Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Slice 4 - "Basso-relievo" to "Bedfordshire"
Author: Various
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Slice 4 - "Basso-relievo" to "Bedfordshire"" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
      letters.

(6) The following typographical error has been corrected:

    ARTICLE BATHS: "Separate baths used to be of wood, painted; they
      are now most frequently of metal, painted or lined with porcelain
      enamel." 'porcelain' amended from 'procelain'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME III, SLICE IV

        Basso-relievo to Bedfordshire



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  BASSO-RELIEVO                 BAY ISLANDS
  BASS ROCK, THE                BAYLE, PIERRE
  BASSUS, AUFIDIUS              BAYLO
  BASSUS, CAESIUS               BAYLY, THOMAS HAYNES
  BASSUS, CASSIANUS             BAYNES, THOMAS SPENCER
  BASSUS, SALEIUS               BAYONET
  BASSVILLE, JEAN HUGON DE      BAYONNE (town of France)
  BASTAR                        BAYONNE (New Jersey, U.S.A.)
  BASTARD                       BAYOU
  BASTARNAE                     BAYREUTH
  BASTI                         BAZA
  BASTIA                        BAZAAR
  BASTIAN, ADOLF                BAZAINE, ACHILLE FRANÇOIS
  BASTIAT, FRÉDÉRIC             BAZALGETTE, SIR JOSEPH WILLIAM
  BASTIDE, JULES                BAZARD, AMAND
  BASTIDE                       BAZAS
  BASTIEN-LEPAGE, JULES         BAZIGARS
  BASTILLE                      BAZIN, RENÉ
  BASTINADO                     BAZIRE, CLAUDE
  BASTION                       BDELLIUM
  BASTWICK, JOHN                BEACH
  BASUTOLAND                    BEACHY HEAD
  BAT                           BEACON
  BATAC                         BEACONSFIELD, BENJAMIN DISRAELI
  BATALA                        BEACONSFIELD (town of Tasmania)
  BATALHA                       BEACONSFIELD (town of South Africa)
  BATANGAS                      BEACONSFIELD (town of England)
  BATARNAY, IMBERT DE           BEAD
  BATAVIA (residency of Java)   BEADLE
  BATAVIA (city of Java)        BEAK
  BATAVIA (New York, U.S.A.)    BEAKER
  BATEMAN, HEZEKIAH LINTHICUM   BEALE, DOROTHEA
  BATEMENT LIGHTS               BEAM
  BATES, HARRY                  BEAN
  BATES, HENRY WALTER           BEAN-FEAST
  BATES, JOHN                   BEAR
  BATES, JOSHUA                 BEAR-BAITING and BULL-BAITING
  BATES, WILLIAM                BEARD, WILLIAM HOLBROOK
  BATESON, THOMAS               BEARD
  BATH, THOMAS THYNNE           BEARDSLEY, AUBREY VINCENT
  BATH, WILLIAM PULTENEY        BEARDSTOWN
  BATH (county of England)      BEARER
  BATH (Maine, U.S.A.)          BEARINGS
  BATH-CHAIR                    BEAR-LEADER
  BATHGATE                      BÉARN
  BATHOLITE                     BEAS
  BATHONIAN SERIES              BEAT
  BÁTHORY, SIGISMUND            BEATIFICATION
  BATHOS                        BEATON, DAVID
  BATHS                         BEATRICE
  BATHURST, EARLS               BEATTIE, JAMES
  BATHURST                      BEATUS
  BATHVILLITE                   BEAUCAIRE
  BATHYBIUS                     BEAUCE
  BATHYCLES                     BEAUCHAMP
  BATLEY                        BEAUCHAMP, ALPHONSE DE
  BATON                         BEAUFORT
  BATONI, POMPEO GIROLAMO       BEAUFORT, FRANÇOIS DE VENDÔME
  BATON ROUGE                   BEAUFORT, HENRY
  BATRACHIA                     BEAUFORT, LOUIS DE
  BATRACHOMYOMACHIA             BEAUFORT SCALE
  BATTA                         BEAUFORT WEST
  BATTAGLIA                     BEAUGENCY
  BATTAKHIN                     BEAUHARNAIS
  BATTALION                     BEAUHARNAIS, EUGÈNE DE
  BATTAMBANG                    BEAUJEU
  BATTANNI                      BEAULIEU
  BATTAS                        BEAULY
  BATTEL                        BEAUMANOIR
  BATTEN, SIR WILLIAM           BEAUMANOIR, PHILIPPE DE RÉMI
  BATTEN                        BEAUMARCHAIS, PIERRE AUGUSTIN CARON DE
  BATTENBERG                    BEAUMARIS
  BATTER                        BEAUMONT (English family)
  BATTERING RAM                 BEAUMONT, CHRISTOPHE DE
  BATTERSEA                     BEAUMONT, SIR JOHN
  BATTERY                       BEAUMONT and FLETCHER
  BATTEUX, CHARLES              BEAUMONT (Texas, U.S.A.)
  BATTHYANY, LOUIS              BEAUNE
  BATTICALOA                    BEAUREGARD, MARQUIS DE
  BATTISHILL, JONATHAN          BEAUREGARD, PIERRE GUSTAVE TOUTANT
  BATTLE (town of England)      BEAUSOBRE, ISAAC DE
  BATTLE (military engagement)  BEAUVAIS
  BATTLE ABBEY ROLL             BEAUVILLIER
  BATTLE CREEK                  BEAUVOIR, ROGER DE
  BATTLEDORE AND SHUTTLECOCK    BEAUX, CECILIA
  BATTLEMENT                    BEAVER (animal)
  BATTUE                        BEAVER (part of the helmet)
  BATTUS                        BEAVER DAM
  BATU                          BEAVER FALLS
  BATUM                         BEAWAR
  BATWA                         BEBEL, FERDINAND AUGUST
  BATYPHONE                     BECCAFICO
  BAUAN                         BECCAFUMI, DOMENICO DI PACE
  BAUBLE                        BECCARIA, GIOVANNI BATTISTA
  BAUCHI                        BECCARIA-BONESANA, CESARE
  BAUDELAIRE, CHARLES PIERRE    BECCLES
  BAUDIER, MICHEL               BECERRA, GASPAR
  BAUDRILLART, HENRI LÉON       BÊCHE-DE-MER
  BAUDRY, OF BOURGUEIL          BECHER, JOHANN JOACHIM
  BAUDRY, PAUL JACQUES AIMÉ     BECHUANA
  BAUER, BRUNO                  BECHUANALAND
  BAUERNFELD, EDUARD VON        BECK, CHRISTIAN DANIEL
  BAUFFREMONT                   BECK, DAVID
  BAUHIN, GASPARD               BECK, JAKOB SIGISMUND
  BAULK                         BECKENHAM
  BAUMBACH, RUDOLF              BECKER, HEINRICH
  BAUMÉ, ANTOINE                BECKER, WILHELM ADOLF
  BAUMGARTEN, ALEXANDER         BECKET, THOMAS
  BAUMGARTEN, MICHAEL           BECKFORD, WILLIAM
  BAUMGARTEN-CRUSIUS, LUDWIG    BECKINGTON, THOMAS
  BAUR, FERDINAND CHRISTIAN     BECKMANN, JOHANN
  BAUTAIN, LOUIS EUGÈNE MARIE   BECKWITH, JAMES CARROLL
  BAUTZEN                       BECKWITH, SIR THOMAS SYDNEY
  BAUXITE                       BECKX, PIERRE JEAN
  BAVAI                         BECQUE, HENRY FRANÇOIS
  BAVARIA                       BÉCQUER, GUSTAVO ADOLFO
  BAVENO                        BECQUEREL
  BAWBEE                        BED (furniture)
  BAXTER, ANDREW                BED (layer of rock)
  BAXTER, RICHARD               BEDARESI, YEDAIAH
  BAXTER, ROBERT DUDLEY         BÉDARIEUX
  BAXTER, WILLIAM               BEDDGELERT
  BAY                           BEDDOES, THOMAS
  BAYAMO                        BEDDOES, THOMAS LOVELL
  BAYARD, PIERRE TERRAIL        BEDE
  BAYARD, THOMAS FRANCIS        BEDE, CUTHBERT
  BAYAZID                       BEDELL, WILLIAM
  BAYBAY                        BEDESMAN
  BAY CITY                      BEDFORD, EARLS AND DUKES OF
  BAYEUX                        BEDFORD (town of England)
  BAYEUX TAPESTRY, THE          BEDFORD (Indiana, U.S.A.)
  BAYEZID I                     BEDFORD (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)
  BAYEZID II                    BEDFORDSHIRE



BASSO-RELIEVO (Ital. for "low relief"), the term applied to sculpture in
which the design projects but slightly from the plane of the background.
The relief may not project at all from the original surface of the
material, as in the sunken reliefs of the Egyptians, and may be nearly
flat, as in the Panathenaic procession of the Parthenon. In the early
19th century the term _basso-relievo_, or "low relief," came to be
employed loosely for all forms of relief, the term _mezzo-relievo_
having already dropped out of general use owing to the difficulty of
accurate application.



BASS ROCK, THE, a small island in the Firth of Forth, about 2 m. from
Canty Bay, Haddingtonshire, Scotland. It is circular in shape, measuring
a mile in circumference, and is 350 ft. high. On three sides the cliffs
are precipitous, but they shelve towards the S.W., where landing is
effected. The Bass Rock is an intrusive mass of phonolitic trachyte or
orthophyre. No nepheline has been detected in the rock, but analcite is
present in small quantity together with abundant orthoclase and green
soda-augite. It bears a close resemblance to the eruptive masses of
North Berwick Law and Traprain Law, but is non-porphyritic. It is
regarded by Sir A. Geikie as a plug filling an old volcanic vent, from
which lava emanated during the Calciferous Sandstone period. It used to
be grazed by sheep, of which the mutton was thought to be unusually
good, but its principal denizens are sea-birds, chiefly solan geese,
which haunt the rock in vast numbers. A lighthouse with a six-flash
lantern of 39,000 candle power was opened in 1002. For a considerable
distance E. and W. there runs through the rock a tunnel, about 15 ft.
high, accessible at low water. St Baldred, whose name has been given to
several of the cliffs on the shore of the mainland, occupied a hermitage
on the Bass, where he died in 756. In the 14th century the island became
the property of the Lauders, called afterwards Lauders of the Bass, from
whom it was purchased in 1671 by government, and a castle with dungeons
was erected on it, in which many Covenanters were imprisoned. Among them
were Alexander Peden (1626-1686), for four years, and John Blackadder
(1615-1686), who died there after five years' detention. At the
Revolution four young Jacobites captured the Rock, and having been
reinforced by a few others, held it for King James from June 1691 to
April 1694, only surrendering when threatened by starvation. Thus the
island was the last place in Great Britain to submit to William III.
Dismantled of its fortifications in 1701, the Bass passed into the
ownership of Sir Hew Dalrymple, to whose family it belongs. It is let on
annual rental for the feathers, eggs, oil and young of the sea-birds and
for the fees of visitors, who reach it usually from Canty Bay and North
Berwick.



BASSUS, AUFIDIUS, a Roman historian, who lived in the reign of Tiberius.
His work, which probably began with the civil wars or the death of
Caesar, was continued by the elder Pliny, who, as he himself tells us,
carried it down at least as far as the end of Nero's reign. The _Bellum
Germanicum_ of Bassus, which is commended, may have been either a
separate work or a section of his general history. The elder Seneca
speaks highly of him as an historian, but the fragments preserved in
that writer's _Suasoriae_ (vi. 23) relating to the death of Cicero, are
characterized by an affected style.

  Pliny, _Nat. Hist._, praefatio, 20; Tacitus, _Dialogus de Oratoribus_,
  23; Quintilian, _Instit_, x. 1. 103.



BASSUS, CAESIUS, a Roman lyric poet, who lived in the reign of Nero. He
was the intimate friend of Persius, who dedicated his sixth satire to
him, and whose works he edited (Schol. on Persius, vi. 1). He is said to
have lost his life in the eruption of Vesuvius (79). He had a great
reputation as a poet; Quintilian (_Instit_, x. 1. 96) goes so far as to
say that, with the exception of Horace, he was the only lyric poet worth
reading. He is also identified with the author of a treatise _De
Metris_, of which considerable fragments, probably of an abbreviated
edition, are extant (ed. Keil, 1885). The work was probably originally
in verse, and afterwards recast or epitomized in prose form to be used
as an instruction book. A worthless and scanty account of some of the
metres of Horace (in Keil, _Grammatici Latini_, vi. 305), bearing the
title _Ars Caesii Bassi de Metris_ is not by him, but chiefly borrowed
by its unknown author from the treatise mentioned above.



BASSUS, CASSIANUS, called SCHOLASTICUS (lawyer), one of the _geoponici_
or writers on agricultural subjects. He lived at the end of the 6th or
the beginning of the 7th century A.D. He compiled from earlier writers a
collection of agricultural literature (_Geoponica_) which was afterwards
revised by an unknown editor and published about the year 950, in the
reign of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, to whom the work itself has been
ascribed. It contains a full list of the authorities drawn upon, and the
subjects treated include agriculture, birds, bees, horses, cattle,
sheep, dogs, fishes and the like.

  COMPLETE EDITIONS.--Needham (1704), Niclas (1781), Beckh (1895); see
  also Gemoll in _Berliner Studien_, i. (1884); Oder in _Rheinisches
  Museum_, xlv. (1890), xlviii. (1893), and De Raynal in _Annuaire de
  l'Assoc. pour l'Encouragement des Études Grecques_, viii. (1874).



BASSUS, SALEIUS, Roman epic poet, a contemporary of Valerius Flaccus, in
the reign of Vespasian. Quintilian credits him with a vigorous and
poetical genius (_Instit_, x. 1. 90) and Julius Secundus, one of the
speakers in Tacitus _Dialogus de Oratoribus_ (5; see also 9) styles him
a perfect poet and most illustrious bard. He was apparently overtaken by
poverty, but was generously treated by Vespasian, who made him a present
of 500,000 sesterces. Nothing from his works has been preserved; the
_Laus Pisonis_, which has been attributed to him, is probably by Titus
Calpurnius Siculus (J. Held, _De Saleio Basso_. 1834).



BASSVILLE, or BASSEVILLE, NICOLAS JEAN HUGON DE (d. 1793), French
journalist and diplomatist, was born at Abbeville on the 7th of February
1753. He was trained for the priesthood, taught theology in a provincial
seminary and then went to Paris. Here in 1784 he published _Éléments de
mythologie_ and some poems, which brought him into notice. On the
recommendation of the prince of Condé he became tutor to two young
Americans travelling in Europe. With them he visited Berlin, made the
acquaintance there of Mirabeau, and became a member of the Berlin
Academy Royal. At the outbreak of the Revolution he turned to
journalism, becoming editor of the _Mercure international_. Then,
through the Girondist minister Lebrun-Tondu, he entered the diplomatic
service, went in May, 1792, as secretary of legation to Naples and was
shortly afterwards sent, without official status, to Rome. Here his
conduct was anything but diplomatic. He at once announced himself as the
protector of the extreme Jacobins in Rome, demanded the expulsion of the
French _émigrés_ who had taken refuge there, including the "demoiselles
Capet," and ordered the _fleur-de-lys_ on the escutcheon of the French
embassy to be replaced by a picture of Liberty painted by a French art
student. He talked at large of the "purple geese of the Capitol" and met
the remonstrances of Cardinal Zelada, the papal secretary of state, with
insults. This enraged the Roman populace; a riot broke out on the 13th
of January 1793, and Bassville, who was driving with his family to the
Corso, was dragged from his carriage and so roughly handled that he
died. The affair was magnified in the Convention into a deliberate
murder of the "representative of the Republic" by the pope's orders. In
1797 by an article of the treaty of Tolentino the papal government
agreed to pay compensation to Bassville's family. Among his writings we
may also mention _Memoires historiques, critiques el politiques sur la
Révolution de France_ (Paris 1790; English trans. London, 1790).

  See F. Masson, _Les Diplomates de la Révolution_ (Paris, 1882);
  Silvagni, _La Carte e la Società romana nei secoli XVIII. e XIX._
  (Florence, 1881).



BASTAR, a feudatory state of British India, in the Chattisgarh division
of the Central Provinces; area, 13,062 sq. m. In 1901 the population was
306,501, showing a decrease of 1% compared with an apparent increase of
58% in the preceding decade. Estimated revenue £22,000; tribute £1100.
The eastern part of Bastar is a flat elevated plateau, from 1800 to 2000
ft. above the level of the sea, the centre and N.W. portions are very
mountainous, and the southern parts consist of hills and plains. On the
plateau there are but few hills; the streams run slowly and the country
is a mixture of plain and undulating ground covered by dense _sál_
forests. Principal mountains of the district: (1) a lofty range which
separates it from the Sironcha district; (2) a range of equal height
called the Bela Dila lying in the centre of the district; (3) a range
running N. and S. near Narayanpur; (4) Tangri Dongri range, running E.
and W.; (5) Tulsi Dongri, bordering on the Sabari river and the Jaipur
state. There is also a small range running from the river Indravati to
the Godavari. The Indravati, the Sabari and the Tal or Talper, are the
chief rivers of the district; all of them affluents of the Godavari. The
soil throughout the greater portion of Bastar consists of light clay,
with an admixture of sand, suited for raising rice and wet crops. In
the jungles the Marias, who are among the aboriginal tribes of Gond
origin, raise kosra (_Panicum italicum_) and other inferior grains.
Aboriginal races generally follow the migratory system of tillage,
clearing the jungle on selected patches, and after taking crops for two
or three years abandoning them for new ground. They do not use the
plough; nor do they possess buffaloes, bullocks or cows; their only
agricultural implement is a long-handled iron hoe. They are a timid,
quiet, docile race, and although addicted to drinking not quarrelsome.
They inhabit the densest jungles and are very shy, avoiding contact with
strangers, and flying to the hills on the least alarm; but they bear a
good character for honesty and truthfulness. They are very scantily
dressed, wear a variety of trinkets, with a knife, hatchet, spear, bow
and arrows, the only weapons they use. Their hair is generally shaved,
excepting a topknot; and when not shaved it gets into a matted, tangled
mass, gathered into a knot behind or on the crown. The Marias and the
Jhurias are supposed to be a subdivision of the true Gond family. All
the aboriginal tribes of Bastar worship the deities of the Hindu
pantheon along with their own national goddess Danteswari.

Bastar is divided into two portions--that held by the Raja or chief
himself, and that possessed by feudatory chiefs under him. The climate
is unhealthy--fever, smallpox, dysentery and rheumatism being the
prevailing diseases. Jagdalpur, Bijapur, Madder and Bhupalpatnam are the
only places of any note in the dependency, the first (on the Indravati
river) being the residence of the raja and the chief people of the
state. The principal products are rice, oil-seeds, lac, tussur silk,
horns, hides, wax and a little iron. Teak timber is floated down the
rivers to the Madras coast. A good road has brought Jagdalpur into
connexion with the railway at Raipur.



BASTARD (O. Fr. _bastard_, mod. _bâtard = fils de bast_, "pack-saddle
child," from _bast_, saddle), a person born out of legal wedlock.
Amongst the Romans, bastards were classified as _nothi_, children born
in concubinage, and _spurii_, those not so born. Both classes had a
right of succession to their mother, and the _nothi_, were entitled to
support from their father, but had no rights of inheritance from him.
Both, however, had in other respects most of the rights of citizenship.
The Germanic law was based upon an entirely different principle. It
recognized as legitimate only those whose parents were of the same
social rank. All others were regarded as bastards, and took the status
of the parent of inferior rank. The aim of all the Germanic codes was to
preserve purity of race, not to improve morals, for incestuous unions
are not censured. The influence of the Germanic law lasted throughout
the early feudal period, and bastards were debarred rights of
inheritance. In the 13th century the influence of Roman law tended again
to modify this severity. An exception was probably made in the case of
those whose fathers were of royal blood, in which case it even seems
that no stigma was attached to the accident of their birth, nor did they
suffer from the usual disabilities as to inheritance which attended
those of illegitimate birth (Gregory of Tours, v. 25). Among the Franks
we find Theodoric I., a natural son of Clovis, sharing the kingdom with
the legitimate sons; Zwentibold, natural son of Arnulf, was created king
of Lorraine by his father in 895; and even William the Conqueror
actually assumed the appellation of bastard.

In English law a bastard still retains certain disabilities. His rights
are only such as he can acquire; for civilly he can inherit nothing,
being looked upon as the son of nobody, and sometimes called _filius
nullius_, sometimes _filius populi_. This, however, does not hold as to
moral purposes, e.g. he cannot marry his mother or bastard sister. Yet
he may gain a surname by reputation though he has none by inheritance,
and may even be made legitimate and capable of inheriting by the
transcendent power of an act of parliament.

For poor-law purposes, all legitimate children take the settlement of
their father, but a bastard takes the settlement of its mother. The
mother of an illegitimate child is entitled to its custody in preference
to the father, and consequently the responsibility of its support falls
primarily on her. But the English law has always recognized the
principle that to a certain extent the father must share in that
responsibility. This, however, was imposed not with the idea of
furnishing the woman with a civil remedy, nor to have a penal effect
against the man, but solely to prevent the cost of maintenance of the
bastard child from falling upon the parish. Indeed, the legislation upon
the subject, which dates back to 1576, was until 1845 an intimate part
of the poor law. The act of 1576, the basis of English bastardy law,
empowered justices to take order for the punishment of the mother and
reputed father of every bastard child left to the care of the parish,
and to charge the mother and reputed father with the payment of a weekly
sum or other needful sustenance. Other acts were passed in 1609 and
1733, enabling the mother of any child chargeable or likely to become
chargeable to the parish to secure the apprehension, and even the
imprisonment, of the father until he should indemnify the parish,
provisions which were made somewhat more stringent by acts passed in
1809 and 1810. In 1832 a commission was appointed to inquire into the
operation of the poor laws, and the commissioners in their report gave
great attention to the subject of bastardy. They reviewed the various
acts from 1576 downwards and gave examples of their operation. The
conclusion to which the commissioners came was that the laws "which
respect bastardy appear to be pre-eminently unwise," and that they gave
rise to many abuses. For example, the weekly payment recovered by the
parish was usually transferred to the mother; even in many cases
guaranteed. The commissioners recommended that the mother alone should
be responsible for the maintenance of the child. "This," they said, "is
now the position of a widow, and there can be no reason for giving to
vice privileges which we deny to misfortune." Acting on the
recommendation of the commissioners the Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834
endeavoured to discourage the principle of making the putative father
contribute by introducing a somewhat cumbersome method of procedure. The
trend of public opinion proved against the discouragement of
affiliation, and an act of 1839 transferred jurisdiction in affiliation
cases from quarter-sessions to petty-sessions. A commission of inquiry
on the working of the bastardy acts in 1844 recommended "that
affiliation should be facilitated," and, accordingly, by the Bastardy
Act of 1845 effect was given to this recommendation by giving the mother
an independent civil remedy against the putative father and dissociating
the parish altogether from the proceedings. Subsequently, legislation
gave the parish the right of attaching, and in some cases suing for,
money due from the putative father for the maintenance of the child. The
existing law is set out under AFFILIATION.

The incapacities attaching to a bastard consist principally in this,
that he cannot be heir to any one; for being _nullius filius_, he is
therefore of kin to nobody, and has no ancestor from whom an inheritable
blood can be derived. Therefore, if there be no other claimant upon an
inheritance than such illegitimate child, it escheats to the lord. And
as bastards cannot be heirs themselves, so neither can they have any
heirs but those of their own bodies; for as all collateral kindred
consists in being derived from the same common ancestor, and as a
bastard has no legal ancestor, he can have no collateral kindred, and
consequently no legal heirs, except such as claim by a lineal descent
from himself. And hence, if a bastard purchase land, and die seised
therefor without issue and intestate, the land escheats to the lord of
the fee. Originally a bastard was deemed incapable of holy orders, and
disqualified by the fact of his birth from holding any dignity in the
church; but this doctrine is now obsolete, and in all other respects
there is no distinction between a bastard and another man. By the law of
Scotland a bastard is not only excluded from his father's succession,
because the law knows no father who is not marked out by marriage; and
from all heritable succession, whether by the father or mother, because
he cannot be pronounced lawful heir by the inquest in terms of the
brief; but also from the movable succession of his mother, because he is
not her lawful child, and legitimacy is implied in all succession
deferred by the law. But a bastard, although he cannot succeed _jure
sanguinis_, may succeed by destination, where he is specially called to
the succession by entail or testament. In Scotland, as in England, a
bastard can have no legal heirs except those of his own body; and hence,
failing his lawful issue, the king succeeds to him as last heir.
Formerly bastards in Scotland without issue of their own could not make
a will, but this disability was removed by a statute of 1835. If
bastards or other persons without kindred die intestate without wife or
child, their effects go to the king as _ultimus haeres_; but a grant is
usually made of them by letters patent, and the grantee becomes entitled
to the administration.

According to the common law, which is the law of England, a bastard
cannot be divested of his state of illegitimacy, unless by the supreme
power of an act of parliament. But in those countries which have
followed the Roman or civil law, a bastard's status may be provisional,
and he can be made legitimate by the subsequent marriage of his parents.
(See LEGITIMACY AND LEGITIMATION; and, for statistics, ILLEGITIMACY.)

  AUTHORITIES.--Bacquet, _Traité de la bâtardise_ (1608); Du Cange,
  _Gloss. Lat._, infra "Bastardus"; L.G. Koenigswater, _Histoire de
  l'organisation de la famille en France_ (1851), and _Essai sur les
  enfants nés hors mariage_ (1842); E.D. Glasson, _Histoire des droits
  et des institutions de l'Angleterre_ (6 vols., 1882-1883), _Histoire
  du droit et des institutions de la France_ (1887); Pollock and
  Maitland, _History of English Law_ (1898); Stephen's _Commentaries_;
  Nicholls and Mackay, _History of the English Poor Law_ (3 vols.,
  1898).



BASTARNAE, the easternmost people of the Germanic race, the first to
come into contact with the ancient world and the Slavs. Originally
settled in Galicia and the Bukovina, they appeared on the lower Danube
about 200 B.C., and were used by Philip V. of Macedon against his
Thracian neighbours. Defeated by these the Bastarnae returned north,
leaving some of their number (hence called Peucini) settled on Peuce, an
island in the Danube. Their main body occupied the country between the
eastern Carpathians and the Danube. As allies of Perseus and of
Mithradates the Great, and lastly on their own account, they had hostile
relations with the Romans who in the time of Augustus defeated them, and
made a peace, which was disturbed by a series of incursions. In these
the Bastarnae after a time gave place to the Goths, with whom they seem
to have amalgamated, and we last hear of them as transferred by the
emperor Probus to the right bank of the Danube. Polybius and the authors
who copy him regard the Bastarnae as Galatae; Strabo, having learned of
the Romans to distinguish Celts and Germans, first allows a German
element; Tacitus expressly declares their German origin but says that
the race was degraded by intermarriage with Sarmatians. The descriptions
of their bodily appearance, tribal divisions, manner of life and methods
of warfare are such as are applied to either race. No doubt they were an
outpost of the Germans, and so had absorbed into themselves strong
Getic, Celtic and Sarmatian elements.     (E. H. M.)



BASTI, a town and district of British India, in the Gorakhpur division
of the United Provinces. The town, a collection of villages, is on the
river Kuana, 40 m. from Gorakhpur by railway. The population in 1901 was
14,761. It has no municipality. The district has an area of 2792 sq. m.
It stretches out in one vast marshy plain, draining towards the
south-east, and traversed by the Rapti, Kuana, Banganga, Masdih, Jamwar,
Ami and Katneihia rivers. The tract lying between these streams consists
of a rich alluvial deposit, more or less subject to inundations, but
producing good crops of rice, wheat and barley. In 1901 the population
was 1,846,153, showing an increase of 3% in the decade. A railway from
Gorakhpur to Gonda runs through the district, and the river Gogra is
navigable. A large transit trade is conducted with Nepal. The export
trade of the district itself is chiefly in rice, sugar and other
agricultural produce.



BASTIA, a town and seaport on the eastern coast of the island of
Corsica, 98 m. N.N.E. of Ajaccio by rail. Pop. (1906) 24,509. Bastia,
the chief commercial town in Corsica, consists of the densely-populated
quarter of the old port with its labyrinth of steep and narrow streets,
and of a more modern quarter to the north, which has grown up round the
new port. La Traverse, a fine boulevard, intersects the town from north
to south. Rising from the sea-shore like an amphitheatre, Bastia
presents an imposing appearance, which is enhanced by the loftiness of
its houses; it has, however, little of architectural interest to offer.
Its churches, of which the largest is San Giovanni Battista, are florid
in decoration, as are the law-court, the theatre and the hôtel-de-ville.
The citadel, which dominates the old port, has a keep of the 14th
century. As capital of an arrondissement, Bastia is the seat of a
tribunal of first instance and a sub-prefect, while it is also the seat
of the military governor of Corsica, of a court of appeal for the whole
island, of a court of assizes, and of a tribunal and a chamber of
commerce, and has a lycée, a branch of the Bank of France, and a library
with between 30,000 and 40,000 volumes. The town has active commerce,
especially with Italy. The new port has 1100 ft. of quayage, served by a
railway, and with a depth alongside of 25 ft. The total number of
vessels entered in 1907 was 721 with a tonnage of 337,551, of which
203,950 were French. The chief exports are chestnut extract for tanning,
cedrates, citrons, oranges, early vegetables, fish, copper ore and
antimony ore. Imports include coal, grain, flour and wine. Industry
consists chiefly in fishing (sardines, &c., and coral), the manufacture
of tobacco, oil-distilling, tanning, and the preparation of preserved
citrons and of macaroni and similar provisions.

Bastia dates from the building of the Genoese fortress or "bastille" by
Lionello Lomellino in 1383. Under the Genoese it was long the principal
stronghold in the north of the island, and the residence of the
governor; and in 1553 it was the first town attacked by the French. On
the division of the island in 1797 into the two departments of Golo and
Liamone, Bastia remained the capital of the former; but when the two
were again united Ajaccio obtained the superiority. The city was taken
by the English in 1745 and again in 1794.



BASTIAN, ADOLF (1826-   ), German ethnologist, was born at Bremen on the
26th of June 1826. He was educated as a physician, but from his early
years devoted himself to travel. Proceeding to Australia in 1851 as
surgeon on a vessel, he had visited almost every part of the world
before his return in 1859. In 1861 he made an expedition to the Far East
which lasted five years. Upon his return he commenced the publication of
his great work on _The Peoples of Eastern Asia_, an immense storehouse
of facts owing little to arrangement or style. He settled in Berlin,
where he was made professor of ethnology at the university and keeper of
the ethnological museum. He succeeded R. Virchow as president of the
Berlin Anthropological Society, and to him was largely due the formation
in 1878 of the German Africa Society of Berlin, which did much to
encourage German colonization in Africa. Later he undertook further
scientific travels in Africa, South America and India. The results of
these explorations were made public in a long series of separate
publications comprising several on Buddhism, and on the psychological
problems presented by native superstitions. Bastian also edited the
_Zeitschrift für Ethnologie_ from 1869, in conjunction with Virchow and
Robert von Hartmann. On his seventieth birthday, 1896 (during which year
he started on an expedition to Malaysia), he was presented with a volume
of essays composed by the most distinguished ethnologists in celebration
of the event and dedicated to him. Among his more important works may be
mentioned:--_Der Mensch in der Geschichte_ (Leipzig, 1860); _Die Völker
des östlichen Asien_ (Jena, 1866-1871); _Ethnologische Forschungen_
(Leipzig, 1871-1873); _Die Kulturländer des alten Amerika_ (Berlin,
1878); _Der Buddhismus in seiner Psychologie_ (Berlin, 1881);
_Indonesien_ (Leipzig, 1884); _Der Fetisch an der Küste Guineas_
(Berlin, 1885); _Die mikronesischen Kolonien_ (1899-1900); _Die
wechselnden Phasen im geschichtlichen Sehkreis und ihre Rückwirkung auf
die Völkerkunde_ (1900).



BASTIAT, FRÉDÉRIC (1801-1850), French economist, was the son of a
merchant of Bayonne, and was born in that town on the 29th of June 1801.
Educated at the colleges of Saint-Sever and of Sorèze, he entered in
1818 the counting-house of his uncle at Bayonne. The practical routine
of mercantile life being distasteful to him, in 1825 he retired to a
property at Mugron, of which he became the owner on the death of his
grandfather. Here Bastiat occupied himself with farming, his leisure
being devoted to study and meditation. He welcomed with enthusiasm the
Revolution of 1830. In 1831 he became a _juge de paix_ of his canton,
and in 1832 a member of the _conseil général_ of the Landes. In 1834 he
published his first pamphlet, and between 1841 and 1844 three others,
all on questions of taxation affecting local interests. During this
period an accidental circumstance led him to become a subscriber to an
English newspaper, the _Globe and Traveller_, through which he was made
acquainted with the nature and progress of the crusade of the
Anti-Corn-Law League against protection. After studying the movement for
two years, he resolved to inaugurate a similar movement in France. To
prepare the way, he contributed in 1844 to the _Journal des Économistes_
an article "Sur l'influence des tarifs anglais et français," which
attracted great attention, and was followed by others, including the
first series of his brilliant _Sophismes Économiques_.

In 1845 Bastiat came to Paris in order to superintend the publication of
his _Cobden et la Ligue, ou l'agitation anglaise pour la liberté des
échanges_, and was very cordially received by the economists of the
capital. From Paris he went to London and Manchester, and made the
personal acquaintance of Cobden, Bright and other leaders of the league.
When he returned to France he found that his writings had been exerting
a powerful influence; and in 1846 he assisted in organizing at Bordeaux
the first French Free-Trade Association (Association pour la Liberté des
Échanges). The rapid spread of the movement soon required him to abandon
Mugron for Paris.

During the eighteen months which followed this change his labours were
prodigious. He acted as secretary of the central committee of the
association, organized and corresponded with branch societies, waited on
ministers, procured subscriptions, edited a weekly paper, the
_Libre-Échange_, contributed to the _Journal des Économistes_ and to
three other periodicals, addressed meetings in Paris and the provinces,
and delivered a course of lectures on the principles of political
economy to students of the schools of law and of medicine. The cause to
which he thus devoted himself at the expense of his health and life
appeared for a time as if it would be successful; but the forces in its
favour were much weaker and those opposed to it were much stronger in
France than in England, and this became more apparent as the struggle
proceeded, until it was brought to an abrupt end by the Revolution of
February 1848. This event made the socialistic and communistic
principles, which had been gathering and spreading during the previous
thirty years, temporarily supreme. (See NATIONAL WORKSHOPS.) In this
grave crisis Bastiat nobly performed his duty. Although exhausted by the
far too heavy labours in which he had been engaged, although robbed of
his voice by the malady which was preying upon him, so that he could do
but little to defend the truth from the tribune of the Constituent
Assembly, he could still suggest wise counsels in the committee of
finance of which he was vice-president, and he could still use his pen
with a vigour and dexterity which made him capable of combating
single-handed many opponents.

He wrote in rapid succession a series of brilliant and effective
pamphlets and essays, showing how socialism was connected with
protection, and exposing the delusions on which it rested. Thus within
the space of two years there appeared _Propriété et Loi, Justice et
Fraternité, Propriété et Spoliation, L'État, Baccalauréat et Socialisme,
Protectionisme et Communisme, Capital et Rente, Maudit Argent,
Spoliation et Loi, Gratuité du Credit_, and _Ce qu'on voit et ce qu'on
ne voit pas_. While thus occupied he was meditating the composition of a
great constructive work, meant to renovate economical science by basing
it on the principle that "interests, left to themselves, tend to
harmonious combinations, and to the progressive preponderance of the
general good." The first volume of this work _Les Harmonies économiques_
was published in the beginning of 1850. In the autumn of that year, when
working on the second volume, the increase of his malady compelled him
to go to Italy. After lingering at Pisa and Florence he reached Rome,
but only to die there on the 24th of December 1850 in the fiftieth year
of his age.

The life-work of Bastiat, in order to be fairly appreciated, requires to
be considered in three aspects. (1) He was the advocate of free-trade,
the opponent of protection. The general principles of free-trade had, of
course, been clearly stated and solidly established before he was born,
but he did more than merely restate them. He showed, as no one before
him had done, how they were practically applicable to French
agriculture, trade and commerce; and in the _Sophismes Économiques_ we
have the completest and most effective, the wisest and the wittiest
exposure of protectionism in its principles, reasonings and consequences
which exists in any language. (2) He was the opponent of socialism. In
this respect also he had no equal among the economists of France. He
alone fought socialism hand to hand, body to body, as it were, not
caricaturing it, not denouncing it, not criticizing under its name some
merely abstract theory, but taking it as actually presented by its most
popular representatives, considering patiently their proposals and
arguments, and proving conclusively that they proceeded on false
principles, reasoned badly and sought to realize generous aims by
foolish and harmful means. Nowhere will reason find a richer armoury of
weapons available against socialism than in the pamphlets published by
Bastiat between 1848 and 1850. (3) He attempted to expound in an
original and independent manner political economy as a science. In
combating, first, the Protectionists, and, afterwards, the Socialists,
there gradually rose on his mind a conception which seemed to him to
shed a flood of light over the whole of economical doctrine, and,
indeed, over the whole theory of society, viz. the harmony of the
essential tendencies of human nature. The radical error, he became
always more convinced, both of protectionism and socialism, was the
assumption that human interests, if left to themselves would inevitably
prove antagonistic and anti-social, capital robbing labour, manufactures
ruining agriculture, the foreigner injuring the native, the consumer the
producer, &c.; and the chief weakness of the various schools of
political economy, he believed, he had discovered in their imperfect
apprehension of the truth that human interests, when left to themselves,
when not arbitrarily and forcibly interfered with, tend to harmonious
combination, to the general good.

  His _OEuvres complètes_ are in 7 vols. The first contains an
  interesting _Memoir_ by M. Paillottet.



BASTIDE, JULES (1800-1879), French publicist, was born at Paris on the
22nd of November 1800. He studied law for a time, and afterwards engaged
in business as a timber merchant. In 1821 he became a member of the
French Carbonari, and took a prominent part in the Revolution of 1830.
After the "July Days" he received an artillery command in the national
guard. For his share in the _émeute_ in Paris (5th of June 1832) on the
occasion of the funeral of General Maximilien Lamarque, Bastide was
sentenced to death but escaped to London. On his return to Paris in 1834
he was acquitted, and occupied himself with journalism, contributing to
the _National_, a republican journal of which he became editor in 1836.
In 1847 he founded the _Revue nationale_ with the collaboration of P.J.
Buchez (q.v.), with whose ideas he had become infected. After the
Revolution of February 1848 Bastide's intimate knowledge of foreign
affairs gained for him a secretarial post in the provisional government,
and, after the creation of the executive commission, he was made
minister of foreign affairs. At the close of 1848 he threw up his
portfolio, and, after the _coup d'état_ of December 1851, retired into
private life. He died on the 2nd of March 1879. His writings comprise
_De l'éducation publique en France_ (1847); _Histoire de l'assemblée
législative_ (1847); _La République française et l'Italie en 1848_
(1858); _Histoire des guerres religieuses en France_ (1859).



BASTIDE (Provençal _bastida_, building), a word applied to the fortified
towns founded in south-western France in the middle ages, and
corresponding to the _villes neuves_ of northern France. They were
established by the abbeys, the nobles and the crown, frequently by two
of these authorities in co-operation, and were intended to serve as
defensive posts and centres of population for sparsely-inhabited
districts. In addition, they formed a source of revenue and power for
their founders, who on their part conceded liberal charters to the new
towns. They were built on a rectangular plan, with a large central
square and straight thoroughfares running at right angles or parallel to
one another, this uniformity of construction being well exemplified in
the existing _bastide_ of Monpazier (Dordogne) founded by the English in
1284. Mont-de-Marsan, the oldest of the bastides, was founded in 1141,
and the movement for founding them lasted during the 12th, 13th and 14th
centuries, attaining its height between 1250 and 1350.

  See E. Ménault, _Les Villes Neuves, leur origine et leur influence
  dans le mouvement communal_ (Paris, 1868); Curie-Seimbres, _Essai sur
  les villes fondées dans le sud-ouest de la France sous le nom de
  bastides_ (Toulouse, 1880).



BASTIEN-LEPAGE, JULES (1848-1884), French painter, was born in the
village of Damvillers, Meuse, France, on the 1st of November 1848 and
spent his childhood there. He first studied at Verdun, and prompted by a
love of art went in 1867 to Paris, where he was admitted to the École
des Beaux-arts, working under Cabanel. After exhibiting in the Salons of
1870 and 1872 works which attracted no attention, in 1874 he made his
mark with his "Song of Spring," a study of rural life, representing a
peasant girl sitting on a knoll looking down on a village. His "Portrait
of my Grandfather," exhibited in the same year, was not less remarkable
for its artless simplicity and received a third-class medal. This
success was confirmed in 1875 by the "First Communion," a picture of a
little girl minutely worked up as to colour, and a "Portrait of M.
Hayem." In 1875 he took the second Prix de Rome with his "Angels
appearing to the Shepherds," exhibited again in 1878. His next endeavour
to win the Grand Prix de Rome in 1876 with "Priam at the Feet of
Achilles" was again unsuccessful (it is in the Lille gallery), and the
painter determined to return to country life. To the Salon of 1877 he
sent a full-length "Portrait of Lady L." and "My Parents"; and in 1878 a
"Portrait of M. Theuriet" and "The Hayfield." The last picture, now in
the Luxembourg, is regarded as a typical work from its stamp of
realistic truth. Thenceforth Bastien-Lepage was recognized in France as
the leader of a school, and his "Portrait of Mme Sarah Bernhardt"
(1879), painted in a light key, won him the cross of the Legion of
Honour. In 1880 he exhibited a small portrait of M. Andrieux and "Joan
of Arc listening to the Voices"; and in the same year, at the Royal
Academy, the little portrait of the "Prince of Wales." In 1881 he
painted "The Beggar" and the "Portrait of Albert Wolf"; in 1882 "Le Père
Jacques"; in 1883 "Love in a Village," in which we find some trace of
Courbet's influence. His last dated work is "The Forge" (1884). The
artist, long ailing, had tried in vain to re-establish his health in
Algiers. He died in Paris on the 10th of December 1884, when planning a
new series of rural subjects. Among his more important works may also be
mentioned the portrait of "Mme J. Drouet" (1883); "Gambetta on his
death-bed," and some landscapes; "The Vintage" (1880), and "The Thames
at London" (1882). "The Little Chimney-Sweep" was never finished. An
exhibition of his collected works was opened in March and April 1885.

  See A. Theuriet, _Bastien-Lepage_ (1885--English edition, 1892); L. de
  Fourcaud, _Bastien-Lepage_ (1885).     (H. Fr.)



BASTILLE (from Fr. _bastir_, now _bâtir_, to build), originally any
fortified building forming part of a system of defence or attack; the
name was especially applied to several of the principal points in the
ancient fortifications of Paris. In the reign of King John, or even
earlier, the gate of Saint Antoine was flanked by two towers; and about
1369 Hugues Aubriot, at the command of Charles V., changed it into a
regular bastille or fort by the addition of six others of massive
structure, the whole united by thick walls and surrounded by a ditch 25
ft. wide. Various extensions and alterations were afterwards effected;
but the building remained substantially what it was made by the vigorous
provost, a strong and gloomy structure, with eight stern towers. As the
ancient fortifications of the city were superseded, the use of the word
bastille as a general designation gradually died out, and it became
restricted to the castle of Saint Antoine, the political importance of
which made it practically, long before it was actually, the only
bastille of Paris. The building had originally a military purpose, and
it appears as a fortress on several occasions in French history. When
Charles VII. retook Paris from the English in 1436, his opponents in the
city took refuge in the Bastille, which they were prepared to defend
with vigour, but the want of provisions obliged them to capitulate. In
1588 the duke of Guise took possession of the Bastille, gave the command
of it to Bussy-Leclerc, and soon afterwards shut up the whole parlement
within its walls, for having refused their adherence to the League. When
Henry IV. became master of Paris he committed the command of the
Bastille to Sully, and there he deposited his treasures, which at the
time of his death amounted to the sum of 15,870,000 livres. On the 11th
of January 1649 the Bastille was invested by the forces of the Fronde,
and after a short cannonade capitulated on the 13th of that month. The
garrison consisted of only twenty-two men. The Frondeurs concluded a
peace with the court on the 11th of March; but it was stipulated by
treaty that they should retain possession of the Bastille, which in fact
was not restored to the king till the 21st of October 1651.

At a very early period, however, the Bastille was employed for the
custody of state prisoners, and it was ultimately much more of a prison
than a fortress. According to the usual account, which one is tempted to
ascribe to the popular love of poetical justice, the first who was
incarcerated within its walls was the builder himself, Hugues Aubriot.
Be this as it may, the duke of Nemours spent thirteen years there in one
of those iron cages which Louis XI. called his _fillettes_; and Jacques
d'Armagnac, Poyet and Chabot were successively prisoners. It was not
till the reign of Louis XIII. that it became recognized as a regular
place of confinement; but from that time till its destruction it was
frequently filled to embarrassment with men and women of every age and
condition. Prisoners were detained without trial on _lettres de cachet_
for different reasons, to avoid a scandal, either public or private, or
to satisfy personal animosities. But the most frequent and most
notorious use of the Bastille was to imprison those writers who attacked
the government or persons in power. It was this which made it so hated
as an emblem of despotism, and caused its capture and demolition in the
Revolution.

Of the treatment of prisoners in the Bastille very various accounts have
been given even by those who speak from personal experience, for the
simple reason that it varied greatly in different cases. The prisoners
were divided into two main classes, those who were detained on grounds
of precaution or by way of admonitory correction, and those who lay
under presumption or proof of guilt. The former were subject to no
investigation or judgment, and the length of their imprisonment depended
on the will of the king; the latter were brought to trial in the
ordinary courts or before special tribunals, such as that of the
Arsenal--though even in their case the interval between their arrest and
their trial was determined solely by the royal decree, and it was quite
possible for a man to grow old in the prison without having the
opportunity of having his fate decided. Until guilt was established, the
prisoner was registered in the king's name, and--except in the case of
state-prisoners of importance, who were kept with greater strictness and
often in absolute isolation--he enjoyed a certain degree of comfort and
freedom. Visitors were admitted under restrictions; games were allowed;
and, for a long time at least, exercise was permitted in open parts of
the interior. Food was both abundant and good, at least for the better
class of prisoners; and instances were not unknown of people living
below their allowance and, by arrangement with the governor, saving the
surplus. When the criminality of the prisoner was established, his name
was transferred to the register of the "commission," and he became
exposed to numerous hardships and even barbarities, which however
belonged not so much to the special organization of the Bastille as to
the general system of criminal justice then in force.

Among the more distinguished personages who were confined in this
fortress during the reigns of Louis XIV., XV. and XVI., were the famous
_Man of the Iron Mask_ (see IRON MASK), Foucquet, the marshal Richelieu,
Le Maistre de Sacy, De Renneville, Voltaire, Latude, Le Prévôt de
Beaumont, Labourdonnais, Lally, Cardinal de Rohan, Linguet and La
Chalotais. While no detestation is too great for that system of "royal
pantheism" which led to the unjust and often protracted imprisonment of
even men of great ability and stainless character, it is unnecessary to
give implicit credence to all the tales of horror which found currency
during the excitement of the Revolution, and which historical evidence,
as well as _a priori_ considerations, tends to strip of their more
dreadful features, and even in many cases to refute altogether. Much
light of an unexpected kind has in modern times been shed on the history
of the Bastille from the pages of its own records. These documents had
been flung out into the courts of the building by the revolutionary
captors, and after suffering grievous diminution and damage were finally
stored up and forgotten in the vaults of the library of the (so-called)
Arsenal. Here they were discovered in 1840 by François Ravaisson, who
devoted himself to their arrangement, elucidation and publication.

At the breaking out of the Revolution the Bastille was attacked by the
Parisians; and, after a vigorous resistance, it was taken and razed to
the ground on the 14th of July 1789. At the time of its capture only
seven prisoners were found in it. A very striking account of the siege
will be found in Carlyle's _French Revolution_, vol. i. The site of the
building is now marked by a lofty column of bronze, dedicated to the
memory of the patriots of July 1789 and 1830. It is crowned by a gilded
figure of the genius of liberty.

  See the _Memoirs_ of Linguet (1783), and Latude (ed. by Thierry, tome
  iii. 18mo, 1791-1793); also François Ravaisson, _Les Archives de la
  Bastille_ (16 vols. 8vo, 1866-1886); Delort, _Histoire de la détention
  des philosophes à la Bastille_ (3 vols., 1829); F. Bournon, _La
  Bastille_ (1893); Fr. Funck-Brentano, _Les Lettres de cachet à Paris,
  étude suivie d'une liste des prisonniers de la Bastille_ (1904); G.
  Lecocq, _La Prise de la Bastille_ (1881).



BASTINADO (Span. _baston_, Fr. _bâton_, a stick, cudgel), the European
name for a form of punishment common in the east, especially in Turkey,
Persia and China. It consists in blows with a light stick or lath of
bamboo upon the soles of the feet or on the buttocks. The terror of the
punishment lies not in the severity of the blows, which are on the
contrary scarcely more than tapping, but in its long continuation. A
skilful bastinadoist can kill his victim after hours of torture.



BASTION (through the Fr. from late Lat. _bastire_, to build), a work
forming part of a line of fortifications. The general trace of a bastion
is similar to an irregular pentagon formed by a triangle and a narrow
rectangle, the base of the triangle coinciding with the long side of the
rectangle. The two sides of the triangle form the "faces" of the
bastion, which join at the "salient" angle, the short sides of the
rectangle form the "flanks." Bastions were arranged so that the fire
from the flanks of each protected not only the front of the curtain but
also the faces of the adjacent bastions. A "tower bastion" is a
case-mated tower built in bastion form; a "demi-bastion" is a work
formed by half a bastion (bisected through the salient angle) and by a
parapet along the line of bisection; a "flat bastion" is a bastion built
on a curtain and having a very obtuse salient angle.



BASTWICK, JOHN (1593-1654), English physician and religious zealot, was
born at Writtle, in Essex, in 1593, and after a brief education at
Cambridge, wandered on the continent and graduated in medicine at Padua.
On his return he settled in Colchester. His celebrity rests on his
strong opposition to the Roman Catholic ceremonial. About 1633 he
printed in Holland two Latin treatises, entitled _Elenchus Religionis
Papisticae_, and _Flagellum Pontificis et Episcoporum Latialium_; and as
Laud and other English prelates thought themselves aimed at, he was
fined £1000 in the court of high commission, excommunicated and
prohibited from practising physic, while his books were ordered to be
burnt and the author himself consigned to prison. Instead of recanting,
however, he wrote _Apologeticus ad Praesules Anglicanos_, and another
book called _The Litany_, in which he exclaimed vehemently against the
proceedings of the court, and charged the bishops with being the enemies
of God and "the tail of the beast." William Prynne and Henry Burton
coming under the lash of the star-chamber court at the same time, they
were all censured as turbulent and seditious persons, and condemned to
pay a fine of £5000 each, to be set in the pillory, to lose their ears,
and to undergo imprisonment for life in remote parts of the kingdom,
Bastwick being sent to Scilly. The parliament in 1640 reversed these
proceedings, and ordered Bastwick a reparation of £5000 out of the
estates of the commissioners and lords who had sentenced him. He joined
the parliamentary army, but in later years showed bitter opposition to
the Independents. He died in the latter part of 1654.



BASUTOLAND (officially "The Territory of Basutoland"), an inland state
and British crown colony of S.E. Africa, situated between 28° 35' and
30° 30' S. and 27° and 29° 25' E. It has an area of 10,293 sq. m., being
somewhat smaller than Belgium, and is bounded S., S.E., and N.E. by the
Drakensberg, N. and N.W. by the Caledon river, S.W. by a range of low
hills extending from the Caledon above Wepener to the Orange river, and
south of the Orange by the Telle or Tees river to its source in the
Drakensberg. Its greatest length S.W. to N.E. is 145 m.; its greatest
breadth N. to S. 120 m. On every side it is surrounded by British
colonies, north by the Orange River Colony, south-west and south by Cape
Colony, and east by Natal.

Basutoland, or Lesuto (Lesotho) as the natives call it, forms the
south-eastern edge of the interior tableland of South Africa, and has a
rugged and broken surface with a mean elevation of 6000 ft. The
Drakensberg (q.v.) forming the buttress of the plateau seaward, attain
their highest elevation on the Basuto-Natal border. The frontier line
follows the crest of the mountains, three peaks some 10,000 or more ft.
high--Giant's Castle, Champagne Castle or Cathkin Peak and Mont aux
Sources--towering high above the general level. Mount Hamilton, which
lies north of the waterparting, is over 9000 ft. high. From Mont aux
Sources, table-shaped, and called by the Basutos _Potong_ (Antelope), a
second range of mountains, the Maluti, runs S.W. through the entire
length of Basutoland. The crest of the Maluti is in few places lower
than 7000 ft. whilst Machacha, the culminating point, is about 10,500
ft. From the tableland north of the Maluti several isolated hills rise,
the most noted being the almost inaccessible Thaba Bosigo--the rallying
place of the Basuto in many of their wars. Shut off from the adjacent
Indian Ocean by its mountain barrier, the drainage of the country is
westward to the distant Atlantic. As its name implies, the chief rivers
rise in Mont aux Sources. From the inner sides of that mountain descend
the Caledon and the Senku, whilst from its seaward face the Tugela flows
through Natal to the Indian Ocean. The Caledon runs north of the Maluti,
the Senku south of that range. From the slopes of the Maluti descend
many streams, the largest being the Kornet Spruit, which joins the Senku
and other torrents from the Drakensberg to form the upper Orange
(q.v.). The Caledon also, sweeping southward, unites with the Orange
beyond the frontiers of Basutoland. Ordinarily shallow, the rivers after
heavy rain fill with great rapidity, sweeping away everything in their
path. In the richer soil they cut deep channels; the denudation thus
caused threatens to diminish seriously the area of arable and pasture
land. The river beds contain dangerous quicksands.

The aspect of the country is everywhere grand, and often beautiful,
fully justifying the title, "The Switzerland of South Africa," often
applied to it. Viewed from a distance the mountains appear as dark
perpendicular barriers, quite impenetrable; but narrow paths lead round
the precipitous face of the hills, and when the inner side is gained a
wonderful panorama opens out. In every direction can be seen luxuriant
valleys through which rivers thread their silvery way, wild chasms,
magnificent waterfalls--that of Maletsunyane has an unbroken leap of
over 600 ft.--and, above all, hill crest after hill crest in seeming
endless succession. In winter the effect is heightened by the snow which
caps all the higher peaks.

_Geology._--Basutoland is entirely occupied by the upper division
(Stormberg series) of the Karroo formation. The highest strata (Volcanic
group) form the rugged elevated spurs of the Drakensberg mountains which
extend along the eastern territorial boundary. It has been suggested
that these spurs represent the sites of vents or fissures of eruption.
The upper part of the Maluti range consists of flows of melaphyres and
diabases belonging to the volcanic beds. Among these lavas is the "pipe"
amygdaloid of which many blocks have been transported great distances
down the Vaal river. The amygdales are three or four inches long and
about three-eighths of an inch in diameter. Heulandite, with thomsonite,
stilbite, scolecite, calcite and chalcedony, occur as infilling
minerals.

_Climate._--The climate is excellent, invigorating alike for Europeans
and natives. The mean annual temperature is about 60° F. The four
seasons are distinctly marked, a rarity in South Africa, where the
transition from summer to winter is generally very rapid. The heat of
summer (December-March, which is the rainy season) is tempered by cool
breezes; winter (May-September, inclusive) is dry, cold and bracing, and
frost prevails for prolonged periods. The average annual rainfall is
about 30 in. The general health conditions are good. Malaria is almost
unknown and chest complaints are rare. Epidemics of smallpox and typhoid
occur; and leprosy, imported from the Orange River and Cape Colonies,
has taken firm hold on the Basuto, of whom about 91 per 1000 are
sufferers from this disease.

_Flora and Fauna._--A few kloofs are wooded, but of forest land there is
none. Along the upper courses of the rivers are willows and wild olive
trees; round the chief settlements the eucalyptus and the pine have been
planted. Heaths, generally somewhat rare in South Africa outside the
Cape peninsula, are abundant in Basutoland. The Alpine flora is very
beautiful. There are few wild animals; but the eland, hartebeest and
smaller antelopes are found, as well as the leopard and the jackal.
Mountain hares, partridges and quails afford good sport; baboons and
great hawks live in the mountains. The few fish include the barbel.
Swarms of locusts occasionally visit the country; the locusts are eaten
by the Basuto.

_Population and Towns._--Considering the extensive area of uninhabitable
mountain land it contains, the Territory supports a large population.
The inhabitants increased from 128,206 in 1875 to 348,848 in 1904. The
females outnumber the males by about 20,000, which is, however, about
the number of adult males away from the country at any given period. The
majority live in the district between the Maluti mountains and the
Caledon river. The great bulk of the people are Basuto, but there are
some thousands of Barolong and other Kaffirs. The Basuto proper are a
branch of the Bechuana family of Bantu-Negroids. The white inhabitants
in 1904 numbered 895, and there were 222 coloured persons other than
natives. The seat of government is Maseru, on the left bank of the
Caledon, with a population of about 1000 including some 100 Europeans.
Mafeteng, in the N.W. near the Cape frontier, is a thriving agricultural
centre, as is Butha Buthe in the N.E. Morija, some 16 m. S.E. of Maseru,
is the oldest mission station in the Territory, having been founded by
the Paris Society about 1833. Three miles from Morija is Matsieng, the
kraal of the paramount chief Lerothodi (who died in August 1905). There
are numerous mission stations throughout Basutoland, to several of which
Biblical names have been given, such as Shiloh, Hermon, Cana, Bethesda,
Berea.

_Agriculture and Trade._--Basutoland is one of the greatest
grain-growing countries of South Africa. The richest tract of land is
that between the Maluti mountains and the Caledon river. In summer the
country appears as one waving field of wheat, millet and mealies; whilst
on the mountain slopes and on their flat tops are large flocks of sheep,
cattle and goats, and troops of ponies. The Basuto ponies, said to be
descended from Shetland ponies which, imported to the Cape in 1840,
strayed into the mountains, are short-legged, strong-bodied,
sure-footed, and noted for their hardiness. Improvements in the breed
have been effected by the introduction of Arab stallions. Nearly every
Basuto is an agriculturist; there are no manufactories, and the
minerals, in accordance with the desire of the people, are not worked.
The land is wholly in the possession of the natives, who hold it on the
communal system. Whites and Indians are allowed to establish trading
stations on obtaining special permits from the government, and the
Indians absorb much of the retail trade. The chief exports are wheat,
mealies, Kaffir corn, wool, mohair, horses and cattle. The great bulk of
the imports are textiles. The value of the trade depends on regular
rains, so that in seasons of drought the exports seriously diminish. The
average annual value of trade for the five years ending the 30th of June
1905 was:--Exports £215,668, imports £203,026. Trade is almost entirely
with Orange River Colony and Cape Colony. The Territory is a member of
the South African Customs Union. Some 60,000 Basuto (annual average)
find employment outside the Territory, more than half of whom seek farm
and domestic service. A small proportion go to the Johannesburg gold
mines, and others obtain employment on the railways.

Communication over the greater part of the Territory is by road; none of
the rivers is navigable. A state-owned railway, 16½ m. long, starting
from Maseru crosses the Caledon river and joins the line connecting
Bloemfontein and Ladysmith. This railway follows, N.E. of Maseru, the
right bank of the Caledon, and affords a ready means of transport for
the cereals raised on the left or Basuto side of the river. Highroads,
maintained by the government, traverse every part of the country, and
bridges have been built across the Caledon. The usual mode of conveyance
is by ox-waggon or light cart. Several passes through the Drakensberg
into Griqualand East and Natal exist, but are little used. There is a
complete postal and telegraphic service and a telephone line connects
all government stations.

_Government and Finance._--Basutoland is a crown colony, of which the
high commissioner for South Africa is governor. In him resides the
legislative power, exercised by proclamation. The Territory is
administered, under the direction of the governor, by a resident
commissioner, who is also the chief judicial officer. He is aided by a
government secretary and by assistant commissioners. Under the British
officials the country is governed by hereditary native chiefs, over whom
is a paramount chief. The chiefs have jurisdiction in cases affecting
natives, but there is a right of appeal to the courts of the
commissioners, who try all cases in which any of the parties are
European. A national council (_pitso_), representative of all the native
tribes, meets annually for the free discussion of public affairs. For
administrative purposes the Territory is divided into the seven
districts of Maseru, Leribe, Mohales Hoek, Berea, Mafeteng, Quthing and
Qacha's Nek, each of which is subdivided into wards presided over by
Basuto chiefs.

Revenue is obtained from a hut tax of £1 per hut; the sale of licences
to trade; customs and post office receipts. Seven-eighths of the revenue
comes from the hut tax and customs. The average annual revenue for the
five years 1901-1905 was £96,880; the average annual expenditure
£69,559. Basutoland has no public debt.

_Education and Social Condition._--Education is given in schools founded
by missionary societies, of which the chief is the Société des Missions
Évangéliques de Paris. A large proportion of the people can read and
write Sesuto (as the Basuto language is called) and English, and speak
Dutch, whilst a considerable number also receive higher education. Many
Basuto at the public examinations take higher honours than competitors
of European descent. There are over 200 schools, with an average
attendance exceeding 10,000. Nine-tenths of the scholars are in the
schools of the French Protestant Mission, which are conducted by
English, or English-speaking, missionaries. A government grant is made
towards the cost of upkeep. A government industrial school (opened in
1906) is maintained at Maseru, and the Paris Society has an industrial
school at Leloaleng. The social condition of the people is higher than
that of the majority of South African natives. Many Basuto profess
Christianity and have adopted European clothing. Serious crime is rare
among them and "deliberate murder is almost unknown." [1] They are, like
mountaineers generally, of a sturdy, independent spirit, and are given
to the free expression of their views, generally stated with good sense
and moderation. These views found a new medium of publicity in 1904 when
an independent native newspaper was started, called _Naledi ea Lesotha_
(Star of Basutoland). The publication of this paper was followed in 1906
by the adoption of a uniform system of Sesuto orthography. A book on
national customs, the first work in the vernacular by a South African
native, was published in 1893. The brandy-drinking habit, which, when
the imperial government assumed control of the administration in 1884,
threatened the existence of the nation, has been very largely checked. A
strong beer, brewed from Kaffir corn, is a favourite drink.


  Moshesh forms the Basuto nation.

_History._--Until the beginning of the 19th century Basutoland appears
to have been uninhabited save by wandering Bushmen, whose rude rock
pictures are to be found in several parts of the Drakensberg. About 1800
the country was occupied by various tribes of Bechuana, such as Batau,
Basuto, Baputi, who then possessed the greater part of what is now
Orange River Colony. They appear to have recognized the paramount
authority of a family descended from a chief named Monaheng. By the wars
of the Zulu chiefs Chaka, Matiwana and Mosilikatze, these tribes were
largely broken up and their power destroyed. One tribe, living in the
Maluti mountains, was reduced to cannibalism. From their chief Machacha
mountain takes its name. At this period a young man named Moshesh (born
about 1790), who was of the family of Monaheng and already noted as
hunter and warrior, gathered round him the remnants of several broken
clans, out of which he welded the existing Basuto nation. He established
himself in 1824 on the rock-fortress of Thaba Bosigo, where, in 1831, he
successfully defended himself against Mosilikatze; and thereafter became
second only to that chief among the natives north of the Orange River.
In 1833 Moshesh invited the missionaries of the Société des Missions
Evangéliques of Paris to settle in his country, and from that day until
his death proved their firm friend. A few years later, in 1836-1837,
large parties of emigrant Boers settled north of the Orange, and before
long disputes arose between them and Moshesh, who claimed a great part
of the land on which the white farmers had settled. The Basuto acquired
an unenviable notoriety as a race of bold cattle lifters and raiders,
and the emigrant Boers found them extremely troublesome neighbours. At
the same time, if the Basuto were eager for cattle, the Boers were eager
for land; and their encroachments on the territories of the Basuto led
to a proclamation in 1842 from Sir George Napier, the then governor of
Cape Colony, forbidding further encroachments on Basutoland. In 1843 a
treaty was signed with Moshesh on the lines of that already arranged
with Waterboer, the Griqua chief (see GRIQUALAND), creating Basutoland a
native state under British protection.


  Annexation to Great Britain.

To the quarrels between Basuto and Boers were added interminable
disputes between the Basuto and other Bechuana tribes, which continued
unabated after the proclamation of British sovereignty over the Orange
river regions by Sir Harry Smith in 1848. In 1849, however, Moshesh was
unwillingly induced by Sir Harry to surrender his claims to part of the
territory recognized as his by the Napier treaty. The British continued
to intervene in the inter-tribal disputes, and in 1851 Major H.D. Warden
led against the Basuto a commando composed of British soldiers, farmers
and a native contingent. This commando was defeated at Viervoet, near
Thaba Nchu, by the Basuto, who thereafter raided and plundered the
natives opposed to them and the farmers who had helped the British.
Attempts were made to come to terms with Moshesh and the justice of many
of his complaints was admitted. The efforts at accommodation failed, and
in 1852 General Sir George Cathcart, who had succeeded Sir Harry Smith
as governor of Cape Colony, decided to take strong measures with the
tribe, and proceeded with three small divisions of troops against
Moshesh. The expedition was by no means a success, but Moshesh, with
that peculiar statecraft for which he was famous, saw that he could not
hope permanently to hold out against the British troops, and followed up
his successful skirmishes with General Cathcart by writing him a letter,
in which he said: "As the object for which you have come is to have a
compensation for Boers, I beg you will be satisfied with what you have
taken. You have shown your power, you have chastised; I will try all I
can to keep my people in order in the future." General Cathcart accepted
the offer of Moshesh and peace was proclaimed, the Basuto power being
unbroken. Fourteen months later (February 1854) Great Britain renounced
sovereignty over the farmers settled beyond the Orange, and Moshesh
found himself face to face with the newly constituted Free State.
Boundary disputes at once arose but were settled (1858) by the mediation
of Sir George Grey, governor of Cape Colony. In 1865 a fresh feud
occurred between the Orange Free State Boers and the Basuto. The latter
applied to Sir Philip Wodehouse at the Cape for protection, but he
declined to interfere. The Boers proved more successful than they had
been in the past, and occupied several of the Basuto strongholds. They
also annexed a certain fertile portion of Basuto territory, and finally
terminated the strife by a treaty at Thaba Bosigo, by which Moshesh gave
up the tract of territory taken by the Boers and professed himself a
subject of the Free State. Seeing that the struggle against the Boers
was hopeless, no fewer than 2000 Basuto warriors having been killed,
Moshesh again appealed for protection to the British authorities,
saying: "Let me and my people rest and live under the large folds of the
flag of England before I am no more." In response to this request, the
British authorities decided to take over Basutoland, and a proclamation
of annexation was issued on the 12th of March 1868. At the same time the
Boer commandoes were requested to leave the country. The Free State
strongly resented the British annexation of Basutoland, but much
negotiation the treaty of Aliwal North was concluded (1869) between the
Free State and the high commissioner. This treaty defined the boundary
between the Free State and Basutoland, whereby the fertile strip of
country west of the Caledon river, known as the Conquered Territory, was
finally transferred to the Free State, and the remainder of Basutoland
was recognized as a portion of the British dominions.

Moshesh, who for nearly fifty years had led his people so skilfully and
well, died in 1870. He was one of the rare instances among the Kaffirs
of a leader endowed with intellectual gifts which placed him on a level
with Europeans, and his life-work has left a permanent mark on South
African history. In diplomacy he proved fully the equal of all--white or
black--with whom he had to deal, while he ruled with a rare combination
of vigour and moderation over the nation which he had created.


  The "gun" war.

In 1871 Basutoland was annexed to Cape Colony, the area at that time
being given as 10,300 sq. m. The turbulent Basuto warriors did not
remain quiet for any length of time, and in 1879 Moirosi, a chief
residing in the southern portion of Basutoland, openly repudiated
colonial rule. An expedition was despatched from Cape Colony and severe
fighting followed. Moirosi's stronghold was captured and the chief
himself was killed. Immediately after the war, strife occurred among the
Basuto themselves over the question of the partition of Moirosi's
territory, which had been decided on as one of the results of the war.
In 1880 the Cape government felt sufficiently strong to extend to
Basutoland the Cape Peace Preservation Act of 1878. This act provided
for the disarmament of natives, and had already been put in force
successfully among some of the Kaffir tribes on the Cape eastern
frontier. Its execution in Basutoland, however, proved an extremely
difficult task, and was never entirely accomplished. Desultory warfare
was carried on between the colonial troops and the Basuto until 1881,
when the intervention of the high commissioner, Sir Hercules Robinson
(afterward Lord Rosmead), was asked for. Peace in Basutoland was not
announced until the end of 1882. In the following year a form of
self-government was established, but was once more followed by internal
strife among the petty chieftains.


  A crown colony.

The subjection of Basutoland to the control of the Cape government had
by this time proved unsatisfactory, both to the Basuto and to Cape
Colony. The Cape government therefore offered no opposition to the
appeal made by the Basuto themselves to the imperial government to take
them over, and, moreover, Cape Colony undertook to pay towards the cost
of administration an annual contribution of £18,000. Consequently, in
1884, Basutoland ceased to be a portion of the Cape Colony and became a
British crown colony. Native laws and customs were interfered with as
little as possible and the authority of the chiefs--all members of the
Moshesh family--was maintained. Moshesh had been succeeded as paramount
chief by his son, Letsie, and he in turn was succeeded in 1891 by
Lerothodi (c. 1837-1905). These chieftains acted in concert with the
British representative in the country, to whom was given the title of
resident commissioner. The first commissioner was Sir Marshall Clarke,
to whose tact and ability the country owed much. The period of warfare
over, the Basuto turned their attention more and more to agricultural
pursuits and also showed themselves very receptive of missionary
influence. Trade increased, and in 1891 Basutoland was admitted to the
customs union, which already existed between Orange Free State, Cape
Colony and British Bechuanaland. When Lord (then Sir Alfred) Milner
visited Basutoland in 1898, on his way to Bloemfontein, he was received
by 15,000 mounted Basuto. The chiefs also attended a large meeting at
Maseru, and gave expression to their gratitude for the beneficent
character of Queen Victoria's rule and protection. On the outbreak of
the Boer War in 1899, these same chiefs, at a great meeting held in the
presence of the resident commissioner, gave a further protestation of
their loyalty to Her Majesty. They remained passive throughout the War
and the neutrality of the country was respected by both armies. One
chief alone sought to take advantage of the situation by disloyal
action, and his offence was met by a year's imprisonment. The conversion
of Basutoland into a crown colony contributed alike to the prosperity of
the Basuto, the security of the property of neighbouring colonists and a
peaceful condition among the natives of South Africa generally. In
pursuance of the policy of encouraging the self-governing powers of the
Basuto, a national council was instituted and held its first sitting in
July 1903. In August 1905 the paramount chief Lerothodi died. In early
life he had distinguished himself in the wars with the Boers, and in
1880 he took an active part in the revolt against the Cape government.
Since 1884 he had been a loyal supporter of the imperial authorities,
being unwavering in his adherence in critical times. Fearless and
masterful he also possessed high diplomatic gifts, and though on
occasion arbitrary and passionate he was neither revengeful nor cruel.
On the 19th of September following Lerothodi's death, the national
council, with the concurrence of the imperial government, elected his
son Letsie as paramount chief. The completion in October 1905 of a
railway putting Maseru in connexion with the South African railway
system proved a great boon to the community. During the rebellion of the
natives in Natal and Zululand in 1906 the Basuto remained perfectly
quiet.

  AUTHORITIES.--_The Basutos_ (2 vols., London, 1909), a standard
  history, and "Basutoland and the Basutos" in _Jnl. Ryl. Col. Inst._
  1901, both by Sir G. Lagden, resident-commissioner, 1893-1901; E.
  Jacottet, "Moeurs, coutumes et superstitions des Ba-Souts," in _Bull.
  Soc. neuchâteloise Géog._, vol. ix. pp. 107-151, 1897; G.M. Theal,
  _Basutoland Records_ (Cape Town, 1883); E. Casalis, _Les Bassutos_
  (Paris, 1859), a description of exploration, manners and customs, the
  result of twenty-three years' residence in the country; Minnie Martin,
  _Basutoland: its Legends and Customs_ (London, 1903); Mrs F.A. Barkly,
  _Among Boers and Basutos_ (new ed., London, 1897), a record, chiefly,
  of the Gun War of 1880-1882; C.W. Mackintosh, _Coillard of the
  Zambesi_ (London, 1907). For geology consult E. Cohen,
  "Geognostisch-petrographische Skizzen aus Sud-Afrika," _Neues Jahrb.
  f. Min._, 1874, and _N. Jahrb. Beil._, Bd. v., 1887; D. Draper, "Notes
  on the Geology of South-eastern Africa," _Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc._,
  vol. 1., 1894; Hatch-Corstorphine. _The Geology of South Africa_
  (London, 1905). For current information see the annual report on
  Basutoland (Colonial Office, London). Many books dealing with South
  Africa generally have chapters relating to Basutoland, e.g. A.P.
  Hillier, _South African Studies_ (London, 1900); James Bryce,
  _Impressions of South Africa_ (3rd ed., London, 1899). Consult also
  Theal's _History of South Africa_ (1908-9 ed.).
       (F. R. C.; A. P. H.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Report by resident-commissioner H.C. Sloley, for 1902-1903.



BAT,[1] a name for any member of the zoological order Chiroptera (q.v.).
Bats are insectivorous animals modified for flight, with slight powers
of progression on the ground; the patagium or "flying-membrane" of some
squirrels and of _Galeopithecus_ (q.v.) probably indicates the way in
which the modification was effected. They are distributed throughout the
world, but are most abundant in the tropics and the warmer parts of the
temperate zones; within these limits the largest forms occur. There is
great variation in size; the Malay "flying-fox" (_Pteropus edulis_)
measures about a foot in the head and body, and has a wing-spread of 5
ft.; while in the smaller forms the head and body may be only about 2
in., and the wing-spread no more than a foot. The coloration is
generally sombre, but to this there are exceptions; the fruit-bats are
brownish yellow or russet on the under surface; two South American
species are white; Blainville's chin-leafed bat is bright orange; and
the Indian painted bat (_Cerivoula picta_) with its deep orange dress,
spotted with black on the wing-membranes, has reminded observers of a
large butterfly. In habits bats are social, nocturnal and crepuscular;
the insect-eating species feed on the wing, in winter in the temperate
regions they migrate to a warmer climate, or hibernate, as do the
British bats. The sense-organs are highly developed; the wing-membranes
are exceedingly sensitive; the nose-leaf is also an organ of perception,
and the external ear is specially modified to receive sound-waves. Most
bats are insect-eaters, but the tropical "flying foxes" or fox-bats of
the Old World live on fruit; some are blood-suckers, and two feed on
small fish. Twelve species are British, among which are the pipistrelle
(_Pipistrellus pygmaeus_, or _P. pipistrellus_), the long-eared bat
(_Plecotus auritus_), the noctule (_Pipistrellus [Pterygistes]
noctulus_) the greater and lesser horseshoe bats (_Rhinolophus
ferrum-equinum_ and _R. hipposiderus_), &c. (See FLYING-FOX and
VAMPIRE.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] M. E. _bakke_, the change to "bat" having apparently been
    influenced by Lat. _batta_, _blatta_, moth. The word is thus distinct
    from the other common term "bat," the implement for striking, which
    is probably connected with Fr. _battre_, though a Celtic or simply
    onomatopoetic origin has been suggested.



BATAC, a town of the province of Ilocos Norte, Luzon, Philippine
Islands, 10 m. S. of Laoag, the capital. Pop. (1903) 19,524;
subsequently, in October 1903, the town of Banna (pop. 4015) was
annexed. Cacao, tobacco, cotton, rice and indigo are grown in the
neighbouring country, and the town has a considerable trade in these and
other commodities; it also manufactures sugar, fans and woven fabrics.
Batac was founded in 1587. It is the birthplace and home of Archbishop
Gregorio Aglipay (b. 1860), the founder of an important sect of Filipino
Independent Catholics.



BATALA, a town of British India, in the Gurdaspur district of the
Punjab, with a station on a branch of the North-Western railway, 24 m.
from Amritsar. Pop. (1901) 27,365. It is an important centre of trade,
with manufactures of cotton and silk goods, shawls, brass-ware, soap and
leather. There are two mission schools.



BATALHA (i.e. battle), a town of Portugal, in the district of Leiria,
formerly included in the province of Estremadura; 8 m. S. of Leiria.
Pop. (1900) 3858. Batalha, which occupies the site of the medieval
Canoeira, is chiefly interesting for its great Dominican monastery of
Santa Maria da Victoria ("St Mary of the Victory"), also known as
Batalha. Both town and monastery owe their names to the battle fought on
the plain between Canoeira and Aljubarrota, 9 m. S. W., in which John I.
of Portugal defeated John I. of Castile in 1385 and secured the
independence of his kingdom. The monastery is built of golden-brown
limestone, resembling marble, and richly sculptured. In size and beauty
it excels all the other buildings of Portugal in which Gothic and
Moorish architecture are combined. Its ground-plan may be roughly
described as a parallelogram, measuring about 500 ft. from north to
south, and 445 from east to west; with the circular annexe of the royal
mausoleum on the east, and the Founder's chapel at the south-western
corner. In the centre is the royal cloister, which is flanked by the
refectory, now a museum, on the west; and by the chapter-house, on the
east. Two smaller cloisters, named respectively after Alphonso V. and
John III., form the northern division of the parallelogram; its southern
division is the Gothic church. The Founder's chapel contains the tomb of
John I. (d. 1433) and Philippa of Lancaster (d. 1416), his queen, with
the tomb of Prince Henry the Navigator (d. 1460). Like the royal
mausoleum, where several later monarchs are buried, it is remarkable
for the intricacy and exquisite finish of its carved stonework. The
monastery was probably founded in 1388. Plans and masons were procured
from England by Queen Philippa, and the work was entrusted to A.
Domingues, a native architect, and Huetor Houguet, an Irishman. Only the
royal cloister, church and Founder's chapel were included in the
original design; and all three show signs of English influence. Various
additions were made up to 1551, beginning with the royal mausoleum and
ending with the cloister of John III. Considerable damage was inflicted
by the earthquake of 1755; and in 1810 the monastery was sacked by the
French. It was secularized in 1834 and declared a national monument in
1840. Thenceforward it was gradually restored.



BATANGAS, a town, port of entry, and the capital of the province of
Batangas, Luzon, Philippine Islands, near the Batangas river, about 1 m.
from its mouth on the E. coast of the Gulf of Batangas, and about 65 m.
S. by E. of Manila. Pop. (1903) 33,131. The United States government has
established a military post here, and the town has numerous fine public
buildings and private residences. It is the most important port of a
province noted for the fertility of its soil and the industry of its
inhabitants. Its exports, which are large, include rice, coffee of
excellent quality, cacao, sugar, Indian corn, horses and cattle. The
horses of Batangas are unusually strong and active. Cotton is produced,
and is woven into fabrics by the women. The language is Tagalog.



BATARNAY, IMBERT DE (? 1438-1523), French statesman, was born of an old
but obscure family in Dauphiné, about the year 1438. In consequence of a
chance circumstance he entered into relations with the dauphin Louis, at
that time (1455) in arms against the king his father; he attached
himself to the prince, and followed him on his retreat into Burgundy.
From the beginning of his reign Louis XI. loaded Batarnay with favours:
he married him to a rich heiress, Georgette de Montchenu, lady of Le
Bouchage; besides making him captain of Mont Saint Michel and giving him
valuable estates, with, later, the titles of counsellor and chamberlain
to the king. In 1469 Batarnay was sent to keep watch upon the duke of
Guienne's intrigues, which began to appear dangerous. As
lieutenant-general in Roussillon in 1475 he protected the countryside
against the wrath of the king, who wished to repress with cruel severity
a rebellion of the inhabitants. He was present at the interview between
Louis XI. and Edward IV. of England at Picquigny, and was afterwards
employed on negotiations with the duke of Burgundy. In accordance with
the recommendations of his father, Charles VIII. kept the lord of Le
Bouchage in his confidential service. During the differences that arose
in 1485 between the regent, Anne of Beaujeu, and the dukes of Orleans,
Brittany and Alençon, Imbert de Batarnay kept the inhabitants of Orleans
faithful to the king. He proved his skill in the negotiations concerning
the marquisate of Saluzzo and the town of Genoa. During the Naples
expedition he was in charge of the dauphin, Charles Orland, who died in
1495. He treated with Maximilian of Austria to prevent him from entering
Picardy during the war with Naples, and then proceeded to Castile to
claim promised support. Under Louis XII. he took part in the expedition
against the Genoese republic in 1507. Francis I. employed him to
negotiate the proposed marriage of Charles of Austria with Renée of
France, daughter of Louis XII., and appointed him governor to the
dauphin Francis in 1518. He died on the 12th of May 1523.

  See also B. de Mandrot's _Ymbert de Batarnay_ (Paris, 1886).
       (M. P.*)



BATAVIA, a residency of the island of Java, Dutch East Indies, bounded
E., S. and W. by the residencies of Krawana, Preanger and Bantam, and N.
by the Java Sea. It also comprises a number of small islands in the Java
Sea, including the Thousand Islands group, with a total area of 24 sq.
m. The population in 1898 was 1,313,383, including 12,434 Europeans,
82,510 Chinese, 3426 Arabs and other Asiatic foreigners. The natives
belong to a Sundanese group, but in the north contain a large admixture
of Malays. The northern half of the province is flat, and even marshy
along the coast, and consists of a broad band of alluvium formed by the
series of parallel rivers descending from the south. The southern half
on the other hand is covered by a mountain range whose chief peaks are
situated along the southern border, namely Halimun mountain, the
volcanoes Salak, Pangerango and Gede, and the Megamendung. The soil is
fertile, and whereas rice is mainly grown on the lowlands the highlands
are especially suitable for the cultivation of coffee, tea, tobacco,
cinchona and vanilla. Extensive cocoanut plantations are also found in
the plains, and market-gardening is practised in the neighbourhood of
the towns. Sugar was formerly cultivated. The government of the
residency of Batavia differs from that of the other residencies in
having no native regencies, the lands being privately owned. The
divisions of the residency are Batavia, town and surroundings,
Tangerang, Meester Cornelis and Buitenzorg, the first being directly
governed by a resident and the remainder by assistant residents. As
early as the second half of the 17th century the Dutch East India
Company began the practice of selling portions of the land to private
persons, and of granting other portions as the reward of good services.
A large strip of hill-country, almost corresponding to the present
southern or Buitenzorg division of the residency, was appropriated by
the governor-general in 1745 and attached to that office. In 1808,
however, Marshal Daendels disposed of this property to various
purchasers, including the Dutch government, and thus the whole of the
residency gradually passed into private hands. Hence the administration
of the residency is largely confined to police duties. The principal
towns are Batavia (q.v.), which is the capital of the residency, as well
as the seat of government of the whole Dutch East Indies, Meester
Cornelis, Tangerang, Bekasi and Buitenzorg (q.v.). Tangerang and Bekasi
are important centres of trade. The Buitenzorg hill-country is much
visited on account of its beauty, and cool and healthy climate. Gadok is
a health resort 6 m. south-east of Buitenzorg.



BATAVIA, a city and seaport on the north coast of the island of Java,
and the capital of all the Dutch settlements in the East. The population
in 1880 was 96,957; in 1898, 115,567; including 9423 Europeans, 26,433
Chinese, 2828 Arabs and 132 other Asiatic foreigners. It is situated on
both sides of the river Jacatra or Jilivong, in a swampy plain at the
head of a capacious bay. The streets are for the most part straight and
regular, and many of them have a breadth of from 100 to 200 ft. In
several cases there is a canal in the centre lined with stone, and
protected by low parapets or banks, while almost every street and square
is fringed with trees. The old town has greatly changed from its
condition in the 18th century. It was then surrounded by strong
fortifications, and contained a number of important buildings, such as
the town-house (built in 1652 and restored in 1706), the exchange, the
infirmary and orphan asylum, and the European churches. But the ramparts
were long ago demolished; only natives, Malays, Arabs and Chinese live
here, and the great European houses have either fallen into decay or
been converted into magazines and warehouses. The European inhabitants
live principally in the new town, which was gradually formed by the
integration of Weltevreden (_Well-content_), Molenvliet (_Mill-stream_),
Rijswijk (_Rice-town_), Noordwijk (_North-town_), Koningsplein (_King's
square_), and other suburban villages or stations. The situation of this
modern part is higher and healthier. The imitation of Dutch arrangements
has been avoided, and the natural advantages of the situation and
climate have been turned to account. The houses, generally of a single
storey or two at most, are frequently separated from each other by rows
of trees. Batavia contains numerous buildings connected with the civil
and military organisation of the government. The governor-general's
palace and the government buildings are the most important of these; in
the district of Weltevreden are also the barracks, and the artillery
school, as well as the military and civil hospital, and not far off is
the Frederik-Hendrik citadel built in 1837. Farther inland, at Meester
Cornelis, are barracks and a school for under-officers. The
Koningsplein is a large open square surrounded by mansions of the
wealthier classes. Noordwijk is principally inhabited by lesser
merchants and subordinate officials. There is an orphan asylum in the
district of Parapatna. Batavia has various educational and scientific
institutions of note. In 1851 the government founded a medical school
for Javanese, and in 1860 the "Gymnasium William III." in which a
comprehensive education is bestowed. A society of arts and sciences
(which possesses an excellent museum) was established in 1778, a royal
physical society in 1850, and a society for the promotion of industry
and agriculture in 1853. In addition to the _Transactions_ of these
societies--many of which contain valuable contributions to their
respective departments in their relation to the East Indies--a
considerable number of publications are issued in Batavia. Among
miscellaneous buildings of importance may be mentioned the public hall
known as the _Harmonie_, the theatre, club-house and several fine
hotels.

The population of Batavia is varied, the Dutch residents being a
comparatively small class, and greatly intermixed with Portuguese and
Malays. Here are found members of the different Indian nations,
originally slaves; Arabs, who are principally engaged in navigation, but
also trade in gold and precious stones; Javanese, who are cultivators;
and Malays, chiefly boatmen and sailors, and adherents of Mahommedanism.
The Chinese are both numerous and industrious. They were long greatly
oppressed by the Dutch government, and in 1740 they were massacred to
the number of 12,000.

Batavia Bay is rendered secure by a number of islands at its mouth, but
grows very shallow towards the shore. The construction of the new
harbour at Tanjong Priok, to the east of the old one, was therefore of
the first importance. The works, begun in 1877 and completed in 1886,
connect the town with Tanjong ("cape") Priok by a canal, and include an
outer port formed by two breakwaters, 6072 ft. long, with a width at
entrance of 408 ft. and a depth of 27 ft. throughout. The inner port has
3282 ft. of quayage; its length is 3609 ft., breadth 573 ft. and depth
24 ft. There is also a coal dock, and the port has railway and roadway
connexion with Batavia. The river Jilivong is navigable 2 m. inland for
vessels of 30 or 40 tons, but the entrance is narrow, and requires
continual attention to keep it open.

The exports from Batavia to the other islands of the archipelago, and to
the ports in the Malay Peninsula, are rice, sago, coffee, sugar, salt,
oil, tobacco, teak timber and planks, Java cloths, brass wares, &c., and
European, Indian and Chinese goods. The produce of the Eastern Islands
is also collected at its ports for re-exportation to India, China and
Europe--namely, gold-dust, diamonds, camphor, benzoin and other drugs;
edible bird-nests, trepang, rattans, beeswax, tortoise-shell, and dyeing
woods from Borneo and Sumatra; tin from Banka; spices from the Moluccas;
fine cloths from Celebes and Bali; and pepper from Sumatra. From Bengal
are imported opium, drugs and cloths; from China, teas, raw silk, silk
piece-goods, coarse China wares, paper, and innumerable smaller articles
for the Chinese settlers. The tonnage of vessels clearing from Batavia
to countries beyond the archipelago had increased from 879,000 tons in
1887 to nearly 1,500,000 tons by the end of the century. The old and new
towns are connected by steam tramways. The Batavia-Buitenzorg railway
passes the new town, thus connecting it with the main railway which
crosses the island from west to east.

Almost the only manufactures of any importance are the distillation of
arrack, which is principally carried on by Chinese, the burning of lime
and bricks, and the making of pottery. The principal establishment for
monetary transactions is the Java Bank, established in 1828 with a
capital of £500,000.

Batavia owes its origin to the Dutch governor-general Pieter Both, who
in 1610 established a factory at Jacatra (which had been built on the
ruins of the old Javanese town of Sunda Calappa), and to his successor,
Jan Pieters Coen, who in 1619 founded in its stead the present city,
which soon acquired a flourishing trade and increased in importance. In
1699 Batavia was visited by a terrible earthquake, and the streams were
choked by the mud from the volcano of Gunong Salak; they overflowed the
surrounding country and made it a swamp, by which the climate was so
affected that the city became notorious for its unhealthiness, and was
in great danger of being altogether abandoned. In the twenty-two years
from 1730 to 1752, 1,100,000 deaths are said to have been recorded.
General Daendels, who was governor from 1808 to 1811, caused the
ramparts of the town to be demolished, and began to form the nucleus of
a new city at Weltevreden. By 1816 nearly all the Europeans had left the
old town. In 1811 a British armament was sent against the Dutch
settlements in Java, which had been incorporated by France, and to this
force Batavia surrendered on the 8th of August. It was restored,
however, to the Dutch by the treaty of 1814.



BATAVIA, a village and the county-seat of Genesee county, New York,
U.S.A., about 36 m. N.E. of Buffalo, on the Tonawanda Creek. Pop. (1890)
7221; (1900) 9180, of whom 1527 were foreign-born; (1910), 11,613.
Batavia is served by the New York Central & Hudson River, the Erie, and
the Lehigh Valley railways. It is the seat of the New York State School
for the Blind, and of St Joseph's Academy (Roman Catholic), and has a
historical museum, housed in the Old Holland Land Office (1804),
containing a large collection of relics of the early days of New York,
and a memorial library erected in 1889 in memory of a son by Mary E.
Richmond, the widow of Dean Richmond; the building contained in 1908
more than 14,000 volumes. The public schools are excellent; in them in
1898 Superintendent John Kennedy (b. 1846) introduced the method of
individual instruction now known as the "Batavia scheme," under which in
rooms of more than fifty pupils there is, besides the class teacher, an
"individual" teacher who helps backward children in their studies. Among
Batavia's manufactures are harvesters, ploughs, threshers and other
agricultural implements, firearms, rubber tires, shoes, shell goods,
paper-boxes and inside woodwork. In 1905 the city's factory products
were valued at $3,589,406, an increase of 39.5% over their value in
1900. Batavia was laid out in 1801 by Joseph Ellicott (1760-1826), the
engineer who had been engaged in surveying the land known as the
"Holland Purchase," of which Batavia was a part. The village was
incorporated in 1823. Here lived William Morgan, whose supposed murder
(1826) by members of the Masonic order led to the organization of the
Anti-Masonic party. Batavia was the home during his last years of Dean
Richmond (1804-1866), a capitalist, a successful shipper and wholesaler
of farm produce, vice-president (1853-1864) and president (1864-1866) of
the New York Central railway, and a prominent leader of the Democratic
party in New York state.

  See O. Turner, _History of the Holland Purchase_ (Buffalo, 1850).



BATEMAN, HEZEKIAH LINTHICUM (1812-1875), American actor and manager, was
born in Baltimore, Maryland, on the 6th of December 1812. He was
intended for an engineer, but in 1832 became an actor, playing with
Ellen Tree (afterwards Mrs Charles Kean) in juvenile leads. In 1855 he
was manager of the St Louis theatre for a few years and in 1859 moved to
New York. In 1866 he was manager for his daughter Kate, and in 1871
returned to London, where he took the Lyceum theatre. Here he engaged
Henry Irving, presenting him first in _The Bells_, with great success.
He died on the 22nd of March 1875.

His wife, SIDNEY FRANCES (1823-1881), daughter of Joseph Cowell, an
English actor who had settled in America, was also an actress and the
author of several popular plays, in one of which, _Self_ (1857), she and
her husband made a great success. After her husband's death Mrs Bateman
continued to manage the Lyceum till 1875. She later took the Sadler's
Wells theatre, which she managed until her death on the 13th of January
1881. She was the first to bring to England an entire American company
with an American play, Joaquin Miller's _The Danites_.

Mr and Mrs Bateman had eight children, three of the four daughters being
educated for the stage. The two oldest, Kate Josephine (b. 1842), and
Ellen (b. 1845), known as the "Bateman children," began their theatrical
career at an early age. In 1862 Kate played in New York as Juliet and
Lady Macbeth, and in 1863 had a great success in London as Leah in
Augustin Daly's adaptation of Mosenthal's _Deborah_. In 1866 she married
George Crowe, but returned to the stage in 1868, playing later as Lady
Macbeth with Henry Irving, and in 1875 in the title-part of Tennyson's
_Queen Mary_. When her mother opened the Sadler's Wells theatre in 1879
Miss Bateman appeared as Helen Macgregor in _Rob Roy_, and in 1881 as
Margaret Field in Henry Arthur Jones' _His Wife_. Her daughter, Sidney
Crowe (b. 1871), also became an actress. Virginia Bateman (b. 1854), a
younger sister of Kate, born in Cincinnati, Ohio, went on the stage as a
child, and first appeared in London in the title-part of her mother's
play, _Fanchette_, in 1871. She created a number of important parts
during several seasons at the Lyceum and elsewhere. She married Edward
Compton the actor. Another sister was Isabel (b. 1854), well known on
the London stage.



BATEMENT LIGHTS, in architecture the lights in the upper part of a
perpendicular window, abated, or only half the width of those below.



BATES, HARRY (1850-1899), British sculptor, was born at Stevenage,
Herts, on the 26th of April 1850. He began his career as a carver's
assistant, and before beginning the regular study of plastic art he
passed through a long apprenticeship in architectural decoration. In
1879 he came to London and entered the Lambeth School of Art, studying
under Jules Dalou and Rodin, and winning a silver medal in the national
competition at South Kensington. In 1881 he was admitted to the Royal
Academy schools, where in 1883 he won the gold medal and the travelling
scholarship of £200 with his relief of "Socrates teaching the People in
the Agora," which showed grace of line and harmony of composition. He
then went to Paris and studied under Rodin. A head and three small
bronze panels (the "Odyssey,") executed by Bates in Paris, were
exhibited at the Royal Academy, and selected for purchase by the
Chantrey trustees; but the selection had to be cancelled because they
had not been modelled in England. His "Aeneas" (1885), "Homer" (1886),
three "Psyche" panels and "Rhodope" (1887) all showed marked advance in
form and dignity; and in 1892, after the exhibition of his vigorously
designed "Hounds in Leash," Bates was elected A.R.A. This and his
"Pandora," in marble and ivory, which was bought in the same year for
the Chantrey Bequest, are now in the Tate Gallery. The portrait-busts of
Harry Bates are good pieces of realism--strong, yet delicate in
technique, and excellent in character. His statues have a
picturesqueness in which the refinement of the sculptor is always felt.
Among the chief of these are the fanciful "Maharaja of Mysore," somewhat
overladen with ornament, and the colossal equestrian statue of Lord
Roberts (1896) upon its important pedestal, girdled with a frieze of
figures, now set up in Calcutta, and a statue of Queen Victoria for
Dundee. But perhaps his masterpiece, showing the sculptor's delicate
fancy and skill in composition, was an allegorical presentment of "Love
and Life"--a winged male figure in bronze, with a female figure in ivory
being crowned by the male. Bates died in London on the 30th of January
1899, his premature death robbing English plastic art of its most
promising representative at the time. (See SCULPTURE.)



BATES, HENRY WALTER (1825-1892), English naturalist and explorer, was
born at Leicester on the 8th of February 1825. His father, a
manufacturing hosier, intended him for business, and for a time the son
yielded to his wishes, escaping as often as he could into the
neighbouring country to gratify his love of botany and entomology. In
1844 he met a congenial spirit in Alfred Russel Wallace, and the result
was discussion and execution of a plan to explore some then little-known
region of the globe. The banks of the Amazons was the district chosen,
and in April 1848 the two friends sailed in a trader for Pará. They had
little or no money, but hoped to meet their expenses by the sale of
duplicate specimens. After two years Bates and Wallace agreed to collect
independently, Wallace taking the Rio Negro and the upper waters of the
Orinoco, while Bates continued his route up the great river for 1400 m.
He remained in the country eleven years, during which time he collected
no fewer than 8000 species of insects new to science. His long residence
in the tropics, with the privations which it entailed, undermined his
health. Nor had the exile from home the compensation of freeing him from
financial cares, which hung heavy on him till he had the good fortune to
be appointed in 1864 assistant-secretary of the Royal Geographical
Society, a post which, to the inestimable gain of the society, and the
advantage of a succession of explorers, to whom he was alike Nestor and
Mentor, he retained till his death on the 16th of February 1892. Bates
is best known as the auther of one of the most delightful books of
travel in the English language, _The Naturalist on the Amazons_ (1863),
the writing of which, as the correspondence between the two has shown,
was due to Charles Darwin's persistent urgency. "Bates," wrote Darwin to
Sir Charles Lyell, "is second only to Humboldt in describing a tropical
forest." But his most memorable contribution to biological science, and
more especially to that branch of it which deals with the agencies of
modification of organisms, was his paper on the "Insect Fauna of the
Amazon Valley," read before the Linnaean Society in 1861. He therein, as
Darwin testified, clearly stated and solved the problem of "mimicry," or
the superficial resemblances between totally different species and the
likeness between an animal and its surroundings, whereby it evades its
foes or conceals itself from its prey. Bates's other contributions to
the literature of science and travel were sparse and fugitive, but he
edited for several years a periodical of _Illustrated Travels_. A man of
varied tastes, he devoted the larger part of his leisure to entomology,
notably to the classification of coleoptera. Of these he left an
extensive and unique collection, which, fortunately for science, was
purchased intact by René Oberthur of Rennes.



BATES, JOHN. A famous case in English constitutional history, tried
before the court of exchequer in November 1606, arose out of the refusal
of a merchant of the Levant Company, John Bates, to pay an extra duty of
5s. per cwt. on imported currants levied by the sole authority of the
crown in addition to the 2s. 6d. granted by the Statute of Tonnage and
Poundage, on the ground that such an imposition was illegal without the
sanction of parliament. The unanimous decision of the four barons of the
exchequer in favour of the crown threatened to establish a precedent
which, in view of the rapidly increasing foreign trade, would have made
the king independent of parliament. The judgments of Chief Baron Fleming
and Baron Clark are preserved. The first declares that "the king's power
is double, ordinary and absolute, and they have several laws and ends.
That of the ordinary is for the profit of particular subjects, for the
execution of civil justice ... in the ordinary courts, and by the
civilians is nominated _jus privatum_, and with us common law; and these
laws cannot be changed without parliament.... The absolute power of the
king is not that which is converted or executed to private uses to the
benefit of particular persons, but is only that which is applied to the
general benefit of the people and is _salus populi_; and this power is
not guided by the rules which direct only at the common law, and is most
properly named policy or government; and as the constitution of this
body varieth with the time, so varieth this absolute law, according to
the wisdom of the king, for the common good; and these being general
rules, and true as they are, all things done within these rules are
lawful. The matter in question is material matter of state, and ought to
be ruled by the rules of policy, and if it be so, the king hath done
well to execute his extraordinary power. All customs (i.e. duties levied
at the ports), be they old or new, are no other but the effects and
issues of trades and commerce with foreign nations; but all commerce and
affairs with foreigners, all wars and peace, all acceptance and
admitting for foreign current coin, all parties and treaties whatsoever
are made by the absolute power of the king; and he who hath power of
causes hath power also of effects." Baron Clark, in his judgment,
concurred, declaring that the seaports were the king's ports, and that,
since foreign merchants were admitted to them only by leave of the
crown, the crown possessed also the right of fixing the conditions under
which they should be admitted, including the imposition of a money
payment. Incidentally, Baron Clark, in reply to the argument that the
king's right to levy impositions was limited by the statute of
1370-1371, advanced a principle still more dangerous to constitutional
liberty. "The statute of the 45 Edward III. cap. 4," he said, "which
hath been so much urged, that no new imposition shall be imposed upon
wool-fells, wool or leather, but only the custom and subsidy granted to
the king--this extends only to the king himself and shall not bind his
successors, for it is a principal part of the crown of England, which
the king cannot diminish."

  See _State Trials_ (ed. 1779), xi. pp. 30-32; excerpts in G.W.
  Prothero, _Statutes and Constitutional Documents_ (Clarendon Press,
  1894); G.B. Adams and H. Morse Stephens, _Select Documents of Eng.
  Const. Hist._ (New York, 1901); cf. T.P. Taswell-Langmead, _Eng.
  Const. Hist._ (London, 1905), p. 393.     (W. A. P.)



BATES, JOSHUA (1788-1864), American financier, was born in Weymouth,
Massachusetts, on the 10th of October 1788, of an old Massachusetts
family prominent in colonial affairs. After several winters' schooling
in his native town, he entered the counting-house of William Gray & Son
in Boston. In 1809 he began business on his own account, but failed
during the War of 1812 and again became associated with the Grays, then
the largest shipowners in America, by whom a few years later he was sent
to London in charge of their European business. There he came into
relations with the Barings, and in 1826 formed a partnership with John,
a son of Sir Thomas Baring. Two years later both partners were admitted
to the firm of Baring Brothers & Company, of which Bates eventually
became senior partner, occupying in consequence an influential position
in the British financial world. In 1853-1854 he acted with rare
impartiality and justice as umpire of the international commission
appointed to settle claims growing out of the War of 1812. In 1852-1855
he contributed $100,000 in books and in cash for a public library in
Boston, the money to be invested and the annual income to be applied to
the purchase of books. Upon his death the "upper hall," or main
reference-room (opened in 1861) in the building erected in 1858 by the
order of the library trustees, was named Bates Hall; and upon the
opening of the new building in 1895 this name was transferred to its
principal reading-room, one of the finest library halls in the world.
During the Civil War Bates's sympathies were strongly with the Union,
and besides aiding the United States government fiscal agents in various
ways, he used his influence to prevent the raising of loans for the
Confederacy. He died in London on the 24th of September 1864.

  See _Memorial of Joshua Bates_ (Boston, 1865).



BATES, WILLIAM (1625-1699), English nonconformist divine, was born in
London in November 1625. He was admitted to Emmanuel College, Cambridge,
and removed thence to King's College in 1644. Of Presbyterian belief, he
held the rich living of St Dunstan's-in-the-West, London. He was one of
the commissioners at the conference in the Savoy, for reviewing the
public liturgy, and was concerned in drawing up the exceptions to the
Book of Common Prayer. Notwithstanding this he was appointed chaplain to
Charles II., and was offered the deanery of Lichfield and Coventry, but
he came out in 1662 as one of the 2000 ejected ministers. Bates was of
an amiable character, and enjoyed the friendship of the lord-keeper
Bridgeman, the lord-chancellor Finch, the earl of Nottingham and
Archbishop Tillotson. With other moderate churchmen he made several
efforts towards a comprehensive settlement, but the bishops were
uncompromising. He addressed William and Mary on their accession in
behalf of the dissenters. After some years of pastoral service at
Hackney he died there on the 14th of July 1699. Bates published _Select
Lives of Illustrious and Pious Persons_ in Latin; and after his death
all his works, except this, were printed in 1 vol. fol.; again in 1723;
and in 4 vols. 8vo in 1815. They treat of practical theology and include
_Considerations on the Existence of God and the Immortality of the Soul_
(1676), _Four Last Things_ (1691), _Spiritual Perfection_ (1699).



