77
is absolutely inefficacious in this connexion. He must take the cheque and
receive the money in good faith and without negligence. Negligence in this
relation is the omission to exercise due care in the interest of the true
owner, not necessarily the customer. To avoid this disqualification of
negligence, the banker must see that the endorsements, where necessary, are
ostensibly correct; he must satisfy himself of the authority where an
endorsement is per procuration; he must not take for private account a
cheque which on its face indicates that the holder is in possession of it
as agent, or in an official capacity, or for partnership purposes
(_Hannan's Lake View Central Ld._ v. _Armstrong & Co._, 16 Times L.R. 236;
_Bevan_ v. _National Bank_, 23 Times L.R. 65); he must not take a cheque
marked "account payee" for an account other than that [v.03 p.0351]
indicated (_Bevan_ v. _National Bank_). It is further demonstrated by the
Gordon case that the banker only secures protection so long as he is acting
strictly as a conduit pipe, or as agent for the customer. If he put himself
in the position of owner of the cheque, he no longer fulfils the condition
of receiving the money only for the customer. In the Gordon case, adoption
of the not uncommon practice of crediting cheques as cash in the bank's
books before the money was actually received was held equivalent to taking
them as transferee or owner, and to debar the bank from the protection of
sec. 82. The anxiety and inconvenience caused to bankers by this unexpected
decision was ultimately removed by the Bills of Exchange (Crossed Cheques)
Act 1906, which enacts that a banker receives payment of a crossed cheque
for a customer within the meaning of sec. 82 of the Bills of Exchange Act
1882, notwithstanding that he credits his customer's account with the
amount of the cheque before receiving payment thereof. Apparently the scope
of this act must be confined to its immediate object, and it does not
affect the relations and rights between the banker and his customer or
parties to the cheque arising from such crediting as cash. For instance,
the customer, in the absence of agreement to the contrary, may at once draw
against cheques so credited, while the banker may still debit the customer
with the amount of the cheque if returned unpaid, or sue the drawer or
indorser thereon.

The protection to the collecting banker is in no way affected by the cheque
being crossed "not negotiable," or by the nature of the fraud or crime by
which the cheque was obtained by the customer or any previous possessor,
although there are dicta which have been interpreted in the contrary sense.
Nor does the fact that the customer is overdrawn deprive the banker of the
character of a collecting agent, unless the cheque be definitely given and
taken in reduction of such overdraft. Where the conditions requisite for
protection exist, the protection covers not only the receipt of the money,
but all operations usual in business and leading up to such receipt, on the
basis of the customer's title being unimpeachable. The provisions of the
crossed cheques sections of the Bills of Exchange Act 1882 are extended to
dividend warrants by sec. 95 of that act, and to certain orders for payment
issued by a customer of a banker by sec. 17 of the Revenue Act 1883, as
before stated. But the wording of the Bills of Exchange (Crossed Cheques)
Act 1906, specifying as it does cheques alone, appears to exclude documents
of both these classes from its operation. With regard to the orders for
payment, inasmuch as the same section which brings them within the crossed
cheques sections expressly provides that they shall not be negotiable, a
banker would probably be protected only in taking them from the specified
payee, though this distinction has been ignored in some recently decided
cases.

[Sidenote: Fraud.]

Where a banker incurs loss through forgery or fraud in circumstances not
covered by statutory protection, his right to relief, if any, must depend
on general principles. He cannot charge his customer with payments made on
a forgery of that customer's signature, on the ground either that he is
presumed to know such signature or that the payment is unauthorized. But if
the customer has accredited the forgery, or, having knowledge or reasonable
ground for belief that it has been committed, has failed to warn the
banker, who has thereby suffered loss or prejudice, the customer will be
held estopped from disputing the banker's right to debit him with the
amount (_Vagliano_ v. _Bank of England_ [1891], A.C. 107; _McKenzie_ v.
_British Linen Co._ 6 A.C. 82; _Ewing_ v. _Dominion Bank_ [1904], A.C.
806). The doctrine of the fictitious person as payee may also exonerate a
banker who has paid an order bill to a wrongful possessor. Payment on a
forgery to an innocent holder is payment under mistake of fact; but the
ordinary right of the payor to recover money so paid is subordinated to the
necessity of safeguarding the characteristics of negotiability. Views
differ as to whether the recovery is precluded only where the opportunity
of giving notice of dishonour is lost or prejudiced by delay in reclaiming
payment, or whether mere possibility of damage is sufficient (cf. _London &
River Plate Bank_ v. _Bank of Liverpool_ [1896], 1 Q.B. 7, and _Imperial
Bank of Canada_ v. _Bank of Hamilton_ [1903], A.C. 49).

Cases have frequently arisen where the carelessness of a customer in
filling up cheques has enabled a person to fraudulently increase the sum
for which such cheques were originally drawn. In _Colonial Bank of
Australasia_ v. _Marshall_ [1906], A.C. 559, the judicial committee of the
privy council held that the affording such facilities for forgery was no
breach of the customer's duty to his banker, and that the latter was not
entitled to debit the customer with more than the original amount. As
before stated, the customer's dealings with the pass-book cannot, in the
present state of the authorities, be relied on as debarring him from
disputing unauthorized payments appearing therein.

[Sidenote: Custody of valuables.]

The payment of bills accepted payable at the bank is not, like the payment
of cheques, an essential obligation of the banker, and the risk involved is
enhanced by the fact that the banker must pay or refuse payment at once, no
interval being allowed for verification of endorsements. The abolition or
modification of the practice has frequently been advocated, but it is one
of the facilities which competition compels bankers to extend to their
customers. On the same basis stands the receipt of a customer's valuables
for safe custody. The question of the banker's responsibility for the loss
of goods so deposited with him was raised, but not decided, in an action
brought by Mrs Langtry against the Union Bank of London in 1896. Certain
jewels belonging to her had been delivered up by the bank to an
unauthorized person on a forged order. The case was settled; but bankers
being desirous to ascertain their real position, many legal opinions were
taken on the point, and after consideration of these, the Central
Association of Bankers issued a memorandum, in which they stated that the
best legal opinion appeared to be that a distinction must be drawn between
cases in which valuables were by mistake delivered to the wrong person and
cases in which they were destroyed, lost, stolen or fraudulently
abstracted, whether by an officer of the bank or some other person. That in
the former case the question of negligence did not arise, the case being
one of wrongful conversion of the goods by a voluntary act for which the
bank was liable apart from any question of negligence. That, in the second
case, that of loss or theft, the banker, being a gratuitous bailee, would
only be liable if he had failed to use such care as an ordinary prudent man
would take of valuables of his own. The latter rule is practically that
laid down in _Giblin_ v. _MacMullen_, L.R. 2 P.C. 318, but in estimating
the amount of care to be taken by the banker, the nature of the goods, if
known or suspected, and the exceptional means of protection at the
disposition of bankers, such as strong-rooms, must be taken into
consideration. Methods of obviating both classes of risk by means of
special receipts have frequently been suggested, but such receipts do not
appear to have come into general use.

[Sidenote: Trustees.]

Theoretically, bankers are supposed to refuse accounts which are either
expressedly or are known to be trust accounts. In practice, however, it is
by no means uncommon to find accounts opened with a definite heading
indicating the fiduciary capacity. In other cases, circumstances exist
which affect the banker with notice of that capacity. In either case,
however, the obligation to honour the customer's cheque is the predominant
factor, and the banker is not bound or entitled to question the propriety
or object of the cheque, unless he has very clear evidence of impending
fraud (_Gray_ v. _Johnston_, L.R. 3 H. of L. 1). Even though the banker
have derived some personal benefit from the transaction, it cannot be
impeached unless the banker's conduct amount in law to his being party or
privy to the fraud, as where he has stipulated or pressed for the
settlement or reduction of an ascertained overdraft on private account,
which has been effected by cheque on the trust account (_Coleman_ v. _Bucks
& Oxon Union Bank_ [1897], 2 Ch. 243). A banker is entitled, in dealing
with trust moneys, known to be such, to insist on the authority of the
whole body of trustees, direct and not deputed, and this is probably the
safest course to adopt. Scarcely larger responsibility devolves on Joint
Stock Banks appointed custodian trustees under the Public Trustee Act 1906,
[v.03 p.0352] a remunerative position involving custody of trust funds and
securities, and making and receiving payments on behalf of the estate,
while leaving the active direction thereof in the hands of the managing
trustees.

[Sidenote: Bill-discounting.]

Other incidents of the ordinary practice of banking are the discounting of
bills, the keeping of deposit accounts, properly so called, and the making
of advances to customers, counting either by way of definite loan or
arranged overdraft. So far as the discounting of bills is concerned, there
is little to differentiate the position of the banker from that of any
ordinary bill-discounter. It has been contended, however, that the peculiar
attribute of the banker's lien entitled him to hold funds of the customer
against his liability on current discounted bills. This contention was
ultimately disposed of by _Bowen_ v. _Foreign & Colonial Gas Company_, 22
W.R. 740, where it was pointed out that the essential object of a
customer's discounting bills with his banker was to feed the current
account, and that a possible liability constituted no set-off against an
existing debt. Whether a particular bill has been taken for discount or
collection is a question of fact. As in the payment of bills, so in the
collection of them, there is no statutory protection whatever for the
banker; as against third parties he can only rely either on the customer's
title or his own as a holder for value, if no forged endorsement intervene
and he can establish a consideration.

[Sidenote: Deposit accounts.]

A deposit account, whether at call or on fixed notice, does not constitute
any fiduciary relation between the depositor and the banker, but merely a
debt due from the latter to the former. It has been suggested that cheques
can be drawn against deposit account on call, and, though a banker might
safely honour such a cheque, relying, if necessary, on his right of lien or
set-off, there appears no legal right in the customer to enforce such
payment. Deposit receipts given by bankers are exempt from stamp duty, even
though they contain an undertaking with respect to payment of principal and
interest. They are clearly not negotiable instruments, but it is difficult
to deduce from the cases how far dealings with them may amount to an
equitable assignment of the moneys they represent. Probably deliberate
definite transfer, coupled with endorsement, would confer an effective
title to such moneys. Where, as is not uncommon, the form of deposit note
includes a cheque, the banker could not refuse to pay were the cheque
presented and any superadded formalities complied with.

[Sidenote: Overdrafts and advances.]

There is no obligation on a banker to permit his customer to overdraw,
apart from agreement express or implied from course of business. Drawing a
cheque or accepting a bill payable at the banker's which there are not
funds meet is an implied request for an overdraft, which the banker may or
may not comply with. Interest is clearly chargeable on overdrafts whether
stipulated for or not. There is no direct authority establishing this right
in the banker, and interest is not usually recoverable on mere debts, but
the charge is justifiable on the ground of the universal custom of bankers,
if not otherwise. The charging of compound interest or interest with
periodical rests has been supported where such system of keeping the
accounts has been brought to the notice of the customer by means of the
pass-book, and not objected to by him, but in the present attitude of the
courts towards the pass-book some further recognition would seem necessary.
Such system of charging interest, even when fully recognized, only prevails
so long as the relation of banker and customer, on which it is founded,
continues in force; the taking a mortgage for the existing debt would put
an end to it.

[Sidenote: Lien.]

The main point in which advances made by bankers differ from those made by
other people is the exceptional right possessed by bankers of securing
repayment by means of the banker's lien. The banker's lien is part of the
law merchant and entitles him, in the absence of agreement express or
implied to the contrary, to retain and apply, in discharge of the
customer's liability to him, any securities of the customer coming into his
possession in his capacity as banker. It includes bills and cheques paid in
for collection (_Currie_ v. _Misa_, 1 A.C. 564). Either by virtue of it, or
his right of set-off, the banker can retain moneys paid in by or received
for the credit of the customer, against the customer's debt to him. Goods
deposited for safe custody or moneys paid in to meet particular bills are
exempt from the lien, the purpose for which they come to the banker's hands
being inconsistent with the assertion of the lien. The existence of the
banker's lien entitles him to sue all parties to bills or cheques by virtue
of sec. 27, subs. 3 of the Bills of Exchange Act, and to the extent of his
advances his title is independent of that of the previous holder. Moreover,
the banker's lien, though so termed, is really in effect an implied pledge,
and confers the rights of realization on default pertaining to that class
of bailment. But with regard to the exercise of his lien, as in many other
phases of his relation to his customer, the banker's strict rights may be
curtailed or circumscribed by limitations arising out of course of
business. The principle, based either on general equity or estoppel and
independent of definite agreement or consideration, requires that when
dealings between banker and customer have for a reasonable space of time
proceeded on a recognized footing, the banker shall not suddenly break away
from such established order of things and assert his strict legal rights to
the detriment of the customer. By the operation of this rule, the banker
may be precluded from asserting his lien in particular cases, as for
instance for an overdraft on one account against another which had
habitually been kept and operated on separately. It equally prevents the
dishonouring of cheques in circumstances in which they have hitherto been
paid independent of the actual available balance.

Restrictions arising from course of business can of course be put an end to
by the banker, but only on reasonable notice to the customer and by
providing for outstanding liabilities undertaken by the latter in reliance
on the continuance of the pre-existing state of affairs (see _Buckingham_
v. _London & Midland Bank_, 12 Times L.R. 70). As against this, the banker
can, in some cases, fortify his position by appeal to the custom of
bankers. The validity of such custom, provided it be general and
reasonable, has frequently been recognized by the courts. Any person
entering on business relations with a banker must be taken to contemplate
the existence of such custom and implicitly agree that business shall be
conducted in accordance therewith. Practical difficulty has been suggested
with regard to proof of any such custom not already recognized in law, as
to how far it can be established by the evidence of one party, the bankers,
unsupported by that of members of the outside public, in most cases
impossible to obtain. It is conceived, however, that on the analogy of
local custom and the Stock Exchange rules, such outside evidence could be
dispensed with, and this is the line apparently indicated with relation to
the pass-book by the court of appeal in Vagliano's case (23 Q.B.D. at p.
245). The unquestionable right of the banker to summarily debit his
customer's account with a returned cheque, even when unindorsed by the
customer and taken by the banker in circumstances constituting him a
transferee of the instrument, is probably referable to a custom of this
nature. So is the common practice of bankers to refuse payment of a
so-called "stale" cheque, that is, one presented an unreasonable time after
its ostensible date; although the fact that some banks treat a cheque as
stale after six months, others not till after twelve, might be held to
militate against the validity of such custom, and lapse of time is not
included by the Bills of Exchange Act among the matters working revocation
of the banker's duty, and authority to pay his customer's cheque.
Indirectly, this particular custom obtains some support from sec. 74 (2) of
the Bills of Exchange Act, although the object of that section is
different.

That section does, however, import the custom of bankers into the reckoning
of a reasonable time for the presentation of a cheque, and with other
sections clears up any doubts which might have arisen on the common law as
to the right of the holder of a cheque, whether crossed or not, to employ
his banker for its collection, without imperilling his rights against prior
parties in case of dishonour. On dishonour of a cheque paid in for [v.03
p.0353] collection, the banker is bound to give notice of dishonour. Being
in the position of an agent, he may either give notice to his principal,
the customer, or to the parties liable on the bill. The usual practice of
bankers has always been to return the cheque to the customer, and sec. 49,
subs. 6 of the Bills of Exchange Act is stated to have been passed to
validate this custom. Inasmuch as it only provides for the return of the
dishonoured bill or cheque to the drawer or an endorser it appears to miss
the case of a cheque to bearer or become payable to bearer by blank
endorsement prior to the customer's.

Where a bank or a banker takes a mortgage, legal or equitable, or a
guarantee as cover for advances or overdraft, there is nothing necessarily
differentiating the position from that of any other mortgagee or guaranteed
party. It has, however, fallen to banks to evoke some leading decisions
with respect to the former class of security. In _London Joint Stock Bank_
v. _Simmons_ ([1892], A.C. 201) the House of Lords, professedly explaining
their previous decision in _Sheffield_ v. _London Joint Stock Bank_, 13
A.C. 333, determined that negotiable securities, commercial or otherwise,
may safely be taken in pledge for advances, though the person tendering
them is, from his known position, likely to be holding them merely as agent
for other persons, so long as they are taken honestly and there is nothing
tangible, outside the man's position, to arouse suspicion. So again in
_Lloyd's Bank_ v. _Cooke_ [1907], 1 K.B. 794, the bank vindicated the
important principle that the common law of estoppel still obtains with
regard to bills, notes and cheques, save where distinctly annulled or
abrogated by the Bills of Exchange Act, and that therefore a man putting
inchoate negotiable instruments into the hands of an agent for the purpose
of his raising money thereon is responsible to any one taking them bona
fide and for value, although the agent may have fraudulently exceeded and
abused his authority and the case does not fall within the provisions of
the Bills of Exchange Act.

[Sidenote: Guarantees.]

With regard to guarantees, the main incidents peculiarly affecting bankers
are the following. The existence of a guarantee does not oblige the banker
to any particular system of keeping the account. So long as it is not
unfairly manipulated to the detriment of the guarantor, there is no
obligation to put moneys paid in, without appropriation, to the guaranteed
rather than to the unguaranteed account, and on the termination of a
guarantee, the banker may close the account, leaving it to be covered by
the guarantee, and open a new one with the customer, to which he may devote
payments in, not otherwise appropriated. Where by its nature or terms a
continuing guarantee is revocable either summarily or on specified notice,
difficult questions may arise on such revocation as to the banker's duty
and obligations towards the customer, who has probably incurred liabilities
on the strength of the credit afforded by the guarantee. Although the
existence of a guarantee does not bind the banker to advance up to the
prescribed limit, he could not well, on revocation, immediately shut off
all facilities from the customer without notice, while subsequent purely
voluntary advances might not be covered by the guarantee. These
contingencies should therefore be fully provided for by the guarantee,
particularly the crucial period of the pendency of notice.

AUTHORITIES.--The Institute of Bankers (London), _Questions on Banking
Practice_ (6th ed., 1909); J. Douglas Walker, _A Treatise on Banking Law_
(2nd ed., 1885); Chalmers, _Bills of Exchange_ (7th ed., 1909); Sir J. R.
Paget, _The Law of Banking_ (2nd ed., 1908); H. Hart, _The Law of Banking_
(2nd ed., 1906).

(J. R. P.)

[1] A translation of the act of the 3rd of May 1619 may be found in the
appendix to the _Quarterly Journal of Economics_ (Boston, U.S.A.) for April
1892. These documents present a distinct picture of banking in its true
sense.

[2] The clearest account of its early days is found in Thorold Rogers'
_History of the First Nine Years of the Bank of England._

[3] The date 1876 is taken as being that when the Imperial Bank of Germany
came into full operation.

[4] _"The Grasshopper" in Lombard Street_, by John Biddulph Masters (1892).

[5] See _Vorträge und Aufsätze hauptsächlich aus dem Handels- und
Wechselrecht_, von Dr R. Koch, pp. 163-164.

[6] The imperial treasury is bound to pay the state notes in cash at any
time when this is required, but an independent fund of cash set apart for
this purpose does not exist. See _Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschaften_,
vol. v. art. "Papiergeld," p. 97 (Jena, 1893; ed. J. Conrad, L. Elster, W.
Lexis and E. Löning).

BANKSIA, an Australian genus of shrubs and trees (natural order
Proteaceae), with leathery leaves often deeply cut and handsome dense
spikes of flowers. It is named after Sir Joseph Banks (_q.v._). The plants
are grown in England for their handsome foliage as evergreen greenhouse
shrubs.

BANKURA, a town and district of British India, within the Burdwan division
of Bengal. The town has a population of 20,737. The district has an area of
2621 sq. m., and in 1901 its population was 1,116,411, showing an increase
of 4% in the decade. It is bounded on the N. and E. by Burdwan district; on
the S. by Midnapur district; and on the W. by Manbhum district. Bankura
forms a connecting link between the delta of the Ganges on the E. and the
mountainous highlands of Chota Nagpur on the W. Along its eastern boundary
adjoining Burdwan district the country is flat and alluvial, presenting the
appearance of the ordinary paddy lands of Bengal. Going N. and W., however,
the surface gradually rises into long undulating tracts; rice lands and
swamps give way to a region of low thorny jungle or forest trees; the
hamlets become smaller and more scattered, and nearly disappear altogether
in the wild forests along the western boundary. Large quantities of lac and
tussur silk are gathered in the hilly tract. The stone quarries and
minerals are little worked. There are indigo factories and two coal-mines.
Both cotton and silk are woven, and plates, &c., are carved from
soap-stone. The old capital of the country was at Bishnupur, which is still
the chief centre of local industries. The north-east part of the district
is skirted by the East Indian railway beyond the river Damodar. The
Midnapur-Jherria line of the Bengal-Nagpur railway passes through the
district, and there is a line from Howrah to Bankura. The climate of
Bankura is generally healthy, the cold season being bracing, the air
wholesome and dry, and fogs of rare occurrence. The district is exposed to
drought and also to destructive floods. It suffered in the famines of 1866,
1874-1875 and 1896-1897. The temperature in the hot season is very
oppressive and relaxing. The Bishnupur raj was one of the largest estates
in Bengal in the end of the 18th century, but it was sold for arrears of
revenue shortly after the conclusion of the permanent settlement in 1793.

BANN, the principal river in the north of Ireland. Rising in the Mourne
mountains in the south of the Co. Down it runs N.W. until it enters Lough
Neagh (_q.v._), which it drains N.N.W. to an estuary at Coleraine, forming
Lough Beg immediately below the larger lough. The length of its valley
(excluding the lesser windings of the river) is about 90 m. The total
drainage area, including the other important feeders of Lough Neagh, is
about 2300 sq. m., extending westward to the confines of the Co. Fermanagh,
and including parts of the Cos. Down and Antrim, Armagh and Monaghan,
Tyrone and Londonderry. The river has valuable salmon fisheries, but is not
of much importance for navigation. Above Lough Neagh it is known as the
Upper Bann and below as the Lower Bann.

BANNATYNE, GEORGE (1545-?1608), collector of Scottish poems, was a native
of Newtyle, Forfarshire. He became an Edinburgh merchant and was admitted a
burgess in 1587. Some years earlier, in 1568, when the "pest" raged in the
capital, he retired to his native county and amused himself by writing out
copies of poems by 15th and early 16th century Scots poets. His work
extended to eight hundred folio pages, divided into five parts. The MS.
descended to his only daughter Janet, and later to her husband's family,
the Foulises of Woodhall and Ravelston, near Edinburgh. From them it passed
to the Advocates' library, where it is still preserved. This MS., known as
the "Bannatyne Manuscript," constitutes with the "Asloan" and "Maitland
Folio" MSS. the chief repository of Middle Scots poetry, especially for the
texts of the greater poets Henryson, Dunbar, Lyndsay and Alexander Scott.
Portions of it were reprinted (with modifications) by Allan Ramsay in his
_Ever Green_ (1724), and later, and more correctly, by Lord Hailes in his
_Ancient Scottish Poems_ (1770). The entire text was issued by the
Hunterian Club (1873-1902) in a handsome and generally accurate form. The
name of Bannatyne was honoured in 1823 by the foundation in Edinburgh of
the Bannatyne Club, devoted to the publication of historical and literary
material from Scottish sources. The thirty-third issue of the club (1829)
was _Memorials of George Bannatyne_ (1545-1608), with a memoir by Sir
Walter Scott and an account of the MS. by David Laing.

See also Gregory Smith, _Specimens of Middle Scots_ (1902).

BANNERET (Fr. _banneret_, from _bannière_, banner, elliptical for
_seigneur_ or _chevalier banneret_, Med. Lat. _banneretus_), in feudalism,
the name given to those nobles who had the right to lead their vassals to
battle under their own banner. Ultimately bannerets obtained a place in the
feudal hierarchy between [v.03 p.0354] barons and knights bachelors, which
has given rise to the idea that they are the origin of King James I.'s
order of baronets. Selden, indeed, points out that "the old stories" often
have _baronetti_ for _bannereti_, and he points out that in France the
title had become hereditary; but he himself is careful to say (p. 680) that
banneret "hath no relation to this later title." The title of knight
banneret, with the right to display the private banner, came to be granted
for distinguished service in the field. "No knight banneret," says Selden,
of the English custom, "can be created but in the field, and that, when
either the king is present, or at least his royal standard is displayed.
But the creation is almost the self-same with that in the old French
ceremonies by the solemn delivery of a banner charged with the arms of him
that is to be created, and the cutting of the end of the pennon or streamer
to make it a square or into the shape of a banner in case that he which is
to be created had in the field his arms on a streamer before the creation."
The creation of bannerets is traceable, according to Selden, to the time of
Edward I. "Under these bannerets," he adds, "divers knights bachelors and
esquires usually served; and according to the number of them, the bannerets
received wages." The last authentic instance of the creation of a knight
banneret was that of John Smith, created banneret at the battle of Edgehill
by Charles I. for rescuing the royal standard from the enemy.

See Selden, _Titles of Honor_ (3rd ed., London, 1672), p. 656; Du Cange,
_Glossarium_ (Niort, 1883), s.v. "Bannereti."

BANNERS, FEAST OF (Jap. _Nobori-no-Sekku_), a Japanese festival in honour
of male children held on the 5th of May. Every householder who has sons
fastens a bamboo pole over his door and hangs from it gaily-coloured paper
fishes, one for each of his boys. These fishes are made to represent carp,
which are in Japanese folklore symbolical of health and longevity. The day
is recognized as a national holiday.

For banners in general see FLAG.

BANNISTER, CHARLES (1738-1804), English actor and singer, was born in
Gloucestershire, and after some amateur and provincial experience made his
first London appearance in 1762 as Will in _The Orators_ at the Haymarket.
Gifted with a fine bass voice, Bannister acquired a reputation as a singer
at Ranelagh and elsewhere, as well as an actor, and was received with such
favour that Garrick engaged him for Drury Lane. He died on the 26th of
October 1804.

His son JOHN BANNISTER (1760-1836), born at Deptford on the 12th of May
1760, first studied to be a painter, but soon took to the stage. His first
formal appearance was at the Haymarket in 1778 as Dick in _The Apprentice_.
The same year at Drury Lane he played in James Miller's version of
Voltaire's _Mahomet_ the part of Zaphna, which he had studied under
Garrick. The Palmira of the cast was Mrs Robinson ("Perdita"). Bannister
was the best low comedian of his day. As manager of Drury Lane (1802) he
was no less successful. He retired in 1815 and died on the 7th of November
1836. He never gave up his taste for painting, and Gainsborough, Morland
and Rowlandson were among his friends.

See Adolphus's _Memoirs of John Bannister_ (2 vols., 1838).

BANNOCK (adapted from the Gaelic, and apparently connected with Lat.
_panis_, bread), the term used in Scotland and the north of England for a
large, flattish, round sort of bun or cake, usually made of barley-meal,
but also of wheat, and sometimes with currants.

BANNOCK, the name of a county in the south-east of the state of Idaho,
U.S.A., and of a river in the same state, which runs northward in Oneida
county into the Snake or Lewis river. It is taken from that of the Bannock
Indians (see BANATE), a corruption of the native _Panaiti_.

BANNOCKBURN, a town of Stirlingshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 2444. It is
situated on the "burn" from which its name is derived, the Bannock (Gaelic,
_ban oc_, "white, shining stream"), a right-hand affluent of the Forth,
which was once a considerable river. The town lies 2¼ m. S.S.E. of Stirling
by the Caledonian railway, and now has thriving manufactures of woollens
(chiefly tweeds, carpets and tartans) and leather, though at the beginning
of the 19th century it was only a village. The Bore Stone, in which Bruce
planted his standard before the battle in which he defeated Edward II. in
1314 (see below), is preserved by an iron grating. A mile to the west is
the Gillies' Hill, now finely wooded, over which the Scots' camp-followers
appeared to complete the discomfiture of the English, to which event it
owes its name. Bannockburn House was Prince Charles Edward's headquarters
in January 1746 before the fight at Falkirk.

The famous battle of Bannockburn (24th June 1314) was fought for the relief
of Stirling Castle, which was besieged by the Scottish forces under Robert
Bruce. The English governor of Stirling had promised that, if he were not
relieved by that date, he would surrender the castle, and Edward II.
hastily collected an army in the northern and midland counties of England.
Bruce made no attempt to defend the border, and selected his defensive
position on the Bannock Burn, 2½ m. S. of Stirling. His front was covered
by the marshy bed of the stream, his left flank by its northerly bend
towards the Forth, his right by a group of woods, behind which, until the
English army appeared, the Scots concealed themselves. Two corps were left
in the open in observation, one at St Ninian's to watch the lower course of
the burn, one to guard the point at which the Falkirk-Stirling road crosses
the burn. On the 23rd the van of the army of Edward, which numbered about
60,000 against the 40,000 of the Scots, appeared to the south of the burn
and at once despatched two bodies of men towards Stirling, the first by the
direct road, the other over the lower Bannock Burn near its junction with
the Forth. The former was met by the Scottish outpost on the road, and here
occurred the famous single combat in which Robert Bruce, though not fully
armed for battle, killed Sir Henry Bohun. The English corps which took the
other route was met and after a severe struggle defeated by the second
Scottish outpost near St Ninian's. The English army assembled for battle on
the following day. Early on St John's day the Scottish army took up its
assigned positions. Three corps of pikemen in solid masses formed the first
line, which was kept out of sight behind the crest until the enemy advanced
in earnest. A line of "pottes" (military pits) had been previously dug to
give additional protection to the front, which extended for about one mile
from wing to wing. The reserve under Bruce consisted of a corps of pikemen
and a squadron of 500 chosen men-at-arms under Sir Robert Keith, the
marischal of Scotland. The line of the defenders was unusually dense;
Edward, in forming up on an equal front with greatly superior numbers,
found his army almost hopelessly cramped. The attacking army was formed in
an unwieldy mass of ten "battles," each consisting of horse and foot, and
the whole formed in three lines each of three "battles," with the tenth
"battle" as a reserve in rear. In this order the English moved down into
the valley for a direct attack, the cavalry of each "battle" in first line,
the foot in second. Ignoring the lesson of Falkirk (_q.v._), the mounted
men rode through the morass and up the slope, which was now crowned by the
three great masses of the Scottish pikemen. The attack of the English
failed to make any gap in the line of defence, many knights and men-at-arms
were injured by falling into the pits, and the battle became a _mêlée_, the
Scots, with better fortune than at Falkirk and Flodden, presenting always
an impenetrable hedge of spears, the English, too stubborn to draw off,
constantly trying in vain to break it down. So great was the press that the
"battles" of the second line which followed the first were unable to reach
the front and stood on the slope, powerless to take part in the battle on
the crest. The advance of the third English line only made matters worse,
and the sole attempt to deploy the archers was crushed with great slaughter
by the charge of Keith's mounted men. Bruce threw his infantry reserve into
the battle, the arrows of the English archers wounded the men-at-arms of
their own side, and the remnants of the leading line were tired and
disheartened when the final impetus to their rout was given by the historic
charge of the "gillies," some thousands of Scottish camp-followers who
suddenly emerged from the woods, blowing horns, waving such weapons as they
possessed, and holding aloft [v.03 p.0355] improvised banners. Their cries
of "slay, slay!" seemed to the wearied English to betoken the advance of a
great reserve, and in a few minutes the whole English army broke and fled
in disorder down the slope. Many perished in the burn, and the demoralized
fugitives were hunted by the peasantry until they re-crossed the English
border. One earl, forty-two barons and bannerets, two hundred knights,
seven hundred esquires and probably 10,000 foot were killed in the battle
and the pursuit. One earl, twenty-two barons and bannerets and sixty-eight
knights fell into the hands of the victors, whose total loss of 4000 men
included, it is said, only two knights.

See J. E. Shearer, _Fact and Fiction in the Story of Bannockburn_ (1909).

BANNS OF MARRIAGE (formerly _bannes_, from A.S. _gebann_, proclamation, Fr.
_ban_, Med. Lat. _bannum_), the public legal notice of an impending
marriage. The church in earliest days was forewarned of marriages
(Tertullian, _Ad Uxorem, De Pudicitia_, c. 4). The first canonical
enactment on the subject in the English church is that contained in the
11th canon of the synod of Westminster in London (A.D. 1200), which orders
that "no marriage shall be contracted without banns thrice published in the
church, unless by special authority of the bishop." It is, however,
believed that the practice was in France as old as the 9th century, and
certainly Odo, bishop of Paris, ordered it in 1176. Some have thought that
the custom originated in the ancient rule that all "good knights and true,"
who elected to take part in the tournaments, should hang up their shields
in the nearest church for some weeks before the opening of the lists, so
that, if any "impediment" existed, they might be "warned off." By the
Lateran Council of 1215 the publication of banns was made compulsory on all
Christendom. In early times it was usual for the priest to betroth the pair
formally in the name of the Blessed Trinity; and sometimes the banns were
published at vespers, sometimes during mass. In the United Kingdom, under
the canon law and by statute, banns are the normal preliminary to marriage;
but a marriage may also be solemnized without the publication of banns, by
obtaining a licence or a registrar's certificate. In America there is no
statutory requirement; and the practice of banns (though general in the
colonial period) is practically confined to the Roman Catholics.

BANNU, a town and district of British India, in the Derajat division of the
North-West Frontier Province. The town (also called Edwardesabad and
Dhulipnagar) lies in the north-west corner of the district, in the valley
of the Kurram river. Pop. (1901) 14,300. It forms the base for all punitive
expeditions to the Tochi Valley and Waziri frontier.

The district of Bannu, which only consists of the Bannu and Marwat tahsils
since the constitution of the North-West Frontier Province in 1901,
contains an area of 1680 sq. m. lying north of the Indus. The cis-Indus
portions of Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan now comprises the new Punjab
district of Mianwali. In addition to the Indus the other streams flowing
through the district are the Kurram (which falls into the Indus) and its
tributary the Gambila. The valley of Bannu proper, stretching to the foot
of the frontier hills, forms an irregular oval, measuring 60 m. from north
to south and about 40 m. from east to west. In 1901 the population was
231,485, of whom the great majority were Mahommedans. The principal tribes
inhabiting the district are: (1) Waziri Pathans, recent immigrants from the
hills, for the most part peaceable and good cultivators; (2) Marwats, a
Pathan race, inhabiting the lower and more sandy portions of the Bannu
valley; (3) Bannuchis, a mongrel Afghan tribe of bad physique and mean
vices. The inhabitants of this district have always been very independent
and stubbornly resisted the Afghan and Sikh predecessors of the British.
After the annexation of the Punjab the valley was administered by Herbert
Edwardes so thoroughly that it became a source of strength instead of
weakness during the Mutiny. The inhabitants of the valley itself are now
peaceful, but it is always subject to incursion from the Waziri tribes in
the Tochi valley and the neighbouring hills. Salt is quarried on government
account at Kalabagh and alum is largely obtained in the same neighbourhood.
The chief export is wheat. A military road leads from Bannu town towards
Dera Ismail Khan. The Indus, which is nowhere bridged within the district,
is navigable for native boats throughout its course of 76 m. The chief
frontier tribes on the border are the Waziris, Battannis and Dawaris. All
these are described under their separate names.

BANSDA, a native state in the south Gujarat division of Bombay, India,
belonging to the Surat agency. Area, 215 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 40,382, showing
a decrease of 2% in the decade; estimated revenue £19,508. Its chief is a
rajput. About half the total area of the state is cultivable, but the bulk
is forested.

BANSHEE (Irish _bean sidhe_; Gaelic _ban sith_, "woman of the fairies"), a
supernatural being in Irish and general Celtic folklore, whose mournful
screaming, or "keening," at night is held to foretell the death of some
member of the household visited. In Ireland legends of the banshee belong
more particularly to certain families in whose records periodic visits from
the spirit are chronicled. A like ghostly informer figures in Brittany
folklore. The Irish banshee is held to be the distinction only of families
of pure Milesian descent. The Welsh have the banshee under the name _gwrach
y Rhibyn_ (witch of Rhibyn). Sir Walter Scott mentions a belief in the
banshee as existing in the highlands of Scotland (_Demonology and
Witchcraft_, p. 351). A Welsh death-portent often confused with the gwrach
y Rhibyn and banshee is the _cyhyraeth_, the groaning spirit.

See W. Wirt Sikes, _British Goblins_ (1880).

BANSWARA (literally "the forest country"), a rajput feudatory state in
Rajputana, India. It borders on Gujarat and is bounded on the N. by the
native states of Dungarpur and Udaipur or Mewar; on the N.E. and E. by
Partabgarh; on the S. by the dominions of Holkar and the state of Jabua and
on the W. by the state of Rewa Kantha. Banswara state is about 45 m. in
length from N. to S., and 33 m. in breadth from E. to W., and has an area
of 1946 sq. m. The population in 1901 was 165,350. The Mahi is the only
river in the state and great scarcity of water occurs in the dry season.
The Banswara chief belongs to the family of Udaipur. During the vigour of
the Delhi empire Banswara formed one of its dependencies; on its decline
the state passed under the Mahrattas. Wearied out by their oppressions, its
chief in 1812 petitioned for English protection, on the condition of his
state becoming tributary on the expulsion of the Mahrattas. The treaty of
1818 gave effect to this arrangement, Britain guaranteeing the prince
against external enemies and refractory chiefs; he, on his part, pledging
himself to be guided by her representative in the administration of his
state. The chief is assisted in the administration by a _hamdar_ or
minister. The estimated gross revenue is £17,000 and the tribute £2500. The
custom of suttee, or widow-burning, has long been abolished in the state,
but the people retain all their superstitions regarding witches and
sorcery; and as late as 1870, a Bhil woman, about eighty years old, was
swung to death at Kushalgarh on an accusation of witchcraft. The
perpetrators of the crime were sentenced to five years' rigorous
imprisonment, but they had the sympathy of the people on their side. The
chief town is Banswara, situated about 8 m. W. of the Mahi river,
surrounded by an old disused rampart and adorned by various Hindu temples,
with the battlements of the chief's palace overlooking it. Its population
in 1901 was 7038. The petty state of Kushalgarh is feudatory to Banswara.

BANTAM, the westernmost residency of the island of Java, Dutch East Indies,
bounded W. by the Strait of Sunda, N. by the Java sea, E. by the
residencies of Batavia and Preanger, and S. by the Indian Ocean. It also
includes Princes Island and Dwars-in-den-weg ("right-in-the-way") Island in
Sunda Strait, as well as several smaller islands along the coasts. Bantam
had a population in 1897 of 709,339, including 302 Europeans, 1959 Chinese
and 89 Arabs and other Asiatic foreigners. The natives are Sundanese,
except in the northern or Serang division, where they are Javanese. The
coast is low-lying and frequently marshy. The northern portion of the
residency constitutes the most fertile portion, is generally flat with a
hilly group in the middle, where the two inactive volcanoes, Karang and
Pulosari, [v.03 p.0356] are found, while the north-western corner is
occupied by the isolated Gede Mountain. The southern portion is covered by
the Kendang (Malay for "range") Mountains extending into the Preanger. The
rivers are only navigable at their mouths. Various geysers and cold and
warm sulphur springs are found in the centre of the residency, and on a
ridge of the Karang Mountain is the large crater-lake Dano, a great part of
which was drained by the government in 1835 for rice cultivation. Pulse
(_kachang_), rice and coffee are the principal products of cultivation; but
in the days of government culture sugar, indigo and especially pepper were
also largely grown. The former considerable fishing and coasting trade was
ruined by the eruption of Krakatoa in 1883, a large stretch of coast line
and the seaport towns of Charingin and Anjer being destroyed by the
inundation. The prosperity of the residency was further affected by a
cattle plague in 1879, followed by a fever epidemic which carried off
50,000 people, and except in the rice season there is a considerable
emigration of natives. Bantam contains five native regencies or territorial
divisions, namely, Serang, Anjer, Pandeglang, Charingin, Lebak. The
principal towns are Serang, the capital of the residency, Chilegon,
Pandeglang, Menes and Rangkas Betug. The chief town, Serang, is situated 2½
m. from Bantam Bay on the high road from Batavia. The port of Serang is
Karangantu, on Bantam Bay, and close by is the old ruined town of Bantam,
once the capital of the kingdom of Bantam, and before the foundation of
Batavia the principal commercial port of the Dutch East India Company. The
ruins include the remains of the former pepper warehouses, the old factory,
called Fort Speelwijk, belonging to the company, the fortified palace of
the former sultans and a well-preserved mosque thought to have been built
by the third Mahommedan ruler of Bantam about 1562-1576, and containing the
tombs of various princes of Bantam. Before the Dutch conquest Bantam was a
powerful Mahommedan state, whose sovereign extended his conquests in the
neighbouring islands of Borneo and Sumatra. In 1595 the Dutch expelled the
Portuguese and formed their first settlement. A British factory was
established in 1603 and continued to exist till the staff was expelled in
1682. In 1683 the Dutch reduced the sultan to vassalage, built the fort of
Speelwijk and monopolized the port, which had previously been free to all
comers; and for more than a century afterwards Bantam was one of the most
important seats of commerce in the East Indies. In 1811 after Batavia had
surrendered to the British, Bantam soon followed; but it was restored to
the Dutch in 1814. Two years later, however, they removed their chief
settlement to the more elevated station of Serang, or Ceram, 7 m. inland,
and in 1817 the ruin of Bantam was hastened by a fire.

For "Bantam" fowls see POULTRY.

BANTIN, or BANTING, the native name of the wild ox of Java, known to the
Malays as sapi-utan, and in zoology as _Bos (Bibos) sondaicus._ The white
patch on the rump distinguishes the bantin from its ally the gaur (_q.v._).
Bulls of the typical bantin of Java and Borneo are, when fully adult,
completely black except for the white rump and legs, but the cows and young
are rufous. In Burma the species is represented by the tsaine, or h'saine,
in which the colour of the adult bulls is rufous fawn. Tame bantin are bred
in Bali, near Java, and exported to Singapore. (See BOVIDAE.)

BANTRY, a seaport, market-town and seaside resort of Co. Cork, Ireland, in
the west parliamentary division, 58 m. S.W. of Cork by the Cork, Bandon &
South Coast railway, on the bay of the same name. Pop. (1901) 3109. It is
an important centre both for sea fisheries and for sport with the rod. It
is the terminus of the railway, and a coaching station on the famous
"Prince of Wales" route (named after King Edward VII.) from Cork to
Glengarriff and Killarney. The bay, with excellent anchorage, is a
picturesque inlet some 22m. long by 3 to 6 broad, with 12 to 32 fathoms of
water. It is one of the headquarter stations of the Channel Squadron, which
uses the harbour at Castletown Bearhaven on the northern shore, behind Bear
Island, near the mouth of the bay. It was the scene of attempts by the
French to invade Ireland in 1689 and 1796, and troops of William of Orange
were landed here in 1697. There are several islands, the principal of which
are Bear Island and Whiddy, off the town. Ruins of the so-called "fish
palaces" testify to the failure of the pilchard fishery in the 18th
century.

BANTU LANGUAGES. The greater part of Africa south of the equator possesses
but one linguistic family so far as its native inhabitants are concerned.
This clearly-marked division of human speech has been entitled the Bantu, a
name invented by Dr W. H. I. Bleek, and it is, on the whole, the fittest
general term with which to designate the most remarkable group of African
languages.[1]

It must not be supposed for a moment that all the people who speak Bantu
languages belong necessarily to a special and definite type of negro. On
the contrary, though there is a certain physical resemblance among those
tribes who speak clearly-marked Bantu dialects (the Babangi of the upper
Congo, the people of the Great Lakes, the Ova-herero, the Ba-tonga,
Zulu-Kaffirs, Awemba and some of the East Coast tribes), there is
nevertheless a great diversity in outward appearance, shape of head and
other physical characteristics, among the negroes who inhabit Bantu Africa.
Some tribes speaking Bantu languages are dwarfs or dwarfish, and belong to
the group of Forest Pygmies. Others betray relationship to the Hottentots;
others again cannot be distinguished from the most exaggerated types of the
black West African negro. Yet others again, especially on the north, are of
Gala (Galla) or Nilotic origin. But the general deduction to be drawn from
a study of the Bantu languages, as they exist at the present day, is that
at some period not more than 3000 years ago a powerful tribe of negroes
speaking the Bantu mother-language, allied physically to the negroes of the
south-western Nile and southern Lake Chad basins (yet impregnated with the
Caucasian Hamite), pushed themselves forcibly from the very heart of Africa
(the region between the watersheds of the Shari, Congo and western Nile)
into the southern half of the continent, which at that time was probably
sparsely populated except in the north-west, east and south. The Congo
basin and the south-western watershed of the Nile at the time of the Bantu
invasion would have been occupied on the Atlantic seaboard by West Coast
negroes, and in the centre by negroes of a low type and by Forest Pygmies;
the eastern coasts of Victoria Nyanza and the East African coast region
down to opposite Zanzibar probably had a population partly Nilotic-negro
and partly Hottentot-Bushman. From Lakes Tanganyika and Nyasa
south-westwards to the Cape of Good Hope the population was Forest-negro,
Nilotic-negro, Hottentot and Bushman. Over nearly all this area the Bantu
swept; and they assimilated or absorbed the vast majority of the preceding
populations, of which, physically or linguistically, the only survivors are
the scattered tribes of pygmies in the forests of south-west Nile land,
Congo basin and Gabun, the central Sudanese of the N.E. Congo, a few
patches of quasi-Hottentot, Hamitic and Nilotic peoples between Victoria
Nyanza and the Zanzibar coast, and the Bushmen and Hottentots of south-west
Africa. The first area of decided concentration on the part of the Bantu
was very probably Uganda and the shores of Tanganyika. The main line of
advance south-west trended rather to the east coast of Africa than to the
west, but bifurcated at the south end of Lake Tanganyika, one great branch
passing west between that lake and Nyasa, and the other southwards.
Finally, when the Bantu had reached the [v.03 p.0357] south-west corner of
Africa, their farther advance was checked by two causes: first, the
concentration in a healthy, cattle-rearing part of Africa of the Hottentots
(themselves only a superior type of Bushman, but able to offer a much
sturdier resistance to the big black Bantu negroes than the crafty but
feeble Bushmen), and secondly, the arrival on the scene of the Dutch and
British, but for whose final intervention the whole of southern Africa
would have been rapidly Bantuized, as far as the imposition of language was
concerned.

The theory thus set forth of the origin and progress of the Bantu and the
approximate date at which their great southern exodus commenced, is to some
extent attributable to the present writer only, and has been traversed at
different times by other writers on the same subject. In the nearly total
absence of any historical records, the only means of building up Bantu
history lies in linguistic research, in the study of existing dialects, of
their relative degree of purity, of their connexion one with the other and
of the most widely-spread roots common to the majority of the Bantu
languages. The present writer, relying on linguistic evidence, fixed the
approximate date at which the Bantu negroes left their primal home in the
very heart of Africa at not much more than 2000 years ago; and the reason
adduced was worth some consideration. It lay in the root common to a large
proportion of the Bantu languages expressing the domestic fowl--_kuku_
(_nkuku_, _ngoko_, _nsusu_, _nguku_, _nku_). Now the domestic fowl reached
Africa first through Egypt, at the time of the Persian occupation--not
before 500 to 400 B.C. It would take at that time at least a couple of
hundred years before--from people to people and tribe to tribe up the Nile
valley--the fowl, as a domestic bird, reached the equatorial regions of
Africa. The Muscovy duck, introduced by the Portuguese from Brazil at the
beginning of the 17th century, is spreading itself over Negro Africa at
just about the same rate. Yet the Bantu people must have had the domestic
fowl well established amongst themselves before they left their original
home, because throughout Bantu Africa (with rare exceptions and those not
among the purest Bantu tribes) the root expressing the domestic fowl recurs
to the one vocable of _kuku_.[2] Curiously enough this root _kuku_
resembles to a marked degree several of the Persian words for "fowl," and
is no doubt remotely derived from the cry of the bird. Among those Negro
races which do not speak Bantu languages, though they may be living in the
closest proximity to the Bantu, the name for fowl is quite different.[3]
The fowl was only introduced into Madagascar, as far as researches go, by
the Arabs during the historical period, and is not known by any name
similar to the root _kuku_. Moreover, even if the fowl had been (and there
is no record of this fact) introduced from Madagascar on to the east coast
of Africa, it would be indeed strange if it carried with it to Cameroon, to
the White Nile and to Lake Ngami one and the same name. It may, however, be
argued that such a thing is possible, that the introduction of the fowl
south of the equator need not be in any way coincident with the Bantu
invasion, as its name in North Central Africa may have followed it
everywhere among the Bantu peoples. But all other cases of introduced
plants or animals do not support this idea in the least. The Muscovy duck,
for instance, is pretty well distributed throughout Bantu Africa, but it
has no common widely-spread name. Even tobacco (though the root "taba"
turns up unexpectedly in remote parts of Africa) assumes totally different
designations in different Bantu tribes. The Bantu, moreover, remained
faithful to a great number of roots like "fowl," which referred to animals,
plants, implements and abstract concepts known to them in their original
home. Thus there are the root-words for ox (_-ñombe_, _-ombe_, _-nte_),
goat (_-budi_, _-buzi_, _-buri_), pig (_-guluba_), pigeon (_-jiba_),
buffalo (_nyati_), dog (_mbwa_), hippopotamus (_-bugu_, _gubu_), elephant
(_-jobo_, _-joko_), leopard (_ngwi_), house (_-zo_, _-do_, _-yumba_,
_-anda_, _-dago_, _-dabo_), moon (_-ezi_), sun, sky, or God (_-juba_),
water (_-ndi_, _-ndiba_, _mandiba_), lake or river (_-anza_),[4] drum
(_ngoma_), name (_-ina_ or _jina_), wizard (_nganga_), belly, bowel (_-vu_,
_-vumo_), buttocks (_-tako_); adjectives like _-bi_ (bad), _-eru_ (white);
the numerals, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10 and 100; verbs like _fwa_ (to die), _ta_ (to
strike, kill), _la (da)_ or _lia_ (_di_, _dia_) (to eat). The root-words
cited are not a hundredth part of the total number of root-words which are
practically common to all the spoken dialects of Bantu Africa. Therefore
the possession amongst its root-words of a common name for "fowl" seems to
the present writer to show conclusively that (1) the original Bantu tribe
must have possessed the domestic fowl before its dispersal through the
southern half of Africa began, and that (2) as it is historically certain
that the fowl as a domestic bird did not reach Egypt before the Persian
conquest in 525 B.C., and probably would not have been transmitted to the
heart of Africa for another couple of hundred years, the Bantu exodus (at
any rate to the south of the equatorial region) may safely be placed at a
date not much anterior to 2100 years ago.

The creation of the Bantu type of language (pronominal-prefix) was
certainly a much more ancient event than the exodus from the Bantu
mother-land. Some form of speech like Fula, Kiama (Tern), or Kposo of
northern Togoland, or one of the languages of the lower Niger or Benue, may
have been taken up by ancient Libyan, Hamite or Nilotic conquerors and cast
into the type which we now know as Bantu,--a division of sexless Negro
speech, however, that shows no obvious traces of Hamitic (Caucasian)
influence. We have no clue at present to the exact birth-place of the Bantu
nor to the particular group of dialects or languages from which it sprang.
Its origin and near relationships are as much a puzzle as is the case with
the Aryan speech. Perhaps in grammatical construction (suffixes taking the
place of prefixes) Fula shows some resemblance; and Fula possesses the
concord in a form considerably like that of the Bantu, as well as offering
affinities in the numerals 3 and 4, and in a _few_ nominal, pronominal and
verbal roots. The Timne and cognate languages of Sierra Leone and the north
Guinea coast use pronominal prefixes and a system of concord, the
employment of the latter being precisely similar to the same practice in
the Bantu languages; but in word-roots (substantives, numerals, pronouns,
verbs) there is absolutely _no_ resemblance with this north Guinea group of
prefix-using languages. In the numerals 2, 3, 4, and sometimes 5, and in a
few verbal roots, there is a distinct affinity between Bantu and the
languages of N. Togoland, the Benue river, lower Niger, Calabar and Gold
Coast. The same thing may be said with less emphasis about the Madi and
_possibly_ the Nyam-Nyam (Makarka) group of languages in Central Africa
_though in none of these forms of speech is there any trace of the
concord_. Prefixes of a simple kind are used in the tongues of Ashanti, N.
Togoland, lower Niger and eastern Niger delta, Cross River and Benue, to
express differences between singular and plural, and also the quality of
the noun; but they do not correspond to those of the Bantu type, though
they sometimes fall into "classes." In the north-west of the Bantu field,
in the region between Cameroon and the north-western basin of the Congo,
the Cross river and the Benue, there is an area of great extent occupied by
languages of a "semi-Bantu" character, such as Nki, Mbudikum, Akpa, Mbe,
Bayoñ, Manyañ, Bafut and Bansh[=o], and the Munshi, Jaráwa, Kororofa,
Kamuku and Gbari of the central and western Benue basin. The resemblances
to the Bantu in certain word-roots are of an obvious nature; and prefixes
in a very simple form are generally used for singular and plural, but the
rest of the concord is very doubtful. Here, however, we have the nearest
relations of the Bantu, so far as [v.03 p.0358] etymology of word-roots is
concerned. Further evidence of slight etymological and even grammatical
relationships may be traced as far west as the lower Niger and northern and
western Gold Coast languages (and, in some word-roots, the Mandingo group).
The Fula language would offer some _grammatical_ resemblance if its
suffixes were turned into prefixes (a change which has actually taken place
in the reverse direction in the English language between its former
Teutonic and its modern Romanized conditions; _cf._ "offset" and "set-off,"
"upstanding" and "standing-up").

The legends and traditions of the Bantu peoples themselves invariably point
to a northern origin, and a period, not wholly removed from their racial
remembrance, when they were strangers in their present lands. Seemingly the
Bantu, somewhat early in their migration down the east coast, took to the
sea, and not merely occupied the islands of Pemba and Zanzibar, but
travelled as far afield as the Comoro archipelago and even the west coast
of Madagascar. Their invasion of Madagascar must have been fairly
considerable in numbers, and they doubtless gave rise to the race of black
people known traditionally to the Hovas as the Va-zimba.

The accompanying map will show pretty accurately the distribution of the
Bantu-speaking Negroes at the present day.

[Illustration]

It will be seen by a glance at this map that the areas in which are spoken
Bantu languages of typical structure and archaic form are somewhat widely
spread. Perhaps on the whole the most archaic dialects at the present day
are those of Mount Elgon, Ruwenzori, Unyoro, Uganda, the north coast of
Tanganyika and of the Bemba country to the south-west of Tanganyika; also
those in the vicinity of Lake Bangweulu, and the Nkonde and Kese dialects
of the north and north-east coasts of Lake Nyasa; also (markedly) the
Subiya speech of the western Zambezi. Another language containing a good
many original Bantu roots and typical features is the well-known Oci-herero
of Damaraland (though this S.W. African group also presents marked
peculiarities and some strange divergencies). Kimakonde, on the east coast
of Africa, is a primitive Bantu tongue; so in its roots, but not in its
prefixes, is the celebrated Ki-swahili of Zanzibar. Ci-bodzo of the Zambezi
delta is also an archaic type of great interest. The Zulu-Kaffir language,
though it exhibits marked changes and deviations in vocabulary and
phonetics (both probably of recent date), preserves a few characteristics
of the hypothetical mother-tongue: so much so that, until the languages of
the Great Lakes came to be known, Zulu-Kaffir was regarded as the most
archaic type of Bantu speech, a position from which it is now completely
deposed. It is in some features unusually divergent from the typical Bantu.

_Classification._--With our present knowledge of the existing Bantu tongues
and their affinities, it is possible to divide them approximately into the
following numbered groups and subdivisions, commencing at the north-eastern
extremity of the Bantu domain, where, on the whole, the languages
approximate nearest to the hypothetical parent speech.

(1) The _Uganda-Unyoro_ group. This includes all the dialects between the
Victoria Nile and Busoga on the east and north, the east coast of Lake
Albert, the range of Ruwenzori and the Congo Forest on the west; on the
south-east and south, the south coast of the Victoria Nyanza, and a line
from near Emin Pasha Gulf to the Malagarazi river and the east coast of
Tanganyika. On the south-west this district is bounded more or less by the
Rusizi river down to Tanganyika. It includes the district of Busoga on the
north-east and all the archipelagoes and inhabited islands of the Victoria
Nyanza even as far east as Bukerebe, except those islands near the
north-east coast. The dialects of Busoga, the Sese Islands and the west
coast of Lake Victoria are closely related to the language of the kingdom
of Uganda. Allied to, yet _quite_ distinct from the Uganda subjection, is
that which is usually classified as _Unyoro_.[5] This includes the dialects
spoken by the Hima (Hamitic aristocracy of these equatorial
lands--_Uru-hima_, _Ru-hinda_, &c.), _Ru-songora_, _Ru-iro_, _Ru-toro_,
_Ru-tusi_, and all the kindred dialects of Karagwe, Busiba, _Ruanda_,
Businja and Bukerebe. _Ki-rundi_, of the Burundi country at the north end
of Tanganyika, and the other languages of eastern Tanganyika down to Ufipa
are closely allied to the Unyoro sub-section of group 1, but perhaps adhere
more closely to group 12. The third independent sub-section of this group
is _Lu-konjo_, the language which is spoken on the southern flanks of the
Ruwenzori Range and thence southwards to Lake Kivu and the eastern limits
of the Congo Forest.

(2) The second group on the geographical list is _Lihuku-Kuamba_, the
separate and somewhat peculiar Bantu dialects lingering in the lands to the
south and south-west of Albert Nyanza (Mboga country). Lihuku (or
Libvanuma) is a very isolated type of Bantu, quite apart from the
Uganda-Unyoro groups, with which it shows no special affinity at all,
though in close juxtaposition. Its alliance with _Kuamba_ of western
Ruwenzori is not very close. Other affinities are with the degraded Bantu
dialects (_Ki-bira_, &c.) of the Ituri-Aruwimi forests. Kuamba is spoken on
the west and north slopes of Ruwenzori. Both Kuamba and Lihuku show a
marked relationship with the languages on the northern Congo and Aruwimi,
less in grammar than in vocabulary.

(3) The _Kavirondo-Masaba_ section. This group, which includes the
_Lu-nyara_, _Luwanga_, _Lukonde_ and _Igizii_ of the north-east and eastern
shores of the Victoria Nyanza and the northern Kavirondo and Mount Elgon
territories, is related to the Luganda section more than to any group of
the Bantu tongues, but it is a very distinct division, in its prefixes the
most archaic. It includes the languages spoken along the western flanks of
Mount Elgon, those of Bantu Kavirondo, and of the eastern coast-lands of
the Victoria Nyanza (Igizii).

(4) The _Kikuyu-Kamba_ group of British East Africa, east of the Rift
valley. It includes, besides the special dialects of Kikuyu and Ukambani,
all the scattered fragments of Bantu speech on Mount Kenya and the upper
Tana river (_Dhaicho_).

(5) The _Kilimanjaro_ (_Chaga-Siha_) group, embracing the rather peculiar
dialects of Mount Kilimanjaro, Mount Meru and Ugweno.

(6) The _Pokomo-Nyika-Giriama-Taveita_ group represents the Bantu dialects
of the coast province of British East Africa, between (and including) the
Tana river on the north and the frontier of German East Africa on the
south.

(7) _Swahili_, the language of Zanzibar and of the opposite coast, a form
of speech now widely spread as a commercial language over Eastern and
Central Africa. Swahili is a somewhat archaic Bantu dialect, indigenous
probably to the East African coast south of the Ruvu (Pangani) river, which
by intermixture with Arabic has become the _lingua franca_ of eastern
Africa between the White Nile and the Zambezi. It was almost certainly of
mainland origin, distinct from the original local dialects of Zanzibar and
Pemba, which may have belonged to group No. 6. There are colonies of
Swahili-speaking people at Mombasa, Malindi, Lamu, and even as far north as
the Shebeli river in Somaliland, also along the coast of German and
Portuguese East Africa as far south as Angoche. In the coast-lands between
the Ruvu or Pangani river on the north and the Kilwa settlements on the
south, the local languages and dialects are more or less related to
Swahili, though they are independent languages. Amongst these may be
mentioned _Bondei_, _Shambala_ (north of the Ruvu), _Nguru_, _Zeguha_,
_Ki-mrima_ and _Ki-zaramo_.

(8) This group might be described as _Kaguru-Sagala-Kami_. It is one which
occupies the inland territories of German East Africa, between the Swahili
coast dialects on the east and the domain of the Nyamwezi (No. 11) on the
west. On the north this group is bounded by the non-Bantu languages of the
Masai, Mbugu and Taturu, and on the south by the Ruaha river. This group
includes _Kigogo_ and _Irangi_.

[v.03 p.0359] (9) The dialects of the Comoro Islands, between the East
African coast and Madagascar, are styled _Hi-nzua_ or _Anzuani_ and
_Shi-ngazija_. They are somewhat closely related to Swahili.

(10) The archaic _Makonde_ or _Mabiha_ of the lower Ruvuma, and the coast
between Lindi and Ibo; this might conceivably be attached to the Swahili
branch.

(11) The _Nyamwezi_ group includes all the dialects of the Nyamwezi country
west of Ugogo as far north as the Victoria Nyanza (where the tongues melt
into group No. 1), and bounded on the south by the Upper Ruaha river, and
on the west by the eastern borderlands of Tanganyika. The Nyamwezi genus
penetrates south-west to within a short distance of Lake Rukwa. A language
of this group was at one time a good deal spoken in the southern part of
the Belgian Congo, having been imported there by traders who made
themselves chiefs.

(12) The _Tanganyika_ languages (_Ki-rega_, _Kabwari_, _Kiguha_, &c). These
dialects are chiefly spoken in the regions west-north-west, and perhaps
north and east of Tanganyika, from the vicinity of Lake Albert Edward on
the north and the Lukuga outlet of Tanganyika on the south. On the west
they are bounded by the Congo Forest and the Manyema genus (No. 13). The
languages on the east coast of Tanganyika (_Ki-rundi_, _Kigeye_, &c.) seem
to be more nearly connected with those of group No. 1 (_Uganda-Unyoro_),
yet perhaps they are more conveniently included here.

(13) The _Manyema_ (_Baenya_) group includes most of the corrupt Bantu
dialects between the western watershed of Tanganyika and the main stream of
the Luapula-Congo, extending also still farther north, and comprising
(seemingly) the languages of the Aruwimi basin, such as _Yalulema_, _Soko_,
_Lokele_, _Kusu_, _Tu-rumbu_, &c. On the west the Manyema group is bounded
by the languages of the Lomami valley, which belong to groups Nos. 15 and
16; on the east the Manyema genus merges into the much purer Bantu dialects
of groups Nos. 1 and 12. An examination of the Lihuku-Kuamba section (No.
2) shows these tongues to be connected with the Manyema group. The _Kibira_
dialects of the north-eastern Congo Forest (Ituri district) may perhaps be
placed in this section.[6]

(14) The _Rua-Luba-Lunda-Marungu_ group (in which are included _Kanyoka_,
_Lulua_ and _Ki-tabwa_) occupies a good deal of the south central basin of
the Congo, between the south-west coast-line of Tanganyika on the east and
the main streams of the Kasai and Kwango on the west, between the Bakuba
country on the north and the Zambezi watershed on the south.

(15) The _Bakuba_ assemblage of Central Congo dialects (_Songe_,
_Shilange_, _Babuma_, &c.) probably includes all the Bantu languages
between the Lomami river on the east and the Kwa-Kasai and Upper Kwilu on
the west. Its boundary on the north is perhaps the Sankuru river.

(16) The _Balolo_ group consists of all the languages of the Northern Congo
bend (bounded on the north, east and west by the main stream of the Congo),
and perhaps the corrupt dialects of the Northern Kasai, Kwilu and Kwango
(_Babuma_, _Bahuana_, _Bambala_, _Ba-yaka_, _Bakutu_, &c.), where these are
not nearer allied to Teke (No. 18) or to _Bakuba_.

(17) The _Bangala-Bobangi-Liboko_ group comprises the commercial languages
of the Upper Congo (_Ngala_, _Bangi_, _Liboko_, _Poto_, _Ngombe_, _Yanzi_,
&c.) and all the known Congo dialects along and to the north and sometimes
south of the main stream, from as far west as the junction of the Sanga to
as far east as the Rubi and Lomami rivers, and those between the Congo and
the Lower Ubangi river and up the Ubangi, as far north as the limits of the
Bantu domain (about 3° 30' N.). Allied to these perhaps are the
scarcely-known forms of speech in the basin of the Sanga river, besides the
"Ba-yanzi" dialects of Lakes Mantumba and Leopold II.

(18) The _Bateke_ (_Batio_) group. This may be taken roughly to include
most of the Bantu dialects west of the Sanga river, northwest of the Lower
Congo, south of the Upper Ogowe and Ngoko rivers and east of the Atlantic
coast-lands.

(19) The _Di-Kele_ and _Benga_ dialects of Spanish Guinea and the Batanga
coast of German Cameroon.

(20) The _Fañ_ or _Pangwe_ forms of speech (so corrupt as to be only just
recognizable as Bantu), which occupy the little-known interior of German
Cameroon and French Gabun, down to the Ogowe, and as far east and north as
the Sañga, Sanagá and Mbam rivers, and the immediate hinterland of the
"Duala" Cameroon.

(21) The _Duala_ group, which on the other hand is of a much purer Bantu
type, includes the languages spoken on the estuary and delta of the
Cameroon river.

(22) The _Isubu-Bakwiri_ group of the coast-lands north of Cameroon delta
(Ambas Bay), and on the west slopes of Cameroon Mts.

(23) The Bantu dialects of _Fernando Pô_ (_Ediya_, _Bateti_, _Bani_, &c.)
distantly allied to Nos 24, 2 and 13.

(24) The _Barondo-Bakundu_ group, which begins on the north at the Rio del
Rey on the extremity of the Bantu field, near the estuary of the Cross
river. This group may also include _Barombi_ and _Bas[=a]_, _Boñkeñ_,
_Abo_, _Nkosi_ and other much-debased dialects, which are spoken on the
eastern slopes of the Cameroon mountains and on the Cameroon river
(Magombe), and thence to the Sanagá and Nyong rivers. Eastwards and
north-eastwards of this group, the languages (such as _Mbe_, _Bati_, _Nki_,
_Mbudikum_, _Bafut_, _Bayoñ_) may be described as "semi-Bantu," and
evincing affinities with the forms of speech in the basin of the Central
Benue river and also with the _Fañ_ (No. 20).

(25) Turning southwards again from the north-westernmost limit of the
Bantu, we meet with another group, the _Mpongwe-Orungu_ and _Aduma_
languages of French Gabun, and the tongues of the Lower Ogowe and Fernan
Vaz promontory.

(26) These again shade on the south into the group of _Kakongo_ dialects of
the Loango and Sete Kama coast--such as _Ba-kama_, _Ba-nyanga_, _Ma-yombe_,
_Ba-vili_, _Ba-kamba_ and _Ka-kongo_ (_Kabinda_).

(27) The _Kongo_ language group comprises the dialects along the lower
course of the Congo from its mouth to Stanley Pool; also the territory of
the old kingdom of Congo, lying to the south of that river (and north of
the river Loje) from the coast eastwards to the watershed of the river
Kwango (and the longitude, more or less, of Stanley Pool).

(28) In the south the Kongo dialects melt imperceptibly into the
closely-allied Angola language. This group may be styled in a general way
_Mbundu_, and it includes the languages of Central Angola, such as
_Ki-mbundu_, _Mbamba_, _Ki-sama_, _Songo_, _U-mbangala_. The boundary of
this genus on the east is probably the Kwango river, beyond which the Lunda
languages begin (No. 14). On the north, the river Loje to some extent
serves as a frontier between the _Kongo_ and _Mbundu_ tongues. On the south
the boundary of group No. 28 is approximately the 11th degree of south
latitude.

(29) Very distinct from the _Ki-mbundu_ speech (though with connecting
forms) is the _Oci-herero_ group, which includes the _Herero_ language of
Damaraland, the _Umbundu_ of the Bihe highlands of south Angola, the _Nano_
of the Benguela coast, and _Si-ndonga_, _Ku-anyama_ and _Oci-mbo_ of the
southern regions of Portuguese Angola and the northern half of German
South-West Africa. The languages of group No. 29 probably extend as far
inland as the Kwito and Kubango rivers, in short, to the Zambezi watershed.
On the south they are confronted with the Hottentot languages. The Haukoin
or Hill Damaras--a Negro race of unexplained affinities and apparently
speaking a Hottentot language--occupy an enclave in the area of _Herero_
speech.

(30) What may be called the _Kiboko_ or _Kibokwe_ (also _Kioko_) family of
eastern Angola is a language-group which seems to offer affinities to the
languages of the Upper Zambezi and to those of groups Nos. 28 and 29. It
extends eastwards into the south-western portion of the Belgian Congo, and
includes the _Lubale_ of northern Barotseland and the sources of the river
Zambezi, and possibly the _Gangela_ of south-western Angola.

(31) Southwards of group No. 30 is that of the _Barotseland_ languages, of
which the best-known form--almost the only one that is effectively
illustrated--is _Si-luyi_. To _Si-luyi_ may be related the _Mabunda_ of
Western Barotseland. The dialects of the _Ambwela_, _A-mbwe_, _Ma-bukushu_
and _A-kwamashi_ are probably closely related.

(32) Next is a group which might be styled the _Subiya-Tonga-Ila_, though
some authorities think that _Tonga_ and _Ila_ deserve to be ranked as an
independent group. There is, however, a close alliance in structure between
the languages of each of the two subsections. The _Tonga_ subgroup would
include the dialects of the _Ba-tetela_, the _Ba-ila_ (_Mashukulumbwe_) and
of all Central Zambezia. _Ci-subiya_ is the dominant language of South-West
Zambezia, along a portion of the Zambezi river south of Barotseland, and in
the lands lying between the Zambezi and the Chobe-Linyante river. _Subiya_
is one of the most archaic of Bantu languages, more so than _Tonga_. Both
are without any strong affinity to _Oci-herero_, and only evince a _slight_
relationship with the Zulu group (No. 44).

(33) The _Bisa_ or _Wisa_ family includes the languages of Iramba, Bausi,
Lukinga, in the southernmost projection of the Belgian Congo, and the
dialects of _Lubisa_ and _Ilala_ between the Chambezi river and Lake
Bangweulu on the north, and the Luangwa river on the east and south;
perhaps also some of the languages along the course of the Upper Luapula
river.

(34) With it is closely allied that of the _Bemba_ or _Emba_ dialects. This
interesting genus occupies the ground between the south-west and south
coasts of Tanganyika, Lake Mweru, and the Upper Chambezi river. The
_Ki-bemba_ domain may be taken to include the locally-modified _Ki-lungu_
and _Ki-mambwe_ of South and South-East Tanganyika.

(35) What may be called the _North Nyasa_ or _Nkonde_ group comprises all
the dialects of the north-west and north coasts of Lake Nyasa (such as
_Ici-wandia_ and _Iki-nyikiusa_) and _Ishi-nyi[chi]a_ of the
Nyasa-Tanganyika plateau, and extends perhaps as far north west as the Fipa
country (_Iki-fipa_), and the shores of Lake Rukwa (_Ici-wungu_) in the
vicinity of the Nyamwezi domain (No. 11). _Iki-fipa_, however, has some
affinities to the Tanganyika and western Victoria-Nyanza languages (groups
Nos. 1 and 12).

[v.03 p.0360] (36) The western part of Nyasaland, south of group No. 35, is
occupied by the _Tumbuka_ section, which includes the languages of the
_Tumbuka_, _Henga_ and _A-tonga_ peoples, and occupies the area between the
western shores of Lake Nyasa and the Upper Luangwa river.

(37) Eastwards of No. 35 (North Nyasa group) lies the _Kinga_ speech of the
lofty Livingstone mountains, which is sufficiently distinct from its
neighbours to be classified as a separate group.

(38) East of the Livingstone mountains and west of the Ruaha river, south
also of the Unyamwezi domain, extends the _Sango-Bena-Hehe-Sutu_ group.

(39) The extensive _Yao_ genus of languages stretches from just behind the
coast of the Lindi settlements in German East Africa (_Ki-mwera_)
south-westward across the Ruvuma river to the north-east shores of Lake
Nyasa (_Ki-kese_), and thence back to the valley of the Lujenda-Ruvuma
(_Cingindo_), and southwards in various dialects of the _Yao_ language to
the south-east corner of Lake Nyasa and the region east of the Shire river,
between Lake Nyasa, the Shire highlands and Mt. Mlanje. It is only since
the middle of the 19th century that the _Yao_ language has conquered
territory to the south of Lake Nyasa. There still remain within its domain
colonies of Nyanja-speaking people.

(40) Eastwards of the _Yao_ domain, and bounded on the north by the range
of that language in the Ruvuma valley and by the separate group of
_Ki-makonde_ (No. 10), ranges the well-marked _Makua_ genus. The languages
thus described occupy the greater part of Portuguese East Africa away from
the watershed of Lake Nyasa. The _Makua_ language is probably divided into
the following dialects:--_I-medo_, _I-lomwe_, _I-tugulu_ and _Anguru_.
There are other dialects unnamed in the Angoji coast-region, where,
however, strong colonies of Swahili-speaking people are settled. The
southern part of the _Makua_ domain is occupied by the _Ci-cuambo_ of the
Quelimane district.

(41) _Nyanja_, perhaps the most extensive group of cognate languages in the
Bantu field, is principally associated with the east and west shores of the
southern half of Lake Nyasa. It also covers all the valley of the Shire,
except portions of the Shire highlands, down to the junction of that stream
with the Zambezi, and further, the lands on both banks of the Zambezi down
to and including its delta. West of Lake Nyasa, the _Nyanja_ domain extends
in the _Senga_ language to the river Luangwa and the Central Zambezi, also
along both banks of the Central Zambezi. South of the Central Zambezi,
_Nyanja_ dialects are spoken as far west as the Victoria Falls. Thence they
extend eastwards over Mashonaland to the sea-coast. With this family may
also be associated the languages of the Portuguese coast-region south of
the Zambezi as far as Inhambane. The principal dialects of the _Nyanja_
language are the _Cinyanja_ of Eastern Nyasaland, _Ci-peta_ and _Ci-maravi_
of South-West Nyasaland to as far as the watershed of the Luangwa river,
the _Ci-mañanja_ of the Shire highlands, _Ci-mobo_ and _Ci-machinjiri_ of
the Shire valley, _Ci-sena_ or _Ci-nyungwe_ of Tete and Sena (Zambezi), and
_Ci-mazaro_ of the Lower Zambezi. The Luangwa regions, as already
mentioned, are occupied by the distinct but closely-allied Senga language.
South of the Central Zambezi there are _Ci-nanzwa_ in the region near the
Victoria Falls, _Ci-nyai_, _Shi-kalaña_, _Ci-shuna_ (_Ci-gomo_), _Ci-loze_,
and possibly _Ci-shangwe_ (or _Ci-hlangane_) and _Shi-lenge_ which link on
to the Beira coast dialects. In the delta of the Zambezi is to be found
_Ci-podzo_, a very distinct language, yet one which belongs to the _Nyanja_
genus. _Ci-shangane_, _Chopi_ or _Shi-lenge_ and other dialects of the
Beira and Inhambane coast-lands and of Manika have been much influenced by
Zulu dialects (_Tebele_ and _Ronga_).

(42) The well-marked _Bechuana_ language group has very distinct features
of its own. This includes all the Bantu dialects of the Bechuanaland
protectorate west of the Guai river. Bechuana dialects (such as _Ci-venda_,
_Se-suto_, _Se-peli_, _Se-roloñ_, _Se-[chi]lapi_, &c.) cover a good deal of
the north and west of the Transvaal, and extend over all the Orange River
Colony and Bechuanaland. _Se-suto_ is the language of Basutoland;
_Se-rolon_, _Se-mangwato_, of the Eastern Kalahri; _Se-kololo_ is the court
language of Barotseland; _Ci-venda_ and _Se-pedi_ or _Peli_ are the
principal dialects of the Transvaal. Group No. 42, in fact, stretches
between the Zambezi on the north and the Orange river on the south, and
extends westward (except for Hottentot and Bushmen interruptions) to the
domain of the _Oci-herero_.

(43) The _Ronga_ (_Tonga_) languages of Portuguese South-East Africa
(Gazaland, Lower Limpopo valley, and patches of the North Transvaal
(_Shi-gwamba_), Delagoa Bay) are almost equally related to the _Nyanja_
group (41) on the one hand, and to _Zulu_ on the other, probably
representing a mingling of the two influences, of which the latter
predominates.

(44) Lastly comes the _Zulu-Kaffir_ group, occupying parts of Rhodesia, the
eastern portion of the Transvaal, Swaziland, Natal and the eastern half of
Cape Colony. In vocabulary, and to some degree in phonetics, the Zulu
language (divided at most into three dialects) is related in some phonetic
features to No. 42, and of course to No. 43; otherwise it stands very much
alone in its developments. It may have distant relations in groups Nos. 29
and 32. Dialects of Zulu (_Tebele_ and _Ki-ngoni_ or _Ci-nongi_) are spoken
at the present day in South-West Rhodesia and in Western Nyasaland and on
the plateaus north-east of Lake Nyasa, carried thither by the Zulu raiders
of the early 19th century.

The foregoing is only an attempt to classify the known forms of Bantu
speech and to give their approximate geographical limits. The writer is
well aware that here and there exist small patches of languages spoken by
two or three villages which, though emphatically Bantu, possess isolated
characters making them not easily included within any of the
above-mentioned groups; but too detailed a reference to these languages
would be wearisome and perhaps puzzling. Broadly speaking, the domain of
Bantu speech seems to be divided into four great sections:--(a) the
languages of the Great Lakes and the East Coast down to and including the
Zambezi basin; (b) the South-Central group (_Bechuana-Zulu_); (c) the
languages of the South-West, from the southern part of the Belgian Congo to
Damaraland and the Angola-Congo coast; and (d) the Western group, including
all the Central and Northern Congo and Cameroon languages, and probably
also group No. 2 of the Albert Nyanza and Semliki river.

_Common Features_.--There is no mistaking a Bantu language, which perhaps
is what renders the study of this group so interesting and encouraging. The
homogeneity of this family is so striking, as compared with the
inexplicable confusion of tongues which reigns in Africa north of the Bantu
borderland, that the close relationships of these dialects have perhaps
been a little exaggerated by earlier writers.

The phonology of the Western group (d) is akin to that of the Negro
languages of Western and West-Central Africa. A small portion of (b) the
South-Central group (_Zulu_) has picked up clicks, perhaps borrowed from
the Hottentots and Bushmen. Otherwise, the three groups (a), (b) and (c)
are closely related in phonology, and never, except here and there on the
borders of the Western group, adopt the peculiar West African combinations
of _kp_ and _gb_, which are so characteristic of African speech between the
Upper Nile and the Guinea coast.

The following propositions may be laid down to define the special or
peculiar features of the Bantu languages:--

(1) They are agglutinative in their construction, the syntax being formed
by adding prefixes principally and also suffixes to the root, but no
infixes (that is to say, no mutable syllable incorporated into the middle
of the root-word).[7] (2) The root excepting its terminal vowel is
practically unchanging, though its first or penultimate vowel or consonant
may be modified in pronunciation by the preceding prefix, or the last vowel
in the same way by the succeeding suffix.

(3) The vowels of the Bantu languages are always of the Italian type, and
no true Bantu language includes obscure sounds like _ö_ and _ü_. Each word
must end in a vowel (though in some modern dialects in Eastern Equatorial,
West and South Africa the terminal vowel may be elided in rapid
pronunciation, or be dropped, or absorbed in the terminal consonant,
generally a nasal). No two consonants can come together without an
intervening vowel, except in the case of a nasal, labial or sibilant.[8] No
consonant is doubled. Apparent exceptions occur to this last rule where two
nasals, two _r_'s or two _d_'s come together through the elision of a vowel
or a labial.

(4) Substantives are divided into classes or genders, indicated by the
pronominal particle prefixed to the root. These prefixes are used either in
a singular or in a plural sense. With the exception of the "abstract"
prefix _Bu_ (No. 14), no singular prefix can be used as a plural nor vice
versa. There is a certain degree of correspondence between the singular and
plural prefixes (thus No. 2 prefix serves almost invariably as a plural to
No. 3; No. 8 corresponds as a plural to No. 7). The number of prefixes
common to the whole group is perhaps sixteen. The pronominal particle or
prefix of the noun is attached as a prefix to the roots of the adjectives,
pronouns, prepositions and verbs of the sentence which are connected with
the governing noun; and though in course of time these particles may differ
in form from the prefix of the substantive, they were akin in origin. (This
system is the "concord" of Dr Bleek.[9]) The pronominal particles, whether
in nominative or accusative case, must always precede the nominal,
pronominal, adjectival and verbal roots, though they often follow the
auxiliary prefix-participles used in conjugating verbs,[10] and the roots
of some prepositions.

[v.03 p.0361]

(5) The root of the verb is the second person singular of the imperative.

(6) No _sexual gender_ is recognized in the _pronouns_ and _concord_.
Sexual gender may be indicated by a male "prefix" of varying form, often
identical with a word meaning "father," while there is a feminine prefix,
_na_ or _nya_, connected with the root meaning "mother," or a suffix _ka_
or _kazi_, indicating "wife," "female." The 1st and 2nd prefixes invariably
indicate living beings and are Usually restricted to humanity.

The sixteen original prefixes of the Bantu languages are given below in the
most archaic forms to be found at the present day. The still older types of
these prefixes met with in one or two languages, and deduced generally by
the other forms of the particle used in the syntax, are given in brackets.
It is possible that some of these prefixes resulted from the combination of
a demonstrative pronoun and a prefix indicating quality or number.

                       _Old Bantu Prefixes._

      Singular.                                     Plural.

  Class  1. Umu- (Ñgu-mu-).[11]       Class  2. Aba (Mba-ba or Ñga-ba).[11]
    "    3. Umu- (Ñgu-mu-).            "    4. Imi- (Ñgi-mi-).
    "    5. Idi (Ndi-di-).             "    6. Ama- (Ñga-ma-).
    "    7. Iki- (Ñki-ki-).            "    8. Ibi- (Mbi-bi-).
    "    9. I-n- or I-ni- (?Ngi-ni-).  "   10. Iti-, Izi-, Iti-n-, Izi-n-
                                               (?Ñgi-ti-).
    "   11. Ulu (Ndu-du-).             "   12. Utu (?Ntu-tu-);
                                               often diminutive in sense.
    "   13. Aka (?Nka-ka-); usually diminutive, sometimes honorific.
    "   14. Ubu- (?Mbu-bu-); sometimes used in a plural sense;
            generally employed to indicate abstract nouns.
    "   15. Uku (?Ñku-ku-); identical with the preposition "to,"
            used as an infinitive with verbs, but also with
            certain nouns indicating primarily functions of the body.
    "   16. Apa (Mpa-pa-); locative; applied to nouns and other
            forms of speech to indicate place or position;
            identical with the adverb "here," as Ku- is with "there."

To these sixteen prefixes, the use of which is practically common to all
members of the family, might perhaps be added No. 17, _Fi-_ or _Vi-_, a
prefix in the singular number, having a diminutive sense, which is found in
some of the western and north-western Bantu tongues, chiefly in the
northern half of the Congo basin and Cameroon. It is represented as far
east (in the form of _I-_) as the Manyema language on the Upper Congo, near
Tanganyika. This prefix cannot be traced to derivation from any others
among the sixteen, certainly not to No. 8, as it is always used in the
singular. Its corresponding _plural_ prefix is No. 12 (_Tu-_). Prefix No.
18 is _Ogu-_, which has, as a plural prefix, No. 19, _Aga-_. These are both
used in an augmentative sense, and their use seems to be confined to the
Luganda and Masaba dialects, and perhaps some branches of the Unyoro
language. These, like No. 17, are regular prefixes, since they are supplied
with the concord (_-gu-_ and _-ga-_). Lastly, there is the 20th prefix,
_Mu-_, which is really a preposition meaning "in" or "into," often combined
in meaning with another particle, _-ni_, used always as a suffix.[12] The
20th prefix, _Mu-_, however, does not seem to have a complete concord, as
it is only used adjectivally or as a preposition and has no pronominal
accusative.

The concord may be explained thus:--Let us for a moment reconstruct the
original Bantu mother-tongue (as attempts are sometimes made to deduce the
ancient Aryan from a comparison of the most archaic of its daughters) and
propound sentences to illustrate the repetition of pronominal particles
known as the concord.

                              _Old Bantu._
    _Babo_     _mbaba_-ntu[13]    _ba_bi      _ba-bo_-ta     tu-_ba_-oga.
    They     these-they person   they bad   they who kill   we fear them.
  Rendered into the modern dialect of _Luganda_ this would be:--
    _Bo_        _aba_-ntu        _ba_-bi     _ba_bota       tu-_ba_-tia.
    They     these-they person   they bad   they who kill   we them fear.
              (They are bad people who kill; we fear them.)

                              _Old Bantu._
    _Ñgu-mu_-ti   _ñg_uno     _ñgu_-gwa      ku-_ñgu_-mbona.
    This tree     this here   this falls;    thou this seest?
  Rendered into _Kiguha_ of North-West Tanganyika, this would be:--
    _U_m_u_ti     _gu_no      _gu_gwa          u_gu_mona?
    It tree       this here   it falls;      thou it seest?
             (The tree falls; dost thou see it?)

The prefixes and their corresponding particles have varied greatly in form
from the original syllables, as the various Bantu dialects became more and
more corrupt. Assuming these prefixes to have consisted once of two
distinct particles, such as, for example, Nos. 1 and 3, _Ñgu-mu-_, or the
6th plural prefix _Nga-ma-_, the first syllable seems to have been of the
nature of a demonstrative pronoun, and the second more like a numeral or an
adjective. _Mu-_ probably meant "one," and _Ma-_ a collective numeral of
indefinite number, applied to liquids (especially water), a tribe of men, a
herd of beasts--anything in the mass.[14] In the corresponding particles of
the concord as applied to adjectives, verbs and pronouns, sometimes the
first syllable, _Ñgu_ or _Ñga_ was taken for the concord and sometimes the
second _mu_ or _ma_. This would account for the seemingly inexplicable lack
of correspondence between the modern prefix and its accompanying particle,
which so much puzzled Bleek and other early writers on the Bantu languages.
In many of these tongues, for example, the particle which corresponds at
the present day to the plural prefix _Ma-_ is not always _Ma_, but more
often _Ga-_, _Ya-_, _A-_; while to _Mu-_ (Classes 1 and 3) the
corresponding particle besides _-mu-_ is _gu-_, _gw-_, _u-_, _wu-_, _yu-_,
_ñ-_, &c.

The second prefix. _Ba-_ or _Aba-_, is, in the most archaic Bantu speech
(the languages of Mt. Elgon), _Baba-_ in its definite form (_Ñgaba_
sometimes in Zulu-Kaffir). The concord is _-ba-_ in all the less corrupt
Bantu tongues, but this plural prefix degenerates into _Va-_, _Wa-_, _Ma-_,
and _A-_. The concord of the 4th prefix, _Mi-_, is _gi-_, _-i-_, _-ji-_,
and sometimes _-mi-_. The commonest form of the 5th prefix at the present
day is _Li-_ (the older and more correct is _Di-_), and its concord is the
same; this 5th prefix is often dropped (the concord remaining) or becomes
_Ri-_, _I-_, _Ji-_, and _Ni-_. The 7th prefix, _Ki-_, in many non-related
dialects pursues a parallel course through _Ci-_ into _Si-_ (=_Shi_) and
_Si-_ and its concord resembles it. The 8th prefix is still more variable.
In its oldest form this is _Ibi-_ or _Mbibi-_. It is invariably the plural
of the 7th. It becomes in different forms of Bantu speech _Vi-_, _Pi-_,
_Fi-_, _Fy-_, _P[vs]i-_, _[vS]i-_, _I-_, _By-_, _Bzi-_, _Psi-_, _Zwi-_,
_Zi-_ and _Ri-_, with a concord that is similar. The 10th prefix, which was
originally _Ti-_ or _Tin-_, or _Zi-_ or _Zin-_, becomes _Jin-_, _Rin-_,
_Din-_, _Lin-_, [theta]_in-_, [theta]_on-_. &c. The _n_ in this prefix is
really the singular prefix No. 9, which is sometimes retained in the
plural, and sometimes omitted. In the case of the 10th prefix, the concord
or corresponding pronoun persists long after the prefix has fallen out of
use as a definite article. Thus, though it is absent as a plural prefix for
nouns in the _Swahili_ of Zanzibar, it reappears in the concord. For
instance:--_Ñombe hizi zangu_--Cows these mine (These cows are mine),
although _Ñombe_ has ceased to be _ziñombe_ in the plural, the _Zi-_
particle reappears in _hizi_ and _zangu_. In fact, the persistence of this
concord, which exists in almost every known Bantu language in connexion
with the 10th prefix, shows that prefix to have been in universal use at
one time. The 11th prefix _-Lu-_ seems to be descended from an older form,
_Ndu-_. Its commonest type is _Lu-_, but it sometimes loses the _L_ and
becomes _U-_, and in the more archaic dialects is usually pronounced _Du-_
or _Ru-_. It is also _Nu-_ in one or two languages. The 12th prefix
(_Tu-_), always used in a diminutive sense, disappears in many of these
languages. Where met with it is generally _Tu-_ or _To-_, but sometimes the
initial _T_ becomes _R_ (_Ru-_, _Ro-_) or _L_ (_Lu-_, _Lo-_) or even _Y_
(_Yo-_), the concord following the fortunes of the prefix. The 13th prefix
(_Ka-_) is sometimes confused with the 7th (_Ki_) and merged into it and
vice versa. _Ka-_ very often takes the 8th prefix as a plural, more
commonly the 12th, sometimes the 14th. This prefix (_Ka-_) entirely
disappears in the north-western section of the Bantu languages. Bleek
thought that it persisted in the attenuated form of _E-_ so characteristic
of the Cameroon and northern Congo languages, but later investigations show
this _E-_ to be a reduction of _Ki-_ (_Ke-_) the 7th prefix. The 14th
prefix _Bu-_ is very persistent, but frequently loses its initial letter
_B_, which is either softened into _V_ or _W_, or disappears altogether,
the prefix becoming _U-_ or _O-_ or _Ow-_. Sometimes this prefix becomes
palatized into _By-_ or even _T[vs]-_ (_C-_). The concord follows suit. The
15th prefix, _Ku-_, occasionally loses its initial _K_ or softens into _Hu_
or [Greek: chu] or strengthens into _Gu_. Its concord under these
circumstances sometimes remains in the form of _Ku-_. The 16th, _Pa-_,
prefix is one of the most puzzling in its distribution and its phonetic
changes. A very large number of the Bantu languages in the north, east and
west have a dislike to the consonant P, which they frequently transmute
into an aspirate (_H_), or soften into _V_, _W_, or _F_, or simply drop
out. There is too much evidence in favour of this prefix having been
originally _Pa-_ or _Mpa-pa_ to enable us to give it any other form in
reconstructing the Bantu mother-tongue. Yet in the most archaic Bantu
dialects to the north of the Victoria Nyanza it is nowhere found in the
form of _Pa-_. It is either _Ha-_ (and _Ha-_ changes eastward into _Sa-_!)
or _Wa-_.[15] But for its existence in this shape in the language of Uganda
one might almost be led to think that the 16th locative prefix began as
_Ha-_, and by some process without a parallel changed in the east and south
to the form of _Pa-_. There are, however, a good many place names in the
northern part of the Uganda protectorate, in the region now occupied by
Nilotic negroes, which begin with _Pa-_. These place names would seem to be
of ancient Bantu origin in a [v.03 p.0362] land from which the Bantu
negroes were subsequently driven by Nilotic invaders from the north. They
may be relics therefore of a time before the _Pa-_ prefix of those regions
had changed to the modern form of _Ha-_. In S.W. and N.W. Cameroon the
initial _p_ of the 16th prefix reappears in two or three dialects; but
elsewhere in North-West Bantu Africa and in the whole basin of the Congo,
except the extreme south and south-east, the form _Pa-_ is never met with;
it is _Va-_, _Wa-_, _Ha-_, _Fa-_, or _A-_. In the _Secuana_ group of
dialects it is _Fa-_ or _Ha-_; in the Luyi language of Barotseland it
assumes the very rare form of _Ba-_, while the first prefix is weakened to
_A-_.

The pronouns in Bantu are in most cases traceable to some such general
forms as these:--

  I, me, my .....................ñgi, mi,[16] ñgu.

  Thou, thee, thy................gwe, ku; -ko.