BATESON (BATSON or BETSON), THOMAS, an English writer of madrigals in
the early 17th century. He is said to have been organist of Chester
cathedral in 1599, and is believed to have been the first musical
graduate of Trinity College, Dublin. He is known to have written church
music, but his fame rests on his madrigals, which give him an important
place among Elizabethan composers. He published a set of madrigals in
1604 and a second set in 1618, and both collections have been reprinted
in recent years. He died in 1630.



BATH, THOMAS THYNNE, 1ST MARQUESS OF (1734-1796), English politician,
was the elder son of Thomas Thynne, 2nd Viscount Weymouth (1710-1751),
and the great-grandnephew of Thomas Thynne (c. 1640-1714), the friend of
Bishop Ken, who was created Baron Thynne and Viscount Weymouth in 1682.
His mother was Louisa (d. 1736), daughter of John Carteret, 1st Earl
Granville, and a descendant of the family of Granville who held the
earldom of Bath from 1661 to 1711. The Thynnes are descended from Sir
John Thynne, the builder of Longleat, the splendid seat of the family in
Wiltshire. Sir John, owed his wealth and position to the favour of his
master, the protector Somerset; he was comptroller of the household of
the princess Elizabeth, and was a person of some importance after the
princess became queen. He died in April 1580. Another famous member of
this family was Thomas Thynne (1648-1682), called on account of his
wealth "Tom of Ten Thousand." He is celebrated by Dryden as Issachar in
_Absalom and Achitophel_, and was murdered in London by some Swedes in
February 1682.

Born on the 13th of September 1734, Thomas Thynne succeeded, his father
as 3rd Viscount Weymouth in January 1751, and was lord-lieutenant of
Ireland for a short time during 1765, although he never visited that
country. Having, however, become prominent in English politics he was
appointed secretary of state for the northern department in January
1768; he acted with great promptitude during the unrest caused by John
Wilkes and the Middlesex election of 1768. He was then attacked and
libelled by Wilkes, who was consequently expelled from the House of
Commons. Before the close of 1768 he was transferred, from the northern
to the southern department, but he resigned in December 1770 in the
midst of the dispute with Spain over the possession of the Falkland
Islands. In November 1775 Weymouth returned to his former office of
secretary for the southern department, undertaking in addition the
duties attached to the northern department for a few months in 1779, but
he resigned both positions in the autumn of this year. In 1789 he was
created marquess of Bath, and he died on the 19th of November 1796.
Weymouth was a man of considerable ability especially as a speaker, but
according to more modern standards his habits were very coarse,
resembling those of his friend and frequent companion, Charles James
Fox. Horace Walpole refers frequently to his idleness and his
drunkenness, and in early life at least "his great fortune he had
damaged by such profuse play, that his house was often full of
bailiffs." He married Elizabeth (d. 1825), daughter of William Bentinck,
2nd duke of Portland, by whom he had three sons and ten daughters. His
eldest son Thomas (1765-1837) succeeded to his titles, while the two
younger ones, George (1770-1838) and John (1772-1849), succeeded in turn
to the barony of Carteret of Hawnes, which came to them from their
uncle, Henry Frederick Thynne (1735-1826). Weymouth's great-grandson,
John Alexander, 4th marquess of Bath (1831-1896), the author of
_Observations on Bulgarian affairs_ (1880), was succeeded as 5th
marquess by his son Thomas Henry (b. 1862).

  See B. Botfield, _Stemmata Botevilliana_ (1858).



BATH, WILLIAM PULTENEY, 1ST EARL OF (1684-1764), generally known by the
surname of PULTENEY, English politician, descended from an ancient
family of Leicestershire, was the son of William Pulteney by his first
wife, Mary Floyd, and was born in April 1684. The boy was sent to
Westminster school, and from it proceeded to Christ Church, Oxford,
matriculating the 31st of October 1700. At these institutions he
acquired his deep classical knowledge. On leaving Oxford he made the
usual tour on the continent. In 1705 he was brought into parliament by
Henry Guy (secretary of the treasury, 1679-1688, and June 1691 to
February 1695) for the Yorkshire borough of Hedon, and at his death on
the 23rd of February 1710 inherited an estate of £500 a year and
£40,000 in cash. This seat was held by him without a break until 1734.
Throughout the reign of Queen Anne William Pulteney played a prominent
part in the struggles of the Whigs, and on the prosecution of
Sacheverell he exerted himself with great zeal against that violent
divine. When the victorious Tories sent his friend Robert Walpole to the
Tower in 1712, Pulteney championed his cause in the House of Commons and
with the leading Whigs Visited him in his prison-chamber. He held the
post of secretary of war from 1714 to 1717 in the first ministry of
George I., and when the committee of secrecy on the Utrecht treaty was
formed in April 1715 the list included the flame of William Pulteney.
Two years later (6th of July 1716), he became one of the privy council.
When Townshend was dismissed, in April 1717, from his post of
lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and Walpole resigned his places, they were
followed in their retirement by Pulteney. The crash of the South Sea
Company restored Walpole to the highest position, but all that he
offered to Pulteney was a peerage. The offer was rejected, but in May
1723 Pulteney stooped to accept the lucrative but insignificant post of
cofferer of the household. In this obscure position he was content for
some time to await the future; but when he found himself neglected he
opposed the proposition of Walpole to discharge the debts of the civil
list, and in April 1725 was dismissed from his sinecure. From the day of
his dismissal to that of his ultimate triumph Pulteney remained in
opposition, and, although Sir Robert Walpole attempted in 1730 to
conciliate him by the offer of Townshend's place and of a peerage, all
his overtures were spurned. Pulteney's resentment was not confined to
his speeches in parliament. With Bolingbroke he set on foot in December
1726 the well-known periodical called the _Craftsman_, and in its pages
the minister was incessantly denounced for many years. Lord Hervey
published an attack on the _Craftsman_, and Pulteney, either openly or
behind the person of Amhurst, its editor, replied to the attack. Whether
the question at issue was the civil list, the excise, the income of the
prince of Wales, or the state of domestic affairs Pulteney was ready
with a pamphlet, and the minister or one of his friends came out with a
reply. For his "Proper reply to a late scurrilous libel" (_Craftsman_,
1731), an answer to "Sedition and defamation displayed," he was
challenged to a duel by Lord Hervey; for another, "An answer to one part
of an infamous libel entitled remarks on the _Craftsman's_ indication of
his two honourable patrons," he was in July 1731 struck off the roll of
privy councillors and dismissed from the commission of the peace in
several counties. In print Pulteney was inferior to Bolingbroke alone
among the antagonists of Walpole, but in parliament, from which St John
was excluded, he excelled all his comrades. When the sinking fund was
appropriated in 1733 his voice was the foremost in denunciation; when
the excise scheme in the same year was stirring popular feeling to its
lowest depths the passion of the multitude broke out in his oratory.
Through Walpole's prudent withdrawal of the latter measure the fall, of
his ministry was averted. Bolingbroke withdrew to France on the
suggestion, it is said, of Pulteney, and the opposition was weakened by
the dissensions of the leaders.

From the general election of 1734 until his elevation to the peerage
Pulteney sat for Middlesex. For some years after this election the
minister's assailants made little progress in their attack, but in 1738
the troubles with Spain supplied them with the opportunity which they
desired. Walpole long argued for peace, but he was feebly supported in
his own cabinet, and the frenzy of the people for War knew no bounds. In
an evil moment for his own reputation he consented to remain in office
and to gratify popular passion with a war against Spain. His downfall
was not long deferred. War was declared in 1739; a new parliament was
summoned in the summer of 1741, and over the divisions on the election
petitions the ministry of Walpole fell to pieces. The task of forming
the new administration was after some delay entrusted to Pulteney, who
weakly offered the post of first lord of the treasury to that harmless
politician the earl of Wilmington, and contented himself with a seat in
the cabinet and a peerage thinking that by this action he would preserve
his reputation for consistency in disdaining office and yet retain his
supremacy in the ministry. At this act popular feeling broke out into
open indignation, and from the moment of his elevation to the Upper
House Pulteney's influence dwindled to nothing. Horace Walpole asserts
that when Pulteney wished to recall his desire for a peerage it was
forced upon him through the ex-minister's advice by the king, and
another chronicler of the times records that when victor and vanquished
met in the House of Lords, the one as Lord Orford, the other as the earl
of Bath, the remark was made by the exulting Orford: "Here we are, my
lord, the two most insignificant fellows in England." On the 14th of
July 1742 Pulteney was created Baron Pulteney of Hedon, Co. York,
Viscount Pulteney of Wrington, Co. Somerset, and earl of Bath. On the
20th of February he had been restored to his rank in the privy council.
At Wilmington's death in 1743 he made application to the king for the
post of first lord of the treasury, only to find that it had been
conferred on Henry Pelham. For two days, 10th-12th February 1746, he was
at the head of a ministry, but in "48 hours, three quarters, seven
minutes, and eleven seconds" it collapsed. An occasional pamphlet and an
infrequent speech were afterwards the sole fruits of Lord Bath's
talents. His praises whilst in retirement have been sung by two bishops,
Zachary Pearce and Thomas Newton. He died on the 7th of July 1764, and
was buried on the 17th of July in his own vault in Islip chapel,
Westminster Abbey. He married on the 27th of December 1714 Anna Maria,
daughter and co-heiress of John Gumley of Isleworth, commissary-general
to the army who was often satirized by the wits of the day (_Notes and
Queries_, 3rd S. ii. 402-403, iii. 490). She died on the 14th of
September 1758, and their only son William died unmarried at Madrid on
the 12th of February 1763. Pulteney's vast fortune came in 1767 to
William Johnstone of Dumfries (third son of Sir James Johnstone), who
had married Frances, daughter and co-heiress of his cousin, Daniel
Pulteney, a bitter antagonist of Walpole in parliament, and had taken
the name of Pulteney.

Pulteney's eloquence was keen and incisive, sparkling with vivacity and
with allusions drawn from the literature of his own country and of Rome.
Of business he was never fond, and the loss in 1734 of his trusted
friend John Merrill, who had supplied the qualities which he lacked, was
feelingly lamented by him in a letter to Swift. His chief weakness was a
passion for money. Lord Bath has left no trace of the possession of
practical statesmanship.



  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Wm. Coxe's _Memoirs_ of Sir Robert Walpole (1816), and
  of Henry Pelham (1829); John Morley's _Walpole_ (1889); Walter
  Sichel's _Bolingbroke_ (1901-1902); A. Ballantyne's _Carteret_ (1887);
  _Eng. Hist. Rev._ iv. 749-753, and the general political memoirs of
  the time.     (W. P. C.)



BATH, a city, municipal, county and parliamentary borough, and health
resort of Somersetshire, England, on the Great Western, Midland, and
Somerset & Dorset railways, 107½ m. W. by S. of London. Pop. (1901)
49,839. Its terraces and crescents, built mostly of grey freestone,
cover the slopes and heights of the abrupt hills which rise like an
amphitheatre above the winding valley of the river Avon. The climate is
pleasant, and the city, standing amidst fine scenery, itself possesses a
number of beautiful walks and gardens. Jointly with Wells, it is an
episcopal see of the Church of England. The abbey church of St Peter and
St Paul occupies the site of earlier Saxon and Norman churches, founded
in connexion with a 7th-century convent, which was transferred for a
time to a body of secular canons, and from about 970 until the
Dissolution, to Benedictine monks. The present cruciform building dates
from the 15th century, being a singularly pure and ornate example of
late Perpendicular work. From the number of its windows, it has been
called "The Lantern of the West," and especially noteworthy is the great
west window, with seven lights, and flanking turrets on which are carved
figures of the angels ascending and descending on Jacob's Ladder. Within
are the tombs of James Quin, the actor, with an epitaph by Garrick;
Richard Nash; Thomas Malthus the economist; William Broome the poet, and
many others. Some of the monuments are the work of Bacon, Flaxman and
Chantrey. Slight traces of the previous Norman building remain. There
are many other churches and chapels in Bath, the oldest being that of St
Thomas of Canterbury, and one of the most interesting St Swithin's,
which contains the tombs of Christopher Anstey and Madame d'Arblay.
Among educational institutions may be mentioned the free grammar school,
founded by Edward VI., the Wesleyan College, originally established at
Bristol by John Wesley, and the Roman Catholic College. The hospital of
St John was founded in the 12th century. The public buildings include a
guild hall, assembly rooms, Jubilee hall, art gallery and library,
museum, literary and scientific institute, and theatres. In the populous
suburb of Twerton (pop. 11,098), there are lias quarries, and bricks and
woollen cloths are manufactured. The parliamentary borough returns two
members. The city is governed by a mayor, 14 aldermen and 42
councillors. Area, 3382 acres.

The mineral springs supply several distinct establishments. The
temperature varies in the different springs from 117° to 120° F, and the
specific gravity of the hot baths is 1.002. The principal substances in
solution are calcium and sodium sulphates, and sodium and magnesium
chlorides. Traces of radium have been revealed, and the gases contain
argon and helium. The waters are very beneficial in cases of rheumatism,
gout, neuralgia, sciatica, diseases of the liver, and cutaneous and
scrofulous affections. The highest archaeological interest, moreover,
attaches to the baths in view of the magnificent Roman remains
testifying to the early recognition of the value of the waters. It may
here be noted that two distinct legends ascribe the foundation of Bath
to a British king Bladud. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth this monarch
gave its healing power to the water by his spells. According to a later
version, he was banished as a leper, and made the discovery leading to
his cure, and to the origin of Bath, whilst wandering as a swineherd in
863 B.C. This, at least, is the date inscribed on a statue of Bladud
placed in the Pump Room in 1699. There is, however, no real evidence of
a British settlement. By the Romans Bath was named _Aquae Sulis_, the
name indicating the dedication to a British goddess Sul or Sulis, whom
the Romans considered the counterpart of Minerva. There were a temple of
the goddess and a few houses for priests, officials and visitors,
besides the large baths, and the place was apparently walled; but it did
not contain a large resident population. Many relics have been
disinterred, such as altars, inscriptions, fragments of stone carvings
and figures, Samian ware, and others. The chief buildings were
apparently grouped near the later abbey churchyard, and included,
besides two temples, a magnificent bath, discovered when the duke of
Kingston pulled down the old priory in 1755 to form the Kingston Baths.
Successive excavations have rendered accessible a remarkable series of
remains, including several baths, a _sudarium_, and conduits. The main
bath still receives its water (now for the purpose of cooling) through
the original conduit. The fragmentary colonnade surrounding this
magnificent relic still supports the street and buildings beneath which
it lies, the Roman foundations having been left untouched. The remains
of the bath and of the temple are among the most striking Roman
antiquities in western Europe.

Bath (variously known as Achemann, Hat Bathun, Bathonea, Batha) was a
place of note in Saxon times, King Edgar being crowned there in 973. It
was a royal borough governed by a reeve, with a burg mote in 907.
Richard I. granted the first charter in 1189, which allowed the same
privileges as Winchester to the members of the merchant gild. This was
confirmed by Henry III. in 1236, 1247 and 1256, by charters giving the
burgesses of Bath the right to elect coroners, with freedom from arrest
for the debts of others, and from the interference of sheriffs or kings'
bailiffs. Charters were granted by succeeding kings in 1312, 1322, 1341,
1382, 1399, 1414, 1432, 1447, 1466 and 1545. The existence of a
corporation being assumed in the earliest royal charter, and a common
seal having been used since 1249, there was no formal incorporation of
Bath until the charter of 1590, 1794 and 1835. Parliamentary
representation began in 1297. Various fairs were granted to Bath, to be
held on the 29th of August, the 9th of August, the 30th of June to the
8th of July (called Cherry Fair), the 1st of February to the 6th of
February, in 1275, 1305, 1325 and 1545 respectively. Fairs are now held
on the 4th of February and on the Monday after the 9th of December.
These fairs were flourishing centres of the cloth trade in the middle
ages, but this industry has long departed. Bath "beaver," however, was
known throughout England, and Chaucer makes his "Wife of Bath" excel the
cloth-weavers "of Ypres and of Gaunt." The golden age of Bath began in
the 18th century, and is linked with the work of the two architects Wood
(both named John), of Ralph Allen, their patron, and of Richard Nash,
master of the ceremonies. Previously the baths had been ill-kept, the
lodging poor, the streets beset by footpads. All this was changed by the
architectural scheme, including Queen Square, the Royal Crescent and the
North and South Parades, which was chiefly designed by the elder Wood,
and chiefly executed by his son. Instead of the booth which did duty as
a gaming club and chocolate house, Nash provided the assembly rooms
which figure largely in the pages of Fielding, Smollett, Burney, Dickens
and their contemporaries. Anstey published his _New Bath Guide_ to
ridicule the laws of taste which "Beau" Nash dictated; but two royal
visits, in 1734 and 1738, established Bath as a centre of English
fashion. The weekly markets granted on Wednesday and Saturday in 1305
are still held.

  See R. Warner, _History and Antiquities of Bath_ (1801); C.E. Davis,
  _Ancient Landmarks of Bath; The Mineral Baths of Bath_ (1883);
  _Excavations of Roman Baths_ (1895), and _The Saxon Cross_ (1898); Sir
  G. Jackson, _Archives of Bath_ (2 vols., 1873); R.E.M. Peach, _Rambles
  about Bath_ (1875), _Bath Old and New_ (1888), _Collections of Books
  belonging to the City_ (1893), &c.; H. Scarth, _Aquae Solis, or
  Notices of Roman Bath_ (1864); A. Barbeau, _Life and Letters at Bath
  in the 18th Century_ (from the French _Une Ville d'eaux anglaise au
  XVIII^e siècle_) (London, 1904); A.H. King, _Charter of Bath
  Corporation_.



BATH, a city, port of entry, and the county-seat of Sagadahoc county,
Maine, U.S.A., on the W. bank of the Kennebec river, 12 m. from its
mouth and 36 m. N.E. of Portland. Pop. (1890) 8723; (1900) 10,477, of
whom 1759 were foreign-born; (1910, census) 9396. It is served by the
Maine Central railway, by steamboat lines to Boston, and by inter-urban
electric railway. The city covers an area of about 9 sq. m., and extends
along the W. bank of the river for about 5 m.; the business district is
only a few feet above sea-level, but most of the residences are on
higher ground. The streets are well shaded, chiefly with elms. At Bath
are the state military and naval orphan asylum, two homes for the aged,
and a soldiers' monument. Bath has a good harbour and its principal
industry is the building of ships, both of wood and of iron and steel,
several vessels of the United States navy have been built here. In 1905
three-fourths of the city's wage-earners were employed in this industry.
Bath also manufactures lumber, iron and brass goods, and has a
considerable trade in ice, coal, lumber and iron and steel. First
settled about 1660, Bath was a part of Georgetown until 1781, when it
was incorporated as a separate town; in 1789 it was made a port of
entry, and in 1847 was chartered as a city.



BATH-CHAIR, a vehicle with a folding hood, which can be used open or
closed, and a glass front, mounted on three or four wheels and drawn or
pushed by hand. If required to be drawn by a donkey or small pony it is
then mounted on four wheels, with the usual turning arrangement. James
Heath, of Bath, who flourished rather before the middle of the 18th
century, was the inventor.

[Illustration]



BATHGATE, a municipal and police burgh of Linlithgowshire, Scotland, 19
m. W. by S. of Edinburgh by the North British railway. Pop. (1901) 7549.
The district is rich in limestone, coal, ironstone, shale and fireclay,
all of which are worked. Silver also was once mined. The manufactures
include paraffin, paper, glass, chemicals, flour and whisky, and
freestone is quarried. The burgh is a considerable centre for
agricultural produce. Bathgate became a burgh of barony in 1824 and a
police burgh in 1865. Although it was not until the development of its
mineral wealth that it attained to commercial importance, it is a place
of some antiquity, and formed the dowry of Marjory, Robert Bruce's
daughter, who married Walter, the hereditary steward of Scotland, in
1315.



BATHOLITE (from Gr. [Greek: bothus], deep, and [Greek: lithus], a
stone), in geology, a term given to certain intrusive rock masses.
Especially in districts which are composed principally of rocks
belonging to the older geological systems extensive areas of granite
frequently occur. By their relations to the strata around them, it is
clear that these granites have been forced into their present positions
in a liquid state, and under great pressure. The bedding planes of
stratified rocks are wedged apart and tongues of granite have been
injected into them, while cracks have been opened up and filled with
intrusions in the shape of igneous veins. Great masses of the strata
which the granite has invaded are often floated off, and are found lying
in the heart of the granite much altered by the heat to which they have
been exposed, and traversed by the igneous rock in ramifying threads.
Such granite intrusions are generally known as bosses from their rounded
surfaces, and the frequency with which they form flattish dome-shaped
hills, rising above the older rocks surrounding them. At one time many
geologists held that in certain situations the granite had arisen from
the complete fusion and transformation of the stratified rocks over a
limited area of intense metamorphism. The chemical no less than the
structural relations of the two sets of rocks, however, preclude the
acceptance of this hypothesis. Obviously the granite is an intruder
which has welled up from below, and has cooled gradually, and solidified
in its present situation.

Regarding the mechanism of this process there are two theories which
hold the field, each having a large number of supporters. One school
considers that they are mostly "batholites" or conical masses rising
from great depths and eating up the strata which lie above and around
them. The frequency of inclusions of the surrounding rocks, their
rounded shapes indicating that they have been partly dissolved by the
igneous magma, the intense alteration which they have undergone pointing
to a state approaching actual fusion, the extensive changes induced in
the rocks which adjoin the granite, the abundance of veins, and the
unusual modifications of the granite which occur where it comes in
contact with the adjacent strata, are adduced as evidence that there has
been absorption and digestion of the country rock by the intrusive mass.
These views are in favour especially in France; and instances are cited
in which as the margins of the granite are approached diorites and other
rocks make their appearance, which are ascribed to the effect which
admixture with dissolved sedimentary material has had on the composition
of the granite magma; at the same time the schists have been permeated
with felspar from the igneous rocks, and are said to have been
felspathized.

The opponents of this theory hold these granitic masses to be
"laccolites" (Gr. [Greek: lakkos], a cistern), or great cake-shaped
injections of molten rock, which have been pressed from below into
planes of weakness in the upper portions of the earth's crust, taking
the lines of least resistance, and owing their shape to the varying
flexibility of the strata they penetrated. The modifications of the
granite are ascribed to magmatic segregation (chemical and physical
processes which occasioned diffusion of certain components towards the
cooling surfaces). Absorption of country rock is held to be unimportant
in amount, and insufficient to account for the great spaces in the
schists which are occupied by the granite. Those who support this theory
leave the question of the ultimate source of the granite unanswered, but
consider that it is of deep-seated origin, and the bosses which now
appear at the surface are only comparatively superficial manifestations.

The bulk of the evidence is in favour of the laccolitic theory; in fact
it has been clearly demonstrated in many important cases. Still it is
equally clear that many granites are not merely passive injections, but
have assimilated much foreign rock. Possibly much depends on the
chemical composition of the respective masses, and on the depths and
temperatures at which the intrusion took place. Increase of pressure and
of temperature, which we know to take place at great depths, would
stimulate resorption of sedimentary material, and by retarding cooling
would allow time for dissolved foreign substances to diffuse widely
through the magma.     (J. S. F.)



BATHONIAN SERIES, in geology. The typical Bathonian is the Great Oolite
series of England, and the name was derived from the "Bath Oolite," so
extensively mined and quarried in the vicinity of that city, where the
principal strata were first studied by W. Smith. The term was first used
by J. d'Omalius d'Halloy in 1843 (_Precis Geol_.) as a synonym for
"Dogger"; but it was limited in 1849 by A. d'Orbigny (_Pal. Franc. Jur_.
i. p. 607). In 1864 Mayer-Eymar (_Tabl. Synchron_.) used the word
"Bathien" = Bajocian + Bathonian (sen. str.). According to English
practice, the Bathonian includes the following formations in descending
order: Cornbrash, Forest Marble with Bradford Clay, Great or Bath
Oolite, Stonesfield Slate and Fullers' Earth. (The Fullers' Earth is
sometimes regarded as constituting a separate stage, the "Fullonian.")
The "Bathonien" of some French geologists differs from the English
Bathonian in that it includes at the base the zone of the ammonite
_Parkinsonia Parkinsoni_, which in England is placed at the summit of
the Inferior Oolite. The Bathonian is the equivalent of the upper part
of the "Dogger" (Middle Jurassic) of Germany, or to the base of the
Upper Brown Jura (substage "E" of Quenstedt).

Rocks of Bathonian age are well developed in Europe: in the N.W. and
S.W. oolite limestones are characteristically associated with
coral-bearing, crinoidal and other varieties, and with certain beds of
clay. In the N. and N.E., Russia, &c., clays, sandstones and ferruginous
oolites prevail, some of the last being exploited for iron. They occur
also in the extreme north of America and in the Arctic regions,
Greenland, Franz Josef Land, &c.; in Africa, Algeria, German East
Africa, Madagascar and near the Cape (Enon Beds); in India, Rajputana
and Gulf of Cutch, and in South America.

The well-known Caen stone of Normandy and "Hauptrogenstein" of Swabia,
as well as the "Eisenkalk" of N.W. Germany, and "Klaus-Schichten" of the
Austrian Alps, are of Bathonian age.

  For a general account, see A. de Lapparent, _Traité de géologie_ (5th
  ed., 1906), vol. ii.; see also the article JURASSIC.     (J. A. H.)



BÁTHORY, SIGISMUND (ZSIGMOND), (1572-1613), prince of Transylvania, was
the son of Christopher, prince of Transylvania, and Elizabeth Bocskay,
and nephew of the great Stephen Báthory. He was elected prince in his
father's lifetime, but being quite young at his father's death (1581),
the government was entrusted to a regency. In 1588 he attained his
majority, and, following the advice of his favourite councillor Alfonso
Carillo, departed from the traditional policy of Transylvania in its
best days (when friendly relations with the Porte were maintained as a
matter of course, in order to counterpoise the ever hostile influence of
the house of Habsburg), and joined the league of Christian princes
against the Turk. The obvious danger of such a course caused no small
anxiety in the principality, and the diet of Torda even went so far as
to demand a fresh coronation oath from Sigismund, and, on his refusal to
render it, threatened him with deposition. Ultimately Báthory got the
better of his opponents, and executed all whom he got into his hands
(1595). Nevertheless, if anybody could have successfully carried out an
anti-Turkish policy, it was certainly Báthory. He had inherited the
military genius of his uncle, and his victories astonished contemporary
Europe. In 1595 he subdued Walachia and annihilated the army of Sinan
Pasha at Giurgevo (October 28th). The turning-point of his career was
his separation from his wife, the archduchess Christina of Austria, in
1599, an event followed by his own abdication the same year, in order
that he might take orders. It was on this occasion that he offered the
throne of Transylvania to the emperor Rudolph II., in exchange for the
duchy of Oppeln. In 1600, however, at the head of an army of Poles and
Cossacks, he attempted to recover his throne, but was routed by Michael,
voivode of Moldavia, at Suceava. In February 1601 the diet of
Klausenburg reinstated him, but again he was driven out by Michael,
never to return. He died at Prague in 1613. Báthory's indisputable
genius must have been warped by a strain of madness. His
incalculableness, his savage cruelty (like most of the princes of his
house he was a fanatical Catholic and persecutor) and his perpetual
restlessness point plainly enough to a disordered mind.

  See Ignaz Acsády, _History of the Hungarian State_ (Hung.) vol. ii.,
  (Budapest, 1904).     (R. N. B.)



BATHOS (Gr. [Greek: bathos]), properly depth, the bottom or lowest part
of anything. The current usage for an anticlimax, a descent "from the
sublime to the ridiculous," from the elevated to the commonplace in
literature or speech, is due to Pope's satire on _Bathos_
(_Miscellanies_, 1727-1728), "the art of sinking in poetry." The title
was a travesty of Longinus's essay, _On the Sublime_, [Greek: Peri
hupsous].



BATHS. In the ordinary acceptation of the word a bath is the immersion
of the body in a medium different from the ordinary one of atmospheric
air, which medium is usually common water in some form. In another sense
it includes the different media that may be used, and the various
arrangements by which they are applied.

_Ancient Baths._--Bathing, as serving both for cleanliness and for
pleasure, has been almost instinctively practised by nearly every
people. The most ancient records mention bathing in the rivers Nile and
Ganges. From an early period the Jews bathed in running water, used both
hot and cold baths, and employed oils and ointments. So also did the
Greeks; their earliest and commonest form of bathing was swimming in
rivers, and bathing in them was practised by both sexes. Warm baths
were, according to Homer, used after fatigue or exercise. The Athenians
appear for a long time to have had only private baths, but afterwards
they had public ones: the latter seem to have originated among the
Lacedaemonians, who invented the hot-air bath, at least the form of it
called after them the _laconicum_. Although the baths of the Greeks were
not so luxurious as those of some other nations, yet effeminate people
were accused among them of using warm baths in excess; and the bath
servants appear to have been rogues and thieves, as in later and larger
establishments. The Persians must have had handsomely equipped baths,
for Alexander the Great admired the luxury of the bath of Darius.

But the baths of the Greeks, and probably of all Eastern nations, were
on a small scale as compared with those which eventually sprang up among
the Romans. In early times the Romans used after exercise to throw
themselves into the Tiber. Next, when ample supplies of water were
brought into the city, large _piscinae_, or cold swimming baths, were
constructed, the earliest of which appear to have been the _piscina
publica_ (312 B.C.), near the Circus Maximus, supplied by the Appian
aqueduct, the _lavacrum_ of Agrippina, and a bath at the end of the
Clivus Capitolinus. Next, small public as well as private baths were
built; and with the empire more luxurious forms of bathing were
introduced, and warm became far more popular than cold baths.

Public baths (_balneae_) were first built in Rome after Clodius brought
in the supply of water from Praeneste, After that date baths began to be
common both in Rome and in other Italian cities; and private baths,
which gradually came into use, were attached to the villas of the
wealthy citizens. Maecenas was one of the first who built public baths
at his own expense. After his time each emperor, as he wished to
ingratiate himself with the people, lavished the revenues of the state
in the construction of enormous buildings, which not only contained
suites of bathing apartments, but included gymnasia, and sometimes even
theatres and libraries. Such enormous establishments went by the name of
_thermae_. The principal thermae were those of Agrippa 21 B.C., of Nero
65 A.D., of Titus 81, of Domitian 95, of Commodus 185, of Caracalla 217,
and still later those of Diocletian 302, and of Constantine. The
technical skill displayed by the Romans in rendering their walls and the
sides of reservoirs impervious to moisture, in conveying and heating
water, and in constructing flues for the conveyance of hot air through
the walls, was of the highest order.

The Roman baths contained swimming baths, warm baths, baths of hot air,
and vapour baths. The chief rooms (which in the largest baths appear to
have been mostly distinct, whereas in smaller baths one chamber was made
to do duty for more than a single purpose) were the following:--(1) The
_apodyterium_ or _spoliatorium_, where the bathers undressed; (2) the
_alipterium_ or _unctuarium_, where oils and ointments were kept
(although the bathers often brought their own pomades), and where the
_aliptae_, anointed the bathers; (3) the _frigidarium_, or cool room,
_cella frigida_, in which usually was the cold bath, the _piscina_ or
_baptisterium_; (4) the _tepidarium_, a room moderately heated, in which
the bathers rested for a time, but which was not meant for bathing; (5)
the _calidarium_ or heating room, over the _hypocaustum_ or furnace;
this in its commonest arrangement had at one end a warm bath, the
_alveus_ or _calida lavatio_; at the other end in a sort of alcove was
(6) the _sudatorium_ or _laconicum_, which usually had a _labrum_ or
large vessel containing water, with which bathers sprinkled themselves
to help in rubbing off the perspiration. In the largest baths the
laconicum was probably a separate chamber, a circular domical room with
recesses in the sides, and a large opening in the top; but there is no
well-preserved specimen, unless that at Pisa may be so regarded. In the
drawing of baths from the thermae of Titus (fig. 1), the laconicum is
represented as a small cupola rising in a corner of the calidarium. It
is known that the temperature of the laconicum was regulated by drawing
up or down a metallic plate or _clypeus_. Some think that this clypeus
was directly over the flames of the hypocaustum, and that when it was
withdrawn, the flames must have sprung into the laconicum. Others, and
apparently they have Vitruvius on their side, think that the clypeus was
drawn up or down only from the aperture in the roof, and that it
regulated the temperature simply by giving more or less free exit to the
hot air. If the laconicum was only one end of the calidarium, it is
difficult to see how that end of the room was kept so much hotter than
the rest of it; on the other hand, to have had flames actually issuing
from the laconicum must have caused smoke and soot, and have been very
unpleasant. The most usual order in which the rooms were employed seems
to have been the following, but there does not appear to have been any
absolute uniformity of practice then, any more than in modern Egyptian
and Turkish baths. Celsus recommends the bather first to sweat a little
in the tepidarium with his clothes on, to be anointed there, and then to
pass into the calidarium; after he has sweated freely there he is not to
descend into the solium or cold bath, but to have plenty of water poured
over him from his head,--first warm, then tepid, and then cold
water--the water being poured longer over his head than on the rest of
the body; next to be scraped with the strigil, and lastly to be rubbed
and anointed.

The warmest of the heated rooms, i.e. the calidarium and laconicum, were
heated directly from the hypocaustum, over which they were built or
suspended (_suspensura_); while from the hypocaustum tubes of brass, or
lead, or pottery carried the hot air or vapour to the walls of the other
rooms. The walls were usually hollow, so that the hot air could readily
circulate.

The water was heated ingeniously. Close to the furnace, about 4 in. off,
was placed the calidarium, the copper (_ahenum_) for boiling water, near
which, with the same interval between them, was the copper for warm
water, the _tepidarium_, and at the distance of 2 ft. from this was the
receptacle for cold water, or the _frigidarium_, often a plastered
reservoir. A constant communication was kept up between these vessels,
so that as fast as hot water was drawn off from the calidarium a supply
was obtained from the tepidarium, which, being already heated, but
slightly reduced the temperature of the hotter boiler. The tepidarium,
again, was supplied from the frigidarium, and that from an aqueduct. In
this way the heat which was not taken up by the first boiler passed on
to the second, and instead of being wasted, helped to heat the second--a
principle which has only lately been introduced into modern furnaces. In
the case of the large thermae the water of an aqueduct was brought to
the _castellum_ or top of the building and was allowed to descend into
chambers over the hypocaustum, where it was heated and transmitted in
pipes to the central buildings. Remains of this arrangement are to be
seen in the baths of Caracalla. The general plan of such buildings may
be more clearly understood by the accompanying illustrations. In the
well-known drawing (fig. 1) found in the baths of Titus, the name of
each part of the building is inscribed on it. The small dome inscribed
laconicum directly over the furnace, and having the clypeus over it,
will be observed in the corner of the chamber named concamerata sudatio.
The vessels for water are inscribed, according to their temperature,
with the same names as some of the chambers, frigidarium, tepidarium and
calidarium.

[Illustration: FIG 1.--Roman baths.]

The baths of Pompeii (as shown in fig. 2) were a double set, and were
surrounded with tabernae or shops, which are marked by a lighter shade.
There were streets on four sides; and the reservoir supplying water was
across the street in the building on the left hand of the cut. There
were three public entrances--21a, 21b, 21c--to the men's baths and one
to the women's. The furnaces (9) heated water, which was conveyed on one
side to the larger baths of the men, on the other to the women's.
Entering from the street at 21c there was a latrina on the left hand
(22). From this entrance it was usual to proceed to a court (20)
surrounded by pillars, where servants were in attendance. There is some
doubt as to the purpose to which the room (19) was devoted. Leaving the
hall a passage conducted to the apodyterium or dressing-room (17), at
one end of it is the frigidarium, baptisterium or cold plunge bath (18).
Entering out of the apodyterium is the tepidarium or warming-room (15),
which most probably was also used as the alipterium or anointing-room.
From it bathers passed into the hot room or calidarium (12), which had
at one end the alveus or calida lavatio (13), at the other end the
labrum (14). This end of the calidarium served as the laconicum. The
arrangements of the women's baths were similar, but on a smaller scale.
The calidarium (5) had the labrum (7) at one end, and the alveus (6) was
in one side of the room. The general arrangements of a calidarium are
well illustrated by the accompanying section (fig. 3) of a bath
discovered at Tusculum. The disposition of the parts is the same as at
Pompeii. We here have the calidarium supported on the pillars of the
fornax, the suspensura. The alveus (3) is at one end, and the labrum (4)
at the other. (1) and (2) are the vessels for water over the fornax; and
the passages in the roof and walls for the escape of heated air will be
observed.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Ground plan of the baths of Pompeii.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Section of bath discovered at Tusculum, showing
the calidarium (hot room).]

A clear idea of the relative position of the different rooms, and some
slight indication of their ornamentation, will be obtained from fig. 4.
The flues under the calidarium and the labrum (1) may be observed, as
also the opening in the roof above. (2), (3) and (4) mark the vessels
for water which are placed between the men's baths on the left and the
women's on the right.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Section of baths of Pompeii.]

The arrangements of the _thermae_ were mainly those of the balneae on a
larger scale. Some idea of their size may be gathered from such facts as
these, that in the baths of Diocletian one room has been transmuted into
a church of most imposing proportions, and that the outside walls of
the baths of Caracalla extend about a quarter of a mile on each of the
four sides. A visit to the remains of the baths of Titus, of Diocletian,
or of Caracalla impresses the mind strongly with a sense of the vast
scale on which they were erected, and Ammianus's designation of them as
provinces appears scarcely exaggerated. It is said that the baths of
Caracalla contained 1600, and those of Diocletian 3200 marble seats for
the use of the bathers. In the largest of the thermae there was a
stadium for the games of the young men, with raised seats for the
spectators. There were open colonnades and seats for philosophers and
literary men to sit and discourse or read their productions aloud or for
others to discuss the latest news. Near the porticoes, in the interior
open space, rows of trees were planted. There was a _sphaeristerium_ or
place for playing ball, which was often over the apodyterium; but it
must be confessed that the purposes of many portions of these large
edifices have not been made out in as satisfactory a way as those of
smaller baths. A more definite idea of the thermae can be best got by an
examination of the accompanying plan of the baths of Caracalla (fig. 5).
A good deal of the plan is conjectural, the restorations being marked by
lighter shading.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Ground plan of the baths of Caracalla.]

  At the bottom of the plan is shown a long colonnade, which faces the
  street, behind which was a series of chambers, supposed to have been
  separate bathing-rooms. Entering by the opening in its centre, the
  visitor passes what was probably an inner colonnade round the main
  building. Passing in by either of the gates (2, 2), he reaches the
  large chamber (3), which has been variously called the natatio or
  large swimming-bath, or the tepidarium. The great central room (4) in
  all probability was the calidarium, with two labra (6, 6) on opposite
  sides, and with four alvei, one in each corner, represented by small
  circular dots. (9) has been regarded by some as the laconicuim,
  although it appears very large for that purpose. The rooms (15, 15)
  have been variously described as baptisteria and as laconica. Most
  authors are agreed in thinking that the large rooms (13) and (16) were
  the sphaeristeria or places for playing ball.

  Returning to the outside, (1) and (18) and the corresponding places on
  the other side are supposed to have been the exedrae for philosophers,
  and places corresponding to the Greek xysti. (20) and (19) have been
  considered to be servants' rooms. (22) was the stadium, with raised
  seats for the spectators. The space between this and the large central
  hall (9) was planted with trees, and at (21) the aqueduct brought
  water into the castellum or reservoir, which was on an upper storey.
  There were upper storeys in most portions of the building, and in
  these probably were the libraries and small theatres.

The piscinae were often of immense size--that of Diocletian being 200
ft. long--and were adorned with beautiful marbles. The halls were
crowded with magnificent columns and were ornamented with the finest
pieces of statuary. The walls, it has been said, were covered with
exquisite mosaics that imitated the art of the painter in their elegance
of design and variety of colour. The Egyptian syenite was encrusted with
the precious green marbles of Numidia. The rooms contained the works of
Phidias and Praxiteles. A perpetual stream of water was poured into
capacious basins through the wide mouths of lions of bright and polished
silver, water issued from silver, and was received on silver. "To such a
pitch of luxury have we reached," says Seneca, "that we are dissatisfied
if we do not tread on gems in our baths."

The richer Romans used every variety of oils and pomades (_smegmata_);
they scarcely had true soaps. The poorer class had to be content with
the flour of lentils, an article used at this day for the same purpose
by Orientals. The most important bath utensil was the strigillus, a
curved instrument made of metal, with which the skin was scraped and all
sordes removed.

The bath servants assisted in anointing, in using the strigillus and in
various other menial offices. The poorer classes had to use their
strigils themselves. The various processes of the aliptae seem to have
been carried on very systematically.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.[1] Ring on which are suspended some of the
articles in use in the Alipterium]

The hot baths appear to have been open from 1 P.M. till dark. It was
only one of the later emperors that had them lighted up at night. When
the hot baths were ready (for, doubtless, the plunge baths were
available at an earlier hour), a bell or _aes_ was rung for the
information of the people. Among the Greeks and Romans the eighth hour,
or 1 o'clock, before their dinner, was the commonest hour for bathing.
The bath was supposed to promote appetite, and some voluptuaries had one
or more baths after dinner, to enable them to begin eating again; but
such excesses, as Juvenal tells us, occasionally proved fatal. Some of
the most effeminate of the emperors are said to have bathed seven or
eight times in the course of the day. In early times there was delicacy
of feeling about the sexes bathing together--even a father could not
bathe with his sons; but latterly, under most of the emperors, men and
women often used the same baths. There frequently were separate baths
for the women, as we see at Pompeii or at Badenweiler; but although
respectable matrons would not go to public baths, promiscuous bathing
was common during the Empire.

The public baths and thermae were under the more immediate
superintendence of the aediles. The charge made at a public bath was
only a quadrans or quarter of an as, about half a farthing. Yet cheap
though this was, the emperors used to ingratiate themselves with the
populace, by making the baths at times gratuitous.

Wherever the Romans settled, they built public baths; and wherever they
found hot springs or natural stufae, they made use of them, thus saving
the expense of heating, as at the _myrteta_ of Baiae or the _Aquae
Sulis_ of Bath. In the cities there appear to have been private baths
for hire, as well as the public baths; and every rich citizen had a set
of baths attached to his villa, the fullest account of which is given in
the _Letters_ of Pliny, or in Ausonius's _Account of a Villa on the
Moselle_, or in Statius's _De Balneo Etrusco_. Although the Romans never
wholly gave up cold bathing, and that practice was revived under
Augustus by Antonius Musa, and again under Nero by Charmis (at which
later time bathing in the open sea became common), yet they chiefly
practised warm bathing (_calida lavatio_). This is the most luxurious
kind of bathing, and when indulged in to excess is enervating. The women
were particularly fond of these baths, and were accused, at all events
in some provincial cities, of drunkenness in them.

The unbounded license of the public baths, and their connexion with
modes of amusement that were condemned, led to their being to a
considerable extent proscribed by the early Christians. The early
Fathers wrote that bathing might be practised for the sake of
cleanliness or of health, but not of pleasure; and Gregory the Great saw
no objection to baths being used on Sunday. About the 5th century many
of the large thermae in Rome fell into decay. The cutting off of the
aqueducts by the Huns, and the gradual decrease of the population,
contributed to this. Still it is doubtful whether bathing was ever
disused to the extent that is usually represented. It was certainly kept
up in the East in full vigour at Alexandria and at Brusa. Hot bathing,
and especially hot air and vapour baths, were adopted by the
Mahommedans; and the Arabs brought them with them into Spain. The Turks,
at a later time, carried them high up the Danube, and the Mahommedans
spread or, it may be more correct to say, revived their use in Persia
and in Hindustan. The Crusaders also contributed to the spread of baths
in Europe, and hot vapour baths were specially recommended for the
leprosy so prevalent in those days. After the commencement of the 13th
century there were few large cities in Europe without hot vapour baths.
We have full accounts of their regulations--how the Jews were only
allowed to visit them once a week, and how there were separate baths for
lepers. In England they were called hothouses. Erasmus, at the date of
the Reformation, spoke of them as common in France, Germany and Belgium;
he gives a lively account of the mixture of all classes of people to be
found in them, and would imply that they were a common adjunct to inns.
They seem after a time to have become less common, though Montaigne
mentions them as being still in Rome in his day. In England the next
revival of baths was at the close of the 17th century, under the Eastern
name of _Hummums_ or the Italian name of Bagnios. These were avowedly on
the principle of the Turkish baths described below. But there were
several considerable epochs in the history of baths, one in the
commencement of the 18th century, when Floyer and others recalled
attention to cold bathing, of which the virtues had long been
overlooked. In the middle of the century also, Russell and others
revived sea-bathing in England, and were followed by others on the
continent, until the value of sea-bathing became fully appreciated.
Later in the same century the experiments of James Currie on the action
of complete or of partial baths on the system in disease attracted
attention; and though forgotten for a while, they bore abundant fruit in
more recent times.

_Modern Baths._--It is uncertain how far the Turkish and Egyptian and
even the Russian baths are to be regarded merely as successors of the
Roman baths, because the principle of vapour baths has been known to
many nations in a very early period of civilization. Thus the Mexicans
and Indians were found using small vapour baths. The ancient inhabitants
of Ireland and of Scotland had some notion of their use, and the large
vapour baths of Japan, now so extensively employed, are probably of
independent origin.

The following accounts of Turkish and Russian baths illustrate the
practices of the ancient Roman and also of modern Turkish baths. In
Lane's _On the Modern Egyptians_ we read: "The building consists of
several apartments, all of which are paved with marble, chiefly white.
The inner apartments are covered with domes, which have a number of
small glazed apertures for the admission of light. The bather, on
entering, if he has a watch or purse, gives them in charge to the keeper
of the bath. The servant of the bath takes off his shoes and supplies
him with a pair of wooden clogs. The first apartment has generally three
or four _leewans_ (raised parts of the floor used as couches) cased with
marble, and a fountain of cold water, which rises from an octagonal
basement in the centre. One of the leewans, which is meant for the
higher classes, is furnished with cushions or mats. In warm weather
bathers usually undress in this room; in winter they undress in an inner
room, called the _beytowwal_ or first chamber, between which and the
last apartment there is a passage often with two or three latrines off
it. This is the first of the heated chambers. It generally has two
raised seats. The bather receives a napkin in which to put his clothes
and another to put round his waist--this reaches to the knees; a third,
if he requires it, is brought him to wind round his head, leaving the
top of it bare; a fourth to put over his chest; and a fifth to cover his
back. When the bather has undressed, the attendant opens to him the door
of the inner and principal apartment. This in general has four leewans,
which gives it the form of a cross, and in the centre a fountain of hot
water rises from a small shallow basin. The centre room, with the
adjoining ones, forms almost a square. The beytowwal already mentioned
is one of them. Two small chambers which adjoin each other, one
containing a tank of hot water, the other containing a trough, over
which are two taps, one of hot and one of cold water, occupy the two
other angles; while the fourth angle of the square is occupied by the
chamber which contains the fire, over which is the boiler. The bather
having entered this apartment soon perspires profusely from the humid
heat which is produced by the hot water of tanks and fountains, and by
the steam of the boiler. The bather sits on one of the marble seats, or
lies on the leewan or near one of the tanks, and the operator then
commences his work. The operator first cracks aloud every joint in the
body. He makes the vertebrae of the back and even of the neck crack. The
limbs are twisted with apparent violence, but so skilfully, that no harm
is ever done. The operator next kneads the patient's flesh. After this
he rubs the soles of the feet with a kind of rasp of baked clay. There
are two kinds of rasps, one porous and rough, one of fine smooth clay.
Those used by ladies are usually encased in thin embossed silver. The
next operation is rubbing the bather's flesh with a small coarse woollen
bag, after which the bather dips himself in one of the tanks. He is next
taken to one of the chambers in the corner, and the operator lathers the
bather with fibres of the palm tree, soap and water. The soap is then
washed off with water, when the bather having finished washing, and
enveloped himself in dry towels, returns to the beytowwal and reclines.
Here he generally remains an hour to an hour and a half, sipping coffee
and smoking, while an attendant rubs the soles of the feet and kneads
the body and limbs. The bather then dresses and goes out."

The following description of a Russian bath is from Kohl's _Russia_
(1842): "The passage from the door is divided into two behind the
check-taker's post, one for the male, one for the female guests. We
first enter an open space, in which a set of men are sitting in a state
of nudity on benches, those who have already bathed dressing, while
those who are going to undergo the process take off their clothes. Round
this space or apartment are the doors leading to the vapour-rooms. The
bather is ushered into them, and finds himself in a room full of vapour,
which is surrounded by a wooden platform rising in steps to near the
roof of the room. The bather is made to lie down on one of the lower
benches, and gradually to ascend to the higher and hotter ones. The
first sensation on entering the room amounts almost to a feeling of
suffocation. After you have been subjected for some time to a
temperature which may rise to 145° the transpiration reaches its full
activity, and the sensation is very pleasant. The bath attendants come
and flog you with birchen twigs, cover you with the lather of soap,
afterwards rub it off, and then hold you over a jet of ice-cold water.
The shock is great, but is followed by a pleasant feeling of great
comfort and of alleviation of any rheumatic pains you may have had. In
regular establishments you go after this and lie down on a bed for a
time before issuing forth. But the Russians often dress in the open air,
and instead of using the jet of cold water, go and roll themselves at
once in the snow."

Turkish baths have, with various modifications, become popular in
Europe. The Russian baths were introduced into German towns about 1825.
They had a certain limited amount of popularity, but did not take firm
root. Another class practically owes its origin to Dr Barter and David
Urquhart. It professed to be founded on the Turkish bath, but in reality
it was much more of a hot air bath, i.e. more devoid of vapour than
either Roman or Turkish baths ever were, for it is doubtful whether in
any case the air of the laconicum was free from vapour. These baths,
with their various modifications, have become extremely popular in Great
Britain, in Germany and in northern Europe, but have, curiously enough,
never been used extensively in France, notwithstanding the familiarity
of the French with Turkish baths in Algiers.

In England hot air baths are now employed very extensively. They are
often associated with Turkish and electric baths.

Bathing among the ancients was practised in various forms. It was
sometimes a simple bath in cold or in tepid water; but at least, in the
case of the higher orders, it usually included a hot air or vapour bath,
and was followed by affusion of cold or warm water, and generally by a
plunge into the piscina. In like manner the order varies in which the
different processes are gone through in Turkish baths in modern Europe.
Thus in the baths in Vienna, the process begins by immersion in a large
basin of warm water. Sudation is repeatedly interrupted by cold douches
at the will of the bathers, and after the bath they are satisfied with a
short stay in the cooling-room, where they have only a simple sheet
rolled round them. In Copenhagen and in Stockholm the Oriental baths
have been considerably modified by their association with hydropathic
practices.

This leads us to notice the introduction of the curiously misnamed
system known as hydropathy (q.v.). Although cold baths were in vogue
for a time in Rome, warm baths were always more popular. Floyer, as we
have seen, did something to revive their use in England; but it was
nearly a century and a half afterwards that a Silesian peasant,
Priessnitz, introduced, with wonderful success, a variety of operations
with cold water, the most important of which was the packing the patient
in a wet sheet, a process which after a time is followed by profuse
sudation. Large establishments for carrying out this mode of bathing and
its modifications were erected in many places on the continent and in
Great Britain, and enjoyed at one time a large share of popularity. The
name "hydropathic" is still retained for these establishments, though
hydropathy so-called is no longer practised within them to any extent.

But the greatest and most important development of ordinary baths in
modern times was in England, though it has extended gradually to some
parts of the continent. The English had long used affusion and
swimming-baths freely in India. Cold and hot baths and shower baths have
been introduced into private houses to an extent never known before;
and, since 1842, public swimming-baths, besides separate baths, have
been supplied to the public at very moderate rates, in some cases
associated with wash-houses for the poorer classes. Their number has
increased rapidly in London and in the principal continental cities.
Floating-baths in rivers, always known in some German towns, have become
common wherever there are flowing streams. The better supply of most
European cities with water has aided in this movement. Ample enclosed
swimming-baths have been erected at many seaside places. When required,
the water, if not heated in a boiler, is raised to a sufficient
temperature by the aid of hot water pipes or of steam. Separate baths
used to be of wood, painted; they are now most frequently of metal,
painted or lined with porcelain enamel. The swimming-baths are lined
with cement, tiles or marble and porcelain slabs; and a good deal of
ornamentation and painting of the walls and ceiling of the apartments,
in imitation of the ancients, has been attempted.

We have thus traced in outline the history of baths through successive
ages. The medium of the baths spoken of thus far has been water, vapour
or dry hot air. But baths of more complex nature, and of the greatest
variety, have been in use from the earliest ages. The best known media
are the various mineral waters and sea-water. Of baths of _mineral_
substances, those of sand are the oldest and best known; the practice of
_arenation_ or of burying the body in the sand of the sea-shore, or in
heated sand near some hot spring, is very ancient, as also that of
applying heated sand to various parts of the body. Baths of _peat_ earth
are of comparatively recent origin. The peat earth is carefully prepared
and pulverized, and then worked up with water into a pasty consistence,
of which the temperature can be regulated before the patient immerses
himself in it.

There are various terms that may be termed _chemical_, in which chlorine
or hydrochloric acid is added to the water of the bath, or where fumes
of sulphur are made to rise and envelop the body.

Of _vegetable_ baths the number is very large. Lees of wine, in a state
of fermentation, have been employed. An immense variety of aromatic
herbs have been used to impregnate water with. At one time fuci or
sea-weed were added to baths, under the idea of conveying into the
system the iodine which they contain; but by far the most popular of all
vegetable baths are those made with an extract got by distilling certain
varieties of pine leaves.

The strangeness of the baths of _animal_ substances, that have been at
various times in use, is such that their employment seems scarcely
credible. That baths of milk or of whey might be not unpopular is not
surprising, but baths of blood, in some cases even of human blood, have
been used; and baths of horse dung were for many ages in high favour,
and were even succeeded for a short time by baths of guano.

_Electrical_ baths are now largely used, a current being passed through
the water; and electrical _massage_, by the d'Arsonval or other system,
is colloquially termed a "bath."

Baths also of _compressed air_, in which the patient is subjected to the
pressure of two or three atmospheres, were formerly employed in some
places.

A _sun_ bath (_insolatio_ or _heliosis_), exposing the body to the sun,
the head being covered, was a favourite practice among the Greeks and
Romans.

Some special devices require a few words of explanation.

_Douches_ were used by the ancients, and have always been an important
mode of applying water to a circumscribed portion of the body. They are,
in fact, spouts of water, varying in size and temperature, applied by a
hose-pipe with more or less force for a longer or shorter time against
particular parts. A douche exercises a certain amount of friction, and a
continued impulse on the spot to which it is applied, which stimulate
the skin and the parts beneath it, quickening the capillary circulation.
The effects of the douche are so powerful that it cannot be applied for
more than a few minutes continuously. The alternation of hot and cold
douches, which for some unknown reason has got the name of _Écossaise_,
is a very potent type of bath from the strong action and reaction which
it produces. The _shower_ bath may be regarded as a union of an immense
number of fine douches projected on the head and shoulders. It produces
a strong effect on the nervous system. An ingenious contrivance for
giving circular _spray_ baths, by which water is propelled laterally in
fine streams against every portion of the surface of the body, is now
common.

To all these modes of acting on the cutaneous surface and circulation
must be added dry rubbing, as practised by the patient with the flesh
glove, but much more thoroughly by the bath attendants, if properly
instructed (see also MASSAGE).

_Action of Baths on the Human System._--The primary operation of baths
is the action of heat and cold on the cutaneous surfaces through the
medium of water.

The first purpose of baths is simply that of abstersion and cleanliness,
to remove any foreign impurity from the surface, and to prevent the
pores from being clogged by their own secretions or by desquamations of
cuticle. It need scarcely be said that such objects are greatly promoted
by the action of the alkali of soaps and by friction; that the use of
warm water, owing to its immediate stimulation of the skin, promotes the
separation of sordes, and that the vapour of water is still more
efficient than water itself.

It has been supposed that water acts on the system by being absorbed
through the skin, but, under ordinary circumstances, no water is
absorbed, or, if any, so minute a quantity as not to be worth
considering. No dissolved substances, under the ordinary circumstances
of a bath, are actually absorbed into the system; although when a
portion of skin has been entirely cleared of its sebaceous secretion, it
is possible that a strong solution of salts may be partially absorbed.
In the case of medicated baths we therefore only look (in addition to
the action of heat and cold, or more properly to the abstraction or
communication and retention of heat) to any stimulant action on the skin
that the ingredients of the bath may possess.

The powerful influence of water on the capillaries of the skin, and the
mode and extent of that operation, depend primarily on the temperature
of the fluid. The human system bears changes of temperature of the air
much better than changes of the temperature of water. While the
temperature of the air at 75° may be too warm for the feelings of many
people, a continued bath at that temperature is felt to be cold and
depressing. Again, a bath of 98° to 102° acts far more excitingly than
air of the same temperature, both because, being a better conductor,
water brings more heat to the body and because it suppresses the
perspiration which is greatly augmented by air of that temperature.
Further, a temperature a few degrees below blood heat is that of
indifferent baths, which can be borne longest without natural
disturbance of the system.

_Cold baths_ act by refrigeration, and their effects vary according to
the degree of temperature. The effects of a cold bath, the temperature
not being below 50°, are these:--there is a diminution of the
temperature of the skin and of the subjacent tissues; there is a certain
feeling of shock diffused over the whole surface, and if the cold is
intense it induces a slight feeling of numbness in the skin. It becomes
pale and its capillaries contract. The further action of a cold bath
reaches the central nervous system, the heart and the lungs, as
manifested by the tremor of the limbs it produces, along with a certain
degree of oppression of the chest and a gasping for air, while the pulse
becomes small and sinks. After a time reaction takes place, and brings
redness to the skin and an increase of temperature.

The colder the water is, and the more powerful and depressing its
effects, the quicker and more active is the reaction. Very cold baths,
anything below 50°, cannot be borne long. Lowering of the temperature of
the skin may be borne down to 9°, but a further reduction may prove
fatal. The diminution of temperature is much more rapid when the water
is in motion, or when the bather moves about; because, if the water is
still, the layer of it in immediate contact with the body is warmed to a
certain degree.

A great deal depends on the form of the cold bath; thus one may
have--(1) Its depressing operation,--with a loss of heat, retardation of
the circulation, and feeling of weariness, when the same water remains
in contact with the skin, and there is continuous withdrawal of heat
without fresh stimulation. This occurs with full or sitz baths, with
partial or complete wrapping up the body in a wet sheet which remains
unchanged, and with frictions practised without removing the wet sheets.
(2) Its exciting operation,--with quickening of the action of the heart
and lungs, and feeling of glow and of nervous excitement and of
increased muscular power. These sensations are produced when the layer
of water next the body and heated by it is removed, and fresh cold water
causes fresh stimulus. These effects are produced by full baths with the
water in motion used only for a short time, by frictions when the wet
sheet is removed from the body, by douches, shower baths, bathing in
rivers, &c. The depressing operation comes on much earlier in very cold
water than in warmer; and in the same way the exciting operation comes
on faster with the colder than with the warmer water. The short duration
of the bath makes both its depressing and its exciting action less; its
longer duration increases them; and if the baths be continued too long,
the protracted abstraction of animal heat may prove very depressing.

_Tepid baths_, 85° to 95°.--The effects of a bath of this temperature
are confined to the peripheral extremities of the nerves, and are so
slight that they do not reach the central system. There is no reaction,
and the body temperature remains unchanged. Baths of this kind can be
borne for hours with impunity.

_Warm baths_ from 96° to 104°.--In these the action of the heat on the
peripheral surface is propagated to the central system, and causes
reaction, which manifests itself in moderately increased flow of the
blood to the surface, and in an increased frequency of pulse.

With a _hot bath_ from 102° up to 110° the central nervous and
circulating systems are more affected. The frequency of the pulse
increases rapidly, the respiration becomes quickened, and is interrupted
by deep inspirations. The skin is congested, and there is profuse
perspiration.

_Very hot baths._--Everything above 110° feels very hot; anything above
120° almost scalding. Baths of from 119° to 126° have caused a rise of
2° to 4½° in the temperature of the blood. Such a bath can be borne for
only a few minutes. It causes great rapidity of the pulse, extreme
lowering of the blood-pressure, excessive congestion of the skin, and
violent perspiration.

In the use of hot baths a certain amount of vapour reaches the parts of
the body not covered by the water, and is also inhaled.

_Vapour_ baths produce profuse perspiration and act in cleansing the
skin, as powerful hot water baths do. Vapour, owing to its smaller
specific heat, does not act so fast as water on the body. A vapour bath
can be borne for a much longer time when the vapour is not inhaled.
Vapour baths can be borne hotter than water baths, but cannot be
continued too long, as vapour, being a bad conductor, prevents radiation
of heat from the body. A higher heat than 122° is not borne comfortably.
The vapour bath though falling considerably short of the temperature of
the hot air bath, raises the temperature much more.

_Hot air_ baths differ from vapour baths in not impeding the respiration
as the latter do, by depositing moisture in the bronchial tubes. The
lungs, instead of having to heat the inspired air, are subjected to a
temperature above their own. Hot air baths, say of 135°, produce more
profuse perspiration than vapour baths. If very hot, they raise the
temperature of the body by several degrees. Vapour baths, hot air baths,
and hot water baths agree in producing violent perspiration. As
perspiration eliminates water and effete matter from the system, it is
obvious that its regulation must have an important effect on the
economy.

In comparing the general effects of cold and hot baths, it may be said
that while the former tend to check perspiration, the latter favour it.

The warm bath causes swelling and congestion of the capillaries of the
surface in the first instance; when the stimulus of heat is withdrawn
their contraction ensues. A cold bath, again, first causes a contraction
of the capillaries of the surface, which is followed by their expansion
when reaction sets in. A warm bath elevates the temperature of the body,
both by bringing a supply of heat to it and by preventing the radiation
of heat from it. It can be borne longer than a cold bath. It draws blood
to the surface, while a cold bath favours internal congestions.

But baths often produce injurious effects when used injudiciously. Long
continued warm baths are soporific, and have, owing to this action,
often caused death by drowning. The effects of very hot baths are
swimming in the head, vomiting, fainting, congestion of the brain, and,
in some instances, apoplexy.

The symptoms seem to point to paralysis of the action of the heart. It
is therefore very evident how cautious those should be, in the use of
hot baths, who have weak hearts or any obstruction to the circulation.
Fat men, and those in whom the heart or blood-vessels are unsound,
should avoid them. Protracted indulgence in warm baths is relaxing, and
has been esteemed a sign of effeminacy in all ages. Sleepiness, though
it will not follow the first immersion in a cold bath, is one of the
effects of protracted cold baths; depression of the temperature of the
surface becomes dangerous. The risk in cold baths is congestion of the
internal organs, as often indicated by the lips getting blue. Extremely
cold baths are always dangerous.

For the medical use of baths see BALNEOTHERAPEUTICS.

_Public Baths._--It was not till 1846 that it was deemed advisable in
England, for the "health, comfort, and welfare" of the inhabitants of
towns and populous districts, to encourage the establishment therein of
baths by the local authority acting through commissioners. A series of
statutes, known collectively as "The Baths and Wash-houses Acts 1846 to
1896," followed. By the Public Health Act 1875, the urban authority was
declared to be the authority having power to adopt and proceed under
the previous acts, and in 1878 provision was for the first time
expressly made for the establishment of swimming baths, which might be
used during the winter as gymnasia, and by an amending act of 1899, for
music or dancing, provided a licence is obtained. By the Local
Government Act 1894, it was provided that the parish meeting should be
the authority having exclusive power of adopting the Baths and
Wash-houses Acts in rural districts, which should, if adopted, be
carried into effect by the parish council. Up to 1865 it seems as if
only twenty-five boroughs had cared to provide bathing accommodation for
their inhabitants. There is no complete information as to the number of
authorities who have adopted the acts since 1865, but a return of
reproductive undertakings presented to the House of Commons in 1899
shows that no local authorities outside the metropolis applied for power
to raise loans to provide baths, of whom 48 applied before 1875 and 62
after 1875. In the year 1907 the loans sanctioned for the purpose
amounted to £53,026. The revenues of parish councils are so limited that
it has not been possible for them to take much advantage of the acts. In
the metropolis, by the Local Government Act of 1894, the power of
working the act was given to vestries, and by the act of 1899 this power
was transferred to the borough councils. There are 35 parishes in London
in which the acts have been adopted, all of which except 11 have taken
action since 1875. These establishments, according to the return made in
1908, provided 3502 private baths and 104 swimming baths. The maximum
charge for a second-class cold bath is 1d., for a hot bath 2d. In
1904-1905 the number of bathers was 6,342,158, of whom 3,064,998 were
bathers in private baths and 3,277,160 bathers in swimming baths. In
1896-1897 the gross total had been only 2,000,000. In cases where the
proportion between the sexes has been worked out, it is found that only
18% of the users of private baths, and 10% of the users of swimming
baths, are females. In 1898 the School Board was authorized to pay the
fees for children using the baths if instruction in swimming were
provided, and in 1907-1908 the privilege was used by 1,556,542 children.
The cost of this public provision in London--water being supplied by
measure--is over £80,000 a year. No account can be given of the numbers
using the ponds and lakes in the parks and open spaces, but it is
computed that on a hot Sunday 25,000 people bathe in Victoria Park,
London, some of the bathers starting as early as four o'clock in the
morning. These returns show how great is the increase of the habit of
bathing, but they also show how even now the habit is limited to a
comparatively small part of the population. People require to be tempted
to the use of water, at any rate at the beginning. There are still
authorities in London responsible for 800,000 persons who have provided
no baths, and those who have made provision have not always done so in a
sufficiently liberal and tempting way. The comparison between English
great towns and those of the continent is not in favour of the former.

  For the literature of baths in earlier periods we may refer to the
  _Architecture_ of Vitruvius, and to Lucian's _Hippias_; see art.
  "Bäder" in Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencyclopadie_ (1896), by A. Mau;
  "Balneum" in Daremberg and Saglio, _Dict. des antiquités_ J. Marquardt
  _Das Privalleben der Romer_ (1886), pp. 269-297; Backer's _Gallus_,
  and the article "Balneae" by Rich, in Dr Smith's _Dictionary of Greek
  and Roman Antiquities_ (rev. ed. 1890); also the bibliography to
  HYDROPATHY.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The figure represents four strigils, in which the hollow for
    collecting the oil or perspiration from the body may be observed.
    There is also a small ampulla or vessel containing oil, meant to keep
    the strigils smooth, and a small flat patera or drinking vessel out
    of which it was customary to drink after the bathing was finished.



BATHURST, EARLS. ALLEN BATHURST, 1st Earl Bathurst (1684-1775), was the
eldest son of Sir Benjamin Bathurst (d. 1704), by his wife, Frances (d.
1727), daughter of Sir Allen Apsley of Apsley, Sussex, and belonged to a
family which is said to have settled in Sussex before the Norman
Conquest. He was educated at Trinity College, Oxford, and became member
of parliament for Cirencester in May 1705, retaining his seat until
December 1711, when he was created Baron Bathurst of Battlesden,
Bedfordshire. As a zealous Tory he defended Atterbury, bishop of
Rochester, and in the House of Lords was an opponent of Sir Robert
Walpole. After Walpole left office in 1742 he was made a privy
councillor, and in August 1772 was created Earl Bathurst, having
previously received a pension of £2000 a year chargeable upon the Irish
revenues. He died on the 16th of September 1775, and was buried in
Cirencester church. In July 1704 Bathurst married his cousin, Catherine
(d. 1768), daughter of Sir Peter Apsley, by whom he had four sons and
five daughters. The earl associated with the poets and scholars of the
time. Pope, Swift, Prior, Sterne, and Congreve were among his friends.
He is described in Sterne's _Letters to Eliza_; was the subject of a
graceful reference on the part of Burke speaking in the House of
Commons; and the letters which passed between him and Pope are published
in Pope's _Works_, vol. viii. (London, 1872).

HENRY, 2nd Earl Bathurst (1714-1794), was the eldest surviving son of
the 1st earl. Educated at Balliol College, Oxford, he was called to the
bar, and became a K.C. in 1745. In April 1735 he had been elected member
of parliament for Cirencester, and was rewarded for his opposition to
the government by being made solicitor-general and then attorney-general
to Frederick, prince of Wales. Resigning his seat in parliament in April
1754 he was made a judge of the court of common pleas in the following
month, and became lord high chancellor in January 1771, when he was
raised to the peerage as Baron Apsley. Having become Earl Bathurst by
his father's death in September 1775, he resigned his office somewhat
unwillingly in July 1778 to enable Thurlow to join the cabinet of Lord
North. In November 1779 he was appointed lord president of the council,
and left office with North in March 1782. He died at Oakley Grove near
Cirencester on the 6th of August 1794. Bathurst was twice married, and
left two sons and four daughters. He was a weak lord chancellor, but
appears to have been just and fair in his distribution of patronage.

HENRY, 3rd Earl Bathurst (1762-1834), the elder son of the second earl,
was born on the 22nd of May 1762. In April 1789 he married Georgiana (d.
1841), daughter of Lord George Henry Lennox, and was member of
parliament for Cirencester from 1783 until he succeeded to the earldom
in August 1794. Owing mainly to his friendship with William Pitt, he was
a lord of the admiralty from 1783 to 1789; a lord of the treasury from
1789 to 1791; and commissioner of the board of control from 1793 to
1802. Returning to office with Pitt in May 1804 he became master of the
mint, and was president of the Board of Trade and master of the mint
during the ministries of the duke of Portland and Spencer Perceval, only
vacating these posts in June 1812 to become secretary for war and the
colonies under the earl of Liverpool. For two months during the year
1809 he was in charge of the foreign office. He was secretary for war
and the colonies until Liverpool resigned in April 1827; and deserves
some credit for improving the conduct of the Peninsular War, while it
was his duty to defend the government concerning its treatment of
Napoleon Bonaparte. Bathurst's official position caused his name to be
mentioned frequently during the agitation for the abolition of slavery,
and with regard to this traffic he seems to have been animated by a
humane spirit. He was lord president of the council in the government of
the duke of Wellington from 1828 to 1830, and favoured the removal of
the disabilities of Roman Catholics, but was a sturdy opponent of the
reform bill of 1832. The earl, who had four sons and two daughters, died
on the 27th of July 1834. Bathurst was made a knight of the Garter in
1817, and held several lucrative sinecures.

His eldest son, HENRY GEORGE, 4th Earl Bathurst (1790-1866), was member
of parliament for Cirencester from 1812 to 1834. He died unmarried on
the 25th of May 1866, and was succeeded in the title by his brother,
WILLIAM LENNOX, 5th Earl Bathurst (1791-1878), member of parliament for
Weobley from 1812 to 1816, and clerk of the privy council from 1827 to
1860, who died unmarried on the 24th of February 1878.

ALLEN ALEXANDER. 6th Earl Bathurst (1832-1892), was the son of Thomas
Seymour Bathurst, and grandson of the 3rd earl. He was member of
parliament for Cirencester from 1857 until he became Earl Bathurst in
February 1878, and died on the 2nd of August 1892, when his eldest son,
SEYMOUR HENRY (b. 1864), became 7th Earl Bathurst.



BATHURST, a city of Bathurst county, New South Wales, Australia, 144 m.
by rail W.N.W. of Sydney on the Great Western railway. Pop. (1901) 9223.
It is situated on the south bank of the Macquarie river, at an elevation
of 2153 ft., in a fertile undulating plain on the west side of the Blue
Mountains. Bathurst has broad streets,, crossing one another at right
angles, with a handsome park in the centre of the town, while many of
the public buildings, specially the town hall, government buildings, and
Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals, are noteworthy. Bathurst is the
centre of the chief wheat-growing district of New South Wales, while
gold, copper and silver are extensively mined in its vicinity. There are
railway works, coach factories, tanneries, breweries, flour-mills and
manufactures of boots and shoes and other commodities. The town was
founded in 1815 by Governor Macquarie, taking its name from the 3rd Earl
Bathurst, then secretary of state for the colonies, and it has been a
municipality since 1862.



BATHVILLITE, a naturally occurring organic substance. It is an
amorphous, opaque, and very friable material of fawn-brown colour,
filling cavities in the torbanite or Boghead coal of Bathville,
Scotland. It has a specific gravity of 1.01, and is insoluble in
benzene.



BATHYBIUS ([Greek: bathis], deep, and [Greek: bios], life), a slimy
substance at one time supposed to exist in great masses in the depths of
the ocean and to consist of undifferentiated protoplasm. Regarding it as
an organism which represented the simplest form of life, Huxley about
1868 named it _Bathybius Haeckelii_. But investigations carried out in
connexion with the "Challenger" expedition indicated that it was an
artificial product, composed of a flocculent precipitate of gypsum
thrown down from sea-water by alcohol, and the hypothesis of its organic
character was abandoned by most biologists, Huxley included.



BATHYCLES, an Ionian sculptor of Magnesia, was commissioned by the
Spartans to make a marble throne for the statue of Apollo at Amyclae,
about 550 B.C. Pausanias (iii. 18) gives us a detailed description of
this monument, which is of the greatest value to us, showing the
character of Ionic art at the time. It was adorned with scenes from
mythology in relief and supporting figures in the round.

  For a reconstruction, see Furtwängler, _Meisterwerke der griech
  Plastik_, p. 706.



BATLEY, a municipal borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England,
within the parliamentary borough of Dewsbury, 8 m. S.S.W. of Leeds, on
the Great Northern, London & North Western, and Lancashire & Yorkshire
railways. Pop. (1900) 30,321. Area 2039 acres. The church of All Saints
is mainly Perpendicular, and contains some fine woodwork, mostly of the
17th century, and some good memorial tombs. The market square contains
an excellent group of modern buildings, including the town hall, public
library, post office and others. The town is a centre of the heavy
woollen trade, and has extensive manufactures of army cloths, pilot
cloths, druggets, flushings, &c. The working up of old material as
"shoddy" is largely carried on. There are also iron foundries,
manufactures of machinery, and stone quarries. The town lies on the
south-west Yorkshire coalfield, and there are a number of collieries in
the district. The borough is governed by a mayor, six aldermen, and
eighteen councillors.



BATON (Fr. _bâton_, _baston_, from Late Lat. _basto_, a stick or staff),
the truncheon carried by a field marshal as a sign of authority, by a
police constable, &c.; in music, the stick with which the conductor of
an orchestra beats time; in heraldry, the fourth part of a bend,
frequently broken off short at the ends so as to be shaped like a rod;
in English coats of arms, only as a mark of illegitimacy, the "baton
sinister."



BATONI, POMPEO GIROLAMO (1708-1787), Italian painter, was born at Lucca.
He was regarded in Italy as a great painter in the 18th century, and
unquestionably did much to rescue the art from the intense mannerism
into which it had fallen during the preceding century. His paintings,
however, are not of the highest order of merit, though they are
generally graceful, well designed, and harmoniously coloured. His best
production is thought to be his group of "Peace and War." Batoni painted
an unusual number of pictures, and was also celebrated for his
portraits.



BATON ROUGE, the capital of Louisiana, U.S.A., and of East Baton Rouge
parish, on the E. bank of the Mississippi river, about 70 m. N.W. of New
Orleans. Pop. (1890) 10,478; (1900) 11,269, of whom 6596 were of negro
descent; (1910 census) 14,897. It is served by the Yazoo & Mississippi
Valley railway and by the Louisiana Railway & Navigation Company; and
the Texas & Pacific enters Port Alien, just across the river. The city
lies on the river bluff, secure against the highest floods. Old houses
in the Spanish style give quaintness to its appearance. The state
capitol was built in 1880-1882, replacing another burned in 1862. At
Baton Rouge is the State University and Agricultural and Mechanical
College (1860), of which the Audubon Sugar School, "for the highest
scientific training in the growing of sugar cane and in the technology
of sugar manufacture," is an important and distinctive feature. The
university grew out of the Louisiana State Seminary of Learning and
Military Academy, founded in 1855 near Alexandria and opened in 1860
under the charge of W.T. Sherman. In 1869 the institution was removed to
Baton Rouge, and in 1877 it was united with the Agricultural and
Mechanical College, established in 1873 and in 1874 opened at New
Orleans. The campus of the university is the former barracks of the
Baton Rouge garrison, occupied by the college since 1886 and transferred
to it by the Federal government in 1902. The enrolment of the university
in 1907-1908 was 636. Other important institutions at Baton Rouge are a
State Agricultural Experiment Station, asylums and schools for the deaf
and dumb, for the blind, and for orphans, and the state penitentiary.
The surrounding bluff and alluvial country is very rich. Sugar and
cotton plantations and sub-tropic fruit orchards occupy the front-lands
on the river. The manufactures include lumber and cotton seed products,
and sugar. The value of the city's factory products increased from
$717,368 in 1900 to $1,383,061 in 1905 or 92.8%. The city is governed
under a charter granted by the legislature in 1898. This charter is
peculiar in that it gives to the city council the power to elect various
administrative boards--of police, finance, &c.--from which the
legislative council of most cities is separated.

Baton Rouge was one of the earliest French settlements in the state. As
a part of West Florida, it passed into the hands of the British in 1763,
and in 1779 was captured by Bernardo Galvez, the Spanish governor of
Louisiana. The town was incorporated in 1817. In 1849 it was made the
state capital, remaining so until 1862, when Shreveport became the
Confederate state capital. In 1864 the Unionists made New Orleans the
seat of government. The Secession Ordinance of Louisiana was passed on
the 26th of January 1861 by a convention that met at Baton Rouge. On the
and of May 1862 the city was captured by the forces of the United States
under Col. Benjamin H. Grierson (b. 1826), who had led raiders thither
from Tennessee; on the 12th of May it was formally occupied by troops
from New Orleans, and was successfully defended by Brig.-Gen. Thomas
Williams (1815-1862) against an attack by Confederate forces under
General John C. Breckinridge on the 5th of August 1862; Gen. Williams,
however, was killed during the attack. Baton Rouge was soon abandoned
for a month, was then reoccupied, and was held throughout the rest of
the war. It became the state capital again in 1882, in accordance with
the state constitution of 1879. For several years after 1840 Zachary
Taylor made his home on a plantation near Baton Rouge.



BATRACHIA. The arguments adduced by T.H. Huxley, in his article on this
subject in the ninth edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_, for
applying the name Amphibia to those lung-breathing, pentadactyle
vertebrates which had been first severed from the Linnaean Amphibia by
Alexandre Brongniart, under the name of _Batrachia_, have not met with
universal acceptance. Although much used in text-books and anatomical
works in Great Britain and in Germany, the former name has been
discarded in favour of the latter by the principal authors on
systematic herpetology, such as W. Peters, A. Günther and E.D. Cope, and
their lead is followed in the present article. Bearing in mind that
Linnaeus, in his use of the name Amphibia, was not alluding to the
gill-breathing and air-breathing periods through which most frogs and
newts pass in the course of their existence, but only wished to convey
the fact that many of the constituents of the group resort to both land
and water (e.g. crocodiles), it seems hard to admit that the term may be
thus diverted from its original signification, especially when such a
change results in discarding the name expressly proposed by Brongniart
to denote the association which has ever since been universally adopted
either as an order, a sub-class or a class. Many authors who have
devoted special attention to questions of nomenclature therefore think
_Reptilia_ and _Batrachia_ the correct names of the two great classes
into which the Linnaean _Amphibia_ have been divided, and consider that
the latter term should be reserved for the use of those who, like that
great authority, the late Professor Peters, down to the time of his
death in 1883, would persist in regarding reptiles and batrachians as
mere sub-classes (1). However extraordinary it may appear, especially to
those who bring the living forms only into focus, that opposition should
still be made to Huxley's primary division of the vertebrates other than
mammals into _Sauropsida_ (birds and reptiles) and _Ichthyopsida_
(batrachians and fishes), it is certain that recent discoveries in
palaeontology have reduced the gap between batrachians and reptiles to
such a minimum as to cause the greatest embarrassment in the attempt to
draw a satisfactory line of separation between the two; on the other
hand the hiatus between fishes and batrachians remains as wide as it was
at the time Huxley's article Amphibia (_Encyclopaedia Britannica_, 9th
ed.) was written.

The chief character which distinguishes the Batrachians from the
reptiles, leaving aside the metamorphoses, lies in the arrangement of
the bones of the palate, where a large parasphenoid extends forwards as
far or nearly as far as the vomers and widely separates the pterygoids.
The bones which bear the two occipital condyles have given rise to much
discussion, and the definition given by Huxley in the previous
edition--"two occipital condyles, the basi-occipital region of the skull
either very incompletely or not at all ossified"--requires revision.
Some authors have held that the bone on which the occipital condyles
have been found most developed in some labyrinthodonts (2) represents a
large basi-occipital bearing two knobs for the articulation with the
first vertebra, whilst the skull of the batrachians of the present day
has lost the basi-occipital, and the condyles are furnished by the
exoccipitals. On the other hand, some reptiles have the occipital
condyle divided into two and produced either by the basi-occipital or by
the exoccipitals. But the recent find of a well preserved skull of a
labyrinthodont (_Capitosaurus stantonensis_) from the Trias of
Staffordshire has enabled A.S. Woodward (3) to show that, in that form
at any rate, the condyles are really exoccipital, although they are
separated by a narrow basi-occipital. It is therefore very probable that
the authors quoted in (2) were mistaken in their identification of the
elements at the base of the foramen magnum. The fact remains, however,
that some if not all of the stegocephalous batrachians have an ossified
basi-occipital.

As a result of his researches on the anomodont reptiles and the
Stegocephalia (4), as the extinct order that includes the well known
labyrinthodonts is now called, we have had the proposal by H.G. Seeley
(5) to place the latter with the reptiles instead of with the
batrachians, and H. Gadow, in his most recent classification (6), places
some of them among the reptiles, others being left with the batrachians;
whilst H. Credner, basing his views on the discovery by him of various
annectent forms between the Stegocephalia and the Rhynchocephalian
reptiles, has proposed a class, _Eotetrapoda_, to include these forms,
ancestors of the batrachians proper on the one hand, of the reptiles
proper on the other. Yet, that the Stegocephalia, notwithstanding their
great affinity to the reptiles, ought to be included in the batrachians
as commonly understood, seems sufficiently obvious from the mere fact of
their passing through a branchiate condition, i.e. undergoing
metamorphosis (7). The outcome of our present knowledge points to the
Stegocephalia, probably themselves derived from the Crossopterygian
fishes (8), having yielded on the one hand the true batrachians
(retrogressive series), with which they are to a certain extent
connected through the _Caudata_ and the _Apoda_, on the other hand the
reptiles (progressive series), through the Rhynchocephalians and the
Anomodonts, the latter being believed, on very suggestive evidence, to
lead to the mammals (9).

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Upper view of _Archegosaurus Decheni_.

  (Outlines after Gredner.)

  pm, Praemaxilla.      st, Supratemporal.
  n, Nasal.             sq, Squamosal.
  m, Maxilla.           pto, Postorbital.
  l, Lachrymal.         qj, Quadrato-jugal.
  pf, Praefrontal.      o, Occipital.
  f, Frontal.           pt, Post-temporal.
  j, Jugal.             q, Quadrate.
  ptf, Postfrontal.
  p, Parietal.]

The division of the class Amphibia or Batrachia into four orders, as
carried out by Huxley, is maintained, with, however, a change of names:
_Stegocephalia_, for the assemblage of minor groups that cluster round
the _Labyrinthodonta_ of R. Owen, which name is restricted to the forms
for which it was originally intended; _Peromela_, _Urodela_, _Anura_,
are changed to _Apoda_, _Caudata_, _Ecaudata_, for the reason that
(unless obviously misleading, which is not the case in the present
instance) the first proposed name should supersede all others for higher
groups as well as for genera and species, and the latter set have the
benefit of the law of priority. In the first subdivision of the
batrachians into two families by C. Duméril in 1806 (_Zool. Anal_. pp.
90-94) these are termed "Anoures" and "Urodeles" in French, _Ecaudati_
and _Caudati_ in Latin. When Duméril's pupil, M. Oppel, in 1811 (_Ordn.
Rept_. p. 72), added the Caecilians, he named the three groups _Apoda_,
_Ecaudata_ and _Caudata_. The Latin form being the only one entitled to
recognition in zoological nomenclature, it follows that the
last-mentioned names should be adopted for the three orders into which
recent batrachians are divided.

  I. STEGOCEPHALIA (10).--Tailed, lacertiform or serpentiform
  batrachians, with the temporal region of the skull roofed over by
  postorbital, squamosal, and supratemporal plates similar to the same
  bones in Crossopterygian fishes, and likewise with paired dermal bones
  (occipitals and post-temporals) behind the parietals and
  supratemporals. A parietal foramen; scales or bony scutes frequently
  present, especially on the ventral region, which is further protected
  by three large bony plates--interclavicle and clavicles, the latter in
  addition to cleithra.

  Extinct, ranging from the Upper Devonian to the Trias. Our knowledge
  of Devonian forms is still extremely meagre, the only certain proof of
  the existence of pentadactyle vertebrates at that period resting on
  the footprints discovered in Pennsylvania and described by O.C. Marsh
  (11) as _Tinopus antiquus_. Sundry remains from Belgium, as to the
  identification of which doubts are still entertained, have been
  regarded by M. Lohest (12) as evidence of these batrachians in the
  Devonian. Over 200 species are now distinguished, from the
  Carboniferous of Europe and North America, the Permian of Spitsbergen,
  Europe, North America and South Africa, and the Trias of Europe,
  America, South Africa, India and Australia. The forms of batrachians
  with which we are acquainted show the vertebral column to have been
  evolved in the course of time from a notochordal condition with
  segmented centra similar to that of early bony ganoid fishes (e.g.
  _Caturus_, _Eurycormus_), to biconcave centra, and finally to the
  socket-and-ball condition that prevails at the present day. However,
  owing to the evolution of the vertebral column in various directions,
  and to the inconstant state of things in certain annectent groups, it
  is not possible, it seems, to apply the vertebral characters to
  taxonomy with that rigidity which E.D. Cope and some other recent
  authors have attempted to enforce. This is particularly evident in
  the case of the Stegocephalians; and recent batrachians, tailed and
  tailless, show the mode of articulation of the vertebrae, whether
  amphicoelous, opisthocoelous or procoelous, to be of but secondary
  systematic importance in dealing with these lowly vertebrates. The
  following division of the Stegocephalians into five sub-orders is
  therefore open to serious criticism; but it seems on the whole the
  most natural to adopt in the light of our present knowledge.

  [Illustration: FIG 2.--A, Dorsal vertebrae. B, Caudal vertebra of
  _Archegosaurus_. na, Neural arch; ch, chorda; pl, pleurocentrum; ic,
  intercentrum.

  (Outline after Jaekel.)]

  A. Rhachitomi, (figs. 1, 2), in which the spinal cord rests on the
  notochord, which persists uninterrupted and is surrounded by three
  bony elements in addition to the neural arch: a so-called
  pleurocentrum on each side, which appears to represent the centrum
  proper of reptiles and mammals, and an intercentrum or hypocentrum
  below, which may extend to the neural arch, and probably answers to
  the hypapophysis, as it is produced into chevrons in the caudal
  region. Mostly large forms, of Carboniferous and Permian age, with a
  more or less complex infolding of the walls of the teeth. Families:
  ARCHEGOSAURIDAE, ERYOPIDAE, TRIMERORHACHIDAE, DISSORHOPHIDAE. The last
  is remarkable for an extraordinary endo- and exo-skeletal carapace,
  _Dissorhophus_ being described by Cope (13) as a "batrachian
  armadillo."

  B. Embolomeri, with the centra and intercentra equally developed
  disks, of which there are thus two to each neural arch; these disks
  perforated in the middle for the passage of the notochord. This type
  may be directly derived from the preceding, with which it appears to
  be connected by the genus _Diplospondylus_. Fam.: CRICOTIDAE, Permian.

  C. Labyrinthodonta, with simple biconcave vertebral disks, very
  slightly pierced by a remnant of the notochord and supporting the
  loosely articulated neural arch. This condition is derived from that
  of the _Rhachitomi_, as shown by the structure of the vertebral column
  in young specimens. Mostly large forms from the Trias (a few Permian),
  with true labyrinthic dentition. Families: LABYRINTHODONTIDAE,
  ANTHRACOSAURIDAE, DENDRERPETIDAE, NYRANIIDAE.

  D. Microsauria, nearest the reptiles, with persistent notochord
  completely surrounded by constricted cylinders on which the neural
  arch rests. Teeth hollow, with simple or only slightly folded walls.
  Mostly of small size and abundant in the Carboniferous and Lower
  Permian. Families: UROCORDYLIDAE, LIMNERPETIDAE, HYLONOMIDAE (fig. 3),
  MICROBRACHIDAE, DOLICHOSOMATIDAE, the latter serpentiform, apodal.

  E. Branchiosauria, nearest to the true batrachians; with persistent
  non-constricted notochord, surrounded by barrel-shaped, bony cylinders
  formed by the neural arch above and a pair of intercentra below, both
  these elements taking an equal share in the formation of a transverse
  process on each side for the support of the rib. This plan of
  structure, apparently evolved out of the rhachitomous type by
  suppression of the pleurocentra and the downward extension of the
  neural arch, leads to that characteristic of frogs in which, as
  development shows, the vertebra is formed wholly or for the greater
  part by the neural arch (14). Small forms from the Upper Carboniferous
  and Permian formations. A single family: BRANCHIOSAURIDAE.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--A, Dorsal vertebra of _Hylonomus_ (side view
  and front view). B, Dorsal vertebra of _Branchiosaurus_ (side view and
  front view). n, Neural canal; ch, chorda.

  (After Credner.)]

  II. APODA (15).--No limbs. Tail vestigial or absent. Frontal bones
  distinct from parietals; palatines fused with maxillaries. Male with
  an intromittent copulatory organ. Degraded, worm-like batrachians of
  still obscure affinities, inhabiting tropical Africa, south-eastern
  Asia and tropical America. Thirty-three species are known. No fossils
  have yet been discovered. It has been attempted of late to do away
  with this order altogether and to make the Caecilians merely a family
  of the Urodeles. This view has originated out of the very remarkable
  superficial resemblance between the _Ichthyophis_-larva and the
  _Amphiuma_. Cope (16) regarded the Apoda as the extremes of a line of
  degeneration from the Salamanders, with _Amphiuma_ as one of the
  annectent forms. In the opinion of P. and F. Sarasin (17), whose great
  work on the development of _Ichthyophis_ is one of the most important
  recent contributions to our knowledge of the batrachians, _Amphiuma_
  is a sort of neotenic Caecilian, a larval form become sexually mature
  while retaining the branchial respiration. If the absence of limbs and
  the reduction of the tail were the only characteristic of the group,
  there would be, of course, no objection to unite the Caecilians with
  the Urodeles; but, to say nothing of the scales, present in many
  genera of Apodals and absent in all Caudates, which have been shown by
  H. Credner to be identical in structure with those of Stegocephalians,
  the Caecilian skull presents features which are not shared by any of
  the tailed batrachians. G.M. Winslow (18), who has made a study of the
  chondrocranium of _Ichthyophis_, concludes that its condition could
  not have been derived from a Urodele form, but points to some more
  primitive ancestor. That this ancestor was nearly related to, if not
  one of, the Stegocephalians, future discovery will in all probability
  show.

  III. CAUDATA (19).--Tailed batrachians, with the frontals distinct
  from the parietals and the palatines from the maxillary. Some of the
  forms breathe by gills throughout their existence, and were formerly
  regarded as establishing a passage from the fishes to the
  air-breathing batrachians. They are now considered as arrested larvae
  descended from the latter. One of the most startling discoveries of
  the decade 1890-1900 was the fact that a number of forms are devoid of
  both gills and lungs, and breathe merely by the skin and the buccal
  mucose membrane (20). Three blind cave-forms are known: one
  terrestrial--_Typhlotriton_, from North America, and two
  perennibranchiate--_Proteus_ in Europe and _Typhlomolge_ in North
  America.

  This order contains about 150 species, referred to five families:
  HYLAEOBATRACHIDAE, SALAMANDRIDAE, AMPHIUMIDAE, PROTEIDAE, SIRENIDAE.

  Fossil remains are few in the Upper Eocene and Miocene of Europe and
  the Upper Cretaceous of North America. The oldest Urodele known is
  _Hylaeobatrachus_ Dollo (21) from the Lower Wealden of Belgium. At
  present this order is confined to the northern hemisphere, with the
  exception of two _Spelerpes_ from the Andes of Ecuador and Peru, and a
  _Plethodon_ from Argentina.

  IV. ECAUDATA (22).--Frogs and toads. Four limbs and no tail. Radius
  confluent with ulna, and tibia with fibula; tarsus (astragalus and
  calcaneum) elongate, forming an additional segment in the hind limb.
  Caudal vertebrae fused into a urostyle or coccyx. Frontal bones
  confluent with parietals.

  This order embraces about 1300 species, of which some 40 are fossil,
  divided into two sub-orders and sixteen families:--

  A. Aglossa,--Eustachian tubes united into a single ostium pharyngeum;
  no tongue. DACTYLETHRIDAE, PIPIDAE.

  B. Phaneroglossa,--Eustachian tubes separated; tongue present.
  DISCOGLOSSIDAE, PELOBATIDAE, HEMIPHRACTIDAE, AMPHIGNATHODONTIDAE,
  HYLIDAE, BUFONIDAE, DENDROPHRYNISCIDAE, CYSTIGNATHIDAE, DYSCOPHIDAE,
  GENYOPHRYNIDAE, ENGYSTOMATIDAE, CERATOBATRACHIDAE, RANIDAE,
  DENDROBATIDAE.

  The Phaneroglossa are divided into two groups; _Arcifera_ and
  _Firmisternia_, representing two stages of evolution. The family
  characters are mainly derived from the dilatation or non-dilatation of
  the sacral diapophyses, and the presence of teeth in one or both jaws,
  or their absence. The _Discoglossidae_ are noteworthy for the presence
  of short ribs to some of the vertebrae, and in some other points also
  they approach the tailed batrachians; they may be safely regarded as,
  on the whole, the most generalized of known Ecaudata. Distinct ribs
  are present at an early age in the Aglossa, as discovered by W.G.
  Ridewood (23). The recent addition of a third genus of Aglossa,
  _Hymenochirus_ (24) from tropical Africa, combining characters of
  _Pipa_ and _Xenopus_, has removed every doubt as to the real affinity
  which connects these genera. _Hymenochirus_ is further remarkable for
  the presence of only six distinct pieces in the vertebral column,
  which is thus the most abbreviated among all the vertebrata.

  Frogs and toads occur wherever insect food is procurable, and their
  distribution is a world-wide one, with the exception of many islands.
  Thus New Caledonia, which has a rich and quite special lizard-fauna,
  has no batrachians of its own, although the Australian _Hyla aurea_
  has been introduced with success. New Zealand possesses only one
  species (_Liopelma hochstetteri_), which appears to be rare and
  restricted to the North Island. The forest regions of southern Asia,
  Africa and South America are particularly rich in species.

  According to our present knowledge, the Ecaudata can be traced about
  as far back in time as the Caudata. An unmistakable batrachian of this
  order, referred by its describer to _Palaeobatrachus_, a determination
  which is only provisional, has been discovered in the Kimmeridgian of
  the Sierra del Montsech, Catalonia (25), in a therefore somewhat older
  formation than the Wealden Caudata _Hylaeobatrachus_.

  Apart from a few unsatisfactory remains from the Eocene of Wyoming,
  fossil tailless batrachians are otherwise only known from the
  Oligocene, Miocene and Pliocene of Europe and India. These forms
  differ very little from those that live at the present day in the same
  part of the world, and some of the genera (_Discoglossus, Bufo,
  Oxyglossus, Rana_) are even identical. _Palaeobatrachus_ (26), of
  which a number of species represented by skeletons of the perfect form
  and of the tadpole have been described from Miocene beds in Germany,
  Bohemia and France, seems to be referable to the _Pelobatidae_; this
  genus has been considered as possibly one of the Aglossa, but the
  absence of ribs in the larvae speaks against such an association.

  Numerous additions have been made to our knowledge of the development
  and nursing habits, which are extremely varied, some forms dispensing
  with or hurrying through the metamorphoses and hopping out of the egg
  in the perfect condition (27).

  _Skeleton._--In the earliest forms of this order, the Stegocephalia,
  we meet with considerable variety in the constitution of the
  vertebrae, and these modifications have been used for their
  classification. All agree, however, in having each vertebra formed of
  at least two pieces, the suture between which persists throughout
  life. In this they differ from the three orders which have living
  representatives. Even the inferior arches or chevrons of the tail of
  salamanders are continuously ossified with the centra. As a matter of
  fact, these vertebrae have no centra proper, that part which should
  correspond with the centrum being formed, as a study of the
  development has shown (H. Gadow, 14), by the meeting and subsequent
  complete co-ossification of the two chief dorsal and ventral pairs of
  elements (tail-vertebrae of Caudata), or entirely by the pair of
  dorsal elements. In the Ecaudata, the vertebrae of the trunk are
  formed on two different plans. In some the notochord remains for a
  long time exposed along the ventral surface, and, owing to the absence
  of cartilaginous formation around it, disappears without ever becoming
  invested otherwise than by a thin elastic membrane; it can be easily
  stripped off below the vertebrae in larval specimens on the point of
  metamorphosing. This has been termed the _epichordal_ type. In others,
  which represent the _perichordal_ type, the greater share of the
  formation of the whole vertebra falls to the (paired) dorsal
  cartilage, but there is in addition a narrow ventral or hypochordal
  cartilage which fuses with the dorsal or becomes connected with it by
  calcified tissue; the notochord is thus completely surrounded by a
  thick sheath in tadpoles with imperfectly developed limbs. This mode
  of formation of both the arch and the greater part or whole of the
  so-called centrum from the same cartilage explains why there is never
  a neuro-central suture in these batrachians.

  During segmentation of the dorsal cartilages mentioned above, which
  send out the transverse processes of diapophyses, there appears
  between each two centra an intervertebral cartilage, out of which the
  articulating condyle of the centrum is formed, and becomes attached
  either to the vertebra anterior (precoelous type) or posterior
  (opisthocoelous type) to it, if not remaining as an independent,
  intervertebral, ossified sphere, as we sometimes find in specimens of
  _Pelobatidae_.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--The first two vertebrae of _Necturus_. Vt^1,
  Atlas; Vt^2, second vertebrae; a, intercondyloid process of the atlas;
  b, the articular surfaces for the occipital condyles. The ribs of the
  second vertebra are not represented. A, Dorsal; B, ventral; C, lateral
  view. ]

  In the Caudata and Apoda, cartilage often persists between the
  vertebrae; this cartilage may become imperfectly separated into a
  cup-and-ball portion, the cup belonging to the posterior end of the
  vertebra. In such cases the distinction between amphicoelous and
  opisthocoelous vertebrae rests merely on a question of ossification,
  and has occasionally given rise to misunderstandings in the use of
  these terms.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--_Necturus_. Posterior (A) and ventral (B)
  views of the sacral vertebrae (S.V.); S.R.^1, S.R.^2, sacral ribs; Il,
  ilium; Is, ischium.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.-Vertebral column of _Hymenochtrus_ (ventral
  view).]

  Amphicoelous (bi-concave) vertebrae are found in the Apoda and in some
  of the Caudata; opisthocoelous (convexo-concave) vertebrae in the
  higher Caudata and in the lower Ecaudata; whilst the great majority of
  the Ecaudata have procoelous (concavo-convex) vertebrae.

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.--Chondrocranium of _Rana esculenta_--ventral
  aspect.

    rp,     The rhinal process.
    pnl,    The praenasal processes.
    an,     The alinasal processes, shown by the removal of part of the
              floor of the left nasal chamber.
    AO.,    The antorbital process.
    pd,     The pedicle of the suspensorium continued into cv, the
              ventral crus of the suspensorium.
    cd,     Its dorsal crus.
    tt,     The tegmen tympani.
    SE,     The sphen-ethmoid.
    EO.,    The exoccipitals.
    Qu.J.,  The quadratojugal.
    II. V. VI. Foramina by which the optic, trigeminal and abortio dura,
                 and abducens nerves leave the skull.]

  All living batrachians, and some of the Stegocephalia, have transverse
  processes on the vertebrae that succeed the atlas (fig. 4), some of
  which, in the Caudata, are divided into a dorsal and a ventral
  portion. Ribs are present in the lower Ecaudata (_Discoglossidae_ and
  larval Aglossa), but they are never connected with a sternum. It is in
  fact doubtful whether the so-called sternum of batrachians, in most
  cases a mere plate of cartilage, has been correctly identified as
  such. When limbs are present, one vertebra, rarely two (fig. 5) or
  three, are distinguished as sacral, giving attachment to the ilia. In
  the Ecaudata, the form of the transverse processes of the sacral
  vertebra varies very considerably, and has afforded important
  characters to the systematist. In accordance with the saltatorial
  habits of the members of this order, the vertebrae, which number from
  40 to 60 in the Caudata, to upwards of 200 in the Apoda, have become
  reduced to 10 as the normal number, viz., eight praecaudal, one sacral
  and an elongate coccyx or urostyle, formed by coalescence of at least
  two vertebrae. In some genera this coccyx is fused with the ninth
  vertebra, and contributes to the sacrum, whilst in a few others the
  number of segments is still further reduced by the co-ossification of
  one or two vertebrae preceding that corresponding to the normal sacral
  and by the fusion of the two first vertebrae, the extreme of reduction
  being found in the genus _Hymenochirus_, the vertebral column of which
  is figured here (fig 6.)

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.--The skull of _Ichthyophis glutinosus_ A,
  Dorsal; B, ventral; C, lateral view. The letters have the same
  signification as below.]

  As stated above in the definition of the order, the Stegocephalia have
  retained most of the cranial bones which are to be found in the
  Crossopterygian fishes, and it is worthy of note that the bones termed
  post-temporals may give attachment to a further bone so prolonged
  backwards as to suggest the probability of the skull being connected
  with the shoulder-girdle, as in most teleostome fishes. This
  supposition is supported by a specimen from the Lower Permian of
  Autun, determined as _Actinodon frossardi_, acquired in 1902 by the
  British Museum, which shows a bone, similar to the so-called "epiotic
  cornu" of the microsaurians, _Ceraterpeton_ and _Scincosaurus_, to
  have the relations of the supra-cleithrum of fishes, thus confirming a
  suggestion made by C.W. Andrews (28). As in fishes also, the sensory
  canal system must have been highly developed on the skulls of many
  labyrinthodonts, and the impressions left by these canals have been
  utilized by morphologists for homologizing the various elements of the
  cranial roof with those of Crossopterygians. The pineal foramen, in
  the parietal bones, is as constantly present as it is absent in the
  other orders. Although not strictly forming part of the skull,
  allusion should be made here to the ring of sclerotic plates which has
  been found in many of the Stegocephalia, and which is only found
  elsewhere in a few Crossopterygian fishes as well as in many reptiles
  and birds.

  In the orders which are still represented at the present day, the
  bones of the skull are reduced in number and the "primordial skull,"
  or chondrocranium (fig. 7), remains to a greater or less extent
  unossified, even in the adult. Huxley's figures of the skull of a
  caccilian (_Ichthyophis glutinosus_), fig. 8, of a perennibranchiate
  urodele (_Necturus maculosus = Menobranchus lateralis_), fig. 9, and
  of a frog (_Rana esculenta_), fig. 10, are here given for comparison.

  The skull, in the _Apoda_, is remarkably solid and compact, and it
  possesses a postorbital or postfrontal bone (marked 1 in the figure)
  which does not exist in any of the other living batrachians. The
  squamosal bone is large and either in contact with the frontals and
  parietals or separated from them by a vacuity; the orbit is sometimes
  roofed over by bone. The presence, in some genera, of a second row of
  mandibular teeth seems to indicate the former existence of a splenial
  element, such as exists in _Siren_ among the Caudata and apparently in
  the labyrinthodonts.

  In the Caudata, the frontals remain likewise distinct from the
  parietals, whilst in the Ecaudata the two elements are fused into one,
  and in a few forms (Aglossa, some _Pelobalidae_) the paired condition
  of these bones has disappeared in the adult. Prefrontal bones are
  present in the _Salamandridae_ and _Amphiumidae_, but absent (or fused
  with the nasals) in the other Caudata and in the Ecaudata. In most of
  the former the palatines fuse with the vomers, whilst they remain
  distinct, unless entirely lost, in the latter. The vomer is single, or
  absent, in the Aglossa. In the lower jaw of most of the Ecaudata the
  symphysial cartilages ossify separately from the dentary bones,
  forming the so-called mento-meckelian bones; but these symphysial
  bones, so distinct in the frog, are less so in the _Hylidae_ and
  _Bufonidae_, almost indistinguishable in the _Pelobatidae_ and
  _Discoglossidae_, whilst in the Aglossa they do not exist any more
  than in the other orders of batrachians.

  No batrachian is known to possess an ossified azygous supra-occipital.

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.--Lateral, dorsal and ventral views of the
  cranium of _Necturus maculosus_. In the dorsal view, the bones are
  removed from the left half of the skull, in the ventral view, the
  parasphenoid, palato-pterygoid, and vomers are given in outline. The
  letters have, for the most part, the same signification as before.

    VII.p, Posterior division of the seventh nerve.
    VII. Chorda tympani
    V^1, V^2, V^3, First, second and third divisions of the trigeminal.
    s.s.l, Stapedio-suspensorial ligament.
    h.s.l, Hyo-suspensorial ligament.
    m.h.l, Mandibulo-hyoid ligament.
    a, Ascending process of the suspensorium.
    p, Pterygo-palatine process.
    q, Quadrate process.
    o, Otic process.
    Na, Posterior nares.
    Mck, Meckel's cartilage.
    Gl (fig. 10), The position of the glottis.
    Bb^1, Bb^2, Basilbranchials.]

  Although there are four branchial arches in all the larval forms of
  the three orders, and throughout life in the _Sirenidae_, the
  perennibranchiate _Proteidae_ have only three (see fig. 11). In the
  adult Apoda these arches and the hyoid fuse into three transverse,
  curved or angular bones (see fig. 13), the two posterior disconnected
  from the hyoid. In the Ecaudata, as shown by F. Gaupp (29) and by W.G.
  Ridewood (30), the whole hyobranchial apparatus forms a cartilaginous
  continuum, and during metamorphosis the branchialia disappear without
  a trace. The hyoid of the adult frog (fig. 12) consists of a plate of
  cartilage with two slender cornua, three processes on each side, and
  two long bony rods behind, termed the thyro-hyals, which embrace the
  larynx. In the Aglossa, which are remarkable for the large size and
  complexity of the larynx, the thyro-hyal bones are incorporated into
  the laryngeal apparatus, whilst the recently discovered _Hymenochirus_
  is further remarkable for the large size and ossification of the
  hyoidean cornua (ceratohyals), a feature which, though not uncommon
  among the salamanders, is unique among the Ecaudata (31).

  [Illustration: FIG. 10--Dorsal, ventral, lateral, and posterior views
  of the skull of _Rana esculenta_. The letters have the same
  signification throughout.

    Pmx, Premaxilla.
    Mx, Maxilla.
    Vo, Vomer.
    Na, Nasal.
    S.e, Sphen-ethmoid.
    Fr, Frontal.
    Pa, Parietal.
    E.O, Exoccipital.
    Ep, Epiotic process.
    Pr.O, Pro-otic.
    t.t, Tegmentympani.
    Sq, Squamosal.
    Q.J, Quadrato-jugal.
    Pt1, Pterygoid, anterior process.
    Pt2, Internal process.
    Pt3, Posterior or external process.
    Ca, Columella auris.
    St, Stapes.
    Hy, Hyoidean cornu.
    P.S, Parasphenoid.
    An, Angulate.
    D, Dentale.
    V, Foramen of exit of the trigeminal.
    H, Of the optic.
    X, Of the pneumogastric and glosso-pharyngeal nerves.
    V1. Foramen by which the orbito-nasal or first division of the fifth
          passes to the nasal cavity.]

  The pectoral girdle of the Stegocephalia is, of course, only known
  from the ossified elements, the identification of which has given rise
  to some diversity of opinion. But C. Gegenbaur's (32) interpretation
  may be regarded as final. He has shown that, as in the Crossopterygian
  and Chondrostean ganoid fishes, there are two clavicular elements on
  each side; the lower corresponds to the clavicle of reptiles and
  higher vertebrates, whilst the upper corresponds to the clavicle of
  teleostean fishes, and has been named by him "cleithrum." As stated
  above, there is strong evidence in favour of the view that some forms
  at least possessed in addition a "supracleithrum," corresponding to
  the supra-clavicle of bony fishes. The element often termed "coracoid"
  in these fossils would be the scapula. The clavicles rest on a large
  discoidal, rhomboidal, or T-shaped median bone, which clearly
  corresponds to the interclavicle of reptiles.

  The pectoral girdle of the living types of batrachians is
  distinguishable into a scapular, a coracoidal, and a praecoracoidal
  region. In most of the Caudata the scapular region alone ossifies, but
  in the Ecaudata the coracoid is bony and a clavicle is frequently
  developed over the praecoracoid cartilage. In these batrachians the
  pectoral arch falls into two distinct types--the _arciferous_, in
  which the precoracoid (+clavicle) and coracoid are widely separated
  from each other distally and connected by an arched cartilage (the
  epicoracoid), the right usually overlapping the left; and the
  _firmisternal_, in which both precoracoid and coracoid nearly abut on
  the median line, and are only narrowly separated by the more or less
  fused epicoracoids. The former type is exemplified by the toads and
  the lower Ecaudata, whilst the latter is characteristic of the true
  frogs (_Ranidae_), although when quite young these batrachians present
  a condition similar to that which persists throughout life in their
  lower relatives. A cartilage in the median line in front of the
  precoracoids, sometimes supported by a bony style, is the so-called
  Omosternum; a large one behind the cora-coids, also sometimes provided
  with a bony style, has been called the sternum. But these names will
  probably have to be changed when the homologies of these parts are
  better understood.

  [Illustration: FIG. 11.--Hyoid and branchial apparatus of _Necturus
  maculosus_.

    Hh, Hypo-hyal.
    Ch, Cerato-hyal.
    Bb^1, First basibranchial.
    Bb^2, Ossified second basibranchial.
    Ep.b^1, Ep.b^2, Ep.b^3, First, second and third epibranchials.
    Gl, Glottis.]

  The pelvic arch of some of the Stegocephalia contained a well ossified
  pubic element, whilst in all other batrachians only the ilium, or the
  ilium and the ischium are ossified. In the Ecaudata the ilium is
  greatly elongated and the pubis and ischium are flattened, discoidal,
  and closely applied to their fellows by their inner surfaces; the
  pelvic girdle looks like a pair of tongs.

  The long bones of the limbs consist of an axis of cartilage; the
  extremities of the cartilages frequently undergo calcification and are
  thus converted into epiphyses. In the Ecaudata the radius and ulna
  coalesce into one bone. The carpus, which remains cartilaginous in
  many of the Stegocephalia and Caudata, contains six to eight elements
  when the manus is fully developed, whilst the number is reduced in
  those forms which have only two or three digits. Except in some of the
  Stegocephalia, there are only four functional digits in the manus, but
  the Ecaudata have a more or less distinct rudiment of pollex; in the
  Caudata it seems to be the outer digit which has been suppressed, as
  atavistic reappearance of a fifth digit takes place on the outer side
  of the manus, as it does on the pes in those forms in which the toes
  are reduced to four. The usual number of phalanges is 2, 2, 3, 2 in
  the Stegocephalia and Caudata, 2, 2, 3, 3 in the Ecaudata. In the foot
  the digits usually number five, and the phalanges 2, 2, 3, 3, 2 in the
  Caudata, 2, 2, 3, 4, 3 in the Stegocephalia and Ecaudata. There are
  occasionally intercalary ossifications between the two distal
  phalanges (33). There are usually nine tarsal elements in the Caudata;
  this number is reduced in the Ecaudata, in which the two bones of the
  proximal row (sometimes coalesced) are much elongated and form an
  additional segment to the greatly lengthened hind-limb, a sort of
  _crus secundarium_. In the Ecaudata also, the tibia and fibula
  coalesce into one bone, and two or three small bones on the inner side
  of the tarsus form what has been regarded as a rudimentary digit or
  "prehallux."

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.--Ventral view of the hyoid of _Rana
  esculenta_. a, Anterior; b, lateral; c, posterior processes; d,
  thyro-hyals.]

  _Integument._--In all recent batrachians, the skin is naked, or if
  small scales are present, as in many of the Apoda, they are concealed
  in the skin. The extinct Stegocephalia, on the other hand, were mostly
  protected, on the ventral surface at least, by an armour of
  overlapping round, oval, or rhomboidal scales, often very similar to
  those of Crossopterygian or ganoid fishes, and likewise disposed in
  transverse oblique lines converging forwards on the middle line of the
  belly. Sometimes these scales assumed the importance of scutes and
  formed a carapace, as in the "batrachian armadillo" discovered by E.D.
  Cope. A few frogs have the skin of the back studded with stellate bony
  deposits (_Phyllomedusa, Nototrema_), whilst two genera are remarkable
  for possessing a bony dorsal shield, free from the vertebrae
  (_Ceratorphrys_) or ankylosed to them (_Brachycephalus_). None of the
  Stegocephalia appears to have been provided with claws, but some
  living batrachians (_Onychodactylus, Xenopus, Hymenochirus_) have the
  tips of some or all of the digits protected by a claw-like horny
  sheath.

  The integument of tailed and tailless batrachians is remarkable for
  the great abundance of follicular glands, of which there may be two
  kinds, each having a special secretion, which is always more or less
  acrid and irritating, and affords a means of defence against the
  attacks of many carnivorous animals. A great deal has been published
  on the poisonous secretion of batrachians (34), which is utilized by
  the Indians of South America for poisoning their arrows. Some of the
  poison-secreting glands attain a greater complication of structure and
  are remarkable for their large size, such as the so-called "parotoid"
  glands on the back of the head in toads and salamanders.

  [Illustration: FIG. 13.--Ventral view of the head and trunk of
  _Ichthyophis glutinosus_.

    Mn, Mandible.
    Hy, Hyoid.
    Br^1 Br^2, Br^3, Branchial arches.
    Gl, Glottis.
    Tr, Trachea.
    Ivc, Inferior vena cava.
    V, Ventricle.
    Au, Auricles.
    Rsvc, Lsvc, right and left superior cavae.
    Ta, Truncus arteriosus.
    Ao, Left aortic arch.
    P.A. Right pulmonary artery. The pericardium (lightly shaded)
           extends as far as the bifurcation of the synangium.]

  In all larval forms, in the Caudata, and in a few of the Ecaudata
  (_Xenopus_, for instance), the epidermis becomes modified in relation
  with the termination of sensory nerves, and gives rise to organs of
  the same nature as those of the lateral line of fishes. In addition to
  diffuse pigment (mostly in the epidermis), the skin contains granular
  pigment stored up in cells, the chromatophores, restricted to the
  cutis, which are highly mobile and send out branches which, by
  contraction and expansion, may rapidly alter the coloration, most
  batrachians being in this respect quite comparable to the famous
  chameleons. Besides white (guanine) cells, the pigment includes black,
  brown, yellow and red. The green and blue, so frequent in frogs and
  newts, are merely subjective colours, due to interference. On the
  mechanism of the change of colour, cf. W. Biedermann (35).

  One of the interesting recent discoveries is that of the "hairy" frog
  (_Trichobatrachus_), in which the sides of the body and limbs are
  covered with long villosities, the function of which is still unknown
  (36).

  The nuptial horny asperities with which the males of many batrachians
  are provided, for the purpose of clinging to the females, will be
  noticed below, under the heading _Pairing and Oviposition_.

  _Dentition._--In the Microsauria and Branchiosauria among the
  Stegocephalia, as in the other orders, the hollow, conical or slightly
  curved teeth exhibit simple or only slightly folded walls. But in the
  Labyrinthodonta, grooves are more or less marked along the teeth and
  give rise to folds of the wall which, extending inwards and ramifying,
  produce the complicated structure, exhibited by transverse sections,
  whence these batrachians derive their name; a somewhat similar
  complexity of structure is known in some holoptychian (dendrodont)
  Crossopterygian fishes. In the remarkable salamander _Autodax_, the
  teeth in the jaws are compressed, sharp-edged, lancet shaped. The
  teeth are not implanted in sockets, but become ankylosed with the
  bones that bear them, and are replaced by others developed at their
  bases. Teeth are present in the jaws of all known Stegocephalia and
  Apoda and of nearly all Caudata, _Siren_ alone presenting plates of
  horn upon the gingival surfaces of the premaxillae and of the dentary
  elements of the mandible. But they are nearly always absent in the
  lower jaw of the Ecaudata (exceptions in _Hemiphractus,
  Amphignathodon, Amphodus, Ceratobatrachus_, the male of
  _Dimorphognathus_), many of which (toads, for instance) are entirely
  edentulous.

  There is great variety in the distribution of the teeth on the palate.
  They may occur simultaneously on the vomers, the palatines, the
  pterygoids and the parasphenoid in some of the Stegocephalia
  (_Dawsonia, Seeleya, Acanthostoma_), on the vomers, palatines and
  parasphenoid in many salamandrids (_Plethodontinae_ and
  _Desmognathinae_), on the vomers, pterygoids and parasphenoid (some
  _Pelobates_), on the vomers and parasphenoid (_Triprion, Amphodus_),
  whilst in the majority or other batrachians they are confined to the
  vomers and palatines or to the vomers alone (37).

  As regards the alimentary organs, it will suffice to state, in this
  very brief sketch, that all batrachians being carnivorous in their
  perfect condition, the intestine is never very long and its
  convolutions are few and simple. But the larvae of the Ecaudata are
  mainly herbivorous and the digestive tract is accordingly extremely
  elongate and coiled up like the spring of a watch. The gullet is
  short, except in the Apoda. The tongue is rudimentary in the
  perennibranchiatea Caudata, well developed, and often protrusile, in
  the _Salamandridae_ and most of the Ecaudata, totally absent in the
  Aglossa.

  The organs of circulation cannot be dealt with here; the most
  important addition made to our knowledge in recent years being found
  in the contributions of F. Hochstetter (38) and of G.B. Howes (39),
  dealing with the azygous (posterior) cardinal veins in salamanders and
  some of the Ecaudata. The heart is situated quite forward, in the
  gular or pectoral region, even in those tailed batrachians which have
  a serpentiform body, whilst in the Apoda (fig. 13) it is moved back to
  a distance which is comparable to that it occupies in most of the
  snakes.

  _The Respiratory Organs._--The larynx, which is rudimentary in most of
  the Caudata and in the Apoda, is highly developed in the Ecaudata, and
  becomes the instrument of the powerful voice with which many of the
  frogs and toads are provided. The lungs are long simple tubes in some
  of the perennibranchiate Caudata; they generally shorten or become
  cellular in the salamandrids, and attain their highest development in
  the Ecaudata, especially in such forms as the burrowing _Pelobates_.
  Although the lungs are present in such forms as preserve the gills
  throughout life, it is highly remarkable that quite a number of
  abranchiate salamanders, belonging mostly to the subfamilies
  _Desmognathinae_ and _Plethodontinae_, are devoid of lungs and breathe
  entirely by the skin and by the bucco-pharyngeal mucose membrane (20).
  Some of the _Salamandrinae_ show the intermediate conditions which
  have led to the suppression of the trachea and lungs. In the Apoda, as
  in many serpentiform reptiles, one of the lungs, either the right or
  the left, is much less developed than the other, often very short.

  _Urino-genital Organs._--The genital glands, ovaries and testes, are
  attached to the dorsal wall of the body-cavity, in the immediate
  vicinity of the kidneys, with which the male glands are intimately
  connected. The oviducts are long, usually more or less convoluted
  tubes which open posteriorly into the cloaca, while their anterior
  aperture is situated far forward, sometimes close to the root of the
  lung; their walls secrete a gelatinous substance which invests the ova
  as they descend. In most male batrachians the testes are drained by
  transverse canals which open into a longitudinal duct, which also
  receives the canals of the kidneys, so that this common duct conveys
  both sperma and urine. In some of the discogloesid frogs, however, the
  seminal duct is quite independent of the kidney, which has its own
  canal, or true ureter. Many of the Ecaudata have remnants of oviducts,
  or Mullerian ducts, most developed in _Bufo_, which genus is also
  remarkable as possessing a problematic organ, Bidder's organ, situated
  between the testis and the adipose or fat-bodies that surmount it.
  This has been regarded by some anatomists as a rudimentary ovary.
  Female salamandrids are provided with a _receptaculum seminis_.
  Copulatory organs are absent, except in the Apoda, in which a portion
  of the cloaca can be everted and acts as a penis. The urinary bladder
  is always large.

  The spermatozoa have received a great share of attention, on the part
  not only of anatomists and physiologists, but even of systematic
  workers (40). This is due to the great amount of difference in
  structure and size between these elements in the various genera, and
  also to the fact that otherwise closely allied species may differ very
  considerably in this respect. The failure to obtain hybrids between
  certain species of _Rana_ has been attributed principally to these
  differences. The spermatozoa of _Discoglossus_ are remarkable for
  their great size, measuring three millimetres in length.

  _Pairing and Oviposition_--Batrachians may be divided into four
  categories under this head:--(1) no amplexation; (2) amplexation
  without internal fecundation; (3) amplexation with internal
  fecundation; (4) copulation proper. The first category embraces many
  aquatic newts, the second nearly all the Ecaudata, the third the rest
  of the Caudata, and the fourth the Apoda.

  In the typical newts (_Molge_) of Europe, the males are adorned during
  the breeding season with bright colours and crests or other ornamental
  dermal appendages, and, resorting to the water, they engage in a
  lengthy courtship accompanied by lively evolutions around the females,
  near which they deposit their spermatozoa in bundles on a gelatinous
  mass, the spermatophore, probably secreted by the cloacal gland. This
  arrangement facilitates the internal fecundation of the female without
  copulation, the female absorbs the spermatozoa by squeezing them out
  of the spermatophore between the cloacal lips. Other newts, and many
  salamanders, whether terrestrial or aquatic, pair, the male embracing
  the female about the fore limbs or in the pelvic region, and the males
  of such forms are invariably devoid of ornamental secondary sexual
  characters; but in spite of this amplexation the same mode of
  fecundation by means of a spermatophore is resorted to, although it
  may happen that the contents of the spermatophore are absorbed direct
  from the cloaca of the male. The spermatozoa thus reach the eggs in
  the oviducts, where they may develop entirely, some of the salamanders
  being viviparous.

  In all the tailless batrachians (with the exception of a single known
  viviparous toad), the male clings to the female round the breast, at
  the arm-pits, or round the waist, and awaits, often for hours or days,
  the deposition of the ova, which are immediately fecundated by several
  seminal emissions.

  The fourth category is represented by the Apoda or Caecilians in
  which, as we have stated above, the male is provided with an
  intromittent organ. Some of these batrachians are viviparous.

  In those species in which the embrace is of long duration the limbs
  of the male, usually the fore limbs (pleurodele newt, Ecaudata),
  rarely the hind limbs (a few American and European newts), according
  to the mode of amplexation, acquire a greater development, and are
  often armed with temporary horny excrescences which drop off after the
  pairing season. These asperities usually form brush-like patches on
  the inner side of one or more of the digits, but may extend over the
  inner surface of the limbs and on the breast and chin; the use of them
  on these parts is sufficiently obvious, but they are sometimes also
  present, without apparent function, on various parts of the foot, as
  in _Discoglossus, Bombinator_, and _Pelodytes_. In some species of the
  South American frogs of the genus _Leptodactylus_ the breast and hands
  are armed with very large spines, which inflict deep wounds on the
  female held in embrace.

  In most of the Caudata, the eggs are deposited singly in the axils of
  water plants or on leaves which the female folds over the egg with her
  hind limbs. The eggs are also deposited singly in some of the lower
  Ecaudata. In many of the Ecaudata, and in a few of the Caudata and
  Apoda, the eggs are laid in strings or bands which are twined round
  aquatic plants or carried by the parent; whilst in other Ecaudata they
  form large masses which either float on the surface of the water or
  sink to the bottom.

  A few batrachians retain the ova within the oviducts until the young
  have undergone part or the whole of the metamorphosis. Viviparous
  parturition is known among the Caudata (_Salamandra, Spelerpes
  fuscus_), and the Apoda (_Dermophis thomensis, Typhlonectes
  compressicauda_); also in a little toad (_Pseudophryne vivipara_)
  recently discovered in German East Africa (41).

  _Development and Metamorphosis._--In a great number of batrachians,
  including most of the European species, the egg is small and the
  food-yolk is in insufficient quantity to form an external appendage of
  the embryo. But in a few European and North American species, and in a
  great many inhabitants of the tropics, the egg is large and a
  considerable portion of it persists for a long time as a yolk-sac.
  Although the segmentation is always complete, it is very irregular in
  these types, some of which make a distinct approach to the meroblastic
  egg.

  With the exception of a number of forms in which the whole development
  takes place within the egg or in the body of the mother, batrachians
  undergo metamorphoses, the young passing through a free-swimming,
  gill-breathing period of considerable duration, during which their
  appearance, structure, and often their _régime_, are essentially
  different from those of the mature form. Even the fossil Stegocephalia
  underwent metamorphosis, as we know from various larval remains first
  described as _Branchiosaurus_. They are less marked or more gradual in
  the Apoda and Caudata than in Ecaudata, in which the stage known as
  tadpole is very unlike the frog or toad into which it rather suddenly
  passes (see TADPOLE). In the Caudata, external gills (three on each
  side) persist until the close of the metamorphosis, whilst in the
  Apoda and Ecaudata they exist only during the earlier periods, being
  afterwards replaced by internal gills.

  Many cases are known in which the young batrachian enters the world in
  the perfect condition, as in the black salamander of the Alps
  (_Salamandra atra_), the cave salamander (_Spelerpes fuscus_), the
  caecinan _Typhlonectes_, and a number of frogs, such as _Pipa,
  Rhinoderma, Hylodes_, some _Nototrema, Rana opisthodon_, &c. A fairly
  complete bibliographical index to these cases and the most remarkable
  instances of parental care in tailless batrachians will be found in
  the interesting articles by Lilian V. Sampson (42), and by G. Brandes
  and W. Schoenichen (43). It will suffice to indicate here in a
  synoptic form, as was done by the present writer many years ago, when
  our knowledge of these wonders of batrachian life was far less
  advanced than it is now, the principal modes of protection which are
  resorted to:--

  1. Protection by means of nests or nurseries.

    A. In enclosures in the water.--_Hylafaber_.
    B. In nests in holes near the water.--_Rhacophorus, Leptodactylus_.
    C. In nests overhanging the water.--_Rhacophorus, Chiromantis,
         Phyllpmedusa_.
    D. On trees or in moss away from the water.--_Rana opisthodon,
         Hylodes, Hylelia platycephala_.
    E. In a gelatinous bag in the water.--_Phrynixalus, Salamandrella_.

  2. Direct nursing by the parents.

    A. Tadpoles transported from one place to another.--_Dendrebates,
         Phyllobates, Sooglossus_.
    B. Eggs protected by the parents who coil themselves round or "sit"
         on them.--_Mantophryne, Desmognathus, Autodax, Plethodon,
         Cryptobranchus, Amphiuma, Ichthyophis, Hypogeophis, Siphonops_.
    C. Eggs carried by the parents.
        (a) Round the legs, by the male.--_Alytes_.
        (b) On the back, by the female.
            (1) Exposed.--_Hyla goeldii, H. evansii, Ceratohyla_.
            (2) In cell-like pouches.--_Pipa_.
            (3) In a common pouch.--_Nototrema, Amphignathodon_.
        (c) On the belly.
            (1) Exposed, by the female.--_Rhacophorus reticulatus_.
            (2) In a pouch (the produced vocal sac), by the
                male.--_Rhinoderma_.
        (d) In the mouth, by the female.--_Hylambates brevirostris_.

  _Geographical Distribution._--If a division of the world according to
  its batrachian faunae were to be attempted, it would differ very
  considerably from that which would answer for the principal groups of
  reptiles, the lizards especially. We should have four great
  realms:--(1) Europe and Northern and Temperate Asia, Africa north of
  the Sahara (palaearctic region) and North and Central America
  (nearctic region); (2) Africa and South-Eastern Asia (Ethiopian and
  Indian region); (3) South America (neotropical region); and (4)
  Australia (Australian region). The first would be characterized by the
  Caudata, which are almost confined to it (although a few species
  penetrate into the Indian and neotropical regions), the
  _Discoglossidae_, mostly Europaeo-Asiatic, but one genus in
  California, and the numerous _Pelobatidae_; the second by the presence
  of Apoda, the prevalence of firmisternal Ecaudata and the absence of
  _Hylidae_; the third by the presence of Apoda, the prevalence of
  arciferous Ecaudata and the scarcity of _Ranidae_, the fourth by the
  prevalence of arciferous Ecaudata and the absence of _Ranidae_, as
  well as by the absence of either Caudata or Apoda. Madagascar might
  almost stand as a fifth division of the world, characterized by the
  total absence of Caudata, Apoda, and arciferous Ecaudata. But the
  close relation of its very rich frog-fauna to that of the Ethiopian
  and Indian regions speaks against attaching too great importance to
  these negative features. It may be noted here that no two parts of the
  world differ so considerably in their Ecaudata as do Madagascar and
  Australia, the former having only Firmisternia, the latter only
  Arcifera. Although there is much similarity between the Apoda of
  Africa and of South America, one genus being even common to both parts
  of the world, the frogs are extremely different, apart from the
  numerous representatives of the widely distributed genus _Bufo_. It
  may be said that, on the whole, the distribution of the batrachians
  agrees to some extent with that of fresh-water fishes, except for the
  much less marked affinity between South America and Africa, although
  even among the former we have the striking example of the distribution
  of the very natural group of the aglossal batrachians, represented by
  _Pipa_ in South America and by _Xenopus_ and _Hymenochirus_ in Africa.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--(1) On the use of the names _Batrachia_ and _Amphibia_,
  cf. E.D. Cope, _Geol. Mag._ (3) ii., 1885, p. 575; G. Baur, _Science_
  (2), vi., 1897, pp. 170, 372; B.G. Wilder, t.c. p. 295; T Gill, t.c.
  p. 446; O.P. Hay, t.c. p. 773; T. Gill, _Science_ (2), xx., 1900, p.
  730; L. Steineger, op. cit. xx., 1904, p. 924. (2) E. Fraas, "Die
  Labyrinthodonten der schwäbischen Trias," _Palaeontogr._ xxxvi., 1889,
  p. 1. (3) _Proc. Zool. Soc._, 1904, ii. p. 170. (4) E.D. Cope,
  "Synopsis of the Extinct Batrachia of North America," _Proc. Ac.
  Philad._, 1868, p. 208. (5) "Researches on the Structure, Organization
  and Classification of the Fossil Reptilia, vii" _Phil. Trans._
  clxxxiii. (B), 1892, p. 311. (6) _Cambridge Natural History_, viii.
  (1901). (7) "Die Urvierfüssler (Eotetrapoda) des sächsischen
  Rotliegenden," _Allgem. verständl. naturh. Abh._, Berlin, 1891, No.
  15; "Die Entwicklungsgeschichte von Branchiosaurus amblystomus,"
  _Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Ges._, 1886, p. 576. (8) C. Emery, "Über die
  Beziehungen des Chiropterygium zum Ichthyopterygium," _Zool. Anz._ x.,
  1887, p. 185; E.D. Cope, "On the Phylogeny of the Vertebrata," _Proc.
  Amer. Philos. Soc._ xxx., 1892, p. 280; H.B. Pollard, "On the Anatomy
  and Phylogenetic Position of _Polypterus_," _Zool. Jahrb. Anat._ v.,
  1892, p. 414; G. Baur, "The Stegocephali: a Phylogenetic Study,"
  _Anat. Anz._ xi., 1896, p. 657; L. Dollo, "Sur le phylogénie des
  dipneustes," _Mém. soc. belge géol._ ix., 1895, p. 79; T. Gill, "On
  the Derivation of the Pectoral Member in Terrestrial Vertebrates,"
  _Rep. Brit. Ass._, 1897, p. 697. (9) E.D. Cope, "The Origin of the
  Mammalia," _Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc._ xxii., 1884, p. 43; cf.
  Discussion on Origin of Mammals, _Proc. Intern. Congr. Zool._,
  Cambridge, 1898; also H. Gadow, "The Origin of the _Mammalia_," _Z. f.
  Morphol._ iv., 1902, p. 345; and R. Broom, _Rep. Brit. Ass._, 1905, p.
  437. (10) A. Fritsch, _Fauna der Gaskohle und der Kalksleine der
  Permformation Böhmens_, vols. i. and ii (Prague, 1879-1885, 4to); H.
  Credner, "Die Stegocephalen aus dem Rotliegenden des Plauenschen
  Grundes bei Dresden," _Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Ges._, 1881-1894; J.W.
  Dawson, "On the Results of Recent Explorations of Erect Trees
  containing Animal Remains in the Coal Formation of Nova Scotia,"
  _Phil. Trans._ clxxiii., 1882, p. 621; H.B. Geinitz and J.V.
  Deichmüller, "Die Saurier der unteren Dyas von Sachsen,"
  _Palaeontogr._ xxix., 1882, p. 1; A. Gaudry, _Les Enchaînements du
  monde animal dans les temps géologiques, fossiles primaires_ (Paris,
  1883, 8vo), p. 251; E.D. Cope, "The Batrachia of the Permian Period of
  North America," _Amer. Nat._ xviii., 1884, p. 26; E. Fraas, "Die
  Labyrinthodonten der schwäbischen Trias," _Palaeontogr._ xxxvi., 1889,
  p. 1; L.v. Ammon, _Die permischen Amphibien der Rheinpfalz_ (Munich,
  1889-1891, 4to); R. Lydekker, _Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and
  Amphibia in the British Museum_, part iv. (London, 1890, 8vo); E.
  Fraas, _Die schwäbischen Trias-Saurier nach dem Material der k.
  Naturalien-Sammlung in Stuttgart zusammengestellt_ (Stuttgart, 1896,
  4to); O. Jaekel, "Die Organization von _Archegosaurus_," _Zeitschr.
  deutsch. geol. Ges_. xlviii., 1896, p. 505; F. Broili, "Ein Beitrag
  zur Kenntnis von _Eryops megacephalus_," _Palaeontogr_. xlvi., 1899,
  p. 61. (11) "Amphibian Footprints from the Devonian," _Amer. Journ.
  Sci_. ii., 1896, p. 374. (12) "Découverte du plus ancien amphibien
  connu ... dans le famennien supérieur de Modave," _Bull. soc. beige
  géol_. xv., 1888, p. cxx, (13) "A Batrachian Armadillo," _Amer. Nat_.
  xxix., 1895, p. 998. (14) C. Gegenbaur, _Untersuchungen zur
  vergleichenden Anatomie der Wirbelsaule bei Amphibien und Reptilien_
  (Leipzig, 1862, 4to); H. Gadow, "On the Evolution of the Vertebral
  Column of Amphibia and Amniota," _Phil. Trans_. clxxxvii. (B), 1896,
  p. 1. (15) R. Wiedersheim, _Die Anatomie der Gymnophionen_ (Jena,
  1879, 4to); W. Peters, "Über die Einteilung der Caecilien," _Mon.
  Berl. Ac_., 1879, p. 924; G.A. Boulenger, _Catalogue of Batrachia
  Gradientia s. Caudata and Batrachia Apoda in the Collection of the
  British Museum_ (London, 1882, 8vo), and "A Synopsis of the Genera and
  Species of Apodal Batrachians," _P. Z. S_., 1895, p. 401. (16) "On the
  Structure and Affinities of the _Amphiumidae_" _Proc. Amer. Philos.
  Soc._ xxiii., 1886, p. 442. (17) _Ergebnisse naturwissenschaftlicher
  Forschungen auf Ceylon_, ii. (Wiesbaden, 1887-1890, 4to), (18) "The
  Chondrocranium of the Ichthyopsida," _Stud. Biol. Lab. Tufts Coll_.
  No. 5, 1898, p. 147. (19) G.A. Boulenger, _Catalogue, &c._, 1882. (20)
  H.H. Wilder, "Lungenlose Salamandriden," _Anat. Anz_. ix., 1894, p.
  216; L. Camerano, "Ricerche anatomofisiologiche intorno ai
  Salamandridi normalmente apneumoni," _Atti Acc. Torin_. xxix., 1894,
  p. 705, and xxxi., 1896, p. 512; H.H. Wilder, "Lungless Salamanders,"
  _Anat. Anz_. xii., 1896, p. 182; E. Loennberg, "Notes on Tailed
  Batrachians without Lungs," _Zool. Anz_. xix., 1896, p. 33. (21) "Note
  sur le batracien de Bernissart," _Bull. mus. belg_. iii., 1884, p. 85.
  (22) G.A. Boulenger, _Catalogue of Batrachia Salientia s. Ecaudata in
  the Collection of the British Museum_ (London, 1882, 8vo). (23) "On
  the Development of the Vertebral Column in _Pipa_ and _Xenopus_,"
  _Anat. Anz_. xiii., 1898, p. 359. (24) G.A. Boulenger, "On
  _Hymenochirus_, a New Type of Aglossal Batrachians," _Ann. and Mag. N.
  H._ (7), iv., 1899, p. 122. (25) L.M. Vidal, _Mem. Ac. Barcelona_ (3),
  iv., 1902, No. 18, pl. iv. (26) W. Wolterstorff, "Über fossile
  Frösche, insbesondere Palaeobatrachus," _Jahresb. Nat. Ver. Magdeb_.,
  1885 and 1886. (27) W. Peters, "Über die Entwickelung eines
  Batrachiers. _Hylodes martinicensis_, ohne Metamorphose," _Mon. Berl.
  Ac_., 1876, p. 709; A. Kappler, "Die Tierwelt im holländischen
  Guiana," _Das Ausland_, 1885, p. 358; G.A. Boulenger, "Reptiles and
  Batrachians of the Solomon Islands," _Trans. Zool. Soc_. xii., 1886,
  p. 51; H. v. Ihering, "On the Oviposition of _Phyllomedusa
  iheringii_," _Ann. and Mag. N.H._ (5), xvii., 1886, p. 461; H.H.
  Smith, "On Oviposition and Nursing in the Batrachian genus
  _Dendrobates_," _Amer. Nat_. xxi., 1887, p. 307; G.B. Howes, "Notes on
  the Gular Brood-pouch of _Rhinoderma darwini_," _P.Z.S_., 1888, p.
  231; W.J. Holland, "Arboreal Tadpoles," _Amer. Nat_. xxiii., 1889, p.
  383; E.A. Goeldi, "Contribution to the Knowledge of the Breeding
  Habits of some Tree-frogs of the Serra dos Orgaos, Rio de Janeiro,
  Brazil," _P.Z.S_., 1895. p. 89; G.A. Boulenger, "On the Nursing Habits
  of two South American Frogs," _P.Z.S_., 1895, p. 209; A. Brauer, "Ein
  neuer Fall von Brutpflege bei Fröschen," _Zool. Jahrb. Syst_. xi.,
  1898, p. 89; S. Ikeda, "Notes on the Breeding Habit and Development of
  _Rhacophorus schlegelii_," _Annot. Zool. Japan_, i., 1898, p. 113; G.
  Brandes, "Larven zweier Nototrema-Arten," _Verh. deutsch. zool. Ges_.,
  1899, p. 288; L. v. Méhely, "Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Engystomatiden
  von Neu-Guinea," _Termes. Fuzetek, Budapest_, xxiv., 1901, p. 216;
  G.A. Boulenger, "_Ceratohyla bubalus_ carrying eggs on its back,"
  _P.Z.S_., 1903, ii. p. 115; _Idem_. "Description of a new Tree-frog of
  the genus _Hyla_, from British Guiana, carrying eggs on the back,"
  _op. cit_., 1904, ii. p. 106; H.S. Ferguson, "Travancore Batrachians,"
  _J. Bombay N.H. Soc_. xv., 1904, p. 499. (28) _Geol. Mag_. iv., ii.,
  1895, p. 83. (29) "Das Hyobranchial-Skelett der Anura," _Morph. Arb_.
  iii., 1894, p. 399. (30) "On the Structure and Development of the
  Hyobranchial Skeleton of the Parsley Frog," _P.Z.S_., 1897, p. 577.
  (31) W.G. Ridewood, "On the Hyobrachial Skeleton and Larynx of
  _Hymenochirus_," _J. Linn. Soc_. xxviii., 1899, p. 454. (32) _Morphol.
  Jahrb_. xxiii., 1895, p. 1. (33) G.B. Howes and A.M. Davies, _P.Z.S_.,
  1888, p. 495. (34) G.A. Boulenger, "The Poisonous Secretion of
  Batrachians," _Nat. Science_, i., 1892, p. 185; F. Gidon, _Venins
  multiples et toxicité humorale chez les batraciens_ (Paris, 1897,
  8vo). (35) _Arch. Ges. Physiol_. li., 1892, p. 455. (36) G.A.
  Boulenger, _P.Z.S_., 1900, p. 433, and 1901, ii. p. 709; H. Gadow,
  _Anat. Anz_. xviii., 1900, p. 588. (37) G.A. Boulenger, "On the
  Presence of Pterygoid Teeth in a Tailless Batrachian, with remarks on
  the Localization of Teeth on the Palate," _P.Z.S_., 1890, p. 664. (38)
  _Morphol. Jahrb_. xiii., 1887, p. 119. (39) _P.Z.S_., 1888, p. 122.
  (40) G.A. Boulenger, _Tailless Batrachians of Europe_ (1897), p. 75.
  (41) G. Tornier, "Pseudophryne vivipara, ein lebendig gebärender
  Frosch," _Sitzb. Ak. Ber_. xxxix., 1905, p. 855. (42) "Unusual Modes
  of Breeding and Development among _Anura_," _Amer. Nat_. xxxiv., 1900,
  p. 405. (43) "Brutpflege der schwanzlosen Batrachier," _Abh. Nat.
  Ges_. Halle, xxii., 1901, p. 395.     (G. A. B.)



BATRACHOMYOMACHIA (Gr. [Greek: Batrachos], "frog," [Greek: mus],
"mouse," and [Greek: machae], "battle"), the "Battle of Frogs and Mice,"
a comic epic or parody on the _Iliad_, definitely attributed to Homer by
the Romans, but according to Plutarch (_De Herodoti Malignitate_, 43)
the work of Pigres of Halicarnassus, the brother (or son) of Artemisia,
queen of Caria and ally of Xerxes. Some modern scholars, however, assign
it to an anonymous poet of the time of Alexander the Great.

  Edition by A. Ludwich (1896).



BATTA, an Anglo-Indian military term, probably derived from the Canarese
_bhatta_ (rice in the husk), meaning a special allowance made to
officers, soldiers, or other public servants in the field.



BATTAGLIA, a town of Venetia, Italy, in the province of Padua, 11 m.
S.S.W. by rail from Padua. Pop. (1901) 4456. It lies at the edge of the
volcanic Euganean Hills, and is noted for its warm saline springs and
natural vapour grotto. A fine palace was erected in the Palladian style
in the 17th century by Marchese Benedetto Selvatico-Estense, then owner
of the springs.



BATTAKHIN, African "Arabs" of Semitic stock. They occupy the banks of
the Blue Nile near Khartum, and it was against them that General Gordon
fought most of his battles near the town. Their sheikh, El Obeid, routed
Gordon's troops on the 4th of September 1884, a defeat which led to the
close investment of Khartum. In the 18th century James Bruce described
them as "a thieving, pilfering lot."



BATTALION, a unit of military organization consisting of four or more
companies of infantry. The term is used in nearly every army, and is
derived through Fr. from It. _battaglione_, Med. Lat. _battalia_ (see
BATTLE). "Battalion" in the 16th and 17th centuries implied a unit of
infantry forming part of the line of battle, but at first meant an
unusually large _battalia_ or a single large body of men formed of
several _battalias_. In the British regular service the infantry
battalion is commanded by a lieut.-colonel, who is assisted by an
adjutant, and consists at war strength of about 1000 bayonets in eight
companies. Engineers, train, certain kinds of artillery, and more rarely
cavalry are also organized in battalions in some countries.



BATTAMBANG, or BATTAMBONG (locally _Phralabong_), the chief town of the
north-western division of Cambodia, formerly capital of Monton Kmer,
i.e. "The Cambodian Division," one of the eastern provinces of Siam, now
included in the French protectorate of Cambodia. It is situated in 103°
6' E., 13° 6' N., in the midst of a fertile plain and on the river Sang
Ke, which flows eastwards and falls into the Tonle or Talé Sap, the
great lake of Cambodia. The town is a collection of bamboo houses of no
importance, but there is a walled enceinte of some historical interest.
Trade is small and is carried on by Chinese settlers, chiefly overland
with Bangkok, but to a small extent also by water with Saigon. The
population is about 5000, two-thirds Cambodian and the remainder Chinese
and Siamese. The language is Cambodian.

Battambang was taken by the Siamese when they overran the kingdom of
Cambodia towards the end of the 18th century, and was recognized by the
French as belonging to Siam when the frontier of Cambodia was adjusted
by treaty in 1867-1872. In another treaty in 1893, Siam bound herself to
maintain no armed forces there other than police, but this arrangement
was annulled by the treaty of 1904, by which Battambang was definitely
admitted to lie within the French sphere of influence. Under a further
treaty in March 1907 (see SIAM), the district of Battambang was finally
ceded to the French.



BATTANNI, or BHITANI, a small tribe on the Waziri border of the
North-West Frontier Province of India. The Battannis hold the hills on
the borders of Tank and Bannu in the Dera Ismail Khan district, from the
Gabar mountain on the north to the Gomal valley on the south. They are
only 3000 fighting men strong, and are generally regarded as the jackals
of the Waziris. Their chief importance arises from the fact that no
raids can be carried into British districts by the Mahsud Waziris
without passing through Battanni territory. A small British expedition
against the Battannis was led by Lt.-Col. Rynd in 1880. Under the
excitement caused by the preaching of a fanatical mullah the Mahsud
Waziris had attacked the town of Gomal. The Battannis failed to supply
information as to their movements, and gave them a passage through
their lands. The British troops accordingly stormed the Hinis Tangi
defile in face of opposition, and burned the village of Jandola.



BATTAS (Dutch _Battaks_), the inhabitants of the formerly independent
Batta country, in the central highlands of Sumatra, now for the most
part subjugated to the Dutch government. The still independent area
extends from 98°-99° 35' E., and 2°-3° 25' S. North-east of Toba Lake
dwell the Timor Battas, and west of it the Pakpak, but on its north (in
the mountains which border on the east coast residency) the Karo Battas
form a special group, which, by its dialects and ethnological character,
appears to be allied to the Gajus and Allas occupying the interior of
Achin. The origin of the Battas is doubtful. It is not known whether
they were settled in Sumatra before the Hindu period. Their language
contains words of Sanskrit origin and others referable to Javanese,
Malay and Tagal influence. Their domain has been doubtless much
curtailed, and their absorption into the Achin and Malay population
seems to have been long going on. The Battas are undoubtedly of Malayan
stock, and by most authorities are affiliated to that Indonesian
pre-Malayan race which peopled the Indian Archipelago, expelling the
aboriginal negritos, and in turn themselves submitting to the civilized
Malays. In many points the Battas are physically quite different from
the Malay type. The average height of the men is 5 ft. 4 in.; of the
women 4 ft. 8 in. In general build they are rather thickset, with broad
shoulders and fairly muscular limbs. The colour of the skin ranges from
dark brown to a yellowish tint, the darkness apparently quite
independent of climatic influences or distinction of race. The skull is
rather oval than round. In marked contrast to the Malay type are the
large, black, long-shaped eyes, beneath heavy, black or dark brown
eyebrows. The cheek-bones are somewhat prominent, but less so than among
the Malays. The Battas are dirty in their dress and dwellings and eat
any kind of food, though they live chiefly on rice. They are remarkable
as a people who in many ways are cultured and possess a written language
of their own, and yet are cannibals. The more civilized of them around
Lake Toba are good agriculturists and stock-breeders, and understand
iron-smelting. They weave and dye cotton, make jewellery and krisses
which are often of exquisite workmanship, bake pottery, and build
picturesque chalet-like houses of two storeys. They have an organized
government, hereditary chiefs, popular assemblies, and a written civil
and penal code. There is even an antiquated postal system, the
letter-boxes being the hollow tree trunks at crossroads. Yet in spite of
this comparative culture the Battas have long been notorious for the
most revolting forms of cannibalism. (See _Memoirs of the Life, &c., of
Sir T.S. Raffles_, 1830.)

The Battas are the only lettered people of the Indian Archipelago who
are not Mahommedans. Their religion is mainly confined to a belief in
evil spirits; but they recognize three gods, a Creator, a Preserver and
a Destroyer, a trinity suggestive of Hindu influence.

Up to the publication of Dr H.N. van der Tuuk's essay, _Over schrift en
uitspraak der Tobasche taal_ (1855), our knowledge of the Batta language
was confined to lists of words more or less complete, chiefly to be
found in W. Marsden's _Miscellaneous Works_, in F.W. Junghuhn's
_Battalander_, and in the _Tijdschrift van het Bataviaasch Genootschap,
_vol. iii. (1855). By his exhaustive works (_Bataksch Leesboek_, in 4
vols., 1861-1862; _Bataksch-nederduitsch Woordenboek_, 1861; _Tobasche
Spraakkunst_, 1864-1867) van der Tuuk made the Batta language the most
accessible of the various tongues spoken in Sumatra. According to him,
it is nearest akin to the old Javanese and Tagal, but A. Schreiber (_Die
Battas in ihrem Verhältnis zu den Malaien von Sumatra_, 1874)
endeavoured to prove its closer affinity with the Malay proper. Like
most languages spoken by less civilized tribes, Batta is poor in general
terms, but abounds in terms for special objects. The number of dialects
is three, viz. the Toba, the Mandailing and the Dairi dialects; the
first and second have again two subdivisions each. The Battas further
possess six peculiar or recondite modes of speech, such as the _hata
andung_, or language of the wakes, and the _hata poda_ or the
soothsayer's language. A fair acquaintance with reading and writing is
very general among them. Their alphabet is said, with the Rejang and
Lampong alphabets, to be of Indian origin. The language is written on
bark or bamboo staves from bottom to top, the lines being arranged from
left to right. The literature consists chiefly in books on witchcraft,
in stories, riddles, incantations, &c., and is mostly in prose,
occasionally varied by verse.[1]

  See also "Reisen nach dem Toba See," _Petermanns Mitteil_. (1883);
  Modigliani, _Fra i Batacchi indipendenti_ (Rome, 1892); Neumann, "Het
  Pane- en Bilastroomgebied," _Tydschr. Aardr. Gen._, 1885-1887; Van
  Dijk in the same periodical (1890-1895); Wing Easton in the _Jaarboek
  voor het Mynwezen_, 1894; Niemann in the _Encyclopaedia van
  Nederlandsch-Indie_, under the heading _Bataks_, with very detailed
  bibliography; Baron J. v. Brenner, _Besuch bei den Kannibalen
  Sumatras_ (Würzburg, 1893); H. Breitenstein, _21 Jahre in Indien,
  Java, Sumatra_ (Leipzig, 1899-1900); G.P. Rouffaer, _Die Batik-Kunst
  in niederlandisch-Indien und ihre Geschichte_ (Haarlem, 1899).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Mr C.A. van Ophuijsen has published (in _Bijd. tot Land-, Taalen
    Volken-Kunde_, 1886) an interesting collection of Battak poetry. He
    describes a curious leaf language used by Battak lovers, in which the
    name of some leaf or plant is substituted for the word with which it
    has greatest phonetic similarity.



BATTEL, or BATTELS (of uncertain origin, possibly connected with
"battle," a northern English word meaning to feed, or "batten"), a word
used at Oxford University for the food ordered by members of the college
as distinct from the usual "commons"; and hence college accounts for
board and provisions supplied from kitchen and buttery, and, generally,
the whole of a man's college accounts. "Batteler," now a resident in a
college, was originally a rank of students between commoners and
servitors who, as the name implies, were not supplied with "commons,"
but only such provisions as they ordered for themselves.



BATTEN, SIR WILLIAM (_floruit_ 1626-1667), British sailor, son of Andrew
Batten, master in the royal navy, first appears as taking out letters of
marque in 1626, and in 1638 he obtained the post of surveyor to the
navy, probably by purchase. In March 1642 he was appointed
second-in-command under the earl of Warwick, the parliamentary admiral
who took the fleet out of the king's hands. It was Vice-Admiral Batten's
squadron which bombarded Scarborough when Henrietta Maria landed there.
He was accused (it appears unjustly) by the Royalists of directing his
fire particularly on the house occupied by the queen, and up to the end
of the First Civil War showed himself a steady partisan of the
parliament. To the end of the First Civil War, Batten continued to
patrol the English seas, and his action in 1647 in bringing into
Portsmouth a number of Swedish ships of war and merchantmen, which had
refused the customary salute to the flag, was approved by parliament.
When the Second Civil War began he was distrusted by the Independents
and removed from his command, though he confessed his continued
willingness to serve the state. When part of the fleet revolted against
the parliament, and joined the prince of Wales in Holland, May 1648,
Batten went with them. He was knighted by the prince, but being
suspected by the Royalists, was put ashore mutinously in Holland and
returned to England. He lived in retirement during the Commonwealth
period. At the Restoration Sir William Batten became once more surveyor
of the navy. In this office he was in constant intercourse with Pepys,
whose diary frequently mentions him; but the insinuations of Pepys
against him must not be taken too seriously, as there is no evidence to
show that Batten in making a profit from his office fell below the
standards of the time. In 1661 he became M.P. for Rochester, and in 1663
he was made master of the Trinity House. He died in 1667.

  There is no separate life of Batten, but many notices of him will be
  found in Penn's _Life of Sir W. Penn_, and in Pepys' _Diary_.



BATTEN, (1) A term (a form of "baton") used in joinery (q.v.) for a
board not more than 4 to 7 in. broad or 3 in. thick, used for various
purposes, such as for strengthening or holding together laths and other
wood-work; and specially, on board ship, a strip of wood nailed to a
mast to prevent rubbing, or fixing down a tarpaulin over a hatchway, in
rough weather, to keep out water. (2) A verb (the root is found in words
of several Teutonic languages meaning profit or improvement, and also in
the English "better" and "boot") meaning to improve in condition,
especially in the case of animals by feeding; so, to feed gluttonously;
the word is used figuratively of prospering at the expense of another.



BATTENBERG, the name of a family of German counts which died out about
1314, whose seat was the castle of Kellerburg, near Battenberg, a small
place now in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau. The title was
revived in 1851, when Alexander (1823-1888), a younger son of Louis II.,
grand-duke of Hesse, contracted a morganatic marriage with a Polish
lady, Countess Julia Theresa von Haucke (1825-1895), who was then
created countess of Battenberg. Raised to the rank of a princess in
1858, the countess and her children were allowed to style themselves
princes and princesses of Battenberg, with the addition of _Durchlaucht_
or Serene Highness. The eldest son of this union, Louis Alexander (b.
1854), married in 1884 Victoria, daughter of Louis IV., grand-duke of
Hesse, and became an admiral in the British navy. The second son,
Alexander Joseph (q.v.), was prince of Bulgaria from 1879 to 1886. The
third son, Henry Maurice, was born in 1858, and married on the 23rd of
July 1885 Beatrice, youngest daughter of Victoria, queen of England. He
died at sea on the 20th of January 1896 when returning from active
service with the British troops during the Ashanti War, and left three
sons and a daughter, Victoria Eugénie, who was married in 1906 to
Alphonso XIII., king of Spain. The fourth son, Francis Joseph, born in
1861, married in 1897 Anna, daughter of Nicholas I., prince of
Montenegro, and is the author of _Die volkswirtschaftliche Entwickelung
Bulgariens von 1879 bis zur Gegenwart_ (Leipzig, 1891). The only
daughter of the princess of Battenberg, Marie Caroline, born in 1852,
was married in 1871 to Gustavus Ernest, prince and count of
Erbach-Schönberg.



BATTER, an architectural term of unknown origin, used of the face of a
wall which is slightly inclined to the perpendicular. It is most
commonly employed in retaining walls, the lower courses of which are
laid at right angles to the batter, so as to resist the thrust of the
earth inside. For aesthetic reasons it is often adopted in the lowest or
basement porticos of a great building. From a historical point of view
it is the most ancient system employed, as throughout Egypt and Chaldaea
all the temples built in unburnt brick were perforce obliged to be
thicker at the bottom, and this gave rise to the batter or raking side
which was afterwards in Egypt copied in stone. For defensive purposes
the walls of the lower portions of a fortress were built with a batter
as in the case of the tower of David and some of the walls built by
Herod at Jerusalem. The Crusaders also largely adopted the principle,
which was followed in some of the castles of the middle ages throughout
Europe.



BATTERING RAM (Lat. _aries_, ram), a military engine used before the
invention of cannon, for beating down the walls of besieged fortresses.
It consisted of a long heavy beam of timber, armed at the extremity with
iron fashioned something like the head of a ram. In its simplest form
the beam was carried in the hands of the soldiers, who assailed the
walls with it by main force. The improved ram was composed of a longer
beam, in some cases extending to 120 ft., shod with iron at one end, and
suspended, either by the middle or from two points, from another beam
laid across two posts. This is the kind described by Josephus as having
been used at the siege of Jerusalem (_B.J._ iii. 7. 19). The ram was
shielded from the missiles of the besieged by a penthouse (_vinea_) or
other overhead protection. It was often mounted on wheels, which greatly
facilitated its operations. A hundred soldiers at a time, and sometimes
even a greater number, were employed to work it, and the parties were
relieved in constant succession. No wall could resist the continued
application of the ram, and the greatest efforts were always made to
destroy it by various means, such as dropping heavy stones on the head
of the ram and on the roof of the penthouse; another method being to
seize the ram head with grapnels and then haul it up to a vertical
position by suitable windlasses on the wall of the fortress. Sometimes
the besieged ran countermines under the ram penthouse; this if
successful would cause the whole engine to fall into the excavation. In
medieval warfare the low penthouse, called _cat_, was generally employed
with some form of ram.



BATTERSEA, a south-western metropolitan borough of London, England,
bounded N. by the Thames, N.E. by Lambeth, and S.E., S., and W. by
Wandsworth. Pop. (1901) 168,907. The principal thoroughfares are
Wandsworth Road and Battersea Park and York Roads from east to west,
connected north and south with the Victoria or Chelsea, Albert and
Battersea bridges over the Thames. The two first of these three are
handsome suspension bridges; the third, an iron structure, replaced a
wooden bridge of many arches which was closed in 1881, after standing a
little over a century. Battersea is a district mainly consisting of
artisans' houses, and there are several large factories by the river.
The parish church of St Mary, Church Road (1776), preserves from an
earlier building stained glass and monuments, including one to Henry St
John, Viscount Bolingbroke (d. 1751), and his second wife, who had a
mansion close by. Of this a portion remains on the riverside, containing
a room associated with Pope, who is said to have worked here upon the
"Essay on Man." Wandsworth Common and Clapham Common (220 acres) lie
partly within the borough, but the principal public recreation ground is
Battersea Park, bordering the Thames between Albert and Victoria
Bridges, beautifully laid out, containing a lake and subtropical garden,
and having an area of nearly 200 acres. It was constructed with
difficulty by embanking the river and raising the level of the formerly
marshy ground, and was opened in 1858. Among institutions are the
Battersea Polytechnic, the Royal Masonic Institution for girls, founded
in 1788, and Church of England and Wesleyan Training Colleges. Battersea
is in the parliamentary borough of Battersea and Clapham, including the
whole of the Battersea division and part of the Clapham division. The
borough council consists of a mayor, 9 aldermen and 54 councillors.
Area, 2160.3 acres.

An early form of the name is _Patricsey_ or Peter's Island; the manor at
the time of the Domesday survey, and until the suppression of the
monasteries, belonging to the abbey of St Peter, Westminster. It next
passed to the crown, and subsequently to the family of St John and to
the earls Spencer. York Road recalls the existence of a palace of the
archbishops of York, occasionally occupied by them between the reigns of
Edward IV. and Mary. Battersea Fields, bordering the river, were
formerly a favourite resort, so that the park also perpetuates a memory.
The art of enamelling was introduced, c. 1750, at works in Battersea,
examples from which are highly valued.



BATTERY (Fr. _batterie_, from _battre_, to beat), the action of beating,
especially in law the unlawful wounding of another (see ASSAULT). The
term is applied to the apparatus used in battering, hence its use in
military organization for the unit of mobile artillery of all kinds.
This consists of from four to eight guns with their _personnel_, wagons
and train. In the British service the term is applied to field, horse,
field-howitzer, heavy and mountain artillery units. "Battery" is also
used to imply a mass of guns in action, especially in connexion with the
military history of the 18th and early 19th centuries. In siegecraft, a
battery is simply an emplacement for guns, howitzers or mortars,
constructed for the purposes of the siege, and protected as a rule by a
parapet. In fortification the term is applied similarly to permanent or
semi-permanent emplacements for the artillery of the defence. In all
these senses the presence of artillery is implied in the use of the word
(see ARTILLERY, and FORTIFICATION AND SIEGECRAFT). The word is also used
for the "pitcher" and "catcher" in baseball; for a collection of
utensils, primarily of hammered copper or brass, especially in the
French term _batterie de cuisine_; and for the instruments of percussion
in an orchestra.

_Electric Battery_--This term was applied by the old electricians to a
collection of Leyden jars, but is now used of a device for generating
electricity by chemical action, or more exactly, of a number of such
devices joined up together. There are two main classes of electric
battery. In _primary_ batteries, composed of a number of galvanic or
voltaic "cells," "couples" or "elements," on the completion of the
interactions between the substances on which the production of
electricity depends, the activity of the cells comes to an end, and can
only be restored with the aid of a fresh supply of those substances; in
_secondary_ batteries, also called storage batteries or accumulators
(q.v.), the substances after the exhaustion of the cells can be brought
back to a condition in which they will again yield an electric current,
by means of an electric current passed through them in the reverse
direction. The first primary battery was constructed about 1799 by
Alessandro Volta. In one form, the "voltaic pile," he placed a series of
pairs of copper and zinc disks one above the other, separating each pair
from the one above it by a piece of cloth moistened with a solution of
common salt. In another form, the "couronne de tasses," he took a number
of vessels or cells containing brine or dilute acid, and placed in each
a zinc plate and a copper plate; these plates were not allowed to touch
each other within the vessels, but each zinc plate was connected to the
copper plate of the adjoining vessel. In both these arrangements an
electric current passes through a wire which is connected to the
terminal plates at the two ends of the series. The direction of this
current is from copper to zinc; within each cell itself it is from zinc
to copper. The plate to which the current flows within the cell is the
_negative plate_, and that from which it flows the _positive plate_; but
the point on the negative plate at which the current enters the external
wire is the _positive pole_, and the point on the positive plate at
which it leaves the external circuit the _negative pole_. During the
time that the external connexion is maintained between the two poles and
the current passes in the wire, the zinc or positive plates are
gradually dissolved, and hydrogen gas is liberated at the surface of the
copper or negative plates; but when the external connexion is broken
this action ceases. If the materials used in the cells were perfectly
pure, probably the cessation would be complete. In practice, however,
only impure commercial zinc is available, and with this corrosion
continues to some extent, even though the external circuit is not
closed, thus entailing waste of material. This "local action" is
explained as due to the fact that the impurities in the zinc plate form
miniature voltaic couples with the zinc itself, thus causing its
corrosion by voltaic action; and an early improvement in the voltaic
cell was the discovery, applied by W. Sturgeon in 1830, that the evil
was greatly reduced if the surface of the zinc plates was amalgamated,
by being rubbed with mercury under dilute sulphuric acid. Another
disadvantage of the simple cell composed of copper and zinc in dilute
acid is that the current it yields rapidly falls off. The hydrogen
formed by the operation of the cell does not all escape, but some
adheres as a film to the negative plate, and the result is the
establishment of a counter or reverse electromotive force which opposes
the main current flowing from the zinc plate and diminishes its force.
This phenomenon is known as "polarization," and various remedies have
been tried for the evils it introduces in the practical use of primary
batteries. Alfred Smee in 1839 modified the simple copper-zinc couple
excited by dilute sulphuric acid by substituting for the copper thin
leaves of platinum or platinized silver, whereby the elimination of the
hydrogen is facilitated; and attempts have also been made to keep the
plates free from the gas by mechanical agitation. The plan usually
adopted, however, is either to prevent the formation of the film, or to
introduce into the cell some "depolarizer" which will destroy it as it
is formed by oxidizing the hydrogen to water (see also ELECTROLYSIS).

The former method is exemplified in the cell invented by J.F. Daniell in
1836. Here the zinc stands in dilute sulphuric acid (or in a solution of
zinc sulphate), and the copper in a saturated solution of copper
sulphate, the two liquids being separated by a porous partition. The
hydrogen formed by the action of the cell replaces copper in the copper
sulphate, and the displaced copper, instead of the hydrogen, being
deposited on the copper plate polarization is avoided. The electromotive
force is about one volt. This cell has been constructed in a variety of
forms to suit different purposes. In a portable form, designed by Lord
Kelvin in 1858, the copper plate, soldered to a gutta-percha covered
wire, is placed at the bottom of a glass vessel and covered with
crystals of copper sulphate; over these wet sawdust is sprinkled, and
then mere sawdust, moistened with solution of zinc sulphate, upon which
is placed the zinc plate. The Minotto cell is similar, except that sand
is substituted for sawdust. In these batteries the sawdust or sand takes
the place of the porous diaphragm. In another class of batteries the
diaphragm is dispensed with altogether, and the action of gravity alone
is relied upon to retard the interdiffusion of the liquids. The cell of
J.H. Meidinger, invented in 1859, may be taken as a type of this class.
The zinc is formed into a ring which fits the upper part of a glass
beaker filled with zinc sulphate solution. At the bottom of the beaker
is placed a smaller beaker, in which stands a ring of copper with an
insulated connecting wire. The mouth of the beaker is closed by a lid
with a hole in the centre, through which passes the long tapering neck
of a glass balloon filled with crystals of copper sulphate; the narrow
end of this neck dips into the smaller beaker, the copper sulphate
slowly runs out, and being specifically heavier than the zinc sulphate
it collects at the bottom about the copper ring. In Lord Kelvin's
tray-cell a large wooden tray is lined with lead, and is covered at the
bottom with copper by electrotyping. The zinc plate is enveloped in a
piece of parchment paper bent into a tray shape, the whole resting on
little pieces of wood placed on the bottom of the leaden tray. Copper
sulphate is fed in at the edge of the tray and zinc sulphate is poured
upon the parchment. A battery is formed by arranging the trays in a
stack one above the other.

Various combinations have been devised in which the hydrogen is got rid
of more or less completely by oxidation. Sir W.R. Grove in 1839 employed
nitric acid as the oxidizing agent, his cell consisting of a zinc
positive plate in dilute sulphuric acid, separated by a porous diaphragm
of unglazed earthenware from a platinum negative immersed in
concentrated nitric acid. Its electromotive force is nearly two volts,
but it has the objection of giving off disagreeable nitrous fumes. R.W.
von Bunsen modified Grove's cell by replacing the platinum with the much
cheaper material, gas carbon. Chromic acid is much used as a
depolarizer, and cells in which it is employed are about as powerful as,
and more convenient than, either of the preceding. In its two-fluid form
the chromic acid cell consists of a porous pot containing amalgamated
zinc in dilute sulphuric acid, and a carbon plate surrounded with
sulphuric acid and a solution of potassium or sodium bichromate or of
chromic acid. But it is commonly used in a one-fluid form, the porous
pot being dispensed with, and both zinc and carbon immersed in the
chromic acid solution. Since the zinc is dissolved even when the circuit
is not closed, arrangements are frequently provided by which either the
zinc plate alone or both plates can be lifted out of the solution when
the cell is not in use. In preparing the solution the sodium salt is
preferable to the potassium, and chromic acid to either. In the cell
devised by Georges Leclanché in 1868 a solid depolarizer is employed, in
the shape of manganese dioxide packed with fragments of carbon into a
porous pot round a carbon plate. A zinc rod constitutes the positive
plate, and the exciting fluid is a solution of sal-ammoniac. Sometimes
no porous pot is employed, and the manganese dioxide and granulated
carbon are agglomerated into a solid block round the carbon plate. The
electromotive force is about one and a half volt. The cell is widely
used for such purposes as ringing electric bells, where current is
required intermittently, and for such service it will remain effective
for months or years, only needing water to be added to the outer jar
occasionally to replace loss by evaporation. On a closed circuit the
current rapidly falls off, because the manganese dioxide is unable to
oxidize all the hydrogen formed, but the cell quickly recovers after
polarization. The so-called "dry cells," which came into considerable
use towards the end of the 19th century, are essentially Leclanché cells
in which the solution is present, not as a liquid, but as a paste formed
with some absorbent material or gelatinized. Black oxide of copper is
another solid depolarizer, employed in the Lalande cell. In the
Edison-Lalande form the copper oxide is suspended in a light copper
frame. The exciting solution consists of one part of caustic soda
dissolved in three parts by weight of water, and to prevent it from
being acted on by the carbonic acid of the air it is covered with a
layer of petroleum oil. Sodium zincate, which is soluble, is formed by
the action of the cell, and the hydrogen produced is oxidized by oxygen
from the copper oxide. The electromotive force may be about one volt
initially, but in practice only about three-quarters of a volt can be
relied on.

Primary cells form a convenient means of obtaining electricity for
laboratory experiments, and for such light services as working
telegraphs, bells, &c.; but as a source of the heavy currents required
for electric lighting and traction they are far too expensive in
operation, apart from other considerations, to compete with
dynamoelectric machinery driven by steam or water power. Certain forms,
known as "standard cells," are also used in electrical measurements as
standards of electromotive force (see POTENTIOMETER).

  See W.R. Cooper, _Primary Batteries_ (London, 1901); Park Benjamin,
  _The Voltaic Cell_ (New York, 1893); W.E. Ayrton, _Practical
  Electricity_ (London, 1896).



BATTEUX, CHARLES (1713-1780), French philosopher and writer on
aesthetics, was born near Vouziers (Ardennes), and studied theology at
Reims. In 1739 he came to Paris, and after teaching in the colleges of
Lisieux and Navarre, was appointed to the chair of Greek and Roman
philosophy in the Collège de France. In 1746 he published his treatise
_Les Beaux-Arts réduits à un même principe_, an attempt to find a unity
among the various theories of beauty and taste, and his views were
widely accepted. The reputation thus gained, confirmed by his
translation of Horace (1750), led to his becoming a member of the
Académie des Inscriptions (1754) and of the French Academy (1761). His
_Cours de belles lettres_ (1765) was afterwards included with some minor
writings in the large treatise, _Principes de la liltérature_ (1774).
The rules for composition there laid down are, perhaps, somewhat
pedantic. His philosophical writings were _La Morale d'Épicure tirée de
ses propres écrits_ (1758), and the _Histoire des causes premières_
(1769). In consequence of the freedom with which in this work he
attacked the abuse of authority in philosophy, he lost his professorial
chair. His last and most extensive work was a _Cours d'études à l'usage
des élèves de l'école militaire_ (45 vols.). In the _Beaux-Arts_,
Batteux developed a theory which is derived from Locke through
Voltaire's sceptical sensualism. He held that Art consists in the
faithful imitation of the beautiful in nature. Applying this principle
to the art of poetry, and analysing, line by line and even word by word,
the works of great poets, he deduced the law that the beauty of poetry
consists in the accuracy, beauty and harmony of individual expression.
This narrow and pedantic theory had at least the merit of insisting on
propriety of expression. His _Histoire des causes premières_ was among
the first attempts at a history of philosophy, and in his work on
Epicurus, following on Gassendi, he defended Epicureanism against the
general attacks made against it.

  See Dacier et Dupuy, "Éloges," in _Mémoires de l'Académie des
  Inscriptions_.



BATTHYANY, LOUIS (LAJOS), COUNT (1806-1849), Hungarian statesman, was
born at Pressburg in 1806. He supplied the defects of an indifferent
education while serving in garrison in Italy as a lieutenant of hussars,
and thenceforward adopted all the new ideas, economical and political.
According to Széchenyi, he learnt much from a German tutor of the
radical school, but it was not till after his marriage with the
noble-minded and highly-gifted countess Antonia Zichy that he began
working earnestly for the national cause. When Széchenyi drew nearer to
the court in 1839-1840, Batthyány became the leader of the opposition in
the Upper House, where his social rank and resolute character won for
him great influence. Despite his "sardanapalian inclinations," he
associated himself unreservedly with the extremists, and spent large
sums for the development of trade and industry. In 1847 he fiercely
opposed the government, procured the election of Kossuth as the
representative of Pest, took part in the Great Deputation of the 15th of
March, and on the 31st of March 1848 became the first constitutional
prime-minister of Hungary. His position became extremely difficult when
Jellachich and the Croats took up arms. Convinced that the rigid
maintenance of the constitution was the sole panacea, he did his utmost,
in his frequent journeys to Innsbruck, to persuade the court to condemn
Jellachich and establish a strong national government at Pest.
Unfortunately, however, he was persuaded to consent to the despatch of
Magyar troops to quell the Italian rising, before the Croat difficulty
had been adjusted, and thenceforth, despite his perfect loyalty, and his
admirable services as Honvéd minister in organizing the national forces,
his authority in Hungary declined before the rising star of Kossuth.
When Jellachich invaded Hungary, Batthyány resigned with the intention
of forming a new ministry excluding Kossuth, but this had now become
impossible. Then Batthyány attempted to mediate between the two extreme
parties, and subsequently raised a regiment from among his peasantry and
led them against the Croats. On the 11th of October he was incapacitated
for active service by a fall from his horse which broke his arm. On his
recovery he returned to Pest, laboured hard to bring about peace, and
was a member of the deputation from the Hungarian diet to Prince
Windischgrätz, whom the Austrian commander refused to receive. A few
days later (8th of January 1849) he was arrested at Pest. As a magnate
he was only indictable by the grand justiciary, as a minister he was
responsible to the diet alone. At Laibach, whither he was taken, he
asked that Deák might be his advocate, but this being refused he wrote
his own defence. Sentence of hanging was finally pronounced upon him at
Olmtitz for violating the Pragmatic Sanction, overthrowing the
constitution, and aiding and abetting the rebellion. To escape this fate
he Stabbed himself with a small concealed dagger, and bled to death in
the night of the 5th of October 1849.

  See Bertalan Szemere, _Batthyány, Kossuth, Gorgei_ (Ger.), (Hamburg,
  1853).     (R. N. B.)



BATTICALOA, the provincial capital of the eastern province of Ceylon, on
the E. coast, 69 m. S.S.E. of Trincomalee, situated on an island in lat.
7° 44' N. and long. 81° 52' E. It is of importance for its haven and the
adjacent salt lagoons. The population of the town in 1901 was 9969; of
the district (2872 sq. m.) 143,161. The old Dutch fort dates from 1682.
Batticaloa is the seat of a government agent and district judge;
criminal sessions of the supreme court are also held. Rice and cocoanuts
are the two staples of the district, and steamers trading round the
island call regularly at the port. The lagoon is famous for its "singing
fish," supposed to be shell-fish which give forth musical notes. The
district has a remnant of Veddahs or wild men of the wood. The average
annual rainfall is 55½ in.; the average temperature 80.4° F.



BATTISHILL, JONATHAN (1738-1801), one of the best 18th century English
composers of church music. Until 1764 he wrote chiefly for the theatre
(incidental songs, pantomime music, and an opera in collaboration with
Michael Arne, the son of Thomas Arne), but his later compositions are
chiefly glees, part-songs and church music. In 1763 he had married a
singer at Covent Garden theatre where he was harpsichordist. She retired
from her profession when she married; and her death in 1777 so crushed
him that he composed no more.



BATTLE, a market-town in the Rye parliamentary division of Sussex,
England, 54½ m. S.E. by S. from London by the South Eastern & Chatham
railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 2996. It is pleasantly situated
in an undulating well-wooded district, 7 m. from the sea at Hastings.
Its name is derived from the conflict in 1066, which insured to William
the Norman the crown of England (see also BATTLE ABBEY ROLL). Before the
battle, in which King Harold fell, William vowed to build an abbey on
the spot if he should prove victorious, and in 1094 the consecration
took place with great pomp. The gatehouse, forming a picturesque
termination to the main street of the town, is Decorated; and there also
remain parts of the foundations of the Norman church, of the
Perpendicular cloisters, and of the Early English refectory. A mansion
occupies part of the site, and incorporates some of the ancient
building. The church of St Mary is of various dates, the earliest
portions being transitional Norman.

  See _Chronicles of Battle Abbey_. 1066-1176, translated, &c., by M.A.
  Lower (London, 1851).



BATTLE, a general engagement between the armed forces, naval or
military, of enemies. The word is derived from the Fr. _bataille_, and
this, like the Ital. _battaglia_, and Span. _batalla_, comes from the
popular Lat. _battalia_ for _battualia_. Cassiodorus Senator (480-?575)
says: _Battualia quae vulgo Batalia dicuntur ... exercitationes militum
vel gladiatorum significant_ (see Du Cange, _Glossarium_, s.v.
_Batalia_). The verb _battuere_, cognate with "beat," is a rare word,
found in Pliny, used of beating in a mortar or of meat before cooking.
Suetonius (_Caligula_, 54-32) uses it of fencing, _battuebat pugnatoriis
armis_, i.e. not with blunted weapons or foils. _Battalia_ or _batalia_
was used for the array of troops for battle, and hence was applied to
the body of troops so arranged, or to a division of an army, whence the
use of the word "battalion" (q.v.).

A "pitched battle," loosely used as meaning almost a decisive
engagement, is strictly, as the words imply, one that is fought on
ground previously selected ("pitched" meaning arranged in a fixed order)
and in accordance with the intentions of the commanders of both sides;
the French equivalent is _bataille arrangée_, opposed to _bataille
manoeuvrée_, which is prearranged but may come off on any ground. With
"battle," in its usual meaning of a general engagement of hostile
forces, are contrasted "skirmish,"[1] a fight between small bodies
("skirmishing" technically means fighting by troops in extended or
irregular order), and "action," a more or less similar engagement
between large bodies of troops. (See also TACTICS and STRATEGY.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] This is the same word as "scrimmage," and is derived from the
    Anglo-French _eskrimir_, modern _escrimer_, properly to fight behind
    cover, now to fence. The origin of this is the Old High German
    _scirman_, to fight behind a shield, _scirm_. Modern German _Schirm_.



BATTLE ABBEY ROLL. This is popularly supposed to have been a list of
William the Conqueror's companions preserved at Battle Abbey, on the
site of his great victory over Harold. It is known to us only from 16th
century versions of it published by Leland, Holinshed and Duchesne, all
more or less imperfect and corrupt. Holinshed's is much the fullest, but
of its 629 names several are duplicates. The versions of Leland and
Duchesne, though much shorter, each contain many names found in neither
of the other lists. It was so obvious that several of the names had no
right to figure on the roll, that Camden, as did Dugdale after him, held
them to have been interpolated at various times by the monks, "not
without their own advantage." Modern writers have gone further, Sir
Egerton Brydges denouncing the roll as "a disgusting forgery," and E.A.
Freeman dismissing it as "a transparent fiction." An attempt to
vindicate the roll was made by the last duchess of Cleveland, whose
_Battle Abbey Roll_ (3 vols., 1889) is the best guide to its contents.

It is probable that the character of the roll has been quite
misunderstood. It is not a list of individuals, but only of family
surnames, and it seems to have been intended to show which families had
"come over with the Conqueror," and to have been compiled about the 14th
century. The compiler appears to have been influenced by the French
sound of names, and to have included many families of later settlement,
such as that of Grandson, which did not come to England from Savoy till
two centuries after the Conquest. The roll itself appears to be unheard
of before and after the 16th century, but other lists were current at
least as early as the 15th century, as the duchess of Cleveland has
shown. In 1866 a list of the Conqueror's followers, compiled from
Domesday and other authentic records, was set up in Dives church by M.
Leopold Delisle, and is printed in the duchess' work. Its contents are
naturally sufficient to show that the Battle Roll is worthless.

  See Leland, _Collectanea_; Holinshed, _Chronicles of England_;
  Duchesne, _Historia Norm. Scriptores_; Brydges, _Censura Literaria_;
  Thierry, _Conquête de l'Angleterre_, vol. ii. (1829); Burke, _The Roll
  of Battle Abbey_ (annotated, 1848); Planché, _The Conqueror and His
  Companions_ (1874); duchess of Cleveland, _The Battle Abbey Roll_
  (1889); Round, "The Companions of the Conqueror" (_Monthly Review_,
  1901, iii. pp. 91-111).     (J. H. R.)



BATTLE CREEK, a city of Calhoun county, Michigan, U.S.A., at the
confluence of the Kalamazoo river with Battle Creek, about 48 m. S. of
Grand Rapids. Pop. (1890) 13,197; (1900) 18,563, of whom 1844 were
foreign-born; (1910, census) 25,267. It is served by the Michigan
Central and the Grand Trunk railways, and by interurban electric lines.
Here are the hospital and laboratories of the American Medical
Missionary College (of Chicago) and the Battle Creek Sanitarium,
established in 1866, which was a pioneer in dietetic reform, and did
much to make Battle Creek important in the manufacture of health foods,
and in the publication of diet-reform literature. Among the principal
buildings, besides the hospital and the sanitarium, are several fine
churches, the central high school, the Post tavern and the Post theatre.
The city is a trading centre for the rich agricultural and fruit-growing
district by which it is surrounded, has good water-power, and is an
important manufacturing centre, its chief manufactured products being
cereal health foods, for which it has a wide reputation, and the
manufacture of which grew out of the dietetic experiments made in the
laboratories of the sanitarium; and threshing machines and other
agricultural implements, paper cartons and boxes, flour, boilers,
engines and pumps. Extensive locomotive and car shops of the Grand Trunk
railway are here. In 1904 the total factory product of Battle Creek was
valued at $12,298,244, an increase of 95% over that for 1900; and of the
total in 1904 $5,191,655 was the value of food preparations, which was
8.5% of the value of food preparations manufactured in the United
States, Battle Creek thus ranking first among American cities in this
industry. The water-works are owned and operated by the municipality,
the water being obtained from Lake Goguac, a summer pleasure resort
about 2 m. from the city. Battle Creek, said to have been named from
hostilities here between some surveyors and Indians, was settled in
1831, incorporated as a village in 1850, and chartered as a city in
1859, the charter of that year being revised in 1900.



BATTLEDORE AND SHUTTLECOCK, a game played by two persons with small
rackets, called battledores, made of parchment or rows of gut stretched
across wooden frames, and shuttlecocks, made of a base of some light
material, like cork, with trimmed feathers fixed round the top. The
object of the players is to bat the shuttlecock from one to the other as
many times as possible without allowing it to fall to the ground. There
are Greek drawings extant representing a game almost identical with
battledore and shuttlecock, and it has been popular in China, Japan,
India and Siam for at least 2000 years. In Europe it has been played by
children for centuries. A further development is Badminton.



BATTLEMENT (probably from a lost Fr. form _bastillement_, cf. mod. Fr.
_bastille_, from Med. Lat. _bastilia_, towers, which is derived from
Ital. _bastire_, to build, cf. Fr. _bâtir_; the English word was,
however, early connected with "battle"), a term given to a parapet of a
wall, in which portions have been cut out at intervals to allow the
discharge of arrows or other missiles; these cut-out portions are known
as "crenels"; the solid widths between the "crenels" are called
"merlons." The earliest example in the palace at Medinet-Abu at Thebes
in Egypt is of the inverted form, and is said to have been derived from
Syrian fortresses. Through Assyria they formed the termination of all
the walls surrounding the towns, as shown on bas reliefs from Nimrud and
elsewhere. Traces of them have been found at Mycenae, and they are
suggested on Greek vases. In the battlements of Pompeii, additional
protection was given by small internal buttresses or spur walls against
which the defender might place himself so as to be protected completely
on one side. In the battlements of the middle ages the crenel was about
one-third of the width of the merlon, and the latter was in addition
pierced with a small slit. The same is also found in Italian
battlements, where the merlon is of much greater height and is capped in
a peculiar fashion. The battlements of the Mahommedans had a more
decorative and varied character, and were retained from the 13th century
onwards not so much for defensive purposes as for a crowning feature to
their walls. They may be regarded therefore in the same light as the
cresting found in the Spanish renaissance. The same retention of the
battlement as a purely decorative feature is found throughout the
Decorated and Perpendicular periods, and not only occurs on parapets
but on the transoms of windows and on the tie-beams of roofs and on
screens. A further decorative treatment was given in the elaborate
panelling of the merlons and that portion of the parapet walls rising
above the cornice, by the introduction of quatrefoils and other
conventional forms filled with foliage and shields.



BATTUE (from Fr. _battre_, to beat), the beating of game from cover
under the sportsmen's fire; by analogy the word is used to describe any
slaughter of defenceless crowds.



BATTUS, the legendary founder of the Greek colony of Cyrene in Libya
(about 630 B.C.). The Greeks who accompanied him were, like himself,
natives of Thera, and descended partly from the race of the Minyae.
Various accounts are given both of the founding of Cyrene and of the
origin of the founder's name. According to the Cyrenaeans (Herod, iv.
150-156), Battus, having an impediment in his speech, consulted the
oracle at Delphi, and was told to found a colony in Libya; according to
the Theraeans, Battus was entrusted with this mission by their aged king
Grinus. In another version, there was civil war in Thera; Battus, leader
of one party, was banished, and, on applying to the oracle, was
recommended to take out a colony to "the continent" (Schol. Pindar,
_Pyth._ iv. 10). In any case the foundation is attributed to the direct
instructions of Apollo. The name was connected by some with [Greek:
battarizo], ("stammer"), but Herodotus (iv. 155) says that it was the
Libyan word for "king," that Battus was not called by the name until
after his arrival at Libya, and that the oracle addressed him as
"Battus" by anticipation. This, however, would imply on the part of the
oracle a knowledge of Libya, which was not shared by the rest of Greece
(Herod. _l.c._), and it is noteworthy that the name occurs in Arcadian
and Messenian legends. Herodotus does not know his real name, but Pindar
(_Pyth._ v. 116), no doubt rightly, calls the founder of the colony
Aristoteles, while Justin (xiii. 7) gives his name as Aristaeus who was
worshipped at Cyrene. Four kings named Battus, alternating with four
named Arcesilaus, ruled in Cyrene (q.v.) till the fall of the dynasty
about 450 B.C.

  See R.W. Macan's _Herodotus IV.-VI._ (1895), vol. i. pp. 104 seq. and
  notes.



BATU, or ROCK ISLANDS (Dutch _Batoe_), a group of three greater and
forty-eight lesser islands in the Dutch East Indies, W. of Sumatra,
between 0° 10' N. to 0° 45' S. and 97° 50'-98° 35' E., belonging to the
Ayerbangi district of the lowlands of Padang (Sumatra). They are
separated by the strait of Sibirut from the Mentawi group. The three
chief islands, from N. to S., are Pini or Mintao, Masa, and Bala. The
total land area of the group is 445 sq. m. The islands are generally
low, and covered with forest, in which the cocoanut palm is conspicuous.
There is trade in cocoanuts, oil, and other forest produce. The natives,
about 3000 in number, are of Malayan or pre-Malayan stock, akin to those
of the island of Nias to the north-west. Only about twenty of the
smaller islands are inhabited.



BATUM, a seaport of Russian Transcaucasia, in the government of and 90
m. by rail S.W. of the city of Kutais, on the S.E. shore of the Black
Sea, in 41° 39' N. and 41° 38' E. Pop. (1875) 2000; (1900) 28,512, very
mixed. The bay is being filled up by the sand carried into it by several
small rivers. The town is protected by strong forts, and the anchorage
has been greatly improved by artificial works. Batum possesses a
cathedral, finished in 1903, and the Alexander Park, with sub-tropical
vegetation. The climate is very warm, lemon and orange trees, magnolias
and palms growing in the open air; but it is at the same time extremely
wet and changeable. The annual rainfall (90 in.) is higher than anywhere
in Caucasia, but it is very unequally distributed (23 in. in August and
September, sometimes 16 in. in a couple of days), and the place is still
most unhealthy. The town is connected by rail with the main
Transcaucasian railway to Tiflis, and is the chief port for the export
of naphtha and paraffin oil, carried hither in great part through pipes
laid down from Baku, but partly also in tank railway-cars; other exports
are wheat, manganese, wool, silkworm-cocoons, liquorice, maize and
timber (total value of exports nearly 5½ millions sterling annually).
The imports, chiefly tin plates and machinery, amount to less than half
that total. Known as Bathys in antiquity, as Vati in the middle ages,
and as Bathumi since the beginning of the 17th century, Batum belonged
to the Turks, who strongly fortified it, down to 1878, when it was
transferred to Russia. In the winter of 1905-1906 Batum was in the hands
of the revolutionists, and a "reign of terror" lasted for several weeks.



BATWA, a tribe of African pygmies living in the mountainous country
around Wissmann Falls in the Kasai district of the Belgian Congo. They
were discovered in 1880 by Paul Pogge and Hermann von Wissmann, and have
been identified with Sir H.M. Stanley's Vouatouas. They are typical of
the negrito family south of the Congo. They are well made, with limbs
perfectly proportioned, and are seldom more than 4 ft. high. Their
complexion is a yellow-brown, much lighter than their Bantu-Negroid
neighbours. They have short woolly hair and no beard. They are feared
rather than despised by the Baluba and Bakuba tribes, among whom they
live. They are nomads, cultivating nothing, and keeping no animals but a
small type of hunting-dog. Their weapon is a tiny bow, the arrows for
which are usually poisoned. They build themselves temporary huts of a
bee-hive shape. As hunters they are famous, bounding through the jungle
growth "like grasshoppers" and fearlessly attacking elephants and
buffalo with their tiny weapons. Their only occupation apart from
hunting is the preparation of palm-wine which they barter for grain with
the Baluba. They are monogamous and display much family affection. See
further PYGMY; AKKA; WOCHUA; BAMBUTE.

  See A. de Quatrefages, _The Pygmies_ (Eng. ed., 1895); Sir H.H.
  Johnston, _Uganda Protectorate_ (1902); Hermann von Wissmann, _My
  Second Journey through Equatorial Africa_ (London, 1891).



BATYPHONE (Ger. and Fr. _Batyphon_), a contrabass clarinet which was the
outcome of F.W. Wieprecht's endeavour to obtain a contrabass for the
reed instruments. The batyphone was made to a scale twice the size of
the clarinet in C, the divisions of the chromatic scale being arranged
according to acoustic principles. For convenience in stopping holes too
far apart to be covered by the fingers, crank or swivel keys were used.
The instrument was constructed of maple-wood, had a clarinet mouthpiece
of suitable size connected by means of a cylindrical brass crook with
the upper part of the tube, and a brass bell. The pitch was two octaves
below the clarinet in C, the compass being the same, and thus
corresponding to the modern bass tuba. The tone was pleasant and full,
but not powerful enough for the contrabass register in a military band.
The batyphone had besides one serious disadvantage: it could be played
with facility only in its nearly related keys, G and F major. The
batyphone was invented and patented in 1839 by F.W. Wieprecht, director
general of all the Prussian military bands, and E. Skorra, the court
instrument manufacturer of Berlin. In practice the instrument was found
to be of little use, and was superseded by the bass tuba. A similar
attempt was made in 1843 by Adolphe Sax, and met with a similar fate.

A batyphone bearing the name of its inventors formed part of the Snoeck
collection which was acquired for Berlin's collection of ancient musical
instruments at the Technische Hochschule für Musik. The description of
the batyphone given above is mainly derived from a MS. treatise on
instrumentation by Wieprecht, in 1909 in the possession of Herr Otto
Lessmann (Berlin), and reproduced by Capt. C.R. Day, in _Descriptive
Catalogue of the Musical Instruments of the Royal Military Exhibition,
London, 1890_ (London, 1891), p. 124.     (K. S.)



BAUAN (or BAUN), a town of the province of Batangas, Luzon, Philippine
Islands, at the head of Batangas Bay, about 54 m. S. of Manila. Pop.
(1903) 39,094. A railway to connect the town with Manila was under
construction in 1908. Bauan has a fine church and is known as a market
for "sinamay" or hemp cloth, the hemp and cotton being imported and dyed
and woven by the women in their homes. Palm-fibre mats and hats, fans,
bamboo baskets and cotton fish-nets are woven here. There is excellent
fishing in the bay. Hogs and horses are raised for the Manila market.
The surrounding country is fertile and grows cacao, indigo, oranges,
sugar-cane, corn and rice. The language is Tagalog.



BAUBLE (probably a blend of two different words, an old French _baubel_,
a child's plaything, and an old English _babyll_, something swinging to
and fro), a word applied to a stick with a weight attached, used in
weighing, to a child's toy, and especially to the mock symbol of office
carried by a court jester, a baton terminating in a figure of Folly with
cap and bells, and sometimes having a bladder fastened to the other end;
hence a term for any triviality or childish folly.



BAUCHI, a province in the highlands of the British protectorate of
Northern Nigeria. It lies approximately between 11° 15' and 9° 15' N.
and 11° 15' and 8° 30' E. Bauchi is bounded N. by the provinces of Kano,
Katagum and Bornu; E. by Bornu, S. by Yola and Muri, and W. by the
provinces of Zaria and Nassarawa. The province has an area of about
21,000 sq. m. The altitude rises from 1000 ft. above the sea in its
north-eastern corner to 4000 ft. and 6000 ft. in the south-west. The
province is traversed diagonally from N.E. to S.W. by a belt of mountain
ranges alternating with fertile plateaus. Towards the south the country
is very rugged and a series of extinct volcanic craters occur.

Amongst the more important plateaus are the Assab or Kibyen country,
having a general level of upwards of 4000 ft., and the Sura country,
also reaching to elevations of from 3000 to 5000 ft. Both these
extensive plateaus are situated in the south-west portion of the
province. Their soil is fertile, they possess an abundance of pure
water, the air is keen and bracing, and the climate is described as
resembling in many respects that of the Transvaal. They form the
principal watershed not only of the province of Bauchi, but of the
protectorate of Northern Nigeria. The Gongola, flowing east and south to
the Benue, rises in the Sura district, and from the Kibyen plateau
streams flow north to Lake Chad, west to the Kaduna, and south to the
Benue. The soil is generally fertile between the hills, and in the
volcanic districts the slopes are cultivated half-way up the extinct
craters. The climate in the western parts is temperate and healthy. In
the winter months of November and December the thermometer frequently
falls to freezing-point, and in the hottest months the maximum on the
Kibyen plateau has been found to be rarely over 85°.

The population of Bauchi is estimated at about 1,000,000 and is of a
very various description. The upper classes are Fula, and there are some
Hausa and Kanuri (Bornuese), but the bulk of the people are pagan tribes
in a very low state of civilization. Sixty-four tribes sufficiently
differentiated from each other to speak different languages have been
reported upon. Hausa is the _lingua franca_ of the whole. The pagan
population has been classified for practical purposes as Hill pagans and
Plains pagans, Mounted pagans and Foot pagans. The Foot pagans of the
plains were brought under the Fula yoke in the beginning of the 19th
century and have never cast it off. The Hill pagans were partly
conquered, but many remained independent or have since succeeded in
asserting their freedom. The Mounted pagans are confined to the healthy
plateaus of the south-west corner of the province. They are independent
and there is considerable variety in the characteristics of the
different tribes. The better types are hardy, orderly and agriculturally
industrious. They are intelligent and have shown themselves peaceful and
friendly to Europeans. Others are, on the contrary, disposed to be
turbulent and warlike. Amongst the different tribes many are cannibals.
They all go practically naked. They are essentially horsemen, and have a
cruel habit of gashing the backs of their ponies that they may get a
good seat in the blood. They are armed with bows and arrows, but depend
almost entirely in battle on the charges of their mounted spearmen.

The native name "Bauchi," which is of great antiquity, Signifies the
"Land of Slaves," and from the earliest times the uplands which now form
the principal portion of the province been the hunting ground of the
slave raider, while the hill fastnesses have offered defensible refuge
to the population. So entirely was slavery a habit of the people, that
as late as 1905, after the slave-trade had been abolished for three
years, it was found that, in consequence of a famine which rendered food
difficult to obtain, a whole tribe (the Tangali) were selling themselves
as slaves to their neighbours. Children are readily sold by their
parents at a price varying from the equivalent of one shilling to one
and sixpence.

The province of Bauchi was conquered by the Fula at the beginning of the
19th century, and furnished them with a valuable slave preserve. But the
more civilized portion had already, under enlightened native rulers,
attained to a certain degree of prosperity and order. Mahommedanism was
partly adopted by the upper classes in the 18th century, if not earlier,
and the son of a Mahommedan native ruler, educated at Sokoto, accepted
the flag of Dan Fodio and conquered the country for the Fula. The name
of this remarkable soldier and leader was Yakoba (Jacob). His father's
name was Daouad (David), and his grandfather was Abdullah, all names
which indicate Arab or Mahommedan influence. The town of Bauchi and
capital of the province was founded by Yakoba in the year 1809, and the
emirate remained under Fula rule until the year 1902. In that year, in
consequence of determined slave-raiding and the defiant misrule of the
emir, a British expedition was sent against the capital, which submitted
without fighting. The emir was deposed, and the country was brought
under British control. A new emir was appointed, but he died within a
few months. The slave-trade was immediately abolished, and the
slave-market which was held at Bauchi, as in all Fula centres, was
closed. The Kano-Sokoto campaign in 1903 rendered necessary a temporary
withdrawal of the British resident from Bauchi, and comparatively little
progress was made until the following year. In 1904 the province was
organized for administration on the same system as the rest of Northern
Nigeria, and the reigning emir took the oath of allegiance to the
British crown. The province has been subdivided into thirteen
administrative districts, which again have been grouped into their
principal divisions, with their respective British headquarters at
Bauchi, Kanan and Bukuru. The Fula portion of this province, held like
the other Hausa states under a feudal system of large landowners or
fief-holders, has been organized and assessed for taxation on the system
accepted by the emirs throughout the protectorate, and the populations
are working harmoniously under British rule. Roads and telegraphs are in
process of construction, and the province is being gradually opened to
trade. Valuable indications of tin have been found to the north of the
Kibyen plateau, and have attracted the attention of the Niger Company.

Bauchi is a province of special importance from the European point of
view because, with free communication from the Benue assured, it is
probable that on the Kibyen and Sura plateaus, which are the healthiest
known in the protectorate, a sanatorium and station for a large civil
population might be established under conditions in which Europeans
could live free from the evil effects of a West African climate.

The emirate of Gombe, which is included in the first division of the
Bauchi province, is a Fula emirate independent of the emirs of Bauchi.
It forms a rich and important district, and its chiefs held themselves
in a somewhat sullen attitude of hostility to the British. It was at
Burmi in this district that the last stand was made by the religious
following of the defeated sultan of Sokoto, and here the sultan was
finally overthrown and killed in July 1903. Gombe has now frankly
accepted British rule.     (F. L. L.)



BAUDELAIRE, CHARLES PIERRE (1821-1867), French poet, was born in Paris
on the 9th of April 1821. His father, who was a civil servant in good
position and an amateur artist, died in 1827, and in the following year
his mother married a lieutenant-colonel named Aupick, who was afterwards
ambassador of France at various courts. Baudelaire was educated at Lyons
and at the Collège Louis-le Grand in Paris. On taking his degree in 1839
he determined to enter on a literary career, and during the next two
years pursued a very irregular way of life, which led his guardians, in
1841, to send him on a voyage to India. When he returned to Paris, after
less than a year's absence, he was of age; but in a year or two his
extravagance threatened to exhaust his small patrimony, and his family
obtained a decree to place his property in trust. His _salons_ of 1845
and 1846 attracted immediate attention by the boldness with which he
propounded many views then novel, but since generally accepted. He took
part with the revolutionaries in 1848, and for some years interested
himself in republican politics but his permanent convictions were
aristocratic and Catholic. Baudelaire was a slow and fastidious worker,
and it was not until 1857 that he produced his first and famous volume
of poems, _Fleurs du mal_. Some of these had already appeared in the
_Revue des deux mondes_ when they were published by Baudelaire's friend
Auguste Poulet Malassis, who had inherited a printing business at
Alençon. The consummate art displayed in these verses was appreciated by
a limited public, but general attention was caught by the perverse
selection of morbid subjects, and the book became a by-word for
unwholesomeness among conventional critics. Victor Hugo, writing to the
poet, said, "Vous dotez le ciel de l'art d'un rayon macabre, vous créez
un frisson nouveau." Baudelaire, the publisher, and the printer were
successfully prosecuted for offending against public morals. The
obnoxious pieces were suppressed, but printed later as _Les Épaves_
(Brussels, 1866). Another edition of the _Fleurs du mal_, without these
poems, but with considerable additions, appeared in 1861.

Baudelaire had learnt English in his childhood, and had found some of
his favourite reading in the English "Satanic" romances, such as Lewis's
_Monk_. In 1846-1847 he became acquainted with the works of Edgar Allan
Poe, in which he discovered romances and poems which had, he said, long
existed in his own brain, but had never taken shape. From this time till
1865 he was largely occupied with his version of Poe's works, producing
masterpieces of the art of translation in _Histoires extraordinaires_
(1852), _Nouvelles Histoires extraordinaires_ (1857), _Adventures
d'Arthur Gordon Pym, Eureka_, and _Histoires grotesques et sérieuses_
(1865). Two essays on Poe are to be found in his _Oeuvres complètes_
(vols. v. and vi.). Meanwhile his financial difficulties grew upon him.
He was involved in the failure of Poulet Malassis in 1861, and in 1864
he left Paris for Belgium, partly in the vain hope of disposing of his
copyrights. He had for many years a _liaison_ with a coloured woman,
whom he helped to the end of his life in spite of her gross conduct. He
had recourse to opium, and in Brussels he began to drink to excess.
Paralysis followed, and the last two years of his life were spent in
_maisons de santé_ in Brussels and in Paris, where he died on the 31st
of August 1867.

His other works include:--_Petits Poèmes en prose_; a series of art
criticisms published in the _Pays, Exposition universelle_; studies on
Gustave Flaubert (in _L'artiste_, 18th of October 1857); on Théophile
Gautier (_Revue contemporaine_, September 1858); valuable notices
contributed to Eugène Crépet's _Poètes français_; _Les Paradis
artificiels opium et haschisch_ (1860); _Richard Wagner et Tannhäuser à
Paris_ (1861); _Un Dernier Chapitre de l'histoire des oeuvres de Balzac_
(1880), originally an article entitled "Comment on paye ses dettes quand
on a du génie," in which his criticism is turned against his friends H.
de Balzac, Théophile Gautier, and Gérard de Nerval.



  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--An edition of his _Lettres_ (1841-1866) was issued by
  the Soc. du Mercure de France in 1906. His _Oeuvres complètes_ were
  edited (1868-1870) by his friend Charles Asselineau, with a preface by
  Théophile Gautier. Asselineau also undertook a vindication of his
  character from the attacks made upon it in his _Charles Baudelaire, sa
  vie, son oeuvre_ (1869). He left some material of more private
  interest in a MS. entitled _Baudelaire_. See _Charles Baudelaire,
  souvenirs, correspondance, bibliographie_ (1872), by Charles Cousin
  and Spoelberch de Lovenjoul; _Charles Baudelaire, oeuvres posthumes et
  correspondances inédites_ (1887), containing a journal entitled _Mon
  coeur mis à nu_, and a biographical study by Eugène Crépet; also _Le
  Tombeau de Charles Baudelaire_ (1896), a collection of pieces
  unpublished or prohibited during the author's lifetime, edited by S.
  Mallarmé and others, with a study of the text of the _Fleurs du mal_
  by Prince A. Ourousof; Féli Gautier, _Charles Baudelaire_ (Brussels,
  1904), with facsimiles of drawings by Baudelaire himself; A. de la
  Fitzelière and C. Decaux, _Charles Baudelaire_ (1868) in the series of
  _Essais de bibliographie contemporaine_; essays by Paul Bourget,
  _Essais de psychologie conlemporaine_ (1883), and Maurice Spronck,
  _Les Artistes littéraires_ (1889). Among English translations from
  Baudelaire are _Poems in Prose_, by A. Symons (1905), and a selection
  for the _Canterbury Poets_ (1904), by F.P. Sturm.



BAUDIER, MICHEL (c. 1589-1645), French historian, was born in Languedoc.
During the reign of Louis XIII. he was historiographer to the Court of
France. He contributed to French history by writing _Histoire de la
guerre de Flandre 1559-1609_ (Paris, 1615); _Histoire de
l'administration du cardinal d'Amboise, grand ministre d'état en France_
(Paris, 1634), a defence of the cardinal; and _Histoire de
l'administration de l'abbé Suger_ (Paris, 1645). Taking an especial
interest in the Turks he wrote _Inventaire général de l'histoire des
Turcs_ (Paris, 1619); _Histoire générale de la religion des Turcs avec
la vie de leur prophète Mahomet_ (Paris, 1626); and _Histoire générale
du sérail et de la cour du grand Turc_ (Paris, 1626; English trans. by
E. Grimeston, London, 1635). Having heard the narrative of a Jesuit who
had returned from China, Baudier wrote _Histoire de la cour du roi de
Chine_ (Paris, 1626; English trans. in vol. viii. of the _Collection of
Voyages and Travels_ of A. and J. Churchill, London, 1707-1747). He also
wrote _Vie du cardinal Ximénès_ (Paris, 1635), which was again published
with a notice of the author by E. Baudier (Paris, 1851), and a curious
romance entitled _Histoire de l'incomparable administration de Romieu,
grand ministre d'état de Raymond Bérenger, comte de Provence_ (Paris,
1635).

  See J. Lelong, _Bibliothèque historique de la France_ (Paris,
  1768-1778); L. Moréri, _Le Grand Dictionnaire historique_ (Amsterdam,
  1740).



BAUDRILLART, HENRI JOSEPH LÉON (1821-1892), French economist, was born
in Paris on the 28th of November 1821. His father, Jacques Joseph
(1774-1832), was a distinguished writer on forestry, and was for many
years in the service of the French government, eventually becoming the
head of that branch of the department of agriculture which had charge of
the state forests. Henri was educated at the Collège Bourbon, where he
had a distinguished career, and in 1852 he was appointed assistant
lecturer in political economy to M. Chevalier at the Collège de France.
In 1866, on the creation of a new chair of economic history, Baudrillart
was appointed to fill it. His first work was an _Éloge de Turgot_
(1846), which at once won him notice among the economists. In 1853 he
published an erudite work on _Jean Bodin et son temps_; then in 1857 a
_Manuel d'économie politique_; in 1860, _Des rapports de la morale et de
l'économie politique_; in 1865, _La Liberté du travail_; and from 1878
to 1880, _L'Histoire du luxe ... depuis l'antiquité jusqu'à nos
jours_, in four volumes. At the instance of the Académie des Sciences
Morales et Politiques he investigated the condition of the farming
classes of France, and published the results in four volumes (1885, _et
seq_.). From 1855 to 1864 he directed the _Journal des économistes_, and
contributed many articles to the _Journal des débats_ and to the _Revue
des deux mondes_. His writings are distinguished by their style, as well
as by their profound erudition. In 1863 he was elected member of the
Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques; in 1870 he was appointed
inspector-general of public libraries, and in 1881 he succeeded J.
Garnier as professor of political economy at the École des Ponts et
Chaussées. Baudrillart was made an officer of the Legion of Honour in
1889. He died in Paris on the 24th of January 1892.