  He or she, him, her, his, &c...a-, ya-, wa- (nom.); also ñgu-
                                 (which becomes yu-, ye-, wu-,
                                 hu-, u-); -mu (acc.); -ka,
                                 -kwe (poss.); there is also
                                 another form, ndi (nom. and
                                 poss.) in the Western Bantu
                                 sphere.

  We, us, our....................isu, swi-, tu-, ti-; -tu- (acc.);
                                 -itu (poss.).

  Ye, you, your..................inu, mu-, nyu-, nyi-, -ni;
                                 -nu, -mu- (acc.); -inu
                                 (poss.).

  They, them, their..............babo, ba-; -ba- (acc.); -babo
                                 (poss.).

The Bantu verb consists of a practically unchangeable root which is
employed as the second person singular of the imperative. To this root are
prefixed and suffixed various particles. These are worn-down verbs which
have become auxiliaries or they are reduced adverbs or prepositions. It is
probable (with one exception) that the building up of the verbal root into
moods and tenses has taken place independently in the principal groups of
Bantu languages, the arrangement followed being probably founded on a
fundamental system common to the original Bantu tongue. The exception
alluded to may be a method of forming the preterite tense, which seems to
be shared by a great number of widely-spread Bantu languages. This may be
illustrated by the Zulu _tanda_, love, which changes to _tandile_, have
loved, did love. This _-ile_ or _-ili_ may become in other forms _-idi_,
_didi_, _-ire_, _-ine_, but is always referable back to some form like
_-ili_ or _ile_, which is probably connected with the root _li_ or _di_
(_ndi_ or _ni_), which means "to be" or "exist." The initial _i_ in the
particle _-ile_ often affects the last or penultimate syllable of the
verbal root, thereby causing one of the very rare changes which take place
in this vocable. In many Bantu dialects the root _pa_ (which means to give)
becomes _pele_ in the preterite (no doubt from an original _pa-ile_).
Likewise the Zulu _tandile_ is a contraction of _tanda-ile_.

Two other frequent changes of the terminal vowel of the common root are
those from _a_ (which is almost invariably the terminal vowel of Bantu
verbs), (1), into _e_ to form the subjunctive tense, (2) into _i_ to give a
negative sense in certain tenses. With these exceptions the vowel _a_
almost invariably terminates verbal roots. The departures from this rule
are so rare that it might almost be included among the elementary
propositions determining the Bantu languages. And these instances when they
occur are generally due (as in Swahili) to borrowed foreign words (Arabic,
Portuguese or English).[17] This point of the terminal _a_ is the more
interesting because, by changing the terminal vowel of the verbal root and
possibly adding a personal prefix, one can make nouns from verbs. Thus in
Luganda _senyua_ is the verbal root for "to pardon." "A pardon" or
"forgiveness" is _ki-senyuo_. "A pardoner" might be _mu-senyui_. In Swahili
_patani[vs]a_ would be the verbal root for "conciliate"; _mpatana[vs]i_ is
a "conciliator," and _upatani[vs]o_ is "conciliation." Another marked
feature of Bantu verbs is their power of modifying the sense of the
original verbal root by suffixes, the affixion of which modifies the
terminal vowel and sometimes the preceding consonant of the root. Familiar
forms of these variations and their usual meanings are as follows:--

Supposing an original Bantu root, _tanda_, to love; this may become

  _tandwa_ . . . . . . . . . . to be loved.
  _tandeka_ or _tandika_ . . . to be lovable.
  _tandila_ or _tandela_[18] . to love for, with, or by some other person.
  _tandiza_ (or _-eza_)     \  to cause to love.
  _tandisa_ (or _-esa_)[19] /  to cause to love.
  _tandana_  . . . . . . . . . to love reciprocally.

The suffix _-aka_ or _-añga_ sometimes appears and gives a sense of
continuance to the verbal root. Thus _tanda_ may become _tandaka_ in the
sense of "to continue loving."[20]

The negative verbal particle in the Bantu languages may be traced back to
an original _ka_, _ta_ or _sa_, _ki_, _ti_ or _si_ in the Bantu
mother-tongue. Apparently in the parent language this particle had already
these alternative forms, which resemble those in some West African Negro
languages. In the vast majority of the Bantu dialects at the present day,
the negative particle in the verb (which nearly always coalesces with the
pronominal particle) is descended from this _ka_, _ta_ or _sa_, _ki_, _ti_
or _si_, assuming the forms of _ka_, _ga_, _ñga_, _sa_, _ta_, _ha_, _a_,
_ti_, _si_, _hi_, &c. It has coalesced to such an extent in some cases with
the pronominal particle that the two are no longer soluble, and it is only
by the existence of some intermediate forms (as in the _Kongo_ language)
that we are able to guess at the original separation between the two.
Originally the negative particle _ka_, _sa_, &c., was joined to the
pronominal particles, thus:--

  _Ka-ngi_ .................... not I.
    (Therefore _Ka-ngi tanda_ = not I love.)
  _Ka-ku_ or _ka-wu_ .......... not thou.
  _Ka-a_ ...................... not he, she.
  _Ka-tu_ ..................... not we.
  _Ka-nu_ ..................... not ye.
  _Ka-ba_ ..................... not they.

In like manner _sa_ would become _sa-ngi_, _sa-wu_, &c. But very early in
the history of Bantu languages _ka-ngi_, or _sa-ngi_, became contracted
into _kai_, _sai_, and finally, _ki_, _si_; _ka-ku_ or _ka-wu_ into _ku_;
and _kaa_ or _saa_ have always been _ka_ or _sa_. Sometimes in the modern
languages the negative particle (such as _ti_ or _si_) is used without any
vestige of a pronoun being attached to it, and is applied indifferently to
all the persons. Occasionally this particle has fallen out of use, and the
negative is expressed (1) by stress or accent; (2) by suffix (traceable to
a root _-pe_ or _-ko_) answering to the French _pas_, and having the same
sense; and (3) by the separate employment of an adverb. If not a few Bantu
languages, the verb used in a negative sense changes its terminal _-a_ to
_-i_. The subjunctive is very frequently formed by changing the terminal
_-a_ to _-e_: thus, tanda = love; -tand_e_ = may love.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--_A Comparative Grammar of South African Languages_ (in two
parts, left unfinished), by Dr W. I. Bleek (London, 1869); _A Sketch of the
Modern Languages of Africa_, by R. N. Cust (1882); _Comparative Grammar of
the South African Bantu Languages_, by Father J. Torrend (1894; mainly
composed on a study of the languages of the Central Zambezi, interesting,
but erroneous in some deductions, and incomplete). In Sir H. H. Johnston's
_The Kilimanjaro Expedition_ (1884), _British Central Africa_ (1898), and
_The Uganda Protectorate_ (1902-1904), there are illustrative vocabularies;
and in _George Grenfell and the Congo_ (1908) the Congo groups of Bantu
speech are carefully classified, also the Fernandian and Cameroon. In the
numerous essays of Carl Meinhof on the original structure of the Bantu
mother-speech, and on existing languages in East and South-East Africa, in
the _Mittheilungen des Seminärs für Orientalische Sprachen_, Berlin (also
issued separately through Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1899), and also in his
_Grundzüge einer vergleichenden Grammatik der Bantusprachen_ (Berlin,
1906), a vast amount of valuable information has been collected, but
Meinhof's deductions therefrom are not in every case in accord with those
of other authorities. The _Swahili-English Dictionary_, by Dr L. Krapf
(London, 1882), contains a mass of not well-sorted but invaluable
information concerning the Swahili language as spoken on the coast of East
Africa, especially regarding many words now becoming obsolete. A similar
mine of information is to be found in _An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of the
Manañja_ (Mang'anja) _Language of British Central Africa_, by the Rev.
D. C. Scott (1891). Other admirable works are the _Dictionary of the Congo
Language_, by the Rev. Holman Bentley (1891), and _The Folklore of Angola_,
and a _Grammar of Kimbundu_, by Dr. Heli Chatelain. The many handbooks and
vocabularies written and published by Bishop Steere on the languages of the
East African coast-lands are of great importance to the student, especially
as they give forms of the prefixes now passing out of use. The
_Introductory Handbook of the Yao Language_, by the Rev. Alexander
Hetherwick, illustrates very fully that peculiar and important member of
the East African group. Vocabularies of various Congo languages have been
compiled by Dr. A. Sims; more important works on this subject have been
published by the Rev. W. H. Stapleton (_Comparative Handbook of Congo
Languages_), and by Rev. John Whitehead (_Grammar and Dictionary of the
Bobangi Language_ (London, 1899). E. Torday has illustrated the languages
of the Western Congo basin (_Kwango_, _Kwilu_, northern _Kasai_) in the
_Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute_. There is a treatise on
the _Lunda_ language of the southwestern part of the Belgian Congo, in
Portuguese, by Henrique de Carvalho, who also in his _Ethnographia da
Expedicaõ portugueza [v.03 p.0363] ao Muata Yanvo_ goes deeply into Bantu
language questions. The _Duala_ language of Cameroon, has been illustrated
by the Baptist missionary Saker in his works published about 1860, and
since 1900 by German missionaries and explorers (such as Schuler). The
German work on the Duala language is mostly published in the _Mittheilungen
des Seminärs für Orientalische Sprachen_ (Berlin); see also Schuler's
_Grammatik des Duala_. The Rev. S. Koelle, in his _Polyglotta Africana_,
published in 1851, gave a good many interesting vocabularies of the almost
unknown north-west Bantu borderland, as well as of other forms of Bantu
speech of the Congo coast and Congo basin. J. T. Last, in his _Polyglotta
Africana Orientalis_, has illustrated briefly many of the East African
dialects and languages, some otherwise touched by no one else. He has also
published an excellent grammar of the _Kaguru_ language of the East African
highlands (Usagara). The fullest information is now extant regarding the
languages of _Uganda_ and _Unyoro_, in works by the missionaries of the
Church Missionary Society (Pilkington, Blackledge, Hattersley, Henry Duta
and others). Mr Crabtree, of the same mission, has collected information
regarding the _Masaba_ dialects of Elgon, and these have also been
illustrated by Mr C. W. Hobley, and by Sir H. H. Johnston (_Uganda
Protectorate_), and privately by Mr S. A. Northcote. Mr A. C. Madan has
published works on the _Swahili_ language and on the little-known _Senga_
of Central Zambezia and _Wisa_ of North-East Rhodesia (Oxford University
Press). Jacottet (Paris, 1902) has in his _Grammaire Subiya_ provided an
admirable study of the _Subiya_ and _Luyi_ languages of Barotseland, and in
1907, Edwin W. Smith (Oxford University Press) brought out a _Handbook of
the Ila Language_ (Mashukulumbwe). The Rev. W. Govan Robertson is the
author of a complete study of the _Bemba_ language. Mrs Sydney Hinde has
illustrated the dialects of _Kikuyu_ and _Kamba_. F. Van der Burgt has
published a _Dictionary of Kirundi_ (the language spoken at the north end
of Tanganyika). _Oci-herero_ of Damaraland has chiefly been illustrated by
German writers, old and new; such as Dr Kolbe and Dr P. H. Brincker. The
northern languages of this Herero group have been studied by members of the
American Mission at Bailundu under the name of _Umbundu_. Some information
on the languages of the south-western part of the Congo basin and those of
south-eastern Angola may be found in the works of Capello and Ivens and of
Henrique de Carvalho and Commander V. L. Cameron. The British, French and
German missionaries have published many dictionaries and grammars of the
different _Secuana_ dialects, notable amongst which is John Brown's
_Dictionary of Secuana_ and Meinhof's _Study of the T[vs]i-venda_. The
grammars and dictionaries of Zulu-Kaffir are almost too numerous to
catalogue. Among the best are Maclaren's _Kafir Grammar_ and Roberts' _Zulu
Dictionary_. The works of Boyce, Appleyard and Bishop Colenso should also
be consulted. Miss A. Werner has written important studies on the Zulu
click-words and other grammatical essays and vocabularies of the Bantu
languages in the _Journal of the African Society_ between 1902 and 1906.
The Tebele dialect of Zulu has been well illustrated by W. A. Elliott in
his _Dictionary of the Tebele and Shuna languages_ (London, 1897). The
_Ronga_ (_Tonga_, _Si-gwamba_, _Hlengwe_, &c.) are dealt with in the
_Grammaire Ronga_ (Lausanne, 1896) of Henri Junod. Bishop Smyth and John
Mathews have published a vocabulary and short grammar of the _Xilenge_
(Shilenge) language of Inhambane (_S.P.C.R._, 1902). The journal
_Anthropos_ (Vienna) should also be consulted.

(H. H. J.)

[1] _Bantu_ (literally _Ba-ntu_) is the most archaic and most widely spread
term for "men," "mankind," "people," in these languages. It also indicates
aptly the leading feature of this group of tongues, which is the governing
of the unchangeable root by prefixes. The syllable _-ntu_ is nowhere found
now standing alone, but it originally meant "object," or possibly "person."
It is also occasionally used as a relative pronoun--"that," "that which,"
"he who." Combined with different prefixes it has different meanings. Thus
(in the purer forms of Bantu languages) _muntu_ means "a man," _bantu_
means "men," _kintu_ means "a thing," _bintu_ "things," _kantu_ means "a
little thing," _tuntu_ "little things," and so on. This term _Bantu_ has
been often criticized, but no one has supplied a better, simpler
designation for this section of Negro languages, and the name has now been
definitely consecrated by usage.

[2] In Luganda and other languages of Uganda and the Victoria Nyanza, and
also in Runyoro on the Victoria Nile, the word for "fowl" is _enkoko_. In
Ki-Swahili of Zanzibar it is _kuku_. In Zulu it is _inkuku_. In some of the
Cameroon languages it is _lokoko_, _ngoko_, _ngok_, and on the Congo it is
_nkogo_, _nsusu_. On the Zambezi it is _nkuku_; so also throughout the
tribes of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, and most dialects of South Africa.

[3] From this statement are excepted those tongues classified as
"semi-Bantu." In some languages of the Lower Niger and of the Gold Coast
the word for "fowl" is generally traceable to a root _kuba_. This form
_kuba_ also enters the Cameroon region, where it exists alongside of
_-koko_. _Kuba_ may have arisen independently, or have been derived from
the Bantu _kuku_.

[4] Whence the many _nyanza_, _nyanja_, _nyasa_, _mwanza_, of African
geography.

[5] In using the forms Uganda, Unyoro, the writer accepts the popular
mis-spelling. These countries should be called Buganda and Bunyoro, and
their languages Luganda and Runyoro.

[6] It is an important and recently discovered fact (delineated in the work
of the Baptist missionaries and of the Austrian traveller Dr. Franz
Thonner) that the Congo at its northern and north-eastern bend, between the
Rubi river and Stanley Falls, lies outside the Bantu field. The _Bondonga_
and _Wamanga_ languages are not Bantu. They are allied to the _Mbuba-Momfu_
of the Ituri and Nepoko, and also to the _Mundu_ of the Egyptian Sudan. The
Mundu group extends westward to the Ubangi river, as far south as 3° 30' N.
See _George Grenfell and the Congo_, by Sir Harry Johnston; and _Dans la
Grande Forêt de l'Afrique équatoriale_, by Franz Thonner (1899).

[7] These features are characteristic of almost all the Negro languages of
Africa.

[8] This does not preclude the _aspiration_ of consonants, or the
occasional local change of a palatal into a guttural.

[9] As already mentioned, a somewhat similar concord is also present as
regards the _suffixes_ of the Fula and the Kiama (_Tem_) languages in
Western Africa, and as regards the _prefixes_ of the Timne language of
Sierra Leone; it exists likewise in Hottentot and less markedly in many
Aryan, Semitic and Hamitic tongues.

[10] An apparent but not a real exception to this rule is in the second
person plural of the imperative mood, where an abbreviated form of the
pronoun is _affixed_ to the verb. Other phases of the verb may be
occasionally emphasized by the repetition of the governing pronoun at the
end.

[11] The full hypothetical forms of the prefixes as joined with definite
articles--_Ñgumu_, _Mbaba_, _Ñgimi_, _Ñgama_ and so on--are added in
brackets. Forms very like these are met with still in the Mt. Elgon
languages (Group No. 3) and in _Subiya_ group (No. 32).

[12] This is prominently met with in East Africa, and also in the various
Bechuana dialects of Central South Africa, where it takes the form of _ñ_
at the end of words.

[13] Or perhaps _ñga-ba-ntu_ (afterwards _ña-ba-_, _aba-_); the form
_ñgabantu_ is actually met with in Zulu-Kaffir: also _ñgumuntu_.

[14] Likewise _ba-_ may have meant "two" (Bantu root _Bali_ = two); a dual
first and then a plural.

[15] _Wa-_ in Luganda. In Lusoga (north coast of Victoria Nyanza) _Wa-_
becomes _[Gamma]a_ (_Gha_).

[16] _Mi_ is possibly a softening of _ñgi_, _ñi_; _ñgi_ becomes in some
dialects _nji_, _ndi_, _ni_ or _mbi_; there is in some of the coast
Cameroon languages, and in the north-eastern Congo, a word _mbi_, _mba_ for
"I," "me," which seems to be borrowed from the Sudanian Mundu tongues. The
possessive pronoun for the first person is devired from two forms, _-ami_
and _-añgi_ (_-am_, _-añgu_, _-anji_, _-ambi_, &c.).

[17] An exception to this rule is the verbal particle _li_ or _di_, which
means "to be."

[18] Or _-ira_, _-era_.

[19] This form may also appear as _[vs]a_, as for instance _aka_--to be on
fire becomes _a[vs]a_, to set on fire.

[20] In choosing this common root _tanda_, and applying it to the above
various terminations, the writer is not prepared to say that it is
associated with all of them in any one Bantu language. Although _tanda_ is
a common verb in Zulu, it has not in Zulu _all_ these variations, and in
some other language where it may by chance exhibit all the variations its
own form is changed to _londa_ or _randa_.

BANVILLE, THÉODORE FAULLAIN DE (1823-1891), French poet and miscellaneous
writer, was born at Moulins in the Bourbonnais, on the 14th of March 1823.
He was the son of a captain in the French navy. His boyhood, by his own
account, was cheerlessly passed at a lycée in Paris; he was not harshly
treated, but took no part in the amusements of his companions. On leaving
school with but slender means of support, he devoted himself to letters,
and in 1842 published his first volume of verse (_Les Cariatides_), which
was followed by _Les Stalactites_ in 1846. The poems encountered some
adverse criticism, but secured for their author the approbation and
friendship of Alfred de Vigny and Jules Janin. Henceforward Banville's life
was steadily devoted to literary production and criticism. He printed other
volumes of verse, among which the _Odes funambulesques_ (Alençon, 1857)
received unstinted praise from Victor Hugo, to whom they were dedicated.
Later, several of his comedies in verse were produced at the Théâtre
Français and on other stages; and from 1853 onwards a stream of prose
flowed from his industrious pen, including studies of Parisian manners,
sketches of well-known persons (_Camées parisiennes_, &c.), and a series of
tales (_Contes bourgeois_, _Contes héroïques_, &c.), most of which were
republished in his collected works (1875-1878). He also wrote freely for
reviews, and acted as dramatic critic for more than one newspaper.
Throughout a life spent mainly in Paris, Banville's genial character and
cultivated mind won him the friendship of the chief men of letters of his
time. He was also intimate with Frédérick-Lemaître and other famous actors.
In 1858 he was decorated with the legion of honour, and was promoted to be
an officer of the order in 1886. He died in Paris on the 15th of March
1891, having just completed his sixty-eighth year. Banville's claim to
remembrance rests mainly on his poetry. His plays are written with
distinction and refinement, but are deficient in dramatic power; his
stories, though marked by fertility of invention, are as a rule
conventional and unreal. Most of his prose, indeed, in substance if not in
manner, is that of a journalist. His lyrics, however, rank high. A careful
and loving student of the finest models, he did even more than his greater
and somewhat older comrades, Victor Hugo, Alfred de Musset and Théophile
Gautier, to free French poetry from the fetters of metre and mannerism in
which it had limped from the days of Malherbe. In the _Odes funambulesques_
and elsewhere he revived with perfect grace and understanding the _rondeau_
and the _villanelle_, and like Victor Hugo in _Les Orientales_, wrote
_pantoums_ (pantuns) after the Malay fashion. He published in 1872 a _Petit
traité de versification française_ in exposition of his metrical methods.
He was a master of delicate satire, and used with much effect the difficult
humour of sheer bathos, happily adapted by him from some of the early
folk-songs. He has somewhat rashly been compared to Heine, whom he
profoundly admired; but if he lacked the supreme touch of genius, he
remains a delightful writer, who exercised a wise and sound influence upon
the art of his generation.

Among his other works may be mentioned the poems, _Idylles prussiennes_
(1871), and _Trente-six ballades joyeuses_ (1875); the prose tales, _Les
Saltimbanques_ (1853); _Esquisses parisiennes_ (1859) and _Contes
féeriques_; and the plays, _Le Feuilleton d'Aristophane_ (1852),
_Gringoire_ (1866), and _Deidamia_ (1876).

See also J. Lemaître, _Les Contemporains_ (first series, 1885);
Sainte-Beuve, _Causeries du lundi_, vol. xiv.; Maurice Spronck, _Les
Artistes littéraires_ (1889).

(C.)

BANYAN, or BANIAN (an Arab corruption, borrowed by the Portuguese from the
Sanskrit _vanij_, "merchant"), the _Ficus Indica_, or _Bengalensis_, a tree
of the fig genus. The name was originally given by Europeans to a
particular tree on the Persian Gulf beneath which some Hindu "merchants"
had built a pagoda. In Calcutta the word was once generally applied to a
native broker or head clerk in any business or private house, now usually
known as sircar. _Bunya_, a corruption of the word common in Bengal
generally, is usually applied to the native grain-dealer. Early writers
sometimes use the term generically for all Hindus in western India.
_Banyan_ was long Anglo-Indian for an undershirt, in allusion to the body
garment of the Hindus, especially the Banyans.

_Banyan days_ is a nautical slang term. In the British navy there were
formerly two days in each week on which meat formed no part of the men's
rations. These were called banyan days, in allusion to the vegetarian diet
of the Hindu merchants. _Banyan hospital_ also became a slang term for a
hospital for animals, in reference to the Hindu's humanity and his dislike
of taking the life of any animal.

BAOBAB, _Adansonia digitata_ (natural order _Bombaceae_), a native of
tropical Africa, one of the largest trees known, its stem reaching 30 ft.
in diameter, though the height is not great. It has a large woody fruit,
containing a mucilaginous pulp, with a pleasant cool taste, in which the
seeds are buried. The bark yields a strong fibre which is made into ropes
and woven into cloth. The wood is very light and soft, and the trunks of
living trees are often excavated to form houses. The name of the genus was
given by Linnaeus in honour of Michel Adanson, a celebrated French botanist
and traveller.

BAPHOMET, the imaginary symbol or idol which the Knights Templars were
accused of worshipping in their secret rites. The term is supposed to be a
corruption of _Mahomet_, who in several medieval Latin poems seems to be
called by this name. J. von Hammer-Purgstall, in his _Mysterium Baphometis
relevatum, &c._, and _Die Schuld der Templer_, revived the old charge
against the Templars. The word, according to his interpretation, signifies
the baptism of _Metis_, or of fire, and is, therefore, connected with the
impurities of the Gnostic Ophites (_q.v._). Additional [v.03 p.0364]
evidence of this, according to Hammer-Purgstall, is to be found in the
architectural decorations of the Templars' churches.

An elaborate criticism of Hammer-Purgstall's arguments was made in the
_Journal des Savans_, March and April 1819, by M. Raynouard, a well-known
defender of the Templars. (See also Hallam, _Middle Ages_, c. i. note 15.)

BAPTISM. The Gr. words [Greek: baptismos] and [Greek: baptisma] (both of
which occur in the New Testament) signify "ceremonial washing," from the
verb [Greek: baptizô], the shorter form [Greek: baptô] meaning "dip"
without ritual significance (_e.g._ the finger in water, a robe in blood).
That a ritual washing away of sin characterized other religions than the
Christian, the Fathers of the church were aware, and Tertullian notices, in
his tract _On Baptism_ (ch. v.), that the votaries of Isis and Mithras were
initiated _per lavacrum_, "through a font," and that in the _Ludi
Apollinares et Eleusinii_, _i.e._ the mysteries of Apollo and Eleusis, men
were baptized (_tinguntur_, Tertullian's favourite word for baptism), and,
what is more, baptized, as they presumed to think, "unto regeneration and
exemption from the guilt of their perjuries." "Among the ancients," he
adds, "anyone who had stained himself with homicide went in search of
waters that could purge him of his guilt."

The texts of the New Testament relating to Christian baptism, given roughly
in chronological order, are the following:--

A.D. 55-60, Rom. vi. 3, 4; 1 Cor. i. 12-17, vi. 11, x. 1-4, xii. 13, xv.
29; Gal. iii. 27.

A.D. 60-65, Col. ii. 11, 12; Eph. iv. 5, v. 26.

A.D. 60-70, Mark x. 38, 39.

A.D. 80-90, Acts i. 5, ii. 38-41, viii. 16, 17, x. 44-48, xix. 1-7, xxii.
16; 1 Pet. iii. 20, 21; Heb. x. 22.

A.D. 90-100, John iii. 3-8, iii. 22, iii. 26, iv. 1, 2.

Uncertain, Matt, xxviii. 18-20; Mark xvi. 16.

The baptism of John is mentioned in the following:--

A.D. 60-70, Mark i. 1-11.

A.D. 80-90, Matt. iii. 1-16:; Luke iii. 1-22, vii. 29, 30; Acts i. 22, x.
37, xiii. 24, xviii. 25, xix. 3, 4.

A.D. 90-100, John i. 25-33, iii. 23, x. 40.

It is best to defer the question of the origin of Christian baptism until
the history of the rite in the centuries which followed has been sketched,
for we know more clearly what baptism became after the year 100 than what
it was before. And that method on which a great scholar[1] insisted when
studying the old Persian religion is doubly to be insisted on in the study
of the history of baptism and the cognate institution, the eucharist,
namely, to avoid equally "the narrowness of mind which clings to matters of
fact without rising to their cause and connecting them with the series of
associated phenomena, and the wild and uncontrolled spirit of comparison,
which, by comparing everything, confounds everything."

Our earliest detailed accounts of baptism are in the _Teaching of the
Apostles_ (c. 90-120) and in Justin Martyr.

The _Teaching_ has the following:--

1. Now concerning baptism, thus baptize ye: having spoken beforehand all
these things, baptize into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the
Holy Spirit, in living water.

2. But if thou hast not living water, baptize into other water; if thou
canst not in cold, in warm.

3. But if thou hast not either, pour water upon the head thrice, in the
name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.

4. Now before the baptism, let him that is baptizing and him that is being
baptized fast, and any others who can; but thou biddest him who is being
baptized to fast one or two days before.

The "things spoken beforehand" are the moral precepts known as the two
ways, the one of life and the other of death, with which the tract begins.
This body of moral teaching is older than the rest of the tract, and may go
back to the year A.D. 80.

Justin thus describes the rite in ch. lxi. of his first _Apology_, (c.
140):--

"I will also relate the manner in which we dedicated ourselves to God when
we had been made new through Christ. As many as are persuaded and believe
that what we teach and say is true, and undertake to be able to live
accordingly, are instructed to pray and entreat God with fasting, for the
remission of their sins that are past, we praying and fasting with them.
Then they are brought by us where there is water, and are regenerated in
the same manner in which we were ourselves regenerated. For in the name of
God, the Father and Lord of the universe, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ
and of the Holy Spirit, they then receive the washing with water."

In the sequel Justin adds:--

"There is pronounced over him who chooses to be born again, and has
repented of his sins, the name of God the Father and Lord of the universe,
he who leads to the laver the person that is to be washed calling Him by
this name alone. For no one can utter the name of the ineffable God, and
this washing is called Illumination (Gr. [Greek: phôtismos]), because they
who learn these things are illuminated in their understandings. And in the
name of Jesus Christ, who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, and in the
name of the Holy Ghost, who through the prophets foretold all things about
Jesus, he who is illuminated is washed."

In ch. xiv. of the dialogue with Trypho, Justin asserts, as against Jewish
rites of ablution, that Christian baptism alone can purify those who have
repented. "This," he says, "is the water of life. But the cisterns which
you have dug for yourselves are broken and profitless to you. For what is
the use of that baptism which cleanses the flesh and body alone? Baptize
the soul from wrath, from envy and from hatred; and, lo! the body is pure."

In ch. xliii. of the same dialogue Justin remarks that "those who have
approached God through Jesus Christ have received a circumcision, not
carnal, but spiritual, after the manner of Enoch."

In after ages baptism was regularly called illumination. Late in the 2nd
century Tertullian describes the rite of baptism in his treatise _On the
Resurrection of the Flesh_, thus:

1. The flesh is washed, that the soul may be freed from stain.

2. The flesh is anointed, that the soul may be consecrated.

3. The flesh is sealed (_i.e._ signed with the cross), that the soul also
may be protected.

4. The flesh is overshadowed with imposition of hands, that the soul also
may be illuminated by the Spirit.

5. The flesh feeds on the body and blood of Christ, that the soul also may
be filled and sated with God.

6. He also mentions elsewhere that the neophytes, after baptism, were given
a draught of milk and honey. (The candidate for baptism, we further learn
from his tract _On Baptism_, prepared himself by prayer, fasting and
keeping of vigils.)

Before stepping into the font, which both sexes did quite naked, the
neophytes had to renounce the devil, his pomps and angels. Baptisms were
usually conferred at Easter and in the season of Pentecost which ensued,
and by the bishop or by priests and deacons commissioned by him.

Such are the leading features of the rite in Tertullian, and they reappear
in the 4th century in the rites of all the orthodox churches of East and
West; Tertullian testifies that the Marcionites observed the particulars
numbered one to six, which must therefore go back at least to the year 150.
About the year 300, those desirous of being baptized were (a) admitted to
the catechumenate, giving in their names to the bishop. (b) They were
subjected to a scrutiny and prepared, as to-day in the western churches the
young are prepared for confirmation. The catechetic course included
instruction in monotheism, in the folly of polytheism, in the Christian
scheme of salvation, &c. (c) They were again and again exorcized, in order
to rid them of the lingering taint of the worship of demons. (d) Some days
or even weeks beforehand they had the creed recited to them. They might not
write it down, but learned it by heart and had to repeat it just before
baptism. This rite was called in the West the _traditio_ and _redditio_ of
the symbol. The Lord's Prayer was communicated with similar solemnity in
the West [v.03 p.0365] (_traditio precis_). The creed given in Rome was the
so-called Apostles' Creed, originally compiled as we now have it to exclude
Marcionites. In the East various other symbols were used. (e) There
followed an act of unction, made in the East with the oil of the
catechumens blessed only by the priest, in the West with the priest's
saliva applied to the lips and ears. The latter was accompanied by the
following formula: "Effeta, that is, be thou opened unto odour of
sweetness. But do thou flee, O Devil, for the judgment of God is at hand."
(f) Renunciation of Satan. The catechumens turned to the west in
pronouncing this; then turning to the east they recited the creed. (g) They
stepped into the font, but were not usually immersed, and the priest
recited the baptismal formula over them as he poured water, generally
thrice, over their heads. (h) They were anointed all over with chrism or
scented oil, the priest reciting an appropriate formula. Deacons anointed
the males, deaconesses the females. (i) They put on white garments and
often baptismal wreaths or chaplets as well. In some churches they had worn
cowls during the catechumenate, in sign of repentance of their sins. (j)
They received the sign of the cross on the brow; the bishop usually dipped
his thumb in the chrism and said: "In name of Father, Son and Holy Ghost,
peace be with thee." In laying his hands on their heads the bishop in many
places, especially in the West, called down upon them the sevenfold spirit.
(k) The first communion followed, with milk and honey added. (l) Usually
the water in the font was exorcized, blessed and chrism poured into it,
just before the catechumen entered it. (m) Easter was the usual season of
baptism, but in the East Epiphany was equally favoured. Pentecost was
sometimes chosen. We hear of all three feasts being habitually chosen in
Jerusalem early in the 4th century, but fifty years later baptisms seem to
have been almost confined to Easter. The preparatory fasts of the
catechumens must have helped to establish the Lenten fast, if indeed they
were not its origin.

Certain features of baptism as used during the earlier centuries must now
be noticed. They are the following:--(1) Use of fonts; (2) Status of
baptizer; (3) Immersion, submersion or aspersion; (4) Exorcism; (5)
Baptismal formula and trine immersion; (6) The age of baptism; (7)
Confirmation; (8) _Disciplina arcani_; (9) Regeneration; (10) Relation to
repentance; (11) Baptism for the dead; (12) Use of the name; (13) Origin of
the institution; (14) Analogous rites in other religions.

1. _Fonts._--The New Testament, the _Didach[=e]_, Justin, Tertullian and
other early sources do not enjoin the use of a font, and contemplate in
general the use of running or living water. It was a Jewish rule that in
ablutions the water should run over and away from the parts of the body
washed. In acts of martyrdom, as late as the age of Decius, we read of
baptisms in rivers, in lakes and in the sea. In exceptional cases it
sufficed for a martyr to be sprinkled with his own blood. But a martyr's
death in itself was enough. Nearchus (_c._ 250) quieted the scruples of his
unbaptized friend Polyeuctes, when on the scaffold he asked if it were
possible to attain salvation without baptism, with this answer: "Behold, we
see the Lord, when they brought to Him the blind that they might be healed,
had nothing to say to them about the holy mystery, nor did He ask them if
they had been baptized; but this only, whether they came to Him with true
faith. Wherefore He asked them, Do ye believe that I am able to do this
thing?"

Tertullian (_c._ 200) writes (_de Bapt._ iv.) thus: "It makes no difference
whether one is washed in the sea or in a pool, in a river or spring, in a
lake or a ditch. Nor can we distinguish between those whom John baptized
(_tinxit_) in the Jordan and those whom Peter baptized in the Tiber." The
custom of baptizing in the rivers when they are annually blessed at
Epiphany, the feast of the Lord's baptism, still survives in Armenia and in
the East generally. Those of the Armenians and Syrians who have retained
adult baptism use rivers alone at any time of year.

The church of Tyre described by Eusebius (_H.E._ x. 4) seems to have had a
font, and the church order of Macarius, bishop of Jerusalem (_c._ 311-335),
orders the font to be placed in the same building as the altar, behind it
and on the right hand; but the same order lays down that a font is not
essential in cases of illness for "the Holy Spirit is not hindered by want
of a vessel."

2. _Status of Baptizer._--Ignatius (_Smyrn._ viii.) wrote that it is not
lawful to baptize or hold an _agap[=e]_ (Lord's Supper) without the bishop.
So Tertullian (_de Bapt._ xvii.) reserves the right of admitting to baptism
and of conferring it to the _summus sacerdos_ or bishop, Cyprian (_Epist._
lxxiii. 7) to bishops and priests. Later canons continued this restriction;
and although in outlying parts of Christendom deacons claimed the right,
the official churches accorded it to presbyters alone and none but bishops
could perform the confirmation or seal. In the Montanist churches women
baptized, and of this there are traces in the earliest church and in the
Caucasus. Thus St Thekla baptized herself in her own blood, and St Nino,
the female evangelist of Georgia, baptized king Mirian (see "Life of Nino,"
_Studia Biblica_, 1903). In cases of imminent death a layman or a woman
could baptize, and in the case of new-born children it is often necessary.

3. _Immersion or Aspersion._--The _Didach[=e]_ bids us "pour water on the
head," and Christian pictures and sculptures ranging from the 1st to the
10th century represent the baptizand as standing in the water, while the
baptizer pours water from his hand or from a bowl over his head. Even if we
allow for the difficulty of representing complete submersion in art, it is
nevertheless clear that it was not insisted on; nor were the earliest
fonts, to judge from the ruins of them, large and deep enough for such an
usage. The earliest literary notices of baptism are far from conclusive in
favour of submersion, and are often to be regarded as merely rhetorical.
The rubrics of the MSS., it is true, enjoin total immersion, but it only
came into general vogue in the 7th century, "when the growing rarity of
adult baptism made the Gr. word [Greek: baptizô]) patient of an
interpretation that suited that of infants only."[2] The _Key of Truth_,
the manual of the old Armenian Baptists, archaically prescribes that the
penitent admitted into the church shall advance on his knees into the
middle of the water and that the elect one or bishop shall then pour water
over his head.

4. _Exorcism._--The _Didach[=e]_ and Justin merely prescribe fasting, the
use of which was to hurry the exit of evil spirits who, in choosing a
_nidus_ or tenement, preferred a well-fed body to an emaciated one,
according to the belief embodied in the interpolated saying of Matt. xvii.
21: "This kind (of demon) goeth not forth except by prayer and fasting."
The exorcisms tended to become longer and longer, the later the rite. The
English prayer-book excludes them, as it also excludes the renunciation of
the devil and all his angels, his pomps and works. These elements were old,
but scarcely primitive; and the archaic rite of the _Key of Truth_ (see
PAULICIANS) is without them. Basil, in his work _On the Holy Spirit_,
confesses his ignorance of how these and other features of his baptismal
rite had originated. He instances the blessing of the water of baptism, of
the oil of anointing and of the baptizand himself, the use of anointing him
with oil, trine immersion, the formal renunciation of Satan and his angels.
All these features, he says, had been handed down in an unpublished and
unspoken teaching, in a silent and sacramental tradition.

5. _The Baptismal Formula._--The trinitarian formula and trine immersion
were not uniformly used from the beginning, nor did they always go
together. The _Teaching of the Apostles_, indeed, prescribes baptism in the
name of Father, Son and Holy Ghost, but on the next page speaks of those
who have been baptized into the name of the Lord--the normal formula of the
New Testament. In the 3rd century baptism in the name of Christ was still
so widespread that Pope Stephen, in opposition to Cyprian of Carthage,
declared it to be valid. From Pope Zachariah (_Ep._ x.) we learn that the
Celtic missionaries in baptizing omitted one or more persons of the
Trinity, and this was one of the reasons why the church of Rome
anathematized [v.03 p.0366] them; Pope Nicholas, however (858-867), in the
_Responsa ad consulta Bulgarorum_, allowed baptism to be valid _tantum in
nomine Christi_, as in the Acts. Basil, in his work _On the Holy Spirit_
just mentioned, condemns "baptism into the Lord alone" as insufficient.
Baptism "into the death of Christ" is often specified by the Armenian
fathers as that which alone was essential.

Ursinus, an African monk (in Gennad. _de Scr. Eccl._ xxvii.), Hilary (_de
Synodis_, lxxxv.), the synod of Nemours (A.D. 1284), also asserted that
baptism into the name of Christ alone was valid. The formula of Rome is, "I
baptize thee in the name of Father and Son and Holy Spirit." In the East,
"so-and-so, the servant of God, is baptized," &c. The Greeks add _Amen_
after each person, and conclude with the words, "Now and ever and to aeons
of aeons, amen."

We first find in Tertullian trine immersion explained from the triple
invocation, _Nam nec semel, sed ter, ad singula nomina in personas singulas
tinguimur_: "Not once, but thrice, for the several names, into the several
persons, are we dipped" (_adv. Prax._ xxvi.). And Jerome says: "We are
thrice plunged, that the one sacrament of the Trinity may be shown forth."
On the other hand, in numerous fathers of East and West, _e.g._ Leo of
Rome, Athanasius, Gregory of Nyssa, Theophylactus, Cyril of Jerusalem and
others, trine immersion was regarded as being symbolic of the three days'
entombment of Christ; and in the Armenian baptismal rubric this
interpretation is enjoined, as also in an epistle of Macarius of Jerusalem
addressed to the Armenians (_c._ 330). In Armenian writers this
interpretation is further associated with the idea of baptism into the
death of Christ.

Trine immersion then, as to the origin of which Basil confesses his
ignorance, must be older than either of the rival explanations. These are
clearly aetiological, and invented to explain an existing custom, which the
church had adopted from its pagan medium. For pagan lustrations were
normally threefold; thus Virgil writes (_Aen._ vi. 229): _Ter socios pura
circumtulit unda._ Ovid (_Met._ vii. 189 and _Fasti_, iv. 315), Persius
(ii. 16) and Horace (_Ep._ i. 1. 37) similarly speak of trine lustrations;
and on the last mentioned passage the scholiast Acro remarks: "He uses the
words _thrice purely_, because people in expiating their sins, plunge
themselves in thrice." Such examples of the ancient usage encounter us
everywhere in Greek and Latin antiquity.

6. _Age of Baptism._--In the oldest Greek, Armenian, Syrian and other rites
of baptism, a service of giving a Christian (_i.e._ non-pagan) name, or of
sealing a child on its eighth day, is found. According to it the priest,
either at the door of the church or at the home, blessed the infant, sealed
it (this not in Armenia) with the sign of the cross on its forehead, and
prayed that in due season ([Greek: en kairôi euthetôi]) or at the proper
time (Armenian) it may enter the holy Catholic church. This rite announces
itself as the analogue of Christ's circumcision.

On the fortieth day from birth another rite is prescribed, of _churching_
the child, which is now taken _into_ the church with its mother. Both are
blessed by the clergy, whose petition now is that God "may preserve this
child and cause him to grow up by the unseen grace of His power and made
him worthy _in due season_ of the washing of baptism." As the first rite
corresponds to the circumcision and naming of Jesus, so does the second to
His presentation in the temple. These two rites really begin the
catechumenate or period of instruction in the faith and discipline of the
church. It depended on the individual how long he would wait for
initiation. Whenever he felt inclined, he gave in his name as a candidate.
This was usually done at the beginning of Lent. The bishop and clergy next
examined the candidates one by one, and ascertained from their neighbours
whether they had led such exemplary lives as to be worthy of admission. In
case of strangers from another church certificates of character had to be
produced. If a man seemed unworthy, the bishop dismissed him until another
occasion, when he might be worthier; but if all was satisfactory he was
admitted, in the West as a _competens_ or _asker_, in the East as a [Greek:
phôtizomenos], _i.e._ one in course of being illumined. Usually two
sponsors made themselves responsible for the past life of the candidate and
for the sincerity of his faith and repentance. The essential thing was that
a man should come to baptism of his own free will and not under compulsion
or from hope of gain. Macarius of Jerusalem (_op. cit._) declares that the
grace of the spirit is given in answer to our prayers and entreaties for
it, and that even a font is not needful, but only the wish and desire for
grace. Tertullian, however, in his work _On Baptism_, holds that even that
is not always enough. Some girls and boys at Carthage had asked to be
baptized, and there were some who urged the granting of their request on
the score that Christ said: "Forbid them not to come unto Me" (Matt. xix.
14), and: "To each that asketh thee give" (Luke vi. 30). Tertullian replies
that "We must beware of giving the holy thing to dogs and of casting pearls
before swine." He cites 1 Tim. v. 22: "Lay not on thy hands hastily, lest
thou share in another's sins." He denies that the precedents of the eunuch
baptized by Philip or of Paul baptized _without hesitation_ by Simon (to
which the other party appealed) were relevant. He dwells on the risk run by
the sponsors, in case the candidates for whose purity they went bail should
fall into sin. It is more expedient, he concludes, to delay baptism. Why
should persons still in the age of innocence be in a hurry to be baptized
and win remission of sins? Let people first learn to feel their need of
salvation, so that we may be sure of giving it only to those who really
want it. Especially let the unmarried postpone it. The risks of the age of
puberty are extreme. Let people have married or be anyhow steeled in
continence before they are admitted to baptism. It would appear from the
homilies of Aphraates (_c._ 340) that in the Syriac church also it was
usual to renounce the married relation after baptism. Cyril of Jerusalem,
in his _Catecheses_, insists on "the longing for the heavenly polity, on
the goodly resolution and attendant hope" of the catechumen (_Pro. Cat._
ch. 1.). If the resolution be not genuine, the bodily washing, he says,
profits nothing. "God asks for nothing else except a goodly determination.
Say not: How can my sins be wiped out? I tell thee, by willing, by
believing" (ch. viii.). So again (_Cat._ 1. ch. iii.) "God gives not his
holy treasures to the dogs; but where he sees the goodly determination,
there he bestows the seed of salvation.... Those then who would receive the
spiritual saving seal have need of a determination and will of their
own.... Grace has need of faith on our part." In Jerusalem, therefore,
whither believers flocked from all over Christendom to be buried, the
official point of view as late as A.D. 350 was entirely that of Tertullian.
Tertullian's scruples were not long respected in Carthage, for in Cyprian's
works (_c._ 250.) we already hear of new-born infants being baptized. In
the same region of Africa, however, Monica would not let her son Augustine
be baptized in boyhood, though he clamoured to be. She was a conservative.
In the Greek world thirty was a usual age in the 4th century for persons to
be baptized, in imitation of Christ. It is still the age preferred by the
Baptists of Armenia. But it was often delayed until the deathbed, for the
primitive idea that mortal sins committed after baptism were sins against
the Holy Spirit and unforgivable, still influenced men, and survived among
the Cathars up to the 14th century. The fathers, however, of the 4th
century emphasized already the danger of deferring the rite until men fall
into mortal sickness, when they may be unconscious or paralysed or
otherwise unable to profess their faith and repentance, or to swallow the
viaticum. Gregory Theologus therefore (_c._ 340) suggests the age of three
years as suitable for baptism, because by then a child is old enough, if
not to understand the questions put to him, at any rate to speak and make
the necessary responses. Gregory sanctions the baptism of infants only
where there is imminent danger of death. "It is better that they should be
sanctified without their own sense of it than that they pass away unsealed
and uninitiated." And he justifies his view by this, that circumcision,
which foreshadowed the Christian seal ([Greek: sphragis]), was imposed on
the eighth day on those who as yet had no use of reason. He also urges the
analogue of "the anointing of the doorposts, which preserved the first-born
by things that have no sense." On such grounds was justified the transition
of a baptism which began as a spontaneous act of [v.03 p.0367]
self-consecration into an _opus operatum_. How long after this it was
before infant baptism became normal inside the Byzantine church, we do not
exactly know, but it was natural that mothers should insist on their
children being liberated from Satan and safeguarded from demons as soon as
might be. The change came more quickly in Latin than in Greek Christendom,
and very slowly indeed in the Armenian and Georgian churches. Augustine's
insistence on original sin, a doctrine never quite accepted in his sense in
the East, hurried on the change.

7. _Confirmation._--In the West, however, the sacrament has been saved from
becoming merely magical by the rite of confirmation or of reception of the
Spirit being separated from the baptism of regeneration and reserved for an
adult age. The English church confirms at fifteen or sixteen; the Roman
rather earlier. The catechetic course, which formerly preceded the complete
rite, now intervenes between its two halves; and the sponsors who formerly
attested the worthiness of the candidate and received him up as _anadochi_
out of the font, have become god-parents, who take the baptismal vows
vicariously for infants who cannot answer for themselves. In the East, on
the contrary, the complete rite is read over the child, who is thus
confirmed from the first. The Roman church already foreshadowed the change
and gave a peculiar salience to confirmation as early as the 3rd century,
when it decreed that persons already baptized by heretics, but reverting to
the church should not be baptized over again, but only have hands laid on
them. It was otherwise in Africa and the East. Here they insisted in such
cases on a repetition of the entire rite, baptism and confirmation
together. The Cathars (_q.v._) of the middle ages discarded water baptism
altogether as being a Jewish rite, but retained the laying on of hands with
the _traditio precis_ as sufficient initiation. This they called the
spiritual baptism, and interpreted Matt. xxviii. 19, as a command to
practise it, and not water baptism.

8. _Disciplina arcani._--The communication to the candidates of the Creed
and Lord's Prayer was a solemn rite. Cyril of Jerusalem, in his instruction
of the catechumens, urges them to learn the Creed by heart, but not write
it down. On no account must they divulge it to unbaptized persons. The same
rule already meets us in Clement of Alexandria before the year 200. In time
this rule gave rise to what is called the _Disciplina arcani._ Following
the fashion of the pagan mysteries in which men were only permitted to gaze
upon the sacred objects after minute lustrations and scrupulous
purifications, Christian teachers came to represent the Creed, Lord's
Prayer and Lord's Supper as mysteries to be guarded in silence and never
divulged either to the unbaptized or to the pagans. And yet Justin Martyr,
Tertullian and other apologists of the 2nd century had found nothing to
conceal from the eye and ear of pagan emperors and their ministers. In the
3rd century this love of mystification reached the pitch of hiding even the
gospels from the unclean eyes of pagans. Probably Mgr. Pierre Battifol is
correct in supposing that the _Disciplina arcani_ was more or less of a
make-believe, a bit of belletristic trifling on the part of the
over-rhetorical Fathers of the 4th and 5th centuries.[3] It is in them that
the atmosphere of mystery attains a maximum of intensity. They clearly felt
themselves called upon to out-trump the pagan _Mystae_. Yet it is
inconceivable that men and women should spend years, even whole lives, as
catechumens within the pale of the church, and really remain ignorant all
the time of the Trinitarian Epiclesis used in baptism, of the Creed, and
above all of the Lord's Prayer. Wherever the _Disciplina arcani_, _i.e._
the obligation to keep secret the formula of the threefold name, the creed
based on it and the Lord's Prayer, was taken seriously, it was akin to the
scruple which exists everywhere among primitive religionists against
revealing to the profane the knowledge of a powerful name or magic formula.
The name of a deity was often kept secret and not allowed to be written
down, as among the Jews.

9. _Regeneration._--The idea of regeneration seldom occurs in the New
Testament, and perhaps not at all in connexion with baptism; for in the
conversation with Nicodemus, John iii. 3-8, the words "of water and" in v.
5 offend the context, spiritual re-birth alone being insisted upon in vv.
3, 6, 7 and 8; moreover, Justin Martyr, who cites v. 5, seems to omit them.
Nor is there any mention of water in ch. i. 13, where, according to the
oldest text, Christ is represented as having been born or begotten not of
blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.

In 1 Pet. i. 3, it is said of the saints that God the Father begat them
anew unto a living hope by the resurrection of Jesus, and in v. 23 that
they have been begotten again, not of corruptible seed, but of
incorruptible through the word of God. But here again it is not clear that
the writer has in view water baptism or any rite at all as the means and
occasion of regeneration. In the conversation with Nicodemus we seem to
overhear a protest against the growing tendency of the last years of the
1st century to substitute formal sacraments for the free afflatus of the
spirit, and to "crib, cabin and confine" the gift of prophecy.

The passage where re-birth is best put forward in connexion with baptism is
Luke iii. 22, where ancient texts, including the _Gospel of the Hebrews_,
read, "Thou art my beloved Son, this day have I begotten Thee." These words
were taken in the sense that Jesus was then re-born of the Spirit an
adoptive Son of God and Messiah; and with this reading is bound up the
entire adoptionist school of Christology. It apparently underlies the
symbolizing of Christ as a fish in the art of the catacombs, and in the
literature of the 2nd century. Tertullian prefaces with this idea his work
on baptism. _Nos pisciculi secundum_ [Greek: ICHTHUN] _nostrum Jesum
Christum in aqua nascimur_. "We little fishes, after the example of our
_Fish_ Jesus Christ, are _born_ in the water." So about the year 440 the
Gaulish poet Orientius wrote of Christ; _Piscis natus aquis, auctor
baptismatis ipse est_. "A fish born of the waters is himself originator of
baptism."

But before his time and within a hundred years of Tertullian this symbolism
in its original significance had become heretical, and the orthodox were
thrown back on another explanation of it. This was that the word [Greek:
ICHTHUS] is made up of the letters which begin the Greek words meaning
"Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour." An entire mythology soon grew up
around the idea of re-birth. The font was viewed as the womb of the virgin
mother church, who was in some congregations, for example, in the early
churches of Gaul, no abstraction, but a divine aeon watching over and
sympathizing with the children of her womb, the recipient even of hymns of
praise and humble supplications. Other mythoplastic growths succeeded, one
of which must be noticed. The sponsors or _anadochi_, who, after the
introduction of infant baptism came to be called god-fathers and
god-mothers, were really in a spiritual relation to the children they took
up out of the font. This relation was soon by the canonists identified with
the blood-tie which connects real parents with their offspring, and the
corollary drawn that children, who in baptism had the same god-parent, were
real brothers and sisters, who might not marry either each the other or
real children of the said god-parent. The reformed churches have set aside
this fiction, but in the Latin and Eastern churches it has created a
distinct and very powerful marriage taboo.

10. _Relation to Repentance._--Baptism justified the believer, that is to
say, constituted him a saint whose past sins were abolished. Sin after
baptism excluded the sinner afresh from the divine grace and from the
sacraments. He fell back into the status of a catechumen, and it was much
discussed from the 2nd century onwards whether he could be restored to the
church at all, and, if so, how. A rite was devised, called _exhomologesis_,
by which, after a fresh term of repentance, marked by austerities more
strict than any Trappist monk imposes on himself to-day, the persons lapsed
from grace could re-enter the church. In effect this rite was a repetition
of baptism, the water of the font alone being omitted. Such restoration
could in the earlier church only be effected once. A second lapse from the
state of grace entailed perpetual exclusion from the sacraments, the means
of salvation. As has been remarked above, the terror of post-baptismal sin
and the fact that only one restoration was allowable influenced many as
late as the 4th century to remain catechumens all their lives, and, like
Constantine, to receive baptism on the [v.03 p.0368] deathbed alone. The
same scruples endured among the medieval Cathars. (See PENANCE and
NOVATIANUS.)

11. _Baptism for the Dead._--Paul, in 1 Cor. xv. 29, glances at this as an
established practice familiar to those whom he addresses. Three
explanations are possible: (1) The saints before they were quickened or
made alive together with Christ, were dead through their trespasses and
sins. In baptism they were buried with Christ and rose, like Him, from the
dead. We can, therefore, paraphrase v. 29 thus: "Else what shall they do
which are baptized for their dead selves?" &c. It is in behalf of his own
sinful, _i.e._ dead self, that the sinner is baptized and receives eternal
life. (2) Contact with the dead entailed a pollution which lasted at least
a day and must be washed away by ablutions, before a man is re-admitted to
religious cult. This was the rule among the Jews. Is it possible that the
words "for the dead" signify "because of contact with the dead"? (3) Both
these explanations are forced, and it is more probable that by a
make-believe common in all religions, and not unknown in the earliest
church, the sins of dead relatives, about whose salvation their survivors
were anxious, were transferred into living persons, who assumed for the
nonce their names and were baptized in their behalf, so in vicarious wise
rendering it possible for the sins of the dead to be washed away. The
Mormons have this rite. The idea of transferring sin into another man or
into an animal, and so getting it purged through him or it, was widespread
in the age of Paul and long afterwards. Chrysostom says that the
substitutes were put into the beds of the deceased, and assuming the voice
of the dead asked for baptism and remission of sins. Tertullian and others
attest this custom among the followers of Cerinthus and Marcion.

12. _Use of the Name._--In Acts iv. 7, the rulers and priests of the Jews
summon Peter and inquire by what power or in what name he has healed the
lame. Here a belief is assumed which pervades ancient magic and religion.
Only so far as we can get away from the modern view that a person's name is
a trifling accident, and breathe the atmosphere which broods over ancient
religions, can we understand the use of the name in baptisms, exorcisms,
prayers, purifications and consecrations. For a name carried with it, for
those who were so blessed as to be acquainted with it, whatever power and
influence its owner wielded in heaven or on earth or under the earth. A vow
or prayer formulated in or through a certain name was fraught with the
prestige of him whose name it was. Thus the psalmist addressing Jehovah
cries (Ps. liv. 1): "Save me, O God, by Thy name, and judge me in Thy
might." And in Acts iii. 16, it is the name itself which renders strong and
whole the man who believed therein. In Acts xviii. 15, the Jews assail Paul
because he has trusted and appealed to the name of a Messiah whom they
regard as an overthrower of the law; for Paul believed that God had
invested Jesus with a name above all names, potent to constrain and
overcome all lesser powers, good or evil, in heaven or earth or under
earth. Baptism then in the name or through the name or into the name of
Christ placed the believer under the influence and tutelage of Christ's
personality, as before he was in popular estimation under the influence of
stars and horoscope. Nay, more, it imported that personality into him,
making him a limb or member of Christ's body, and immortal as Christ was
immortal. Nearly all the passages in which the word _name_ is used in the
New Testament become more intelligible if it be rendered _personality_. In
Rev. xi. 13, the revisers are obliged to render it by _persons_, and should
equally have done so in iii. 4: "Thou hast a few _names_ (i.e. persons) in
Sardis which did not defile their garments." (See CONSECRATION.)

13. _Origin of Christian Baptism._--When it is asked, Was this a
continuance of the baptism of John or was it merely the baptism of
proselytes?--a distinction is implied between the two latter which was not
always real. In relation to the publicans and soldiers who, smitten with
remorse, sought out John in the wilderness, his baptism was a purification
from their past and so far identical with the proselyte's bath; but so far
as it raised them up to be children unto Abraham and filled them with the
Messianic hope, it advanced them further than that bath could do, and
assured them of a place in the kingdom of God, soon to be
established--this, without imposing circumcision on them; for the ordinary
proselyte was circumcised as well as baptized. For the Jews, however, who
came to John, his baptism could not have the significance of the
proselyte's baptism, but rather accorded with another baptism undergone by
Jews who wished to consecrate their lives by stricter study and practice of
the law. So Epictetus remarks that he only really understands Judaism who
knows "the baptized Jew" ([Greek: ton bebammenon]). We gather from Acts
xix. 4, that John had merely baptized in the name of the coming Messiah,
without identifying him with Jesus of Nazareth. The apostolic age supplied
this identification, and the normal use during it seems to have been "into
Christ Jesus," or "in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ," or "of Jesus
Christ" simply, or "of the Lord Jesus Christ." Paul explains these formulas
as being equivalent to "into the death of Christ Jesus," as if the faithful
were in the rite raised from death into everlasting life. The _likeness_ of
the baptismal ceremony with Christ's death and resurrection ensured a real
union with him of the believer who underwent the ceremony, according to the
well-known principle _in sacris simulata pro veris accipi_.

But opinion was still fluid about baptism in the apostolic age, especially
as to its connexion with the descent of the Spirit. The Spirit falls on the
disciples and others at Pentecost without any baptism at all, and Paul
alone of the apostles was baptized. So far was the afflatus of the Spirit
from being conditioned by the rite, that in Acts x. 44 ff., the gift of the
Spirit was first poured out upon the Gentiles who heard the word preached
so that they spoke with tongues, and it was only after these manifestations
that they were baptized with water in the name of Jesus Christ at the
instance of Peter. We can divine from this passage why Paul was so eager
himself to preach the word, and left it to others to baptize.

But as a rule the repentant underwent baptism in the name of Christ Jesus,
and washed away their sins before hands were laid upon them unto reception
of the Spirit. Apollos, who only knew the baptism of John (Acts xviii. 24),
needed only instruction in the prophetic _gnosis_ at the hands of Priscilla
and Aquila in order to become a full disciple. On the other hand, in Acts
xix. 1-7, twelve disciples, for such they were already accounted, who had
been baptized into John's baptism, _i.e._ into the name of him that should
follow John, but had not even heard of the Holy Spirit, are at Paul's
instance re-baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus. Then Paul himself
lays hands on them and the Holy Ghost comes upon them, so that they speak
with tongues and prophecy. Not only do we hear of these varieties of
practice, but also of the laying on of hands together with prayer as a
substantive rite unconnected with baptism. The seven deacons were so
ordained. And this rite of laying on hands, which was in antiquity a
recognized way of transmitting the occult power or virtue of one man into
another, is used in Acts ix. 17, by Ananias, in order that Paul may recover
his sight and be filled with the Holy Ghost. Saul and Barnabas equally are
separated for a certain missionary work by imposition of hands with prayer
and fasting, and are so sent forth by the Holy Ghost. It was also a way of
healing the sick (Acts xxviii. 8), and as such accompanied by anointing
with oil (Jas. v. 14). The Roman church then had early precedents for
separating confirmation from baptism. It would also appear that in the
primitive age confirmation and ordination were one and the same rite; and
so they continued to be among the dissident believers of the middle ages,
who, however, often dropped the water rite altogether. (See CATHARS.) More
than one sect of the 2nd century rejected water baptism on the ground that
knowledge of the truth in itself makes us free, and that external material
washing of a perishable body cannot contribute to the illumination of the
inner man, complete without it. St Paul himself recognizes (1 Cor. vii. 14)
that children, one of whose parents only is a believer, are _ipso facto_
not unclean, but _holy_. Even an unbelieving husband or wife is
_sanctified_ by a believing partner. If we remember the force of the words
[Greek: hagios hagiazô] (cf. 1 Cor. [v.03 p.0369] i. 2), here used of
children and parents, we realize how far off was St Paul from the positions
of Augustine.

The question arises whether Jesus Himself instituted baptism as a condition
of entry into the Messianic kingdom. The fourth gospel (iii. 22, and iv. 1)
asserts that Jesus Himself baptized on a greater scale than the Baptist,
but immediately adds that Jesus Himself baptized not, but only His
disciples, as if the writer felt that he had too boldly contradicted the
older tradition of the other gospels. Nor in these is it recorded that the
disciples baptized during their Master's lifetime; indeed the very contrary
is implied. There remain two texts in which the injunction to baptize is
attributed to Jesus, namely, Mark xvi. 16 and Matt. xxviii. 18-20. Of these
the first is part of an appendix headed "of Ariston the elder" in an old
Armenian codex, and taken perhaps from the lost compilations of Papias; as
to the other text, it has been doubted by many critics, _e.g._ Neander,
Harnack, Dr Armitage Robinson and James Martineau, whether it represents a
real utterance of Christ and not rather the liturgical usage of the region
in which the first gospel was compiled. The circumstance, unknown to these
critics when they made their conjectures, that Eusebius Pamphili, in nearly
a score of citations, substitutes the words "in My Name" for the words
"baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy
Ghost," renders their conjectures superfluous. Aphraates also in citing the
verse substitutes "and they shall believe in Me"--a paraphrase of "in My
Name." The first gospel thus falls into line with the rest of the New
Testament.

14. _Analogous Rites in other Religions_ (see also PURIFICATION).--The
Fathers themselves were the first to recognize that "the devil too had his
sacraments," and that the Eleusinian, Isiac, Mithraic and other _mystae_
used baptism in their rites of initiation. But it is not to be supposed
that the Christians borrowed from these or from any Gentile source any
essential features of their baptismal rites. Baptism was long before the
advent of Jesus imposed on proselytes, and existed inside Judaism itself.

It has been remarked that the developed ceremony of baptism, with its
threefold renunciation, resembles the ceremony of Roman law known as
_emancipatio_, by which the _patria potestas_ (or power of life and death
of the father over his son) was extinguished. Under the law of the XII.
Tables the father lost it, if he three times sold his child. This suggested
a regular procedure, according to which the father sold his son thrice into
_mancipium_, while after each sale the fictitious vendee enfranchized the
son, by _manumissio vindicta_, _i.e._ by laying his rod (_vindicta_) on the
slave and claiming him as free (_vindicatio in libertatem_). Then the owner
also laid his rod on the slave, declaring his intention to enfranchise him,
and the _praetor_ by his _addictor_ confirmed the owner's declaration. The
third _manumission_ thus gave to the son and slave his freedom. It is
possible that this common ceremony of Roman law suggested the triple
_abrenunciatio_ of Satan. Like the legal ceremony, baptism freed the
believer from one (Satan) who, by the mere fact of the believer's birth,
had power of death over him. And as the legal manumission dissolved a son's
previous agnatic relationships, so, too, the person baptized gave up father
and mother, &c., and became one of a society of brethren the bond between
whom was not physical but spiritual. The idea of adoption in baptism as a
son and heir of God was almost certainly taken by Paul from Roman law.

The ceremony of turning to the west three times with renunciation of the
Evil One, then to the east, is exactly paralleled in a rite of purification
by water common among the Malays and described by Skeat in his book on
Malay magic. If the Malay rite is not derived through Mahommedanism from
Christianity, it is a remarkable example of how similar psychological
conditions can produce almost identical rites.

The idea of spiritual re-birth, so soon associated with baptism, was of
wide currency in ancient religions. It is met with in Philo of Alexandria
and was familiar to the Jews. Thus the proselyte is said in the Talmud to
resemble a child and must bathe in the name of God. The Jordan is declared
in 2 Kings v. 10 to be a cleansing medium, and Naaman's cure was held to
pre-figure Christian baptism. Jerome relates that the Jew who taught him
Hebrew communicated to him a teaching of the Rabbi Baraciba, that the inner
man who rises up in us at the fourteenth year after puberty (_i.e._ at 29)
is better than the man who is born from the mother's womb.

In a Paris papyrus edited by Albr. Dieterich (Leipzig, 1903) under the
title of _Eine Mithrasliturgie_, an ancient mystic describes his re-birth
in impressive language. In a prayer addressed to "First birth of my birth,
first beginning (_or_ principle) of my beginning, first spirit of the
spirit in me," he prays "to be restored to his deathless birth (_genesis_),
albeit he is let and hindered by his underlying nature, to the end that
according to the pressing need and spur of his longing he may gaze upon the
deathless principle with deathless spirit, through the deathless water,
through the solid and the air; that he may be re-born through reason (_or_
idea), that he may be consecrated, and the holy spirit breathe in him, that
he may admire the holy fire, that he may behold the abyss of the Orient,
dread water, and that he may be heard of the quickening and circumambient
ether; for this day he is about to gaze on the revealed reality with
deathless eyes; a mortal born of mortal womb, he has been enhanced in
excellence by the might of the All-powerful and by the right hand of the
Deathless one," &c.

This is but one specimen of the pious ejaculations, which in the first
centuries were rising from the lips of thousands of _mystae_, in Egypt,
Asia Minor, Italy and elsewhere. The idea of re-birth was in the air; it
was the very keynote of all the solemn initiations and mysteries--Mythraic,
Orphic, Eleusinian--through which repentant pagans secured pardon and
eternal bliss. Yet there is not much evidence that the church directly
borrowed many of its ceremonies or interpretations from outside sources.
They for the most part originated among the believers, and not improbably
the outside cults borrowed as much from the church as it from them.

AUTHORITIES.--The following ancient works are recommended: Tertullian, _De
Baptismo_ (edition with introd. J. M. Lupton, 1909); Cyril of Jerusalem,
_Catecheses_; Basil, _De Spiritu Sancto; Constitutiones Apostolicae_;
Gregory Nazianzen, _Orat. 40_; Gregory Nyss., _Oratio in eos qui differunt
baptismum; Sacramentary_ of Serapion of Thmuis; Augustine, _De Baptismo
contra Donatistas_; Jac. Goar, _Rituale Graecorum_ (gives the current Greek
rites); F. C. Conybeare, _Rituale Armenorum_ (the oldest forms of Armenian
and Greek rites); Gerard G. Vossius, _De Baptismo_ (Amsterdam, 1648);
Edmond Martene, _De Ant. Ecclesiae Ritibus_ (gives Western rites) (Bassani,
1788). The modern literature is infinite; perhaps the most exhaustive works
are W. F. Höfling, _Das Sacrament der Taufe_ (Erlangen, 1859): Jos.
Bingham's _Antiquities_ (London, 1834), and W. Wall, _On Infant Baptism_
(London, 1707); J. Anrich, _Das antike Mysterienwesen_ (Göttingen, 1894),
details the corresponding rites of the Greek mysteries, also A. Dieterich,
_Eine Mithras Liturgie_ (Leipzig, 1903); J. C. Suicer, _Thesaurus, sub voce
[Greek: baptisma]_; Ad. Harnack, _Dogmengeschichte_ (Freiburg im Br. 1894);
L. Duchesne, _Origines du culte chrétien_ (Paris, 1898); Mgr. P. Batiffol,
_Etudes historiques_ (Paris, 1904); J. C. W. Augusti, _Denkwürdigkeiten_
(Leipzig, 1829-1831); _Monumenta Ecclesiae Liturgica_ by Dom Cabrol and Dom
Leclercq (Paris, 1902) (a summary of all liturgical passages given in the
early Fathers); Corblet, _Histoire du sacrement de baptême_ (2 vols. Paris,
1881-1882).

(F. C. C.)

[1] James Darmesteter, in "Introd. to the Vendidad," in the _Sacred Books
of the East_.

[2] Rogers' essay on Baptism and Christian Archaeology in _Studia Biblica_,
vol. v.

[3] _Études historiques, Essai sur Disc. arc._ (Paris 1902).

BAPTISTE, NICOLAS ANSELME (1761-1835), French actor, was born in Bordeaux
on the 18th of June 1761, the elder son of Joseph François Anselme, a
popular actor. His mother played leading parts in tragedy, and both his
parents enjoyed the protection of Voltaire and the friendship of Lekain. It
was probably under the auspices of the latter that Nicolas Anselme made his
first appearance as de Belloy in _Gaston et Bayard_; and shortly
afterwards, under the name of Baptiste, he made a contract to play young
lover parts at Arras, where he also appeared in opera and even in
pantomime. From Rouen, where he had three successful years, his reputation
spread to Paris and he was summoned to the new theatre which the comedian
Langlois-Courcelles had just founded, and where he succeeded, not only in
making an engagement for himself, but in bringing all his family, father,
mother, wife and brother. They were thus distinguished in the playbills:
Baptiste, _aîné_, Baptiste _père_, Baptiste _cadet_, Madame Baptiste
_mère_, Madame Baptiste _bru_. This resulted in the pun of calling a play
in which they all appeared _une pièce de baptistes_. Nicolas soon obtained
the public favour, specially in La Martellière's mediocre _Robert, chef de
[v.03 p.0370] brigands_, and as Count Almaviva, in Beaumarchais' _La Mère
coupable_. His success in this was so great that the directors of the
Théâtre de la République--who had already secured Talma, Dugazon and Madame
Vestris--hastened to obtain his services, and, in order to get him at once
(1793), paid the 20,000 francs forfeit which he was obliged to surrender on
breaking his contract. Later he, as well as his younger brother, became
_sociétaire_. Nicolas took all the leading parts in comedy and tragedy. As
he grew older his special _forte_ lay in noble fathers. After a brilliant
career of thirty-five years of uninterrupted service, he retired in 1828.
But, after the revolution of 1830, when the Théâtre Français was in great
straits, the brothers Baptiste came to the rescue, reappeared on the stage
and helped to bring back its prosperity. The elder died in Paris on the 1st
of December 1835. The younger brother, Paul Eustache Anselme, known as
BAPTISTE _cadet_ (1765-1839), was also a comedian of great talent, and had
a long and brilliant career at the Comédie Française, where he made his
_début_ in 1792 in _L'Amour et l'intérêt_.

BAPTISTERY (_Baptisterium_, in the Greek Church [Greek: phôtistêrion]), the
separate hall or chapel, connected with the early Christian Church, in
which the catechumens were instructed and the sacrament of baptism
administered. The name baptistery is also given to a kind of chapel in a
large church, which serves the same purpose. The baptistery proper was
commonly a circular building, although sometimes it had eight and sometimes
twelve sides, and consisted of an ante-room ([Greek: proaulios oikos])
where the catechumens were instructed, and where before baptism they made
their confession of faith, and an inner apartment where the sacrament was
administered. In the inner apartment the principal object was the baptismal
font ([Greek: kolumbêthra], or _piscina_), in which those to be baptized
were immersed thrice. Three steps led down to the floor of the font, and
over it was suspended a gold or silver dove; while on the walls were
commonly pictures of the scenes in the life of John the Baptist. The font
was at first always of stone, but latterly metals were often used.
Baptisteries belong to a period of the church when great numbers of adult
catechumens were baptized, and when immersion was the rule. We find little
or no trace of them before Constantine made Christianity the state
religion, _i.e._ before the 4th century; and as early as the 6th century
the baptismal font was built in the porch of the church and then in the
church itself. After the 9th century few baptisteries were built, the most
noteworthy of later date being those at Pisa, Florence, Padua, Lucca and
Parma. Some of the older baptisteries were very large, so large that we
hear of councils and synods being held in them. It was necessary to make
them large, because in the early Church it was customary for the bishop to
baptize all the catechumens in his diocese (and so baptisteries are
commonly found attached to the cathedral and not to the parish churches),
and also because the rite was performed only thrice in the year. (See
BAPTISM.) During the months when there were no baptisms the baptistery
doors were sealed with the bishop's seal. Some baptisteries were divided
into two parts to separate the sexes; sometimes the church had two
baptisteries, one for each sex. A fireplace was often provided to warm the
neophytes after immersion. Though baptisteries were forbidden to be used as
burial-places by the council of Auxerre (578) they were not uncommonly used
as such. Many of the early archbishops of Canterbury were buried in the
baptistery there. Baptisteries, we find from the records of early councils,
were first built and used to correct the evils arising from the practice of
private baptism. As soon as Christianity made such progress that baptism
became the rule, and as soon as immersion gave place to sprinkling, the
ancient baptisteries were no longer necessary. They are still in general
use, however, in Florence and Pisa. The baptistery of the Lateran must be
the earliest ecclesiastical building still in use. A large part of it
remains as built by Constantine. The central area, where is the basin of
the font, is an octagon around which stand eight porphyry columns, with
marble capitals and entablature of classical form; outside these are an
ambulatory and outer walls forming a larger octagon. Attached to one side,
towards the Lateran basilica, is a fine porch with two noble porphyry
columns and richly carved capitals, bases and entablatures. The circular
church of Santa Costanza, also of the 4th century, served as a baptistery
and contained the tomb of the daughter of Constantine. This is a remarkably
perfect structure with a central dome, columns and mosaics of classical
fashion. Two side niches contain the earliest known mosaics of
distinctively Christian subjects. In one is represented Moses receiving the
Old Law, in the other Christ delivers to St Peter the New Law--a charter
sealed with the X P monogram.

Another baptistery of the earliest times has recently been excavated at
Aquileia. Ruins of an early baptistery have also been found at Salona. At
Ravenna exist two famous baptisteries encrusted with fine mosaics, one of
them built in the middle of the 5th century, and the other in the 6th. To
the latter date also belongs a large baptistery decorated with mosaics at
Naples.

In the East the metropolitan baptistery at Constantinople still stands at
the side of the mosque which was once the patriarchal church of St Sophia;
and many others, in Syria, have been made known to us by recent researches,
as also have some belonging to the churches of North Africa. In France the
most famous early baptistery is St Jean at Poitiers, and other early
examples exist at Riez, Fréjus and Aix. In England, a detached baptistery
is known to have been associated with the cathedral of Canterbury.

See Hefele's _Concilien_, _passim_; Du Cange, _Glossary_, article
"Baptisterium"; Eusebius, _Hist. Eccl._ x. 4; Bingham's _Antiquities of the
Christian Church_, book xi.

(W. R. L.)

BAPTISTS, a body of Christians, distinguished, as their name imports, from
other denominations by the view they hold respecting the ordinance of
baptism (_q.v._). This distinctive view, common and peculiar to all
Baptists, is that baptism should be administered to believers only. The
mode of administration of the ordinance has not always been the same, and
some Baptists (_e.g._ the Mennonites) still practise baptism by pouring or
sprinkling, but among those who will here be styled _modern_ Baptists, the
mode of administration is also distinctive, to wit, immersion. It should,
however, be borne in mind that immersion is not peculiar to the modern
Baptists. It has always been recognized by Paedobaptists as a legitimate
mode, and is still practised to the exclusion of other modes by a very
large proportion of paedobaptist Christendom (_e.g._ the Orthodox Eastern
Church). We shall distinguish here between two main groups of Baptists in
Europe; the Anabaptists, now practically extinct, and the modern Baptists
whose churches are in nearly every European country and in all other
countries where white men reside.

I. THE ANABAPTISTS

The great spiritual movement of the 15th and 16th centuries had for its
most general characteristic, revolt against authority. This showed itself
not merely in the anti-papal reformation of Luther, but also in the
anti-feudal rising of the peasants and in a variety of anti-ecclesiastical
movements within the reformation areas themselves. One of the most notable
of these radical anti-ecclesiastical movements was that of the Zwickau
prophets, (Marcus Stübner, Nikolaus Storch and Thomas Münzer): the most
vigorous and notorious that of the Münster Anabaptists. Although they have
been called the "harbingers" of the Anabaptists, the characteristic
teaching of the Zwickau prophets was not Anabaptism. (See, however,
ANABAPTISTS.) For although Münzer repudiated infant baptism in theory, he
did not relinquish its practice, nor did he insist on the re-baptism of
believers. The characteristic teaching of the Zwickau movement, so closely
linked with the peasant rising, was the great emphasis laid upon the "inner
word." Divine revelation, said Münzer, was not received from the church,
nor from preaching, least of all from the dead letter of the Bible; it was
received solely and directly from the Spirit of God. It is this daring
faith in divine illumination that brings the Zwickau teachers most nearly
into touch with the Anabaptists. But if they are not typical of Anabaptism,
still less are the later representatives of the movement in the last sad
months at Münster.

The beginnings of the Anabaptist movement proper were in [v.03 p.0371]
Zürich, where Wilheld Reubli (1480-1554), Konrad Grebel (d. 1526), Felix
Manz (d. 1527) and Simon Strumpf separated from Zwingli and proposed to
form a separate church. They repudiated the use of force, advocated a
scriptural communism of goods, and asserted that Christians must always
exercise love and patience towards each other and so be independent of
worldly tribunals. But their most radical doctrine was the rejection of
infant baptism as unscriptural. They rapidly gained adherents, among whom
was Hans Brödli, pastor of Zollikon. Their refusal, however, to baptize
infants, and the formation of a separate church as the outcome of this
refusal, brought upon them the condemnation of Zwingli, and a number of
them were banished. This act of banishment, however, drove Jörg Blaurock,
Konrad Grebel and others to take the step which definitely instituted
"Anabaptism": they baptized one another and then partook of the Lord's
Supper together. This step took them much farther than the repudiation of
paedobaptism. It formed a new religious community, which sought to fashion
itself on the model of primitive Christianity, rejecting all tradition and
accretions later than New Testament records. Its members claimed to get
back to the simple church founded on brotherly love. The result was that
their numbers grew with astonishing rapidity, and scholarly saints like
Balthasar Hubmaier (_ca._ 1480-1528) and Hans Denck (_ca._ 1495-1527)
joined them. Hubmaier brought no new adherents with him, and in 1525
himself baptized 300 converts. This baptism, however, was not immersion.
Blaurock and Grebel baptized each other, and many adherents, kneeling
together in an ordinary room. Hubmaier baptized his 300 from one bucket.
The mode was sprinkling or pouring. In all this the Anabaptists had
maintained one central article of faith that linked them to the Zwickau
prophets, belief in conscience, religious feeling, or inner light, as the
sole true beginning or ground of religion; and one other article, held with
equal vigour and sincerity, that true Christians are like sheep among
wolves, and must on no account defend themselves from their enemies or take
vengeance for wrong done. Very soon this their faith was put to fiery test.
Not only were Catholics and Protestants opposed to them on doctrinal
grounds, but the secular powers, fearing that the new teaching was
potentially as revolutionary as Münzer's radicalism had been, soon
instituted a persecution of the Anabaptists. On the 7th of March 1526 the
Zürich Rath issued an edict threatening all who were baptized anew with
death by drowning, and in 1529 the emperor Charles V., at the diet of
Spires, ordered Anabaptists to be put to death with fire and sword without
even the form of ecclesiastical trial. A cruel persecution arose. Manz was
drowned at Zürich and Michael Sattler (_ca._ 1495-1527) burned to death
after torture in 1527; Hubmaier was burned in 1528 and Blaurock in 1529,
and Sebastian Franck (1499-1542) asserts that the number of slain was in
1530 already about 2000.

Two results followed from this persecution. First, the development of a
self-contained and homogeneous community was made impossible. No
opportunity for the adoption of any common confession was given. Only a few
great doctrines are seen to have been generally held by Anabaptists--such
as the baptism of believers only, the rejection of the Lutheran doctrine of
justification by faith as onesided and the simple practice of the breaking
of bread. This last, the Anabaptist doctrine of the Lord's Supper, was to
the effect that brothers and sisters in Christ should partake in
remembrance of the death of Christ, and that they should thereby renew the
bond of brotherly love as the basis of neighbourly life. In the second
place, the persecution deprived the Anabaptists of the noble leaders who
had preached non-resistance and at the same time provoked others to an
attitude of vengeance which culminated in the horrors of Münster. For
Melchior Hofmann (_ca._ 1498-1543 or 1544) having taken the Anabaptist
teaching to Holland, there arose in Haarlem a preacher of vengeance, Jan
Matthisson or Matthyszoon (Matthys) (d. 1534) by name, who, prophesying a
speedy end of the world and establishment of the kingdom of heaven,
obtained many adherents, and despatched Boekebinder and de Kniper to
Münster. Here the attempt was made to realise Matthisson's ideals. All who
did not embrace Anabaptism were driven from Münster (1533), and Bernt
Knipperdolling (_ca._ 1495-1536) became burgomaster. The town was now
besieged and Matthisson was killed early in 1534. John (Johann Bockelson)
of Leiden (1510-1536) took his place and the town became the scene of the
grossest licence and cruelty, until in 1535 it was taken by the besieging
bishop. Unhappily the Anabaptists have always been remembered by the crimes
of John of Leiden and the revelry of Münster. They should really be known
by the teaching and martyrdom of Blaurock, Grebel and Hubmaier, and by the
gentle learning and piety of Hans Denck--of whom, with many hundred others,
"the world was not worthy."

For the teaching of the Anabaptists, see ANABAPTISTS.

Reference has already been made to the reason why a common Anabaptist
confession was never made public. Probably, however, the earliest
confession of faith of any Baptist community is that given by Zwingli in
the second part of his _Elenchus contra Catabaptistas_, published in 1527.
Zwingli professes to give it entire, translating it, as he says, _ad
verbum_ into Latin. Whatever opinion may be held as to the orthodoxy of the
seven articles of the Anabaptists, the vehemence with which they were
opposed, and the epithets of abuse which were heaped upon the unfortunate
sect that maintained them, cannot fail to astonish those used to
toleration. Zwingli, who details these articles, as he says, that the world
may see that they are "fanatical, stolid, audacious, impious," can scarcely
be acquitted of unfairness in joining together two of them,--the fourth and
fifth,--thus making the article treat "of the avoiding of abominable
pastors in the church" (_Super devitatione abominabilium pastorum in
Ecclesia_), though there is nothing about pastors in the fourth article,
and nothing about abominations in the fifth, and though in a marginal note
he himself explains that the first two copies that were sent him read as he
does, but the other copies make two articles, as in fact they evidently
are. It is strange that the Protestant Council of Zürich, which had
scarcely won its own liberty, and was still in dread of the persecution of
the Romanists, should pass the decree which instituted the cruel
persecution of the Anabaptists.

After Münster had fallen the harassed remnants of the Anabaptists were
gathered together under Menno Simonis, who joined them in 1537. His
moderation and piety held in check the turbulence of the more fanatical
amongst them. He died in 1561 after a life passed amidst continual dangers
and conflicts. His name remains as the designation of the Mennonites
(_q.v._), who eventually settled in the Netherlands under the protection of
William the Silent, prince of Orange.

Of the introduction of Anabaptist views into England we have no certain
knowledge. Fox relates that "the registers of London make mention of
certain Dutchmen counted for Anabaptists, of whom ten were put to death in
sundry places in the realm, _anno 1535_; other ten repented and were
saved." In 1536 King Henry VIII. issued a proclamation together with
articles concerning faith agreed upon by Convocation, in which the clergy
are told to instruct the people that they ought to repute and take "the
Anabaptists' opinions for detestable heresies and to be utterly condemned."
Thomas Fuller (1608-1661) tells us from Stow's _Chronicles_ that, in the
year 1538, "four Anabaptists, three men and one woman, all Dutch, bare
faggots at Paul's Cross, and three days after a man and woman of their sect
was burnt in Smithfield." In the reign of Edward VI., after the return of
the exiles from Zürich, John Hooper (bishop of Gloucester and Worcester, d.
1555) writes to his friend Bullinger in 1549, that he reads "a public
lecture twice in the day to so numerous an audience that the church cannot
contain them," and adds, "the Anabaptists flock to the place and give me
much trouble." It would seem that at this time they were united together in
communities separate from the established Church. Latimer, in 1552, speaks
of them as segregating themselves from the company of other men. In the
sixth examination of John Philpot (1516-1555) in 1555 we are told that Lord
Riche said to him, "All heretics do boast of the Spirit of God, and every
one would have a church by himself, as Joan of Kent and the Anabaptists."
Philpot was imprisoned [v.03 p.0372] soon after Mary's accession in 1553;
and it is very pleasing to find, amidst the records of intense bitterness
and rancour which characterized these times, and with which Romanist and
Protestant alike assailed the persecuted Anabaptists, a letter of
Philpot's, to a friend of his, "prisoner the same time in Newgate," who
held the condemned opinions. His friend had written to ask his judgment
concerning the baptism of infants. Philpot in a long reply, whilst
maintaining the obligation of infant baptism, yet addresses his
correspondent as, "dear brother, saint, and fellow-prisoner for the truth
of Christ's gospel"; and at the close of his argument he says, "I beseech
thee, dear brother in the gospel, follow the steps of the faith of the
glorious martyrs in the primitive church, and of such as at this day follow
the same."

Many Anabaptist communities existed in England toward the end of the 16th
century, particularly in East Anglia, Kent and London. Their most notable
representative was Robert Cooke, but they were more notorious for heretical
views as to the Virgin Mary (see ANABAPTISTS) than for their
anti-paedobaptist position. It was for these views that Joan Boucher of
Kent was burnt in 1550. There is no doubt that these prepared the way for
the coming of the modern Baptists, but "the truth is that, while the
Anabaptists in England raised the question of baptism, they were almost
entirely a foreign importation, an alien element; and the rise of the
Baptist churches was wholly independent of them."

II. THE MODERN BAPTISTS

1. _Great Britain and Ireland._--If the Anabaptists of England were not the
progenitors of the modern Baptist church, we must look abroad for the
beginnings of that movement. Although there were doubtless many who held
Baptist views scattered among the Independent communities, it was not until
the time of John Smith or Smyth (d. 1612) that the modern Baptist movement
in England broke away from Brownism. Smyth was appointed preacher of the
city of Lincoln in 1600 as an ordained clergyman, but became a separatist
in 1605 or 1606, and, soon after, emigrated under stress of persecution
with the Gainsborough Independents to Amsterdam. With Thomas Helwys (_ca._
1560-_ca._ 1616) and Morton he joined the "Ancient" church there, but,
coming under Mennonite teaching in 1609, he separated from the
Independents, baptized himself (hence he is called the "Se-baptist"),
Helwys and others probably according to the Anabaptist or Mennonite fashion
of pouring. These then formed the first English Baptist Church which in
1611 published "a declaration of faith of English people remaining at
Amsterdam in Holland." The article relating to baptism is as
follows:--"That every church is to receive in all their members by baptism
upon the confession of their faith and sins, wrought by the preaching of
the gospel according to the primitive institution and practice. And
therefore churches constituted after any other manner, or of any other
persons, are not according to Christ's testament. That baptism or washing
with water is the outward manifestation of dying unto sin and walking in
newness of life; and therefore in no wise appertaineth to infants." They
held "that no church ought to challenge any prerogative over any other";
and that "the magistrate is not to meddle with religion, or matters of
conscience nor compel men to this or that form of religion." This is the
first known expression of absolute liberty of conscience in any confession
of faith.

Smyth died in Holland, but in 1612 Helwys returned to England with his
church and formed the first Baptist church worshipping on English soil. The
church met in Newgate Street, London, and was the origin of the "General"
Baptist denomination. Helwys and his followers were Arminians, repudiating
with heat the Calvinistic doctrine of predestination. They thus differed
from other Independents. "They also differed on the power of the magistrate
in matters of belief and conscience. It was, in short, from their little
dingy meeting house ... that there flashed out, first in England, the
absolute doctrine of Religious Liberty" (Prof. Masson). Leonard Busher, the
author of "Religious Peace: or a Plea for Liberty of Conscience," was a
member of this church.

The next great event in the history of the Baptists (though it should be
mentioned that the last execution for heresy in England by burning was that
of a Baptist, Edward Wightman, at Lichfield 1612) is the rise of the first
Calvinistic or Particular Baptist Church. This was the Jacob church in
Southwark, which numbered among its members John Lothropp or Lathrop (d.
1653), Praise-God Barbon (_ca._ 1596-1679), Henry Jessey (1601-1663),
Hanserd Knollys (_ca._ 1599-1691) and William Kiffin (1616-1701). It was
originally Independent but then became Baptist. From this six other
churches sprang, five of which were Baptist. Before the Jacob church,
however, had itself become Baptist, it dismissed from its membership a
group of its members (the church having grown beyond what was regarded as
proper limits) who, in 1633, became the first Particular Baptist Church.

Thus there were now in existence in England two sets of Baptists whose
origins were quite distinct and who never had any real intercourse as
churches. They differed in many respects. The General Baptists were
Arminian, owing to the influence of the Mennonite Anabaptists. The
Particular Baptists were Calvinist, springing as they did from the
Independents. But on the question of Baptism both groups, while they
utterly rejected the baptism of infants, were as yet unpledged to immersion
and rarely practised it. The development of their doctrine as to baptism
was marked along three lines of dispute:--(1) who is the proper
administrator of baptism? (2) who are the proper subjects? and (3) what is
the proper mode? Eventually agreement was reached, and in 1644 a Confession
of Faith was published in the names of the Particular Baptist churches of
London, now grown to seven, "commonly (though falsely) called Anabaptist."

The article on baptism is as follows:--"That baptism is an ordinance of the
New Testament given by Christ to be dispensed only upon persons professing
faith, or that are disciples, or taught, who, upon a profession of faith,
ought to be baptized." "The way and manner of dispensing this ordinance the
Scripture holds out to be dipping or plunging the whole body under water."
They further declare (particularly in order that they may avoid the charge
of being Anabaptists) that "a civil magistracy is an ordinance of God,"
which they are bound to obey. They speak of the "breathing time" which they
have had of late, and their hope that God would, as they say, "incline the
magistrates' hearts so for to tender our consciences as that we might be
protected by them from wrong, injury, oppression and molestation"; and then
they proceed: "But if God withhold the magistrates' allowance and
furtherance herein, yet we must, notwithstanding, proceed together in
Christian communion, not daring to give place to suspend our practice, but
to walk in obedience to Christ in the profession and holding forth this
faith before mentioned, even in the midst of all trials and afflictions,
not accounting our goods, lands, wives, children, fathers, mothers,
brethren, sisters, yea, and our own lives, dear unto us, so that we may
finish our course with joy; remembering always that we ought to obey God
rather than men." They end their confession thus: "If any take this that we
have said to be heresy, then do we with the apostle freely confess, that
after the way which they call heresy worship we the God of our fathers,
believing all things which are written in the Law and in the Prophets and
Apostles, desiring from our souls to disclaim all heresies and opinions
which are not after Christ, and to be stedfast, unmovable, always abounding
in the work of the Lord, as knowing our labour shall not be in vain in the
Lord." The "breathing time" was not of long continuance. Soon after the
Restoration (1660) the meetings of nonconformists were continually
disturbed and preachers were fined or imprisoned. One instance of these
persecutions will, perhaps, be more impressive than any general statements.
In the records of the Broadmead Baptist Church, Bristol, we find this
remark: "On the 29th of November 1685 our pastor, Brother Fownes, died in
Gloucester jail, having been kept there for two years and about nine months
a prisoner, unjustly and maliciously, for the testimony of Jesus and
preaching the gospel. He was a man of great learning, of a sound judgment,
an able preacher, having great knowledge in divinity, law, physic, &c.; a
bold and patient sufferer for the Lord Jesus and the gospel he preached."

[v.03 p.0373] With the Revolution of 1688, and the passing of the Act of
Toleration in 1689, the history of the persecution of Baptists, as well as
of other Protestant dissenters, ends. The removal of the remaining
disabilities such as those imposed by the Test and Corporation Acts
repealed in 1828, has no special bearing on Baptists more than on other
nonconformists. The ministers of the "three denominations of
dissenters,"--Presbyterians, Independents and Baptists,--resident in London
and the neighbourhood, had the privilege accorded to them of presenting on
proper occasions an address to the sovereign in state, a privilege which
they still enjoy under the name of "the General Body of Protestant
Dissenting Ministers of the three Denominations." The "General Body" was
not organized until 1727.