BAUDRY, or BALDERICH, OF BOURGUEIL (1046 or 1047-1130), archbishop of
Dol, historian and poet, was born at Meung-sur-Loire, where he passed
his early days. Educated at Meung and at Angers, he entered the
Benedictine abbey of Bourgueil, and in 1079 became abbot of this place,
but his time was devoted to literary pursuits rather than to his
official duties. Having failed to secure the bishopric of Orleans in
1097, he became archbishop of Dol in 1107, and went to Rome for his
pallium in 1108. The bishopric of Dol had been raised to the rank of an
archbishopric during the 10th century by Nomenoé, king of Brittany, but
this step had been objected to by the archbishops of Tours. Consequently
the position of the see was somewhat ambiguous, and Baudry is referred
to both as archbishop and as bishop of Dol. He appears to have striven
earnestly to do something for the education of the ignorant inhabitants
of Brittany but his efforts were not very successful, and he soon
abandoned the task. In 1116 he attended the Lateran council, and in 1119
the council of Reims, after which he paid a visit of two years' duration
to England. Returning to France he neglected the affairs of his diocese,
and passed his time mainly at St Samson-sur-Risle in Normandy. He died
on the 5th or 7th of January 1130.

Baudry wrote a number of Latin poems of very indifferent quality. The
most important of these, from the historical point of view, have been
published in the _Historiae Francorum Scriptores_, tome iv., edited by
A. Duchesne (Paris 1639-1649). Baudry's prose works are more important.
The best known of these is his _Historiae Hierosolymitance_, a history
of the first crusade from 1095 to 1099. This is a history in four books,
the material for which was mainly drawn from the anonymous _Gesta
Francorum_, but some valuable information has been added by Baudry. It
was very popular during the middle ages, and was used by Ordericus
Vitalis for his _Historiae ecclesiasticae_; by William, archbishop of
Tyre, for his _Belli sacri historia_; and by Vincent of Beauvais for his
_Speculum historiale_. The best edition is that by C. Thurot, which
appears in the _Recueil des historiens des croisades_, tome iv. (Paris,
1841-1887), Other works probably by Baudry are _Epistola ad Fiscannenses
monachos_, a description of the monastery of Fécamp; _Vita Roberti de
Arbrissello; Vita S. Hugonis archiepiscopi Rothomagensis; Translatio
capitis Gemeticum et miracula S. Valentini martyris; Relatio de scuto et
gladio_, a history of the arms of St. Michael; and _Vita S. Samsonis
Dolensis episcopi_. Other writings which on very doubtful authority have
been attributed to Baudry are _Acta S. Valeriani martyris Trenorchii; De
visitatione infirmorum; Vita S. Maglorii Dolensis episcopi et Vita S.
Maclovii, Alectensis episcopi; De revelatione abbatum Fiscannensium_;
and _Confirmatio bonorum monasterii S. Florentii_. Many of these are
published by J.P. Migne in the _Patrologia Latina_, tomes 160, 162 and
166 (Paris 1844).

  See _Histoire littéraire de la France_, tome xi. (Paris, 1865-1869);
  H. von Sybel, _Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges_ (Leipzig, 1881); A.
  Thurot, "Études critiques sur les historiens de la première croisade;
  Baudri de Bourgueil" in the _Revue historique_ (Paris, 1876).



BAUDRY, PAUL JACQUES AIMÉ (1828-1886), French painter, was born at La
Roche-sur-Yonne (Vendée). He studied under Drolling, a sound but
second-rate artist, and carried off the Prix de Rome in 1850 by his
picture of "Zenobia found on the banks of the Araxes." His talent from
the first revealed itself as strictly academical, full of elegance and
grace, but somewhat lacking originality. In the course of his residence
in Italy Baudry derived strong inspiration from Italian art with the
mannerism of Coreggio, as was very evident in the two works he exhibited
in the Salon of 1857, which were purchased for the Luxembourg: "The
Martyrdom of a Vestal Virgin" and "The Child." His "Leda," "St John the
Baptist," and a "Portrait of Beulé," exhibited at the same time, took a
first prize that year. Throughout this early period Baudry commonly
selected mythological or fanciful subjects, one of the most noteworthy
being "The Pearl and the Wave." Once only did he attempt an historical
picture, "Charlotte Corday after the murder of Marat" (1861), and
returned by preference to the former class of subjects or to painting
portraits of illustrious men of his day--Guizot, Charles Garnier, Edmond
About. The works that crowned Baudry's reputation were his mural
decorations, which show much imagination and a high artistic gift for
colour, as may be seen in the frescoes in the Paris Cour de Cassation,
at the château of Chantilly, and some private residences--the hôtel
Fould and hôtel Paiva--but, above all, in the decorations of the _foyer_
of the Paris opera house. These, more than thirty paintings in all, and
among them compositions figurative of dancing and music, occupied the
painter, for ten years. Baudry died in Paris in 1886. He was a member of
the Institut de France, succeeding Jean Victor Schnetz. Two of his
colleagues, Dubois and Marius Jean Mercie, co-operating with his
brother, Baudry the architect, erected a monument to him in Paris
(1890). The statue of Baudry at La Roche-sur-Yonne (1897) is by Gérôme.

  See H. Delaborde, _Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de Baudry_
  (1886); Ch. Ephrussi, _Baudry, sa vie et son oeuvre_ (1887).
       (H. Fr.)



BAUER, BRUNO (1809-1882), German theologian and historian, was born on
the 6th of September 1809, the son of a painter in a porcelain factory,
at Eisenberg in Saxe-Altenburg. He studied at Berlin, where he attached
himself to the "Right" of the Hegelian school under P. Marheineke. In
1834 he began to teach in Berlin as a licentiate of theology, and in
1839 was transferred to Bonn. In 1838 he published his _Kritische
Darstellung der Religion des Alten Testaments_ (2 vols.), which shows
that at that date he was still faithful to the Hegelian Right. Soon
afterwards his opinions underwent a change, and in two works, one on the
Fourth Gospel, _Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte des Johannes_
(1840), and the other on the Synoptics, _Kritik der evangelischen
Geschichte der Synoptiker_ (1841), as well as in his _Herr Hengstenberg,
kritische Briefe über den Gegensatz des Gesetzes und des Evangeliums_,
he announced his complete rejection of his earlier orthodoxy. In 1842
the government revoked his license and he retired for the rest of his
life to Rixdorf, near Berlin. Henceforward he took a deep interest in
modern history and politics, as well as in theology, and published
_Geschichte der Politik, Kultur und Aufklärung des 18ten Jahrhunderts_
(4 vols. 1843-1845), Geschichte der französischen Revolution (3 vols.
1847), and _Disraelis romantischer und Bismarcks socialistischer
Imperialismus_ (1882). Other critical works are: a criticism of the
gospels and a history of their origin, _Kritik der Evangelien und
Geschichte ihres Ursprungs_ (1850-1852), a book on the Acts of the
Apostles, _Apostelgeschichte_ (1850), and a criticism of the Pauline
epistles, _Kritik der paulinischen Briefe_ (1850-1852). He died at
Rixdorf on the 13th of April 1882. His criticism of the New Testament
was of a highly destructive type. David Strauss in his _Life of Jesus_
had accounted for the Gospel narratives as half-conscious products of
the mythic instinct in the early Christian communities. Bauer ridiculed
Strauss's notion that a community could produce a connected narrative.
His own contention, embodying a theory of C.G. Wilke (_Der
Urevangelist_, 1838), was that the original narrative was the Gospel of
Mark; that this was composed in the reign of Hadrian; and that after
this the other narratives were modelled by other writers. He, however,
"regarded Mark not only as the first narrator, but even as the creator
of the gospel history, thus making the latter a fiction and Christianity
the invention of a single original evangelist" (Pfleiderer). On the same
principle the four principal Pauline epistles were regarded as forgeries
of the 2nd century. He argued further for the preponderance of the
Graeco-Roman element, as opposed to the Jewish, in the Christian
writings. The writer of Mark's gospel was "an Italian, at home both in
Rome and Alexandria"; that of Matthew's gospel "a Roman, nourished by
the spirit of Seneca"; the Pauline epistles were written in the West in
antagonism to the Paul of the Acts, and so on. Christianity is
essentially "Stoicism triumphant in a Jewish garb." This line of
criticism has found few supporters, mostly in the Netherlands. It
certainly had its value in emphasizing the importance of studying the
influence of environment in the formation of the Christian Scriptures.
Bauer was a man of restless, impetuous activity and independent, if
ill-balanced, judgment, one who, as he himself perceived, was more in
place as a free-lance of criticism than as an official teacher. He came
in the end to be regarded kindly even by opponents, and he was not
afraid of taking a line displeasing to his liberal friends on the Jewish
question (_Die Judenfrage_, 1843).

  His attitude towards the Jews is dealt with in the article in the
  _Jewish Encyclopedia_. See generally Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopadie_;
  and cf. Otto Pfleiderer, _Development of Theology_, p. 226; Carl
  Schwarz, _Zur Geschichte der neuesten Theologie_, pp. 142 ff.; and F.
  Lichtenberger, _History of German Theology in the 19th Century_
  (1889), pp. 374-378.



BAUERNFELD, EDUARD VON (1802-1890), Austrian dramatist, was born at
Vienna on the 13th of January 1802. Having studied jurisprudence at the
university of Vienna, he entered the government service in a legal
capacity, and after holding various minor offices was transferred in
1843 to a responsible post on the Lottery Commission. He had already
embarked upon politics, and severely criticized the government in a
pamphlet, _Pia Desideria eines österreichischen Schriftstellers_ (1842);
and in 1845 he made a journey to England, after which his political
opinions became more pronounced. After the Revolution, in 1848, he
quitted the government service in order to devote himself entirely to
letters. He lived in Vienna until his death on the 9th of August 1890,
and was ennobled for his work. As a writer of comedies and farces,
Bauernfeld takes high rank among the German playwrights of the century;
his plots are clever, the situations witty and natural and the diction
elegant. His earliest essays, the comedies _Leichtsinn aus Liebe_
(1831); _Das Liebes-Protokoll_ (1831) and _Die ewige Liebe_ (1834);
_Bürgerlich und Romantisch_, (1835) enjoyed great popularity. Later he
turned his attention to so-called _Salonstücke_ (drawing-room pieces),
notably _Aus der Gesellschaft_ (1866); _Moderne Jugend_ (1869), and _Der
Landfrieden_ (1869), in which he portrays in fresh, bright and happy
sallies the social conditions of the capital in which he lived.

  A complete edition of Bauernfeld's works, _Gesammelte Schriften_,
  appeared in 12 vols. (Vienna, 1871-1873); _Dramatischer Nachlass_, ed.
  by F. von Saar (1893); selected works, ed. by E. Horner (4 vols.,
  1905). See A. Stern, _Bauernfeld, Ein Dichterportrat_ (1890), R. von
  Gottschall, "E. von Bauernfeld" (in _Unsere Zeit_, 1890), and E.
  Horner, _Bauernfeld_ (1900).



BAUFFREMONT, a French family which derives its name from a village in
the Vosges, spelt nowadays Beaufremont. In consequence of an alliance
with the house of Vergy the Bauffremonts established themselves in
Burgundy and Franche-Comté. In 1448 Pierre de Bauffremont, lord of
Charny, married Maríe, a legitimatized daughter of Philip the Good, duke
of Burgundy. Nicolas de Bauffremont, his son Claude, and his grandson
Henri, all played important parts in the states-general of 1576, 1588
and 1614, and their speeches have been published. Alexandre Emmanuel
Louis de Bauffremont (1773-1833), a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, was
created a peer of France in 1817, and duke in 1818. After having served
in the army of the princes he returned to France under the Empire, and
had been made a count by Napoleon.     (M. P.*)



BAUHIN, GASPARD (1560-1624), Swiss botanist and anatomist, was the son
of a French physician, Jean Bauhin (1511-1582), who had to leave his
native country on becoming a convert to Protestantism. He was born at
Basel on the 17th of January 1560, and devoting himself to medicine, he
pursued his studies at Padua, Montpellier, and some of the celebrated
schools in Germany. Returning to Basel in 1580, he was admitted to the
degree of doctor, and gave private lectures in botany and anatomy. In
1582 he was appointed to the Greek professorship in that university, and
in 1588 to the chair of anatomy and botany. He was afterwards made city
physician, professor of the practice of medicine, rector of the
university, and dean of his faculty. He died at Basel on the 5th of
December 1624. He published several works relative to botany, of which
the most valuable was his _Pinax Theatri Botanici, seu Index in
Theophrasti, Dioscoridis, Plinii, et botanicorum qui a seculo
scripserunt opera_ (1596). Another great work which he planned was a
_Theatrum Botanicum_, meant to be comprised in twelve parts folio, of
which he finished three; only one, however, was published (1658). He
also gave a copious catalogue of the plants growing in the environs of
Basel, and edited the works of P.A. Mattioli (1500-1577) with
considerable additions. He likewise wrote on anatomy, his principal work
on this subject being _Theatrum Anatomicum infinitis locis auctum_
(1592).

His son, JEAN GASPARD BAUHIN (1606-1685), was professor of botany at
Basel for thirty years. His elder brother, JEAN BAUHIN (1541-1613),
after studying botany at Tübingen under Leonard Fuchs (1501-1566), and
travelling with Conrad Gesner, began to practise medicine at Basel,
where he was elected professor of rhetoric in 1766. Four years later he
was invited to become physician to the duke of Württemberg at
Montbéliard, where he remained till his death in 1613. He devoted
himself chiefly to botany. His great work, _Historia plantarum nova et
absolutissima_, a compilation of all that was then known about botany,
was not complete at his death, but was published at Yverdon in
1650-1651, the _Prodromus_ having appeared at the same place in 1619. He
also wrote a book _De aquis medicatis_ (1605).



BAULK, or BALK (a word common to Teutonic languages, meaning a ridge,
partition, or beam), the ridge left unploughed between furrows or
ploughed fields; also the uncultivated strip of land used as a boundary
in the "open-field" system of agriculture. From the meaning of something
left untouched comes that of a hindrance or check, so of a horse
stopping short of an obstacle, of the "baulk-line" in billiards, or of
the deceptive motion of the pitcher in baseball. From the other original
meaning, i.e. "beam," comes the use of the word for the cross or
tie-beam of a roof, or for a large log of timber sawn to a one or one
and a half foot square section (see JOINERY).



BAUMBACH, RUDOLF (1840-1905), German poet, was born at Kranichfeld on
the Ilm in Thuringia, on the 28th of September 1840, the son of a local
medical practitioner, and received his early schooling at the gymnasium
of Meiningen, to which place his father had removed. After studying
natural science in various universities, he engaged in private tuition,
both independently and in families, in the Austrian towns of Graz,
Brünn, Görz and Triest respectively. In Triest he caught the popular
taste with an Alpine legend, _Zlatorog_ (1877), and songs of a
journeyman apprentice, _Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen_ (1878), both of
which have run into many editions. Their success decided him to embark
upon a literary career. In 1885 he returned to Meiningen, where he
received the title of _Hofrat_, and was appointed ducal librarian. His
death occurred on the 14th of September 1905.

Baumbach was a poet of the breezy, vagabond school, and wrote, in
imitation of his greater compatriot, Victor Scheffel, many excellent
drinking songs, among which _Die Lindenwirtin_ has endeared him to the
German student world. But his real strength lay in narrative verse,
especially when he had the opportunity of describing the scenery and
life of his native Thuringia. Special mention may be made of _Frau
Holde_ (1881), _Spielmannslieder_ (1882), _Von der Landstrasse_ (1882),
_Thüringer Lieder_ (1891), and his prose, _Sommermärchen_ (1881).



BAUMÉ, ANTOINE (1728-1804), French chemist, was born at Senlis on the
26th of February 1728. He was apprenticed to the chemist Claude Joseph
Geoffroy, and in 1752 was admitted a member of the École de Pharmacie,
where in the same year he was appointed professor of chemistry. The
money he made in a business he carried on in Paris for dealing in
chemical products enabled him to retire in 1780 in order to devote
himself to applied chemistry, but, ruined in the Revolution, he was
obliged to return to a commercial career. He devised many improvements
in technical processes, e.g. for bleaching silk, dyeing, gilding,
purifying saltpetre, &c., but he is best known as the inventor of the
hydrometer associated with his name (often in this connexion improperly
spelt Beaumé). Of the numerous books and papers he wrote the most
important is his _Élémens de pharmacie théorique et pratique_ (9
editions, 1762-1818). He became a member of the Academy of Sciences in
1772, and an associate of the Institute in 1796. He died in Paris on the
15th of October 1804.



BAUMGARTEN, ALEXANDER GOTTLIEB (1714-1762), German philosopher, born at
Berlin. He studied at Halle, and became professor of philosophy at Halle
and at Frankfort on the Oder, where he died in 1762. He was a disciple
of Leibnitz and Wolff, and was particularly distinguished as having been
the first to establish the _Theory of the Beautiful_ as an independent
science. Baumgarten did good service in severing aesthetics (q.v.) from
the other philosophic disciplines, and in marking out a definite object
for its researches. The very name (_Aesthetics_), which Baumgarten was
the first to use, indicates the imperfect and partial nature of his
analysis, pointing as it does to an element so variable as _feeling_ or
_sensation_ as the ultimate ground of judgment in questions pertaining
to beauty. It is important to notice that Baumgarten's first work
preceded those of Burke, Diderot, and P. André, and that Kant had a
great admiration for him. The principal works of Baumgarten are the
following: _Dispulationes de nonnullis ad poema pertinentibus_ (1735);
_Aesthetics; Metaphysica_ (1739; 7th ed. 1779); _Ethica philosophica_
(1751, 2nd ed. 1763); _Initia philosophiae practicae primae_ (1760).
After his death, his pupils published a _Philosophia Generalis_ (1770)
and a _Jus Naturae_ (1765), which he had left in manuscript.

  See Meyer, _Baumgarten's Leben_ (1763); Abbt, _Baumgarten's Leben und
  Charakler_ (1765); H.G. Meyer, _Leibnitz und Baumgarten_ (1874); J.
  Schmidt, _Leibnitz und Baumgarten_ (Halle, 1875); and article
  AESTHETICS.

His brother, SIEGMUND JACOB BAUMGARTEN (1706-1757), was professor of
theology at Halle, and applied the methods of Wolff to theology. His
chief pupil, Johann Salomo Semler (q.v.), is sometimes called, the
father of German rationalism. Baumgarten, though he did not renounce the
Pietistic doctrine, began the process which Semler completed. His works
include _Evangelische Glaubenslehre_ (1759); _Auszug der
Kirchengeschichte_ (1743-1762); _Primae lineae breviarii anliquitatum
Christianarum_ (1747); _Geschichte der Religionsparteien_ (1760);
_Nachricht van merkwürdigen Buchern_ (1752-1757); _Nachrichten van einer
hallischen Bibliothek_ (1748-1751).

  See life by Semler (Halle, 1758).



BAUMGARTEN, MICHAEL (1812-1889), German Protestant theologian, was born
at Haseldorf in Schleswig-Holstein on the 25th of March 1812. He studied
at Kiel University (1832), and became professor ordinarius of theology
at Rostock (1850). A liberal scholar, he became widely known in 1854
through a work, _Die Nachtgesichte Sacharjas. Eine Prophetenstimme aus
der Gegenwart_, in which, starting from texts in the Old Testament and
assuming the tone of a prophet, he discussed topics of every kind. At a
pastoral conference in 1856 he boldly defended evangelical freedom as
regards the legal sanctity of Sunday. This, with other attempts to
liberalize religion, brought him into conflict with the ecclesiastical
authorities of Mecklenburg, and in 1858 he was deprived of his
professorship. He then travelled throughout Germany, demanding justice,
telling the story of his life (_Christliche Selbstgespräche_, 1861), and
lecturing on the life of Jesus (_Die Geschichte Jesu. Für das
Verständniss der Gegenwart_, 1859). In 1865 he helped to found the
_Deutsche Protestantenverein_, but withdrew from it in 1877. On several
occasions (1874, 1877 and 1878) he sat in the Reichstag as a member of
the progressive party. He died on the 21st of July 1889. Other works:
_Apostelgeschichte oder Entwicklungsgang der Kirche van Jerusalem bis
Rom_ (2 vols. 2nd ed., 1859), and _Doktor Martin Luther, ein Volksbuch_
(1883).

  H.H. Studt published his autobiography in 1891 (2 vols.); see also C.
  Schwartz, _Neueste Theologie_ (1869); Lichtenberger, _Hist. Germ.
  Theol._, 1889; Calwer-Zeller, _Kirchen-Lexikon_.



BAUMGARTEN-CRUSIUS, LUDWIG FRIEDRICH OTTO (1788-1842), German Protestant
divine, was born at Merseburg. In 1805 he entered the university of
Leipzig and studied theology and philology. After acting as
_Privatdocent_ at Leipzig, he was, in 1812, appointed professor
extraordinarius of theology at Jena, where he remained to the end of his
life, rising gradually to the head of the theological faculty. He died
on the 31st of May 1842. With the exception of Church history, he
lectured on all branches of so-called theoretical theology, especially
on New Testament exegesis, biblical theology, dogmatic ethics, and the
history of dogma, and his comprehensive knowledge, accurate scholarship
and wide sympathies gave peculiar value to his lectures and treatises,
especially those on the development of church doctrine. His published
works are many, the most important being:--_Lehrbuch der christtichen
Sittenlehre_ (1826); _Grundzuge der biblischen Theologie_ (1828);
_Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte_ (1832); _Compendium der
Dogmengeschichte_ (1840). The last, perhaps his best work, was left
unfinished, but was completed from his notes in 1846 by Karl Hase.



BAUR, FERDINAND CHRISTIAN (1792-1860), leader of the Tübingen school of
theology, was born at Schmiden, near Canstatt, on the 21st of June 1792.
After receiving an early training in the theological seminary at
Blaubeuren, he went in 1809 to the university of Tübingen. Here he
studied for a time under Ernst Bengel, grandson of the eminent New
Testament critic, Johann Albrecht Bengel, and at this early stage in his
career he seems to have been under the influence of the old Tübingen
school. But at the same time the philosophers Immanuel Fichte and
Friedrich Schelling were creating a wide and deep impression. In 1817
Baur returned to the theological seminary at Blaubeuren as professor.
This move marked a turning-point in his life, for he was now able to set
to work upon those investigations on which his reputation rests. He had
already, in 1817, written a review of G. Kaiser's _Biblische Theologie_
for Bengel's _Archiv für Theologie_ (ii. 656); its tone was moderate and
conservative. When, a few years after his appointment at Blaubeuren, he
published his first important, work, _Symbolik und Mythologie oder die
Naturreligion des Altertums_ (1824-1825), it became evident that he had
made a deeper study of philosophy, and had come under the influence of
Schelling and more particularly of Friedrich Schleiermacher. The
learning of the work was fully recognized, and in 1826 the author was
called to Tübingen as professor of theology. It is with Tübingen that
his greatest literary achievements are associated. His earlier
publications here treated of mythology and the history of dogma. _Das
manichäische Religionssystem_ appeared in 1831, _Apollonius von Tyana_
in 1832, _Die christliche Gnosis_ in 1835, and _Über das Christliche im
Platonismus oder Socrates und Christus_ in 1837. As Otto Pfleiderer
(_Development of Theology_, p. 285) observes, "the choice not less than
the treatment of these subjects is indicative of the large breadth of
view and the insight of the historian into the comparative history of
religion." Meantime Baur had exchanged one master in philosophy for
another, Schleiermacher for Hegel. In doing so, he had adopted
completely the Hegelian philosophy of history. "Without philosophy," he
has said, "history is always for me dead and dumb." The change of view
is illustrated clearly in the essay, published in the _Tubinger
Zeitschrift_ for 1831, on the Christ-party in the Corinthian Church,
_Die Chrislusparlei in der korinthischen Gemeinde, der Gegensatz des
paulinischen und petrinischen in der älsten Kirche, der Apostel Petrus
in Rom_, the trend of which is suggested by the title. Baur contends
that St Paul was opposed in Corinth by a Jewish-Christian party which
wished to set up its own form of Christian religion instead of his
universal Christianity. He finds traces of a keen conflict of parties in
the post-apostolic age. The theory is further developed in a later work
(1835, the year in which David Strauss' _Leben Jesu_ was published),
_Über die sogenannten Pastoralbriefe_. In this Baur attempts to prove
that the false teachers mentioned in the Epistles to Timothy and Titus
are the Gnostics, particularly the Marcionites, of the second century,
and consequently that the Epistles were produced in the middle of this
century in opposition to Gnosticism. He next proceeded to investigate
the Pauline Epistles and the Acts of the Apostles in the same manner,
publishing his results in 1845 under the title _Paulus, der Apostel Jesu
Christi, sein Leben und Wirken, seine Briefe und seine Lehre_. In this
he contends that only the Epistles to the Galatians, Corinthians and
Romans are genuinely Pauline, and that the Paul of Acts is a different
person from the Paul of these genuine Epistles, the author being a
Paulinist who, with an eye to the different parties in the Church, is at
pains to represent Peter as far as possible as a Paulinist and Paul as
far as possible as a Petrinist. Thus it becomes clear that Baur is
prepared to apply his theory to the whole of the New Testament; in the
words of H.S. Nash, "he carried a sweeping hypothesis into the
examination of the New Testament." Those writings alone he considers
genuine in which the conflict between Jewish-Christians and
Gentile-Christians is clearly marked. In his _Kritische Untersuchungen
über die kanonischen Evangelien, ihr Verhaltniss zu einander, ihren
Charakter und Ursprung_ (1847) he turns his attention to the Gospels,
and here again finds that the authors were conscious of the conflict of
parties; the Gospels reveal a mediating or conciliatory tendency
(_Tendenz_) on the part of the writers or redactors. The Gospels, in
fact, are adaptations or redactions of an older Gospel, such as the
Gospel of the Hebrews, of Peter, of the Egyptians, or of the Ebionites.
The Petrine Matthew bears the closest relationship to this original
Gospel (_Urevangelium_); the Pauline Luke is later and arose
independently; Mark represents a still later development; the account in
John is idealistic: it "does not possess historical truth, and cannot
and does not really lay claim to it." Baur's whole theory indeed starts
with the supposition that Christianity was gradually developed out of
Judaism. Before it could become a universal religion, it had to struggle
with Jewish limitations and to overcome them. The early Christians were
Jewish-Christians, to whom Jesus was the Messiah. Paul, on the other
hand, represented a breach with Judaism, the Temple, and the Law. Thus
there was some antagonism between the Jewish apostles, Peter, James and
John and the Gentile apostle Paul, and this struggle continued down to
the middle of the 2nd century. In short, the conflict between Petrinism
and Paulinism is, as Carl Schwarz puts it, the key to the literature of
the 1st and 2nd century.

But Baur was a theologian and historian as well as a Biblical critic. As
early as 1834 he published a strictly theological work, _Gegensatz des
Katholicismus und Protestantismus nach den Prinzipien und Hauptdogmen der
beiden Lehrbegriffe_, a strong defence of Protestantism on the lines of
Schleiermacher's _Glaubenslehre_, and a vigorous reply to J. Möhler's
_Symbolik_ (1833). This was followed by his larger histories of dogma,
_Die christliche Lehre van der Versöhnung in ihrer geschichtlichen
Entwicklung bis auf die neueste Zeit_ (1838), _Die christliche Lehre von
der Dreieinigkeit und Menschwerdung Gottes in ihrer geschichtlichen
Entwicklung_ (3 vols., 1841-1843), and the _Lehrbuch der christlichen
Dogmengeschichte_ (1847). The value of these works is impaired somewhat
by Baur's habit of making the history of dogma conform to the formulae of
Hegel's philosophy, a procedure "which only served to obscure the truth
and profundity of his conception of history as a true development of the
human mind" (Pfleiderer). Baur, however, soon came to attach more
importance to personality, and to distinguish more carefully between
religion and philosophy. The change is marked in his _Epochen der
kirchlichen Geschichtschreibung_ (1852), _Das Christenthum und die
christliche Kirche der drei ersten Jahrhunderte_ (1853), and _Die
christliche Kirche von Anfang des vierten bis zum Ende des sechsten
Jahrhunderts_ (1859), works preparatory to his _Kirchengeschichte_, in
which the change of view is specially pronounced. The _Kirchengeschichte_
was published in five volumes during the years 1853-1863, partly by Baur
himself, partly by his son, Ferdinand Baur, and his son-in-law, Eduard
Zeller, from notes and lectures which the author left behind him.
Pfleiderer describes this work, especially the first volume, as "a
classic for all time." "Taken as a whole, it is the first thorough and
satisfactory attempt to explain the rise of Christianity and the Church
on _strictly historical_ lines, i.e. as a natural development of the
religious spirit of our race under the combined operation of various
human causes" (_Development of Theology_, p. 288). Baur's lectures on the
history of dogma, _Ausführlichere Vorlesungen über die christliche
Dogmengeschichte_, were published later by his son (1865-1868).

Baur's views were revolutionary and often extreme; but, whatever may be
thought of them, it is admitted that as a critic he rendered a great
service to theological science. "One thing is certain: New Testament
study, since his time, has had a different colour" (H.S. Nash). He has
had a number of disciples or followers, who have in many cases modified
his positions.

  A full account of F.C. Baur's labours, and a complete list of his
  writings will be found in the article in Herzog-Hauck,
  _Realencyklopadie_, in which his work is divided into three periods:
  (1) "Philosophy of Religion," (2) "Biblical criticism," (3) "Church
  History." See also H.S. Nash, _The History of the Higher Criticism of
  the New Testament_ (New York, 1901); Otto Pfleiderer, _The Development
  of Theology in Germany since Kant_ (trans., 1890); Carl Schwarz, _Zur
  Geschichte der neuesten Theologie_ (Leipzig, 1869); R.W. Mackay, _The
  Tübingen School and its Antecedents_ (1863); A.S. Farrar, _A Critical
  History of Free Thought in reference to the Christian Religion_
  (Bampton Lectures, 1862); and cf. the article on "The Tübingen
  Historical School," in _Bibliotheca Sacra_, vol. xix. No. 73, 1862.
       (M. A. C.)



BAUTAIN, LOUIS EUGÈNE MARIE (1796-1867), French philosopher and
theologian, was born at Paris. At the École Normale he came under the
influence of Cousin. In 1816 he adopted the profession of higher
teaching, and was soon after called to the chair of philosophy in the
university of Strassburg. He held this position for many years, and gave
a parallel course of lectures as professor of the literary faculty in
the same city. The reaction against speculative philosophy, which
carried away De Maistre and Lamennais, influenced him also. In 1828 he
took orders, and resigned his chair at the university. For several years
he remained at Strassburg, lecturing at the Faculty and at the college
of Juilly, but in 1840 he set out for Paris as vicar of the diocese. At
Paris he obtained considerable reputation as an orator, and in 1853 was
made professor of moral theology at the theological faculty. This post
he held till his death. Like the Scholastics, he distinguished reason
and faith, and held that revelation supplies facts, otherwise
unattainable, which philosophy is able to group by scientific methods.
Theology and philosophy thus form one comprehensive science. Yet Bautain
was no rationalist; like Pascal and Newman he exalted faith above
reason. He pointed out, following chiefly the Kantian criticism, that
reason can never yield knowledge of things in themselves. But there
exists in addition to reason another faculty which may be called
intelligence, through which we are put in connexion with spiritual and
invisible truth. This intelligence does not of itself yield a body of
truth; it merely contains the germs of the higher ideas, and these are
made productive by being brought into contact with revealed facts. This
fundamental conception Bautain worked out in the departments of
psychology and morals. The details of this theology are highly
imaginative. He says, for instance, that there is a spirit of the world
and a spirit of nature; the latter gives birth to a physical and
psychical spirit, and the physical spirit to the animal and vegetable
spirits. His theories may well be compared with the arbitrary mysticism
of van Helmont and the Gnostics. The most important of his works
are:--_Philosophie du Christianisme_ (1835); _Psychologic expérimentale_
(1839), new edition entitled _Esprit humain et ses facultés_ (1859);
_Philosophie morale_ (1840); _Religion et liberté_ (1848); _La Morale de
l'évangile comparée aux divers systèmes de morale_ (Strassburg, 1827;
Paris, 1855); _De l'éducation publique en France au XIX^e siècle_
(Paris, 1876).



BAUTZEN (Wendish _Budissin_, "town"), a town of Germany, in the kingdom
of Saxony and the capital of Saxon Upper Lusatia. Pop. (1890) 21,515;
(1905) 29,412. It occupies an eminence on the right bank of the Spree,
680 ft. above the level of the sea, 32 m. E.N.E. from Dresden, on the
Dresden-Görlitz-Breslau main line of railway, and at the junction of
lines from Schandau and Königswartha. The town is surrounded by walls,
and outside these again by ramparts, now in great measure turned into
promenades, and has extensive suburbs partly lying on the left bank of
the river. Among its churches the most remarkable is the cathedral of St
Peter, dating from the 15th century, with a tower 300 ft. in height. It
is used by both Protestants and Roman Catholics, an iron screen
separating the parts assigned to each. There are five other churches, a
handsome town hall, an orphan-asylum, several hospitals, a mechanics'
institute, a famous grammar school (gymnasium), a normal and several
other schools, and two public libraries. The general trade and
manufactures are considerable, including woollen (stockings and cloth),
linen and cotton goods, leather, paper, saltpetre, and dyeing. It has
also iron foundries, potteries, distilleries, breweries, cigar
factories, &c.

Bautzen was already in existence when Henry I., the Fowler, conquered
Lusatia in 928. It became a town and fortress under Otto I., his
successor, and speedily attained considerable wealth and importance, for
a good share of which it was indebted to the pilgrimages which were made
to the "arm of St Peter," preserved in one of the churches. It suffered
greatly during the Hussite war, and still more during the Thirty Years'
War, in the course of which it was besieged and captured by the elector
of Brandenburg, John George (1620), fell into the hands of Wallenstein
(1633), and, in the following year was burned by its commander before
being surrendered to the elector of Saxony. At the peace of Prague in
1635 it passed with Lusatia to Saxony as a war indemnity.


  Battle of Bautzen, 1813.

The town gives its name to a great battle in which, on the 20th and 21st
of May 1813, Napoleon I. defeated an allied army of Russians and
Prussians (see NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS). The position chosen by the allies
as that in which to receive the attack of Napoleon ran S.W. to N.E. from
Bautzen on the left to the village of Gleina on the right. Bautzen
itself was held as an advanced post of the left wing (Russians), the
main body of which lay 2 m. to the rear (E.) near Jenkwitz. On the
heights of Burk, 2½ m. N.E. of Bautzen, was Kleist's Prussian corps,
with Yorck's in support. On Kleist's right at Pliskowitz (3 m. N.E. of
Burk) lay Blücher's corps, and on Blücher's right, formed at an angle to
him, and refused towards Gleina (7 m. N.E. by E. of Bautzen), were the
Russians of Barclay de Tolly. The country on which the battle was fought
abounded in strong defensive positions, some of which were famous as
battlegrounds of the Seven Years' War. The whole line was covered by the
river Spree, which served as an immediate defence for the left and
centre, and an obstacle to any force moving to attack the right;
moreover the interval between the river and the position on this side
was covered with a network of ponds and watercourses. Napoleon's right
and centre approached (on a broad front owing to the want of cavalry)
from Dresden by Bischofswerda and Kamenz; the left under Ney, which was
separated by nearly 40 m. from the left of the main body at Luckau, was
ordered to march via Hoyerswerda, Weissig and Klix to strike the allies'
right. At noon on the 20th, Napoleon, after a prolonged reconnaissance,
advanced the main army against Bautzen and Burk, leaving the enemy's
right to be dealt with by Ney on the morrow. He equally neglected the
extreme left of the allies in the mountains, judging it impossible to
move his artillery and cavalry in the broken ground there. Oudinot's
(XII.) corps, the extreme right wing, was to work round by the hilly
country to Jenkwitz in rear of Bautzen, Macdonald's (XI.) corps was to
assault Bautzen, and Marmont, with the VI. corps, to cross the Spree and
attack the Prussians posted about Burk. These three corps were directed
by Soult. Farther to the left, Bertrand's (IV.) corps was held back to
connect with Ney, who had then reached Weissig with the head of his
column. The Guard and other general reserves were in rear of Macdonald
and Marmont. Bautzen was taken without difficulty; Oudinot and Marmont
easily passed the Spree on either side, and were formed up on the other
bank of the river by about 4 P.M. A heavy and indecisive combat took
place in the evening between Oudinot and the Russian left, directed by
the tsar in person, in which Oudinot's men made a little progress
towards Jenkwitz. Marmont's battle was more serious. The Prussians were
not experienced troops, but were full of ardour and hatred of the
French. Kleist made a most stubborn resistance on the Burk ridge, and
Bertrand's corps was called up by Napoleon to join in the battle; but
part of Blücher's corps fiercely engaged Bertrand, and Burk was not
taken till 7 P.M. The French attack was much impeded by the ground and
by want of room to deploy between the river and the enemy. But
Napoleon's object in thus forcing the fighting in the centre was
achieved. The allies, feeling there the weight of the French attack,
gradually drew upon the reserves of their left and right to sustain the
shock. At nightfall Bautzen and Burk were in possession of the French,
and the allied line now stretched from Jenkwitz northward to Pliskowitz,
Blücher and Barclay maintaining their original positions at Pliskowitz
and Gleina. The night of the 20th-21st was spent by both armies on the
battlefield. Napoleon cared little that the French centre was almost
fought out; it had fulfilled its mission, and on the 21st the decisive
point was to be Barclay's position. Soon after daybreak fighting was
renewed along the whole line; but Napoleon lay down to sleep until the
time appointed for Ney's attack. To a heavy counter-stroke against
Oudinot, which completely drove that marshal from the ground won on the
20th, the emperor paid no more heed than to order Macdonald to support
the XII corps. For in this second position of the allies, which was far
more formidable than the original line, the decisive result could be
brought about only by Ney. That commander had his own (III) corps, the
corps of Victor and of Lauriston and the Saxons under Reynier, a total
force of 60,000 men. Lauriston, at the head of the column, had been
sharply engaged on the 19th, but had spent the 20th in calculated
inaction. Early on the 21st the flank attack opened; Ney and Lauriston
moving direct upon Gleina, while Reynier and Victor operated by a wide
turning movement against Barclay's right rear. The advance was carried
out with precision; the Russians were quickly dislodged, and Ney was now
closing upon the rear of Blücher's corps at the village of Preititz.
Napoleon at once ordered Soult's four corps to renew their attacks in
order to prevent the allies from reinforcing their right. But at the
critical moment Ney halted; his orders were to be in Preititz at 11 A.M.
and he reached that place an hour earlier. The respite of an hour
enabled the allies to organize a fierce counter-attack; Ney was checked
until the flanking columns of Victor and Reynier could come upon the
scene. At 1 P.M., when Ney resumed his advance, it was too late to cut
off the retreat of the allies. Napoleon now made his final stroke. The
Imperial Guard and all other troops in the centre, 80,000 strong and
covered by a great mass of artillery, moved forward to the attack; and
shortly the allied centre, depleted of its reserves, which had been sent
to oppose Ney, was broken through and driven off the field. Blücher, now
almost surrounded, called back the troops opposing Ney to make head
against Soult, and Ney's four corps then carried all before them.
Preparations had been made by the allies, ever since Ney's appearance,
to break off the engagement, and now the tsar ordered a general retreat
eastwards, himself with the utmost skill and bravery directing the
rearguard. Thus the allies drew off unharmed, leaving no trophies in the
hands of Napoleon, whose success, tactically unquestionable, was, for a
variety of reasons, and above all owing to the want of cavalry, a _coup
manqué_ strategically. The troops engaged were, on the French side
163,000 men, on that of the allies about 100,000; and the losses
respectively about 20,000 and 13,500 killed and wounded.



BAUXITE, a substance which has been considered to be a mineral species,
having the composition Al2O(OH)4 (corresponding with alumina 73.9, water
26.1%), and thus to be distinct from the crystallized aluminium
hydroxides, diaspore (AlO(OH)) and gibbsite (= hydrargillite, Al(OH)3).
It was first described by P. Berthier in 1821 as "alumine hydratée de
Beaux," and was named beauxite by P.A. Dufrénoy in 1847 and bauxite by
E.H. Sainte-Claire Deville in 1861; this name being derived from the
original locality, the village of Les Baux (or Beaux), near Arles, dep.
Bouches-du-Rhône in the south of France, where the material has been for
many years extensively mined as an ore of aluminium. It is never found
in a crystallized state, but always as earthy, clay-like or
concretionary masses, often with a pisolitic structure. In colour it
varies from white through yellow and brown to red, depending on the
amount and the degree of hydration of the iron present. The specific
gravity also varies with the amount of iron; that of the variety known
as wocheinite (from near Lake Wochein, near Radmannsdorf, in northern
Carniola) is given as 2.55. The numerous chemical analyses, which have
mostly been made for technical purposes, show that material known as
bauxite varies very widely in composition, the maximum and minimum
percentages of each constituent being as follows: alumina (Al2O3)
33.2-76.9; water (H2O) 8.6-31.4; iron oxide (Fe2O3) 0.1-48.8; silica
(SiO2) 0.3-37.8; titanic acid (TiO2) up to 4. The material is thus
usually very impure, being mixed with clay, quartz-sand and hydroxides
of iron in variable amounts, the presence of which may be seen by a
microscopical examination. Analyses of purer material often approximate
to diaspore or gibbsite in composition, and minute crystalline scales of
these minerals have been detected under the microscope.

Bauxite can therefore scarcely be regarded as a simple mineral, but
rather as a mixture of gibbsite and diaspore with various impurities; it
is in fact strikingly like laterite, both in chemical composition and in
microscopical structure. Laterite is admittedly a decomposition-product
of igneous or other crystalline rocks, and the same is no doubt also
true of bauxite. The deposits in Co. Antrim occur with pisolitic iron
ore inter-bedded with the Tertiary basalts, and similar deposits are met
with in connexion with the basaltic rocks of the Westerwald in Germany.
On the other hand, the more extensive deposits in the south of France
(departments Bouches-du-Rhône, Ariège, Hérault, Var) and the southern
United States (Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas) are often associated with
limestones; in this case the origin of the bauxite has been ascribed to
the chemical action of solutions of aluminium sulphate on the
limestones.

Bauxite is of value chiefly as a source of metallic aluminium (q.v.);
the material is first purified by chemical processes, after which the
aluminium hydroxide is reduced in the electric furnace. Bauxite is also
largely used in the manufacture of alum and other aluminium salts used
in dyeing. Its refractory qualities render it available for the
manufacture of fire-bricks and crucibles.     (L. J. S.)



BAVAI, a town of northern France in the department of Nord, 15 m. E.S.E.
of Valenciennes by rail. Pop. (1906) 1622. The town carries on the
manufacture of iron goods and of fertilizers. Under the name of
_Bagacum_ or _Bavacum_ it was the capital of the Nervii and, under the
Romans, an important centre of roads, the meeting-place of which was
marked by a milestone, destroyed in the 17th century and replaced in the
19th century by a column. Bavai was destroyed during the barbarian
invasions and never recovered its old importance. It suffered much
during the wars of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries.



BAVARIA (Ger. _Bayern_), a kingdom of southern Germany, next to Prussia
the largest state of the German empire in area and population. It
consists of two distinct and unequal portions. Bavaria proper, and the
Palatinate of the Rhine, which lie from 25 to 40 m. W. apart and are
separated by the grand-duchies of Baden and Hesse.

_Physical Features._--Bavaria proper is bounded on the S. by the Alps,
on the N.E., towards Bohemia, by a long range of mountains known as the
Böhmerwald, on the N. by the Fichtelgebirge and the Frankenwald, which
separate it from the kingdom of Saxony, the principality of Reuss, the
duchies of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Meiningen and the Prussian province of
Hesse-Cassel. The ranges seldom exceed the height of 3000 or 4000 ft.;
but the ridges in the south, towards Tirol, frequently attain an
elevation of 9000 or 10,000 ft. On the W. Bavaria is bounded by
Württemberg, Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt. The country mainly belongs to
the basins of the Danube and the Main; by far the greater portion being
drained by the former river, which, entering from Swabia as a navigable
stream, traverses the entire breadth of the kingdom, with a winding
course of 200 m., and receives in its passage the Iller, the Lech, the
Isar and the Inn from the south, and the Naab, the Altmühl and the
Wörnitz from the north. The Inn is navigable before it enters Bavarian
territory, and afterwards receives the Salzach, a large river flowing
from Upper Austria. The Isar does not become navigable till it has
passed Munich; and the Lech is a stream of a similar size. The Main
traverses the northern regions, or Upper and Lower Franconia, with a
very winding course and greatly facilitates the trade of the provinces.
The district watered by the southern tributaries of the Danube consists
for the most part of an extensive plateau, with a mean elevation of 2390
ft. In the mountainous parts of the country there are numerous lakes and
in the lower portions considerable stretches of marshy ground. The
smaller or western portion, the Palatinate, is bounded on the E. by the
Rhine, which divides it from the grand-duchy of Baden, on the S. by
Alsace, and on the W. and N. by a lofty range of hills, the
Haardtgebirge, which separate it from Lorraine and the Prussian Rhine
province.

The climate of Bavaria differs greatly according to the character of the
region, being cold in the vicinity of Tirol but warm in the plains
adjoining the Danube and the Main. On the whole, the temperature is in
the winter months considerably colder than that of England, and a good
deal hotter during summer and autumn.

_Area and Population._--Bavaria proper, or the eastern portion, contains
an area of 26,998 sq. m., and the Palatinate or western, 2288 sq. m.,
making the whole extent of the kingdom about 29,286 sq. m. The total
population, according to the census of 1905, was 6,512,824. Almost a
quarter of the inhabitants live in towns, of which Munich and Nuremberg
have populations exceeding 100,000, Augsburg, Würzburg, Fürth and
Ludwigshafen between 50,000 and 100,000, while twenty-six other towns
number from 10,000 to 50,000 inhabitants.

Ethnographically, the Bavarians belong to various ancient tribes;
Germanized Slavs in the north-east, Swabians and Franks in the centre,
Franks towards the west, and, in the Palatinate, Walloons. Politically,
the country is divided into eight provinces, as follows:--


  +------------------+------------+----------------+---------+
  |                  |            |Pop. of Province| Area in |
  |    Provinces.    |  Capital.  |    in 1905.    |  sq. m. |
  +------------------+------------+----------------+---------+
  | Upper Bavaria    | Munich     |   1,410,763    |  6,456  |
  | Lower Bavaria    | Landshut   |     706,345    |  4,152  |
  | Upper Palatinate | Regensburg |     573,476    |  3,728  |
  | Upper Franconia  | Bayreuth   |     637,239    |  2,702  |
  | Middle Franconia | Ansbach    |     868,072    |  2,925  |
  | Lower Franconia  | Würzburg   |     680,769    |  3,243  |
  | Swabia           | Augsburg   |     750,880    |  3,792  |
  | The Palatinate   | Spires     |     885,280    |  2,288  |
  |                  |            +----------------+---------+
  |                  |   Total    |   6,512,824    | 29,286  |
  +------------------+------------+----------------+---------+

_Religion._--The majority of the inhabitants (about 70%) are Roman
Catholics. The Protestant-Evangelical Church claims about 29%, while
Jews, and a very small number of other sects, account for the remainder.

The districts of Lower Bavaria, Upper Bavaria and the Upper Palatinate
are almost wholly Roman Catholic, while in the Rhine Palatinate, Upper
Franconia, and especially Middle Franconia, the preponderance is on the
side of the Protestants. The exercise of religious worship in Bavaria is
altogether free. The Protestants have the same civil rights as the Roman
Catholics, and the sovereign may be either Roman Catholic or Protestant.
Of the Roman Catholic Church the heads are the two archbishops of
Munich-Freising and Bamberg, and the six bishops of Eichstätt, Spires,
Würzburg, Augsburg, Regensburg and Passau, of whom the first three are
suffragans of Bamberg. The "Old Catholic" party, under the bishop of
Bonn, has failed, despite its early successes, to take deep root in the
country. Among the Protestants the highest authority is the general
consistory of Munich. The numbers of the different religions in 1900
were as follows:--Roman Catholics, 4,357,133; Protestants, 1,749,206;
Jews, 54,928.

_Education._--Bavaria, formerly backward in education, has recently done
much in this connexion. The state has two Roman Catholic universities,
Munich and Würzburg, and a Lutheran, Erlangen; in Munich there are a
polytechnic, an academy of sciences and an academy of art.

_Agriculture._--Of the total surface of Bavaria about one-half is under
cultivation, one-third forest, and the remaining sixth mostly pasture.
The level country, including both Lower Bavaria (extending northwards to
the Danube) and the western and middle parts of Franconia, is productive
of rye, oats, wheat, barley and millet, and also of hemp, flax, madder
and fruit and vines. The last are grown chiefly in the vicinity of the
Lake of Constance, on the banks of the Main, in the lower part of its
course, and in the Palatinate of the Rhine. Hops are extensively grown
in central Franconia; tobacco (the best in Germany) round Nuremberg and
in the Palatinate, which also largely produces the sugar-beet. Potatoes
are cultivated in all the provinces, but especially in the Palatinate
and in the Spessart district, which lies in the north-west within a
curve of the Main. The southern divisions of Swabia and Upper Bavaria,
where pasture-land predominates, form a cattle-breeding district and the
dairy produce is extensive. Here also horses are bred in large numbers.

The extent of forest forms nearly a third of the total area of Bavaria.
This is owing to various causes: the amount of hilly and mountainous
country, the thinness of the population and the necessity of keeping a
given extent of ground under wood for the supply of fuel. More than a
third of the forests are public property and furnish a considerable
addition to the revenue. They are principally situated in the provinces
of Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria and the Palatinate of the Rhine. The
forests are well stocked with game, deer, chamois (in the Alps), wild
boars, capercailzie, grouse, pheasants, &c. being plentiful. The greater
proportion of the land throughout the kingdom is in the hands of peasant
proprietors, the extent of the separate holdings differing very much in
different districts. The largest peasant property may be about 170
acres, and the smallest, except in the Palatinate, about 50.

_Minerals._--The chief mineral deposits in Bavaria are coal, iron ore,
graphite and salt. The coal mines lie principally in the districts of
Amberg, Kissingen, Steben, Munich and the Rhine Palatinate. Salt is
obtained on a large scale partly from brine springs and partly from
mines, the principal centres being Halle, Berchtesgaden, Traunstein and
Rosenheim. The government monopoly which had long existed was abolished
in 1867 and free trade was established in salt between the members of
the customs-union. Of quicksilver there are several mines, chiefly in
the Palatinate of the Rhine; and small quantities of copper, manganese
and cobalt are obtained. There are numerous quarries of excellent
marble, alabaster, gypsum and building stone; and the porcelain-clay is
among the finest in Europe. To these may be added emery, steatite,
barytes, felspar and ochre, in considerable quantities; excellent
lithographic stone is obtained at Solenhofen; and gold and silver are
still worked, but to an insignificant extent.

_Manufactures and Trade._--A great stimulus was given to manufacturing
industry in Bavaria by the law of 1868, which abolished the last remains
of the old restrictions of the gilds, and gave the whole country the
liberty which had been enjoyed by the Rhine Palatinate alone. The chief
centres of industry are Munich, Nuremberg, Augsburg, Fürth, Erlangen,
Aschaffenburg, Regensburg, Würzburg, Bayreuth, Ansbach, Bamberg and Hof
in Bavaria proper, and in the Palatinate Spires and the Rhine port of
Ludwigshafen. The main centres of the hardware industry are Munich,
Nuremberg, Augsburg and Fürth; the two first especially for locomotives
and automobiles, the last for tinfoil and metal toys. Aschaffenburg
manufactures fancy goods, Augsburg and Hof produce excellent cloth, and
Munich has a great reputation for scientific instruments. In Franconia
are numerous paper-mills, and the manufacture of wooden toys is largely
carried on in the forest districts of Upper Bavaria. A considerable
quantity of glass is made, particularly in the Böhmerwald. Brewing forms
an important industry, the best-known breweries being those of Munich,
Nuremberg, Erlangen and Kulmbach. Other articles of manufacture are
leather, tobacco, porcelain, cement, spirits, lead pencils (Nuremberg),
plate-glass, sugar, matches, aniline dyes, straw hats and baskets. The
commerce of Bavaria is very considerable. The exports consist chiefly of
corn, potatoes, hops, beer, wine, cloth, cotton goods, glass, fancy
wares, toys, cattle, pigs and vegetables. The seat of the hop-trade is
Nuremberg; of wool, Augsburg. The imports comprise sugar, tobacco,
cocoa, coffee, oils, silk and pig iron.

_Communications._--Trade is served by an excellent railway system and
there are steamboat services on the navigable rivers, to the east by way
of Passau on the Danube, and to the west by Ludwigshafen. The high roads
of Bavaria, many of which are military roads laid out at the beginning
of the 19th century, extend in all over about 10,000 m. There were 4377
m. of railways in operation in 1904, of which about 3800 were in the
hands of the state, and about 440 m. belonged to the private system of
the Palatinate. The principal canal is the Ludwigskanal, which connects
the Rhine with the Danube, extending from Bamberg on the Regnitz to
Dietfurt on the Altmühl. There is an extensive network of telegraph and
telephone lines. All belong to the government post office, which forms
an administrative system independent of the imperial German post office.

_Constitution and Administration._--By the treaty of Versailles (23rd
November 1870) and the imperial constitution of the 16th of April 1871,
Bavaria was incorporated with the German empire, reserving, however,
certain separate privileges (_Sonderrechte_) in respect of the
administration of the army, the railways and the posts, the excise
duties on beer, the rights of domicile and the insurance of real estate.
The king is the supreme chief of the army, and matters requiring
adjudication in the adjutant-general's court are referred to a special
Bavarian court attached to the supreme imperial military tribunal in
Berlin. Bavaria is represented in the Bundesrat by six votes and sends
forty-eight deputies to the imperial diet. The Bavarian constitution is
mainly founded on the constitutional act of the 26th of May 1818,
modified by subsequent acts--that of the 9th of March 1828 as affecting
the upper house, and those of the 4th of June 1848 and of the 21st of
March 1881 as affecting the lower--and is a limited monarchy, with a
legislative body of two houses. The crown is hereditary in the house of
Wittelsbach, according to the rights of primogeniture, females being
excluded from succession so long as male agnates of equal birth exist.
The title of the sovereign is king of Bavaria, that of his presumptive
heir is crown-prince of Bavaria, and during the minority or incapacity
of the sovereign a regency is declared, which is vested in the nearest
male agnate capable of ascending the throne. Such a regency began on the
10th of June 1886, at first for King Louis II., and after the 14th of
the same month for King Otto I., in the person of the prince regent
Luitpold. The executive power resides in the king and the responsibility
for the government of the kingdom in his ministers. The royal family is
Roman Catholic, and the seat of government is Munich, the capital.

The upper house of the Bavarian parliament (_Kammer der Reichsräte_) is
composed of (1) the princes of the blood royal (being of full age), (2)
the ministers of the crown, (3) the archbishops of Munich, Freising and
Bamberg, (4) the heads of such noble families as were formerly
"immediate" so long as they retain their ancient possessions in Bavaria,
(5) of a Roman Catholic bishop appointed by the king for life, and of
the president for the time being of the Protestant consistory, (6) of
hereditary counsellors (_Reichsräte_) appointed by the king, and (7) of
other counsellors appointed by the king for life. The lower house
(_Kammer der Abgeordneten_) or chamber of representatives, consists,
since 1881, of 159 deputies, in proportion of one--reckoned on the
census of 1875--to every 31,500 inhabitants. A general election takes
place every six years, and, under the electoral law of 1906, is direct.
Qualifications for the general body of electors are full age of
twenty-five years, Bavarian citizenship of one year at least, and
discharge of all rates and taxes. Parliament must be assembled every
three years, but as the budget is taken every two years, it is regularly
called together within that period. No laws affecting the liberty or
property of the subject can be passed without the sanction of
parliament.

_Revenue._--The following is a fairly typical statement of the budget
estimates (1902-1903), in marks (= 1 shilling sterling):--


    Receipts.
                                     Mks.
  Direct taxes                    38,199,000
  Customs and indirect taxes      50,900,990
  State railways                 184,551,000
  Posts and telegraphs            41,665,100
  Forests and agricultural dues   37,395,000
  Imperial assignments            62,571,605
                                ------------
                                 415,282,695
                                 ===========
                               = £20,764,135

    Disbursements.
                                     Mks.
  Civil list                       5,402,475
  State debt                      51,323,200
  Ministry of the Royal house
    and of Foreign dept.             688,398
  Ministry of Justice             20,615,299
  Ministry of interior            30,055,338
  Public worship and education    34,667,673
  Minister of finance              6,696,780
  Constribution to imperial
    exchequer                     72,647,090
                                ------------
                                 222,296,253
                                 ===========
                               = £11,114,813


The public debt amounts to about £95,000,000, of which over 75% was
incurred for railways.

_Army._--The Bavarian army forms a separate portion of the army of the
German empire, with a separate administration, but in time of war is
under the supreme command of the German emperor. The regulations
applicable to other sections of the whole imperial army are, however,
observed. It consists, on a peace footing, of three army corps, 1st, 2nd
and 3rd Royal Bavarian (each of two divisions), the headquarters of
which are in Munich, Nuremberg and Würzburg respectively. The Bavarian
army comprises sixty-seven battalions of infantry, two battalions of
rifles, ten regiments of cavalry (two heavy, two Ulan and six
Chevauxlegers), a squadron of mounted infantry (_Jäger-zu-pferde_),
twelve field- and two foot-artillery regiments, three battalions of
engineers, three of army service, and a balloon section; in all 60,000
men with 10,000 horses. In time of war the total force is trebled.
     (P. A. A.)


HISTORY

The earliest known inhabitants of the district afterwards called Bavaria
were a people, probably of Celtic extraction, who were subdued by the
Romans just before the opening of the Christian era, when colonies were
founded among them and their land was included in the province of
Raetia. During the 5th century it was ravaged by the troops of Odoacer
and, after being almost denuded of inhabitants, was occupied by tribes
who, pushing along the valley of the Danube, settled there between A.D.
488 and 520. Many conjectures have been formed concerning the race and
origin of these people, who were certainly a new and composite social
aggregate. Most likely they were descendants of the Marcomanni, Quadi
and Narisci, tribes of the Suevic or Swabian race, with possibly a small
intermixture of Gothic or Celtic elements. They were called _Baioarii,
Baiowarii, Bawarii_ or _Baiuwarii_, words derived most probably from
_Baja_ or _Baya_, corruptions of _Bojer_, and given to them because they
came from _Bojerland_ or _Bohemia_. Another but less probable
explanation derives the name from a combination of the old high German
word _uuâra_, meaning league, and _bai_, a Gothic word for both. The
Bavarians are first mentioned in a Frankish document of 520, and twenty
years later Jordanes refers to them as lying east of the Swabians. Their
country bore some traces of Roman influence, and its main boundaries
were the Enns, the Danube, the Lech and the Alps; but its complete
settlement was a work of time.


  Frankish influence.

The Bavarians soon came under the dominion of the Franks, probably
without a serious struggle; and were ruled from 555 to 788 by dukes of
the Agilolfing family, who were possibly of Frankish descent. For a
century and a half a succession of dukes resisted the inroads of the
Slavs on their eastern frontier, and by the time of Duke Theodo I., who
died in 717, were completely independent of the feeble Frankish kings.
When Charles Martel became the virtual ruler of the Frankish realm he
brought the Bavarians into strict dependence, and deposed two dukes
successively for contumacy. Pippin the Short was equally successful in
maintaining his authority, and several marriages took place between the
family to which he belonged and the Agilolfings, who were united in a
similar manner with the kings of the Lombards. The ease with which
various risings were suppressed by the Franks gives colour to the
supposition that they were rather the outcome of family quarrels than
the revolt of an oppressed people. Between the years 739 and 748 the
Bavarian law was committed to writing and supplementary clauses were
afterwards added, all of which bear evident traces of Frankish
influence. Thus, while the dukedom belongs to the Agilolfing family, the
duke must be chosen by the people and his election confirmed by the
Frankish king, to whom he owes fealty. He has a fivefold wergild,
summons the nobles and clergy for purposes of deliberation, calls out
the host, administers justice and regulates finance. There are five
noble families, possibly representing a former division of the people,
after whom come the freeborn, and then the freedmen. The country is
divided into _gaus_ or counties, under their counts, who are assisted by
judges responsible for declaring the law.


  Christianity.

Christianity had lingered in Bavaria from Roman times; but a new era set
in when Rupert, bishop of Worms, came to the country at the invitation
of Duke Theodo I. in 696. He founded several monasteries, and a similar
work was also performed by St Emmeran, bishop of Poitiers; with the
result that before long the bulk of the people professed Christianity
and relations were established between Bavaria and Rome. The 8th century
witnessed indeed a heathen reaction; but it was checked by the arrival
in Bavaria about 734 of St. Boniface, who organized the Bavarian church
and founded or restored bishoprics at Salzburg, Freising, Regensburg and
Passau.


  Frankish conquest.

Tassilo III., who became duke of the Bavarians in 749, recognized the
supremacy of the Frankish king Pippin the Short in 757, but soon
afterwards refused to furnish a contribution to the war in Aquitaine.
Moreover, during the early years of the reign of Charlemagne, Tassilo
gave decisions in ecclesiastical and civil causes in his own name,
refused to appear in the assemblies of the Franks, and in general acted
as an independent ruler. His position as possessor of the Alpine passes,
as an ally of the Avars, and as son-in-law of the Lombard king
Desiderius, was so serious a menace to the Frankish kingdom that
Charlemagne determined to crush him. The details of this contest are
obscure. Tassilo appears to have done homage in 781, and again in 787,
probably owing to the presence of Frankish armies. But further trouble
soon arose, and in 788 the duke was summoned to Ingelheim, where on a
charge of treachery he was sentenced to death. He was, however, pardoned
by the king; and he then entered a monastery and formally renounced his
duchy at Frankfort in 794. The country was ruled by Gerold, a
brother-in-law of Charlemagne, till his death in a battle with the Avars
in 799, when its administration was entrusted to Frankish counts and
assimilated with that of the rest of the Carolingian empire, while its
condition was improved by the measures taken by Charlemagne for the
intellectual progress and material welfare of his realm. The Bavarians
offered no resistance to the change which thus abolished their dukedom;
and their incorporation with the Frankish dominions, due mainly to the
unifying influence of the church, was already so complete that
Charlemagne did not find it necessary to issue more than two
capitularies dealing especially with Bavarian affairs.


  Union with Carolingian Empire.

  Part of the German Kingdom.

  The duchy passes to the Welfs.

The history of Bavaria for the ensuing century is bound up with that of
the Carolingian empire. Given at the partition of 817 to the king of the
East Franks, Louis the German, it formed part of the larger territories
which were confirmed to him in 843 by the treaty of Verdun, Louis made
Regensburg the centre of his government, and was active in improving the
condition of Bavaria, and providing for its security by numerous
campaigns against the Slavs. When he divided his possessions in 865 it
passed to his eldest son, Carloman, who had already undertaken its
government, and after his death in 880 it formed part of the extensive
territories of the emperor Charles the Fat. Its defence was left by this
incompetent emperor to Arnulf, an illegitimate son of Carloman, and it
was mainly owing to the support of the Bavarians that Arnulf was able to
take the field against Charles in 887, and to secure his own election as
German king in the following year. Bavaria, which was the centre of the
East Frankish kingdom, passed in 899 to Louis the Child, during whose
reign it was constantly ravaged by the Hungarians. The resistance to
these inroads became gradually feebler, and it is said that on the 5th
of July 907 almost the whole of the Bavarian race perished in battle
with these formidable enemies. For the defence of Bavaria the mark of
Carinthia had been erected on the south-eastern frontier, and during the
reign of Louis the Child this was ruled by Liutpold, count of Scheyern,
who possessed large domains in Bavaria. He was among those who fell in
the great fight of 907; but his son Arnulf, surnamed the Bad, rallied
the remnants of the race, drove back the Hungarians, and was chosen duke
of the Bavarians in 911, when Bavaria and Carinthia were united under
his rule. Refusing to acknowledge the supremacy of the German king
Conrad I., he was unsuccessfully attacked by the latter, and in 920 was
recognized as duke by Conrad's successor, Henry I., the Fowler, who
admitted his right to appoint the bishops, to coin money and to issue
laws. A similar conflict took place between Arnulf's son and successor
Eberhard and Otto the Great; but Eberhard was less successful than his
father, for in 938 he was driven from Bavaria, which was given by Otto
with reduced privileges to the late duke's uncle, Bertold; and a count
palatine in the person of Eberhard's brother Arnulf was appointed to
watch the royal interests. When Bertold died in 947 Otto conferred the
duchy upon his own brother Henry, who had married Judith, a daughter of
Duke Arnulf. Henry was disliked by the Bavarians and his short reign was
spent mainly in disputes with his people. The ravages of the Hungarians
ceased after their defeat on the Lechfeld in 955, and the area of the
duchy was temporarily increased by the addition of certain adjacent
districts in Italy. In 955 Henry was succeeded by his young son Henry,
surnamed the Quarrelsome, who in 974 was implicated in a conspiracy
against King Otto II. The reason for this rising was that the king had
granted the duchy of Swabia to Henry's enemy, Otto, a grandson of the
emperor Otto the Great, and had given the new Bavarian East Mark,
afterwards known as Austria, to Leopold I., count of Babenberg. The
revolt was, however, soon suppressed; but Henry, who on his escape from
prison renewed his plots, was formally deposed in 976 when Bavaria was
given to Otto, duke of Swabia. At the same time Carinthia was made into
a separate duchy, the office of count palatine was restored, and the
church was made dependent on the king instead of on the duke. Restored
in 985, Henry proved himself a capable ruler by establishing internal
order, issuing important laws and taking measures to reform the
monasteries. His son and successor, who was chosen German king as Henry
II. in 1002, gave Bavaria to his brother-in-law Henry of Luxemburg;
after whose death in 1026 it passed successively to Henry, afterwards
the emperor Henry III., and to another member of the family of
Luxemburg, as Duke Henry VII. In 1061 the empress Agnes, mother of and
regent for the German king Henry IV., entrusted the duchy to Otto of
Nordheim, who was deposed by the king in 1070, when the duchy was
granted to Count Welf, a member of an influential Bavarian family. In
consequence of his support of Pope Greegory VII. in his quarrel with
Henry, Welf lost but subsequently regained Bavaria; and was followed
successively by his sons, Welf II. in 1101, and Henry IX. in 1120, both
of whom exercised considerable influence among the German princes. Henry
was succeeded in 1126 by his son Henry X., called the Proud, who
obtained the duchy of Saxony in 1137. Alarmed at this prince's power,
King Conrad III. refused to allow two duchies to remain in the same
hands; and, having declared Henry deposed, he bestowed Bavaria upon
Leopold IV., margrave of Austria. When Leopold died in 1141, the king
retained the duchy himself; but it continued to be the scene of
considerable disorder, and in 1143 he entrusted it to Henry II.,
surnamed Jasomirgott, margrave of Austria. The struggle for its
possession continued until 1156, when King Frederick I. in his desire to
restore peace to Germany persuaded Henry to give up Bavaria to Henry the
Lion, a son of Duke Henry the Proud.


  Then to the Wittelsbachs.

  Area of Bavaria.

A new era of government set in when, in consequence of Henry being
placed under the imperial ban in 1180, the duchy was given by Frederick
I. to Otto, a member of the old Bavarian family of Wittelsbach (q.v.),
and a descendant of the counts of Scheyern. During the years following
the destruction of the Carolingian empire the borders of Bavaria were
continually changing, and for a lengthened period after 955 this process
was one of expansion. To the west the Lech still divided Bavaria from
Swabia, but on three other sides the opportunities for extension had
been taken advantage of, and the duchy embraced an area of considerable
dimensions north of the Danube. During the later years of the rule of
the Welfs, however, a contrary tendency had operated, and the extent of
Bavaria had been reduced. The immense energies of Duke Henry the Lion
had been devoted to his northern rather than his southern duchy, and
when the dispute over the Bavarian succession was settled in 1156 the
district between the Enns and the Inn had been transferred to Austria.
The increasing importance of the mark of Styria, erected into a duchy in
1180, and the county of Tirol, had diminished both the actual and the
relative strength of Bavaria, which was now deprived on almost all sides
of opportunities for expansion. The neighbouring duchy of Carinthia, the
great temporal possessions of the archbishop of Salzburg, as well as a
general tendency to independence on the part of both clerical and lay
nobles, were additional forces of similar influence.


  Rule of the Wittelsbachs.

  Division of the duchy.

  Upper Bavaria.

When Otto of Wittelsbach was invested with Bavaria at Altenburg in
September 1180 the duchy was bounded by the Böhmerwald, the Inn, the
Alps and the Lech; and the power of the duke was practically confined to
his extensive private domains around Wittelsbach, Kelheim and Straubing.
Otto only enjoyed his new dignity for three years, and was succeeded in
1183 by his son Louis I., who took a leading part in German affairs
during the earlier years of the reign of the emperor Frederick II., and
was assassinated at Kelheim in September 1231. His son Otto II., called
the Illustrious, was the next duke, and his loyalty to the Hohenstaufen
caused him to be placed under the papal ban, and Bavaria to be laid
under an interdict. Like his father, Otto increased the area of his
lands by purchases; and he had considerably strengthened his hold upon
the duchy before he died in November 1253. The efforts of the dukes to
increase their power and to give unity to the duchy had met with a fair
measure of success; but they were soon vitiated by partitions among
different members of the family which for 250 years made the history of
Bavaria little more than a jejune chronicle of territorial divisions
bringing war and weakness in their train. The first of these divisions
was made in 1255 between Louis II. and Henry I., the sons of Duke Otto
II., who for two years after their father's death had ruled Bavaria
jointly; and by it Louis obtained the western part of the duchy,
afterwards called Upper Bavaria, and Henry secured eastern or Lower
Bavaria. In the course of a long reign Louis, who was called the Stern,
became the most powerful prince in southern Germany. He was the uncle
and guardian of Conradin of Hohenstaufen, and when this prince was put
to death in Italy in 1268, Louis and his brother Henry inherited the
domains of the Hohenstaufen in Swabia and elsewhere. He supported
Rudolph, count of Habsburg, in his efforts to secure the German throne
in 1273, married the new king's daughter Mechtild, and aided him in
campaigns in Bohemia and elsewhere. For some years after Louis' death in
1294 his sons Rudolph I. and Louis, afterwards the emperor Louis IV.,
ruled their duchy in common; but as their relations were never
harmonious a division of Upper Bavaria was made in 1310, by which
Rudolph received the land east of the Isar together with the town of
Munich, and Louis the district between the Isar and the Lech. It was not
long, however, before this arrangement led to war between the brothers,
the outcome of which was that in 1317, three years after he had been
chosen German king, Louis compelled Rudolph to abdicate, and for twelve
years ruled alone over the whole of Upper Bavaria. But in 1329 a series
of events induced him to conclude the treaty of Pavia with Rudolph's
sons, Rudolph and Rupert, to whom he transferred the Palatinate of the
Rhine, which had been in the possession of the Wittelsbach family since
1214, and also a portion of Upper Bavaria north of the Danube, which was
afterwards called the Upper Palatinate. At the same time it was decided
that the electoral vote should be exercised by the two lines
alternately, and that in the event of either branch of the family
becoming extinct the surviving branch should inherit its possessions.


  Lower Bavaria.

  Reunion of the duchy.

Henry I. of Lower Bavaria spent most of his time in quarrels with his
brother, with Ottakar II. of Bohemia and with various ecclesiastics.
When he died in February 1200 Lower Bavaria was ruled by his three sons,
Otto III., Louis III. and Stephen I. Louis died childless in 1296;
Stephen left two sons at his death in 1310, namely, Henry II. and Otto
IV., and Otto, who was king of Hungary from 1305 to 1308, died in 1312,
leaving a son, Henry III. Lower Bavaria was governed by these three
princes until 1333, when Henry III. died, followed in 1334 by his cousin
Otto; and as both died without sons the whole of Lower Bavaria then
passed to Henry II. Dying in 1339, Henry left an only son, John I., who
died childless in the following year, when the emperor Louis IV., by
securing Lower Bavaria for himself, united the whole of the duchy under
his sway. The consolidation of Bavaria under Louis lasted for seven
years, during which the emperor was able to improve the condition of the
country. When he died in 1347 he left six sons to share his possessions,
who agreed upon a division of Bavaria in 1349. Its history, however, was
complicated by its connexion with Brandenburg, Holland and Tirol, all of
which had also been left by the emperor to his sons. All the six
brothers exercised some authority in Bavaria; but three alone left
issue, and of these the eldest, Louis, margrave of Brandenburg, died in
1361; and two years later was followed to the grave by his only son
Meinhard, who was childless. The two remaining brothers, Stephen II. and
Albert I., ruled over Bavaria-Landshut and Bavaria-Straubing
respectively, and when Stephen died in 1375 his portion of Bavaria was
governed jointly by his three sons. In 1392, when all the lines except
those of Stephen and Albert had died out, an important partition took
place, by which the greater part of the duchy was divided among
Stephen's three sons, Stephen III., Frederick and John II., who founded
respectively the lines of Ingolstadt, Landshut and Munich. Albert's
duchy of Bavaria-Straubing passed on his death in 1404 to his son
William II., and in 1417 to his younger son John, who resigned the
bishopric of Liége to take up his new position. When John died in 1425
this family became extinct, and after a contest between various
claimants Bavaria-Straubing was divided between the three remaining
branches of the family.


  Internal condition 1392.

  Intestine troubles.

The main result of the threefold division of 1392 was a succession of
civil wars which led to the temporary eclipse of Bavaria as a force in
German politics. Neighbouring states encroached upon its borders, and
the nobles ignored the authority of the dukes, who, deprived of the
electoral vote, were mainly occupied for fifty years with intestine
strife. This condition of affairs, however, was not wholly harmful. The
government of the country and the control of the finances passed mainly
into the hands of an assembly called the _Landtag_ or _Landschaft_,
which had been organized in 1392. The towns, assuming a certain
independence, became strong and wealthy as trade increased, and the
citizens of Munich and Regensburg were often formidable antagonists to
the dukes. Thus a period of disorder saw the growth of representative
institutions and the establishment of a strong civic spirit. Stephen
III., duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt, was distinguished rather as a soldier
than as a statesman; and his rule was marked by struggles with various
towns, and with his brother, John of Bavaria-Munich. Dying in 1413 he
was followed by his son, Louis, called the Bearded, a restless and
quarrelsome prince, who before his accession had played an important
part in the affairs of France, where his sister Isabella was the queen
of King Charles VI. About 1417 he became involved in a violent quarrel
with his cousin, Henry of Bavaria-Landshut, fell under both the papal
and the imperial ban, and in 1439 was attacked by his son Louis the
Lame. This prince, who had married a daughter of Frederick I. of
Hohenzollern, margrave of Brandenburg, was incensed at the favour shown
by his father to an illegitimate son. Aided by Albert Achilles,
afterwards margrave of Brandenburg, he took the elder Louis prisoner and
compelled him to abdicate in 1443. When Louis the Lame died in 1445 his
father came into the power of his implacable enemy, Henry of
Bavaria-Landshut, and died in prison in 1447. The duchy of
Bavaria-Ingolstadt passed to Henry, who had succeeded his father
Frederick as duke of Bavaria-Landshut in 1393, and whose long reign was
almost entirely occupied with family feuds. He died in July 1450, and
was followed by his son, Louis IX. (called the Rich), and about this
time Bavaria began to recover some of its former importance. Louis IX.
expelled the Jews from his duchy, did something for the security of
traders, and improved both the administration of justice and the
condition of the finances. In 1472 he founded the university of
Ingolstadt, attempted to reform the monasteries, and was successful in a
struggle with Albert Achilles of Brandenburg. On his death in January
1479 he was succeeded by his son George, also called the Rich; and when
George, a faithful adherent of the German king Maximilian I., died
without sons in December 1503, a war broke out for the possession of his
duchy.


  War over the succession to Bavaria-Landshut.

  Reigns of Albert the Wise and William IV.

Bavaria-Munich passed on the death of John II. in 1397 to his sons
Ernest and William III., but they only obtained possession of their
lands after a struggle with Stephen of Bavaria-Ingolstadt. Both brothers
were then engaged in warfare with the other branches of the family and
with the citizens of Munich. William, a loyal servant of the emperor
Sigismund, died in 1435, leaving an only son, Adolf, who died five years
later; and Ernest, distinguished for his bodily strength, died in 1438.
In 1440 the whole of Bavaria-Munich came to Ernest's son Albert, who had
been estranged from his father owing to his union with the unfortunate
Agnes Bernauer (q.v.). Albert, whose attempts to reform the monasteries
earned for him the surname of Pious, was almost elected king of Bohemia
in 1440. He died in 1460, leaving five sons, the two elder of whom, John
IV. and Sigismund, reigned in common until the death of John in 1463.
The third brother, Albert, who had been educated for the church, joined
his brother in 1465, and when Sigismund abdicated two years later became
sole ruler in spite of the claims of his two younger brothers. Albert,
who was called the Wise, added the district of Abensberg to his
possessions, and in 1504 became involved in the war which broke out for
the possession of Bavaria-Landshut on the death of George the Rich.
Albert's rival was George's son-in-law, Rupert, formerly bishop of
Freising, and son of Philip, count palatine of the Rhine; and the
emperor Maximilian I., interested as archduke of Austria and count of
Tirol, interfered in the dispute. Rupert died in 1504, and the following
year an arrangement was made at the diet of Cologne by which the emperor
and Philip's grandson, Otto Henry, obtained certain outlying districts,
while Albert by securing the bulk of George's possessions united Bavaria
under his rule. In 1506 Albert decreed that the duchy should pass
undivided according to the rules of primogeniture, and endeavoured in
other ways also to consolidate Bavaria. He was partially successful in
improving the condition of the country; and in 1500 Bavaria formed one
of the six circles into which Germany was divided for the maintenance of
peace. He died in March 1508, and was succeeded by his son, William IV.,
whose mother, Kunigunde, was a daughter of the emperor Frederick III. In
spite of the decree of 1506 William was compelled in 1516, after a
violent quarrel, to grant a share in the government to his brother
Louis, an arrangement which lasted until the death of Louis in 1545.


  Roman Catholicism in Bavaria.

  Reign of Maximillian I. and the Thirty Years' War.

William followed the traditional Wittelsbach policy, opposition to the
Habsburgs, until in 1534 he made a treaty at Linz with Ferdinand, king
of Hungary and Bohemia. This was strengthened in 1546, when the emperor
Charles V. obtained the help of the duke during the war of the league of
Schmalkalden by promising him in certain eventualities the succession to
the Bohemian throne, and the electoral dignity enjoyed by the count
palatine of the Rhine. William also did much at a critical period to
secure Bavaria for Catholicism. The reformed doctrines had made
considerable progress in the duchy when the duke from the pope extensive
rights over the bishoprics and monasteries, and took measures to repress
the reformers, many of whom were banished; while the Jesuits, whom he
invited into the duchy in 1541, made the university of Ingolstadt their
headquarters for Germany. William, whose death occurred in March 1550,
was succeeded by his son Albert IV., who had married a daughter of
Ferdinand of Habsburg, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand I. Early in his
reign Albert made some concessions to the reformers, who were still
strong in Bavaria; but about 1563 he changed his attitude, favoured the
decrees of the council of Trent, and pressed forward the work of the
Counter-Reformation. As education passed by degrees into the hands of
the Jesuits the progress of Protestantism was effectually arrested in
Bavaria. Albert IV. was a great patron of art. His court at Munich was
the resort of artists of all kinds, and the city was enriched with
splendid buildings; while artistic works were collected from Italy and
elsewhere. The expenses of a magnificent court led the duke to quarrel
with the _Landschaft_, to oppress his subjects, and to leave a great
burden of debt when he died in October 1579. The succeeding duke was
Albert's son, William V. (called the Pious), who was educated by the
Jesuits and was keenly attached to their tenets. He secured the
archbishopric of Cologne for his brother Ernest in 1583, and this
dignity remained in the possession of the family for nearly 200 years.
In 1597 he abdicated in favour of his son Maximilian I., and retired
into a monastery, where he died in 1626. Maximilian found the duchy
encumbered with debt and filled with disorder, but ten years of his
vigorous rule effected a remarkable change. The finances and the
judicial system were reorganized, a class of civil servants and a
national militia founded, and several small districts were brought under
the duke's authority. The result was a unity and order in the duchy
which enabled Maximilian to play an important part in the Thirty Years'
War; during the earlier years of which he was so successful as to
acquire the Upper Palatinate and the electoral dignity which had been
enjoyed since 1356 by the elder branch of the Wittelsbach family. In
spite of subsequent reverses these gains were retained by Maximilian at
the peace of Westphalia in 1648. During the later years of this war
Bavaria, especially the northern part, suffered severely. In 1632 it was
invaded by the Swedes, and, when Maximilian violated the treaty of Ulm
in 1647, was ravaged by the French and the Swedes. After repairing this
damage to some extent, the elector died at Ingolstadt in September 1651,
leaving his duchy much stronger than he had found it. The recovery of
the Upper Palatinate made Bavaria compact; the acquisition of the
electoral vote made it influential; and the duchy was able to play a
part in European politics which intestine strife had rendered impossible
for the past four hundred years.     (A. W. H.*)


  Beginning of modern period.

  Re-union of the Palatinate.

Whatever lustre the international position won by Maximilian I. might
add to the ducal house, on Bavaria itself its effect during the next two
centuries was more dubious. Maximillian's son, Ferdinand Maria
(1651-1679), who was a minor when he succeeded, did much indeed to
repair the wounds caused by the Thirty Years' War, encouraging
agriculture and industries, and building or restoring numerous churches
and monasteries. In 1669, moreover, he again called a meeting of the
diet, which had been suspended since 1612. His good work, however, was
largely undone by his son Maximilian II. Emmanuel (1679-1726), whose
far-reaching ambition set him warring against the Turks and, on the side
of France, in the great struggle of the Spanish succession. He shared in
the defeat at Höchstädt on the 13th of August 1704; his dominions were
temporarily partitioned between Austria and the elector palatine, and
only restored to him, harried and exhausted, at the peace of Baden in
1714. Untaught by Maximilian Emmanuel's experience, his son, Charles
Albert (1726-1745), devoted all his energies to increasing the European
prestige and power of his house. The death of the emperor Charles VI.
was his opportunity; he disputed the validity of the Pragmatic Sanction
which secured the Habsburg succession to Maria Theresa, allied himself
with France, conquered Upper Austria, was crowned king of Bohemia at
Prague and, in 1742, emperor at Frankfort. The price he had to pay,
however, was the occupation of Bavaria itself by Austrian troops; and,
though the invasion of Bohemia in 1744 by Frederick II. of Prussia
enabled him to return to Munich, at his death on the 20th of January
1745 it was left to his successor to make what terms he could for the
recovery of his dominions. Maximilian III. Joseph (1745-1777), by the
peace of Füssen signed on the 22nd of April 1745, obtained the
restitution of his dominions in return for a formal acknowledgment of
the Pragmatic Sanction. He was a man of enlightenment, did much to
encourage agriculture, industries and the exploitation of the mineral
wealth of the country, founded the Academy of Sciences at Munich, and
abolished the Jesuit censorship of the press. At his death, without
issue, on the 30th of December 1777, the Bavarian line of the
Wittelsbachs became extinct, and the succession passed to Charles
Theodore, the elector palatine. After a separation of four and a half
centuries, the Palatinate, to which the duchies of Jülich and Berg had
been added, was thus reunited with Bavaria. So great an accession of
strength to a neighbouring state, whose ambition she had so recently had
just reason to fear, was intolerable to Austria, which laid claim to a
number of lordships--forming one-third of the whole Bavarian
inheritance--as lapsed fiefs of the Bohemian, Austrian, and imperial
crowns. These were at once occupied by Austrian troops, with the secret
consent of Charles Theodore himself, who was without legitimate heirs,
and wished to obtain from the emperor the elevation of his natural
children to the status of princes of the Empire. The protests of the
next heir, Charles, duke of Zweibrücken (Deux-Ponts), supported by the
king of Prussia, led to the war of Bavarian succession. By the peace of
Teschen (May 13th, 1779) the Inn quarter was ceded to Austria, and the
succession secured to Charles of Zweibrücken. For Bavaria itself Charles
Theodore did less than nothing. He felt himself a foreigner among
foreigners, and his favourite scheme, the subject of endless intrigues
with the Austrian cabinet and the immediate cause of Frederick II.'s
League of Princes (_Fürstenbund_) of 1785, was to exchange Bavaria for
the Austrian Netherlands and the title of king of Burgundy. For the
rest, the enlightened internal policy of his predecessor was abandoned.
The funds of the suppressed order of Jesus, which Maximilian Joseph had
destined for the reform of the educational system of the country, were
used to endow a province of the knights of St John of Jerusalem, for the
purpose of combating the enemies of the faith. The government was
inspired by the narrowest clericalism, which culminated in the attempt
to withdraw the Bavarian bishops from the jurisdiction of the great
German metropolitans and place them directly under that of the pope. On
the eve of the Revolution the intellectual and social condition of
Bavaria remained that of the middle ages.


  The revolutionary wars.

In 1792 the revolutionary armies overran the Palatinate; in 1795 the
French, under Moreau, invaded Bavaria itself, advanced to Munich--where
they were received with joy by the long-suppressed Liberals--and laid
siege to Ingolstadt. Charles Theodore, who had done nothing to prevent
or to resist the invasion, fled to Saxony, leaving a regency, the
members of which signed a convention with Moreau, by which he granted an
armistice in return for a heavy contribution (September 7th, 1796).
Immediately afterwards he was forced to retire.

Between the French and the Austrians, Bavaria was now in an evil case.
Before the death of Charles Theodore (February 16th, 1799) the Austrians
had again occupied the country, preparatory to renewing the war with
France. Maximilian IV. Joseph (of Zweibrücken), the new elector,
succeeded to a difficult inheritance. Though his own sympathies, and
those of his all-powerful minister, Max Josef von Montgelas (q.v.),
were, if anything, French rather than Austrian, the state of the
Bavarian finances, and the fact that the Bavarian troops were scattered
and disorganized, placed him helpless in the hands of Austria; on the
2nd of December 1800 the Bavarian arms were involved in the Austrian
defeat at Hohenlinden, and Moreau once more occupied Munich. By the
treaty of Lunéville (February 9th, 1801) Bavaria lost the Palatinate and
the duchies of Zweibrücken and Jülich.


  French influence.

In view of the scarcely disguised ambitions and intrigues of the
Austrian court, Montgelas now believed that the interests of Bavaria lay
in a frank alliance with the French republic; he succeeded in overcoming
the reluctance of Maximilian Joseph; and, on the 24th of August, a
separate treaty of peace and alliance with France was signed at Paris.
By the third article of this the First Consul undertook to see that the
compensation promised under the 7th article of the treaty of Lunéville
for the territory ceded on the left bank of the Rhine, should be carried
out at the expense of the Empire in the manner most agreeable to Bavaria
(de Martens, _Recueil_, vol. vii. p. 365). In 1803, accordingly, in the
territorial rearrangements consequent on Napoleon's suppression of the
ecclesiastical states, and of many free cities of the Empire, Bavaria
received the bishoprics of Würzburg, Bamberg, Augsburg and Freisingen,
part of that of Passau, the territories of twelve abbeys, and seventeen
cities and villages, the whole forming a compact territory which more
than compensated for the loss of her outlying provinces on the Rhine.[1]
Montgelas' ambition was now to raise Bavaria to the rank of a first-rate
power, and he pursued this object during the Napoleonic epoch with
consummate skill, allowing fully for the preponderance of France--so
long as it lasted--but never permitting Bavaria to sink, like so many of
the states of the confederation of the Rhine, into a mere French
dependency. In the war of 1805, in accordance with a treaty of alliance
signed at Würzburg on the 23rd of September, Bavarian troops, for the
first time since Charles VII., fought side by side with the French, and
by the treaty of Pressburg, signed on the 26th of December, the
principality of Eichstädt, the margraviate of Burgau, the lordship of
Vorarlberg, the countships of Hohenems and Königsegg-Rothenfels, the
lordships of Argen and Tetnang, and the city of Lindau with its
territory were to be added to Bavaria. On the other hand Würzburg,
obtained in 1803, was to be ceded by Bavaria to the elector of Salzburg
in exchange for Tirol. By the 1st article of the treaty the emperor
acknowledged the assumption by the elector of the title of king, as
Maximilian I.[2] The price which Maximilian had reluctantly to pay for
this accession of dignity was the marriage of his daughter Augusta with
Eugène Beauharnais.

For the internal constitution of Bavaria also the French alliance had
noteworthy consequences. Maximilian himself was an "enlightened" prince
of the 18th-century type, whose tolerant principles had already
grievously offended his clerical subjects; Montgelas was a firm believer
in drastic reform "from above," and, in 1803, had discussed with the
rump of the old estates the question of reforms. But the revolutionary
changes introduced by the constitution proclaimed on the 1st of May 1808
were due to the direct influence of Napoleon. A clean sweep was made of
the medieval polity surviving in the somnolent local diets and
corporations. In place of the old system of privileges and exemptions
were set equality before the law, universal liability to taxation,
abolition of serfdom, security of person and property, liberty of
conscience and of the press. A representative assembly was created on
paper, based on a narrow franchise and with very limited powers, but was
never summoned.


  Treaty of Ried.

In 1809 Bavaria was again engaged in war with Austria on the side of
France, and by the treaty signed at Paris on the 28th of February 1810
ceded southern Tirol to Italy and some small districts to Württemberg,
receiving as compensation parts of Salzburg, the quarters of the Inn and
Hausrück and the principalities of Bayreuth and Regensburg. So far the
policy of Montgelas had been brilliantly successful; but the star of
Napoleon had now reached its zenith, and already the astute opportunist
had noted the signs of the coming change. The events of 1812 followed;
in 1813 Bavaria was summoned to join the alliance against Napoleon, the
demand being passionately backed by the crown prince Louis and by
Marshal Wrede; on the 8th of October was signed the treaty of Ried, by
which Bavaria threw in her lot with the Allies. Montgelas announced to
the French ambassador that he had been compelled temporarily to bow
before the storm, adding "Bavaria has need of France." (For Bavaria's
share in the war see NAPOLEONIC CAMPAIGNS.)


  Relations with Austria.

Immediately after the first peace of Paris (1814), Bavaria ceded to
Austria Tirol and Vorarlberg; by the congress of Vienna it was decided
that she was to add to these the greater part of Salzburg and the
quarters of the Inn and Hausrück, receiving as compensation, besides
Würzburg and Aschaffenburg, the Palatinate on the left bank of the Rhine
and certain districts of Hesse and of the former abbacy of Fulda. But
with the collapse of France the old fear and jealousy of Austria had
revived in full force, and Bavaria only agreed to these cessions (treaty
of Munich, April 16th, 1816) on Austria promising that, in the event of
the powers ignoring her claim to the Baden succession in favour of that
of the line of the counts of Hochberg, she should receive also the
Palatinate on the right bank of the Rhine. The question was thus left
open, the tension between the two powers remained extreme, and war was
only averted by the authority of the Grand Alliance. At the congress of
Aix (1818) the question of the Baden succession was settled in favour of
the Hochberg line, without the compensation stipulated for in the treaty
of Munich; and by the treaty of Frankfort, signed on behalf of the four
great powers on the 20th of July 1819, the territorial questions at
issue between Bavaria and Austria were settled, in spite of the protests
of the former, in the general sense of the arrangement made at Vienna. A
small strip of territory was added, to connect Bavaria with the
Palatinate, and Bavarian troops were to garrison the federal fortress of
Mainz.


  Constitution of 1818.

  Lola Montez.

Meanwhile, on the 1st of February 1817, Montgelas had been dismissed;
and Bavaria had entered on a new era of constitutional reform. This
implied no breach with the European policy of the fallen minister. In
the new German confederation Bavaria had assumed the rôle of defender of
the smaller states against the ambitions of Austria and Prussia, and
Montgelas had dreamed of a Bavarian hegemony in South Germany similar to
that of Prussia in the north. It was to obtain popular support for this
policy and for the Bavarian claims on Baden that the crown prince
pressed for a liberal constitution, the reluctance of Montgelas to
concede it being the cause of his dismissal. On the 26th of May 1818 the
constitution was proclaimed. The parliament was to consist of two
houses; the first comprising the great hereditary landowners, government
officials and nominees of the crown; the second, elected on a very
narrow franchise, representatives of the small land-owners, the towns
and the peasants. By additional articles the equality of religions was
guaranteed and the rights of Protestants safeguarded, concessions which
were denounced at Rome as a breach of the Concordat, which had been
signed immediately before. The result of the constitutional experiment
hardly justified the royal expectations; the parliament was hardly
opened (February 5th, 1819) before the doctrinaire radicalism of some of
its members, culminating in the demand that the army should swear
allegiance to the constitution, so alarmed the king, that he appealed to
Austria and Germany, undertaking to carry out any repressive measures
they might recommend. Prussia, however, refused to approve of any _coup
d'état_; the parliament, chastened by the consciousness that its life
depended on the goodwill of the king, moderated its tone; and Maximilian
ruled till his death as a model constitutional monarch. On the 13th of
October 1825, he was succeeded by his son, Louis I., an enlightened
patron of the arts and sciences, who transferred the university of
Landshut to Munich, which, by his magnificent taste in building, he
transformed into one of the most beautiful cities of the continent. The
earlier years of his reign were marked by a liberal spirit and the
reform, especially, of the financial administration; but the revolutions
of 1831 frightened him into reaction, which was accentuated by the
opposition of the parliament to his expenditure on building and works of
art. In 1837 the Ultramontanes came into power with Karl von Abel
(1788-1859) as prime minister. The Jesuits now gained the upper hand;
one by one the liberal provisions of the constitution were modified or
annulled; the Protestants were harried and oppressed; and a rigorous
censorship forbade any free discussion of internal politics. The
collapse of this régime was due, not to popular agitation, but to the
resentment of Louis at the clerical opposition to the influence of his
mistress, Lola Montez. On the 17th of February 1847, Abel was dismissed,
for publishing his memorandum against the proposal to naturalize Lola,
who was an Irishwoman; and the Protestant Georg Ludwig von Maurer
(q.v.) took his place. The new ministry granted the certificate of
naturalization; but riots, in which ultramontane professors of the
university took part, were the result. The professors were deprived, the
parliament dissolved, and, on the 27th of November, the ministry
dismissed. Lola Montez, created Countess Landsfeld, was supreme in the
state; and the new minister, Prince Ludwig von Oettingen-Wallerstein
(1791-1870), in spite of his efforts to enlist Liberal sympathy by
appeals to pan-German patriotism, was powerless to form a stable
government. His cabinet was known as the "Lolaministerium"; in February
1848, stimulated by the news from Paris, riots broke out against the
countess; on the 11th of March the king dismissed Oettingen, and on the
20th, realizing the force of public opinion against him, abdicated in
favour of his son, Maximilian II.


  Anti-Prussian policy.

Before his abdication Louis had issued, on the 6th of March, a
proclamation promising the zealous co-operation of the Bavarian
government in the work of German freedom and unity. To the spirit of
this Maximilian was faithful, accepting the authority of the central
government at Frankfort, and (19th of December) sanctioning the official
promulgation of the laws passed by the German parliament. But Prussia
was henceforth the enemy, not Austria. In refusing to agree to the offer
of the imperial crown to Frederick William IV., Maximilian had the
support of his parliament. In withholding his assent to the new German
constitution, by which Austria was excluded from the Confederation, he
ran indeed counter to the sentiment of his people; but by this time the
back of the revolution was broken, and in the events which led to the
humiliation of Prussia at Olmütz in 1851, and the restoration of the old
diet of the Confederation, Bavaria was safe in casting in her lot with
Austria (see GERMANY: _History_). The guiding spirit in this
anti-Prussian policy, which characterized Bavarian statesmanship up to
the war of 1866, was Ludwig Karl Heinrich von der Pfordten (1811-1880),
who became minister for foreign affairs on the 19th of April 1849. His
idea for the ultimate solution of the question of the balance of power
in Germany was the so-called _Trias_, i.e. a league of the Rhenish
states as a counterpoise to the preponderance of Austria and Prussia. In
internal affairs his ministry was characterized by a reactionary policy
less severe than elsewhere in Germany, which led none the less from 1854
onward to a struggle with the parliament, which ended in the dismissal
of Pfordten's ministry on the 27th of March 1859. He was succeeded by
Karl Freiherr von Schrenk auf Notzing (1806-1884), an official of
Liberal tendencies who had been Bavarian representative in the diet of
the Confederation. Important reforms were now introduced, including the
separation of the judicial and executive powers and the drawing up of a
new criminal code. In foreign affairs Schrenk, like his predecessor,
aimed at safeguarding the independence of Bavaria, and supported the
idea of superseding the actual constitution of the Confederation by a
supreme directory, in which Bavaria, as leader of the purely German
states, would hold the balance between Prussia and Austria. Bavaria
accordingly opposed the Prussian proposals for the reorganization of the
Confederation, and one of the last acts of King Maximilian was to take a
conspicuous part in the assembly of princes summoned to Frankfort in
1863 by the emperor Francis Joseph (see GERMANY).

Maximilian was succeeded on the 10th of March 1864 by his son Louis II.,
a youth of eighteen. The government was at first carried on by Schrenk
and Pfordten in concert. Schrenk soon retired, when the Bavarian
government found it necessary, in order to maintain its position in the
Prussian _Zollverein_, to become a party to the Prussian commercial
treaty with France, signed in 1862. In the complicated Schleswig-Holstein
question (q.v.) Bavaria, under Pfordten's guidance, consistently opposed
Prussia, and headed the lesser states in their support of Frederick of
Augustenburg against the policy of the two great German powers. Finally,
in the war of 1866, in spite of Bismarck's efforts to secure her
neutrality, Bavaria sided actively with Austria.


  Union with German Empire.

The rapid victory of the Prussians and the wise moderation of Bismarck
paved the way for a complete revolution in Bavaria's relation to Prussia
and the German question. The South German Confederation, contemplated by
the 6th article of the treaty of Prague, never came into being; and,
though Prussia, in order not prematurely to excite the alarm of France,
opposed the suggestion that the southern states should join the North
German Confederation, the bonds of Bavaria, as of the other southern
states, with the north, were strengthened by an offensive and defensive
alliance with Prussia, as the result of Napoleon's demand for
"compensation" in the Palatinate. This was signed at Berlin on the 22nd
of August 1866, on the same day as the signature of the formal treaty of
peace between the two countries. The separatist ambitions of Bavaria
were thus formally given up; she had no longer "need of France"; and in
the war of 1870-71, the Bavarian army marched, under the command of the
Prussian crown prince, against the common enemy of Germany. It was on
the proposal of King Louis II. that the imperial crown was offered to
King William.

This was preceded, on the 23rd of November 1870, by the signature of a
treaty between Bavaria and the North German Confederation. By this
instrument, though Bavaria became an integral part of the new German
empire, she reserved a larger measure of sovereign independence than any
of the other constituent states. Thus she retained a separate diplomatic
service, military administration, and postal, telegraph and railway
systems. The treaty was ratified by the Bavarian chambers on the 21st of
January 1871, though not without considerable opposition on the part of
the so-called "patriot" party. Their hostility was increased by the
_Kulturkampf_, due to the promulgation in 1870 of the dogma of papal
infallibility. Munich University, where Döllinger (q.v.) was professor,
became the centre of the opposition to the new dogma, and the "old
Catholics" (q.v.) were protected by the king and the government. The
federal law expelling the Jesuits was proclaimed in Bavaria on the 6th
of September 1871 and was extended to the Redemptorists in 1873. On the
31st of March 1871, moreover, the bonds with the rest of the empire had
been drawn closer by the acceptance of a number of laws of the North
German Confederation, of which the most important was the new criminal
code, which was finally put into force in Bavaria in 1879. The
opposition of the "patriot" party, however, reinforced by the strong
Catholic sentiment of the country, continued powerful, and it was only
the steady support given by the king to successive Liberal ministries
that prevented its finding disastrous expression in the parliament,
where it remained in a greater or less majority till 1887, and has
since, as the "centre," continued to form the most compact party in an
assembly made up of "groups."

Meanwhile the royal dreamer, whose passion for building palaces was
becoming a serious drain on the treasury, had been declared insane, and,
on the 7th of June 1886, the heir-presumptive, Prince Luitpold, was
proclaimed regent. Six days later, on the 13th of June, Louis committed
suicide. His brother, Otto I., being also insane, the regency was
confirmed to Prince Luitpold.

Since 1871 Bavaria has shared to the full in the marvellous development
of Germany; but her "particularism," founded on traditional racial and
religious antagonism to the Prussians, was by no means dead, though it
exhibited itself in no more dangerous form than the prohibition,
reissued in 1900, to display any but the Bavarian flag on public
buildings on the emperor's birthday; a provision which has been since so
far modified as to allow the Bavarian and imperial flags to be hung side
by side.

  AUTHORITIES.--_Monumenta Boica_ (44 vols., Munich, 1763-1900); G.T.
  Rudhart, _Aelteste Geschichte Bayerns_ (Hamburg, 1841); A. Quitzmann,
  _Abstammung, Ursitz, und älteste Geschichte der Bairwaren_ (Munich,
  1857), and _Die älteste Geschichte der Baiern bis 911_ (Brunswick,
  1873); S. Riezler, _Geschichte Bayerns_ (Gotha, 1878-1899); Ad.
  Brecher, _Darstellung der geschichtlichen Entwickelung des bayrischen
  Staatsgebiets_, map (Berlin, 1890); E. Rosenthal, _Geschichte des
  Gerichtswesens und der Verwaltungsorganisation Bayerns_ (Würzburg,
  1889); A. Buchner, _Geschichte von Baiern_ (Munich, 1820-1853);
  _Forschungen zur Geschichte Bayerns_, edited by K. von
  Reinhardstottner (Berlin, 1897 fol.). Much valuable detail will be
  found in the lives of Bavarian princes and statesmen in the
  _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_ (Leipzig, 1875-1906 in progr.)
       (W. A. P.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] See _Recès de la députation de l'empire ... du 25 févr, 1803_,
    &c., § II. vol. vii. p. 453 of G.F. de Martens, _Recueil des
    Traités_, &c. (Gottingue, 1831).

  [2] Text in de Martens' _Recueil_, viii. p. 388.



BAVENO, a town of Piedmont, Italy, in the province of Novara, on the
west shore of Lago Maggiore, 13 m. N.N.W. of Arona by rail. Pop. (1901)
2502. It is much frequented as a resort in spring, summer and autumn,
and has many beautiful villas. To the north-west are the famous red
granite quarries, which have supplied the columns for the cathedral of
Milan, the church of S. Paolo fuori le Mura at Rome, the Galleria
Vittorio Emanuele at Milan, and other important buildings.



BAWBEE (of very doubtful origin, the most plausible conjecture being
that the word is a corruption from the name of the mint master
Sillebawby, by whom they were first issued, c. 1541), the Scottish name
for a halfpenny or other small coin, and hence used of money generally.
A writer in 1573, quoted in Tytler's _History of Scotland_, speaks of "a
coin called a bawbee, ... which is in value English one penny and a
quarter." The word was sometimes written "babie," and has therefore been
identified merely with a "baby coin," but this etymology is less
probable.



BAXTER, ANDREW (1686-1750), Scottish metaphysician, was born in Aberdeen
and educated at King's College. He maintained himself by acting as tutor
to noblemen's sons. From 1741 to 1747 he lived with Lord Blantyre and Mr
Hay of Drummelzier at Utrecht, and made excursions in Flanders, France
and Germany. Returning to Scotland, he lived at Whittingehame, near
Edinburgh, till his death in 1750. At Spa he had met John Wilkes, then
twenty years of age, and formed a lasting friendship with him. His chief
work, _An Inquiry into the Nature of the Human Soul_ (editions 1733,
1737 and 1745; with appendix added in 1750 in answer to an attack in
Maclaurin's Account of Sir I. Newton's Philosophical Discoveries, and
dedication to John Wilkes), examines the properties of matter. The one
essential property of matter is its inactivity, _vis inertiae_ (accepted
later by Monboddo). All movement in matter is, therefore, caused by some
immaterial force, namely, God. But the movements of the body are not
analogous to the movements of matter; they are caused by a special
immaterial force, the soul. The soul, as being immaterial, is immortal,
and its consciousness does not depend upon its connexion with the body.
The argument is supported by an analysis of the phenomena of dreams,
which are ascribed to direct spiritual influences. Lastly Baxter
attempted to prove that matter is finite. His work is an attack on
Toland's _Letters to Serena_ (1704), which argued that motion is
essential to matter, and on Locke and Berkeley. His criticism of
Berkeley (in the second volume) is, however, based on the common
misinterpretation of his theory (see BERKELEY). Sir Leslie Stephen
speaks of him as a curious example of "the effects of an exploded
metaphysics on a feeble though ingenious intellect."