The Baptists, having had a double origin, continued for many years in two
sections--those who in accordance with Arminian views held the doctrine of
"General Redemption," and those who, agreeing with the Calvinistic theory,
held the doctrine of "Particular Redemption"; and hence they were known
respectively as General Baptists and Particular Baptists. In the 18th
century many of the General Baptists gradually adopted the Arian, or,
perhaps, the Socinian theory; whilst, on the other hand, the Calvinism of
the Particular Baptists in many of the churches became more rigid, and
approached or actually became Antinomianism. In 1770 the orthodox portion
of the General Baptists, mainly under the influence of Dan Taylor (b.
1738), formed themselves into a separate association, under the name of the
General Baptist New Connection, since which time the "Old Connection" has
gradually merged into the Unitarian denomination. By the beginning of the
19th century the New Connection numbered 40 churches and 3400 members. The
old General Baptists "still keep up a shadowy legal existence." Towards the
end of the 18th century many of the Particular Baptist churches became more
moderate in their Calvinism, a result largely attributable to the writings
of Andrew Fuller. Up to this time a great majority of the Baptists admitted
none either to membership or communion who were not baptized, the principal
exception being the churches in Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire, founded or
influenced by Bunyan, who maintained that difference of opinion in respect
to water baptism was no bar to communion. At the beginning of the 19th
century this question was the occasion of great and long-continued
discussion, in which the celebrated Robert Hall (1764-1831) took a
principal part. The practice of mixed communion gradually spread in the
denomination. Still more recently many Baptist churches have considered it
right to admit to full membership persons professing faith in Christ, who
do not agree with them respecting the ordinance of baptism. Such churches
justify their practice on the ground that they ought to grant to all their
fellow-Christians the same right of private judgment as they claim for
themselves. It may not be out of place here to correct the mistake, which
is by no means uncommon, that the terms Particular and General as applied
to Baptist congregations were intended to express this difference in their
practice, whereas these terms related, as has been already said, to the
difference in their doctrinal views. The difference now under consideration
is expressed by the terms "strict" and "open," according as communion (or
membership) is or is not confined to persons who, according to their view,
are baptized.

In 1891, largely under the influence of Dr John Clifford, a leading General
Baptist, the two denominations, General and Particular, were united, there
being now but one body called "The Baptist Union of Great Britain and
Ireland." This Union, however, is purely voluntary, and some Baptist
churches, a few of them prosperous and powerful, hold aloof from their
sister churches so far as organization is concerned.

There are other Baptist bodies outside the Baptist Union beside certain
isolated churches. Throughout England there are many "Strict" Baptist
churches which really form a separate denomination. For the most part they
are linked together according to geographical distribution in associations,
such as the "Metropolitan Association of Strict Baptist Churches," and the
"Suffolk and Norfolk Association of Particular Baptist Churches." In the
latter case the name "Particular" is preferred, but the association holds
aloof from other Baptist churches because its principles are "strict."
There is, however, no national Union. Indeed, the Strict Baptists are
themselves divided into the "Standard" and "Vessel" parties--names derived
from the "Gospel Standard" and "Earthen Vessel," the organs of the rival
groups.

The general characteristic of the Strict Baptists is their rigorous
adherence to a type of Calvinistic theology now generally obsolete, and
their insistence upon baptism as the condition of Christian communion.
Their loose organization makes it impossible to obtain accurate statistics,
but the number of their adherents is small. There is a strict Baptist
Missionary Society (founded 1860, refounded 1897) which conducts mission
work in South India. The income of this society was £1146 in 1905. It
comprises 730 church members and 72 pastors and workers.

The Baptists early felt the necessity of providing an educated ministry for
their congregations. Some of their leading pastors had been educated in one
or other of the English universities. Others had by their own efforts
obtained a large amount of learning, amongst whom Dr John Gill was eminent
for his knowledge of Hebrew, as shown in his _Exposition of the Holy
Scriptures_, a work in 9 vols. folio, 1746-1766. Edward Terrill, who died
in 1685, left a considerable part of his estate for the instruction of
young men desiring to be trained for the ministry, under the
superintendence of the pastor of the Broadmead Church, Bristol, of which he
was a member. Other bequests for the same purpose were made, and from the
year 1720 the Baptist Academy, as it was then called, received young men as
students for the ministry among the Baptists. In 1770 the Bristol Education
Society was formed to enlarge this academy; and about the year 1811 the
present Bristol Baptist College was erected. In the north of England a
similar education society was formed in 1804 at Bradford, Yorkshire, which
has since been removed to Rawdon, near Leeds. In London another college was
formed in 1810 at Stepney; it was removed to Regent's Park in 1856. The
Pastors' College in connexion with the Metropolitan Tabernacle was
instituted in 1856, and in 1866 the present Baptist College at Manchester
was instituted at Bury in the interests of the "Strict" Baptist views.
Besides these, which were voluntary colleges not under denominational
control, the General Baptists maintained a college since 1797, which, since
the amalgamation of the two Baptist bodies, has become also a voluntary
institution, though previously supported by the General Baptist
Association. It is called the "Midland Baptist College," and is situated in
Nottingham. There is also a Baptist theological college in Glasgow, and
there are two colleges in Wales and one in Ireland. The total number of
students in these institutions is about 210.

The Baptists were the first denomination of British Christians to undertake
in a systematic way that work of missions to the heathen, which became so
prominent a feature in the religious activity of the 19th century. As early
as the year 1784 the Northamptonshire Association of Baptist churches
resolved to recommend that the first Monday of every month should be set
apart for prayer for the spread of the gospel. Shortly after, in 1792, the
Baptist Missionary Society was formed at Kettering in Northamptonshire,
after a sermon on Isaiah lii. 2, 3, preached by William Carey (1761-1834),
the prime mover in the work, in which he urged two points: "Expect great
things from God; attempt great things for God." In the course of the
following year Carey sailed for India, where he was joined a few years
later by Marshman and Ward, and the mission was established at Serampore.
The great work of Dr Carey's life was the translation of the Bible into the
various languages and dialects of India. The society's operations are now
carried on, not only in the East, but in the West Indies, China, Africa
(chiefly on the Congo river), and Europe.

In regard to church government, the Baptists agree with the
Congregationalists that each separate church is complete in itself, and
has, therefore, power to choose its own ministers and to make such
regulations as it deems to be most in accordance with the purpose of its
existence, that is, the advancement of the kingdom of Christ. A
comparatively small section of the denomination maintain that a "plurality
of elders" or pastors is required for the complete organization of every
separate church. This is the distinctive peculiarity of those churches in
Scotland and the north of England which are known as _Scotch Baptists_. The
largest church of this section, consisting of approximately 500 members,
originated in Edinburgh in 1765, before which date only one Baptist
church--that of Keiss in Caithness, formed about 1750--appears to have
existed in Scotland. The greater number of the churches are united in
association voluntarily formed, all of them determined by geographical
limits. The associations, as well as the churches not in connexion with
them, are united together in the Baptist Union of Great Britain and
Ireland, formed in 1813 by the Particular Baptists. This union, however,
exerts no authoritative action over the separate churches. One important
part of the work of the union is the collection of information in which all
the churches are interested. In 1909 there were in the United Kingdom:
Baptist churches, 3046; chapels, 4124; sittings, 1,450,352; members,
424,008; Sunday school teachers, 58,687; Sunday scholars, 578,344; local
preachers, 5615; and pastors in charge, 2078.

At the beginning of the 20th century the Baptist Union collected a
"Twentieth Century Fund" of £250,000, which has largely assisted the
formation of new churches, and gives an indication of [v.03 p.0374] the
unity and virility of the denomination. A still stronger evidence to the
same effect was given by the Religious Census taken in 1904. While this
only applied to London, its results are valuable as showing the comparative
strength of the Baptist Church. These results are to the effect that in all
respects the Baptists come second to the Anglicans in the following three
particulars:--(1) Percentage of attendances at public worship contributed
by Baptists, 10.81 (London County), 10.70 (Greater London); (2) aggregate
of attendances, 54,597; (3) number of places of worship, 443.

2. _The Continent of Europe._--During the 19th century what we have called
the modern Baptist movement made its appearance in nearly every European
country. In Roman Catholic countries Baptist churches were formed by
missionaries coming from either England or America: work in France began in
1832, in Italy missions were started in 1866 (Spezia Mission) and in 1884
(Baptist Missionary Society, which also has a mission in Brittany), and in
Spain in 1888. In Protestant countries and in Russia the Baptist movement
began without missionary intervention from England or America. J. G. Oncken
(1800-1884) formed the first church in Hamburg in 1834, and thereafter
Baptist churches were formed in other countries as follows:--Denmark
(1839), Holland and Sweden (1848), Switzerland (1849), Norway (1860),
Austria and Rumania (1869), Hungary (1871), and Bulgaria (1884). Baptist
churches also began to be formed in Russia and Finland in the 'fifties and
'sixties.

3. _British Colonies._--In every colony the Baptists have a considerable
place. There are unions of Baptist churches in the following colonies:--New
South Wales, Victoria, S. Australia, Western Australia, Queensland, New
Zealand, Tasmania, Canada (four Unions) and S. Africa. The work in S.
Africa is assisted by the Baptist South African Missionary and Colonial Aid
Society, having its seat in London.

_The Baptist World Alliance_ was formed in 1905, when the first Baptist
World Congress was held in London. The preamble of the constitution of this
Alliance sufficiently indicates its nature: "Whereas, in the providence of
God, the time has come when it seems fitting more fully to manifest the
essential oneness in the Lord Jesus Christ, as their God and Saviour, of
the churches of the Baptist order and faith throughout the world, and to
promote the spirit of fellowship, service and co-operation among them,
while recognizing the independence of each particular church and not
assuming the functions of any existing organization, it is agreed to form a
Baptist alliance, extending over every part of the world." This alliance
does in fact include Baptists in every quarter of the globe, as will be
seen from the following statistics:--

                                  Churches.   Members.
  United States--
    National Baptist Convention    16,996    2,110,269
    Southern Baptist Convention    20,431    1,832,638
    "Disciples of Christ"          11,157    1,235,798
    Thirty-five Northern States     8,894      986,821
    Fourteen other Bodies           7,921      414,775
  Australasia                         270       23,253
  Canada                              985      103,062
  S. Africa                            52        4,865
  United Kingdom                    2,934      426,563
  Austria Hungary                      37        9,783
  Denmark                              29        3,954
  Finland                              43        2,301
  France                               28        2,278
  Germany                             180       32,462
  Italy                                53        1,375
  Mexico and Central America           58        1,820
  Netherlands                          22        1,413
  Norway                               39        2,849
  Rumania and Bulgaria                  5          374
  Russia and Poland[1]                131       24,136
  S. America                           63        3,641
  Spain                                 7          245
  Sweden                              567       43,305
  Switzerland                           8          796
  West Indies                         318       42,310
  Ceylon                               25        1,044
  China                               137       12,160
  India                             1,215      121,716
  Japan                                40        2,326
  Palestine                             1          106
  Philippines                           4          425
  Congo                                21        4,673
  West Africa                          10          629
                                   ------    ---------
                  Total            72,681    7,454,165
                                   ======    =========

In 1909 the comparative totals were roughly:--72,988 churches; 7,480,940
members. In both sets of figures the Disciples of Christ (U.S.A.) are
included.

LITERATURE.--Thomas Crosby, _The History of the English Baptists_ (4 vols.
London, 1738-1740); D. Masson, _Life of John Milton in Connexion with the
History of his Time_ (6 vols. 1859-1880, new ed. 1881, &c.); B. Evans, _The
Early English Baptists_, i. ii. (1862-1864); H. C. Vedder, _A Short History
of the Baptists_ (London, 1897); A. H. Newman, _A Manual of Church History_
(Philadelphia, 1900-1903); R. Heath, _Anabaptism_ (1895); C. Williams, _The
Principles and Practices of the Baptists_ (1903); E. C. Pike, _The Story of
the Anabaptists_ (1904); J. H. Shakespeare, _Baptist and Congregational
Pioneers_; J. G. Lehmann, _Geschichte der deutschen Baptisten_ (1896-1900);
G. Tumbült, _Die Wiedertäufer_ (Bielefeld, 1899); _The Baptist Handbook_
(annually); _The Baptist World Congress_, 1905; _The Religious Census of
London_ (1904).

(N. H. M.)

4. _United States of America._--The first Baptist Church in America was
that founded in the Providence settlement on Narragansett Bay under the
leadership of Roger Williams (_q.v._). Having been sentenced to banishment
(October 1635) by the Massachusetts Court because of his persistence in
advocating separatistic views deemed unsettling and dangerous, to escape
deportation to England he betook himself (January 1636) to the wilderness,
where he was hospitably entertained by the natives who gave him a tract of
land for a settlement. Having been joined by a few friends from
Massachusetts, Williams founded a commonwealth in which absolute religious
liberty was combined with civil democracy. In the firm conviction that
churches of Christ should be made up exclusively of regenerate members, the
baptism of infants appeared to him not only valueless but a perversion of a
Christian ordinance. About March 1639, with eleven others, he decided to
restore believers' baptism and to form a church of baptized believers.
Ezekiel Holliman, who had been with him at Plymouth and shared his
separatist views, first baptized Williams and Williams baptized the rest of
the company. Williams did not long continue to find satisfaction in the
step he had taken. Believing that the ordinances and apostolic church
organization had been lost in the general apostasy, he became convinced
that it was presumptuous for any man or company of men to undertake their
restoration without a special divine commission. He felt compelled to
withdraw from the church and to assume the position of a seeker. He
continued on friendly terms with the Baptists of Providence, and in his
writings he expressed the conviction that their practice came nearer than
that of other communities to the first practice of Christ.

In November 1637 John Clarke (1609-1676), a physician, of religious zeal
and theological acumen, arrived at Boston, where, instead of the religious
freedom he was seeking, he found the dominant party in the Antinomian
controversy on the point of banishing the Antinomian minority, including
Mrs Anne Hutchinson (_q.v._) and her family, John Wheelwright (_c._
1592-1679), and William Coddington (1601-1678). Whether from sympathy with
the persecuted or aversion to the persecutors, he cast in his lot with the
former and after two unsuccessful attempts at settlement assisted the
fugitives in forming a colony on the island of Aquidnek (Rhode Island),
procured from the Indians through the good offices of Williams. By 1641
there were, according to John Winthrop, "professed Anabaptists" on the
island, and Clarke was probably their leader. Robert Lenthall, who joined
the Newport company in 1640 when driven from Massachusetts, probably
brought with him antipaedobaptist convictions. Mrs Scott, sister of Mrs
Hutchinson, is thought to have been an aggressive antipaedobaptist when the
colony was founded. Mark Lucar, who was baptized by immersion in London in
January 1642 (N.S.) and was a member of a Baptist church there, reached
Newport about 1644. A few years later we find [v.03 p.0375] him associated
with Clarke as one of the most active members of the Newport church, and as
the date of the organization is uncertain, there is some reason to suspect
that he was a constituent member, and that as a baptized man he took the
initiative in baptizing and organizing. At any rate we have in Lucar an
interesting connecting link between early English and American Baptists.

The Providence church maintained a rather feeble existence after Williams's
withdrawal, with Thomas Olney (d. 1682), William Wickenden, Chad Brown (d.
1665) and Gregory Dexter as leading members. A schism occurred in 1652, the
last three with a majority of the members contending for general redemption
and for the laying on of hands as indispensable to fellowship, Olney, with
the minority, maintaining particular redemption and rejecting the laying on
of hands as an ordinance. Olney's party became extinct soon after his death
in 1682. The surviving church became involved in Socinianism and
Universalism, but maintained a somewhat vigorous life and, through
Wickenden and others, exerted considerable influence at Newport, in
Connecticut, New York and elsewhere. Dexter became, with Williams and
Clarke, a leading statesman in Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

The Newport church extended its influence into Massachusetts, and in 1649
we find a group of Baptists at Rehoboth, with Obadiah Holmes as leader. The
intolerance of the authorities rendered the prosecution of the work
impracticable and these Massachusetts Baptists became members of the
Newport church. In 1651 Clarke, Holmes and Joseph Crandall of the Newport
church made a religious visit to Lynn, Mass. While holding a meeting in a
private house they were arrested and were compelled to attend the church
services of the standing order. For holding an unlawful meeting and
refusing to participate quietly in the public service they were fined,
imprisoned and otherwise maltreated. While in England on public business in
1652, Clarke published _Ill News from New England_, which contained an
impressive account of the proceedings against himself and his brethren at
Lynn, and an earnest and well-reasoned plea for liberty of conscience.

Henry Dunster (1612-1659), the first president of the college at Cambridge
(Harvard), had by 1653 become convinced that "visible believers only should
be baptized." Being unwilling to hold his views in abeyance, he
relinquished in 1654, under circumstances of considerable hardship, the
work that he greatly loved.

In 1663 John Myles (1621-1683), a Welsh Baptist who had been one of
Cromwell's Tryers, with his congregation, took refuge in Massachusetts from
the intolerance of the government of Charles II. They were allowed to
settle in Rehoboth, Mass., and even after they were discovered to be
Baptists they were allowed to remain on condition of establishing their
meeting-place at a considerable distance from that of the standing order.
Myles did much to promote the growth of the Baptist Church in
Massachusetts, and was of service to the denomination in Boston and
elsewhere. Thomas Gould of Charlestown seems to have been in close touch
with President Dunster and to have shared his antipaedobaptist views as
early as 1654. Some time before 1665 several English Baptists had settled
in the neighbourhood of Boston and several others had adopted Baptist
views. These, with Gould, were baptized (May 1665) and joined with those
who had been baptized in England in a church covenant. The church was
severely persecuted, the members being frequently imprisoned and fined and
denied the use of a building they had erected as a meeting-house. Long
after the Act of Toleration (1689) was in full force in England, the Boston
Baptists pleaded in vain for the privileges to which they were thereby
entitled, and it required the most earnest efforts of English Baptists and
other dissenters to gain for them a recognition of the right to exist. A
mandate from Charles II. (July 1679), in which the Massachusetts
authorities were sharply rebuked for denying to others the liberty to
secure which they themselves had gone into exile, had produced little
effect.

In 1682 William Screven (1629-1713) and Humphrey Churchwood, members of the
Boston church, gathered and organized, With the co-operation of the mother
church, a small congregation at Kittery, Me. Persecution led to migration,
Screven and some of the members making their way to South Carolina, where,
with a number of English Baptists of wealth and position, what became the
First Baptist church in Charleston, was organized (about 1684). This became
one of the most important of early Baptist centres, and through Screven's
efforts Baptist principles became widely disseminated throughout that
region. The withdrawal of members to form other churches in the
neighbourhood and the intrusion of Socinianism almost extinguished the
Charleston church about 1746.

A few Baptists of the general (Arminian) type appeared in Virginia from
1714 onward, and were organized and fostered by missionaries from the
English General Baptists. By 1727 they had invaded North Carolina and a
church was constituted there.

From 1643 onward antipaedobaptists from New England and elsewhere had
settled in the New Netherlands (New York). Lady Deborah Moody left
Massachusetts for the New Netherlands in 1643 because of her
antipaedobaptist views and on her way stopped at New Haven, where she won
to her principles Mrs Eaton, the wife of the governor, Theophilus Eaton.
She settled at Gravesend (now part of Brooklyn) having received from the
Dutch authorities a guarantee of religious liberty. Francis Doughty, an
English Baptist, who had spent some time in Rhode Island, laboured in this
region in 1656 and baptized a number of converts. This latter proceeding
led to his banishment. Later in the same year William Wickenden of
Providence evangelized and administered the ordinances at Flushing, but was
heavily fined and banished. From 1711 onward Valentine Wightman (1681-1747)
of Connecticut (General Baptist) made occasional missionary visits to New
York at the invitation of Nicolas Eyres, a business man who had adopted
Baptist views, and in 1714 baptized Eyres and several others, and assisted
them in organizing a church. The church was well-nigh wrecked (1730) by
debt incurred in the erection of a meeting-house. A number of Baptists
settled on Block Island about 1663. Some time before 1724 a Baptist church
(probably Arminian) was formed at Oyster Bay.

The Quaker colonies, with their large measure of religious liberty, early
attracted a considerable number of Baptists from New England, England and
Wales. About 1684 a Baptist church was founded at Cold Spring, Bucks
county, Pa., through the efforts of Thomas Dungan, an Irish Baptist
minister who had spent some time in Rhode Island. The Pennepek church was
formed in 1688 through the labours of Elias Keach, son of Benjamin Keach
(1640-1704), the famous English evangelist. Services were held in
Philadelphia under the auspices of the Pennepek church from 1687 onward,
but independent organization did not occur till 1698. Several Keithian
Quakers united with the church, which ultimately became possessed of the
Keithian meeting-house. Almost from the beginning general meetings had been
held by the churches of these colonies. In 1707 the Philadelphia
Association was formed as a delegated body "to consult about such things as
were wanting in the churches and to set them in order." From its inception
this body proved highly influential in promoting Baptist co-operation in
missionary and educational work, in efforts to supply the churches with
suitable ministers and to silence unworthy ones, and in maintaining sound
doctrine. Sabbatarianism appeared within the bounds of the association at
an early date and Seventh-day Baptist churches were formed (1705 onward).

The decades preceding the "Great Awakening" of 1740-1743 were a time of
religious declension. A Socinianized Arminianism had paralysed evangelistic
effort. The First Church, Providence, had long since become Arminian and
held aloof from the evangelism of Edwards, Whitefield and their coadjutors.
The First Church, Boston, had become Socinianized and discountenanced the
revival. The First Church, Newport, had been rent asunder by Arminianism,
and the nominally Calvinistic remnant had itself become divided on the
question of the laying on of hands and showed no sympathy with the Great
Awakening. The First Church, Charleston, had been wrecked by Socinianism.
The General (Six Principles) Baptists of Rhode Island and [v.03 p.0376]
Connecticut had increased their congregations and membership, and before
the beginning of the 18th century had inaugurated annual associational
meetings. But the fact that the Great Awakening in America was conducted on
Calvinistic principles was sufficient to prevent their hearty co-operation.
The churches of the Philadelphia Association were organized and engaged to
some extent in missionary endeavour, but they showed little interest in the
Edwards-Whitefield movement. And yet the Baptists ultimately profited by
the Great Awakening beyond almost any of the denominations. In many New
England communities a majority in the churches of the standing order
bitterly opposed the new evangelism, and those who came under its influence
felt constrained to organize "Separate" or "New Light" churches. These were
severely persecuted by the dominant party and were denied even the scanty
privileges that Baptists had succeeded in gaining. As the chief objection
of the "Separates" to the churches of the standing order was their refusal
to insist on personal regeneration as a term of membership, many of them
were led to feel that they were inconsistent in requiring regenerate
membership and yet administering baptism to unconscious infants. In several
cases entire "Separate" churches reached the conviction that the baptism of
infants was not only without Scriptural warrant but was a chief
corner-stone of state-churchism, and transformed themselves into Baptist
churches. In many cases a division of sentiment came to prevail on the
matter of infant-baptism, and for a while mutual toleration prevailed; but
mixed churches had their manifest disadvantages and separation ultimately
ensued.

Among the Baptist leaders gained from Congregationalism as a result of the
awakening was Isaac Backus (1724-1806), who became the New England champion
in the cause of religious liberty and equality, and the historian of his
denomination. To Daniel Marshall (d. 1784) and Shubael Stearns, "New Light"
evangelists who became Baptists, the spread of Baptist principles and the
multiplication of Baptist churches throughout the southern colonies were in
great measure due. The feeble Baptist cause in Virginia and North Carolina
had been considerably strengthened by missionaries from the churches of the
Philadelphia Association, including Benjamin Griffith, John Gano
(1727-1804), John Thomas, Benjamin Miller, Samuel Eaton, John Garrard and
David Thomas, and several churches, formed or reformed under their
influence, united with the association. In 1776 the Ketockton Association
was formed by this group of churches. The Virginia colonial government, in
earlier days cruelly intolerant, gave a limited toleration to Baptists of
this type; but the "Separate" Baptists were too enthusiastic and too much
alive to the evils of state control in religious matters to be willing to
take out licences for their meetings, and soon came into sharp conflict
with the authorities. Stearns was an evangelist of great power. With
Marshall, his brother-in-law, and about a dozen fellow-believers he settled
at Sandy Creek, North Carolina, and in a few years had built up a church
with a membership of more than six hundred. Marshall afterward organized
and ministered to a church at Abbott's Creek about 30 m. distant. From
these centres "Separate" Baptist influence spread throughout North and
South Carolina and across the Georgia border, Marshall himself finally
settling and forming a church at Kiokee, Georgia. From North Carolina as a
centre "Separate" Baptist influence permeated Virginia and extended into
Kentucky and Tennessee. The Sandy Creek Association came to embrace
churches in several colonies, and Stearns, desirous of preserving the
harmonious working of the churches that recognized his leadership, resisted
with vehemence all proposals for the formation of other associations.

From 1760 to 1770 the growth of the "Separate" Baptist body in Virginia and
the Carolinas was phenomenal. Evangelists like Samuel Harris
(1724-_c._1794) and John Waller (1741-1802) stirred whole communities and
established Baptist churches where the Baptist name had hitherto been
unknown. The Sandy Creek Association, with Stearns as leader, undertook to
"unfellowship ordinations, ministers and churches that acted
independently," and provoked such opposition that a division of the
association became necessary. The General Association of Virginia and the
Congaree Association of South Carolina now took their places side by side
with the Sandy Creek. The Virginia "Separate" Baptists had more than
doubled their numbers in the two years from May 1771 to May 1773. In 1774
some of the Virginia brethren became convinced that the apostolic office
was meant to be perpetuated and induced the association to appoint an
apostle. Samuel Harris was the unanimous choice and was solemnly ordained.
Waller and Elijah Craig (1743-1800) were made apostles soon afterward for
the northern district. This arrangement, soon abandoned, was no doubt
suggested by Methodist superintendency. In 1775 Methodist influence
appeared in the contention of two of the apostles and Jeremiah Walker for
universal redemption. Schism was narrowly averted by conciliatory
statements on both sides. As a means of preserving harmony the Philadelphia
Confession of Faith, a Calvinistic document, with provision against too
rigid a construction, was adopted and a step was thus taken toward
harmonizing with the "Regular" Baptists of the Philadelphia type. When the
General Association was sub-divided (1783), a General Committee, made up of
delegates from each district association, was constituted to consider
matters that might be for the good of the whole society. Its chief work was
to continue the agitation in which for some years the body had been
successfully engaged in favour of religious equality and the entire
separation of church and state. Since 1780 the "Separate" Baptists had had
the hearty co-operation of the "Regular" Baptists in their struggle for
religious liberty and equality. In 1787 the two bodies united and agreed to
drop the names "Separate" and "Regular." The success of the Baptists of
Virginia in securing step by step the abolition of everything that savoured
of religious oppression, involving at last the disestablishment and the
disendowment of the Episcopal Church, was due in part to the fact that
Virginia Baptists were among the foremost advocates of American
independence, while the Episcopal clergy were loyalists and had made
themselves obnoxious to the people by using the authority of Great Britain
in extorting their tithes from unwilling parishioners, and that they
secured the co-operation of free-thinking statesmen like Thomas Jefferson
and James Madison and, in most measures, that of the Presbyterians.

The Baptist cause in New England that had profited so largely from the
Great Awakening failed to reap a like harvest from the War of Independence.
The standing order in New England represented the patriotic and popular
party. Baptists lost favour by threatening to appeal to England for a
redress of their grievances at the very time when resistance to English
oppression was being determined upon. The result was slowness of growth and
failure to secure religious liberty. Though a large proportion of the New
England Baptists co-operated heartily in the cause of independence, the
denomination failed to win the popularity that comes from successful
leadership.

About 1762 the Philadelphia Association began to plan for the establishment
of a Baptist institution of learning that should serve the entire
denomination. Rhode Island was finally fixed upon, partly as the abode of
religious liberty and because of its intelligent, influential and
relatively wealthy Baptist constituency, the consequent likelihood of
procuring a charter from its legislature, and the probability that the
co-operation of other denominations in an institution under Baptist control
would be available. James Manning (1738-1791), who had just been graduated
from Princeton with high honours, was thought of as a suitable leader in
the enterprise, and was sent to Rhode Island (1763) to confer with leading
men, Baptist and other. As a result a charter was granted by the
legislature in 1764, and after a few years of preliminary work at Warren
(where the first degrees ever bestowed by a Baptist institution were
conferred in 1769), Providence was chosen as the home of the college
(1770). Here, with Manning as president and Hezekiah Smith (1737-1805), his
class-mate at Princeton, as financial agent and influential supporter, the
institution (since 1804 known as Brown University) was for many years the
only degree-conferring [v.03 p.0377] institution controlled by Baptists.
The Warren Association (1767) was organized under the influence of Manning
and Smith on the model of the Philadelphia, and became a chief agency for
the consolidation of denominational life, the promotion of denominational
education and the securing of religious liberty. Hezekiah Smith was a
highly successful evangelist, and through his labours scores of churches
were constituted in New England. As chaplain in the American Revolutionary
Army he also exerted a widespread influence.

The First Church, Charleston, which had become almost extinct through
Arminianism in 1746, entered upon a career of remarkable prosperity in 1749
under the leadership of Oliver Hart (1723-1795), formerly of the
Philadelphia Association. In 1751 the Charleston Association was formed,
also on the model of the Philadelphia, and proved an element of
denominational strength. The association raised funds for domestic
missionary work (1755 onward) and for the education of ministers (1756
onward). Brown University shared largely in the liberality of members of
this highly-cultivated and progressive body. Among the beneficiaries of the
education fund was Samuel Stillman (1737-1807), afterward the honoured
pastor of the Boston church. The most noted leader of the Baptists of South
Carolina during the four decades following the War of Independence was
Richard Furman (1755-1825), pastor of the First Church, Charleston. The
remarkable numerical progress of Baptists in South Carolina from 1787 to
1812 (from 1620 members to 11,325) was due to the "Separate" Baptist
movement under Stearns and Marshall far more than to the activity of the
churches of the Charleston Association. Both these types of Baptist life
permeated Georgia, the latter making its influence felt in Savannah,
Augusta and the more cultivated communities, the former evangelizing the
masses. Many negro slaves became Baptists in Virginia, the Carolinas and
Georgia. In most cases they became members of the churches of the white
Baptists; but in Richmond, Savannah and some other towns they were
encouraged to have churches of their own.

By 1812 there were in the United States 173,972 Baptist church members, the
denominational numerical strength having considerably more than doubled
since the beginning of the 19th century.

_Foreign Missions_.--Baptists in Boston and vicinity, Philadelphia and
Charleston, and a few other communities had from the beginning of the 19th
century taken a deep interest in the missionary work of William Carey, the
English missionary, and his coadjutors in India, and had contributed
liberally to its support. The conversion to Baptist views of Adoniram
Judson (_q.v._) and Luther Rice (1812), who had just been sent, with
others, by the newly-formed American Board of Commissioners for Foreign
Missions to open up missionary work in India, marks an epoch in American
Baptist history. Judson appealed to his American brethren to support him in
missionary work among the heathen, and Rice returned to America to organize
missionary societies to awaken interest in Judson's mission. In January
1813 there was formed in Boston "The Baptist Society for the Propagation of
the Gospel in India and other Foreign Parts." Other societies in the
Eastern, Middle and Southern states speedily followed. The desirability of
a national organization soon became manifest, and in May 1814 thirty-three
delegates, representing eleven states, met in Philadelphia and organized
the "General Missionary Convention of the Baptist Denomination in the
United States of America for Foreign Missions." As its meetings were to be
held every three years it came to be known as the "Triennial Convention." A
Board of Commissioners was appointed with headquarters in Philadelphia
(transferred in 1826 to Boston). The need of a larger supply of educated
ministers for home and for mission work alike soon came to be profoundly
felt, and resulted in the establishment of Columbian College, Washington
(now George Washington University), with its theological department (1821),
intended to be a national Baptist institution. Destitution on the frontiers
led the Triennial Convention to engage extensively in home mission work
(1817 onward), and in 1832 the American Baptist Home Mission Society was
constituted for the promotion of this work. The need of an organ for the
dissemination of information, and the quickening of interest in the
missionary and educational enterprises of the Triennial Convention, led
Rice to establish the _Latter Day Luminary_ (1816) and the _Columbian
Star_, a weekly journal (1822). From the first the attempt to rouse the
denomination to organized effort for the propagation of the gospel met with
much opposition, agents of the Convention being looked upon by the less
intelligent pastors and churches as highly-paid and irresponsible
collectors of money to be used they knew not how, or for purposes of which
they disapproved. The fact that Rice was unduly optimistic and allowed the
enterprises of the Convention to become almost hopelessly involved in debt,
and was constrained to use some of the fund collected for missions to meet
the exigencies of his educational and journalistic work, intensified the
hostility of those who had suspected from the beginning the good faith of
the agents and denied the scriptural authority of boards, paid agents, paid
missionaries, &c. So virulent became the opposition that in several states,
as Tennessee and Kentucky, the work of the Convention was for years
excluded, and a large majority in each association refused to receive into
their fellowship those who advocated or contributed to its objects.
Hyper-Calvinism, ignorance and avarice cooperated in making the very name
"missions" odious, ministerial education an impertinent human effort to
supplant a spirit-called and spirit-endowed ministry, Sunday-schools and
prayer-meetings as human institutions, the aim of which was to interfere
with the divine order, and the receiving of salaries for ministerial work
as serving God for hire or rather as serving self. To counteract this
influence, Baptist State Conventions were formed by the friends of missions
and education, only contributing churches, associations, missionary
societies and individuals being invited to membership (1821
onward--Massachusetts had effected state organization in 1802). These
became highly efficient in promoting foreign and domestic missions,
Sunday-school organization, denominational literature and education. Nearly
every state soon had its institutions of learning, which aspired to become
universities.

Before 1844 the sessions of the Triennial Convention had occasionally been
made unpleasant by harsh anti-slavery utterances by Northern members
against their Southern brethren and somewhat acrimonious rejoinders by the
latter. The controversy between Francis Wayland and Richard Fuller
(1804-1876) on the slavery question ultimately convinced the Southern
brethren that separate organization for missionary work was advisable. The
Southern Baptist Convention, with its Home and Foreign Missionary Boards,
and (later) its Sunday-school Board, was formed in 1845. Since then
Northern and Southern Baptists, though in perfect fellowship with each
other, have found it best to carry on their home and foreign missionary
work through separate boards and to have separate annual meetings. In 1905
a General Baptist Convention for America was formed for the promotion of
fellowship, comity and denominational _esprit de corps_, but this
organization is not to interfere with the sectional organizations or to
undertake any kind of administrative work.

Since 1845 Northern and Southern Baptists alike have greatly increased in
numbers, in missionary work, in educational institutions, in literary
activity and in everything that pertains to the equipment and organization
of a great religious denomination. Since 1812 they have increased in
numbers from less than 200,000 to more than 5,000,000. In 1812 American
Baptists had no theological seminary; in 1906 they had 11 with more than
100 instructors, 1300 students, and endowments and equipments valued at
about $7,000,000. In 1812 they had only one degree-conferring college with
a small faculty, a small student body and almost no endowment; in 1906 they
had more than 100 universities and colleges with endowment and equipment
valued at about $30,000,000, and an annual income of about $3,000,000. In
1812 the value of church property was small; in 1906 it was estimated at
$100,000,000. Then a single monthly magazine, with a circulation of a few
hundreds, was all that the denomination possessed in the way of periodical
literature; in 1906 its quarterlies, monthlies and weeklies were numbered
by hundreds. The denomination has a single publishing concern (the American
Baptist Publication Society) with an annual business of nearly $1,000,000
and assets of $1,750,000.

Baptists in the Dominion of Canada had their rise about the close of the
18th century in migrations from the United States. They have been
reinforced by considerable numbers of English, Welsh and Scottish Baptists.
They are divided into four sections:--those of the Maritime Provinces, with
their Convention, their Home and Foreign Mission Boards, an Education Board
and a Publication Board, and with McMaster University (Arts, Theological
and [v.03 p.0378] Academic departments) as its educational institution;
those of Manitoba and the North-west, with Brandon College as its
educational institution; and those of British Columbia. Canadian Baptists
numbered 120,000 in 1909, and are considered in the above general
estimates.

(A. H. N.)

[1] The figures for Russia include only the German-speaking Baptists. It
is impossible to ascertain the numbers of properly Russian Baptists.
Estimates have been made which vary from 60,000 to 100,000.

BAR, FRANÇOIS DE (1538-1606), French scholar, was born at Seizencourt, near
St Quentin, and having studied at the university of Paris entered the order
of St Benedict. He soon became prior of the abbey of Anchin, near
Pecquencourt, and passed much of his time in the valuable library of the
abbey, studying ecclesiastical history, especially that of Flanders. He
also made a catalogue of the manuscripts at Anchin and annotated many of
them. During the French Revolution his manuscripts passed to the library at
Douai. Bar died at Anchin on the 25th of March 1606.

See J. Lelong, _Bibliothèque historique de la France_ (Paris, 1768-1778);
C. C. A. Dehaisnes, "Catalogue des manuscrits de Douai," in the _Catalogue
général des manuscrits des bibliothèques des départements_, t. vi. (Paris,
1849-1885).

BAR, a town of Russia, in the government of Podolia, 50 m. N.E. of
Kamenets, on an affluent of the Bug. Pop. (1897) 10,614. It was formerly
called Rov. Its present designation was bestowed upon it in memory of Bari
in Italy (where she was born) by Bona Sforza, the consort of Sigismund I.
of Poland, who rebuilt the town after its destruction in 1452 by the
Tatars. From 1672 to 1699 it remained in possession of the Turks. In 1768 a
confederation of the Polish nobles (see next article) against the Russians
was formed in the town, which was shortly after taken by storm, but did not
become finally united to Russia till the partition of 1793.

BAR, CONFEDERATION OF, a famous confederation of the Polish nobles and
gentry formed at the little fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend
the internal and external independence of Poland against the aggressions of
the Russian government as represented by her representative at Warsaw,
Prince Nicholas Repnin. The originators of this confederation were Adam
Krasinski, bishop of Kamenets, Osip Pulawski and Michael Krasinski. King
Stanislaus was at first inclined to mediate between the confederates and
Russia; but finding this impossible, sent a force against them under the
grand hetman Ksawery Branicki and two generals, who captured Bar.
Nevertheless, a simultaneous outbreak of a _jacquerie_ in Little-Russia
contributed to the extension of the confederation throughout the eastern
province of Poland and even in Lithuania. The confederates, thereupon,
appealed for help abroad and contributed to bring about a war between
Russia and Turkey. So serious indeed was the situation that Frederick II.
advised Catherine to come to terms with the confederates. Their bands under
Ignaty Malchewsky, Michael Pac and Prince Charles Radziwill ravaged the
land in every direction, won several engagements over the Russians, and at
last, utterly ignoring the king, sent envoys on their own account to the
principal European powers. In 1770 the Council of the Confederation was
transferred from its original seat in Silesia to Hungary, from whence it
conducted diplomatic negotiations with France, Austria and Turkey with the
view of forming a league against Russia. The court of Versailles sent
Dumouriez to act as commander-in-chief of the confederates, but neither as
a soldier nor as a politician did this adroit adventurer particularly
distinguish himself, and his account of his experiences is very unfair to
the confederates. Among other blunders, he pronounced King Stanislaus a
tyrant and a traitor at the very moment when he was about to accede to the
Confederation. The king thereupon reverted to the Russian faction and the
Confederation lost the confidence of Europe. Nevertheless, its army,
thoroughly reorganized by Dumouriez, gallantly maintained the hopeless
struggle for some years, and it was not till 1776 that the last traces of
it disappeared.

See Alexander Kraushar, _Prince Repnin in Poland_ (Pol.) (Warsaw, 1900);
F. A. Thesby de Belcour, _The Confederates of Bar_ (Pol.) (Cracow, 1895);
Charles François Dumouriez, _Mémoires et correspondance_ (Paris, 1834).

(R. N. B.)

BAR (O. Fr. _barre_, Late Lat. _barra_, origin unknown), in physical
geography, a ridge of sand or silt crossing an estuary under water or
raised by wave action above sea-level, forming an impediment to navigation.
When a river enters a tidal sea its rate of flow is checked and the
material it carries in suspension is deposited in a shifting bar crossing
the channel from bank to bank. Where the channel is only partly closed, a
spur of this character is called a "spit." A bar may be produced by tidal
action only in an estuary or narrow gulf (as at Port Adelaide) where the
tides sweep the loose sand backwards and forwards, depositing it where the
motion of the water is checked. Nahant Bay, Mass., is bordered by the ridge
of Lynn Beach, which separates it from Lynn Harbor, and ties Nahant to the
mainland by a bar formed in this way.

BAR, THE. This term, as equivalent to the profession of barrister (_q.v._),
originated in the partition or bar dividing the English law-courts into two
parts, for the purpose of separating the members and officials of the court
from the prisoners or suitors, their advocates and the general public.
Theoretically, this division of the court is still maintained in England,
those who are entitled to sit within the bar including king's counsel,
barristers with patents of precedence, serjeants (till the order died out)
and solicitors, while the other members of the bar and the general public
remain without. Parties in civil suits who appear in person are allowed to
stand on the floor within the bar instead of, as formerly, appearing at the
bar itself. In criminal trials the accused still stands forward at the bar.
There is also a "bar" in parliament. In the House of Commons it remains
literally a bar--a long brass rod hidden in a tube from which it is pulled
out when required to mark the technical boundary of the House. Before it
appear those who are charged with having violated the privileges of the
House; below it also sit those members who have been returned at
bye-elections, to await their introduction to the House and the taking of
the oath of allegiance. In the House of Lords the place where Mr Speaker
and the members of the House of Commons stand when summoned by Black Rod is
called "the bar."

The "call to the bar" in England, by which a law student at one of the Inns
of Court is converted into a barrister, is dealt with under INNS OF COURT.
The exclusive privilege of calling to the bar belongs to those bodies,
which also exercise disciplinary power over their members; but it was
widely felt by members of the bar in recent years that the benchers or
governing body with their self-elected members did not keep a sufficiently
watchful eye on the minutiae of the profession. Consequently, in 1883, a
bar committee was formed for the purpose of dealing with all matters
relating to the profession, such as the criticizing of proposed legal
reforms, and the expression of opinions on matters of professional
etiquette, conduct and practice. In 1894 the committee was dissolved, and
succeeded by the general council of the bar, elected on a somewhat wider
basis. It is composed of a due proportion of king's counsel and outer
barristers elected by voting-papers sent to all barristers having an
address in the _Law List_ within the United Kingdom. Its expenses are paid
by contributions from the four Inns of Court. Its powers are not
disciplinary, but it would draw the attention of the benchers to any gross
violation of the professional etiquette of the bar.

Each state in America has its own bar, consisting of all attorneys-at-law
residing within it who have been admitted to practice in its courts.
Generally attorneys are admitted in one court to practice in all courts.
Each of the United States courts has a bar of its own. An attorney of a
state cannot practise in a court of the United States unless he has been
admitted to it, or to one of the same class in another district or circuit.
He cannot appear in the Supreme Court of the United States unless specially
admitted and sworn as an attorney of that court, which is done on motion in
case of any one who has practised for three years in the highest courts of
his state and is in good standing at its bar. In most of the states there
is a state bar association, and in some cities and counties local bar
associations. These consist of such members of its bar as desire thus to
associate, the object being to guard and advance the standards of the
profession. Some own valuable libraries. These associations have no
official recognition, but their influence is considerable in [v.03 p.0379]
recommending and shaping legislation respecting the judicial establishment
and procedure. They also serve a useful purpose in instituting or promoting
proceedings to discipline or expel unworthy attorneys from the bar. There
is an American Bar Association, founded in 1878, composed of over 3500
members of different states of like character and position. Some of these
associations publish annually a volume of transactions. The rights, duties
and liabilities of counsellor-at-law are stated under ATTORNEY. As members
of the bar of the state in which they practise they are subject to its laws
regulating such practice, _e.g._ in some states they are forbidden to
advertise for divorce cases (New York Penal Code [1902] § 148a) (1905,
_People_ v. _Taylor_ [Colorado], 75 Pac. Rep. 914). It is common throughout
the United States for lawyers to make contracts for "contingent fees,"
_i.e._ for a percentage of the amount recovered. Such contracts are not
champertous and are upheld by the courts, but will be set aside if an
unconscionable bargain be made with the client (_Deering_ v. _Scheyer_
[N.Y.], 58 App. D. 322). So also by the U.S. Supreme Court (_Wright_ v.
_Tebbets_, 91 U.S. 252; _Taylor_ v. _Benis_, 110 U.S. 42). The reason for
upholding such contracts is that otherwise poor persons would often fail of
securing or protecting their property or rights. In fact such contracts are
seldom set aside, though no doubt the practice is capable of abuse.

BARA BANKI, a town and district of British India in the Fyzabad division of
the United Provinces. The town, which forms one municipality with
Nawabganj, the administrative headquarters of the district, is 17 m. E. of
Lucknow by railway. The population of Bara Banki alone in 1901 was 3020.
There is some trade in sugar and cotton.

The district has an area of 1758 sq. m. It stretches out in a level plain
interspersed with numerous _jhils_ or marshes. In the upper part of the
district the soil is sandy, while in the lower part it is clayey and
produces finer crops. The principal rivers are the Gogra, forming the
northern boundary, and the Gumti, flowing through the middle of the
district. In 1856 it came, with the rest of Oudh, under British rule.
During the Sepoy war of 1857-1858 the whole of the Bara Banki talukdars
joined the mutineers, but offered no serious resistance after the capture
of Lucknow. The cultivators are still, for the most part, tenants-at-will,
rack-rented and debt-ridden. In 1901 the population was 1,179,323, showing
an increase of 4% in the decade. The principal crops are rice, wheat, pulse
and other food-grains, sugar-cane and opium. Both the bordering rivers are
navigable; and the district is traversed by two lines of the Oudh and
Rohilkhand railway, with branches. Trade in agricultural produce is active.

BARABOO, a city and the county-seat of Sauk county, Wisconsin, U.S.A.,
about 37 m. N.W. of Madison, on the Baraboo river, a tributary of the
Wisconsin. Pop. (1890) 4605; (1900) 5751, of whom 732 were foreign-born;
(1905) 5835; (1910) 6324. The city is served by the Chicago & North-Western
railway, which maintains here an engine house and extensive machine shops,
and of which it is a division headquarters. Baraboo has an attractive
situation on a series of hills about 1000 ft. above sea-level. In the
vicinity are Devil's Lake (3 m. S.) and the famous Dells of the Wisconsin
river (near Kilbourn, about 12 m. N.), two summer resorts with picturesque
scenery. The principal public buildings are the court-house (in a small
public park), the public library and a high school. Dairying and the
growing of small fruits are important industries in the surrounding region;
and there is a large nursery here. Stone quarried in the vicinity is
exported, and the city is near the centre of the Sauk county iron range.
Among the manufactures are woollen goods, towels, canned fruit and
vegetables, dairy products, beer, and circus wagons (the city is the
headquarters of the Ringling and the Gollmar circuses). The first permanent
settlement here was made in 1839. Baraboo was named in honour of Jean
Baribault, an early French trapper, and was chartered as a city in 1882.

BARABRA, a name for the complex Nubian races of the Egyptian Sudan, whose
original stock is Hamitic-Berber, long modified by negro crossings. The
word is variously derived from _Berberi_, _i.e._ people of Berber, or as
identical with _Barabara_, figuring in the inscription on a gateway of
Tethmosis I. as the name of one of the 113 tribes conquered by him. In a
later inscription of Rameses II. at Karnak (_c._ 1300 B.C.) _Beraberata_ is
given as that of a southern conquered people. Thus it is suggested that
Barabra is a real ethnical name, confused later with Greek and Roman
_barbarus_, and revived in its proper meaning subsequent to the Moslem
conquest. A tribe living on the banks of the Nile between Wadi Haifa and
Assuan are called Barabra. (See further NUBIA.)

BARACALDO, a river-port of north-eastern Spain, in the province of Biscay;
on the left bank of the river Nervion or Ansa (in Basque, Ibaizabal), 5 m.
by rail N.W. of Bilbao. Pop. (1900) 15,013. Few Spanish towns have
developed more rapidly than Baracaldo, which nearly doubled its population
between 1880 and 1900. During this period many immigrant labourers settled
here; for the ironworks and dynamite factory of Baracaldo prospered
greatly, owing to the increased output of the Biscayan mines, the extension
of railways in the neighbourhood, and the growth of shipping at Bilbao. The
low flat country round Baracaldo is covered with maize, pod fruit and
vines.

BARACOA, a seaport city of N.E. Cuba, in Santiago province. Pop. (1907)
5633. The town lies under high hills on a small circular harbour accessible
to small craft. The country round about is extremely rugged. The hill
called the "Anvil of Baracoa" (about 3000 ft.) is remarkable for its
extremely regular formation. It completely dominates the city's background,
and is a well-known sailors' landmark. The town is the trading centre of a
large plantation region behind it and is the centre of the banana and
cocoanut export trade. There is a fort dating from the middle of the 18th
century. Baracoa is the oldest town in Cuba, having been settled by Diego
Velazquez in 1512. It held from its foundation the honours of a city. From
1512 to 1514 it was the capital of the island, and from 1518 to 1522 its
church was the cathedral of the island's first diocese. Both honours were
taken from it to be given to Santiago de Cuba; and for two centuries after
this Baracoa remained an obscure village, with little commerce. In the 16th
century it was repeatedly plundered by pirates until it came to terms with
them, gave them welcome harbourage, and based a less precarious existence
upon continuous illicit trade. Until the middle of the 18th century Baracoa
was almost without connexion with Havana and Santiago. In the wars of the
end of the century it was a place of deposit for French and Spanish
corsairs. At this time, too, about 100 fugitive immigrant families from
Santo Domingo greatly augmented its industrial importance. In 1807 an
unsuccessful attack was made upon the city by an English force. In 1826 the
port was opened to foreign commerce.

BARAHONA DE SOTO, LUIS (1535?-1595), Spanish poet, was born about 1535 at
Lucena (Cordova), was educated at Granada, and practised as a physician at
Cordova. His principal poem is the _Primera parte de la Angélica_ (1586), a
continuation of the _Orlando furioso_; the second part was long believed to
be lost, but fragments of it have been identified in the anonymous
_Diálogos de la monteria_, first printed in 1890; the _Diálogos_ also
embody fragments of a poem by Barahona entitled _Los Principios del mundo_,
and many graceful lyrics by the same writer have been published by
Francisco Rodriguez Marín. Cervantes describes Barahona as "one of the best
poets not only in Spain, but in the whole world"; this is friendly
hyperbole. Nevertheless Barahona has high merits: poetic imagination,
ingenious fancy, and an exceptional mastery of the methods transplanted to
Spain from Italy. His _Angélica_ has been reproduced in facsimile (New
York, 1904) by Archer M. Huntington.

See F. Rodriguez Marín, _Luis Barahona de Solo, estudio biográfico,
bibliografico, y critico_ (Madrid. 1903); _Diálogos de la monteria_, edited
by F. R. de Uhagón (Madrid, 1890).

(J. F.-K.)

BARANTE, AMABLE GUILLAUME PROSPER BRUGIÉRE, BARON DE (1782-1866), French
statesman and historian, the son of an advocate, was born at Riom on the
16th of June 1782. At the age of sixteen he entered the École Polytechnique
at [v.03 p.0380] Paris, and at twenty obtained his first appointment in the
civil service. His abilities secured him rapid promotion, and in 1806 he
obtained the post of auditor to the council of state. After being employed
in several political missions in Germany, Poland and Spain, during the next
two years, he became prefect of Vendée. At the time of the return of
Napoleon I. he held the prefecture of Nantes, and this post he immediately
resigned. On the second restoration of the Bourbons he was made councillor
of state and secretary-general of the ministry of the interior. After
filling for several years the post of director-general of indirect taxes,
he was created in 1819 a peer of France and was prominent among the
Liberals. After the revolution of July 1830, M. de Barante was appointed
ambassador to Turin, and five years later to St Petersburg. Throughout the
reign of Louis Philippe he remained a supporter of the government; and
after the fall of the monarchy, in February 1848, he withdrew from
political affairs and retired to his country seat in Auvergne. Shortly
before his retirement he had been made grand cross of the Legion of Honour.
Barante's _Histoire des ducs de Bourgogne de la maison de Valois_, which
appeared in a series of volumes between 1824 and 1828, procured him
immediate admission to the French Academy. Its narrative qualities, and
purity of style, won high praise from the romantic school, but it exhibits
a lack of the critical sense and of scientific scholarship. Amongst his
other literary works are a _Tableau de la littérature française au
dixhuitième siècle_, of which several editions were published; _Des
communes et de l'aristocratie_ (1821); a French translation of the dramatic
works of Schiller; _Questions constitutionnelles_ (1850); _Histoire de la
Convention Nationale_, which appeared in six volumes between 1851 and 1853;
_Histoire du Directoire de la République française_ (1855); _Études
historiques et biographiques_ (1857); _La Vie politique de M.
Royer-Collard_ (1861). The version of _Hamlet_ for Guizot's _Shakespeare_
was his work. He died on the 22nd of November 1866.

His _Souvenirs_ were published by his grandson (Paris, 1890-99). See also
the article by Guizot in the _Revue des deux Mondes_, July 1867.

BARASAT, a subdivisional town in the district of the Twenty-four Parganas,
Bengal, India. For a considerable time Barasat town was the headquarters of
a joint magistracy, known as the "Barasat District," but in 1861, on a
readjustment of boundaries Barasat district was abolished by order of
government, and was converted into a subdivision of the Twenty-four
Parganas. Pop. (1901) 8634. It forms a striking illustration of the rural
character of the so-called "towns" in Bengal, and is merely an
agglomeration of 41 separate villages, in which all the operations of
husbandry go on precisely as in the adjacent hamlets.

BARATIER, JOHANN PHILIPP (1721-1740), German scholar of precocious genius,
was born at Schwabach near Nuremberg on the 10th of January 1721. His early
education was most carefully conducted by his father, the pastor of the
French church at Schwabach, and so rapid was his progress that by the time
he was five years of age he could speak French, Latin and Dutch with ease,
and read Greek fluently. He then studied Hebrew, and in three years was
able to translate the Hebrew Bible into Latin or French. He collected
materials for a dictionary of rare and difficult Hebrew words, with
critical and philological observations; and when he was about eleven years
old translated from the Hebrew Tudela's _Itinerarium_. In his fourteenth
year he was admitted master of arts at Halle, and received into the Royal
Academy at Berlin. The last years of his short life he devoted to the study
of history and antiquities, and had collected materials for histories of
the Thirty Years' War and of Antitrinitarianism, and for an _Inquiry
concerning Egyptian Antiquities_. His health, which had always been weak,
gave way completely under these labours, and he died on the 5th of October
1740. He had published eleven separate works, and left a great quantity of
manuscript.

BARATYNSKI, JEWGENIJ ABRAMOVICH (1800-1844), Russian poet, was educated at
the royal school at St Petersburg and then entered the army. He served for
eight years in Finland, where he composed his first poem _Eda_. Through the
interest of friends he obtained leave from the tsar to retire from the
army, and settled in 1827 near Moscow. There he completed his chief work
_The Gipsy_, a poem written in the style of Pushkin. He died in 1844 at
Naples, whither he had gone for the sake of the milder climate.

A collected edition of his poems appeared at St Petersburg, in 2 vols. in
1835; later editions, Moscow 1869, and Kazan 1884.

BARB. (1) (From Lat. _barba_, a beard), a term used in various senses, of
the folds of mucous membrane under the tongue of horses and cattle, and of
a disease affecting that part, of the wattles round the mouth of the
barbel, of the backward turned points of an arrow and of the piece of
folded linen worn over the neck by nuns. (2) (From Fr. _barbe_, meaning
"from Barbary"), a name applied to a breed of horses imported by the Moors
into Spain from Barbary, and to a breed of pigeons.

BARBACENA, an inland town of Brazil, in the state of Minas Geraes, 150 m.
N.N.W. of Rio de Janeiro and about 3500 ft. above sea-level. The
surrounding district is chiefly agricultural, producing coffee, sugar-cane,
Indian corn and cattle, and the town has considerable commercial
importance. It is also noted for its healthiness and possesses a large
sanatorium much frequented by convalescents from Rio de Janeiro during the
hot season. Barbacena was formerly a principal distributing centre for the
mining districts of Minas Geraes, but this distinction was lost when the
railways were extended beyond that point.

BARBADOS, or BARBADOES, an island in the British West Indies. It lies 78 m.
E. of St Vincent, in 13° 4' N. and 59° 37' W.; is 21 m. long, 14½ m. at its
broadest, and 166 sq. m. (106,470 acres) in extent (roughly equalling the
Isle of Wight). Its coasts are encircled with coral reefs, extending in
some places 3 m. seaward. In its configuration the island is elevated but
not mountainous. Near the centre is its apex, Mount Hillaby (1100 ft.),
from which the land falls on all sides in a series of terraces to the sea.
So gentle is the incline of the hills that in driving over the
well-constructed roads the ascent is scarcely noticeable. The only natural
harbour is Carlisle Bay on the south-western coast, which, however, is
little better than a shallow roadstead, only accessible to light draught
vessels.

_Geology_.--The oldest rocks of Barbados, known as the Scotland series, are
of shallow water origin, consisting of coarse grits, brown sandstones and
sandy clays, in places saturated with petroleum and traversed by veins of
manjak. They have been folded and denuded, so as to form the foundation on
which rest the later beds of the island. Upon the denuded edges of the
Scotland beds lies the Oceanic series. It includes chalky limestones,
siliceous earths, red clay, and, at the top, a layer of mudstone composed
mainly of volcanic dust. The limestones contain Globigerina and other
Foraminifera, the siliceous beds are made of Radiolaria, sponge spicules
and diatoms, while the red clay closely resembles the red clay of the
deepest parts of the oceans. There can be no doubt that the whole series
was laid down in deep waters. The Oceanic series is generally overlaid
directly, and unconformably, by coral limestones; but at Bissex Hill, at
the base of the coral limestones, and resting unconformably upon the
Oceanic series, there is a Globigerina marl. The Coral Limestone series
lies indifferently upon the older beds. Although of no great thickness it
covers six-sevenths of the island, rising in a series of steps or platforms
to a height of nearly 1100 ft.

Even the Scotland series probably belongs to the Tertiary system, but owing
to the want of characteristic fossils, it is impossible to determine with
any degree of certainty the precise homotaxis of the several formations.
Jukes-Browne and Harrison ascribe the Scotland beds to the Eocene or
Oligocene period, the Oceanic series to the Miocene, the Bissex Hill marls
to the Pliocene, and the coral limestones partly to the Pliocene and partly
to the Pleistocene. But these correlations rest upon imperfect evidence.

Sandstone, and clays suitable for brick-making, are found in the district
of Scotland, so called from a fancied resemblance to the Highlands of North
Britain. The only other mineral product is manjak, a species of asphalt,
also found in this district and to some extent exported.

_Climate, &c_.--The climate of Barbados is pleasant. The [v.03 p.0381]
seasons are divided into wet and dry, the latter (extending from December
to the end of May) being also the cold season. The temperature ranges from
70° F. to 86° F., rarely, even on the coldest days, falling below 65° F.
The average annual rainfall is about 60 in., September being the wettest
month. For eight months the invigorating N.E. trade winds temper the
tropical heat. The absence of swamps, the porous nature of the soil, and
the extent of cultivation account for the freedom of the island from
miasma. Fever is unknown. The climate has a beneficial effect on pulmonary
diseases, especially in their earlier stages, and is remarkable in
arresting the decay of vital power consequent upon old age. Leprosy occurs
amongst the negroes, and elephantiasis is so frequent as to be known as
"Barbados leg."

_Industries_.--The cultivation of sugar was first introduced in the middle
of the 17th century, and owing to the cheapness of labour, the extreme
fertility of the soil and the care bestowed on its cultivation, became the
staple product of the island. Cotton growing has recently become of
importance. The few other industries include rum distilleries and factories
for chemicals, ice and tobacco. A railway 28 m. long runs from Bridgetown
partly round the coast. The island is a place of call for almost all the
steamships plying to and from the West Indies, and is a great centre of
distribution. There is direct communication at frequent intervals with
England, the United States, Canada and the other West Indian islands.

_Population and Administration._--The greater part of the inhabitants
belong to the Church of England, which exceeds in numbers the combined
total of all other denominations. The island is the see of a bishop, who,
with the clergy of all creeds, is paid by the government. The chief
educational establishment is Codrington College, founded by Colonel
Christopher Codrington, who in 1710 bequeathed two estates to the Society
for the Propagation of the Gospel. It trains young men for holy orders and
is affiliated to the university of Durham. Harrison College and The Lodge
are secondary schools for boys, Queen's College for girls. There are
several second grade and a large number of primary schools. The colony
possesses representative institutions but not responsible government. The
crown has a veto on legislation and the home government appoints the public
officials, excepting the treasurer. The island is administered by a
governor, assisted by an executive council, a legislative council of 9
nominated members, and a house of assembly of 24 members elected on a
limited franchise. Barbados is the headquarters of the Imperial
Agricultural Department of the West Indies, to which (under Sir Daniel
Morris) the island owes the development of cotton growing, &c. The majority
of the population consists of negroes, passionately attached to the island,
who have a well-marked physiognomy and dialect of their own, and are more
intelligent than the other West Indian negroes. They outnumber the whites
by 9 to 1. Barbados is one of the most densely populated areas in the
world. In 1901 the numbers amounted to 195,588, or 1178 to the sq. m., and
in 1906 they were 196,287. There are no crown lands nor forests.

_Towns._--Bridgetown (pop. 21,000), the capital, situated on the S.W.
coast, is a pretty town nestling at the foot of the hills leading to the
uplands of the interior. It has a cathedral, St Michael's, which also
serves as a parish church. In Trafalgar Square stands the earliest monument
erected to the memory of Nelson. There are a good many buildings, shops,
pleasure grounds, a handsome military parade and exquisite beaches.
Pilgrim, the residence of the governor, is a fine mansion about a mile from
the city. Fontabelle and Hastings are fashionable suburban watering-places
with good sea-bathing. Speighstown (1500) is the only other town of any
size.

_History_.--Opinions differ as to the derivation of the name of the island.
It may be the Spanish word for the hanging branches of a vine which strike
root in the ground, or the name may have been given from a species of
bearded fig-tree. In the 16th-century maps the name is variously rendered
St Bernardo, Bernados, Barbudoso, Barnodos and Barnodo. There are more
numerous traces of the Carib Indians here than in any other of the
Antilles. Barbados is thought to have been first visited by the Portuguese.
Its history has some special features, showing as it does the process of
peaceful colonization, for the island, acquired without conquest, has never
been out of the possession of the British. It was touched in 1605 by the
British ship "Olive Blossom," whose crew, finding it uninhabited, took
possession in the name of James I.; but the first actual settlement was
made in 1625, at the direction of Sir William Courteen under the patent of
Lord Leigh, afterwards earl of Marlborough, to whom the island had been
granted by the king. Two years later, a compromise having been effected
with Lord Marlborough, a grant of the island was obtained by the earl of
Carlisle, whose claim was based on a grant, from the king, of all the
Caribbean islands in 1624; and in 1628 Charles Wolferstone, a native of
Bermuda, was appointed governor. In the same year sixty-four settlers
arrived at Carlisle Bay and the present capital was founded. During the
Civil War in England many Royalists sought refuge in Barbados, where, under
Lord Willoughby (who had leased the island from the earl of Carlisle), they
offered stout resistance to the forces of the Commonwealth. Willoughby,
however, was ultimately defeated and exiled. After the Restoration, to
appease the planters, doubtful as to the title under which they held the
estates which they had converted into valuable properties, the proprietary
or patent interest was abolished, and the crown took over the government of
the island; a duty of 4½% on all exports being imposed to satisfy the
claims of the patentees. In 1684, under the governorship of Sir Richard
Dutton, a census was taken, according to which the population then
consisted of 20,000 whites and 46,000 slaves. The European wars of the 18th
century caused much suffering, as the West Indies were the scene of
numerous battles between the British and the French. During this period a
portion of the 4½% duty was returned to the colony in the form of the
governor's salary. In the course of the American War of Independence
Barbados again experienced great hardships owing to the restrictions placed
upon the importation of provisions from the American colonies, and in 1778
the distress became so acute that the British government had to send
relief. For three years after the peace of Amiens in 1802 the colony
enjoyed uninterrupted calm, but in 1805 it was only saved from falling into
the hands of the French by the timely arrival of Admiral Cochrane. Since
that date, however, it has remained unthreatened in the possession of the
British. The rupture between Great Britain and the United States in 1812
caused privateering to be resumed, the trade of the colony being thereby
almost destroyed. This led to an agitation for the repeal of the 4½% duty,
but it was not till 1838 that the efforts to secure this were successful.
The abolition of slavery in 1834 was attended by no ill results, the slaves
continuing to work for their masters as hired servants, and a period of
great prosperity succeeded. The proposed confederation of the Windward
Islands in 1876, however, provoked riots, which occasioned considerable
loss of life and property, but secured for the people their existence as a
separate colony. Hurricanes are the scourge of Barbados, those of 1780,
1831, and 1898 being so disastrous as to necessitate relief measures on the
part of the home government.

See Ligon, _History of Barbados_ (1657); Oldmixon, _British Empire in
America_ (1741); _A Short History of Barbados_ (1768); _Remarks upon the
Short History_ (1768); Poyer, _History of Barbados_ (1808); Capt. Thom.
Southey, _Chron. Hist. of W. Indies_ (1827); Schomburgk, _History of
Barbados_ (1848); J. H. S. Moxby, _Account of a West Indian Sanatorium_
(1886); N. D. Davis, _The Cavaliers and Roundheads of Barbados_ (1887);
J. H. Stark, _History and Guide to Barbados_ (1893); R. T. Hill, _Cuba and
Porto Rico_ (1897). For geology, see A. J. Jukes-Browne and J. B. Harrison,
"The Geology of Barbados," _Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. London_ vol. xlvii.
(1891), pp. 197-250, vol. xlviii. (1892), pp. 170-226; J. W. Gregory,
"Contributions to the Palaeontology and Physical Geology of the West
Indies," _ibid_. vol. li. (1895), pp. 255-310; G. F. Franks and J. B.
Harrison, "The Globigerina-marls and Basal Reef-rocks of Barbados," _ibid_.
vol. liv. (1898), pp. 540-555; J. W. Spencer, "On the Geological and
Physical Development of Barbados; with Notes on Trinidad," _ibid_. vol.
lviii. (1902), pp. 354-367.

BARBARA, SAINT, a virgin martyr and saint of the Roman Catholic and
Orthodox Eastern Churches, whose festival day is December 4th. Her legend
is that she was immured in a tower [v.03 p.0382] by her father who was
opposed to her marriage; that she was converted to Christianity by a
follower of Origen, and that when her father learnt this, he beheaded her.
The place of her martyrdom is variously given as Heliopolis, as a town of
Tuscany, and as Nicomedia, Bithynia, about the year 235. St Barbara is the
patron saint of armourers and gunsmiths, and her protection is sought
specially against lightning.

BARBARIAN (Gr. [Greek: barbaros], the name among the early Greeks for all
foreigners. The word is probably onomatopoetic, designed to represent the
uncouth babbling of which languages other than their own appeared to the
Greeks to consist. Even the Romans were included in the term. The word soon
assumed an evil meaning, becoming associated with the vices and savage
natures of which they believed their enemies to be possessed. The Romans
adopted the word for all peoples other than those under Graeco-Roman
influence and domination. It has long become synonymous with a general lack
of civilization.

BARBARO, ERMOLAO (HERMOLAUS BARBARUS) (1454-1493), Italian scholar, was
born at Venice on the 21st of May 1454. At an early age he was sent to
Rome, where he studied under Pomponius Laetus. He completed his education
at the university of Padua, where he was appointed professor of philosophy
in 1477. Two years later he revisited Venice, but returned to Padua when
the plague broke out in his native city. He was sent on various missions to
persons of high rank, amongst them Pope Innocent VIII., by whom he was
nominated to the important office of patriarch of Aquileia (1491). The
Venetian senate, however, refused to ratify the appointment, which,
contrary to the law, he had accepted without first obtaining its sanction.
He was banished and forced to resign the patriarchate, under the threat of
being punished vicariously by the confiscation of his father's property.
Barbarus remained at Rome, in receipt of a small pension from the
pontifical government, until his death (probably from the plague) on the
14th of June 1493 (according to some, two years later). He edited and
translated a number of classical works, of which the most important were:
_Castigationes Plinianae_ (1492), in which he boasted of having made 5000
corrections in the text of Pliny's _Natural History_; Themistius'
_Paraphrases_ of certain works of Aristotle (1480); Aristotle's _Rhetorica_
(published in 1544); _Castigationes in Pomponium Melam_ (1493).

BARBAROSSA ("Redbeard"), the name given by the Christians to a family of
Turkish admirals and sea rovers of the 16th century,--Arouj and Khizr
(_alias_ Khair-ed-Din) and Hassan the son of Khair-ed-Din. As late as 1840,
Captain Walsin Esterhazy, author of a history of the Turkish rule in
Africa, ventured the guess that "Barbarossa" was simply a mispronunciation
of Bábá Arouj, and the supposition has been widely accepted. But the prefix
Bábá was not applied to Arouj by contemporaries. His name is given in
Spanish or Italian form as "Orux" or "Harrach" or "Ordiche." The
contemporary Arab chronicle published by S. Rang and F. Denis in 1837 says
explicitly that Barbarossa was the name applied by Christians to
Khair-ed-Din. It was no doubt a nickname given to the family on account of
their red or tawny beards (Lat. _barba_). The founder of the family was
Yakub, a Roumeliot, probably of Albanian blood, who settled in Mitylene
after its conquest by the Turks. He was a coasting trader and skipper, and
had four sons--Elias, Isaak, Arouj and Khizr, all said to have been born
after 1482. Khizr became a potter and Isaak a trader. Elias and Arouj took
to sea roving. In an action with a galley of the Knights of Saint John,
then established at Rhodes, Elias was killed and Arouj taken prisoner; the
latter was ransomed by a Turkish pasha and returned to the sea. For some
time he served the Mamelukes who still held Egypt. During the conflict
between the Mamelukes and the sultan Selim I., he considered it more
prudent to transfer himself to Tunis. The incessant conflicts among the
Berber princes of northern Africa gave him employment as a mercenary, which
he varied by piratical raids on the trade of the Christians. At Tunis he
was joined by Khizr, who took, or was endowed with, the name of
Khair-ed-Din. Isaak soon followed his brothers. Arouj and Khair-ed-Din
joined the exiled Moors of Granada in raids on the Spanish coast. They also
pushed their fortunes by fighting for, or murdering and supplanting, the
native African princes. Their headquarters were in the island of Jerba in
the Gulf of Gabes. They attempted in 1512 to take Bougie from the
Spaniards, but were beaten off, and Arouj lost an arm, shattered by an
arquebus shot. In 1514 they took Jijelli from the Genoese, and after a
second beating at Bougie in 1515 were called in by the natives of Cherchel
and Algiers to aid them against the Spaniards. They occupied the towns and
murdered the native ruler who called them in. The Spaniards still held the
little rocky island which gives Algiers its name and forms the harbour. In
1518 Arouj was drawn away to take part in a civil war in Tlemçen. He
promptly murdered the prince he came to support and seized the town for
himself. The rival party then called in the Spaniards, by whom Arouj was
expelled and slain while fleeing at the Rio Salado. Khair-ed-Din clung to
his possessions on the coast and appealed to the sultan Selim I. He was
named beylerbey by the sultan, and with him began the establishment of
Turkish rule in northern Africa. For years he was engaged in subduing the
native princes, and in carrying on warfare with the Christians. In 1519 he
repelled a Spanish attack on Algiers, but could not expel his enemies from
the island till 1529. As a combatant in the forefront of the war with the
Christians he became a great hero in Islam, and dreaded by its enemies
under his name of Barbarossa. In 1534 he seized Tunis, acting as capitan
pasha for the sultan Suleiman. The emperor Charles V. intervened on behalf
of the native prince, retook the town, and destroyed great part of
Barbarossa's fleet. The corsair retaliated by leading what remained of his
navy on a plundering raid to the Balearic Islands. During the remainder of
his life--till 1547--Barbarossa, though still beylerbey of northern Africa,
was mainly engaged as capitan pasha in co-operating with the armies of the
sultan Suleiman in the east. He was absent from Algiers when it was
attacked by Charles V. in 1541. In 1543-1544 he commanded the fleet which
Suleiman sent to the coast of Provence to support Francis I. Barbarossa
would not allow the bells of the Christian churches to be rung while his
fleet was at anchor in the ports. He plundered the coast of Italy on his
way back to Constantinople. When he died in his palace at Constantinople he
was succeeded as beylerbey of Africa by his son Hassan. Hassan Barbarossa,
like his father, spent most of his life in the Levant, but was occasionally
in Africa when the influence of his family was required to suppress the
disorders of the Turkish garrisons. He left it for the last time in 1567,
and is said by Hammer-Purgstall to have been present at Lepanto in 1571.
His last years are obscure.

AUTHORITIES.--_The History of the Ottoman Empire_, by Joseph von
Hammer-Purgstall (French translation J. J. Hellert, 1835-1843), contains
accounts of the Barbarossas, but requires to be corrected by other
authorities. See _La Fondation de la régence d'Alger, histoire des
Barberousse, chronique arabe du XVI^{_ème_} siècle_ published by Sander
Rang and Ferdinand Denis, Paris, 1837--for a curious Moslem version of
their story. H. D. de Grammont has collected later evidence in his
_Histoire d'Alger_ (Paris, 1887); and he discusses the origin of the name
in a paper contributed to the _Révue Africaine_, No. 171. Their campaigns
are told in a readable way with the advantage of technical knowledge by Ad.
Jurien de la Gravière in _Les Corsaires barbaresques et la marine de
Soliman le Grand_ (1887), and _Doria et Barberousse_ (1886). _The History
of the Maritime Wars of the Turks_, by Hajji Khalifa (translated by J.
Mitchell for the Oriental Translation Fund, 1831), is said to have been
founded on evidence collected by order of the sultan Suleiman.

BARBAROUX, CHARLES JEAN MARIE (1767-1794), French revolutionist, was
educated at first by the Oratorians of Marseilles, then studied law, and
became a successful advocate. He was appointed secretary (_greffier_) to
the commune of Marseilles, and in 1792 was commissioned to go to the
Legislative Assembly and demand the accusation of the directory of the
department of Bouches-du-Rhone, as accomplice in a royalist movement in
Arles. At Paris he was received in the Jacobin club and entered into
relations with J. P. Brissot and the Rolands. It was at his instigation
that Marseilles sent to Paris the battalion of volunteers which contributed
to the insurrection of the 10th of August 1792 against the king. Returning
to Marseilles he helped to repress a royalist movement at Avignon and an
ultra-Jacobin movement [v.03 p.0383] at Marseilles, and was elected deputy
to the Convention by 775 votes out of 776 voting. From the first he posed
as an opponent of the Mountain, accused Robespierre of aiming at the
dictatorship (25th of September 1792), attacked Marat, and proposed to
break up the commune of Paris. Then he got the act of accusation against
Louis XVI. adopted, and in the trial voted for his death "without appeal
and without delay." During the final struggle between the Girondists and
the Mountain, he refused to resign as deputy and rejected the offer made by
the sections of Paris to give hostages for the arrested representatives. He
succeeded in escaping, first to Caen, where he organized the civil war,
then to Saint-Emilion near Bordeaux, where he wrote his _Mémoires_, which
were published in 1822 by his son, and re-edited in 1866. Discovered, he
attempted to shoot himself, but was only wounded, and was taken to
Bordeaux, where he was guillotined when his identity was established.

See Ch. Vatel, _Charlotte Corday et les Girondins_ (Paris, 1873); A.
Aulard, _Les Orateurs de la Législative et de la Convention_ (Paris, 2nd
ed., 1906).

BARBARY, the general designation of that part of northern Africa bounded E.
by Egypt, W. by the Atlantic, S. by the Sahara and N. by the Mediterranean,
comprising the states of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Tripoli. The name is
derived from the Berbers, the chief inhabitants of the region.

BARBARY APE, a tailless monkey inhabiting Algeria, Morocco, and the rock of
Gibraltar (where it may have been introduced), and referable to the
otherwise Asiatic group of macaques, in which it alone represents the
subgenus _Inuus_. This monkey, _Macacus inuus_, is light yellowish-brown
above and yellowish-white below, with the naked part of the face
flesh-coloured. It is entirely terrestrial in habits, at least on
Gibraltar, and goes about in droves.

BARBARY PIRATES. The coast population of northern Africa has in past ages
been addicted to piratical attacks on the shores of Europe opposite.
Throughout the decline of the Roman empire, the barbarian invasions, the
Mahommedan conquest and the middle ages, mere piracy always existed by the
side of the great strife of peoples and religions. In the course of the
14th century, when the native Berber dynasties were in decadence, piracy
became particularly flagrant. The town of Bougie was then the most
notorious haunt of these "skimmers of the sea." But the savage robber
powers which, to the disgrace of Europe, infested the commerce and the
coasts, not only of the Mediterranean but even for a time of the ocean; who
were not finally suppressed till the 19th century was well advanced; and
who are properly known as the Barbary pirates, arose in the 16th century,
attained their greatest height in the 17th, declined gradually throughout
the 18th and were extinguished about 1830. Isolated cases of piracy have
occurred on the Rif coast of Morocco even in our time, but the pirate
communities which lived by plunder and could live by no other resource,
vanished with the French conquest of Algiers in 1830. They are intimately
connected with the general history of northern Africa from about 1492 to
their end. The story of the establishment of Turkish rule in northern
Africa and of the revolutions of Morocco must be sought under the heads of
TURKEY, TRIPOLI, TUNISIA, ALGERIA and MOROCCO.

In dealing with the pirates, it will be sufficient to note a few leading
dates. The conquest of Granada in 1492 by the Catholic sovereigns of Spain
drove many Moors into exile. They revenged themselves by piratical attacks
on the Spanish coast. They had the help of Moslem adventurers from the
Levant, of whom the most successful were Arouj and his brother
Khair-ed-Din, natives of Mitylene, both of whom were known to the
Christians by the nickname of Barbarossa (_q.v._) or "Redbeard." Spain in
self-defence began to conquer the coast towns of Oran, Algiers and Tunis.
Arouj having fallen in battle with the Spaniards in 1518, his brother
Khair-ed-Din appealed to Selim, the sultan of Turkey, who sent him troops.
He drove the Spaniards in 1529 from the rocky island in front of Algiers,
where they had a fort, and was the founder of the Turkish power. From about
1518 till the death of Uluch Ali in 1587, Algiers was the main seat of
government of the beylerbeys of northern Africa, who ruled over Tripoli,
Tunisia and Algeria. From 1587 till 1659, they were ruled by Turkish
pashas, sent from Constantinople to govern for three years; but in the
latter year a military revolt in Algiers reduced the pashas to nonentities.
From 1659 onwards, these African cities, though nominally forming parts of
the Turkish empire, were in fact anarchical military republics which chose
their own rulers and lived by plunder.

It may be pointed out that during the first period (1518-1587) the
beylerbeys were admirals of the sultan, commanding great fleets and
conducting serious operations of war for political ends. They were
slave-hunters and their methods were ferocious, but their Christian enemies
were neither more humane nor more chivalrous. After 1587, plunder became
the sole object of their successors--plunder of the native tribes on land
and of all who went upon the sea. The maritime side of this long-lived
brigandage was conducted by the captains, or _reises_, who formed a class
or even a corporation. Cruisers were fitted out by capitalists and
commanded by the _reises_. Ten per cent of the value of the prizes was paid
to the treasury of the pasha or his successors, who bore the titles of Agha
or Dey or Bey. Bougie was the chief shipbuilding port and the timber was
mainly drawn from the country behind it. Until the 17th century the pirates
used galleys, but a Flemish renegade of the name of Simon Danser taught
them the advantage of using sailing ships. In this century, indeed, the
main strength of the pirates was supplied by renegades from all parts of
Christendom. An English gentleman of the distinguished Buckinghamshire
family of Verney was for a time among them at Algiers. This port was so
much the most formidable that the name of Algerine came to be used as
synonymous with Barbary pirate, but the same trade was carried on, though
with less energy, from Tripoli and Tunis--as also from towns in the empire
of Morocco, of which the most notorious was Salli. The introduction of
sailing ships gave increased scope to the activity of the pirates. While
the galleys, being unfit for the high seas, were confined to the
Mediterranean and the coast, the sailing vessels ranged into the Atlantic
as far as the Canaries or even to Iceland. In 1631 a Flemish renegade,
known as Murad Reis, sacked Baltimore in Ireland, and carried away a number
of captives who were seen in the slave-market of Algiers by the French
historian Pierre Dan.

The first half of the 17th century may be described as the flowering time
of the Barbary pirates. More than 20,000 captives were said to be
imprisoned in Algiers alone. The rich were allowed to redeem themselves,
but the poor were condemned to slavery. Their masters would not in many
cases allow them to secure freedom by professing Mahommedanism. A long list
might be given of people of good social position, not only Italians or
Spaniards, but German or English travellers in the south, who were captives
for a time. The chief sufferers were the inhabitants of the coasts of
Sicily, Naples and Spain. But all traders belonging to nations which did
not pay blackmail in order to secure immunity were liable to be taken at
sea. The payment of blackmail, disguised as presents or ransoms, did not
always secure safety with these faithless barbarians. The most powerful
states in Europe condescended to make payments to them and to tolerate
their insults. Religious orders--the Redemptionists and Lazarites--were
engaged in working for the redemption of captives and large legacies were
left for that purpose in many countries. The continued existence of this
African piracy was indeed a disgrace to Europe, for it was due to the
jealousies of the powers themselves. France encouraged them during her
rivalry with Spain; and when she had no further need of them they were
supported against her by Great Britain and Holland. In the 18th century
British public men were not ashamed to say that Barbary piracy was a useful
check on the competition of the weaker Mediterranean nations in the
carrying trade. When Lord Exmouth sailed to coerce Algiers in 1816, he
expressed doubts in a private letter whether the suppression of piracy
would be acceptable to the trading community. Every power was, indeed,
desirous to secure immunity for itself and more or less ready to compel
Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, Salli and [v.03 p.0384] the rest to respect its
trade and its subjects. In 1655 the British admiral, Robert Blake, was sent
to teach them a lesson, and he gave the Tunisians a severe beating. A long
series of expeditions was undertaken by the British fleet during the reign
of Charles II., sometimes single-handed, sometimes in combination with the
Dutch. In 1682 and 1683 the French bombarded Algiers. On the second
occasion the Algerines blew the French consul from a gun during the action.
An extensive list of such punitive expeditions could be made out, down to
the American operations of 1801-5 and 1815. But in no case was the attack
pushed home, and it rarely happened that the aggrieved Christian state
refused in the end to make a money payment in order to secure peace. The
frequent wars among them gave the pirates numerous opportunities of
breaking their engagements, of which they never failed to take advantage.

After the general pacification of 1815, the suppression of African piracy
was universally felt to be a necessity. The insolence of a Tunisian
squadron which sacked Palma in the island of Sardinia and carried off 158
of its inhabitants, roused widespread indignation. Other influences were at
work to bring about their extinction. Great Britain had acquired Malta and
the Ionian Islands and had now many Mediterranean subjects. She was also
engaged in pressing the other European powers to join with her in the
suppression of the slave trade which the Barbary states practised on a
large scale and at the expense of Europe. The suppression of the trade was
one of the objects of the congress of Vienna. Great Britain was called on
to act for Europe, and in 1816 Lord Exmouth was sent to obtain treaties
from Tunis and Algiers. His first visit produced diplomatic documents and
promises and he sailed for England. While he was negotiating, a number of
British subjects had been brutally ill-treated at Bona, without his
knowledge. The British government sent him back to secure reparation, and
on the 27th of August, in combination with a Dutch squadron under Admiral
Van de Capellen, he administered a smashing bombardment to Algiers. The
lesson terrified the pirates both of that city and of Tunis into giving up
over 3000 prisoners and making fresh promises. But they were not reformed
and were not capable of reformation. Algiers renewed its piracies and
slave-taking, though on a smaller scale, and the measures to be taken with
it were discussed at the conference or congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818.
In 1824 another British fleet under Admiral Sir Harry Neal had again to
bombard Algiers. The great pirate city was not in fact thoroughly tamed
till its conquest by France in 1830.

AUTHORITIES.--The _Histoire d'Alger_ of H. D. de Grammont (Paris, 1887) is
based on original authorities. Sir R. L. Playfair's _Scourge of
Christendom_ (London, 1884) gives the history of the British consulate in
Algiers. The main authorities for the early history of the Barbary states
are:--Luis del Marmol Carvajal, _Descripcion de Africa_ (Granada, 1573);
Diego de Haedo, _Topographia e Historia General de Argel_ (Valladolid,
1612); and Père Pierre Dan, _Histoire de Barbarie et de ses corsaires_
(Paris, 1637). The readable treatises of Ad. Jurien de la Gravière, all
published in Paris, _Doria et Barberousse_ (1886), _Les Corsaires
barbaresques_ (1887), _Les Chevaliers de Malte_ (1887), and _La Guerre de
Chypre_ (1888), deal with the epoch of the beylerbeys and the regular wars.
For American work see Gardner Weld Allen, _Our Navy and the Barbary
Corsairs_ (New York, 1905).

(D. H.)

BARBAULD, ANNA LETITIA (1743-1825), English poet and miscellaneous writer,
was born at Kibworth-Harcourt, in Leicestershire, on the 20th of June 1743.
Her father, the Rev. John Aikin, a Presbyterian minister and schoolmaster,
taught his daughter Latin and Greek. In 1758 Mr Aikin removed his family to
Warrington, to act as theological tutor in a dissenting academy there. In
1773 Miss Aikin published a volume of _Poems_, which was very successful,
and co-operated with her brother, Dr John Aikin, in a volume of
_Miscellaneous Pieces in Prose_. In 1774 she married Rochemont Barbauld, a
member of a French Protestant family settled in England. He had been
educated in the academy at Warrington, and was minister of a Presbyterian
church at Palgrave, in Suffolk, where, with his wife's help, he established
a boarding school. Her admirable _Hymns in Prose and Early Lessons_ were
written for their pupils. In 1785 she left England for the continent with
her husband, whose health was seriously impaired. On their return about two
years later, Mr Barbauld was appointed to a church at Hampstead. In 1802
they removed to Stoke Newington. Mrs Barbauld became well known in London
literary circles. She collaborated with Dr Aikin in his _Evenings at Home_;
in 1795 she published an edition of Akenside's _Pleasures of Imagination_,
with a critical essay; two years later she edited Collins's _Odes_; in 1804
she published a selection of papers from the English Essayists, and a
selection from Samuel Richardson's correspondence, with a biographical
notice; in 1810 a collection of the _British Novelists_ (50 vols.) with
biographical and critical notices; and in 1811 her longest poem, _Eighteen
Hundred and Eleven_, giving a gloomy view of the existing state and future
prospects of Britain. This poem anticipated Macaulay in contemplating the
prospect of a visitor from the antipodes regarding at a future day the
ruins of St Paul's from a broken arch of Blackfriars Bridge. Mrs Barbauld
died on the 9th of March 1825; her husband had died in 1808. A collected
edition of her works, with memoir, was published by her niece, Lucy Aikin,
in 2 vols., 1825.

See A. L. le Breton, _Memoir of Mrs Barbauld_ (1874); G. A. Ellis, _Life
and Letters of Mrs A. L. Barbauld_ (1874); and Lady Thackeray Ritchie, _A
Book of Sibyls_ (1883).

BARBECUE (Span. _barbacoa_), originally a framework on posts placed over a
fire on which to dry or smoke meat; hence, a gridiron for roasting whole
animals, and in Cuba an upper floor on which fruit or grain is stored. In
the United States the word means an open-air feast, either political or
social, where whole animals are roasted and eaten and hogsheads of beer and
other vast quantities of food and drink consumed.

BARBED WIRE, a protective variety of fencing, consisting usually of several
strands of wire twisted together with sharp spikes or points clinched or
fastened into the strands.

In the United States, barbed wire for fencing was originally suggested to
meet conditions existing in the western states, by reason of the large
cattle-raising industry in sections where timber was scarce. Prior to its
introduction, a No. 9 round or oval iron wire was popular on the frontier
of the United States and in South America, as a fencing material. Large
amounts were used annually for this purpose, but iron lacked strength, and
single wire strand was not fully satisfactory on account of stretching in
warm and contracting in cold weather, and of thus being broken. Cattle
would rub against a smooth fence, and this constant pressure loosened the
posts and broke the wire. To overcome this defect, ingenious people--the
most successful being farmers--set themselves to find a way by which wire
could be used and at the same time be free from destruction by the animals
it was intended to confine. This investigation resulted in the invention of
barbed wire. Soon after, automatic machinery was invented for rapidly and
cheaply placing the barb upon the smooth wire, so that the cost of barbed
wire is much less than the cost of smooth wire when it was in general use.
So immediately did barbed wire find favour with the farmers of the United
States, and, in fact, all over the world, that the manufacture of wire was
revolutionized.

The history of barbed wire fencing is of recent date. In the United
States--the real home of this industry--patents were taken out by Lucien B.
Smith, Kent, Ohio, in 1867; by William B. Hunt, of Scott, N.Y., at almost
the same time; and by Michael Kelly, of New York, a year later. The
practical beginning of the industry, however, was in the patents issued to
Joseph F. Glidden, De Kalb, Ill., 1874, on barbed fence wire, and during
the same year, to Joseph F. Glidden and Phineas W. Vaughan, for a machine
to manufacture the same. These inventions were the foundation of the system
of patents under which barbed wire has been protected and sold. The
development of the barbed wire industry would hardly have been possible
without steel. Iron wire, used for fencing prior to the introduction of
steel, was not suitable, seeing that iron does not possess sufficient
tensile strength and lacks homogeneity, qualities which Bessemer and
open-hearth steels possess in a high degree.

The advantages of galvanized barbed wire fencing are that it is almost
imperishable, is no burden on the posts; does not [v.03 p.0385] oppose the
wind with enough surface to rack the posts, thus allowing water to settle
around them and rot them; is economical, not only in the comparative
cheapness of its first cost but also in the amount of land covered by it;
and is effective as a barrier against all kinds of stock and a protection
against dogs and wild beasts. Cattle, once discovering what it is, will not
press against it, nor even go near it, and thus it becomes an effective
means of dividing the farmer's ranch into such fields as he may desire. It
is quickly and cheaply constructed, and has the advantage of freedom from
harbouring weeds. It affords no impediment to the view. A man can see
across his farm, and ascertain what is going on in every portion within the
scope of vision, as plainly as if there were no fences. It does not
contribute to the formation of snow drifts as do other kinds of efficient
fence. This makes it a favourite form of fencing for railroads and along
highways. Finally, barbed wire composed of two wires twisted together, once
firmly put in place, will retain its taut condition through many seasons
without repair. The fact of the wire being twisted allows it to adapt
itself to all the varying temperatures.

The introduction of barbed wire met with some opposition in America on
supposed humanitarian grounds, but ample and extended tests, both of the
economy and the humanity of the new material, silenced this objection. Now
no American farmer, especially in the west, ever thinks of putting any
other kind of fencing on his farm, unless it may be the new types of meshed
wire field fencing which have been coming so generally into use since 1899.
Generally speaking, the use of barbed wire fencing in other countries has
not been as extensive as in the western United States. While it has been
used on a comparatively large scale in Argentina and Australia, both these
countries use a much larger quantity of plain wire fence, and in Argentina
there is an important consumption of high-carbon oval fence wire of great
strength, which apparently forms the only kind of fence that meets the
conditions in a satisfactory manner.

It is interesting to note the largely increased demand for meshed wire
field fencing in the more thickly settled-portions of the United States,
and along the lines of railway. Beginning with 1899, there has been an
annual increase in this demand, owing to the scarcity and high cost of
labour, and the discontinuing of the building of rail fences. Meshed wire
is considered by many a better enclosure for small animals, like sheep and
hogs, than the barbed wire fence. Barbed wire has been popular with
railroads, but of late meshed wire fencing has been substituted with
advantage, the fabric being made of wires of larger diameter than formerly,
to insure greater stability. The popularity of barbed wire is best shown by
the following statistics:--

      APPROXIMATE PRODUCTION FOR THE UNITED STATES

  +-------+-------------------+----------------------------+
  | Year. | Tons barbed wire. | Tons meshed field fencing. |
  +-------+-------------------+----------------------------+
  | 1874  |               5   |                            |
  | 1875  |             300   |                            |
  | 1876  |           1,500   |                            |
  | 1877  |           7,000   |                            |
  | 1878  |          13,000   |                            |
  | 1879  |          25,000   |                            |
  | 1880  |          40,000   |                            |
  | 1890  |         125,000   |                            |
  | 1900  |         200,000   |             50,000         |
  | 1907  |         250,000   |            425,000         |
  +-------+-------------------+----------------------------+

Barbed wire is usually shipped to customers on wooden spools, each holding
approximately 100 lb or 80 to 100 rods. A hole is provided through the
centre of the spool for inserting a bar, on which the reel can revolve for
unwinding the wire as it is put up. After the wire is stretched in place,
it is attached to the wooden posts by means of galvanized steel wire
staples, ordinarily made from No. 9 wire. They are cut with a sharp, long,
diagonal point and can be easily driven into the posts. On account of the
rapid decay and destruction of wooden posts, steel posts have become
popular, as also have reinforced concrete posts, which add materially to
the durability of the fence. It is essential that barbed wire should be
stretched with great care. For this purpose a suitable barbed wire
stretcher is necessary.