Beside the _Inquiry_, Baxter wrote _Matho sive Cosmotheoria Puerilis_
(an exposition in Latin of the elements of astronomy written for his
pupils--editions in English 1740, 1745 and 1765, with one dialogue
re-written); _Evidence of Reason in Proof of the Immortality of the
Soul_ (published posthumously from MSS. by Dr Duncan in 1779).

  See life in _Biographia Britannica_; McCosh's _Scottish Philosophy_,
  pp. 42-49.



BAXTER, RICHARD (1615-1691), English puritan divine, called by Dean
Stanley "the chief of English Protestant Schoolmen," was born at Rowton,
in Shropshire, at the house of his maternal grandfather, in November
(probably the 12th) 1615. His ancestors had been gentlefolk, but his
father had reduced himself to hard straits by loose living. About the
time of Richard's birth, however, he changed decisively for the better.
The boy's early education was poor, being mainly in the hands of the
illiterate and dissolute clergy and readers who held the neighbouring
livings at that time. He was better served by John Owen, master of the
free school at Wroxeter, where he studied from about 1629 to 1632, and
made fair progress in Latin. On Owen's advice he did not proceed to
Oxford (a step which he afterwards regretted), but went to Ludlow Castle
to read with Richard Wickstead, the council's chaplain there. Wickstead
neglected his pupil entirely, but Baxter's eager mind found abundant
nourishment in the great library at the castle. He was persuaded--against
his will--to turn his attention to a court life, and he went to London
under the patronage of Sir Henry Herbert, master of the revels, to follow
that course; but he very soon returned home with a fixed
resolve--confirmed by the death of his mother--to study divinity. After
three months' schoolmastering for Owen at Wroxeter he read theology, and
especially the schoolmen, with Francis Garbet, the local clergyman. About
this time (1634) he met Joseph Symonds and Walter Cradock, two famous
Nonconformists, whose piety and fervour influenced him considerably. In
1638 he was nominated to the mastership of the free grammar school,
Dudley, in which place he commenced his ministry, having been ordained
and licensed by John Thornborough, bishop of Worcester. His success as a
preacher was, at this early period, not very great; but he was soon
transferred to Bridgnorth (Shropshire), where, as assistant to a Mr
Madstard, he established a reputation for the vigorous discharge of the
duties of his office.

He remained at Bridgnorth nearly two years, during which time he took a
special interest in the controversy relating to Nonconformity and the
Church of England. He soon, on some points, especially matters of
discipline, became alienated from the Church; and after the requirement
of what is called "the _et cetera_ oath," he rejected episcopacy in its
English form. He could not, however, be called more than a moderate
Nonconformist; and such he continued to be throughout his life. Though
commonly denominated a Presbyterian, he had no exclusive attachment to
Presbyterianism, and often manifested a willingness to accept a modified
Episcopalianism. All forms of church government were regarded by him as
subservient to the true purposes of religion.

One of the first measures of the Long Parliament was to effect the
reformation of the clergy; and, with this view, a committee was
appointed to receive complaints against them. Among the complainants
were the inhabitants of Kidderminster, a town which had become famous
for its ignorance and depravity. This state of matters was so clearly
proved that an arrangement was agreed to on the part of the vicar
(Dance), by which he allowed £60 a year, out of his income £200, to a
preacher who should be chosen by certain trustees. Baxter was invited to
deliver a sermon before the people, and was unanimously elected as the
minister of the place. This happened in April 1641, when he was
twenty-six years of age.

His ministry continued, with very considerable interruptions, for about
nineteen years; and during that time he accomplished a work of
reformation in Kidderminster and the neighbourhood which is as notable
as anything of the kind upon record. Civilized behaviour succeeded to
brutality of manners; and, whereas the professors of religion had been
but small exceptions to the mass, the unreligious people became the
exceptions in their turn. He formed the ministers in the country around
him into an association for the better fulfilment of the duties of their
calling, uniting them together irrespective of their differences as
Presbyterians, Episcopalians and Independents. The spirit in which he
acted may be judged of from _The Reformed Pastor_, a book published in
relation to the general ministerial efforts he promoted. It drives home
the sense of clerical responsibility with extraordinary power. The
result of his action is that, to this day his memory is cherished as
that of the true apostle of the district where he laboured.

The interruptions to which his Kidderminster life was subjected arose
from the condition of things occasioned by the civil war. Baxter blamed
both parties, but Worcestershire was a cavalier county, and a man in his
position was, while the war continued, exposed to annoyance and danger
in a place like Kidderminster. He therefore removed to Gloucester, and
afterwards (1643-1645) settled in Coventry, where he preached regularly
both to the garrison and the citizens. After the battle of Naseby he
took the situation of chaplain to Colonel Whalley's regiment, and
continued to hold it till February 1647. During these stormy years he
wrote his _Aphorisms of Justification_, which on its appearance in 1649
excited great controversy.

Baxter's connexion with the Parliamentary army was a very characteristic
one. He joined it that he might, if possible, counteract the growth of
the sectaries in that field, and maintain the cause of constitutional
government in opposition to the republican tendencies of the time. He
regretted that he had not previously accepted an offer of Cromwell to
become chaplain to the Ironsides, being confident in his power of
persuasion under the most difficult circumstances. His success in
converting the soldiery to his views does not seem to have been very
great, but he preserved his own consistency and fidelity in a remarkable
degree. By public disputation and private conference, as well as by
preaching, he enforced his doctrines, both ecclesiastical and political,
and shrank no more from urging what he conceived to be the truth upon
the most powerful officers than he did from instructing the meanest
followers of the camp. Cromwell disliked his loquacity and shunned his
society; but Baxter having to preach before him after he had assumed the
Protectorship, chose for his subject the old topic of the divisions and
distractions of the church, and in subsequent interviews not only
opposed him about liberty of conscience, but spoke in favour of the
monarchy he had subverted. There is a striking proof of Baxter's insight
into character in his account of what happened under these
circumstances. Of Cromwell he says, "I saw that what he learned must be
from himself." It is worthy of notice that this intercourse with
Cromwell occurred when Baxter was summoned to London to assist in
settling "the fundamentals of religion," and made the memorable
declaration, in answer to the objection that what he had proposed as
fundamental "might be subscribed by a Papist or Socinian,"--"So much the
better, and so much the fitter it is to be the matter of concord." In
1647 he was staying at the home of Lady Rouse of Rouse-Lench, and there,
in much physical weakness, wrote a great part of his famous work, _The
Saints' Everlasting Rest_ (1650). On his recovery he returned to his
charge at Kidderminster, where he also became a prominent political
leader, his sensitive conscience leading him into conflict with almost
every one of the contending parties in state and church. His conduct
now, as at all times, did "credit to his conscientiousness rather than
to his wisdom."

After the Restoration in 1660 Baxter, who had helped to bring about that
event, settled in London. He preached there till the Act of Uniformity
took effect in 1662, and was employed in seeking for such terms of
comprehension as would have permitted the moderate dissenters with whom
he acted to have remained in the Church of England. In this hope he was
sadly disappointed. There was at that time on the part of the rulers of
the church no wish for such comprehension, and their object in the
negotiations that took place was to excuse the breach of faith which
their rejection of all reasonable methods of concession involved. The
chief good that resulted from the Savoy conference was the production of
Baxter's _Reformed Liturgy_, a work of remarkable excellence, though it
was cast aside without consideration. The same kind of reputation which
Baxter had obtained in the country he secured in the larger and more
important circle of the metropolis. The power of his preaching was
universally felt, and his capacity for business placed him at the head
of his party. He had been made a king's chaplain, and was offered the
bishopric of Hereford, but he could not accept the offer without
virtually assenting to things as they were. This he could not do, and
after his refusal he was not allowed, even before the passing of the Act
of Uniformity, to be a curate in Kidderminster, though he was willing to
serve that office gratuitously. Bishop Morley even prohibited him from
preaching in the diocese of Worcester. Baxter, however, found much
consolation in his marriage on the 24th of September 1662 with Margaret
Charlton, a woman like-minded with himself. She died in 1681.

From the ejectment of 1662 to the indulgence of 1687, Baxter's life was
constantly disturbed by persecution of one kind or another. He retired
to Acton in Middlesex, for the purpose of quiet study, and was dragged
thence to prison for keeping a conventicle. The _mittimus_ was
pronounced illegal and irregular, and Baxter procured a _habeas corpus_
in the court of common pleas. He was taken up for preaching in London
after the licences granted in 1672 were recalled by the king. The
meetinghouse which he had built for himself in Oxendon Street was closed
against him after he had preached there but once. He was, in 1680,
seized in his house, and conveyed away at the risk of his life; and
though he was released that he might die at home, his books and goods
were distrained. He was, in 1684, carried three times to the sessions
house, being scarcely able to stand, and without any apparent cause was
made to enter into a bond for £400 in security for his good behaviour.

But his worst encounter was with the chief justice, Sir George Jeffreys,
in May 1685. He had been committed to the king's bench prison on the
ridiculous charge of libelling the Church in his _Paraphrase on the New
Testament_, and was tried before Jeffreys on this accusation. The trial
is well known as among the most brutal perversions of justice which have
occurred in England, though it must be remembered that no authoritative
report of the trial exists. If the partisan account on which tradition
is based is to be accepted, it would appear that Jeffreys himself acted
like an infuriated madman. (See JEFFREYS, SIR GEORGE.) Baxter was
sentenced to pay 500 marks, to lie in prison till the money was paid,
and to be bound to his good behaviour for seven years. It was even
asserted at the time that Jeffreys proposed he should be whipped at the
cart's tail through London. The old man, for he was now seventy,
remained in prison for eighteen months, when the government, vainly
hoping to win his influence to their side, remitted the fine and
released him.

During the long time of oppression and injury which followed the
ejectment, Baxter was sadly afflicted in body. His whole life was indeed
one continued illness, but in this part of it his pain and languor had
greatly increased. Yet this was the period of his greatest activity as a
writer. He was a most voluminous author, his separate works, it is said,
amounting to 168. They are as learned as they are elaborate, and as
varied in their subjects as they are faithfully composed. Such treatises
as the _Christian Directory_, the _Methodus Theologiae Christianae_, and
the _Catholic Theology_, might each have occupied the principal part of
the life of an ordinary man. His _Breviate of the Life of Mrs Margaret
Baxter_ records the virtues of his wife, and reveals on the part of
Baxter a tenderness of nature which might otherwise have been unknown.
His editors have contented themselves with re-publishing his "Practical
Works," and his ethical, philosophical, historical and political
writings still await a competent editor.

The remainder of Baxter's life, from 1687 onwards, was passed in peace
and honour. He continued to preach and to publish almost to the end. He
was surrounded by attached friends, and reverenced by the religious
world. His saintly behaviour, his great talents, and his wide influence,
added to his extended age, raised him to a position of unequalled
reputation. He helped to bring about the downfall of James II. and
complied with the Toleration Act under William and Mary. He died in
London on the 8th of December 1691, and his funeral was attended by
churchmen as well as dissenters. A similar tribute of general esteem was
paid to him nearly two centuries later, when a statue was erected to his
memory at Kidderminster in July 1875.

Baxter was possessed by an unconquerable belief in the power of
persuasive argument. He thought every one was amenable to
reason--bishops and levellers included. And yet he was as far as
possible from being a quarrelsome man. He was at once a man of fixed
belief and large appreciation, so that his dogmatism and his liberality
sometimes came into collision. His popularity as a preacher was
deservedly pre-eminent; but no more diligent student ever shut himself
up with his books. He was singularly fitted for intellectual debate, but
his devotional tendency was equally strong with his logical aptitude.
Some of his writings, from their metaphysical subtilty, will always
puzzle the learned; but he could write to the level of the common heart
without loss of dignity or pointedness. His _Reasons for the Christian
Religion_ is still, for its evidential purpose, better than most works
of its kind. His _Poor Man's Family Book_ is a manual that continues to
be worthy of its title. His _Saints' Everlasting Rest_ will always
command the grateful admiration of pious readers. It is also charged
with a robust and manly eloquence and a rare and unsought felicity of
language that make it a masterpiece of style. Perhaps no thinker has
exerted so great an influence upon nonconformity as Baxter has done, and
that not in one direction only, but in every form of development,
doctrinal, ecclesiastical and practical. He is the type of a distinct
class of the Christian ministry--that class which aspires after
scholarly training, prefers a broad to a sectarian theology, and adheres
to rational methods of religious investigation and appeal. The rational
element in him was very strong. He had a settled hatred of fanaticism.
Even Quakerism he could scarcely endure. Religion was with him all and
in all--that by which all besides was measured, and to whose interests
all else was subordinated. Isaac Barrow said that "his practical
writings were never minded, and his controversial ones seldom confuted,"
and John Wilkins, bishop of Chester, asserted that "if he had lived in
the primitive time he had been one of the fathers of the church."

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Our most valuable source is Baxter's autobiography,
  called _Reliquiae Baxterianae or Mr Richard Baxter's Narrative of the
  most memorable Passages of his Life and Times_ (published by Matthew
  Sylvester in 1696). Edmund Calamy abridged this work (1702). The
  abridgment forms the first volume of the account of the ejected
  ministers, but whoever refers to it should also acquaint himself with
  the reply to the accusations which had been brought against Baxter,
  and which will be found in the second volume of Calamy's Continuation.
  William Orme's _Life and Times of Richard Baxter_ appeared in 2 vols.
  in 1830; it also forms the first volume of "Practical Works" (1830,
  reprinted 1868). Sir James Stephen's interesting paper on Baxter,
  contributed originally to the _Edinburgh Review_, is reprinted in the
  second volume of his _Essays_. More recent estimates of Baxter are
  those given by John Tulloch in his _English Puritanism and its
  Leaders_, and by Dean Stanley in his address at the inauguration of
  the statue to Baxter at Kidderminster (see _Macmillan's Magazine_,
  xxxii. 385).

  There is a good portrait of Baxter in the Williams library, Gordon
  Square, London.



BAXTER, ROBERT DUDLEY (1827-1875), English economist and statistician,
was born at Doncaster in 1827. He was educated privately and at Trinity
College, Cambridge. He studied law and entered his father's firm of
Baxter & Co., solicitors, with which he was connected till his death.
Though studiously attentive to business, he was enabled, as a member of
the Statistical and other learned societies, to accomplish much useful
economic work. His principal economic writings were _The Budget and the
Income Tax_ (1860), _Railway Extension and its Results_ (1866), _The
National Income_ (1868), _The Taxation of the United Kingdom_ (1869),
_National Debts of the World_ (1871), _Local Government and Taxation_
(1874), and his purely political writings included _The Volunteer
Movement_ (1860), _The Redistribution of Seats and the Counties_ (1866),
_History of English Parties and Conservatism_ (1870), and _The Political
Progress of the Working Classes_ (1871).



BAXTER, WILLIAM (1650-1723), British antiquarian, critic and grammarian,
nephew of Richard Baxter, the divine, was born at Llanllugan,
Montgomeryshire. When he went to Harrow school, at the age of eighteen,
he was unable to read, and could speak no language except Welsh. His
progress must have been remarkable, since he published his Latin grammar
about ten years afterwards. During the greater part of his life Baxter
was a schoolmaster, and was finally headmaster of the Mercers' school,
where he remained till shortly before his death on the 31st of May 1723.
He was an accomplished linguist, and his learning was undoubtedly very
great. His published works are: _De Analogia_ (1679), an advanced Latin
grammar; _Anacreontis Teii Carmina_, including two odes of Sappho (1695;
reprinted in 1710, "with improvements," which he was accused of having
borrowed from the edition of Joshua Barnes); _Horace_ (1701 and
subsequent editions, regarded as remarkable for its abuse of Bentley);
_Glossarium Antiquitatum Britannicarum_ (1719); and _Glossarium
Antiquitatum Romanarum_ (1826). The last two works were published by the
Rev. Moses Williams, the second (which goes no farther than the letter
A) under the title of _Reliquiae Baxterianae_, including an
autobiographical fragment. Baxter also contributed to a joint
translation of Plutarch's _Moralia_, and left notes on Juvenal and
Persius.



BAY, a homonymous term of which the principal branches are as follows,
(1) The name of the sweet laurel (_Laurus nobilis_) or bay tree (see
LAUREL); this word is derived through the O. Fr. _baie_, from Lat.
_baca_, berry, the bay bearing a heavy crop of dark purple berries. The
leaves of the bay were woven in garlands to crown poets, and hence the
word is often used figuratively in the sense of fame and reward. (2) A
wide opening or indentation in a coast line. This may be of the same
origin as "bay," in the architectural sense, or from a Latin word which
is seen in the place name Baiae. (3) The name of a colour, of a reddish
brown, principally used of the colour in horses; there are various
shades, light bay, bright bay, &c. This word is derived from the Latin
_badius_, which is given by Varro (in _Nonnius_, pp. 80-82) as one of
the colours of horses. The word is also seen in baize (q.v.). (4) The
deep bark of dogs. This word is also seen in the expression "at bay,"
properly of a hunted animal who at the last turns on the "baying" hounds
and defends itself. The origin of the word is the O. Fr. _bayer,
abayer_, Lat. _badare_, properly to gape, open wide the mouth. (5) An
architectural term (Fr. _travée_, Ital. _compartimento_, Ger.
_Abteilung_) for any division or compartment of an arcade, roof, &c.
Each space from pillar to pillar in a cathedral, church or other
building is called a "bay" or "severy." This word is also to be referred
to _bayer_, to gape.

A "bay-window" or "bow-window" is a window projecting outwards and
forming a recess in the apartment. Bay-windows may be rectangular,
polygonal or semicircular in plan, in the last case being better known
as bow-windows. The bay-window would seem to have been introduced in the
15th century, but the earliest examples of importance are those which
were built during the reign of Edward IV. (1461-1483), when it was
largely employed in the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge and in the
feudal castles of the period. Examples are found in the palace at
Eltham, Cowdray Castle in Sussex, Thornbury Castle in Gloucestershire,
and in the George Inn at Glastonbury; one of the finest of a later date
is that of the Banqueting Hall at Hampton Court, some 50 ft. high. In
the great entrance halls of ancient mansions the floor of the last bay
of the hall was generally raised two or three steps, and this portion
was reserved for the lord of the manor and his guests, and was known as
the dais. The usual position of the bay-window is at one end of this
dais, and occasionally but rarely at both ends. The sills of the windows
are at a lower level than those in the hall, and, raised on one or two
steps, are seats in the recess. The recess of the bay-window was
generally covered with a ribbed vault of elaborate design, and the
window itself subdivided by mullions and transoms. In some of the larger
windows such as those at Cowdray and Hampton Court there are no fewer
than five transoms, and this sub-division gave great scale to the
design. The same feature when employed in an upper storey and supported
by corbels or brackets is known as an oriel window. (See also DAIS and
HALL.)



BAYAMO, an old inland city on the N. slope of the Sierra Maestra in
Santiago province, Cuba. Pop. (1907) 4102. It lies on a plain by the
Bayamo river, in a fertile country, but isolated from sea and from
railway. Its older parts are extraordinarily irregular. The streets are
of all widths, and of all degrees of crookedness, and run in all
directions. Bayamo was the third of the seven cities founded by Diego
Velazquez, and was established in 1513. During much of the 16th century
it was one of the most important agricultural and commercial settlements
of the island. Its inland situation gave it relative security against
the pirates who then infested West Indian seas, and the misfortunes of
Santiago were the fortunes of Bayamo. Down the river Cauto, then open to
the sea for vessels of 200 tons, and through Manzanillo, Bayamo drove a
thriving contraband trade that made it at the opening of the 17th
century the leading town of Cuba. A tremendous flood, in 1616, choking
the Cauto with trees and wrecked vessels, cut it off from direct access
to the sea; but through Manzanillo it continued a great clandestine
traffic with Curaçao, Jamaica, and other foreign islands all through the
17th and 18th centuries. Bayamo was then surrounded by fine plantations.
It was a rich and turbulent city. In the war of 1868-78 it was an
insurgent stronghold; near it was fought one of the most desperate
conflicts of the war, and it was nearly destroyed by the opposing
parties. Bayamo was the birthplace and the home of Carlos Manuel de
Céspedes (1819-1874), first president of the "first" Cuban republic,
and was also the birthplace and home of Tomás Estrada Palma
(1835-1908), first president of the present Cuban republic.



BAYARD, PIERRE TERRAIL, SEIGNEUR DE (1473-1524), French soldier, the
descendant of a noble family, nearly every head of which for two
centuries past had fallen in battle, was born at the château Bayard,
Dauphiné (near Pontcharra, Isère), about 1473. He served as a page to
Charles I., duke of Savoy, until Charles VIII. of France, attracted by
his graceful bearing, placed him among the royal followers under the
seigneur (count) de Ligny (1487). As a youth he was distinguished for
comeliness, affability of manner, and skill in the tilt-yard. In 1494 he
accompanied Charles VIII. into Italy, and was knighted after the battle
of Fornova (1495), where he had captured a standard. Shortly afterwards,
entering Milan alone in ardent pursuit of the enemy, he was taken
prisoner, but was set free without a ransom by Lodovico Sforza. In 1502
he was wounded at the assault of Canossa. Bayard was the hero of a
celebrated combat of thirteen French knights against an equal number of
Germans, and his restless energy and valour were conspicuous throughout
the Italian wars of this period. On one occasion it is said that,
single-handed, he made good the defence of the bridge of the Garigliano
against about 200 Spaniards, an exploit that brought him such renown
that Pope Julius II. sought to entice him into the papal service, but
unsuccessfully. In 1508 he distinguished himself again at the siege of
Genoa by Louis XII., and early in 1509 the king made him captain of a
company of horse and foot. At the siege of Padua he won further
distinction, not only by his valour, but also by his consummate skill.
He continued to serve in the Italian wars up to the siege of Brescia in
1512. Here his intrepidity in first mounting the rampart cost him a
severe wound, which obliged his soldiers to carry him into a
neighbouring house, the residence of a nobleman, whose wife and
daughters he protected from threatened insult. Before his wound was
healed, he hurried to join Gaston de Foix, under whom he served in the
terrible battle of Ravenna (1512). In 1513, when Henry VIII. of England
routed the French at the battle of the Spurs (Guinegate, where Bayard's
father had received a lifelong injury in a battle of 1479), Bayard in
trying to rally his countrymen found his escape cut off. Unwilling to
surrender, he rode suddenly up to an English officer who was resting
unarmed, and summoned him to yield; the knight complying, Bayard in turn
gave himself up to his prisoner. He was taken into the English camp, but
his gallantry impressed Henry as it had impressed Lodovico, and the king
released him without ransom, merely exacting his parole not to serve for
six weeks. On the accession of Francis I. in 1515 Bayard was made
lieutenant-general of Dauphiné; and after the victory of Marignan, to
which his valour largely contributed, he had the honour of conferring
knighthood on his youthful sovereign. When war again broke out between
Francis I. and Charles V., Bayard, with 1000 men, held Mézières, which
had been declared untenable, against an army of 35,000, and after six
weeks compelled the imperial generals to raise the siege. This stubborn
resistance saved central France from invasion, as the king had not then
sufficient forces to withstand the imperialists. All France rang with
the achievement, and Francis gained time to collect the royal army which
drove out the invaders (1521). The parlement thanked Bayard as the
saviour of his country; the king made him a knight of the order of St
Michael, and commander in his own name of 100 _gens d'armes_, an honour
till then reserved for princes of the blood. After allaying a revolt at
Genoa, and striving with the greatest assiduity to check a pestilence in
Dauphiné, Bayard was sent, in 1523, into Italy with Admiral Bonnivet,
who, being defeated at Robecco and wounded in a combat during his
retreat, implored Bayard to assume the command and save the army. He
repulsed the foremost pursuers, but in guarding the rear at the passage
of the Sesia was mortally wounded by an arquebus ball (April 30th,
1524). He died in the midst of the enemy, attended by Pescara, the
Spanish commander, and by his old comrade the constable de Bourbon. His
body was restored to his friends and interred at Grenoble. Chivalry,
free of fantastic extravagance, is perfectly mirrored in the character
of Bayard. As a soldier he was one of the most skilful commanders of the
age. He was particularly noted for the exactitude and completeness of
his information of the enemy's movements; this he obtained both by
careful reconnaissance and by a well-arranged system of espionage. In
the midst of mercenary armies Bayard remained absolutely disinterested,
and to his contemporaries and his successors he was, with his romantic
heroism, piety and magnanimity, the fearless and faultless knight, _le
chevalier sans peur et sans reproche_. His gaiety and kindness won him,
even more frequently, another name bestowed by his contemporaries, _le
bon chevalier_.

  Contemporary lives of Bayard are the following:--"_Le loyal
  serviteur_" (? Jacques de Maille); _La très joyeuse, plaisante, et
  récréative histoire ... des faiz, gestes, triumphes et prouesses du
  bon chevalier sans paour et sans reproche, le gentil seigneur de
  Bayart_ (original edition printed at Paris, 1527; the modern editions
  are very numerous, those of M.J. Roman and of L. Larchey appeared in
  1878 and 1882); Symphorien Champier, _Les Gestes, ensemble la vie du
  preulx chevalier Bayard_ (Lyons, 1525); Aymar du Rivail, _Histoire des
  Allobroges_ (edition of de Terrebasse, 1844); see _Bayard_ in
  _Répertoire des sources historiques_, by Ulysse Chevalier, and in
  particular A. de Terrebasse, _Hist. de Pierre Terrail, seigneur de
  Bayart_ (1st ed., Paris, 1828; 5th ed., Vienna, 1870).



BAYARD, THOMAS FRANCIS (1828-1898), American diplomatist, was born in
Wilmington, Delaware, on the 29th of October 1828. His great-grandfather,
Richard Bassett (1745-1815), governor of Delaware; his grandfather, James
Asheton Bayard (1767-1815), a prominent Federalist, and one of the United
States commissioners who negotiated the treaty of Ghent with Great
Britain after the War of 1812; his uncle, Richard Henry Bayard
(1796-1868); and his father, James Asheton Bayard (1799-1880), a
well-known constitutional lawyer, all represented Delaware in the United
States Senate. Intending to go into business, he did not receive a
college education; but in 1848 he began the study of law in the office of
his father, and was admitted to the bar in 1851. Except from 1855 to
1857, when he was a partner of William Shippen in Philadelphia, he
practised chiefly in Wilmington. He was a United States senator from
Delaware from 1869 to 1885, and in 1881 was (October 10th to 13th)
president _pro tempore_ of the Senate. His abilities made him a leader of
the Democrats in the Senate, and his views on financial and legal
questions gave him a high reputation for statesmanship. He was a member
of the electoral commission of 1877. In the Democratic national
conventions of 1872, 1876, 1880 and 1884 he received votes for nomination
as the party candidate for the presidency. He was secretary of state,
1885-1889, during the first administration of President Cleveland, and
pursued a conservative policy in foreign affairs, the most important
matter with which he was called upon to deal being the Bering Sea
controversy. As ambassador to Great Britain, 1893-1897, his tall
dignified person, unfailing courtesy, and polished, if somewhat
deliberate, eloquence made him a man of mark in all the best circles. He
was considered indeed by many Americans to have become too partial to
English ways; and, for the expression of some criticisms regarded as
unfavourable to his own countrymen, the House of Representatives went so
far as to pass, on the 7th of November 1895, a vote of censure on him.
The value of Mr Bayard's diplomacy was, however, fully recognized in the
United Kingdom, where he worthily upheld the traditions of a famous line
of American ministers. He was the first representative of the United
States in Great Britain to hold the diplomatic rank of an ambassador. He
died in Dedham, Massachusetts, on the 28th of September 1898.

  See Edward Spencer, _Public Life and Services of T.F. Bayard_ (New
  York, 1880).



BAYAZID, or BAJAZET, a border fortress of Asiatic Turkey, chief town of
a sanjak of the Erzerum vilayet, situated close to the frontiers of
Russia and Persia, and looking across a marshy plain to the great cone
of Ararat, at a general altitude of 6000 ft. It occupies a site of great
antiquity, as the cuneiform inscriptions on the neighbouring rocks
testify; it stands on the site of the old Armenian town of Pakovan. It
is picturesquely situated in an amphitheatre of sharp, rocky hills. The
great trade route from Trebizond by Erzerum into N.W. Persia crosses the
frontier at Kizil Dize a few miles to the south and does not enter the
town. A knoll above the town is occupied by the half-ruined fort or
palace of former governors, built for Mahmud Pasha by a Persian
architect and considered one of the most beautiful buildings in Turkey.
It contains two churches and a monastery, the Kasa Kilissa, famous for
its antiquity and architectural grandeur. The cuneiform inscriptions are
on the rock pinnacles above the town, with some rock chambers,
indicating a town or fortress of the Vannic period. The population has
lately decreased and now numbers about 4000. A Russian consul resides
here and the town is a military station. It was captured during the
Russian campaigns of 1828 and 1854, also in 1878, but was then
recaptured by the Turks, who subjected the Russian garrison to a long
siege; the place was ultimately relieved, but a massacre of Christians
then took place in the streets. Bayazid was restored to Turkey by the
treaty of Berlin.



BAYBAY, a town of the province of Leyte, island of Leyte, Philippine
Islands, on the W. coast. Pop. (1903) 22,990. The town proper is
situated at the mouth of the Pagbañganan river, 45 m. S.S.W. of
Tacloban, the provincial capital. A superior grade of hemp is exported.
Other products are rice, corn, copra, cacao, sugar, cattle and horses.
The Cebú dialect of the Visayan language is spoken.



BAY CITY, a city and the county seat of Bay county, Michigan, U.S.A., on
the Saginaw river, about 2 m. from its entrance into Saginaw Bay and
about 108 m. N.N.W. of Detroit. Pop. (1890) 27,839; (1900) 27,628, of
whom 8483 were foreign-born, including 2413 English-Canadians, 1743
Germans, 1822 Poles--the city has a Polish weekly newspaper--and 1075
French-Canadians; (1910, census) 45,166. Bay City is served by the
Michigan Central, the Père Marquette, the Grand Trunk and the Detroit &
Mackinac railways, and by lake steamers. The city extends for several
miles along both sides of the river, and is in a good farming district,
with which it is connected by stone roads. Among the public buildings
are the Federal building, the city hall and the public library. The city
has lumber and fishing interests (perch, whitefish, sturgeon, pickerel,
bass, &c. being caught in Saginaw Bay), large machine shops and
foundries (value of products in 1905, $1,743,155, or 31% of the total of
the city's factory products), and various manufactures, including ships
(wooden and steel), wooden ware, wood-pipe, veneer, railroad machinery,
cement, alkali and chicory. A salt basin underlies the city, and, next
to the lumber industry, the salt industry was the first to be developed,
but its importance has dwindled, the product value in 1905 being $20,098
out of $5,620,866 for all factory products. Near the city are valuable
coal mines, and there is one within the city limits. At Essexville (pop.
in 1910, 1477), N.E., at Banks, N.W., and at Salzbury, S.W. of Bay City,
are beet-sugar factories--sugar beets are extensively grown in the
vicinity. Alcohol is made from the refuse molasses obtained from these
beet-sugar factories. The municipality owns and operates the water-works
and electric-lighting plant. The settlements of Lower Saginaw and
Portsmouth were made in 1837, and were later united to form Bay City,
which was incorporated as a village in 1859, and chartered as a city in
1865. In 1905 West Bay City (pop. 1900, 13,119) and Bay City were
consolidated.



BAYEUX, a town of north-western France, capital of an arrondissement in
the department of Calvados, 18 m. N.W. of Caen on the Western railway.
Pop. (1906) 6930. Bayeux is situated on the Aure, 5 m. from the English
Channel. Its majestic cathedral was built in the 13th century on the
site of a Romanesque church, to which the lateral arcades of the nave
and the two western towers with their high stone spires belonged. A
third and still loftier tower, the upper part of which, in the florid
Gothic style, is modern, surmounts the crossing. The chancel, surrounded
with radiating chapels, is a fine example of early Gothic. Underneath it
there is a crypt of the 11th century restored in the 15th century. The
oak stalls in the choir are fine examples of late 16th-century carving.
The former bishop's palace, parts of which are of great age though the
main building is of the 18th century, serves as law-court and hôtel de
ville. Bayeux possesses many quaint, timbered houses and stone mansions
in its quiet streets. The museum contains the celebrated Bayeux tapestry
(see below). The town is the seat of a bishop and of a sub-prefect; it
has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, an ecclesiastical
seminary, a communal college and a chamber of arts and manufactures.
Dyeing, leather-dressing, lace-making and the manufacture of porcelain
for household and laboratory purposes are carried on.

Till the 4th century Bayeux bore the name of _Augustodurum_, but
afterwards, when it became the capital of the two tribes of the
Baiocasses and Viducasses, took the name of Civitas Baiocassium. Its
bishopric dates from the latter half of the 4th century. Before the
Norman invasion it was governed by counts. Taken in 890 by the
Scandinavian chief, Rollo, it was soon after peopled by the Normans and
became a residence of the dukes of Normandy, one of whom, Richard I.,
built about 960 a castle which survived till the 18th century. During
the quarrels between the sons of William the Conqueror it was pillaged
and sacked by Henry I. in 1106, and in later times it underwent siege
and capture on several occasions during the Hundred Years' War and the
religious wars of the 16th century. Till 1790 it was the capital of the
Bessin, a district of lower Normandy.



BAYEUX TAPESTRY, THE. This venerable relic consists of a band of linen,
231 ft. long and 20 in. wide, now light brown with age, on which have
been worked with a needle, in worsteds of eight colours, scenes
representing the conquest of England by the Normans. Of these scenes
there are seventy-two, beginning with Harold's visit to Bosham on his
way to Normandy, and ending with the flight of the English from the
battle of Hastings, though the actual end of the strip has perished.
Along the top and the bottom run decorative borders with figures of
animals, scenes from fables of Aesop and of Phaedrus, from husbandry and
the chase, and occasionally from the story of the Conquest itself (see
EMBROIDERY; Plate I. fig. 7). Formerly known as the _Toile de St Jean_,
it was used on certain feast days to decorate the nave of Bayeux
cathedral. Narrowly escaping the perils of the Revolution, it was
exhibited in Paris, by Napoleon's desire, in 1803-1804, and has since
been in civil custody at Bayeux, where it is now exhibited under glass.
In the Franco-German War (1871) it was hastily taken down and concealed.

"The noblest monument in the world relating to our old English history,"
as William Stukeley described it in 1746, it has been repeatedly
described, discussed and reproduced, both in France and in England since
1730. The best coloured reproduction is that by C.A. Stothard in 1818,
published in the sixth volume of _Vetusta Monumenta_; but in 1871-1872
the "tapestry" was photographed for the English education authorities by
E. Dossetter.

Local tradition assigned the work to the Conqueror's wife. F. Pluquet,
in his _Essai historique sur la ville de Bayeux_ (Caen, 1829), was the
first to reject this belief, and to connect it with the Conqueror's
half-brother Odo, bishop of Bayeux, and this view, which is now
accepted, is confirmed by the fact that three of the bishop's followers
mentioned in Domesday Book are among the very few named figures on the
tapestry. That Odo had it executed for his cathedral seems tolerably
certain, but whether it was worked by English fingers or not has been
disputed, though some of the words upon it have been held to favour that
view. Freeman emphatically pronounced it to be "a contemporary work,"
and historically "a primary authority ... in fact the highest authority
on the Norman side." As some of its evidence is unique, the question of
its authority is important, and Freeman's conclusions have been
practically confirmed by recent discussion. In 1902 M. Marignan
questioned, on archaeological grounds, the date assigned to the
tapestry, as the Abbé de la Rue had questioned it ninety years before;
but his arguments were refuted by Gaston Paris and M. Lanore, and the
authority of the tapestry was vindicated. The famous relic appears to be
the solitary survivor of a class, for Abbot Baudri described in Latin
verse a similar work executed for Adela, daughter of the Conqueror, and
in earlier days the widow of Brihtnoth had wrought a similar record of
her husband's exploits and death at the hard-fought battle of Maldon
(991).

[Illustration: PLATE I.

  1. SIEGE OF DINANT. Note the wooden castle on a mound, and the knight
  handing over the keys on his lance tip.

  2. THE FUNERAL OF EDWARD THE CONFESSOR AT WESTMINSTER ABBEY.

  3. CORONATION OF HAROLD.

  4. APPEARANCE OF HALLEY'S COMET.

  5. THE NORMANS CARRY THEIR ARMS TO THE SHIPS. (_By permission of G,
  Bell & Sons._)]

[Illustration: PLATE II.

  6. THE NORMANS CROSS TO PEVENSEY.

  7. BUILDING OF HASTINGS CASTLE.

  8. HAROLD'S ADVANCE ANNOUNCED TO WILLIAM. THE BURNING OF HASTINGS.

  9. THE NORMAN CAVALRY ATTACKS THE ENGLISH SHIELD WALL.

  10. WILLIAM RAISES HIS HELMET TO RALLY HIS MEN.

  11. ODO, BISHOP OF BAYEUX, WIELDING HIS MACE.

  (_By permission of G. Bell & Sons._)]

  See E.A. Freeman, _Norman Conquest_, vol. iii. (ed. 1875), with
  summary of the discussion to date; _Archaeologia_, vols. xvii.--xix.;
  Dawson Turner, _Tour in Normandy_ (1820); C.A. Stothard's
  illustrations in _Vetusta Monumenta_, vol. vi.; _Gentleman's
  Magazine_, 1837; Bolton Corney, _Researches and Conjectures on the
  Bayeux Tapestry_ (1836-1838); A. de Caumont, "Un mot sur ... la
  tapisserie de Bayeux," in _Bulletin monumental de Vinstilut des
  provinces_, vol. viii. (1841); J. Laffetay, _Notice historique et
  descriptive sur la tapisserie_ ... (1874); J. Comte, _Tapisserie de
  Bayeux_; F.R. Fowke, _The Bayeux Tapestry_ (ed. 1898); Marignan,
  _Tapisserie de Bayeux_ (1902); G. Pans, "Tapisserie de Bayeux," in
  _Romania_, vol. xxxi.; Lanore, "La Tapisserie de Bayeux," in
  _Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes_, vol. lxiv. (1903); and J.H.
  Round, "The Bayeux Tapestry," in _Monthly Review_, xvii. (1904).
       (J. H. R.)



BAYEZID I. (1347-1403), Ottoman sultan, surnamed YILDERIM or
"LIGHTNING," from the great rapidity of his movements, succeeded his
father Murad I. on the latter's assassination on the field of Kossovo,
1389, and signalized his accession by ordering at once the execution of
his brother Yakub, who had distinguished himself in the battle. His arms
were successful both in Europe and Asia, and he was the first Ottoman
sovereign to be styled "sultan," which title he induced the titular
Abbasid caliph to confer on him. After routing the chivalry of
Christendom at the battle of Nikopoli in 1396, he pursued his victorious
career in Greece, and Constantinople would doubtless have fallen before
his attack, had not the emperor Manuel Palaeologus bought him off by
timely concessions which reduced him practically to the position of
Bayezid's vassal. But his conquests met with a sudden and overpowering
check at the hands of Timur (Tamerlane). Utterly defeated at Angora by
the Mongol invader, Bayezid became his prisoner, and died in captivity
some months later, in March 1403.

Bayezid first married Devlet Shah Khatun, daughter of the prince of
Kermian, who brought him in dowry Kutaiah and its dependencies. Two
years before his accession he also married a daughter of the emperor
John Palaeologus.



BAYEZID II. (1447-1512), sultan of Turkey, was the son of Mahommed II.,
whom he succeeded in 1481, but only after gaining over the janissaries
by a large donative, which henceforth became for centuries the
invariable prerogative of that undisciplined body on the accession of a
new sultan. Before he could establish himself on the throne a long
struggle ensued with his brother Prince Jem. Being routed, Jem fled for
refuge to the knights of St John at Rhodes, who, in spite of a
safe-conduct granted to him, accepted a pension from Bayezid as the
price for keeping him a close prisoner. (See AUBUSSON, PIERRE D'.)

So long as Jem lived he was a perpetual menace to the sultan's peace,
and there was considerable rivalry among the sovereigns of Europe for
the possession of so valuable an instrument for bringing pressure to
bear upon the Porte for the purpose of extracting money or concessions.
By common consent the prince was ultimately entrusted to Pope Innocent
VIII., who used him not only to extract an annual tribute out of the
sultan, but to prevent the execution of Bayezid's ambitious designs in
the Mediterranean. His successor, Alexander VI., used him for a more
questionable purpose, namely, not only to extract the arrears of the
pension due for Jem's safe-keeping, but, by enlarging on Charles V.'s
intention of setting him up as sultan, to persuade Bayezid to aid him
against the emperor. There appears, however, to be no truth in the
report that Bayezid succeeded in bribing the pope to have Jem poisoned.
The prince, who had lived on excellent terms with Alexander, died at
Naples in February 1495, possibly as the result of excesses in which he
had been deliberately encouraged by the pope.

Whether as a result of his fear of the rivalry of Jem, or of his
personal character, Bayezid showed little of the aggressive spirit of
his warlike predecessors; and Machiavelli said that another such sultan
would cause Turkey to cease being a menace to Europe. He abandoned the
attack on Rhodes at the first check, made concessions, for the sake of
peace, to Venice and reduced the tribute due fiom Ragusa. His wars were
of the nature of raids, on the Dalmatian coast and into Croatia,
Hungary, Moldavia and Poland. The threat of the growing power in the
Aegean of Venice, which had acquired Cyprus in 1489, at last roused him
to a more serious effort; and in 1499 the war broke out with the
republic, which ended in 1502 by the annexation to Turkey of Lepanto and
Modon, Coron and Navarino in the Morea. Bayezid himself conducted the
siege of Modon in 1500.

The comparative inactivity of Bayezid in the direction of Europe was
partly due to preoccupation elsewhere. In the south he was threatened by
the dangerous rivalry of Kait Bey, the Mameluke sultan of Egypt, who had
extended his power northwards as far as Tarsus and Adana. In 1488 he
gained a great victory over the Ottomans, and in 1491 a peace was made
which was not again broken till after Bayezid's death. On the side of
Persia too, where the decisive battle of Shurur (1502) had raised to
power Ismail, the first of the modern line of shahs, danger threatened
the sultan, and the latter years of his reign were troubled by the
spread, under the influence of the new Persian power, of the Shi'ite
doctrine in Kurdistan and Asia Minor. The forces destined to maintain
his authority in Asia had been entrusted by Bayezid to his three sons,
Ahmed, Corcud and Selim; and the sultan's declining years were
embittered by their revolts and rivalry. Soon after the great earthquake
of 1509, which laid Constantinople in ruins, Selim, the ungovernable
pasha of Trebizond, whose vigorous rule in Asia had given Europe an
earnest of his future career as sultan, appeared before Adrianople,
where Bayezid had sought refuge. The sultan had designated Ahmed as his
successor, but Selim, though temporarily defeated, succeeded in winning
over the janissaries. On the 25th of April 1512 Bayezid was forced to
abdicate in his favour, and died a few days later.

  See J.B. Bury in the _Cambridge Modern History_, vol. i. chap. iii.
  and bibliography p. 700.



BAY ISLANDS (ISLAS DE LA BAHÍA), a small archipelago in the Caribbean
Sea, off the coast of Honduras, of which country it forms an
administrative district. Pop. (1905) about 3000, including 500 Indians.
The archipelago consists of Roatan or Ruatan, Guanaja or Bonacca,
Utilla, Barbareta, Helena, Morat, the Puercos or Hog Islands, and many
_cays_ or islets. The Bay Islands have a good soil, a fine climate and
an advantageous position. Roatan, the largest, is about 30 m. long by 9
m. broad, with mountains rising to the height of 900 ft., covered with
valuable woods and abounding with deer and wild hogs. Its chief towns
are Coxen Hole and Puerto Real. Its trade is chiefly with New Orleans in
plantains, cocoa-nuts, pineapples and other fruit. Guanaja is 9 m. long
by 5 m. broad; it lies 15 m. E.N.E. of Roatan. Wild hogs abound in its
thickly-wooded limestone hills. The other islands are comparatively
small, and may, in some cases, be regarded as detached parts of Roatan,
with which they are connected by reefs. Guanaja was discovered in 1502
by Columbus, but the islands were not colonized until the 17th century,
when they were occupied by British logwood cutters from Belize, and
pearlers from the Mosquito Coast. Forts were built on Roatan in 1742,
but abandoned in 1749. In 1852 the islands were annexed by Great
Britain. In 1859 they were ceded to Honduras.



BAYLE, PIERRE (1647-1706), French philosopher and man of letters, was
born on the 18th of November 1647, at le Carla-le-Comte, near Pamiers
(Ariège). Educated by his father, a Calvinist minister, and at an
academy at Puylaurens, he afterwards entered a Jesuit college at
Toulouse, and became a Roman Catholic a month later (1669). After
seventeen months he resumed his former religion, and, to avoid
persecution, fled to Geneva, where he became acquainted with
Cartesianism. For some years he acted under the name of Bèle as tutor in
various Parisian families, but in 1675 he was appointed to the chair
of philosophy at the Protestant university of Sedan. In 1681 the
university at Sedan was suppressed, but almost immediately afterwards
Bayle was appointed professor of philosophy and history at Rotterdam.
Here in 1682 he published his famous _Pensées diverses sur la comète de
1680_ and his critique of Maimbourg's work on the history of Calvinism.
The great reputation achieved by this critique stirred the envy of
Bayle's colleague, P. Jurieu, who had written a book on the same
subject. In 1684 Bayle began the publication of his _Nouvelles de la
république des lettres_, a kind of journal of literary criticism. In
1690 appeared a work entitled _Avis important aux refugiés_, which
Jurieu attributed to Bayle, whom he attacked with animosity. After a
long quarrel Bayle was deprived of his chair in 1693. He was not
depressed by this misfortune, especially as he was at the time closely
engaged in the preparation of the _Historical and Critical Dictionary_
(_Dictionnaire historique et critique_). The remaining years of Bayle's
life were devoted to miscellaneous writings, arising in many instances
out of criticisms made upon his _Dictionary_. He died in exile at
Rotterdam on the 28th of December 1706. In 1906 a statue in his honour
was erected at Pamiers, "la réparation d'un long oubli." Bayle's
erudition, despite the low estimate placed upon it by Leclerc, seems to
have been very considerable. As a constructive thinker, he did little.
As a critic he was second to none in his own time, and even yet one can
admire the delicacy and the skill with which he handles his subject. The
_Nouvelles de la république des lettres_ (see Louis P. Betz, _P. Bayle
und die Nouvelles de la république des lettres_, Zürich, 1896) was the
first thorough-going attempt to popularize literature, and it was
eminently successful. The _Dictionary_, however, is Bayle's masterpiece.

  EDITIONS.--_Historical and Critical Dictionary_ (1695-1697; 1702,
  enlarged; best that of P. des Maizeaux, 4 vols., 1740); _Les Oeuvres
  de Bayle_ (3 vols., The Hague); see des Maizeaux, _Vie de Bayle_; L.A.
  Feuerbach, _Pierre Bayle_ (1838); Damiron, _La Philosophie en France
  au XVII^e siècle_ (1858-1864); Sainte-Beuve, "Du génie critique et de
  Bayle" (_Revue des deux mondes_, 1st Dec. 1835); A. Deschamps, _La
  Génèse du scepticisme érudit chez Bayle_ (Liége, 1878); J. Denis,
  _Bayle et Jurieu_ (Paris, 1886); F. Brunetière, _La Critique
  littéraire au XVIII^e siècle_ (vol. i., 1890), and _La Critique de
  Bayle_ (1893); Émile Gigas, _Choix de la correspondance inédite de
  Pierre Bayle_ (Paris, 1890, reviewed in _Revue critique_, 22nd Dec.
  1890); de Budé, _Lettres inédites adressées à J.A. Turretini_ (Paris,
  1887); J.F. Stephen, _Horae Sabbaticae_ (London, 1892, 3rd ser. pp.
  174-192); A. Cazes, _P. Bayle, sa vie, ses idées_, &c. (1905).



BAYLO (Lat. _bajulus_ or _baillivus_; cf. Ital. _balio_, Fr. _bailli_,
Eng. _bailiff_), in diplomacy, the title borne by the Venetian
representative at Constantinople. His functions were originally in the
nature of those of a consul-general, but from the 16th century onwards
he had also the rank and functions of a diplomatic agent of the first
class. "Under the name of bayle," says A. de Wicquefort, "he performs
also the functions of consul and judge; not only between members of his
own nation, but also between all the other merchants who trade in the
Levant under the flag of St Mark." (See DIPLOMACY.)



BAYLY, THOMAS HAYNES (1797-1839), English songwriter and dramatist, was
born at Bath on the 13th of October 1797. He was educated at Winchester
and at St Mary Hall, Oxford, with a view to entering the church. While
on a visit to Dublin, however, he discovered his ability to write
ballads, and on his return to England in 1824 he quickly gained a wide
reputation with "I'd be a butterfly," following this up with "We
met--'twas in a crowd," "She wore a wreath of roses," "Oh, no, we never
mention her," and other light and graceful songs for which his name is
still remembered. He set some of his songs to music himself; a
well-known example is "Gaily the troubadour." Bayly also wrote two
novels, _The Aylmers_ and _A Legend of Killarney_, and numerous plays.
His most successful dramatic piece was _Perfection_, which was produced
by Madame Vestris and received high praise from Lord Chesterfield. Bayly
had married in 1826 an Irish heiress, but her estates were mismanaged
and the anxiety caused by financial difficulties undermined his health.
He died on the 22nd of April 1839.

  His _Collected Works_ (1844) contain a memoir by his wife.



BAYNES, THOMAS SPENCER (1823-1887), English editor and man of letters,
the son of a Baptist minister, was born at Wellington, Somerset, on the
24th of March 1823. He studied at Edinburgh University, where he was a
pupil of Sir William Hamilton, whose assistant he became and of whose
views on logic he became the authorized exponent. This teaching was
embodied in his _Essay on the New Analytic of Logical Forms_, published
in 1850, the same year in which he took his London University degree.
This was followed in the next year by a translation of Arnauld's _Port
Royal Logic_. In 1850 he had become editor of the _Edinburgh Guardian_,
but after four years' work his health gave way. He spent two years in
Somerset and then went to London, becoming, in 1858, assistant editor of
the _Daily News_. In 1864 he was appointed professor of logic
metaphysics and English literature at the university of St Andrews, and
in 1873 the editorship of the ninth edition of the _Encyclopaedia
Britannica_ was entrusted to him. He conducted it singly until 1881,
when the decline of his health rendered it necessary to provide him with
a coadjutor in the person of Prof. W. Robertson Smith. Baynes, however,
continued to be engaged upon the work until his death on the 31st May
1887, shortly before its completion. His article on Shakespeare
(_Encyclopaedia Britannica_, 9th ed.) was republished in 1894, along
with other essays on Shakespearian topics and a memoir by Prof. Lewis
Campbell.



BAYONET, a short thrusting weapon, fixed to the muzzle or fore-end of a
rifle or musket and carried by troops armed with the latter weapons. The
origin of the word is disputed, but there is some authority for the
supposition that the name is derived from the town of Bayonne, where the
short dagger called _bayonnette_ was first made towards the end of the
15th century. The elder Puységur, a native of Bayonne, says (in his
_Memoirs_, published posthumously in Paris, 1747) that when he was
commanding the troops at Ypres in 1647 his musketeers used bayonets
consisting of a steel dagger fixed in a wooden haft, which fitted into
the muzzle of the musket--in fact plug-bayonets. Courts-martial were
held on some English soldiers at Tangier in 1663-1664 for using their
daggers on their comrades. As bayonets were at first called daggers, and
as there were few or no pikemen in Tangier until 1675, the probable
conclusion is that the troops in Tangier used plug-bayonets. In 1671
plug-bayonets were issued to the French regiment of fusiliers then
raised. They were issued to part of an English dragoon regiment raised
in 1672 and disbanded in 1674, and to the Royal Fusiliers when raised in
1685. The danger incurred by the use of this bayonet (which put a stop
to all fire) was felt so early that the younger Puységur saw a
ring-bayonet in 1678 which could be fixed without stopping the fire. The
English defeat at Killiecrankie in 1689 was due (among other things) to
the use of the plug-bayonet; and shortly afterwards the defeated leader,
General Mackay, introduced a ring-bayonet of his own invention. A trial
with badly-fitting socket or zigzag bayonets was made after the battle
of Fleurus, 1690, in the presence of Louis XIV., who refused to adopt
them. Shortly after the peace of Ryswick (1697) the English and Germans
abolished the pike and introduced these bayonets, and plates of them are
given in Surirey de St Remy's _Mémoires d'Artillerie_, published in
Paris in that year; but owing to a military cabal they were not issued
to the French infantry until 1703. Henceforward the bayonet became, with
the musket or other firearm, the typical weapon of infantry. This
bayonet remained in the British service until 1805, when Sir John Moore
introduced a bayonet fastened to the musket by a spring clip. The
triangular bayonet (so called from the cross-section of its blade) was
used in the British army until the introduction of the magazine rifle,
when it was replaced by the sword-bayonet or dagger-bayonet.
Sword-bayonets--weapons which could be used as sword or dagger apart
from the rifle--had long been in use by special troops such as engineers
and rifles, and many ingenious attempts have been made to produce a
bayonet fitted for several uses. A long curved sword-bayonet with a
saw-edged back was formerly used by the Royal Engineers, but all troops
are now supplied with the plain sword-bayonet. The bayonet is usually
hung in a scabbard on the belt of the soldier and only fixed during the
final stages of a battle; the reason for this is that the "jump" of the
rifle due to the shock of explosion is materially altered by the extra
weight at the muzzle, which thus deranges the sighting. In the short
Lee-Enfield rifle of 1903, the bayonet, not being directly attached to
the barrel, does not influence accuracy, but with the long rifles, when
the bayonet is fixed, the sight must be raised by two or three
graduations to ensure correct elevation. In the Russian army troops
almost invariably carry the bayonet (triangular) fixed; the model (1891)
of Italian carbine has an inseparable bayonet; the United States rifle
(the new short model of 1903) has a knife bayonet, the model of 1905,
which is 20.5875 in. long, with the lower edge of the blade sharpened
along its entire length and the upper edge sharpened 5 in. from the
point; this bayonet is carried in a wooden and leather scabbard attached
to the cartridge belt. The British bayonet (pattern 1903) has a blade 1
ft. in length. The length of the rifle and bayonet together, considered
as an _arme blanche_, varies considerably, that of the French Lebel
pattern of 1886 being 6 ft., as against the 4 ft. 8¾ in. of the British
short Lee-Enfield of 1903. The German rifles (1898) have a length with
bayonet of 5 ft. 9¾ in.; the Russian (1894) 5 ft. 9 in.; and the
Japanese 5 ft. 5½ in. In 1908 a new British bayonet was approved, 5 in.
longer than its predecessor of 1903, the shape of the point being
modified to obtain the thrusting effect of a spear or lance head.



BAYONNE, a town of south-western France, capital of an arrondissement in
the department of Basses-Pyrénées, 66 m. W.N.W. of Pau on the Southern
railway. Pop. (1906) 21,779. Bayonne, a first-class fortified place, is
situated at the confluence of the Adour and its left-hand tributary, the
Nive, about 3 m. from the sea. The two rivers divide the town into three
nearly equal parts, communicating with each other by bridges. Grand
Bayonne lies on the left bank of the Nive; the two squares which lie
close together at the mouth of that river constitute the most animated
quarter of the town. Petit Bayonne lies between the right bank of the
Nive and the Adour; Saint Esprit, dominated by a citadel which is one of
the finest works of Vauban, occupies the right bank of the Adour. The
last is inhabited partly by a colony of Jews dating at least from the
early 16th century. To the north-west of the town are the Allées
Marines, fine promenades which border the Adour for a mile and a
quarter, and the Allées Paulmy, skirting the fortifications. The
cathedral of Ste Marie in Grand Bayonne is an imposing Gothic structure
of the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries. It consists of a choir with
deambulatory and apsidal chapels (the oldest part of the church), a
transept, nave and aisles. The towers at the west end were only
completed during the general restoration which took place in the latter
half of the 19th century. A fine cloister of the 13th century adjoins
the south side of the church. Ste Marie contains glass windows of the
15th and 16th centuries and other rich decoration. The Vieux-Château,
also in Grand Bayonne, dates from the 12th and 15th centuries and is
built upon a portion of the old Roman fortifications; it is used for
military purposes. The Château Neuf (15th and 16th centuries) serves as
barracks and prison. Bayonne is the seat of a bishopric and of a
sub-prefect; it has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a
chamber of commerce, a lycée, a school of music, a library, an art
museum with a large collection of the works of the painter Léon Bonnat,
and a branch of the Bank of France. There are consulates of the chief
nations of Europe, of the United States of America and of several
Central and South American republics. The town also possesses an
important military arsenal and military hospital. The commerce of
Bayonne is much more important than its industries, which include the
manufacture of leather and of chocolate. The port consists of an outer
harbour, the so-called "rade" (roadstead) and the port proper, and
occupies the course of the Adour from its mouth, which is obstructed by
a shifting bar, to the Pont St Esprit, and the course of the Nive as far
as the Pont Mayou. Above these two bridges the rivers are accessible
only to river navigation. Vessels drawing from 16 to 22 ft. can make the
port in normal weather. In the five years 1901-1905 the average value of
the imports was £502,000, of the exports £572,000; for the five years
1896-1900 the average value of imports was £637,000, of exports
£634,000. Exports include timber, mine-props, turpentine, resinous
material from the Pyrénées and Landes and zinc ore; leading imports are
the coal and Spanish minerals which supply the large metallurgical works
of Le Boucau at the mouth of the river, the raw material necessary for
the chemical works of the same town, wine, and the cereals destined for
the flour mills of Pau, Peyrehorade and Orthez. During the early years
of the 20th century the shipping of the port increased considerably in
tonnage. In 1900 there entered 741 vessels, tonnage 277,959; and cleared
743, tonnage 276,992. In 1907 there entered 661 vessels, tonnage,
336,773; cleared 650, tonnage 335,849.

In the 3rd century Bayonne (_Lapurdum_) was a Roman military post and
the principal port of Novempopulana. In the middle ages it belonged to
the dukes of Aquitaine and then to the kings of England, one of whom,
John, granted it full communal rights in 1216. In 1451 it offered a
strenuous opposition to the French, by whom it was eventually occupied.
By this time its maritime commerce had suffered disaster owing to the
silting up of its port and the deflection of the Adour. New
fortifications were constructed under Louis XII. and Francis I., and in
1523 the town was able to hold out against a Spanish army. In 1565 it
was the scene of an interview between Charles IX. and Catherine de'
Medici on the one hand and Elizabeth, queen of Spain, and the duke of
Alva on the other. It is thought that on this occasion the plans were
formed for the massacres of St Bartholomew, a crime in which Bayonne
took no part, in 1572. In 1808 Napoleon met Charles IV., king of Spain,
and his son Ferdinand at the Château de Marrac, near the town, and
induced them to renounce their rights to the crown of Spain, which fell
to Napoleon's brother Joseph. In 1814, after a severe siege, Bayonne was
occupied by the English (see PENINSULAR WAR).

  See J. Balasque and E. Dulaurens, _Études historiques sur la ville de
  Bayonne_ (3 vols., Bayonne, 1862-1875); E. Ducéré, _Bayonne historique
  et pittoresque_ (Bayonne, 1893), _Histoire topographigue et
  anecdotique des rues de Bayonne_ (Bayonne, 1894); H. Léon, _Histoire
  des juifs de Bayonne_ (Paris, 1893).



BAYONNE, a city of Hudson county, New Jersey, U.S.A., occupying the
peninsula (about 5½ m. long and about ¾ m. wide) between New York
harbour and Newark Bay, and immediately adjoining the south boundary of
Jersey City, from which it is partly separated by the Morris Canal. It
is separated from Staten Island only by the narrow strip of water known
as the Kill van Kull, and it has a total water frontage of about 10 m.
Pop. (1890) 19,033; (1900) 32,722, of whom 10,786 were foreign-born
(3168 Irish, 1868 Russian, 1656 German); (1910) 55,545. Land area about
4 sq. m. Bayonne is served by the Central of New Jersey and by the
Lehigh Valley railways (the latter for freight only), and by electric
railway lines to Newark and Jersey City. The principal public buildings
are the city hall, the public library, the post-office and the city
hospital. Besides having a considerable share in the commerce of the
port of New York, Bayonne is an important manufacturing centre; among
its manufactures are refined petroleum, refined copper and nickel (not
from the ore), refined borax, foundry and machine-shop products, tubular
boilers, electric launches and electric motors, chemicals (including
ammonia and sulphuric and nitric acids), iron and brass products, wire
cables and silk goods. In 1905 the value of its factory product was
$60,633,761, an increase of 57.1% over that of 1900, Bayonne ranking
third in 1905 among the manufacturing cities of the state. It is the
principal petroleum-distributing centre on the Atlantic seaboard, the
enormous refineries and storehouses of the Standard Oil Company, among
the largest in the world, being located here; there are connecting pipe
lines with the Ohio and Pennsylvania oil fields, and with New York,
Baltimore, Philadelphia and Washington. Much coal is shipped from the
city. Bayonne, which comprises several former villages (Bayonne, Bergen
Point, Pamrapo and Centerville), was settled about 1665-1670 by the
Dutch. Originally a part of Bergen, it was set off as a township in
1861. It was chartered as a city in 1869.



BAYOU (pronounced bai-yoo, probably a corruption of Fr. _boyau_, gut),
an "ox-bow" lake left behind by a river that has abandoned its old
channel in the lower stages of its course. Good examples are found in
Palmyra Lake, in the Mississippi valley below Vicksburg, and in Osage
river, Missouri. As a river swings from side to side in a series of
curves which widen laterally where the current is slow and the country
more or less level, there is a tendency in flood times for the water to
impinge more strongly upon the convex bank where the curve leaves the
main channel. This bank will be eaten away, and the process will be
repeated until the base of the "isthmus" is cut through, and the
descending channel meets the returning curve, which is thus left
stranded and filled with dead water, while the stream runs directly past
it in the shorter course cut by the flood waters that deepen the new
channel, and leave an isolated ox-bow lake in the old curve.



BAYREUTH, or BAIREUTH, a town of Bavaria, Germany, district of Upper
Franconia, 58 m. by rail N.N.E. from Nuremberg. Pop. (1900) 29,384. In
Richard-Wagner-strasse is Wagner's house, with his grave in the garden.
Franz Liszt (1811-1886) is buried here, as well as Jean Paul Friedrich
Richter, who is commemorated by a monument (1841). His house was in
Friedrichstrasse. Most of the buildings are of comparatively modern
date, the city having suffered severely from the Hussites in 1430 and
from a conflagration in 1621. There should be mentioned the palace of
Duke Alexander of Württemberg, the administrative offices, the statue of
King Maximilian II. (1860) and the collections of the historical society
Among the ecclesiastical buildings, the _Stadt-Pfarrkirche_, dating from
1439, and containing the monuments of the margraves of Bayreuth, is the
most important. Bayreuth is a railway junction and has an active trade,
chiefly in grain and horses. It manufactures woollen, linen and cotton
goods, leather, delft and other earthenware, and tobacco, and has also
several breweries and distilleries. The village of St Georgen is a
suburb to the north east noted for its marble works; and about 2 m. to
the east is the Hermitage, a fanciful building, erected in 1715 by the
margrave George William (d. 1726), with gardens containing terraces,
statues and fountains. Bayreuth was formerly the capital of a
principality of the same name, which was annexed in 1791 to the kingdom
of Prussia. In 1807 it was ceded by Prussia to France, which kept
possession of it till 1810, when it was transferred to Bavaria.

_The Wagner Theatre._--Among the many advantages which Wagner gained
from his intimacy with Ludwig II., king of Bavaria, not the least was
the practical support given to his plan of erecting a theatre for the
ideal performance of his own music-dramas. The first plan of building a
new theatre for the purpose in Munich itself was rejected, because
Wagner rightly felt that the appeal of his advanced works, like the
Nibelungen trilogy, would be far stronger if the comparatively small
number of people who wished to hear them were removed from the
distractions of a large capital; Bayreuth possessed the desired
seclusion, being on a line of railway that could not be approached from
any quarter without changing. The municipality furthered Wagner's scheme
in every way, and in May 1872 the foundation stone of the Festspielhaus
was laid, the event being commemorated by a notable performance of
Beethoven's Choral Symphony in the old opera-house. The funds for the
erection of the theatre were raised in part by the issue of 1000
certificates of patronage (_Patronatscheine_), but the bulk of the sum
was raised by founding "Wagner Societies" from St Petersburg to Cairo,
from London to New York; these societies sprang up with such success
that the theatre was opened in the summer of 1876 with the first
complete performance of _Der Ring des Nibelungen_. The theatre, which
stands on a height a little under a mile from the town, is built from
the plans of Gustav Semper, the idea of the design being Wagner's own,
an experiment indeed, but one which succeeded beyond all expectation.
The seats are arranged on a kind of sloping wedge, in such a manner that
every one has an almost equally good view of the stage, for there are no
boxes, and the only galleries are quite at the back, one, the
_Fürstenloge_, being reserved for distinguished guests, the other, above
it, for the townspeople. Immediately in front of the foremost row of
seats a hood or sloping screen of wood covers a part of the orchestra,
and another hood of similar shape starts from the front of the stage at
a slightly lower level. Thus there is left a space between the two hoods
through which the sound of the orchestra ascends with wonderfully
blended effect; the conductor, sitting at the highest point of the
orchestra, though under the screen, has a complete view of the stage as
well as of his instrumentalists, and the sound of the orchestra is sent
most forcibly in the direction of the stage, so that the voices are
always well supported.

  As an important addition to the work of the theatre, a permanent
  school has been established at Bayreuth for the sake of training young
  musicians to take part in the festival performances, which were at
  first exclusively, and then partially, undertaken by artists from
  other German and foreign theatres. The special feature upon which most
  stress has been laid, ever since Wagner's death in 1883, has been not
  so much the musical as the dramatic significance of the works; it is
  contended by the inmost circle of Wagnerian adherents that none but
  they can fully realize the master's intentions or hand down his
  traditions. What is called the "Bayreuth Idea" is set forth in much
  detail from this point of view by Houston Stewart Chamberlain, in his
  _Richard Wagner_ (1897 and 1900).



BAZA, a town of southern Spain, in the province of Granada; in the Hoya
de Baza, a fruitful valley of the Sierra Nevada, not far from the small
river Gallego, and at the terminus of a railway from Lorca. Pop. (1900)
12,770. The dome-shaped mountain of Javaleon (4715 ft.) overlooks the
town from the north-west. The ancient collegiate church of San Maximo
occupies the traditional site of a cathedral founded by the Visigothic
king Reccared about 600, and afterwards converted into a mosque. There
is a brisk local trade in farm produce, and in the linen, hempen goods
and pottery manufactured in Baza. The town nearly doubled its population
in the last quarter of the 10th century. Sulphurous springs exist in the
vicinity.

Baza is the Roman _Basti_, the medieval _Basta_ or _Bastiana_; and
numerous relics of antiquity, both Roman and medieval, have been found
in the neighbourhood. Its bishopric was founded in 306. Under Moorish
rule (c. 713-1489) it was one of the three most important cities in
the kingdom of Granada, with an extensive trade, and a population
estimated at 50,000. In 1489, after a stubborn defence lasting seven
months, it was captured by the Spaniards under Isabella of Castile,
whose cannon still adorn the _Alameda_ or public promenade. On the 10th
of August 1810 the French under Marshal Soult defeated a large Spanish
force close to the town.



BAZAAR (Pers. _bazar_, market), a permanent market or street of shops,
or a group of short narrow streets of stalls under one roof. The word
has spread westward into Arabic, Turkish and, in special senses, into
European languages, and eastward it has invaded India, where it has been
generally adopted. In southern India and Ceylon bazaar means a single
shop or stall. The word seems to have early reached South Europe
(probably through Turkish), for F. Balducci Pegolotti in his mercantile
handbook (c. 1340) gives "bazarra" as a Genoese word for market-place.
The Malayan peoples have adopted the word as _pazar_. The meaning of the
word has been much extended in English, where it is now equivalent to
any sale, for charitable or mere commercial purposes, of mixed goods and
fancy work.



BAZAINE, ACHILLE FRANÇOIS (1811-1888), marshal of France, was born at
Versailles on the 13th of February 1811. He entered the army as a
private soldier in 1831, with a view to service in Algeria, and received
a commission as sub-lieutenant in 1833. By his gallantry in action he
won the cross of the Legion of Honour, and he was promoted lieutenant in
1835. He served two campaigns with the Foreign Legion against the
Carlists in Spain in 1837-38, returning to Africa as captain in 1839.
During the succeeding decade he saw continual active service in Africa,
and rose to be a brigadier-general with the charge of the district of
Tlemçen. In the Crimean War he commanded a brigade, and maintained his
reputation in the trenches before Sevastopol. On the capture of the
south side he was appointed governor of the place, and was promoted
general of division. He also commanded the French forces in the
expedition to Kinburn. In Lombardy in 1859 he was wounded when in
command of a division at Melegnano, and took a conspicuous part in the
battle of Solferino. For his services in the campaign he received the
grand cross of the Legion of Honour, of which he was already (1855) a
commander. He commanded with great distinction the first division under
General (afterwards marshal) Forey in the Mexican expedition in 1862,
succeeded him in supreme command in 1863, and became marshal and senator
of France in the following year. He at first pursued the war with great
vigour and success, entering Mexico in 1863 and driving President Juarez
to the frontier. The marshal's African experience as a soldier and as an
administrator stood him in good stead in dealing with the guerrilleros
of the Juarez party, but he was less successful in his relations with
Maximilian, with whose court the French headquarters was in constant
strife. Here, as later in his own country, Bazaine's policy seems to
have been directed, at least in part, to his own establishment in the
rôle of a mayor of the palace. His own army thought that he aspired to
play the part of a Bernadotte. His marriage to a rich Mexican lady,
whose family were supporters of Juarez, still further complicated his
relations with the unfortunate emperor, and when at the close of the
American Civil War the United States sent a powerful war-trained army to
the Mexican frontier, the French forces were withdrawn (see MEXICO,
_History_). Bazaine skilfully conducted the retreat and embarkation at
Vera Cruz (1867). On his return to Paris he was but coldly received by
his sovereign; public opinion was, however, in his favour, and he was
held to have been made a scapegoat for the faults of others.

At the outbreak of the Franco-German War (q.v.) Marshal Bazaine was
placed in command of the III. corps of the Army of the Rhine. He took no
part in the earlier battles, but Napoleon III. soon handed over the
chief command of the army to him. How far his inaction was the cause of
the disaster of Spicheren is a matter of dispute. The best that can be
said of his conduct is that the evil traditions of warfare on a small
scale and the mania for taking up "strong positions," common to the
French generals of 1870, were in Bazaine's own case emphasized by his
personal dislike for the "schoolmaster" Frossard, lately the Prince
Imperial's tutor and now commander of the army corps posted at
Spicheren. Frossard himself, the leader of the "strong positions"
school, could only blame his own theories for the paralysis of the rest
of the army, which left the corps at Spicheren to fight unsupported.
Bazaine, indeed, when called upon for help, moved part of his corps
forward, but only to "take up strong positions," not to strike a blow on
the battlefield. A few days later he took up the chief command, and his
tenure of it is the central act in the tragedy of 1870. He found the
army in retreat, ill-equipped and numerically at a great disadvantage,
and the generals and staffs discouraged and distrustful of one another.
There was practically no chance of success. The question was one of
extricating the army and the government from a disastrous adventure, and
Bazaine's solution of it was to bring back his army to Metz. For the
events which led up to the battles before Metz and the investment of
Bazaine's whole army in the fortress, see FRANCO-GERMAN WAR and METZ,
_Battles_.

It seems to be clearly established that the charges of treason to which
later events gave so strong a colour had, as yet, no foundation in fact.
Nor, indeed, can his unwillingness to leave the Moselle region, while
there was yet time to slip past the advancing enemy, be considered even
as proof of special incompetence. The resolution to stay in the
neighbourhood of Metz was based on the knowledge that if the slow-moving
French army ventured far out it would infallibly be headed off and
brought to battle in the open by superior numbers. In "strong positions"
close to his stronghold, however, Bazaine hoped that he could inflict
damaging repulses and heavy slaughter on the ardent Germans, and in the
main the result justified the expectation. The scheme was creditable,
and even heroic, but the execution throughout all ranks, from the
marshal to the battalion commanders, fell far short of the idea. The
minutely cautious methods of movement, which Algerian experience had
evolved suitable enough for small African desert columns, which were
liable to surprise rushes and ambushes, reduced the mobility of a large
army, which had favourable marching conditions, to 5 m. a day as against
the enemy's rate of 15. When, before he had finally decided to stay in
Metz, Bazaine attempted half-heartedly to begin a retreat on Verdun, the
staff work and organization of the movement over the Moselle was so
ineffective that when the German staff calculated that Bazaine was
nearing Verdun, the French had in reality barely got their artillery and
baggage trains through the town of Metz. Even on the battlefield the
marshal forbade the general staff to appear, and conducted the fighting
by means of his personal orderly officers. After the cumbrous army had
passed through Metz it encountered an isolated corps of the enemy, which
was commanded by the brilliant leader Constantin von Alvensleben, and
promptly attacked the French. At almost every moment of the day victory
was in Bazaine's hands. Two corps of the Germans fought all day for bare
existence. But Bazaine had no confidence in his generals or his troops,
and contented himself with inflicting severe losses on the most
aggressive portions of the German army. Two days later, while the French
actually retreated on Metz--taking seven hours to cover 5 to 6 m.--the
masses of the Germans gathered in front of him, intercepting his
communication with the interior of France. This Bazaine expected, and
feeling certain that the Germans would sooner or later attack him in his
chosen position, he made no attempt to interfere with their
concentration. The great battle was fought, and having inflicted severe
punishment on his assailants, Bazaine fell back within the entrenched
camp of Metz. But although he made no appeals for help, public opinion,
alarmed and excited, condemned the only remaining army of France,
Marshal MacMahon's "Army of Châlons," to rescue Bazaine at all costs.
The adventure ended at Sedan, and with Sedan the Third Empire collapsed.

Up to this point Bazaine had served his country perhaps as well as
circumstances allowed, and certainly with enough skill and a sufficient
measure of success to justify his appointment. His experience, wide as
it was, had not fitted him for the command of a large army in a delicate
position. Since his Mexican expedition, moreover, he had himself fallen
into a state of moral and physical lethargy, which, imperceptible on the
field of battle, because his reputation for impassive bearing under fire
was beyond question, was only too obvious in the staff offices, where
the work of manoeuvring the army and framing plans and orders was
chiefly done. But, in spite of these defects, it cannot be asserted that
any one of Bazaine's subordinates would have done better, with the
possible exception of Ladmirault, and Ladmirault was one of the junior
corps commanders.

Bazaine, therefore, in the main justified his reputation for ability. He
was now to justify his reputation for intriguing and underhand
diplomacy. If in Mexico he aspired to the rôle of mayor of the palace,
it was far more so in Metz, where, as commander of the only organized
army of France, he conceived himself to be the ruler of the country's
destiny. Accordingly he engaged in a series of diplomatic intrigues,
some of which to this day have never been properly cleared up.
Negotiations passed between the outer world and the besieged commander,
the purport of which remains still to some extent obscure, but it is
beyond question that he proposed with the permission of the Germans to
employ his army in "saving France from herself." The scheme, however,
collapsed, and the army of the Rhine became prisoners of war to the
number of 140,000. At the moment of the surrender a week's further
resistance would have enabled the levies of the National Defence
government to crush the weak forces of the Germans on the Loire and to
relieve Paris. But the army of Prince Frederick Charles, set free by the
surrender, hurried up in time to check and to defeat the great effort at
Orleans (q.v.). The responsibility for this crushing blow was naturally
enough, and justly enough, placed on Bazaine's shoulders, and although,
when he returned from captivity, the marshal enjoyed a brief immunity,
he was in 1873 brought to trial before a military court. He was found
guilty of negotiating with and capitulating to the enemy before doing
all that was prescribed by duty and honour, and sentenced to degradation
and death, but very strongly recommended to mercy. His sentence was
commuted to twenty years' seclusion, and the humiliating ceremonies
attending degradation were dispensed with. He was incarcerated in the
Ile Sainte-Marguérite and treated rather as an exile than as a convict;
thence he escaped in 1874 to Italy. He finally took up his abode in
Madrid, where he was treated with marked respect by the government of
Alfonso XII. He died there on the 23rd of September 1888. He published
_Épisodes de la guerre de 1870_ (Madrid, 1883). He also wrote _L'Armée
du Rhin_ (Paris, 1872).

  See the bibliography appended to the article FRANCO-GERMAN WAR; also
  memoir by C. Pelletan in _La Grande Encyclopédie_; for Bazaine's
  conduct see _Bazaine et l'armée du Rhin_ (1873); J. Valfrey, _Le
  Maréchal et l'armée du Rhin_ (1873); Count A. de la Guerronière,
  _L'Homme de Metz_ (1871); Rossel, _Les Derniers Jours de Metz_ (1871).
  See also the article BOURBAKI for the curious Regnier episode
  connected with the surrender of Metz.



BAZALGETTE, SIR JOSEPH WILLIAM (1819-1891), English engineer, was born
at Enfield on the 28th of March 1819. At the age of seventeen he was
articled to an engineer, and a few years later he began to practise
successfully on his own account. His name is best known for the
engineering works he carried out in London, especially for the
construction of the main drainage system and the Thames embankment. In
1848 the control of London drainage, which had hitherto been divided
among eight distinct municipal bodies, was consolidated under twelve
commissioners, who were in 1849 superseded by a second commission. Under
the latter Bazalgette accepted an appointment which he continued to hold
under the three successive commissions which in the course of a year or
two followed the second one, and when finally in 1855 these bodies were
replaced by the Metropolitan Board of Works, he was at once appointed
its chief engineer. His plans were ready, but the work was delayed by
official obstruction and formality until 1858. Once begun, however, it
was vigorously pushed on, and in 1865 the system was formally opened. It
consisted of 83 m. of large intercepting sewers, draining more than 100
sq. m. of buildings, and calculated to deal with 420 million gallons a
day. The cost was £4,600,000. Almost simultaneously Bazalgette was
engaged on the plans for the Thames embankment. The section between
Westminster and Vauxhall on the Surrey side was built between 1860 and
1869, and the length between Westminster and Blackfriars was declared
open by the prince of Wales in 1870. The Chelsea embankment followed in
1871-1874, and in 1876 Northumberland Avenue was formed. The total
outlay on the scheme exceeded £2,000,000. Bazalgette was also
responsible for various other engineering works in the metropolitan
area, designing, for example, new bridges at Putney and Battersea, and
the steam ferry between north and south Woolwich. He also prepared plans
for a bridge over the river near the Tower and for a tunnel under it at
Blackwall, but did not live to see either of these projects carried out.
He died on the 15th of March 1891 at Wimbledon.



BAZARD, AMAND (1791-1832), French socialist, the founder of a secret
society in France corresponding to the Carbonari of Italy, was born at
Paris. He took part in the defence of Paris in 1815, and afterwards
occupied a subordinate situation in the prefecture of the Seine. About
1820 he united some patriotic friends into a society, called _Amis de la
vérité_. From this was developed a complete system of Carbonarism, the
peculiar principles of which were introduced from Italy by two of
Bazard's friends. Bazard himself was at the head of the central body,
and, while taking a general lead, contributed extensively to the
Carbonarist journal, _L'Aristarque_. An unsuccessful outbreak at Belfort
ruined the society, and the leaders were compelled to conceal
themselves. Bazard, after remaining for some time in obscurity in Paris,
came to the conclusion that the ends of those who wished well to the
people would be most easily attained, not through political agitation,
but by effecting a radical change in their social condition. This train
of thinking naturally drew him towards the socialist philosophers of the
school of Saint-Simon, whom he joined. He contributed to their journal,
_Le Producteur_; and in 1828 began to give public lectures on the
principles of the school (see SAINT-SIMON). His opposition to the
emancipation of women brought about a quarrel with Enfantin (q.v.) in
1831, and Bazard found himself almost deserted by the members of the
society. He attacked Enfantin violently, and in a warm discussion
between them he was struck down by apoplexy. After lingering for a few
months he died on the 29th of July 1832.



BAZAS, a town of south-western France, in the department of Gironde, 38½
m. S.S.E. of Bordeaux by rail. Pop. (1906) town, 2505; commune, 4684.
The town, which was the seat of a bishop from at least the beginning of
the 6th century till 1790, has a Gothic church (formerly the cathedral)
dating from the 13th to the 16th centuries. There are remains of
ramparts (15th and 16th centuries) and several old houses of the 16th
century. The vineyards of the vicinity produce white wine. The town is
capital of an arrondissement, and carries on tanning, &c., and trade in
the well-known Bazadais cattle.

Bazas (_Cossio_) was capital of the ancient tribe of the _Vasates_, and
under the Romans one of the twelve cities of Novempopuluna. In later
times it was capital of the district of Bazadais. It was the scene of
much bloodshed during the religious wars of the 16th century.



BAZIGARS, a nomad gipsy-folk of India, found throughout the peninsula,
and variously known as Bazigars, Panchpiri, Nats, Bediyas, &c. They live
a life apart from the surrounding Hindu population, and still preserve a
certain ethnical identity, scarcely justified by any indications given
by their physique. They make a living as jugglers, dancers,
basket-weavers and fortune-tellers; and in true European gipsy fashion
each clan has its king.



BAZIN, RENÉ (1853-   ), French novelist and man of letters, was born at
Angers on the 26th of December 1853. He studied law in Paris, and on his
return to Angers became professor of law in the Catholic university
there. He contributed to Parisian journals a series of sketches of
provincial life and descriptions of travel, but he made his reputation
by _Une Tache d'encre_ (1888), which received a prize from the Academy.
Other novels of great charm and delicacy followed: _La Sarcelle bleue_
(1892); _Madame Corentine_ (1893); _Humble Amour_ (1894); _De toute son
âme_ (1897); _La Terre qui meurt_ (1899); _Les Oberle_ (1901), an
Alsatian story which was dramatized and acted in the following year;
_L'Âme alsacienne_ (1903); _Donatienne_ (1903); _L'Isolee_ (1905); _Le
Blé qui lève_ (1907); _Mémoires d'une vieille fille_ (1908). _La Terre
qui meurt_, a picture of the decay of peasant farming and a story of La
Vendée, is an indirect plea for the development of provincial France. A
volume of _Questions littéraires et sociales_ appeared in 1906. René
Bazin was admitted to the Academy on the 28th of April 1904.



BAZIRE, CLAUDE (1764-1794), French revolutionist, was deputy for the
Côte d'Or in the Legislative Assembly, and made himself prominent by
denouncing the court and the "Austrian committee" of the Tuileries. On
the 20th of June 1792 he spoke in favour of the deposition of the king.
In the Convention he sat with the Mountain, opposed adjourning the trial
of Louis XVI., and voted for his death. He joined in the attack upon the
Girondists, but, as member of the committee of general security, he
condemned the system of the Terror. He was implicated by François Chabot
in the falsification of a decree relative to the East India Company, and
though his share seems to have been simply that he did not reveal the
plot, of which he knew but part, he was accused before the Revolutionary
Tribunal at the same time as Danton and Camille Desmoulins, and was
executed on the 5th of April 1794.



BDELLIUM ([Greek: bdellion], used by Pliny and Dioscorides as the name
of a plant which exuded a fragrant gum), a name applied to several gums
or gum-resins that simulate and are sometimes found as adulterants of
true myrrh (q.v.).



BEACH, a word of unknown origin; probably an old dialect word meaning
shingle, hence, by transference, the place covered by shingle. Beach
sometimes denotes the material thrown up by the waves, sometimes the
long resulting ridge, but more frequently the area between high and low
water, or even the area between land and sea covered with material
thrown up by exceptional storms.

The actual character of beach material depends upon the nature and
structure of the rocks inshore, the strength and direction of currents,
and the force of the waves. The southern shore of the Isle of Wight
furnishes a good example. The island ends westward in the well-known
"Needles," consisting of chalk with flints. The disintegration of this
rock by wave action separates the finer chalk, which is carried seawards
in suspension, from the hard flint, which is piled in rough shingle upon
the shore. The currents sweep constantly eastward up channel, and the
rough flint shingle is rolled along by wave action toward the Ventnor
rampart, and ground finer and finer until it arrives as a very fine
flinty gravel at Ventnor pier. The sweep of Sandown Bay follows, where
the cliffs are composed for the most part of greensand, and here the
beach at low water is sandy and smooth. The eastern end of the island is
again composed of chalk with flints, and here the beach material as at
the western end consists of very coarse flint shingle. In this, as in
similar cases, the material has been dragged seawards from the land by
constant action of the undertow that accompanies each retreating tide
and each returning wave. The resulting accumulated ridge is battered by
every storm, and thrown above ordinary high-water mark in a ridge such
as the Chesil Bank or the long grass-grown mound that has blocked the
old channel of the Yar and diverted its waters into Yaverland Bay.
Sandown furnishes an instructive example of the power of the eastward
currents carrying high-storm waves. The groins built to preserve the
foreshore are piled to the top with coarse shingle on the western side,
while there is a drop of over 8 ft. on to the sands east of the wall,
many thousands of tons of shingle having been moved bodily by the waves
and deposited against each groin. The force of the waves has been
measured on the west coast of Scotland and found to be as much as 3 tons
per square foot. Against these forces the preservation of the shore from
the advance of the sea becomes an extremely difficult and often a
hopeless undertaking, since blocks of rock over 100 tons in weight have
been moved by the waves. The beach is therefore unstable in its
position. It advances in front of the encroaching sea, burying former
beaches under the sand and mud of the now deeper water, or it retreats
when the sea is withdrawn from the land or the land rises locally,
leaving the old shingle stranded in a "raised beach," but its formation
is in all cases due to the form and structure of the shore, the sapping
action of the waves, the backward drag of the undertow plastering the
shore with material, which is in turn bombarded by waves and swept by
currents that cover the finer débris of the undertow with a layer of
coarse fragments that are re-sorted by the daily action of currents and
tides.



BEACHY HEAD, a promontory on the coast of Sussex, England, S.W. of
Eastbourne, about 3 m. from the centre of the town. It consists of a
perpendicular chalk cliff 532 ft. high, and forms the eastern
termination of the hill-range known as the South Downs. The old Bell
Tout lighthouse, 285 ft. above high-water mark, erected in 1831 on the
second cliff to the westward, in 0° 10' 18" E., 50° 43' 30" N., has been
superseded by a new lighthouse built in the sea at the foot of the head
itself.

_Battle of Beachy Head._--This naval battle, known to the French as
Bévisier (a corruption of Pevensey), was fought on the 30th of June
1690. An allied force of 37 British sail of the line, under command of
the earl of Torrington (Arthur Herbert), and of 22 Dutch under C.
Evertsen, was at anchor under the headland, while a French fleet of over
70 sail, commanded by the comte de Tourville, was anchored some miles
off to the south-west. The French fleet had orders to co-operate with an
expected Jacobite rising in England. Torrington, to whom the general
direction of the allied fleet belonged, was much disturbed by the
enemy's superiority in number, and on the 26th had written to the
Council of Regency suggesting that he ought to retire to the Gunfleet at
the mouth of the Thames, and observe the enemy from a distance till he
could be reinforced. The council, which had the support of Admiral
Russell, afterwards earl of Orford, considered that a retreat to the
Gunfleet would have fatal consequences, by which they no doubt meant
that it would leave the French free to land troops for the support of
the Jacobites. They therefore ordered Herbert not to lose sight of the
enemy, but rather to fight if he could secure an advantage of position.
The admiral, who was on very bad terms with the council, elected to
treat this as a peremptory order to fight. At daybreak on the 30th he
got under way and bore down on the enemy. The wind was at north-east and
gave him the weather-gage. As his fleet was only 57 sail in all he was
not able to engage the enemy from end to end, but as the French were
arranged in a line from east to west he could have fallen on the end
nearest him, and could have guarded himself by telling off a part of his
ships to watch the remainder. Torrington preferred to bring his fleet
down in such a way that his van, consisting of the Dutch ships, should
be opposite the enemy's van, his centre opposite their centre, and his
rear should engage their rear. The inferiority of the allies in numbers
made it therefore inevitable that there should be gaps between the
different divisions. As the fleets actually did come to action, the
Dutch with a few English ships pressed on the French van, their leading
ship being abreast of the ninth or tenth Frenchman. Torrington took his
station opposite the rear of the French centre, leaving a great gap
between himself and the ships in the van. Being apprehensive that the
French centre would tack and pass this gap so as to put him between two
fires, he kept a long way off so as to be free to manoeuvre against them
if they made the attempt. The English rear division, consisting of the
English blue squadron under Sir Ralph Delaval, fought a close action
with the French opposite to them. In the meantime the French ships,
ahead of the leading Dutchman, succeeded in turning to windward and
putting part of Evertsen's squadron between two fires. The Dutch ships
suffered heavily, and one of them which was dismasted drifted among the
French and was taken. More severe loss would have followed if the better
average seamanship of the English and Dutch had not stood them in good
stead. The tide turned from flood to ebb during the action, and the
surface current which in the Channel sets to the west with the ebb began
to carry the fleets with it. The Dutch and English dropped anchor. The
French, who were not equally alert, did not and were carried westward.
When the tide turned the allies retreated to the Thames, abandoning
several of the most damaged ships in Pevensey Bay. The pursuit of the
French was ineffective, for Tourville persisted in keeping his ships in
line of battle, which forced them to regulate their speed by the slowest
among them. Torrington was tried for his conduct but acquitted.

  A full account of the battle of Beachy Head, written with ample
  quotation of documents, and for the purpose of vindicating Herbert,
  will be found in Admiral Colomb's _Naval Warfare_ (London, 1899).
       (D. H.)



BEACON (from the O. Eng. _béacn_, a sign, cf. "beckon," another form of
the same word), a signal, especially a fire lit on a high hill,
structure or building for the purpose of sending a message of alarm or
of important news over long distances. Such was the courier-fire
([Greek: aggaros pur]) that brought the news of the fall of Troy to
Argos (Aeschylus, _Agamemnon_), or the chain of signals that told of the
approach of the Spanish Armada, or which circled the British Isles in
the jubilee years of 1887 and 1897. The word occurs in many names for
lofty and conspicuous hills, such as Dunkery Beacon in Somerset, the
highest point on Exmoor. On many such hills the remains of old beacon
towers and cressets are still found. The word is used generally of a
lighthouse, but technically it means either a small unattended light, a
superstructure on a floating buoy, such as a staff and cage, or staff
and globe, or an unlighted structure, forming a conspicuous object at
sea, used in each case to guide or warn sailors. (See LIGHTHOUSE and
BUOY.)



BEACONSFIELD, BENJAMIN DISRAELI, EARL OF (1804-1881), British statesman,
second child and eldest son of Isaac D'Israeli (q.v.) and Maria Basevi,
who were married in 1802, was born at No. 6 John Street, Bedford Row, on
the 21st of December 1804. Of Isaac D'Israeli's other children, Sarah
was born in 1802, Naphtali in 1807, Ralph (Raphael) in 1809, and James
(Jacob) in 1813. None of the family was akin to Benjamin for genius and
character, except Sarah, to whom he was deeply indebted for a wise,
unswerving and sympathetic devotion, when, in his earlier days, he
needed it most. All Isaac D'Israeli's children were born into the Jewish
communion, in which, however, they were not to grow up. It is a
reasonable inference from Isaac's character that he was never at ease in
the ritual of Judaism. His father died in the winter of 1816, and soon
afterwards Isaac formally withdrew with all his household from the
Jewish church. His son Benjamin, who had been admitted to it with the
usual rites eight days after his birth, was baptized at St Andrew's
church in Holborn on the 31st of July 1817. One of Isaac D'Israeli's
reasons for quitting the tents of his people was that rabbinical
Judaism, with its unyielding laws and fettering ceremonies, "cuts off
the Jews from the great family of mankind." Little did he know, when
therefore he cut off the D'Israeli family from Judaism, what great
things he was doing for one small member of it. The future prime
minister was then short of thirteen years old, and there was yet time to
provide the utmost freedom which his birth allowed for the faculties and
ambitions he was born with. Taking the worldly view alone, of course,
most fortunate for his aspirations in youth was his withdrawal from
Judaism in childhood. That it was fully sanctioned by his intellect at
maturity is evident; but the vindication of unbiased choice would not
have been readily accepted had Disraeli abandoned Judaism of his own
will at the pushing _Vivian Grey_ period or after. And though a mind
like Disraeli's might work to satisfaction with Christianity as
"completed Judaism," it could but dwell on a breach of continuity which
means so much to Jews and which he was never allowed to forget amongst
Christians. With all, he was proud of his race as truly, if not as
vehemently, as his paternal grandmother detested it. Family pride
contributed to the feeling in his case; for in his more speculative
moods he could look back upon an ancestry which was of those, perhaps,
who colonized the shores of the Mediterranean from before the time of
the Captivity. More definite is the history of descent from an ennobled
Spanish family which escaped from the Torquemada persecutions to Venice,
there found a new home, took a new name, and prospered for six
generations. The Benjamin D'Israeli, Lord Beaconsfield's grandfather,
who came to England in 1748, was a younger son sent at eighteen to try
his fortune in London. "A man of ardent character, sanguine, courageous,
speculative, fortunate, with a temper which no disappointment could
disturb" (so Lord Beaconsfield described him), he soon made the
beginnings of a handsome fortune and turned country gentleman. That his
grandson exaggerated his prosperity is highly probable; but that he
became a man of wealth and consideration is certain. He married twice.
His second wife was Sarah Siprout de Gabay, "a beautiful woman of strong
intellect" and importunate ambitions, who hated the race she belonged to
because it was despised by others. She felt so keenly the social
disabilities it brought upon her, and her husband's indifference to
them, that "she never pardoned him his name." Her literary son Isaac
suffered equally or even more; for though he had ambitions he had none
that she could recognize as such. She could ridicule him for the
aspirations which he had not and for those which he had; on the other
hand, he never heard from her a tender word "though she lived to be
eighty." Nor did any other member of her family, according to her
grandson.


  "The Representative."

Isaac D'Israeli was devoted to the reading and writing of books in
domestic quiet; and his son Benjamin suffered appreciably from his
father's gentle preoccupations. As a child--unruly and disturbing no
doubt--he was sent to a school of small account at Blackheath, and was
there "for years" before he was recalled at the age of twelve on the
death of his grandfather. Isaac D'Israeli was his father's sole heritor,
but change of fortune seems to have awakened in him no ambitions for the
most hopeful of his sons. At fifteen, not before, Benjamin was sent to a
Unitarian school at Walthamstow--a well-known school, populous enough to
be a little world of emulation and conflict but otherwise unfit. Not
there, nor in any similar institution at that illiberal time, perhaps,
was a Jewish boy likely to make a fortunate entry into "the great family
of mankind." His name, the foreign look of him, and some pronounced
incompatibilities not all chargeable to young Disraeli (as afterwards
the name came to be spelt), soon raised a crop of troubles. His stay at
Walthamstow was brief, his departure abrupt, and he went to school no
more. With the run of his father's library, and the benefits of that
born bookman's guidance, he now set out to educate himself. This he did
with an industry stiffened by matchless self-confidence and by ambitions
fully mature before he was eighteen. Yet he yielded to an attempt to
make a man of business of him. He was barely seventeen when (in November
1821) he was taken into the office of Messrs Swain, Stevens and Co.,
solicitors, in Frederick's Place, Old Jewry. Here he remained for three
years--"most assiduous in his attention to business," said one of the
partners, "and showing great ability in the transaction of it." It was
then determined that he should go to the bar; and accordingly he was
entered at Lincoln's Inn in 1824. But Disraeli had found other studies
and an alien use for his pen. Though "assiduous in his attention to
business" in Frederick's Place, he found time to write for the printer.
Dr Smiles, in his _Memoirs of John Murray_, tells of certain pamphlets
on the brightening prospects of the Spanish South American colonies,
then in the first enjoyment of emancipation--pamphlets seemingly written
for a Mr Powles, head of a great financial firm, whose acquaintance
Disraeli had made. In the same year, apparently, he wrote a novel--his
first, and never published. _Aylmer Papillon_ was the title of it, Dr
Smiles informs us; and he prints a letter from Disraeli to the John
Murray of that day, which indicates its character pretty clearly. The
last chapter, its author says, is taken up with "Mr Papillon's
banishment under the Alien Act, from a ministerial misconception of a
metaphysical sonnet." About the same time he edited a _History of Paul
Jones_, originally published in America, the preface of the English
edition being Disraeli's first appearance as an author. Murray could not
publish _Aylmer Papillon_, but he had great hopes of its boyish writer
(Isaac D'Israeli was an old friend of his), "took him into his
confidence, and related to him his experiences of men and affairs."
Disraeli had not completed his twenty-first year when (in 1825) Murray
was possessed by the idea of bringing out a great daily newspaper; and
if his young friend did not inspire that idea he keenly urged its
execution, and was entrusted by Murray with the negotiation of all
manner of preliminaries, including the attempt to bring Lockhart in as
editor. The title of the paper, _The Representative_, was Disraeli's
suggestion. He chose reporters, looked to the setting-up of a
printing-office, busied himself in all ways to Murray's great
satisfaction, and, as fully appears from Dr Smiles's account of the
matter, with extraordinary address. But when these arrangements were
brought to the point of completion, Disraeli dropped out of the scheme
and had nothing more to do with it. He was to have had a fourth share of
the proprietorship, bringing in a corresponding amount of capital. His
friend Mr Powles, whom he had enlisted for the enterprise, was to have
had a similar share on the same conditions. Neither seems to have paid
up, and that, perhaps, had to do with the quarrel which parted Benjamin
Disraeli and John Murray before a sheet of the luckless _Representative_
was printed. Many years afterwards (1853) Disraeli took an active
interest in _The Press_, a weekly journal of considerable merit but
meagre fortunes.


  "Vivan Grey."

At the death of the elder Benjamin (1817), his son Isaac had moved from
the King's Road, Gray's Inn (now Theobald's Road), to No. 6 Bloomsbury
Square. Here he entertained the many distinguished friends, literary and
political, who had been drawn to him by his "Curiosities" and other
ingenious works, and here his son Benjamin also had their acquaintance
and conversation. In Bloomsbury Square lived the Austens, and to their
house, a great resort of similar persons, Mrs Austen cordially welcomed
him. Murray's friendship and associations helped him in like manner, no
doubt; and thus was opened to Disraeli the younger a world in which he
was to make a considerable stir. The very much smaller society of that
day was, of course, more comprehensible to sight and hearing, when once
you were within its borders, than the society of this. Reverberations of
the gossip of St James's and Mayfair extended to Bloomsbury in those
days. Yet Disraeli's range of observation must have been not only brief
but limited when he sat down at twenty or twenty-one to write _Vivian
Grey_. It is therefore a probable conjecture that Mrs Austen, a clever
woman of the world, helped him from her knowledge. His own strongly
perceptive imagination (the gift in which he was to excel every other
politician of his time) and the bent of political reading and aspiration
from boyhood completed his equipment; and so the wonder that so young a
man in Disraeli's social position should write a book like _Vivian Grey_
is accounted for. It was published in 1826. The success of this
insolently clever novel, the immediate introduction of its author to the
great world, and the daring eccentricities of dress, demeanour, and
opinion by which he fixed attention on himself there, have always been
among the most favourite morsels of Disraeli's history. With them it
began, and successive generations of inquirers into a strange career and
a character still shrouded and baffling refer to them as settled
starting-points of investigation. What was the man who, in such a
society and with political aspirations to serve, could thrive by such
vagaries as these, or in spite of them? If unaffected, what is to be
thought of them as keys to character? If affected, what then? Inquiry
still takes this shape, and when any part of Disraeli's career is
studied, the laces and essences, the rings over gloves, the jewelled
satin shirt-fronts, the guitareries and chibouqueries of his early days
are never remote from memory. The report of them can hardly be doubted;
and as the last relation was made (to the writer of this article) not
with intent to ridicule Mr Disraeli's taste but to illustrate his
conquering abilities, the story is repeated here. One of Disraeli's
first friends in the world of fashion and genius was Sir Edward Lytton
Bulwer. "And," said Sir Henry Bulwer ("Pelham's" brother), "we heard so
much at the time of Edward's amazingly brilliant new friend that we were
the less inclined to make his acquaintance." At length, however, Sir
Edward got up a little dinner-party to convince the doubters. It was to
meet at the early hour of those days at one of the Piccadilly hotels.
"There was my brother, Alexander Cockburn, myself and (I think) Milnes;
but for a considerable time no Mr Disraeli. Waiting for Mr Disraeli did
not enhance the pleasure of meeting him, nor when he did arrive did his
appearance predispose us in his favour. He wore green velvet trousers, a
canary-coloured waistcoat, low shoes, silver buckles, lace at his
wrists, and his hair in ringlets." The description of the coat is
forgotten. "We sat down. Not one of us was more than five-and-twenty
years old. We were all--if you will allow me to include myself--on the
road to distinction, all clever, all ambitious, and all with a perfect
conceit of ourselves. Yet if on leaving the table we had been severally
taken aside and asked which was the cleverest of the party, we should
have been obliged to say 'the man in the green velvet trousers.'" This
story is a little lamp that throws much light. Here we see at their
sharpest the social prejudices that Disraeli had to fight against,
provocation of them carried to its utmost in every way open to him, and
complete conquest in a company of young men less likely to admit
superiority in a wit of their own years, probably, than any other that
could have been brought together at that time.


  Travel.

Soon after the publication of _Vivian Grey_, Disraeli, who is said by
Froude to have been "overtaken by a singular disorder," marked by fits
of giddiness ("once he fell into a trance, and did not recover for a
week"), went with the Austens on a long summer tour in France,
Switzerland and Italy. Returning to a quiet life at Bradenham--an old
manor-house near High Wycombe, which his father had taken--Disraeli put
law in abeyance and resumed novel-writing. His weakest book, and two or
three other productions, brief, but in every literary sense the finest
of his works, were written in the next two or three years. But for
_Ixion in Heaven_, _The Infernal Marriage_, and _Popanilla_, Disraeli
could not be placed among the greater writers of his kind; yet none of
his imaginative books have been so little read as these. The mysterious
malady continued, and Disraeli set out with William Meredith, who was to
have married Sarah Disraeli, for a tour in southern Europe and the
nearer East. He saw Cadiz, Seville, Granada, Athens, Constantinople,
Jerusalem, Cairo, Thebes; played the corsair with James Clay on a yacht
voyage from Malta to Corfu; visited the terrible Reschid, then with a
Turkish army in the Albanian capital; landed in Cyprus, and left it with
an expectation in his singularly prescient mind that the island would
one day be English. These travels must have profited him greatly, and we
have our share of the advantage; not so much, however, in _The Wondrous
Tale of Alroy_ or _Tancred_, or the "Revolutionary Epic" which he was
inspired to write on "the windy plains of Troy," but in the letters he
sent home to his sister. These letters, written with the utmost freedom
and fullness to the one whose affection and intellect he trusted more
than any, are of the greatest value for interpreting the writer.
Together with other letters also published some time after Disraeli's
death, they tell more of him than anything that can be found in print
elsewhere. They show, for example, that his extraordinary exuberances
were unforced, leaping by natural impulse from an overcharged source.
They also show that his Oriental fopperies were not so much "purposed
affectation" as Froude and others have surmised. That they were so in
great part is confessed again and again in these letters, but confessed
in such a way as to reveal that they were permitted for his own
enjoyment of them as much as planned. The "purposed affectation" sprang
from an unaffected delight in gauds of attire, gauds of fancy and
expression. It was not only to startle and impress the world that he
paraded his eccentricities of splendour. His family also had to be
impressed by them. It was to his sober father that he wrote, at the age
of twenty-six: "I like a sailor's life much, though it spoils the
toilette." It is in a letter from Gibraltar to the same hand that we
read of his two canes--"a morning and an evening cane"--changed as the
gun fires. And the same correspondent must be told that "Ralph's
handkerchief which he brought me from Paris is the most successful thing
I ever wore."