Barbed wire fencing is now manufactured in various patterns. The general
process may be outlined briefly as follows:--The wire is made of soft
Bessemer or Siemens-Martin steel, and is drawn in the wire mill in the
usual way. Galvanizing is done by a continuous process. The coil of wire to
be galvanized is placed on a reel. The first end of the wire is led
longitudinally through an annealing medium--either red-hot lead or heated
fire-brick tubes--of sufficient length to soften the wire. From the
annealing furnace, the wire is fed longitudinally through a bath of
muriatic acid, which removes the scale, and from the acid, after a thorough
washing in water, the wire passes through a bath of spelter, heated
slightly above the melting point. After coming from the spelter and being
cooled by water, the wire is wound on suitable take-up blocks into finished
coils. From 30 to 60 wires are passing simultaneously in parallel lines
through this continuous galvanizing apparatus, thus insuring a large
output. The galvanizing gives the wire a bright finish and serves to
protect it from the corrosive action of the atmosphere. There is a
considerable demand for painted fencing, in the manufacture of which the
galvanizing is dispensed with, and the spools of finished barbed wire, as
they come from the barbing machine, are submerged in paint and dried. The
barbing and twisting together of the two longitudinal strand wires is done
by automatic machinery. A brief description of the manufacture of 2 and 4
point Glidden wire is as follows:--Two coils of wire on reels are placed
behind the machine, designed to form the main or strand wires of the fence.
One of the main wires passes through the machine longitudinally. One or two
coils of wire are placed on reels at either side of the machine for making
2 or 4 point wire respectively. These wires are fed into the machine at
right angles to the strand wire. At each movement of the feeding mechanism,
when fabricating 2 point wire, one cross wire is fed forward. A diagonal
cut forms a sharp point on the first end. The wire is again fed forward and
instantly wrapped firmly around one strand wire and cut off so as to leave
a sharp point on the incoming wire as before, while the bit of pointed wire
cut off remains as a double-pointed steel barb attached firmly to the
strand wire. This wire armed with barbs at regular intervals passes on
through a guide, where it is met by a second strand wire--a plain wire
without barbs. The duplex strand wires are attached to a take-up reel,
which is caused to revolve and take up the finished barbed wire
simultaneously and in unison with the barbing machine. In this way the
strand wires are loosely twisted into a 2-ply strand, armed with barbs
projecting at right angles in every direction.

When once started, the operation of barbed wire making is continuous and
rapid. The advantage of two strands is the automatic adjustment to changes
of temperature. When heat expands the strands, the twist simply loosens
without causing a sag, and when cold contracts them, the twist tightens,
all without materially altering the relative lengths of the combined wires.
A barbed wire machine produces from 2000 to 3000 lb of wire per day of ten
hours.

In some American states, the use of barbed wire is regulated by law, but as
a rule these laws apply to placing barbed wire on highways. Others prohibit
the use of barbed wire fencing to indicate the property line between
different owners, unless both agree to its use. In some states the use of
barbed wire is prohibited unless it has a top rail of lumber.

Barbed wire is also employed in connexion with "obstacles" in field
fortifications, especially in what are known as "high wire entanglements."
Pointed stakes or "pickets," 4 ft. high, are planted in rows and secured by
ordinary wire to holdfasts or pegs in the ground. Each picket is connected
to all around it, top and bottom, by lengths of barbed wire.

In England, where the use of barbed wire has also become common, the Barbed
Wire Act 1893 enacted that, where there is on any land adjoining a highway
within the county or district of a local authority, a fence which is made
with barbed wire (_i.e._ any wire with spikes or jagged projections), or in
which barbed wire has been placed, and where such barbed wire may probably
be injurious to persons or animals lawfully using the highway, the local
authority may require the occupier of the land to abate the nuisance by
serving notice in writing upon him. If the occupier fails to do so within
the specified time, the local authority may apply to a court of summary
jurisdiction, and such court, if satisfied that the barbed wire is a
nuisance, may by summary order direct the occupier to abate it, and on his
failure to comply with the order within a reasonable time, the local
authority may execute it and recover in a summary manner from the occupier
the expenses incurred.

BARBEL (_Barbus vulgaris_), a fish of the Cyprinid family, which is an
inhabitant of the rivers of central Europe, and is very locally distributed
in England. It has four barbels (Lat. _barba_, beard; fleshy appendages
hanging from the mouth), and the first ray of the short dorsal fin is
strong, spine-like and serrated behind. It attains a weight of 50 lb on the
continent of Europe. The genus of which it is the type is a very large one,
comprising about 300 species from Europe, Asia and Africa, among which is
the mahseer or mahaseer, the great sporting fish of India.

BARBÉ-MARBOIS, FRANÇOIS, MARQUIS DE (1745-1837), French politician, was
born at Metz. He began his public career as intendant of San Domingo under
the old régime. At the close of 1789 he returned to France, and then placed
his services at the disposal of the revolutionary government. In 1791 he
was sent to Regensburg to help de Noailles, the French ambassador, in the
negotiations with the diet of the Empire concerning the [v.03 p.0386]
possessions of German princes in Alsace and Lorraine. Suspected of treason,
he was arrested on his return but set at liberty again. In 1795 he was
elected to the Council of the Ancients, where the general moderation of his
attitude, especially in his opposition to the exclusion of nobles and the
relations of _émigrés_ from public life, brought him under suspicion of
being a royalist, though he pronounced a eulogy on Bonaparte for his
success in Italy. At the _coup d'état_ of the 18th Fructidor (September 4)
1797, he was arrested and transported to French Guiana. Transferred to
Oléron in 1799, he owed his liberty to Napoleon, after the 18th Brumaire.
In 1801 he became councillor of state and director of the public treasury,
and in 1802 a senator. In 1803 he negotiated the treaty by which Louisiana
was ceded to the United States, and was rewarded by the First Consul with a
gift of 152,000 francs. In 1805 he was made grand officer of the legion of
honour and a count, and in 1808 he became president of the _cour des
comptes_. In return for these favours, he addressed Napoleon with servile
compliments; yet in 1814 he helped to draw up the act of abdication of the
emperor, and declared to the _cour des comptes_, with reference to the
invasion of France by the allies, "united for the most beautiful of causes,
it is long since we have been so free as we now are in the presence of the
foreigner in arms." In June 1814, Louis XVIII. named him peer of France and
confirmed him in his office as president of the _cour des comptes_.
Deprived of his positions by Napoleon during the Hundred Days he was
appointed minister of justice in the ministry of the duc de Richelieu
(August 1815). In this office he tried unsuccessfully to gain the
confidence of the ultra-royalists, and withdrew at the end of nine months
(May 10, 1816).

In 1830, when Louis Philippe assumed the reins of government, Barbé-Marbois
went, as president of the _cour des comptes_, to compliment him and was
confirmed in his position. It was the sixth government he had served and
all with servility. He held his office until April 1834, and died on the
12th of February 1837. He published various works, of which may be
mentioned: _Réflexions sur la colonie de Saint-Domingue_ (1794), _De la
Guyane, &c._ (1822), an _Histoire de la Louisiane et la cession de cette
colonie par la France aux États-Unis, &c._ (1828), and the story of his
transportation after the 18th Fructidor in _Journal d'un déporté non jugé_,
2 vols. (1834).

BARBER (from Lat. _barba_, beard), one whose occupation it is to shave or
trim beards, a hairdresser. In former times the barber's craft was
dignified with the title of a profession, being conjoined with the art of
surgery. In France the barber-surgeons were separated from the perruquiers,
and incorporated as a distinct body in the reign of Louis XIV. In England
barbers first received incorporation from Edward IV. in 1461. By 32 Henry
VIII. c. 42, they were united with the company of surgeons, it being
enacted that the barbers should confine themselves to the minor operations
of blood-letting and drawing teeth, while the surgeons were prohibited from
"barbery or shaving." In 1745 barbers and surgeons were separated into
distinct corporations by 18 George II. c. 15. The barber's shop was a
favourite resort of idle persons; and in addition to its attraction as a
focus of news, a lute, viol, or some such musical instrument, was always
kept for the entertainment of waiting customers. The barber's sign
consisted of a striped pole, from which was suspended a basin, symbols the
use of which is still preserved. The fillet round the pole indicated the
ribbon for bandaging the arm in bleeding, and the basin the vessel to
receive the blood.

See also BEARD, and _Annals of the Barber Surgeons of London_ (1890).

BARBERINI, the name of a powerful Italian family, originally of Tuscan
extraction, who settled in Florence during the early part of the 11th
century. They acquired great wealth and influence, and in 1623 Maffeo
Barberini was raised to the papal throne as Urban VIII. He made his
brother, Antonio, a distinguished soldier, and two nephews, cardinals, and
gave to a third nephew, Taddeo, the principality of Palestrina. Great
jealousy of their increasing power was excited amongst the neighbouring
princes, and Odoardo Farnese, duke of Parma, made war upon Taddeo, and
defeated the papal troops. After the death of Urban in 1644 his successor,
Innocent X., showed hostility to the Barberini family. Taddeo fled to
Paris, where he died in 1647, and with him the family became extinct in the
male line. His daughter Cornelia married Prince Giulio Cesare Colonna di
Sciarra in 1728, who added her name to his own. On the death of Prince
Enrico Barberini-Colonna the name went to his daughter and heiress Donna
Maria and her husband Marquis Luigi Sacchetti, who received the title of
prince of Palestrina and permission to bear the name of Barberini. The fine
Barberini palace and library in Rome give evidence of their wealth and
magnificence. The ruthless way in which they plundered ancient buildings to
adorn their own palaces is the origin of the saying, "Quod non fecerunt
barbari, fecerunt Barberini."

See A. von Reumont, _Geschichte der Stadt Rom_ (Berlin, 1868), iii. b.
611-612, 615, 617, &c.; _Almanach de Gotha_ (Gotha, 1902); J. H. Douglas,
_The Principal Noble Families of Rome_ (Rome, 1905).

BARBERRY (_Berberis vulgaris_), a shrub with spiny-toothed leaves, which on
the woody shoots are reduced to forked spines, and pale yellow flowers in
hanging racemes, which are succeeded by orange-red berries. It is a member
of the botanical natural order _Berberidaceae_, and contains about 100
species in the north temperate zone and in the Andes of South America
extending into Patagonia. The order is nearly allied to the buttercup order
in having the parts of the flowers all free and arranged in regular
succession below the ovary which consists of only one carpel. It is
distinguished by having the sepals, petals and stamens in multiples of 2, 3
or 4, never of 5. The berries of _Berberis_ are edible; those of the native
barberry are sometimes made into preserves. The alkaloid berberine (_q.v._)
occurs in the roots.

BARBERTON, a town of the Transvaal, 283 m. by rail (175 m. in a direct
line) E. of Pretoria and 136 m. W.N.W. of Delagoa Bay. Pop. (1904) 2433, of
whom 1214 were whites. Barberton lies 2825 ft. above the sea and is built
on the side of a valley named De Kaap, from a bold headland of the
Drakensberg which towers above it. The chief town of a district of the same
name, it owes its existence to the discovery of gold in the Kaap valley,
and dates from 1886. There are several fine public buildings grouped mainly
round President Square. The town is connected with the Lourenço
Marques-Pretoria trunk railway by a branch line, 35 m. long, which runs
N.E. through fine mountainous country and joins the main line at
Kaapmuiden. During the war of 1899-1902 the Boers were driven out of
Barberton (13th of September 1900) by General (afterwards Sir John) French.

BARBETTE (Fr. diminutive of _barbe_, a beard), a platform inside a
fortification raised sufficiently high for artillery placed thereon to be
able to fire _en barbette_, _viz._ over the top of the parapet; also in
warships a raised platform, protected by armour on the sides, upon which
guns are mounted _en barbette_.

BARBEY D'AUREVILLY, JULES AMÉDÉE (1808-1889), French man of letters, was
born at Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte (Manche) on the 2nd of November 1808. His
most famous novels are _Une Vieille Maîtresse_ (1851), attacked at the time
of its publication on the charge of immorality; _L'Ensorcelée_ (1854), an
episode of the royalist rising among the Norman peasants against the first
republic; the _Chevalier Destouches_ (1864); and a collection of
extraordinary stories entitled _Les Diaboliques_ (1874). Barbey d'Aurevilly
is an extreme example of the eccentricities of which the Romanticists were
capable, and to read him is to understand the discredit that fell upon the
manner. He held extreme Catholic views and wrote on the most _risqué_
subjects, he gave himself aristocratic airs and hinted at a mysterious
past, though his parentage was entirely _bourgeois_ and his youth very
hum-drum and innocent. In the 'fifties d'Aurevilly became literary critic
of the _Pays_, and a number of his essays, contributed to this and other
journals, were collected as _Les Oeuvres et les hommes du XIX^e siècle_
(1861-1865). Other literary studies are _Les Romanciers_ (1866) and _Goethe
et Diderot_ (1880). He died in Paris on the 23rd of April 1889. Paul
Bourget describes him as a dreamer with an exquisite sense of vision, who
sought and found in his work a refuge from the [v.03 p.0387] uncongenial
world of every day. Jules Lemaître, a less sympathetic critic, finds in the
extraordinary crimes of his heroes and heroines, his reactionary views, his
dandyism and snobbery, an exaggerated Byronism.

See also Alcide Dusolier, _Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly_ (1862), a collection
of eulogies and interviews; Paul Bourget, Preface to d'Aurevilly's
_Memoranda_ (1883); Jules Lemaître, _Les Contemporains_; Eugène Grelé,
_Barbey d'Aurevilly, sa vie et son oeuvre_ (1902); René Doumic, in the
_Revue des deux mondes_ (Sept. 1902).

BARBEYRAC, JEAN (1674-1744), French jurist, the nephew of Charles
Barbeyrac, a distinguished physician of Montpellier, was born at Beziers in
Lower Languedoc on the 15th of March 1674. He removed with his family into
Switzerland after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, and there studied
jurisprudence. After spending some time at Geneva and Frankfort-on-Main, he
became professor of belles-lettres in the French school of Berlin. Thence,
in 1711, he was called to the professorship of history and civil law at
Lausanne, and finally settled as professor of public law at Groningen. He
died on the 3rd of March 1744. His fame rests chiefly on the preface and
notes to his translation of Pufendorf's treatise _De Jure Naturae et
Gentium_. In fundamental principles he follows almost entirely Locke and
Pufendorf; but he works out with great skill the theory of moral
obligation, referring it to the command or will of God. He indicates the
distinction, developed more fully by Thomasius and Kant, between the legal
and the moral qualities of action. The principles of international law he
reduces to those of the law of nature, and combats, in so doing, many of
the positions taken up by Grotius. He rejects the notion that sovereignty
in any way resembles property, and makes even marriage a matter of civil
contract. Barbeyrac also translated Grotius's _De Jure Belli et Pacis_,
Cumberland's _De Legibus Naturae_, and Pufendorf's smaller treatise _De
Officio Hominis et Civis_. Among his own productions are a treatise, _De la
morale des pères_, a history of ancient treaties contained in the
_Supplément au grand corps diplomatique_, and the curious _Traité du jeu_
(1709), in which he defends the morality of games of chance.

BARBICAN (from Fr. _barbacane_, probably of Arabic or Persian origin), an
outwork for the defence of a gate or drawbridge; also a sort of pent-house
or construction of timber to shelter warders or sentries from arrows or
other missiles.

BARBIER, ANTOINE ALEXANDRE (1765-1825), French librarian and bibliographer,
was born on the 11th of January 1765 at Coulommiers (Seine-et-Marne). He
took priest's orders, from which, however, he was finally released by the
pope in 1801. In 1794 he became a member of the temporary commission of the
arts, and was charged with the duty of distributing among the various
libraries of Paris the books that had been confiscated during the
Revolution. In the execution of this task he discovered the letters of
Huet, bishop of Avranches, and the MSS. of the works of Fénelon. He became
librarian successively to the Directory, to the Conseil d'État, and in 1807
to Napoleon, from whom he carried out a number of commissions. He produced
a standard work in his _Dictionnaire des ouvrages anonymes et pseudonymes_
(4 vols., 1806-1809; 3rd edition 1872-1879). Only the first part of his
_Examen critique des dictionnaires historiques_ (1820) was published. He
had a share in the foundation of the libraries of the Louvre, of
Fontainebleau, of Compiègne and Saint-Cloud; under Louis XVIII. he became
administrator of the king's private libraries, but in 1822 he was deprived
of all his offices. Barbier died in Paris on the 5th of December 1825.

See also a notice by his son, Louis Barbier, and a list of his works
prefixed to the 3rd edition of the _Dict. des ouvrages anonymes et
pseudonymes_.

BARBIER, HENRI AUGUSTE (1805-1882), French dramatist and poet, was born in
Paris on the 29th of April 1805. Inspired by the revolution of July he
poured forth a series of eager, vigorous poems, denouncing, crudely enough,
the evils of the time. They are spoken of collectively as the _Iambes_
(1831), though the designation is not strictly applicable to all. As the
name suggests, they are modelled on the verse of André Chénier. They
include _La Curée_, _La Popularité_, _L'Idole_, _Paris_, _Dante_,
_Quatre-vingt-treize_ and _Varsovie_. The rest of Barbier's poems are
forgotten, and when, in 1869, he received the long delayed honour of
admission to the Academy, Montalembert expressed the general sentiment in
his _Barbier? mais il est mort!_ It was even asserted, though without
foundation, that he was not the real author of the _Iambes_. He died at
Nice on the 13th of February 1882. He collaborated with Léon de Wailly in
the libretto of Berlioz's opera, _Benvenuto Cellini_, and his works include
two series of poems on the political and social troubles of Italy and
England, printed in later editions of _Iambes et poèmes_.

See also Sainte-Beuve, _Portraits Contemporains_, vol. ii.

BARBIER, LOUIS, known as the ABBÉ DE LA RIVIÈRE (1593-1670), French bishop,
was born of humble parents in Vaudelaincourt, near Compiègne. He entered
the church and made his way by his wit and cleverness, until he was
appointed tutor, and then became the friend and adviser, of Gaston
d'Orléans, brother of Louis XIII. He thus gained an entrance to the court,
became grand almoner of the queen, and received the revenue of rich abbeys.
In March 1655 he was named bishop of Langres, but he spent his time at
court, where his wit was always in demand, and where he gained great sums
by gambling. He died very rich.

BARBIERI, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO (otherwise called GUERCINO, from his
squinting), (1591-1666), Italian historical painter, was born at Cento, a
village not far from Bologna. His artistic powers were developed very
rapidly, and at the age of seventeen he was associated with Benedetto
Gennari (1550-1610), a well-known painter of the Bolognese school. The fame
of the young painter spread beyond his native village, and in 1615 he
removed to Bologna, where his paintings were much admired. His first style
was formed after that of the Caracci; but the strong colouring and shadows
employed by Caravaggio made a deep impression on his mind, and for a
considerable period his productions showed evident traces of that painter's
influence. Some of his latest pieces approach rather to the manner of his
great contemporary Guido, and are painted with more lightness and
clearness. Guercino was esteemed very highly in his lifetime, not only by
the nobles and princes of Italy, but by his brother artists, who placed him
in the first rank of painters. He was remarkable for the extreme rapidity
of his execution; he completed no fewer than 106 large altar-pieces for
churches, and his other paintings amount to about 144. His most famous
piece is thought to be the St Petronilla, which was painted at Rome for
Gregory XV. and is now in the Capitol. In 1626 he began his frescoes in the
Duomo at Piacenza. Guercino continued to paint and teach up to the time of
his death in 1666. He had amassed a handsome fortune by his labours. His
life, by J. A. Calvi, appeared at Bologna in 1808.

His brother, PAOLO ANTONIO BARBIERI (1603-1649), was a celebrated painter
of still life and animals. He chose for his subjects fruits, flowers,
insects and animals, which he painted after nature with a lively tint of
colour, great tenderness of pencil, and a strong character of truth and
life.

BARBITON, or BARBITOS (Gr. [Greek: barbiton] or [Greek: barbitos]; Lat.
_barbitus_; Pers. _barbat_, _barbud_), an ancient stringed instrument known
to us from the Greek and Roman classics, but derived from Persia.
Theocritus (xvi. 45), the Sicilian poet, calls it an instrument of many
strings, _i.e._ more than seven, which was by the Hellenes accounted the
perfect number, as in the cithara of the best period. Anacreon,[1] (a
native of Teos in Asia Minor) sings that his barbitos only gives out erotic
tones. Pollux (_Onomasticon_ iv. chap. 8, § 59) calls the instrument
barbiton or barymite (from [Greek: barus], heavy and [Greek: mitos], a
string), an instrument producing deep sounds; the strings were twice as
long as those of the pectis and sounded an octave lower. Pindar (in Athen.
xiv. p. 635), in the same line wherein he attributes the introduction of
the instrument into Greece to Terpander, tells us one could magadize,
_i.e._ play in two parts at an interval of an octave on the two
instruments. The word barbiton was frequently used for the lyre itself.
Although in use in Asia Minor, Italy, [v.03 p.0388] Sicily, and Greece, it
is evident that the barbiton never won for itself a place in the affections
of the Greeks of Hellas; it was regarded as a barbarian instrument affected
by those only whose tastes in matters of art were unorthodox. It had fallen
into disuse in the days of Aristotle,[2] but reappeared under the Romans.

In spite of the few meagre shreds of authentic information extant
concerning this somewhat elusive instrument, it is possible nevertheless to
identify the barbiton as it was known among the Greeks and Romans. From the
Greek writers we know that it was an instrument having some feature or
features in common with the lyre, which warranted classification with it.
From the Persians and Arabs we learn that it was a kind of _rebab_ or lute,
or a chelys-lyre,[3] first introduced into Europe through Asia Minor by way
of Greece, and centuries later into Spain by the Moors, amongst whom it was
in the 14th century known as _al-barbet_.[4] There is a stringed
instrument, as yet unidentified by name, of which there are at least four
different representations in sculpture,[5] which combines the
characteristics of both lyre and rebab, having the vaulted back and gradual
narrowing to form a neck which are typical of the rebab and the stringing
of the lyre. In outline it resembles a large lute with a wide neck, and the
seven strings of the lyre of the best period, or sometimes nine, following
the decadent lyre. Most authors in reproducing these sculptures showing the
barbiton represent the instrument as boat-shaped and without a neck, as,
for instance, Carl Engel. This is due to the fact that the part of the
instrument where neck joins body is in deep shadow, so that the correct
outline can hardly be distinguished, being almost hidden by hand on one
side and drapery on the other.

[Illustration: Barbiton, from a bas-relief in the Louvre, "Achilles at
Scyros."]

The barbiton, as pictured here, had probably undergone considerable
modification at the hands of the Greeks and had diverged from the
archetype. The barbiton, however, although it underwent many changes,
retained until the end the characteristics of the instruments of the Greek
lyre whose strings were plucked, whereas the rebab was sounded by means of
the bow at the time of its introduction into Europe. At some period not yet
determined, which we can but conjecture, the barbat approximated to the
form of the large _lute_ (_q.v._). An instrument called barbiton was known
in the early part of the 16th[6] and during the 17th century. It was a kind
of theorbo or bass-lute, but with one neck only, bent back at right angles
to form the head. Robert Fludd[7] gives a detailed description of it with
an illustration:--"Inter quas instrumenta non nulla barbito simillima
effinxerunt cujus modi sunt illa quae vulgo appellantur theorba, quae sonos
graviores reddunt chordasque nervosas habent." The people called it
_theorbo_, but the scholar having identified it with the instrument of
classic Greece and Rome called it barbiton. The barbiton had nine pairs of
gut strings, each pair being in unison. Dictionaries of the 18th century
support Fludd's use of the name barbiton. G. B. Doni[8] mentions the
barbiton, defining it in his index as _Barbitos seu major chelys italice
tiorba_, and deriving it from lyre and cithara in common with testudines,
tiorbas and all tortoiseshell instruments. Claude Perrault,[9] writing in
the 18th century, states that "les modernes appellent notre luth barbiton"
(the moderns call our lute barbiton). Constantijn Huygens[10] declares that
he learnt to play the barbiton in a few weeks, but took two years to learn
the cittern.

The _barbat_ was a variety of _rebab_ (_q.v._), a bass instrument,
differing only in size and number of strings. This is quite in accordance
with what we know of the nomenclature of musical instruments among Persians
and Arabs, with whom a slight deviation in the construction of an
instrument called for a new name.[11] The word _barbud_ applied to the
barbiton is said to be derived[12] from a famous musician living at the
time of Chosroes II. (A.D. 590-628), who excelled in playing upon the
instrument. From a later translation of part of the same authority into
German[13] we obtain the following reference to Persian musical
instruments: "Die Sänger stehen bei seinem Gastmahl; in ihrer Hand
Barbiton^{(i.)} und Leyer^{(ii.)} und Laute^{(iii.)} und Flöte^{(iv.)} und
Deff (Handpauke)." Mr Ellis, of the Oriental Department of the British
Museum, has kindly supplied the original Persian names translated above,
_i.e._ (i.) _barbut_, (ii.) _chang_, (iii.) _rub[=a]b_, (iv.) _nei_. The
barbut and rubab thus were different instruments as late as the 19th
century in Persia. There were but slight differences if any between the
archetypes of the pear-shaped rebab and of the lute before the application
of the bow to the former--both had vaulted backs, body and neck in one, and
gut strings plucked by the fingers.

(K. S.)

[1] See Bergk's _Poetae Lyrici Graeci_ (4th ed., 1882), p. 291, _fr._ 143
[113]; and p. 311, 23 [1], 3; and 14 [9], 34, p. 306.

[2] _Polit._ viii. (v.), 6, ed. Susemihl-Hicks (1894), pp. 604 (= 1341a 40)
and 632; Daremberg and Saglio, _Dict. d'ant. gr. et rom._, article "Lyre,"
p. 1450, for a few more references to the classics.

[3] Johnson's Persian-Arabic-English dictionary: _barbat_, a harp or lute,
_barbatzan_, player upon lute, pl._bar[=a]bit_; G. W. Freytag, _Lexicon
Arabico-Latinum_, i. p. 102; _barbat_ (Persian and Arabic), barbitus, genus
testudinis, plerumque sex septamve chordis instructum (rotundam habet
formam in Africa); _Lexicon Aegidii Forcellini_ (Prato, 1858; "Barbito
aurataque chely ac doctis fidibus personare" (Martianus Capella i. 36);
G. B. Doni, _Lyra Barberina_, ii. index.

[4] _Enumeration of Arab Musical Instruments_, xiv. c.

[5] (a) See C. Clarac, _Musée du Louvre_, vol. i. pl. 202, No. 261. (b)
Accompanying illustration. See also Kathleen Schlesinger, "Orchestral
Instruments", part ii., "Precursors of the Violin Family," fig. 108 and p.
23, pp. 106-107, fig. 144 and appendix. (c) Sarcophagus in the cathedral of
Girgenti in Sicily, illustrated by Carl Engel, _Early History of the Violin
Family_, p. 112. A cast is preserved in the sepulchral basement at the
British Museum. Domenico, _Lo Faso Pietra-Santa, le antichità della
Sicilia_ (Palermo, 1834), vol. 3, pl. 45 (2), text p. 89. (d) C. Zoega,
_Antike Basreliefe von Rom_ (Giessen, 1812), atlas, pl. 98, sarcophagus
representing a scene in the story of Hippolytus and Phaedra.

[6] In Jacob Locher's _Navis Stultifera_ (Basil, 1506), titulus 7, is an
illustration of a small harp and lute with the legend _nec cytharum tangit
nec barbiton_.

[7] _Historia Utriusque Cosmi_ (Oppenheim, 1617), tom. i. tract ii. part
ii. lib. iv. cap. i. p. 226.

[8] _Lyra Barberina_, vol. ii. index, and also vol. i. p. 29.

[9] "La Musique des anciens," _Oeuvres complètes_ (ed. Amsterdam, 1727),
tom. i. p. 306.

[10] _De Vita propria sermonum inter liberos libri duo_ (Haarlem, 1817).
See also Edmund van der Straeten, _La Musique aux Pays-Bas_, vol. ii. p.
349.

[11] See _The Seven Seas_, a dictionary and grammar of the Persian
language, by Ghazi ud-din Haidar, king of Oudh, in seven parts (Lucknow,
1822) (only the title of the book is in English). A review of this book in
German with copious quotations by von Hammer-Purgstall is published in
_Jahrbücher der Literatur_ (Vienna, 1826), Bd. 35 and 36; names of musical
instruments, Bd. 36, p. 292 et seq. See also R. G. Kiesewetter, _Die Musik
der Araber, nach Originalquellen dargestellt_ (Leipzig, 1843, p. 91,
classification of instruments).

[12] _The Seven Seas_, part i. p. 153; _Jahrb. d. Literatur_, Bd. 36, p.
294.

[13] Fr. Rückert, _Grammatik, Poetik und Rhetorik der Perser, nach dem
7^{ten} Bde. des Hefts Kolzum_ (Gotha, 1874), p. 80.

BARBIZON, a French village, near the forest of Fontainebleau, which gave
its name to the "Barbizon school" of painters, whose leaders were Corot,
Rousseau, Millet and Daubigny, together with Diaz, Dupré, Jacque, Français,
Harpignies and others. They put aside the conventional idea of "subject" in
their pictures of landscape and peasant life, and went direct to the fields
and woods for their inspiration. The distinctive note of the school is seen
in the work of Rousseau and of Millet, each of whom, after spending his
early years in Paris, made his home in Barbizon. Unappreciated, poor and
neglected, it was not until after years of struggle that they attained
recognition and success. They both died at Barbizon--Rousseau in 1867 and
Millet in 1875. It is difficult now to realize that their work, so
unaffected and beautiful, should have been so hardly received. To
understand this, it is necessary to remember the conflicts that existed
between the classic and romantic schools in the first half of the 19th
century, when the classicists, followers of the tradition of [v.03 p.0389]
David, were the predominant school. The romantic movement, with Géricault,
Bonington and Delacroix, was gaining favour. In 1824 Constable's pictures
were shown in the Salon, and confirmed the younger men in their resolution
to abandon the lifeless pedantry of the schools and to seek inspiration
from nature. In those troubled times Rousseau and Millet unburdened their
souls to their friends, and their published lives contain many letters,
some extracts from which will express the ideals which these artists held
in common, and show clearly the true and firmly-based foundation on which
their art stands. Rousseau wrote, "It is good composition when the objects
represented are not there solely as they are, but when they contain under a
natural appearance the sentiments which they have stirred in our souls....
For God's sake, and in recompense for the life He has given us, let us try
in our works to make the manifestation of life our first thought: let us
make a man breathe, a tree really vegetate." And Millet--"I try not to have
things look as if chance had brought them together, but as if they had a
necessary bond between themselves. I want the people I represent to look as
if they really belonged to their station, so that imagination cannot
conceive of their ever being anything else. People and things should always
be there with an object. I want to put strongly and completely all that is
necessary, for I think things weakly said might as well not be said at all,
for they are, as it were, deflowered and spoiled--but I profess the
greatest horror for uselessness (however brilliant) and filling up. These
things can only weaken a picture by distracting the attention toward
secondary things." In another letter he says--"Art began to decline from
the moment that the artist did not lean directly and naively upon
impressions made by nature. Cleverness naturally and rapidly took the place
of nature, and decadence then began.... At bottom it always comes to this:
a man must be moved himself in order to move others, and all that is done
from theory, however clever, can never attain this end, for it is
impossible that it should have the breath of life." The ideas of the
"Barbizon school" only gradually obtained acceptance, but the chief members
of it now rank among the greater artists of their time.

See D. Croal Thomson, _The Barbizon School_ (1891), with a full list of the
French authorities to be consulted; Jules Breton, _Nos peintres du siècle_,
Paris, 1900.

BARBON, NICHOLAS (_c._ 1640-1698), English economist, probably the son of
Praise-god Barbon, was born in London, studied medicine at Leiden,
graduated M.D. at Utrecht in 1661, and was admitted an honorary fellow of
the College of Physicians in 1664. He took a considerable part in the
rebuilding of London after the great fire of 1666, and has a claim to be
considered the institutor of fire-insurance in England, which he started
somewhere about 1680. He was M.P. for Bramber in 1690 and 1695. He founded
a land bank which, according to contemporaries, was fairly successful and
was united with that of John Briscoe in 1696. He died in 1698. His writings
are interesting as expressing views much in advance of his time and very
near akin to those of modern times on such important topics as value, rent
and foreign trade. The more important were _Apology for the Builder; or a
Discourse showing the Cause and Effects of the Increase of Building_
(1685); _A Discourse of Trade_ (1690); and _A Discourse Concerning Coining
the New Money Lighter_ (1696).

BARBON (BAREBONE or BAREBONES), PRAISE-GOD (_c._ 1596-1679), English
leather-seller and Fifth Monarchy man, was admitted freeman of the
Leathersellers Company on the 20th of January 1623 and liveryman on the
13th of October 1634. About the same time he became minister to a
congregation which assembled at his own house, "The Lock and Key," in Fleet
Street, where his preaching attracted large audiences. The exact nature of
his religious opinions is not perfectly clear. He is styled by his enemies
a Brownist and Anabaptist, _i.e._ probably Baptist, but he wrote two books
in support of paedobaptism, and his congregation had separated from a
larger one of Baptists on that point of controversy. Later he belonged to
the sect of Fifth Monarchy men. He was the object of the abuse and ridicule
of the opposite party, and his meetings were frequently disturbed by riots.
On the 20th of December 1641 his house was stormed by a mob and he narrowly
escaped with his life. Barbon, who was a man of substantial property, was
summoned by Cromwell on the 6th of June 1653 as a member for London to the
assembly of nominees called after him in derision Barebone's Parliament.
His name is occasionally mentioned, but he appears to have taken no part in
the debates. In 1660 he showed great activity in endeavouring to prevent
the Restoration. He published Needham's book, _News from Brussels in a
Letter from a Near Attendant on His Majesty's Person ..._, which retailed
unfavourable anecdotes relating to Charles's morals, and on the 9th of
February he presented the petition to the Parliament, which proposed that
all officials should abjure the Stuarts, and all publicly proposing the
Restoration should be deemed guilty of high treason. His conduct drew upon
him several royalist attacks. On the 31st of March he was obliged to sign
an engagement to the council not to disturb the peace, and on the 26th of
November 1661 he was arrested, together with John Wildman and James
Harrington, and was imprisoned in the Tower till the 27th of July 1662,
when he was released on bail. Barbon, who was married, was buried on the
5th of January 1680. He was the author of _A Discourse tending to prove ...
Baptism ... to be the ordinance of Jesus Christ. As also that the Baptism
of Infants is warentable_ (1642), the preface of which shows a spirit of
wide religious tolerance; and _A Reply to the Frivolous and Impertinent
answer of R. B. and E. B. to the Discourse of P. B._ (1643).

BARBOUR, JOHN (? 1316-1395), Scottish poet, was born, perhaps in
Aberdeenshire, early in the 14th century, approximately 1316. In a letter
of safe-conduct dated 1357, allowing him to go to Oxford for study, he is
described as archdeacon of Aberdeen. He is named in a similar letter in
1364 and in another in 1368 granting him permission to pass to France,
probably for further study, at the university of Paris. In 1372 he was one
of the auditors of exchequer, and in 1373 a clerk of audit in the king's
household. In 1375 (he gives the date, and his age as 60) he composed his
best known poem _The Brus_, for which he received, in 1377, the gift of ten
pounds, and, in 1378, a life-pension of twenty shillings. Additional
rewards followed, including the renewal of his exchequer auditorship
(though he may have continued to enjoy it since his first appointment) and
ten pounds to his pension. The only biographical evidence of his closing
years is his signature as a witness to sundry deeds in the "Register of
Aberdeen" as late as 1392. According to the obit-book of the cathedral of
Aberdeen, he died on the 13th of March 1395. The state records show that
his life-pension was not paid after that date.

Considerable controversy has arisen regarding Barbour's literary work. If
he be the author of the five or six long poems which have been ascribed to
him by different writers, he adds to his importance as the father of Scots
poetry the reputation of being one of the most voluminous writers in Middle
English, certainly the most voluminous of all Scots poets.

(1) _The Brus_, in twenty books, and running to over 13,500 four-accent
lines, in couplets, is a narrative poem with a purpose partly historical,
partly patriotic. It opens with a description of the state of Scotland at
the death of Alexander III. (1286) and concludes with the death of Douglas
and the burial of the Bruce's heart (1332). The central episode is the
battle of Bannockburn. Patriotic as the sentiment is, it is in more general
terms than is found in later Scots literature. The king is a hero of the
chivalric type common in contemporary romance; freedom is a "noble thing"
to be sought and won at all costs; the opponents of such freedom are shown
in the dark colours which history and poetic propriety require; but there
is none of the complacency of the merely provincial habit of mind. The
lines do not lack vigour; and there are passages of high merit, notably the
oft-quoted section beginning "A! fredome is a noble thing." Despite a
number of errors of fact, notably the confusion of the three Bruces in the
person of the hero, the poem is historically trustworthy as compared with
contemporary verse-chronicle, and especially with the _Wallace_ of the next
century. No one [v.03 p.0390] has doubted Barbour's authorship of the
_Brus_, but argument has been attempted to show that the text as we have it
is an edited copy, perhaps by John Ramsay, a Perth scribe, who wrote out
the two extant texts, preserved in the Advocates' library, Edinburgh, and
in the library of St John's College, Cambridge. Extensive portions of the
poem have been incorporated by Wyntoun (_q.v._) in his _Chronicle_. The
first printed edition extant is Charteris's (Edinburgh, 1571); the second
is Hart's (Edinburgh, 1616).

(2) Wyntoun speaks (_Chronicle_ III. iii.) of a "Treteis" which Barbour
made by way of "a genealogy" of "Brutus lynagis"; and elsewhere in that
poem there are references to the archdeacon's "Stewartis Oryginale." This
"Brut" is unknown; but the reference has been held by some to be to (3) a
Troy-book, based on Guido da Colonna's _Historia Destructionis Troiae_. Two
fragments of such a work have been preserved in texts of Lydgate's
_Troy-book_, the first in MS. Camb. Univ. Lib. Kk. v. 30, the second in the
same and in MS. Douce 148 in the Bodleian library, Oxford. This ascription
was first made by Henry Bradshaw, the librarian of Cambridge University;
but the consensus of critical opinion is now against it. Though it were
proved that these Troy fragments are Barbour's, there remains the question
whether their identification with the book on the Stewart line is
justified. The scale of the story in these fragments forces us to doubt
this identification. They contain 595 + 3118 = 3713 lines and are concerned
entirely with "Trojan" matters. This would be an undue allowance in a
Scottish "genealogy."

(4) Yet another work was added to the list of Barbour's works by the
discovery in the university library of Cambridge, by Henry Bradshaw, of a
long Scots poem of over 33,000 lines, dealing with _Legends of the Saints_,
as told in the _Legenda Aurea_ and other legendaries. The general likeness
of this poem to Barbour's accepted work in verse-length, dialect and style,
and the facts that the lives of English saints are excluded and those of St
Machar (the patron saint of Aberdeen) and St Ninian are inserted, made the
ascription plausible. Later criticism, though divided, has tended in the
contrary direction, and has based its strongest negative judgment on the
consideration of rhymes, assonance and vocabulary (see bibliography). That
the "district" of the author is the north-east of Scotland cannot be
doubted in the face of a passage such as this, in the fortieth legend (St
Ninian), 11, 1359 et seq.

 "A lytil tale [gh]et herd I tel,
  þat in to my tyme befel,
  of a gudman, in murrefe [_Moray_] borne
  in elgyne [_Elgin_], and his kine beforne,
  and callit was a faithful man
  vith al þame þat hyme knew than;
  & _þis mare trastely I say,_
  _for I kend hyme weile mony day._
  _John balormy ves his name,_
  a man of ful gud fame."

But whether this north-east Scots author is Barbour is a question which we
cannot answer by means of the data at present available.

(5) If Barbour be the author of the _Legends_, then (so does one conclusion
hang upon another) he is the author of a Gospel story with the later life
of the Virgin, described in the prologue to the _Legends_ and in other
passages as a book "of the birth of Jhesu criste" and one "quhare-in I
recordit the genology of our lady sanct Mary."

(6) In recent years an attempt has been made to name Barbour as the author
of the _Buik of Alexander_ (a translation of the _Roman d'Alexandre_ and
associated pieces, including the _Voeux du Paon_), as known in the unique
edition, _c._ 1580, printed at the Edinburgh press of Alexander Arbuthnot.
The "argument" as it stands is nothing more than an exaggerated inference
from parallel-passages in the _Bruce_ and _Alexander_; and it makes no
allowance for the tags, epithets and general vocabulary common to all
writers of the period. Should the assumption be proved to be correct, and
should it be found that the "_Troy fragments_ were written first of all,
followed by _Alexander_ and _Bruce_ or _Bruce_ and _Alexander_, and that
the _Legends_ end the chapter," it will be by "evidence" other than that
which has been produced to this date.

For Barbour's life see _Exchequer Rolls of Scotland_, ii. and iii.;
_Registrum Episcopatus Aberdonensis_ (Spalding Club); Rymer's _Foedera_.

WORKS.--(1)_The Brus_ MSS. and early editions _u.s._ Modern editions: J.
Pinkerton, 3 vols. (1790) (called by the editor "the first genuine
edition," because printed from the Advocates' Library text, but
carelessly); Jamieson (1820); Cosmo Innes (Spalding Club, 1856); W. W.
Skeat (Early English Text Society, 1870-1889; reprinted, after revision by
the editor, by the Scottish Text Society, 1893-1895). On the question of
the recension of Barbour's text, see J. T. T. Brown, _The Wallace and The
Bruce restudied_ (Bonn, 1900). (2 and 3) _Troy Fragments_. C. Horstmann has
printed the text in his _Legendensammlung_ (_ut infra_). See Bradshaw,
_Transactions of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society_ (1866); the prolegomena
in Horstmann's edition; Skeat, _Brus_ (S. T. S. edit. _u.s._ pp. xlvi. et
seq.); Köppel, "Die Fragmente von Barbours Trojanerkrieg," in _Englische
Studien_, x. 373; Panton and Donaldson, _The Gest Historiale of the
Destruction of Troye_ (E. E. T. S. pt. ii. Introd. pp. x. et seq.); G.
Neilson (_ut infra_); and J. T. T. Brown (_ut supra_) _passim_. (4)
_Legends of the Saints_. C. Horstmann, who upholds Barbour's authorship,
has printed the text in his _Barbours des schottischen Nationaldichters
Legendensammlung nebst den Fragmenten seines Trojanerkrieges_, 2 vols.
(Heilbronn, 1881-1882), and that of the legend of St Machor in his
_Altenglische Legenden_. _Neue Folge_ (Heilbronn, 1881) pp. 189-208. A
later edition by W. M. Metcalfe, who disputes Barbour's claim, appeared in
1896 (_Legends of the Saints in the Scottish Dialect of the Fourteenth
Century_, 3 vols., Scottish Text Society). See the introductions to these
editions; also Skeat and Koppel _u.s._, and P. Buss, _Sind die von
Horstmann herausgegebenen schottischen Legenden ein Werk Barberes?_ (Halle,
1886) (cf. _Anglia_, ix. 3, 1886). (5) For the Gospel-story evidence see
Metcalfe, _u.s._ I. xxix. (6) On the _Alexander Book_ and its assumed
relationships, see G. Neilson, _John Barbour, Poet and Translator_ (1900)
(a reprint from the _Transactions of the Philological Society_); J. T. T.
Brown _u.s._, "Postscript," pp. 156-171; and _Athenaeum_, 17th of November,
1st and 8th December 1900, and the 9th of February 1901.

(G. G. S.)

BARBUDA, an island in the British West Indies. It lies 25 m. N. of Antigua,
of which it is a dependency, in 17° 33' N. and 61° 43' W., and it has an
area of 62 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 775. It is flat and densely wooded. On the
western side there is a large lagoon, separated from the sea by a spit of
sand. The part of the island under cultivation is very fertile, and the air
is remarkable for its purity. Cattle and horses are bred and wild deer are
still found. Salt and phosphates of lime are exported. The island was
annexed by Great Britain in 1628 and was bestowed in 1680 upon the
Codrington family who, for more than 200 years, held it as a kind of feudal
fief.

BARBY, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, on the left bank of
the Elbe, 82 m. S.W. of Berlin on the direct railway to Cassel. Pop. (1900)
5136. It has two evangelical churches and a seminary for school teachers,
which is housed in the former castle of the lords of Barby. The industries
are mainly agricultural, but there are sugar factories and breweries. Here
from 1749 to 1809 was a settlement of the Herrnhut evangelical brotherhood.

BARCA (mod. _Merj_), an ancient city founded in the territory of Cyrene in
the middle of the 6th century B.C. Rising quickly to importance it became a
rival of the older city, and gave its name to the western province of the
latter's territory. The name as a provincial designation is still in
occasional use, but is now applied to all the province of Bengazi. Barca is
said to have owed its origin to Greek refugees flying from the tyranny of
Arcesilaus II. (see CYRENE), but it is certain that it was rather a Libyan
than a Greek town at all times. A Persian force invited by the notorious
Pheretima, mother of Arcesilaus III., in revenge for Barcan support of a
rival faction, sacked it towards the close of the 6th century and deported
a number of its inhabitants to Bactria. Under Ptolemaic rule it began to
decline, like Cyrene, and its port Ptolemais (Tolmeita) took its place: but
after the Arab conquest (A.D. 641) it became the chief place of the
Cyrenaica for a time and a principal station on the Kairawan road. Though
now a mere village, Merj is still the chief centre of administration
inland, and has a fort and small garrison. No ruins of earlier period than
the late Roman and early Arab seem to be visible on the site. The latter
lies, like Cyrene, about ten miles from the coast on the crest of Jebel
Akhdar, here sunk to a low downland. It owed its early prosperity to its
easy access to the sea, and to the fact that natural conditions in
Cyrenaica and the [v.03 p.0391] Sahara behind it, tend to divert trade to
the west of the district--a fact which is exemplified by the final survival
of Berenice (mod. Bengazi). Merj stands in a rich but ill-cultivated
stretch of red soil.

(D. G. H.)

BARCAROLE, or BARCAROLLE (Ital. _barcaruola_, a boat-song) properly a
musical term for the songs sung by the Venetian gondoliers, and hence for
an instrumental or vocal composition, generally in 6-8 time, written in
imitation of their characteristic rhythm.

BARCELONA, a maritime province of north-eastern Spain, formed in 1833 out
of districts belonging to the ancient kingdom of Catalonia, and bounded on
the N.E. and E. by Gerona; S. by the Mediterranean Sea; S.W. by Tarragona;
and W. and N.W. by Lérida. Pop. (1900) 1,054,541; area 2968 sq. m. Apart
from a few tracts of level country along the coast and near Igualada,
Manresa, Sabadell and Vich, almost the whole surface consists of mountain
ranges, often densely wooded, rich in minerals and intersected by deep
ravines. These ranges are outliers of the Pyrenees, which extend along the
northern frontier, forming there the lofty Sierra del Cadi with the peak of
Tosa (8317 ft.). Towards the sea, the altitudes become gradually less,
although not with a uniform decrease; for several isolated peaks and minor
ranges such as Montserrat and Monseny rise conspicuously amid the lower
summits to a height of 4000-6000 ft. The central districts are watered by
the Llobrégat, which rises at the base of the Sierra del Cadi, and flows
into the sea near Barcelona, the capital, after receiving many small
tributaries. The river Ter crosses the eastern extremity of the province.

Barcelona can be divided into three climatic zones; a temperate one near
the sea, where even palm and orange trees grow; a colder one in the valleys
and plains, more inland; and a colder still among the mountains, where not
a few peaks are snow-clad for a great part of the year. Agriculture and
stock-keeping are comparatively unimportant in this province, which is the
centre of Spanish industry and commerce. In every direction the country
looks like a veritable hive of human activity and enterprise, every town
and village full of factories, and alive with the din of machinery. Lead,
zinc, lignite, coal and salt are worked, and there are numerous mineral
springs; but the prosperity of the province chiefly depends on its transit
trade and manufactures. These are described in detail in articles on the
chief towns. Barcelona (pop. 1900, 533,000), Badalona (19,240), Cardona
(3855), Igualada (10,442), Manresa (23,252), Mataró (19,704), Sabadell
(23,294), Tarrasa (15,956), Vich (11,628) and Villanueva y Geltru (11,856).
Berga (5465), perhaps the Roman Castrum Bergium, on the Llobrégat, is the
home of the Catalonian cotton industry. None of the rivers is navigable,
and the roads are in general indifferent and insufficient. The province is
better off in regard to railways, of which there are 349 m. Important lines
radiate from the city of Barcelona north-east along the coast to Gerona and
to Perpignan in France; south-west along the coast to Tarragona and
Valencia; and west to Saragossa and Madrid. Several local railways link
together the principal towns. For a general description of the people, and
for the history of this region see CATALONIA. The population is greater and
increases more rapidly than that of any other Spanish province, a fact due
not to any large excess of births over deaths, but to the industrial life
which attracts many immigrants. In the last quarter of the 19th century the
increase exceeded 200,000, while the average yearly number of emigrants was
below 2000. In point of education this province is quite among the first in
Spain, and as far back as 1880 there were 97,077 children enrolled on the
school registers; the figures have since steadily increased.

BARCELONA, formerly the capital of Catalonia, and since 1833 the capital of
the province of Barcelona in eastern Spain, in 41° 23' N. and 2° 11' E., on
the Mediterranean Sea, and at the head of railways from Madrid, Saragossa,
and Perpignan in France. Pop. (1900) 533,000. Barcelona is a flourishing
city and the principal seaport of Spain. It is built on the sloping edge of
a small plain between the rivers Besós, on the north, and Llobrégat, on the
south. Immediately to the south-west the fortified hills of Montjuich rise
to an altitude of 650 ft., while the view is bounded on the west by the
heights which culminate in Tibidabo (1745 ft.), and on the north-east by
the Montañas Matas. The greater part of the space thus enclosed is occupied
by comparatively modern suburbs and gardens of almost tropical luxuriance,
strongly contrasting with the huge factories and busy port of the original
city in their midst.

Barcelona was formerly surrounded by a strong line of ramparts, and
defended, or more correctly, overawed by a citadel on the north-east,
erected in 1715 by Philip V.; but these fortifications being felt as a
painful restriction on the natural development of the city, were, in spite
of the opposition of the central government, finally abolished by the local
authorities in 1845. The walls of the moat were utilized for the cellars of
the houses which soon occupied the site of the ramparts, and the ground,
which had been covered by the citadel, was laid out in gardens. A rapid
extension of the city to the north-west took place, and in 1860 an
elaborate plan for the laying out of new districts received the royal
sanction. Barcelona thus comprises an old town, still consisting for the
most part of irregular and narrow streets, and a new town built with all
the symmetry and precision of a premeditated scheme. The buildings of the
old town are chiefly of brick, from four to five storeys in height, with
flat roofs, and other oriental peculiarities; while in the new town hewn
stone is very largely employed, and the architecture is often of a modern
English style. To the east, on the tongue of land that helps to form the
port, lies the suburb of Barceloneta. It owes its origin to the marquis de
la Mina, who, about 1754, did much for the city, and is regularly laid out,
the houses being built of brick after a uniform pattern. The main street or
axis of the old town is the Rambla, which has a fine promenade planted with
plane-trees running down the middle, and contains the principal hotels and
theatres of the city. The most important suburbs are Grácia, Las Corts de
Sarriá, Horta, San Andrés de Palomar, San Gervasio de Cassolas, San Martin
de Provensals and Sans. Exclusive of these, the city contains about 334,000
inhabitants, an increase of nearly 150,000 since 1857. Large numbers of
immigrant artisans joined the population during the latter half of the 19th
century, attracted by the great development of industry. Barcelona is the
see of a bishop, and, like most Spanish towns, has a large number of
ecclesiastical buildings, though by no means so many as it once possessed.
No fewer than eighteen convents were still standing in 1873. The cathedral,
erected between 1298 and 1448 on Monte Taber, an oval hill which forms the
highest point of the Rambla, is one of the finest examples of Spanish
Gothic; although it is not designed on a great scale and some parts have
been freely modernized. It contains the early 14th-century tomb of Santa
Eulalia, the patron saint of the city, besides many other monuments of
artistic or historical interest. Its stained glass windows are among the
finest in Spain, and it possesses archives of great value. Santa Maria del
Mar, Santa Ana, Santos Justo y Pastor, San Pedro de las Puellas, and San
Pablo del Campo are all churches worthy of mention.

The educational institutions of Barcelona have from an early period been
numerous and important. The university (_Universidad Literaria_), which was
originally founded in 1430 by the magistracy of the city, and received a
bull of confirmation from Pope Nicholas V. in 1450, possessed at that time
four faculties and thirty-one chairs all endowed by the corporation. It was
suppressed in 1714, but restored in 1841, and now occupies an extensive
building in the new town. There are, besides, an academy of natural
sciences, a college of medicine and surgery--confirmed by a bull of
Benedict XIII. in 1400--an academy of fine arts, a normal school, a
theological seminary, an upper industrial school, an institution for the
education of deaf-mutes, a school of navigation and many minor
establishments. Gratuitous instruction of a very high order is afforded by
the Board of Trade to upwards of 2000 pupils. The principal charitable
foundations are the Casa de Caridad or house of charity, the hospital
general, dating from 1401, and the foundling hospital. The principal civic
and commercial buildings are the [v.03 p.0392] Casa Consistorial, a fine
Gothic hall (1369-1378), the Lonja or exchange (1383), and the Aduana or
custom-house (1792). At the seaward end of the Rambla is a large ancient
structure, the Atarazanas or Arsenals, which was finished about 1243, and
partly demolished in the 19th century to give a better view to the
promenade. Remains of the former royal state of Barcelona are found in the
Palacio Real of the kings of Aragon and the Palacio de la Reina. At the
highest part of the city, in the Calle del Paradis, are some magnificent
columns, and other Roman remains, which, however, are hidden by the
surrounding buildings. Means of public recreation are abundantly supplied.
There are many theatres, the two most important being the Teatro Principal,
and the Teatro del Liceo, a very fine building, originally erected in 1845
on the site of a convent of Trinitarian monks. The number of restaurants
and similar places of evening resort is very great, and there are several
public courts where the Basque game of pelota can be witnessed.

The so-called port of Barcelona was at first only an open beach, on the
east, slightly sheltered by the neighbouring hills, but at an early period
the advantage of some artificial protection was felt. In 1438 Don Alphonso
V. granted the magistracy a licence to build a mole; and in 1474 the Moll
de Santa Creu was officially begun. Long after this, however, travellers
speak of Barcelona as destitute of a harbour; and it is only in the 17th
century that satisfactory works were undertaken. Until modern times all the
included area was shut off from the open sea by a sand-bank, which rendered
the entrance of large vessels impossible. An extension of the former mole,
and the construction of another from the foot of Montjuich, have embraced a
portion of the sea outside of the bank, and a convenient shelter is thus
afforded for the heaviest battleships. From 1873 the work of extension and
improvement was carried on systematically, with the addition of new quays,
greater storage room, and better means for handling cargo. After thirty
years of steady development, further plans were approved in 1903. At this
time the port included an inner harbour, with a depth of 18 to 30 ft. at
low tide, and an outer harbour with a depth of 20 to 35 ft. In the
following year 8075 vessels of nearly 5,000,000 tons entered the port.
Barcelona is well supplied with inland communication by rail, and the
traffic of its streets is largely facilitated by tramway lines running from
the port as far as Grácia and the other chief suburbs.

Barcelona has long been the industrial and commercial centre of eastern
Spain--a pre-eminence which dates from the 12th and 13th centuries. It
received a temporary check from the disasters of the Spanish-American War
of 1898; but less than a year later it paid about £550,000 in industrial
and commercial taxes, or more than 11% of the whole amount thus collected
in the kingdom; and within five years it had become a port of regular call
for thirty-five important shipping companies. It also contained the head
offices of thirteen other lines, notably those of the Transatlantic Mail
Company, which possessed a fleet of twenty-five fine steamships. Trades and
industries give occupation to more than 150,000 hands of both sexes. The
spinning and weaving of wool, cotton and silk are the principal industries,
but the enterprising spirit of the Catalans has compelled them to try
almost every industry in which native capital could attempt to compete with
foreign, especially since the institution of the protectionist tariffs of
1892. The native manufacturers are quite able to compete in peninsular
markets with foreign rivals. This prosperity has been in part due to the
great development of means of communication around the city and in the four
Catalan provinces. Comestibles, raw materials, and combustibles form the
greater part of the imports, but this great manufactory also imports a
considerable quantity of foreign manufactured goods. The principal exports
are wines, cereals, olive-oil, cotton goods, soap, cigarette-paper,
furniture and barrels, boots, shoes and leather goods, and machinery.

Barcino, the ancient name of the city, is usually connected with that of
the Carthaginian Hamilcar Barca, its traditional founder in the 3rd century
B.C. After the Roman conquest, it received from Augustus (27 B.C.-A.D. 14)
the name of Julia Faventia (afterwards Augusta and Pia), with the status of
a Roman colony; and thenceforward it rapidly grew to be the leading mart of
the western Mediterranean, rivalling Tarraco (Tarragona) and Massilia
(Marseilles) as early as the 2nd century A.D. As its remains testify, the
Roman city occupied Monte Taber. The bishopric of Barcelona was founded in
343. In 415 and 531, the Visigoths chose Barcelona as their temporary
capital; in 540 and 599 church councils were held there. Barcinona or
Bardjaluna, as it was then called, was captured by the Moors in 713, and in
801 it passed, with the rest of Catalonia, under the dominion of the
Franks. From 874 the counts of Barcelona ruled as independent monarchs. But
the accession of larger resources due to the union between Catalonia and
Aragon in 1149, brought the city to the zenith of its fame and wealth. Its
merchant ships vied with those of Genoa, Venice and Ragusa, trading as far
west as the North Sea and the Baltic, and as far east as Alexandria. In
1258 James I. of Aragon empowered Barcelona to issue its famous _Consulado
del Mar_, a code of maritime law recognized as authoritative by many
European states. Consuls represented Barcelona at the principal commercial
centres on or near the Mediterranean; and the city was among the first
communities to adopt the practice of marine insurance. But the union of
Castile and Aragon in 1479 favoured other cities of Spain at the expense of
Barcelona, whose commercial supremacy was transferred to the ports of
western Spain by the discovery of America in 1492. The citizens attributed
their misfortunes to the "Castilian" government, and a strong party among
them favoured annexation by France. In 1640 Barcelona was the centre of the
Catalonian rebellion against Philip IV., and threw itself under French
protection. In 1652 it returned to its allegiance, but was captured by the
duke of Vendôme in 1697. At the peace of Ryswick, in the same year, it was
restored to the Spanish monarchy. During the War of the Succession
(1701-1714) Barcelona adhered to the house of Austria. The seizure of
Montjuich in 1705, and the subsequent capture of the city by the earl of
Peterborough, formed one of his most brilliant achievements. In 1714 it was
taken after an obstinate resistance by the duke of Berwick in the interests
of Philip V., and at the close of the war was reluctantly reconciled to the
Bourbon dynasty. In 1809 the French invaders of Spain obtained possession
of the fortress and kept the city in subjection until 1814. Since then it
has shared in most of the revolutionary movements that have swept over
Spain, and has frequently been distinguished by the violence of its civic
commotions. For the historic antagonism between the Catalans and the other
inhabitants of Spain was strengthened by the industrial development of
Barcelona. Among the enterprising and shrewd Catalans, who look upon their
rulers as reactionary, and reserve all their sympathies for the Provençal
neighbours whom they so nearly resemble in race, language and temperament,
French influence and republican ideals spread rapidly; taking the form
partly of powerful labour and socialist organizations, partly of less
reputable bodies, revolutionary and even anarchist. Strikes are very
common, seventy-three having occurred in such a year of comparative quiet
as 1903; but the causes of disturbance are almost as often political as
economic, and the annals of the city include a long list of revolutionary
riots and bomb outrages. A strange contrast is presented by the
co-existence of these turbulent elements with the more old-fashioned
Spanish society of Barcelona. Church festivals, civic and ecclesiastical
processions are almost as animated and picturesque as in Seville itself;
and many medieval customs continue to flourish side by side with the most
modern features of industrial life, giving to Barcelona a character
altogether unique among Spanish cities.

The literature relating to Barcelona is extensive. For a general
description of the city, see A. A. P. Arimon, _Barcelona antigua y
moderna_, two illustrated folio volumes (Madrid, 1850); and J. Artigas y
Feiner, _Guia itineraria de Barcelona_ (Barcelona, 1888). For the
antiquities, see S. Sampere, _Topografia antigua de Barcelona_ (1890). The
economic history of the city is dealt with by A. Capmany in his _Memorias
historicas sobra la marina, comercio, y artes de la antigua ciudad de
Barcelona_ (Madrid, 1779-1792); and, for its political history, the same
work should be consulted, together with _Historias e conquestas dels comtes
de Barcelona_, by T. Tomich (Barcelona, 1888), and the _Colecció de
documents inédits del Arxin [v.03 p.0393] municipal de la ciutat de
Barcelona_ (Barcelona, 1892). The spread of the revolutionary movement is
traced by M. Gil Maestre, in his _El Anarquismo en España, y el especial de
Barcelona_ (Madrid, 1897), and in his _La Criminalidad en Barcelona_
(Barcelona, 1886).

BARCELONA, a town and port of Venezuela, capital of the state of Bermudez,
on the Neveri river, 3 m. from its mouth and 12 m. by rail from the port of
Guanta, which has superseded the incommodious river port in the trade of
this district. Pop. (est. 1904) 13,000. Built on the border of a low plain
and having a mean annual temperature of 82° F., the town has the reputation
of being unhealthy. There are salt works and important coal deposits in its
vicinity, the latter at Naricual and Capiricual, 12 m. distant by rail.
Though the adjacent country is fertile, its prosperity has greatly
declined, and the exports of coffee, sugar, cacao and forest products are
much less important than formerly. The town dates from 1637, when it was
located at the foot of the Cerro Santo and was called Nueva Barcelona; it
reached a state of much prosperity and commercial importance before the end
of the century. The War of Independence, however, and the chronic political
disorders that followed nearly ruined its industries and trade.

BARCELONNETTE, a town in the department of Basses-Alpes, in the S.E. of
France. Pop. (1906) 2075. It is built at a height of 3717 ft. on the right
bank of the Ubaye river, on which it is the most important place. It is
situated in a wide and very fertile valley, and is surrounded by many
villas, built by natives who have made their fortune in Mexico, and are
locally known as _les Américains_. The town itself is mainly composed of a
long street (flanked by two others), which is really the road from Grenoble
to Cuneo over the Col de l'Argentière (6545 ft.). The only remarkable
buildings in the town are a striking clock-tower of the 15th century (the
remains of a Franciscan convent) and the Musée Chabrand, which contains a
very complete collection of birds, both European and extra-European.

Refounded in 1231 by Raymond Bérenger IV., count of Provence (he was of the
family of the counts of Barcelona, whence the name of the town he rebuilt),
Barcelonnette passed to Savoy in 1388 (formal cession in 1419), and in 1713
by the treaty of Utrecht was ceded to France in exchange for the valleys of
Exilles, Fénestrelles, and Château Dauphin (Casteldelfino). It was the
birth-place of J. A. Manuel (1775-1827), the well-known Liberal orator at
the time of the Restoration of 1815, after whom the principal square of the
town is named.

See F. Arnaud, _Barcelonnette et ses environs_ (_Guide du C. A. F._)
(1898), and _La Vallée de Barcelonnette_ (1900).

(W. A. B. C.)

BARCLAY, ALEXANDER (_c._ 1476-1552), British poet, was born about 1476. His
nationality is matter of dispute, but William Bulleyn, who was a native of
Ely, and probably knew him when he was in the monastery there, asserts that
he was born "beyonde the cold river of Twede"; moreover, the spelling of
his name and the occasional Scottish words in his vocabulary point to a
northern origin. His early life was spent at Croydon, but it is not certain
whether he was educated at Oxford or Cambridge. It may be presumed that he
took his degree, as he uses the title of "Syr" in his translation of
Sallust, and in his will he is called doctor of divinity. From the numerous
incidental references in his works, and from his knowledge of European
literature, it may be inferred that he spent some time abroad. Thomas
Cornish, suffragan bishop in the diocese of Bath and Wells, and provost of
Oriel College, Oxford, from 1493 to 1507, appointed him chaplain of the
college of St Mary Ottery, Devonshire. Here he translated Sebastian Brant's
_Ship of Fools_, and even introduced his neighbours into the satire:--

 "For if one can flatter, and beare a Hauke on his fist,
  He shall be parson of Honington or Cist."

The death of his patron in 1513 apparently put an end to his connexion with
the west, and he became a monk in the Benedictine monastery of Ely. In this
retreat he probably wrote his eclogues, but in 1520 "Maistre Barkleye, the
Blacke Monke and Poete" was desired to devise "histoires and convenient
raisons to florisshe the buildings and banquet house withal" at the meeting
between Henry VIII. and Francis I. at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. He at
length became a Franciscan monk of Canterbury. It is presumed that he
conformed with the change of religion, for he retained under Edward VI. the
livings of Great Baddow, Essex, and of Wokey, Somerset, which he had
received in 1546, and was presented in 1552 by the dean and chapter of
Canterbury to the rectory of All Hallows, Lombard Street, London. He died
shortly after this last preferment at Croydon, Surrey, where he was buried
on the 10th of June 1552. All the evidence in Barclay's own work goes to
prove that he was sincere in his reproof of contemporary follies and vice,
and the gross accusations which John Bale[1] brings against his moral
character may be put down to his hatred of Barclay's cloth.

The _Ship of Fools_ was as popular in its English dress as it had been in
Germany. It was the starting-point of a new satirical literature. In itself
a product of the medieval conception of the fool who figured so largely in
the Shrovetide and other pageants, it differs entirely from the general
allegorical satires of the preceding centuries. The figures are no longer
abstractions; they are concrete examples of the folly of the bibliophile
who collects books but learns nothing from them, of the evil judge who
takes bribes to favour the guilty, of the old fool whom time merely
strengthens in his folly, of those who are eager to follow the fashions, of
the priests who spend their time in church telling "gestes" of Robin Hood
and so forth. The spirit of the book reflects the general transition
between allegory and narrative, morality and drama. The _Narrenschiff_ of
Sebastian Brant was essentially German in conception and treatment, but his
hundred and thirteen types of fools possessed, nevertheless, universal
interest. It was in reality sins and vices, however, rather than follies
that came under his censure, and this didactic temper was reflected in
Barclay. The book appeared in 1494 with woodcuts said to have been devised
and perhaps partly executed by Brant himself. In these illustrations, which
gave an impulse to the production of "enblems" and were copied in the
English version, there appears a humour quite absent from the text. In the
Latin elegiacs of the _Stultifera Navis_ (1497) of Jacob Locher the book
was read throughout Europe. Barclay's _The Shyp of Folys of the Worlde_ was
first printed by Richard Pynson in 1509. He says he translated "oute of
Laten, Frenche, and Doche," but he seems to have been most familiar with
the Latin version. He used a good deal of freedom in his translation,
"sometyme addynge, sometyme detractinge and takinge away suche thinges as
semeth me necessary and superflue." The fools are given a local colour, and
Barclay appears as the unsparing satirist of the social evils of his time.
At the end of nearly every section he adds an _envoi_ of his own to drive
home the moral more surely. The poem is written in the ordinary Chaucerian
stanza, and in language which is more modern than the common literary
English of his day.

_Certayne Ecloges of Alexander Barclay, Priest_, written in his youth, were
probably printed as early as 1513, although the earliest extant edition is
that in John Cawood's reprint (1570) of the _Ship of Fools_. They form,
with the exception of Henryson's _Robin and Makyn_, the earliest examples
of the English pastoral. The first three eclogues, in the form of dialogues
between Coridon and Cornix, were borrowed from the _Miseriae Curialium_ of
Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II.), and contain an eulogy of John
Alcock, bishop of Ely, the founder of Jesus College, Cambridge. The fourth
is based on Mantuan's eclogue, _De consuetudine divitum erga poetas_, with
large additions. It contains the "Descrypcion of the towre of Virtue and
Honour," an elegy on Sir Edward Howard, lord high admiral of England, who
perished in the attack on the French fleet in the harbour of Brest in 1513.
The fifth, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, also without date, is entitled the
"Fyfte Eglog of Alexandre Barclay of the Cytezen and the uplondyshman" and
is also based on Mantuan. Two shepherds, Amintas and Faustus, discuss the
familiar theme of the respective merits of town and country life, and
relate a quaint fable of the origin of the different classes of society.
Barclay's pastorals contain many pictures of rustic life as he knew it. He
describes for instance the Sunday games in the village, football, and the
struggle for food at great feasts; [v.03 p.0394] but his eclogues were,
like his Italian models, also satires on social evils. The shepherds are
rustics of the Colin Clout type, and discuss the follies and corruptions
around them. Barclay had, however, no sympathy with the anti-clerical
diatribes of John Skelton, whom he more than once attacks. Bale mentions an
_Anti-Skeltonum_ which is lost. His other works are:--_The Castell of
Laboure_ (Wynkyn de Worde, 1506), from the French of Pierre Gringoire; the
_Introductory to write and to pronounce Frenche_ (Robert Copland, 1521);
_The Myrrour of Good Maners_ (Richard Pynson, not dated), a translation of
the _De quatuor virtutibus_ of Dominicus Mancinus; _Cronycle compyled in
Latyn_ by the renowned Sallust (Richard Pynson, no date), a translation of
the _Bellum Jugurthinum, The Lyfe of the glorious Martyr Saynt George_ (R.
Pynson, _c._ 1530). _The Lyfe of Saynte Thomas_, and _Haython's Cronycle_,
both printed by Pynson, are also attributed to Barclay, but on very
doubtful grounds.

See T. H. Jamieson's edition of the _Ship of Fools_ (Edinburgh, 1874),
which contains an account of the author and a bibliography of his works;
and J. W. Fairholt's edition of _The Cytezen and Uplondyshman_ (Percy Soc.
1847), which includes large extracts from the other eclogues; also
Zarncke's edition of Brant (Leipzig, 1854); and Dr Fedor Fraustadt, _Über
das Verhältnis von Barclays Ship of Fools zu den lateinischen,
französischen und deutschen Quellen_ (1894). A prose version of Locher's
_Stultifera Navis_, by Henry Watson, was printed by Wynkyn de Worde in
1518.

[1] _Script. Ill. Maj. Brit._ (1557, Cent. ix. No. 66).

BARCLAY, JOHN (1582-1621), Scottish satirist and Latin poet, was born, on
the 28th of January 1582, at Pont-à-Mousson, where his father William
Barclay held the chair of civil law. His mother was a Frenchwoman of good
family. His early education was obtained at the Jesuit College. While
there, at the age of nineteen, he wrote a commentary on the _Thebaid_ of
Statius. In 1603 he crossed with his father to London. Barclay had
persistently maintained his Scottish nationality in his French
surroundings, and probably found in James's accession an opportunity which
he would not let slip. He did not remain long in England, where he is
supposed to have published the first part of his _Satyricon_, for in 1605
when a second edition of that book appeared in Paris, he was there, having
already spent some time in Angers, and being now the husband of a French
girl, Louise Debonaire. He returned to London with his wife in 1606, and
there published his _Sylvae_, a collection of Latin poems. In the following
year the second part of the _Satyricon_ appeared in Paris. Barclay remained
on in London till 1616. In 1609 he edited the _De Potestate Papae_, an
anti-papal treatise by his father, who had died in the preceding year, and
in 1611 he issued an _Apologia_ or "third part" of the _Satyricon_, in
answer to the attacks of the Jesuits and others who were probably
embittered by the tone of the earlier parts of the satire. A so-called
"fourth part," with the title of _Icon Animorum_, appeared in 1614. James
I. is said to have been attracted by his scholarship, but particulars of
this, or of his life in London generally, are not available. In 1616 he
went to Rome, for some reason unexplained, and there resided till his death
on the 15th of August 1621. He appears to have been on better terms with
the Church and notably with Bellarmine; for in 1617 he issued, from a press
at Cologne, a _Paraenesis ad Sectarios_, an attack on the position of
Protestantism. The literary effort of his closing years was his best-known
work the _Argenis_, completed about a fortnight before his death, which has
been said to have been hastened by poison. The romance was printed in Paris
in the same year.

Barclay's contemporary reputation as a writer was of the highest; by his
strict scholarship and graceful style he has deserved the praise of modern
students. The _Satyricon_, a severe satire on the Jesuits, is modelled on
Petronius and catches his lightness of touch, though it shows little or
nothing of the tone of its model, or of the unhesitating severity and
coarseness of the humanistic satire of Barclay's age. The _Argenis_ is a
long romance, with a monitory purpose on the dangers of political intrigue,
probably suggested to him by his experiences of the league in France, and
by the catholic plot in England after James's accession. The work has been
praised by all parties; and it enjoyed for more than a century after his
death a remarkable popularity. Most of the innumerable editions are
supplied with a key to the characters and names of the story. Thus
Aneroëtus is Clement VIII; _Arx non eversa_ is the Tower of London;
Hippophilus and Radirobanes are the names of the king of Spain; Hyanisbe is
Queen Elizabeth; Mergania, by an easy anagram, is Germany; Usinulca, by
another, is Calvin. The book is of historical importance in the development
of 17th century romance, including especially Fénelon's Télémaque. Ben
Jonson appears, from an entry at Stationers' Hall on the 2nd of October
1623, to have intended to make a translation. Barclay's shorter poems, in
two books, were printed in the _Delitiae Poetarum Scotorum_ (Amsterdam,
1637, i. pp. 76-136). In the dedication, to Prince Charles of England, he
refers to his earlier publication, the _Sylvae_.

The best account of Barclay is the preface by Jules Dukas in his
bibliography of the _Satyricon_ (Paris, 1889). This supersedes the life in
Bayle's _Dictionary_, which had been the sole authority. A "fifth part" of
the _Satyricon_ appears in most of the editions, by Alethophilus (Claude
Morisot). For the _Argenis_, see the dissertations by Léon Boucher (Paris,
1874), and Dupond (Paris, 1875). The _Icon Animorum_ was Englished by
Thomas May in 1631 (_The Mirrour of Mindes, or Barclay's Icon Animorum_).
Barclay's works have never been collected.

BARCLAY, JOHN (1734-1798), Scottish divine, was born in Perthshire and died
at Edinburgh. He graduated at St Andrews, and after being licensed became
assistant to the parish minister of Errol in Perthshire. Owing to
differences with the minister, he left in 1763 and was appointed assistant
to Antony Dow of Fettercairn, Kincardine. In this parish he became very
popular, but his opinions failed to give satisfaction to his presbytery. In
1772 he was rejected as successor to Dow, and was even refused by the
presbytery the testimonials requisite in order to obtain another living.
The refusal of the presbytery was sustained by the General Assembly, and
Barclay thereupon left the Scottish church and founded congregations at
Sauchyburn, Edinburgh and London. His followers were sometimes called
Bereans, because they regulated their conduct by a diligent study of the
Scriptures (Acts xvii. 11). They hold a modified form of Calvinism.

His works, which include many hymns and paraphrases of the psalms, and a
book called _Without Faith, without God_, were edited by J. Thomson and D.
Macmillan, with a memoir (1852).

BARCLAY, ROBERT (1648-1690), one of the most eminent writers belonging to
the Society of Friends, or Quakers, was born in 1648 at Gordonstown in
Morayshire. His father had served under Gustavus Adolphus, and pursued a
somewhat tortuous course through the troubles of the civil war. Robert was
sent to finish his education in Paris, and it appears he was at one time
inclined to accept the Roman Catholic faith. In 1667, however, he followed
the example of his father, and joined the recently-formed Society of
Friends. In 1670 he married a Quaker lady, Christian Mollison of Aberdeen.
He was an ardent theological student, a man of warm feelings and
considerable mental powers, and he soon came prominently forward as the
leading apologist of the new doctrine, winning his spurs in a controversy
with one William Mitchell. The publication of fifteen _Theses Theologiae_
(1676) led to a public discussion in Aberdeen, each side claiming a
victory. The most prominent of the _Theses_ was that bearing on immediate
revelation, in which the superiority of this inner light to reason or
scripture is sharply stated. His greatest work, _An Apology for the True
Christian Divinity_, was published in Latin at Amsterdam in 1676, and was
an elaborate statement of the grounds for holding certain fundamental
positions laid down in the _Theses_. It was translated by its author into
English in 1678, and is "one of the most impressive theological writings of
the century." It breathes a large tolerance and is still perhaps the most
important manifesto of the Quaker Society. Barclay experienced to some
extent the persecutions inflicted on the new society, and was several times
thrown into prison. He travelled extensively in Europe (once with Penn and
George Fox), and had several interviews with Elizabeth, princess palatine.
In later years he had much influence with James II., who as duke of York
had given to twelve members of the society a patent of the province of East
New Jersey, Barclay being made governor (1682-88). He is said to have
visited James with a view to making terms of accommodation with William of
Orange, [v.03 p.0395] whose arrival was then imminent. He died on the 3rd
of October 1690.

BARCLAY, WILLIAM (1546-1608) Scottish jurist, was born in Aberdeenshire in
1546. Educated at Aberdeen University, he went to France in 1573, and
studied law under Cujas, at Bourges, where he took his doctor's degree.
Charles III., duke of Lorraine, appointed him professor of civil law in the
newly-founded university of Pont-à-Mousson, and also created him counsellor
of state and master of requests. In 1603, however, he was obliged to quit
France, having incurred the enmity of the Jesuits, through his opposition
to their proposal to admit his son John (_q.v._) a member of their society.
Returning to England, he was offered considerable preferment by King James
on condition of becoming a member of the Church of England. This offer he
refused, and returned to France in 1604, when he was appointed professor of
civil law in the university of Angers. He died at Angers in 1608. His
principal works were _De Regno et Regali Potestate, &c._ (Paris, 1600), a
strenuous defence of the rights of kings, in which he refutes the doctrines
of George Buchanan, "Junius Brutus" (Hubert Languet) and Jean Boucher; and
_De Potestate Papae, &c._ (London, 1609), in opposition to the usurpation
of temporal powers by the pope, which called forth the celebrated reply of
Cardinal Bellarmine; also commentaries on some of the titles of the
Pandects.

BARCLAY DE TOLLY, MICHAEL ANDREAS, called by the Russians MICHAEL, PRINCE
BOGDANOVICH (1761-1818), Russian field marshal, was born in Livonia in
1761. He was a descendant of a Scottish family which had settled in Russia
in the 17th century. He entered the Russian army at an early age. In
1788-1789 he served against the Turks, in 1790 and 1794 against the Swedes
and Poles. He became colonel in 1798 and major-general in 1799. In the war
of 1806 against Napoleon, Barclay took a distinguished part in the battle
of Pultusk and was wounded at Eylau, where his conduct won him promotion to
the rank of lieut.-general. In 1808 he commanded against the Swedes in
Finland, and in 1809 by a rapid and daring march over the frozen Gulf of
Bothnia he surprised and seized Umeo. In 1810 he was made minister of war,
and he retained the post until 1813. In 1812 Barclay was given command of
one of the armies operating against Napoleon. There was very keen
opposition to the appointment of a foreigner as commander-in-chief, and
after he was defeated at Smolensk the outcry was so great that he resigned
his command and took a subordinate place under the veteran Kutusov. Barclay
was present at Borodino, but left the army soon afterwards. In 1813 he was
re-employed in the field and took part in the campaign in Germany. After
the battle of Bautzen he was reinstated as commander-in-chief of the
Russian forces, and in this capacity he served at Dresden, Kulm and
Leipzig. After the last battle he was made a count. He took part in the
invasion of France in 1814 and at Paris received the baton of a field
marshal. In 1815 he was again commander-in-chief of the Russian army which
invaded France, and he was made a prince at the close of the war. He died
at Insterburg in Prussia on the 14th (16th) of May 1818.

BARCOCHEBAS, BAR-COCHAB, or BAR KOKBA ("son of a star"), the name given in
Christian sources to one Simeon, the leader in the Jewish revolt against
Rome in the time of Hadrian (A.D. 132-135). The name does not appear in the
Roman historians. In Rabbinic sources he is called Bar (Ben) Coziba, "son
of deceit," which perhaps reflects the later verdict of condemnation
recorded after his failure (root [Hebrew: KZB] "to be false"). Cochab is,
therefore, the name either of his father or of his home. But it is recorded
that the Rabbi `Aq[=i]ba (_q.v._), who recognized him as Messiah, applied
Num. xxiv. 17 to him, reading not _Cochab_ ("a star"), but _Cosiba_ ("goes
forth from Jacob"); thus Bar-cochab is a Messianic title of the "man of
Cozeba" (_cf._ Chron. iv. 22) whose original name was recalled by later
Rabbis with sinister intention. At first the Romans paid little attention
to the insurgents, who were able to strike coins in the name of Simeon,
prince of Israel, and Eleazar the priest, and to persecute the Christians,
who refused to join the revolt. But troops were collected and the various
fortresses occupied by the Jews were successively reduced. The end came
with the fall of Beth-thar (Bethar). Extraordinary stories were told of the
prowess of Barcochebas and of the ordeals to which he subjected his
soldiers in the way of training.

See Eusebius _H.E._ iv. 6; Dio Cassius xix. 12-14; Schürer, _Gesch. d. jüd.
Volkes_, 3rd ed. i. 682 ff.; Derenbourg, _Hist. de la Palest._ 423 ff.
(distinguishes Barcochebas from Simeon); Schlattler, _Gesch. Israels_, 2nd
ed. 303 ff.; articles JEWS and PALESTINE, _History_; also art. s.v. "Bar
Kokba" in _Jewish Encyc._ (S. Krauss).

BARD, a word of Celtic derivation (Gaelic _baird_, Cymric _bardh_, Irish
_bard_) applied to the ancient Celtic poets, though the name is sometimes
loosely used as synonymous with poet in general. So far as can be
ascertained, the title _bards_, and some of the privileges peculiar to that
class of poets, are to be found only among Celtic peoples. The name itself
is not used by Caesar in his account of the manners and customs of Gaul and
Britain, but he appears to ascribe the functions of the bards to a section
of the Druids, with which class they seem to have been closely connected.
Later Latin authors, such as Lucan (_Phar._ p. 447), Festus (_De Verb.
Sign._ s.v.), and Ammianus Marcellinus (bk. xv.), used the term _Bardi_ as
the recognized title of the national poets or minstrels among the peoples
of Gaul and Britain. In Gaul, however, the institution soon disappeared;
the purely Celtic peoples were swept back by the waves of Latin and
Teutonic conquest, and finally settled in Wales, Ireland, Brittany and the
north of Scotland. There is clear evidence of the existence of bards in all
these places, though the known relics belong almost entirely to Wales and
Ireland, where the institution was more distinctively national. In Wales
they formed an organized society, with hereditary rights and privileges.
They were treated with the utmost respect and were exempt from taxes or
military service. Their special duties were to celebrate the victories of
their people and to sing hymns of praise to God. They thus gave poetic
expression to the religious and national sentiments of the people, and
therefore exercised a very powerful influence. The whole society of bards
was regulated by laws, said to have been first distinctly formulated by
Hywell Dha, and to have been afterwards revised by Gruffydd ap Conan. At
stated intervals great festivals were held, at which the most famous bards
from the various districts met and contended in song, the umpires being
generally the princes and nobles. Even after the conquest of Wales, these
congresses, or _Eisteddfodau_, as they were called (from the Welsh
_eistedd_, to sit), continued to be summoned by royal commission, but from
the reign of Elizabeth the custom has been allowed to fall into abeyance.
They have not been since summoned by royal authority, but were revived
about 1822, and are held regularly at the present time. In modern Welsh, a
bard is a poet whose vocation has been recognized at an Eisteddfod. In
Ireland also the bards were a distinct class with peculiar and hereditary
privileges. They appear to have been divided into three great sections: the
first celebrated victories and sang hymns of praise; the second chanted the
laws of the nation; the third gave poetic genealogies and family histories.
The Irish bards were held in high repute, and frequently were brought over
to Wales to give instruction to the singers of that country.

In consequence, perhaps, of Lucan's having spoken of _carmina bardi_, the
word bard began to be used, early in the 17th century, to designate any
kind of a serious poet, whether lyric or epic, and is so employed by
Shakespeare, Milton and Pope. On the other hand, in Lowland Scots it grew
to be a term of contempt and reproach, as describing a class of frenzied
vagabonds.

See Ed. Jones, _Relics of the Welsh Bards_ (1784); Walker, _Memoirs of the
Irish Bards_ (1786); Owen Jones, _Myvyrian Archaeology of Wales_ (3 vols.,
1801-1807); W. F. Skene, _Four Ancient Books of Wales_ (2 vols., 1868).

BARDAI[S.][=A]N, an early teacher of Christianity in Mesopotamia, the
writer of numerous Syriac works which have entirely perished[1] (with one
possible exception, the _Hymn of the Soul_ in the _Acts of Thomas_), and
the founder of a school which was soon branded as heretical. According to
the trustworthy _Chronicle of Edessa_, he was born in that city on the 11th
Tammuz (July), A.D. 154. [v.03 p.0396] His parents were of rank and
probably pagan; according to Barhebraeus, he was in youth a priest in a
heathen temple at Mabb[=o]g. Another probable tradition asserts that he
shared the education of a royal prince who afterwards became king of
Edessa--perhaps Abgar bar Manu, who reigned 202-217. He is said to have
converted the prince to Christianity, and may have had an important share
in christianizing the city. Epiphanius and Barhebraeus assert that he was
first an orthodox Christian and afterwards an adherent of Valentinus; but
Eusebius and the Armenian Moses of Chorene reverse the order, stating that
in his later days he largely, but not completely, purged himself of his
earlier errors. The earliest works attributed to him (by Eusebius and
others) are polemical dialogues against Marcionism and other heresies;
these were afterwards translated into Greek. He also wrote, probably under
Caracalla, an apology for the Christian religion in a time of persecution.
But his greatest title to fame was furnished by his hymns, which, according
to St Ephrem, numbered 150 and were composed in imitation of the Davidic
psalter. He thus became the father of Syriac hymnology, and from the favour
enjoyed by his poems during the century and a half that intervened between
him and St Ephrem we may conclude that he possessed original poetic genius.
This would be clearly proved if (as is not unlikely) the beautiful _Hymn of
the Soul_ incorporated in the apocryphal _Acts of Thomas_ could be regarded
as proceeding from his pen; it is practically the only piece of real poetry
in Syriac that has come down to us. Perhaps owing to the persecution under
Caracalla mentioned above, Bardai[s.][=a]n for a time retreated into
Armenia, and is said to have there preached Christianity with indifferent
success, and also to have composed a history of the Armenian kings.
Porphyry states that on one occasion at Edessa he interviewed an Indian
deputation who had been sent to the Roman emperor, and questioned them as
to the nature of Indian religion. He was undoubtedly a man of wide culture.
He died (according to the patriarch Michael) in 222.

For our knowledge of Bardai[s.][=a]n's doctrine we are mainly dependent on
the hostile witness of St Ephrem, and on statements by Greek writers who
had no acquaintance with his works in their original form. His teaching had
certain affinities with gnosticism. Thus he certainly denied the
resurrection of the body; and so far as we can judge by the obscure
quotations from his hymns furnished by St Ephrem he explained the origin of
the world by a process of emanation from the supreme God whom he called
"the Father of the living." On the other hand the dialogue known as the
_Book of the Laws of the Countries_, which was written by a disciple and is
quoted by Eusebius as a genuine exposition of the master's teaching--while
it recognizes the influence of the celestial bodies over the body of man
and throughout the material sphere and attributes to them a certain
delegated authority[2]--upholds the freedom of the human will and can in
the main be reconciled with orthodox Christian teaching. On this M. Nau has
based his effort (see _Une Biographie inédite de Bardesane l'astrologue_,
Paris, 1897; _Le Livre des lois des pays_, Paris, 1899) to clear
Bardai[s.][=a]n of the reproach of gnosticism, maintaining that the charge
of heresy arises from a misunderstanding of certain astrological
speculations. It must be admitted that it is impossible to reconstruct
Bardai[s.][=a]n's system from the few fragments remaining of his own work
and therefore a certain verdict cannot be given. But the ancient testimony
to the connexion of Bardai[s.][=a]n with Valentinianism is strong, and the
dialogue probably represents a modification of Bardesanist teaching in the
direction of orthodoxy. The later adherents of the school appear to have
moved towards a Manichean dualism.

The subject is exhaustively discussed in Hort's article "Bardaisan" in
_Dict. Christ. Biog._, and a full collection of the ancient testimonies
will be found in Harnack's _Altchristliche Litteratur_, vol. i. pp. 184 ff.

(N. M.)

[1] The _Book of the Laws of the Countries_, referred to below, is the work
of a disciple of Bardai[s.][=a]n.

[2] Even Ephrem allows that Bardai[s.][=a]n was in principle a monotheist.

BARDILI, CHRISTOPH GOTTFRIED (1761-1808), German philosopher, was born at
Blaubeuren in Württemberg, and died at Stuttgart. His system has had little
influence in Germany; Reinhold (_q.v._) alone expounded it against the
attacks of Fichte and Schelling. Yet in some respects his ideas opened the
way for the later speculations of Schelling and Hegel. He dissented
strongly from the Kantian distinction between matter and form of thought,
and urged that philosophy should consider only thought in itself, pure
thought, the ground or possibility of being. The fundamental principle of
thought is, according to him, the law of identity; logical thinking is real
thinking. The matter upon which thought operated is in itself indefinite
and is rendered definite through the action of thought. Bardili worked out
his idea in a one-sided manner. He held that thought has in itself no power
of development, and ultimately reduced it to arithmetical computation. He
published _Grundriss der ersten Logik_ (Stuttgart, 1800); _Über die Gesetze
der Ideenassociation_ (Tübingen, 1796); _Briefe über den Ursprung der
Metaphysik_ (Altona, 1798); _Philos. Elementarlehre_ (Landshut, 1802-1806);
_Beiträge zur Beurteilung des gegenwärtigen Zustandes der Vernunftlehre_
(Landshut, 1803).

See C. L. Michelet, _Geschichte der letzten Systeme_; J. E. Erdmann,
_Versuch einer Geschichte d. neu. Phil._ Bd. iii. pt. i.; _B's und
Reinholds Briefwechsel._

BARDOUX, AGÉNOR (1820-1897), French statesman, was a native of Bourges.
Established as an advocate at Clermont, he did not hesitate to proclaim his
republican sympathies. In 1871 he was elected deputy of the National
Assembly, and re-elected in 1876 and in 1877. In the chamber he was
president of the group of the left centre, standing strongly for the
republic but against anti-clericalism. After the _coup d'état_ of the 16th
of May, he was one of the leaders of the "363." In the republican chamber
elected after the 16th of May, he became minister of public instruction
(December 1877), and proposed various republican laws, notably on
compulsory primary education. He resigned in 1879. He was not re-elected in
1881, but in December 1882 was named senator for life. He wrote essays on
_Les Légistes et leur influence sur la société française_ (1878); _Le Comte
de Montlosier et le Gallicanisme_ (1881); and published in 1882 his _Dix
Années de vie politique_.

BARDOWIEK, a village of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, 3 m.
N. of Lüneburg on the navigable Ilmenau. Pop. 2000. Its trade consists
entirely in agricultural produce. The Gothic parish church (_c._ 1400)
incorporates remains of a cathedral of vast dimensions.

Bardowiek was founded in the 8th century by Charlemagne, who established a
bishopric in it, and until its destruction by Henry the Lion in 1189, it
was the most prosperous commercial city of north Germany. Its name is
derived from the Longobardi, the tribe for whom it was the home and centre,
and from it the colonization of Lombardy started.

BARDSEY (_i.e._ "Bards' Island": cf. Anglesey, "Angles' Island"; Welsh,
_Ynys Enlli_, "isle of the current"), an island at the northern extremity
of Cardigan Bay. The "sound" between Aberdaron point and the island is some
4 m. wide. Bardsey is included in Carnarvonshire, North Wales (but
traditionally in S. Wales). On the N.W. side it has high cliffs. It is
about 2½ m. long by ¾ m. broad, with an area of some 370 acres, a third of
which is hilly. Barley and oats are grown. On the S.E. side is a fairly
deep harbour. On the N.E. are the ruins of the tower of St Mary's abbey
(13th century). There is no Anglican church, the inhabitants being
Dissenters. They are farmers and fishermen. The lighthouse, with fixed
light, 140 ft. high and visible for 17 m., is locally celebrated. The
rectory of Aberdaron (on the mainland, opposite Bardsey), Penmachno and
Llangwnadl (Llangwynhoedl), in Lleyn (S. Carnarvonshire), belong to St
John's College, Cambridge. St Dubricius made the sanctuary famous, and died
here in 612. Here was the burial-place of all the monks whose friends could
afford to go thither with their bodies. All the great abbeys of England
sent their quota. Roads to Bardsey--with the monks' wells, found at
intervals of 7 to 9 m.--run from north, east and south. The remnant of
priests fled thither (after the great massacre of Bangor-is-coed in 613, by
Ethelfride of Northumbria) by the road of the Rivals (_Yn Eifl_) [v.03
p.0397] hill, S. Carnarvonshire, on which Pistyll farm still gives food
gratis to all pilgrims or travellers. A part of the isle is one great
cemetery of about 3 to 4 acres, with rude, rough graves as close to each
other as possible, with slabs upon them. Though Aberdaron rectory does not
belong to the isle, the farm "Cwrt" (Court), where the abbot held his
court, still goes with Bardsey, which was granted to John Wynn of Bodvel,
Carnarvonshire, after the battle and partial sack of Norwich by the
Puritans in the Civil War; passing through Mary Bodvel to her husband, the
earl of Radnor, who sold it to Dr Wilson of York. The doctor, in turn, sold
it to Sir John Wynn, of Glynllifon and Bodfean Hall, Carnarvonshire. One of
the Wynns, the 3rd Baron Newborough, was, at his wish, buried here. The
archaeology and history of the isle are voluminous. Lady Guest's
_Mabinogion_ translation (i. p. 115, ed. of 1838) gives an account of the
(legendary) Bardsey House of Glass, into which Merlin (Myrddin) took a
magic ring, originally kept at Caerleon-on-Usk.

BARÈGES, a town of south-western France, in the department of
Hautes-Pyrénées, in the valley of the Bastan, 25 m. S.S.W. of
Bagnères-de-Bigorre by road. The town, which is situated at an altitude of
4040 ft., is hardly inhabited in the winter. It is celebrated for its warm
sulphurous springs (75° to 111° F.), which first became generally known in
1675 when they were visited by Madame de Maintenon and the duke of Maine,
son of Louis XIV. The waters, which are used for drinking and in baths, are
efficacious in the treatment of wounds and ulcers and in cases of scrofula,
gout, skin diseases, &c. There is a military hospital, founded in 1760. The
town was formerly much exposed to avalanches and floods, which are now less
frequent owing to the construction of embankments and replanting of the
hillsides. It is a centre for mountain excursions. The light silk and wool
fabric called _barège_ takes its name from the place, where it was first
made.

BAREILLY, or BARELI, a city and district of British India in the Bareilly
or Rohilkhand division of the United Provinces. The city is situated on the
Ramganga river, 812 m. N.W. from Calcutta by rail. Pop. (1901) 131,208. The
principal buildings are two mosques built in the 17th century; a modern
fort overlooking the cantonments; the railway station, which is an
important junction on the Oudh and Rohilkhand line; the palace of the nawab
of Rampur, and the government college. Bareilly is the headquarters of a
brigade in the 7th division of the eastern army corps. The chief
manufactures are furniture and upholstery. Bareilly college is a seat of
upper class learning for the surrounding districts. It is conducted by an
English staff, and its course includes the subjects for degrees in the
Calcutta University.

The district of Bareilly has an area of 1580 sq. m. It is a level country,
watered by many streams, the general slope being towards the south. The
soil is fertile and highly cultivated, groves of noble trees abound, and
the villages have a neat, prosperous look. A tract of forest jungle, called
the _tarai_, stretches along the extreme north of the district, and teems
with large game, such as tigers, bears, deer, wild pigs, &c. The river
Sarda or Gogra forms the eastern boundary of the district and is the
principal stream. Next in importance is the Ramganga, which receives as its
tributaries most of the hill torrents of the Kumaon mountains. The Deoha is
another great drainage artery and receives many minor streams. The Gomati
or Gumti also passes through the district. The population in 1901 was
1,090,117. The Mahommedans are chiefly the descendants of Yusafzai Afghans,
called the Rohilla Pathans, who settled in the country about the year 1720.
The Rohillas were formerly the ruling race of the tract of country called
Rohilkhand, and are men of a taller stature, a fairer complexion and a more
arrogant air than the general inhabitants of the district. Bishop Heber
described them as follows:--"The country is burdened with a crowd of lazy,
profligate, self-called sawars (cavaliers), who, though many of them are
not worth a rupee, conceive it derogatory to their gentility and Pathan
blood to apply themselves to any honest industry, and obtain for the most
part a precarious livelihood by sponging on the industrious tradesmen and
farmers, on whom they levy a sort of blackmail, or as hangers-on to the
wealthy and noble families yet remaining in the province. These men have no
visible means of maintenance, and no visible occupation except that of
lounging up and down with their swords and shields, like the ancient
Highlanders, whom in many respects they much resemble." The Rohillas, after
fifty years' precarious independence, were subjugated in 1774 by the
confederacy of British troops with the nawab of Oudh's army, which formed
so serious a charge against Warren Hastings. Their territory was in that
year annexed to Oudh. In 1801 the nawab of Oudh ceded it to the Company in
commutation of the subsidy money. During the Mutiny of 1857 the Rohillas
took a very active part against the English, but since then they have been
disarmed. Both before and after that year, however, the Bareilly
Mahommedans have distinguished themselves by fanatical tumults against the
Hindus. The district is irrigated from the Rohilkhand system of government
canals. There are no manufactures except for domestic use and little
external trade. Several lines of the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway pass
through the district.

BARENTIN, a town of northern France, in the department of Seine-Inférieure,
11 m. N.N.W. of Rouen by rail. Pop. (1906) 5245. The town is situated in
the valley of the Austreberthe, a small affluent of the Seine, here crossed
at a height of 100 ft. by a fine railway viaduct 540 yds. long. The
manufacture of cotton fabrics is the principal industry.

BARENTS, WILLEM (d. 1597), Dutch navigator, was born about the middle of
the 16th century. In 1594 he left Amsterdam with two ships to search for a
north-east passage to eastern Asia. He reached the west coast of Novaya
Zemlya, and followed it northward, being finally forced to turn back when
near its northern extremity. In the following year he commanded another
expedition of seven ships, which made for the strait between the Asiatic
coast and Vaygach Island, but was too late to find open water; while his
third journey equally failed of its object and resulted in his death. On
this occasion he had two ships, and on the outward journey sighted Bear
Island and Spitsbergen, where the ships separated. Barents' vessel, after
rounding the north of Novaya Zemlya, was beset by ice and he was compelled
to winter in the north; and as his ship was not released early in 1597, his
party left her in two open boats on the 13th of June and most of its
members escaped. Barents himself, however, died on the 30th of June 1597.
In 1871 the house in which he wintered was discovered, with many relics,
which are preserved at the Hague, and in 1875 part of his journal was
found.

See _The Three Voyages of Barents_, by Gerrit de Veer, translated by the
Hakluyt Society (1876) from de Veer's text (Amsterdam, 1598).

BARENTS SEA, that part of the Arctic Ocean which is demarcated by the north
coast of Europe, the islands of Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land and
Spitsbergen, and smaller intervening islands; it was named after the Dutch
navigator. Omitting the great inlet of the White Sea in the south, it
extends from about 67° to 80° N., and from 20° to 60° E. The southern part,
off the Murman coast of the Kola peninsula, is sometimes called the Murman
Sea.

BARÈRE DE VIEUZAC, BERTRAND (1755-1841), one of the most notorious members
of the French National Convention, was born at Tarbes in Gascony on the
10th of September 1755. The name of Barère de Vieuzac, by which he
continued to call himself long after the renunciation of feudal rights on
the famous 4th of August, was assumed from a small fief belonging to his
father, a lawyer at Vieuzac. He began to practise as an advocate at the
parlement of Toulouse in 1770, and soon earned a considerable reputation as
an orator; while his brilliant and flowing style as a writer of essays led
to his election as a member of the Academy of Floral Games of Toulouse in
1788. At the age of thirty he married. Four years later, in 1789, he was
elected deputy by the estates of Bigorre to the states-general, which met
in May. He had made his first visit to Paris in the preceding year. His
personal appearance, his manners, social qualities and liberal opinions,
gave him a good standing among the multitude of provincial deputies then
thronging into Paris. He [v.03 p.0398] attached himself at first to the
constitutional party; but he was less known as a speaker in the Assembly
than as a journalist. His paper, however, the _Point du Jour_, according to
Aulard, owes its reputation not so much to its own qualities as to the fact
that the painter David, in his famous picture of the "Oath in the Tennis
Court," has represented Barère kneeling in the corner and writing a report
of the proceedings as though for posterity. The reports of the debates of
the National Assembly in the _Point du Jour_, though not inaccurate, are as
a matter of fact very incomplete and very dry. After the flight of the king
to Varennes, Barère passed over to the republican party, though he
continued to keep in touch with the duke of Orleans, to whose natural
daughter, Paméla, he was tutor. Barère, however, appears to have been
wholly free from any guiding principle; conscience he had none, and his
conduct was regulated only by the determination to be on the side of the
strongest. After the close of the National Assembly he was nominated one of
the judges of the newly instituted court of cassation from October 1791 to
September 1792. In 1792 he was elected deputy to the National Convention
for the department of the Hautes-Pyrénées. At first he voted with the
Girondists, attacked Robespierre, "a pygmy who should not be set on a
pedestal," and at the trial of the king voted with the Mountain for the
king's death "without appeal and without delay." He closed his speech with
a sentence which became memorable: "the tree of liberty could not grow were
it not watered with the blood of kings." Appointed member of the Committee
of Public Safety on the 7th of April 1793, he busied himself with foreign
affairs; then, joining the party of Robespierre, whose resentment he had
averted by timely flatteries, he played an important part in the second
Committee of Public Safety--after the 17th of July 1793--and voted for the
death of the Girondists. He was thoroughly unscrupulous, stopping at
nothing to maintain the supremacy of the Mountain, and rendered it great
service by his rapid work, by the telling phases of his oratory, and by his
clear expositions of the problems of the day. On the 9th Thermidor (July
27th, 1794) Barère hesitated, then he drew up the report outlawing
Robespierre. In spite of this, in Germinal of the year III. (the 21st of
March to the 4th of April 1795), the Thermidorians decreed the accusation
of Barère and his colleagues of the Terror, Collot d'Herbois and
Billaud-Varenne, and he was sent to the Isle of Oléron. He was removed to
Saintes, and thence escaped to Bordeaux, where he lived in concealment for
several years. In 1795 he was elected member of the Council of Five
Hundred, but was not allowed to take his seat. Later he was used as a
secret agent by Napoleon I., for whom he carried on a diplomatic
correspondence. On the fall of Napoleon, Barère played the part of
royalist, but on the final restoration of the Bourbons in 1815 he was
banished for life from France as a regicide, and then withdrew to Brussels
and temporary oblivion. After the revolution of July 1830 he reappeared in
France, was reduced by a series of lawsuits to extreme indigence, accepted
a small pension assigned him by Louis Philippe (on whom he had heaped abuse
and railing), and died, the last survivor of the Committee of Public
Safety, on the 13th of January 1841. (See also FRENCH REVOLUTION.)

The _Mémoires de B. Barère ... publiés par MM. H. Carnot ... et David
(d'Angers) ... précédés d'une notice historique_ (Paris, 1824-1844) are
false, but contain valuable information; Carnot's _Notice_, which is very
good, was published separately in 1842. See F. A. Aulard, _Les Orateurs de
la Constituante_ (Paris, 1882); _Les Orateurs de la Convention_ (2nd ed.,
Paris, 1905). Macaulay's essay on Barère, (_Edinburgh Review_, vol. 79) is
eloquent, but incorrect.

BARETTI, GIUSEPPE MARC' ANTONIO (1719-1789), Italian critic, was born at
Turin in 1719. He was intended by his father for the profession of law, but
at the age of sixteen fled from Turin and went to Guastalla, where he was
for some time employed in a mercantile house. His leisure hours he devoted
to literature and criticism, in which he became expert. For many years he
led a wandering life, supporting himself chiefly by his writings. At length
he arrived in London, where he remained for a considerable time. He
obtained an appointment as secretary to the Royal Academy of Painting, and
became acquainted with Johnson, Garrick and others of that society. He was
a frequent visitor at the Thrales'; and his name occurs repeatedly in
Boswell's _Life_. In 1769 he was tried for murder, having had the
misfortune to inflict a mortal wound with his fruit knife on a man who had
assaulted him on the street. Johnson among others gave evidence in his
favour at the trial, which resulted in Baretti's acquittal. He died in May
1789. His first work of any importance was the _Italian Library_ (London,
1757), a useful catalogue of the lives and works of many Italian authors.
The _Lettere famigliari_, giving an account of his travels through Spain,
Portugal and France during the years 1761-1765, were well received, and
when afterwards published in English (4 vols., 1770), were highly commended
by Johnson. While in Italy on his travels Baretti set on foot a journal of
literary criticism, to which he gave the title of _Frusta letteraria_, the
literary scourge. It was published under considerable difficulties and was
soon discontinued. The criticisms on contemporary writers were sometimes
just, but are frequently disfigured by undue vehemence and coarseness.
Among his other numerous works may be mentioned a useful _Dictionary and
Grammar of the Italian Language_, and a dissertation on Shakespeare and
Voltaire. His collected works were published at Milan in 1838.

BARFLEUR, a small seaport of north-western France, overlooking the Bay of
the Seine, in the department of Manche, 22½ m. N.N.E. of Valognes by rail.
Pop. (1906) 1069. In the middle ages Barfleur was one of the chief ports of
embarkation for England. In 1120 the "White Ship," carrying Prince William,
only son of Henry I., went down outside the harbour. About 2 m. to the
north is Cape Barfleur, with a lighthouse 233 ft. high.

BARFURUSH, a town of Persia, in the province of Mazandaran in 36° 32' N.,
and 52° 42' E., and on the left bank of the river Bawul [Babul], which is
here crossed by a bridge of eight arches, about 15 m. distant from the
southern shore of the Caspian Sea, where the small town of Meshed i Sar
serves as a port. It is the commercial capital of Mazandaran, and 26 m.
distant from Sari and 90 m. from Teheran. Pop. about 50,000. Built in a low
and swampy country and approached by deep and almost impassable roads,
Barfurush would not seem at all favourably situated for the seat of an
extensive inland trade; it is, however, peopled entirely by merchants and
tradesmen, and is wholly indebted for its present size and importance to
its commercial prosperity. The principal articles of its trade are rice and
cotton, some sugar cane (_nai shakar_), flax (_Kat[=u]n_) and hemp
(_Kanab_) are also grown. The town is of peculiar structure and aspect,
being placed in the midst of a forest of tall trees, by which the buildings
are so separated from one another, and so concealed, that, except in the
bazars, it has no appearance of a populous town. The streets are broad and
neat, though generally unpaved, and kept in good order. No ruins are to be
seen as in other Persian towns; the houses are comfortable, in good repair,
roofed with tiles and enclosed by substantial walls. There are no public
buildings of any importance, and the only places of interest are the
bazars, which extend fully a mile in length, and consist of substantially
built ranges of shops covered with roofs of wood and tiles, and well stored
with commodities. There are about ten commodious caravanserais and a number
of colleges (_medresseh_), the place being as much celebrated for learning
as for commerce. On an island in a small lake east of the town is a garden,
called Bagh i Shah (garden of the Shah), with ruined palaces and baths. At
Meshed i Sar, the port, or roadstead of Barfurush, the steamers of the
Caucasus and Mercury Company call weekly, and a brisk shipping trade is
carried on between it and other Caspian ports.

Barfurush was formerly called M[=a]mat[=i]r. The present name is from a
settlement called Barfurush-deh, which was added to the old city A.D. 1012.

(A. H.-S.)

BARGAIN[1] AND SALE, in English law, a contract whereby property, real or
personal, is transferred from one person--called the bargainer--to
another--called the bargainee--for a [v.03 p.0399] valuable consideration;
but the term is more particularly used to describe a mode of conveyance of
lands. The disabilities under which a feudal owner very frequently lay gave
rise to the practice of conveying land by other methods than that of
feoffment with livery of seisin, that is, a handing over of the feudal
possession. That of "bargain and sale" was one. Where a man bargained and
sold his land to another for pecuniary consideration, which might be merely
nominal, and need not necessarily be actually paid, equity held the
bargainer to be seised of the land to the use of the bargainee. The Statute
of Uses (1535), by converting the bargainee's interest into a legal estate,
had an effect contrary to the intention of its framers. It made bargain and
sale an easy means of secret or private conveyance, a policy to which the
law was opposed. To remedy this defect, a statute (called the Statute of
Enrolments) was passed in the same year, which provided that every
conveyance by bargain and sale of freehold lands should be enrolled in a
court of record or with the _custos rotulorum_ of the county within six
months of its date. The Statute of Enrolments applied only to estates of
inheritance or for life, so that a bargain and sale of an estate for years
might be made without enrolment. This in turn was the foundation of another
mode of conveyance, namely, lease and release, which took the place of the
deed of bargain and sale, so far as regards freehold. Bargain and sale of
copyhold estates, which operates at common law, is still a mode of
conveyance in England in the case of a sale by executors, where a testator
has directed a sale of his estate to be made, instead of devising it to
trustees upon trust to sell.

See also CONVEYANCING.

[1] From O. Fr. _bargaigne_, a word of doubtful origin, appearing in many
Romance languages, cf. Ital. _bargagno_; it is connected with Late Lat.
_barcaniare_, to traffic, possibly derived from _barca_, a barge.

BARGE (Med. Lat. _barca_, possibly connected with Lat. _baris_, Gr. [Greek:
baris], a boat used on the Nile), formerly a small sailing vessel, but now
generally a flat-bottomed boat used for carrying goods on inland
navigations. On canals barges are usually towed, but are sometimes fitted
with some kind of engine; the men in charge of them are known as bargees.
On tidal rivers barges are often provided with masts and sails ("sailing
barges"), or in default of being towed, they drift with the current, guided
by a long oar or oars ("dumb-barges"). Barges used for unloading, or
loading, the cargo of ships in harbours are sometimes called "lighters"
(from the verb "to light" = to relieve of a load). A state barge was a
heavy, often highly ornamented vessel used for carrying passengers on
occasions of state ceremonials. The college barges at Oxford are houseboats
moored in the river for the use of members of the college rowing clubs. In
New England the word barge frequently means a vehicle, usually covered,
with seats down the side, used for picnic parties or the conveyance of
passengers to or from piers or railway stations.

BARGEBOARD (probably from Med. Lat. _bargus_, or _barcus_, a scaffold, and
not from the now obsolete synonym "vergeboard"), the boards fastened to the
projecting gables of a roof to give strength to the same and to mask or
hide the horizontal timbers of the roof to which they were attached.
Bargeboards are sometimes moulded only or carved, but as a rule the lower
edges were cusped and had tracery in the spandrels besides being otherwise
elaborated. The richest example is one at Ockwells in Berkshire, England,
which is moulded and carved as if it were intended for internal work.

BARGHEST, BARGUEST or BARGEST, the name given in the north of England,
especially in Yorkshire, to a monstrous goblin-dog with huge teeth and
claws. The spectre-hound under various names is familiar in folk-lore. The
Demon of Tedworth, the Black Dog of Winchester and the Padfoot of Wakefield
all shared the characteristics of the Barghest of York. In Wales its
counterpart was Gwyllgi, "the Dog of Darkness," a frightful apparition of a
mastiff with baleful breath and blazing red eyes. In Lancashire the
spectre-hound is called Trash or Striker. In Cambridgeshire and on the
Norfolk coast it is known as Shuck or Shock. In the Isle of Man it is
styled Mauthe Doog. It is mentioned by Sir Walter Scott in "The Lay of the
Last Minstrel"--

 "For he was speechless, ghastly, wan
  Like him of whom the story ran
  Who spoke the spectre hound in Man."

A Welsh variant is the _Cwn Annwn_, or "dogs of hell." The barghest was
essentially a nocturnal spectre, and its appearance was regarded as a
portent of death. Its Welsh form is confined to the sea-coast parishes, and
on the Norfolk coast the creature is supposed to be amphibious, coming out
of the sea by night and travelling about the lonely lanes. The derivation
of the word barghest is disputed. "Ghost" in the north of England is
pronounced "guest," and the name is thought to be _burh-ghest_,
"town-ghost." Others explain it as German _Berg-geist_, "mountain demon,"
or _Bar-geist_, "bear-demon," in allusion to its alleged appearance at
times as a bear. The barghest has a kinsman in the _Rongeur d'Os_ of Norman
folklore. A belief in the spectre-hound still lingers in the wild parts of
the north country of England, and in Nidderdale, Yorkshire, nurses frighten
children with its name.

See Wirt Sikes, _British Goblins_ (1880); _Notes and Queries_, first
series, ii. 51; Joseph Ritson, _Fairy Tales_ (Lond. 1831), p. 58;
_Lancashire Folklore_ (1867); Joseph Lucas, _Studies in Nidderdale_
(Pateley Bridge, 1882).

BARHAM, RICHARD HARRIS (1788-1845), English humourist, better known by his
_nom de plume_ of THOMAS INGOLDSBY, was born at Canterbury on the 6th of
December 1788. At seven years of age he lost his father, who left him a
small estate, part of which was the manor of Tappington, so frequently
mentioned in the _Legends_. At nine he was sent to St Paul's school, but
his studies were interrupted by an accident which shattered his arm and
partially crippled it for life. Thus deprived of the power of bodily
activity, he became a great reader and diligent student. In 1807 he entered
Brasenose College, Oxford, intending at first to study for the profession
of the law. Circumstances, however, induced him to change his mind and to
enter the church. In 1813 he was ordained and took a country curacy; he
married in the following year, and in 1821 removed to London on obtaining
the appointment of minor canon of St Paul's cathedral. Three years later he
became one of the priests in ordinary of the King's Chapel Royal, and was
appointed to a city living. In 1826 he first contributed to _Blackwood's
Magazine_; and on the establishment of _Bentley's Miscellany_ in 1837 he
began to furnish the series of grotesque metrical tales known as _The
Ingoldsby Legends_. These became very popular, were published in a
collected form and have since passed through numerous editions. In variety
and whimsicality of rhymes these verses have hardly a rival since the days
of _Hudibras_. But beneath this obvious popular quality there lies a store
of solid antiquarian learning, the fruit of patient enthusiastic research,
in out-of-the-way old books, which few readers who laugh over his pages
detect. His life was grave, dignified and highly honoured. His sound
judgment and his kind heart made him the trusted counsellor, the valued
friend and the frequent peacemaker; and he was intolerant of all that was
mean and base and false. In politics he was a Tory of the old school; yet
he was the lifelong friend of the liberal Sydney Smith, whom in many
respects he singularly resembled. Theodore Hook was one of his most
intimate friends. Barham was a contributor to the _Edinburgh Review_ and
the _Literary Gazette_; he wrote articles for Gorton's _Biographical
Dictionary_; and a novel, _My Cousin Nicholas_ (1834). He retained vigour
and freshness of heart and mind to the last, and his last verses ("As I
laye a-thynkynge") show no signs of decay. He died in London after a long,
painful illness, on the 17th of June 1845.

A short memoir, by his son, was prefixed to a new edition of _Ingoldsby_ in
1847, and a fuller _Life and Letters_, from the same hand, was published in
2 vols. in 1870.

BAR HARBOR, a well-known summer resort of Hancock county, Maine, U.S.A., an
unincorporated village, in the township of Eden, on Frenchman's Bay, on the
E. side of Mount Desert Island, about 45 m. S.E. of Bangor. Pop. of the
township (1900) 4379; (1910) 4441; of the village (1910), about 2000,
greatly increased during the summer season. Bar Harbor is served by the
Maine Central railway and by steamship lines to New York, Boston, Portland
and other ports. The summer climate is cool, usually too cool for
sea-bathing, but there is a [v.03 p.0400] large open-air salt water
swimming bath. Rugged mountains from 1000 to 1500 ft. in height, a coast
with deep indentations and lined with bold cliffs, a sea dotted with rocky
islets, clear lakes, sparkling rivulets, deep gorges, and wooded glens are
features of the attractive scenery here and in the vicinity. Several fine
hotels and a number of costly residences occupy a plateau along the shore
and the hillsides farther back. The Kebo Valley Club has fine golf links
here; and since 1900 an annual horse show and fair has been held at Robin
Hood Park at the foot of Newport Mountain. Bar Harbor is usually a summer
rendezvous of the North Atlantic Squadron of the United States Navy. The
name Bar Harbor, which displaced East Eden, was suggested by the bar which
appears at low water between it and Bar Island. Although the first summer
hotel was built here in 1855, Bar Harbor's development as a summer resort
began about 1870, after some artists had visited the place, and made it
widely known through their pictures. (See MOUNT DESERT.)

BAR-HEBRAEUS or ABU`L-FARAJ, a maphri[=a]n or catholicus of the Jacobite
(Monophysite) Church in the 13th century, and (in Dr. Wright's words) "one
of the most learned and versatile men that Syria ever produced." Perhaps no
more industrious compiler of knowledge ever lived. Simple and uncritical in
his modes of thought, and apparently devoid of any striking originality, he
collected in his numerous and elaborate treatises the results of such
research in theology, philosophy, science and history as was in his time
possible in Syria. Most of his works were written in Syriac, but some few
in Arabic, which had long before his time supplanted Syriac as a living
speech.

The son of a physician of Jewish descent, Bar-Hebraeus was born in 1226 at
Mala[t.]iah on the upper Euphrates. His youth was passed in the troublous
times of the Mongol advance into western Asia, and his father eventually
retired to Antioch, where Bar-Hebraeus completed his education. In 1246 he
was ordained at Tripolis as Jacobite bishop of G[=u]b[=a]s near Mala[t.]ia,
and a year later was transferred to the neighbouring diocese of
La[k.]abh[=i]n, whence in 1253 he passed to be bishop of Aleppo. Deposed
almost immediately by an ecclesiastical superior on account of disputes
about the patriarchate, he was restored to his see in 1258, and in 1264 was
promoted by the patriarch Ignatius III. to be maphri[=a]n--the next rank
below that of patriarch--an office which he held till his death at
Mar[=a]gha in 1286. He seems to have been a model of devotion to his
ecclesiastical duties and to have won the respect of all parties in his
diocese.

It is mainly as an historian that Bar-Hebraeus interests the modern
student. His great historical work--the Syriac _Chronicle_--is made up of
three parts. The first[1] is a history of secular events from the Creation
to his own time, and in its later portions gives valuable information
regarding the history of south-east Europe and western Asia. A compendium
in Arabic of this secular history was made by Bar-Hebraeus under the title
_al-Mukhta[s.]ar fi`d-Duwal_ (Compendious History of the Dynasties). The
second and third parts[2] of the _Chronicle_ deal with the history of the
Church, the second being mainly concerned with the patriarchate of Antioch,
and the third with the eastern branch of the Syrian Church. Of special
value to theologians is the _Au[s.]ar R[=a]z[=e]_ (Storehouse of Secrets),
a critical and doctrinal commentary on the text of the Scriptures. Of this
many portions have been edited by various scholars, and a valuable study of
the work, together with a biography and estimate of its author, has been
published by J. Göttsberger (_Barhebräus und seine Scholien zur heiligen
Schrift_, Freiburg i. B., 1900).

A full list of Bar-Hebraeus's other works, and of editions of such of them
as have been published, will be found in W. Wright's _Syriac Literature_,
pp. 268-281. The more important of them are:--(1) _K[)e]th[=a]bh[=a]
dhe-Bh[=a]bh[=a]th[=a]_ (Book of the Pupils of the Eyes), a treatise on
logic or dialectics; (2) _[H.][=e]wath H[=e]khm[)e]th[=a]_ (Butter of
Wisdom), an exposition of the whole philosophy of Aristotle; (3)
_Sull[=a][k.][=a] Haun[=a]n[=a]y[=a]_ (Ascent of the Mind), a treatise on
astronomy and cosmography, edited and translated by F. Nau (Paris, 1899);
(4) various medical works; (5) _K[)e]th[=a]bh[=a] dh[)e]-[S.]em[h.][=e]_
(Book of Ravs), a treatise on grammar; (6) ethical works; (7) poems; (8)
_K[)e]th[=a]bh[=a] dh[)e]-Thunn[=a]y[=e] M[)e]gha[h.][h.][)e]kh[=a]n[=e]_
(Book of Entertaining Stories), edited and translated by E. A. W. Budge
(London, 1897).

(N. M.)

[1] Imperfectly edited and translated by Bruns and Kirsch in 1789. There is
now a better edition by Bedjan (Paris, 1890).

[2] Edited and translated by Abbeloos and Lamy (Paris and Louvain,
1872-1873).

BARI, a tribe of Nilotic negroes, living on the banks of the upper Nile
some 200 m. N. of Albert Nyanza. They have as neighbours the Dinka to the
north, the Madi to the south, and the Galla to the east. The men are tall
and thin, the women fat and under middle height. Their colour is a deep
dead brown. The men and unmarried girls go practically naked, the married
women wearing a goatskin dyed red. The body is ornamented with red clay and
the lower incisors are often extracted. Their sole wealth is cattle and
their chief food milk and blood; meat is only eaten when a cow happens to
die. They live in round grass huts with conical roofs. Twins are considered
unlucky, the mother is divorced by her husband and her family must refund
part of the marriage-price. The dead are buried in the hut; a square grave
is dug in which the body is arranged in a sitting position with the hands
tied behind the back. The most important men in the country are the
rainmakers, who are reverenced even more than the chiefs, and, indeed, are
famous among the surrounding tribes. The Bari warriors have been much
recruited for the Egyptian army and were formerly used as slave-hunters by
the Arab traders.

See Sir Samuel Baker, _The Albert N'yanza_ (London, 1866); Friedrich
Muller, _Die Sprache der Bari_ (Vienna, 1864); G. Casati, _Ten Years in
Equatoria_ (London, 1891); W. Junker, _Travels in Africa_ (English ed.,
1890-1892); R. C. Owen, _Bari Grammar_ (1908).

BARI (anc. _Barium_), a seaport and archiepiscopal see of Apulia, Italy,
capital of the province of Bari, situated on a small peninsula projecting
into the Adriatic, 69 m. N.W. of Brindisi by rail. Pop. (1901) 77,478. The
town consists of two parts, the closely built old town on the peninsula to
the N., and the new town to the S., which is laid out on a rectangular
plan. The former contains the cathedral of S. Sabino, begun in 1035 but not
completed till 1171: the exterior preserves in the main the fine original
architecture (notably the dome and campanile), but the interior has been
modernized. Not far off is the church of S. Nicola, founded in 1087 to
receive the relics of this saint, which were brought from Myra in Lycia,
and now lie beneath the altar in the crypt. The facade is fine, and the
interior, divided into three naves by columns, with galleries over the
aisles, has fortunately not been restored; the vaulting of the crypt has,
however, been covered with modern stucco. The church is one of the four
Palatine churches of Apulia (the others being the cathedrals of Acquaviva
and Altamura, and the church of Monte S. Angelo sul Gargano). Adjacent is
the small church of S. Gregorio, belonging also to the 11th century. The
castle, built in 1169, and strengthened in 1233, lies on the W. side of the
old town: it is now used as a prison. The old harbour lies on the E. side
of the peninsula, and the new on the W. In the new town is the Ateneo,
containing the provincial museum, with a large collection of vases found in
the district, in which the pre-Hellenic specimens are especially important
(M. Mayer in _Römische Mitteilungen_, 1897, 201; 1899, 13; 1904, 188, 276).
Bari is the seat of the command of the IX. army corps, and the most
important commercial town in Apulia. It manufactures olive oil, soap,
carbon sulphide and playing-cards, and has a large iron foundry.

Barium does not seem to have been a place of great importance in early
antiquity; only bronze coins struck by it have been found. In Roman times
it was the point of junction between the coast road and the Via Traiana;
there was also a branch road to Tarentum from Barium. Its harbour,
mentioned as early as 181 B.C., was probably the principal one of the
district in ancient times, as at present, and was the centre of a fishery.
But its greatest importance dates from the time when it became, in 852, a
seat of the Saracen power, and in 885, the residence of the Byzantine
governor. In 1071 it was captured by Robert Guiscard. In 1095 Peter the
Hermit preached the first crusade there. In 1156 it was razed to the
ground, and has several times suffered destruction. In the 14th century it
became an [v.03 p.0401] independent duchy, and in 1558 was left by Bona
Sforza to Philip II. of Spain and Naples.

(T. AS.)

BARILI, a town of the province of Cebu, island of Cebu, Philippine Islands,
on the Barili river, 2 m. from its mouth and about 35 m. S.W. of Cebu, the
capital. Pop. (1903) 31,617. It has a relatively cool and healthful
climate. Its people are agriculturists and raise Indian corn, sibucao,
hemp, cacao and coffee. The language is Cebu-Visayan.

BARING, the name of a family of English financiers and bankers. The firm of
Baring Brothers was founded by FRANCIS BARING (1740-1810), whose father,
John Baring, son of a Lutheran minister at Bremen, had come to England from
Germany, and started a cloth manufactory at Larkbear, near Exeter. Francis
Baring was born at Larkbear, and in due course was placed in a London
commercial firm. In 1770, in conjunction with his brother John, Francis
Baring established a banking-house in London, and before he died in 1810
had so developed the business that he was regarded as the first merchant in
Europe. He was for many years a director of the East India Company, and
chairman in 1792-1793, receiving a baronetcy for his services. From
1784-1806 he sat almost continuously in parliament as a Whig. He left five
sons, of whom the eldest, SIR THOMAS BARING (1772-1848), was a well-known
art-patron and collector. The control of the business passed to his second
son, ALEXANDER (1774-1848), better known as LORD ASHBURTON, who had already
been highly successful in extending the firm's operations in America, where
his marriage with the daughter of William Bingham, a wealthy resident of
Philadelphia and United States senator, secured him considerable influence
with the American commercial community. From 1806-1835 he represented
various constituencies in parliament where he strongly opposed reform. In
1834 he became president of the Board of Trade and master of the mint in
Sir Robert Peel's first administration, and the following year was raised
to the peerage as Baron Ashburton. His business capacity and intimate
acquaintance with American customs and institutions caused his appointment
in 1842 as commissioner to the United States to negotiate the settlement of
the north-eastern boundary question and other matters in dispute between
the two countries, and he concluded in that year at Washington the treaty,
commonly known as the Ashburton treaty, by which the frontier between Maine
and Canada was fixed. After his death in 1848 the affairs of the house were
managed by THOMAS BARING (1799-1873), the son of Sir Thomas Baring. Thomas
Baring represented Huntingdon in parliament from 1844 till his death. His
elder brother, Sir FRANCIS THORNHILL BARING (1796-1866), sat for Portsmouth
from 1826-1865. From 1839-1841 he was chancellor of the exchequer, and from
1849-1852 first lord of the admiralty. In 1866 he was created BARON
NORTHBROOK, the barony being converted in 1876 into an earldom in favour of
his eldest son Thomas George Baring (1826-1904). The latter, the 1st EARL
OF NORTHBROOK, was occupied almost entirely with public affairs, and filled
at different times many important official positions. He is best remembered
as viceroy of India, which office he held from 1872-1876, but his last
public position was first lord of the admiralty (1880-1885). With the death
of Thomas Baring, Edward Charles Baring (1828-1897), son of Henry Baring,
M.P., and grandson of Sir Francis Baring, became head of the firm of Baring
Brothers, and in 1885 was raised to the peerage as BARON REVELSTOKE. The
house of Baring then stood at the height of its prosperity. During the
following years a large amount of English capital was advanced to the
Argentine Republic, Barings undertaking the loans and guaranteeing the
interest. Through the continued default of the Argentine government,
Barings became seriously involved, their heavy obligations precipitating a
general financial crisis. Towards the end of 1890 it became known that the
firm was on the eve of suspending payment, with liabilities amounting to
£21,000,000. The prompt action of the Bank of England, which in conjunction
with the leading joint-stock banks of the United Kingdom took over these
liabilities, averted further disaster, and the firm of Baring Brothers was
subsequently reorganized as a limited company with a capital of £1,000,000.
Besides those already referred to, various other members of the Baring
family have achieved public distinction, notably Charles Baring
(1807-1879), bishop of Durham, and Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer
(_q.v._).

BARING-GOULD, SABINE (1834- ), English novelist, was born at Exeter on the
28th of January 1834. After graduating at Clare College, Cambridge, he
spent some years in travel, and became in 1864 curate of Horbury,
Yorkshire; then perpetual curate of Dalton, in the same county, in 1867;
and in 1871 rector of East Mersea, Essex. On his father's death in 1872 he
inherited the estate of Lew Trenchard, North Devon, where his family had
been settled for nearly three centuries, and he exchanged his Essex living
for the rectory of Lew Trenchard in 1881. He had a ready pen, and began
publishing books on one subject or another--fiction, travel, history,
folk-lore, religion, mythology, from 1854 onwards. His novel _Mehalah_
(1880), the scene of which is laid on the east coast of England, was an
excellent story, and among many others may be mentioned _John Herring_
(1883), a tale of the west country; _Court Royal_ (1886); _Red Spider_
(1887); _The Pennycomequicks_ (1889); _Cheap Jack Zita_ (1893); and _Broom
Squire_ (1896), a Sussex tale. His contributions to the study of
topography, antiquities and folk-lore, while popularly written, were also
full of serious research and real learning, notably his _Book of
Were-wolves_ (1865), _Curious Myths of the Middle Ages_ (1866), _Curious
Survivals_ (1892). He produced at the same time many volumes of sermons and
popular theology, and edited (1871-1873) _The Sacristy_, a quarterly review
of ecclesiastical art and literature.

Living the life of the rapidly disappearing English "squarson," and full of
cultivated interests, especially in humanizing the local village mind, and
investigating and recording the good things of old-time, his many-sided
activities were shown in every direction and his literary facility made his
work known far and wide. His familiarity with the country-side and his
interest in folk-lore were of special utility in recovering and preserving
for publication a large mass of English popular song, and in assisting the
new English movement for studying and appreciating the old national
ballad-music.

BARINGO, a lake of British East Africa, some 30 m. N. of the equator in the
eastern rift-valley. It is one of a chain of lakes which stud the floor of
the valley and has an elevation of 3325 ft. above the sea. It is about 16
m. long by 9 broad and has an irregular outline, the northern shore being
deeply indented. Its waters are brackish. Fed by several small streams it
has no outlet. The largest of the rivers which enter it, the Tigrish and
the Nyuki, run north through a flat marshy country which extends south of
the lake. This district, inhabited by the negro tribe of Njamusi, was by
the first explorers called Njemps. It is a fertile grain-growing region
containing two considerable villages. The Njamusi are peaceful
agriculturists who show marked friendliness to Europeans. N. of the lake
rise the Karosi hills; to the E. the land rises in terraces to the edge of
the Laikipia escarpment. A characteristic of the country in the
neighbourhood of the lake are the "hills" of the termites (white ants).
They are hollow columns 10 to 12 ft. high and from 1 ft. to 18 in. broad.
The greater kudu, almost unknown elsewhere in East Africa, inhabits the
flanks of the Laikipia escarpment to the east of the lake and comes to the
foot-hills around Baringo to feed.

The existence of Lake Baringo was first reported in Europe by Ludwig Krapf
and J. Rebmann, German missionaries stationed at Mombasa, about 1850; in
J. H. Speke's map of the Nile sources (1863) Baringo is confused with
Kavirondo Gulf of Victoria Nyanza; it figures in Sir H. M. Stanley's map
(1877) as a large sheet of water N.E. of Victoria Nyanza. Joseph Thomson,
in his journey through the Masai country in 1883, was the first white man
to see the lake and to correct the exaggerated notions as to its size.
Native tradition, however, asserts that the lake formerly covered a much
larger area.

BARISAL, a town of British India, headquarters of Backergunje district in
Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated on a river of the same name. Pop. (1901)
18,978. It is an important centre of river trade, on the steamer route
through the Sundarbans [v.03 p.0402] from Calcutta to the Brahmaputra. It
contains a first grade college and several schools. There are a public
library, established by subscription in 1858; and a students' union, for
helping the sick and poor and promoting the intellectual and physical
improvement of boys. Barisal has given its name to a curious physical
phenomenon, known as the "Barisal guns," the cause of which has not been
satisfactorily explained. These are noises, like the report of cannon,
frequently heard in the channels of the delta of the Brahmaputra, at the
rising of the tide.

BARIUM (symbol Ba, atomic weight 137.37 [O=16]), one of the metallic
chemical elements included in the group of the alkaline earths. It takes
its name from the Greek [Greek: barus] (heavy) on account of its presence
in barytes or heavy spar which was first investigated in 1602 by V.
Casciorolus, a shoemaker of Bologna, who found that after ignition with
combustible substances it became phosphorescent, and on this account it was
frequently called Bolognian phosphorus. In 1774 K. W. Scheele, in examining
a specimen of pyrolusite, found a new substance to be present in the
mineral, for on treatment with sulphuric acid it gave an insoluble salt
which was afterwards shown to be identical with that contained in heavy
spar. Barium occurs chiefly in the form of barytes or heavy spar, BaSO_4,
and witherite, BaCO_3, and to a less extent in baryto-calcite,
baryto-celestine, and various complex silicates. The metal is difficult to
isolate, and until recently it may be doubted whether the pure metal had
been obtained. Sir H. Davy tried to electrolyse baryta, but was
unsuccessful; later attempts were made by him using barium chloride in the
presence of mercury. In this way he obtained an amalgam, from which on
distilling off the mercury the barium was obtained as a silver white
residue. R. Bunsen in 1854 electrolysed a thick paste of barium chloride
and dilute hydrochloric acid in the presence of mercury, at 100° C.,
obtaining a barium amalgam, from which the mercury was separated by a
process of distillation. A. N. Guntz (_Comptes rendus_, 1901, 133, p. 872)
electrolyses a saturated solution of barium chloride using a mercury
cathode and obtains a 3% barium amalgam; this amalgam is transferred to an
iron boat in a wide porcelain tube and the tube slowly heated electrically,
a good yield of pure barium being obtained at about 1000° C. The metal when
freshly cut possesses a silver white lustre, is a little harder than lead,
and is extremely easily oxidized on exposure; it is soluble in liquid
ammonia, and readily attacks both water and alcohol.

Three oxides of barium are known, namely, the monoxide, BaO, the dioxide,
BaO_2, and a suboxide, obtained by heating BaO with magnesium in a vacuum
to 1100° (Guntz, _loc. cit._, 1906, p. 359). The monoxide is formed when
the metal burns in air, but is usually prepared by the ignition of the
nitrate, oxygen and oxides of nitrogen being liberated. It can also be
obtained by the ignition of an intimate mixture of the carbonate and
carbon, and in small quantities by the ignition of the iodate. It is a
greyish coloured solid, which combines very energetically with water to
form the hydroxide, much heat being evolved during the combination; on
heating to redness in a current of oxygen it combines with the oxygen to
form the dioxide, which at higher temperatures breaks up again into the
monoxide and oxygen.

Barium hydroxide, Ba(OH)_2, is a white powder that can be obtained by
slaking the monoxide with the requisite quantity of water, but it is
usually made on the large scale by heating heavy spar with small coal
whereby a crude barium sulphide is obtained. This sulphide is then heated
in a current of moist carbon dioxide, barium carbonate being formed, BaS +
H_2O + CO_2 = BaCO_3 + H_2S, and finally the carbonate is decomposed by a
current of superheated steam, BaCO_3 + H_2O = Ba(OH)_2 + CO_2, leaving a
residue of the hydroxide. It is a white powder moderately soluble in cold
water, readily soluble in hot water, the solution possessing an alkaline
reaction and absorbing carbon dioxide readily. The solution, known as
_baryta-water_, finds an extensive application in practical chemistry,
being used in gas-analysis for the determination of the amount of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere; and also being used in organic chemistry as a
hydrolysing agent for the decomposition of complex ureides and substituted
aceto-acetic esters, while E. Fischer has used it as a condensing agent in
the preparation of [alpha]- and [beta]-acrose from acrolein dibromide. A
saturated solution of the hydroxide deposits on cooling a hydrated form
Ba(OH)_2 · 8H_2O, as colourless quadratic prisms, which on exposure to air
lose seven molecules of water of crystallization.

Barium dioxide, BaO_2, can be prepared as shown above, or in the hydrated
condition by the addition of excess of baryta-water to hydrogen peroxide
solution, when it is precipitated in the crystalline condition as BaO_2 ·
8H_2O. These crystals on heating to 130° C. lose the water of
crystallization and leave a residue of the anhydrous peroxide. In the Brin
process for the manufacture of oxygen, barium dioxide is obtained as an
intermediate product by heating barium monoxide with air under pressure. It
is a grey coloured powder which is readily decomposed by dilute acids with
the production of hydrogen peroxide.

Barium chloride, BaCl_2 · 2H_2O, can be obtained by dissolving witherite in
dilute hydrochloric acid, and also from heavy spar by ignition in a
reverberatory furnace with a mixture of coal, limestone and calcium
chloride, the barium chloride being extracted from the fused mass by water,
leaving a residue of insoluble calcium sulphide. The chloride crystallizes
in colourless rhombic tables of specific gravity 3.0 and is readily soluble
in water, but is almost insoluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid and in
absolute alcohol. It can be obtained in the anhydrous condition by heating
it gently to about 120° C. It has a bitter taste and is a strong poison.
Barium bromide is prepared by saturating baryta-water or by decomposing
barium carbonate with hydrobromic acid. It crystallizes as BaBr_2 · 2H_2O
isomorphous with barium chloride. Barium bromate, Ba(BrO_3)_2, can be
prepared by the action of excess of bromine on baryta-water, or by
decomposing a boiling aqueous solution of 100 parts of potassium bromate
with a similar solution of 74 parts of crystallized barium chloride. It
crystallizes in the monoclinic system, and separates from its aqueous
solution as Ba(BrO_3)_2 · H_2O. On heating, it begins to decompose at
260-265° C. Barium chlorate, Ba(ClO_3)_2, is obtained by adding barium
chloride to sodium chlorate solution; on concentration of the solution
sodium chloride separates first, and then on further evaporation barium
chlorate crystallizes out and can be purified by recrystallization. It can
also be obtained by suspending barium carbonate in boiling water and
passing in chlorine. It crystallizes in monoclinic prisms of composition
Ba(ClO_3)_2 · H_2O, and begins to decompose on being heated to 250° C.
Barium iodate, Ba(IO_3)_2, is obtained by the action of excess of iodic
acid on hot caustic baryta solution or by adding sodium iodate to barium
chloride solution. It crystallizes in monoclinic prisms of composition
Ba(IO_3)_2 · H_2O, and is only very sparingly soluble in cold water.

Barium carbide, BaC_2, is prepared by a method similar to that in use for
the preparation of calcium carbide (see ACETYLENE). L. Maquenne has also
obtained it by distilling a mixture of barium amalgam and carbon in a
stream of hydrogen. Barium sulphide, BaS, is obtained by passing
sulphuretted hydrogen over heated barium monoxide, or better by fusion of
the sulphate with a small coal. It is a white powder which is readily
decomposed by water with the formation of the hydroxide and hydrosulphide.
The phosphorescence of the sulphide obtained by heating the thiosulphate is
much increased by adding uranium, bismuth, or thorium before ignition (_J.
pr. Chem._, 1905, ii. p. 196).

Barium sulphate, BaSO_4, is the most abundant of the naturally occurring
barium compounds (see BARYTES) and can be obtained artificially by the
addition of sulphuric acid or any soluble sulphate to a solution of a
soluble barium salt, when it is precipitated as an amorphous white powder
of specific gravity 4.5. It is practically insoluble in water, and is only
very slightly soluble in dilute acids; it is soluble to some extent, when
freshly prepared, in hot concentrated sulphuric acid, and on cooling the
solution, crystals of composition BaSO_4 · H_2SO_4 are deposited. It is
used as a pigment under the name of "permanent white" or _blanc fixe_.

Barium nitride, Ba_3N_2, is obtained as a brownish mass by [v.03 p.0403]
passing nitrogen over heated barium amalgam. It is decomposed by water with
evolution of hydrogen, and on heating in a current of carbonic oxide forms
barium cyanide (L. Maquenne). Barium amide, Ba(NH_2)_2, is obtained from
potassammonium and barium bromide.

Barium nitrate, Ba(NO_3)_2, is prepared by dissolving either the carbonate
or sulphide in dilute nitric acid, or by mixing hot saturated solutions of
barium chloride and sodium nitrate. It crystallizes in octahedra, having a
specific gravity of 3.2, and melts at 597° C. (T. Carnelley). It is
decomposed by heat, and is largely used in pyrotechny for the preparation
of green fire. Barium carbonate, BaCO_3, occurs rather widely distributed
as witherite (_q.v._), and may be prepared by the addition of barium
chloride to a hot solution of ammonium carbonate, when it is precipitated
as a dense white powder of specific gravity 4.3; almost insoluble in water.

Barium and its salts can be readily detected by the yellowish-green colour
they give when moistened with hydrochloric acid and heated in the
Bunsenflame, or by observation of their spectra, when two characteristic
green lines are seen. In solution, barium salts may be detected by the
immediate precipitate they give on the addition of calcium sulphate (this
serves to distinguish barium salts from calcium salts), and by the yellow
precipitate of barium chromate formed on the addition of potassium
chromate. Barium is estimated quantitatively by conversion into the
sulphate. The atomic weight of the element has been determined by C.
Marignac by the conversion of barium chloride into barium sulphate, and
also by a determination of the amount of silver required to precipitate
exactly a known weight of the chloride; the mean value obtained being
136.84; T. W. Richards (_Zeit. anorg. Chem._, 1893, 6, p. 89), by
determining the equivalent of barium chloride and bromide to silver,
obtained the value 137.44. For the relation of barium to radium, see
RADIOACTIVITY.

BARKER, EDMUND HENRY (1788-1839), English classical scholar, was born at
Hollym in Yorkshire. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, as a scholar in
1807, but left the university without a degree, being prevented by
religious scruples from taking the oath then required. He had previously
obtained (in 1809) the Browne medal for Greek and Latin epigrams. After
acting as amanuensis to the famous Samuel Parr, the vicar of Hatton in
Warwickshire, he married and settled down at Thetford in Norfolk, where he
lived for about twenty-five years. He was in the habit of adding the
initials O. T. N. (of Thetford, Norfolk) to the title-page of his published
works. In later life he became involved in a law-suit in connexion with a
will, and thus exhausted his means. In 1837-1838 he was a prisoner for debt
in the king's bench and in the Fleet. He died in London on the 21st of
March 1839. Barker was a prolific writer on classical and other subjects.
In addition to contributing to the Classical Journal, he edited portions of
several classical authors for the use of schools. He was one of the first
commentators to write notes in English instead of Latin. In a volume of
letters he disputed the claims of Sir Philip Francis to the authorship of
the Letters of Junius; his _Parriana_ (1828) is a vast and ill-digested
compilation of literary anecdotes and criticisms. He also saw through the
press the English edition of Lemprière's _Classical Dictionary_ (revised by
Anthon) and of Webster's _English Dictionary_. It is as a lexicographer,
however, that Barker is chiefly known. While at Hatton, he conceived the
design of a new edition of Stephanus's _Thesaurus Graecae Linguae_. The
work was undertaken by A. J. Valpy, and, although not expressly stated, it
was understood that Barker was the responsible editor. When a few parts had
appeared, it was severely criticized in the _Quarterly Review_ (xxii.,
1820) by Blomfield; the result was the curtailment of the original plan of
the work and the omission of Barker's name in connexion with it. It was
completed in twelve volumes (1816-1828). The strictures of the _Quarterly_
were answered by Barker in his _Aristarchus Anti-Blomfieldianus_, which,
although unconvincing, was in turn answered by Bishop Monk. He also
published notes on the _Etymologicum Gudianum_, and collaborated with
Professor Dunbar of Edinburgh in a Greek and English Lexicon (1831). The
_editio princeps_ (1820) of the treatise attributed to Arcadius, [Greek:
Peri tonôn], was published by him from a Paris MS. Continental scholars
entertained a more favourable opinion of him than those of his own country.
He expressed contempt for the minute verbal criticism of the Porsonian
school, in which he was himself deficient.

An account of his life will be found in the _Gentleman's Magazine_ for May
1839; see also _Notes and Queries_ (6th series, xii. p. 443), where a full
list of his works is given.

BARKER'S MILL, a mechanical contrivance invented by a Dr Barker about the
end of the 17th century. It consisted of a hollow vertical cylinder,
provided with a number of horizontal arms fitted with lateral apertures;
the contrivance is mounted so as to rotate about the vertical axis. By
allowing water to enter the vertical tube, a rotation, due to the discharge
through the lateral orifices, is set up.

BARKING, a market-town in the Romford parliamentary division of Essex,
England, on the river Roding near its junction with the Thames, 8 m. E. of
Fenchurch Street station and Liverpool Street station, London, by the
London, Tilbury & Southend and Great Eastern railways. Pop. of urban
district of Barking town (1891) 14,301; (1901) 21,547. The church of St
Margaret is Norman with perpendicular additions, and contains many
monuments of interest. Barking was celebrated for its nunnery, one of the
oldest and richest in England, founded about 670 by Erkenwald, bishop of
London, and restored in 970 by King Edgar, about a hundred years after its
destruction by the Danes. The abbess was a baroness _ex officio_, and the
revenue at the dissolution of the monasteries was £1084. There remains a
perpendicular turreted gateway. There is also an ancient market-house, used
as a town-hall. Victoria Gardens form a public pleasure-ground, and there
are recreation grounds. The Gaslight and Coke Company's works at Beckton
are in the parish, and also extensive rubber works. At the mouth of the
Roding (Barking Creek) are great sewage works, receiving the Northern
Outfall sewer from London. There are also chemical works, and some shipping
trade, principally in timber and fish. Barking is a suffragan bishopric in
the diocese of St Albans.

BARKLY EAST, a town of Cape province, South Africa, capital of a district
of the same name, and 80 m. by rail E.S.E. of Aliwal North. The town lies
north of the Drakensberg on the Kraai tributary of the Orange river at an
elevation of 5831 ft. The district has an area of 1564 sq. m. and a
population (1904) of 8490, of whom 50% are whites. The chief occupation
followed is sheep-farming, the pasturage being excellent. Like Barkly West,
the town and district are named after Sir Henry Barkly, governor of Cape
Colony, 1870-1877.

BARKLY WEST, a town of Cape province, South Africa, 21 m. N.W. of
Kimberley, capital of a district and of an electoral division of the same
name in Griqualand West. It is built on the right bank of the Vaal, here
spanned by a bridge. Pop. (1904) 1037. Originally called Klipdrift, the
town was the first founded by the diggers after the discovery in 1867 of
diamonds along the valley of the Vaal, and it had for some years a large
floating population. On the discovery of the "dry diggings" at Kimberley,
the majority of the diggers removed thither. Barkly West remains, however,
the centre of the alluvial diamonds industry. The diamonds of this district
are noted for their purity and lustre, and are generally associated with
other crystals--garnets, agates, quartz and chalcedonies.

Barkly West electoral division includes the whole of Griqualand West save
the Kimberley division. It is divided into the fiscal districts of Barkly
West, Hay and Herbert, with a total pop. (1904) of 48,388, of whom 12,170
are whites (see GRIQUALAND).

BARLAAM AND JOSAPHAT, one of the most popular and widely disseminated of
medieval religious romances, which owes its importance and interest to the
fact that it is a Christianized version of the story of Gautama Siddharta,
the Buddha, with which it agrees not only in broad outline but in essential
details.

The Christian story first appears in Greek among the works of John (_q.v._)
of Damascus, who flourished in the early part of the 8th century, and who,
before he adopted the monastic life, had [v.03 p.0404] held high office at
the court of the caliph Ab[=u] Ja`far al-Mans[=u]r, as his father Sergius
is said to have done before him.

The outline of the Greek story is as follows:--St Thomas had converted the
people of India, and after the eremitic life originated in Egypt, many
Indians adopted it. But a powerful pagan king arose who hated and
persecuted the Christians, especially the ascetics. After this king,
Abenner by name, had long been childless, a boy greatly desired and
matchless in beauty, was born to him and received the name of Josaphat. The
king, in his joy, summons astrologers to predict the child's destiny. They
foretell glory and prosperity beyond those of all his predecessors. One
sage, most learned of all, assents, but intimates that the scene of this
glory will be, not the paternal kingdom, but another infinitely more
exalted, and that the child will adopt the faith which his father
persecutes.

The boy shows a thoughtful and devout turn. King Abenner, troubled by this
and by the remembrance of the prediction, selects a secluded city, in which
he causes a splendid palace to be built, where his son should abide,
attended only by tutors and servants in the flower of youth and health. No
stranger was to have access, and the boy was to be cognizant of none of the
sorrows of humanity, such as poverty, disease, old age or death, but only
of what was pleasant, so that he should have no inducement to think of the
future life; nor was he ever to hear a word of Christ and His religion.

Prince Josaphat grows up in this seclusion, acquires all kinds of knowledge
and exhibits singular endowments. At length, on his urgent prayer, the king
reluctantly permits him to pass the limits of the palace, after having
taken all precautions to keep painful objects out of sight. But through
some neglect of orders, the prince one day encounters a leper and a blind
man, and asks of his attendants with pain and astonishment what such a
spectacle should mean. These, they tell him, are ills to which man is
liable. Shall all men have such ills? he asks. And in the end he returns
home in deep depression. Another day he falls in with a decrepit old man,
and stricken with dismay at the sight, renews his questions and hears for
the first time of death. And in how many years, continues the prince, does
this fate befall man? and must he expect death as inevitable? Is there _no_
way of escape? No means of eschewing this wretched state of decay? The
attendants reply as may be imagined; and Josaphat goes home more pensive
than ever, dwelling on the certainty of death and on what shall be
thereafter.

At this time Barlaam, an eremite of great sanctity and knowledge, dwelling
in the wilderness of Sennaritis, divinely warned, travels to India in the
disguise of a merchant, and gains access to Prince Josaphat, to whom he
imparts the Christian doctrine and commends the monastic life. Suspicion
arises and Barlaam departs. But all attempts to shake the prince's
convictions fail. As a last resource the king sends for Theudas, a
magician, who removes the prince's attendants and substitutes seductive
girls; but all their blandishments are resisted through prayer. The king
abandons these efforts and associates his son in the government. The prince
uses his power to promote religion, and everything prospers in his hands.
At last Abenner himself yields to the faith, and after some years of
penitence dies. Josaphat surrenders the kingdom to a friend called
Barachias and departs for the wilderness. After two years of painful search
and much buffeting by demons he finds Barlaam. The latter dies, and
Josaphat survives as a hermit many years. King Barachias afterwards
arrives, and transfers the bodies of the two saints to India, where they
are the source of many miracles.

Now this story is, _mutatis mutandis_, the story of Buddha. It will suffice
to recall the Buddha's education in a secluded palace, his encounter
successively with a decrepit old man, with a man in mortal disease and
poverty, with a dead body, and, lastly, with a religious recluse radiant
with peace and dignity, and his consequent abandonment of his princely
state for the ascetic life in the jungle. Some of the correspondences in
the two stories are most minute, and even the phraseology, in which some of
the details of Josaphat's history are described, almost literally renders
the Sanskrit of the _Lalita Vistara_. More than that, the very word Joasaph
or Josaphat (Arabic, _Y[=u]dasatf_) is a corruption of Bodisat due to a
confusion between the Arabic letters for Y and B, and Bodisatva is a common
title for the Buddha in the many birth-stories that clustered round the
life of the sage. There are good reasons for thinking that the Christian
story did not originate with John of Damascus, and a strong case has been
made out by Zotenberg that it reflects the religious struggles and disputes
of the early 7th century in Syria, and that the Greek text was edited by a
monk of Saint Saba named John, his version being the source of all later
texts and translations. How much older than this the Christian story is, we
cannot tell, but it is interesting to remember that it embodies in the form
of a speech the "Apology" of the 2nd-century philosopher Aristides. After
its appearance among the writings of John of Damascus, it was incorporated
with Simeon Metaphrastes' _Lives of the Saints_ (c. 950), and thence gained
great vogue, being translated into almost every European language. A famous
Icelandic version was made for Prince Hakon early in the 13th century. In
the East, too, it took on new life and Catholic missionaries freely used it
in their propaganda. Thus a Tagala (Philippine) translation was brought out
at Manila in 1712. Besides furnishing the early playwrights with material
for miracle plays, it has supplied episodes and apologues to many a writer,
including Boccaccio, John Gower and Shakespeare. Rudolph of Ems about 1220
expanded it into a long poem of 16,000 lines, celebrating the victory of
Christian over heathen teaching. The heroes of the romance have even
attained saintly rank. Their names were inserted by Petrus de Natalibus in
his _Catalogus Sanctorum_ (c. 1380), and Cardinal Baronius included them in
the official _Martyrologium_ authorized by Sixtus V. (1585-1590) under the
date of the 27th of November. In the Orthodox Eastern Church "the holy
Josaph, son of Abener, king of India" is allotted the 26th of August. Thus
unwittingly Gautama the Buddha has come to official recognition as a saint
in two great branches of the Catholic Church, and no one will say that he
does not deserve the honour. A church dedicated _Divo Josaphat_ in Palermo
is probably not the only one of its kind.

The identity of the stories of Buddha and St Josaphat was recognized by the
historian of Portuguese India, Diogo do Couto (1542-1616), as may be seen
in his history (_Dec_. v. liv. vi. cap. 2). In modern times the honour
belongs to Laboulaye (1859), Felix Liebrecht in 1860 putting it beyond
dispute. Subsequent researches have been carried out by Zotenberg, Max
Müller, Rhys Davids, Braunholtz and Joseph Jacobs, who published his
_Barlaam and Josaphat_ in 1896.

BAR-LE-DUC, a town of north-eastern France, capital of the department of
Meuse, 50 m. E.S.E. of Châlons-sur-Marne, on the main line of the Eastern
railway between that town and Nancy. Pop. (1906) 14,624. The lower, more
modern and busier part of the town extends along a narrow valley, shut in
by wooded or vine-clad hills, and is traversed throughout its length by the
Ornain, which is crossed by several bridges. It is limited towards the
north-east by the canal from the Marne to the Rhine, on the south-west by a
small arm of the Ornain, called the Canal des Usines, on the left bank of
which the upper town (Ville Haute) is situated. The Ville Haute, which is
reached by staircases and steep narrow thoroughfares, is intersected by a
long, quiet street, bordered by houses of the 15th, 16th and 17th
centuries. In this quarter are the remains (16th century) of the château of
the dukes of Bar, dismantled in 1670, the old clock-tower and the college,
built in the latter half of the 16th century. Its church of St Pierre (14th
and 15th centuries) contains a skilfully-carved effigy in white stone of a
half-decayed corpse, the work of Ligier Richier (1500-1572), a pupil of
Michelangelo--erected to the memory of René de Châlons (d. 1544). The lower
town contains the official buildings and two or three churches, but these
are of little interest. Among the statues of distinguished natives of the
town is one to Charles Nicolas Oudinot, whose house serves as the
hôtel-de-ville. Bar-le-Duc has tribunals of first instance and of commerce,
a board of trade arbitrators, a lycée, a training-college for girls, a
chamber of commerce, a branch of the Bank of France and an art museum. The
industries of the town include iron-founding and the manufacture of
machinery, corsets, hosiery, [v.03 p.0405] flannel goods, jam and
wall-paper, and brewing, cotton spinning and weaving, leather-dressing and
dyeing. Wine, timber and iron are important articles of commerce.

Bar-le-Duc was at one time the seat of the countship, later duchy, of Bar,
the history of which is given below. Though probably of ancient origin, the
town was unimportant till the 10th century when it became the residence of
the counts.

COUNTS AND DUKES OF BAR. In the middle of the 10th century the territory of
Bar (Barrois) formed a dependency of the Empire. In the 11th century its
lords were only counts by title; they belonged to the house of Mousson
(which also possessed the countships of Montbéliard and Ferrette), and
usually fought in the French ranks, while their neighbours, the dukes of
Lorraine, adhered to the German side. Theobald I., count of Bar, was an
ally of Philip Augustus, as was also his son Henry II., who distinguished
himself at the battle of Bouvines in 1214. But sometimes the counts of Bar
bore arms against France. In 1301 Henry III. having made an alliance with
Edward I. of England, whose daughter he had married, was vanquished by
Philip the Fair, who forced him to do homage for a part of Barrois,
situated west of the Meuse, which was called _Barrois mouvant_. In 1354
Robert, count of Bar, who had married the daughter of King John, was made
marquis of Pont-à-Mousson by the emperor Charles IV. and took the title of
duke of Bar. His successor, Edward III., was killed at Agincourt in 1415.
In 1419 Louis of Bar, brother of the last-named, a cardinal and bishop of
Châlons, gave the duchy of Bar to René of Anjou, the grandson of his sister
Yolande, who married Isabella, duchess of Lorraine. Yolande of Anjou, who
in 1444 had married Ferri of Lorraine, count of Vaudémont, became heiress
of Nicholas of Anjou, duke of Calabria and of Lorraine, in 1473, and of
René of Anjou, duke of Bar, in 1480; thus Lorraine, with Barrois added to
it, once more returned to the family of its ancient dukes. United with
Lorraine to France in 1634, Barrois remained, except for short intervals,
part of the royal domain. It was granted in 1738 to Stanislaus Leszczynski,
ex-king of Poland, and on his death in 1766 was once more attached to the
crown of France.

(M. P.*)

BARLETTA (anc. _Barduli_), a seaport town and episcopal see of Apulia,
Italy, on the E.S.E. coast, in the province of Bari, 34½ m. W.N.W. of Bari
by rail. Pop. (1901) 42,022. Its importance dates from the time of the
Hohenstaufen. The Gothic church of S. Sepolcro was built at the close of
the 12th century, and the Romanesque cathedral was begun at the same
period, but added to later. In front of the former church stands a bronze
statue, 14 ft. in height, of the emperor Heraclius. The castle behind the
cathedral dates from 1537. The harbour is good. It was cleared by 508
sailing-vessels and 461 steamers, the latter with a total tonnage of
364,904 in 1904; the exports were of the value of £180,699 (principally
wine, sulphur, oil, tartar and tartaric acid), and the imports £92,486
(coal, timber and sundries).

In the neighbourhood (between Andria and Corato), during the siege of
Barletta by the French in 1503, the town being defended by the Spanish
army, a combat took place between thirteen picked knights of Italy and
France, which resulted in favour of the former: it has been celebrated by
Massimo d' Azeglio in his _Disfida di Barletta_. Seven miles to the N.W.
are the salt-works of Barletta, now known under the name of Margherita di
Savoia.

(T. AS.)

BARLEY (_Hordeum sativum_), a member of the grass family, and an important
cereal which belongs peculiarly to temperate regions. It originated from a
wild species, _H. spontaneum_, a native of western Asia and has been
cultivated from the earliest times. Three subspecies or races are
recognized, (i.) _H. sativum_, subsp. _distichum_ (described by Linnaeus as
a distinct species, _H. distichon_), two-rowed barley. Only the middle
spikelet of each triplet is fertile; the ear has therefore only two
longitudinal rows of grain, and the spikes are strongly compressed
laterally. This approaches most nearly to the wild stock, from which it is
distinguished by the non-jointed axis and somewhat shorter awns. This is
the race most commonly grown in the British Isles and in central Europe,
and includes a large number of sub-races and varieties among which are the
finest malting-barleys. The chief sub-races are (a) peacock, fan or
battledore barley, described by Linnaeus as a distinct species, _H.
zeocriton_, with erect short ears about 2½ in. long, broad at the base and
narrow at the tip, suggesting an open fan or peacock's tail; (b)
erect-eared barleys (var. _erectum_) with erect broad ears and
closely-packed plump grains; (c) nodding barleys (var. _nutans_). The ripe
ears of the last hang so as to become almost parallel with the stem; they
are narrower and longer than in (b), owing to the grains being placed
farther apart on the rachis; it includes the Chevalier variety, one of the
best for malting purposes, (ii.) _H. sativum_, subsp. _hexastichum_,
six-rowed barley (the _H. hexastichon_ of Linnaeus). All the flowers of
each triplet of spikelets on both sides of the rachis are fertile and
produce ripe fruits; hence the ear produces six longitudinal rows of grain.
The ears are short, erect, and the grain thin and coarse; the straw is also
short. It is a hardy race, but owing to the poor quality of the grain is
rarely met with in Great Britain, (iii.) _H. sativum_, subsp. _vulgare_,
bere, bigg or four-rowed barley (the _H. vulgare_ of Linnaeus). All the
flowers of each triplet are fertile as in (ii.), but the rows are not
arranged regularly at equal distances round the rachis. The central fruits
of each triplet form two regular rows, but the lateral spikelets form not
four straight single rows as in (ii.), but two regular double rows, the
whole ear appearing irregularly four-rowed. This race seems to be of later
origin than the others. The ears are erect, about 2½ in. long, the grains
thinner and longer than in the two-rowed race, and the awns stiff and
firmly adhering to the flowering glume. The var. _pallidum_ is the barley
most frequently cultivated in northern Europe and northern Asia. This race
was formerly used for malt and beer, but owing to its larger amount of
gluten as compared with starch it is less adapted for brewing than the
two-rowed sorts. To this belong the varieties naked barley (_H. coeleste_
and _H. nudum_) and Himalayan barley (_H. trifurcatum_ and _H. aegiceras_).
In both the fruits fall out freely from the glume, and in the latter the
awns are three-pronged and shorter than the grain.

Barley is the most hardy of all cereal grains, its limit of cultivation
extending farther north than any other; and, at the same time, it can be
profitably cultivated in sub-tropical countries. The opinion of Pliny, that
it is the most ancient aliment of mankind, appears to be well-founded, for
no less than three varieties have been found in the lake dwellings of
Switzerland, in deposits belonging to the Stone Period. According to
Professor Heer these varieties are the common two-rowed (_H. distichum_),
the large six-rowed (_H. hexastichum_, var. _densum_), and the small
six-rowed (_H. hexastichum_, var. _sanctum_). The last variety is both the
most ancient and the most commonly found, and is the sacred barley of
antiquity, ears of which are frequently represented plaited in the hair of
the goddess Ceres, besides being figured on ancient coins. The cultivation
of barley in ancient Egypt is indicated in Exod. ix. 31. Till within recent
times barley formed an important source of food in northern countries, and
barley cakes are still to some extent eaten. Owing, however, to its poverty
in that form of nitrogenous compound called gluten, so abundant in wheat,
barley-flour cannot be baked into vesiculated bread; still it is a
highly-nutritious substance, the salts it contains having a high proportion
of phosphoric acid. The following is the composition of barley-meal
according to Von Bibra, omitting the salts:--

  Water    .    .    .    .    15      per cent.
  Nitrogenous compounds   .    12.981      "
  Gum      .    .    .    .     6.744      "
  Sugar    .    .    .    .     3.200      "
  Starch   .    .    .    .    59.950      "
  Fat      .    .    .    .     2.170      "

Barley is now chiefly cultivated for malting (see MALT) to prepare spirits
and beer (see BREWING), but it is also largely employed in domestic
cookery. For the latter purpose the hard, somewhat flinty grains are
preferable, and they are prepared by grinding off the outer cuticle which
forms "pot barley." When the attrition is carried further, so that the
grain is reduced to small round pellets, it is termed "pearl barley."
Patent barley is either pot or pearl barley reduced to flour. Under the
name _decoctum hordei_, a preparation of barley is included in the [v.03
p.0406] British Pharmacopoeia, which is of value as a demulcent and
emollient drink in febrile and inflammatory disorders.

_Cultivation_.--Apart from the growth-habits of the plant itself, the
consideration that chiefly determines the routine of barley cultivation is
the demand on the part of the maltster for uniformity of sample. Less care
is required in its cultivation when it is intended for feeding live-stock.
It is essential that the grains on the maltster's floor should germinate
simultaneously, hence at the time of reaping, the whole crop must be as
nearly as possible in the same stage of maturity. On rich soils the crop is
liable to grow too rapidly and yield a coarse, uneven sample, consequently
the best barley is grown on light, open and preferably calcareous soils,
while if the condition of the soil is too high it is often reduced by
growing wheat before the barley.

Barley (see AGRICULTURE, _Crops and Cropping_) is a rapidly-growing and
shallow-rooted plant. The upper layer of the soil must therefore be free
from weeds, finely pulverized and stocked with a readily-available supply
of nutriment. In most rotations barley is grown after turnips, or some
other "cleaning" crop, with or without the interposition of a wheat crop.
The roots are fed off by sheep during autumn and early winter, after which
the ground is ploughed to a depth of 3 or 4 in. only in order not to put
the layer of soil fertilized by the sheep beyond reach of the plant. The
ground is then left unworked and open to the crumbling influence of frost
till towards the end of winter, when it is stirred with the cultivator
followed by the harrows, or in some cases ploughed with a shallow furrow.
The seed, which should be plump, light in colour, with a thin skin covered
by fine wrinkles, is sown in March and early April[1] at the rate of from 8
to 12 pecks to the acre and lightly harrowed in. As even distribution at a
uniform depth is necessary, the drill is preferred to the broadcast-seeder
for barley sowing. In early districts seeding may take place as early as
February, provided a fine tilth is obtainable, but it rarely extends beyond
the end of April. If artificial manures are used, a usual dressing consists
of 2 or 3 cwt. of superphosphate to the acre at the time of sowing,
followed, if the ground is in poor condition, by 1 cwt. of nitrate of soda
when the plant is showing. Nitrogen must, however, be applied with caution
as it makes the barley rich in albumen, and highly albuminous barley keeps
badly and easily loses its germinating capacity. Farm-yard manure should
also be avoided. After-cultivation may comprise rolling, harrowing (to
preserve the fineness of the tilth) and in some districts hoeing. Barley is
cut, either with scythe or machine, when it is quite ripe with the ears
bending over. The crop is often allowed to lie loose for a day or two,
owing to the belief that sunshine and dews or even showers mellow it and
improve its colour. It may even be stacked without tying into sheaves,
though this course involves greater expenditure of labour in carrying and
afterwards in threshing. There is a prejudice against the use of the binder
in reaping barley, as it is impossible to secure uniformity of colour in
the grain when the stalks are tightly tied in the sheaf, and the sun has
not free access to those on the inside. In any case it must not be stacked
while damp, and if cut by machine is therefore sometimes tied in sheaves
and set up in stocks as in the case of wheat. The above sketch indicates
the general principles of barley-cultivation, but in practice they are
often modified by local custom or farming exigencies.

Barley is liable to smut and the other fungus diseases which attack wheat
(_q.v._), and the insect pests which prey on the two plants are also
similar. The larvae of the ribbon-footed corn-fly (_Chlorops taeniopus_)
caused great injury to the barley crop in Great Britain in 1893, when the
plant was weakened by extreme drought. A fair crop of barley yields about
36 bushels (56 lb to the bushel) per acre, but under the best conditions 40
and 50 bushels may be obtained. The yield of straw is from 15 to 20 cwt.
per acre. Barley-straw is considered inferior both as fodder and litter.

[1] Barley is occasionally sown in autumn to provide keep for sheep in the
following spring.

BARLEY-BREAK, an old English country game frequently mentioned by the poets
of the 17th and 18th centuries. It was played by three pairs composed of
one of each sex, who were stationed in three bases or plots, contiguous to
each other. The couple occupying the middle base, called _hell_ or
_prison_, endeavoured to catch the other two, who, when chased, might
_break_ to avoid being caught. If one was overtaken, he and his companion
were condemned to _hell_. From this game was taken the expression "the last
couple in hell," often used in old plays.

BARLEY-CORN, a grain of barley, and thus a measure taken from the length of
a grain of barley, three of which (sometimes four) were considered to make
up an inch. The barley-corn has been personified as representing the malt
liquor made from barley, as in Burns's song "John Barleycorn."

BARLOW, SIR GEORGE HILARO (1762-1847), Anglo-Indian statesman, was
appointed to the Bengal Civil Service in 1778, and in 1788 carried into
execution the permanent settlement of Bengal. When the marquess of
Cornwallis died in 1805, Sir George Barlow was nominated provisional
governor-general, and his passion for economy and retrenchment in that
capacity has caused him to be known as the only governor-general who
diminished the area of British territory; but his nomination was rejected
by the home government, and Lord Minto was appointed. Subsequently Barlow
was created governor of Madras, where his want of tact caused a mutiny of
officers in 1809, similar to that which had previously occurred under
Clive. In 1812 he was recalled, and lived in retirement until his death in
February 1847. He was created a baronet in 1803.

BARLOW, JOEL (1754-1812), American poet and politician, born in Redding,
Fairfield county, Connecticut, on the 24th of March 1754. He graduated at
Yale in 1778, was a post-graduate student there for two years, and from
September 1780 until the close of the revolutionary war was chaplain in a
Massachusetts brigade. He then, in 1783, removed to Hartford, Connecticut,
established there in July 1784 a weekly paper, the _American Mercury_, with
which he was connected for a year, and in 1786 was admitted to the bar. At
Hartford he was a member of a group of young writers including Lemuel
Hopkins, David Humphreys, and John Trumbull, known in American literary
history as the "Hartford Wits." He contributed to the _Anarchiad_, a series
of satirico-political papers, and in 1787 published a long and ambitious
poem, _The Vision of Columbus_, which gave him a considerable literary
reputation and was once much read. In 1788 he went to France as the agent
of the Scioto Land Company, his object being to sell lands and enlist
immigrants. He seems to have been ignorant of the fraudulent character of
the company, which failed disastrously in 1790. He had previously, however,
induced the company of Frenchmen, who ultimately founded Gallipolis, Ohio,
to emigrate to America. In Paris he became a liberal in religion and an
advanced republican in politics. He remained abroad for several years,
spending much of his time in London; was a member of the obnoxious "London
Society for Constitutional Information"; published various radical essays,
including a volume entitled _Advice to the Privileged Orders_ (1792), which
was proscribed by the British government; and was made a citizen of France
in 1792. He was American consul at Algiers in 1795-1797, securing the
release of American prisoners held for ransom, and negotiating a treaty
with Tripoli (1796). He returned to America in 1805, and lived near
Washington, D.C., until 1811, when he became American plenipotentiary to
France, charged with negotiating a commercial treaty with Napoleon, and
with securing the restitution of confiscated American property or indemnity
therefor. He was summoned for an interview with Napoleon at Wilna, but
failed to see the emperor there; became involved in the retreat of the
French army; and, overcome by exposure, died at the Polish village of
Zarnowiec on the 24th of December 1812. In 1807 he had published in a
sumptuous volume the _Columbiad_, an enlarged edition of his _Vision of
Columbus_, more pompous even than the original; but, though it added to his
reputation in some quarters, on the whole it was not well received, and it
has subsequently been much ridiculed. The poem for which he is now best
known is his mock heroic _Hasty Pudding_ (1793). Besides the writings
mentioned above, he published _Conspiracy of Kings, a Poem addressed to
[v.03 p.0407] the Inhabitants of Europe from another Quarter of the Globe_
(1792); _View of the Public Debt, Receipts and Expenditure of the United
States_ (1800); and the _Political Writings of Joel Barlow_ (2nd ed.,
1796). He also published an edition, "corrected and enlarged," of Isaac
Watt's _Imitation of the Psalms of David_ (1786).

See C. B. Todd's _Life and Letters of Joel Barlow_ (New York and London,
1886); and a chapter, "The Literary Strivings of Joel Barlow," in M. C.
Tyler's _Three Men of Letters_ (New York and London, 1895).

BARLOW, PETER (1776-1862), English writer on pure and applied mathematics,
was born at Norwich in 1776 and died on the 1st of March 1862. In 1806 he
was appointed mathematical master in the Woolwich Academy, and filled that
post for forty-one years. In 1823 he was made a fellow of the Royal
Society, and two years later received the Copley medal. Steam locomotion
received much attention at his hands, and he sat on the railway commissions
of 1836, 1839, 1842, 1845. He received many distinctions from British and
foreign scientific societies. Barlow's principal works are--_Elementary
Investigation of the Theory of Numbers_ (1811); _New Mathematical and
Philosophical Dictionary_ (1814); _Essay on Magnetic Attractions_ (1820).
The investigations on magnetism led to the important practical discovery of
a means of rectifying or compensating compass errors in ships. Besides
compiling numerous useful tables, he contributed largely to the
_Encyclopaedia Metropolitana_.

BARM (a word common to Teutonic languages), the scum formed on the top of
malt liquor when fermenting; yeast used to leaven bread, or to set up
fermentation in liquor.

BARMECIDES, more accurately BARMAKIDS, a noble Persian family which
attained great power under the Abbasid caliphs. Barmak, the founder of the
family, was a Persian fire-worshipper, and is supposed to have been a
native of Khorasan. According to tradition, his wife was taken for a time
into the harem of Abdallah, brother of Kotaiba the conqueror of Balkh, and
became the mother of Khalid b. Barmak the Barmecide. Barmak subsequently
(about A.D. 736) rebuilt and adorned his native city of Balkh after the
rebellion of Harith. The family prospered, and his grandson Ya[h.]y[=a] b.
Khalid was the vizier of the caliph Mahdi and tutor of Har[=u]n al-Rashid.
His sons Fadl and Ja`far (the Giafar of the _Arabian Nights_) both occupied
high offices under Har[=u]n. The story of their disgrace, though romantic,
is not improbable. Har[=u]n, it is said, found his chief pleasure in the
society of his sister `Abb[=a]sa and Ja`far, and in order that these two
might be with him continuously without breach of etiquette, persuaded them
to contract a purely formal marriage. The conditions were, however, not
observed and Har[=u]n, learning that `Abb[=a]sa had borne a son, caused
Ja`far suddenly to be arrested and beheaded, and the rest of the family
except Mahommed, Ya[h.]y[=a]'s brother, to be imprisoned and deprived of
their property. It is probable, however, that Har[=u]n's anger was caused
to a large extent by the insinuations of his courtiers that he was a mere
puppet in the hands of a powerful family. See further CALIPHATE, section C,
§§ 4, 5.

The expression "Barmecide Feast," to denote an imaginary banquet, is drawn
from one of the tales ("The Barber's Tale of his Sixth Brother") in the
Arabian Nights, in which a series of empty dishes is served up to a hungry
man to test his sense of humour by one of the Barmecides (see edition by
L. C. Smithers, Lond., 1894, vol. i. 317).

BARMEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province and the
governmental district of Düsseldorf. Pop. (1816) 19,030; (1890) 116,144;
(1905) 156,148. It is served by the main railway from Berlin to
Aix-la-Chapelle, and lies immediately east of Elberfeld, with which it
virtually forms one town. It stretches for some 4 m. along the narrow
valley of the river Wupper, which, within the municipal boundaries, is
crossed by twenty bridges. High wooded hills surround it. It is divided
into three main districts, Upper, Middle and Lower Barmen, and is
connected, throughout its length, with Elberfeld, by railway, tramway, and
a suspended trolley line, hanging over the bed of the Wupper. It contains
nine Evangelical and two Roman Catholic churches, a stately modern town
hall, a Hall of Fame (_Ruhmeshalle_), with statues of the emperors William
I. and Frederick III., a theatre, a picture-gallery, an ethnographical
museum, and an exchange. There are many public monuments, one to Bismarck
another to the poet Emil Rittershaus (1834-1897), a native of the town, and
one commemorative of the Franco-German War of 1870-71. There are several
high-grade public schools, academies of technical science, engineering and
textile industry, and a missionary theological seminary. Barmen is one of
the most important manufacturing centres of Germany. The rapid development
of its commercial activity only dates from the beginning of the 19th
century. It is the chief seat of ribbon weaving in Germany, and
manufactures thread, lace, braids, cotton and cloth goods, carpets, silks,
machinery, steel wares, plated goods and buttons, the last industry
employing about 15,000 hands. There are numerous bleaching-fields,
print-fields and dyeworks famous for their Turkey-red, soap works, chemical
works and potteries. There are also extensive breweries. Its export trade,
particularly to the United States, is very considerable. The hills lying S.
of the town are laid out in public grounds. Here are a health resort, a
tower commanding an extensive view, and numerous villas. Barmen, although
mentioned in chronicles in the 11th century, did not attain civic rights
until 1808, when it was formed into a municipality by the grand-duke of
Berg.

See A. Shadwell, _Industrial Efficiency_ (1906), for a good description of
the industrial aspect.

BARMOTE COURT (also written BERGHMOTE, BARGHMOTE, BARGEMOTE, BARMOOT), a
name applied to courts held in the lead-mining districts of Derbyshire,
England, for the purpose of determining the customs peculiar to the
industry and also for the settlements of any disputes which may arise in
connexion therewith. Barmote courts are of very ancient origin, having been
in existence in the reign of Edward I. Their jurisdiction extends both to
the crown lands in the duchy of Lancaster and to those under individual
ownership, comprising seven clearly defined districts. Owing to the
progress made in modern mining, many of the customs and much of the
procedure had become obsolete, and their powers were regulated by the High
Peak Mining Customs and Mineral Courts Act 1851. An appeal from the
jurisdiction of the courts lies by way of _certiorari_.

BARMOUTH (_Abermaw_, mouth of the Maw, or Mawddach, in Cardigan Bay, the
only haven in Merionethshire, North Wales), a small seaport on the north of
the estuary. Pop. of urban district (1901), 2214. The ride to Dolgelley
(Dolgellau) is fine. The parish church, Llanaber, 1½ m. from Barmouth, is
on a cliff overlooking the sea. Barmouth is a favourite bathing place, on
the Cambrian railway. It is a centre for coaching in summer, especially to
and through the Vale of Llangollen.

BARNABAS, in the New Testament, the surname, according to Acts iv. 36,
given by the apostles (possibly in contrast to Joseph Barsabbas, Acts i.
23) to Joseph, "a Levite, a man of Cyprus by birth," who, though like Paul
not of the Twelve, came like him to rank as an apostle (Acts xiv. 4, 14, 1
Cor. ix. 6; see APOSTLE). The Greek rendering of this Semitic name [Greek:
huios paraklêseôs]) may be translated "son of consolation" (as in the
A.V.), or "son of exhortation" (as in the R.V.). But there is an initial
difficulty about the Greek rendering itself, as no satisfactory etymology
of Bar-nabas in this sense has as yet been suggested. The one at present in
favour on the ground of philological analogy (see Z.N.T.W., 1906, p. 91 for
a fresh instance), viz. Bar-Nebo, lacks intrinsic fitness for a Jew and a
Levite, and of course does not accord with the statement in Acts itself.
Hence it still seems best to assume some unknown Aramaic form equivalent to
[Greek: paraklêsis], and then to take the latter in the sense of comfort or
encouragement. This rendering, rather than "exhortation" in the sense of
eloquence, best suits the usage of Acts, which suggests such comfort as is
given by encouraging rather than rousing words (ix. 31, xi. 23, xiii. 15,
xv. 31 f.; cf. Luke ii. 25, vi. 24). All we hear of Barnabas points to
goodness of heart ("a good man," xi. 24) as his distinctive quality, giving
fineness of perception (ix. 27, xi. 25 f.) and large insight into
essentials (xi. 23 f.). It was probably the practically helpful and
encouraging form that his gift as a "prophet" took (Acts xiii. i, [v.03
p.0408] with 1 Cor. xiv. 3). It is perhaps significant that his first
appearance is of the generously helpful kind described in Acts iv. 36 f.
Yet we must beware of regarding Barnabas as merely a fine character; he
plays too prominent a part in the New Testament for any such limitation.
Thus, he next appears as braving the suspicions which dogged the
ex-persecutor Saul (Paul)--possibly an old acquaintance in Hellenist
circles at Jerusalem (cf. vi. 9, ix. 29)--and introducing him to the older
apostles (ix. 27). More suggestive still of high repute as a man of insight
and authority is his mission from the Jerusalem Church to inspect and judge
of the new departure in the Gospel at Antioch, in Acts xi. 22. This means
very much, though his modesty led him to call in the aid of his friend Saul
to cope with the new and expanding situation (25 f.). After their brief
joint visit to Judaea and Jerusalem (xi. 30, xii. 25) we next get a glimpse
of Barnabas as still chief among the spiritual leaders of the Antiochene
Church, and as called by the Spirit, along with Saul, to initiate the wider
mission of the Gospel, outside Syria even, in regions beyond (xiii. 2, 4).
He led the way to his native Cyprus; but in the crucial struggle with the
magician Bar-Jesus, in the presence of the governor of the island (xiii. 7
ff.), Saul seems to have come so decisively to the front, that henceforth,
for the author of Acts he takes the lead, and Barnabas appears as his
colleague (see xiii. 13, "Paul and his company," and note the turning back
of Mark, the kinsman of Barnabas). The fact that at Lystra the natives
styled Barnabas, Zeus, and Paul, Hermes, while suggesting that Barnabas was
the man of nobler mien, proves that Paul was the chief speaker (xiv. 12);
and the notices in the Pauline epistles fully bear out the view that "the
gospel of the Gentiles" which they preached was in conception Paul's (Gal.
ii. 1-9). Indeed, Barnabas's vacillation at Antioch, as recorded in Gal.
ii. 11 ff. (whether it preceded or followed their mission in Acts
xiii.-xiv.), shows that, while gifted with true intuitions, he was not
strong in thinking out his position to all its issues on principle, and
that it was here that Paul was so immensely his superior. But what Barnabas
did see with full reasoned conviction, he was staunch in upholding; thus he
upheld the general cause of Gentile freedom from the obligation of
circumcision (as distinct from perfect religious equality with Jewish
believers) at the Jerusalem conference (Acts xv.). With this stand for
principle, however, his main work, as a great link in the transition of the
Gospel from its Jewish to its universal mission, reached its climax; and
Acts transfers its attention wholly to Paul, after explaining how their
roads parted under rather painful circumstances (xv. 37 ff.).

When Barnabas sails away with Mark to resume work in Cyprus, the mists of
history hide him from our sight. Only now and again do we catch fugitive
and increasingly doubtful glimpses of him and his work. We learn from 1
Cor. ix. 6 that he adhered to Paul's principle of self-support in his
mission work, and from Col. iv. 10 that his name was well known and
respected at Colossae about A.D. 60. Tradition, which early regards him as
one of the seventy (Clem. Alex.), carries him, plausibly enough, to
Alexandria (_Clem. Hom._ i. 8, ii. 4; cf. the ascription to him of the
Alexandrine _Epistle of Barnabas_). But the evidence for his having visited
Rome (later tradition says also Milan) is stronger because more varied
(_Clem. Recog._ i. 7, cf. _Hom._ i. 7; the early _Actus Petri
Vercellenses_; and the late Cypriot _Encomium_), especially if we might
trust the Western ascription to him of the epistle to the Hebrews, which
begins with Tertullian (_De Pud._ 20). But this may itself be mere
inference from its self-description (xiii. 22), as a "word of exhortation,"
to the "son of exhortation" (Acts iv. 36) as its author. The legend of his
missionary labours in Cyprus, including martyrdom at Salamis, is quite late
and untrustworthy. The date of his death is uncertain, but he was probably
no longer living when Acts was written (_c._ A.D. 75-80).

His was essentially a mediating role. He filled a position intermediate
between Jewish and Pauline Christianity--one characteristic of Christian
Hellenists generally. Hence he is spoken of with respect in the
Clementines; while Paul, as a radical in relation to the Law, is
discountenanced. If we could confidently credit him with the authorship of
the epistle to the Hebrews, we could conceive his theological standpoint
more exactly. But, in any case, the Barnabas of history was a greater man
than the Barnabas of modern tradition.