  Literary production.

When Disraeli returned to England in 1831, all thought of the law was
abandoned. The pen of romance was again taken up--the poet's also and
the politician's. In the next five years he wrote _Contarini Fleming_,
the _Revolutionary Epick, Alroy, Henrietta Temple, What is He?_ (a
pamphlet expository of his opinions), the _Runnymede Letters_, a
_Vindication of the British Constitution_, and other matter of less
note. The epic, begun in great hope and confidence, was ended in less,
though its author was to the last unwilling that it should be forgotten.
The novels revived the success he had with _Vivian Grey_, and restored
him to his place among the brilliancies and powers of the time. The
political writing, too, much of it in a garish, extravagant style,
exercised his deeper ambitions, and stands as witness to the working of
original thought and foresight. Both qualities are conspicuous in _What
is He?_ and the _Vindication_, of which it has been truly said that in
these pages he "struck the keynote to the explanations he afterwards
consistently offered of all his apparent inconsistencies." Here an
interpretation of Tory principles as capable of running with the
democratic idea, and as called upon to do so, is ingeniously attempted.
The aristocratic principle of government having been destroyed by the
Reform Bill, and the House of Lords being practically "abrogated" by
that measure, it became necessary that Toryism should start from the
democratic basis, from which it had never been alien. The filched
liberties of the crown and the people should be restored, and the nation
redeemed from the oligarchies which had stolen from both. When at the
beginning of all this writing Disraeli entered the political arena as
candidate for High Wycombe (1832), he was nominated by a Tory and
seconded by a Radical--in vain; and vain were two subsequent attempts in
the autumn of 1832 and in 1834. In the first he was recommended to the
electors by Daniel O'Connell and the Radical Hume. In his last
candidature at Wycombe he stood on more independent ground, commending
himself by a series of speeches which fully displayed his quality,
though the prescience which gemmed them with more than one prophetic
passage was veiled from his contemporaries. Among Disraeli's great
acquaintances were many--Lyndhurst at their head--whose expectations of
his future were confirmed by the Wycombe speeches. He was "thought of"
for various boroughs, Marylebone among the number, but his democratic
Toryism seems to have stood in his way in some places and his inborn
dislike of Radicalism in others. It was an impracticable situation--no
getting on from it; and so, at Lyndhurst's persuasion, as he afterwards
acknowledged, he determined to side with the Tories. Accordingly, when
in the spring of 1835 a vacancy occurred at Taunton, Disraeli contested
the seat in the Tory interest with Carlton Club support. Here again he
failed, but with enhanced reputation as a fighting politician and with
other consequences good for notoriety. It was at Taunton that Disraeli
fell upon O'Connell, rather ungratefully; whereupon the Liberator was
roused to retort on his assailant vehemently as "a liar," and humorously
as a probable descendant of the impenitent thief. And then followed the
challenge which, when O'Connell declined it, was fastened on his son
Morgan, and the interruption of the duel by seizure of Mr Disraeli in
his bed, and his famous appearance in the Marylebone police court. He
declared himself very well satisfied with this episode, but nothing in
it can really have pleased him, not even the noise it made.


  Enters Parliament.

Here the first period of Disraeli's public life came to an end, a period
of preliminaries and flourishes, and of what he himself called sowing
his political wild oats. It was a more mature Disraeli who in the
general election of 1837 was returned for Maidstone as the colleague of
his providential friend Mr Wyndham Lewis. Though the fortunes of the
Tory party were fast reviving under Peel's guidance, the victory was
denied him on this occasion; but, for once, the return of the Whigs to
power was no great disappointment for the junior member for Maidstone.
To gain a footing in the House of Commons was all that his confident
spirit ever asked, and Froude vouches for it that he succeeded only just
in time to avert financial ruin. His electioneering ventures, the
friendly backing of bills, and his own expense in keeping up
appearances, had loaded him with debt. Yet (mark his worldly wisdom) "he
had never entangled his friends in his financial dealings. He had gone
frankly to the professional money-lenders, who made advances to him in a
speculation on his success": they were to get their money back with
large interest or lose it altogether. Such conditions were themselves
incitement enough to a prompt redemption of the promise of parliamentary
distinction, even without the restless spurring of ambition. And
Disraeli had another promise to redeem: that which he uttered when he
told O'Connell that they would meet again at Philippi. Therefore when,
three weeks after the session began, a debate on Irish election
petitions gave him opportunity, Disraeli attempted that first House of
Commons speech which imagination still dwells upon as something wondrous
strange. That he should not have known better, even by hearsay, than to
address the House of Commons in fantastic phrase from the mouth of a
fantastic figure is indeed remarkable, but not that he retained
self-confidence enough to tell the unwitting crew who laughed him down
that a time would come when they would hear him. It was one of the least
memorable of his prophecies. The speech was a humiliating but not an
oppressive failure. In about a week afterwards he spoke again, which
shows how little damage he felt, while the good sense, brevity, and
blameless manner of the speech (on a copyright bill) announced that he
could learn. And for some time thereafter he affected no importance in
the House, though not as withdrawing from attention.


  Mental characteristics.

Meanwhile, consciously and unconsciously, as is the way with men of
genius, his mind was working upon problems of government, the magnitude,
the relations and the natural developments of which he was more sensible
of than any known politician of his time. "Sensible of," we say, to mark
the difference between one sort of understanding and another which comes
of labour and pains alone. Disraeli studied too, no doubt, reading and
inquiring and applying set thought, but such means were insufficient to
put into his mind all that he found there. It seems that opinions may be
formed of inquiry and study alone, which are then constructive; but
where intuitive perception or the perceptive imagination is a robust
possession, the fruits of research become assimilative--the food of a
divining faculty which needs more or less of it according to the power
of divination. The better judgment in all affairs derives from this
quality, which has some very covetable advantages for its possessor. His
judgments may be held with greater confidence, which is an intellectual
advantage; and, standing in his mind not so much an edifice as a natural
growth, they cannot be so readily abandoned at the call of ease or
self-interest. They may be denied assertion or even outraged for a
purpose, but they cannot be got rid of,--which is a moral advantage.
Disraeli's mind and its judgments were of this character. Its greatest
gift was not the romantic imagination which he possessed abundantly and
employed overmuch, but the perceptive, interpretative, judicial or
divining imagination, without which there can be no great man of
affairs. Breadth of view, insight, foresight, are more familiar but less
adequate descriptions of a faculty which Disraeli had in such force that
it took command of him from first to last. Although he knew and acted on
the principle that "a statesman is a practical character," whose
business is to "serve the country according to its present necessities,"
he was unable to confine his vision to the nearer consequences of
whatever policy, or course of action, or group of conditions it rested
on. Without effort, and even without intention probably, it looked
beyond first consequences to the farther or the final outcome; and to
complete the operation, the faculty which detected the remoter
consequences did not allow them to remain in obscurity, but brought them
out as actualities no less than the first and perhaps far more important
than the first. Moreover, it did not allow him to keep silence where the
remoter consequences were of that character, and ought to be provided
for betimes. Of course silence was always possible. These renderings to
foresight might be denied assertion either for the sake of present ease
(and Disraeli's prescience of much of his country's later troubles only
made him laughed at) or in deference to hopes of personal advancement.
But the same divining imagination which showed him these things also
showed him the near time when it would be too late to speak of them, and
when not to have spoken would leave him irredeemably in the common herd
of hand-to-mouth politicians. Therefore he spoke.


  "Coningsby," "Sybil."

Remembrance of these characteristics--remembrance, too, that his mind,
which was neither English nor European, worked in absolute
detachment--should accompany the traveller through all the turns and
incidents of Disraeli's long career. They are sometimes puzzling, often
speculative; yet nearly all that is obscure in them becomes clear, much
apparent contradiction disappears, when read by these persistent
unvarying lights. The command which his idiosyncrasies had upon him is
shown, for example, by reproachful speeches on the treatment of Ireland,
and by a startling harangue on behalf of the Chartists, at a time when
such irregularities could but damage him, a new man, where he hoped for
influence and office. At about the same time his political genius
directed him to open a resolute critical campaign against the
Conservatism of the party he proposed to thrive in, and he could but
obey. This he did in writing _Coningsby_, a novel of the day and for the
day, but commended to us of a later generation not only by the undimmed
truth of its character-portraits, but by qualities of insight and
foresight which we who have seen the proof of them can measure as his
contemporaries could not. _Sybil_, which was written in the following
year (1845), is still more remarkable for the faculties celebrated in
the preceding paragraph. When _Sybil_ was written a long historic day
was ending in England, a new era beginning; and no eyes saw so clearly
as Disraeli's the death of the old day, the birth of the new, or what
and how great their differences would be. In _Coningsby_ the political
conditions of the country were illustrated and discussed from the
constitutional point of view, and by light of the theory that for
generations before the passing of the Reform Bill the authority of the
crown and the liberties of the people had been absorbed and extinguished
in an oligarchic system of government, itself become fossilized and
soulless. In _Sybil_ were exhibited the social relations of rich and
poor (the "two nations") under this régime, and under changes in which,
while the peasantry were neglected by a shoddy aristocracy ignorant of
its duties, factory life and a purblind gospel of political economy
imbruted the rest of the population. These views were enforced by a
startling yet strictly accurate representation of the state of things in
the factory districts at that time. Taken from the life by Disraeli
himself, accompanied by one or two members of the Young England party of
which he was the head, it was the first of its kind; and the facts as
there displayed, and Disraeli's interpretation of them--a marvel of
perceptive and prophetic criticism--opened eyes, roused consciences, and
led direct to many reforms.

These two books, the _Vindication_, published in 1835, and his speeches
up to this time and a little beyond, are quite enough to show what
Disraeli's Tory democracy meant, how truly national was its aim, and how
exclusive of partisanship for the "landed interest"; though he did
believe the stability and prosperity of the agricultural class a
national interest of the first order, not on economic grounds alone or
even chiefly. And if Disraeli, possessed by these views, became
aggressively insubordinate some time before Peel's proclaimed conversion
to Free Trade, we can account for it on reasonable and even creditable
grounds. Spite, resentment at being passed over when Peel formed the
1841 government, is one explanation of these outbreaks, and a letter to
Peel, lately published, is proof to many minds that Disraeli's denial to
Peel's face in 1846 that he had ever solicited office was daringly
mendacious. The letter certainly reads like solicitation in the
customary half-veiled form. All that can be said in doubt is that since
the '41 government came into existence on the 6th of September, and the
letter was written on the 5th, its interpretation as complaint of being
publicly neglected, as a craving for _some_ mark of recognition, is
possible. More than possible it is if Disraeli knew on the 5th (as he
very well might from his friend Lyndhurst, Peel's lord chancellor) that
the appointments were then complete. The pecuniary need of office, if
that comes into the question, had been lightened, if not extinguished,
two years before by his marriage with Mrs Wyndham Lewis. Mrs Lewis--a
lady fifteen years his senior--brought him a considerable fortune which,
however, was but for her life. She lived to a great age, and would
gladly have lived longer, in any of the afflictions that time brings on,
to continue her mere money-worth to her "Dizzy." Her devotion to him,
and his devotion to her, is the whole known story of their private life;
and we may believe that nothing ever gratified him more than offering
her a coronet from Mr Disraeli.


  Politics. 1841-67.

Disraeli made Peel's acquaintance early in his career and showed that he
was proud of it. In his _Life of Lord George Bentinck_ he writes of Peel
fairly and even generously. But they were essentially antipathetic
persons; and it is clear that the great minister and complete Briton
took no pains to understand the dazzling young Jew of whom Lyndhurst
thought so much, and wished to have little to do with him. Such men make
such feelings evident; and there is no reason for thinking that when,
after 1841, Disraeli charged at Peel in obedience to his principles, he
gave himself pain. It was not long after it had settled in office that
Peel's government, the creature of an anxious Conservative reaction,
began to be suspected of drifting toward Manchester. That it was forced
in that direction we should say rather, looking back, for it was a time
of dire distress, especially in the manufacturing districts of the
north; so that in his second session Peel had to provide some relief by
revising the corn laws and reducing import dues generally. His measures
were supported by Disraeli, who understood that Protection must bend to
the menacing poverty of the time, though unprepared for total abolition
of the corn tax and strongly of opinion that it was not for Peel to
abolish it. In the next session (1843) he and his Young England party
took up a definitely independent rôle, which became more sharply
critical to the end. Disraeli's first strong vote of hostility was on a
coercion bill for perishing and rebellious Ireland. It was repeated with
greater emphasis in the session of 1844, also in a condition-of-Ireland
debate; and from that time forth, as if foreseeing Peel's course and its
effect on the country party, Disraeli kept up the attack. Meanwhile bad
harvests deepened the country's distress, Ireland was approached by
famine, the Anti-Corn-Law League became menacingly powerful, and Peel
showed signs of yielding to free trade. Disraeli's opportunity was soon
to come now; and in 1845, seeing it on the way, he launched the
brilliantly destructive series of speeches which, though they could not
prevent the abolition of the corn-laws, abolished the minister who ended
them. These speeches appeal more to admiration than to sympathy, even
where the limitations of Disraeli's protectionist beliefs are understood
and where his perception of the later consequences of free trade is most
cordially acknowledged. That he remained satisfied with them himself is
doubtful, unless for their foresight, their tremendous effect as
instruments of punishment, and as they swept him to so much distinction.
Within three years, on the death of Lord George Bentinck, there was none
to dispute with him the leadership of the Conservative party in the
House of Commons.

In the parliament of 1841 he was member for Shrewsbury. In 1847 he was
returned for Buckinghamshire, and never again had occasion to change his
constituency. Up to this time his old debts still embarrassed him, but
now his private and political fortunes changed together. Froude reports
that he "received a large sum from a private hand for his _Life of Lord
George Bentinck_" (published in 1852), "while a Conservative millionaire
took upon himself the debts to the usurers; the 3% with which he was
content being exchanged for the 10% under which Disraeli had been
staggering." In 1848 his father Isaac D'Israeli died, leaving to his son
Benjamin nearly the whole of his estate. This went to the purchase of
Hughenden Manor--not, of course, a great property, but with so much of
the pleasant and picturesque, of the dignified also, as quite to explain
what it was to the affectionate fancy of its lord. About this time, too
(1851), his acquaintance was sought by an old Mrs Brydges Willyams--born
a Spanish Jewess and then the widow of a long-deceased Cornish
squire--who in her distant home at Torquay had conceived a restless
admiration for Benjamin Disraeli. She wrote to him again and again,
pressing for an appointment to consult on an important matter of
business: would meet him at the fountain of the Crystal Palace in Hyde
Park. Her importunity succeeded, and the very small, oddly-dressed,
strange-mannered old lady whom Disraeli met at the fountain became his
adoring friend to the end of her life. Gratitude for her devotion
brought him and his wife in constant intimacy with her. There were many
visits to Torquay; he gratified her with gossiping letters about the
great people with whom and the great affairs with which the man who did
so much honour to her race was connected, that being the inspiration of
her regard for him. She died in 1863, leaving him all her fortune, which
was considerable; and, as she wished, was buried at Hughenden, close to
the grave where Disraeli was to lie.


  As leader in the House of Commons.

It is agreed that the first three years of Disraeli's leadership in
Opposition were skilfully employed in reconstructing the shattered Tory
party. In doing this he made it sufficiently clear that there could be
no sudden return to Protectionist principles. At the same time, however,
he insisted (as he did from first to last) on the enormous importance
to the country, to the character of its people no less than to its
material welfare, of agricultural contentment and prosperity; and he
also obtained a more general recognition of the fact that "the land" had
borne fiscal burdens under the old régime which were unfair and
unendurable under the new. So far he did well; and when in 1852 he took
office as chancellor of the exchequer in Lord Derby's first
administration, the prospect was a smiling one for a man who, striving
against difficulties and prejudices almost too formidable for
imagination in these days, had attained to a place where he could fancy
them all giving way. That, however, they were not. New difficulties were
to arise and old prejudices to revive in full force. His first budget
was a quaint failure, and was thrown out by a coalition of Liberals and
Peelites which he believed was formed against Mr Disraeli more than
against the chancellor of the exchequer. It was on this occasion that he
exclaimed, "England does not love coalitions." After a reign of ten
months he was again in Opposition, and remained so for seven years. Of
the Crimean War he had a better judgment than those whose weakness led
them into it, and he could tell them the whole truth of the affair in
twenty words: "You are going to war with an opponent who does not want
to fight, and whom you are unwilling to encounter." Neither were they
prepared; and the scandals and political disturbances that ensued
revealed him as a party leader who could act on such occasions with a
dignity, moderation and sagacity that served his country well,
maintained the honour of party government and cost his friends nothing.
The mismanagement of the war broke down the Aberdeen government in 1855,
and then Disraeli had the mortification of seeing a fortunate chance of
return to office lost by the timidity and distrust of his chief, Lord
Derby--the distrust too clearly including the under-valuation of
Disraeli himself. Lord Derby wanted Lord Palmerston's help, Mr
Gladstone's, Mr Sidney Herbert's. This arrangement could not be made;
Lord Derby therefore gave up the attempt to form a ministry and Lord
Palmerston came in. The next chance was taken in less favouring times.
The government in which Disraeli was again financial minister lasted for
less than eighteen months (1858-1859), and then ensued another seven
years in the cold and yet colder shade of Opposition. Both of these
seven-year outings were bad, but the second by far the worse.
Parliamentary reform had become a burning question and an embarrassing
one for the Tory party. An enormous increase of business, consequent
upon the use of steam machinery and free-trade openings to commerce,
filled the land with prosperity, and discredited all statesmanship but
that which steered by the star over Manchester. Mr Gladstone's budgets,
made possible by this prosperity, were so many triumphs for Liberalism.
Foreign questions arose which strongly excited English feeling--the
arrangements of peace with Russia, Italian struggles for freedom, an
American quarrel, the "Arrow" affair and the Chinese war, the affair of
the French colonels and the Conspiracy Bill; and as they arose
Palmerston gathered into his own sails (except on the last occasion)
every wind of popular favour. Amid all this the Tory fortunes sank
rapidly, becoming nearly hopeless when Lord Palmerston, without
appreciable loss of confidence on his own side, persuaded many Tories in
and out of parliament that Conservatism would suffer little while he was
in power. Yet there was great despondency, of course, in the
Conservative ranks; with despondency discontent; with discontent
rancour. The prejudice against Disraeli as Jew, the revolt at his
theatricalisms, the distrust of him as "mystery man," which up to this
time had never died out even among men who were his nearest colleagues,
were now more openly indulged. Out of doors he had a "bad press," in
parliament he had some steady, enthusiastic friends, but more that were
cold. Sometimes he was seen on the front Opposition bench for hours
quite alone. Little conspiracies were got up to displace him, and might
have succeeded but for an unconquerable dread of the weapon that
destroyed Peel. In this state of things he patiently held his ground,
working for his party more carefully than it knew, and never seizing
upon false or discrediting advantages. But it was an extremely bad time
for Benjamin Disraeli.


  Reform Bill of 1867.

  Premier, 1868.

Though Lord Palmerston stumbled over his Foreign Conspiracy Bill in
1858, his popularity was little damaged, and it was in no hopeful spirit
that the Tories took office again in that year. They were perilously
weak in the House of Commons, and affairs abroad, in which they had
small practice and no prestige, were alarming. Yet the new
administration did very well till, after resettling the government of
India, and recovering from a blunder committed by their Indian
secretary, Lord Ellenborough, they must needs launch a Reform Bill to
put that dangerous question out of controversial politics. The
well-intended but fantastic measure brought in for the purpose was
rejected. The country was appealed to, with good but insufficient
results; and at the first meeting of the new parliament the Tories were
turned out on a no-confidence vote moved by Lord Hartington. Foreign
affairs supplied the motive: failure to preserve the peace of Europe at
the time of the Italian war of independence. It is said that the foreign
office had then in print a series of despatches which would have
answered its accusers had they been presented when the debate began, as
for some unexplained reason they were not. Lord Palmerston now returned
to Downing Street, and while he lived Disraeli and his colleagues had to
satisfy themselves with what was meant for useful criticism, though with
small hope that it was so for their own service. A Polish insurrection,
the Schleswig-Holstein question, a commercial treaty with France, the
Civil War in America, gave Disraeli occasions for speech that was always
forcible and often wiser than all could see at the time. He never
doubted that England should be strictly neutral in the American quarrel
when there was a strong feeling in favour of the South. All the while he
would have gladly welcomed any just means of taking an animated course,
for these were dull, dark days for the Conservatives as a parliamentary
party. Yet, unperceived, Conservatism was advancing. It was much more
than a joke that Palmerston sheltered Conservative principles under the
Liberal flag. The warmth of his popularity, to which Radical applause
contributed nothing in his later days, created an atmosphere entirely
favourable to the quiet growth of Conservatism. He died in 1865. Earl
Russell succeeded him as prime minister, Mr Gladstone as leader of the
House of Commons. The party most pleased with the change was the
Radical; the party best served was Disraeli's. Another Reform Bill,
memorable for driving certain good Liberals into a Cave of Aduilam,
broke up the new government in a few months; Disraeli contributing to
the result by the delivery of opinions not new to him and of lasting
worth, though presently to be subordinated to arguments of an inferior
order and much less characteristic. "At this rate," he said in 1866,
"you will have a parliament that will entirely lose its command over the
executive, and it will meet with less consideration and possess less
influence." Look for declining statesmanship, inferior aptitude, genius
dying off. "Instead of these you will have a horde of selfish and
obscure mediocrities, incapable of anything but mischief, and that
mischief devised and regulated by the raging demagogue of the hour." The
Reform legislation which promised these results in 1866 was thrown out.
Lord Derby's third administration was then formed in the summer of the
same year, and for the third time there was a Tory government on
sufferance. Its followers were still a minority in the House of Commons;
an angry Reform agitation was going on; an ingenious resolution founded
on the demand for an enlarged franchise serviceable to Liberals might
extinguish the new government almost immediately; and it is pretty
evident that the Tory leaders took office meaning to seek a cure for
this desperate weakness by wholesale extension of the suffrage. Their
excuses and calculations are well known, but when all is said, Lord
Derby's statement of its character, "a leap in the dark," and of its
intention, "dishing the Whigs," cannot be bettered. Whether Lord Derby
or Mr Disraeli originated this resolve has been much discussed, and it
remains an unsettled question. It is known that Disraeli's private
secretary, Mr Ralph Earle, quarrelled with him violently at about this
time; and Sir William Fraser relates that, meeting Mr Earle, that
gentleman said: "I know what your feelings must be about this Reform
Bill, and I think it right to tell you that it was not Disraeli's bill,
but Lord Derby's. I know everything that occurred." Mr Earle gave the
same assurances to the writer of these lines, and did so with hints and
half-confidences (quite intelligible, however) as to the persuasions
that wrought upon his chief. Mr Earle's listener on these occasions
confesses that he heard with a doubting mind, and that belief in what he
heard still keeps company with Mahomet's coffin. One thing, however, is
clear. To suppose Disraeli satisfied with the excuses made for his
adoption of the "dishing" process is forbidden by the whole tenor of his
teaching and conduct. He could not have become suddenly blind to the
fallacy of the expectations derived from such a course; and all his life
it had been his distinction to look above the transient and trafficking
expedients of the professional politician. However, the thing was done.
After various remodellings, and amid much perturbation, secession,
violent reproach, the Household Suffrage Bill passed in August 1867.
Another memorable piece of work, the confederation of Canada, had
already been accomplished. A few days after parliament met in the next
year Lord Derby's failing health compelled him to resign and Mr Disraeli
became prime minister. Irish disaffection had long been astir; the
Fenian menace looked formidable not only in Ireland but in England also.
The reconstructed government announced its intention of dealing with
Irish grievances. Mr Gladstone approved, proposing the abolition of the
Irish Church to begin with. A resolution to that effect was immediately
carried against the strong opposition of the government. Disraeli
insisted that the question should be settled in the new parliament which
the franchise act called for, and he seems to have had little doubt that
the country would declare against Mr Gladstone's proposal. He was
mistaken. It was the great question at the polls; and the first
elections by the new constituencies went violently against the authors
of their being.

The history of the next five years is Mr Gladstone's. The Irish Church
abolished, he set to work with passionate good intention on the Irish
land laws. The while he did so sedition took courage and flourished
exceedingly, so that to pacify Ireland the constable went hand in hand
with the legislator. The abolition of the Irish Church was followed by a
coercion act, and the land act by suspension of _Habeas Corpus_.
Disraeli, who at first preferred retirement and the writing of
_Lothair_, came forward from time to time to point the moral and predict
the end of Mr Gladstone's impulsive courses, which soon began to fret
the confidence of his friends. Some unpleasant errors of conduct--the
case of Sir R. Collier (afterwards Lord Monkswell, q.v.), the Ewelme
rectory case,[1] the significant Odo Russell (Lord Ampthill) episode (to
help the government out of a scrape the ambassador was accused of
exceeding his instructions)--told yet more. Above all, many humiliating
proofs that England was losing her place among the nations came out in
these days, the discovery being then new and unendurable. To be brief,
in less than four years the government had well-nigh worn out its own
patience with its own errors, failures and distractions, and would
gladly have gone to pieces when it was defeated on an Irish university
bill. But Disraeli, having good constitutional reasons for declining
office at the moment, could not allow this. Still gathering
unpopularity, still offending, alarming, alienating, the government went
on till 1874, suddenly dissolved parliament, and was signally beaten,
the Liberal party breaking up. Like most of his political friends,
Disraeli had no expectation of such a victory--little hope, indeed, of
any distinct success. Yet when he went to Manchester on a brief
political outing two years before, he was received with such acclaim as
he had never known in his life. He was then sixty-eight years old, and
this was his first full banquet of popularity. The elation and
confidence drawn from the Manchester meetings were confirmed by every
circumstance of the 1874 elections. But he was well aware of how much he
owed to his opponents' errors, seeing at the same time how safely he
could lay his future course by them. He had always rejected the
political economy of his time, and it was breaking down. He had always
refused to accept the economist's dictum without reference to other
considerations than the turnover of trade; and even Manchester could
pardon the refusal now. The national spirit, vaporized into a
cosmopolitan mist, was fast condensing again under mortification and
insult from abroad uncompensated by any appreciable percentage of cash
profit. This was a changing England, and one that Disraeli could govern
on terms of mutual satisfaction; but not if the reviving "spirit of the
country" ran to extremes of self-assertion. At one of the great
Manchester meetings he said, "Do not suppose, because I counsel firmness
and decision at the right moment, that I am of that school of statesmen
who are favourable to a turbulent and aggressive diplomacy. I have
resisted it during a large part of my life."


  Suez Canal shares.

But for the hubbub occasioned by the Public Worship Regulation Act, the
first two years of the 1874 administration had no remarkable excitements
till near the end of them. The Public Worship Act, introduced by the
archbishop of Canterbury, was meant to restrain ritualism. Disraeli, who
from first to last held to the Reformed Church as capable of dispensing
social good as no other organization might, supported the Bill as
"putting down ritualism"; spoke very vehemently; gave so much offence
that at one time neither the bill nor the government seemed quite safe.
For some time afterwards there was so little legislation of the kind
called "enterprising" that even some friends of the government began to
think it too tame; but at the end of the second year an announcement was
made which put that fear to rest. The news that the khedive's Suez Canal
shares had been bought by the government was received with boundless
applause. It was a courageous thing to do; but it was not a Disraeli
conception, nor did it originate in any government department. It was
suggested from without at a moment when the possibility of ever
acquiring the shares was passing away. On the morning of the 15th of
November 1875, Mr Frederick Greenwood, then editor of the _Pall Mall
Gazette_, went to Lord Derby at the foreign office, informed him that
the khedive's shares were passing into the hands of a French syndicate,
and urged arrest of the transaction by purchase for England. (The shares
being private property their sale could not, of course, be forbidden.)
Lord Derby thought there must be a mistake. He could not believe that
bargaining of that kind could go on in Cairo without coming to the
knowledge of the British consul there. He was answered that nevertheless
it was going on. The difficulties of purchase by England were then
arrayed by Lord Derby. They were more than one or two, and of course
they had a formidable look, but so also had the alternative and the lost
opportunity. One difficulty had already come into existence, and had to
be met at once. Lord Derby had either to make direct inquiry of the
khedive or to let the matter go. If he inquired, and there was no such
negotiation, his question might be interpreted in a very troublesome
way; moreover, we should put the idea of selling the shares into the
khedive's head, which would be unfortunate. "There's my position, and
now what do you say?" The answer given, Lord Derby drafted a telegram to
the British consul-general at Cairo, and read it out. It instructed
Colonel Stanton to go immediately to the khedive and put the question
point blank. Meanwhile the prime minister would be seen, and Lord
Derby's visitor might call next day to hear the reply from Cairo. It is
enough to add here that on receipt of the answer the purchase for
England was taken up and went to a speedy conclusion.[2]


  Eastern question.

As if upon the impulse of this transaction, Disraeli opened the next
session of parliament with a bill to confer upon the queen the title of
empress of India--a measure which offended the instincts of many
Englishmen, and, for the time, revived the prejudices against its
author. More important was the revival of disturbances in European
Turkey, which, in their outcome, were to fill the last chapter of
Disraeli's career. But for this interruption it is likely that he would
have given much of his attention to Ireland, not because it was an
attractive employment for his few remaining years, but because he saw
with alarm the gathering troubles in that country. And his mind was
strongly drawn in another direction. In a remarkable speech delivered in
1872, he spoke with great warmth of the slighting of the colonies,
saying that "no minister in this country will do his duty who neglects
any opportunity of reconstructing as much as possible our colonial
empire, and of responding to those distant sympathies which may become
the source of incalculable strength and happiness to this island."
However, nothing was done in fulfilment of this duty in the first two
years from 1874, and early in the third the famous Andrassy note, the
Berlin memorandum, the Bashi-Bazouk atrocities, and the accumulative
excitement thereby created in England, reopened the Eastern question
with a vengeance. The policy which Disraeli's government now took up may
be truly called the national policy. Springing from the natural
suggestions of self-defence against the march of a dangerous rivalry, it
had the sanction of all British statesmanship for generations, backed by
the consenting instinct of the people. It was quite unsentimental, being
pro-Turkish or anti-Russian only as it became so in being pro-British.
The statesmen by whom it was established and continued saw in Russia a
power which, unless firmly kept within bounds, would dominate Europe;
more particularly that it would undermine and supersede British
authority in the East. And without nicely considering the desire of
Russia to expand to the Mediterranean, the Pacific or in any other
direction, they thought it one of their first duties to maintain their
own Eastern empire; or, to put it another way, to contrive that Great
Britain should be subject to Russian ascendancy (if ever), at the
remotest period allowed by destiny. Such were the ideas on which
England's Russian policy was founded. In 1876 this policy revived as a
matter of course in the cabinet, and as spontaneously, though not upon a
first provocation, became popular almost to fury. And furiously popular
it remained. But a strong opposing current of feeling, equally
passionate, set in against the Turks; war began and lasted long; and as
the agitation at home and the conflict abroad went on, certain of
Disraeli's colleagues, who were staunch enough at the beginning,
gradually weakened. It is certainly true that Disraeli was prepared, in
all senses of the word, to take strong measures against such an end to
the war as the San Stefano treaty threatened. Rather than suffer that,
he would have fought the Russians in alliance with the Turks, and had
gone much farther in maturing a scheme of attack and defence than was
known at the time or is commonly known now. That there was a master
motive for this resolution may be taken for granted; and it is to be
found in a belief that not to throw back the Russian advance then was to
lose England's last chance of postponing to a far future the
predominance of a great rival power in the East. How much or how little
judgment shows in that calculation, when viewed in the light of later
days, we do not discuss. What countenance it had from his colleagues
dropped away. At the end their voices were strong enough to insist upon
the diplomatic action which at no point falls back on the sword; Lord
Derby (foreign minister) being among the first to make a stand on that
resolution, though he was not the first seceder from the government.
Such diplomacy in such conditions is paralytic. It cannot speak thrice,
with whatever affectation of boldness, without discovering its true
character to trained ears; which should be remembered when Disraeli's
successes at Berlin are measured. It should be remembered that what with
the known timidity of his colleagues, and what with the strength and
violence of the Russian party in England, his achievement at Berlin was
like the reclamation of butter from a dog's mouth; as Prince Bismarck
understood in acknowledging Disraeli's gifts of statesmanship. It should
also be remembered, when his Eastern policy in 1876-1878 is denounced as
malign and a failure, that it was never carried out. Good or bad, ill or
well calculated, effective existence was denied to it; and a man cannot
be said to have failed in what he was never permitted to attempt. The
nondescript course of action which began at the Constantinople
conference and ended at Berlin was not of his direction until its few
last days. It only marked at various stages the thwarting and
suppression of his policy by colleagues who were haunted night and day
by memories of the Crimean War, and not least, probably, by the fate of
the statesmen who suffered for its blunders and their own. Disraeli also
looked back to those blunders, and he was by no means insensible to the
fate of fallen ministers. But just as he maintained at the time of the
conflict, and after, that there would have been no Crimean War had not
the British government convinced the tsar that it was in the hands of
the peace party, so now he believed that a bold policy would prevent or
limit war, and at the worst put off grave consequences which otherwise
would make a rapid advance.

As if aware of much of this, the country was well content with
Disraeli's successes at Berlin, though sore on some points, he himself
sharing the soreness. Yet there were great days for him after his
return. At the Berlin conference he had established a formidable
reputation; the popularity he enjoyed at home was affectionately
enthusiastic; no minister had ever stood in more cordial relations with
his sovereign; and his honours in every kind were his own achievement
against unending disadvantage. But he was soon to suffer irretrievable
defeat. A confused and unsatisfactory war in Afghanistan, troubles yet
more unsatisfactory in South Africa, conspired with two or three years
of commercial distress to invigorate "the swing of the pendulum" when he
dissolved parliament in 1880. Dissolution the year before would have
been wiser, but a certain pride forbade. The elections went heavily
against him. He took the blow with composure, and sank easily into a
comparative retirement. Yet he still watched affairs as a great party
leader should, and from time to time figured vigorously in debate.
Meanwhile he had another novel to sit down to--the poor though highly
characteristic _Endymion_; which, to his great surprise and equal
pleasure, was replaced on his table by a cheque for ten thousand pounds.
Yet even this satisfaction had its tang of disappointment; for though
_Endymion_ was not wholly written in his last days, it was in no respect
the success that _Lothair_ was. This also he could bear. His description
of his grandfather recurs to us: "A man of ardent character, sanguine,
courageous and fortunate, with a temper which no disappointment could
disturb."


  Death and influence.

As earl of Beaconsfield (failing health had compelled him to take refuge
in the House of Lords in 1876) Benjamin Disraeli died in his house in
Curzon Street on the 19th of April 1881. The likelihood of his death was
publicly known for some days before the event, and then the greatness of
his popularity and its warmth were declared for the first time. No such
demonstration of grief was expected even by those who grieved the most. He
lies in Hughenden churchyard, in a rail-enclosed grave, with liberty for
the turf to grow between him and the sky. Within the church is a marble
tablet, placed there by his queen, with a generous inscription to his
memory. The anniversary of his death has since been honoured in an
unprecedented manner, the 19th of April being celebrated as "Primrose
Day"--the primrose, for reasons impossible accurately to define, being
popularly supposed to have been Disraeli's favourite flower. Even among
his friends in youth (Sir Edward Lytton Bulwer, for example), and not
improbably among the city men who wagered their money in irrecoverable
loans to him on the chance of his success, there may have been some who
compassed the thought of Benjamin Disraeli as prime minister and peer; but
at no time could any fancy have imagined him remembered so enduringly as
Lord Beaconsfield has been. It is possible that Sarah Disraeli (the Myra
of _Endymion_), or that "the most severe of critics but a perfect wife,"
may have had such dreams--hardly that they could have occurred to any mind
but a devoted woman's. Disraeli's life was a succession of surprises, but
none was so great as that he should be remembered after death more
widely, lastingly, respectfully, affectionately, than any other statesman
in the long reign of Queen Victoria. While he lived he did not seem at all
cut out for that distinction even as an Imperialist. Significant as was
the common grief when he died, no such consequence could be inferred from
it, and certainly not from the elections of 1880. It stands, however, this
high distinction, and with it the thought that it would have been denied
to him altogether had the "adventurer" and "mystery man" of the sixties
died at the age of threescore years and ten. We have said that never till
1872 did he look upon the full cup of popularity. It might have been said
that even at that time intrigue to get rid of him had yet to cease in his
own party; and but a few years before, a man growing old, he was still in
the lowest deeps of his disappointments and humiliations. How, then, could
it be imagined that with six years of power from his seventieth year, the
Jew "adventurer," mysterious and theatrical to the last, should fill a
greater space in the mind of England twenty years after death than Peel or
Palmerston after five? Of course it can be explained; and when explained,
we see that Disraeli's good fortune in this respect is not due entirely to
his own merits. His last years of power might have been followed by as
long a period of more acceptable government than his own, to the
effacement of his own from memory; but that did not happen. What did
follow was a time of universal turbulence and suspicion, in which the
pride of the nation was wounded again and again. To say "Majuba" and
"Gordon" recalls its deepest hurts, but not all of them; and it may be
that a pained and angry people, looking back, saw in the man whom they
lately displaced more than they had ever seen before. From that time, at
any rate, Disraeli has been acknowledged as the regenerator and
representative of the Imperial idea in England. He has also been accused
on the same grounds; and if the giver of good wine may be blamed for the
guest who gets drunk on it, there is justice in the accusation. It is but
a statement of fact, however, that Disraeli retains his hold upon the
popular mind on this account mainly. The rekindling of the Imperial idea
is understood as a timely act of revolt and redemption: of revolt against
continuous humiliations deeply felt, redemption from the fate of nations
obviously weak and suspected of timidity. It has been called
rescue-work--deliverance from the dangers of invited aggression and a
philosophical neglect of the means of defence. And its first achievement
for the country (this is again a mere statement of fact) was the
restoration of a much-damaged self-respect and the creation of a great
defensive fleet not a day too soon for safety. So much for "the great
heart of the people." Meanwhile political students find to their
satisfaction that he never courted popularity, and never practised the art
of working for "quick returns" of sympathy or applause. As "adventurer,"
he should have done so; yet he neglected the cultivation of that paying
art for the wisdom that looks to the long future, and bears its fruit,
perchance, when no one cares to remember who sowed the seed. So it is that
to read some of his books and many of his speeches is to draw more respect
and admiration from their pages than could have been found there
originally. The student of his life understands that Disraeli's claim to
remembrance rests not only on the breadth of his views, his deep insight,
his long foresight, but even more on the courage which allowed him to
declare opinions supplied from those qualities when there was no visible
likelihood of their justification by experience, and therefore when their
natural fate was to be slighted. His judgments had to wait the event
before they were absolved from ridicule or delivered from neglect. The
event arrives; he is in his grave; but his reputation loses nothing by
that. It gains by regret that death was beforehand with him.


  Character.

"Adventurer," as applied to Disraeli, was a mere term of abuse.
"Mystery-man" had much of the same intention, but in a blameless though
not in a happy sense it was true of him to the end of his days. Even to
his friends, and to many near him, he remained mysterious to the last.
It is impossible to doubt that some two or three, four or five
perchance, were at home in his mind, being freely admitted there; but of
partial admissions to its inner places there seem to have been few or
none. Men who were long associated with him in affairs, and had much of
his stinted companionship, have confessed that with every wish to
understand his character they never succeeded. Sometimes they fancied
they had got within the topping walls of the maze, and might hope to
gain the point whence survey could be made of the whole; but as often
they found themselves, in a moment, where they stood at last and at
first--outside. His speeches carry us but a little way beyond the mental
range; his novels rather baffle than instruct. It is commonly believed
that Disraeli looked in the glass while describing Sidonia in
_Coningsby_. We group the following sentences from this description for
a purpose that will be presently seen:--(1) "He was admired by women,
idolized by artists, received in all circles with great distinction, and
appreciated for his intellect by the very few to whom he at all opened
himself." (2) "For, though affable and generous, it was impossible to
penetrate him: though unreserved in his manners his frankness was
limited to the surface. He observed everything, thought ever, but
avoided serious discussion. If you pressed him for an opinion he took
refuge in raillery, and threw out some paradox with which it was not
easy to cope. The secret history of the world was Sidonia's pastime. His
great pleasure was to contrast the hidden motive with the public pretext
of transactions." (3) "He might have discovered a spring of happiness in
susceptibilities of the heart; but this was a sealed fountain for
Sidonia. In his organization there was a peculiar, perhaps a great
deficiency; he was a man without affection. It would be hard to say that
he had no heart, for he was susceptible of deep emotions; but not for
individuals. Woman was to him a toy, man a machine." These sentences are
separately grouped here for the sake of suggesting that they will more
truly illustrate Disraeli's character if taken as follows:--The first as
representing his most cherished social ambitions--in whatever degree
achieved. The second group as faithfully and closely descriptive of
himself; descriptive too of a character purposely cloaked. The third as
much less simple; in part a mixture of truth with Byronic affectation,
and for the rest (and more significantly), as intimating the resolute
exercise of extraordinary powers of control over the promptings and
passions by which so many capable ambitions have come to grief. So read,
Sidonia and Benjamin Disraeli are brought into close resemblance by
Disraeli himself; for what in this description is untrue to the
suspected fundamentals of his character is true to his known foibles.
But for a general interpretation of Lord Beaconsfield and his career
none serves so well as that which Froude insists on most. He was
thoroughly and unchangeably a Jew. At but one remove by birth from
southern Europe and the East, he was an Englishman in nothing but his
devotion to England and his solicitude for her honour and prosperity. It
was not wholly by volition and design that his mind was strange to
others and worked in absolute detachment. He had "none of the hereditary
prepossessions of the native Englishman." No such prepossessions
disturbed his vision when it was bent upon the rising problems of the
time, or rested on the machinery of government and the kind of men who
worked it and their ways of working. The advantages of Sidonia's
intellect and temperament were largely his, in affairs, but not without
their drawbacks. His pride in his knowledge of the English character was
the pride of a student; and we may doubt if it ever occurred to him that
there would have been less pride but more knowledge had he been an
Englishman. It is certain that in shrouding his own character he checked
the communication of others to himself, and so could continue to the end
of his career the costly mistake of being theatrical in England. There
was a great deal too (though little to his blame) in Lord Malmesbury's
observation that he was not only disliked in the House of Commons for
his mysterious manner, but prejudiced by a pronounced foreign air and
aspect. Lord Malmesbury does not put it quite as strongly as that, but
he might have done so with truth. No Englishman could approach Disraeli
without some immediate consciousness that he was in the presence of a
foreigner.

Lord Beaconsfield has been praised for his integrity in money matters;
the praise could have been spared--it does not rise high enough. It is
also said to his honour that he "never struck at a little man," and that
was well; but it is explained as readily by pride and calculation as by
magnanimity. A man of extraordinary coolness and self-control, his
faults in every kind were faults of excess: it is the mark of them all.
But whatever offence they gave, whatever mischief they did, was soon
exhausted, and has long since been pardoned.

  AUTHORITIES.--The writer's personal knowledge is largely represented
  in the above article. Among the biographical literature available
  prior to the authoritative _Life_ the following may be cited:--Lord
  Beaconsfield's Preface to 1849 edition of Isaac D'Israeli's works;
  _Correspondence with his Sister_, and _Home Letters_, edited by Ralph
  Disraeli; Samuel Smiles, _Memoirs and Correspondence of John Murray;
  Life of the Earl of Beaconsfield_, by F. Hitchman; _Memoir_ by T.E.
  Kebbel; _Memoir_ by J.A. Froude; _Memoir_ by Harold Gorst; Sir William
  Fraser's _Disraeli and his Day; The Speeches of Lord Beaconsfield_,
  edited by T.E. Kebbel. In 1904, however, the large collection of
  material for Lord Beaconsfield's life, in the hands of his executors
  Lord Rowton and Lord Rothschild, was acquired by _The Times_, and the
  task of preparing the biography was assigned to Mr W.F. Monypenny, an
  assistant editor of _The Times_ (1894-1899), who was best known to the
  public as editor of the Johannesburg _Star_ during the crisis of
  1899-1903.     (F. G.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The crown had in 1871 appointed the Rev. W.W. Harvey (1810-1883),
    a Cambridge man, to the living of Ewelme, near Oxford, for which
    members of the Oxford house of convocation were alone eligible.
    Gladstone was charged with evading this limitation in allowing Harvey
    to qualify for the appointment by being formally admitted M.A. by
    incorporation.

  [2] For a detailed, if somewhat controversial, account of this
    affair, see Lucien Wolf's article in _The Times_ of December 26,
    1905, and Mr Greenwood's letters on the subject.



BEACONSFIELD, a town of Devon county, Tasmania, on the river Tamar, 28
m. direct N.W. of Launceston. Pop. (1901) 2658. From its port at Beauty
Point, 3½ m. distant, with which it is connected by a steam tramway,
communication is maintained with Georgetown and Launceston. It is the
centre of the most important gold-field in the island.



BEACONSFIELD, a town of South Africa in Griqualand West, about 3 m. S.W.
of Kimberley, of which it is practically a suburb, though possessing a
separate municipality. Pop. (1904) 9378, of whom 2780 were whites.
Beaconsfield was founded in 1870 near the famous Dutoitspan diamond
mine. The land on which the town is built belongs to the De Beers
Company. (See KIMBERLEY.)



BEACONSFIELD, a town in the Wycombe parliamentary division of
Buckinghamshire, England. 23 m. W. by N. of London, on the main road to
Oxford, and on the Great Central & Great Western joint railway. Pop. of
urban district (1901) 1570. It lies in a hilly well-wooded district
above the valley of the small river Wye, a tributary of the Thames. The
broad Oxford road forms its picturesque main street. It was formerly a
posting station of importance, and had a considerable manufacture of
ribbons. The Perpendicular church of St Mary and All Saints is the
burial place of Edmund Burke (d. 1797), who lived at Gregories, or as he
named it Butler's Court, near the town. He would have taken his title
from Beaconsfield had he survived to enter the peerage. A monument to
his memory was erected in 1898. Edmund Waller the poet owned the
property of Hall Barn, and died here in 1687. His tomb is in the
churchyard. Benjamin Disraeli chose the title of earl of Beaconsfield in
1876, his wife having in 1868 received the title of Viscountess
Beaconsfield. The opening of railway communication with London in 1906
resulted in a considerable accretion of residential population.



BEAD, a small globule or ball used in necklaces, and made of different
materials, as metal, coral, diamond, amber, ivory, stone, pottery,
glass, rock-crystal and seeds. The word is derived from the Middle Eng.
_bede_, from the common Teutonic word for "to pray," cf. German _beten_
and English _bedesman_, the meaning being transferred from "prayer" to
the spherical bodies strung on a rosary and used in counting prayers.
Beads have been made from remote antiquity, and are found in early
Egyptian tombs; variegated glass beads, found in the ground in certain
parts of Africa, as Ashantiland, and highly prized by the natives as
_aggry_-beads, are supposed to be of Egyptian or Phoenician origin.
Beads of the more expensive materials are strung in necklaces and worn
as articles of personal adornment, while the cheaper kinds are employed
for the decoration of women's dress. Glass beads have long been used for
purposes of barter with savage tribes, and are made in enormous numbers
and varieties, especially in Venice, where the manufacture has existed
from at least the 14th century. Glass, either transparent, or of opaque
coloured enamel (_smalti_), or having complex patterns produced by the
twisting of threads of coloured glass through a transparent body, is
drawn out into long tubes, from which the beads are pinched off, and
finished by being rotated with sand and ashes in heated cylinders.

In architecture, the term "bead" is given to a small cylindrical
moulding, in classic work often cut into bead and reel.



BEADLE, also BEDEL or BEDELL (from A.S. _bydel_, from _beodan_, to bid),
originally a subordinate officer of a court or deliberative assembly,
who summoned persons to appear and answer charges against them (see Du
Cange, _supra tit. Bedelli_). As such, the beadle goes back to early
Teutonic times; he was probably attached to the moot as its messenger or
summoner, being under the direction of the reeve or constable of the
leet. After the Norman Conquest, the beadle seems to have diminished in
importance, becoming merely the crier in the manor and forest courts,
and sometimes executing processes. He was also employed as the messenger
of the parish, and thus became, to a certain extent, an ecclesiastical
officer, but in reality acted more as a constable by keeping order in
the church and churchyard during service. He also attended upon the
clergy, the churchwardens and the vestry. He was appointed by the
parishioners in vestry, and his wages were payable out of the church
rate. From the Poor Law Act of 1601 till the act of 1834 by which
poor-law administration was transferred to guardians, the beadle in
England was an officer of much importance in his capacity of agent for
the overseers. In all medieval universities the bedel was an officer who
exercised various executive and spectacular functions (H. Rashdall,
_Hist. of Universities in the Middle Ages_, i. 193). He still survives
in many universities on the continent of Europe and in those of Oxford
and Cambridge, but he is now shorn of much of his importance. At Oxford
there are four bedels, representing the faculties of law, medicine, arts
and divinity. Their duties are chiefly processional, the junior or
sub-bedel being the official attendant on the vice-chancellor, before
whom he bears a silver mace. At Cambridge there are two, termed
esquire-bedels, who both walk before the vice-chancellor, bearing maces.



BEAK (early forms _beke_ and _becke_, from Fr. _bec_, late Lat.
_beccus_, supposed to be a Gaulish word; the Celtic _bec_ and _beq_,
however, are taken from the English), the horny bill of a bird, and so
used of the horny ends of the mandibles of the octopus, the duck-billed
platypus and other animals; hence the rostrum (q.v.) or ornamented prow
of ancient war vessels. The term is also applied, in classic
architecture, to the pendent fillet on the edge of the corona of a
cornice, which serves as a drip, and prevents the rain from flowing
inwards.

The slang use of "beak" for a magistrate or justice of the peace has not
been satisfactorily explained. The earlier meaning, which lasted down to
the beginning of the 19th century, was "watchman" or "constable."
According to _Slang and its Analogues_ (J.S. Farmer and W.E. Henley,
1890), the first example of its later use is in the name of "the Blind
Beak," which was given to Henry Fielding's half-brother, Sir John
Fielding (about 1750). Thomas Harman, in his book on vagrants, _Caveat
or Warening for commen cursitors, Vulgarely called Vagabones_, 1573,
explains _harmans beck_ as "counstable," _harman_ being the word for the
stocks. Attempts have been made to connect "beak" in this connexion with
the Old English _beag_, a gold torque or collar, worn as a symbol of
authority, but this could only be plausible on the assumption that
"magistrate" was the earlier significance of the word.



BEAKER (Scottish _bicker_, Lat. _bicarium_, Ger. _Becher_, a
drinking-bowl), a large wide-mouthed drinking-cup or laboratory vessel.
See DRINKING-VESSELS.



BEALE, DOROTHEA (1831-1906), English schoolmistress, was born on the
21st of March 1831 in London, her father being a physician of good
family and cultivated tastes. She had already shown a strong
intellectual bent and considerable force of character when in 1848 she
was one of the first to attend lectures at the newly opened Queen's
College for Ladies, London, and from 1849 to 1856 she herself took
classes there. In 1857 for a few months she became head teacher of the
Clergy Daughters' school at Casterton, Westmoreland, but narrow
religious prejudices on the part of the governors led to her retirement.
In 1858 she was appointed principal of the Ladies College at Cheltenham
(opened 1854), then in very low water. Her tact and strenuousness,
backed by able financial management, led to its success being thoroughly
established by 1864, and as the college increased in numbers new
buildings were erected from 1873 onwards. Under Miss Beale's headship it
grew into one of the great girls' schools of the country, and its
development and example played an important part in the revolution
effected in regard to the higher education of women. Miss Beale retained
her post till her death on the 9th of November 1906. Strongly religious
by nature, broad-minded and keenly interested in all branches of
culture, she exercised a far-reaching influence on her pupils.

  Her _Life_ was written by Elizabeth Raikes (1908).



BEAM (from the O. Eng. _béam_, cf. Ger. _Baum_, a tree, to which sense
may be referred the use of "beam" as meaning the rood or crucifix, and
the survival in certain names of trees, as hornbeam), a solid piece of
timber, as a beam of a house, of a plough, a loom, or a balance. In the
last case, from meaning simply the cross-bar of the balance, "beam" has
come to be used of the whole, as in the expression "the king's beam," or
"common beam," which refers to the old English standard balance for
wholesale goods, for several hundred years in the custody of the
Grocers' Company, London. As a nautical term, "beam" was transferred
from the main cross-timbers to the side of the ship; thus "on the
weather-beam" means "to windward," and a ship is said to be "wide in the
beam" when she is wide horizontally. The phrase "to be on one's
beam-ends," denoting a position of extreme peril or helplessness, is
borrowed from the position of a ship which has heeled over so far as to
stand on the ends of her horizontal beams. The meaning of "beam" for
shafts or rays of light comes apparently from the use of the word to
translate the Latin _columna lucis_, a pillar of light.



BEAN (a common Teutonic word, cf. Ger. _Bohne_), the seed of certain
leguminous plants cultivated for food all over the world, and furnished
chiefly by the genera _Vicia, Phaseolus, Dolichos_ and others. The
common bean, in all its varieties, as cultivated in Britain and on the
continents of Europe and America, is the produce of _Vicia Faba_. The
French bean, kidney bean, or haricot, is the seed of _Phaseolus
vulgaris_; but in India several other species of this genus of plants
are raised, and form no small portion of the diet of the inhabitants.
Besides these there are numerous other pulses cultivated for the food
both of man and domestic animals, to which the name bean is frequently
given. The common bean is even more nutritious than wheat; and it
contains a very high proportion of nitrogenous matter under the form of
legumin, which amounts on an average to 24%. It is, however, a rather
coarse food, and difficult of digestion, and is chiefly used to feed
horses, for which it is admirably adapted. In England French beans are
chiefly, almost exclusively, used in the green state; the whole pod
being eaten as a table vegetable or prepared as a pickle. It is
wholesome and nutritious; and in Holland and Germany the pods are
preserved in salt by almost every family for winter and spring use. The
green pods are cut across obliquely, most generally by a machine
invented for the purpose, and salted in barrels. When wanted for use
they are steeped in fresh water to remove the salt, and broiled or
stewed they form an agreeable addition to the diet at a time when no
other vegetable may be had.

The broad bean--_Vicia Faba_, or _Faba vulgaris_, as it is known by
those botanists who regard the slight differences which distinguish it
from the great majority of the species of the vetch genus (_Vicia_) as
of generic importance--is an annual which has been cultivated fiom
prehistoric times for its nutritious seeds.

The lake-dwellers of Switzerland, and northern Italy in the bronze age
cultivated a small-fruited variety, and it was grown in ancient Egypt,
though, according to Herodotus, regarded by the priests as unclean. The
ancient Greeks called it [Greek: kuamos], the Latins _faba_, but there
is no suggestion that the plant is a native of Europe. Alphonse de
Candolle (_Origin of Cultivated Plants_, p. 320) concludes that the bean
was introduced into Europe probably by the western Aryans at the time of
their earliest migrations. He suggests that its wild habitat was twofold
some thousands of years ago, one of the centres being to the south of
the Caspian, the other in the north of Africa, and that its area has
long been in process of diminution and extinction. The nature of the
plant favours this hypothesis, for its seed has no means of dispersing
itself, and rodents or other animals can easily make prey of it; the
struggle for existence which was going against this plant as against
maize would have gradually isolated it and caused it to disappear, if
man had not saved it by cultivation. It was introduced into China a
little before the Christian era, later into Japan and more recently into
India, though it has been suggested that in parts of the higher
Himalayas its cultivation has survived from very ancient times. It is a
plant which will flourish in all ordinary good garden soil. The seeds
are sown about 4 in. apart, in drills 2½ ft. asunder for the smaller and
3 ft. for the larger sorts. The soil should, preferably, be a rather
heavy loam, deeply worked and well enriched. For an early crop, seeds
may be sown in November, and protected during winter in the same manner
as early peas. An early crop may also be obtained by dibbling in the
seeds in November, sheltering by a frame, and in February transplanting
them to a warm border. Successional crops are obtained by sowing
suitable varieties from January to the end of June. All the culture
necessary is that the earth be drawn up about the stems. The plants are
usually topped when the pods have set, as this not only removes the
black aphides which often settle there, but is also found to promote the
filling of the pods.

The following are some of the best sorts:--for early use, Early Mazagan,
Long-pod, Marshall's Early Prolific and Seville Long-pod; for late use,
Carter's Mammoth Long-pod and Broad Windsor.

The horse-bean is a variety--var. _equina_.

_Cultivation of Field-bean._--Several varieties of _Vicia Faba_ (e.g.
the horse bean, the mazagan, the tick bean, the winter bean) are
cultivated in the field for the sake both of the grain, which is used as
food for live-stock, and of the haulm, which serves for either fodder or
litter. They are best adapted for heavy soils such as clays or clayey
loams. The time for sowing is from the end of January to the beginning
of March, or in the case of winter beans from the end of September to
the middle of November. The bean-crop is usually interposed between two
crops of wheat or some other cereal. If spring beans are to be sown, the
land after harvest is dressed with farmyard manure, which is then
ploughed in. In January the soil is levelled with the harrows, and the
seed, which should be hard and light brown in colour, is drilled in rows
from 15 to 24 in. apart at the rate of from 2 to 2½ bushels to the acre
and then harrowed in. The alternative is to "dibble" the seed in the
furrow left by the autumn ploughing and cover it in with the harrows; or
the land may be ridged with the double-breasted plough, manure deposited
in the furrows and the seed sown broadcast, the ridges being then split
back so as to cover both manure and seed. After the plant shows,
horse-hoeing and hand-hoeing between the rows is carried on so long as
the plant is small enough to suffer no injury therefrom. The routine of
cultivation for winter beans hardly differs from that described except
as regards the time of sowing.

Beans are cut when the leaf is fallen and the haulm is almost black
either with the fagging hook or the reaping machine, though the
stoutness of the stalks causes a severe strain on the latter implement.
They are tied and stocked, and are so left for a considerable time
before stacking. There is less fear of injury to the crop through damp
than in the case of other cereals. Their value for feeding purposes
increases in the stack, where they may remain for a year or more before
threshing. Pea and bean weevils, both striped (_Sitones lineatus_) and
spotted (_Sitones crinitus_), and the bean aphis (_Aphis rumicis_), are
noted pests of the crop. Winter beans come to maturity earlier than the
spring-sown varieties, and are therefore strong enough to resist the
attacks of the aphis by the end of June, when it begins its ravages.
Field-beans yield from 25 to 35 bushels to the acre.

_Phascolus vulgaris_, the kidney, French or haricot bean, an annual,
dwarf and bushy in growth, is widely cultivated in temperate,
sub-tropical and tropical regions, but is nowhere known as a wild plant.
It was long supposed to be of Indian origin, an idea which was disproved
by Alphonse de Candolle, who sums up the facts bearing on its origin as
follows:--_Phaseolus vulgaris_ has not been long cultivated in India,
the south-west of Asia and Egypt, and it is not certain that it was
known in Europe before the discovery of America. At the latter epoch the
number of varieties in European gardens suddenly increased, and all
authors began to mention them. The majority of the species of the genus
exist in South America, and seeds apparently belonging to the species in
question have been found in Peruvian tombs of an uncertain date,
intermixed with many species, all American. Hence it is probable that
the plant is of South American origin.

It is a tender annual, and should be grown in a rich light loamy soil
and a warm sheltered situation. The soil should be well enriched with
hot-bed dung. The earliest crop may be sown by the end of March or
beginning of April. If, however, the temperature of the soil is below
45°, the beans make but little progress. The main crops should be got in
early in May; and a later sowing may be made early in July. The earlier
plantings may be sown in small pots, and put in frames or houses, until
they can be safely planted out-of-doors. A light covering of straw or
some other simple shelter suffices to protect from late frosts. The
seeds should be covered 1½ or 2 in. deep, the distance between the rows
being about 2 ft., or for the dwarfest sorts 18 in., and that between
plants from 4 to 6 in. The pods may be used as a green vegetable, in
which case they should be gathered whilst they are so crisp as to be
readily snapped in two when bent; but when the dry seeds are to be used
the pods should be allowed to ripen. As the green pods are gathered
others will continue to be formed in abundance, but if old seed-forming
pods are allowed to remain the formation of young ones will be greatly
checked. There are numerous varieties; among the best are Canadian
Wonder, Canterbury and Black Negro.

_Phaseolus multiflorus_, scarlet runner, is nearly allied to _P.
vulgaris_, of which it is sometimes regarded as a variety, but differs
in its climbing habit. It is naturally perennial and has a thick fleshy
root, but is grown in Great Britain as a tender annual. Its bright,
generally scarlet flowers, arranged in long racemes, and the fact that
it will flourish in any ordinary good garden soil, combine to make it a
favourite garden plant. It is also of interest as being one of the few
plants that twine in a direction contrary to the apparent motion of the
sun. The seeds of the runner beans should be sown in an open plot,--the
first sowing in May, another at the beginning of June, and a third about
the middle of June. In the London market-gardens they are sown 8 to 12
in. apart, in 4 ft. rows if the soil is good. The twining tops are
pinched or cut off when the plants are from 2 to 2½ ft. high, to save
the expense of staking. It is better, however, in private gardens to
have the rows standing separately, and to support the plants by stakes 6
or 7 ft. high and about a foot apart, the tops of the stakes being
crossed about one-third down. If the weather is dry when the pods are
forming abundantly, plenty of tepid water should be supplied to the
plants. In training the shoots to their supports, they should be twined
from right to left, contrary to the course of the sun, or they will not
lay hold. By frequently picking the pods the plants are encouraged to
form fresh blooms from which pods may be picked until the approach of
frost.

The ordinary scarlet runner is most commonly grown, but there is a
white-flowered variety which has also white seeds; this is very prolific
and of excellent quality. Another variety called Painted Lady, with the
flowers red and white, is very ornamental, but not so productive.
Carter's Champion is a large-podded productive variety.

Another species _P. lunatus_, the Lima bean, a tall biennial with a
scimitar-shaped pod (whence the specific name) 2 to 3 in. long
containing a few large seeds, is widely cultivated in the warmer parts
of the world.

The young pods of another leguminous climbing herb, _Dolichos Lablab_,
as well as the seeds, are widely used in the tropics, as we use the
kidney bean. The plant is probably a native of tropical Africa, but is
now generally cultivated in the tropics. The word _Dolichos_ is of Greek
origin, and was used by Theophrastus for the scarlet runner.

Another species, _D. biflorus_, is the horse gram, the seed of which is
eaten by the poorer class of natives in India, and is also, as are the
pods, a food for horses and cattle.

The Soy bean, _Glycine hispida_, was included by Linnaeus in the genus
_Dolichos_. It is extensively cultivated in China and Japan, chiefly for
the pleasant-flavoured seed from which is prepared a piquant sauce. It
is also widely grown in India, where the bean is eaten, while the plant
forms a valuable fodder; it is cultivated for the latter purpose in the
United States.

Other references to beans will be found under special headings, such as
CALABAR BEAN, LOCUST-TREE. There are also several non-leguminous seeds
to which the popular name bean is attached. Among these may be mentioned
the sacred Egyptian or Pythagorean bean (_Nelumbium speciosum_), and the
Ignatius bean (probably _Strychnos multiflora_), a source of strychnine.

The ancient Greeks and Romans made use of beans in gathering the votes
of the people, and for the election of magistrates. A white bean
signified absolution, and a black one condemnation. Beans had a
mysterious use in the _lemuralia_ and _parentalia_, where the master of
the family, after washing his hands three times, threw black beans over
his head nine times, reiterating the words "I redeem myself and my
family by these beans."



BEAN-FEAST, primarily an annual dinner given by an employer to his
workpeople, and then colloquially any jollification. The phrase is
variously derived. The most probable theory is that which connects it
with the custom in France, and afterwards in Germany and England, of a
feast on Twelfth Night, at which a cake with a bean buried in it was a
great feature. The bean-king was he who had the good fortune to have the
slice of cake in which was the bean. This choosing of a king or queen by
a bean was formerly a common Christmas diversion at the English and
Scottish courts, and in both English universities. This monarch was
master of the revels like his congener the lord of misrule. A clue to
his original functions is possibly found in the old popular belief that
the weather for the ensuing twelve months was determined by the weather
of the twelve days from Christmas to Twelfth Night, the weather of each
particular month being prognosticated from each day. Thus the king of
the bean of Twelfth Night may have originally reigned for the twelve
days, his chief duty being the performance of magical ceremonies for
ensuring good weather during the ensuing twelve months. Probably in him
and the lord of misrule it is correct to find the lineal descendant of
the old king of the Saturnalia, the real man who personated Saturn and,
when the revels ceased, suffered a real death in his assumed character.
Another but most improbable derivation for bean-feast connects it with
M.E. _bene_ "prayer," "request," the allusion being to the soliciting of
alms towards the cost of their Twelfth Night dinner by the workpeople.

  See WAYZGOOSE; MISRULE, LORD OF; also J. Boemus, _Mores, leges et
  ritus omnium gentium_ (Lyons, 1541), p. 222; Laisnel de la Salle,
  _Croyances et légendes du centre de la France_, i. 19-29; Lecoeur,
  _Esquisses du Bocage normand_, ii. 125; Schmitz, _Sitten und Sagen des
  Eifler Volkes_, i. 6; Brand, _Popular Antiquities of Great Britain_
  (Hazlitt's edit. 1905), under "Twelfth Night"; Cortet, _Fêtes
  religieuses_, p. 29 sqq.



BEAR, properly the name of the European brown bear (_Ursus arctus_), but
extended to include all the members of the _Ursidae_, the typical family
of Arctoid carnivora, distinguished by their massive bodies, short
limbs, and almost rudimentary tails. With the single exception of the
Indian sloth-bear, all the species have forty-two teeth, of which the
incisors and canines closely resemble those of purely carnivorous
mammals; while the molars, and especially the one known as the
"sectorial" or "carnassial," have their surfaces tuberculated so as to
adapt them for grinding vegetable substances. As might have been
supposed from their dentition, the bears are omnivorous; but most prefer
vegetable food, including honey, when a sufficient supply of this can
be had. The grizzly bear, however, is chiefly carnivorous; while the
polar bear is almost wholly so.

Bears are five-toed, and provided with formidable claws, which are not
retractile, and thus better fitted for digging and climbing than for
tearing. Most climb trees in a slow, lumbering fashion, and, in
descending, always come hind-quarters first. The grizzly bear is said to
lose this power of climbing in the adult stage. In northern countries
bears retire during the winter into caves and the hollows of trees, or
allow the falling snow to cover them, and there remain dormant till the
advent of spring, about which time the female usually produces her
young. These are born naked and blind, and it is commonly five weeks
before they see, or become covered with hair. Before hibernating the
adults grow very fat, and it is by the gradual consumption of this
fat--known in commerce as bear's grease--that such vital action as is
necessary to the continuance of life is sustained.

The bear family is widely distributed, being found in every quarter of
the globe except Australia, and in all climates, from the highest
northern latitudes yet reached by man to the warm regions of India and
Malaya. In the north-west corner of Africa the single representative of
the family found on that continent occurs.

The polar or white bear (_Ursus maritimus_), common to the Arctic
regions of both hemispheres, is distinguished from the other species by
having the soles of the feet covered with close-set hairs,--in
adaptation to the wants of the creature, the bear being thereby enabled
to walk securely on slippery ice. In the whiteness of its fur also, it
shows such an assimilation in colour to that of surrounding nature as
must be of considerable service in concealing it from its prey. The food
of the white bear consists chiefly of seals and fish, in pursuit of
which it shows great power of swimming and diving, and a considerable
degree of sagacity; but its food also includes the carcases of whales,
birds and their eggs, and grass and berries when these can be had. That
it can sustain life on a purely vegetable diet is proved by instances on
record of its being fed for years on bread only, in confinement. These
bears are strong swimmers, Sir Edward Sabine having found one "swimming
powerfully 40 m. from the nearest shore, and with no ice in sight to
afford it rest." They are often carried on floating ice to great
distances, and to more southern latitudes than their own, no fewer than
twelve Polar bears having been known to reach Iceland in this way during
one winter. The female always hibernates, but the male may be seen
abroad at all seasons. In bulk the white bear exceeds most other members
of the family, measuring nearly 9 ft. in length, and often weighing 1600
lb.

Land bears have the soles of the feet destitute of hair, and their fur
more or less shaggy. On these the brown bear (_Ursus arctus_,--[Greek:
arktos] of Aristotle) is found in one or other of its varieties all over
the temperate and north temperate regions of the eastern hemisphere,
from Spain to Japan. The fur is usually brownish, but there are black,
blackish-grey and yellowish varieties. It is a solitary animal,
frequenting the wooded parts of the regions it inhabits, and living on a
mixed diet of fruits, vegetable, honey, fish and the smaller animals. In
winter it hibernates, concealing itself in some hollow or cavern. It
does not seek to attack man; but when baited, or in defence of its
young, shows great courage and strength, rising on its hind legs and
endeavouring to grasp its antagonist in an embrace. Bear-baiting, till
within comparatively recent times, was a favourite sport throughout
Europe, but, along with cock-fighting and badger-baiting, has gradually
disappeared before a more humane civilization. It was a favourite
pastime among the Romans, who imported their bears from Britain, a proof
that the animal was then comparatively abundant in that country; indeed,
from reference made to it in early Scottish history, the bear does not
appear to have been extirpated in Britain before the end of the 11th
century. It is now found in greatest abundance in Norway, Russia and
Siberia, where hunting the bear is a favourite sport, and where, when
dead, its remains are highly valued. Among the Kamchadales "the skin of
the bear," says a traveller, "forms their beds and their coverlets,
bonnets for their heads, gloves for their hands and collars for their
dogs. The flesh and fat are their dainties. Of the intestines they make
masks or covers for their faces, to protect them from the glare of the
sun in the spring, and use them as a substitute for glass, by extending
them over their windows. Even the shoulder-blades are said to be put in
requisition for cutting grass." In confinement the brown bear is readily
tamed; and advantage has been taken of the facility with which it can
sustain itself on the hind feet to teach it to dance to the sound of
music. It measures 4 ft. in length, and is about 2½ ft. high. Of this
species Crowther's bear from the Atlas Mountains, the Syrian bear
(_Ursus arctus pyriacus_) and the snow or isabelline bear (_Ursus arctus
isabellinus_) of the Himalaya are local races, or at most subspecies.[1]
American naturalists regard the big brown bears of Alaska as a distinct
group. They range from Sitka to the extremity of the Alaskan Peninsula,
over Kodiak Island, and inland. Their distinctive external features are
their large size, light-brown colour, high shoulders, massive heads of
great breadth and shaggy coat.

The grizzly bear (_Ursus arctus horribilis_, formerly known as _U.
ferox_) is regarded by some naturalists as a distinct species and by
others as a variety of the brown bear, to which it is closely allied. It
was said to exceed all other American mammals in ferocity of disposition
and muscular strength. Stories were told of its attacking the bison, and
it has been reported to carry off the carcase of a wapiti, weighing
nearly 1000 lb., for a considerable distance to its den, there to devour
it at leisure. It also eats fruit and vegetables. Its fur is usually of
a yellowish-brown colour, coarse and grizzled, and of little value
commercially, while its flesh, unlike that of other bears, is uneatable
even by the Indians. The grizzly bear is now rare in the United States,
save in the Yellowstone Park and the Clearwater Mountains of Idaho,
though more common in British Columbia. Several geographical races are
recognized. The Tibet bear (_U. pruinosus_) is a light-coloured small
species.

The American black bear (_Ursus americanus_) occurs throughout the
wooded parts of the North American continent, whence it is being
gradually driven to make room for man. It is similar in size to the
brown bear, but its fur is of a soft even texture, and of a shining
black colour, to which it owes its commercial value. At the beginning of
the 19th century black bears were killed in enormous numbers for their
furs, which at that time were highly valued. In 1803 the skins imported
into England numbered 25,000, but the imports have since decreased to
one-half of that number. They are chiefly used for military
accoutrements. This is a timid animal, feeding almost solely on fruits,
and lying dormant during winter, at which period it is most frequently
killed. It is an object of superstitious reverence to the Indians, who
never kill it without apologizing and deploring the necessity which
impels them to do so.

The Himalayan black bear (_U. torquatus_) is found in the forest regions
ranging from the Persian frontier eastward to Assam. The average length
is about 5 ft.; there is no under-fur, and the coat is smooth, black in
colour, with the exception of a white horseshoe-mark on the chest. It
feeds chiefly on fruit and roots, but kills sheep, goats, deer, ponies
and cattle, and sometimes devours carrion.

The small bruang or Malayan bear (_Ursus malayanus_) is of a jet-black
colour, with a white semilunar mark on the chest, and attains a length
of 4½ ft. Its food consists almost solely of vegetables and honey, but
the latter is its favourite food,--the extreme length and pliability of
the tongue enabling it to scoop out the honeycombs from the hollows of
trees. It is found in the Malay Peninsula and Islands, and is readily
tamed.

Not much larger than the Malay bear is the South American spectacled
bear of the Andes (_U. ornatus_), distinguished from all the rest by the
presence of a perforation in the lower end of the humerus, and hence
sometimes separated as _Tremarctus_. It is black, with tawny rings round
the eyes, and white cheeks, throat and chest. A second race or species
exists.

The sloth-bear (_Melursus labiatus_ or _ursinus_) is distinguished by
the absence of one pair of upper incisors, the small size of the
cheek-teeth and the very extensile character of the lips. It is also
known as the aswail and the honey-bear, the last name being also given
to the Malay bear and the kinkajou. It is about the size of the brown
bear, is covered with long, black hair, and of extremely uncouth aspect.
It inhabits the mountainous regions of India, is readily tamed and is
the bear usually exhibited by the Hindu jugglers. The food consists of
fruits, honey and white ants.

Fossil remains of extinct bears first occur in strata of the Pliocene
age. Those of the great cave bear (_Ursus spelaeus_), found abundantly
in certain caverns of central Europe and Asia, show that it must have
exceeded in size the polar bear of the present day. Its remains are also
found in similar situations in Britain associated with those of an
allied species (_Ursus priscus_).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Lydekker, in _Proc. Zool. Soc._, 1897, p. 412.



BEAR-BAITING and BULL-BAITING, sports formerly very popular in England
but now suppressed on account of their cruelty. They took place in
arenas built in the form of theatres which were the common resort even
of cultivated people. In the bear-gardens, which are known to have
existed since the time of Henry II., the bear was chained to a stake by
one hind leg or by the neck and worried by dogs. Erasmus, writing (about
1500) from the house of Sir Thomas More, spoke of "many herds of bears
maintained in the country for the purpose of baiting." Sunday was the
favourite day for these sports. Hentzner, writing in 1598, describes the
bear-garden at Bankside as "another place, built in the form of a
theatre, which serves for the baiting of Bulls and Bears. They are
fastened behind, and then worried by great English bull-dogs, but not
without great risk to the dogs from the horns of the one and the teeth
of the other, and it sometimes happens they are killed upon the spot;
fresh ones are immediately supplied in the places of those that are
wounded or tired." He also describes the whipping of a blinded bear, a
favourite variation of bear-baiting. For a famous baiting which took
place before Queen Elizabeth in 1575 thirteen bears were provided. Of it
Robert Laneham (fl. 1575) wrote, "it was a sport very pleasant to see,
to see the bear, with his pink eyes, tearing after his enemies'
approach; the nimbleness and wait of the dog to take his advantage and
the force and experience of the bear again to avoid his assaults: if he
were bitten in one place how he would pinch in another to get free; that
if he were taken once, then by what shift with biting, with clawing,
with roaring, with tossing and tumbling he would work and wind himself
from them; and when he was loose to shake his ears twice or thrice with
the blood and the slaver hanging about his physiognomy." The famous
"Paris Garden" in Southwark was the chief bear-garden in London. A
Spanish nobleman of the time, who was taken to see a pony baited that
had an ape tied to its back, expressed himself to the effect that "to
see the animal kicking amongst the dogs, with the screaming of the ape,
beholding the curs hanging from the ears and neck of the pony, is very
laughable." Butler describes a bear-baiting at length in the first canto
of his _Hudibras_.

The Puritans endeavoured to put an end to animal-baiting, although
Macaulay sarcastically suggested that this was "not because it gave pain
to the bear, but because it gave pleasure to the spectators." The
efforts of the Puritans seem, however, to have had little effect, for we
find the sport flourishing at the Restoration; but the conscience of
cultivated people seems to have been touched, for Evelyn wrote in his
_Diary_, under the date of June 16th, 1670: "I went with some friends to
the bear-garden, where was cock-fighting, dog-fighting, bear and bull
baiting, it being a famous day for all these butcherly sports, or rather
barbarous cruelties. The bulls did exceedingly well, but the Irish
wolf-dog exceeded, which was a tall greyhound, a stately creature
indeed, who beat a cruel mastiff. One of the bulls tossed a dog full
into a lady's lap, as she sat in one of the boxes at a considerable
height from the arena. Two poor dogs were killed, and so all ended with
the ape on horseback, and I most heartily weary of the rude and dirty
pastime, which I had not seen, I think, in twenty years before." Steele
also attacked these cruel sports in the _Tatler_. Nevertheless, when the
tsar Nicholas I. visited England as cesarevich, he was taken to see a
prize-fight and a bull-baiting. In this latter form of the sport the
bull's nose was usually blown full of pepper to render him the more
furious. The bull was often allowed a hole in the ground, into which to
thrust his nose and lips, his most vulnerable parts. Sometimes the bull
was tethered, and dogs, trained for the purpose, set upon him one by
one, a successful attack resulting in the dog fastening his teeth firmly
in the bull's snout. This was called "pinning the bull." A sport called
bull-running was popular in several towns of England, particularly at
Tutbury and Stamford. Its establishment at Tutbury was due to John of
Gaunt, to whose minstrels, on the occasion of their annual festival on
August 16th the prior of Tutbury, for his tenure, delivered a bull,
which had his horns sawn off, his ears and tail cut off, his nostrils
filled with pepper and his whole body smeared with soap. The minstrels
gave chase to the bull, which became the property of any minstrel of the
county of Stafford who succeeded in holding him long enough to cut off a
lock of his hair. Otherwise he was returned to the prior. At the
dissolution of the monasteries this tenure devolved upon the dukes of
Devonshire, who suppressed it in 1788. At Stamford the running took
place annually on November 13th, the bull being provided by the butchers
of the town, the townspeople taking part in the chase, which was carried
on until both people and beast were exhausted, and ended in the killing
of the bull. Certain rules were strictly observed, such as the
prohibition of carrying sticks or staves that were shod with iron. The
Stamford bull-running survived well into the 19th century. Bear-baiting
and bull-baiting were prohibited by act of parliament in 1835.



BEARD, WILLIAM HOLBROOK (1825-1900), American painter, was born on the
13th of April 1825 at Painesville, Ohio. He studied abroad, and in 1861
removed to New York City, where in 1862 he became a member of the
National Academy of Design. He was a prolific worker and a man of much
inventiveness and originality, though of modest artistic endowment. His
humorous treatment of cats, dogs, horses and monkeys, generally with
some human occupation and expression, usually satirical, gave him a
great vogue at one time, and his pictures were largely reproduced. His
brother, James Henry Beard (1814-1893), was also a painter.



BEARD (A.S. _beard_, O.H. and Mod. Ger. _Bart_, Dan. _baard_, Icel.
_bar_, rim, edge, beak of a ship, &c., O. Slav, _barda_, Russ. _barodá_.
Cf. Welsh _barf_, Lat. _barba_, though, according to the _New English
Dictionary_, the connexion is for phonetic reasons doubtful). Modern
usage applies this word to the hair grown upon a man's chin and cheek.
When the chin is shaven, what remains upon the cheeks is called
whiskers. "Moustache" or "moustaches" describes the hair upon the upper
lip. But the words have in the past had less exact meaning. Beard has
stood alone for all these things, and whisker has in its time signified
what we now call moustache, as in the case of Robinson Crusoe's great
pair of "Turkish whiskers."

The bearded races of mankind have ever held the beard in high honour. It
is the sign of full manhood; the lad or the eunuch is beardless, and the
bearded woman is reckoned a witch, a loathsome thing to all ages. Also
the beard shrinks from the profane hand; a tug at the beard is sudden
pain and dishonour. The Roman senator sat like a carven thing until the
wondering Goth touched his long beard; but then he struck, although he
died for the blow. The future King John gave deadly offence to the
native chieftains, when visiting Ireland in 1185, by plucking at their
flowing beards.

David's ambassadors had their beards despitefully shaven by a bold
heathen. Their own king mercifully covered their shame--"Tarry ye at
Jericho until your beards be grown"--but war answered the insult. The
oath on the beard is as old as history, and we have an echo of it in the
first English political ballad when Sir Simon de Montfort swears "by his
chin" revenge on Warenne.

Adam, our first father, was by tradition created with a beard: Zeus
Allfather is bearded, and the old painters and carvers who hardily
pictured the first person of the Trinity gave Him the long beard of his
fatherhood. The race-fathers have it and the ancient heroes. Abraham and
Agamemnon, Woden and King Arthur and Charlemagne, must all be bearded in
our pictures. With the Mahommedan peoples the beard as worn by an
unshaven prophet has ever been in high renown, the more so that amongst
most of the conquering tribes who first acknowledged the unity of God
and prophethood of Mahomet it grows freely. But before Mahomet's day,
kings of Persia had plaited their sacred beards with golden thread, and
the lords of Nineveh had curiously curled and oiled beards such as their
winged bull wears. Bohadin tells us that Saladin's little son wept for
terror when he saw the crusaders' envoys "with their clean-shaven
chins." Selim I. (1512-1521) comes down as a Turkish sultan who broke
into holy custom and cut off his beard, telling a remonstrating Mufti
that his vizier should now have nothing to lead him by. But such
tampering with tradition has its dangers, and the absolute rule of Peter
the Great is made clear when we know that he taxed Russian beards and
shaved his own, and yet died in his bed. Alexander the Great did as much
and more with his well-drilled Macedonians, and was obeyed when he bade
them shave off the handle by which an enemy could seize them.

With other traditions of their feudal age, the Japanese nation has
broken with its ancient custom of the razor, and their emperor has beard
and moustache; a short moustache is common amongst Japanese officers and
statesmen, and generals and admirals of Nippon follow the imperial
example. The Nearer East also is abandoning the full beard, even in
Mahommedan lands. Earlier shahs of the Kajar house have glorious beards
below their girdles, but Nasiru'd-Dín and his successor have shaved
their chins. In later years the sultan of Turkey has added a beard to
his moustache; the khedive of Egypt, son of a bearded father, has a
soldier's moustache only. In Europe the great Russian people is faithful
to the beard, Peter's law being forgotten. The tsar Alexander III.'s
beard might have satisfied Ivan the Terrible, whose hands played
delightedly with the five-foot beard of Queen Elizabeth's agent George
Killingworth. Indeed the royal houses of Europe are for the most part
bearded or whiskered. It may be that the race of Olivier le Dain, of the
man who can be trusted with a sharp razor near a crowned king's throat,
is extinct. Leopold II., king of the Belgians, however, was in 1909 the
only sovereign with the full beard unclipped. The Austrian emperor,
Francis Joseph, retained the moustache and whiskers of the 'sixties, and
the German emperor, William II., for a short period, commemorated by a
few very rare photographs, had a beard, although it was never suffered
to reach the length of that beard which gave his father an air of
Charlemagne or Barbarossa. In France bearded presidents have followed
each other, but it may be noted that the waxed moustache and "imperial"
beard of the Second Empire is now all but abandoned to the Frenchman of
English comedy. The modern English fashion of shaving clean is rare in
France save among actors, and during 1907 many Parisian waiters struck
against the rule which forbade them to grow the moustache.

For the most part the clergy of the Roman obedience shave clean, as have
done the popes for two centuries and more. But missionary bishops
cultivate the long beard with some pride, and the orders have varying
customs, the Dominican shaving and the Franciscan allowing the hair to
grow. The Roman Catholic clergy of Dalmatia, secular and regular, are
allowed to wear the moustache without beard or whiskers, as a concession
to national prejudices.

Amongst English people, always ready to be swayed by fashion, the hair
of the face has been, age by age, cherished or shaved away, curled or
clipped into a hundred devices. Before the immigration from Sleswick the
Briton knew the use of the razor, sometimes shaving his chin, but
leaving the moustaches long. The old English also wore moustaches and
forked beards, but, save for aged men, the beard had passed out of
fashion before the Norman Conquest. Thus, in the Bayeux needlework,
Edward the king is venerable with a long beard, but Harold and his
younger fighting men have their chins reaped. "The English," says
William of Malmesbury, "leave the upper lip unshaven, suffering the hair
continually to increase," and to Harold's spies the Conqueror's knights,
who had "the whole face with both lips shaven," were strange and
priest-like. Matthew Paris had a strange idea that the beard was
distinctive of Englishmen; he asserts that those who remained in England
were compelled to shave their beards, while the native nobles who went
into exile kept their beards and flowing locks "like the Easterns and
especially the Trojans." He even believed that "William with the beard,"
who headed a rising in London under Richard I., came of a stock which
had scorned to shave, out of hatred for the Normans, a statement which
Thierry developed.

The _Chanson de Roland_ shows us "the pride of France" as "that good
bearded folk," with their beards hanging over coats of mail, and it
makes the great emperor swear to Naimes by his beard. It was only about
the year 1000, according to Rodolf Glaber, that men began in the north
of France to wear short hair and shave "like actors"; and even in the
Bayeux tapestry the old Norman shipwrights wear the beard. But so rare
was hair on the face amongst the Norman invaders that William, the
forefather of the Percys, was known in his lifetime and remembered after
his death as William "Asgernuns" or "Oht les gernuns," i.e. "William
with the moustaches," the epithet revived by one of his descendants
making our modern name of Algernon. Count Eustace of Boulogne was
similarly distinguished. Fashion swung about after the Conquest, and, in
the day of Henry I., Serle the bishop could compare bearded men of the
Norman-English court with "filthy goats and bristly Saracens." The
crusades, perhaps, were accountable for the beards which were oddly
denounced as effeminate in the young courtiers of William Rufus. Not
only the Greeks but the Latins in the East sometimes adopted the Saracen
fashion, and the siege of Antioch (1098) was as unfavourable to the use
of the razor as that of Sevastopol. When the Latins stormed the town by
night, bearded knights owed their death to the assumption that every
Christian would be a shaven man. But for more than four centuries
diversity is allowed, beards, moustaches and shaven faces being found
side by side, although now and again one fashion or another comes
uppermost to be followed by those nice in such matters. Henry II. is a
close-shaven king, and Richard II.'s effigy shows but a little tuft on
each side of the chin, tufts which are two curled locks on the chin of
Henry IV. But Henry III. is long-bearded, Edward II. curls his beard in
three great ringlets, and the third Edward's long forked beard flows
down his breast in patriarchal style. The mid-13th century, as seen in
the drawings attributed to Matthew Paris, is an age of many full and
curled beards, although the region about the lips is sometimes clipped
or shaved. The beard is common in the 14th century, the forked pattern
being favoured and the long drooping moustache. Amongst those who ride
with him to Canterbury, Chaucer, a bearded poet, notes the merchant's
"forked beard," the white beard of the franklin and the red beard of the
miller, but the reeve's beard is "shave as ny as ever he can." Henry of
Monmouth and his son are shaven, and thereafter beards are rare save
with a few old folk until they come slowly back with the 16th century.
In Ireland the statute enacted by a parliament at Trim in 1447 recited
that no manner of man who will be taken for an Englishman should have
beard above his mouth--the upper lip must be shaven at least every
fortnight or be of equal growth with the nether lip,--and this statute
remained unrepealed for nigh upon two hundred years. Henry VIII., always
a law to himself, brought back the beard to favour, Stowe's annals
giving 1535 as the year in which he caused his beard "to be knotted and
no more shaven," his hair being polled at the same time. Many portraits
give his fashion of wearing a thin moustache, whose ends met a short and
squarely trimmed beard parted at the chin, a fashion in which he was
followed by his brother-in-law Charles Brandon. But it is remarkable
that those about him rarely imitated their most dread sovereign. While
Cromwell and Howard the Admiral go clean shaven, the Seymour brothers,
Denny and Russell, have the beard long and flowing. Even the forty
shilling a year man, says Hooper in 1548, will waste his morning time
while he sets his beard in order. About this time the clergy began to
break with the long tradition of smooth faces. A priest in 1531 is
commanded to abstain from wearing a beard, and Cardinal Pole, coming
from the court of a bearded pope, appears bearded like a Greek
patriarch. The law too, the church's kinswoman, begins to forbid, a sign
of the change, and from 1542 the society of Lincoln's Inn makes rules
for fining and expelling those who appear bearded at their mess, rules
which the example of exalted lawyers caused to be withdrawn in 1560.

The age of Elizabeth saw lawyers, soldiers, courtiers and merchants all
bearded. Her Cecils, Greshams, Raleighs, Drakes, Dudleys and Walsinghams
have the beard. A shaven chin such as that seen in the portrait of
Philip Howard, earl of Arundel, is rare, but the beards take a hundred
fashions, and satirists and Puritan pamphleteers were busy with them and
with the men who wasted hours in perfuming or starching them, in dusting
them with orris powder, in curling them with irons and quills. Stubbs
gives them a place amongst his abuses. "It is a world to consider how
their mowchatowes must be preserved or laid out from one cheek to
another and turned up like two horns towards the forehead." Of the
English variety of beards Harrison has a good word: "beards of which
some are shaven from the chin like those of Turks, not a few cut short
like to the beard of Marquess Otto, some made round like a rubbing
brush, others with a _pique de vant_ (O! fine fashion) or now and then
suffered to grow long, the barbers being grown to be so cunning in this
behalf as the tailors. And therefore if a man have a lean and straight
face, a Marquess Otto's cut will make it broad and large; if it be
platter-like, a long slender beard will make it seem the narrower; if he
be weasel-becked, then much hair left on the cheeks will make the owner
look big like a bowdled hen, and as grim as a goose, if Cornelis of
Chelmersford say true." Nevertheless he adds that "many old men do wear
no beards at all." The Elizabethan fashions continued under King James,
the beard trimmed to a point being common wear; but under King Charles
there is a certain reaction, and the royal style of shaving the cheeks
and leaving the moustache whose points sweep upward and the chin beard
like a downward flame is followed by most of the gentry. With some the
beard disappears altogether or remains a mere fleck below the lip.
Archbishop Laud has a cavalier-like chin tuft and upturned moustache,
but Abbot his predecessor wore the spade beard, the "cathedral beard" of
Randle Holme, seen in all its dignity on the Chigwell brass of Samuel
Harsnett, archbishop of York (died 1631), a grim figure with his angry
moustache and a long and broad beard, cut square at the bottom.

From the Restoration year the razor comes more into use. Young men shave
clean. The restored king curls a few dark hairs of a moustache over each
cheek, but his brother James is shaven. With the reign of Queen Anne the
country enters the beardless age, and beards, moustaches and whiskers
are no more seen. In the 18th century the moustache indicated a soldier
from beyond sea. A Jew or a Turk was known by the beard, an appendage
loathsome as comic. Matthew Robinson, the second Lord Rokeby, was indeed
wearing a beard in 1798, but he was reckoned a madman therefor, and
Phillips's _Public Character_ pictures him as "the only peer and perhaps
the only gentleman of either Great Britain or Ireland who is thus
distinguished." That George III. in his madness should have been left
unshaved was a circumstance of his misery that wrung the hearts of all
loyal folk. But in the very year of 1798, when Lord Rokeby's image was
engraved for the curious, the Worcestershire militia officers quartered
near Brighton were copying the Austrian moustache of the foreign troops,
and we may note that the hair of the face, which disappeared when wigs
came in, began to reappear as wigs went out. Early in the 19th century
the bucks began to show a patch of whisker beside the ear, and the
soldier's moustache became a common sight. Before Waterloo, guardsmen
were complaining that officers of humbler regiments imitated their
fashion of the moustache, and by the Waterloo year most young cavalry
officers were moustached. The Horse Artillery were the next moustached
corps, the rest of the army, already whiskered, following their example
in the 'fifties. But for a civilian to grow a moustache was long
reckoned a piece of unseemly swagger. Clive Newcome, it will be
remembered, wore one until the taunting question whether he was "going
in the Guards" shamed him into shaving clean. When in 1840 Mr George
Frederick Muntz appeared in parliament with a full beard there were
those who felt that this tall Radical had taken his own strange method
of insulting English parliamentary institutions. James Ward, R.A. (d.
1859), painter of animals, was another breaker of the unwritten law,
defending his beard in a pamphlet of eighteen arguments as a thing
pleasing at once to the artist and to his Creator. Freedom in these
matters only came when the troops were home from the Crimea, when
officers who had grown beards and acquired the taste for tobacco during
the long months in the trenches showed their beards and their cigars in
Piccadilly. Then came the Volunteer movement, and every man was a
soldier, taking a soldier's licence. The dominant fashion was the
moustache, worn with long and drooping whiskers. But the "Piccadilly
weepers" of the 'sixties were out of the mode for the younger men when
the 'eighties began, and by the end of the century whiskers were seen in
the army only upon a few veteran officers. The fashion of clean shaving
had made some way, the popularity of the shaven actor having a part in
this. In 1909 all modes of dealing with the hair of the face might be
recognized, but the full beard had become somewhat rare in England and
the full whiskers rarer still. The upper class showed an inclination to
shave clean, although the army grudgingly recognized a rule which
ordered the moustache to be worn. Naval men, by regulation, shaved or
wore both beard and moustache, but their beards were always trimmed.
Most barristers shaved the lips, although the last judge unable to hear
an advocate whose voice a moustache interrupted had left the bench.
Clergymen followed the lay fashions as they did under the first Stuart
kings, although there was still some prejudice against the moustache as
an ornament military and inappropriate. A newspaper of 1857, describing
the appearance of Livingstone the missionary at a Mansion House meeting,
records that he came wearing a moustache, "braving the prejudices of his
countrymen and thus evincing a courage only inferior to that exhibited
by him amongst the savages of Central Africa." Even as late as 1884 the
_Pall Mall Gazette_ has some surprised comments on the beard of Bishop
Ryle, newly consecrated to the see of Liverpool.

The footman, whose full-dress livery is the court dress of a hundred
years ago, must show no more than the rudimentary whisker of the early
eighteen-hundreds, and butler, coachman and groom come under the same
rule. The jockey and the hunt whip are shaven likewise, but the courier
has the whiskers and moustache that once marked him as a foreigner in
the English milor's service, and the chauffeur, a servant with no
tradition behind him, is often moustached.

Lastly, we may speak of the practice of the royal house since England
came out of the beardless century. The regent took the new fashion, and
sat "in whiskered state," but his brother and successor shaved clean and
disliked even the hussar's moustache. The prince consort wore the
moustache as a young man, adding whiskers in later years. King Edward
VII. wore moustache and trimmed beard, and his heir apparent also
followed the fashion of many fellow admirals.     (O. Ba.)



BEARDSLEY, AUBREY VINCENT (1872-1898), English artist in black and
white, was born at Brighton on the 24th of August 1872. In 1883 his
family settled in London, and in the following year he appeared in
public as an "infant musical phenomenon," playing at several concerts
with his sister. In 1888 he obtained a post in an architect's office,
and afterwards one in the Guardian Life and Fire Insurance Company
(1889). In 1891, under the advice of Sir Edward Burne-Jones and Puvis de
Chavannes, he took up art as a profession. In 1892 he attended the
classes at the Westminster School of Art, then under Professor Brown;
and from 1893 until his death, at Mentone, on the 16th of March 1898,
his work came continually before the public, arousing a storm of
criticism and much hostile feeling. Beardsley had an unswerving tendency
towards the fantastic of the gloomier and "unwholesome" sort. His
treatment of most subjects was revolutionary; he deliberately ignored
proportion and perspective, and the "freedom from convention" which he
displayed caused his work to be judged with harshness. In certain phases
of technique he especially excelled; and his earlier methods of dealing
with the single line in conjunction with masses of black are in their
way unsurpassed, except in the art of Japan, the country which probably
gave his ideas some assistance. He was always an ornamentist, rather
than an illustrator; and his work must be judged from that point of
view. His frontispiece to _Volpone_ is held by some to be, from this
purely technical standpoint, one of the best pen-drawings of the age.
His posters for the Avenue theatre and for Mr Fisher Unwin were among
the first of the modern cult of that art.

  The following are the chief works which are illustrated with drawings
  by Beardsley: the _Bon Mot_ Library, _The Pall Mall Budget_, and _The
  Studio_ (1893), Sir Thomas Malory's _Morte d'Arthur_ (1893-1894),
  _Salomé_ (1894), _The Yellow Book_ (1894-1895), _The Savoy Magazine_
  (1896), _The Rape of the Lock_ (1896).

  See also J. Pennell, _The Studio_ (1893); Symons, _Aubrey Beardsley_
  (1898); R. Ross, _Volpone_ (1898); H.C. Marillier, _The Early Work of
  Aubrey Beardsley_ (1899); Smithers, _Reproductions of Drawings by
  Aubrey Beardsley_; John Lane, _The Later Works of Aubrey Beardsley_
  (1901); R. Ross, _Aubrey Beardsley_ (1908).     (E. F. S.)



BEARDSTOWN, a city of Cass county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the W. part of
the state, on the E. bank of the Illinois river, about 111 m. N. of St
Louis, Missouri. It is served by the Baltimore & Ohio South-Western, and
the Burlington (Chicago, Burlington & Quincy) railways, and by
steamboats plying between it and St. Louis. Pop. (1890) 4226; (1900)
4827 (444 foreign-born); (1910) 6107. The industrial establishments of
the city include flour, planing and saw mills, the machine shops (of the
St Louis division) of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railway, ice
factories, pearl button factories and a shoe factory. The fishing
interests are also important. Beardstown was laid out in 1827 and was
incorporated as a city in 1896. It was named in honour of Thomas Beard,
who settled in the vicinity in 1820. During the Black Hawk War (1832) it
was a base of supplies for the Illinois troops. The old court house in
which Abraham Lincoln, in 1854, won his famous "Armstrong murder case,"
is now used for a city hall.



BEARER, strictly "one who carries," a term used in India for a
palanquin-bearer, and now especially for a body-servant. The term is
also used in connexion with military ambulances, and "bearer" companies
formed part of the Royal Army Medical Corps until amalgamated with the
field-hospitals to form field-ambulances (1905). In banking and commerce
the word is applied to the holder or presenter of a cheque or draft not
made payable to a specific person; it has also a technical use, as in
printing, of anything that supports pressure in machinery, &c.



BEARINGS. In engineering a "bearing" is that particular kind of support
which, besides carrying the load imposed upon it by the shaft associated
with it, allows the shaft freedom to revolve. Or, put in another way, a
bearing forms with the shaft a pair of elements having one degree of
freedom to turn relatively to one another about their common axis. The
part of the shaft in the bearing is commonly called the _journal_. The
component parts of a small bearing, pillow block, plummer block or
pedestal, as it is variously styled, are illustrated in fig. 1, and
these parts, put together, are further illustrated in fig. 2 with the
shaft added. Corresponding parts are similarly lettered in the two
illustrations. The shaft (S) is encircled by the _brasses_ (B1 and B2)
made of gun metal, phosphor bronze or other suitable material. The lower
brass fits into the main casting (A) in the semicircular seat provided
for it, and is prevented from moving endways by the flanges (F, F) and
from turning with the shaft by the projections (P, P), which fit into
corresponding recesses in the casting (A), one of which is shown at p.
After the shaft has been placed in position, the upper brass (B2) and
the cap (C) are put on and both are held in place by the bolts (Q1, Q2).
The brasses are bedded into the main casting (A) and the cap (C)
respectively at the surfaces D, D, D, D. The complete bearing is held to
the framework of the machine by bolts (R1, R2) passing through holes (H,
H) which are slotted to allow endwise adjustment of the whole bearing in
order to facilitate the alignment of the shaft. Oil or other lubricant
is introduced through the hole (G), and it passes through the top brass
to grooves or oilways cut into the surface of the brass for the purpose
of distributing the oil uniformly to the journal.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

Some form of lubricator is usually fitted at G in order to supply oil to
the bearing continuously. A form of lubricator used for this purpose is
shown in place, fig. 2, and an enlarged section is shown in fig. 3. It
will be seen that the lubricator consists essentially of a cup the base
of which is pierced centrally by a tube which reaches to within a small
distance of the lid of the cup inside, and projects into the oilway
leading to the journal outside. The annular space round the tube inside
is filled with oil which is transferred to the central tube and thence
to the bearing by the capillary action of a cotton wick thrust down on a
piece of wire. It is only necessary to withdraw the wick from the
central tube to stop the supply of oil. The lubricator is fitted through
a hole in the lid which is usually plugged with a piece of cane or
closed by more elaborate means. A line of shafting would be supported by
several bearings of the kind illustrated, themselves supported by
brackets projecting from or rigidly fixed to the walls of the workshop,
or on frames resting on the floor, or on hangers attached to the roof
girders or principals.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

In bearings of modern design for supporting a line shaft the general
arrangement shown in fig. 1 is modified so that the alignments of the
shaft can be made both vertically or horizontally by means of adjusting
screws, and the brass is jointed with the supporting main body so that
it is free to follow the small deflections of the shaft which take place
when the shaft is working. Another modern improvement is the formation
of an oil reservoir or well in the base of the bearing itself, and the
transference of the oil from this well to the shaft by means of one or
two rings riding loosely on the shaft. The bottom part of the ring dips
into the oil contained in the well of the bearing and, as the shaft
rotates, the ring rolls on the shaft and thus carries oil up to the
shaft continuously, from which it finds its way to the surfaces of the
shaft and bearing in contact. It should be understood that the upper
brass is slotted crossways to allow the ring to rest on the shaft. When
the direction of the load carried by the bearing is constant it is
unnecessary to provide more than one brass, and the construction is
modified accordingly. Figs. 4 and 5 show an axle box used for goods
wagons on the Great Eastern railway, and they also illustrate the method
of pad lubrication in general use for this kind of bearing. The main
casting, A, is now uppermost, and is designed so that the upper part
supports and constrains the spring buckle through which the load W is
transmitted to the bearing, and the lower part inside is arranged to
support the brass, B. The brass is jointed freely with the main casting
by means of a hemispherical hump resting in a corresponding recess in
the casting. What may be called the cap, C, forms the lower part of the
axle box, but instead of supporting a second brass it is formed into an
oil reservoir in which is arranged a pad of cotton wick woven on a tin
frame. The upper part of the pad is formed into a kind of brush, shaped
to fit the underside of the journal, whilst the lower part consists of
streamers of wick resting in the oil. The oil is fed to the brush by the
capillary action of the streamers. The reservoirs are filled with oil
through the apertures P and O. The bottom cap is held in position by the
T-headed bolts Q1 and Q2 (fig. 5). By slackening the nuts and turning
the T-heads fair with the slots in the cap, the cap comes right away and
the axle may be examined. A leather ring L is fitted as shown to prevent
dust from entering the axle box.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]

_Footsteps._--A bearing arranged to support the lower end of a vertical
shaft is called a footstep, sometimes a pivot bearing. A simple form of
footstep is shown in fig 6. A casting A, designed so that it can be
conveniently bolted to a foundation block, cross beam, or bracket is
bored out and fitted with a brass B, which is turned inside to carry the
end of the shaft S. The whole vertical load on the shaft is carried by
the footstep, so that it is important to arrange efficient lubricating
apparatus. Results of experiments made on a footstep, reported in _Proc.
Inst. Mech. Eng._, 1891, show that if a diametral groove be cut in the
brass, as indicated at g (fig 6), and if the oil is led to the centre of
this groove by a channel c communicating with the exterior, the rotation
of the shaft draws in a plentiful supply of oil which radiates from the
centre and makes its way vertically between the shaft and the brass and
finally overflows at the top of the brass. The overflowing oil may be
led away and may be re-introduced into the footsteps at c. The rotation
of the shaft thus causes a continuous circulation of oil through the
footstep. One experiment from the report mentioned above may be quoted.
A 3-in. shaft, revolving 128 times per minute and supported on a
manganese bronze bearing lubricated in the way explained above sustained
increasing loads until, at a load of 300 pounds per square inch of the
area of the end of the shaft, it seized. The mechanical details of a
footstep may be varied for purposes of adjustment in a variety of ways
similarly to the variations of a common bearing already explained.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

_Thrust Block Bearing._--In cases where a bearing is required to resist
a longitudinal movement of the shaft through it, as for example in the
case of the propeller shaft of a marine engine or a vertical shaft
supporting a heavy load not carried on a footstep, the shaft is provided
with one or more collars which are grooved with corresponding recesses
in the brasses of the bearing. A general sketch of a thrust block for a
propeller shaft is shown in fig. 7. There are seven collars turned on
the shaft and into the circumferential grooves between them fit
corresponding circumferential projections on the brasses, these
projections being formed in the case illustrated by means of half rings
which are fitted into grooves turned in the brasses. This method of
construction allows an individual ring to be replaced or adjusted if it
should get hot. The total area of the rubbing surfaces should be
proportioned so that the average load is not more than from 50 to 70 lb.
per sq. in. Arrangements are usually made for cooling a thrust block
with water in case of heating. The spindles of drilling machines, boring
machine spindles, turbine shafts may be cited as examples of vertical
shafts supported on one collar. Experiments on the friction of a collar
bearing have been made by the Research Committee of the Institution of
Mechanical Engineers (_Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng._, 1888).