See W. Cunningham, _Epistle of Barnabas_, pp. xlvii.-lxii.; O.
Braunsberger, _Der Apostel Barnabas, sein Leben ..._ (Mainz, 1876);
articles _s.v._ in _Ency. Biblica_ and Hastings's _Dictionary of the
Bible_.

THE EPISTLE OF BARNABAS is one of the apocryphal books of the New
Testament. At the end of the _Codex Sinaiticus_ of the 4th century, as a
sort of appendix to the New Testament, there stands an "Epistle of
Barnabas." Here it is followed by the _Shepherd of Hermas_, while in an
11th-century MS., which contains also the _Didach[=e]_, it is followed by
two writings which themselves form an appendix to the New Testament in the
_Codex Alexandrinus_. This means that it once enjoyed quasi-canonical
authority, a fact amply borne out by what Eusebius (_H. E._ iii. 25) says
as to its standing in the ancient Church. It was at Alexandria that its
authority was greatest. Clement comments on it, as on the canonical
scriptures, in his _Hypotyposes_; Origen cites it in the same spirit as
scripture (_C. Celsum_, i. 63, _De Princ._ iii. 2, 4, 7). Clement, too,
ascribes it to "the apostle" or "the prophet" Barnabas (_Strom._ ii. 6, 31,
cf. ii. 20, 116), with explicit reference to Paul's fellow-apostle.
Internal evidence makes this ascription impossible, nor does the epistle
itself lay any claim to such authorship. Lightfoot, indeed, suggests that
its author was "some unknown namesake" of the famous Barnabas: but it is
simpler to suppose that it was fathered upon the latter by the Alexandrian
Church, ready to believe that so favourite a writing was of apostolic
origin.

"That Alexandria, the place of its earliest reception, was also the place
of its birth, is borne out by the internal evidence of style and
interpretation, which is Alexandrian throughout" (Lightfoot). The picture,
too, which it gives of the danger lest the Christianity of its readers
should be unduly Judaic in feeling and practice, suits well the experiences
of a writer living in Alexandria, where Judaism was immensely strong.
Further, he shows an "astonishing familiarity with the Jewish rites," in
the opinion of a modern Jew (Kohler in the _Jewish Encycl._); so much so,
that the latter agrees with another Jewish scholar in saying that "the
writer seems to have been a converted Jew, whose fanatic zeal rendered him
a bitter opponent of Judaism within the Christian Church." These opinions
must overrule the view of some Christian scholars that the writer often
blunders in Jewish matters, the fact being that his knowledge is derived
from the Judaism of Alexandria[1] rather than Palestine. But we need not
therefore regard the author as of Jewish birth. It is enough, and more in
keeping with the thought as a whole, to regard him as having been in close
contact with Judaism, possibly as a proselyte. He now uses his knowledge to
warn his readers, with intense passion, against all compromise between
Judaism and the Gospel. In this he goes so far as to deny any historical
connexion between the two, maintaining with all the devices of an
extravagant allegorism, including the Rabbinic _Gematria_ based on the
numerical values of letters (ix. 7 f.), that the Law and Prophecy, as meant
by God, had never been given to Israel as a people. The Divine oracles had
ever pointed to the Christian Covenant, and had been so understood by the
men of God in Israel, whereas the apostate people had turned aside to keep
the ceremonial letter of the Law at the instigation of an evil angel (ix.
4). In this way he takes in succession the typical Jewish
institutions--Circumcision, Foods, Ablutions, Covenant, Sabbath,
Temple--showing their spiritual counterpart in the New People and its
ordinances, and that the Cross was prefigured from the first. Such insight
(_gnosis_) into the reality of the case he regards as the natural issue of
Christian faith; and it is his main object to help his readers to attain
such spirituality--the more so that, by similar insight applied to the
signs of the times, he knows and can show that the end of the present age
is imminent (i. 5, 7-iv.). The burden of his epistle, then, is, "Let us
become [v.03 p.0409] spiritual, a perfect temple unto God" (iv. 11); and
that not only by theoretic insight, but also by practical wisdom of life.
In order to enforce this moral, he passes to "another sort of _gnosis_ and
instruction" (xviii. i), _viz._ the precepts of the "Two Ways," cited in a
slightly different form from that found in the first part of the _Teaching
of the Apostles_. The modifications, however, are all in a more spiritual
direction, in keeping with the genuinely evangelic spirit which underlies
and pervades even the allegorical ingenuities of the epistle.

Its opening shows it to have been addressed to a Church, or rather a group
of Churches, recently visited by the writer, who, while not wishing to
write as an authoritative "teacher" so much as one who has come to love
them as a friend (i. 8, cf. ix. 9), yet belongs to the class of "teachers"
with a recognized spiritual gift (_charisma_), referred to _e.g._ in the
_Didach[=e]_. He evidently feels in a position to give his _gnosis_ with
some claim to a deferential hearing. This being so, the epistle was
probably written, not to Alexandria, but rather by a "teacher" of the
Alexandrine Church to some body of Christians in Lower Egypt among whom he
had recently been visiting. This would explain the absence of specific
address, so that it appears as in form a "general epistle," as Origen
styles it. Its date has been much debated. But Lightfoot's reading of the
apocalyptic passage in ch. iv.--with a slight modification suggested by Sir
W. M. Ramsay--is really conclusive for the reign of Vespasian (A.D. 70-79).
The main counter-view, in favour of a date about A.D. 130, can give no
natural account of this passage, while it misconstrues the reference in ch.
xvi. to the building of the spiritual temple, the Christian Church. Thus
this epistle is the earliest of the Apostolic Fathers, and as such of
special interest. Its central problem, the relation of Judaism and
Christianity--of the Old and the New forms of a Covenant which, as Divine,
must in a sense abide the same--was one which gave the early Church much
trouble; nor, in absence of a due theory of the education of the race by
gradual development, was it able to solve it satisfactorily.

LITERATURE.--Besides collected editions of the Apostolic Fathers, see O.
Braunsberger, _Der Apostel Barnabas, ... u. der ihm beigelegte Brief_
(Mainz, 1876); W. Cunningham, _Epistle of Barnabas_ (1877); sections in J.
Donaldson, _The Apostolic Fathers_; E. Reuss, _Théologie chrétienne_, vol.
ii., and in M. von Engelhardt, _Das Christenthum Justins des Martyrers_;
and Lightfoot's fragmentary essay in his _Clement of Rome_, ii. 503-512.
See also APOCRYPHAL LITERATURE, section "New Testament."

GOSPEL OF BARNABAS.--We read in antiquity, _e.g._ in the _Decretum
Gelasii_, of an apocryphal Gospel of Barnabas (see APOCRYPHAL LITERATURE),
but we have no knowledge of its contents. There exists, however, in a
single MS. in Italian a longish gospel with this title, written from a
Mahommedan standpoint, but probably embodying materials partly Gnostic in
character and origin. The Italian MS. was found by the Deist, John Toland,
in a private collection at Amsterdam (see his _Nazarenus_, 1718);
subsequently it came into the possession of Prince Eugene of Savoy, and
finally was obtained with Eugene's library by the imperial library at
Vienna. It has been edited, with an English translation (1907) by (Rev.)
Lonsdale and Laura Ragg, who hold that it was the work of a Christian
renegade to Mahommedanism about the 13th-16th century. See also preliminary
notice in the _Journal of Theol. Studies_, vi. 424 ff. The old view held by
Toland and others that the Italian was a translation from the Arabic is
demonstrably wrong. The Arabic marginal notes are apparently partly pious
ejaculations, partly notes for the aid of Arabic students. The work is
highly imaginative and often grotesque, but it is pervaded by an unusually
high ethical enthusiasm.

(J. V. B.)

[1] His reference to the wide prevalence of circumcision beyond Israel (ix.
6) is perhaps simply an exaggeration, more or less conscious.

[Illustration: 1. _Scalpellum rostratum_, Darwin, Philippine Islands.
2. _Pollicipes cornucopiae_, Leach, European seas.
3. _Tubicinella trachealis_, Shaw, attached to whales.
4. _Acasta sulcata_, Lamk., in sponges, New South Wales;    (4'), tergum;
(4"), scutum.
5. _Balanus tintinnabulum_, Linn., Atlantic.
5'. Section of _Balanus_, Linn.
6. _Coronula diadema_, Linn., attached to whales.]

BARNACLE, a name applied to Crustacea of the division _Cirripedia_ or
_Thyrostraca_. Originally, the name was given to the stalked barnacles
(_Lepadidae_ of C. Darwin), which attach themselves in great numbers to
drift-wood and other objects floating in the sea and are one of the chief
agents in the fouling of ships' bottoms during long voyages. The sessile
barnacles (_Balanidae_ of Darwin) or "acorn-shells" are found in myriads,
encrusting the rocks between tide-marks on all coasts. One of the most
extraordinary and persistent myths of medieval natural history, dating back
to the 12th century at least, was the cause of transferring to these
organisms the name of the barnack or bernacle goose (_Bernicla branta_).
This bird is a winter visitor to Britain, and its Arctic nesting-places
being then unknown, it was fabled to originate within the shell-like fruit
of a tree growing by the sea-shore. In some variants of the story this
shell is said to grow as a kind of mushroom on rotting timber in the sea,
and is obviously one of the barnacles of the genus _Lepas_. Even after the
scientific study of zoology had replaced the fabulous tales of medieval
writers, it was a long time before the true affinities of the barnacles
were appreciated, and they were at first classed with the Mollusca, some of
which they closely resemble in external appearance. It was not till Vaughan
Thompson demonstrated, in 1830, their development from a free-swimming and
typically Crustacean larva that it came to be recognized that, in Huxley's
graphic phrase, "a barnacle may be said to be a Crustacean fixed by its
head and kicking the food into its mouth with its legs." For a systematic
account of the barnacles and their allies, see the article THYROSTRACA.

(W. T. CA.)

BARNARD, LADY ANNE (1750-1825), author of the ballad "Auld Robin Gray," the
eldest daughter of James Lindsay, 5th earl of Balcarres, was born at
Balcarres House, Fife, on the 12th of December 1750. She was married in
1793 to Andrew Barnard, a son of the bishop of Limerick, for whom she
obtained from Henry Dundas (1st Viscount Melville) an appointment as
colonial secretary at the Cape of Good Hope. Thither the Barnards went in
March 1797, Lady Anne remaining at the Cape until January 1802. A
remarkable series of letters written by Lady Anne thence to Dundas, then
secretary for war and the colonies, was published in 1901 under the title
_South Africa a Century Ago_. In 1806, on the reconquest of the Cape by the
British, Barnard was reappointed colonial secretary, but Lady Anne did not
accompany him thither, where he died in 1807. The rest of her life was
passed in London, where she died on the 6th of May 1825. "Auld Robin Gray"
was written by her in 1772, to music by the Rev. William Leeves
(1748-1828), as he admitted in 1812. It was published anonymously in 1783,
Lady Anne only acknowledging the authorship of the words two years before
her death in a letter to Sir Walter Scott, who subsequently edited it for
the Bannatyne Club with two continuations.

See the memoir by W. H. Wilkins, together with the original text of "Auld
Robin Gray," prefixed to _South Africa a Century Ago_.

BARNARD, FREDERICK AUGUSTUS PORTER (1809-1889), American scientist and
educationalist, was born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, on the 5th of May
1809. In 1828 he graduated, second on the honour list, at Yale. He was then
in turn a tutor at Yale, a teacher (1831-1832) in the American Asylum for
the [v.03 p.0410] Deaf and Dumb at Hartford, Connecticut, and a teacher
(1832-1838) in the New York Institute for the Instruction of the Deaf and
Dumb. From 1838 to 1848 he was professor of mathematics and natural
philosophy, and from 1848 to 1854 was professor of chemistry and natural
history in the University of Alabama, for two years, also, filling the
chair of English literature. In 1854 he was ordained as deacon in the
Protestant Episcopal Church. In the same year he became professor of
mathematics and natural philosophy in the University of Mississippi, of
which institution he was chancellor from 1856 until the outbreak of the
Civil War, when, his sympathies being with the North, he resigned and went
to Washington. There for some time he was in charge of the map and chart
department of the United States Coast Survey. In 1864 he became the tenth
president of Columbia College (now Columbia University) in New York City,
which position he held until the year before his death, his service thus
being longer than that of any of his predecessors. During this period the
growth of the college was rapid; new departments were established; the
elective system was greatly extended; more adequate provision was made for
graduate study and original research, and the enrolment was increased from
about 150 to more than 1000 students. Barnard strove to have educational
privileges extended by the university to women as well as to men, and
Barnard College, for women (see COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY), established
immediately after his death, was named in his honour. He died in New York
City on the 27th of April 1889. Barnard was a versatile man, of catholic
training, a classical and English scholar, a mathematician, a physicist,
and a chemist, a good public speaker, and a vigorous but somewhat prolix
writer on various subjects, his annual reports to the Board of Trustees of
Columbia being particularly valuable as discussions of educational
problems. Besides being the editor-in-chief, in 1872, of _Johnson's
Universal Cyclopaedia_, he published a _Treatise on Arithmetic_ (1830); an
_Analytical Grammar with Symbolic Illustration_ (1836); _Letters on
Collegiate Government_ (1855); and _Recent Progress in Science_ (1869).

See John Fulton's _Memoirs of Frederick A. P. Barnard_ (New York, 1896).

BARNARD, GEORGE GREY (1863- ), American sculptor, was born at Bellefonte,
Pennsylvania, on the 24th of May 1863. He first studied at the Art
Institute, Chicago, and in 1883-1887 worked in P. T. Cavelier's _atelier_
at Paris. He lived in Paris for twelve years, returning to America in 1896;
and with his first exhibit at the Salon of 1894 he scored a great success.
His principal works include, "The Boy" (1885); "Cain" (1886), later
destroyed; "Brotherly Love," sometimes called "Two Friends" (1887); the
allegorical "Two Natures" (1894, in the Metropolitan Museum, New York
City); "The Hewer" (1902, at Cairo, Illinois); "Great God Pan" (in Central
Park, New York City); the "Rose Maiden"; the simple and graceful
"Maidenhood"; and sculptural decorations for the new Capitol building for
the state of Pennsylvania at Harrisburg.

BARNARD, HENRY (1811-1900), American educationalist, was born in Hartford,
Connecticut, on the 24th of January 1811. He graduated at Yale in 1830, and
in 1835 was admitted to the Connecticut bar. In 1837-1839 he was a member
of the Connecticut legislature, effecting in 1838 the passage of a bill,
framed and introduced by himself, which provided for "the better
supervision of the common schools" and established a board of
"commissioners of common schools" in the state. Of this board he was the
secretary from 1838 till its abolition in 1842, and during this time worked
indefatigably to reorganize and reform the common school system of the
state, thus earning a national reputation as an educational reformer. In
1843 he was appointed by the governor of Rhode Island agent to examine the
public schools of the state, and recommended improvements; and his work
resulted in the reorganization of the school system two years later. From
1845 to 1849 he was the first commissioner of public schools in the state,
and his administration was marked by a decided step in educational
progress. Returning to Connecticut, he was, from 1851 to 1855,
"superintendent of common schools," and principal of the State Normal
School at New Britain, Conn. From 1859 to 1860 he was chancellor of the
University of Wisconsin and agent of the board of regents of the normal
school fund; in 1866 he was president of St John's College, Annapolis,
Maryland; and from 1867 to 1870 he was the first United States commissioner
of education, and in this position he laid the foundation for the
subsequent useful work of the Bureau of Education. His chief service to the
cause of education, however, was rendered as the editor, from 1855 to 1881,
of the _American Journal of Education_, the thirty-one volumes of which are
a veritable encyclopaedia of education, one of the most valuable
compendiums of information on the subject ever brought together through the
agency of any one man. He also edited from 1838 to 1842, and again from
1851 to 1854, the _Connecticut Common School Journal_, and from 1846 to
1849 the _Journal of the Rhode Island Institute of Instruction_. He died at
Hartford, Conn., on the 5th of July 1900. Among American educational
reformers, Barnard is entitled to rank next to Horace Mann of
Massachusetts.

See a biographical sketch by A. D. Mayo in the _Report of the Commissioner
of Education for_ 1896-1897 (Washington, 1898), and W. S. Monroe's
_Educational Labours of Henry Barnard_ (Syracuse, 1893).

BARNARD, JOHN, English musician, was a minor canon of St Paul's in the
reign of Charles I. He was the first to publish a collection of English
cathedral music. It contains some of the finest 16th-century masterpieces,
ranging from the "_faux-bourdon_" style of Tallis's _Pieces and Responses_
to the most developed types of full anthem. The text, however, is not
trustworthy.

BARNARD CASTLE, a market-town in the Barnard Castle parliamentary division
of Durham, England, 17 m. W. of Darlington by a branch of the North Eastern
railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 4421. It is beautifully situated on
the steep left bank of the Tees. A noteworthy building in the town is the
octagonal town-hall, dating from 1747. There are a few picturesque old
houses, and a fragment of an Augustinian convent. St Mary's church, in a
variety of styles from Norman onward, contains some curious monuments; but
the building of chief interest is the castle, which gives the town its
name, and is the principal scene of Sir Walter Scott's _Rokeby_. The
remains extend over a space of more than six acres. A remarkable building
known as the Bowes' Mansion and Museum, bequeathed in 1874 to the town by a
descendant of Sir George Bowes, contains a valuable collection of works of
art. In the vicinity of the town are Egglestone Abbey, beautifully situated
on the Yorkshire bank of the river, Rokeby Park on the same bank, at the
confluence of the Greta, and the massive 14th century castle of Raby to the
north-east. The principal manufacture is shoe-thread. The corn-market is
important.

As part of the lordship of Gainford, Barnard Castle is said to have been
granted by William Rufus to Guy Baliol Bernard, son of Guy Baliol, who
built the castle, and called it after himself, Castle Bernard. To the men
of the town which grew up outside the castle walls he gave, about the
middle of the 12th century, a charter making them burgesses and granting
them the same privileges as the town of Richmond in Yorkshire. This charter
was confirmed by Bernard Baliol, son of the above Bernard. Other
confirmation charters were granted to the town by Hugh, John, and Alexander
Baliol. The castle and lordship remained in the hands of the Baliols until
John Baliol, king of Scotland, forfeited them with his other English
estates in 1296. Barnard Castle was then seized by Anthony, bishop of
Durham, as being within his palatinate of Durham. Edward I., however,
denied the bishop's rights and granted the castle and town to Guy
Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, whose descendants continued to hold them until
they passed to the crown by the marriage of Anne Nevill with Richard III.,
then duke of Gloucester. In 1630 Barnard Castle was sold to Sir Henry Vane,
and in the same year the castle is said to have been unroofed and
dismantled for the sake of the materials of which it was built. Tanning
leather was formerly one of the chief industries of the town. In 1614 an
act for "knights and burgesses to have place in parliament for the county
palatine and city of Durham and borough of Barnard [v.03 p.0411] Castle"
was brought into the House of Commons, but when the act was finally passed
for the county and city of Durham, Barnard Castle was not included.

BARNARDO, THOMAS JOHN (1845-1905), English philanthropist, and founder and
director of homes for destitute children, was born at Dublin, Ireland, in
1845. His father was of Spanish origin, his mother being an Englishwoman.
With the intention of qualifying for medical missionary work in China, he
studied medicine at the London hospital, and later at Paris and Edinburgh,
where he became a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons. His medical work
in the east end of London during the epidemic of cholera in 1865 first drew
his attention to the great numbers of homeless and destitute children in
the cities of England. Encouraged by the support of the seventh earl of
Shaftesbury and the first Earl Cairns, he gave up his early ambition of
foreign missionary labour, and began what was to prove his life's work. The
first of the "Dr Barnardo's Homes" was opened in 1867 in Stepney Causeway,
London, where are still the headquarters of the institution. From that time
the work steadily increased until, at the time of the founder's death, in
1905, there were established 112 district "Homes," besides mission
branches, throughout the United Kingdom. The object for which these
institutions were started was to search for and to receive waifs and
strays, to feed, clothe, educate, and, where possible, to give an
industrial training suitable to each child. The principle adopted has been
that of free and immediate admission; there are no restrictions of age or
sex, religion or nationality; the physically robust and the incurably
diseased are alike received, the one necessary qualification being
destitution. The system under which the institution is carried on is
broadly as follows:--the infants and younger girls and boys are chiefly
"boarded out" in rural districts; girls above fourteen years of age are
sent to the industrial training homes, to be taught useful domestic
occupations; boys above seventeen years of age are first tested in labour
homes and then placed in employment at home, sent to sea or emigrated; boys
of between thirteen and seventeen years of age are trained for the various
trades for which they may be mentally or physically fitted. Besides the
various branches necessary for the foregoing work, there are also, among
others, the following institutions:--a rescue home for girls in danger, a
convalescent seaside home, and a hospital for sick waifs. In 1872 was
founded the girls' village home at Barkingside, near Ilford, with its own
church and sanatorium, and between sixty and seventy cottage homes, forming
a real "garden city"; and there Barnardo himself was buried. In 1901,
through the generosity of Mr E. H. Watts, a naval school was started at
North Elmham, near Norwich, to which boys are drafted from the homes to be
trained for the navy and the mercantile marine. Perhaps the most useful of
all the varied work instituted by Barnardo is the emigration system, by
which means thousands of boys and girls have been sent to British colonies,
chiefly to Canada, where there are distributing centres at Toronto and
Winnipeg, and an industrial farm of some 8000 acres near Russell in
Manitoba. The fact that in Canada less than 2% of the children sent out
proved failures confirmed Barnardo's conviction that "if the children of
the slums can be removed from their surroundings early enough, and can be
kept sufficiently long under training, heredity counts for little,
environment for almost everything." In 1899 the various institutions and
organizations were legally incorporated under the title of "The National
Association for the reclamation of Destitute Waif Children," but the
institution has always been familiarly known as "Dr Barnardo's Homes."
Barnardo laid great stress on the religious teaching of the children under
his care. Each child is brought up under the influence and teaching of the
denomination of the parents. The homes are divided into two sections for
religious teaching, Church of England and Nonconformists; children of
Jewish and Roman Catholic parentage are, where possible, handed over to the
care of the Jewish Board of Guardians in London, and to Roman Catholic
institutions, respectively. From the foundation of the homes in 1867 to the
date of Barnardo's death, nearly 60,000 children had been rescued, trained
and placed out in life. Barnardo died of angina pectoris in London on the
19th of September 1905. A national memorial was instituted to form a fund
of £250,000 to relieve the various institutions of all financial liability
and to place the entire work on a permanent basis. Dr William Baker,
formerly the chairman of the council, was selected to succeed the founder
of the homes as director. Barnardo was the author of many books dealing
with the charitable work to which he devoted his life.

His biography (1907) was written by his wife (the daughter of Mr William
Elmslie) and J. Marchant.

BARNAUL, a town of Asiatic Russia, government of Tomsk, standing in a plain
bounded by offshoots of the Altai Mountains, and on the Barnaulka river, at
its confluence with the Ob, in lat. 53° 20' N. and long. 83° 46' E., 220 m.
S. of Tomsk. It is the capital of the Altai mining districts, and besides
smelting furnaces possesses glassworks, a bell-foundry and a mint. It has
also a meteorological observatory, established in 1841, a mining school and
a museum with a rich collection of mineral and zoological specimens.
Barnaul was founded in 1730 by A. Demidov, to whose memory a monument has
been erected. Pop. (1900) 29,850.

BARNAVE, ANTOINE PIERRE JOSEPH MARIE (1761-1793), one of the greatest
orators of the first French Revolution, was born at Grenoble in Dauphiné,
on the 22nd of October 1761. He was of a Protestant family. His father was
an advocate at the parlement of Grenoble, and his mother was a woman of
high birth, superior ability and noble character. He was educated by his
mother because, being a Protestant, he could not attend school, and he grew
up at once thoughtful and passionate, studious and social, handsome in
person and graceful in manners. He was brought up to the law, and at the
age of twenty-two made himself favourably known by a discourse pronounced
before the local parlement on the division of political powers. Dauphiné
was one of the first of the provinces to feel the excitement of the coming
revolution; and Barnave was foremost to give voice to the general feeling,
in a pamphlet entitled _Esprit des édits enregistrés militairement le 20
mai 1788_. He was immediately elected deputy, with his father, to the
states of Dauphiné, and took a prominent part in their debates. A few
months later he was transferred to a wider field of action. The
states-general were convoked at Versailles for the 5th of May 1789, and
Barnave was chosen deputy of the _tiers état_ for his native province. He
soon made an impression on the Assembly, became the friend of most of the
leaders of the popular party, and formed with Adrien Duport and Alexandre
Lameth (_q.v._) the group known during the Constituent Assembly as "the
triumvirate." He took part in the conference on the claims of the three
orders, drew up the first address to the king, and supported the proposal
of Sieyès that the Assembly should declare itself National. Until 1791 he
was one of the principal members of the club known later as the Jacobins,
of which he drew up the manifesto and first rules (see JACOBINS). Though a
passionate lover of liberty, he hoped to secure the freedom of France and
her monarchy at the same time. But he was almost unawares borne away by the
mighty currents of the time, and he took part in the attacks on the
monarchy, on the clergy, on church property, and on the provincial
parlements. With the one exception of Mirabeau, Barnave was the most
powerful orator of the Assembly. On several occasions he stood in
opposition to Mirabeau. After the fall of the Bastille he wished to save
the throne. He advocated the suspensory veto, and the establishment of
trial by jury in civil causes, but voted with the Left against the system
of two chambers. His conflict with Mirabeau on the question of assigning to
the king the right to make peace or war (from the 16th to the 23rd of May
1791) was one of the most striking scenes in the Assembly. In August 1790,
after a vehement debate, he fought a duel with J. A. M. de Cazalès, in
which the latter was slightly wounded. About the close of October 1790
Barnave was called to the presidency of the Assembly. On the death of
Mirabeau a few months later, Barnave paid a high tribute to his worth and
public services, designating him the Shakespeare of oratory. On the arrest
of the king and the royal family at Varennes, while attempting to escape
from France, Barnave was [v.03 p.0412] one of the three appointed to
conduct them back to Paris. On the journey he was deeply affected by the
mournful fate of Marie-Antoinette, and resolved to do what he could to
alleviate their sufferings. In one of his most powerful speeches he
maintained the inviolability of the king's person. His public career came
to an end with the close of the Constituent Assembly, and he returned to
Grenoble at the beginning of 1792. His sympathy and relations with the
royal family, to whom he had submitted a plan for a counter-revolution, and
his desire to check the downward progress of the Revolution, brought on him
suspicion of treason. Denounced (15th of August 1792) in the Legislative
Assembly, he was arrested and imprisoned for ten months at Grenoble, then
transferred to Fort Barraux, and in November 1793 to Paris. The nobility of
his character was proof against the assaults of suffering. "Better to
suffer and to die," he said, "than lose one shade of my moral and political
character." On the 28th of November he appeared before the Revolutionary
Tribunal. He was condemned on the evidence of papers found at the Tuileries
and executed the next day, with Duport-Dutertre.

Barnave's _Oeuvres posthumes_ were published in 1842 by Bérenger (de la
Drôme) in 4 vols. See F. A. Aulard, _Les Orateurs de l'assemblée
constituante_ (Paris, 1882).

BARNBY, SIR JOSEPH (1838-1896), English musical composer and conductor, son
of Thomas Barnby, an organist, was born at York on the 12th of August 1838.
He was a chorister at York minster from the age of seven, was educated at
the Royal Academy of Music under Cipriani Potter and Charles Lucas, and was
appointed in 1862 organist of St Andrew's, Wells Street, London, where he
raised the services to a high degree of excellence. He was conductor of
"Barnby's Choir" from 1864, and in 1871 was appointed, in succession to
Gounod, conductor of the Albert Hall Choral Society, a post he held till
his death. In 1875 he was precentor and director of music at Eton, and in
1892 became principal of the Guildhall School of Music, receiving the
honour of knighthood in July of that year. His works include an oratorio
_Rebekah_, _Ps. xcvii._, many services and anthems, and two hundred and
forty-six hymn-tunes (published in 1897 in one volume), as well as some
part-songs (among them the popular "Sweet and Low"), and some pieces for
the organ. As a conductor he possessed the qualities as well as the defects
of the typical north-countryman; if he was wanting in the higher kind of
imagination or ideality, he infused into those who sang under him something
of his own rectitude and precision. He was largely instrumental in
stimulating the love for Gounod's sacred music among the less educated part
of the London public, although he displayed little practical sympathy with
opera. On the other hand, he organized a remarkable concert performance of
_Parsifal_ at the Albert Hall in London in 1884. He conducted the Cardiff
Festivals of 1892 and 1895. He died in London on the 28th of January 1896,
and after a special service in St Paul's cathedral was buried in Norwood
Cemetery.

BARNES, ALBERT (1798-1870), American theologian, was born at Rome, New
York, on the 1st of December 1798. He graduated at Hamilton College,
Clinton, N.Y., in 1820, and at the Princeton Theological Seminary in 1823,
was ordained as a Presbyterian minister by the presbytery of Elizabethtown,
New Jersey, in 1825, and was the pastor successively of the Presbyterian
Church in Morristown, New Jersey (1825-1830) and of the First Presbyterian
Church of Philadelphia (1830-1867). He held a prominent place in the New
School branch of the Presbyterians, to which he adhered on the division of
the denomination in 1837; he had been tried (but not convicted) for heresy
in 1836, the charge being particularly against the views expressed by him
in _Notes_ on Romans (1835) of the imputation of the sin of Adam, original
sin and the atonement; the bitterness stirred up by this trial contributed
towards widening the breach between the conservative and the progressive
elements in the church. He was an eloquent preacher, but his reputation
rests chiefly on his expository works, which are said to have had a larger
circulation both in Europe and America than any others of their class. Of
the well-known _Notes on the New Testament_ it is said that more than a
million volumes had been issued by 1870. The _Notes_ on Job, the Psalms,
Isaiah and Daniel, found scarcely less acceptance. Displaying no original
critical power, their chief merit lies in the fact that they bring in a
popular (but not always accurate) form the results of the criticism of
others within the reach of general readers. Barnes was the author of
several other works of a practical and devotional kind, and a collection of
his _Theological Works_ was published in Philadelphia in 1875. He died in
Philadelphia on the 24th of December 1870.

BARNES, BARNABE (1569?-1609), English poet, fourth son of Dr Richard
Barnes, bishop of Durham, was born in Yorkshire, perhaps at Stonegrave, a
living of his father's, in 1568 or 1569. In 1586 he was entered at
Brasenose College, Oxford, where Giovanni Florio was his servitor, and in
1591 went to France with the earl of Essex, who was then serving against
the prince of Parma. On his return he published _Parthenophil and
Parthenophe, Sonnettes, Madrigals, Elegies and Odes_ (ent. on Stationers'
Register 1593), dedicated to his "dearest friend," William Percy, who
contributed a sonnet to the eulogies prefixed to a later work, _Offices_.
_Parthenophil_ was possibly printed for private circulation, and the copy
in the duke of Devonshire's library is believed to be unique. Barnes was
well acquainted with the work of contemporary French sonneteers, to whom he
is largely indebted, and he borrows his title, apparently, from a
Neapolitan writer of Latin verse, Hieronymus Angerianus. It is possible to
outline a story from this series of love lyrics, but the incidents are
slight, and in this case, as in other Elizabethan sonnet-cycles, it is
difficult to dogmatize as to what is the expression of a real personal
experience, and what is intellectual exercise in imitation of Petrarch.
_Parthenophil_ abounds in passages of great freshness and beauty, although
its elaborate conceits are sometimes over-ingenious and strained. Barnes
took the part of Gabriel Harvey and even experimented in classical metres.
This partisanship is sufficient to account for the abuse of Thomas Nashe,
who accused him, apparently on no proof at all, of stealing a nobleman's
chain at Windsor, and of other things. Barnes's second work, _A Divine
Centurie of Spirituall Sonnetts_, appeared in 1595. He also wrote two
plays:--_The Divil's Charter_ (1607), a tragedy dealing with the life of
Pope Alexander VI., which was played before the king; and _The Battle of
Evesham_ (or Hexham), of which the MS., traced to the beginning of the 18th
century, is lost. In 1606 he dedicated to King James _Offices enabling
privat Persons for the speciall service of all good Princes and Policies_,
a prose treatise containing, among other things, descriptions of Queen
Elizabeth and of the earl of Essex. Barnes was buried at Durham in December
1609.

His _Parthenophil_ and _Spirituall Sonnetts_ were edited by Dr A. B.
Grosart in a limited issue in 1875; _Parthenophil_ was included by Prof. E.
Arber in vol. v. of _An English Garner_; see also the new edition of _An
English Garner_ (_Elizabethan Sonnets_, ed. S. Lee, 1904, pp. lxxv. et
seq.). Professor E. Dowden contributed a sympathetic criticism of Barnes to
_The Academy_ of Sept. 2, 1876.

BARNES, SIR EDWARD (1776-1838), British soldier, entered the 47th regiment
in 1792, and quickly rose to field rank. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel
in 1807, and colonel in 1810, and two years later went to the Peninsula to
serve on Wellington's staff. His services in this capacity gained him
further promotion, and as a major-general he led a brigade at Vittoria and
in the Pyrenean battles. He had the cross and three clasps for his
Peninsula service. As adjutant-general he served in the campaign of 1815
and was wounded at Waterloo. Already a K.C.B., he now received the Austrian
order of Maria Theresa, and the Russian order of St Anne. In 1819 began his
connexion with Ceylon, of which island he was governor from 1824 to 1831.
He directed the construction of the great military road between Colombo and
Kandy, and of many other lines of communication, made the first census of
the population, and introduced coffee cultivation on the West Indian system
(1824). In 1831 he received the G.C.B., and from 1831 to 1853 he was
commander-in-chief in India, with the local rank of general. On his return
home, after two unsuccessful attempts to secure the seat, he became M.P.
for Sudbury in 1837, but he died in the following [v.03 p.0413] year. Sir
Edward Barnes' portrait was painted, for Ceylon, by John Wood, and a
memorial statue was erected in Colombo.

BARNES, JOSHUA (1654-1712), English scholar, was born in London on the 10th
of January 1654. Educated at Christ's Hospital and at Emmanuel College,
Cambridge, he was in 1695 chosen regius professor of Greek, a language
which he wrote and spoke with the utmost facility. One of his first
publications was entitled _Gerania; a New Discovery of a Little Sort of
People, anciently discoursed of, called Pygmies_ (1675), a whimsical sketch
to which Swift's _Voyage to Lilliput_ possibly owes something. Among his
other works are a _History of that Most Victorious Monarch Edward III._
(1688), in which he introduces long and elaborate speeches into the
narrative; editions of Euripides (1694) and of Homer (1711), also one of
Anacreon (1705) which contains titles of Greek verses of his own which he
hoped to publish. He died on the 3rd of August 1712, at Hemingford, near St
Ives, Hunts.

BARNES, ROBERT (1495-1540), English reformer and martyr, born about 1495,
was educated at Cambridge, where he was a member, and afterwards prior of
the convent of Austin Friars, and graduated D.D. in 1523. He was apparently
one of the Cambridge men who were wont to gather at the White Horse Tavern
for Bible-reading and theological discussion early in the third decade of
the 16th century. In 1526, he was brought before the vice-chancellor for
preaching a heterodox sermon, and was subsequently examined by Wolsey and
four other bishops. He was condemned to abjure or be burnt; and preferring
the former alternative, was committed to the Fleet prison and afterwards to
the Austin Friars in London. He escaped thence to Antwerp in 1528, and also
visited Wittenberg, where he made Luther's acquaintance. He also came
across Stephen Vaughan, an agent of Thomas Cromwell and an advanced
reformer, who recommended him to Cromwell: "Look well," he wrote, "upon Dr
Barnes' book. It is such a piece of work as I have not yet seen any like
it. I think he shall seal it with his blood" (_Letters and Papers of Henry
VIII._ v. 593). In 1531 Barnes returned to England, and became one of the
chief intermediaries between the English government and Lutheran Germany.
In 1535 he was sent to Germany, in the hope of inducing Lutheran divines to
approve of Henry's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, and four years later
he was employed in negotiations connected with Anne of Cleves's marriage.
The policy was Cromwell's, but Henry VIII. had already in 1538 refused to
adopt Lutheran theology, and the statute of Six Articles (1539), followed
by the king's disgust with Anne of Cleves (1540), brought the agents of
that policy to ruin. An attack upon Bishop Gardiner by Barnes in a sermon
at St Paul's Cross was the signal for a bitter struggle between the
Protestant and reactionary parties in Henry's council, which raged during
the spring of 1540. Barnes was forced to apologize and recant; and Gardiner
delivered a series of sermons at St Paul's Cross to counteract Barnes'
invective. But a month or so later Cromwell was made earl of Essex,
Gardiner's friend, Bishop Sampson, was sent to the Tower, and Barnes
reverted to Lutheranism. It was a delusive victory. In July, Cromwell was
attainted, Anne of Cleves was divorced and Barnes was burnt (30th July
1540). He also had an act of attainder passed against him, a somewhat novel
distinction for a heretic, which illustrates the way in which Henry VIII.
employed secular machinery for ecclesiastical purposes, and regarded heresy
as an offence against the state rather than against the church. Barnes was
one of six executed on the same day: two, William Jerome and Thomas
Gerrard, were, like himself, burnt for heresy under the Six Articles;
three, Thomas Abel, Richard Fetherstone and Edward Powell, were hanged for
treason in denying the royal supremacy. Both Lutherans and Catholics on the
continent were shocked. Luther published Barnes' confession with a preface
of his own as _Bekenntnis des Glaubens_ (1540), which is included in
Walch's edition of Luther's _Werke_ xxi. 186.

See _Letters and Papers of Henry VIII._ vols. iv.-xv. _passim_;
Wriothesley's _Chronicle_; Foxe's _Acts and Monuments_, ed. G. Townsend
Burnet's _Hist. of the Ref._, ed. Pocock; Dixon's _Hist. of the Church_;
Gairdner's _Church in the XVIth Century_; Pollard's _Henry VIII. and
Cranmer_; Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopadie_, 3rd ed.

(A. F. P.)

BARNES, THOMAS (1785-1841), British journalist, was born about 1785.
Educated at Christ's Hospital and Pembroke College, Cambridge, he came to
London and soon joined the famous literary circle of which Hunt, Lamb and
Hazlitt were prominent members. Upon the retirement of Dr Stoddart in 1817
he was appointed editor of _The Times_, a position which he held until his
death, when he was succeeded by Delane. Lord Lyndhurst gave expression to a
very widely-held opinion when he described him as "the most powerful man in
the country." He died on the 7th of May 1841.

BARNES, WILLIAM (1800-1886), the Dorsetshire poet, was born on the 22nd of
February 1800, at Rushay, near Pentridge in Dorset, the son of John Barnes
and Grace Scott, of the farmer class. He was a delicate child, in direct
contrast to a strong race of forebears, and inherited from his mother a
refined, retiring disposition and a love for books. He went to school at
Sturminster Newton, where he was considered the clever boy of the school;
and when a solicitor named Dashwood applied to the master for a
quick-witted boy to join him as pupil, Barnes was selected for the post. He
worked with the village parson in his spare hours at classics and studied
music under the organist. In 1818 he left Sturminster for the office of one
Coombs at Dorchester, where he continued his evening education with another
kindly clergyman. He also made great progress in the art of wood-engraving,
and with the money he received for a series of blocks for a work called
_Walks about Dorchester_, he printed and published his first book, _Orra, a
Lapland Tale_, in 1822. In the same year he became engaged to Julia Miles,
the daughter of an excise officer. In 1823 he took a school at Mere in
Wiltshire, and four years later married and settled in Chantry House, a
fine old Tudor mansion in that town. The school grew in numbers, and Barnes
occupied all his spare time in assiduous study, reading during these years
authors so diverse in character as Herodotus, Sallust, Ovid, Petrarch,
Buffon and Burns. He also began to write poetry, and printed many of his
verses in the _Dorset County Chronicle_. His chief studies, however, were
philological; and in 1829 he published _An Etymological Glossary of English
Words of Foreign Derivation_. In 1832 a strolling company of actors visited
Mere, and Barnes wrote a farce, _The Honest Thief_, which they produced,
and a comedy which was played at Wincanton. Barnes also wrote a number of
educational books, such as _Elements of Perspective, Outlines of
Geography_, and in 1833 first began his poems in the Dorsetshire dialect,
among them the two eclogues "The 'Lotments" and "A Bit o' Sly Coorten," in
the pages of the local paper. In 1835 he left Mere, and returned to
Dorchester, where he started another school, removing in 1837 into larger
quarters. In 1844 he published _Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect_.
Three years later Barnes took holy orders, and was appointed to the cure of
Whitcombe, 3 m. from Dorchester. He had been for some years upon the books
of St John's College, Cambridge, and took the degree of B.D. in 1850. He
resigned Whitcombe in 1852, finding the work too hard in connexion with his
mastership; and in June of that year he sustained a severe bereavement by
the death of his wife. Continuing his studies in the science of language,
he published his _Philological Grammar_ in 1854, drawing examples from more
than sixty languages. For the copyright of this erudite work he received
£5. The second series of dialect poems, _Hwomely Rhymes_, appeared in 1859
(2nd ed. 1863). _Hwomely Rhymes_ contained some of his best-known pieces,
and in the year of its publication he first began to give readings from his
works. As their reputation grew he travelled all over the country,
delighting large audiences with his quaint humour and natural pathos. In
1861 he was awarded a civil list pension of £70 a year, and in the next
year published _Tiw_, the most striking of his philological studies, in
which the Teutonic roots in the English language are discussed. Barnes had
a horror of Latin forms in English, and would have substituted English
compounds for many Latin forms in common use. In 1862 he broke up his
school, and [v.03 p.0414] removed to the rectory of Winterborne Came, to
which he was presented by his old friend, Captain Seymour Dawson Damer.
Here he worked continuously at verse and prose, contributing largely to the
magazines. A new series of _Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect_
appeared in 1862, and he was persuaded in 1868 to publish a series of
_Poems of Rural Life in Common English_, which was less successful than his
dialect poems. These latter were collected into a single volume in 1879,
and on the 7th of October 1886 Barnes died at Winterborne Came. His poetry
is essentially English in character; no other writer has given quite so
simple and sincere a picture of the homely life and labour of rural
England. His work is full of humour and the clean, manly joy of life; and
its rusticity is singularly allied to a literary sense and to high
technical finish. He is indeed the Victorian Theocritus; and, as English
country life is slowly swept away before the advance of the railway and the
telegraph, he will be more and more read for his warm-hearted and fragrant
record of rustic love and piety. His original and suggestive books on the
English language, which are valuable in spite of their eccentricities,
include:--_Se Gefylsta: an Anglo-Saxon Delectus_ (1849); _A Grammar and
Glossary of the Dorset Dialect_ (1864); _An Outline of English
Speech-Craft_ (1878); and _A Glossary of the Dorset Dialect_ (Dorchester,
1886).

See _The Life of William Barnes, Poet and Philologist_ (1887), by his
daughter, Lucy E. Baxter, who is known as a writer on art by the pseudonym
of Leader Scott; and a notice by Thomas Hardy in the _Athenaeum_ (16th of
October 1886).

BARNET, a residential district in the mid or St Albans parliamentary
division of Hertfordshire, England; 10 m. N. of London, served by the main
line and branches of the Great Northern railway. The three chief divisions
are as follows:--(1) CHIPPING or HIGH BARNET, a market town and urban
district (Barnet), pop. (1901) 7876. The second epithet designates its
position on a hill, but the first is given it from the market granted to
the abbots of St Albans to be kept there, by Henry II. Near the town, round
a point marked by an obelisk, was fought in 1471 the decisive battle
between the houses of York and Lancaster, in which the earl of Warwick fell
and the Lancastrians were totally defeated. The town is on the Great North
Road, on which it was formerly an important coaching station. A large
annual horse and cattle fair is held. (2) EAST BARNET, 2 m. S.E. of
Chipping Barnet, has an ancient parish church retaining Norman portions,
though enlarged in modern times. Pop. of East Barnet Valley urban district,
10,094. (3) NEW BARNET lies 1 m. E. by S. from Chipping Barnet.

FRIERN BARNET, in the Enfield parliamentary division of Middlesex, lies 3
m. S. of Chipping Barnet. Pop. of urban district, 11,566. The prefix
recalls the former lordship of the manor possessed by the friary of St John
of Jerusalem in Clerkenwell, London. Friern Barnet adjoins Finchley on the
north and Whetstone on the south, the whole district being residential.

BARNETT, JOHN (1802-1890), English musical composer, son of a Prussian
named Bernhard Beer, who changed his name on settling in England as a
jeweller, was born at Bedford, and at the age of eleven sang on the Lyceum
stage in London. His good voice led to his being given a musical education,
and he soon began writing songs and lighter pieces for the stage. In 1834
he published a collection of _Lyrical Illustrations of the Modern Poets_,
His _Mountain Sylph_--with which his name is chiefly connected--received a
warm welcome when produced at the Lyceum on August 25, 1834, as the first
modern English opera: and it was followed by another opera _Fair Rosamund_
in 1837, and by _Farinelli_ in 1839. He had a large connexion as a
singing-master at Cheltenham, and published _Systems and Singing-masters_
(1842) and _School for the Voice_ (1844). He died on the 16th of April
1890.

His nephew, JOHN FRANCIS BARNETT (1837- ), son of John's brother, Joseph
Alfred, also a professor of music, carried on the traditions of the family
as a composer and teacher. He obtained a queen's scholarship at the Royal
Academy of Music, and developed into an accomplished pianist, visiting
Germany to study in 1857 and playing at a Gewandhaus concert at Leipzig in
1860. He came into notice as a composer with his symphony in A minor
(1864), and followed this with a number of compositions for orchestra,
strings or pianoforte. His cantata _The Ancient Mariner_ was brought out at
Birmingham in 1867, and another, _Paradise and the Peri_, in 1870, both
with great success. In 1873 his most important work, the oratorio _The
Raising of Lazarus_, was written, and in 1876 produced at Hereford. Many
other cantatas, pianoforte pieces, &c. were composed by him, and
successfully brought out; and he took an active part as a professor in the
work of the Guildhall School of Music and Royal College of Music.

BARNETT, SAMUEL AUGUSTUS (1844- ), English clergyman and social reformer,
was born at Bristol on the 8th of February 1844, the son of Francis
Augustus Barnett, an iron manufacturer. After leaving Wadham College,
Oxford, in 1866, he visited the United States. Next year he was ordained to
the curacy of St Mary's, Bryanston Square, and took priest's orders in
1868. In 1872 he became vicar of St Jude's, Commercial Street, Whitechapel,
and in the next year married Henrietta Octavia Rowland, who had been a
co-worker with Miss Octavia Hill and was no less ardent a philanthropist
than her husband. Mr and Mrs Barnett worked hard for the poor of their
parish, opening evening schools for adults, providing them with music and
reasonable entertainment, and serving on the board of guardians and on the
managing committees of schools. Mr Barnett did much to discourage outdoor
relief, as tending to the pauperization of the neighbourhood. At the same
time the conditions of indoor relief were improved, and the various
charities were co-ordinated, by co-operation with the Charity Organization
Society and the parish board of guardians. In 1875 Arnold Toynbee paid a
visit, the first of many, to Whitechapel, and Mr Barnett, who kept in
constant touch with Oxford, formed in 1877 a small committee, over which he
presided himself, to consider the organization of university extension in
London, his chief assistants being Leonard Montefiore, a young Oxford man,
and Frederick Rogers, a member of the vellum binders' trade union. The
committee received influential support, and in October four courses of
lectures, one by Dr S. R. Gardiner on English history, were given in
Whitechapel. The Barnetts were also associated with the building of model
dwellings, with the establishment of the children's country holiday fund
and the annual loan exhibitions of fine art at the Whitechapel gallery. In
1884 an article by Mr Barnett in the _Nineteenth Century_ discussed the
question of university settlements. This resulted in July in the formation
of the University Settlements Association, and when Toynbee Hall was built
shortly afterwards Mr Barnett became its warden. He was a select preacher
at Oxford in 1895-1897, and at Cambridge in 1900; he received a canonry in
Bristol cathedral in 1893, but retained his wardenship of Toynbee Hall,
while relinquishing the living of St Jude's. In June 1906 he was preferred
to a canonry at Westminster, and when in December he resigned the
wardenship of Toynbee Hall the position of president was created so that he
might retain his connexion with the institution. Among Canon Barnett's
works is _Practicable Socialism_ (1888, 2nd ed. 1894), written in
conjunction with his wife.

BARNFIELD, RICHARD (1574-1627), English poet, was born at Norbury,
Staffordshire, and baptized on the 13th of June 1574. His obscure though
close relationship with Shakespeare has long made him interesting to
students and has attracted of late years further attention from the
circumstance that important discoveries regarding his life have been made.
Until recently nothing whatever was known about the facts of Barnfield's
career, whose very existence had been doubted. It was, however, discovered
by the late Dr A. B. Grosart that the poet was the son of Richard Barnfield
(or Barnefield) and Maria Skrymsher, his wife, who were married in April
1572. They resided in the parish of Norbury, in Staffordshire, on the
borders of Salop, where the poet was baptized on the 13th of June 1574. The
mother died in giving birth to a daughter early in 1581, and her unmarried
sister, Elizabeth Skrymsher, seems to have devoted herself to the care of
the children. In November 1589 Barnfield matriculated at Brasenose College,
Oxford, and took his degree in [v.03 p.0415] February 1592. He "performed
the exercise for his master's gown," but seems to have left the university
abruptly, without proceeding to the M.A. It is conjectured that he came up
to London in 1593, and became acquainted with Watson, Drayton, and perhaps
with Spenser. The death of Sir Philip Sidney had occurred while Barnfield
was still a school-boy, but it seems to have strongly affected his
imagination and to have inspired some of his earliest verses. In November
1594, in his twenty-first year, Barnfield published anonymously his first
work, _The Affectionate Shepherd_, dedicated with familiar devotion to
Penelope, Lady Rich. This was a sort of florid romance, in two books of
six-line stanza, in the manner of Lodge and Shakespeare, dealing at large
with "the complaint of Daphnis for the love of Ganymede." As the author
expressly admitted later, it was an expansion or paraphrase of Virgil's
second eclogue--

 "Formosum pastor Corydon ardebat Alexin."

This poem of Barnfield's was the most extraordinary specimen hitherto
produced in England of the licence introduced from Italy at the
Renaissance. Although the poem was successful, it did not pass without
censure from the moral point of view. Into the conventional outlines of
_The Affectionate Shepherd_ the young poet has poured all his fancy, all
his epithets, and all his coloured touches of nature. If we are not
repelled by the absurd subject, we have to admit that none of the immediate
imitators of _Venus and Adonis_ has equalled the juvenile Barnfield in the
picturesqueness of his "fine ruff-footed doves," his "speckled flower
call'd sops-in-wine," or his desire "by the bright glimmering of the starry
light, to catch the long-bill'd woodcock." Two months later, in January
1595, Barnfield published his second volume, _Cynthia, with certain
Sonnets_, and this time signed the preface, which was dedicated, in terms
which imply close personal relations, to William Stanley, the new earl of
Derby. This is a book of extreme interest; it exemplifies the earliest
study both of Spenser and Shakespeare. "Cynthia" itself, a panegyric on
Queen Elizabeth, is written in the Spenserian stanza, of which it is
probably the earliest example extant outside _The Faerie Queene_. This is
followed by a sequence of twenty sonnets, which have the extraordinary
interest that, while preceding the publication of Shakespeare's sonnets by
fourteen years, they are closer to them in manner than are any others of
the Elizabethan age. They celebrate, with extravagant ardour, the charms of
a young man whose initials seem to have been J. U. or J. V., and of whom
nothing else seems known. These sonnets, which preceded even the _Amoretti_
of Spenser, are of unusual merit as poetry, and would rank as high in
quality as in date of publication if their subject-matter were not so
preposterous. They show the influence of Drayton's _Idea_, which had
appeared a few months before; in that collection also, it is to be
observed, there had appeared amatory sonnets addressed to a young man. If
editors would courageously alter the gender of the pronouns, several of
Barnfield's glowing sonnets might take their place at once in our
anthologies. Before the publication of his volume, however, he had repented
of his heresies, and had become enamoured of a "lass" named Eliza (or
Elizabeth), whom he celebrates with effusion in an "Ode." This is probably
the lady whom he presently married, and as we find him a grandfather in
1626 it is unlikely that the wedding was long delayed. In 1598 Barnfield
published his third volume, _The Encomion of Lady Pecunia_, a poem in
praise of money, followed by a sort of continuation, in the same six-line
stanza, called "The Complaint of Poetry for the Death of Liberality." In
this volume there is already a decline in poetic quality. But an appendix
of "Poems in diverse Humours" to this volume of 1598 presents some very
interesting features. Here appears what seems to be the absolutely earliest
praise of Shakespeare in a piece entitled "A Remembrance of some English
Poets," in which the still unrecognized author of _Venus and Adonis_ is
celebrated by the side of Spenser, Daniel and Drayton. Here also are the
sonnet, "If Music and sweet Poetry agree," and the beautiful ode beginning
"As it fell upon a day," which were until recently attributed to
Shakespeare himself. In the next year, 1599, _The Passionate Pilgrim_ was
published, with the words "By W. Shakespeare" on the title-page. It was
long supposed that this attribution was correct, but Barnfield claimed one
of the two pieces just mentioned, not only in 1598, but again in 1605. It
is certain that both are his, and possibly other things in _The Passionate
Pilgrim_ also; Shakespeare's share in the twenty poems of that miscellany
being doubtless confined to the five short pieces which have been
definitely identified as his. In the opinion of the present writer the
sonnet beginning "Sweet Cytherea" has unmistakably the stamp of Barnfield,
and is probably a gloss on the first rapturous perusal of _Venus and
Adonis_; the same is to be said of "Scarce had the sun," which is _aut
Barnfield, aut diabolus_. One or two other contributions to _The Passionate
Pilgrim_ may be conjectured, with less confidence, to be Barnfield's. It
has been stated that the poet was now studying the law at Gray's Inn, but
for this the writer is unable to discover the authority, except that
several members of that society are mentioned in the course of the volume
of 1598. In all probability Barnfield now married and withdrew to his
estate of Dorlestone (or Darlaston), in the county of Stafford, a house
romantically situated on the river Trent, where he henceforth resided as a
country gentleman. In 1605 he reprinted his _Lady Pecunia_, and this was
his latest appearance as a man of letters. His son Robert Barnfield and his
cousin Elinor Skrymsher were his executors when his will was proved at
Lichfield; his wife, therefore, doubtless predeceased him. Barnfield died
at Dorlestone Hall, and was buried in the neighbouring parish church of St
Michael's, Stone, on the 6th of March 1627. The labours of Dr Grosart and
of Professor Arber have thrown much light on the circumstances of
Barnfield's career. He has taken of late years a far more prominent place
than ever before in the history of English literature. This is due partly
to the remarkable merit of his graceful, melodious and highly-coloured
verse, which was practically unknown until it was privately printed in 1876
(ed. Grosart, Roxburghe Club), and at length given to the public in 1882
(ed. Arber, _English Scholars' Library_). It is also due to the mysterious
personal relation of Barnfield to Shakespeare, a relation not easy to prove
in detail, as it is built up on a great variety of small indications. It
is, however, obvious that Barnfield warmly admired Shakespeare, whose
earliest imitator he may be said to have been, and that between 1595 and
1600 the younger poet was so close to the elder that the compositions of
the former could be confused with those of the latter. Barnfield died, as a
poet, in his twenty-fifth year. Up to that time he had displayed a talent
which, if he had pursued it, might have placed him very high among the
English poets. As it is, he will always interest a certain number of
readers as being, in his languid "Italianate" way, a sort of ineffectual
Meleager in the rich Elizabethan anthology.

Besides the editions already cited, _The Affectionate Shepherd_ was edited
by Mr J. O. Halliwell-Phillipps for the Percy Society (_Early English
Poetry_, vol. xx.); _The Encomion of Pecunia_ and some other poems by J.
Boswell (Roxburghe Club, 1816); and by J. P. Collier in _Illustrations of
Old English Literature_ (vol. i., 1866).

(E. G.)

BARNIM, the name of a district between the Spree, the Oder and the Havel,
which was added to the mark of Brandenburg during the 13th century. In the
15th century it was divided into upper and lower Barnim, and these names
are now borne by two circles (_Kreise_) in the kingdom of Prussia.

BARNIM, the name of thirteen dukes who ruled over various divisions of the
duchy of Pomerania. The following are the most important:--

BARNIM I. (_c._ 1209-1278), called the _Good_, was the son of Bogislaus
II., duke of Pomerania-Stettin, and succeeded to this duchy on his father's
death in 1220. After he became of age he was engaged in a long struggle
with external enemies, and in 1250 was compelled to recognize the supremacy
of the margrave of Brandenburg. Having in 1264 united the whole of
Pomerania under his rule, Barnim devoted his energies to improving its
internal condition. He introduced German settlers and customs into the
duchy, founded many towns, and was extremely generous towards
ecclesiastical foundations. He died on the 13th or 14th of November 1278.

BARNIM III. (_c._ 1303-1368), called the _Great_, was the son of Otto I.,
duke of Pomerania-Stettin, and took a prominent part in the defence and
government of the duchy before his father's [v.03 p.0416] death in 1344. A
long and intermittent struggle with the representatives of the emperor
Louis IV., who had invested his own son Louis with the mark of Brandenburg,
enabled him to gain military experience and distinction. A victory gained
by him in August 1332 was mainly instrumental in freeing Pomerania for a
time from the vexatious claim of Brandenburg to supremacy over the duchy,
which moreover he extended by conquest. Barnim assisted the emperor Charles
IV. in his struggle with the family of Wittelsbach. He died on the 24th of
August 1368.

BARNIM XI. (1501-1573), son of Bogislaus X., duke of Pomerania, became duke
on his father's death in 1523. He ruled for a time in common with his elder
brother George; and after George's death in 1531 he shared the duchy with
his nephew Philip I., retaining for himself the duchy of Pomerania-Stettin.
The earlier years of his rule were troubled by a quarrel with the margrave
of Brandenburg, who wished to annex Pomerania. In 1529, however, a treaty
was made which freed Pomerania from the supremacy of Brandenburg on
condition that if the ducal family became extinct the duchy should revert
to Brandenburg. Barnim adopted the doctrines of Martin Luther, and joined
the league of Schmalkalden, but took no part in the subsequent war. But as
this attitude left him without supporters he was obliged to submit to the
emperor Charles V., to pay a heavy fine, and to accept the _Interim_,
issued from Augsburg in May 1548. In 1569 Barnim handed over his duchy to
his grand-nephew, John Frederick, and died at Stettin on the 2nd of June
1573.

BARNSLEY (BLACK, or properly BLEAK BARNSLEY), a market town and municipal
borough in the Barnsley parliamentary division of the West Riding of
Yorkshire, England, 15 m. N. of Sheffield. Pop. (1891) 35,427; (1901)
41,086. It is served by the Midland, Great Central, Lancashire & Yorkshire,
Great Northern, and Hull & Barnsley railways. It is in the parish of
Silkstone, which gives name to important collieries. It is situated on
rising ground west of the river Dearne, and, though it loses in attraction
owing to its numerous factories, its neighbourhood has considerable natural
beauty. Among the principal buildings and institutions are several
churches, of which the oldest, the parish church of St Mary, was built in
1821 on an early site; court house, public hall, institute and free
library. Among several educational institutions, the free grammar school
dates from 1665; and a philosophical society was founded in 1828. A
monument was erected in 1905 to prominent members of the Yorkshire Miners'
Association. The park was presented in 1862 by the widow of Joseph Locke,
M.P. The manufacture of iron and steel, and the weaving of linen and other
cloth, are the two principal industries; but there are also bleachfields,
printfields, dyeworks, sawmills, cornmills and malt-houses; and the
manufacture of glass, needles and wire is carried on. There are large
coalfields in the neighbourhood, which, indeed, extend under the town. Coal
and coke are largely exported to London and Hull. In the vicinity, Monk
Bretton Priory, a Cluniac foundation of 1157, retains a Perpendicular
gatehouse, some Decorated domestic remains, and fragments of the church.
Wentworth Castle, built in 1730 by Thomas, earl of Strafford, stands in a
singularly beautiful park, and contains a fine collection of portraits of
historical interest. Besides the communications afforded by railway,
Barnsley has the advantage of connexion with the Aire and Calder Navigation
system of canals. The borough is under a mayor, six aldermen and eighteen
councillors. Area, 2385 acres.

At the time of the Domesday survey Ilbert de Lacy held Barnsley by gift of
William the Conqueror as part of the honour of Pontefract, and the
overlordship remained in his family until the reign of Stephen, when it was
granted by Henry de Lacy to the monks of Pontefract. Henry III. in 1249
granted the prior and convent of Pontefract a market every Wednesday at
Barnsley, and a fair on the vigil and feast of St Michael and two following
days, and Henry VIII. in 1512 granted them a new fair on the day of the
Conversion of St Paul and two following days. The monastery evidently also
held another fair there called St Ellen's fair, for in 1583 Queen Elizabeth
granted this fair and St Paul's fair and the market "lately belonging to
the dissolved monastery of Pontefract" to one Henry Burdett, and Ralph and
Henry his sons for their lives. Besides these charters and others granting
land in Barnsley to the monks of Pontefract there is very little history of
the town, since it was not until after the introduction of the linen
manufacture in 1744 that it became really important. Before that time the
chief industry had been wire-drawing, but this trade began to decrease
about the end of the 18th century, just as the linen trade was becoming
important. In 1869 Barnsley was incorporated.

See Rowland Jackson, _The History of the Town and Township of Barnsley_
(1858); _Victoria County History--Yorkshire_.

BARNSTABLE, a seaport township and the county-seat of the county of the
same name, in Massachusetts, U.S.A. Pop. (1900) 4364, of whom 391 were
foreign-born; (1910, U.S. census) 4676. Barnstable is served by the New
York, New Haven & Hartford Railway. It is situated between Cape Cod Bay on
the N. and Nantucket Sound on the S., extending across Cape Cod. The soil
of the township, unlike that of other parts of the county, is well adapted
to agriculture, and the principal industry is the growing of vegetables and
the supplying of milk and poultry for its several villages, nearly all of
which are summer resorts. At Hyannis is a state normal school (1897;
co-educational). Cranberries are raised in large quantities, and there are
oyster and other shell fisheries. In the 17th century the mackerel and
whale fisheries were the basis of economic life; the latter gave way later
to the cod and other fisheries, but the fishing industry is now relatively
unimportant. Much of the county is a region of sands, salt-marshes,
beach-grass and scattered woods. From 1865 to 1895 the county diminished
20.1% in population. Barnstable was settled and incorporated in 1639
(county created 1685), and includes among its natives James Otis and Lemuel
Shaw.

See F. Freeman, _The History of Cape Cod: the Annals of Barnstable County_
(2 vols., Boston, 1858, 1862; and other impressions 1860 to 1869).

BARNSTAPLE, a seaport, market town and municipal borough, in the Barnstaple
parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, on the river Taw, near the
north coast. Pop. (1901) 14,137. It is served by the London &
South-Western, the Great Western, and the Lynton & Barnstaple railways. The
Taw is here crossed by a stone bridge of sixteen arches, said to have been
built in the 12th or 13th century. The town manufactures lace, gloves,
sail-cloth and fishing-nets, and has extensive potteries, tanneries,
sawmills and foundries, while shipbuilding is also carried on. The harbour
admits only small coasting vessels. The public buildings and institutions
include a guildhall (1826), a free grammar school and a large market-place.
The poet John Gay was born in the vicinity, and received his education at
the grammar school, which at an earlier period had numbered Bishop Jewel
among its pupils. It was founded in the 14th century, in connexion with a
chantry. There are also some curious Jacobean almshouses. The borough is
under a mayor, six aldermen and eighteen councillors. Area, 2236 acres.

Barnstaple (Berdestaple, Barnstapol, Barstaple, also Barum) ranks among the
most ancient of royal boroughs. As early as Domesday, where it is several
times mentioned, there were forty burgesses within the town and nine
without, who rendered 40s. Tradition claims that King Athelstan threw up
defensive earthworks here, but the existing castle is attributed to Joel of
Totnes, who held the manor during the reign of William the Conqueror, and
also founded a Cluniac priory, dedicated to St Mary Magdalene. From this
date the borough and priory grew up side by side, but each preserving its
independent privileges and rights of government until the dissolution of
the latter in 1535. In Edward II.'s reign the burgesses petitioned for the
restoration of rights bestowed by a pretended charter from Athelstan. The
existence of this charter was denied, but the desired privileges were
conceded, including the right to elect a mayor. The earliest authenticated
charter is that of Henry I., which was confirmed in a charter of Henry II.
The later charter states that the burgesses should have customs similar to
those granted to London, and further charters confirmed the same right. A
charter of Queen Mary in 1556 added some new privileges, and specified that
the common council should consist of a mayor, two aldermen [v.03 p.0417]
and twenty-four chief burgesses. James I., by a charter dated 1610,
increased the number of chief burgesses to twenty-five and instituted a
recorder, a clerk of the market, justices of the peace and other officers.
This charter was confirmed in 1611 and 1689, and held force until the
Municipal Corporations Act of 1835, which established six aldermen and
eighteen councillors. The borough sent two members to parliament in 1295,
and so continued to do until the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885, when
the representation was merged in that of the county. Barnstaple was once
famous for its woollen trade, now entirely declined, and as early as the
reign of Edward III. was an important naval port, with an extensive
shipping trade. That this prosperity was not altogether uninterrupted is
testified by the fact that, at the time of the Armada, the mayor pleaded
inability to contribute three ships, on account of injuries to trade
consequent on the war with Spain. The Friday market and the annual four
days' fair in September are held by immemorial prescription.

See J. B. Gribble, _Memorials of Barnstaple_ (Barnstaple, 1830).

BARNUM, PHINEAS TAYLOR (1810-1891), American showman, was born in Bethel,
Connecticut, on the 5th of July 1810, his father being an inn- and
store-keeper. Barnum first started as a store-keeper, and was also
concerned in the lottery mania then prevailing in the United States. After
failing in business, he started in 1829 a weekly paper, _The Herald of
Freedom_, in Danbury; after several libel suits and a prosecution which
resulted in imprisonment, he moved to New York in 1834, and in 1835 began
his career as a showman, with his purchase and exploitation of a coloured
woman, Joyce Heth, reputed to have been the nurse of George Washington, and
to be over a hundred and sixty years old. With this woman and a small
company he made well-advertised and successful tours in America till 1839,
though Joyce Heth died in 1836, when her age was proved to be not more than
seventy. After a period of failure, he purchased Scudder's American Museum,
New York, in 1841; to this he added considerably, and it became one of the
most popular shows in the United States. He made a special hit by the
exhibition, in 1842, of Charles Stratton, the celebrated "General Tom
Thumb" (see DWARF). In 1844 Barnum toured with the dwarf in England. A
remarkable instance of his enterprise was the engagement of Jenny Lind to
sing in America at $1000 a night for one hundred and fifty nights, all
expenses being paid by the _entrepreneur_. The tour began in 1850. Barnum
retired from the show business in 1855, but had to settle with his
creditors in 1857, and began his old career again as showman and museum
proprietor. In 1871 he established the "Greatest Show on Earth," a
travelling amalgamation of circus, menagerie and museum of "freaks," &c.
This show, incorporated in the name of "Barnum, Bailey & Hutchinson," and
later as "Barnum & Bailey's" toured all over the world. In 1907 the
business was sold to Ringling Brothers. Barnum wrote several books, such as
_The Humbugs of the World_ (1865), _Struggles and Triumphs_ (1869), and his
_Autobiography_ (1854, and later editions). He died on the 7th of April
1891.

BAROCCHIO (or BAROZZI), GIACOMO, called DA VIGNOLA (1507-1573), Italian
architect, was born at Vignola in the Modenese territory on the 1st of
October 1507. His early work was conducted at Bologna, Piacenza, Assisi and
Perugia, until he was summoned to Rome as papal architect under Pope Julius
III. In 1564 he succeeded Michelangelo as the architect of St Peter's, and
executed various portions of that fabric, besides a variety of works in
Rome. The designs for the Escorial were also supplied by him. He is the
author of an excellent work on the _Five Orders of Architecture_ (Rome,
1563), and another work on _Practical Perspective_ (Rome, 1583). To his
extensive acquirements and exquisite taste were superadded an amenity of
manners and a noble generosity that won the affection and admiration of all
who knew him. He died in Rome on the 7th of July 1573. He was an eminent
upholder of the classic style at a period when the style known as _baroque_
was corrupting the architecture of Italy. The term _baroque_ owes its
origin to the Spanish word _barrueco_ or _berrueco_, an imperfectly round
pearl, and is not derived from the architect Barocchio, whose name so much
resembles it. Yet it is curious that it was much used to describe a debased
form of architecture encouraged by the Jesuits whose church in Rome was
built by Barocchio.

BAROCCI (or BAROCCIO), FEDERIGO (1528-1612), Italian painter, was born at
Urbino, where the genius of Raphael inspired him. In his early youth he
travelled to Rome, where he painted in fresco and was warmly commended by
Michelangelo. He then returned to Urbino, where, with the exception of some
short visits to Rome, he continued to reside till his death. He acquired
great fame by his paintings of religious subjects, in the style of which he
to some extent imitated Correggio. His own followers were very numerous,
but according to Lanzi (_Hist. of Painting_) carried their master's
peculiarities to excess. Barocci also etched from his own designs a few
prints, which are highly finished, and executed with great softness and
delicacy.

BARODA, a native state of India, within the Gujarat province of Bombay, but
in direct relations with the governor-general. It consists of four isolated
divisions, each of which is interlaced in the most intricate fashion with
British territory or with other native states. Three of these
divisions--Kadi, Baroda and Nausari--are in Gujarat proper; the fourth,
Amreli with Okhamandal, is in the peninsula of Kathiawar. The total area
covers 8099 sq. m. In 1901 the population was 1,952,692, showing a decrease
of 19% in the decade, compared with an increase of 11% in the preceding
decade. This decrease was due partly to the famines of 1896-1897 and
1900-1901, partly to the epidemics of cholera and fever which accompanied
them, and partly to the plague which attacked the state in as great measure
as the surrounding presidency.

The princes of Baroda were one of the chief branches of the Mahratta
confederacy, which in the 18th century spread devastation and terror over
India. About 1721 one Pilaji gaekwar carved a fertile slice of territory
out of Gujarat, and afterwards received the title of "Leader of the Royal
Troops" from the peshwa. During the last thirty-two years of the century
the house fell a prey to one of those bitter and unappeasable family feuds
which are the ruin of great Indian families. In 1800 the inheritance
descended to a prince feeble in body and almost idiotic in mind. British
troops were sent in defence of the hereditary ruler against all claimants;
a treaty was signed in 1802, by which his independence of the peshwa and
his dependence on British government were secured. Three years later these
and various other engagements were consolidated into a systematic plan for
the administration of the Baroda territory, under a prince with a revenue
of three-quarters of a million sterling, perfectly independent in all
internal matters, but practically kept on his throne by subsidiary British
troops. For some time the history of the gaekwars was very much the same as
that of most territorial houses in India: an occasional able minister, more
rarely an able prince; but, on the other hand, a long dreary list of
incompetent heads, venal advisers and taskmasters oppressive to the people.
At last a fierce family feud came to a climax. In 1873 an English committee
of inquiry was appointed to investigate various complaints of oppression
against the gaekwar, Malhar Rao, who had recently succeeded to the throne
after being for a long time kept in prison by his brother, the former
gaekwar. No real reform resulted, and in 1874 an attempt at poisoning the
British resident led to the gaekwar being formally accused of the crime and
tried by a mixed commission. The result of the trial (1875) was a failure
to obtain a unanimous verdict on the charge of poisoning; the viceroy, Lord
Northbrook, however, decided to depose Malhar Rao on the ground of gross
misgovernment, the widow of his brother and predecessor, Khande Rao, being
permitted to adopt an heir from among the descendants of the founder of the
family. This heir, by name Sayaji Rao, then a boy of twelve years in the
humble home of a Deccani cultivator, was educated by an English tutor, the
administration being meanwhile placed for eight years under the charge of
Sir T. Madhava Rao, formerly diwan of Travancore, one of the ablest and
most enlightened of Indian statesmen. The result was a conspicuous success.
The gaekwar showed himself a model prince, and his territories [v.03
p.0418] became as well governed and prosperous as a British district. He
repeatedly visited Europe in company with his wife. In 1887 the
queen-empress conferred upon him at Windsor the insignia of G.C.S.I., and
in 1892 upon his wife the Imperial order of the crown of India.

The gross revenue of the state is more than a million sterling. In 1901 the
state currency of Babashai rupees was withdrawn, and the British rupee was
introduced. The regular military force consists of a field battery, with
several regiments of cavalry and battalions of infantry. In addition, there
is an irregular force of horse and foot. Compulsory education has been
carried on experimentally since 1893 in the Amreli division with apparent
success, the compulsory age being 7 to 12 for boys and 7 to 10 for girls.
Special measures are also adopted for the education of low castes and
aboriginal tribes. There is a female training college under a Christian
lady superintendent. The Kala Bhavan, or technical school, has departments
for drawing, carpentry, dyeing, weaving and agriculture. There is also a
state museum under a European director, and a state library. Portions of
the state are crossed by the Bombay & Baroda and the Rajputana railways. In
addition, the state has constructed three railways of its own, on three
different gauges. Other railways are in contemplation. The state possesses
a cotton mill.

The city of Baroda is situated on the river Viswamitri, a station on the
Bombay & Baroda railway, 245 m. N. of Bombay by rail. Pop. (1901) 103,790.
The whole aspect of the city has been changed by the construction of
handsome public buildings, the laying-out of parks and the widening of the
streets. An excellent water-supply is provided from the Ajwa lake. The
cantonments, garrisoned by a native infantry regiment, are under British
jurisdiction, and have a population of 4000. The city contains a college
and many schools. The chief hospitals are called after the countess of
Dufferin, Sayaji Rao and Jamnabai, the widow of Khande Rao.

See _Baroda Gazetteer_, 1908.

BAROMETER (from Gr. [Greek: baros], pressure, and [Greek: metron],
measure), an instrument by which the weight or pressure of the atmosphere
is measured. The ordinary or mercurial barometer consists of a tube about
36 in. long, hermetically closed at the upper end and containing mercury.
In the "cistern barometer" the tube is placed with its open end in a basin
of mercury, and the atmospheric pressure is measured by the difference of
the heights of the mercury in the tube and the cistern. In the "siphon
barometer" the cistern is dispensed with, the tube being bent round upon
itself at its lower end; the reading is taken of the difference in the
levels of the mercury in the two limbs. The "aneroid" barometer (from the
Gr. [Greek: a-] privative, and [Greek: nêros], wet) employs no liquid, but
depends upon the changes in volume experienced by an exhausted metallic
chamber under varying pressures. "Baroscopes" simply indicate variations in
the atmospheric pressure, without supplying quantitative data. "Barographs"
are barometers which automatically record any variations in pressure.

[Sidenote: Historical.]

Philosophers prior to Galileo had endeavoured to explain the action of a
suction pump by postulating a principle that "Nature abhorred a vacuum."
When Galileo observed that a common suction pump could not raise water to a
greater height than about 32 ft. he considered that the "abhorrence" was
limited to 32 ft., and commended the matter to the attention of his pupil
Evangelista Torricelli. Torricelli perceived a ready explanation of the
observed phenomenon if only it could be proved that the atmosphere had
weight, and the pressure which it exerted was equal to that of a 32-ft.
column of water. He proved this to be the correct explanation by reasoning
as follows:--If the atmosphere supports 32 feet of water, then it should
also support a column of about 2½ ft. of mercury, for this liquid is about
13½ times heavier than water. This he proved in the following manner. He
selected a glass tube about a quarter of an inch in diameter and 4 ft.
long, and hermetically sealed one of its ends; he then filled it with
mercury and, applying his finger to the open end, inverted it in a basin
containing mercury. The mercury instantly sank to nearly 30 in. above the
surface of the mercury in the basin, leaving in the top of the tube an
apparent vacuum, which is now called the _Torricellian vacuum_; this
experiment is sometimes known as the _Torricellian experiment_.
Torricelli's views rapidly gained ground, notwithstanding the objections of
certain philosophers. Valuable confirmation was afforded by the variation
of the barometric column at different elevations. René Descartes and Blaise
Pascal predicted a fall in the height when the barometer was carried to the
top of a mountain, since, the pressure of the atmosphere being diminished,
it necessarily followed that the column of mercury sustained by the
atmosphere would be diminished also. This was experimentally observed by
Pascal's brother-in-law, Florin Périer (1605-1672), who measured the height
of the mercury column at various altitudes on the Puy de Dôme. Pascal
himself tried the experiment at several towers in Paris,--Notre Dame, St
Jacques de la Boucherie, &c. The results of his researches were embodied in
his treatises _De l'équilibre des liqueurs_ and _De la pesanteur de la
masse d'air_, which were written before 1651, but were not published till
1663 after his death. Corroboration was also afforded by Marin Mersenne and
Christiaan Huygens. It was not long before it was discovered that the
height of the column varied at the same place, and that a rise or fall was
accompanied by meteorological changes. The instrument thus came to be used
as a means of predicting the weather, and it was frequently known as the
_weather-glass_. The relation of the barometric pressure to the weather is
mentioned by Robert Boyle, who expressed the opinion that it is exceedingly
difficult to draw any correct conclusions. Edmund Halley, Leibnitz, Jean
André Deluc (1727-1817) and many others investigated this subject, giving
rules for predicting the weather and attempting explanations for the
phenomena. Since the height of the barometric column varies with the
elevation of the station at which it is observed, it follows that
observations of the barometer afford a means for measuring altitudes. The
early experiments of Pascal were developed by Edmund Halley, Edme Mariotte,
J. Cassini, D. Bernoulli, and more especially by Deluc in his _Recherches
sur les modifications de l'atmosphère_ (1772), which contains a full
account of the early history of the barometer and its applications. More
highly mathematical investigations have been given by Laplace, and also by
Richard Ruhlmann (_Barometrischen Hohenmessung._, Leipzig, 1870). The
modern aspects of the relation between atmospheric pressure and the weather
and altitudes are treated in the article METEOROLOGY.

Many attempts have been made by which the variation in the height of the
mercury column could be magnified, and so more exact measurements taken. It
is not possible to enumerate in this article the many devices which have
been proposed; and the reader is referred to Charles Hutton's _Mathematical
and Philosophical Dictionary_ (1815), William Ellis's paper on the history
of the barometer in the _Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological
Society_, vol. xii. (1886), and E. Gerland and F. Traumüller's _Geschichte
der physikalischen Experimentierkunst_ (1899). Descartes suggested a method
which Huygens put into practice. The barometer tube was expanded into a
cylindrical vessel at the top, and into this chamber a fine tube partly
filled with water was inserted. A slight motion of the mercury occasioned a
larger displacement of the water, and hence the changes in the barometric
pressure were more readily detected and estimated. But the instrument
failed as all water-barometers do, for the gases dissolved in the water
coupled with its high vapour tension destroy its efficacy. The substitution
of methyl salicylate for the water has been attended with success. Its low
vapour tension (Sir William Ramsay and Sydney Young give no value below 70°
C.), its low specific gravity (1.18 at 10° C.), its freedom from viscosity,
have contributed to its successful use. In the form patented by C. O.
Bartrum it is claimed that readings to .001 of an inch of mercury can be
taken without the use of a vernier.

The diagonal barometer, in which the upper part of the tube is inclined to
the lower part, was suggested by Bernardo Ramazzini (1633-1714), and also
by Sir Samuel Morland (or Moreland). This form has many defects, and even
when the [v.03 p.0419] tube is bent through 45° the readings are only
increased in the ratio of 7 to 5. The wheel barometer of Dr R. Hooke, and
the steel-yard barometer, endeavour to magnify the oscillation of the
mercury column by means of a float resting on the surface of the mercury in
the cistern; the motion of the float due to any alteration in the level of
the mercury being rendered apparent by a change in the position of the
wheel or steel-yard. The pendant barometer of G. Amontons, invented in
1695, consists of a funnel-shaped tube, which is hung vertically with the
wide end downwards and closed in at the upper end. The tube contains
mercury which adjusts itself in the tube so that the length of the column
balances the atmospheric pressure. The instability of this instrument is
obvious, for any jar would cause the mercury to leave the tube.

[Illustration: FIG. 1. Siphon Barometer.]

The _Siphon Barometer_ (fig. 1) consists of a tube bent in the form of a
siphon, and is of the same diameter throughout. A graduated scale passes
along the whole length of the tube, and the height of the barometer is
ascertained by taking the difference of the readings of the upper and lower
limbs respectively. This instrument may also be read by bringing the
zero-point of the graduated scale to the level of the surface of the lower
limb by means of a screw, and reading off the height at once from the
surface of the upper limb. This barometer requires no correction for errors
of capillarity or capacity. Since, however, impurities are contracted by
the mercury in the lower limb, which is usually in open contact with the
air, the satisfactory working of the instrument comes soon to be seriously
interfered with.

[Illustration: FIG. 2. Cistern Barometer.]

Fig. 2 shows the _Cistern Barometer_ in its essential and simplest form.
This barometer is subject to two kinds of error, the one arising from
capillarity, and the other from changes in the level of the surface of the
cistern as the mercury rises and falls in the tube, the latter being
technically called the _error of capacity_. If a glass tube of small bore
be plunged into a vessel containing mercury, it will be observed that the
level of the mercury in the tube is not in the line of that of the mercury
in the vessel, but somewhat below it, and that the surface is convex. The
capillary depression is inversely proportional to the diameter of the tube.
In standard barometers, the tube is about an inch in diameter, and the
error due to capillarity is less than .001 of an inch. Since capillarity
depresses the height of the column, cistern barometers require an addition
to be made to the observed height, in order to give the true pressure, the
amount depending, of course, on the diameter of the tube.

The error of capacity arises in this way. The height of the barometer is
the perpendicular distance between the surface of the mercury in the
cistern and the upper surface of the mercurial column. Now, when the
barometer falls from 30 to 29 inches, an inch of mercury must flow out of
the tube and pass into the cistern, thus raising the cistern level; and, on
the other hand, when the barometer rises, mercury must flow out of the
cistern into the tube, thus lowering the level of the mercury in the
cistern. Since the scales of barometers are usually engraved on their brass
cases, which are fixed (and, consequently, the zero-point from which the
scale is graduated is also fixed), it follows that, from the incessant
changes in the level of the cistern, the readings would be sometimes too
high and sometimes too low, if no provision were made against this source
of error.

[Sidenote: Fortin's Barometer.]

A simple way of correcting the error of capacity is--to ascertain (1) the
neutral point of the instrument, or that height at which the zero of the
scale is exactly at the height of the surface of the cistern, and (2) the
rate of error as the barometer rises or falls above this point, and then
apply a correction proportional to this rate. The instrument in which the
error of capacity is satisfactorily (indeed, entirely) got rid of is
_Fortin's Barometer_. Fig. 3 shows how this is effected. The upper part of
the cistern is formed of a glass cylinder, through which the level of the
mercury may be seen. The bottom is made like a bag, of flexible leather,
against which a screw works. At the top of the interior of the cistern is a
small piece of ivory, the point of which coincides with the zero of the
scale. By means of the screw, which acts on the flexible cistern bottom,
the level of the mercury can be raised or depressed so as to bring the
ivory point exactly to the surface of the mercury in the cistern. In some
barometers the cistern is fixed, and the ivory point is brought to the
level of the mercury in the cistern by raising or depressing the scale.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Fortin's Barometer.]

In constructing the best barometers three materials are employed,
viz.:--(1) brass, for the case, on which the scale is engraved; (2) glass,
for the tube containing the mercury; and (3) the mercury itself. It is
evident that if the coefficient of expansion of mercury and brass were the
same, the height of the mercury as indicated by the brass scale would be
the true height of the mercurial column. But this is not the case, the
coefficient of expansion for mercury being considerably greater than that
for brass. The result is that if a barometer stand at 30 in. when the
temperature of the whole instrument, mercury and brass, is 32°, it will no
longer stand at 30 in. if the temperature be raised to 69°; in fact, it
will then stand at 30.1 in. [Sidenote: Corrections of the barometer
reading.] This increase in the height of the column by the tenth of an inch
is not due to any increase of pressure, but altogether to the greater
expansion of the mercury at the higher temperature, as compared with the
expansion of the brass case with the engraved scale by which the height is
measured. In order, therefore, to compare with each other with exactness
barometric observations made at different temperatures, it is necessary to
reduce them to the heights at which they would stand at some uniform
temperature. The temperature to which such observations are reduced is 32°
Fahr. or 0° cent.

If English units be used (Fahrenheit degrees and inches), this correction
is given by the formula

         .09T - 2.56
  x = -H ------------,
             1000

in the centigrade-centimetre system the correction is .0001614 HT (H being
the observed height and T the observed temperature). Devices have been
invented which determine these corrections mechanically, and hence obviate
the necessity of applying the above formula, or of referring to tables in
which these corrections for any height of the column and any temperature
are given.

The standard temperature of the English yard being 62° and not 32°, it will
be found in working out the corrections from the above formula that the
temperature of no correction is not 32° but 28.5°. If the scale be engraved
on the glass tube, or if the instrument be furnished with a glass scale or
with a wooden scale, different corrections are required. These may be
worked out from the above formula by substituting for the coefficient of
the expansion of brass that of glass, which is assumed to be 0.00000498, or
that of wood, which is assumed to be 0. Wood, however, should not be used,
its expansion with temperature being unsteady, as well as uncertain.

If the brass scale be attached to a wooden frame and be free to move up and
down the frame, as is the case with many siphon barometers, the corrections
for brass scales are to be used, since the zero-point of the scale is
brought to the level of the lower limb; but if the brass scale be _fixed_
to a wooden frame, the corrections for brass scales are only applicable
provided the zero of the scale be fixed at (or nearly at) the zero line of
the column, and be free to expand upwards. In siphon barometers, with which
an observation is made from two readings on the scale, the [v.03 p.0420]
scale must be free to expand in one direction. Again, if only the upper
part of the scale, say from 27 to 31 in., be screwed to a wooden frame, it
is evident that not the corrections for brass scales, but those for wooden
scales must be used. No account need be taken of the expansion of the glass
tube containing the mercury, it being evident that no correction for this
expansion is required in the case of any barometer the height of which is
measured from the surface of the mercury in the cistern.

[Sidenote: Position of barometer.]

In fixing a barometer for observation, it is indispensable that it be hung
in a perpendicular position, seeing that it is the _perpendicular distance_
between the surface of the mercury in the cistern and the top of the column
which is the true height of the barometer. The surface of the mercury
column is convex, and in noting the height of the barometer, it is not the
chord of the curve, but its tangent which is taken. This is done by setting
the straight lower edge of the vernier, an appendage with which the
barometer is furnished, as a tangent to the curve. The vernier is made to
slide up and down the scale, and by it the height of the barometer may be
read true to 0.002 or even to 0.001 in.

It is essential that the barometer is at the temperature shown by the
attached thermometer. No observation can be regarded as good if the
thermometer indicates a temperature differing from that of the whole
instrument by more than a degree. For every degree of temperature the
attached thermometer differs from the barometer, the observation will be
faulty to the extent of about 0.003 in., which in discussions of diurnal
range, &c., is a serious amount.

Before being used, barometers should be thoroughly examined as to the state
of the mercury, the size of cistern (so as to admit of low readings), and
their agreement with some known standard instrument at different points of
the scale. The pressure of the atmosphere is not expressed by the weight of
the mercury sustained in the tube by it, but by the perpendicular height of
the column. Thus, when the height of the column is 30 in., it is not said
that the atmospheric pressure is 14.7 lb on the square inch, or the weight
of the mercury filling a tube at that height whose transverse section
equals a square inch, but that it is 30 in., meaning that the pressure will
sustain a column of mercury of that height.

It is essential in gasometry to fix upon some standard pressure to which
all measurements can be reduced. The height of the standard mercury column
commonly used is 76 cms. (29.922 in.) of pure mercury at 0°; this is near
the average height of the barometer. Since the actual _force_ exerted by
the atmosphere varies with the intensity of gravity, and therefore with the
position on the earth's surface, a place must be specified in defining the
standard pressure. This may be avoided by expressing the force as the
pressure in dynes due to a column of mercury, one square centimetre in
section, which is supported by the atmosphere. If H cms. be the height at
0°, and _g_ the value of gravity, the pressure is 13.596 H_g_ dynes (13.596
being the density of mercury). At Greenwich, where _g_ = 981.17, the
standard pressure at 0° is 1,013,800 dynes. At Paris the pressure is
1,013,600 dynes. The closeness of this unit to a mega-dyne (a million
dynes) has led to the suggestion that a mega-dyne per square centimetre
should be adopted as the standard pressure, and it has been adopted by some
modern writers on account of its convenience of calculation and
independence of locality.

[Sidenote: Barometric readings.]

The height of the barometer is expressed in English inches in England and
America, but the metric system is used in all scientific work excepting in
meteorology. In France and most European countries, the height is given in
millimetres, a millimetre being the thousandth part of a metre, which
equals 39.37079 English inches. Up to 1869 the barometer was given in
half-lines in Russia, which, equalling the twentieth of an English inch,
were readily reduced to English inches by dividing by 20. The metric
barometric scale is now used in Russia. In a few European countries the
French or Paris line, equalling 0.088814 in., is sometimes used. The
English measure of length being a standard at 62° Fahr., the old French
measure at 61.2°, and the metric scale at 32°, it is necessary, before
comparing observations made with the three barometers, to reduce them to
the same temperature, so as to neutralize the inequalities arising from the
expansion of the scales by heat.

[Sidenote: Sympiezometer.]

The sympiezometer was invented in 1818 by Adie of Edinburgh. It is a
revived form of Hooke's marine barometer. It consists of a glass tube, with
a small chamber at the top and an open cistern below. The upper part of the
tube is filled with air, and the lower part and cistern with glycerin. When
atmospheric pressure is increased, the air is compressed by the rising of
the fluid; but when it is diminished the fluid falls, and the contained air
expands. To correct for the error arising from the increased pressure of
the contained air when its temperature varies, a thermometer and
sliding-scale are added, so that the instrument may be adjusted to the
temperature at each observation. It is a sensitive instrument, and well
suited for rough purposes at sea and for travelling, but not for exact
observation. It has long been superseded by the _Aneroid_, which far
exceeds it in handiness.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Aneroid Barometer.]

_Aneroid Barometer._--Much obscurity surrounds the invention of barometers
in which variations in pressure are rendered apparent by the alteration in
the volume of an elastic chamber. The credit of the invention is usually
given to Lucien Vidie, who patented his instrument in 1845, but similar
instruments were in use much earlier. Thus in 1799 Nicolas Jacques Conté
(1755-1805), director of the aerostatical school at Meudon, and a man of
many parts--a chemist, mechanician and painter,--devised an instrument in
which the lid of the metal chamber was supported by internal springs; this
instrument was employed during the Egyptian campaign for measuring the
altitudes of the war-balloons. Although Vidie patented his device in 1845,
the commercial manufacture of aneroids only followed after E. Bourdon's
patent of the metallic manometer in 1849, when Bourdon and Richard placed
about 10,000 aneroids on the market. The production was stopped by an
action taken by Vidie against Bourdon for infringing the former's patent,
and in 1858 Vidie obtained 25,000 francs (£1000) damages.

Fig. 4 represents the internal construction, as seen when the face is
removed, but with the hand still attached, of an aneroid which differs only
slightly from Vidie's form. _a_ is a flat circular metallic box, having its
upper and under surfaces corrugated in concentric circles. This box or
chamber being partially exhausted of air, through the short tube _b_, which
is subsequently made air-tight by soldering, constitutes a spring, which is
affected by every variation of pressure in the external atmosphere, the
corrugations on its surface increasing its elasticity. At the centre of the
upper surface of the exhausted chamber there is a solid cylindrical
projection _x_, to the top of which the principal lever _cde_ is attached.
This lever rests partly on a spiral spring at _d_; it is also supported by
two vertical pins, with perfect freedom of motion. The end _e_ of the lever
is attached to a second or small lever _f_, from which a chain _g_ extends
to _h_, where it works on a drum attached to the axis of the hand,
connected with a hair spring at _h_, changing the motion from vertical to
horizontal, and regulating the hand, the attachments of which are made to
the metallic plate _i_. The motion originates in the corrugated elastic box
_a_, the surface of which is depressed or elevated as the weight of the
atmosphere is increased or diminished, and this motion is communicated
through the levers to the axis of [v.03 p.0421] the hand at _h_. The spiral
spring on which the lever rests at _d_ is intended to compensate for the
effects of alterations of temperature. The actual movement at the centre of
the exhausted box, whence the indications emanate, is very slight, but by
the action of the levers is multiplied 657 times at the point of the hand,
so that a movement of the 220th part of an inch in the box carries the
point of the hand through three inches on the dial. The effect of this
combination is to multiply the smallest degrees of atmospheric pressure, so
as to render them sensible on the index. Vidie's instrument has been
improved by Vaudet and Hulot. Eugène Bourdon's aneroid depends on the same
principle. The aneroid requires, however, to be repeatedly compared with a
mercurial barometer, being liable to changes from the elasticity of the
metal chamber changing, or from changes in the system of levers which work
the pointer. Though aneroids are constructed showing great accuracy in
their indications, yet none can lay any claim to the exactness of mercurial
barometers. The mechanism is liable to get fouled and otherwise go out of
order, so that they may change 0.300 in. in a few weeks, or even indicate
pressure so inaccurately and so irregularly that no confidence can be
placed in them for even a few days, if the means of comparing them with a
mercurial barometer be not at hand.

[Sidenote: Barographs.]

The mercurial barometer can be made self-registering by concentrating the
rays from a source of light by a lens, so that they strike the top of the
mercurial column, and having a sheet of sensitized paper attached to a
frame and placed behind a screen, with a narrow vertical slit in the line
of the rays. The mercury being opaque throws a part of the paper in the
shade, while above the mercury the rays from the lamp pass unobstructed to
the paper. The paper being carried steadily round on a drum at a given rate
per hour, the height of the column of mercury is photographed continuously
on the paper. From the photograph the height of the barometer at any
instant may be taken. The principle of the aneroid barometer has been
applied to the construction of barographs. The lever attached to the
collapsible chamber terminates in an ink-fed style which records the
pressure of the atmosphere on a moving ribbon. In all continuously
registering barometers, however, it is necessary, as a check, to make
eye-observations with a mercury standard barometer hanging near the
registering barometer from four to eight times daily.

See Marvin, _Barometers and the Measurement of Atmospheric Pressure_
(1901); and C. Abbe, _Meteorological Apparatus_ (1888). Reference may also
be made to B. Stewart and W. W. H. Gee, _Practical Physics_ (vol. i. 1901),
for the construction of standard barometers, their corrections and method
of reading.

BAROMETRIC LIGHT, the luminous glow emitted by mercury in a barometer tube
when shaken. It was first observed by Jean Picard, and formed the subject
of many experiments at the hands of Francis Hawksbee. The latter showed
that the Torricellian vacuum was not essential to the phenomenon, for the
same glow was apparent when mercury was shaken with air only partially
rarefied. The glow is an effect of the electricity generated by the
friction of the mercury and the air in the barometer tube.

BARON, MICHEL (1653-1729), French actor (whose family name originally was
Boyron), was born in Paris, the son of a leading actor (d. 1655) and of a
talented actress (d. 1662). At the age of twelve he joined the company of
children known as the _Petits Comédiens Dauphins_, of which he was the
brightest star. Molière was delighted with his talent, and with the king's
permission secured him for his own company. In consequence of a
misunderstanding with Molière's wife, the actor withdrew from the
dramatist's company, but rejoined it in 1670, reappearing as Domitien in
Corneille's _Tite et Bérénice_, and in his _Psyche_. He remained in this
company until Molière's death. He then became a member of the company at
the Hôtel de Bourgogne, and from this time until his retirement in 1691 was
undisputed master of the French stage, creating many of the leading rôles
in Racine's tragedies, besides those in two of his own comedies, _L'Homme à
bonnes fortunes_ (1686), and _La Coquette_ (1687). He also wrote _Les
Enlèvements_ (1685), _Le Débauché_ (1689), and translated and acted two
plays of Terence. In 1720 Baron reappeared at the Palais Royal, and his
activity on the stage was renewed in a multitude of parts. He died on the
22nd of December 1729.

His son ÉTIENNE MICHEL BARON (1676-1711) was also a fine actor, and left a
son and two daughters who all played at the Comédie Française.

See George Monval, _Un Comédien amateur d'art_ (1893); also the Abbé
d'Allamial's _Lettres à mylord XXX. sur Baron et la demoiselle Lecouvreur_,
in F. G. J. S. Andrieux's _Collection des mémoires sur l'art dramatique_
(1822).

BARON. This word, of uncertain origin, was introduced into England at the
Conquest to denote "the man" (_i.e._ one who had done him "homage") of a
great lord, and more especially of the king. All who held "in chief"
(_i.e._ directly) of the king were alike _barones regis_, bound to perform
a stipulated service, and members, in theory at least, of his council.
Great nobles, whether earls or not, also spoke of their tenants as
"barons," where lesser magnates spoke of their "men" (_homines_). This was
especially the case in earldoms of a palatine character, such as Chester,
where the earl's barons were a well-recognized body, the Venables family,
"barons of Kinderton," continuing in existence down to 1679. In the
palatinate of Durham also, the bishop had his barons, among whom the
Hiltons of Hilton Castle were usually styled "Barons of Hilton" till
extinct in 1746. Other families to whom the title was accorded,
independently of peerage dignity and on somewhat uncertain grounds, were
"the barons of Greystock," "the barons of Stafford," and the Cornwalls,
"barons of Burford." Fantosme makes Henry II. speak of "mes baruns de
Lundres"; John's charter granting permission to elect a mayor speaks of
"our barons of our city of London," and a London document even speaks of
"the greater barons of the city." The aldermen seem to have been loosely
deemed equivalent to barons and were actually assessed to the poll-tax as
such under Richard II. In Ireland the palatine character of the great
lordships made the title not uncommon (_e.g._ the barons of Galtrim, the
barons of Slane, the barons of the Naas).

As all those who held direct of the crown by military service (for those
who held "by serjeanty" appear to have been classed apart), from earls
downwards, were alike "barons," the great difference in their position and
importance must have led, from an early date, to their being roughly
divided into "greater" and "lesser" barons, and indeed, under Henry II.,
the _Dialogus de Scaccario_ already distinguishes their holdings as
"greater" or "lesser" baronies. Within a century of the Conquest, as we
learn from Becket's case (1164), there arose the practice of sending to the
greater barons a special summons to the council, while the lesser barons,
it is stipulated in Magna Carta (1215), were to be summoned only through
the sheriffs. Thus was introduced a definite distinction, which eventually
had the effect of restricting to the greater barons the rights and
privileges of peerage.

Thus far the baron's position was connected with the tenure of land; in
theory the barons were those who held their lands of the king; in practice,
they were those who so held a large amount of land. The great change in
their status was effected when their presence in that council of the realm
which became the House of Lords was determined by the issue of a writ of
summons, dependent not on the tenure of land, but only on the king's will.
Camden's statement that this change was made by Henry III. after "the
Barons' War" was long and widely accepted, but it is now assigned, as by
Stubbs, to Edward I., and the earliest writs accepted as creating
hereditary baronies are those issued in his reign. It must not, however, be
supposed that those who received such summons were as yet distinguished
from commoners by any style or title. The only possible prefix at that time
was _Dominus_ (lord), which was regularly used by simple knights, and writs
of summons were still issued to the lowest order of peers as knights
(_chevaliers_) only. The style of baron was first introduced by Richard II.
in 1387, when he created John de Beauchamp, by patent, Lord de Beauchamp
and baron of Kidderminster, to make him "unum parium et baronum regni
nostri." But it was not till 1433 that the next "baron" was created, Sir
John Cornwall being then made baron of Fanhope. In spite, however, of these
innovations, the former [v.03 p.0422] was only summoned to parliament by
the style of "John Beauchamp of Kidderminster," and the latter by that of
"John Cornwall, knight." Such creations became common under Henry VI., a
transition period in peerage styles, but "Baron" could not evict "Sire,"
"Chevalier" and "Dominus." Patents of creation contained the formula "Lord
A. (and) Baron of B.," but the grantee still styled himself "Lord" only,
and it is an historically interesting fact that to this day a baron is
addressed in correspondence, not by that style, but as "the Lord A.,"
although all peers under the rank of Duke are spoken of as "lords," while
they are addressed in correspondence by their proper styles. To speak of
"Baron A." or "Baron B." is an unhistorical and quite recent practice. When
a barony, however, is vested in a lady it is now the recognized custom to
speak of her as baroness, _e.g._ Baroness Berkeley.

The solemn investiture of barons created by patent was performed by the
king himself, by enrobing the peer in the scarlet "robe of estate" during
the reading of the patent, and this form continued till 13 Jac. I., when
the lawyers declared that the delivery of the letters patent without
ceremony was sufficient. The letters patent express the limits of
inheritance of the barony. The usual limit is to the grantee and heirs male
of his body, occasionally, in default of male issue, to a collateral male
relative (as in the case of Lord Brougham, 1860) or (as in the case of Lord
Basset, 1797, and Lord Burton, 1897) to the heirs-male of a daughter, and
occasionally (as in the case of Lord Nelson, 1801) to the heirs-male of a
sister. Sometimes also (as in the case of the barony of Rayleigh, 1821) the
dignity is bestowed upon a lady with remainder to the heirs-male of her
body. The coronation robes of a baron are the same as those of an earl,
except that he has only two rows of spots on each shoulder; and, in like
manner, his parliamentary robes have but two guards of white fur, with rows
of gold lace; but in other respects they are the same as those of other
peers. King Charles II. granted to the barons a coronet, having six large
pearls set at equal distances on the chaplet. A baron's cap is the same as
a viscount's. His style is "Right Honourable"; and he is addressed by the
king or queen, "Right Trusty and Well-beloved." His children are by
courtesy entitled to the prefix "The Honourable."

_Barons of the Exchequer_ were formerly six judges (a chief baron and five
puisne barons) to whom the administration of justice was committed in
causes betwixt the king and his subjects relative to matters of revenue.
Selden, in his _Titles of Honour_, conjectures that they were originally
chosen from among the barons of the kingdom, and hence their name; but it
would probably be more exact to say that they were officers of a branch of
the king's _Curia_, which was theoretically composed of his "barons." The
title has become obsolete since 1875, when the court of exchequer was
merged in the High Court of Judicature.

_Barons of the Cinque Ports_ (originally Hastings, Dover, Hythe, Romney and
Sandwich) were at first the whole body of their freemen, who were so spoken
of in royal charters. But the style was afterwards restricted to their
mayors, jurats, and (prior to 1831) members of the House of Commons elected
by the Cinque Ports, two for each port. Their right to the title is
recognized in many old statutes, but in 1606 the use of the term in a
message from the Lower House drew forth a protest from the peers, that
"they would never acknowledge any man that sitteth in the Lower House to
the right or title of a baron of parliament" (_Lords' Journals_). It was
the ancient privilege of these "barons" to bear a canopy over the sovereign
at his or her coronation and retain it as their perquisite. They petitioned
as "barons of the Cinque Ports" to attend the coronation of Edward VII.,
and a deputation was allowed to do so.

_Baron and Feme_, in English law, is a phrase used for husband and wife, in
relation to each other, who are accounted as one person. Hence, by the old
law of evidence, the one party was excluded from giving evidence for or
against the other in civil questions, and a relic of this is still
preserved in the criminal law.

_Baron and Feme_, in heraldry, is the term used when the coats-of-arms of a
man and his wife are borne per pale in the same escutcheon, the man's being
always on the dexter side, and the woman's on the sinister. But in this
case the woman is supposed not to be an heiress, for then her coat must be
borne by the husband on an escutcheon of pretence. (See HERALDRY.)

The foreign title of baron is occasionally borne by English subjects, but
confers no precedence in the United Kingdom. It may be Russian, _e.g._
Baron Dimsdale (1762); German, _e.g._ Baron Stockmar, Baron Halkett
(Hanoverian); Austrian, _e.g._ Baron Rothschild (1822), Baron de Worms;
Italian, _e.g._ Baron Heath; French, _e.g._ Baron de Teissier;
French-Canadian, _e.g._ Baron de Longueil (1700); Dutch, _e.g._ Baron
Mackay (Lord Reay).

(J. H. R.)

_The Foreign Title._--On the continent of Europe the title baron, though
the same in its origin, has come, owing to a variety of causes, to imply a
rank and status very different from its connotation in the United Kingdom,
and again varies considerably in different countries. Originally _baro_
meant no more than "man," and is so used in the Salic and other "barbarian"
laws; _e.g._ _Si quis mortaudit barum vel feminam_, &c. (_Lex Aleman._ tit.
76). In this way, too, it was long preserved in the sense of "husband," as
in the Assize of Jerusalem (MSS. cap. 98): _Si l'on appelle aucune chose
femme qui aura baron, et il la veut deffendre, il la peut deffendre de son
cors_, &c. Gradually the word seems to have come to mean a "strong or
powerful man," and thus generally "a magnate." Finally, in France in the
12th century the general expression _barones_ was introduced in a
restricted sense, as applied properly to all lords possessing an important
fief, subject to the rule of primogeniture and thus not liable to be
divided up, and held of one overlord alone. Sometimes it included
ecclesiastical lordships of the first rank. In the 13th century the
Register of King Philip Augustus places the _barones regis Francie_ next to
the dukes and counts holding in chief, the title being limited to vassals
of the second rank. Towards the end of the century the title had come to
mean that its bearer held his principal fief direct from the crown, and was
therefore more important than that of count, since many counts were only
mediate vassals. Thus the kings in granting a duchy or countship as an
apanage to their brothers or sons used the phrase _in comitatum et
baroniam_. From this period, however, the title tends to sink in
comparative importance. When, in the 14th century, the feudal hierarchy was
completed and stereotyped, the barons are ranked not only below counts, but
below viscounts, though in power and possessions many barons were superior
to many counts. In any case, until the 17th century, the title of baron
could only be borne by the holder of a territorial barony; and it was Louis
XIV. who first cheapened the title in France by creating numerous barons by
royal letters. This entire dissociation of the title from the idea of
feudal rights and obligations was completed by Napoleon's decree of March
1, 1808, reviving the ancient titles. By this instrument the title of baron
was to be borne _ex officio_ by a number of high officials, _e.g._
ministers, senators, councillors of state, archbishops and bishops. It was
given to the 37 mayors who attended the coronation, and could be claimed by
any mayor who had served to the emperor's satisfaction for ten years, and
by any member of an electoral college who had attended three sessions. The
title was made to descend in order of primogeniture to legitimate or
adopted sons and to the nephews of bishops, the sole condition being that
proof must be presented of an actual income of 15,000 fr., of which
one-third should descend with the title. The creation of barons was
continued by Louis XVIII., Charles X. and Louis Philippe, and, suspended at
the revolution of 1848, was revived again on a generous scale by Napoleon
III. The tolerant attitude of the Third Republic towards titles, which it
does not officially recognize, has increased the confusion by facilitating
the assumption of the title on very slender grounds of right. The result
has been that in France the title of Baron, unless borne by the recognized
representative of a historic name, not only involves no political status,
but confers also but very slight social distinction.

The same is true, _mutatis mutandis_, of most other European countries, and
notably of Italy. In Austria and Germany the [v.03 p.0423] case is somewhat
different. Though in Latin documents of the middle ages the term _barones_
for _liberi domini_ was used, it was not until the 17th century that the
word _Baron_, perhaps under the influence of the court of Versailles, began
to be used as the equivalent of the old German _Freiherr_, or free lord of
the Empire. The style _Freiherr_ (_liber dominus_) implied originally a
dynastic status, and many _Freiherren_ held countships without taking the
title of count. When the more important of them styled themselves counts,
the _Freiherren_ sank into an inferior class of nobility. The practice of
conferring the title _Freiherr_ by imperial letters was begun in the 16th
century by Charles V., was assumed on the ground of special imperial
concessions by many of the princes of the Empire, and is now exercised by
all the German sovereigns. Though the practice of all the children taking
the title of their father has tended to make that of Baron comparatively
very common, and has dissociated it from all idea of territorial
possession, it still implies considerable social status and privilege in
countries where a sharp line is drawn between the caste of "nobles" and the
common herd, whom no wealth or intellectual eminence can place on the same
social level with the poorest _Adeliger_. In Japan the title baron (_Dan_)
is the lowest of the five titles of nobility introduced in 1885, on the
European model. It was given to the least important class of territorial
nobles, but is also bestowed as a title of honour without reference to
territorial possession.

See du Cange, _Glossarium_, s. "Baro" (ed. Niort, 1883); John Selden,
_Titles of Honor_, p. 353 (ed. 1672); Achille Luchaire, _Manuel des
institutions françaises_ (Paris, 1892); Maurice Prou, art. "Baron" in _La
Grande Encyclopédie_.

(W. A. P.)

BARONET. Although the origin of this title has been the subject of learned
speculation, it is not known for certain why it was selected as that of "a
new Dignitie between Barons and Knights" created by James I. The object of
its institution was to raise money for the crown, as was also done by the
sale of peerage dignities under this sovereign. But the money was
professedly devoted to the support of troops in Ulster, that is, each
grantee was to be liable for the pay of thirty men, at 8d. a day for three
years. This amounted to £1095, which was the sum paid for the honour. When
it was instituted, in May 1611, the king, to keep the baronetage select,
covenanted that he would not create more than two hundred, and that only
those who had £1000 a year in landed estate and whose paternal grandfathers
had borne arms should receive the honour. But these qualifications were
before long abandoned. As an inducement to apply for it, it was made to
confer the prefix of "Sir" and "Lady" (or "Dame"), and was assigned
precedence above knights, though below the younger sons of barons. Eight
years later (30th of September 1619), the baronetage of Ireland was
instituted, the king pledging himself not to create more than a hundred
baronets. Meanwhile, questions had arisen as to the exact precedence of the
baronets, and James by royal decree (28th of May 1612) had announced that
it was his intention to rank them below the younger sons of barons. As this
had the effect of stopping applications for the honour, James issued a
fresh commission (18th of November 1614) to encourage them, and finally, as
"the Kinges wants might be much relieved out of the vanities and ambition
of the gentrie" (in Chamberlain's words), he granted, in 1616, the further
privilege that the heirs apparent of baronets should be knighted on coming
of age.

The baronetage of Nova Scotia was devised in 1624 as a means of promoting
the "plantation" of that province, and James announced his intention of
creating a hundred baronets, each of whom was to support six colonists for
two years (or pay 2000 marks in lieu thereof) and also to pay 1000 marks to
Sir William Alexander (afterwards earl of Stirling), to whom the province
had been granted by charter in 1621. For this he was to receive a "free
barony" of 16,000 acres in Nova Scotia, and to become a baronet of "his
Hienes Kingdom of Scotland." James dying at this point, Charles I. carried
out the scheme, creating the first Scottish baronet on the 28th of May
1625, covenanting in the creation charter that the baronets "of Scotland or
of Nova Scotia" should never exceed a hundred and fifty in number, that
their heirs apparent should be knighted on coming of age, and that no one
should receive the honour who had not fulfilled the conditions, viz. paid
3000 marks (£166, 13s. 4d.) towards the plantation of the colony. Four
years later (17th of November 1629) the king wrote to "the contractors for
baronets," recognizing that they had advanced large sums to Sir William
Alexander for the plantation on the security of the payments to be made by
future baronets, and empowering them to offer a further inducement to
applicants; and on the same day he granted to all Nova Scotia baronets the
right to wear about their necks, suspended by an orange tawny ribbon, a
badge bearing an azure saltire with a crowned inescutcheon of the arms of
Scotland and the motto "Fax mentis honestae gloria." As the required
number, however, could not be completed, Charles announced in 1633 that
English and Irish gentlemen might receive the honour, and in 1634 they
began to do so. Yet even so, he was only able to create a few more than a
hundred and twenty in all. In 1638 the creation ceased to carry with it the
grant of lands in Nova Scotia, and on the union with England (1707) the
Scottish creations ceased, English and Scotsmen alike receiving thenceforth
baronetcies of Great Britain.

It is a matter of dispute whether James I. had kept faith with the baronets
of England as to limiting their number; but his son soon rejected the
restriction freely. Creations became one of his devices for raising money;
blank patents were hawked about, and in 1641 Nicholas wrote that
baronetcies were to be had for £400 or even for £350; a patent was offered
about this time to Mr Wrottesley of Wrottesley for £300. On the other hand,
the honour appears to have been bestowed for nothing on some ardent
royalists when the great struggle began.

Cromwell created a few baronets, but at the Restoration the honour was
bestowed so lavishly that a letter to Sir Richard Leveson (3rd of June
1660) describes it as "too common," and offers to procure it for any one in
return for £300 or £400. Sir William Wiseman, however, is said to have
given £500.

The history of the baronetage was uneventful till 1783, when in consequence
of the wrongful assumption of baronetcies, an old and then increasing evil,
a royal warrant was issued (6th of December) directing that no one should
be recognized as a baronet in official documents till he had proved his
right to the dignity, and also that those created in future must register
their arms and pedigree at the Heralds' College. In consequence of the
opposition of the baronets themselves, the first of these two regulations
was rescinded and the evil remained unabated. Since the union with Ireland
(1800) baronets have been created, not as of Great Britain or of Ireland,
but as of the United Kingdom.

In 1834 a movement was initiated by Mr Richard Broun (whose father had
assumed a Nova Scotia baronetcy some years before), to obtain certain
privileges for the order, but on the advice of the Heralds' College, the
request was refused. A further petition, for permission to all baronets to
wear a badge, as did those of Nova Scotia, met with the same fate in 1836.
Meanwhile George IV. had revoked (19th of December 1827), as to all future
creations the right of baronets' eldest sons to claim knighthood. Mr Broun
claimed it as an heir apparent in 1836, and on finally meeting with
refusal, publicly assumed the honour in 1842, a foolish and futile act. In
1854 Sir J. Kingston James was knighted as a baronet's son, and Sir Ludlow
Cotter similarly in 1874, on his coming of age; but when Sir Claude de
Crespigny's son applied for the honour (17th of May 1895), his application
was refused, on the ground that the lord chancellor did not consider the
clause in the patent (1805) valid. The reason for this decision appears to
be unknown.

Mr Broun's subsequent connexion with a scheme for reviving the territorial
claims of the Nova Scotia baronets as part of a colonizing scheme need not
be discussed here. A fresh agitation was aroused in 1897 by an order giving
the sons of life peers precedence over baronets, some of whom formed
themselves, in 1898, into "the Honourable Society of the Baronetage" for
the maintenance of its privileges. But a royal warrant was issued on the
15th of August 1898, confirming the precedence complained of as an
infringement of their rights. The above body, however, [v.03 p.0424] has
continued in existence as the "Standing Council of the Baronetage," and
succeeded in obtaining invitations for some representatives of the order to
the coronation of King Edward VII. It has been sought to obtain badges or
other distinctions for baronets and also to purge the order of wrongful
assumptions, an evil to which the baronetage of Nova Scotia is peculiarly
exposed, owing to the dignity being descendible to collateral heirs male of
the grantee as well as to those of his body. A departmental committee at
the home office was appointed in 1906 to consider the question of such
assumptions and the best means of stopping them.

All baronets are entitled to display in their coat of arms, either on a
canton or on an inescutcheon, the red hand of Ulster, save those of Nova
Scotia, who display, instead of it, the saltire of that province. The
precedency of baronets of Nova Scotia and of Ireland in relation to those
of England was left undetermined by the Acts of Union, and appears to be
still a moot point with heralds. The premier baronet of England is Sir
Hickman Bacon, whose ancestor was the first to receive the honour in 1611.

See Pixley's _History of the Baronetage_; Playfair's "Baronetage" (in
_British Family Antiquity_, vols. vi.-ix.); Foster's _Baronetage_; G. E.
Cokayne's _Complete Baronetage_; Nichols, "The Dignity of Baronet" (in
_Herald and Genealogist_, vol. iii.)

(J. H. R.)

BARONIUS, CAESAR (1538-1607), Italian cardinal and ecclesiastical
historian, was born at Sora, and was educated at Veroli and Naples. At Rome
he joined the Oratory in 1557 under St Philip Neri (_q.v._) and succeeded
him as superior in 1593. Clement VIII., whose confessor he was, made him
cardinal in 1596 and librarian of the Vatican. At subsequent conclaves he
was twice nearly elected pope, but on each occasion was opposed by Spain on
account of his work _On the Monarchy of Sicily_, in which he supported the
papal claims against those of the Spanish government. Baronius is best
known by his _Annales Ecclesiastici_, undertaken by the order of St Philip
as an answer to the _Magdeburg Centuries_. After nearly thirty years of
lecturing on the history of the Church at the Vallicella and being trained
by St Philip as a great man for a great work, he began to write, and
produced twelve folios (1588-1607). In the _Annales_ he treats history in
strict chronological order and keeps theology in the background. In spite
of many errors, especially in Greek history, in which he had to depend upon
secondhand information, the work of Baronius stands as an honest attempt to
write history, marked with a sincere love of truth. Sarpi, in urging
Casaubon to write against Baronius, warns him never to charge or suspect
him of bad faith, for no one who knew him could accuse him of disloyalty to
truth. Baronius makes use of the words of St Augustine: "I shall love with
a special love the man who most rigidly and severely corrects my errors."
He also undertook a new edition to the Roman martyrology (1586), which he
purified of many inaccuracies.

His _Annales_, which end in 1198, were continued by Rinaldi (9 vols.,
1676-1677); by Laderchi (3 vols., 1728-1737); and by Theiner (3 vols.,
1856). The most useful edition is that of Mansi (38 vols., Lucca,
1738-1759), giving Pagi's corrections at the foot of each page.

(E. TN.)

BARONY, the domain of a baron (_q.v._). In Ireland counties are divided
into "baronies," which are equivalent to the "hundreds" (_q.v._) in
England, and seem to have been formed out of the territories of the Irish
chiefs, as each submitted to English rule (General Report of the Census of
England, iv. 181, 1873). In Scotland the term is applied to any large
freehold estate even when held by a commoner. Barony also denotes the rank
or dignity of a baron, and the feudal tenure "by barony."

BAROQUE, a technical term, chiefly applicable to architecture, furniture
and household decoration. Apparently of Spanish origin--a _barrueco_ is a
large, irregularly-shaped pearl--the word was for a time confined to the
craft of the jeweller. It indicates the more extravagant fashions of design
that were common in the first half of the 18th century, chiefly in Italy
and France, in which everything is fantastic, grotesque, florid or
incongruous--irregular shapes, meaningless forms, an utter lack of
restraint and simplicity. The word suggests much the same order of ideas as
rococo.

BAROSS, GABOR (1848-1892), Hungarian statesman, was born at Trencsén on the
6th of July 1848, and educated at Esztergom. He was for a time one of the
professors there under Cardinal Kolos Vaszary. After acquiring considerable
local reputation as chief notary of his county, he entered parliament in
1875. He at once attached himself to Kálmán Tisza and remained faithful to
his chief even after the Bosnian occupation had alienated so many of the
supporters of the prime minister. It was he who drew up the reply to the
malcontents on this occasion, for the first time demonstrating his
many-sided ability and his genius for sustained hard work. But it was in
the field of economics that he principally achieved his fame. In 1883 he
was appointed secretary to the ministry of ways and communications. Baross,
who had prepared himself for quite another career, and had only become
acquainted with the civilized West at the time of the Composition of 1867,
mastered, in an incredibly short time, the details of this difficult
department. His zeal, conscientiousness and energy were so universally
recognized, that on the retirement of Gábor Kemény, in 1886, he was
appointed minister of ways and communications. He devoted himself
especially to the development of the national railways, and the gigantic
network of the Austro-Hungarian railway system and its unification is
mainly his work. But his most original creation in this respect was the
zone system, which immensely facilitated and cheapened the circulation of
all wares and produce, and brought the remotest districts into direct
communication with the central point at Budapest. The amalgamation of the
ministry of commerce with the ministry of ways in 1889 further enabled
Baross to realize his great idea of making the trade of Hungary independent
of foreign influences, of increasing the commercial productiveness of the
kingdom and of gaining every possible advantage for her export trade by a
revision of tolls. This patriotic policy provoked loud protests both from
Austria and Germany at the conference of Vienna in 1890, and Baross was
obliged somewhat to modify his system. This was by no means the only
instance in which his commercial policy was attacked and even hampered by
foreign courts. But wherever he was allowed a free hand he introduced
epoch-making reforms in all the branches of his department, including
posts, telegraphs, &c. A man of such strength of character was not to be
turned from his course by any amount of opposition, and he rather enjoyed
to be alluded to as "the iron-handed minister." The crowning point of his
railway policy was the regulation of the Danube at the hitherto impassable
Iron-Gates Rapids by the construction of canals, which opened up the
eastern trade to Hungary and was an event of international importance. It
was while inspecting his work there in March 1892 that he caught a chill,
from which he died on the 8th of May. The day of his burial was a day of
national mourning, and rightly so, for Baross had dedicated his whole time
and genius to the promotion of his country's prosperity.

See László Petrovics, _Biography of Gabriel Baross_ (Hung. Eperies, 1892).

(R. N. B.)

BAROTAC NUEVO, a town of the province of Iloílo, Panay, Philippine Islands,
near the Jalaur river, above its mouth on the S.E. coast, and about 15 m.
N.E. of Iloílo, the capital. Pop. (1903) 9904; in 1903 after the census had
been taken the neighbouring town of Dumangas (pop. 12,428) was annexed to
Barotac Nuevo. The town lies in a fertile plain and deals in rice, trepang
and pina. Here, in what was formerly Dumangas, are a fine church and
convent, built of iron, pressed brick and marble. Dumangas was destroyed by
fire in June 1900, during a fight with insurgents, but its rebuilding was
begun in May 1901.

BAROTSE, BAROTSELAND, a people and country of South Central Africa. The
greater part of the country is a British protectorate, forming part of
Rhodesia. The Barotse are the paramount tribe in the region of the Upper
Zambezi basin, but by popular usage the name is also applied to contiguous
subject tribes, Barotseland being the country over which the Barotse
paramount chief exercises authority. The present article treats (1) of the
people, (2) of the country, (3) of the establishment of the British
protectorate and of subsequent developments.

1. _The Barotse._--These people, originally known as Aälui, have [v.03
p.0425] occupied the extensive plain through which the Zambezi passes from
14° 35' S. to 16° 25' S. throughout the reigns of twenty-two successive
paramount chiefs and therefore approximately since the commencement of the
17th century. Previously, for an indefinite period, they dwelt on the
Kabompo river, 200 m. to the N.E. of their present country, and here the
descendants of a section of the tribe which did not migrate still remain,
under the name Balokwakwa (men of the ambuscade), formerly known as
Aälukolui. That the Barotse at a still more remote period emigrated from
the far north-east is indicated by vague tradition as well as by a certain
similarity in type and language to some tribes living in that direction,
though the fact that natives from Mashonaland can understand those at
Lialui (the Barotse capital) has led to the assumption by some writers that
the Barotse are an offshoot of the Mashona. The variety in type among the
Mashona and the homogeneity of the Barotse would rather point to an
opposite conclusion.

Early in the 19th century a section of the Basuto tribe known as Makololo
trekked from the south of what is now the Orange River Colony and fought
their way through Bechuanaland and the Kalahari to the land of the Barotse,
whom they ultimately subdued. Their chief, Sebituane, who as an
administrator and general was far in advance of his compeers, established
the rule of his house for some forty years, until about 1865 an organized
rebellion of the Barotse led to the almost complete extinction of this
Makololo oligarchy and the reinstatement of the original dynasty. It was
the Makololo who gave the Barotse their present name (Rotse,
plain--_Bu_rotse, _country_ of the plain--_Mu_rotse, _man_ of the
plain--_Ma_rotse, _people_ of the plain, the latter being inaccurately
rendered _Ba_rotse, _Ba_ being the equivalent of _Ma_ in certain other
languages).

The Barotse proper are comparatively few in number, but as is inferred from
the fact that for many generations they have held in sway a country two and
a half times the size of Great Britain, they are the intellectual and
physical superiors of the vast majority of the negro races of Africa. Very
black, tall in stature, deep in chest and comparatively speaking refined in
feature, a Barotse is readily distinguishable amidst a mixed group of
natives. Being numerically small they form an oligarchy in which, with few
exceptions, each man holds rank in a chieftainship of which there are three
grades. Next to the chiefs rank their descendants who have not themselves
acquired chief's rank and hold an intermediate position as freeborn; all
others, whether members of the subject-tribes or prisoners of war, being,
up to 1906, mere slaves. This class was also graded. Slaves might own
slaves who in their turn might own slaves, the highest grade always being
directly responsible to some Barotse chief. As a reward of gallantry or
ability the paramount chief occasionally conferred chief's rank on
individuals not of Barotse birth, and these _ipso facto_ assumed the name
and privileges of the Barotse. It was a counterpart of the feudal system of
Europe in which every grade from king to serf found a place. In 1906 the
paramount chief, by proclamation, abolished the state of slavery, an act
which, however, left untouched the predominant position of the Barotse and
their rights to chieftainship. The paramount chief shares with a queen
(_Mokwai_) his authority and prerogatives. The Mokwai is not the wife but
the eldest sister of the ruling chief. With his death her privileges lapse.
Theoretically, these co-rulers are equal, neither may promulgate a national
decree without the assent of the other, but each has a capital town,
councillors and absolute authority in a province, the two having joint
authority over all other provinces. In their code of laws the Barotse show
an advance on the standard of probably any other African negro state. By
right, an accused chief is tried by his peers, each of whom in rotation
from junior to senior gives his verdict, after which the president reports
the finding of the court to the paramount chief, who passes sentence. As to
their religious beliefs the Barotse imagine the sun to be the embodiment of
a great god whose sole care is for the amelioration of man. Him they
worship, though more pains are taken to appease evil spirits, in whose
existence they also believe, to whom every evil to which man is heir is
attributed. The spirits of ancestors--especially of deceased chiefs--are
also objects of worship. Christianity, of a Protestant evangelical type,
was first introduced into the country in 1884 by François Coillard and has
made some progress among the people, among the converts being Letia, eldest
son and heir of Lewanika, the paramount chief.

2. _Barotseland._--This term includes, in the sense of the country in which
the authority of the paramount Barotse chief is acknowledged, not only the
lands of the Barotse proper, but the territory of fifteen contiguous and
subject tribes. This vast territory extends approximately from the Kwito
river in the west to the Kafue river in the east, and from the
Congo-Zambezi watershed in the north to the Linyante or Kwando river and
Zambezi in the south, and may be divided into three groups:--

(a) Central provinces directly administered by the paramount chief from the
capital Lialui (a town on the Zambezi), by the Mokwai from Nalolo, and by
two chiefs of the blood from Sesheke;

(b) Outlying provinces over which, in the absence of a central local system
of government, Barotse chiefs administer districts under the direction of
the paramount chief; and

(c) Tribes over which the local chiefs are permitted to retain their
position subject to the payment of annual tribute and to their doing homage
in person at Lialui when called upon to do so.

With the publication of the king of Italy's award in 1905 in the
Anglo-Portuguese Barotse Boundary dispute (see below), the term Barotseland
may be said to have acquired a second meaning. By this award the western
and part of the northern section of Barotseland as described above were
declared to be outside the dominion of the paramount chief and therefore
not in the British sphere of influence, while tribal boundaries were
complicated by the introduction of a longitudinal and latitudinal frontier.
Though this award altered the political boundaries, ethnologically
Barotseland remains much as above described. The area of the country under
British protection is about 182,000 sq. m.

Excluding the ridge of high ground running east and west which, culminating
at a height of 5000 ft., forms the Congo-Zambezi water-parting, the extreme
east (Batoka) and the district in the immediate vicinity of the Victoria
Falls (_q.v._) throughout which, with local variations, a red laterite clay
predominates, the main physical features of Barotseland may be described as
a series of heavy white sand undulations covered with subtropical forest
vegetation. These are intersected by alluvium-charged valleys through which
streams and rivers flow inwards towards the central basin of the Upper
Zambezi. There is evidence that this has at one time been the site of a
large lake. These valleys, which towards the close of the wet season become
inundated, afford rich cattle pasture, the succulence of which prevents
cattle losing condition towards the end of the dry season, as is the case
in many parts of Africa. There seems to be little or no indication of
mineral wealth in the white sand area, but in the north and east there is
not only every prospect of a great agricultural and pastoral future but
also of considerable mining development. Though basalt predominates in the
neighbourhood of the Victoria Falls and large fields of granite crop up on
the Batoka plateau and elsewhere, there is every indication of the
existence of useful minerals in these districts. Gold, copper, tin, lead,
zinc and iron have been discovered.

Much of the area of Barotseland is within the healthy zone, the healthiest
districts being the Batoka and Mashikolumbwe plateaus in the east with
extreme altitudes of 4400 and 4150 ft. respectively, and the line of the
Congo-Zambezi watershed which rises to 5000 ft. in many places. The Zambezi
valley from the Victoria Falls (3000 ft.) to the Kabompo confluence (3500
ft.), though involving little or no risk to health to the traveller, cannot
be considered suitable for white settlement. Taking into consideration the
relative value of altitude to latitude, the plateauland of Barotseland
compares very favourably with existing conditions elsewhere, being several
degrees more temperate than would be expected. Approximately the mean [v.03
p.0426] maximum and minimum temperatures stand at 80° and 55° F.
respectively, with an extreme range of 100° to 35° and a mean annual
temperature of 68° to 70°. The rainfall varies according to district from
22 to 32 in. a year and has shown extraordinary stability. Since 1884, the
first year in which a record was taken by François Coillard, Barotseland
has known no droughts, though South Africa has suffered periodically in
this respect.

The Zambezi, as would be expected, forms a definite boundary line in the
distribution of many species of fauna and flora. In these respects, as well
as from an ethnological standpoint, Barotseland essentially belongs not to
South but to Central Africa. The great river has also served to prevent the
spread from South Africa into Barotseland of such disastrous cattle
diseases as tick fever and lung sickness.

3. _The Establishment of British Suzerainty._--By the charter granted to
the British South Africa Company in October 1889, the company was allowed
to establish its rule in the regions north of the Middle Zambezi not
included in the Portuguese dominions, and by a treaty of the 11th of June
1891 between Great Britain and Portugal it was declared that the Barotse
kingdom was within the British sphere of influence. The dispute between the
contracting powers as to what were the western limits of Barotseland was
eventually referred to the arbitration of the king of Italy, who by his
award of the 30th of May 1905, fixed the frontier at the Kwando river as
far north as 22° E., then that meridian up to the 13° S., which parallel it
follows as far east as 24° E., and then that meridian to the Belgian Congo
frontier. In the meantime the British South Africa Company had entered into
friendly relations with Lewanika (_q.v._), the paramount chief of the
Barotse, and an administrator was appointed on behalf of the company to
reside in the country. A native police force under the command of a British
officer was raised and magistrates and district commissioners appointed. In
the internal affairs of the Barotse the company did not interfere, and the
relations between the British and Barotse have been uniformly friendly. The
pioneers of Western civilization were not, however, the agents of the
Chartered Company, but missionaries. F. S. Arnot, an Englishman, spent two
years in the country (1882-1884) and in 1884 a mission, fruitful of good
results, was established by the Société des Missions Evangéliques de Paris.
Its first agent was François Coillard (1834-1904), who had previously been
engaged in mission work in Basutoland and who devoted the rest of his life
to the Barotse. Though always an admirer of British institutions and
anxious that the country should ultimately fall under British jurisdiction,
Coillard in the interests of his mission was in the first instance anxious
to delay the advent of white men into the country. It was contrary to his
advice that Lewanika petitioned the "Great White Queen" to assume a
protectorate over his dominions, but from the moment Great Britain assumed
responsibility and the advance of European civilization became inevitable,
all the influence acquired by Coillard's exceptional personal magnetism and
singleness of purpose was used to prepare the way for the extension of
British rule. Only those few pioneers who knew the Barotse under the old
conditions can fully realise what civilization and England owe to the
co-operation of this high-minded Frenchman.

Under the Chartered Company's rule considerable progress has been made in
the development of the resources of the country, especially in opening up
the mining districts in the north. The seat of the administration, Kalomo,
is on the "Cape to Cairo" railway, about midway between the Zambezi and
Kafue rivers. The railway reached the Broken Hill copper mines, 110 m. N.
of the Kafue in 1906, and the Belgian Congo frontier in 1910. From Lobito
Bay in Portuguese West Africa a railway was being built in 1909 which would
connect with the main line near the Congo frontier. This would not only
supply Barotseland with a route to the sea alternative to the Beira and
Cape Town lines, but while reducing the land route by many hundred miles
would also supply a seaport outlet 1700 m. nearer England than Cape Town
and thus create a new and more rapid mail route to southern Rhodesia and
the Transvaal. The Zambezi also, with Kebrabasa as its one bar to
navigation between Barotseland and the sea, will supply a cheap line of
communication. (See RHODESIA.)

See David Livingstone, _Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa_
(London, 1857); Major Serpa Pinto, _How I crossed Africa_ (London, 1881);
F. Coillard, _On the Threshold of Central Africa_ (London, 1897); Major A.
St H. Gibbons, _Exploration and Hunting in Central Africa_ (London, 1898),
_Africa South to North through Marotseland_ (London, 1904); "Journeys in
Marotseland," _Geographical Journal_, 1897; "Travels in the Upper Zambezi
Basin," _Geographical Journal_, 1901; A. Bertrand, _Aux pays des Barotse,
haut Zambèze_ (Paris, 1898); Col. Colin Harding, _In Remotest Barotseland_,
(London, 1905); C. W. Mackintosh, _Coillard of the Zambesi_ (London, 1907),
with a bibliography; L. Decle, _Three Years in Savage Africa_ (London,
1898). Consult also the annual reports of the British South Africa Company,
published in London.

(A. ST H. G.)

BAROUCHE (Ger. _barutsche_, Span. _barrocho_, Ital. _baroccio_; from Lat.
_bi-rotus_, double-wheeled), the name of a sort of carriage, with four
wheels and a hood, arranged for two couples to sit inside facing one
another.

BARQUISIMETO, a city of western Venezuela, capital of the state of Lara, on
the Barquisimeto river, 101 m. by rail S.W. of Tucacas, its port on the
Caribbean coast. Pop. (est. 1899) 40,000. It is built in a small, fertile
valley of the Merida Cordilleras, 1985 ft. above sea-level, has a
temperate, healthy climate with a mean annual temperature of 78° F., and is
surrounded by a highly productive country from which are exported coffee,
sugar, cacao and rum. It is also an important distributing centre for
neighbouring districts. The city is the seat of a bishopric, is regularly
laid out and well built, and is well provided with educational and
charitable institutions. Barquisimeto was founded in 1522 by Juan de
Villegas, who was exploring the neighbourhood for gold, and it was first
called Nueva Segovia after his native city. In 1807 its population had
risen to 15,000, principally through its commercial importance, but on the
26th of March 1812 it was totally destroyed by an earthquake, and with it
1500 lives, including a part of the revolutionary forces occupying the
town. It was soon rebuilt and is one of the few cities of Venezuela which
have recovered from the ravages of the war of independence and subsequent
disorders.

BARR, a town of Germany, in the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine, on
the Kirneck, 13 m. N. from Schlettstadt by rail. It has an Evangelical and
a Roman Catholic church and considerable tanneries. There is an active
trade in wine and timber. Pop. (1900) 5243.

BARRA, or BARRAY (Scand. _Baraey_, isle of the ocean), an island of the
outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 2362. It lies about
5 m. S.W. of South Uist, is 8 m. in length and from 2 to 4 m. in breadth,
save at the sandy isthmus 2 m. below Scurrival Point, where it is only a
few hundred yards broad. The rock formation is gneiss. The highest hill is
Heaval (1260 ft.) and there are several small lochs. The chief village is
Castlebay, at which the Glasgow steamer calls once a week. This place
derives its name from the castle of Kishmul standing on a rock in the bay,
which was once the stronghold of the McNeills of Barra, one of the oldest
of Highland clans. There are remains of ancient chapels, Danish duns and
Druidical circles on the island. There is communication by ferry with South
Uist. The parish comprises a number of smaller islands and islets--among
them Frida, Gighay, Hellisay, Flodda to the N.E., and Vatersay, Pabbay,
Mingalay (pop. 135) and Berneray to the S.E.--and contains 4000 acres of
arable land and 18,000 acres of meadow and hill pasture. The cod, ling and
herring fisheries are important, and the coasts abound with shell-fish,
especially cockles, for which it has always been famous. On Barra Head, the
highest point of Berneray, and also the most southerly point of the outer
Hebrides chain, is a lighthouse 680 ft. above high water.

BARRACKPUR, a town and magisterial subdivision of British India, in the
district of Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal. The town is the largest
cantonment in Lower Bengal, having accommodation for two batteries of
artillery, the wing of a European regiment and two native battalions. Its
name is said to be derived from the fact of troops having been stationed
here since 1772. It is a station on the Eastern Bengal railway. Job [v.03
p.0427] Charnock, the founder of Calcutta, erected a bungalow and
established a small bazaar here in 1689. The cantonment is situated on the
left bank of the Hugli; it has also a large bazaar and several large tanks,
and also a parade ground. To the south of the cantonment is situated the
park, created by the taste and public spirit of Lord Wellesley. Within the
park is situated the Government House, a noble building begun by Lord
Minto, and enlarged into its present state by the marquess of Hastings. The
park is beautifully laid out, and contains a small menagerie. Its most
interesting feature is now Lady Canning's tomb. Barrackpur played an
important part in the two Sepoy mutinies of 1824 and 1857, but the details
of these belong to the general history of British rule in India. North
Barrackpur had a population in 1901 of 12,600 and south Barrackpur of
19,307.

Barrackpur subdivision was formed in 1904. It contains an area of 190 sq.
m., which, at the census of 1901, had a population of 206,311, a large
proportion being workers in the mills on the left bank of the Hugli.

BARRACKS (derived through the French from the Late Lat. _barra_, a bar),
the buildings used for the accommodation of military or naval forces,
including the quarters for officers, warrant officers, non-commissioned
officers and men, with their messes and recreation establishments,
regimental offices, shops, stores, stables, vehicle sheds and other
accessory buildings for military or domestic purposes. The term is usually
applied to permanent structures of brick or stone used for the peace
occupation of troops; but many hut barracks of corrugated iron lined with
wood have been built, generally in connexion with a training ground for
troops, and in these the accommodation given is somewhat less than in
permanent barracks, and conditions more nearly approach those of a military
encampment.

_British System_.--The accommodation to be given in British military
barracks is scheduled in the _Barrack Synopsis_, which contains "statements
of particulars, based upon decisions which have, from time to time, been
laid down by authority, as regards the military buildings authorized for
various units, and the accommodation and fittings to be provided in
connexion therewith." Each item of ordinary accommodation is described in
the synopsis, and the areas and cubic contents of rooms therein laid down
form the basis of the designs for any new barrack buildings. Supplementary
to the synopsis is a series of "Standard Plans," which illustrate how the
accommodation may be conveniently arranged; the object of the issue of
these plans is to put in convenient form the best points of previous
designs, and to avoid the necessity of making an entirely fresh design for
each building that is to be erected, by using the standard type modified to
suit local conditions. External appearance is considered with regard to the
materials to be used, and the position the buildings are to occupy;
convenience of plan and sound sanitary construction being the principal
objects rather than external effect, designs are usually simple, and depend
for architectural effect more on the grouping and balance of the parts than
on ornamentation such as would add to expense. The synopsis and standard
plans are from time to time revised, and brought up to date as improvements
suggest themselves, and increases in scale of accommodation are authorized,
after due consideration of the financial effect; so that systematic
evolution of barrack design is carried on.

_Modern British Barracks_.--A description of a modern barrack for a
battalion of infantry will give an idea of the standard of accommodation
which is now authorized, and to which older barracks are gradually
remodelled as funds permit. The unmarried soldiers are quartered in
barrack-rooms usually planned to contain twelve men in each; this number
forms a convenient division to suit the organization of the company, and is
more popular with the men than the larger numbers which were formerly the
rule in each barrack-room; there is a greater privacy, whilst the number is
not too small to keep up the feeling of barrack-room comradeship which
plays an important part in the soldier's training. The rooms give 600 cub.
ft. of air per man, and have windows on each side: the beds are spaced
between the windows so that only one bed comes in a corner, and not more
than two between any two windows: inlet ventilators are fixed high up in
the side walls, and an extract shaft warmed by the chimney flue keeps up a
circulation of air through the room: the door is usually at one end of the
room and the fireplace at the opposite end: over each man's bed is a locker
and shelf where he keeps his kit, and his rifle stands near the head of his
bed. Convenient of access from the door to the barrack-room is the
ablution-room with basins and foot-bath; also disconnected by a lobby is a
water-closet and urinal for night use, others for day use being provided in
separate external blocks. Baths are usually grouped in a central bath-house
adjacent to the cook-house, and have hot water laid on. For every two or
four barrack-rooms, a small single room is provided for the occupation of
the sergeant in charge, who is responsible for the safety of a small store,
where men may leave their rifle and kit when going on furlough. Adjacent to
the barrack blocks and next to the cook-house are arranged the dining-rooms
where the men assemble for their meals; no food is now served in the
barrack-rooms, and the air in them is thus kept much purer and fresher than
under the old system. The dining-rooms are lofty and well ventilated, and
are warmed by hot water; tables and forms are arranged so as to make the
most of the space, and room is provided for all the men to dine
simultaneously.

[Illustration: Barracks]

Next to the dining-room is the cook-house where the meals for a half
battalion are cooked, and served direct to the dining-rooms on each side.
Wash-up rooms are arranged off the serving-lobby with plate-racks and
shelves for the storage of the crockery after it has been washed. The
cooking apparatus is designed for economical use of coal fuel, and, if
carefully used, consumes little more than ½ lb of coal per man per day. The
cook-house is well lighted and ventilated by a top lantern; tables,
dressers, and pastry slab are provided for preparing and serving the meals,
and a sink for washing kitchen utensils. Under the kitchen block is a
basement containing the boiler for heating the dining-rooms and another for
the supply of hot water to baths and sinks, with in some cases also a
hot-air furnace for heating drying-rooms, for drying the men's clothing
when they come in wet from a route-march or field day. Not far from the
barrack blocks is placed the recreation establishment or soldiers' club,
where the rank and file may go for relaxation and amusement when off duty;
this establishment has, on the ground floor, a large and lofty room with a
stage at one end for lectures or entertainments, and at the other [v.03
p.0428] end is a supper bar, extending across the room, where mineral
waters and other light refreshments are sold; tables are also arranged for
suppers. A grocery shop is provided where the men and their families may
purchase goods bought under regimental arrangements at wholesale prices,
and sold without more profit than is necessary to keep the institution
self-supporting. On the first floor are billiard and games room,
reading-room and library, and writing-room. The manager's quarter and
kitchen premises complete the establishment. Near the recreation
establishment is the canteen, devoted solely to the sale of beer, and not
permitted to vie in attractiveness with the recreation establishment. A bar
is provided for the soldiers, a separate room for corporals, and a jug
department for the supply of the families; this building also has a
manager's quarter attached to it, and an office for the checking of
accounts.

For the senior non-commissioned officers a sergeants' mess is provided,
containing dining-room, reading-room and billiard-room, with kitchen
premises and liquor store, which also has a jug department for the
sergeants' families. The single non-commissioned officers have all their
meals in this mess, and the married members also use it as a club. The
warrant officers, and the proportion of non-commissioned officers and men
who are on the married establishment, are provided with accommodation at
some little distance from the men's barracks. In all recent schemes, on
open sites, self-contained cottages have been built, and these are more
popular than the older pattern of tenement buildings approached by common
staircases or verandahs. The warrant officers are allowed a living-room,
kitchen, and scullery, with three bedrooms and a bathroom. The married
soldiers have a living-room, scullery, and one, two, or three bedrooms
according to the size of their families. A laundry is provided adjacent to
the married quarters, equipped with washing-troughs, wringer,
drying-closet, and ironing-room; and the women are encouraged to use this
in preference to doing washing in their cottages.

_Officers' Quarters._--At a little distance from the men's barracks, and
usually looking over the parade or cricket ground, is the officers' mess.
This building has an entrance-hall with band alcove, where the band plays
on guest nights; on one side of the hall is the mess-room (or dining-room),
and on the other the anteroom (or reading-room), whilst the billiard-room
and kitchen are kept to the back so that lantern lights can be arranged
for. A mess office is provided, and all the accessories required for the
mess waiters' department, including pantry, plate-closet and cellarage, and
for the kitchen or mess-man's department, with also a quarter for the
mess-man. The officers' quarters are usually arranged in wings extending
the frontage of the mess building, and in a storey over the mess itself.
Each officer has a large room, part of which is partitioned off for a
bedroom, and the field officers are allowed two rooms. The soldier servant,
told off to each officer, has a small room allotted for cleaning purposes,
and bathrooms, supplied with hot water from the mess kitchen, are centrally
situated. A detached house, containing three sitting-rooms, seven bed- and
dressing-rooms, bathroom, kitchen, servants' hall, and the usual
accessories, is provided for the commanding officer: also a smaller house,
having two sitting-rooms, four bedrooms, bath, kitchen, &c., for the
quartermaster. Other regimental married officers are not provided for, and
have to arrange to house themselves, a lodging allowance being usually
granted.

_Regimental Accessories._--Apart from the buildings providing
accommodation, others are required for administrative and military
purposes. These are the guard house and regimental offices, the small-arm
ammunition store, the fire-engine house, the drill and gymnastic hall, and
the medical inspection block with dispensary, where the sick are seen by a
medical officer and either prescribed for or sent into hospital, as may be
necessary. Stables are provided for the officers' and transport horses, and
a vehicle shed and storehouse for the mobilization equipment. Stores are
required for bread, meat, coal, clothing, and for musketry, signalling, and
general small stores under the quartermaster's charge--also workshops for
armourers, carpenters, plumbers, painters and glaziers, shoemakers, and
tailors. Mention of the fives court, recreation ground and parade ground
completes the description of a battalion barrack.

_Cavalry Barracks._--The accommodation provided for cavalry is very similar
to that already described for infantry. The barrack blocks are arranged to
suit the organization of the regiment, and are placed so that the men can
turn out readily and get to their horses. Detached buildings are provided
for cavalry troop stables, one block for the horses of each troop. Formerly
stables were often built for convenience with the barrack-rooms over them;
but this system has been abandoned on sanitary grounds, to the benefit of
both men and horses. Each horse is given 1500 cub. ft. of air space, the
horses' heads are turned to the outer walls, and provision is made, by
traversed air-ducts below the mangers, for fresh air to be supplied to the
horses while lying down. Above the horses' heads are windows which are
arranged to open inwards, being hinged at the bottom and fitted with hopper
checks to avoid direct draught. Ridge ventilation and skylights are given,
so that all parts of the stable are well lighted and airy.

Cast-iron mangers and hay-racks are provided, and the horses are separated
by bails, with chains to manger brackets and heel posts; saddle brackets
are fixed to the heel posts. Each stable has a troop store, where spare
saddles and gear are kept; also an expense forage store, in which the day's
ration, after issue in bulk from the forage barn, is kept until it is given
out in feeds. The stables are paved with blue Staffordshire paving bricks,
graded to a collecting channel carrying the drainage well clear of the
building, before it is taken into a gully.

The space between the blocks of stables is paved with cement concrete to
form a yard, and horse-troughs, litter-sheds and dung-pits are provided.
Officers' stables are built in separate blocks, and usually have only one
row of stalls; the stalls are divided by partitions, and separate
saddle-rooms are provided. Stalls and loose boxes in infirmary stables give
2000 cub. ft. of air space per horse and are placed at some distance from
the troop stables in a separate enclosure. A forge and shoeing shed is
provided in a detached block near the troop stables. A forage barn and
granary is usually built to hold a fortnight's supply, and a chaff-cutter
driven by horse power is fixed close by. Cavalry regiments each have a
large covered riding school, and a number of open _manèges_, for exercise
and riding instruction.

_Artillery, &c._--The accommodation provided for horse and field artillery
is arranged to suit their organization in batteries and brigades, and is
generally similar to that already described, with the addition of vehicle
sheds for guns and ammunition wagons, and special shops for wheelers and
saddlers. Accommodation for other units follows the general lines already
laid down, but has to be arranged to suit the particular organization and
requirements of each unit.

_Garrison Accessories._--In every large military station in addition to the
regimental buildings which have been described, a number of buildings and
works are required for the service of the garrison generally. _Military
hospitals_ are established at home and abroad for the treatment of sick
officers and soldiers as well as their wives and families. Military
hospitals are classified as follows:--First-grade hospitals are large
central hospitals serving important districts. These hospitals are complete
in themselves and fully equipped for the carrying out of operations of all
kinds; they generally contain wards for officers, and may have attached to
them separate isolation hospitals for the treatment of infectious cases,
and military families' hospitals for women and children. Second-grade
hospitals are smaller in size and less fully equipped, but are capable of
acting independently and have operation rooms. Third-grade hospitals or
reception stations are required for small stations principally, to act as
feeders to the large hospitals, and to deal with accident and
non-transportable cases. The principles of construction of military
hospitals do not differ materially from the best modern civil practice; all
are now built on the pavilion system with connecting corridors arranged so
as to interfere as little as possible with the free circulation of air
between the blocks. The site is carefully selected and enclosed with
railings. The administration block [v.03 p.0429] is centrally placed, with
ward blocks on each side, and accessory buildings placed where most
convenient; the isolation wards are in a retired position and divided off
from the hospital enclosure. Ward blocks usually have two storeys, and the
ordinary large wards provide 1200 cub. ft. of air space per patient. A due
proportion of special case and other special wards is arranged in which the
space per patient is greater or less, as necessary.

_Army schools_ are built to give slightly more liberal accommodation than
is laid down as the minimum by the Board of Education, but the principles
of planning are much the same as in civil elementary schools. Schools are
usually placed between the married quarters and the barracks, so as to
serve both for the instruction of the men, when working for educational
certificates, and for the education of the children of the married
soldiers. _Garrison churches_ are built when arrangements for the troops to
attend divine service at neighbouring places of worship cannot well be
made. Only two _military prisons_ now remain, viz. Dover and Curragh, and
these are for soldiers discharged from the service with ignominy. For
ordinary sentences _detention barracks_ and _branch detention barracks_ are
attached to the military commands and districts: these are constructed in
accordance with the home office regulations; but crime in the army
fortunately continues to decrease, and little accommodation has recently
been added. Barrack expense stores for the issue of bedding, utensils and
other stores for which the troops depend upon the Army Service Corps, are
necessary in all barracks; and in large stations a supply depot for the
issue of provisions, with abattoir and bakery attached to it, may be
necessary. An engineer office with building yard and workshops to deal with
the ordinary duties in connexion with the upkeep of War Department property
is required at every station, and for large stations such as Aldershot, it
may be necessary to undertake special water supply schemes, works for
disposal of sewage, and for the supply of electricity or gas for lighting
the barracks. The system of roads, pipes and mains within the barracks are
in all cases maintained by the Royal Engineers, as well as the buildings
themselves. District and brigade offices are necessary for the
administration of large units, and quarters for the general officer
commanding and the headquarters staff may sometimes be required.

_Location of Barracks_.--The selection of a healthy site for a barrack
building or new military station is a matter of great importance. In the
earlier days of barrack construction, barracks were, for political reasons,
usually built in large towns, where troops would be at hand for putting
down disturbances, and cramped and inconvenient buildings of many storeys,
were erected on a small piece of ground often surrounded by the worst slums
of the city; such, for example, were the Ship Street barracks in Dublin,
and the cavalry barracks at Hulme, Manchester. Worse still were cases where
an existing building, such as the Linen Hall in Dublin, was purchased, and
converted into barracks with little regard for the convenience of the
occupants, and a total disregard for the need of a free circulation of pure
air in and about the buildings, which is the first condition of health. In
the present day, except in a few cases where strong local influence is
allowed to prevail to retain troops in towns, where their presence, and
perhaps the money they spend, are appreciated for patriotic or other
motives, every opportunity is taken to move troops from the vicinity of
crowded towns, and quarter them in barracks or hutments built in the open
country. Due regard can then be given to sanitary location, and military
training can more effectively be carried out. With improvements in
communication by rail, road and telegraph, support to the civil power in
case of disturbance can always be afforded in good time, without
permanently stationing troops in the actual locality where their assistance
may be needed. It has been recognized ever since the Crimean War, that the
leading principle of barrack policy must, in the future, be to facilitate
in peace time the training of the army for war, and that this can only be
done by quartering troops in large bodies, including all branches of the
service, in positions where they have space for training, gun and rifle
practice, and manoeuvring. The camps at Aldershot, Colchester, Shorncliffe
and Curragh were accordingly started between 1856 and 1860, and the same
policy has since been continued by the acquisition of Strensall Common,
near York, Kilworth domain, near Fermoy, the lease of a portion of Dartmoor
and a large area at Glen Imaal in Co. Wicklow, and the purchase of the
Stobs estate in Scotland and of a large part of Salisbury Plain.

_Barrack Construction_.--The history of barrack construction in Great
Britain is an interesting study, but can only be touched on briefly. As
long as operations in the field were carried on by troops levied especially
for the war in hand, no barracks apart from fortifications were required,
except those for the royal bodyguard; and even after the standing army
exceeded those limits, the necessity for additional barracks was often
avoided by having recourse to the device of billeting, _i.e._ quartering
the soldiers on the populations of the towns where they were posted. This,
however, was a device burdensome to the people, subversive of discipline,
and prejudicial to military efficiency in many ways, while it exposed the
scattered soldiers to many temptations to disloyalty. Hence barracks were
gradually provided, at first in places where such an arrangement was most
necessary owing to the paucity of the population, or where concentration of
troops was most important, owing to the disaffection of some of the
inhabitants. The earliest barracks of which there is any record as regards
England, were those for the foot guards, erected in 1660. Among the
earliest of those still existing are the Royal Barracks at Dublin, dating
from 1700, and during the 18th century barracks were built in several parts
of Ireland; but in England it was at the end of the 18th and beginning of
the 19th century that most of the earlier barracks were constructed. So
long as barracks were mainly in connexion with fortresses their
construction naturally fell to the duty of the King's Engineers, afterwards
the Corps of Engineers, working under the master-general of the ordnance.
About 1796, however, a special civil department was formed under the
commissioners for the affairs of barracks, to deal with barracks apart from
fortifications. In 1816 we find a warrant appointing a civilian comptroller
of the barrack department to deal with the erection and upkeep of barracks
and barrack hospitals not within fortified places. This warrant gives one
of the earliest records of the nature of accommodation provided, and a few
extracts from it are worth notice. No definite regulations as to cubic or
floor space per man are laid down; but in the infantry, twelve men, and in
the cavalry, eight men are allotted to one room. "Bedsteads or berths" are
allowed, "a single one to each man, or a double one to two men," or
"hammocks where necessary." The married soldier's wife is barely
recognized, as shown by the following extract:--"The Comptroller of the
barrack department may, if he sees fit, and when it in no shape interferes
with or straitens the accommodation of the men, permit (as an occasional
indulgence, and as tending to promote cleanliness, and the convenience of
the soldier) four married women per troop or company of sixty men, and six
per troop or company of a hundred men, to be resident within the barracks;
but no one article shall on this account be furnished by the
barrack-masters, upon any consideration whatever. And if the
barrack-masters perceive that any mischief, or damage, arises from such
indulgence, the commanding officer shall, on their representation, displace
such women. Nor shall any dogs be suffered to be kept in the rooms of any
barrack or hospital." Another regulation says: "Where kitchens are provided
for the soldiers, they shall not be allowed to dress their provisions in
any other places." In about 1818 the civil barrack department was abolished
on account of abuses which had grown up, and the duke of Wellington as
master-general of the ordnance and commander-in-chief transferred to the
corps of Royal Engineers the duties of construction and maintenance of
barracks. In 1826 a course of practical architecture was started at the
school of military engineering at Chatham under Lieutenant-Colonel
(afterwards Sir Charles) Pasley, the first commandant of the school, who
himself wrote an outline of the course. Wellington interested himself in
the [v.03 p.0430] barrack question, and under his orders single iron
bedsteads were substituted for the wooden berths, two tiers high, in which
two men slept in the same bed, then a certain cubical space per man was
allotted, and cook-houses and ablution-rooms were added. Next, sergeants'
messes were started, and ball courts allowed for the recreation of the men.
It was not, however, till after the Crimean War that public attention was
directed by the report dated 1857 of the royal commission on the sanitary
state of the army, to the high death-rate, and certain sanitary defects in
barracks and hospitals, such as overcrowding, defective ventilation, bad
drainage and insufficient means of cooking and cleanliness, to which this
excessive mortality was among other causes assigned.

In 1857 a commission appointed for improving the sanitary condition of
barracks and hospitals made an exhaustive inspection of the barracks in the
United Kingdom, and reported in 1861. This was followed by similar
commissions to examine the barracks in the Mediterranean stations and in
India. These commissions, besides making valuable recommendations for the
improvement of almost every barrack inspected by them, laid down the
general sanitary principles applicable to the arrangement and construction
of military barracks and hospitals; and in spite of the lapse of time, the
reports repay close study by any one interested in sanitary science as
applied to the construction and improvement of such buildings. The names of
Sidney Herbert (afterwards Lord Herbert of Lea), Captain (afterwards Sir
Douglas) Gallon, R.E., and John Sutherland, M.D., stand out prominently
among those who contributed to the work. The commission was constituted a
standing body in 1862, and continues its work to the present day, under the
name of the Army Sanitary Committee, which advises the secretary of state
for war on all sites for new barracks or hospitals, also upon type plans,
especially as to sanitary details, and principles of sanitary construction
and fitments. A definite standard of accommodation was laid down, which
formed the basis of the first issue of the _Barrack Synopsis_ in 1865. A
general order dated 1845 had directed that a space of 450 to 500 cub. ft.
per man should be provided in all new barracks at home stations; but this
had not been applied in existing barracks or buildings appropriated as
such, and when detailed examination was made, it was found that some men
had actually less than 250 cub. ft., and out of accommodation for nominally
76,813 soldiers, 2003 only had 600 cub. ft. per man, which was the minimum
scale now laid down by the royal commission of 1857. To give every soldier
his allotted amount of 600 cub. ft., meant a reduction in accommodation of
the barracks by nearly one-third the number. Many buildings were condemned
as being entirely unsuitable for use as barracks; in other cases
improvements were possible by alterations to buildings and opening-up of
sites. Ventilation of the rooms was greatly improved, cook-houses,
ablution-rooms and sanitary accessories were carefully examined and a
proper scale laid down. Separate quarters for the married soldiers did not
exist in many barracks, and in some instances married men's beds were found
in the men's barrack-rooms without even a screen to separate them; in other
cases, married people were accommodated together in a barrack-room, with
only a blanket hung on a cord as a screen between the different families.
The recommendations of the committee resulted in a single room being
allotted to all married soldiers, and this accommodation has gradually
improved up to the comfortable cottage now provided.

From the time of this first thorough inquiry into barrack accommodation,
steady and systematic progress has been made. Although lack of funds has
always hampered rapid progress, and keeps the accommodation actually
existing below the standard aimed at, much has been done to improve the
soldiers' condition in this respect. Numerous regimental depots and other
barracks were built under the Military Forces Localization Act of 1872. The
Barracks Act of 1890 replaced the worn-out huts at Aldershot, Colchester,
Shorncliffe and Curragh by convenient and sanitary permanent buildings, and
further additions and improvements have been made under the Military Works
Acts of 1897, 1899 and 1901. As some evidence of the practical result of
the care and money that has been expended on this work, it is interesting
to note that while, in 1857, the annual rate of mortality in the army at
home per 1000 men was 17.5 (compared with 9.2 for the civil male population
of corresponding age), forty years later, in 1897, the rate of mortality in
the army was only 3.42 per 1000. No doubt, improved barrack accommodation
contributed greatly to this result. Barrack construction work remained in
the hands of the Corps of Royal Engineers until 1904, when a civil
department was again formed under an architect styled "director of barrack
construction," to deal with the construction of barracks at home stations,
and the construction and maintenance of military hospitals.

_British Colonial_.--Barracks at colonial stations are governed by the
general scale of accommodation in the _Barrack Synopsis_, modified
according to the climate of the station, in the direction of increase in
floor area and height of rooms. In the planning of rooms for occupation in
tropical or sub-tropical countries provision has to be made for the freest
possible circulation of air through the buildings. The walls have to be
protected by verandahs from the direct rays of the sun, and the special
local domestic arrangements have to be taken into consideration. For
example, in hot countries it is usually undesirable to have kitchens
directly attached to the dwelling-houses, sanitary arrangements vary
according to the method's adopted, and in some cases it is necessary to
provide a free circulation of air below the ground floors of all inhabited
buildings by raising them off the ground some 4 ft. The aspect of the
buildings will usually be arranged so as to catch the prevailing wind, and
the mode of construction varies greatly according to the custom and
resources of the country.

_Indian Barracks_.--In India, barracks for the British troops are built by
the Royal Engineer officers detailed for military work duties, assisted by
military foremen, who pass through the civil engineering colleges, and by a
native subordinate staff. The scale of accommodation to be provided is laid
down in the Indian army regulations, and is for the private soldier more
liberal than is allowed by the home government for any of the colonial
stations. The barrack-rooms are lofty and airy, with verandahs all round,
and clerestory windows. Roofs are usually of double tiling. The allowance
of space is 90 sq. ft. per man in rooms 16 ft. high, with, in addition, a
day room adjoining for the use of the men for their meals or as a
sitting-room. Recreation establishments are liberally provided for, and
other means of recreation, such as bowling and skittle alleys, fives
courts, plunge baths and cricket grounds, are given. Separate blocks of
married quarters are provided, and schools for the children. Hospital
accommodation on a higher scale than at home is necessary; but hill
sanatoria have in recent years done much to improve the health of the
troops by giving change of air, during the hot weather, to a large
proportion of the men and families. Piped water supplies have replaced the
old wells at many stations, and attention is being directed to improved
cooking and sanitary arrangements.

_Naval Barracks_.--In recent years, large naval barracks have been built,
notably at Portsmouth, Chatham and Devonport. These differ from military
barracks principally in that they keep up the system of board-ship life to
which the men are accustomed. Large barrack-rooms are provided with caulked
floors like ships' decks, and have rows of hammocks slung across them;
these are stowed in the day-time, when the rooms are used as mess-rooms.
Ablution and sanitary arrangements are grouped together on the basement
floors. Fine recreation establishments and canteens have been built. The
officers' messes have splendid public rooms, but the officers' quarters are
not so large as in military barracks, though no doubt spacious to the naval
officer, accustomed as he is to a small cabin. Married quarters for the men
are not provided except in connexion with coastguard stations.

_Other Countries_.--A great number of the German and French barracks are
erected in the form of a large block of three or four storeys containing
all the accommodation and accessories for officers, married and single
non-commissioned officers and men, of a complete battalion or regiment in
one building. Some of the [v.03 p.0431] modern barracks, however, are
arranged more on the pavilion system with separate blocks; but the single
block system is well liked on account of its compactness and the facility
it gives for supervision; it is also more satisfactory from the
architectural point of view. The system of allotment and arrangement of
accommodation for these two great armies does not differ much, except in
detail, from that adopted by the British army. The floor and cubic space
allotted per man is a little less; accommodation for officers is not
usually provided, except to a limited extent, unless the barracks are on a
country site. The German army, however, now provides every regiment with a
fine officers' mess-house furnished at the public expense. Married quarters
for some of the non-commissioned officers are provided, but not for
privates. American barracks are interesting, as providing for perhaps a
higher class of recruit than usual; they are well designed and superior
finish internally is given. The barracks are arranged usually on the
separate block system, and centre round a post-exchange or soldiers' club,
which is a combined recreation establishment, gymnasium and sergeants'
mess, with bath-house attached. Canteens for the sale of liquor were
abolished in 1901.

See _The Barrack Synopsis_ (1905); _The Handbook of Design and Construction
of Military Buildings_ (1905); _The Army Regulations, India_, vol. xii.

(E. N. S.)

BARRANDE, JOACHIM (1799-1883), Austrian geologist and palaeontologist, was
born at Saugues, Haute Loire, on the 11th of August 1799, and educated in
the École Polytechnique at Paris. Although he had received the training of
an engineer, his first appointment was that of tutor to the duc de Bordeaux
(afterwards known as the comte de Chambord), grandson of Charles X., and
when the king abdicated in 1830, Barrande accompanied the royal exiles to
England and Scotland, and afterwards to Prague. Settling in that city in
1831, he became occupied in engineering works, and his attention was then
attracted to the fossils from the Lower Palaeozoic rocks of Bohemia. The
publication in 1839 of Murchison's _Silurian System_ incited Barrande to
carry on systematic researches on the equivalent strata in Bohemia. For ten
years (1840-1850) he made a detailed study of these rocks, engaging workmen
specially to collect fossils, and in this way he obtained upwards of 3500
species of graptolites, brachiopoda, mollusca, crustacea (particularly
trilobites) and fishes. The first volume of his great work, _Système
silurien du centre de la Bohême_ (dealing with trilobites), appeared in
1852; and from that date until 1881, he issued twenty-one quarto volumes of
text and plates. Two other volumes were issued after his death in 1887 and
1894. It is estimated that he spent nearly £10,000 on these works. In
addition he published a large number of separate papers. In recognition of
his important researches the Geological Society of London in 1855 awarded
to him the Wollaston medal.

The term Silurian was employed by Barrande, after Murchison, in a more
comprehensive sense than was justified by subsequent knowledge. Thus the
Silurian rocks of Bohemia were divided into certain stages (A to H)--the
two lowermost, A and B without fossils (Azoic), succeeded by the third
stage, C, which included the primordial zone, since recognized as part of
the Cambrian of Sedgwick. The fourth stage (Étage D), the true lower
Silurian, was described by Barrande as including isolated patches of strata
with organic remains like those of the Upper Silurian. These assemblages of
fossils were designated "Colonies," and regarded as evidence of the early
introduction into the area of species from neighbouring districts, that
became locally extinct, and reappeared in later stages. The interpretation
of Barrande was questioned in 1854 by Edward Forbes, who pointed to the
disturbances, overturns and crumplings in the older rocks as affording a
more reasonable explanation of the occurrence of strata with newer fossils
amid those containing older ones. Other geologists subsequently questioned
the doctrine of "Colonies." In 1880 Dr J. E. Marr, from a personal study in
the field, brought forward evidence to show that the repetitions of the
fossiliferous strata on which the "Colonies" were based were due to faults.
The later stages of Barrande, F, G and H, have since been shown by Emanuel
Friedrich Heinrich Kayser (b. 1845) to be Devonian.

Despite these modifications in the original groupings of the strata, it is
recognized that Barrande "made Bohemia classic ground for the study of the
oldest fossiliferous formations." He died at Frohsdorf on the 5th of
October 1883.

See "Sketch of the Life of Joachim Barrande," _Geol. Mag._ (1883), p. 529
(with portrait).

BARRANQUILLA, a city and port of Colombia, South America, capital of a
province of the same name in the department of Atlantico, on the left bank
of the Magdalena river about 7 m. above its mouth and 18½ m. by rail from
its seaport, Puerto Colombia. Pop. (est. 1902) 31,000. Owing to a dangerous
bar at the mouth of the Magdalena the trade of the extensive territory
tributary to that river, which is about 60% of that of the entire country,
must pass in great part through Barranquilla and its seaport, making it the
principal commercial centre of the republic. Savanilla was used as a
seaport until about 1890, when shoals caused by drifting sands compelled a
removal to Puerto Colombia, a short distance westward, where a steel pier,
4000 ft. in length, has been constructed to facilitate the handling of
freight. The navigation of the Magdalena is carried on by means of
light-draught steamboats which ascend to Yeguas, 14 m. below Honda, where
goods are transhipped by rail to the latter place, and thence by pack
animals to Bogotá, or by smaller boats to points farther up the river.
Barranquilla was originally founded in 1629, but attracted no attention as
a commercial centre until about the middle of the 19th century, when
efforts were initiated to secure the trade passing through Cartagena. The
city is built on a low plain, is regularly laid out, and has many fine
warehouses, public buildings and residences, but its greater part, however,
consists of mud-walled cabins supported by bamboo (_guadua_) framework and
thatched with rushes. The water-supply is drawn from the Magdalena, and the
city is provided with telephone, electric light and tram services. Owing to
periodical inundations, the surrounding country is but little cultivated,
and the greater part of the population, which is of the mixed type common
to the lowlands of Columbia, is engaged in no settled productive
occupation.

BARRAS, PAUL FRANÇOIS NICOLAS, COMTE DE (1755-1829), member of the French
Directory of 1795-1799, was descended from a noble family of Provence, and
was born at Fox-Amphoux. At the age of sixteen he entered the regiment of
Languedoc as "gentleman cadet," but embarked for India in 1776. After an
adventurous voyage he reached Pondicherry and shared in the defence of that
city, which ended in its capitulation to the British on the 18th of October
1778. The garrison being released, Barras returned to France. After taking
part in a second expedition to the East Indies in 1782-1783, he left the
army and occupied the following years with the frivolities congenial to his
class and to his nature. At the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789, he
espoused the democratic cause, and became one of the administrators of the
department of the Var. In June 1792 he took his seat in the high national
court at Orleans; and later in that year, on the outbreak of war with the
kingdom of Sardinia, he became commissioner to the French army of Italy,
and entered the Convention (the third of the national assemblies of France)
as a deputy for the department of the Var. In January 1793 he voted with
the majority for the death of Louis XVI. Much of his time, however, was
spent in missions to the districts of the south-east of France; and in this
way he made the acquaintance of Bonaparte at the siege of Toulon. As an
example of the incorrectness of the _Barras Memoirs_ we may note that the
writer assigned 30,000 men to the royalist defending force, whereas it was
less than 12,000; he also sought to minimize the share taken by Bonaparte
in the capture of that city.

In 1794 Barras sided with the men who sought to overthrow the Robespierre
faction, and their success in the _coup d'état_ of 9 Thermidor (27th of
July) brought him almost to the front rank. In the next year, when the
Convention was threatened by the malcontent National Guards of Paris, it
appointed Barras to command the troops engaged in its defence. His
nomination of Bonaparte as one of his subalterns led to the adoption of
vigorous measures, which ensured the dispersion of the royalists and [v.03
p.0432] malcontents in the streets near the Tuileries, 13 Vendémiaire (5th
of October 1795). Thereupon Barras became one of the five Directors who
controlled the executive of the French republic. Owing to his intimate
relations with Joséphine de Beauharnais, he helped to facilitate a marriage
between her and Bonaparte; and many have averred, though on defective
evidence, that Barras procured the appointment of Bonaparte to the command
of the army of Italy early in the year 1796. The achievements of Bonaparte
gave to the Directory a stability which it would not otherwise have
enjoyed; and when in the summer of 1797 the royalist and constitutional
opposition again gathered strength, Bonaparte sent General Augereau
(_q.v._), a headstrong Jacobin, forcibly to repress that movement by what
was known as the _coup d'état_ of 18 Fructidor (4th September). Barras and
the violent Jacobins now carried matters with so high a hand as to render
the government of the Directory odious; and Bonaparte had no difficulty in
overthrowing it by the _coup d'état_ of 18-19 Brumaire (9th-10th of
November). Barras saw the need of a change and was to some extent (how far
will perhaps never be known) an accomplice in Bonaparte's designs, though
he did not suspect the power and ambition of their contriver. He was left
on one side by the three Consuls who took the place of the five Directors
and found his political career at an end. He had amassed a large fortune
and spent his later years in voluptuous ease. Among the men of the
Revolution few did more than Barras to degrade that movement. His
immorality in both public and private life was notorious and contributed in
no small degree to the downfall of the Directory, and with it of the first
French Republic. Despite his profession of royalism in and after 1815, he
remained more or less suspect to the Bourbons; and it was with some
difficulty that the notes for his memoirs were saved from seizure on his
death on the 29th of January 1829.

Barras left memoirs in a rough state to be drawn up by his literary
executor, M. Rousselin de St Albin. The amount of alteration which they
underwent at his hands is not fully known; but M. George Duruy, who edited
them on their publication in 1895, has given fairly satisfactory proofs of
their genuineness. For other sources respecting Barras see the _Memoirs_ of
Gohier, Larevellière-Lépeaux and de Lescure; also Sciout, _Le Directoire_
(4 vols., Paris, 1895-1897), A. Sorel, _L'Europe et la Révolution
française_ (esp. vols. v. and vi., Paris, 1903-1904), and A. Vandal,
_L'Avènement de Bonaparte_ (Paris, 1902-1904).

(J. HL. R.)

BARRATRY (O. Fr. _bareter_, _barater_, to barter or cheat), in English
criminal law, the offence (more usually called _common barratry_) of
constantly inciting and stirring up quarrels in disturbance of the peace,
either in courts or elsewhere. It is an offence both at common law and by
statute, and is punishable by fine and imprisonment. By a statute of 1726,
if the person guilty of common barratry belonged to the profession of the
law, he was disabled from practising in the future. It is a cumulative
offence, and it is necessary to prove at least three commissions of the
act. For nearly two centuries there had been no record of an indictment
having been preferred for this offence, but in 1889 a case occurred at the
Guildford summer assizes, _R._ v. _Bellgrove_ (_The Times_, 8th July 1889).
As, however, the defendant was convicted of another offence, the charge was
not proceeded upon. (See Pollock and Maitland, _History of English Law_;
Russell, _Crimes and Misdemeanours_; Stephen, _Criminal Law_.)

In _marine insurance_ barratry is any kind of fraud committed upon the
owner or insurers of a ship by a master with the intention of benefiting
himself at their expense. Continental jurists give a wider meaning to
barratry, as meaning any wilful act by the master or crew, by whatever
motive induced, whereby the owners or charterers are damnified. In bills of
lading it is usual to except it from the shipowners' liability (see
AFFREIGHTMENT).

In Scotland, barratry is the crime committed by a judge who is induced by
bribery to pronounce judgment.

BARRÉ, ISAAC (1726-1802), British soldier and politician, was born at
Dublin in 1726, the son of a French refugee. He was educated at Trinity
College, Dublin, entered the army, and in 1759 was with Wolfe at the taking
of Quebec, on which occasion he was wounded in the cheek. His entry into
parliament in 1761 under the auspices of Lord Shelburne, who had selected
him "as a bravo to run down Mr Pitt," was characterized by a virulent
attack on Pitt, of whom, however, he became ultimately a devoted adherent.
A vigorous opponent of the taxation of America, his mastery of invective
was powerfully displayed in his championship of the American cause, and the
name "Sons of Liberty," which he had applied to the colonists in one of his
speeches, became a common designation of the American organizations
directed against the Stamp Act, as well as of later patriotic clubs. His
appointment in 1782 to the treasurership of the navy, which carried with it
a pension of £3200 a year, at a time when the government was ostensibly
advocating economy, caused great discontent; subsequently, however, he
received from the younger Pitt the clerkship of the pells in place of the
pension, which thus was saved to the public. Becoming blind, he retired
from office in 1790 and died on the 20th of July 1802.

BARRE, a city of Washington county, Vermont, U.S.A., in the north central
part of the state, about 6 m. S.E. of Montpelier. Pop. (1890) 4146; (1900)
8448, of whom 2831 were foreign-born; (1910, census) 10,734. It is served
by the Central Vermont and the Montpelier & Wells River railways, and is
connected by electric street railways with Montpelier. Barre is an
important seat of the granite industry, and manufactures monuments and
tombstones, stone-cutting implements and other machinery. In 1905 the
city's factory products were valued at $3,373,046, of which 86.9% was the
value of the monuments and tombstones manufactured. Among its institutions
are the Aldrich public library and Goddard Seminary (1870; Universalist).
There is a beautiful granite statue of Burns (by J. Massey Rhind), erected
in 1899 by the Scotsmen of Barre. The water-works are owned and operated by
the municipality. Settled soon after the close of the War of Independence,
the township of Barre (pop. in 1910, 4194) was organized in 1793 and named
in honour of Isaac Barré (1726-1802), a defender of American rights in the
British parliament. The present city, chartered in 1894, was originally a
part of the township.

BARREL (a word of uncertain origin common to Romance languages; the Celtic
forms, as in the Gaelic _baraill_, are derived from the English), a vessel
of cylindrical shape, made of staves bound together by hoops, a cask; also
a dry and liquid measure of capacity, varying with the commodity which it
contains (see WEIGHTS AND MEASURES). The term is applied to many
cylindrical objects, as to the drum round which the chain is wound in a
crane, a capstan or a watch; to the cylinder studded with pins in a
barrel-organ or musical-box; to the hollow shaft in which the piston of a
pump works; or to the tube of a gun. The "barrel" of a horse is that part
of the body lying between the shoulders and the quarters. For the system of
vaulting in architecture known as "barrel-vaulting" see VAULT.

BARREL-ORGAN (Eng. "grinder-organ," "street-organ," "hand-organ," "Dutch
organ"; Fr. _orgue de Barbarie_, _orgue d'Allemagne_, _orgue mécanique_,
_cabinet d'orgue_, _serinette_; Ger. _Drehorgel_, _Leierkasten_; Ital.
_organetto a manovella_, _organo tedesco_), a small portable organ
mechanically played by turning a handle. The barrel-organ owes its name to
the cylinder on which the tunes are pricked out with pins and staples of
various lengths, set at definite intervals according to the scheme required
by the music. The function of these pins and staples is to raise balanced
keys connected by simple mechanism with the valves of the pipes, which are
thus mechanically opened, admitting the stream of air from the wind-chest.
The handle attached to the shaft sets the cylinder in slow rotation by
means of a worm working in a fine-toothed gear on the barrel-head; the same
motion works the bellows by means of cranks and connecting rods on the
shaft. The wind is thereby forced into a reservoir, whence it passes into
the wind-chest, on the sides of which are grouped the pipes. The barrel
revolves slowly from back to front, each revolution as a rule playing one
complete tune. A notch-pin in the barrelhead, furnished with as many
notches as there are tunes, enables the performer to shift the barrel and
change the tune. The ordinary street barrel-organ had a compass varying
from 24 to 34 notes, forming a diatonic scale with a few accidentals,
generally F#, G#, C#. There were usually two stops, one for the open pipes
of metal, the other for the closed wooden pipes. Barrel-organs [v.03
p.0433] have been made with as many as three or four cylinders set in a
circular revolving frame, but these more elaborate instruments were mainly
used in churches[1] and chapels, a purpose for which they were in great
demand for playing hymns, chants and voluntaries during the 18th and early
19th centuries. A barrel-organ was built for Fulham church by Wright, and a
large instrument with four barrels was constructed by Bishop for
Northallerton church in 1820.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Large stationary barrel-organ worked by hydraulic
power, from Solomon de Caus, _Les Raisons des forces mouvantes_
(Frankfort-on-Main, 1615).]

The origin of the barrel-organ is now clearly established, and many will
doubtless be surprised to find that it must be sought in the Netherlands as
early as the middle of the 15th century, and that accurate and detailed
diagrams of every part of the mechanism for a large stationary barrel-organ
worked by hydraulic power were published in 1615. There are letters patent
preserved in the archives of Belgium appointing a certain organ-builder,
Jehan van Steenken, _dit_ Aren, "Master of organs which play of
themselves"; in the original Flemish _Meester van orgelen spelende bij hen
selven_.[2] This organ was not a portable one like English street organs,
but a more imposing instrument, as we learn from other documents giving a
detailed account of the moneys paid to Maistre Jehan for conveying the
organs from Bruges to Brussels.[3] Steenken was, by virtue of the same
letters patent, awarded an annual pension of fifty Rhenish florins in
consideration of the services rendered to the duke of Burgundy, and on
condition of his submitting to his liege Philip the Good all other
instruments he might make in the future. There is nothing singular in the
early date of this invention, for the 15th century was distinguished for
the extraordinary impulse which the patronage and appreciation of the dukes
of Burgundy gave to automatic contrivances of all kinds, carillons, clocks,
speaking animals and other curiosities due to Flemish genius.[4] No
contemporary illustration is forthcoming, but in 1615 Solomon de Caus, who
avowedly owed his inspiration to Hero and Vitruvius, describes a number of
hydraulic machines, amongst which is the barrel-organ,[5] illustrating his
description by means of several large drawings and diagrams very carefully
carried out. De Caus' organ, entitled "Machine par laquelle l'on fera
sonner un jeu d'orgues par le moyen de l'eau," was built up on a wall a
foot thick. In the illustrations the barrel is shown to be divided into
bars, and each bar into eight beats for the quavers. The whole drum is
pierced with holes at the intersecting points, the pins being movable, so
that when the performer grew tired of one tune, he could re-arrange the
pins to form another. The four bellows are set in motion by means of ropes
strained over pulleys and attached to four cranks on the rotating shaft.
Solomon de Caus lays no claim to the invention of this organ, but only to
the adaptation of hydraulic power for revolving the drum; on the contrary,
in a dissertation on the invention of hydraulic machines and organs, he
states that there was evidently some difference between the organs of the
ancients and those of his day, since there is no mention in the classics of
any musical wheel by means of which tunes could be played in several
parts--the ancients, indeed, seem to have used their fingers on the
keyboard to sound their organs. The eighteen keys drawn in one diagram bear
names, beginning at the left, D, C, B, A, G, F, F#, E, D, C, B, A, G, F, E,
D, C, B; De Caus states that only half the keyboard is given for want of
space; the compass, therefore, probably was as shown, with a few
accidentals. [Notation: D6 to D2.] A barrel-organ, also worked by hydraulic
power, is somewhat fantastically drawn by Robert Fludd in a work[6]
published two years after that of Solomon de Caus. This diagram is of no
value except as a curiosity, for the author betrays a very imperfect
knowledge of the mechanical principles involved. The piece of music
actually set on de Caus' barrel-organ, six bars of which can be made
out,[7] consists of a madrigal, "Chi fara fed' al ciel," by Alessandro
Striggio, written in organ tablature by Peter Philips, organist of the
Chapel Royal, Brussels, at the end of the 16th century.[8] A French
barrel-organ[9] in the collection of the Brussels Conservatoire, bearing
the date "5 Mars 1797," has the following compass with flats, beginning at
the left:--

[Illustration]

Other evidences of the origin of the barrel-organ are not wanting. The
inventory of the organs and other keyboard instruments belonging to the
duke of Modena, drawn up in 1598, contains two entries of an _organo
Tedesco_.[10] In England these organs were also known as "Dutch organs,"
and the name clung to the instrument even in its diminutive form of
hand-organ of the itinerant musician. In Jedediah Morse's description of
the [v.03 p.0434] manners and customs of the Netherlands,[11] we find the
following allusion:--"The diversions of the Dutch differ not much from
those of the English, who seem to have borrowed from them the neatness of
their drinking booths, skittle and other grounds ... which form the
amusements of the middle ranks, not to mention their hand-organs and other
musical inventions." An illustration of the hand-organ of that period is
given in Knight's _London_[12] being one of a collection of street views
published by Dayes in 1789. In a description of Bartholomew Fair, as held
at the beginning of the 18th century, is a further reference to the Dutch
origin of the barrel-organ:--"A band at the west-end of the town, well
known for playing on winter evenings before Spring Garden Coffee House,
opposite Wigley's great exhibition room, consisted of a double drum, a
Dutch organ, the tambourine, violin, pipes and the Turkish jingle used in
the army. This band was generally hired at one of the booths of the
fair."[13] Mr Thomas Brown relates that one Mr Stephens, a _Poultry_
author, proposed to parliament for any one that should presume to keep an
organ in a Publick House to be fined £20 and made incapable of being an
ale-draper for the future.[14] In 1737 Horace Walpole writes[15]:--"I am
now in pursuit of getting the finest piece of music that ever was heard; it
is a thing that will play eight tunes. Handel and all the great musicians
say that it is beyond anything they can do, and this may be performed by
the most ignorant person, and when you are weary of those eight tunes, you
may have them changed for any other that you like." The organ was put in a
lottery and fetched £1000.

There was a very small barrel-organ in use during the 18th and 19th
centuries, known as the bird-organ (Fr. _serinette_, _turlutaine_,
_merline_). One of these now in the collection of the Brussels
Conservatoire is described by V. C. Mahillon.[16] The instrument is in the
form of a book, on the back of which is the title "_Le chant des oiseaux,
Tome vi._" There are ten pewter stopped pipes giving the scale of G with
the addition of Fb and A two octaves higher. [Notation: G4 A5.] The whole
instrument measures approximately 8 × 5½ × 2¾ in. and plays eight tunes.
Mozart wrote an _Andante_[17] for a small barrel-organ.