_Roller and Ball Bearings._--If rollers are placed between two surfaces
having relative tangential motion the frictional resistance to be
overcome is the small resistance to rolling. The rollers move along with
a velocity equal to one half the relative velocity of the surfaces. This
way of reducing frictional resistance has been applied to all kinds of
mechanical contrivances, including bearings for shafts, railway axle
boxes, and axle boxes for tramcars. An example of a roller bearing for a
line shaft is illustrated in figs. 8 and 9. The main casting, A, and
cap, C, bolted together, form a spherical seating for the part of the
bearing E corresponding to the brasses in a bearing of the usual type.
Between the inside of the casting E and the journal are placed rollers
held in position relatively to one another by a "squirrel cage" casting,
the section of the bars of which are clearly shown in the half sectional
elevation, fig. 9. This squirrel cage ensures that the several axes of
the rollers keep parallel to the axis of the journal during the rolling
motion. The rollers are made of hard tool steel, and the surfaces of the
journal and bearing between which they roll are hardened.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.]

Two rings of balls may be used instead of a single ring of rollers, and
the kind of ball bearing thus obtained is in general use principally in
connexion with bicycles and motor cars (see BICYCLE). In ball bearings
the load is concentrated at a few points, the points where the balls
touch the race, and in the roller bearing at a few lines, the lines of
contact between the rollers and the surfaces of the journal and bearing;
consequently the load which bearings of this kind carry must not be
great enough to cause any indentation at the points or lines of contact.
Both rollers and balls, and the paths on which they roll, therefore, are
made of hard material; further, balls and rollers must all be exactly
the same size in an individual bearing in order to distribute the load
between the points or lines of contact as uniformly as possible. The
finest workmanship is required therefore to make good roller or good
ball bearings.

_Bearings for High Speeds and Forced Lubrication._--When the shaft turns
the metallic surfaces of the brass and the journal are prevented from
actual contact by a film of oil which is formed and maintained by the
motion of the shaft and which sustains the pressure between the journal
and the brass provided the surfaces are accurately formed and the supply
of oil is unlimited. This film changes what would otherwise be the
friction between metallic surfaces into a viscous resistance within the
film itself. When through a limited supply of oil or imperfect
lubrication this film is imperfect or fails altogether and allows the
journal to make metallic contact with the brass, the friction increases;
and it may increase so much that the bearing rapidly becomes hot and may
ultimately seize, that is to say the rubbing surfaces may become stuck
together. With the object of reducing the friction at the points of
metallic contact and of confining the damage of a hot bearing to the
easily renewable brass, the latter is partially, sometimes wholly, lined
with a soft fusible metal, technically known as white metal, which melts
away before actual seizure takes place, and thus saves the journal which
is more expensive because it is generally formed on a large and
expensive shaft. However perfectly the film fulfils its function, the
work required to overcome the viscous resistance of the film during the
continuous rotation of the shaft appears as heat, and in consequence the
temperature of the bearing gradually rises until the rate at which heat
is produced is equal to the rate at which it is radiated from the
bearing. Hence in order that a journal may revolve with a minimum
resistance and without undue heating two precautions must be taken: (1)
means must be taken to ensure that the film of oil is complete and never
fails; and (2) arrangements must be made for controlling the temperature
should it rise too high. The various lubricating devices already
explained supply sufficient oil to form a partial film, since
experiments have shown that the friction of bearings lubricated in this
way is akin to solid friction, thus indicating at least partial metallic
contact. In order to supply enough oil to form and maintain a film with
certainty the journal should be run in an oil bath, or oil should be
supplied to the bearing under pressure sufficient to force it in between
the surfaces against the load. A bearing to which forced lubrication and
water cooling are applied is illustrated in fig. 10, which represents
one of the bearings of a Westinghouse turbo-alternator installed at the
power station of the Underground Electric Railways Company of London at
Lots Road, Chelsea. Oil flows under pressure from a tank on the top of a
tower along a supply pipe to the oil inlet O, and after passing through
the bearing and performing its duty as a film it falls away from each
end of the journal into the bottom of the main casting, from which a
pipe, E, conveys the oil back to the base of the tank tower where it is
cooled and finally pumped back into the tank. There is thus a continuous
circulation of oil through the bearing. The space C is for cooling
water; in fact the bearing is water jacketed and the jacket is connected
to a supply pipe and a drain pipe so that a continuous circulation may
be maintained if desired. This bearing is 12 in. in diameter and 48 in.
long, and it carries a load of about 12.8 tons. The rise in temperature
of the bearing under normal conditions of working without water
circulating in the jacket is approximately 38° F. The speed of rotation
is such that the surface velocity is about 50 ft. per second.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.]

Forced lubrication in connexion with the bearings of high-speed engines
was introduced in 1890 by Messrs Belliss & Morcom, Ltd., under patents
taken out in the name of A.C. Pain. It should be understood that
providing the film of oil in the bearing of an engine can be properly
maintained a double-acting engine can be driven at a high speed without
any knocking, and without perceptible wear of the rubbing surfaces. Fig.
11 shows that the general arrangement of the bearings of a Belliss &
Morcom engine arranged for forced lubrication. A small force-pump F,
driven from the eccentric strap X, delivers oil into the pipe P, along
which it passes to A, the centre of the right-hand main bearing. There
is a groove turned on the inside of the brass from which a slanting hole
leads to B. The oil when it arrives at A thus has two paths open to it,
one to the right and left of the groove through the bearing, the other
along the slanting hole to B. At B it divides again into two streams,
one stream going upwards to the eccentric sheave, and a part continuing
up the pipe Q to the eccentric pin. The second stream from B follows the
slanting hole in the crank shaft to C, where it is led to the big end
journal through the pipe R to the crosshead pin, and through the
slanting hole to D, where it finds its way into the left main bearing.
The oil forced through each bearing falls away to the right and to the
left of the journal and drops into the bottom of the engine framing,
whence it is again fed to the pump through a strainer. The parts of an
engine lubricated in this way must be entirely enclosed.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.]

_Load on bearings._--The distribution of pressure over the film of
lubricant separating the rubbing surfaces of a bearing is variable,
being greatest at a point near but not at the crown of the brass, and
falling away to zero in all directions towards the boundaries of the
film. It is usual in practice to ignore this variation of pressure
through the film, and to indicate the severity with which the bearing is
loaded by stating the load per square inch of the rubbing surfaces
projected on to the diametral plane of the journal. Thus the projected
area of the surfaces of a journal 6 in. in diameter and 8 in. long is 48
sq. in., and if the total load carried by the bearing is 20,000 pounds,
the bearing would be said to carry a load of 417 pounds per square inch.
When a shaft rotates in a bearing continuously in one direction the load
per square inch with which it is safe to load the bearing in order to
avoid undue heating is much less than if the motion is intermittent. A
table of a few values of the bearing loads used in practice is given in
the article LUBRICANTS.

  _Bearing Friction._--If W is the total load on a bearing, and if µ is
  the coefficient of friction between the rubbing surfaces, the
  tangential resistance to turning is expressed by the product µW. If v
  is the relative velocity of the rubbing surfaces, the work done per
  second against friction is µWv foot pounds. This quantity of work is
  converted into heat, and the heat produced per second is therefore
  µWv/778 British Thermal Units. The coefficient µ is a variable
  quantity, and bearing in mind that a properly lubricated journal is
  separated from its supporting brass by a film of lubricant it might be
  expected that µ would have values characteristic of the coefficient of
  friction between two metallic surfaces, merging into the
  characteristics properly belonging to fluid friction, according as the
  oil film varied from an imperfect to a perfect condition, that is,
  according as the lubrication is partial or complete, completeness
  being attained by the use of an oil bath or by some method of forced
  lubrication. This expectation is entirely borne out by experimental
  researches. Beauchamp Tower ("Report on Friction Experiments," _Proc.
  Inst. Mech. Eng._, November 1883) found that when oil was supplied to
  a bearing by means of a pad the coefficient of friction was
  approximately constant with the value of 1/100, thus following the law
  of solid friction; but when the journal was lubricated by means of an
  oil bath the coefficient of friction varied nearly inversely as the
  load on the bearing, thus making µW = constant. The tangential
  resistance in this case is characteristic of fluid friction since it
  is independent of the pressure. Tower's experiments were carried out
  at a nearly constant temperature. The later experiments of O. Lasche
  (_Zeitsch. Verein deutsche Ingenieure_, 1902, 46, pp. 1881 et seq.)
  show how µ depends upon the temperature. Lasche's main results with
  regard to the variation of µ are briefly:--µW is a constant quantity,
  thus confirming Tower's earlier experiments; µ is practically
  independent of the relative velocity of the rubbing surfaces within
  the limits of 3 to 50 ft. per second; and the product µt is constant,
  t being the temperature of the bearing. Writing p for the load per
  unit of projected area of the bearing, Lasche found that the result of
  the experiments could be expressed by the simple formula pµt =
  constant = 2, where p = the pressure in kilograms per square
  centimetre, and t = the temperature in degrees centigrade. If p is
  changed to pounds per square inch the constant in the expression is
  approximately 30. The expression is valid between limits of pressure
  14 to 213 pounds per square inch, limits of temperature 30° to 100°
  C., and between limits of velocity 3 to 50 ft. per second.

  [Illustration: FIG. 12.]

  _Theory of Lubrication._--After the publication of Tower's experiments
  on journal friction Professor Osborne Reynolds showed (_Phil. Trans._,
  1886, p. 157) that the facts observed in connexion with a journal
  lubricated by means of an oil bath could be explained by a theory
  based upon the general principles of the motion of a viscous fluid. It
  is first established as an essential part of the theory that the
  radius of the brass must be slightly greater than the radius of the
  journal as indicated in fig. 12, where J is the centre of the journal
  and I the centre of the brass. Given this difference of curvature and
  a sufficient supply of oil, the rotation of the journal produces and
  maintains an oil film between the rubbing surfaces, the
  circumferential extent of which depends upon the rate of the oil
  supply and the external load. With an unlimited supply of oil, that is
  with oil-bath lubrication, the film extends continuously to the
  extremities of the brass, unless such extension would lead to negative
  pressures and therefore to a discontinuity, in which case the film
  ends where the pressures in the film become negative. The minimum
  distance between the journal and the brass occurs at the point H (fig.
  12), on the off side of the point O where the line of action of the
  load cuts the surface of the journal. To the right and left of H the
  thickness of the film gradually increases, this being the condition
  that the oil-flow to and from the film may be automatically
  maintained. With an unlimited supply of oil the point H moves farther
  from O as the load increases until it reaches a maximum distance, and
  then it moves back again towards O as the load is further increased
  until a limiting load is reached at which the pressure in the film
  becomes negative at the boundaries of the film, when the boundaries
  recede from the edges of the brass as though the supply of oil were
  limited.

  In the mathematical development of the theory it is first necessary to
  define the coefficient of viscosity. This is done as follows:--If two
  parallel surfaces AB, CD are separated by a viscous film, and if
  whilst CD is fixed AB moves in a tangential direction with velocity U,
  the surface of the film in contact with CD clings to it and remains at
  rest, whilst the lower surface of the film clings to and moves with
  the surface AB. At intermediate points in the film the tangential
  motion of the fluid will vary uniformly from zero to U, and the
  tangential resistance will be F = µU/h, where µ is the coefficient of
  viscosity and h is the thickness of the film. With this definition of
  viscosity and from the general equations representing the stress in a
  viscous fluid, the following equation is established, giving the
  relations between p, the pressure at any point in the film, h the
  thickness of the film at a point x measured round the circumference of
  the journal in the direction of relative motion, and U the relative
  tangential velocity of the surfaces,

    d   /  dp\        dh
    -- ( h³-- ) = 6µU --       (1)
    dx  \  dx/        dx

  In this equation all the quantities are independent of the co-ordinate
  parallel to the axis of the journal, and U is constant. The thickness
  of the film h is some function of x, and for a journal Professor
  Reynolds takes the form,

    h = a {1 + c sin([theta] - [phi]0)}

  in which the various quantities have the significance indicated in
  fig. 12. Reducing and integrating equation (1) with this value of h it
  becomes

       dp      6R_µU_c {sin([theta] - [phi]0) - sin([phi]1 - [phi]0)}
    -------- = ------------------------------------------------------ (2)
    d[theta]             a²{1 + c sin([theta] - [phi]0)}³

  [phi]1 being the value of [theta] for which the pressure is a maximum.
  In order to integrate this the right-hand side is expanded into a
  trigonometrical series, the values of the coefficients are computed,
  and the integration is effected term by term. If, as suggested by
  Professor J. Perry, the value of h is taken to be h = h0 + ax², where
  h0 is the minimum thickness of the film, the equation reduces to the
  form

      dp       6µU            C
    - -- = ----------- + -----------     (3)
      dx   (h0 + ax²)²   (h0 + ax²)³

  and this can be integrated. The process of reduction from the form (1)
  to the form (3) with the latter value of h, is shown in full in _The
  Calculus for Engineers_ by Professor Perry (p. 331), and also the
  final solution of equation (3), giving the pressure in terms of x.

  Professor Reynolds, applying the results of his investigation to one
  of Tower's experiments, plotted the pressures through the film both
  circumferentially and longitudinally, and the agreement with the
  observed pressure of the experiment was exceedingly close. The whole
  investigation of Professor Reynolds is a remarkable one, and is in
  fact the first real explanation of the fact that oil is able to
  insinuate itself between the journal and the brass of a bearing
  carrying a heavy load. (See also LUBRICATION.)     (W. E. D.)



BEAR-LEADER, formerly a man who led bears about the country. In the
middle ages and Tudor times these animals were chiefly used in the
brutal sport of bear-baiting and were led from village to village.
Performing bears were also common, and are even still sometimes seen
perambulating the country with their keepers, generally Frenchmen or
Italians. The phrase "bear-leader" has now come colloquially to mean a
tutor or guardian, who escorts any lad of rank or wealth on his travels.



BÉARN, formerly a small frontier province in the south of France, now
included within the department of Basses-Pyrénées. It was bounded on the
W. by Soule and Lower Navarre, on the N. by Chalosse, Tursan and
Astarac, E. by Bigorre and S. by the Pyrénées. Its name can be traced
back to the town of Beneharnum (Lescar). The _civitas Beneharnensium_
was included in the _Novempopulania_. It was conquered by the Vascones
in the 6th century, and in 819 became a viscounty dependent on the dukes
of Aquitaine--a feudal link which was broken in the 11th century, when
the viscounts ceased to acknowledge any suzerain. They then reigned over
the two dioceses of Lescar and Oloron; but their capital was Morlaas,
where they had a mint which was famous throughout the middle ages. In
the 13th century Gaston VII., of the Catalonian house of Moncade, made
Orthez his seat of government. His long reign (1229-1290) was a
perpetual struggle with the kings of France and England, each anxious to
assert his suzerainty over Béarn. As Gaston left only daughters, the
viscounty passed at his death to the family of Foix, from whom it was
transmitted through the houses of Grailly and Albret to the Bourbons,
and they, in the person of Henry IV., king of Navarre, made it an
apanage of the crown of France. It was not formally incorporated in the
royal domains, however, until 1620. None of these political changes
weakened the independent spirit of the Béarnais. From the 11th century
onward, they were governed by their own special customs or _fors_. These
were drawn up in the language of the country, a Romance dialect (1288
being the date of the most ancient written code), and are remarkable for
the manner in which they define the rights of the sovereign, determining
the reciprocal obligations of the viscount and his subjects or vassals.
Moreover, from the 12th century Béarn enjoyed a kind of representative
government, with _cours plénières_ composed of deputies from the three
estates. From 1220 onward, the judiciary powers of these assemblies were
exercised by a _cour majour_ of twelve barons _jurats_ charged with the
duty of maintaining the integrity of the _fors_. When Gaston-Phoebus
wished to establish a regular annual hearth-tax (_fouage_) in the
viscounty, he convoked the deputies of the three estates in assemblies
called _états_. These soon acquired extensive political and financial
powers, which continued in operation till 1789. Although, when Béarn was
annexed to the domains of the crown, it was granted a _conseil d'état_
and a parlement, which sat at Pau, the province also retained its _fors_
until the Revolution.

  See also Olhagaray, _Histoire de Foix, Béarn et Navarre_ (1609);
  Pierre de Marca, _Histoire de Béarn_ (1640). This work does not go
  beyond the end of the 13th century; it contains a large number of
  documents. Faget de Baure, _Essais historiques sur le Béarn_ (1818);
  _Les Fors de Béarn_, by Mazure and Hatoulet (1839), completed by J.
  Brissaud and P. Rogé in _Textes additionnels aux anciens Fors de
  Béarn_ (1905); Léon Cadier, _Les Etats de Béarn depuis leur origine
  jusqu'au commencement du XVI^e siècle_ (1888).     (C. B.*)



BEAS or BIAS, a river of India. The Beas, which was the Hyphasis of the
Greeks, is one of the Five Rivers of the Punjab. It issues in the snowy
mountains of Kulu at an altitude of 13,326 ft. above sea-level, flows
through the Kangra valley and the plains of the Punjab, and finally
joins the Sutlej after a course of 290 m. It is crossed by a railway
bridge near Jullundur.



BEAT (a word common in various forms to the Teutonic languages; it is
connected with the similar Romanic words derived from the Late Lat.
_battere_), a blow or stroke; from the many applications of the verb "to
beat" come various meanings of the substantive, in some of which the
primary sense has become obscure. It is applied to the throbbing of the
pulse or heart, to the beating of a drum, either for retreat, or charge,
or to quarters; in music to the alternating sound produced by the
striking together of two notes not exactly of the same pitch (see
SOUND), and also to the movement of the baton by which a conductor of an
orchestra or chorus indicates the time, and to the divisions of a bar.
As a nautical term, a "beat" is the zigzag course taken by a ship in
sailing against the wind. The application of the word to a policeman's
or sentry's round comes either from beating a covert for game and hence
the term means an exhaustive search of a district, or from the repeated
strokes of the foot in constantly walking up and down. In this sense the
word is used in America, particularly in Alabama and Mississippi, of a
voting precinct.



BEATIFICATION (from the Lat. _beatus_, happy, blessed, and _facere_, to
make), the act of making blessed; in the Roman Catholic Church, a stage
in the process of canonization (q.v.).



BEATON (or BETHUNE), DAVID, (c. 1494-1546), Scottish cardinal and
archbishop of St Andrews, was a younger son of John Beaton of Balfour in
the county of Fife, and is said to have been born in the year 1494. He
was educated at the universities of St Andrews and Glasgow, and in his
sixteenth year was sent to Paris, where he studied civil and canon law.
About this time he was presented to the rectory of Campsie by his uncle
James Beaton, then archbishop of Glasgow. When James Beaton was
translated to St Andrews in 1522 he resigned the rich abbacy of Arbroath
in his nephew's favour, under reservation of one half of the revenues to
himself during his lifetime. The great ability of Beaton and the
patronage of his uncle ensured his rapid promotion to high offices in
the church and kingdom. He was sent by King James V. on various missions
to France, and in 1528 was appointed keeper of the privy seal. He took a
leading part in the negotiations connected with the king's marriages,
first with Madeleine of France, and afterwards with Mary of Guise. At
the French court he was held in high estimation by King Francis I., and
was consecrated bishop of Mirepoix in Languedoc in December 1537. On the
20th of December 1538 he was appointed a cardinal priest by Pope Paul
III., under the title of St Stephen in the Coelian Hill. He was the only
Scotsman who had been named to that high office by an undisputed right,
Cardinal Wardlaw, bishop of Glasgow, having received his appointment
from the anti-pope Clement VII. On the death of Archbishop James Beaton
in 1539, the cardinal was raised to the primatial see of Scotland.

Beaton was one of King James's most trusted advisers, and it was mainly
due to his influence that the king drew closer the French alliance and
refused Henry VIII.'s overtures to follow him in his religious policy.
On the death of James in December 1542 he attempted to assume office as
one of the regents for the infant sovereign Mary, founding his
pretensions on an alleged will of the late king; but his claims were
disregarded, and the earl of Arran, head of the great house of Hamilton,
and next heir to the throne, was declared regent by the estates. The
cardinal was, by order of the regent, committed to the custody of Lord
Seaton; but his imprisonment was merely nominal, and he was soon again
at liberty and at the head of the party opposed to the English alliance.
Arran too was soon won over to his views, dismissed the preachers by
whom he had been surrounded, and joined the cardinal at Stirling, where
in September 1543 Beaton crowned the young queen. In the same year he
was raised to the office of chancellor of Scotland, and was appointed
protonotary apostolic and legate _a latere_ by the pope. Had Beaton
confined himself to secular politics, his strenuous opposition to the
plans of Henry VIII. for the subjugation of Scotland would have earned
him the lasting gratitude of his countrymen. Unfortunately politics were
inextricably interwoven with the religious controversies of the time,
and resistance to English influence involved resistance to the
activities of the reformers in the church, whose ultimate victory has
obscured the cardinal's genuine merits as a statesman. During the
lifetime of his uncle, Beaton had shared in the efforts of the hierarchy
to suppress the reformed doctrines, and pursued the same line of conduct
still more systematically after his elevation to the primacy. The
popular accounts of the persecution for which he was responsible are no
doubt exaggerated, and it sometimes ceased for considerable periods so
far as capital punishments were concerned. When the sufferers were of
humble rank not much notice was taken of them. It was otherwise when a
more distinguished victim was selected in the person of George Wishart.
Wishart had returned to Scotland, after an absence of several years,
about the end of 1544. His sermons produced a great effect, and he was
protected by several barons of the English faction. These barons, with
the knowledge and approbation of King Henry, were engaged in a plot to
assassinate the cardinal, and in this plot Wishart is now proved to have
been a willing agent. The cardinal, though ignorant of the details of
the plot, perhaps suspected Wishart's knowledge of it, and in any case
was not sorry to have an excuse for seizing one of the most eloquent
supporters of the new opinions. For some time he was unsuccessful; but
at last, with the aid of the regent, he arrested the preacher, and
carried him to his castle of St Andrews. On the 28th of February 1546
Wishart was brought to trial in the cathedral before the cardinal and
other judges, the regent declining to take any active part, and, being
found guilty of heresy, was condemned to death and burnt.

The death of Wishart produced a deep effect on the Scottish people, and
the cardinal became an object of general dislike, which encouraged his
enemies to proceed with the design they had formed against him.
Naturally resolute and fearless, he seems to have under-estimated his
danger, the more so since his power had never seemed more secure. He
crossed over to Angus, and took part in the wedding of his illegitimate
daughter with the heir of the earl of Crawford. On his return to St
Andrews he took up his residence in the castle. The conspirators, the
chief of whom were Norman Leslie, master of Rothes, and William Kirkaldy
of Grange, contrived to obtain admission at daybreak of the 29th of May
1546, and murdered the cardinal under circumstances of horrible mockery
and atrocity.

The character of Beaton has already been indicated. As a statesman he
was able, resolute, and in his general policy patriotic. As an
ecclesiastic he maintained the privileges of the hierarchy and the
dominant system of belief conscientiously, but always with harshness and
sometimes with cruelty. His immoralities, like his acts of persecution,
were exaggerated by his opponents; but his private life was undoubtedly
a scandal to religion, and has only the excuse that it was not worse
than that of most of his order at the time. The authorship of the
writings ascribed to him in several biographical notices rests on no
better authority than the apocryphal statements of Thomas Dempster.

Beaton's uncle, James Beaton, or Bethune (d. 1539), archbishop of
Glasgow and St Andrews, was lord treasurer of Scotland before he became
archbishop of Glasgow in 1509, was chancellor from 1513 to 1526, and was
appointed archbishop of St Andrews and primate of Scotland in 1522. He
was one of the regents during the minority of James V., and was chiefly
responsible for this king's action in allying himself with France and
not with England. He burned Patrick Hamilton and other heretics, and
died at St Andrews in September 1539.

This prelate must not be confused with another, James Beaton, or Bethune
(1517-1603), the last Roman Catholic archbishop of Glasgow. A son of
John Bethune of Auchmuty and a nephew of Cardinal Beaton, James was a
trusted adviser of the Scottish regent, Mary of Lorraine, widow of James
V., and a determined foe of the reformers. In 1552 he was consecrated
archbishop of Glasgow, but from 1560 until his death in 1603 he lived in
Paris, acting as ambassador for Scotland at the French court.

  See John Knox, _Hist. of the Reformation in Scotland_, ed. D. Laing
  (1846-1864); John Spottiswoode, archbishop of St Andrews, _Hist. of
  the Church of Scotland_ (Spottiswoode Soc., 1847-1851); Art. in _Dict.
  of Nat. Biog._ and works there quoted; and A. Lang, _Hist. of
  Scotland_, vols. i. and ii. (1900-1902).



BEATRICE, a city and the county-seat of Gage county, in S.E. Nebraska,
U.S.A., about 40 m. S. of Lincoln. Pop. (1900) 7875 (852 foreign-born);
(1910) 9356. It is served by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, the
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, and the Union Pacific railways. Beatrice
is the seat of the state institute for feeble-minded youth, and has a
Carnegie library. The city is very prettily situated in the valley of
the Big Blue river, in the midst of a fine agricultural region. Among
its manufactures are dairy products (there is a large creamery), canned
goods, flour and grist mill products, gasoline engines, well-machinery,
barbed wire, tiles, ploughs, windmills, corn-huskers, and hay-balers.
Beatrice was founded in 1857, becoming the county-seat in the same year.
It was reached by its first railway and was incorporated as a town in
1871, was chartered as a city in 1873, and in 1901 became a city of the
first class.



BEATTIE, JAMES (1735-1803), Scottish poet and writer on philosophy, was
born at Laurencekirk, Kincardine, Scotland, on the 25th of October 1735.
His father, a small farmer and shopkeeper, died when he was very young;
but an elder brother sent him to Marischal College, Aberdeen, where he
gained a bursary. In 1753 he was appointed schoolmaster of Fordoun in
his native county. Here he had as neighbours the eccentric Francis
Garden (afterwards Lord Gardenstone, judge of the supreme court of
Scotland), and Lord Monboddo. In 1758 he became an usher in the grammar
school of Aberdeen, and two years later he was made professor of moral
philosophy at Marischal College. Here he became closely acquainted with
Dr Thomas Reid, Dr George Campbell, Dr Alexander Gérard and others, who
formed a kind of literary or philosophic society known as the "Wise
Club." They met once a fortnight to discuss speculative questions, David
Hume's philosophy being an especial object of criticism. In 1761 Beattie
published a small volume of _Original Poems and Translations_, which
contained little work of any value. Its author in later days destroyed
all the copies he found. In 1770 Beattie published his _Essay on the
Nature and Immutability of Truth in opposition to sophistry and
scepticism_, the object of which, as explained by its author, was to
"prove the universality and immutability of moral sentiment" (letter to
Sir W. Forbes, 17th January 1765). It was in fact a direct attack on
Hume, and part of its great popularity was due to the fact. Hume is said
to have justly complained that Beattie "had not used him like a
gentleman," but made no answer to the book, which has no philosophical
value. Beattie's portrait, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, hangs at Marischal
College, Aberdeen. The philosopher is painted with the _Essay on Truth_
in his hand, while a figure of Truth thrusts down three figures
representing, according to Sir W. Forbes, sophistry, scepticism and
infidelity. Reynolds in a letter to Beattie (February 1774) intimates
that he is well enough pleased that one of the figures is identified
with Hume, and that he intended Voltaire to be one of the group. Beattie
visited London in 1773, and was received with the greatest honour by
George III., who conferred on him a pension of £200 a year. In 1771 and
1774 he published the first and second parts of _The Minstrel_, a poem
which met with great and immediate success. The Spenserian stanza in
which it is written is managed with smoothness and skill, and there are
many fine descriptions of natural scenery. It is entirely on his poetry
that Beattie's reputation rests. The best known of his minor poems are
"The Hermit" and "Retirement."

In 1773 he was offered the chair of moral philosophy at Edinburgh
University, but did not accept it. Beattie made many friends, and lost
none. "We all love Beattie," said Dr Johnson. "Mrs Thrale says, if ever
she has another husband she will have him." He was in high favour too
with Mrs Montagu and the other _bas bleus_. Beattie was unfortunate in
his domestic life. Mary Dunn, whom he married in 1767, became insane,
and his two sons died just as they were attaining manhood. The elder,
James Hay Beattie, a young man of great promise, who at the age of
nineteen had been associated with his father in his professorship, died
in 1790. In 1794 the father published _Essays and Fragments in Prose and
Verse by James Hay Beattie_ with a touching memoir. The younger brother
died in 1796. Beattie never recovered from this second bereavement. His
mind was seriously affected, and, although he continued to lecture
occasionally, he neither wrote nor studied. In April 1799 he had a
stroke of paralysis, and died on the 18th of August 1803.

Beattie's other poetical works include _The Judgment of Paris_ (1765),
and "Verses on the death of [Charles] Churchill," a bitter attack which
the poet afterwards suppressed. The best edition is the _Poetical Works_
(1831, new ed. 1866) in the _Aldine Edition of the British Poets_, with
an admirable memoir by Alexander Dyce.

  See also _An Account of the Life of James Beattie_ (1804), by A.
  Bower; and _An Account of the Life and Writings of James Beattie_
  (1807), by Sir William Forbes; a quantity of new material is to be
  found in _Beattie and his Friends_ (1904), by the poet's
  great-grand-niece, Margaret Forbes; and _James Beattie, the Minstrel.
  Some Unpublished Letters_, edited by A. Mackie (Aberdeen, 1908).



BEATUS, of Liebana and Valcavado, Spanish priest and monk, theologian
and geographer, was born about 730, and died in 798. About 776 he
published his _Commentaria in Apocalypsin_, containing one of the oldest
Christian world-maps. He took a prominent part in the Adoptionist
controversy, and wrote against the views of Felix of Urgel, especially
as upheld by Elipandus of Toledo. As confessor to Queen Adosinda, wife
of King Silo of Oviedo (774-783), and as the master of Alcuin and
Etherius of Osma, Beatus exercised wide influence. His original map,
which was probably intended to illustrate, above all, the distribution
of the Apostolic missions throughout the world--depicting the head of
Peter at Rome, of Andrew in Achaia, of Thomas in India, of James in
Spain, and so forth--has survived in ten more or less modified copies.
One only of these--the "Osma" of 1203--preserves the Apostolic pictures;
among the remaining examples, that of "St Sever," now at Paris, and
dating from about 1030, is the most valuable; that of "Valcavado,"
recently in the Ashburnham Library, executed in 970, is the earliest;
that of "Turin," dating from about 1100, is perhaps the most curious.
Three others--"Valladolid" of about 1035, "Madrid" of 1047, and "London"
of 1109--are derivatives of the "Valcavado-Ashburnham" of 970; the
eighth, "Paris II," is connected, though not very intimately, with "St
Sever," otherwise "Paris I"; the ninth and tenth, "Gerona" and "Paris
III," belong to the Turin group of Beatus maps. All these works are
emphatically of "dark-age" character; very seldom do they suggest the
true forms of countries, seas, rivers or mountains, but they embody some
useful information as to early medieval conditions and history. St
Isidore appears to be their principal authority; they also draw,
directly or indirectly, from Orosius, St Jerome, St Augustine, and
probably from a lost map of classical antiquity, represented in a
measure by the Peutinger Table of the 13th century.

  The chief MSS. of the _Commentaria in Apocalypsin_ are (1-3) Paris,
  National Library, Lat. 8878; Lat. nouv. acq. 1366 and 2290; (4)
  Ashburnham MSS. xv.; (5) London, B. Mus., Addit. MSS. 11695; (6)
  Turin, National Library 1, ii. (1); (7) Valladolid, University
  Library, 229; (8) the MS. in the Episcopal Library at Osma, in Old
  Castile.

  There is only one complete edition of the text, that by Florez
  (Madrid, 1770). See also Konrad Miller, _Die Weltkarte des Beatus_,
  Heft I. of _Mappaemundi: die ältesten Weltkarten_ (Stuttgart, 1895);
  d'Avezac in _Annales de ... géographie_ (June 1870); Beazley, _Dawn of
  Modern Geography_, i. 387-388 (1897); ii. 549-559; 591-605 (1901).
       (C. R. B.)



BEAUCAIRE, a town of south-eastern France, in the department of Gard, 17
m. E. by S. of Nîmes on the Paris-Lyon railway. Pop. (1906) 7284.
Beaucaire is situated on the right bank of the Rhone, opposite Tarascon,
with which it is connected by two handsome bridges, a suspension-bridge
of four spans and 1476 ft. in length, and a railway bridge. A triangular
keep, a chapel, and other remains of a château (13th and 14th centuries)
of the counts of Toulouse stand on the rocky pine-clad hill which rises
to the north of the town; the chapel, dedicated to St Louis, belongs to
the latest period of Romanesque architecture, and contains fine
sculptures. The town derives celebrity from the great July fair, which
has been held here annually since the 12th century, but has now lost its
former importance (see FAIR). Beaucaire gives its name to the canal
which communicates with the sea (near Aigues-Mortes) and connects it
with the Canal du Midi, forming part of the line of communication
between the Rhone and the Garonne. The town is an important port on the
Rhone, and its commerce, the chief articles of which are wine, and
freestone from quarries in the vicinity, is largely water-borne. Among
its industries are distilling and the manufacture of furniture, and the
preparation of vermicelli, sausages and other provisions.

Beaucaire occupies the site of the ancient _Ugernum_, and several
remains of the Roman city have been discovered, as well as (in 1734) the
road that led from Nîmes. The present name is derived from _Bellum
Quadrum_, a descriptive appellation applied in the middle ages either to
the château or to the rock on which it stands. In 1125 Beaucaire came
into the possession of the counts of Toulouse, one of whom, Raymund VI.,
established the importance of its fairs by the grant of privileges. In
the Wars of the League it suffered severely, and in 1632 its castle was
destroyed by Richelieu.



BEAUCE (Lat. _Belsia_), a physical region of north-central France,
comprising large portions of the departments of Eure-et-Loir and
Loir-et-Cher, and also extending into those of Loiret and Seine-et-Oise.
It has an area of over 2800 sq. m., its limits being roughly defined by
the course of the Essonne on the E., of the Loire on the S., and of the
Brenne, the Loir and the Eure towards the W., though in the latter
direction it extends somewhat beyond these boundaries. The Beauce is a
treeless, arid and monotonous plain of limestone formation; windmills
and church spires are the only prominent features of the landscape.
Apart from the rivers on its borders, it is watered by insignificant
streams, of which the Conie in the west need alone be mentioned. The
inhabitants live in large villages, and are occupied in agriculture,
particularly in the cultivation of wheat, for which the Beauce is
celebrated. Clover and lucerne are the other leading crops, and large
flocks of sheep are kept in the region. Chartres is its chief commercial
centre.



BEAUCHAMP, the name of several important English families. The baronial
house of Beauchamp of Bedford was founded at the Conquest by Hugh de
Beauchamp, who received a barony in Bedfordshire. His eldest son Simon
left a daughter, whose husband Hugh (brother of the count of Meulan) was
created earl of Bedford by Stephen. But the heir-male, Miles de
Beauchamp, nephew of Simon, held Bedford Castle against the king in
1137-1138. From his brother Payn descended the barons of Bedford, of
whom William held Bedford Castle against the royal forces in the
struggle for the Great Charter, and was afterwards made prisoner at the
battle of Lincoln, while John, who sided with the barons under Simon de
Montfort, fell at Evesham. With him the line ended, but a younger branch
was seated at Eaton Socon, Beds., where the earthworks of their castle
remain, and held their barony there into the 14th century.

The Beauchamps of Elmley, Worcestershire, the greatest house of the
name, were founded by the marriage of Walter de Beauchamp with the
daughter of Urise d'Abetot, a Domesday baron, which brought him the
shrievalty of Worcestershire, the office of a royal steward, and large
estates. His descendant William, of Elmley, married Isabel, sister and
eventually heiress to William Mauduit, earl of Warwick, and their son
succeeded in 1268 to Warwick Castle and that earldom, which remained
with his descendants in the male line till 1445. The earls of the
Beauchamp line played a great part in English history. Guy, the 2nd,
distinguished himself in the Scottish campaigns of Edward I., who warned
him at his death against Piers Gaveston. Under Edward II. he was one of
the foremost foes of Piers, who had styled him "the black cur of Arden,"
and with whose death he was closely connected. As one of the "lords
ordainers" he was a recognized leader of the opposition to Edward II. By
the heiress of the Tonis he left at his death in 1315 a son Earl Thomas,
who distinguished himself at Crécy and Poitiers, was marshal of the
English host, and, with his brother John, one of the founders of the
order of the Garter. In 1369 his son Earl Thomas succeeded; from 1376 to
1379 he was among the lords striving for reform, and in the latter year
he was appointed governor to the king. Under Richard II. he joined the
lords appellant in their opposition to the king and his ministers, and
was in power with them 1388-1389; treacherously arrested by Richard in
1397, he was imprisoned in the Tower of London (the Beauchamp Tower
being called after him), but liberated by Henry IV. on his triumph
(1399). In 1401 he was succeeded by his son Earl Richard, a brave and
chivalrous warrior, who defeated Owen Glendower, fought the Percys at
Shrewsbury, and, after travelling in state through Europe and the Holy
Land, was employed against the Lollards and afterwards as lay ambassador
from England to the council of Constance (1414). He held command for a
time at Calais, and took an active part in the French campaigns of Henry
V., who created him earl and count of Aumale in Normandy. He had charge
of the education of Henry VI., and in 1437 was appointed lieutenant of
France and of Normandy. Dying at Rouen in 1439, he left by Isabel, widow
of Richard Beauchamp, earl of Worcester, a son, Earl Henry, who was
created duke of Warwick, 1445, and is alleged, but without authority, to
have been crowned king of the Isle of Wight by Henry VI. He died, the
last of his line, in June 1445. On the death of Anne, his only child, in
1449, his vast inheritance passed to Anne, his sister of the whole
blood, wife of Richard Neville, earl of Salisbury ("the Kingmaker"), who
thereupon became earl of Warwick.

Of the cadet branches of the house, the oldest was that of Powyke and
Alcester, which obtained a barony in 1447 and became extinct in 1496;
from it sprang the Beauchamps, Lords St. Amand from 1448, of whom was
Richard, bishop of Salisbury, first chancellor of the order of the
Garter, and who became extinct in 1508, being the last known male heirs
of the race. Another cadet was Sir John Beauchamp of Holt, minister of
Richard II., who was created Lord Beauchamp of Kidderminster (the first
baron created by patent) 1387, but beheaded 1388; the barony became
extinct with his son in 1400. Roger, Lord Beauchamp of Bletsoe, summoned
in 1363, is said to have been descended from the Powyke branch; his line
ended early in the 15th century. Later cadets were John, brother of the
3rd earl, who carried the standard at Crécy, became captain of Calais,
and was summoned as a peer in 1350, but died unmarried; and William,
brother of the 4th earl, who was distinguished in the French wars, and
succeeding to the lands of the Lords Abergavenny was summoned in that
barony 1392; his son was created earl of Worcester in 1420, but died
without male issue in 1422; from his daughter, who married Sir Edward
Neville, descended the Lords Abergavenny.

The Lords Beauchamp of "Hache" (1299-1361) were so named from their seat
of Hatch Beauchamp, Somerset, and were of a wholly distinct family.
Their title, "Beauchamp of Hache," was revived for the Seymours in 1536
and 1559. The title of "Beauchamp of Powyke" was revived as a barony in
1806 for Richard Lygon (descended through females from the Beauchamps of
Powyke), who was created Earl Beauchamp in 1815.

  See Sir W. Dugdale, _Baronage_ (1675-1676) and _Warwickshire_ (2nd
  ed., 1730); G.E. C[okayne], _Complete Peerage_ (1887-1898); W.
  Courthope, _Rows Roll_ (1859); and J.H. Round, _Geoffrey de
  Mandeville_ (1892).     (J. H. R.)



BEAUCHAMP, ALPHONSE DE, French historian and man of letters, was born at
Monaco in 1767, and died in 1832. In 1784 he entered a Sardinian
regiment of marines, but on the outbreak of war with the French
Republic, he refused to fight in what he considered an unjust cause, and
was imprisoned for several months. After being liberated he took up his
residence in Paris, where he obtained a post in one of the government
offices. On the fall of Robespierre, Beauchamp was transferred to the
_bureau_ of the minister of police, and charged with the superintendence
of the press. This situation opened up to him materials of which he made
use in his first and most popular historical work, _Histoire de la
Vendée et des Chouans_, 3 vols., 1806. The book, received with great
favour by the people, was displeasing to the authorities. The third
edition was confiscated; its writer was deprived of his post, and in
1809 was compelled to leave Paris and take up his abode in Reims. In
1811 he obtained permission to return, and again received a government
appointment. This he had to resign on the Restoration, but was rewarded
with a small pension, which was continued to his widow after his death.

Beauchamp wrote extensively for the public journals and for the
magazines. His biographical and historical works are numerous, and those
dealing with contemporary events are valuable, owing to the sources at
his disposal. They must, however, be used with great caution. The
following are worth mention:--_Vie politique, militaire et privée du
général Moreau_ (1814); _Catastrophe de Murat, ou Récit de la dernière
révolution de Naples_ (1815); _Histoire de la guerre d'Espagne et du
Portugal, 1807-1813_ (2 vols., 1810); _Collection de mémoires relatifs
aux révolutions d'Espagne_ (2 vols., 1824); _Histoire de la révolution
de Piémont_ (2 vols., 1821, 1823); _Mémoires secrets et inédits pour
servir à l'histoire contemporaine_ (2 vols., 1825). The _Mémoires de
Fouché_ have also been ascribed to him, but it seems certain that he
only revised and completed a work really composed by Fouché himself.

  See an article by Louis Madelin in _La Revolution française_ (1900).



BEAUFORT, the name of the family descended from the union of John of
Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, with Catherine, wife of Sir Hugh Swynford,
taken from a castle in Anjou which belonged to John of Gaunt. There were
four children of this union--John, created earl of Somerset and marquess
of Dorset; Henry, afterwards bishop of Winchester and cardinal (see
BEAUFORT, HENRY); Thomas, made duke of Exeter and chancellor; and Joan,
who married Ralph Neville, first earl of Westmorland, and died in 1440.
In 1396, some years after the birth of these children, John of Gaunt and
Catherine were married, and in 1397 the Beauforts were declared
legitimate by King Richard II. In 1407 this action was confirmed by
their half-brother, King Henry IV., but on this occasion they were
expressly excluded from the succession to the English throne.

JOHN BEAUFORT, earl of Somerset (c. 1373-1410), assisted Richard II. in
1397 when the king attacked the lords appellants, and made himself an
absolute ruler. For these services he was made marquess of Dorset, but
after the deposition of Richard in 1399, he was degraded to his former
rank as earl. In 1401, however, he was declared loyal, and appeared
later in command of the English fleet. He married Margaret, daughter of
Thomas Holland, second earl of Kent, and died in March 1410, leaving
three sons, Henry, John, and Edmund, and two daughters, Jane or Joan,
who married James I., king of Scotland, and Margaret, who married Thomas
Courtenay, earl of Devon.

THOMAS BEAUFORT (d. 1426) held various high offices under Henry IV., and
took a leading part in suppressing the rising in the north in 1405. He
became chancellor in 1410, but resigned this office in January 1412 and
took part in the expedition to France in the same year. He was then
created earl of Dorset, and when Henry V. became king in 1413, he was
made lieutenant of Aquitaine and took charge of Harfleur when this town
passed into the possession of the English. In 1416 he became lieutenant
of Normandy, and was created duke of Exeter; and returning to England he
compelled the Scots to raise the siege of Roxburgh. Crossing to France
in 1418 with reinforcements for Henry V., he took an active part in the
subsequent campaign, was made captain of Rouen, and went to the court of
France to treat for peace. He was then captured by the French at Baugé,
but was soon released and returned to England when he heard of the death
of Henry V. in August 1422. He was one of Henry's executors, and it is
probable that the king entrusted his young son, King Henry VI., to his
care. However this may be, Exeter did not take a very prominent part in
the government, although he was a member of the council of regency.
Having again shared in the French war, the duke died at Greenwich about
the end of the year 1426. He was buried at Bury St. Edmunds, where his
remains were found in good condition 350 years later. He married
Margaret, daughter of Sir Thomas Neville of Nornby, but left no issue.
The Beaufort family was continued by HENRY BEAUFORT (1401-1419), the
eldest son of John Beaufort, earl of Somerset, who was succeeded as earl
of Somerset by his brother JOHN BEAUFORT (1403-1444). The latter fought
under Henry V. in the French wars, and having been taken prisoner
remained in France as a captive until 1437. Soon after his release he
returned to the war, and after the death of Richard Beauchamp, earl of
Warwick, in 1439, acted as commander of the English forces, and, with
his brother Edmund, was successful in recapturing Harfleur. Although
chagrined when Richard, duke of York, was made regent of France,
Beaufort led an expedition to France in 1442, and in 1443 was made duke
of Somerset. He died, probably by his own hand, in May 1444. He married
Margaret, daughter of Sir John Beauchamp, and left a daughter, MARGARET
BEAUFORT, afterwards countess of Richmond and Derby, who married, for
her first husband, Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond, by whom she became
the mother of King Henry VII. In this way the blood of the Beauforts was
mingled with that of the Tudors, and of all the subsequent occupants of
the English throne.

The title of earl of Somerset descended on the death of John Beaufort in
1444 to his brother EDMUND BEAUFORT, duke of Somerset (q.v.), who was
killed at St Albans in 1455. By his marriage with Eleanor Beauchamp,
daughter of the fifth earl of Warwick, he left three sons, Henry, Edmund
and John, and a daughter, Margaret.

HENRY BEAUFORT (1436-1464) became duke of Somerset in 1455, and soon
began to take part in the struggle against Richard, duke of York, but
failed to dislodge Richard's ally, Richard Neville, earl of Warwick,
from Calais. He took part in the victory of the Lancastrians at
Wakefield in 1460, escaped from the carnage at Towton in 1461, and
shared the attainder of Henry VI. in the same year. In May 1464 he was
captured at Hexham and was beheaded immediately after the battle. The
title of duke of Somerset was assumed by his brother, EDMUND BEAUFORT
(c. 1438-1471), who fled from the country after the disasters to the
Lancastrian arms, but returned to England in 1471, in which year he
fought at Tewkesbury, and in spite of a promise of pardon was beheaded
after the battle on the 6th of May 1471. His younger brother JOHN
BEAUFORT had been killed probably at this battle, and so on the
execution of Edmund the family became extinct.

MARGARET BEAUFORT married Humphrey, earl of Stafford, and was the mother
of Henry Stafford, duke of Buckingham. Henry Beaufort, third duke of
Somerset (d. 1464), left an illegitimate son, Charles Somerset, who was
created earl of Worcester by Henry VIII. in 1514. His direct descendant,
Henry Somerset, fifth earl of Worcester, was a loyal partisan of Charles
I. and in 1642 was created marquess of Worcester. His grandson, Henry,
the third marquess, was made duke of Beaufort in 1682, and the present
duke of Beaufort is his direct descendant.

  See Thomas Walsingham, _Historia Anglicana_, edited by H.T. Riley
  (London, 1863-1864); W. Stubbs, _Constitutional History of England_,
  vols. ii. and iii. (Oxford, 1895); _The Paston Letters_, edited by
  James Gairdner (London, 1904).



BEAUFORT, FRANÇOIS DE VENDÔME, DUC DE (1616-1669), a picturesque figure
in French history of the 17th century, was the second son of César de
Vendôme, and grandson of Henry IV., by Gabrielle d'Estrées. He began his
career in the army and served in the first campaigns of the Thirty
Years' War, but his ambitions and unscrupulous character soon found a
more congenial field in the intrigues of the court. In 1642 he joined in
the conspiracy of Cinq Mars against Richelieu, and upon its failure was
obliged to live in exile in England until Richelieu's death. Returning
to France, he became the centre of a group, known as the "Importants,"
in which court ladies predominated, especially the duchess of Chevreuse
and the duchess of Montbazon. For an instant after the king's death,
this group seemed likely to prevail, and Beaufort to be the head of the
new government. But Mazarin gained the office, and Beaufort, accused of
a plot to murder Mazarin, was imprisoned in Vincennes, in September
1643. He escaped on the 31st of May 1648, just in time to join the
Fronde, which began in August 1648. He was then with the parlement and
the princes, against Mazarin. His personal appearance, his affectation
of popular manners, his quality of grandson (legitimized), of Henry IV.,
rendered him a favourite of the Parisians, who acclaimed him everywhere.
He was known as the _Roi des Halles_ ("king of the markets"), and
popular subscriptions were opened to pay his debts. He had hopes of
becoming prime minister. But among the members of the parlement and the
other leaders of the Fronde, he was regarded as merely a tool. His
intelligence was but mediocre, and he showed no talent during the war.
Mazarin, on his return to Paris, exiled him in October 1652; and he was
only allowed to return in 1654, when the cardinal had no longer any
reason to fear him. Henceforth Beaufort no longer intrigued. In 1658 he
was named general superintendent of navigation, or chief of the naval
army, and faithfully served the king in naval wars from that on. In 1664
he directed the expedition against the pirates of Algiers. In 1669 he
led the French troops defending Candia against the Turks, and was killed
in a night sortie, on the I5th of June 1669. His body was brought back
to France with great pomp, and official honours rendered it.

  See the memoirs of the time, notably those of La Rochefoucauld, the
  Cardinal de Retz, and Madame de Motteville. Also D'Avenel, _Richelieu
  et la monarchic absolue_ (1884); Cheruel, _La France sous le ministère
  Mazarin_ (1879); and _La France sous la minorité de Louis XIV_ (1882).



BEAUFORT, HENRY (c. 1377-1447), English cardinal and bishop of
Winchester, was the second son of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, by
Catherine, wife of Sir Hugh Swynford. His parents were not married until
1396, and in 1397 King Richard II. declared the four children of this
union to be legitimate. Henry spent some of his youth at Aix
la-Chapelle, and having entered the church received various
appointments, and was consecrated bishop of Lincoln in July 1398. When
his half-brother became king as Henry IV. in 1399, Beaufort began to
take a prominent place in public life; he was made chancellor in 1403,
but he resigned this office in 1404, when he was translated from Lincoln
to Winchester as the successor of William of Wykeham. He exercised
considerable influence over the prince of Wales, afterwards King Henry
V., and although he steadily supported the house of Lancaster he opposed
the party led by Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury. A dispute
over money left by John Beaufort, marquess of Dorset, caused or widened
a breach in the royal family which reached a climax in 1411. The details
are not quite clear, but it seems tolerably certain that the prince and
the bishop, anxious to retain their power, sought to induce Henry IV. to
abdicate in favour of his son. Angry at this request, the king dismissed
his son from the council, and Beaufort appears to have shared his
disgrace. When Henry V. ascended the throne in 1413 the bishop again
became chancellor and took a leading part in the government until 1417,
when he resigned his office, and proceeded to the council which was then
sitting at Constance. His arrival had an important effect on the
deliberations of this council, and the compromise which was subsequently
made between the rival parties was largely his work. Grateful for
Beaufort's services, the new pope Martin V. offered him a cardinal's hat
which Henry V. refused to allow him to accept. Returning to England, he
remained loyal to Henry; and after the king's death in 1422 became a
member of the council and was the chief opponent of the wild and selfish
schemes of Humphrey, duke of Gloucester. In 1424 he became chancellor
for the third time, and was mainly responsible for the conduct of
affairs during Gloucester's expedition to Hainaut. He was disliked by
the citizens of London; and this ill-feeling was heightened when
Gloucester, who was a favourite of the Londoners, returned to England
and was doubtless reproached by Beaufort for the folly of his
undertaking. A riot took place in London, and at the bishop's entreaty,
the protector, John, duke of Bedford, came back to England. As this
dispute was still unsettled when the parliament met at Leicester in
February 1426, Bedford and the lords undertook to arbitrate. Charged by
Gloucester with treason against Henry IV. and his successors, Beaufort
denied the accusations. But although a reconciliation was effected, the
bishop evidently regarded this as a defeat; and having resigned the
chancellorship his energies were diverted into another channel.

Anxious to secure his aid for the crusade against the Hussites, Pope
Martin again offered him a cardinal's hat, which Beaufort accepted. He
went to France in 1427, and was then appointed papal legate for Germany,
Hungary and Bohemia; and proceeding eastwards, he made a bold but futile
effort to rally the crusaders at Tachau. Returning to England to raise
money for a fresh crusade, he was received with great state in London;
but his acceptance of the cardinalate had weakened his position and
Gloucester refused to recognize his legatine commission. Beaufort gave
way on this question, but an unsuccessful attempt was made in 1429 to
deprive him of his see. Having raised some troops he set out for
Bohemia; but owing to the disasters which had just attended the English
arms in France, he was induced to allow these soldiers to serve in the
French war; and in February 1431 the death of Martin V. ended his
commission as legate. Meanwhile an attempt on the part of Gloucester to
exclude the cardinal from the council had failed, and it was decided
that his attendance was required except during the discussion of
questions between the king and the papacy. He accompanied King Henry VI.
to Normandy in April 1430, and in December 1431 crowned him king of
France. About this time Gloucester made another attempt to deprive
Beaufort of his see, and it was argued in the council that as a cardinal
he could not hold an English bishopric. The general council was not
inclined to press the case against him; but the privy council, more
clerical and more hostile, sealed writs of praemunire and attachment
against him, and some of his jewels were seized. On his return to
England he attended the parliament in May 1432, and asked to hear the
charges against him. The king declared him loyal, and a statute was
passed freeing him from any penalties which he might have incurred under
the Statute of Provisors or in other ways. He supported Bedford in his
attempts to restore order to the finances. In August 1435 he attended
the congress at Arras, but was unable to make peace with France; and
after Bedford's death his renewed efforts to this end were again opposed
by Gloucester, who favoured a continuance of the war. On two occasions
the council advised the king to refuse him permission to leave England,
but in 1437 he obtained a full pardon for all his offences. In 1439 and
1440 he went to France on missions of peace, and apparently at his
instigation the English council decided to release Charles, duke of
Orleans. This step further irritated Gloucester, who drew up and
presented to the king a long and serious list of charges against
Beaufort; but the council defended the policy of the cardinal and
ignored the personal accusations against him. Beaufort, however,
gradually retired from public life, and after witnessing the conclusion
of the treaty of Troyes died at Wolvesey palace, Winchester, on the 10th
of April 1447. The "black despair" which Shakespeare has cast round his
dying hours appears to be without historical foundation. He was buried
in Winchester cathedral, the building of which he finished. He also
refounded and enlarged the hospital of St Cross near Winchester.

Beaufort was a man of considerable wealth, and on several occasions he
lent large sums of money to the king. He was the lover of Lady Alice
Fitzalan, daughter of Richard, earl of Arundel, by whom he had a
daughter, Joan, who married Sir Edward Stradling of St Donat's in
Glamorganshire. His interests were secular and he was certainly proud
and ambitious; but Stubbs has pictured the fairer side of his character
when he observes that Beaufort "was merciful in his political enmities,
enlightened in his foreign policy; that he was devotedly faithful, and
ready to sacrifice his wealth and labour for the king; that from the
moment of his death everything began to go wrong, and went worse and
worse until all was lost."

  See _Historiae Croylandensis continuatio_, translated by H.T. Riley
  (London, 1854); _Proceedings and Ordinances of the Privy Council_,
  edited by N.H. Nicolas (London, 1834-1837); Aeneas Sylvius
  Piccolomini, _Historica Bohemica_ (Frankfort and Leipzig, 1707); W.
  Stubbs, _Constitutional History_, vol. iii. (Oxford, 1895): M.
  Creighton, _A History of the Papacy during the Period of the
  Reformation_ (London, 1897); and L.B. Radford, _Henry Beaufort_
  (1908).



BEAUFORT, LOUIS DE (d. 1795), French historian, of whose life little is
known. In 1738 he published at Utrecht a _Dissertation sur l'incertitude
des cinq premiers siècles de l'histoire romaine_, in which he showed
what untrustworthy guides even the historians of highest repute, such as
Livy and Dionysius of Halicarnassus, were for that period, and pointed
out by what methods and by the aid of what documents truly scientific
bases might be given to its history. This was an ingenious plea, bold
for its time, against traditional history such as Rollin was writing at
that very moment. A German, Christopher Saxius, endeavoured to refute it
in a series of articles published in vols. i.-iii. of the _Miscellanea
Liviensia_. Beaufort replied by some brief and ironical _Remarques_ in
the appendix to the second edition of his _Dissertation_ (1750).
Beaufort also wrote an _Histoire de César Germanicus_ (Leyden, 1761),
and _La République romaine, ou plan général de L'ancien gouvernement de
Rome_ (The Hague, 1766, 2 vols. quarto). Though not a scholar of the
first rank, Beaufort has at least the merit of having been a pioneer in
raising the question, afterwards elaborated by Niebuhr, as to the
credibility of early Roman history.



BEAUFORT SCALE, a series of numbers from 0 to 12 arranged by Admiral Sir
Francis Beaufort (1774-1857) in 1805, to indicate the strength of the
wind from a calm, force 0, to a hurricane, force 12, with sailing
directions such as "5, smacks shorten sails" for coast purposes, and
"royals, &c., 'full and by'" for the open sea. An exhaustive report was
made in 1906 by the Meteorological Office on the relation between the
estimates of wind-force according to Beaufort's scale and the velocities
recorded by anemometers belonging to the office, from which the
following table is taken:--

  +---------------+--------------------+------------------+
  |               |                    | Limits of hourly |
  |Beaufort scale.| Corresponding wind.|     velocity.    |
  +---------------+--------------------+------------------+
  |    Numbers.   |                    |  Miles per hour. |
  |       0       |    Calm            | Under 2          |
  |      1-3      |    Light breeze    |       2-12       |
  |      4-5      |    Moderate wind   |      13-23       |
  |      6-7      |    Strong wind     |      24-37       |
  |      8-9      |    Gale            |      38-55       |
  |     10-11     |    Storm           |      56-75       |
  |      12       |    Hurricane       |Above 75          |
  +---------------+--------------------+------------------+



BEAUFORT WEST, in Cape province, South Africa, the capital of a division
of this name, 339 m. by rail N.E. of Cape Town. Pop.(1904) 5481. The
largest town in the western part of the Great Karroo, it lies, at an
elevation of 2792 ft., at the foot of the southern slopes of the
Nieuwveld mountains. It has several fine public buildings and the
streets are lined with avenues of pear trees, while an abundant supply
of water, luxuriant orchards, fields and gardens give it the appearance
of an oasis in the desert. It is a favourite resort of invalids. The
town was founded in 1819, and in its early days was largely resorted to
by Griquas and Bechuana for the sale of ivory, skins and cattle. The
Beaufort West division has an area of 6374 sq. m. and a pop. (1904) of
10,762, 45% being whites. Sheep-farming is the principal industry.



BEAUGENCY, a town of central France, in the department of Loiret, 16 m.
S.W. of Orleans on the Orleans railway, between that city and Blois.
Pop. (1906) 2993. It is situated at the foot of vine-clad hills on the
right bank of the Loire, to the left bank of which it is united by a
bridge of twenty-six arches, many of them dating from the 13th century.
The chief buildings are the château, mainly of the 15th century, of
which the massive donjon of the 11th century known as the Tour de César
is the oldest portion; and the abbey-church of Notre-Dame, a building in
the Romanesque style of architecture, frequently restored. Some of the
buildings of the Benedictine abbey, to which this church belonged,
remain. The hôtel de ville, the façade of which is decorated with
armorial bearings of Renaissance carving, and the church of St Étienne,
an unblemished example of Romanesque architecture, are of interest.
Several old houses, some remains of the medieval ramparts and the Tour
de l'Horloge, an ancient gateway, are also preserved. The town carries
on trade in grain, and has flour mills.

The lords of Beaugency attained considerable importance in the 11th,
12th and 13th centuries; at the end of the 13th century the fief was
sold to the crown, and afterwards passed to the house of Orleans, then
to those of Dunois and Longueville and ultimately again to that of
Orleans. Joan of Arc defeated the English here in 1429. In 1567 the town
was sacked and burned by the Protestants. On the 8th, 9th and 10th of
December 1870 the German army, commanded by the grand-duke of
Mecklenburg, defeated the French army of the Loire, under General
Chanzy, in the battle of Beaugency (or Villorceau-Josnes), which was
fought on the left bank of the Loire to the N.W. of Beaugency.



BEAUHARNAIS, the name of a French family, well known from the 15th
century onward in Orléanais, where its members occupied honourable
positions. One of them, Jean Jacques de Beauharnais, seigneur de
Miramion, had for wife Marie Bonneau, who in 1661 founded a female
charitable order, called after her the Miramiones. François de
Beauharnais, marquis de la Ferté-Beauharnais, was a deputy in the
states-general of 1789, and a devoted defender of the monarchy. He
emigrated and served in Condé's army. Later he gave his adherence to
Napoleon, and became ambassador in Etruria and Spain; he died in 1823.
His brother Alexandre, vicomte de Beauharnais, married Josephine Tascher
de la Pagerie (afterwards the wife of Napoleon Bonaparte) and had two
children by her--Eugène de Beauharnais (q.v.) and Hortense, who married
Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland, and became mother of Napoleon III.
Claude de Beauharnais, comte des Roches-Baritaud, uncle of the marquis
and of the vicomte de Beauharnais, served in the navy and became a
vice-admiral. He married Marie Anne Françoise (called Fanny) Mouchard, a
woman of letters who had a celebrated salon. His son, also named Claude
(d. 1819), was created a peer of France in 1814, and was the father of
Stéphanie de Beauharnais, who married the grand-duke of Baden. The house
of Beauharnais is still represented in Russia by the dukes of
Leuchtenberg, descendants of Prince Eugène.     (M. P.*)



BEAUHARNAIS, EUGÈNE DE (1781-1824), step-son of Napoleon I., was born at
Paris on the 3rd of September 1781. He was the son of the general
Viscount Alexandre de Beauharnais (1760-1794) and Josephine Tascher de
la Pagerie. The father, who was born in Martinique, and served in the
American War of Independence, took part in the politics of the French
Revolution, and in June-August 1793 commanded the army of the Rhine. His
failure to fulfil the tasks imposed on him (especially that of the
relief of Mainz) led to his being arrested, and he was guillotined (23rd
June 1794) not long before the fall of Robespierre. The marriage of his
widow Josephine to Napoleon Bonaparte in March 1796 was at first
resented by Eugène and his sister Hortense; but their step-father proved
to be no less kind than watchful over their interests. In the Italian
campaigns of 1796-1797 Eugène served as aide-de-camp to Bonaparte, and
accompanied him to Egypt in the same capacity. There he distinguished
himself by his activity and bravery, and was wounded during the siege of
Acre. Bonaparte brought him back to France in the autumn of 1799, and it
is known that the intervention of Eugène and Hortense helped to bring
about the reconciliation which then took place between Bonaparte and
Josephine. The services rendered by Eugène at the time of the _coup
d'état_ of Brumaire (1799) and during the Consulate (1799-1804) served
to establish his fortunes, despite the efforts of some of the Bonapartes
to destroy the influence of the Beauharnais and bring about the divorce
of Josephine.

After the proclamation of the Empire, Eugène received the title of
prince, with a yearly stipend of 200,000 francs, and became general of
the _chasseurs à cheval_ of the Guard. A year later, when the Italian
republic became the kingdom of Italy, with Napoleon as king, Eugène
received the title of viceroy, with large administrative powers. (See
ITALY.) Not long after the battle of Austerlitz (2nd December 1805)
Napoleon dignified the elector of Bavaria with the title of king and
arranged a marriage between Eugène and the princess Augusta Amelia of
Bavaria. On the whole the government of Eugène gave general satisfaction
in the kingdom of Italy; it comprised the districts between the Simplon
Pass and Rimini, and also after the peace of Presburg (December 1805),
Istria and Dalmatia. In 1808 (on the further partition of the papal
states) the frontier of the kingdom was extended southwards to the
borders of the kingdom of Naples, in the part known as the Abruzzi. In
the campaign of 1809 Eugène commanded the army of Italy, with General
(afterwards Marshal) Macdonald as his _adlatus_. The battle of Sacile,
where he fought against the Austrian army of the Archduke John, did not
yield proofs of military talent on the part of Eugène or of Macdonald;
but on the retreat of the enemy into Austrian territory (owing to the
disasters of their main army on the Danube) Eugène's forces pressed them
vigorously and finally won an important victory at Raab in the heart of
the Austrian empire. Then, joining the main army under Napoleon, in the
island of Lobau in the Danube, near Vienna, Eugène and Macdonald
acquitted themselves most creditably in the great battle of Wagram (6th
July 1809). In 1810 Eugène received the title of grand-duke of
Frankfort. Equally meritorious were his services and those of the large
Italian contingent in the campaign of 1812 in Russia. He and they
distinguished themselves especially at the battles of Borodino and
Malojaroslavitz; and on several occasions during the disastrous retreat
which ensued, Eugène's soldierly constancy and devotion to Napoleon
shone out conspicuously in 1813-1814, especially by contrast with the
tergiversations of Murat. On the downfall of the Napoleonic régime
Eugène retired to Munich, where he continued to reside, with the title
duke of Leuchtenberg and prince of Eichstädt. He died in 1824, leaving
two surviving sons and three daughters.

  For further details concerning Eugène see _Mémoires et correspondance
  politique et militaire du Prince Eugène_, edited by Baron A. Ducasse
  (10 vols., Paris, 1858-1860); F.J.A. Schneidewind, _Prinz Eugen,
  Herzog van Leuchtenberg in den Feldzügen seiner Zeit_ (Stockholm,
  1857); A. Purlitzer, _Une Idylle sous Napoléon I^er: le roman du
  Prince Eugène_ (Paris, 1895); F. Masson, _Napoléon et sa famille_
  (Paris, 1897-1900).     (J. Hl. R.)



BEAUJEU. The French province of Beaujolais was formed by the development
of the ancient seigniory of Beaujeu (department of Rhône, arrondissement
of Villefranche). The lords of Beaujeu held from the 10th century
onwards a high rank in feudal society. In 1210 Guichard of Beaujeu was
sent by Philip Augustus on an embassy to Pope Innocent III.; he was
present at the French attack on Dover, where he died in 1216. His son
Humbert took part in the wars against the Albigenses and became
constable of France. Isabeau, daughter of this Humbert, married Renaud,
count of Forez; and their second son, Louis, assumed the name and arms
of Beaujeu. His son Guichard, called the Great, had a very warlike life,
fighting for the king of France, for the count of Savoy and for his own
hand. He was taken prisoner by the Dauphinois in 1325, thereby losing
important estates. Guichard's son, Edward of Beaujeu, marshal of France,
fought at Crécy, and perished in the battle of Ardres in 1351. His son
died without issue in 1374, and was succeeded by his cousin, Edward of
Beaujeu, lord of Perreux, who gave his estates of Beaujolais and Dombes
to Louis II., duke of Bourbon, in 1400. Pierre de Bourbon was lord of
Beaujeu in 1474, when he married Anne of France, daughter of Louis XI.,
and this is why that princess retained the name of lady of Beaujeu.
Louise of Savoy, mother of Francis I., got Beaujolais assigned to
herself despite the claims of the constable de Bourbon. In 1531 the
province was reunited to the crown; but Francis II. gave it back to the
Montpensier branch of the Bourbons in 1560, from which house it passed
to that of Orleans. The title of comte de Beaujolais was borne by a son
of Philippe "Égalité," duke of Orleans, born in 1779, died in 1808.
     (M. P.*)



BEAULIEU, a village in the French department of Alpes-Maritimes. Pop.
(1906) 1460. It is about 4 m. by rail E. of Nice (1¼ m. from
Villefranche), and on the main line between Marseilles and Mentone; it
is also connected with Nice and Mentone by an electric tramway. Of late
years it has become a much frequented winter resort, and many handsome
villas (among them that built by the 3rd marquess of Salisbury) have
been constructed in the neighbourhood. The harbour has been extended and
adapted for the reception of yachts.     (W. A. B. C.)



BEAULY (pronounced _Bewley_; a corruption of _Beaulieu_), a town of
Inverness-shire, Scotland, on the Beauly, 10 m. W. of Inverness by the
Highland railway. Pop. (1901) 855. Its chief interest is the beautiful
remains of the Priory of St John, founded in 1230 by John Bisset of the
Aird, for Cistercian monks. At the Reformation the buildings (except the
church, now a ruin) passed into the possession of Lord Lovat. On the
right bank of the river is the site of Lovat Castle, which once belonged
to the Bissets, but was presented by James VI. to Hugh Fraser and
afterwards demolished. To the south-east is the church of Kirkhill
containing the vault of the Lovats. Three miles south of Beauly is
Beaufort Castle, the chief seat of the Lovats, a fine modern mansion in
the Scottish baronial style. It occupies the site of a fortress erected
in the time of Alexander II., which was besieged in 1303 by Edward I.
This was replaced by several castles in succession, of which one--Castle
Dounie--was taken by Cromwell and burned by the duke of Cumberland in
1746, the conflagration being witnessed from a neighbouring hill by
Simon, Lord Lovat, before his capture on Loch Morar. The land around
Beauly is fertile and the town drives a brisk trade in coal, timber,
lime, grain and fish.



BEAUMANOIR, a seigniory in what is now the department of Côtes-du-Nord,
France, which gave its name to an illustrious family. Jean de
Beaumanoir, marshal of Brittany for Charles of Blois, and captain of
Josselin, is remembered for his share in the famous battle of the
Thirty. This battle, sung by an unknown trouvère and retold with
variations by Froissart, was an episode in the struggle for the
succession to the duchy of Brittany between Charles of Blois, supported
by the king of France, and John of Montfort, supported by the king of
England. John Bramborough, the English captain of Ploërmel, having
continued his ravages, in spite of a truce, in the district commanded by
the captain of Josselin, Jean de Beaumanoir sent him a challenge, which
resulted in a fight between thirty picked champions, knights and
squires, on either side, which took place on the 25th of March 1351,
near Ploërmel. Beaumanoir commanded thirty Bretons, Bramborough a mixed
force of twenty Englishmen, six German mercenaries and four Breton
partisans of Montfort. The battle, fought with swords, daggers and axes,
was of the most desperate character, in its details very reminiscent of
the last fight of the Burgundians in the _Nibelungenlied_, especially in
the celebrated advice of Geoffrey du Bois to his wounded leader, who was
asking for water: "Drink your blood, Beaumanoir; that will quench your
thirst!" In the end the victory was decided by Guillaume de Montauban,
who mounted his horse and overthrew seven of the English champions, the
rest being forced to surrender. All the combatants on either side were
either dead or seriously wounded, Bramborough being among the slain. The
prisoners were well treated and released on payment of a small ransom.
(See _Le Poème du combat des Trente_, in the _Panthéon littéraire_;
Froissart, _Chroniques_, ed. S. Luce, c. iv. pp. 45 and 110 ff., and pp.
338-340).

JEAN DE BEAUMANOIR (1551-1614), seigneur and afterwards marquis de
Lavardin, count of Nègrepelisse by marriage, served first in the
Protestant army, but turned Catholic after the massacre of St
Bartholomew, in which his father had been killed, and then fought
against Henry of Navarre. When that prince became king of France,
Lavardin changed over to his side, and was made a marshal of France. He
was governor of Maine, commanded an army in Burgundy in 1602, was
ambassador extraordinary to England in 1612, and died in 1614. One of
his descendants, Henry Charles, marquis de Lavardin (1643-1701), was
sent as ambassador to Rome in 1689, on the occasion of a difference
between Louis XIV. and Innocent XI.



BEAUMANOIR, PHILIPPE DE RÉMI, SIRE DE (c. 1250-1296), French jurist, was
born in the early part of the 13th century and died in 1296. The few
facts known regarding his life are to be gathered from legal documents
in which his name occurs. From these it appears that in 1273 he filled
the post of _bailli_ at Senlis, and in 1280 held a similar office at
Clermont. He is also occasionally referred to as presiding at the
assizes held at various towns. His great work is entitled _Coutumes de
Beauvoisis_ and first appeared in 1690, a second edition with
introduction by A.A. Beugnot being published in 1842. It is regarded as
one of the best works bearing on old French law, and was frequently
referred to with high admiration by Montesquieu. Beaumanoir also
obtained fame as a poet, and left over 20,000 verses, the best known of
his poems being _La Manekine_, _Jehan et Blonde_ and _Salut d'amour_.



BEAUMARCHAIS, PIERRE AUGUSTIN CARON DE (1732-1799), French dramatist,
was born in Paris on the 24th of January 1732. His father, a watchmaker
named Caron, brought him up to the same trade. He was an unusually
precocious and lively boy, shrewd, sagacious, passionately fond of music
and imbued with a strong desire for rising in the world. At the age of
twenty-one he invented a new escapement for watches, which was pirated
by a rival maker. Young Caron at once published his grievance in the
_Mercure_, and had the matter referred to the Academy of Sciences, which
decided in his favour. This affair brought him into notice at court; he
was appointed, or at least called himself, watchmaker to the king, who
ordered from him a watch similar to one he had made for Mme de
Pompadour. His handsome figure and cool assurance enabled him to make
his way at court. Mme Franquet, the wife of an old court official,
persuaded her husband to make over his office to young Caron, and, on
her husband's death, a few months later, married the handsome
watchmaker. Caron at the same time assumed the name Beaumarchais; and
four years later, by purchasing the office of secretary to the king
obtained a patent of nobility.

At court his musical talents brought him under the notice of the king's
sisters, who engaged him to teach them the harp. This position enabled
him to confer a slight favour on the great banker Joseph Duverney, who
testified his gratitude by giving Beaumarchais a share in his
speculations. The latter turned the opportunity to good account, and
soon realized a handsome fortune. In 1764 he took a journey to Spain,
partly with commercial objects in view, but principally on account of
the Clavijo affair. José Clavijo y Fajardo had twice promised to marry
the sister of Beaumarchais, and had failed to keep his word. The
adventure had not the tragic ending of Goethe's _Clavigo_, for
Beaumarchais did not pursue his vengeance beyond words. Beaumarchais
made his first essay as a writer for the stage with the sentimental
drama _Eugénie_ (1767), in which he drew largely on the Clavijo
incident. This was followed after an interval of two years by _Les Deux
Amis_, but neither play had more than moderate success. His first wife
had died within a year of the marriage and in 1768 Beaumarchais married
Mme Lévêque. Her death in 1771 was the signal for unfounded rumours of
poisoning. Duverney died in 1770; but some time before his death a
duplicate settlement of the affairs between him and Beaumarchais had
been drawn up, in which the banker acknowledged himself debtor to
Beaumarchais for 15,000 francs. Duverney's heir, the comte de La Blache,
denied the validity of the document though without directly stigmatizing
it as a forgery. The matter was put to trial. Beaumarchais gained his
cause, but his adversary at once carried the case before the parlement.
In the meantime the duc de Chaulnes forced Beaumarchais into a quarrel
over Mdlle Menard, an actress at the Comédie Italienne, which resulted
in the imprisonment of both parties. This moment was chosen by La Blache
to demand judgment from the parlement in the matter of the Duverney
agreement. Beaumarchais was released from prison for three or four days
to see his judges. He was, however, unable to obtain an interview with
Goezman, the member of the parlement appointed to report on his case. At
last, just before the day on which the report was to be given in, he was
informed privately that, by presenting 200 _louis_ to Mme Goezman and 15
to her secretary, the desired interview might take place, if the result
should prove unfavourable the money would be refunded. The money was
sent and the interview obtained; but the decision was adverse, and 200
_louis_ were returned, the 15 going as business expenses to the
secretary. Beaumarchais, who had learned that there was no secretary
save Mme Goezman herself, insisted on restitution of the 15 _louis_, but
the lady denied all knowledge of the affair. Her husband, who was
probably not cognisant of the details of the transaction at first,
doubtless thought the defeated litigant would be easily put down, and
at once brought an accusation against him for an attempt to corrupt
justice. The battle was fought chiefly through the _Mémoires_, or
reports published by the adverse parties, and in it Beaumarchais's
success was complete. For vivacity of style, fine satire and broad
humour, his famous _Mémoires_ have never been surpassed. Even Voltaire
was constrained to envy them. Beaumarchais was skilful enough to make
his particular case of universal application. He was attacking the
parlement through one of its members, and the parlement was the
universally detested body formed by the chancellor Maupeou. The
_Mémoires_ were, therefore, hailed with general delight; and the author,
from being perhaps the most unpopular man in France, became at once the
idol of the people. The decision went against Beaumarchais. The
parlement condemned both him and Mme Goezman _au blâme_, i.e. to civic
degradation, while the husband was obliged to abandon his position.
Beaumarchais was reduced to great straits, but he obtained restitution
of his rights within two years, and finally triumphed over his adversary
La Blache.

During the next few years he was engaged in the king's secret service.
One of his missions was to England to destroy the _Mémoires secrets
d'une femme publique_ in which Charles Theveneau de Morande made an
attack on Mme Du Barry. Beaumarchais secured this pamphlet, and burnt
the whole impression in London. Another expedition to England and
Holland to seize a pamphlet attacking Marie Antoinette led to a series
of incidents more amazing than the intrigues in Beaumarchais's own
plays, but his own account must be received with caution. Beaumarchais
pursued the libeller to Germany and overtook him in a wood near
Neustadt. After a struggle he had gained possession of the document when
he was attacked by brigands. Unfortunately the wound alleged to have
been received in this fight was proved to be self-inflicted. The
Austrian government regarded Beaumarchais with a suspicion justified by
the circumstances. He was imprisoned for some time in Vienna, and only
released on the receipt of explanations from Paris.

His various visits to England led him to take a deep interest in the
impending struggle between the American colonies and the mother-country.
His sympathies were entirely with the former; and by his unwearied
exertions he succeeded in inducing the French government to give ample,
though private, assistance in money and arms to the Americans. He
himself, partly on his own account, but chiefly as the agent of the
French and Spanish governments, carried on an enormous traffic with
America. Under the name of Rodrigue Hortalez et Cie, he employed a fleet
of forty vessels to provide help for the insurgents.

During the same period he produced his two famous comedies. The earlier,
_Le Barbier de Seville_, after a prohibition of two years, was put on
the stage in 1775. The first representation was a complete failure.
Beaumarchais had overloaded the last scene with allusions to the facts
of his own case and the whole action of the piece was laboured and
heavy. But he cut down and remodelled the piece in time for the second
representation, when it achieved a complete success. The intrigues which
were necessary in order to obtain a licence for the second and more
famous comedy, _Le Mariage de Figaro_, are highly amusing, and throw
much light on the unsettled state of public sentiment at the time. The
play was completed in 1778, but the opposition of Louis XVI., who alone
saw its dangerous tendencies, was not overcome till 1784. The comedy had
an unprecedented success. The principal character in both plays, Figaro,
is a completely original conception; in fact Beaumarchais drew a
portrait of himself in the resourceful adventurer, who, for mingled wit,
shrewdness, gaiety and philosophic reflection, may not unjustly be
ranked with Tartuffe. To English readers the Figaro plays are generally
known through the adaptations of them in the grand opera of Mozart and
Rossini; but in France they long retained popularity as acting pieces.
The success of _Le Mariage de Figaro_ was helped on by the methods of
self-advertisement so well understood by Beaumarchais. The proceeds of
the fiftieth performance were devoted to a charity, the choice of which
provoked numerous epigrams. Beaumarchais had the imprudence to retaliate
by personalities that were reported by his enemies to be dedicated
against the king and queen. Beaumarchais was imprisoned for a short time
by royal order in the prison of St Lazare. Brilliant pamphleteer as he
was, Beaumarchais was at last to meet more than his match. He undertook
to defend the company of the "Eaux de Paris," in which he had a large
interest, against Mirabeau, and brought down on himself an invective to
which he could offer no reply. His real influence was gone from that
date (1785-1786). Shortly afterwards he was violently attacked by
Nicolas Bergasse, whom he sued for defamation of character. He gained
his case, but his reputation had suffered in the pamphlet war.
Beaumarchais's later productions, the bombastic opera _Tarare_ (1787)
and the drama _La Mère coupable_ (1792), which was very popular, are in
no way worthy of his genius.

By his writings Beaumarchais contributed greatly, though quite
unconsciously, to hurry on the events that led to the Revolution. At
heart he hardly seems to have been a republican, and the new state of
affairs did not benefit him. The astonishing thing is that the society
travestied in _Le Mariage de Figaro_ was the most vehement in its
applause. The court looked on at a play justly characterized by Napoleon
as the "revolution already in action" apparently without a suspicion of
its real character. His popularity had been destroyed by the Mirabeau
and Bergasse affairs, and his great wealth exposed him to the enmity of
the envious. A speculation into which he entered, to supply the
Convention with muskets from Holland, proved a ruinous failure. He was
accused of concealing arms and corn in his house, but when his house was
searched nothing was discovered but some thousands of copies of the
edition (1783-1790) of the works of Voltaire which he had had printed at
his private press at Kehl, in Baden. He was charged with treason to the
republic and was imprisoned in the Abbaye on the 20th of August 1792. A
week later he was released at the intercession of Mme Houret de la
Marinière, who had been his mistress. He took refuge in Holland and
England. His memoirs entitled, _Mes six époques_, detailing his
sufferings under the republic, are not unworthy of the Goezman period.
His courage and happy disposition never deserted him, although he was
hunted as an agent of the Convention in Holland and England, while in
Paris he was proscribed as an _émigré_. He returned to Paris in 1796,
and died there, suddenly, on the 18th of May 1799.

  Gudin de la Brenellerie's _Histoire de Beaumarchais_ (1809) was edited
  by M. Maurice Tourneux in 1888. See also L. de Loménie, _Beaumarchais
  et son temps_ (1855), Eng. trans. by H.S. Edwards, (4. vols., 1856);
  A. Hallay's _Beaumarchais_ (1897); M. de Lescure, _Éloge de
  Beaumarchais_ (1886); and Sainte-Beuve, _Causeries du lundi_, vol. vi.
  Beaumarchais's works have been edited by Gudin (7 vols., 1809); by
  Furne (6 vols., 1827); and by E. Fournier (1876). A variorum edition
  of his _Théâtre complet_ was published by MM. d'Heylli and de Marescot
  (4 vols., 1869-1875); and a _Bibliographie des oeuvres de
  Beaumarchais_, by H. Cordier in 1883.



BEAUMARIS, a market town and municipal borough, and the county town of
Anglesey, N. Wales, situated on the Bay of Beaumaris, not far from
Penmon, the northern entrance of the Menai Strait. Pop. (1901) 2326. It
has but one considerable street. The large castle chapel, dedicated to
the Virgin, has some fine monuments. David Hughes, of Jesus College,
Oxford, founded the free grammar school in 1603. Buildings include
town-hall and county-hall, with St Mary's church of the 13th century,
with chancel of the 16th. Practically without trade and with no
manufactures, Beaumaris is principally noted as a bathing-place. Its
earliest charter dates from 1283 and was revised under Elizabeth. The
town was formerly called Barnover and, still earlier, Rhosfair, and
bears its present name of French origin since Edward I. built its castle
in 1293. This extensive building was erected on low ground, so that the
fosse might communicate with the sea, and vessels might unload under its
walls. The castle capitulated, after siege, to General Mytton (1646).



BEAUMONT, BELMONT, or BELLOMONT, the name of a Norman and English
family, taken from Beaumont-le-Roger in Normandy. Early in the 11th
century Roger de Beaumont, a kinsman of the dukes of Normandy, married a
daughter of Waleran, count of Meulan, and their son, ROBERT DE BEAUMONT
(d. 1118), became count of Meulan or Mellent about 1080. Before this
date, however, he had fought at Hastings, and had added large estates in
Warwickshire to the Norman fiefs of Beaumont and Pont Audemer, which he
received when his father entered the abbey of St Peter at Préaux. It was
during the reigns of William II. and Henry I. that the count rose to
eminence, and under the latter monarch he became "the first among the
counsellors of the king." A "strenuous and sagacious man" he rendered
valuable service to both kings in their Norman wars, and Henry I. was
largely indebted to him for the English crown. He obtained lands in
Leicestershire, and it has been said he was created earl of Leicester;
this statement, however, is an error, although he exercised some of the
privileges of an earl. His abilities as a counsellor, statesman and
diplomatist gained him the admiration of his contemporaries, and Henry
of Huntingdon describes him as "the wisest man between this and
Jerusalem." He seems to have been a man of independent character, for he
assisted Anselm against William Rufus, although he supported Henry I. in
his quarrel with Pope Paschal II. When Robert died on the 5th of June
1118 his lands appear to have been divided between his twin sons, Robert
and Waleran, while a third son, Hugh, became earl of Bedford in 1138.

ROBERT DE BEAUMONT (1104-1168), justiciar of England, married a
granddaughter of Ralph Guader, earl of Norfolk, and receiving his
father's English fiefs in 1118 became earl of Leicester. He and his
brother, Waleran, were the chief advisers of Stephen, and helped this
king to seize the bishops of Salisbury and Lincoln in 1139; later,
however, Robert made his peace with Henry II., and became chief
justiciar of England. First among the lay nobles he signed the
Constitutions of Clarendon, he sought to reconcile Henry and Archbishop
Becket, and was twice in charge of the kingdom during the king's
absences in France. The earl founded the abbey of St Mary de Pré at
Leicester and other religious houses, and by a charter confirmed the
burgesses of Leicester in the possession of their merchant-gild and
customs. His son, Robert, succeeded to the earldom of Leicester, and
with other English barons assisted prince Henry in his revolt against
his father the king in 1173. For this participation, and also on a later
occasion, he was imprisoned; but he enjoyed the favour of Richard I.,
and died in Greece when returning from a pilgrimage in 1190. His son and
heir, Robert, died childless in 1204.

WALERAN DE BEAUMONT (1104-1166) obtained his father's French fiefs and
the title of count of Meulan in 1118. After being imprisoned for five
years by Henry I. he spent some time in England, and during the civil
war between Stephen and the empress Matilda he fought for the former
until about 1150, when he deserted the king and assisted the empress.
His later history appears to have been uneventful. The county of Meulan
remained in possession of the Beaumont family until 1204, when it was
united with the royal domain.

Another member of the Beaumont family, possibly a relative of the
earlier Beaumonts, was LOUIS DE BEAUMONT (d. 1333), bishop of Durham
from 1317 until his death. This prelate was related to the English king,
Edward II., and after a life spent in strife and ostentation, he died on
the 24th of September 1333. JOHN BEAUMONT, master of the rolls under
Edward VI., was probably a member of the same family. A dishonest and
corrupt judge, he was deprived of his office and imprisoned in 1552.

The barony of Beaumont dates from 1309, when HENRY BEAUMONT (d. 1340),
who was constable of England in 1322, was summoned to parliament under
this title. It was retained by his descendants until the death of
William, the 7th baron and the 2nd viscount,[1] in 1507, when it fell
into abeyance. In 1840 the barony was revived in favour of Miles Thomas
Stapleton (1805-1854), a descendant of Joan, Baroness Lovel, a daughter
of the 6th baron, and it has since been retained by his descendants.

In 1906 WENTWORTH BLACKETT BEAUMONT (1829-1907), the head of a family
well known in the north of England, was created Baron Allendale.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] His father John (d. 1460), the 6th baron, great chamberlain and
    constable of England, was the first person advanced to the dignity of
    a viscount in England.



BEAUMONT, CHRISTOPHE DE (1703-1781), French ecclesiastic and archbishop
of Paris, was a cadet of the Les Adrets and Saint-Quentin branch of the
illustrious Dauphiné family of Beaumont. He became bishop of Bayonne in
1741, then archbishop of Vienne in 1743, and in 1746, at the age of
forty-three, archbishop of Paris. Beaumont is noted for his struggle
with the Jansenists. To force them to accept the bull _Unigenitus_ which
condemned their doctrines, he ordered the priests of his diocese to
refuse absolution to those who would not recognize the bull, and to deny
funeral rites to those who had confessed to a Jansenist priest. While
other bishops sent Beaumont their adhesion to his crusade, the parlement
of Paris threatened to confiscate his temporalities. The king forbade
the parlement to interfere in these spiritual questions, and upon its
proving obdurate it was exiled (September 18, 1753). The "royal
chamber," which was substituted, having failed to carry on the
administration of justice properly, the king was obliged to recall the
parlement, and the archbishop was sent into honourable exile (August
1754). An effort was made to induce him to resign the active duties of
his see to a coadjutor, but in spite of the most tempting
offers--including a cardinal's hat--he refused. On the contrary, to his
polemic against the Jansenists he added an attack on the _philosophes_,
and issued a formal mandatory letter condemning Rousseau's _Émile_.
Rousseau replied in his masterly _Lettre à M. de Beaumont_ (1762), in
which he insists that freedom of discussion in religious matters is
essentially more religious than the attempt to impose belief by force.

  De Beaumont's _Mandements, lettres et instructions pastorales_ were
  published in two volumes in 1780, the year before his death.



BEAUMONT, SIR JOHN (1583-1627), English poet, second son of the judge,
Sir Francis Beaumont, was born at Grace-Dieu in Leicestershire in 1583.
The deaths of his father (in 1598) and of his elder brother, Sir Henry
Beaumont (in 1605), made the poet early the head of this brilliant
family; the dramatist, Francis Beaumont, being a younger brother. John
went to Oxford in February 1597, and entered as a gentleman commoner in
Broadgates Hall, the present Pembroke College. He was admitted to the
Inner Temple in 1600, but on the death of Henry he no doubt went down to
Grace-Dieu to manage the family estates. He began to write verse early,
and in 1602, at the age of nineteen, he published anonymously his
_Metamorphosis of Tabacco_, written in very smooth couplets, in which he
addressed Drayton as his "loving friend." He lived in Leicestershire for
many years as a bachelor, being one "who never felt Love's dreadful
arrow." But in process of time he became a tardy victim, and married a
lady of the Fortescue family, who bore him four stout sons, the eldest
of whom, another John, was accounted one of the most athletic men of his
time. "He could leap 16 ft. at one leap, and would commonly, at a
stand-leap, jump over a high long table in the hall, light on a settle
beyond the table, and raise himself straight up." This magnificent young
man was not without literary taste; he edited his father's posthumous
poems, and wrote an enthusiastic elegy on him; he was killed in 1644 at
the siege of Gloucester. Another of Sir John Beaumont's sons, Gervaise,
died in childhood, and the incidents of his death are recorded in one of
his father's most touching poems. Sir John Beaumont concentrated his
powers on a poem in eight books, entitled _The Crown of Thorns_, which
was greatly admired in MS. by the earl of Southampton and others, but
which is lost. After long retirement, Beaumont was persuaded by the duke
of Buckingham to move in larger circles; he attended court and in 1626
was made a baronet. This honour he did not long survive, for he died on
the 19th of April 1627, and was buried in Westminster Abbey ten days
later. The new Sir John, the strong man, published in 1629 a volume
entitled _Bosworth Field; with a taste of the variety of other Poems
left by Sir John Beaumont_. No more "tastes" were ever vouchsafed, so
that it is by this volume and by the juvenile _Metamorphosis of Tobacco_
that Beaumont's reputation has to stand. Of late years, the
peculiarities of John Beaumont's prosody have drawn attention to his
work. He wrote the heroic couplet, which was his favourite measure, with
almost unprecedented evenness. Bosworth Field, the scene of the battle
of which Beaumont's principal poem gives a vaguely epical narrative, lay
close to the poet's house of Grace-Dieu. He writes on all occasions with
a smoothness which was very remarkable in the first quarter of the 17th
century, and which marks him, with Edmund Waller and George Sandys, as
one of the pioneers of the classic reformation of English verse.

  The poems of Sir John Beaumont were included in A. Chalmers's _English
  Poets_, vol. vi. (1810). An edition, with "memorial introduction" and
  notes, was included (1869) in Dr A.B. Grosart's _Fuller Worthies'
  Library_; and the _Metamorphosis of Tobacco_ was included in J.P.
  Collier's _Illustrations of Early English Popular Literature_, vol. i.
  (1863).     (E. G.)



BEAUMONT and FLETCHER, English dramatists[1] The names of FRANCIS
BEAUMONT (1584-1616) and JOHN FLETCHER (1579-1625) are inseparably
connected in the history of the English drama. John Fletcher was born in
December 1579 at Rye in Sussex, and baptized on the 20th of the same
month. Richard Fletcher, his father, afterwards queen's chaplain, dean
of Peterborough, and bishop successively of Bristol, Worcester and
London, was then minister of the parish in which the son was born who
was to make their name immortal. That son was just turned of seven when
the dean distinguished and disgraced himself as the spiritual tormentor
of the last moments on earth of Mary Stuart. When not quite twelve he
was admitted pensioner of Bene't College, Cambridge, and two years later
was made one of the Bible-clerks: of this college Bishop Fletcher had
been president twenty years earlier, and six months before his son's
admission had received from its authorities a first letter of thanks for
various benefactions, to be followed next year by a second. Four years
later than this, when John Fletcher wanted five or six months of his
seventeenth year, the bishop died suddenly of over much tobacco and the
displeasure of Queen Elizabeth at his second marriage--this time, it
appears, with a lady of such character as figures something too
frequently on the stage of his illustrious son. He left eight children
by his first marriage in such distress that their uncle, Dr Giles
Fletcher, author of a treatise on the Russian commonwealth which is
still held in some repute, was obliged to draw up a petition to the
queen on their behalf, which was supported by the intercession of Essex,
but with what result is uncertain.

From this date we know nothing of the fortunes of John Fletcher, till
the needy orphan boy of seventeen reappears as the brilliant and
triumphant poet whose name is linked for all time with the yet more
glorious name of Francis Beaumont, third and youngest son of Sir Francis
Beaumont of Grace-Dieu, one of the justices of the common pleas--born,
according to general report, in 1586, but, according to more than one
apparently irrefragable document, actually born two years earlier. The
first record of his existence is the entry of his name, together with
those of his elder brothers Henry and John, as a gentleman-commoner of
Broadgates Hall, Oxford, now supplanted by Pembroke College. But most
lovers of his fame will care rather to remember the admirable lines of
Wordsworth on the "eager child" who played among the rocks and woodlands
of Grace-Dieu; though it may be doubted whether even the boy's first
verses were of the peaceful and pastoral character attributed to them by
the great laureate of the lakes. That passionate and fiery genius which
was so soon and for so short a time to "shake the buskined stage" with
heroic and tragic notes of passion and of sorrow, of scorn and rage, and
slighted love and jealousy, must surely have sought vent from the first
in fancies of a more ardent and ambitious kind; and it would be a
likelier conjecture that when Frank Beaumont (as we know on more
authorities than one that he was always called by his contemporaries,
even in the full flush of his adult fame--"never more than Frank," says
Heywood) went to college at the ripe age of twelve, he had already
committed a tragedy or two in emulation of _Tamburlaine_, _Andronicus_
or _Jeronymo_. The date of his admission was the 4th of February 1597;
on the 22nd of April of the following year his father died; and on the
3rd of November 1600, having left Oxford without taking his degree, the
boy of fifteen was entered a member of the Inner Temple, his two
brothers standing sponsors on the grave occasion. But the son of Judge
Beaumont was no fitter for success at the bar than the son of Bishop
Fletcher for distinction in the church: it is equally difficult to
imagine either poet invested with either gown. Two years later appeared
the poem of _Salmacis and Hermaphroditus_, generally attributed to
Beaumont, a voluptuous and voluminous expansion of the Ovidian legend,
not on the whole discreditable to a lad of eighteen, fresh from the
popular love-poems of Marlowe and Shakespeare, which it naturally
exceeds in long-winded and fantastic diffusion of episodes and conceits.
At twenty-three Beaumont prefixed to the magnificent masterpiece of Ben
Jonson some noticeable verses in honour of his "dear friend" the author;
and in the same year (1607) appeared the anonymous comedy of _The Woman
Hater_, usually assigned to Fletcher alone; but being as it is in the
main a crude and puerile imitation of Jonson's manner, and certainly
more like a man's work at twenty-two than at twenty-eight, internal
evidence would seem to justify, or at least to excuse those critics who
in the teeth of high authority and tradition would transfer from
Fletcher to Beaumont the principal responsibility for this first play
that can be traced to the hand of either. As Fletcher also prefixed to
the first edition of _Volpone_ a copy of commendatory verses, we may
presume that their common admiration for a common friend was among the
earliest and strongest influences which drew together the two great
poets whose names were thenceforward to be for ever indivisible. During
the dim eleven years between the death of his father and the dawn of his
fame, we cannot but imagine that the career of Fletcher had been
unprosperous as well as obscure. From seventeen to twenty-eight his
youth may presumably have been spent in such painful struggles for
success, if not for sustenance, as were never known to his younger
colleague, who, as we have seen, was entered at Oxford a few months
after Fletcher must in all likelihood have left Cambridge to try his
luck in London: a venture most probably resolved on as soon as the youth
had found his family reduced by the father's death to such ruinous
straits that any smoother course can hardly have been open to him.
Entering college at the same age as Fletcher had entered six years
earlier, Beaumont had before him a brighter and briefer line of life
than his elder. But whatever may have been their respective situations
when, either by happy chance or, as Dyce suggests, by the good offices
of Jonson, they were first brought together, their intimacy soon became
so much closer than that of ordinary brothers that the household which
they shared as bachelors was conducted on such thoroughly communistic
principles as might have satisfied the most trenchant theorist who ever
proclaimed as the cardinal point of his doctrine, a complete and
absolute community of bed and board, with all goods thereto
appertaining. But in the year following that in which the two younger
poets had united in homage to Jonson, they had entered into a
partnership of more importance than this in "the same clothes and cloak,
etc.," with other necessaries of life specified by Aubrey.

In 1608, if we may trust the reckoning which seems trust-worthiest, the
twin stars of our stage rose visibly together for the first time. The
loveliest, though not the loftiest, of tragic plays that we owe to the
comrades or the successors of Shakespeare, _Philaster_, has generally
been regarded as the first-born issue of their common genius. The noble
tragedy of _Thierry and Theodoret_ has sometimes been dated earlier and
assigned to Fletcher alone; but we can be sure neither of the early date
nor the single authorship. The main body of the play, comprising both
the great scenes which throw out into full and final relief the
character of either heroine for perfect good or evil, bears throughout
the unmistakable image and superscription of Fletcher; yet there are
parts which for gravity and steady strength of style, for reserve and
temperance of effect, would seem to suggest the collaboration of a
calmer and more patient hand; and these more equable and less passionate
parts of the poem recall rather the touch of Massinger than of Beaumont.
In the second act, for example, the regular structure of the verse, the
even scheme of the action, the exaggerated braggardism which makes of
the hero a mere puppet or mouthpiece of his own self-will, are all
qualities which, for better or for worse, remind us of the strength or
the weakness of a poet with whom we know that Fletcher, before or after
his alliance with Beaumont, did now and then work in common. Even the
Arbaces of Beaumont, though somewhat too highly coloured, does not
"write himself down an ass," like Thierry on his first entrance, after
the too frequent fashion of Massinger's braggarts and tyrants; does not
proclaim at starting or display with mere wantonness of exposure his
more unlovely qualities in the naked nature of their deformity. Compare
also the second with the first scene of the fourth act. In style and
metre this second scene is as good an example of Massinger as the first
is of Fletcher at his best. Observe especially in the elaborate
narrative of the pretended self-immolation of Ordella these distinctive
notes of the peculiar style of Massinger; the excess of parenthetic
sentences, no less than five in a space of twenty lines; the classical
common-place of allusion to Athens, Rome and Sparta in one superfluous
breath; the pure and vigorous but somewhat level and prosaic order of
language, with the use of certain cheap and easy phrases familiar to
Massinger as catchwords; the flat and feeble terminations by means of
which the final syllable of one verse runs on into the next without more
pause or rhythm than in a passage of prose; the general dignity and
gravity of sustained and measured expression. These are the very points
in which the style of Massinger differs from that of Fletcher; whose
lightest and loosest verses do not overlap each other without sensible
distinction between the end of one line and the beginning of the next;
who is often too fluent and facile to be choice or forcible in his
diction, but seldom if ever prosaic or conventional in phrase or
allusion, and by no means habitually given to weave thoughts within
thoughts, knit sentence into sentence, and hang whole paragraphs
together by the help of loops and brackets. From these indications we
might infer that this poem belongs altogether to a period later than the
death of Beaumont; though even during his friend's life it appears that
Fletcher was once at least allied with Massinger and two lesser
dramatists in the composition of a play, probably the _Honest Man's
Fortune_, of which the accounts are to be found in Henslowe's papers.

Hardly eight years of toil and triumph of joyous and glorious life were
spared by destiny to the younger poet between the date assigned to the
first radiant revelation of his genius in _Philaster_ and the date which
marks the end of all his labours. On the 6th of March 1616 Francis
Beaumont died--according to Jonson and tradition, "ere he was thirty
years of age," but this we have seen to be inconsistent with the
registry of his entrance at Oxford. If we may trust the elegiac evidence
of friends, he died of his own genius and fiery overwork of brain; yet
from the magnificent and masculine beauty of his portrait one should
certainly never have guessed that any strain of spirit or stress of
invention could have worn out so long before its time so fair and royal
a temple for so bright and affluent a soul. A student of physiognomy
will not fail to mark the points of likeness and of difference between
the faces of the two friends; both models of noble manhood, handsome and
significant in feature and expression alike;--Beaumont's the statelier
and serener of the two, with clear thoughtful eyes, full arched brows,
and strong aquiline nose, with a little cleft at the tip; a grave and
beautiful mouth, with full and finely curved lips; the form of face a
long pure oval, and the imperial head with its "fair large front" and
clustering hair set firm and carried high with an aspect at once of
quiet command and kingly observation: Fletcher's a more keen and fervid
face, sharper in outline every way, with an air of bright ardour and
glad fiery impatience; sanguine and nervous, suiting the complexion and
colour of hair; the expression of the eager eyes and lips almost
recalling that of a noble hound in act to break the leash it strains
at;--two heads as lordly of feature and as expressive of aspect as any
gallery of great men can show. That spring of 1616, we may note in
passing, was the darkest that ever dawned upon England or the world;
for, just forty-eight days afterwards, it witnessed, on the 23rd of
April, the removal from earth of the mightiest genius that ever dwelt
among men. Scarcely more than a month and a half divided the death-days
of Beaumont and of Shakespeare. Some three years earlier by Dyce's
estimate, when about the age of twenty-nine, Beaumont had married
Ursula, daughter and co-heiress to Henry Isley of Sundridge in Kent, by
whom he left two daughters, one of them posthumous. Fletcher survived
his friend just nine years and five months; he died "in the great
plague, 1625," and was buried on the 29th of August in St Saviour's,
Southwark; not, as we might have wished, beside his younger fellow in
fame, who but three days after his untimely death had added another
deathless memory to the graves of our great men in Westminster Abbey,
which he had sung in such noble verse. Dying when just four months short
of forty-six, Fletcher had thus, as well as we can now calculate,
altogether some fourteen years and six months more of life than the poet
who divides with him the imperial inheritance of their common glory.