For an illustration of the construction of the barrel-organ during the 18th
century, consult P. M. D. J. Engramelle, _La Tonotechnie ou l'art de noter
les cylindres et tout ce qui est susceptible de notage dans les instruments
de concerts méchaniques_ (Paris, 1775), with engravings (not in the British
Museum); and for a clear diagram of the modern instrument the article on
"Automatic Appliances connected with Music," by Dr. E. J. Hopkins, in
Grove's _Dictionary of Music and Musicians_, vol. i. (1904), p. 134.

(K. S.)

[1] This practice had evidently not been adopted in Germany, as the
following instance will show. The use of barrel-organs (_Drehorgeln_) in
country churches was seriously recommended by an anonymous writer in two
German papers at the beginning of the 19th century (_Beobachter an der
Spree_, Berlin, 22nd October 1821, and in _Markische Boten_, Nos. 138 and
139, 1821). The organist Wilke of Leipzig published in reply an article in
the _Allgem. musik. Zeitung_ (1822, pp. 777 et seq.) in which "he very
properly repudiated such a laughable recommendation."

[2] _Archives générales du royaume de Belgique, Chambre des Comptes_, No.
2, 449 r^o. cf. 52 r^o.; and Edmund van der Straeten, _La Musique aux
Pays-Bas_, vol. vii. pp. 230-232.

[3] Van der Straeten, _op. cit._ p. 299.

[4] Van der Straeten, _op. cit._ p. 231.

[5] Solomon de Caus, _Les Raisons des forces mouvantes_ (Frankfort, 1615),
problems 25, 28, 29, 30.

[6] _Historia utriusque cosmi_ (Oppenheim, 1617), t. i., experimentum viii.
p. 483.

[7] _Op. cit._ problem 29 shows the arrangement of the bellows for the
wind-supply. In problem 30 is drawn a large section of the barrel, showing
six bars of music represented by the pin tablature, which can be actually
deciphered by the help of the keyboard included in the drawing. These
diagrams are admirably clear and of real technical value. A copy of this
work is in the library of the British Museum.

[8] See also E. van der Straeten, who has translated Philips' setting into
modern notation, _op. cit._ t. vi. pp. 506 and 510.

[9] See V. C. Mahillon, _Catalogue descriptif_ (Brussels, 1896), No. 1137,
p. 371.

[10] _Tedesco_ was applied by Italians to both German and Dutch. Count
Valdrighi, _Musurgiana I. Serandola, Pianoforte, Salterio_ (Modena, 1879),
pp. 27 and 28; and E. van der Straeten, _op. cit._ vol. vi. p. 122.

[11] Jedediah Morse _American Geography_, part ii. p. 334 (Boston, Mass.,
1796).

[12] Knight's _London_, vol. i. p. 144.

[13] Hone's _Every Day Book_, i. p. 1248.

[14] _Collection of all the Dialogues written by Mr Thomas Brown_ (London,
1704), p. 297.

[15] Hone's _Every Day Book_, ii. pp. 1452-1453.

[16] See _Catalogue descriptif_ (Ghent, 1880), Nos. 461 and 462.

[17] Breitkopf and Härtel's _Critically revised edition of Mozart's Works_,
series x. no. 10.

BARREN ISLAND, a volcanic island in the Bay of Bengal. It has an
irregularly circular form of about 2 m. in diameter, composed of an outer
rim rising to a height of from 700 to 1000 ft., with a central cone the
altitude of which is 1015 ft. This cone rises from a depth of 800 fathoms
below the sea. It was active between 1789 and 1832, but has since been
dormant.

BARRÈS, MAURICE (1862- ), French novelist and politician, was born at
Charmes (Vosges) on the 22nd of September 1862; he was educated at the
_lycée_ of Nancy, and in 1883 went to Paris to continue his legal studies.
He was already a contributor to the monthly periodical, _Jeune France_, and
he now issued a periodical of his own, _Les Taches d'encre_, which survived
for a few months only. After four years of journalism he went to Italy,
where he wrote _Sous l'oeil des barbares_ (1888), the first volume of a
_trilogie du moi_, completed by _Un Homme libre_ (1889), and _Le Jardin de
Bérénice_ (1891). He divided the world into _moi_ and the barbarians, the
latter including all those antipathetic to the writer's individuality.
These apologies for individualism were supplemented by _L'Ennemi des lois_
(1892), and an admirable volume of impressions of travel, _Du sang, de la
volupté et de la mort_ (1893). His early books are written in an elaborate
style and are often very obscure. Barrès carried his theory of
individualism into politics as an ardent partisan of General Boulanger. He
directed a Boulangist paper at Nancy, and was elected deputy in 1889,
retaining his seat in the legislature until 1893. His play, _Une Journée
parlementaire_, was produced at the Comédie Française in 1894. In 1897 he
began his trilogy, _Le Roman de l'énergie nationale_, with the publication
of _Les Déracinés_. The series is a plea for local patriotism, and for the
preservation of the distinctive qualities of the old French provinces. The
first narrates the adventures of seven young Lorrainers, who set out to
conquer fortune in Paris. Six of them survive in the second novel of the
trilogy, _L'Appel au soldat_ (1900), which gives the history of Boulangism;
the sequel, _Leurs figures_ (1902), deals with the Panama scandals. Later
works are:--_Scènes et doctrines du nationalisme_ (1902); _Les Amitiés
françaises_ (1903), in which he urges the inculcation of patriotism by the
early study of national history; _Ce que j'ai vu à Rennes_ (1904); _Au
service de l'Allemagne_ (1905), the experiences of an Alsatian conscript in
a German regiment; _Le Voyage de Sparte_ (1906). M. Barrès was admitted to
the French Academy in 1906.

See also R. Doumic, _Les Jeunes_ (1896); J. Lionnet, _L'Évolution des
idees_ (1903); Anatole France, _La Vie littéraire_ (4th series, 1892).

BARRETT, LAWRENCE (1838-1891), American actor, was born of Irish parents in
Paterson, New Jersey, on the 4th of April 1838. His family name was
Brannigan. He made his first stage appearance at Detroit as Murad in _The
French Spy_ in 1853. In December 1856 he made his first New York appearance
at the Chambers Street theatre as Sir Thomas Clifford in _The Hunchback_.
In 1858 he was in the stock company at the Boston Museum. He served with
distinction in the Civil War as captain in the 28th Massachusetts infantry
regiment. From 1867 to 1870, with John McCullough, he managed the
California theatre, San Francisco. Among his many and varied parts may be
mentioned Hamlet, Lear, Macbeth, Shylock, Richard III., Wolsey, Benedick,
Richelieu, David Garrick, Hernani, Alfred Evelyn, Lanciotto in George Henry
Boker's (1823-1890) _Francesca da Rimini_, and James Harebell in _The Man
o' Airlie_. He played Othello to Booth's Iago and Cassius to his Brutus. He
acted in London in 1867, 1881, 1883 and 1884, his Richelieu in Bulwer
Lytton's drama being considered his best part. He wrote a life of Edwin
Forrest in the _American Actors Series_ (Boston, 1881), and an admirable
sketch of Edwin Booth in _Edwin Booth and his Contemporaries_ (Boston,
1886). He died on the 20th of March 1891.

BARRETT, LUCAS (1837-1862), English naturalist and geologist, was born in
London on the 14th of November 1837, and educated at University College
school and at Ebersdorf. In 1855 he accompanied R. McAndrew on a dredging
excursion from the Shetlands to Norway and beyond the Arctic Circle; and
subsequently made other cruises to Greenland and to the coast of Spain.
These expeditions laid the foundations of an extensive knowledge of the
distribution of marine life. In 1855 he was engaged by Sedgwick to assist
in the Woodwardian Museum at Cambridge, and during the following three
years he aided the professor by delivering lectures. He discovered bones of
birds in the Cambridge Greensand, and he also prepared a geological map of
Cambridge on the one-inch Ordnance map. In 1859, when twenty-two years of
age, he was appointed director of the Geological Survey of Jamaica. He
there determined the Cretaceous age of certain rocks which contained
Hippurites, the new genus _Barrettia_ being named after him by S. P.
Woodward; he also obtained many fossils from the Miocene and newer strata.
He was drowned at the early age of twenty-five, on the 18th of December
1862, while investigating the sea-bottom off Kingston, Jamaica.

Obituary by S. P. Woodward in _Geologist_ (Feb. 1863), p. 60.

BARRETT, WILSON (1846-1904), English actor, manager and playwright, was
born in Essex on the 18th of February 1846, the [v.03 p.0435] son of a
farmer. He made his first appearance on the stage at Halifax in 1864, and
then played in the provinces alone and with his wife, Caroline Heath, in
_East Lynne_. After managerial experiences at Leeds and elsewhere, in 1879
he took the management of the old Court theatre, where he introduced Madame
Modjeska to London, in an adaptation of Schiller's _Maria Stuart_,
_Adrienne Lecouvreur_, _La Dame aux camélias_ and other plays. It was not
till 1881, however, when he took the Princess's theatre, that he became
well known to the public in the emotional drama, _The Lights o' London_, by
G. R. Sims. The play which made him an established favourite was _The
Silver King_ by Henry Arthur Jones, perhaps the most successful melodrama
ever staged, produced in 1882 with himself as Wilfred Denver, his brother
George (an excellent comedian) in the cast, and E. S. Willard (b. 1853) as
the "Spider,"--this being the part in which Mr Willard, afterwards a
well-known actor both in America and England, first came to the front.
Barrett played this part for three hundred nights without a break, and
repeated his London success in W. G. Wills's _Claudian_ which followed. In
1884 he appeared in _Hamlet_, but soon returned to melodrama, and though he
had occasional seasons in London he acted chiefly in the provinces. In 1886
he made his first visit to America, repeated in later years, and in 1898 he
visited Australia. During these years the London stage was coming under new
influences, and Wilson Barrett's vogue in melodrama had waned. But in 1895
he struck a new vein of success with his drama of religious emotion, _The
Sign of the Cross_, which crowded his theatre with audiences largely
composed of people outside the ordinary circle of playgoers. He attempted
to repeat the success with other plays of a religious type, but not with
equal effect, and several of his later plays were failures. He died on the
22nd of July 1904. Wilson Barrett was a sterling actor of a robust type and
striking physique, not remarkable for intellectual finesse, but excelling
in melodrama, and very successful as the central figure on his own stage.

BARRHEAD, a police burgh of Renfrewshire, Scotland, situated on the Levern,
7½ m. S.W. of Glasgow by the Glasgow & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901)
9855. Founded in 1773, it has gradually absorbed the villages of Arthurlie,
Dovecothall and Grahamston, and become a thriving town. The chief
industries include bleaching, calico-printing, cotton-spinning, weaving,
iron and brass founding, engineering and the manufacture of sanitary
appliances. Neilston (pop. 2668), about 2 m. S.W., has bleachfields and
print-works, and 2 m. N. by E. lie Hurlet, where are important manufactures
of alum and other chemicals, and Nitshill (pop. 1242) with chemical works,
quarries and collieries.

BARRICADE, or BARRICADO (from the Span. _barricada_, from _barrica_, a
cask, casks filled with earth having been early used to form barricades),
an improvised fortification of earth, paving-stones, trees or any materials
ready to hand, thrown up, especially across a street, to hinder the advance
of an enemy; in the old wooden warships a fence or wooden rail, supported
by stanchions and strengthened by various materials, extending across the
quarter-deck as a protection during action.

BARRIE, JAMES MATTHEW (1860- ), British novelist and dramatist, was born at
Kirriemuir, a small village in Forfarshire, on the 9th of May 1860. He was
educated at the Dumfries academy and Edinburgh University. He has told us
in his quasi-autobiographical _Margaret Ogilvy_ that he wrote tales in the
garret before he went to school, and at Edinburgh wrote the greater part of
a three-volume novel, which a publisher presumed was the work of a clever
lady and offered to publish for £100. The offer was not accepted, and it
was through journalism that he found his way to literature. After a short
period of waiting in Edinburgh, he became leader-writer on the _Nottingham
Journal_ in February 1883. To this paper he contributed also special
articles and notes, which provided an opening and training for his personal
talent. He soon began to submit articles to London editors, and on the 17th
of November 1884 Mr Frederick Greenwood printed in the _St James's Gazette_
his article on "An Auld Licht Community." With the encouragement of this
able editor, more Auld Licht "Idylls" followed; and in 1885 Mr Barrie moved
to London. He continued to write for the _St James's Gazette_ and for _Home
Chimes_ (edited by Mr F. W. Robinson). He was soon enlisted by Mr Alexander
Riach for the _Edinburgh Evening Dispatch_, which in turn led to his
writing (over the signature "Gavin Ogilvy ") for Dr Robertson Nicoll's
_British Weekly_. Later he became a contributor to the _Scots_ (afterwards
_National_) _Observer_, edited by W. E. Henley, and also to the _Speaker_,
upon its foundation in 1890. In 1887 he published his first book, _Better
Dead_. It was a mere _jeu d'esprit_, a specimen of his humorous journalism,
elaborated from the _St James's Gazette_. This was followed in 1888 by
_Auld Licht Idylls_, a collection of the Scots village sketches written for
the same paper. They portrayed the life and humours of his native village,
idealized as "Thrums," and were the fruits of early observation and of his
mother's tales. "She told me everything," Mr Barrie has written, "and so my
memories of our little red town were coloured by her memories." Kirriemuir
itself was not wholly satisfied with the portrait, but "Thrums" took its
place securely on the literary map of the world. In the same year he
published _An Edinburgh Eleven_, sketches from the _British Weekly_ of
eminent Edinburgh students; also his first long story, _When a Man's
Single_, a humorous transcription of his experiences as journalist,
particularly in the Nottingham office. The book was introduced by what was
in fact another Thrums "Idyll," on a higher level than the rest of the
book. In 1889 came _A Window in Thrums_. This beautiful book, and the
_Idylls_, gave the full measure of Mr Barrie's gifts of humanity, humour
and pathos, with abundant evidence of the whimsical turn of his wit, and of
his original and vernacular style. In 1891 he made a collection of his
lighter papers from the _St James's Gazette_ and published them as _My Lady
Nicotine_. In 1891 appeared his first long novel, _The Little Minister_,
which had been first published serially in _Good Words_. It introduced, not
with unmixed success, extraneous elements, including the winsome heroine
Babbie, into the familiar life of Thrums, but proved the author's
possession of a considerable gift of romance. In 1894 he published
_Margaret Ogilvy_, based on the life of his mother and his own relations
with her, most tenderly conceived and beautifully written, though too
intimate for the taste of many. The book is full of revelations of great
interest to admirers of Mr Barrie's genius. The following year came
_Sentimental Tommy_, a story tracing curiously the psychological
development of the "artistic temperament" in a Scots lad of the people.
R. L. Stevenson supposed himself to be portrayed in the hero, but it may be
safely assumed that the author derived his material largely from
introspection. The story was completed by a sequel, _Tommy and Grizel_,
published in 1900. The effect of this story was somewhat marred by the
comparative failure of the scenes in society remote from Thrums. In 1902 he
published _The Little White Bird_, a pretty fantasy, wherein he gave full
play to his whimsical invention, and his tenderness for child life, which
is relieved by the genius of sincerity from a suspicion of mawkishness.
This book contained the episode of "Peter Pan," which afterwards suggested
the play of that name. In the meantime Mr Barrie had been developing his
talent as a dramatist. In 1892 Mr Toole had made a great success at his own
theatre of Barrie's _Walker, London_, a farce founded on a sketch in _When
a Man's Single_. In 1893 Mr Barrie married Miss Ansell (divorced in 1909),
who had acted in _Walker, London_. In this year he wrote, with Sir A. Conan
Doyle, a play called _Jane Annie_. He found more success, however, in _The
Professor's Love-Story_ in 1895; and in 1897 the popularity of his
dramatized version of _The Little Minister_ probably confirmed him in a
predilection for drama, evident already in some of his first sketches in
the _Nottingham Journal_. In 1900 Mr Bourchier produced _The Wedding
Guest_, which was printed as a supplement to the _Fortnightly Review_ in
December of the same year. After the publication of _The Little White
Bird_, Mr Barrie burst upon the town as a popular and prolific playwright.
The struggling journalist of the early 'nineties had now become one of the
most prosperous literary men of the day. In 1903 no fewer than three plays
from his hand held the stage--_Quality Street_, _The Admirable [v.03
p.0436] Crichton_ and _Little Mary_. The year 1904 produced _Peter Pan_, a
kind of poetical pantomime, in which the author found scope for some of his
most characteristic and permanently delightful gifts. In 1905
_Alice-Sit-by-the-Fire_ and in 1908 _What Every Woman Knows_ were added to
the list. As dramatist Mr Barrie brought, to a sphere rather ridden by
convention, a method wholly unconventional and a singularly fresh fancy,
seasoned by a shrewd touch of satirical humour; and in _Peter Pan_ he
proved himself a Hans Andersen of the stage. In literature, the success of
"Thrums" produced a crop of imitations, christened in derision by W. E.
Henley the "Kailyard School," though the imitations were by no means
confined to Scotland. In this school the _Auld Licht Idylls_ and _A Window
in Thrums_ remained unsurpassed and unapproached. The Scots village tale
was no novelty in literature--witness John Gait, the _Chronicles of
Carlingford_ and George MacDonald. Yet Mr Barrie, in spite of a dialect not
easy to the Southron, contrived to touch a more intimate and more
responsive chord. With the simplest materials he achieved an almost
unendurable pathos, which yet is never forced; and the pathos is salted
with humour, while about the moving homeliness of his humanity play the
gleams of a whimsical wit. Stevenson, in a letter to Mr Henry James, in
December 1892, said justly of Barrie that "there was genius in him, but
there was a journalist on his elbow." This genius found its most perfect
and characteristic expression in the humanity of "Thrums" and the bizarre
and tender fantasy of _Peter Pan_.

See also _J. M. Barrie and His Books_, by J. A. Hamerton (Horace Marshall,
1902); and for bibliography up to May 1903, _English Illustrated Magazine_,
vol. xxix. (N.S.), p. 208.

(W. P. J.)

BARRIE, the capital of Simcoe county, Ontario, Canada, 56 m. N. of Toronto,
on Lake Simcoe, an important centre on the Grand Trunk railway. It contains
several breweries, carriage factories, boat-building and railway shops, and
manufactories of woollens, stoves and leather. It is also a summer resort
and the starting-point for the numerous Lake Simcoe steamers. Pop. (1901)
5949.

BARRIÈRE, THÉODORE (1823-1877), French dramatist, was born in Paris in
1823. He belonged to a family of map engravers which had long been
connected with the war department, and spent nine years in that service
himself. The success of a vaudeville he had performed at the Beaumarchais
and which was immediately snapped up for the repertory of the Palais Royal,
showed him his real vocation. During the next thirty years he signed, alone
or in collaboration, over a hundred plays; among the most successful were:
_La Vie de bohème_ (1849), adapted from Henri Murger's book with the
novelist's help; _Manon Lescaut_ (1851); _Les Filles de marbre_ (1853);
_L'Héritage de Monsieur Plumet_ (1858); _Les Faux Bonshommes_ (1856) with
Ernest Capendu; _Malheureux vaincus_ (1865), which was forbidden by the
censor; _Le Gascon_ (1878). Barrière died in Paris on the 16th of October
1877.

See also _Revue des deux mondes_ (March 1859).

BARRIER TREATY, the name given first to the treaty signed on 29th of
October 1709 between Great Britain and the states-general of the United
Netherlands, by which the latter engaged to guarantee the Protestant
succession in England in favour of the house of Hanover; while Great
Britain undertook to procure for the Dutch an adequate _barrier_ on the
side of the Netherlands, consisting of the towns of Furnes, Nieuport,
Ypres, Menin, Lille, Tournai, Condé, Valenciennes, Maubeuge, Charleroi,
Namur, Halle, Damme, Dendermond and the citadel of Ghent. The treaty was
based on the same principle of securing Holland against French aggression
that had inspired that of Ryswick in 1698, by the terms of which the chief
frontier fortresses of the Netherlands were to be garrisoned by Dutch
troops. A second Barrier Treaty was signed between Great Britain and
Holland on 29th of January 1713, by which the strong places designed for
the barrier were reduced to Furnes, the fort of Knocke, Ypres, Menin,
Tournai, Mons, Charleroi and the citadel of Ghent, and certain fortresses
in the neighbourhood of that city and of Bruges; Great Britain undertaking
to obtain the right for the Dutch to garrison them from the future
sovereign of the Spanish Netherlands. Its terms were included in the treaty
of Rastatt, between the emperor and France, signed on the 7th of March
1714. A third Barrier Treaty was signed in November 1715.

See Jean Dumont, _Corps universel diplomatique_, &c. (1726-1731), vol.
viii.

BARRILI, ANTONIO GIULIO (1836- ), Italian novelist, was born at Savona, and
was educated for the legal profession, which he abandoned for journalism in
Genoa. He was a volunteer in the campaign of 1859 and served with Garibaldi
in 1866 and 1867. From 1865 (_Capitan Dodero_) onwards he published a large
number of books of fiction, which had wide popularity, his work being
commonly compared with that of Victor Cherbuliez. Some of the best of the
later ones are _Santa Cecilia_ (1866), _Come un Sogno_ (1875), and _L'Olmo
e l' Edera_ (1877). His _Raggio di Dio_ appeared in 1899. Barrili also
wrote two plays and various volumes of criticism, including _Il
rinnovamento letterario italiano_ (1890). He was elected to the Italian
chamber of deputies in 1876; and in 1889 became professor of Italian
literature at Genoa.

BARRING-OUT, a custom, formerly common in English schools, of barring the
master out of the school premises. A typical example of this practice was
at Bromfield school, Cumberland, where William Hutchinson says "it was the
custom, time out of mind, for the scholars, at Fasting's Even (the
beginning of Lent) to depose and exclude the master from the school for
three days." During this period the school doors were barricaded and the
boys armed with mock weapons. If the master's attempts to re-enter were
successful, extra tasks were inflicted as a penalty, and willingly
performed by the boys. On the third day terms of capitulation, usually in
Latin verse, were signed, and these always conceded the immediate right to
indulge in football and a cockfight. The custom was long retained at Eton
and figures in many school stories.

BARRINGTON, DAINES (1727-1800), English lawyer, antiquary and naturalist,
was born in 1727, fourth son of the first Viscount Barrington. He was
educated for the profession of the law, and after filling various posts,
was appointed a Welsh judge in 1757 and afterwards second justice of
Chester. Though an indifferent judge, his _Observations on the Statutes,
chiefly the more ancient, from Magna Charta to 21st James I., cap. 27, with
an appendix, being a proposal for new-modelling the Statutes_ (1766), had a
high reputation among historians and constitutional antiquaries. In 1773 he
published an edition of Orosius, with Alfred's Saxon version, and an
English translation with original notes. His _Tracts on the Probability of
reaching the North Pole_ (1775) were written in consequence of the northern
voyage of discovery undertaken by Captain C. J. Phipps, afterwards Lord
Mulgrave (1744-1792). Barrington's other writings are chiefly to be found
in the publications of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies, of both of
which he was long a member, and of the latter vice-president. Many of these
were collected by him in a quarto volume entitled _Miscellanies on various
Subjects_ (1781). He contributed to the _Philosophical Transactions_ for
1780 an account of Mozart's visit at eight years of age to London. In his
_Miscellanies_ on varied subjects he included this with accounts of four
other prodigies, namely, Crotch, Charles and Samuel Wesley, and Garrett
Wellesley, Lord Mornington. Among the most curious and ingenious of his
papers are his _Experiments and Observations on the Singing of Birds_, and
his _Essay on the Language of Birds_. He died on the 14th of March 1800 and
was buried in the Temple church.

BARRINGTON, GEORGE (b. 1755), an Irishman with a curious history, was born
at Maynooth on the 14th of May 1755, the son of a working silversmith named
Waldron. In 1771 he robbed his schoolmaster at Dublin and ran away from
school, becoming a member of a touring theatrical company under the assumed
name of Barrington. At Limerick races he joined the manager of the company
in pocket-picking. The manager was detected and sentenced to
transportation, and Barrington fled to London, where he assumed clerical
dress and continued his pocket-picking. At Covent Garden theatre he robbed
the Russian prince Orlov of a snuff-box, said to be worth £30,000. He was
[v.03 p.0437] detected and arrested, but as Prince Orlov declined to
prosecute, was discharged, though subsequently he was sentenced to three
years' hard labour for pocket-picking at Drury Lane theatre. On his release
he was again caught at his old practices and sentenced to five years' hard
labour, but influence secured his release on the condition that he left
England. He accordingly went for a short time to Dublin, and then returned
to London, where he was once more detected pocket-picking, and, in 1790,
sentenced to seven years' transportation. On the voyage out to Botany Bay a
conspiracy was hatched by the convicts on board to seize the ship.
Barrington disclosed the plot to the captain, and the latter, on reaching
New South Wales, reported him favourably to the authorities, with the
result that in 1792 Barrington obtained a warrant of emancipation (the
first issued), becoming subsequently superintendent of convicts and later
high constable of Paramatta. In 1796 a theatre was opened at Sydney, the
principal actors being convicts, and Barrington wrote the prologue to the
first production. This prologue has obtained a wide publicity. It begins:--

 "From distant climes, o'er widespread seas, we come,
  Though not with much _éclat_ or beat of drum;
  True patriots we, for, be it understood,
  We left our country for our country's good."

Barrington died at a ripe old age at Paramatta, but the exact date is not
on record. He was the author of _A Voyage to Botany Bay_ (London, 1801);
_The History of New South Wales_ (London, 1802); _The History of New
Holland_ (London, 1808).

BARRINGTON, JOHN SHUTE, 1ST VISCOUNT (1678-1734), English lawyer and
theologian, was the son of Benjamin Shute, merchant, and was born at
Theobalds, in Hertfordshire, in 1678. He received part of his education at
the university of Utrecht; and, after returning to England in 1698, studied
law in the Inner Temple. In 1701 he published several pamphlets in favour
of the civil rights of Protestant dissenters, to which class he belonged.
On the recommendation of Lord Somers he was employed to induce the
Presbyterians in Scotland to favour the union of the two kingdoms, and in
1708 he was rewarded for this service by being appointed to the office of
commissioner of the customs. From this, however, he was removed on the
change of administration in 1711; but his fortune had, in the meantime,
been improved by the bequest of two considerable estates,--one of them left
him by Francis Barrington of Tofts, whose name he assumed by act of
parliament, the other by John Wildman of Becket. Barrington now stood at
the head of the dissenters. On the accession of George I. he was returned
to parliament for Berwick-upon-Tweed; and in 1720 the king raised him to
the Irish peerage, with the title of Viscount Barrington of Ardglass. But
having unfortunately engaged in the Harburg lottery, one of the bubble
speculations of the time, he was expelled from the House of Commons in
1723,--a punishment which was considered much too severe, and was thought
to be due to personal malice of Walpole. In 1725 he published his principal
work, entitled _Miscellanea Sacra or a New Method of considering so much of
the History of the Apostles as is contained in Scripture_, 2 vols.
8vo,--afterwards reprinted with additions and corrections, in 3 vols. 8vo,
1770, by his son Shute. In the same year he published _An Essay on the
Several Dispensations of God to Mankind_. He died on the 14th of December
1734.

BARRINGTON, SAMUEL (1720-1800), British admiral, was the fourth son of the
1st Viscount Barrington. He entered the navy at an early age and in 1747
had worked his way to a post-captaincy. He was in continuous employment
during the peace of 1748-1756, and on the outbreak of the Seven Years' War
served with Hawke in the Basque roads in command of the "Achilles" (60). In
1759 the "Achilles" captured a powerful French privateer, after two hours'
fighting. In the Havre-de-Grace expedition of the same year Barrington's
ship carried the flag of Rear-Admiral Rodney, and in 1760 sailed with John
Byron to destroy the Louisburg fortifications. At the peace in 1763
Barrington had been almost continuously afloat for twenty-two years. He was
next appointed in 1768 to the frigate "Venus" as governor to the duke of
Cumberland, who remained with him in all ranks from midshipman to
rear-admiral. In 1778 the duke's flag-captain became rear-admiral and went
to the West Indies, while in conjunction with the army he took the island
of Santa Lucia from the French, and repulsed the attempt of the Comte
d'Estaing to retake it. Superseded after a time by Byron, he remained as
that officer's second-in-command and was present at Grenada and St. Kitts
(6th and 22nd of July 1779). On his return home, he was offered, but
refused, the command of the Channel fleet. His last active service was the
relief of Gibraltar in October 1782. As admiral he flew his flag for a
short time in 1790, but was not employed in the French revolutionary wars.
He died in 1800.

See Ralfe, _Naval Biographies_, i. 120; Charnock, _Biographia Navalis_, vi.
10.

BARRINGTON, SHUTE (1734-1826), youngest son of the 1st Viscount Barrington,
was educated at Eton and Oxford, and after holding some minor dignities was
made bishop of Llandaff in 1769. In 1782 he was translated to Salisbury and
in 1791 to Durham. He was a vigorous Protestant, though willing to grant
Roman Catholics "every degree of toleration short of political power and
establishment." He published several volumes of sermons and tracts, and
wrote the political life of his brother, Viscount Barrington.

BARRINGTON, WILLIAM WILDMAN SHUTE, 2ND VISCOUNT (1717-1793), eldest son of
the 1st Viscount Barrington, was born on the 15th of January 1717.
Succeeding to the title in 1734, he spent some time in travel, and in March
1740 was returned to parliament as member for Berwick-upon-Tweed. Having
taken his seat in the Irish House of Lords in 1745, he was appointed one of
the lords commissioners of the admiralty in 1746, and was one of the
"managers" of the impeachment of Simon, Lord Lovat. In 1754 he became
member of parliament for Plymouth, in 1755 was made a privy councillor and
secretary at war, and in 1761 was transferred to the office of chancellor
of the exchequer. In 1762 he became treasurer of the navy, and in 1765
returned to his former position of secretary at war. He retained this
office until December 1778, and during four months in 1782 was joint
postmaster-general. He married in 1740 Mary, daughter of Mr Henry Lovell,
but left no children. He died at Becket on the 1st of February 1793, and
was buried in Shrivenham church.

See Shute Barrington, _Political Life of William Wildman, Viscount
Barrington_ (London, 1814).

BARRISTER, in England and Ireland the term applied to the highest class of
lawyers who have exclusive audience in all the superior courts, the word
being derived from the "bar" (_q.v._) in the law courts. Every barrister in
England must be a member of one of the four ancient societies called Inns
of Court, viz. Lincoln's Inn, the Inner and Middle Temples, and Gray's Inn,
and in Ireland, of the King's Inns. The existence of the English societies
as schools can be traced back to the 13th century, and their rise is
attributed to the clause in Magna Carta, by which the Common Pleas were
fixed at Westminster instead of following the king's court, and the
professors of law were consequently brought together in London.
Associations of lawyers acquired houses of their own in which students were
educated in the common law, and the degrees of barrister (corresponding to
apprentice or bachelor) and sergeant (corresponding to doctor) were
conferred. These schools of law are now represented by the Inns of Court
(_q.v._).

Students are admitted as members of the Inns of Court, on paying certain
fees and on passing a general (elementary) examination or (alternatively)
producing evidence of having passed a public examination at a university;
their subsequent call to the bar depends on their keeping twelve terms (of
which there are four in each year), and passing certain further
examinations (see ENGLISH LAW _ad fin._). A term is "kept" by dining six
times (three for a student whose name is on the books of a university) in
hall. This is a relic of the older system in which examinations were not
included, the only requisite being a certificate from a barrister that the
student had read for twelve months in his chambers. Dining in hall then
applied a certain social test, which has now become unmeaning. The
profession of barrister is open to almost every one; but no person
connected [v.03 p.0438] with the law in any inferior capacity or who is a
chartered or professional accountant, can enter an Inn of Court as a
student until he has entirely and bona fide ceased to act or practise in
such capacity. Some of the Inns also make a restriction that their members
shall not be engaged in trade. A form of admission has to be filled up,
containing a declaration to this effect, and mentioning _inter alia_ the
age, nationality, condition in life and occupation of the applicant.
Previous to the student's call this declaration must be repeated, and he
must further declare that he is not in holy orders, has not held any
clerical preferment and has not performed any clerical functions during the
year preceding. Subject to the above, practising solicitors of not less
than five years' standing may be called to the bar without keeping any
terms, upon passing the necessary examinations, and, _per contra_, a
barrister of the same standing may, without any period of apprenticeship,
become a solicitor upon passing the final examination for solicitors. Irish
barristers of three years' standing may be called to the English bar
without passing any examination upon keeping three terms, and so also may
barristers of those colonies where the professions of barrister and
solicitor are still kept distinct. No one can become a barrister till he is
twenty-one years old.

The benchers of the different Inns of Court have the right of rejecting any
applicant for membership with or without cause assigned; and for sufficient
reasons, subject to an appeal to the common-law judges as visitors of the
Inns, they may refuse to call a student to the bar, or may expel from their
society or from the profession ("dis-bar" or "dis-bench") even barristers
or benchers. The benchers appear to take cognizance of any kind of
misconduct, whether professional or not, which they may deem unworthy of
the rank of barrister. The grade of barrister comprehends the
attorney-general and solicitor-general (appointed by and holding office
solely at the will of the government of the day), who rank as the heads of
the profession, king's counsel and ordinary practitioners, sometimes
technically known as "utter barristers."

The peculiar business of barristers is the advocacy of causes in open
court, but in England a great deal of other business falls into their
hands. They are the chief conveyancers, and the _pleadings_ (_i.e._ the
counter statements of parties previous to joining issue) are in all but the
simplest cases drafted by them. There was formerly, indeed, a separate
class of conveyancers and special pleaders, being persons who kept the
necessary number of terms qualifying for a call but who, instead of being
called, took out licences, granted for one year only, but renewable, to
practise under the bar, but now conveyancing and special pleading form part
of the ordinary work of a junior barrister. The higher rank among
barristers is that of king's or queen's counsel. They lead in court, and
give opinions on cases submitted to them, but they do not accept
conveyancing or pleading, nor do they admit pupils to their chambers.
Precedence among king's counsel, as well as among outer barristers, is
determined by seniority.[1] The old order of serjeants-at-law (_q.v._) who
ranked after king's counsel, is now extinct. Although every barrister has a
right to practise in any court in England, each special class of business
has its own practitioners, so that the bar may almost be said to be divided
into several professions. The most marked distinction is that between
barristers practising in chancery and barristers practising in the courts
of common law. The fusion of law and equity brought about by the Judicature
Acts 1873 and 1875 was expected in course of time to break down this
distinction; but to a large extent the separation between these two great
branches of the profession remains. There are also subordinate distinctions
in each branch. Counsel at common law attach themselves to one or other of
the circuits into which England is divided, and may not practise elsewhere
unless under special conditions. In chancery the king's counsel for the
most part restrict themselves to one or other of the courts of the chancery
division. Business before the court of probate, divorce and admiralty, the
privy council and parliamentary committees, exhibits, though in a less
degree, the same tendency to specialization. In some of the larger
provincial towns there are also local bars of considerable strength. The
bar of Ireland exhibits in its general arrangements the same features as
the bar of England. For the Scottish bar, see under ADVOCATES, FACULTY OF.
There is no connexion whatever between the Scottish and English bars. A
distinctive dress is worn by barristers when attending the courts,
consisting of a stuff gown, exchanged for one of silk (whence the
expression "to take silk") when the wearer has attained the rank of king's
counsel, both classes also having wigs dating in pattern and material from
the 18th century.

Counsel is not answerable for anything spoken by him relative to the cause
in hand and suggested in the client's instructions, even though it should
reflect on the character of another and prove absolutely groundless, but if
he mention an untruth of his own invention, or even upon instructions if it
be impertinent to the matter in hand, he is then liable to an action from
the party injured. Counsel may also be punished by the summary power of the
court or judge as for a contempt, and by the benchers of the inn to which
he may belong on cause shown.

The rank of barrister is a necessary qualification for nearly all offices
of a judicial character, and a very usual qualification for other important
appointments. Not only the judgeships in the superior courts of law and
equity in England and in her colonies, but nearly all the magistracies of
minor rank--recorderships, county court judgeships, &c.--are restricted to
the bar. The result is a unique feature in the English system of justice,
viz. the perfect harmony of opinion and interest between the bar as a
profession and all degrees of the judicial bench. Barristers have the rank
of esquires, and are privileged from arrest whilst in attendance on the
superior courts and on circuit, and also from serving on juries whilst in
active practice.

_Revising Barristers_ are counsel of not less than seven years' standing
appointed to revise the lists of parliamentary voters.

Barristers cannot maintain an action for their fees, which are regarded as
gratuities, nor can they, by the usage of the profession, undertake a case
without the intervention of a solicitor, except in criminal cases, where a
barrister may be engaged directly, by having a fee given him in open court,
nor is it competent for them to enter into any contract for payment by
their clients with respect to litigation.

See J. R. V. Marchant, _Barrister-at-law: an Essay on the legal position of
Counsel in England_ (1905).

[1] A king's counsel is appointed by letters patent to be "one of His
Majesty's counsel learned in the law." The appointment rests with the lord
chancellor, to whom the barrister desiring a silk gown makes application.
There is no definite time required to elapse between "call" and application
for a seat within the bar, but it is generally understood that a barrister
must be of at least ten years' standing before he is appointed a king's
counsel. The first king's counsel was Sir Francis Bacon, who was appointed
by Queen Elizabeth "queen's counsel extraordinary," and received a payment,
by way of "pledge and fee," of £40 a year, payable half-yearly. Succeeding
king's counsel received a similar payment, until its abolition in 1831.
There was not another appointment of a king's counsel until 1668, when Lord
Chancellor Francis North was so honoured. From 1775 king's counsel may be
said to have become a regular order. Their number was very small so late as
the middle of the 19th century (20 in 1789; 30 in 1810; 28 in 1850), but at
the beginning of the 20 century there were over 250. A king's counsel may
not, unless by special licence, take a brief against the crown, but such a
licence is never refused unless the crown desires his services in the case.

BARROIS, CHARLES (1851- ), French geologist, was born at Lille on the 21st
of April 1851, and educated at the college in that town, where he studied
geology under Prof. Jules Gosselet and qualified as D. ès Sc. To this
master he dedicated his first comprehensive work, _Recherches sur le
terrain crétacé supérieur de l'Angleterre et de l'Irlande_, published in
the _Mémoires de la société géologique du Nord_ in 1876. In this essay the
palaeontological zones in the Chalk and Upper Greensand of Britain were for
the first time marked out in detail, and the results of Dr Barrois's
original researches have formed the basis of subsequent work, and have in
all leading features been confirmed. In 1876 Dr Barrois was appointed a
collaborateur to the French Geological Survey, and in 1877 professor of
geology in the university [v.03 p.0439] of Lille. In other memoirs, among
which may be mentioned those on the Cretaceous rocks of the Ardennes and of
the Basin of Oviedo, Spain; on the (Devonian) Calcaire d'Erbray; on the
Palaeozoic rocks of Brittany and of northern Spain; and on the granitic and
metamorphic rocks of Brittany, Dr Barrois has proved himself an
accomplished petrologist as well as palaeontologist and field-geologist. In
1881 he was awarded the Bigsby medal, and in 1901 the Wollaston medal by
the Geological Society of London. He was chosen member of the Institute
(Academy of Sciences) in 1904.

BARROS, JOÃO DE (1496-1570), called the Portuguese Livy, may be said to
have been the first great historian of his country. Educated in the palace
of King Manoel, he early conceived the idea of writing history, and, to
prove his powers, composed, at the age of twenty, a romance of chivalry,
the _Chronicle of the Emperor Clarimundo_, in which he is said to have had
the assistance of Prince John, afterwards King John III. The latter, on
ascending the throne, gave Barros the captaincy of the fortress of St
George of Elmina, whither he proceeded in 1522, and he obtained in 1525 the
post of treasurer of the India House, which he held until 1528. The pest of
1530 drove him from Lisbon to his country house near Pombal, and there he
finished a moral dialogue, _Rhopica Pneuma_, which met with the applause of
the learned Juan Luis Vives. On his return to Lisbon in 1532 the king
appointed Barros factor of the India and Mina House--positions of great
responsibility and importance at a time when Lisbon was the European
emporium for the trade of the East. Barros proved a good administrator,
displaying great industry and a disinterestedness rare in that age, with
the result that he made but little money where his predecessors had amassed
fortunes. At this time, John III., wishful to attract settlers to Brazil,
divided it up into captaincies and gave that of Maranhão to Barros, who,
associating two partners in the enterprise with himself, prepared an armada
of ten vessels, carrying nine hundred men, which set sail in 1539. Owing to
the ignorance of the pilots, the whole fleet suffered shipwreck, which
entailed serious financial loss on Barros, yet not content with meeting his
own obligations, he paid the debts of those who had perished in the
expedition. During all these busy years he had continued his studies in his
leisure hours, and shortly after the Brazilian disaster he offered to write
a history of the Portuguese in India, which the king accepted. He began
work forthwith, but, before printing the first part, he again proved his
pen by publishing a Portuguese grammar (1540) and some more moral
Dialogues. The first of the Decades of his _Asia_ appeared in 1552, and its
reception was such that the king straightway charged Barros to write a
chronicle of King Manoel. His many occupations, however, prevented him from
undertaking this book, which was finally composed by Damião de Goes
(_q.v._). The Second Decade came out in 1553 and the Third in 1563, but the
Fourth and final one was not published until 1615, long after the author's
death. In January 1568 Barros retired from his remunerative appointment at
the India House, receiving the rank of _fidalgo_ together with a pension
and other pecuniary emoluments from King Sebastian, and died on the 20th of
October 1570. A man of lofty character, he preferred leaving his children
an example of good morals and learning to bequeathing them a large
pecuniary inheritance, and, though he received many royal benefactions,
they were volunteered, never asked for. As an historian and a stylist
Barros deserves the high fame he has always enjoyed. His Decades contain
the early history of the Portuguese in Asia and reveal careful study of
Eastern historians and geographers, as well as of the records of his own
country. They are distinguished by clearness of exposition and orderly
arrangement. His style has all the simplicity and grandeur of the masters
of historical writing, and the purity of his diction is incontestable.
Though, on the whole, impartial, Barros is the narrator and apologist of
the great deeds of his countrymen, and lacks the critical spirit and
intellectual acumen of Damião de Goes. Diogo do Couto continued the
Decades, adding nine more, and a modern edition of the whole appeared in
Lisbon in 14 vols. in 1778-1788. The title of Barros's work is _Da Asia de
João de Barros, dos feitos que os Portuguezes fizeram no descubrimento e
conquista dos mares e terras do Oriente_, and the edition is accompanied by
a volume containing a life of Barros by the historian Manoel Severim de
Faria and a copious index of all the Decades. An Italian version in 2 vols.
appeared in Venice in 1561-1562 and a German in 5 vols. in 1821.
_Clarimundo_ has gone through the following editions: 1522, 1555, 1601,
1742, 1791 and 1843, all published in Lisbon. It influenced Francisco de
Moraes (_q.v._); cf. Purser, _Palmerin of England_, Dublin, 1904, pp. 440
et seq.

The minor works of Barros are described by Innocencio da Silva:
_Diccionario Bibliographico Portuguez_, vol. iii. pp. 320-323 and vol. x.
pp. 187-189, and in Severim de Faria's _Life_, cited above. A compilation
of Barros's _Varia_ was published by the visconde de Azevedo (Porto, 1869).

(E. PR.)

BARROT, CAMILLE HYACINTHE ODILON (1791-1873), French politician, was born
at Villefort (Lozère) on the 19th of September 1791. He belonged to a legal
family, his father, an advocate of Toulouse, having been a member of the
Convention who had voted against the death of Louis XVI. Odilon Barrot's
earliest recollections were of the October insurrection of 1795. He was
sent to the military school of Saint-Cyr, but presently removed to the
Lycée Napoleon to study law and was called to the Parisian bar in 1811. He
was placed in the office of the _conventionel_ Jean Mailhe, who was
advocate before the council of state and the court of cassation and was
proscribed at the second restoration. Barrot eventually succeeded him in
both positions. His dissatisfaction with the government of the restoration
was shown in his conduct of some political trials. For his opposition in
1820 to a law by which any person might be arrested and detained on a
warrant signed by three ministers, he was summoned before a court of
assize, but acquitted. Although intimate with Lafayette and others, he took
no actual share in their schemes for the overthrow of the government, but
in 1827 he joined the association known as _Aide-toi, le ciel t'aidera_. He
presided over the banquet given by the society to the 221 deputies who had
signed the address of March 1830 to Charles X., and threatened to reply to
force by force. After the ordinances of the 26th of July 1830, he joined
the National Guard and took an active part in the revolution. As secretary
of the municipal commission, which sat at the hôtel-de-ville and formed
itself into a provisional government, he was charged to convey to the
chamber of deputies a protest embodying the terms which the advanced
Liberals wished to impose on the king to be elected. He supported the idea
of a constitutional monarchy against the extreme Republicans, and he was
appointed one of the three commissioners chosen to escort Charles X. out of
France. On his return he was nominated prefect of the department of the
Seine. His concessions to the Parisian mob and his extreme gentleness
towards those who demanded the prosecution of the ministers of Charles X.
led to an unflattering comparison with Jérôme Pétion under similar
circumstances. Louis Philippe's government was far from satisfying his
desires for reform, and he persistently urged the "broadening of the bases
of the monarchy," while he protested his loyalty to the dynasty. He was
returned to the chamber of deputies for the department of Eure in 1831. The
day after the demonstration of June 1832 on the occasion of the funeral of
General Lamarque, he made himself indirectly the mouthpiece of the
Democrats in an interview with Louis Philippe, which is given at length in
his _Mémoires_. Subsequently, in pleading before the court of cassation on
behalf of one of the rioters, he secured the annulling of the judgments
given by the council of war. The death of the duke of Orleans in 1842 was a
blow to Barrot's party, which sought to substitute the regency of the
duchess of Orleans for that of the duke of Nemours in the event of the
succession of the count of Paris. In 1846 Barrot made a tour in the Near
East, returning in time to take part a second time in the preliminaries of
revolution. He organized banquets of the disaffected in the various cities
of France, and demanded electoral reform to avoid revolution. He did not
foresee the strength of the outbreak for which his eloquence had prepared
the way, and clung to the programme of 1830. He tried to support the
regency of the duchess in the chamber on the 24th of February, only to find
that the time was past for [v.03 p.0440] half-measures. He acquiesced in
the republic and gave his adhesion to General Cavaignac. He became the
chief of Louis Napoleon's first ministry in the hope of extracting Liberal
measures, but was dismissed in 1849 as soon as he had served the
president's purpose of avoiding open conflict. After the _coup d'état_ of
December 1851 he was one of those who sought to accuse Napoleon of high
treason. He was imprisoned for a short time and retired from active
politics for some ten years. He was drawn once more into affairs by the
hopes of reform held out by Émile Ollivier, accepting in 1869 the
presidency of an extra-parliamentary committee on decentralization. After
the fall of the empire he was nominated by Thiers, whom he had supported
under Louis Philippe, president of the council of state. But his powers
were now failing, and he had only filled his new office for about a year
when he died at Bougival on the 6th of August 1873. He had been
sufficiently an optimist to believe in the triumph of the liberal but
non-republican institutions dear to him under the restoration, under Louis
Philippe and Louis Napoleon successively. He was unable to foresee and
unwilling to accept the consequences of his political agitation in 1830 and
1848, and in spite of his talents and acknowledged influence he thus failed
to secure the honours won by more uncompromising politicians. He was
described by Thureau-Dangin as "le plus solennel des indécis, le plus
méditatif des irréfléchis, le plus heureux des ambitieux, le plus austère
des courtisans de la foule."

His personal relations with Louis Philippe and Napoleon, with his views on
the events in which he was concerned, are described in the four volumes of
his _Mémoires_, edited by Duvergier de Hauranne in 1875-1876. See also
Thureau-Dangin, _Hist. de la monarchie de juillet_.

BARROW, ISAAC (1630-1677), English mathematician and divine, was the son of
Thomas Barrow, a linen-draper in London, belonging to an old Suffolk and
Cambridgeshire family. His uncle was Bishop Isaac Barrow of St Asaph
(1614-1680). He was at first placed for two or three years at the
Charterhouse school. There, however, his conduct gave but little hopes of
his ever succeeding as a scholar. But after his removal from this
establishment to Felsted school in Essex, where Martin Holbeach was master,
his disposition took a happier turn; and having soon made considerable
progress in learning, he was in 1643 entered at St Peter's College, and
afterwards at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he applied himself to the
study of literature and science, especially of natural philosophy. He at
first intended to adopt the medical profession, and made some progress in
anatomy, botany and chemistry, after which he studied chronology, geometry
and astronomy. He then travelled in France and Italy, and in a voyage from
Leghorn to Smyrna gave proofs of great personal bravery during an attack
made by an Algerine pirate. At Smyrna he met with a kind reception from the
English consul, Mr Bretton, upon whose death he afterwards wrote a Latin
elegy. From this place he proceeded to Constantinople, where he received
similar civilities from Sir Thomas Bendish, the English ambassador, and Sir
Jonathan Dawes, with whom he afterwards contracted an intimate friendship.
While at Constantinople he read and studied the works of St Chrysostom,
whom he preferred to all the other Fathers. He resided in Turkey somewhat
more than a year, after which he proceeded to Venice, and thence returned
home through Germany and Holland in 1659.

Immediately on his reaching England he received ordination from Bishop
Brownrig, and in 1660 he was appointed to the Greek professorship at
Cambridge. When he entered upon this office he intended to have prelected
upon the tragedies of Sophocles; but he altered his intention and made
choice of Aristotle's rhetoric. His lectures on this subject, having been
lent to a friend who never returned them, are irrecoverably lost. In July
1662 he was elected professor of geometry in Gresham College, on the
recommendation of Dr John Wilkins, master of Trinity College and afterwards
bishop of Chester; and in May 1663 he was chosen a fellow of the Royal
Society, at the first election made by the council after obtaining their
charter. The same year the executors of Henry Lucas, who, according to the
terms of his will, had founded a mathematical chair at Cambridge, fixed
upon Barrow as the first professor; and although his two professorships
were not inconsistent with each other, he chose to resign that of Gresham
College, which he did on the 20th of May 1664. In 1669 he resigned his
mathematical chair to his pupil, Isaac Newton, having now determined to
renounce the study of mathematics for that of divinity. Upon quitting his
professorship Barrow was only a fellow of Trinity College; but his uncle
gave him a small sinecure in Wales, and Dr Seth Ward, bishop of Salisbury,
conferred upon him a prebend in that church. In the year 1670 he was
created doctor in divinity by mandate; and, upon the promotion of Dr
Pearson to the see of Chester, he was appointed to succeed him as master of
Trinity College by the king's patent, bearing the date of the 13th of
February 1672. In 1675 Dr Barrow was chosen vice-chancellor of the
university. He died on the 4th of May 1677, and was interred in Westminster
Abbey, where a monument, surmounted by his bust, was soon after erected by
the contributions of his friends.

By his English contemporaries Barrow was considered a mathematician second
only to Newton. Continental writers do not place him so high, and their
judgment is probably the more correct one. He was undoubtedly a
clear-sighted and able mathematician, who handled admirably the severe
geometrical method, and who in his _Method of Tangents_ approximated to the
course of reasoning by which Newton was afterwards led to the doctrine of
ultimate ratios; but his substantial contributions to the science are of no
great importance, and his lectures upon elementary principles do not throw
much light on the difficulties surrounding the border-land between
mathematics and philosophy. (See INFINITESIMAL CALCULUS.) His _Sermons_
have long enjoyed a high reputation; they are weighty pieces of reasoning,
elaborate in construction and ponderous in style.

His scientific works are very numerous. The most important are:--_Euclid's
Elements; Euclid's Data; Optical Lectures_, read in the public school of
Cambridge; _Thirteen Geometrical Lectures; The Works of Archimedes, the
Four Books of Apollonius's Conic Sections, and Theodosius's Spherics,
explained in a New Method_; A _Lecture_, in which Archimedes' Theorems of
the Sphere and Cylinder are investigated and briefly demonstrated;
_Mathematical Lectures_, read in the public schools of the university of
Cambridge. The above were all written in Latin. His English works have been
collected and published in four volumes folio.

See Ward, _Lives of the Gresham Professors_, and Whewell's biography
prefixed to the 9th volume of Napier's edition of Barrow's _Sermons_.

BARROW, SIR JOHN (1764-1848), English statesman, was born in the village of
Dragley Beck in the parish of Ulverston in Lancashire, on the 19th of June
1764. He started in life as superintending clerk of an iron foundry at
Liverpool and afterwards taught mathematics at a school in Greenwich.
Through the interest of Sir George Staunton, to whose son he taught
mathematics, he was attached on the first British embassy to China as
comptroller of the household to Lord Macartney. He soon acquired a good
knowledge of the Chinese language, on which he subsequently contributed
interesting articles to the _Quarterly Review_; and the account of the
embassy published by Sir George Staunton records many of Barrow's valuable
contributions to literature and science connected with China.

Although Barrow ceased to be officially connected with Chinese affairs
after the return of the embassy in 1794, he always took much interest in
them, and on critical occasions was frequently consulted by the British
government. In 1797 he accompanied Lord Macartney, as private secretary, in
his important and delicate mission to settle the government of the newly
acquired colony of the Cape of Good Hope. Barrow was entrusted with the
task of reconciling the Boers and Kaffirs and of reporting on the country
in the interior. On his return from his journey, in the course of which he
visited all parts of the colony, he was appointed auditor-general of public
accounts. He now decided to settle in South Africa, married Anne Maria
Trüter, and in 1800 bought a house in Cape Town. But the surrender of the
colony at the peace of Amiens (1802) upset this plan. He returned to
England in 1804, was appointed by Lord Melville second secretary to the
admiralty, a post which he held for [v.03 p.0441] forty years. He enjoyed
the esteem and confidence of all the eleven chief lords who successively
presided at the admiralty board during that period, and more especially of
King William IV. while lord high admiral, who honoured him with tokens of
his personal regard. Barrow was a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1821
received the degree of LL.D. from Edinburgh University. A baronetcy was
conferred on him by Sir Robert Peel in 1835. He retired from public life in
1845 and devoted himself to writing a history of the modern Arctic voyages
of discovery (1846), of which he was a great promoter, as well as his
autobiography, published in 1847. He died suddenly on the 23rd of November
1848.

Besides the numerous articles in the _Quarterly Review_ already mentioned,
Barrow published among other works, _Travels in China_ (1804); _Travels
into the Interior of South Africa_ (1806); and lives of Lord Macartney
(1807), Lord Anson (1839), Lord Howe (1838). He was also the author of
several valuable contributions to the seventh edition of the _Encyclopaedia
Britannica_.

See _Memoir_ of John Barlow, by G. F. Staunton (1852).

BARROW, a river of south-eastern Ireland. It rises in the Slieve Bloom
mountains, and flows at first easterly and then almost due south, until, on
joining the Suir, it forms the estuary of the south coast known as
Waterford Harbour. Including the 12 m. of the estuary, the length of its
valley is rather more than 100 m., without counting the lesser windings of
the river. The total area of drainage to Waterford Harbour (including the
basin of the Suir) is 3500 sq. m., and covers the whole of the county
Kilkenny, with parts of Waterford, Cork and Limerick, Tipperary, Carlow,
King's and Queen's counties. The chief towns on the banks of the Barrow are
Athy (where it becomes navigable and has a junction with the Grand Canal),
Carlow, Bagenalstown and New Ross. The chief affluent is the Nore, which it
receives from the north-west a little above New Ross. The scenery on its
banks is in parts very beautiful.

BARROW (from A.S. _beorh_, a mount or hillock), a word found occasionally
among place-names in England applied to natural eminences, but generally
restricted in its modern application to denote an ancient grave-mound. The
custom of constructing barrows or mounds of stone or earth over the remains
of the dead was a characteristic feature of the sepulchral systems of
primitive times. Originating in the common sentiment of humanity, which
desires by some visible memorial to honour and perpetuate the memory of the
dead, it was practised alike by peoples of high and of low development, and
continued through all the stages of culture that preceded the introduction
of Christianity. The primary idea of sepulture appears to have been the
provision of a habitation for the dead; and thus, in its perfect form, the
barrow included a chamber or chambers where the tenant was surrounded with
the prized possessions of his previous life. A common feature of the
earlier barrows is the enclosing fence, which marked off the site from the
surrounding ground. When the barrow was of earth, this was effected by an
encircling trench or a low _vallum_. When the barrow was a stone structure,
the enclosure was usually a circle of standing stones. Sometimes, instead
of a chamber formed above ground, the barrow covered a pit excavated for
the interment under the original surface. In later times the mound itself
was frequently dispensed with, and the interments made within the enclosure
of a trench, a _vallum_ or a circle of standing stones. Usually the great
barrows occupy conspicuous sites; but in general the external form is no
index to the internal construction and gives no definite indication of the
nature of the sepulchral usages. Thus, while the long barrow is
characteristic of the Stone Age, it is impossible to tell without direct
examination whether it may be chambered or unchambered, or whether the
burials within it may be those of burnt or of unburnt bodies.

In England the long barrow usually contains a single chamber, entering by a
passage underneath the higher and wider end of the mound. In Denmark the
chambers are at irregular intervals along the body of the mound, and have
no passages leading into them. The long barrows of Great Britain are often
from 200 to 400 ft. in length by 60 to 80 ft. wide. Their chambers are
rudely but strongly built, with dome-shaped roofs, formed by overlapping
the successive courses of the upper part of the side walls. In Scandinavia,
on the other hand, such dome-roofed chambers are unknown, and the
construction of the chambers as a rule is megalithic, five or six monoliths
supporting one or more capstones of enormous size. Such chambers, denuded
of the covering mound, or over which no covering mound has been raised, are
popularly known in England as "cromlechs" and in France as "dolmens" (see
STONE MONUMENTS). The prevailing mode of sepulture in all the different
varieties of these structures is by the deposit of the body in a contracted
position, accompanied by weapons and implements of stone, occasionally by
ornaments of gold, jet or amber. Vessels of clay, more or less ornate in
character, which occur with these early interments of unburnt bodies, have
been regarded as food-vessels and drinking-cups, differing in character and
purpose from the cinerary urns of larger size in which the ashes of the
dead were deposited after cremation.

The custom of burning the body commenced in the Stone Age, before the long
barrow or the dolmen had passed out of use. While cremation is rare in the
long barrows of the south of England, it is the rule in those of Yorkshire
and the north of Scotland. In Ireland, where the long barrow form is all
but unknown, the round barrow or chambered cairn prevailed from the
earliest Pagan period till the introduction of Christianity. The Irish
barrows occur in groups in certain localities, some of which seem to have
been the royal cemeteries of the tribal confederacies, whereof eight are
enumerated in an ancient Irish manuscript, the _Leabhar na h-Uidhri_,
compiled c. A.D. 1100. The best-known of these is situated on the banks of
the Boyne above Drogheda, and consists of a group of the largest cairns in
Ireland. One, at New Grange, is a huge mound of stones and earth, over 300
ft. in diameter and 70 ft. in height. Around its base are the remains of a
circle of large standing stones. The chamber, which is 20 ft. high in the
centre, is reached by a passage about 70 ft. in length. In the Loughcrew
Hills, Co. Meath, there is a group of about thirty stone barrows or cairns,
mostly chambered, their bases measuring from 5 or 6 to 60 yds. in diameter.
They are unusually interesting from the fact that many of the exposed slabs
in the walls of the chambers are ornamented with spirals and other devices,
rudely incised. As in the case of the long barrows, the traditional form of
the circular, chambered barrow was retained through various changes in the
sepulchral customs of the people. It was the natural result of the practice
of cremation, however, that it should induce a modification of the barrow
structure. The chamber, no longer regarded as a habitation to be tenanted
by the deceased, became simply a cist for the reception of the urn which
held his ashes. The degradation of the chamber naturally produced a
corresponding degradation of the mound which covered it, and the barrows of
the Bronze Age, in which cremation was common, are smaller and less
imposing than those of the Stone Age, but often surprisingly rich in the
relics of the life and of the art workmanship of the time. In addition to
the varied and beautiful forms of implements and weapons--frequently
ornamented with a high degree of artistic taste--armlets and other personal
ornaments in gold, amber, jet and bronze are not uncommon. The barrows of
the bronze period, like some of those of the Stone Age, appear to have been
used as tribal or family cemeteries. In Denmark as many as seventy deposits
of burnt interments have been observed in a single mound, indicating its
use as a burying-place throughout a long succession of years.

In the Iron Age there was less uniformity in the burial customs. In some of
the barrows in central France, and in the wolds of Yorkshire, the
interments include the arms and accoutrements of a charioteer, with his
chariot, harness and horses. In Scandinavia a custom, alluded to in the
sagas, of burying the viking in his ship, drawn up on land, and raising a
barrow over it, is exemplified by the ship-burials discovered in Norway.
The ship found in the Gokstad mound was 78 ft. long, and had a mast and
sixteen pairs of oars. In a chamber abaft the mast the viking had been
laid, with his weapons, and together with him were [v.03 p.0442] buried
twelve horses, six dogs and a peacock. An interesting example of the great
timber-chambered barrow is that at Jelling in Jutland, known as the barrow
of Thyre Danebod, queen of King Gorm the Old, who died about the middle of
the 10th century. It is a mound about 200 ft. in diameter, and over 50 ft.
in height, containing a chamber 23 ft. long, 8 ft. wide and 5 ft. high,
formed of massive slabs of oak. Though it had been entered and plundered in
the middle ages, a few relics were found when it was reopened, among which
were a silver cup, ornamented with the interlacing work characteristic of
the time and some personal ornaments. It is highly illustrative of the
tenacity with which the ancient sepulchral usages were retained even after
the introduction of Christianity that King Harold, son and successor of
Gorm the Old, who is said to have christianized all Denmark and Norway,
followed the pagan custom of erecting a chambered tumulus over the remains
of his father, on the summit of which was placed a rude pillar-stone,
bearing on one side the memorial inscription in runes, and on the other a
representation of the Saviour of mankind distinguished by the crossed
nimbus surrounding the head. The so-called Kings' Hows at Upsala in Sweden
rival those of Jelling in size and height. In the chamber of one, opened in
1829, there was found an urn full of calcined bones; and along with it were
ornaments of gold showing the characteristic workmanship of the 5th and 6th
centuries of the Christian era. Along with the calcined human bones were
bones of animals, among which those of the horse and the dog were
distinguished.

Comparing the results of the researches in European barrows with such
notices of barrow-burial as may be gleaned from early writings, we find
them mutually illustrative.

The Homeric account of the building of the barrow of Hector (_Il._ xxiv.)
brings vividly before us the scene so often suggested by the examination of
the tumuli of prehistoric times. During nine days wood was collected and
brought, in carts drawn by oxen, to the site of the funeral pyre. Then the
pyre was built and the body laid upon it. After burning for twenty-four
hours the smouldering embers were extinguished with libations of wine. The
white and calcined bones were then picked out of the ashes by the friends
and placed in a metallic urn, which was deposited in a hollow grave or cist
and covered over with large well-fitting stones. Finally, a barrow of great
magnitude was heaped over the remains and the funeral feast was celebrated.
The obsequies of Achilles, as described in the _Odyssey_, were also
celebrated with details which are strikingly similar to those observed in
tumuli both of the Bronze and Iron Ages. The body was brought to the pile
in an embroidered robe and jars of unguents and honey were placed beside
it. Sheep and oxen were slaughtered at the pile. The incinerated bones were
collected from the ashes and placed in a golden urn along with those of
Patroclus, Achilles's dearest friend. Over the remains a great and shapely
mound was raised on the high headland, so that it might be seen from afar
by future generations of men.

Herodotus, describing the funeral customs of the Scythians, states that, on
the death of a chief, the body was placed upon a couch in a chamber sunk in
the earth and covered with timber, in which were deposited all things
needful for the comfort of the deceased in the other world. One of his
wives was strangled and laid beside him, his cup-bearer and other
attendants, his charioteer and his horses were killed and placed in the
tomb, which was then filled up with earth and an enormous mound raised high
over all. The barrows which cover the plains of ancient Scythia attest the
truth of this description. A Siberian barrow, described by Demidov,
contained three contiguous chambers of unhewn stone. In the central chamber
lay the skeleton of the ancient chief, with his sword, his spear, his bow
and a quiver full of arrows. The skeleton reclined upon a sheet of pure
gold, extending the whole length of the body, which had been wrapped in a
mantle broidered with gold and studded with precious stones. Over it was
extended another sheet of pure gold. In a smaller chamber at the chief's
head lay the skeleton of a female, richly attired, extended upon a sheet of
pure gold and similarly covered with a sheet of the same metal. A golden
chain adorned her neck and her arms were encircled with bracelets of pure
gold. In a third chamber, at the chief's feet, lay the skeleton of his
favourite horse with saddle, bridle and stirrups.

So curiously alike in their general features were the sepulchral usages
connected with barrow-burial over the whole of Europe, that we find the
Anglo-Saxon Saga of Beowulf describing the chambered tumulus with its
gigantic masonry "held fast on props, with vaults of stone," and the
passage under the mound haunted by a dragon, the guardian of the treasures
of heathen gold which it contained. Beowulf's own burial is minutely
described in terms which have a strong resemblance to the parallel passages
in the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_. There is first the preparation of the pile,
which is hung round with helmets, shields and coats of mail. Then the
corpse is brought and laid in the midst; the pile is kindled and the
roaring flame rises, mingled with weeping, till all is consumed. Then, for
ten long days, the warriors labour at the rearing of his mighty mound on
the headland, high and broad, to be seen afar by the passers-by on land and
sea.

The pyramids of Egypt, the mausolea of the Lydian kings, the circular,
chambered sepulchres of Mycenae, and the Etruscan tombs at Caere and Volci,
are lineally descended from the chambered barrows of prehistoric times,
modified in construction according to the advancement of architectural art
at the period of their erection. There is no country in Europe destitute of
more or less abundant proofs of the almost universal prevalence of
barrow-burial in early times. It can also be traced on both sides of the
basin of the Mediterranean, and from Asia Minor across the continent to
India, China and Japan.

In the new world as well as in the old, similar customs prevailed from a
very remote period. In the great plains of North America the dead were
buried in barrows of enormous magnitude, which occasionally present a
remarkable similarity to the barrows of Great Britain. In these mounds
cremation appears more frequently than inhumation; and both are accompanied
by implements, weapons and ornaments of stone and bone. The pottery
accompanying the remains is often elaborately ornamented, and the mound
builders were evidently possessed of a higher development of taste and
skill than is evinced by any of the modern aboriginal races, by whom the
mounds and their contents are regarded as utterly mysterious.

It is not to be wondered at that customs so widely spread and so deeply
rooted as those connected with barrow-burial should have been difficult to
eradicate. In fact, compliance with the Christian practice of inhumation in
the cemeteries sanctioned by the church, was only enforced in Europe by
capitularies denouncing the punishment of death on those who persisted in
burying their dead after the pagan fashion or in the pagan mounds. Yet even
in the middle ages kings of Christian countries were buried with their
swords and spears, and queens with their spindles and ornaments; the bishop
was laid in his grave with his crozier and comb; the priest with his
chalice and vestments; and clay vessels filled with charcoal (answering to
the urns of heathen times) are found in the churches of France and Denmark.

AUTHORITIES.--Canon W. Greenwell, _British Barrows_ (London, 1877); Dr J.
Thurnam, "On Ancient British Barrows," in _Archaeologia_, vols. 42, 43
(1869); J. R. Mortimer, _Forty Years' Researches in Burial Mounds of East
Yorkshire_ (London, 1905); J. Anderson, _Scotland in Pagan Times_
(Edinburgh, 1886); Dr T. H. Bryce, "Records of Explorations among the
Cairns of Arran and Bute," in _Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of
Scotland_, vols. 36, 37, 38 (1901-1903); W. C. Borlase, _The Dolmens of
Ireland_ (London, 1897); _Dictionnaire archéologique de la Gaule_ (Paris,
1875); A. P. Madsen, _Gravhoie og Gravfund fra Stenalderen i Danmark_
(Copenhagen, 1900); S. Müller, _Nordische Altertumskunde aus Dänemark und
Schleswig_ (Strassburg, 1897); O. Montelius, _The Civilization of Sweden in
Heathen Times_ (London, 1888), and _Der Orient und Europa_ (Stockholm,
1899); E. Cartailhac, _Les Âges préhistoriques de l'Espagne et du Portugal_
(Paris, 1886); W. Gowland, "The Dolmens and Burial Mounds in Japan," in
_Archaeologia_, vol. 55 (1897); C. Thomas, "Report on the Mound
Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology" (_Twelfth Annual Report_ for
1890-1891, Washington, 1894.)

(J. AN.)

BARROWE, HENRY (?1550-1593), English Puritan and Separatist, was born about
1550, at Shipdam, Norfolk, of a family related by marriage to the lord
keeper Bacon, and [v.03 p.0443] probably to Aylmer, bishop of London. He
matriculated at Clare Hall, Cambridge, in November 1566, and graduated B.A.
in 1569-1570. Afterwards he "followed the court" for some time, leading a
frivolous if not licentious life. He was a member of Gray's Inn for a few
years from 1576, but was never called to the bar. About 1580 or 1581 he was
deeply impressed by a sermon, whereupon he retired to the country, and was
led by study and meditation to the strictest form of Puritanism.
Subsequently, in what manner is not known, he came into intimate relations
with John Greenwood, the Separatist leader, whose views (probably due, in
part at least, to Browne's influence) he adopted without reserve. Though
not strictly resident in London at this time, he was associated with "the
brethren of the Separation" there, in whose secret meetings his natural
earnestness and eloquence made him conspicuous. Greenwood having been
imprisoned in the Clink, Barrowe came from the country to visit him, and on
the 19th of November 1586 was detained by the gaoler and brought before
Archbishop Whitgift. He insisted on the illegality of this arrest, refused
either to take the _ex officio_ oath or to give bail for future appearance,
and was committed to the Gatehouse. After nearly six months' detention and
several irregular examinations before the high commissioners, he and
Greenwood were formally indicted (May 1587) for recusancy under an act
originally directed against Papists. They were ordered to find heavy bail
for comformity, and to remain in the Fleet Prison until it was forthcoming.
Barrowe continued a prisoner for the remainder of his life, nearly six
years, sometimes in close confinement, sometimes having "the liberty of the
prison." He was subjected to several more examinations, once before the
privy council at Whitehall on the 18th of March 1588, as a result of
petition to the queen. On these occasions he vigorously maintained the
principle of separatism, denouncing the prescribed ritual of the Church as
"a false worship," and the bishops as oppressors and persecutors. During
his imprisonments he was engaged in written controversy with Robert Browne
(down to 1588), who had yielded a partial submission to the established
order, and whom he therefore accounted a renegade. He also wrote several
vigorous treatises in defence of separatism and congregational
independency, the most important being:--_A True Description of the Visible
Congregation of the Saints, &c._ (1589); _A Plain Refutation of Mr
Gifford's Booke, intituled A Short Treatise Gainst the Donatistes of
England_ (1590-1591), and _A Brief Discovery of the False Church_ (1591).
Others were written in conjunction with his fellow-prisoner, Greenwood.
These writings were taken charge of by friends and mostly printed in
Holland. By 1590 the bishops thought it advisable to try other means of
convincing or silencing these indomitable controversialists, and sent
several conforming Puritan ministers to confer with them, but without
effect. At length it was resolved to proceed on a capital charge of
"devising and circulating seditious books," for which, as the law then
stood, it was easy to secure a conviction. They were tried and sentenced to
death on the 23rd of March 1593. What followed is, happily, unique in the
history of English misrule. The day after sentence they were brought out as
if for execution and respited. On the 31st of March they were taken to the
gallows, and after the ropes had been placed about their necks were again
respited. Finally they were hanged early on the morning of the 6th of
April. The motive of all this is obscure, but there is some evidence that
the lord treasurer Burghley endeavoured to save their lives, and was
frustrated by Whitgift and other bishops.

The opinions of Browne and Barrowe had much in common, but were not
identical. Both maintained the right and duty of the Church to carry out
necessary reforms without awaiting the permission of the civil power; and
both advocated congregational independency. But the ideal of Browne was a
spiritual democracy, towards which separation was only a means. Barrowe, on
the other hand, regarded the whole established church order as polluted by
the relics of Roman Catholicism, and insisted on separation as essential to
pure worship and discipline (see further CONGREGATIONALISM). Barrowe has
been credited by H. M. Dexter and others with being the author of the
"Marprelate Tracts"; but this is improbable.

AUTHORITIES.--H. M. Dexter, _The Congregationalism of the Last Three
Hundred Years_; F. J. Powicke, _Henry Barrowe and the Exiled Church_. See
also B. Brook, _Lives of the Puritans_; and Cooper, _Athenae
Cantabrigienses_ (1861), vol. ii.

BARROW-IN-FURNESS, a seaport and municipal, county and parliamentary
borough of Lancashire, England, 264½ m. N.W. by N. from London, on the
Furness railway. Pop. (1891) 51,712; (1901) 57,586. It lies on the seaward
side of the hammer-shaped peninsula forming part of the district of
Furness, between the estuary of the Duddon and Morecambe Bay, where a
narrow channel intervenes between the mainland and the long low island of
Walney, on which the erection of a strong fort was undertaken by the War
Office in 1904. In 1905 the connexion of Walney with the mainland by a
bridge was undertaken. In the channel is Barrow Island (among others) which
is connected with the mainland, reclamation having been carried on until
only a narrow channel was left, which was utilized as docks. Barrow is of
modern and remarkably rapid growth. Its rise was dependent primarily on the
existence and working of the veins of pure haematite iron ore in the
district of Furness (_q.v._). At the outset Barrow merely exported the ore
to the furnaces of South Wales and the midlands. At the beginning of the
19th century this export amounted at most to a few thousand tons, and
though by the middle of the century it had reached some 50,000 in 1847 the
population of Barrow was only 325. In 1846 the first section of the Furness
railway was opened, connecting Barrow with the mines near Dalton; in the
ensuing years a great increase in trade justified the opening of further
communications, and in 1859 the iron works of Messrs Schneider & Hannay
were instituted. The Barrow Haematite Steel Company (1866) absorbed this
company, and a great output of steel produced by the Bessemer process was
begun. Other industries followed. Of these the shipbuilding works have
surpassed the steel works in importance, the celebrated firm of Vickers,
Sons & Maxim having a yard where they construct numerous vessels of war as
well as others. There are also a petroleum storage establishment, a
paper-pulp factory, jute works, and engineering and wagon works.

The docks in the strait between Barrow Island and the mainland were
constructed in 1867, and named the Devonshire and Buccleuch docks. The
Ramsden docks are a subsequent extension. These are 24 ft. in depth. There
are also a graving dock 500 ft. long, a depositing dock accommodating
vessels of 16 ft. draught, and two electric cranes each able to lift 150
tons. The Furness railway company is the dock authority. Passenger steamers
run on weekdays to Belfast.

The town is laid out in rectangular form, and contains several handsome
churches, municipal buildings, exchange and other public buildings. An
electric tramway service connects the outskirts and the centre. There are
statues of Lord Frederick Cavendish (assassinated at Dublin, 1882), in
front of the town-hall, and of Sir James Ramsden (d. 1896), managing
director of the Furness railway and first mayor of Barrow, to whom,
together with the dukes of Devonshire and Buccleuch, the town owed much of
its rise in the middle of the 19th century. The cottage inhabited by George
Romney the painter from 1742 to 1755 has been preserved from demolition and
retained as a memorial. Educational institutions include a school of
science and art, a girls' high school and a technical school. Barrow is a
suffragan bishopric in the diocese of Carlisle. The parliamentary borough
(1885), falling within the North Lonsdale division of the county, returns
one member. The town was incorporated in 1867, and became a county borough
in 1888. The corporation consists of a mayor, 8 aldermen and 24
councillors. Area, 11,023 acres.

BARRY, SIR CHARLES (1795-1860), English architect, was born in London on
the 23rd of May 1795, the son of a stationer. He was articled to a firm of
architects, with whom he remained till 1817, when he set out on a three
years' tour in Greece and Italy, Egypt and Palestine for the purpose of
studying [v.03 p.0444] architecture. On his return to England in 1820 he
settled in London. One of the first works by which his abilities as an
architect became generally known was the church of St Peter at Brighton,
completed in 1826. He built many other churches; but the marked preference
for Italian architecture, which he acquired during his travels, showed
itself in various important undertakings of his earlier years. In 1831 he
completed the Travellers' Club in Pall Mall, a splendid work in the Italian
style and the first of its kind built in London. In the same style and on a
grander scale he built in 1837 the Reform Club. He was also engaged on
numerous private mansions in London, the finest being Bridgewater House
(1847). Birmingham possesses one of his best works in King Edward's grammar
school, built in the Tudor style between 1833 and 1836. For Manchester be
designed the Royal Institution of Fine Arts (1824) and the Athenaeum
(1836); and for Halifax the town-hall. He was engaged for some years in
reconstructing the Treasury buildings, Whitehall. But his masterpiece,
notwithstanding all unfavourable criticism, is the Houses of Parliament at
Westminster (1840-1860). Barry was elected A.R.A. in 1840 and R.A. in the
following year. His genius and achievements were recognized by the
representative artistic bodies of the principal European nations; and his
name was enrolled as a member of the academies of art at Rome, Berlin, St
Petersburg, Brussels and Stockholm. He was chosen F.R.S. in 1849 and was
knighted by Queen Victoria in 1852. He died suddenly at Clapham near London
on the 12th of May 1860, and his remains were interred in Westminster
Abbey. As a landscape gardener he was no less brilliant than as an
architect, and in connexion with the building of the Houses of Parliament
he formed schools of modelling, stone and wood carving, cabinet-making,
metal-working, glass and decorative painting, and of encaustic tile-making.
In 1867 appeared a life of him by his son Bishop Alfred Barry. A claim was
thereupon set up on behalf of Pugin, the famous architect, who was dead and
who had been Barry's assistant, to a much larger share in the work of
designing the Houses of Parliament than was admitted in Dr Barry's
narrative. The controversy raged for a time, but without substantiating
Pugin's claim.

His second son, ALFRED BARRY (1826- ), was educated at King's College,
London, and Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was 4th wrangler and
gained a first-class in the classical tripos in 1848. He was successively
sub-warden of Trinity College, Glenalmond (1849-1854), head-master of Leeds
grammar school (1854-1862), principal of Cheltenham College (1862-1868),
and principal of King's College, London (1868-1883). He was canon of
Worcester from 1871 to 1881, and of Westminster from 1881 to 1884. From
1884 to 1889 he served as bishop of Sydney and primate of Australia, and on
his return to England he was assistant bishop in the diocese of Rochester
from 1889 to 1891, and rector of St James's, Piccadilly, from 1895 to 1900.
He was appointed canon of Windsor in 1891 and assistant bishop in West
London in 1897. Besides the life of his father mentioned above, he
published numerous theological works.

Another son, EDWARD MIDDLETON BARRY (1830-1880), was also an architect. He
acted as assistant to his father during the latter years of Sir Charles's
life. On the death of his father, the duty of completing the latter's
unfinished work devolved upon him. Amongst other buildings thus completed
were the Houses of Parliament at Westminster (see ARCHITECTURE, fig. 91,
and Plate X. fig. 118), and Halifax town-hall (_Id_. fig. 90). In 1861 he
was elected an associate of the Royal Academy; and in 1869 a full
academician. From 1873 till his death he held the Academy's professorship
of architecture. Among other buildings designed by him were Covent Garden
theatre, Charing Cross and Cannon Street hotels, the Birmingham and Midland
Institute, new galleries for the National Gallery and new chambers for the
Inner Temple. He died on the 27th of January, 1880.

The youngest son, SIR JOHN WOLFE WOLFE-BARRY (1836- ), the eminent
engineer, who assumed the additional name of Wolfe in 1898, was educated at
Glenalmond, and was articled as engineering pupil to Sir John Hawkshaw,
with whom he was associated in the building of the railway bridges across
the Thames at Charing Cross and Cannon Street. In 1867 he began to practise
on his own account, and soon gained an extensive connexion with railway
companies, both in Great Britain and in other countries. Among the works on
which he was engaged were extensions of the Metropolitan District railway,
the St Paul's station and bridge of the London, Chatham & Dover railway,
the Barry Docks of the Barry railway company near Cardiff, and the Tower
and new Kew bridges over the Thames. On the completion of the Tower Bridge
in 1894, he was made a C.B., becoming K.C.B. three years later. He served
on several royal commissions, including those on Irish Public Works
(1886-1890), Highlands and Islands of Scotland (1889-1890), Accidents to
Railway Servants (1899-1900), Port of London (1900-1902), and London
Traffic (1903-1905). He was elected president of the Institution of Civil
Engineers in 1896, and published books on _Railway Appliances_ (1874), and,
with Sir F. J. Bramwell, on _Railways and Locomotives_ (1882).

BARRY, ELIZABETH (1658-1713), English actress, of whose early life the
details are meagre. At first she was so unsuccessful on the stage as to be
more than once dismissed; but she was coached by her lover the earl of
Rochester, who had laid a wager that in a short time he would make a
first-rate actress of her, and the results confirmed his judgment. Mrs
Barry's performance as Isabella, queen of Hungary, in the earl of Orrery's
_Mustapha_, was said to have caused Charles II. and the duke and duchess of
York so much delight that the duchess took lessons in English from her, and
when she became queen she gave Mrs Barry her coronation robes in which to
appear as Elizabeth in Banks's _Earl of Essex_. Mrs Barry is said to have
created over 100 parts, and she was particularly successful in the plays of
Thomas Otway. Betterton says that her acting gave "success to plays that
would disgust the most patient reader." Dryden pronounced her "always
excellent." Cibber is authority for the statement that it was on her behalf
that benefits, which up to that time were reserved for authors, were first
established for actors by command of James II. Mrs Barry had a child by
Lord Rochester and a second by Sir George Etheredge, both of whom were
provided for by their fathers. In 1709 she retired from the stage and died
on the 7th of November 1713.

BARRY, JAMES (1741-1806), English painter, was born at Cork on the 11th of
October 1741. His father had been a builder, and, at one time of his life,
a coasting trader between the two countries of England and Ireland. To this
business of trader James was destined, and he actually made when a boy
several voyages; but he manifested such an aversion to the life and habits
of a sailor as to induce his father to suffer him to pursue his own
inclinations, which led strongly towards drawing and study. At the schools
in Cork to which he was sent he was regarded as a prodigy. About the age of
seventeen he first attempted oil-painting, and between that and the age of
twenty-two, when he first went to Dublin, he produced several large
pictures, which decorated his father's house, such as "Aeneas escaping with
his Family from the Flames of Troy," "Susanna and the Elders," "Daniel in
the Lions' Den," &c. At this period he also produced the painting which
first brought him into public notice, and gained him the acquaintance and
patronage of Edmund Burke. The picture was founded on an old tradition of
the landing of St Patrick on the sea-coast of Cashel, and of the conversion
and baptism of the king of that district by the patron saint of Ireland. It
was exhibited in London in 1762 or 1763.

By the liberality of Burke and his other friends, Barry in the latter part
of 1765 was enabled to go abroad. He went first to Paris, then to Rome,
where he remained upwards of three years, from Rome to Florence and
Bologna, and thence home through Venice. His letters to the Burkes, giving
an account of Raphael, Michelangelo, Titian and Leonardo da Vinci, show
remarkable insight. Barry painted two pictures while abroad, an Adam and
Eve, and a Philoctetes, neither of them of any merit. Soon after his return
to England in 1771 he produced his picture of Venus, which was compared,
though with little justice, to the Galatea of Raphael, the Venus of Titian
and the Venus de Medici. In 1773 he exhibited his "Jupiter and Juno on
Mount Ida." His [v.03 p.0445] "Death of General Wolfe," in which the
British and French soldiers are represented in very primitive costumes, was
considered as a falling-off from his great style of art. His fondness for
Greek costume was assigned by his admirers as the cause of his reluctance
to paint portraits. His failure to go on with a portrait of Burke which he
had begun caused a misunderstanding with his early patron. The difference
between them is said to have been widened by Burke's growing intimacy with
Sir Joshua Reynolds, and by Barry's feeling some little jealousy of the
fame and fortune of his rival "in a humbler walk of the art." About the
same time he painted a pair of classical subjects, Mercury inventing the
lyre, and Narcissus looking at himself in the water, the last suggested to
him by Burke. He also painted a historical picture of Chiron and Achilles,
and another of the story of Stratonice, for which last the duke of Richmond
gave him a hundred guineas. In 1773 it was proposed to decorate the
interior of St Paul's with historical and sacred subjects; but the plan
fell to the ground, from not meeting with the concurrence of the bishop of
London and the archbishop of Canterbury. Barry was much mortified at the
failure, for he had in anticipation fixed upon the subject he intended to
paint--the rejection of Christ by the Jews when Pilate proposes his
release. In 1773 he published _An Inquiry into the real and imaginary
Obstructions to the Acquisition of the Arts in England_, vindicating the
capacity of the English for the fine arts and tracing their slow progress
hitherto to the Reformation, to political and civil dissensions, and lastly
to the general direction of the public mind to mechanics, manufactures and
commerce. In 1774 a proposal was made through Valentine Green to Reynolds,
West, Cipriani, Barry, and other artists to ornament the great room of the
Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce in the
Adelphi with historical and allegorical paintings. This proposal was at the
time rejected by the artists themselves; but in 1777 Barry made an offer to
paint the whole on condition of being allowed the choice of his subjects,
and being paid by the society the expenses of canvas, paints and models.
His offer was accepted, and he finished the series of pictures at the end
of seven years to the entire satisfaction of the members of the society,
who granted him two exhibitions, and at different periods voted him 50
guineas, their gold medal and 200 guineas. Of the six paintings making up
the series, only one, that of the Olympic Games, shows any artistic power.

Soon after his return from the continent Barry had been chosen a member of
the Royal Academy; and in 1782 he was appointed professor of painting in
the room of Mr Penny with a salary of £30 a year. Among other things, he
insisted on the necessity of purchasing a collection of pictures by the
best masters as models for the students, and proposed several of those in
the Orleans collection. This recommendation was not relished, and in 1799
Barry was expelled from the academy, soon after the appearance of his
_Letter to the Dilettanti Society_, a very amusing but eccentric
publication, full of enthusiasm for his art and at the same time of
contempt for the living professors of it. After the loss of his salary, a
subscription was set on foot by the earl of Buchan to relieve him from his
difficulties, and to settle him in a larger house to finish his picture of
Pandora. The subscription amounted to £1000, with which an annuity was
bought, but on the 6th of February 1806 he was seized with illness and died
on the 22nd of the same month. On the 14th of March his remains were
interred in St Paul's.

As an artist, Barry was more distinguished for the strength of his
conceptions, and for his resolute and persistent determination to apply
himself only to great subjects, than for his skill in designing or for
beauty in his colouring. His drawing is rarely good, his colouring
frequently wretched. He was extremely impulsive and unequal; sometimes
morose, sometimes sociable and urbane; jealous of his contemporaries, and
yet capable of pronouncing a splendid eulogy on Reynolds.

BARRY, SIR REDMOND (1813-1880), British colonial judge, son of
Major-General H. G. Barry, of Ballyclough, Co. Cork, was educated at a
military school in Kent, and at Trinity College, Dublin, and was called to
the Irish bar in 1838. He emigrated to Australia, and after a short stay at
Sydney went to Melbourne, with which city he was ever afterwards closely
identified. After practising his profession for some years, he became
commissioner of the court of requests, and after the creation in 1851 of
the colony of Victoria, out of the Port Phillip district of New South
Wales, was the first solicitor-general with a seat in the legislative and
executive councils. Subsequently he held the offices of judge of the
Supreme Court, acting chief-justice and administrator of the government. He
represented Victoria at the London International Exhibition of 1862 and at
the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876. He was knighted in 1860 and was
created K.C.M.G. in 1877. Sir Redmond Barry was the first person in
Victoria to take an interest in higher education, and induced the local
government to expend large sums of money upon that object. He was the
founder of the university of Melbourne (1853), of which he was the first
chancellor, was president of the Melbourne public library (1854), national
gallery and museum, and was one of the first to foster the volunteer
movement in Australia. To his exertions is due the prosperity of the two
institutions with which his memory is identified.

BARRY, SPRANGER (1719-1777), British actor, was born in Dublin on the 23rd
of November 1719, the son of a silversmith, to whose business he was
brought up. His first appearance on the stage was at the Smock Alley
theatre on the 5th of February 1744, and his engagement at once increased
its prosperity. His first London appearance was made in 1746 as Othello at
Drury Lane. Here his talents were speedily recognized, and in _Hamlet_ and
_Macbeth_ he alternated with Garrick, arousing the latter's jealousy by his
success as Romeo. This resulted in his leaving Drury Lane for Covent Garden
in 1750, accompanied by Mrs Cibber, his Juliet. Both houses now at once put
on _Romeo and Juliet_ for a series of rival performances, and Barry's
impersonation was preferred by the critics to Garrick's. In 1758 Barry
built the Crow Street theatre, Dublin, and later a new theatre in Cork, but
he was not successful as a manager and returned to London to play at the
Haymarket, then under the management of Foote. As his second wife, he
married in 1768 the actress Mrs Dancer (1734-1801), and he and Mrs Barry
played under Garrick's management, Barry appearing in 1767, after ten
years' absence from the stage, in Othello, his greatest part. In 1774 they
both moved to Covent Garden, where Barry remained until his death on the
10th of January 1777. He was a singularly handsome man, with the advantage
of height which Garrick lacked.

His second wife, ANN STREET BARRY, was born in Bath in 1734, the daughter
of an apothecary. Early in life she married an actor of the name of Dancer,
and it was as Mrs Dancer that she made her first recorded appearance in
1758 as Cordelia to Spranger Barry's Lear at the Crow Street theatre.
During the next nine years she played all the leading tragic parts, but
without any great success, and it was not until she came to Drury Lane with
Barry that her reputation advanced to the high point at which it afterwards
stood. After his death, she remained at Covent Garden and married a man
much younger than herself, named Crawford, being first billed as Mrs
Crawford in 1778. Her last appearance is said to have been as Lady Randolph
in _Douglas_ at Covent Garden in 1798. This part, and that of Desdemona,
were among her great impersonations; in both she was considered by some
critics superior to Mrs Siddons, who expressed her fear of her in one of
her letters. She died on the 29th of November 1801 and was buried in
Westminster Abbey.

BARRY, an urban district and seaport of Glamorganshire, Wales, on the
Bristol Channel, 153 m. by rail from London and 8 m. S.W. from Cardiff. Its
station is a terminus on the Barry railway, which starts at Hafod in the
Rhondda Valley, where it joins the Taff Vale railway, having also junctions
with the same line for Aberdare and Merthyr at Treforest, and for Cardiff
and Penarth at Cogan, and with the Great Western main line at Peterstone
and St Fagans. A branch from the main line at Tyn-y-caeau connects with the
Rhymney railway, the London & North-Western railway, and the Brecon &
Merthyr railway. The Vale of Glamorgan railway (which is worked by [v.03
p.0446] the Barry company and has a junction with the Great Western railway
at Bridgend) affords a direct route to Barry from the Llynvi, Ogmore and
Garw coalfields. The urban district of Barry, with a population in 1901 of
27,030, comprises the ecclesiastical parishes of Barry, Cadoxton,
Merthyr-Dovan, and a portion of Sully in which is included Barry Island
(194 acres), now, however, joined to the mainland. The total population of
this area in 1881 was only about 500, that of Barry village alone being
only 85. A small brook named Barri runs here into the sea, whence the place
was formerly known in Welsh as Aber-Barri, but the name of both the river
and the island is supposed to be derived from Baruch, a Welsh saint of the
7th century, who had a cell on the island. His chapel (which still existed
in Leland's time) was a place of pilgrimage in the middle ages. According
to Giraldus, his own family derived its name de Barri from the island which
they once owned. One of the followers of Fitzhamon settled at Barry about
the end of the 11th century, building there a castle of which only a
gateway remains. Besides the small old parish churches of Merthyr-Dovan and
Cadoxton, and the rebuilt parish church of Barry, there are four modern
churches (in one of which Welsh services are held). There are about thirty
nonconformist chapels, in nearly a third of which the services are Welsh.
There are also a Roman Catholic church, and one for German and Scandinavian
seamen. The other public buildings are a county intermediate school for 250
boys and girls, built in 1896, a free library (opened in 1892) with four
branch reading-rooms, a seamen's institute, the Barry market, built in 1890
at a cost of £3500 (but now used as a concert-hall), and Romilly hall for
public meetings.

Barry owes its seaport to the determination of a number of colliery owners
to secure an alternative port to Cardiff, with an independent railway to it
from the coalfields. After failing in 18