The perfect union in genius and in friendship which has made one name of
the two names of these great twin brothers in song is a thing so
admirable and so delightful to remember, that it would seem ungracious
and unkindly to claim for either a precedence which we may be sure he
would have been eager to disclaim. But if a distinction must be made
between the Dioscuri of English poetry, we must admit that Beaumont was
the twin of heavenlier birth. Only as Pollux was on one side a demigod
of diviner blood than Castor can it be said that on any side Beaumont
was a poet of higher and purer genius than Fletcher; but so much must be
allowed by all who have eyes and ears to discern in the fabric of their
common work a distinction without a difference. Few things are stranger
than the avowal of so great and exquisite a critic as Coleridge, that he
could trace no faintest line of demarcation between the plays which we
owe mainly to Beaumont and the plays which we owe solely to Fletcher. To
others this line has always appeared in almost every case unmistakable.
Were it as hard and broad as the line which marks off, for example,
Shakespeare's part from Fletcher's in _The Two Noble Kinsmen_, the
harmony would of course be lost which now informs every work of their
common genius, and each play of their writing would be such another
piece of magnificent patchwork as that last gigantic heir of
Shakespeare's invention, the posthumous birth of his parting Muse which
was suckled at the breast of Fletcher's as a child of godlike blood
might be reared on the milk of a mortal mother--or in this case, we
might sometimes be tempted to say, of a she-goat who left in the veins
of the heaven-born suckling somewhat too much of his nurse Amalthaea.
That question however belongs in any case more properly to the study of
Shakespeare than to the present subject in hand. It may suffice here to
observe that the contributions of Fletcher to the majestic temple of
tragedy left incomplete by Shakespeare show the lesser workman almost
equally at his best and at him worst, at his weakest and at his
strongest. In the plays which we know by evidence surer than the most
trustworthy tradition to be the common work of Beaumont and Fletcher,
there is indeed no trace of such incongruous and incompatible admixture
as leaves the greatest example of romantic tragedy--for _Cymbeline_ and
the _Winter's Tale_, though not guiltless of blood, are in their issues
no more tragic than _Pericles_ or the _Tempest_--a unique instance of
glorious imperfection, a hybrid of heavenly aid other than heavenly
breed, disproportioned and divine. But throughout these noblest of the
works inscribed generally with the names of both dramatists we trace on
every other page the touch of a surer hand, we hear at every other turn
the note of a deeper voice, than we can ever recognize in the work of
Fletcher alone. Although the beloved friend of Jonson, and in the field
of comedy his loving and studious disciple, yet in that tragic field
where his freshest bays were gathered Beaumont was the worthiest and the
closest follower of Shakespeare. In the external but essential matter of
expression by rhythm and metre he approves himself always a student of
Shakespeare's second manner, of the style in which the graver or tragic
part of his historical or romantic plays is mostly written; doubtless,
the most perfect model that can be studied by any poet who, like
Beaumont, is great enough to be in no danger of sinking to the rank of a
mere copyist, but while studious of the perfection set before him is yet
conscious of his own personal and proper quality of genius, and enters
the presence of the master not as a servant but as a son. The general
style of his tragic or romantic verse is as simple and severe in its
purity of note and regularity of outline as that of Fletcher's is by
comparison lax, effusive, exuberant. The matchless fluency and rapidity
with which the elder brother pours forth the stream of his smooth swift
verse gave probably the first occasion for that foolish rumour which has
not yet fallen duly silent, but still murmurs here and there its
suggestion that the main office of Beaumont was to correct and contain
within bounds the overflowing invention of his colleague. The poet who
while yet a youth had earned by his unaided mastery of hand such a crown
as was bestowed by the noble love and the loving "envy" of Ben Jonson
was, according to this tradition, a mere precocious pedagogue, fit only
to revise and restrain the too liberal effusions of his elder in genius
as in years. Now, in every one of the plays common to both, the real
difficulty for a critic is not to trace the hand of Beaumont, but to
detect the touch of Fletcher. Throughout the better part of every such
play, and above all of their two masterpieces, _Philaster_ and _The
Maid's Tragedy_, it should be clear to the most sluggish or cursory of
readers that he has not to do with the author of _Valentinian_ and _The
Double Marriage_. In those admirable tragedies the style is looser, more
fluid, more feminine. From the first scene to the last we are swept as
it were along the race of a running river, always at full flow of light
and buoyant melody, with no dark reaches or perilous eddies, no stagnant
pools or sterile sandbanks; its bright course only varied by sudden
rapids or a stronger ripple here and there, but in rough places or
smooth still stirred and sparkling with summer wind and sun. But in
those tragic poems of which the dominant note is the note of Beaumont's
genius a subtler chord of thought is sounded, a deeper key of emotion is
touched, than ever was struck by Fletcher. The lighter genius is
palpably subordinate to the stronger, and loyally submits itself to the
impression of a loftier spirit. It is true that this distinction is
never grave enough to produce a discord: it is also true that the plays
in which the predominance of Beaumont's mind and style is generally
perceptible make up altogether but a small section of the work that
bears their names conjointly; but it is no less true that within this
section the most precious part of that work is comprised. Outside it we
shall find no figures so firmly drawn, no such clearness of outline, no
such cunning of hands as we recognize in the three great studies of
Bellario, Evadne and Aspatia. In his male characters, as for instance in
the parts of Philaster and Arbaces, Beaumont also is apt to show
something of that exaggeration or inconsistency for which his colleague
is perhaps more frequently and more heavily to blame; but in these there
is not a jarring note, not a touch misplaced; unless, indeed, a rigid
criticism may condemn as unfeminine and incongruous with the gentle
beauty of her pathetic patience the device by which Aspatia procures
herself the death desired at the hand of Amintor. This is noted as a
fault by Dyce; but may well be forgiven for the sake of the magnificent
scene which follows, and the highest tragic effect ever attained on the
stage of either poet. That this as well as the greater part of those
other scenes which are the glory of the poem is due to Beaumont might
readily be shown at length by the process of comparison. The noble scene
of regicide, which it was found expedient to cancel during the earlier
years of the Restoration, may indeed be the work of Fletcher; but the
part of Evadne must undoubtedly be in the main assigned to the more
potent hand of his fellow. There is a fine harmony of character between
her naked audacity in the second act and her fierce repentance in the
fourth, which is not unworthy a disciple of the tragic school of
Shakespeare; Fletcher is less observant of the due balance, less heedful
of the nice proportions of good and evil in a faulty and fiery nature,
compounded of perverse instinct and passionate reaction. From him we
might have had a figure as admirable for vigour of handling, but hardly
in such perfect keeping as this of Beaumont's Evadne, the
murderess-Magdalen, whose penitence is of one crimson colour with her
sin. Nor even in Fletcher's Ordella, worthy as the part is throughout
even of the precious and exquisite praise of Lamb, is there any such
cunning touch of tenderness or delicate perfume of pathos as in the
parts of Bellario and Aspatia. These have in them a bitter sweetness, a
subtle pungency of mortal sorrow and tears of divine delight, beyond the
reach of Fletcher. His highest studies of female character have dignity,
energy, devotion of the heroic type; but they never touch us to the
quick, never waken in us any finer and more profound sense than that of
applause and admiration. There is a modest pathos now and then in his
pictures of feminine submission and slighted or outraged love; but this
submission he is apt to make too servile, this love too dog-like in its
abject devotion to retain that tender reverence which so many
generations of readers have paid to the sweet memories of Aspatia and
Bellario. To excite compassion was enough for Fletcher as in the
masculine parts of his work it was enough for him to excite wonder, to
sustain curiosity, to goad and stimulate by any vivid and violent means
the interest of readers or spectators. The single instance of noble
pathos, the one scene he has left us which appeals to the higher and
purer kind of pity, is the death of the child Hengo in _Bonduca_--a
scene which of itself would have sufficed to enrol his name for ever on
the list of our great tragic poets. To him we may probably assign the
whole merit of that fiery and high-toned tragedy, with all its spirit
and splendour of national and martial passion; the conscious and
demonstrative exchange of courtesy between Roman and Briton, which is
one of the leading notes of the poem, has in it a touch of overstrained
and artificial chivalry characteristic of Fletcher; yet the parts of
Caratach and Poenius may be counted among the loftiest and most equal of
his creations. But no surer test or better example can be taken of the
distinctive quality which denotes the graver genius of either poet than
that supplied by a comparison of Beaumont's _Triumph of Love_ with
Fletcher's _Triumph of Death_. Each little play, in the brief course of
its single act, gives proof of the peculiar touch and special trick of
its author's hand: the deeper and more delicate passion of Beaumont, the
rapid and ardent activity of Fletcher, have nowhere found a more
noticeable vent for the expression respectively of the most tender and
profound simplicity of quiet sweetness, the most buoyant and impatient
energy of tragic emotion.

In the wider field of their comic or romantic drama it is yet easier to
distinguish the respective work of either hand. The bias of Fletcher was
towards mixed comedy; his lightest and wildest humour is usually crossed
or tempered by an infusion of romance; like Shakespeare in this one
point at least, he has left no single play without some touch on it of
serious interest, of poetic eloquence or fancy, however slight and
fugitive. Beaumont, evidently under the imperious influence of Ben
Jonson's more rigid theories, seems rather to have bent his genius with
the whole force of a resolute will into the form or mould prescribed for
comedy by the elder and greater comic poet. The admirable study of the
worthy citizen and his wife, who introduce to the stage and escort with
their applause _The Knight of the Burning Pestle_ through his
adventurous career to its untimely end, has all the force and fulness of
Jonson's humour at its best, with more of freshness and freedom. In pure
comedy, varied with broad farce and mock-heroic parody, Beaumont was the
earliest as well as the ablest disciple of the master whose mantle was
afterwards to be shared among the academic poets of a younger
generation, the Randolphs and Cartwrights who sought shelter under the
shadow of its voluminous folds. The best example of the school of Jonson
to be found outside the ample range of his own work is _The Scornful
Lady_, a comedy whose exceptional success and prolonged popularity must
have been due rather to the broad effect of its forcible situations, its
wealth and variety of ludicrous incidents, and the strong gross humour
of its dialogue, than to any finer quality of style, invention or
character. It is the only work of Beaumont and Fletcher which a critic
who weighs the meaning of his words can admit to be as coarse as the
coarsest work of Ben Jonson. They are prone, indeed, to indulge
elsewhere in a wanton and exuberant licence of talk; and Fletcher, at
least, is liable to confuse the shades of right and wrong, to deface or
efface the boundary lines of good and evil, to stain the ermine of
virtue and palliate the nakedness of vice with the same indecorous and
incongruous laxity of handling. Often in mere haste to despatch the
business of a play, to huddle up a catastrophe or throw out some
particular scene into sharp and immediate relief, he will sacrifice all
seemliness and consistency of character to the present aim of stage
effect, and the instant impression of strong incident or audacious
eloquence. His heroines are too apt to utter sentiments worthy of Diana
in language unworthy of Doll Tearsheet. But in this play both style and
sentiment are throughout on a lower level, the action and emotion are of
a baser kind than usual; the precept of Aristotle and the practice of
Jonson have been so carefully observed and exaggerated that it might
almost be said to offer us in one or two places an imitation not merely
of the sorrier but of the sorriest qualities of human nature; and full
as it is of spontaneous power and humorous invention, the comedy
extolled by the moral Steele (with just so much of reservation as
permits him to deprecate the ridicule cast upon the clerical character)
is certainly more offensive to artistic law and aesthetic judgment by
the general and ingrained coarseness of its tone, than the tragi-comedy
denounced by the immoral Dryden as exceeding in licence his own worst
work and that of his fellow playwrights; an imputation, be it said in
passing, as groundless as the protest pleaded on their behalf is
impudent; for though we may hardly agree with the uncompromising
panegyrist who commends that play in particular to the approval of "the
austere scarlet" (remembering, perhaps, that Aristophanes was the chosen
bedfellow of Chrysostom), there is at least no such offence against art
or taste in the eccentricity of its situations or the daring of its
dialogue. The buoyant and facile grace of Fletcher's style carries him
lightly across quagmires in which a heavier-footed poet, or one of
slower tread, would have stuck fast, and come forth bemired to the
knees. To Beaumont his stars had given as birthright the gifts of tragic
pathos and passion, of tender power and broad strong humour; to Fletcher
had been allotted a more fiery and fruitful force of invention, a more
aerial ease and swiftness of action, a more various readiness and
fulness of bright exuberant speech. The genius of Beaumont was deeper,
sweeter, nobler than his elder's; the genius of Fletcher more brilliant,
more supple, more prodigal, and more voluble than his friend's. Without
a taint or a shadow on his fame of such imitative servility as marks and
degrades the mere henchman or satellite of a stronger poet, Beaumont may
fairly be said to hold of Shakespeare in his tragedy, in his comedy of
Jonson; in each case rather as a kinsman than as a client, as an ally
than as a follower: but the more special province of Fletcher was a land
of his own discovering, where no later colonist has ever had power to
settle or to share his reign. With the mixed or romantic comedy of
Shakespeare it has nothing in common except the admixture or alternation
of graver with lighter interest, of serious with humorous action.
Nothing is here of his magic exaltation or charm of fairy empire. The
rare and rash adventures of Fletcher on that forbidden track are too
sure to end in pitiful and shameful failure. His crown of praise is to
have created a wholly new and wholly delightful form of mixed comedy or
dramatic romance, dealing merely with the humours and sentiments of men,
their passions and their chances; to have woven of all these a web of
emotion and event with such gay dexterity, to have blended his colours
and combined his effects with such exquisite facility and swift light
sureness of touch, that we may return once and again from those heights
and depths of poetry to which access was forbidden him, ready as ever to
enjoy as of old the fresh incomparable charm, the force and ease and
grace of life, which fill and animate the radiant world of his romantic
invention. Neither before him nor after do we find, in this his special
field of fancy and of work, more than shadows or echoes of his coming or
departing genius. Admirable as are his tragedies already mentioned, rich
in splendid eloquence and strong in large grasp of character as is the
Roman history of _The False One_, full of interest and vigour as is the
better part of _Rollo Duke of Normandy_, and sublime in the loveliness
of passion as is the one scene of perfect beauty and terror which crowns
this latter tragedy, Fletcher may claim a yet higher and more special
station among his great dramatic peers by right of his comic and
romantic than by right of his tragic and historic plays. Even in these
he is more a romantic than a tragic poet. The quality of his genius,
never sombre or subtle or profound, bears him always towards fresh air
and sunshine. His natural work is in a midday world of fearless boyish
laughter and hardly bitter tears. There is always more of rainbow than
of storm in his skies; their darkest shadow is but a tragic twilight.
What with him is the noon of night would seem as sunshine on the stage
of Ford or Webster. There is but one passage in all these noble plays
which lifts us beyond a sense of the stage, which raises our admiration
out of speech into silence, tempers and transfigures our emotion with a
touch of awe. And this we owe to the genius of Beaumont, exalted for an
instant to the very tone and manner of Shakespeare's tragedy, when
Amintor stands between the dead and the dying woman whom he has
unwittingly slain with hand and tongue. The first few lines that drop
from his stricken lips are probably the only verses of Beaumont or
Fletcher which might pass for Shakespeare's even with a good judge of
style--

  "This earth of mine doth tremble," &c.

But in Fletcher's tragedy, however we may be thrilled and kindled with
high contagious excitement, we are never awed into dumb delight or
dread, never pierced with any sense of terror or pity too deep or even
deep enough for tears. Even his Brunhalts and Martias can hardly
persuade us to forget for the moment that "they do but jest, poison in
jest." A critic bitten with the love of classification might divide
those plays of Fletcher usually ranked together as comedies into three
kinds: the first he would class under the head of pure comedy, the next
of heroic or romantic drama, the third of mixed comedy and romance; in
this, the last and most delightful division of the poet's work the
special qualities of the two former kinds being equally blended and
delicately harmonized. The most perfect and triumphant examples of this
class are _The Spanish Curate, Monsieur Thomas, The Custom of the
Country_, and _The Elder Brother_. Next to these and not too far below
them, we may put _The Little French Lawyer_ (a play which in its broad
conception of a single eccentric humour suggests the collaboration of
Beaumont and the influence of Jonson, but in style and execution
throughout is perfect Fletcher), _The Humorous Lieutenant_ (on which an
almost identical verdict might be passed), _Women Pleased, Beggars'
Bush_, and perhaps we might add _The Fair Maid of the Inn_; in most if
not in all of which the balance of exultant and living humour with
serious poetic interest of a noble and various kind is held with even
hand and the skill of a natural master. In pure comedy _Rule a Wife and
have a Wife_ is the acknowledged and consummate masterpiece of Fletcher.
Next to it we might class, for comic spirit and force of character, _Wit
without Money, The Wildgoose Chase, The Chances_, and _The Noble
Gentleman_, a broad poetic farce to whose overflowing fun and masterdom
of extravagance no critic has ever done justice but Leigh Hunt, who has
ventured, not without reason, to match its joyous and preposterous
audacities of superlative and sovereign foolery with the more
sharp-edged satire and practical merriment of _King and No King_, where
the keen prosaic humour of Bessus and his swordsmen is as typical of the
comic style in which Beaumont had been trained up under Ben Jonson as
the high interest and graduated action of the serious part of the play
are characteristic of his more earnest genius. Among the purely romantic
plays of Fletcher, or those in which the comic effect is throughout
subordinate to the romantic, _The Knight of Malta_ seems most worthy of
the highest place for the noble beauty and exaltation of spirit which
informs it with a lofty life, for its chivalrous union of heroic passion
and Catholic devotion. This poem is the fairest and the first example of
those sweet fantastic paintings in rose-colour and azure of visionary
chivalry and ideal holiness, by dint of which the romance of more recent
days has sought to cast the glamour of a mirage over the darkest and
deadliest "ages of faith." The pure and fervent eloquence of the style
is in perfect keeping with the high romantic interest of character and
story. In the same class we may rank among the best samples of
Fletcher's workmanship _The Pilgrim, The Loyal Subject, A Wife for a
Month, Love's Pilgrimage_, and _The Lover's Progress_,--rich all of them
in exquisite writing, in varied incident, in brilliant effects and
graceful and passionate interludes. In _The Coxcomb_, and _The Honest
Man's Fortune_--two plays which, on the whole, can hardly be counted
among the best of their class--there are tones of homelier emotion,
touches of a simpler and more pathetic interest than usual; and here, as
in the two admirable first scenes between Leucippus and Bacha, which
relieve and redeem from contempt the tragic burlesque of _Cupid's
Revenge_, the note of Beaumont's manner is at once discernible.

Even the most rapid revision of the work done by these great twin poets
must impress every capable student with a sense of the homage due to
this living witness of their large and liberal genius. The loss of their
names from the roll of English poetry would be only less than the loss
of the few greatest inscribed on it. Nothing could supply the want of
their tragic, their comic or romantic drama; no larger or more fiery
planet can ever arise to supplant or to eclipse the twin lights of our
zodiac. Whatever their faults of shortcoming or excess, there is in
their very names or the mere thought of their common work a kind of
special and personal attraction for all true lovers of high dramatic
poetry. There is the glory and grace of youth in all they have left us;
if there be also somewhat too much of its graceless as well as its
gracious qualities, yet there hangs about their memory as it were a
music of the morning, a breath and savour of bright early manhood, a
joyous and vigorous air of free life and fruitful labour, which might
charm asleep for ever all thought or blame of all mortal infirmity or
folly, or any stain of earth that may have soiled in passing the feet of
creatures half human and half divine while yet they dwelt among men. For
good or for evil, they are above all things poets of youth; we cannot
conceive of them grown grey in the dignity of years, venerable with the
authority of long life, and weighted with the wisdom of experience. In
the Olympian circle of the gods and giants of our race who on earth were
their contemporaries and corrivals, they seem to move among the graver
presences and figures of sedater fame like the two spoilt boys of
heaven, lightest of foot and heart and head of all the brood of deity.
Shakespeare may have smiled as Jonson may have nodded approval of their
bright swift work, neither of these great elders grudging his praise to
the special charm which won for it a preference during one generation at
least even over their own loftier and weightier verse; and indeed the
advance in natural ease, in truth and grace of dialogue, is alike
manifest whether we turn to such of their comic characters as Valentine
and Don John, Rutilio and Monsieur Thomas, from the Truewit of Jonson or
even from the Mercutio of Shakespeare; the one too stiff with classic
starch, the other too full of mere verbal catches and forced conceits,
to persuade us that either can in any age have fairly represented the
light free talk and facile humour of its youth. In another field than
this Beaumont and Fletcher hold as high and secure a station of their
own as any poet of their race. In perfect workmanship of lyrical
jewellery, in perfect bloom and flower of song-writing, they equal all
compeers whom they do not excel; the blossoms of their growth in this
kind may be matched for colour and fragrance against Shakespeare's, and
for morning freshness and natural purity of form exceed the finest
grafts of Jonson. _The Faithful Shepherdess_ alone might speak for
Fletcher on this score, being as it is simply a lyric poem in
semi-dramatic shape, to be judged only as such, and as such almost
faultless; but in no wise to be classed for praise or blame among the
acting plays of its author, whose one serious error in the matter was
the submission of his Dryad to the critical verdict of an audience too
probably in great part composed of clowns and satyrs far unlike the
loving and sweet-tongued sylvan of his lovely fancy. And whether we
assign to him or to Beaumont the divine song of melancholy (_moestius
lacrymis Simonideis_), perfect in form as Catullus and profound in
sentiment as Shelley, which Milton himself could but echo and expand,
could not heighten or deepen its exquisite intensity of thought and word
alike, there will remain witness enough for the younger brother of a
lyric power as pure and rare as his elder's.

The excess of influence and popularity over that of other poets usually
ascribed to the work of Beaumont and Fletcher for some half century or
so after their own time has perhaps been somewhat overstated by
tradition. Whatever may have been for a season the fashion of the stage,
it is certain that Shakespeare can show two editions for one against
them in folio; four in all from 1623 to 1685, while they have but their
two of 1647 and 1679. Nor does one see how it can accurately or even
plausibly be said that they were in any exact sense the founders of a
school either in comedy or in tragedy. Massinger, for some years their
survivor, and in some points akin to them as a workman, cannot properly
be counted as their disciple; and no leading poet of the time had so
much in common with them as he. At first sight, indeed, his choice of
romantic subject and treatment of foreign stories, gathered from the
fertile tale-tellers of the south, and ranging in date from Boccaccio to
Cervantes, may seem to mark him out as a member of the same school; but
the deepest and most distinctive qualities of his genius set it far
apart from theirs; though undoubtedly not so far that any discrepancy or
discord should impair the excellence or injure the keeping of works in
which he took part with Fletcher. Yet, placed beside theirs, the tone of
his thought and speech seems by comparison severe as well as sober, and
sad as well as severe. Their extravagant and boyish insanity of
prostrate royalism is not more alien from his half pensive and half
angry undertone of political protest than his usually careful and
complete structure of story from their frequently lax and slovenly
incoherence of character or plot, than his well composed and
proportioned metre from their lighter and looser melodies, than the
bitter insistence and elaborate acrimony of his judicial satire on
hypocrisy or oppression from the gaiety or facility of mood which
suffers them in the shifting of a scene to redeem their worst characters
by some juggler's trick of conversion at the last moment allowed them to
wind up a play with universal reconciliation and an act of oblivion on
all hands. They could hardly have drawn with such steady skill and
explicit finish an Overreach or a Luke; but the strenuous and able work
of Massinger at its highest point of success has no breath in it of
their brighter and more immediate inspiration. Shirley, on the other
hand, may certainly be classed as a pupil who copied their style in
water-colour; his best tragedy and his best comedy, _The Traitor_ and
_The Lady of Pleasure_, might pass muster undetected among the plays of
Fletcher, and might fairly claim to take rank above the lowest class of
these. In the finest work of Middleton we recognize an almost exact
reproduction of Fletcher's metrical effects,--a reverberation of that
flowing music, a reiteration of those feminine final notes. In his later
tragi-comedies, throughout his masterpiece of _Women beware Women_, and
in the noble scenes which make up the tragic or serious parts of _The
Changeling_ or _The Spanish Gipsy_,--wherever, in a word, we find the
admirable but unequal genius of this poet at its best--we find a
likeness wholly wanting in his earlier and ruder work, which undoubtedly
suggests the influence of Fletcher. Other instances of imitation, other
examples of discipleship, might perhaps be found among lesser men of the
next generation; but the mass of succeeding playwrights began in a very
short time to lower the style and debase the scheme of dramatic poetry;
and especially to loosen the last ties of harmony, to deface the very
form and feature of tragic verse. In Shirley, the last and least of
those in whom the lineal blood of the old masters was yet discernible,
we find side by side with the fine ancestral indications of legitimate
descent exactly such marks of decadence rather than degeneracy as we
might have anticipated in the latest heir of a long line which began
with the rise of Marlowe, "sun of the morning," in the highest heaven of
our song, to prepare a pathway for the sun. After Shakespeare there was
yet room for Beaumont and Fletcher; but after these and the other
constellations had set, whose lights filled up the measure of that
diviner zodiac through which he moved, there was but room in heaven for
the pallid moonrise of Shirley; and before this last reflex from a
sunken sun was itself eclipsed, the glory had passed away from English
drama, to alight upon that summit of epic song, whence Milton held
communion with darkness and the stars.     (A. C. S.)


BIBLIOGRAPHICAL APPENDIX

The chief collected editions of the plays of Beaumont and Fletcher are:
_Comedies and Tragedies written by Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher
Gentlemen_, printed by Humphrey Moseley in folio in 1647 as containing
plays "never printed before"; _Fifty Comedies and Tragedies written,
etc._ (fol. 1679); _Works_ ... (11 vols. 1843-1846), edited by Alexander
Dyce, which superseded earlier editions by L. Theobald, G. Colman and H.
Weber, and presented a modernized text; a second two-volume edition by
Dyce in 1852; _The Works of Francis Beaumont and John Fletcher_ (15
vols. 1905, &c.) edited by Arnold Glover and A.R. Waller in the
"Cambridge English Classics" from the text of the 2nd folio, and giving
variant readings from all separate issues of the plays previous to that
edition; and _Works_ ... (12 vols. 1904, &c.), under the general
editorship of A.H. Bullen, the text of which is founded on Dyce but with
many variant readings, the last volume containing memoirs and excursuses
by the editor.

The foundation of all critical work on Beaumont and Fletcher is to be
found in Dyce. Discrimination between the work of the two dramatists and
their collaborators has been the object of a series of studies for the
establishment of metrical and other tests. Fletcher's verse is
recognizable by the frequency of an extra syllable, often an accented
one, at the end of a line, the use of stopped lines, and the frequency
of trisyllabic feet. He thus obtained an adaptable instrument enabling
him to dispense with prose even in comic scenes. The pioneer work in
these matters was done by F.G. Fleay in a paper read before the New
Shakspere Society in 1874 on "Metrical Tests as applied to Fletcher,
Beaumont and Massinger." His theories were further developed in the
article "Fletcher" in his _Biog. Chron. of the Eng. Drama_. Further
investigations were published by R. Boyle in _Englische Studien_ (vols.
v.-x., Heilbronn, 1882-1887), and in the New Shakspere Society
_Transactions_ (1880-1886), by Benno Leonhardt in _Anglia_ (Halle, vols.
xix. _seq._), and by E.H. Oliphant in _Englische Studien_ (vols. xiv.
_seq._). Mr Oliphant restores to Beaumont much which other critics had
been inclined to deny him. On the sources of the plays see E. Köppel in
_Münchener Beiträge zur roman. u. eng. Phil._ (Erlangen and Leipzig,
1895). Consult further articles by A.H. Bullen and R. Boyle respectively
on Fletcher and Massinger in the _Dict. of Nat. Biog._; G.C. Macaulay,
_Francis Beaumont, a Critical Study_ (1883); and Dr A.W. Ward's chapter
on "Beaumont and Fletcher" in vol. ii. of his _Hist. of Eng. Dram. Lit._
(new ed. 1899).

A list of the plays attributed to Beaumont and Fletcher, with some
details, is added, with the premiss that beyond the main lines of
criticism laid down in Mr Swinburne's article above it is often
difficult to dogmatize on authorship. Even in cases where the play was
produced long after Beaumont had ceased to write for the stage there can
be no certainty that we are not dealing with a piece which is an
adaptation of an earlier play by a later hand.

  _The Joint Works of Beaumont and Fletcher.--The Scornful Lady_ (acted
  c. 1609, pr. 1616) is a farcical comedy of domestic life, in which
  Oliphant finds traces of alteration by a third and perhaps a fourth
  hand. _Philaster or Love Lies a-Bleeding_ is assigned by Macaulay to
  Beaumont practically in its entirety, while Fleay attributes only
  three scenes to Fletcher. It was probably acted c. 1609, and was
  printed 1620; it was revised (1695) by Elkanah Settle and (1763) by
  the younger Colman, probably owing its long popularity to the touching
  character of Bellario. Beaumont's share also predominated in _The
  Maid's Tragedy_ (acted c. 1609, pr. 1619), in _A King and No King_
  (acted at court December 26, 1611, and perhaps earlier, pr. 1619),
  while _The Knight of the Burning Pestle_ (c. 1610, pr. 1613),
  burlesquing the heroic and romantic play of which Heywood's _Four
  Prentices_ is an example, might perhaps be transferred entire to
  Beaumont's account. In _Cupid's Revenge_ (acted at court January 1612,
  and perhaps at Whitefriars in 1610, pr. 1615), founded on Sidney's
  _Arcadia_, the two dramatists appear to have had a third collaborator
  in Massinger and perhaps a fourth in Nathaniel Field.

  The _Coxcomb_ (acted c. 1610, and by the Children of the Queen's
  Revels in 1612, pr. 1647) seems to have undergone later revision by
  Massinger. Fletcher's collaboration with other dramatists had begun
  during his connexion with Beaumont, who apparently ceased to write for
  the stage two or three years before his death.

  _Works Assigned to Beaumont's Sole Authorship.--The Woman-Hater_ (pr.
  1607, as "lately acted by the children of Paul's") was assigned
  formerly to Fletcher. The _Masque of the Inner Temple and Gray's Inn_
  was presented at Whitehall on the 26th of February 1612, on the
  marriage of the Prince and Princess Palatine. Of _Four Plays, or Moral
  Representations, in One_ (acted 1608, pr. 1647), the _Induction_, with
  _The Triumph of Honour_ and _The Triumph of Love_, both founded on
  tales from the _Decameron_, are by Beaumont.

  _Works Assigned to Fletcher's Sole Authorship.--The Faithful
  Shepherdess_ (pr. c. 1609) was ill received on its original
  production, but was revived in 1634. That Fletcher was the sole author
  is practically unquestioned, though Ben Jonson in Drummond's
  _Conversations_ is made to assert that "Beaumont and Fletcher ten
  years since hath written _The Faithful Shepherdess_." It was
  translated into Latin verse by Sir R. Fanshawe in 1658, and Milton's
  _Comus_ owes not a little to it. In _Four Plays in One_, the two last,
  _The Triumph of Death_ and _The Triumph of Time_, are Fletcher's. In
  the indifferent comedy of _The Captain_ (acted 1612-1613, revived
  1626, pr. 1647) there is no definite evidence of any other hand than
  Fletcher's, though the collaboration of Beaumont, Massinger and Rowley
  has been advanced. Other Fletcher plays are: _Wit Without Money_
  (acted 1614, pr. 1639); the two romantic tragedies of _Bonduca_ (in
  which Caradach or Caractacus is the chief figure rather than Bonduca
  or Boadicea) and _Valentinian_, both dating from c. 1616 and printed
  in the first folio; _The Loyal Subject_ (acted 1618, revived at court
  1633, pr. 1647); _The Mad Lover_ (acted before March 1619, pr. 1647),
  which borrows something from the story of Mundus and Paulina in
  Josephus (bk. xviii.); _The Humorous Lieutenant_ (1619, pr. 1647);
  _Woman Pleased_ (c. 1620, pr. 1647); _The Woman's Prize or The Tamer
  Tam'd_ (produced probably between 1610 and 1613, acted 1633 at
  Blackfriars and at court, pr. 1647), a kind of sequel to _The Taming
  of the Shrew_; _The Chances_ (uncertain date, pr. 1647), taken from
  _La Sennora Cornelia_ of Cervantes, and repeatedly revived after the
  Restoration and in the 18th century; _Monsieur Thomas_ (acted perhaps
  as early as 1609, pr. 1639); _The Island Princess_ (c. 1621, pr.
  1647); _The Pilgrim_ and _The Wild Goose-Chase_ (pr. 1652), the second
  of which was adapted in prose by Farquhar, both acted at court in
  1621, and possibly then not new pieces; _A Wife for a Month_ (acted
  1624, pr. 1647); _Rule a Wife and Have a Wife_ (lic. 1624, pr. 1640).
  _The Pilgrim_ received additions from Dryden, and was adapted by
  Vanbrugh.

  _Fletcher in Collaboration with other Dramatists._--External evidence
  of Fletcher's connexion with Massinger is given by Sir Aston Cokaine,
  who in an epitaph on Fletcher and Massinger wrote: "Playes they did
  write together, were great friends," and elsewhere claimed for
  Massinger a share in the plays printed in the 1647 folio. James
  Shirley and William Rowley have their part in the works that used to
  be included in the Beaumont and Fletcher canon; and to a letter from
  Field, Daborne and Massinger, asking for £5 for their joint
  necessities from Henslowe about the end of 1615, there is a postscript
  suggesting the deduction of the sum from the "mony remaynes for the
  play of Mr Fletcher and ours." The problem is complicated when the
  existing versions of the play are posterior to Fletcher's lifetime,
  that is, revisions by Massinger or another of pieces which were even
  originally of double authorship. In this way Beaumont's work may be
  concealed under successive revisions, and it would be rash to assert
  that none of the late plays contains anything of his. Mr R. Boyle
  joins the name of Cyril Tourneur to those of Fletcher and Massinger in
  connexion with _The Honest Man's Fortune_ (acted 1613, pr. 1647),
  which Fleay identifies with "the play of Mr Fletcher's and ours." _The
  Knight of Malta_ (acted 1618-1619, pr. 1647) is in its existing form a
  revision by Fletcher, Massinger, and possibly Field, of an earlier
  play which Oliphant thinks was probably written by Beaumont about
  1608. The same remarks (with the exclusion of Field's name) apply to
  _Thierry and Theodoret_ (acted c. 1617, pr. 1621), perhaps a satire on
  contemporary manners at the French court, though Beaumont's share in
  either must be regarded as problematical. Fletcher and Massinger's
  great tragedy of _Sir John van Olden Barnaveldt_ (acted 1619) was
  first printed in Bullen's _Old Plays_ (vol. ii., 1883). They followed
  it up with _The Custom of the Country_ (acted 1619, pr. 1647), based
  on an English translation (1619) of _Los Trabajos de Persiles y
  Sigismunda; The Double Marriage_ (c. 1620, pr. 1647); _The Little
  French Lawyer_ (c. 1620, pr. 1647), the plot of which can be traced
  indirectly to a _novellino_ by Massuccio Salernitano; _The Laws of
  Candy_ (c. 1618, pr. 1647), of disputed authorship; _The False One_
  (c. 1620, pr. 1647), dealing with the subject of Caesar and
  Cleopatra; _The Spanish Curate_ (acted 1622, pr. 1647), repeatedly
  revived after the Restoration, was derived from Leonard Digges's
  translation (1622) of a Spanish novel, _Gerardo, the Unfortunate
  Spaniard; The Prophetess_ (1622, pr. 1647), afterwards made into an
  opera by Betterton to Purcell's music; _The Sea-Voyage_ (1622, pr.
  1647); _The Elder Brother_ (perhaps originally written by Fletcher
  c. 1614; revised and acted 1635, pr. 1647); _Beggar's Bush_ (acted
  at court 1622, probably then not new, pr. 1647); and _The Noble
  Gentleman_ (1625-1626, pr. 1647). Fletcher only had a small share in
  _Wit at Several Weapons_--"if he but writ an act or two," says an
  epilogue on its revival (1623 or 1626),--and the play is probably a
  revision by Rowley and Middleton of an early Beaumont and Fletcher
  play. _A Very Woman_ (1634, pr. 1655) is a revision by Massinger of
  _The Woman's Plot_ ascribed to Fletcher and acted at court in 1621.
  Field worked with Fletcher and Massinger on the lost play of the
  _Jeweller of Amsterdam_ (1619), as on the _Faithful Friends_
  (1613-1614) and _The Queen of Corinth_ (c. 1618, pr. 1647). _The
  Lover's Progress_ (acted 1634, pr. 1647) is probably a revision by
  Massinger of the Fletcher play licensed in 1623 as _The Wandering
  Lovers_, and is perhaps identical with _Cleander_, licensed in 1634.
  _Love's Cure or The Martial Maid_ (1623 or 1625) is thought by Mr
  Fleay to be a revision by Massinger of a Beaumont and Fletcher play
  produced as early as 1607-1608. W. Rowley joined Fletcher in _The Maid
  in the Mill_ (1623, pr. 1647), and had a share with Massinger in the
  revision of _The Fair Maid of the Inn_ (licensed 1626, pr. 1647),
  based on _La illustre Fregona_ of Cervantes. _Nice Valour_ (acted
  1625-1626, pr. 1647) seems to have been altered by Middleton from an
  earlier play; _The Widow_, printed in 1652 as by Jonson, Fletcher and
  Middleton, must be ascribed almost exclusively to Middleton. _The
  Night Walker_ (1633) is a revision by Shirley of a Fletcher play.

  _Fletcher and Jonson in Collaboration._--The history of _The Bloody
  Brother or Rollo, Duke of Normandy_, printed in 1637 as by "B.J.F.,"
  is matter of varied speculation. Mr Oliphant thinks the basis of the
  play to be an early work (c. 1604) of Beaumont, on which is
  superimposed a revision (1616) by Fletcher, Jonson and Middleton, and
  a subsequent revision (1636-1637) by Massinger. The general view is
  that the main portion of the play is referable to Jonson and Fletcher.
  Jonson apparently had a share in Fletcher's _Love's Pilgrimage_ (pr.
  1647), which seems to have been revised by Massinger in 1635.

  _Fletcher and Shakespeare._--_The Two Noble Kinsmen_ was printed in
  1634 as by Mr John Fletcher and Mr William Shakespeare. If its first
  representation was in 1625 it was in the year of Fletcher's death. It
  was included in the second folio of Beaumont and Fletcher's comedies
  and tragedies. If Shakespeare and Fletcher worked in concert it was
  probably in 1612-1613, and the existing play probably represents a
  revision by Massinger in 1625. _Henry VIII._ (played at the Globe in
  1613) is usually ascribed mainly to Fletcher and Massinger, and the
  conditions of its production were probably similar. Fletcher and
  Shakespeare are together credited at Stationers' Hall with the lost
  play of _Cardenio_, destroyed by Warburton's cook.     (M. Br.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Recent research has resulted in some variation of opinion as to
    the precise authorship of some of the plays commonly attributed to
    them; but this article, contributed to the ninth edition of the
    _Encyclopaedia Britannica_, remains the classical modern criticism of
    Beaumont and Fletcher, and its value is substantially unaffected. As
    representing to the end the views of its distinguished author, it is
    therefore retained as written, the results of later research being
    epitomized in the Bibliographical Appendix at the end. (_Ed._)



BEAUMONT, a city and the county-seat of Jefferson county, Texas, U.S.A.,
situated on the Neches river, in the E. part of the state, about 28 m.
from the Gulf of Mexico and 72 m. N.E. of Galveston. Pop. (1890) 3296;
(1900) 9427, of whom 2953 were negroes; (1910, census) 20,640. It is
served by the Gulf & Interstate, the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fé, the
Kansas City Southern, the Texas & New Orleans, the Colorado Southern,
New Orleans & Pacific, the Beaumont, Sour Lake & Western (from Beaumont
to Sour Lake, Tex.), and the (short) Galveston, Beaumont & North-Eastern
railways. The Neches river from Beaumont to its mouth has a depth of not
less than 19 ft.; from its mouth extends a canal (9 ft. deep, 100 ft.
wide, and 12 m. long) which connects with the Port Arthur Canal (180 ft.
wide and 25 ft. deep) extending to the sea. Situated in the midst of a
region covered with dense forests of pine and cypress, Beaumont is one
of the largest lumber centres of the southern states; it is also the
centre of a large rice-growing region. The manufactories include rice
mills, saw mills, sash, door and blind factories, shingle mills, iron
works, oil refineries, broom factories and a dynamite factory. In 1905
the cleaning and polishing of rice was the most important industry, its
output being valued at $1,203,123, being nearly twice the value of the
product of the rice mills of the city in 1900, 25.9% of the total value
of the state's product of polished and cleaned rice, 46.1% of the value
($2,609,829) of all of Beaumont's factory products, and about 7.4% of
the value of the product of polished and cleaned rice for the whole
United States in 1905. After the sinking of oil wells in 1901, Beaumont
became one of the principal oil-producing places in the United States;
its oil refineries are connected by pipe lines with the surrounding oil
fields, and two 6-in. pipe lines extend from Beaumont to Oklahoma.
Beaumont was first settled in 1828, and was first chartered as a city in
1899.



BEAUNE, a town of eastern France, capital of an arrondissement in the
department of Côte-d'Or, on the Bouzoise, 23 m. S.S.W. of Dijon on the
main line of the Paris-Lyon railway. Pop. (1906) 11,668. Beaune lies at
the foot of the hills of Côte-d'Or. Portions of its ancient
fortifications are still to be seen, but they have been for the most
part replaced by a shady promenade which separates the town from its
suburbs. The most interesting feature of Beaune is the old hospital of
St Esprit, founded in 1443 by Nicolas Rolin, chancellor of Burgundy.
Though it is built largely of wood, the fabric is in good preservation.
The exterior is simple, but the buildings which surround the main
courtyard have high-pitched roofs surmounted by numerous dormer windows
with decorated gables, recalling the Flemish style of architecture. In
the interior there are several interesting apartments; the chief of
these is the ample council chamber with its fine tapestries, where an
important wine sale is held annually. The hospital possesses many
artistic treasures, among them the mural paintings of the 17th century
in the Salle St Hugues and an altar-piece, the Last Judgment, attributed
to Roger van der Weyden. The principal church of the town, Notre-Dame,
dating mainly from the 12th and 13th centuries, has a fine central tower
and a triple portal with handsome wooden doors. In the interior there is
some valuable tapestry of the 15th century, and other works of art. Two
round towers (15th century) are a survival of the castle of Beaune,
dismantled by Henry IV. A belfry of 1403 and several houses of the
Renaissance period, some of which are built over ancient wine-cellars,
are architecturally notable. There is a statue to the mathematician, G.
Monge, born in the town (1746), and a monument to Pierre Joigneaux the
politician (d. 1892). Beaune has tribunals of first instance and of
commerce, a chamber of commerce, a school of agriculture and viticulture
and colleges for girls and boys. It carries on considerable trade in
live-stock and cereals and in the vegetables of its market-gardens, and
manufactures of casks, corks, white metal, oil, vinegar and machinery
for the wine-trade are included among the industries; it is chiefly
important for its vineyards and as the centre of the wine-trade of
Burgundy.

Beaune was a fortified Roman camp and a stronghold during the middle
ages. It was the capital of a separate county which in 1227 was united
to the duchy of Burgundy; it then became the first seat of the
Burgundian parlement or _jours généraux_ and a ducal residence. On the
death of Charles the Bold, it sided with his daughter, Mary of Burgundy,
but was besieged and taken by the forces of Louis XI. in 1478. Its rank
as commune, conceded to it in 1203, was confirmed by Francis I. in 1521.
In the Wars of Religion it at first sided with the League, but
afterwards opened its gates to the troops of Henry IV., from whom it
received the confirmation of its communal privileges and permission to
demolish its fortifications. The revocation of the edict of Nantes
struck a severe blow at the cloth and iron industries, which had
previously been a source of prosperity to the town. In the 18th century
there were no fewer than seven monastic buildings in Beaune, besides a
Bernardine abbey, a Carthusian convent and an ecclesiastical college.



BEAUREGARD, MARQUIS DE (c. 1772-?), French adventurer, the son of a
poor vinegrower named Leuthraud, was born about 1772. He received the
name Beauregard from a nobleman in whose service he was engaged as
valet. On the outbreak of the revolution, this nobleman converted all
his fortune into gold, and entrusting the bag containing the cash to his
valet, fled to the frontier. For security's sake master and man took
different roads, but Beauregard turned back with the money to Paris. By
speculations in provisions and military equipments under the
Directorate he amassed a considerable fortune, and styling himself the
marquis de Beauregard, purchased a splendid mansion and began giving
magnificent entertainments. Detected at the height of his success, the
impostor was arrested and condemned to four years in irons and to be
branded. He soon escaped from prison, and had the audacity to reappear
in Paris and start his old life afresh. After a short time, however, he
disappeared again, and is supposed to have committed suicide. It is
probable that most of the information available about him is a blend of
fact and fiction.



BEAUREGARD, PIERRE GUSTAVE TOUTANT (1818-1893), American soldier, was
born near New Orleans, Louisiana, on the 28th of May 1818. At the United
States military academy he graduated second in his class in July 1838,
and was appointed lieutenant of engineers. In the Mexican War he
distinguished himself in siege operations at Vera Cruz, and took part in
all the battles around Mexico, being wounded at Chapultepec, and
receiving the brevets of captain and major. In 1853 he became captain
and was in charge of fortification and other engineer works of various
points, on the Gulf coast from 1853 to 1860. He had just been appointed
superintendent of West Point when the secession of his state brought
about his resignation (20th February 1861). As a brigadier-general of
the new Confederate army he directed the bombardment of Fort Sumter,
S.C. As the commander of the Southern "Army of the Potomac" he opposed
McDowell's advance to Bull Run, and during the battle was second in
command under Joseph E. Johnston, who had joined him on the previous
evening. He was one of the five full generals appointed in August 1861,
and in 1862 was second in command under Sidney Johnston on the
Tennessee. After Johnston's death he directed the battle of Shiloh,
subsequent to which he retired to Corinth. This place he defended
against the united armies under Halleck, until the end of May 1862, when
he retreated in good order to the southward. His health now failing, he
was employed in less active work. He defended Charleston against the
Union forces from September 1862 to April 1864. In May 1864 he fought a
severe and eventually successful battle at Drury's Bluff against General
Butler and the Army of the James. Later in the year he endeavoured to
gather troops wherewith to oppose Sherman's advance from Atlanta, and
eventually surrendered with Johnston's forces in April 1865. After the
war he engaged in railway management, became adjutant-general of his
state and managed the Louisiana lottery. He declined high commands which
were offered to him in the Rumanian and later in the Egyptian armies.
General Beauregard died in New Orleans on the 20th of February 1893. He
was the author of _Principles and Maxims of the Art of War_ (Charleston,
1863); _Report on the Defence of Charleston_ (Richmond, 1864).

  See Alfred Roman, _Military Operations of General Beauregard_ (New
  York, 1883).



BEAUSOBRE, ISAAC DE (1659-1738), French Protestant divine, was born at
Niort on the 8th of March 1659. After studying theology at the
Protestant academy of Saumur, he was ordained at the age of twenty-two,
becoming pastor at Chatillon-sur-Indre. After the revocation of the
edict of Nantes he fled to Rotterdam (November 1685), and in 1686 was
appointed chaplain to the princess of Dessau, Henrietta Catherine of
Orange. In 1693, on the death of the prince of Dessau, he went to Berlin
and became chaplain to the court at Oranienbaum, and in 1695 pastor of
the French church at Berlin. He became court preacher, counsellor of the
Consistory, director of the _Maison française_, a hospice for French
people, inspector of the French gymnasium and superintendent of all the
French churches in Brandenburg. He died on the 5th of June 1738. He had
strong sense with profound erudition, was one of the best writers of his
time and an excellent preacher.



BEAUVAIS, a town of northern France, capital of the department of Oise,
49 m. N. by W. of Paris, on the Northern railway. Pop. (1906) 17,045.
Beauvais lies at the foot of wooded hills on the left bank of the
Thérain at its confluence with the Avelon. Its ancient ramparts have
been destroyed, and it is now surrounded by boulevards, outside which
run branches of the Thérain. In addition, there are spacious promenades
in the north-east of the town. Its cathedral of St Pierre, in some
respects the most daring achievement of Gothic architecture, consists
only of a transept and choir with apse and seven apse-chapels. The
vaulting in the interior exceeds 150 ft. in height. The small Romanesque
church of the 10th century known as the Basse-Oeuvre occupies the site
destined for the nave. Begun in 1247, the work was interrupted in 1284
by the collapse of the vaulting of the choir, in 1573 by the fall of a
too ambitious central tower, after which little addition was made. The
transept was built from 1500 to 1548. Its façades, especially that on
the south, exhibit all the richness of the late Gothic style. The carved
wooden doors of both the north and the south portals are masterpieces
respectively of Gothic and Renaissance workmanship. The church possesses
an elaborate astronomical clock (1866) and tapestries of the 15th and
17th centuries; but its chief artistic treasures are stained glass
windows of the 13th, 14th and 16th centuries, the most beautiful of them
from the hand of the Renaissance artist, Engrand Le Prince, a native of
Beauvais. To him also is due some of the stained glass in St. Étienne,
the second church of the town, and an interesting example of the
transition stage between the Romanesque and Gothic styles.

In the Place de l'Hôtel de Ville and in the old streets near the
cathedral there are several houses dating from the 12th to the 16th
centuries. The hôtel de ville, close to which stands the statue of
Jeanne Hachette (see below), was built in 1752. The episcopal palace,
now used as a court-house, was built in the 16th century, partly upon
the Gallo-Roman fortifications. The industry of Beauvais comprises,
besides the state manufacture of tapestry, which dates from 1664, the
manufacture of various kinds of cotton and woollen goods, brushes, toys,
boots and shoes, and bricks and tiles. Market-gardening flourishes in
the vicinity and an extensive trade is carried on in grain and wine.

The town is the seat of a bishop, a prefect and a court of assizes; it
has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, together with a chamber
of commerce, a branch of the Bank of France, a higher ecclesiastical
seminary, a lycée and training colleges.

Beauvais was known to the Romans as _Caesaromagus_, and took its present
name from the Gallic tribe of the Bellovaci, whose capital it was. In
the 9th century it became a countship, which about 1013 passed to the
bishops of Beauvais, who ultimately became peers of France. In 1346 the
town had to defend itself against the English, who again besieged it in
1433. The siege which it suffered in 1472 at the hands of the duke of
Burgundy was rendered famous by the heroism of the women, under the
leadership of Jeanne Hachette, whose memory is still celebrated by a
procession on the 14th of October (the feast of Ste Angadrème), in which
the women take precedence of the men.

  See V. Lhuillier, _Choses du vieux Beauvais et au Beauvaisis_ (1896).



BEAUVILLIER, the name of a very ancient French family belonging to the
country around Chartres, members of which are found filling court
offices from the 15th century onward. For Charles de Beauvillier,
gentleman of the chamber to the king, governor and _bailli_ of Blois,
the estate of Saint Aignan was created a countship in 1537. François de
Beauvillier, comte de Saint Aignan, after having been through the
campaigns in Germany (1634-1635), Franche-Comté (1636), and Flanders
(1637), was sent to the Bastille in consequence of his having lost the
battle of Thionville in 1640. In reward for his devotion to the court
party during the Fronde he obtained many signal favours, and Saint
Aignan was raised to a duchy in the peerage of France (duché-pairie) in
1663. His son Paul, called the duc de Beauvillier, was several times
ambassador to England; he became chief of the council of finance in
1685, governor of the dukes of Burgundy, Anjou and Berri from 1689 to
1693, minister of state in 1691, and grandee of Spain in 1701. He
married a daughter of Colbert. Paul Hippolyte de Beauvillier, comte de
Montrésor, afterwards duc de Saint Aignan, was ambassador at Madrid from
1715 to 1718 and at Rome in 1731, and a member of the council of regency
in 1719.     (M. P.*)



BEAUVOIR, ROGER DE, the _nom de plume_ of EUGÈNE AUGUSTE ROGER DE BULLY
(1806-1866), French writer, who was born on the 8th of November 1806 in
Paris. He was the son and nephew of public officials who did not approve
his literary inclinations, and it was at their request that he wrote
over the signature of Roger de Beauvoir. A good-looking young fellow, of
independent means, an indefatigable _viveur_, he astonished all Paris
with his ostentatious luxury and his adventures, while his romantic
novels gave him a more serious if not durable reputation. Among the best
of them are _L'Écolier de Cluny ou le Sophisme_ (1832), which is said to
have furnished Alexandre Dumas and Theodore Gaillardet (1808-1882) with
the idea of the _Tour de Nesle_, and _Le Chevalier de Saint Georges_
(1840). He had married in 1847 an actress, Eléonore Léocadie Doze
(1822-1859), from whom he obtained a judicial separation a year or two
later after a long and notorious trial, following which his
mother-in-law got him imprisoned for three months and fined 500 francs
for a satirical poem, _Mon Procès_ (1849). Ruined by extravagance and
tied to his chair by gout, he spent the last years of his life in
retirement, and died in Paris on the 27th of August 1866.



BEAUX, CECILIA (1863-   ), American portrait-painter, was born in
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where she became a pupil of William Sartain.
But her real art training was obtained in Paris, where she started in
the _atelier_ Julian and had the coaching of painters like
Robert-Fleury, Bouguereau and Dagnan Bouveret. In 1890 she exhibited at
the Paris Exposition. Returning to Philadelphia, Miss Beaux obtained in
1893 the gold medal of the Philadelphia Art Club, and also the Dodge
prize at the New York National Academy, and later various other
distinctions. She became a member of the National Academy of Design, New
York, in 1902. Among her portraits are those of Bishop-Coadjutor Greer
(exhibited at the Salon in 1896); Mrs Roosevelt and her daughter; and
Mrs Larz Anderson. Her "Dorothea and Francesca," and "Ernesta and her
Little Brother," are good examples of her skill in painting children.



BEAVER,[1] the largest European aquatic representative of the mammalian
order RODENTIA (q.v.), easily recognized by its large trowel-like, scaly
tail, which is expanded in the horizontal direction. The true beaver
(_Castor fiber_) is a native of Europe and northern Asia, but it is
represented in North America by a closely-allied species (_C.
canadensis_), chiefly distinguished by the form of the nasal bones of
the skull. Beavers are nearly allied to the squirrels (_Sciuridae_),
agreeing in certain structural peculiarities of the lower jaw and skull.
In the _Sciuridae_ the two main bones (tibia and fibula) of the lower
half of the leg are quite separate, the tail is round and hairy, and the
habits are arboreal and terrestrial. In the beavers or _Castoridae_
these bones are in close contact at their lower ends, the tail is
depressed, expanded and scaly, and the habits are aquatic. Beavers have
webbed hind-feet, and the claw of the second hind-toe double. In length
beavers--European and American--measure about 2 ft. exclusive of the
tail, which is about 10 in. long. They are covered with a fur to which
they owe their chief commercial value; this consists of two kinds of
hair--the one close-set, silky and of a greyish colour, the other much
coarser and longer, and of a reddish brown. Beavers are essentially
aquatic in their habits, never travelling by land unless driven by
necessity. Formerly common in England, the European beaver has not only
been exterminated there, but likewise in most of the countries of the
continent, although a few remain on the Elbe, the Rhone and in parts of
Scandinavia. The American species is also greatly diminished in numbers
from incessant pursuit for the sake of its valuable fur. Beavers are
sociable anirrals, living in streams, where, so as to render the water
of sufficient depth, they build dams of mud and of the stems and boughs
of trees felled by their powerful incisor teeth. In the neighbourhood
they make their "lodges," which are roomy chambers, with the entrance
beneath the water. The mud is plastered down by the fore-feet, and not,
as often supposed, by the tail, which is employed solely as a rudder.
They are mainly nocturnal, and subsist chiefly on bark and twigs or the
roots of water plants. The dam differs in shape according to the nature
of particular localities. Where the water has little motion it is almost
straight; where the current is considerable it is curved, with its
convexity towards the stream. The materials made use of are driftwood,
green willows, birch and poplars; also mud and stones intermixed in such
a manner as contributes to the strength of the dam, but there is no
particular method observed, except that the work is carried on with a
regular sweep, and that all the parts are made of equal strength. "In
places," writes Hearne, "which have been long frequented by beavers
undisturbed, their dams, by frequent repairing, become a solid bank,
capable of resisting a great force both of ice and water; and as the
willow, poplar and birch generally take root and shoot up, they by
degrees form a kind of regular planted hedge, which I have seen in some
places so tall that birds have built their nests among the branches."
Their houses are formed of the same materials as the dams, with little
order or regularity of structure, and seldom contain more than four old,
and six or eight young beavers. It not unfrequently happens that some of
the larger houses have one or more partitions, but these are only posts
of the main building left by the builders to support the roof, for the
apartments have usually no communication with each other except by
water. The beavers carry the mud and stones with their fore-paws and the
timber between their teeth. They always work in the night and with great
expedition. They cover their houses late every autumn with fresh mud,
which, freezing when the frost sets in, becomes almost as hard as stone,
so that neither wolves nor wolverines can disturb their repose.

The favourite food of the American beaver is the water-lily (_Nuphar
luteum_), which bears a resemblance to a cabbage-stalk, and grows at the
bottom of lakes and rivers. Beavers also gnaw the bark of birch, poplar
and willow trees; but during the summer a more varied herbage, with the
addition of berries, is consumed. When the ice breaks up in spring they
always leave their embankments, and rove about until a little before the
fall of the leaf, when they return to their old habitations, and lay in
their winter stock of wood. They seldom begin to repair the houses till
the frost sets in, and never finish the outer coating till the cold
becomes severe. When they erect a new habitation they fell the wood
early in summer, but seldom begin building till towards the end of
August.

The flesh of the American beaver is eaten by the Indians, and when
roasted in the skin is esteemed a delicacy and is said to taste like
pork. _Castoreum_ is a substance contained in two pear-shaped pouches
situated near the organs of reproduction, of a bitter taste and slightly
foetid odour, at one time largely employed as a medicine, but now used
only in perfumery.

Fossil remains of beavers are found in the peat and other superficial
deposits of England and the continent of Europe; while in the
Pleistocene formations of England and Siberia occur remains of a giant
extinct beaver, _Trogontherium cuvieri_, representing a genus by itself.

  For an account of beavers in Norway see R. Collett, in the _Bergens
  Museum Aarbog_ for 1897. See also R.T. Martin, _Castorologia, a
  History and Traditions of the Canadian Beaver_ (London, 1892).
       (R. L.*)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The word is descended from the Aryan name of the animal, cf.
    Sanskrit _babhrús_, brown, the great ichneumon, Lat. _fiber_, Ger.
    _Biber_, Swed. _bafver_, Russ. _bobr'_; the root _bhru_ has given
    "brown," and, through Romanic, "bronze" and "burnish."



BEAVER (from Fr. _bavière_, a child's bib, from _bave_, saliva), the
lower part of the helmet, fixed to the neck-armour to protect the face
and cheeks; properly it moved upwards, as the visor moved down, but the
word is sometimes used to include the visor. The right form of the word,
"baver," has been altered from a confusion with "beaver," a hat made of
beaver-fur or a silk imitation, also, in slang, called a "castor," from
the zoological name of the beaver family.



BEAVER DAM, a city of Dodge county, Wisconsin, U.S.A., situated in the
S.E. part of the state, 63 m. N.W. of Milwaukee, on Beaver Lake, which
is 9 m. long and 3 m. wide. Pop. (1890) 4222; (1900) 5128, of whom 1023
were foreign-born; (1905) 5615; (1910) 6758. Most of the population is
of German descent. Beaver Dam is served by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St
Paul railway. The city is a summer resort, has a public library, and is
the seat of Wayland Academy (1855, Baptist), a co-educational
preparatory school affiliated with the university of Chicago. Beaver Dam
is situated in the midst of a fine farming country; it has a good
water-power derived from Beaver Lake, and among its manufactures are
woollen and cotton goods, malleable iron, foundry products, gasolene
engines, agricultural implements, stoves and beer. The city was first
settled about 1841, and was incorporated in 1856.



BEAVER FALLS, a borough of Beaver county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on
Beaver river, about 3½ m. from its confluence with the Ohio, opposite
New Brighton, and about 32 m. N.W. of Pittsburg. Pop. (1890) 9735;
(1900) 10,054, of whom 1554 were foreign-born; (1910), census, 12,191.
The borough is served by the Pennsylvania and the Pittsburg & Lake Erie
railways. It is built for the most part on a plateau about 50 ft. above
the river, hemmed in on either side by hills that rise abruptly,
especially on the W., to a height of more than 200 ft. Bituminous coal,
natural gas and oil abound in the vicinity; the river provides excellent
water-power; the borough is a manufacturing centre of considerable
importance, its products including iron and steel bridges, boilers,
steam drills, carriages, saws, files, axes, shovels, wire netting,
stoves, glass-ware, scales, chemicals, pottery, cork, decorative tile,
bricks and typewriters. In 1905 the city's factory products were valued
at $4,907,536. Geneva College (Reformed Presbyterian, co-educational),
established in 1849 at Northwood, Logan county, Ohio, was removed in
1880 to the borough of College Hill (pop. in 1900, 899), 1 m. N. of
Beaver Falls; it has a preparatory and a collegiate department,
departments of music, oratory and art, and a physical department, and in
1907-1908 had 13 instructors and 235 students. Beaver Falls was first
settled in 1801; was laid out as a town and named Brighton in 1806;
received its present name a few years later; and in 1868 was
incorporated as a borough.



BEAWAR, or NAYANAGAR, a town of British India, the administrative
headquarters of Merwara district in Ajmere-Merwara. It is 33 m. from
Ajmere. Pop. (1901) 21,928. It is an important centre of trade,
especially in raw cotton, and has cotton presses and the Krishna cotton
mills. It was founded by Colonel Dixon in 1835.



BEBEL, FERDINAND AUGUST (1840- ), German socialist, was born at Cologne
on the 22nd of February 1840; he became a turner and worked at Leipzig.
Here he took a prominent part in the workmen's movement and in the
association of working men which had been founded under the influence of
Schultz-Delitzsch; at first an opponent of socialism, he came under the
influence of Liebknecht, and after 1865 he was a confirmed advocate of
socialism. With Liebknecht he belonged to the branch of the socialists
which was in close correspondence with Karl Marx and the International,
and refused to accept the leadership of Schweitzer, who had attempted to
carry on the work after Lassalle's death. He was one of those who
supported a vote of want of confidence in Schweitzer at the Eisenach
conference in 1867, from which his party was generally known as "the
Eisenacher." In this year he was elected a member of the North German
Reichstag for a Saxon constituency, and, with an interval from 1881 to
1883, remained a member of the German parliament. His great organizing
talent and oratorical power quickly made him one of the leaders of the
socialists and their chief spokesman in parliament. In 1870 he and
Liebknecht were the only members who did not vote the extraordinary
subsidy required for the war with France; the followers of Lassalle, on
the other hand, voted for the government proposals. He was the only
Socialist who was elected to the Reichstag in 1871, but he used his
position to protest against the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine and to
express his full sympathy with the Paris Commune. Bismarck afterwards
said that this speech of Bebel's was a "ray of light," showing him that
Socialism was an enemy to be fought against and crushed; and in 1872
Bebel was accused in Brunswick of preparation for high treason, and
condemned to two years' imprisonment in a fortress, and, for insulting
the German emperor, to nine months' ordinary imprisonment. After his
release he helped to organize, at the congress of Gotha, the united
party of Social Democrats, which had been formed during his
imprisonment. After the passing of the Socialist Law he continued to
show great activity in the debates of the Reichstag, and was also
elected a member of the Saxon parliament; when the state of siege was
proclaimed in Leipzig he was expelled from the city, and in 1886
condemned to nine months' imprisonment for taking part in a secret
society. Although the rules of the Social Democratic party do not
recognize a leader or president, Bebel subsequently became by far the
most influential member of the party. In the party meetings of 1890 and
1891 his policy was severely attacked, first by the extremists, the
"young" Socialists from Berlin, who wished to abandon parliamentary
action; against these Bebel won a complete victory. On the other side he
was involved in a quarrel with Volmar and his school, who desired to put
aside from immediate consideration the complete attainment of the
Socialist ideal, and proposed that the party should aim at bringing
about, not a complete overthrow of society, but a gradual amelioration.
This conflict of tendencies continued, and Bebel came to be regarded as
the chief exponent of the traditional views of the orthodox Marxist
party. He was exposed to some natural ridicule on the ground that the
"Kladderadatsch," which he often spoke of as imminent, failed to make
its appearance. On the other hand, though a strong opponent of
militarism, he publicly stated that foreign nations attacking Germany
must not expect the help or the neutrality of the Social Democrats. His
book, _Die Frau und der Socialismus_ (1893), which went through many
editions and contained an attack on the institution of marriage,
identified him with the most extreme forms of Socialism.

  See also Mehring, _Geschichte der deutschen Social-Demokratie_
  (Stuttgart, 1898); _Reports of the Annual Meetings of the Social
  Democratic Party_, Berlin Vorwarts Publishing Company (from 1890); B.
  Russell, _German Social-Democracy_ (London, 1897).     (J. W. He.)



BECCAFICO (Ital. for "fig-pecker"), a small migratory bird of the
warbler (_Sylviidae_) family, which frequents fig-trees and vineyards,
and, when fattened, is considered a great delicacy.



BECCAFUMI, DOMENICO DI PACE (1486-1551), Italian painter, of the school
of Siena. In the early days of the Tuscan republics Siena had been in
artistic genius, and almost in political importance, the rival of
Florence. But after the great plague in 1348 the city declined; and
though her population always comprised an immense number of skilled
artists and artificers, yet her school did not share in the general
progress of Italy in the 15th century. About the year 1500, indeed,
Siena had no native artists of the first importance; and her public and
private commissions were often given to natives of other cities. But
after the uncovering of the works of Raphael and Michelangelo at Rome in
1508, all the schools of Italy were stirred with the desire of imitating
them. Among these accomplished men who now, without the mind and
inspiration of Raphael or Michelangelo, mastered a great deal of their
manner, and initiated the decadence of Italian art, several of the most
accomplished arose in the school of Siena. Among these was Domenico, the
son of a peasant, one Giacomo di Pace, who worked on the estate of a
well-to-do citizen named Lorenzo Beccafumi. Seeing some signs of a
talent for drawing in his labourer's son, Lorenzo Beccafumi took the boy
into his service and presently adopted him, causing him to learn
painting from masters of the city. Known afterwards as Domenico
Beccafumi, or earlier as Il Mecarino (from the name of a poor artist
with whom he studied), the peasant's son soon gave proof of
extraordinary industry and talent. In 1509 he went to Rome and steeped
himself in the manner of the great men who had just done their first
work in the Vatican. Returning to his native town, Beccafumi quickly
gained employment and a reputation second only to Sodoma. He painted a
vast number both of religious pieces for churches and of mythological
decorations for private patrons. But the work by which he will longest
be remembered is that which he did for the celebrated pavement of the
cathedral of Siena. For a hundred and fifty years the best artists of
the state had been engaged laying down this pavement with vast designs
in _commesso_ work,--white marble, that is, engraved with the outlines
of the subject in black, and having borders inlaid with rich patterns in
many colours. From the year 1517 to 1544 Beccafumi was engaged in
continuing this pavement. He made very ingenious improvements in the
technical processes employed, and laid down multitudinous scenes from
the stories of Ahab and Elijah, of Melchisedec, of Abraham and of Moses.
These are not so interesting as the simpler work of the earlier schools,
but are much more celebrated and more jealously guarded. Such was their
fame that the agents of Charles I. of England, at the time when he was
collecting for Whitehall, went to Siena expressly to try and purchase
the original cartoons. But their owner would not part with them, and
they are now in the Siena Academy and elsewhere. The subjects have been
engraved on wood, by the hand, as it seems, of Beccafumi himself, who at
one time or another essayed almost every branch of fine art. He made a
triumphal arch and an immense mechanical horse for the procession of the
emperor Charles V. on his entry into Siena. In his later days, being a
solitary liver and continually at work, he is said to have accelerated
his death by over-exertion upon the processes of bronze-casting.



BECCARIA, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1716-1781), Italian physicist, was born at
Mondovi on the 3rd of October 1716, and entered the religious order of
the Pious Schools in 1732. He became professor of experimental physics,
first at Palermo and then at Rome, and was appointed to a similar
situation at Turin in 1748. He was afterwards made tutor to the young
princes de Chablais and de Carignan, and continued to reside principally
at Turin during the remainder of his life. In May 1755 he was elected a
fellow of the Royal Society of London, and published several papers on
electrical subjects in the _Phil. Trans_. He died at Turin on the 27th
of May 1781. Beccaria did much, in the way both of experiment and
exposition, to spread a knowledge of the electrical researches of
Franklin and others. His principal work was the treatise _Dell'
Elettricismo Naturale ed Artificiale_ (1753), which was translated into
English in 1776.



BECCARIA-BONESANA, CESARE, MARCHESE DE (1735-1794), Italian publicist,
was born at Milan on the 15th of March 1735. He was educated in the
Jesuit college at Parma, and showed at first a great aptitude for
mathematics. The study of Montesquieu seems to have directed his
attention towards economic questions; and his first publication (1762)
was a tract on the derangement of the currency in the Milanese states,
with a proposal for its remedy. Shortly after, in conjunction with his
friends the Verris, he formed a literary society, and began to publish a
small journal, in imitation of the _Spectator_, called _Il Caffè_. In
1764 he published his brief but justly celebrated treatise _Dei Delitti
e delle Pene_ ("On Crimes and Punishments"). The weighty reasonings of
this work were expounded with all the additional force of a clear and
animated style. It pointed out distinctly and temperately the grounds of
the right of punishment, and from these principles deduced certain
propositions as to the nature and amount of punishment which should be
inflicted for any crime. The book had a surprising success. Within
eighteen months it passed through six editions. It was translated into
French by Morellet in 1766, and published with an anonymous commentary
by Voltaire. An English translation appeared in 1768 and it was
translated into several other languages. Many of the reforms in the
penal codes of the principal European nations are traceable to
Beccaria's treatise. In November 1768 he was appointed to the chair of
law and economy, which had been founded expressly for him at the
Palatine college of Milan. His lectures on political economy, which are
based on strict utilitarian principles, are in marked accordance with
the theories of the English school of economists. They are published in
the collection of Italian writers on political economy (_Scrittori
Classici Italiani di Economia politico_., vols. xi. and xii.). In 1771
Beccaria was made a member of the supreme economic council; and in 1791
he was appointed one of the board for the reform of the judicial code.
In this post his labours were of very great value. He died at Milan on
the 28th of November 1794.



BECCLES, a market town and municipal borough, in the Lowestoft
parliamentary division of Suffolk, England; on the right bank of the
river Waveney, 109 m. N.E. from London by the Great Eastern railway.
Pop. (1901) 6898. It has a pleasant, well-wooded site overlooking the
flat lands bordering the Waveney. The church of St Michael, wholly
Perpendicular, is a fine example of the style, having an ornate south
porch of two storeys and a detached bell tower. There are a grammar
school (1712), and boys' school and free school on the foundation of Sir
John Leman (1631). Rose Hall, in the vicinity, is a moated manor of
brick, of the 16th century. Printing works, malting, brick and tile, and
agricultural implement works are the chief industries. Beccles was
incorporated in 1584. It is governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12
councillors. Area, 2017 acres.



BECERRA, GASPAR (1520-1570), Spanish painter and sculptor, was born at
Baéza in Andalusia. He studied at Rome, it is said under Michelangelo,
and assisted Vasari in painting the hall of the Concelleria. He also
contributed to the anatomical plates of Valverde. After his return to
Spain he was extensively employed by Philip II., and decorated many of
the rooms in the palace at Madrid with frescoes. He also painted
altar-pieces for several of the churches, most of which have been
destroyed. His fame as a sculptor almost surpassed that as a painter.
His best work was a magnificent figure of the Virgin, which was
destroyed during the French war. He became court painter at Madrid in
1563, and played a prominent part in the establishment of the fine arts
in Spain.



BÊCHE-DE-MER (sometimes explained as "sea-spade," from the shape of the
prepared article, but more probably from the Port, _bicho_, a worm or
grub), or TREPANG (Malay, _tripang_), an important food luxury among the
Chinese and other Eastern peoples, connected with the production of
which considerable trade exists in the Eastern Archipelago and the
coasts of New Guinea, and also in California. It consists of several
species of echinoderms, generally referred to the genus _Holothuria_,
especially _H. edulis_. The creatures, which exist on coral reefs, have
bodies from 6 to 15 in. long, shaped like a cucumber, hence their name
of "sea-cucumbers." The skin is sometimes covered with spicules or
prickles, and sometimes quite smooth, and with or without "teats" or
ambulacral feet disposed in rows. Five varieties are recognized in the
commerce of the Pacific Islands, the finest of which is the "brown with
teats." The large black come next in value, followed by the small black,
the red-bellied and the white. They are used in the gelatinous soups
which form an important article of food in China. They are prepared for
use by being boiled for about twenty minutes, and then dried first in
the sun and afterwards over a fire, so that they are slightly smoked.



BECHER, JOHANN JOACHIM (1635-1682), German chemist, physician, scholar and
adventurer, was born at Spires in 1635. His father, a Lutheran minister,
died while he was yet a child, leaving a widow and three children. The
mother married again; the stepfather spent the tiny patrimony of the
children; and at the age of thirteen Becher found himself responsible not
only for his own support but also for that of his mother and brothers. He
learned and practised several small handicrafts, and devoting his nights
to study of the most miscellaneous description earned a pittance by
teaching. In 1654, at the age of nineteen, he published an edition of
Salzthal's _Tractatus de lapide trismegisto_; his _Metallurgia_ followed
in 1660; and the next year appeared his _Character pro notitia linguarum
universali_, in which he gives 10,000 words for use as a universal
language. In 1663 he published his _Oedipum Chemicum_ and a book on
animals, plants and minerals (_Thier- Kräuter- und Bergbuch_). At the same
time he was full of schemes, practical and unpractical. He negotiated with
the elector palatine for the establishment of factories at Mannheim;
suggested to the elector of Bavaria the creation of German colonies in
Guiana and the West Indies; and brought down upon himself the wrath of the
Munich merchants by planning a government monopoly of cloth manufacture
and of trade. He fled from Munich, but found a ready welcome elsewhere. In
1666 he was appointed teacher of medicine at Mainz and body-physician to
the archbishop-elector; and the same year he was made councillor of
commerce (_Commerzienrat_) at Vienna, where he had gained the powerful
support of Albrecht, Count Zinzendorf, prime minister and grand
chamberlain of the emperor Leopold I. Sent by the emperor on a mission to
Holland, he there wrote in ten days his _Methodus Didactica_, which was
followed by the _Regeln der Christlichen Bundesgenossenschaft_ and the
_Politischer Discurs vom Auj- und Abblühen der Städte_. In 1669 he
published his _Physica subterranea_, and the same year was engaged with
the count of Hanau in a scheme for settling a large territory between the
Orinoco and the Amazon. Meanwhile he had been appointed physician to the
elector of Bavaria; but in 1670 he was again in Vienna advising on the
establishment of a silk factory and propounding schemes for a great
company to trade with the Low Countries and for a canal to unite the Rhine
and Danube. He then returned to Bavaria, and his absence bringing him into
ill odour at Vienna, he complained of the incompetence of the council of
commerce and dedicated a tract on trade (_Commercien-Tractat_) to the
emperor Leopold. His _Psychosophia_ followed, and "An invitation to a
psychological community" (_Einladung zu einer psychologischen Societät_),
for the realization of which Duke Gustavus Adolphus of Mecklenburg-Gustrow
(d. 1695) offered him in 1674 a site in his duchy. The plan came to
nothing, and next year Becher was again busy at Vienna, trying to
transmute Danube sand into gold, and writing his _Theses chemicae
veritatem transmutationis metallorum evincentes_. For some reason he
incurred the disfavour of Zinzendorf and fled to Holland, where with the
aid of the government he continued his experiments. Pursued even there by
the resentment of his former patron, he crossed to England, whence he
visited the mines of Scotland at the request of Prince Rupert. He
afterwards went for the same purpose to Cornwall, where he spent a year.
At the beginning of 1680 he presented a paper to the Royal Society, _De
nova temporis dimetiendi ratione et accurata horologiorum constructione_,
in which he attempted to deprive Huygens of the honour of applying the
pendulum to the measurement of time. The views of Becher on the
composition of substances mark little essential advance on those of the
two preceding centuries, and the three elements or principles of salt,
mercury and sulphur reappear as the vitrifiable, the mercurial and the
combustible earths. When a substance was burnt he supposed that the last
of these, the _terra pinguis_, was liberated, and this conception is the
basis on which G.E. Stahl founded his doctrine of "phlogiston." His ideas
and experiments on the nature of minerals and other substances are
voluminously set forth in his _Physica Subterranea_ (Frankfort, 1669); an
edition of this, published at Leipzig in 1703, contains two supplements
(_Experimentum chymicum novum_ and _Demonstratio Philosophica_), proving
the truth and possibility of transmuting metals, _Experimentum novum ac
curiosum de minera arenaria perpetua_, the paper on timepieces already
mentioned and also _Specimen Becherianum_, a summary of his doctrines by
Stahl, who in the preface acknowledges indebtedness to him in the words
_Becheriana sunt quae profero_. At Falmouth he wrote his _Laboratorium
portabile_ and at Truro the _Alphabetum minerale_. In 1682 he returned to
London, where he wrote the _Chemischer Glückshafen oder grosse Concordanz
und Collection van 1500 Processen_ and died in October of the same year.



BECHUANA, a South African people, forming a branch of the great
Bantu-Negroid family. They occupy not only Bechuanaland, to which they
have given their name, and Basutoland, but are the most numerous native
race in the Orange River Colony and in the western and northern
districts of the Transvaal. It seems certain that they reached their
present home later than the Zulu-Xosa [Kaffir] peoples who came down the
east coast of the continent, but it is probable that they started on
their southward journey before the latter. It would appear that the
forerunners of the movement were the Bakalahari and Balala, who were
subsequently reduced to the condition of serfs by the later arrivals,
and who by intermingling to a certain extent with the aborigines gave
rise to the "Kalahari Bushmen" (see KALAHARI DESERT). The Bechuana
family may be classed in two great divisions, the western or Bechuana
proper, and the eastern or Basuto. The Bechuana proper consist of a
large number of tribes, whose early history is extremely confused and
involved owing to continual inter-tribal wars and migrations, during
which many tribes were practically annihilated. Further confusion was
produced by subsequent marauding expeditions by the coast "Kaffirs." An
ingenious attempt to disentangle the highly complicated tribal movements
which took place in the early 19th century may be found in Stow's
_Native Races of South Africa_. One migration of particular interest
calls for mention. In the early part of the 19th century a number of
Basuto, led by the chief Sebituane, crossed the Zambezi near the
Victoria Falls, and, under the name Makololo, established a supremacy
over the Barotse and neighbouring tribes on the upper portion of the
river, imposing their language on the conquered peoples. After the death
of Sekeletu, Sebituane's successor, the vassal tribes arose and
exterminated their conquerors. Only a few escaped, whom Sekeletu had
sent with David Livingstone to the coast. These established themselves
to the south of Lake Nyasa, where they are still to be found. Sesuto
speech, however, still prevails in Barotseland. The chief Bechuana
tribes were the Batlapin and Barolong (the last including the Baratlou,
Bataung, Barapulana and Baseleka), together with the great Bakuena or
Bakone people (including the Bahurutsi, Batlaru, Bamangwato, Batauana,
Bangwaketse and Bakuena). The clans representing the southern Bakuena
were in comparatively recent times welded together to form the Basuto
nation, of which the founder was the chief Moshesh (see BASUTOLAND). The
Basuto have been not only influenced in certain cultural details (e.g.
the form of their huts) by the neighbouring Zulu-Xosa [Kaffir] peoples,
but have moreover received an infusion of their blood which has improved
their physique. They are good riders and make considerable use of their
horses in war and the chase.

The Bechuana, though not so tall as Kaffirs, average 5 ft. 6 in. in
stature; they are of slender build and their musculature is but
moderately developed except where a Kaffir strain is found. Their skin
is of a reddish-brown or bronze colour, and their features are fairly
regular, though in all cases coarser than those of Europeans. One of
their chief peculiarities lies in the fact that each tribe respects
(usually) a particular animal, which the members of the tribe may not
eat, and the killing of which, if necessary, must be accompanied by
profuse apologies and followed by subsequent purification. Many of the
tribes take their name from their _siboko_, as the animal in question is
called; e.g. the Batlapin, "they of the fish"; Bakuena, "they of the
crocodile." The _siboko_ of the Barolong, who as a tribe are
accomplished smiths, is not an animal but the metal iron; other tribes
have adopted as their particular emblem respectively the sun, rain, dew,
&c. Certain ceremonies are performed in honour of the tribal emblem,
hence an inquiry as to the tribe of an individual is put in the form
"What do you dance?" In certain tribes the old and feeble and the sickly
children were killed, and albinos and the deaf and dumb exposed; those
born blind were strangled, and if a mother died in childbirth the infant
was buried alive in the same grave. With the extension of British
authority these practices were prohibited. Circumcision is universally
practised, though there is no fixed age for it. It is performed at
puberty, when the boys are secluded for a period in the bush. The
operation is accompanied by whipping and even tortures. Girls at puberty
must undergo trials of endurance, e.g. the holding of a bar of heated
iron without crying out. The Bechuana inhabit, for the most part, towns
of considerable size, containing from 5000 to 40,000. Politically they
live under a tribal despotism limited by a council of elders, the chief
seldom exercising his individual authority independently, though the
extent of his power naturally depends on his personality. They have
their public assemblies, but only when circumstances, chiefly in
reference to war, require. These are generally characterized by great
freedom of speech, and there is no interruption of the speaker. The
chief generally closes the meeting with a long speech, referring to the
subjects which each speaker has either supported or condemned, not
forgetting to clear his own character of any imputation. These public
assemblies are now, except in Basutoland, of very rare occurrence. The
clothing of the men consists of a leather bandage; the women wear a skin
apron, reaching to the knee, under which is a fringed girdle. Skin
cloaks (_kaross_) are worn by both sexes, with the difference that the
male garment is distinguished by a collar. The hair is kept short for
the most part; women shave the head, leaving a tuft on the crown which
is plastered with fat and earth, and adorned with beads. Beads are worn,
and various bracelets of iron, copper and brass.

The Bechuana are mainly an agricultural people, the Bangwaketse and
Bakuena excelling as cultivators. Cattle they possess, but these are
used chiefly for the purpose of purchasing wives, especially among the
Basuto. At the same time they are excellent craftsmen, and show no
little skill in smelting and working iron and copper and the preparation
of hides and pottery vessels. The most efficient smiths are the Barolong
and Bamangwato (the latter were spared by the Matabele chief Umsilikazi
on this account); the Bangwaketse excel as potters; the Barolong as wood
carvers, and the Bakuena as hut builders. The huts, with the exception
of those of the Basuto who have adopted the Kaffir model, are
cylindrical, with clay-plastered walls and a conical roof of thatch. In
spite of the constant tribal feuds dating from the beginning of the 19th
century, the Bechuana cannot be classed as a warlike people, especially
when they are compared with the Zulu. Their weapons consist of the
throwing assegai, usually barbed, axes, daggers in carved sheaths, and,
occasionally, bows and arrows, the last sometimes poisoned. Hide shields
of a peculiar shape, resembling a depressed hour-glass, are found except
among the Basuto, who use a somewhat different pattern. Hunting usually
takes the form of great drives organized in concert, and the game is
driven by means of converging fences to a large pitfall or series of
pits. Their religious beliefs are very vague; they appear to recognize a
somewhat indeterminate spirit of, mainly, evil tendencies, called
_Morimo_. The plural form of this word, _Barimo_, is used of the _manes_
of dead ancestors, to whom a varying amount of reverence is paid. There
is universal belief in charms and witchcraft, and divination by means of
dice is common. Witchdoctors, who are supposed to counteract evil magic,
play a not insignificant part, and the magician who claims the power of
making rain occupies a very important position, as might be expected
among an agricultural people inhabiting a country where droughts are not
infrequent. They have a great dread of anything connected with death;
when an old man is on the point of expiring, a net is thrown over him,
and he is dragged from his hut by a hole in the wall, if possible before
life is extinct. The dead are buried in a sitting position with their
faces to the north, in which direction lies their ancestral home. Under
the influence of missionaries, however, large numbers of the Bechuana
have become Christianized, and many of the customs mentioned are no
longer practised.

Polygamy is the rule, but, except in the case of chiefs, is not found to
the same extent as among the Zulu-Xosa [Kaffirs]. The woman is purchased
from her father, chiefly by means of cattle, though among the western
Bechuana other articles are included, many of which become the property
of the girl herself. The wives live in separate huts, and the first is
given priority over those purchased subsequently. Chastity after
marriage is the rule, and adultery and rape are severely punished, as
offences against property. Cannibalism is found, but is rare and
confined to certain tribes.

The Bechuana language, which belongs to the Bantu linguistic family, is
copious, with but few slight dialectic differences, and is free from the
Hottentot elements found in the Kaffir and Zulu tongues. The richness of
the language may be judged from the fact that, though only oral until
reduced to writing by the missionaries, it has sufficed for the
translation of the whole Bible.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--G.W. Stow, _The Native Races of South Africa_ (London,
  1905); Gustav Fritsch, _Die Eingeborenen Sud-Afrikas_ (Breslau, 1872);
  Robert Moffat, _Missionary Labours and Scenes in Southern Africa_
  (1842); David Livingstone, _Missionary Travels and Researches in South
  Africa_ (London, 1857); J.C. MacGregor, _Basuto Traditions_ (Cape
  Town, 1905).     (T. A. J.)



BECHUANALAND (a name given from its inhabitants, the Bechuana, q.v.), a
country of British South Africa occupying the central part of the vast
tableland which stretches north to the Zambezi. It is bounded S. by the
Orange river, N.E. and E. by Matabeleland, the Transvaal and Orange
River Colony, and W. and N. by German South-West Africa. Bechuanaland
geographically and ethnically enjoys almost complete unity, but
politically it is divided as follows:--

I. British Bechuanaland, since 1895 an integral part of Cape Colony.
Area, 51,424 sq. m. Pop. (1904) 84,210, of whom 9276 were whites.

II. The Bechuanaland Protectorate, the northern part of the country,
governed on the lines of a British crown colony. Area (estimated),
225,000 sq. m. Pop. (1904) 120,776, of whom Europeans numbered 1004. The
natives, in addition to the Bechuana tribes, include some thousands of
Bushmen (Masarwa). Administratively attached to the protectorate is the
Tati concession, which covers 2500 sq. m. and forms geographically the
south-west corner of Matabeleland.

The Griqualand West province of Cape Colony belongs also geographically
to Bechuanaland, and except in the Kimberley diamond mines region is
still largely inhabited by Bechuana. (See GRIQUALAND.)

_Physical Features._--The average height of the tableland of which
Bechuanaland consists is nearly 4000 ft. The surface is hilly and
undulating with a general slope to the west, where the level falls in
considerable areas to little over 2000 ft. A large part of the country
is covered with grass or shrub, chiefly acacia. There is very little
forest land. The western region, the Kalahari Desert (q.v.), is mainly
arid, with a sandy soil, and is covered in part by dense bush. In the
northern region are large marshy depressions, in which the water is
often salt. The best known of these depressions, Ngami (q.v.), lies to
the north-west and is the central point of an inland water system
apparently in process of drying up. To the north-east and connected with
Ngami by the Botletle river, is the great Makari-Kari salt pan, which
also drains a vast extent of territory, receiving in the rainy season a
large volume of water. The marsh then becomes a great lake, the water
surface stretching beyond the horizon, while in the dry season a mirage
is often seen. The permanent marsh land covers a region 60 m. from south
to north and from 30 to 60 m. east to west. In the south the rivers,
such as the Molopo and the Kuruman, drain towards the Orange. Other
streams are tributaries of the Limpopo, which for some distance is the
frontier between Bechuanaland and the Transvaal.

The rivers of Bechuanaland are, with few exceptions, intermittent or
lose themselves in the desert. It is evident, however, from the extent
of the beds of these streams and of others now permanently dry, and from
remains of ancient forests, that at a former period the country must
have been abundantly watered. From the many cattle-folds and walls of
defence scattered over the country, and ruins of ancient settlements, it
is also evident that at that period stone-dykes were very common. The
increasing dryness of the land is partly, perhaps largely, attributable
to the cutting down of timber trees both by natives and by whites, and
to the custom of annually burning the grass, which is destructive to
young wood.

_Climate._--The climate is healthy and bracing, except in the lower
valleys along the river banks and in the marsh land, where malarial
fever is prevalent. Though in great part within the tropics, the heat is
counteracted by the dryness of the air. Throughout the year the nights
are cool and refreshing; in winter the cold at night is intense. In the
western regions the rainfall does not exceed 10 in. in the year; in the
east the average rainfall is 26 in. and in places as much as 30 in. The
rainy season is the summer months, November to April, but the rains are
irregular, and, from the causes already indicated, the rainfall is
steadily declining. From December to February violent thunder and hail
storms are experienced. In the whiter or dry season there are occasional
heavy dust storms.

_Geology._--The greater part of Bechuanaland is covered with superficial
deposits consisting of the sands of the desert regions of the Kalahari
and the alluvium and saliferous marls of the Okavango basin. The oldest
rocks, granites, gneisses and schistose sandstones, the Ngami series,
rise to the surface in the east and south-east and doubtless immediately
underlie much of the sand areas. A sandstone found in the neighbourhood
of Palapye is considered to be the equivalent of the Waterberg formation
of the Transvaal. The Karroo formation and associate dolerites
(_Loalemandelstein_) occur in the same region. A deposit of sinter and a
calcareous sandstone, known as the Kalahari Kalk, considered by Dr
Passarge to be of Miocene age, overlies a sandstone and curious breccia
(_Botletle Schnichten_). These deposits are held by Passarge to indicate
Tertiary desert conditions, to which the basin of the Zambezi is slowly
reverting.

_Fauna._--Until towards the close of the 19th century Bechuanaland
abounded in big game, and the Kalahari is still the home of the lion,
leopard, hyena, jackal, elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, buffalo,
antelope of many species, ostrich and even the giraffe. Venomous
reptiles, e.g. puff-adders and cobras, are met with, enormous frogs are
common, and walking and flying locusts, mosquitoes, white ants, flying
beetles, scorpions, spiders and tarantulas are very numerous. The
crocodile is found in some of the rivers. Many of the rivers are well
stocked with fish. In those containing water in the rainy season only,
the fish preserve life when the bed is dry by burrowing deeply in the
ooze before it hardens. The principal fish are the baba or cat-fish
(_clarias_ sp.) and the yellow-fish, both of which attain considerable
size. Bustards (the great kori and the koorhaan) are common.

_Flora._--In the eastern district are stretches of grass land, both
sweet and sour veld. In the "bush" are found tufts of tall coarse grass
with the space between bare or covered with herbaceous creepers or
water-bearing tubers. A common creeper is one bearing a small scarlet
cucumber, and a species of watermelon called _tsoma_ is also abundant.
Of the melon and cucumber there are both bitter and sweet varieties.
Besides the grass and the creepers the bush is made up of berry-yielding
bushes (some of the bushes being rich in aromatic resinous matter), the
wait-a-bit thorn and white thorned mimosa. The indigo and cotton plants
grow wild. Among the rare big trees--found chiefly in the
north-east--are baobab and palmyra and certain fruit trees, one bearing
a pink plum. There are remains of ancient forests consisting of wild
olive trees and the camel thorn, near which grows the _ngotuane_, a
plant with a profusion of fine, strongly scented yellow flowers.

_Chief Towns._--The chief town in southern Bechuanaland, i.e. the part
incorporated in Cape Colony, is Mafeking (q.v.), near the headwaters of
the Molopo river. It is the headquarters of the Barolong tribe, and
although within the Cape border is the seat of the administration of the
protectorate. Vryburg (pop., 1904, 2985), founded by Boer filibusters in
1882, and Taungs, are towns on the railway between Kimberley and
Mafeking. Taungs has some 22,000 inhabitants, being the chief kraal of
the Batlapin tribe. About 7 m. south of Vryburg, at Tiger Kloof, is an
Industrial Training Institute for natives founded in 1904 by the London
Missionary Society. Upington (2508) on the north bank of the Orange, an
agricultural centre, is the chief town in Gordonia, the western division
of southern Bechuanaland. Kuruman (q.v.) is a native town near the
source of the Kuruman river, 85 m. south-west of Vryburg. It has been
the scene of missionary labours since the early years of the 19th
century. North of Mafeking on the railway to Bulawayo are the small
towns of Gaberones and Francistown. The last named is the chief township
in the Tati concession, the centre of a gold-mining region, and the most
important white settlement in the protectorate. Besides these places
there are five or six large native towns, each the headquarters of a
distinct tribe. The most important is Serowe, with over 20,000
inhabitants, the capital of the Bamangwato, founded by the chief Khama
in 1903. It is about 250 m. north-north-east of Mafeking, and took the
place of the abandoned capital Palapye, which in its turn had succeeded
Shoshong. The chief centre in the western Kalahari is Lehututu.

_Agriculture and Trade._--The soil is very fertile, and if properly
irrigated would yield abundant harvests. Unirrigated land laid under
wheat by the natives is said to yield twelve bushels an acre. Cereals
are grown in many of the river valleys. Maize and millet are the chief
crops. The wealth of the Bechuana consists principally in their cattle,
which they tend with great care, showing a shrewd discrimination in the
choice of pasture suited to oxen, sheep and goats. Water can usually be
obtained all the year round by sinking wells from 20 to 30 ft. deep. The
"sweet veld" is specially suitable to cattle, and the finer shorter
grass which succeeds it affords pasturage for sheep.

Gold mines are worked in the Tati district, the first discoveries having
been made there in 1864. There are gold-bearing quartz reefs at Madibi,
near Mafeking, where mining began in 1906. Diamonds have been found near
Vryburg. The existence of coal near Palapye about 60 ft. below the
surface has been proved. The coal, however, is not mined, and much of
the destruction of timber in southern Bechuanaland was caused by the
demand for fuel for Kimberley. Copper ore has been found near
Francistown.

Formerly there was a trade in ostrich feathers and ivory; but this has
ceased, and the chief trade has since consisted in supplying the natives
with European goods in exchange for cattle, hides, the skins and horns
of game, firewood and fencing poles, and in forwarding goods north and
south. The protectorate is a member of the South African Customs Union.
The value of the goods imported into the protectorate in 1906 was
£118,322; the value of the exports was £77,736. The sale of spirits to
natives is forbidden.

_Communications._--As the great highway from Cape Colony to the north,
Bechuanaland has been described as the "Suez canal of South Africa." The
trunk railway from Cape Town to the Victoria Falls traverses the eastern
edge of Bechuanaland throughout its length. The railway enters the
country at Fourteen Streams, 695 m. from Cape Town, and at Ramaquabane,
584 m. farther north, crosses into Rhodesia. The old trade route to
Bulawayo, which skirts the eastern edge of the Kalahari, is now rarely
used. Wagon tracks lead to Ngami, 320 m. N.W. from Palapye Road Station,
and to all the settlements. From the scarcity of water on the main
routes through the Kalahari these roads are known as "the thirsts";
along some of them wells have been sunk by the administration.

_Government._--The protectorate is administered by a resident
commissioner, responsible to the high commissioner for South Africa.
Legislation is enacted by proclamations in the name of the high
commissioner. Order is maintained by a small force of semi-military
police recruited in Basutoland and officered by Europeans. Revenue is
obtained mostly from customs and a hut tax, while the chief items of
expenditure have been the police force and a subsidy of £20,000 per
annum towards the cost of the railway, a liability which terminated in
the year 1908. The average annual revenue for the five years ending the
31st of March 1906 was £30,074; the average annual expenditure during
the same period was £80,114. There is no public debt, the annual
deficiency being made good by a grant-in-aid from the imperial
exchequer. The tribal organization of the Bechuana is maintained, and
native laws and customs, with certain modifications, are upheld.


  Missionary work.

_History._--Bechuanaland was visited by Europeans towards the close of
the 18th century. The generally peaceful disposition of the tribes
rendered the opening up of the country comparatively easy. The first
regular expedition to penetrate far inland was in 1801-1802, when John
(afterwards Sir John) Truter, of the Cape judicial bench, and William
Somerville--an army physician and afterwards husband of Mary
Somerville--were sent to the Bechuana tribes to buy cattle. The London
Missionary Society established stations in what is now Griqualand West
in 1803, and in 1818 the station of Kuruman, in Bechuanaland proper, was
founded. In the meantime M.H.K. Lichtenstein (1804) and W.J. Burchell
(1811-1812), both distinguished naturalists, and other explorers, had
made familiar the general characteristics of the southern part of the
country. The Rev. John Campbell, one of the founders of the Bible
Society, also travelled in southern Bechuanaland and the adjoining
districts in 1812-1814 and 1819-1821, adding considerably to the
knowledge of the river systems. About 1817 Mosilikatze, the founder of
the Matabele nation, fleeing from the wrath of Chaka, the Zulu king,
began his career of conquest, during which he ravaged a great part of
Bechuanaland and enrolled large numbers of Bechuana in his armies.
Eventually the Matabele settled to the north-east in the country which
afterwards bore their name. In 1821 Robert Moffat arrived at Kuruman as
agent of the London Missionary Society, and made it his headquarters for
fifty years. Largely as the result of the work of Moffat (who reduced
the Bechuana tongue to writing), and of other missionaries, the Bechuana
advanced notably in civilization. The arrival of David Livingstone in
1841 marked the beginning of the systematic exploration of the northern
regions. His travels, and those of C.J. Andersson (1853-1858) and
others, covered almost every part of the country hitherto unknown. In
1864 Karl Mauch discovered gold in the Tati district.


  Boer encroachment.

At the time of the first contact of the Bechuana with white men the Cape
government was the only civilized authority in South Africa; and from
this cause, and the circumstance that the missionaries who lived among
and exercised great influence over them were of British nationality, the
connexion between Bechuanaland and the Cape became close. As early as
1836 an act was passed extending the jurisdiction of the Cape courts in
certain cases as far north as 25° S.--a limit which included the
southern part of Bechuanaland. Although under strong British influence
the country was nevertheless ruled by its own chiefs, among whom the
best-known in the middle of the 19th century were Montsioa, chief of the
Barolong, and Sechele, chief of the Bakwena and the friend of
Livingstone. At this period the Transvaal Boers were in a very unsettled
state, and those living in the western districts showed a marked
inclination to encroach upon the lands of the Bechuana. In 1852 Great
Britain by the Sand river convention acknowledged the independence of
the Transvaal. Save the Vaal river no frontier was indicated, and
"boasting," writes Livingstone in his _Missionary Travels_, "that the
English had given up all the blacks into their power ... they (the
Boers) assaulted the Bakwains" (Bakwena).

With this event the political history of Bechuanaland may be said to
have begun. Not only was Sechele attacked at his capital Kolobeng, and
the European stores and Livingstone's house there looted, but the Boers
stopped a trader named M'Cabe from going northward. Again to quote
Livingstone, "The Boers resolved to shut up the interior and I
determined to open the country." In 1858 the Boers told the missionaries
that they must not go north without their (the Boers') consent. Moffat
complained to Sir George Grey, the governor of Cape Colony, through
whose intervention the molestation by Transvaal Boers of British
subjects in their passage through Bechuanaland was stopped. At a later
date (1865) the Boers tried to raise taxes from the Barolong, but
without success, a commando sent against them in 1868 being driven off
by Montsioa's brother Molema. This led to a protest (in 1870) from
Montsioa, which he lodged with a landdrost at Potchefstroom in the
Transvaal, threatening to submit the matter to the British high
commissioner if any further attempt at taxation were made on the part of
the Boers. The Boers then resorted to cajolery, and at a meeting held in
August 1870, at which President Pretorius and Paul Kruger represented
the Transvaal, invited the Barolong to join their territories with that
of the republic, in order to save them from becoming British. Montsioa's
reply was short: "No one ever spanned-in an ass with an ox in one yoke."
In the following year the claims of the Boers, the Barolong, and other
tribes were submitted to the arbitration of R.W. Keate,
lieutenant-governor of Natal, and his award placed Montsioa's territory
outside the limits of the Transvaal. This attempt of the Boers to gain
possession of Bechuanaland having failed, T.F. Burgers, the president of
the Transvaal in 1872, endeavoured to replace Montsioa as chief of the
Barolong by Moshette, whom he declared to be the rightful ruler and
paramount chief of that people. The attacks of the Boers at length
became so unbearable that Montsioa in 1874 made a request to the British
authorities to be taken under their protection. In formulating this
appeal he declared that when the Boers were at war with Mosilikatze,
chief of the Matabele, he had aided them on the solemn understanding
that they were to respect his boundaries. This promise they had broken.
Khama, chief of the Bamangwato in northern Bechuanaland, wrote in August
1876 to Sir Henry Barkly making an appeal similar to that sent by the
Barolong. The letter contained the following significant passages:

  "I write to you, Sir Henry, in order that your queen may preserve for
  me my country, it being in her hands. The Boers are coming into it,
  and I do not like them." "Their actions are cruel among us black
  people. We are like money, they sell us and our children." "I ask Her
  Majesty to defend me, as she defends all her people. There are three
  things which distress me very much--war, selling people, and drink.
  All these things I shall find in the Boers, and it is these things
  which destroy people to make an end of them in the country. The custom
  of the Boers has always been to cause people to be sold, and to-day
  they are still selling people."


  Stellaland and Goshen.

The statements of Khama in this letter do not appear to have been
exaggerated. The testimony of Livingstone confirms them, and even a
Dutch clergyman, writing in 1869, described the system of apprenticeship
of natives which obtained among the Boers "as slavery in the fullest
sense of the word." These representations on the part of the Barolong,
and the Bamangwato under Khama, supported by the representations of Cape
politicians, led in 1878 to the military occupation of southern
Bechuanaland by a British force under Colonel (afterwards General Sir
Charles) Warren. A small police force continued to occupy the district
until April 1881, but, ignoring the wishes of the Bechuana and the
recommendations of Sir Bartle Frere (then high commissioner), the home
government refused to take the country under British protection. On the
withdrawal of the police, southern Bechuanaland fell into a state of
anarchy, nor did the fixing (on paper) of the frontier between it and
the Transvaal by the Pretoria convention of August 1881 have any
beneficial effect. There was fighting between Montsioa and Moshette,
while Massow, a Batlapin chief, invited the aid of the Boers against
Mankoroane, who claimed to be paramount chief of the Batlapin. The
Transvaal War of that date offered opportunities to the freebooting
Boers of the west which were not to be lost. At this time the British,
wearied of South African troubles, were disinclined to respond to native
appeals for help. Consequently the Boers proceeded without let or
hindrance with their conquest and annexation of territory. In 1882 they
set up the republic of Stellaland, with Vryburg as its capital, and
forthwith proceeded to set up the republic of Goshen, farther north, in
spite of the protests of Montsioa, and established a small town called
Rooi Grond as capital. They then summoned Montsioa to quit the
territory. The efforts of the British authorities at this period
(1882-1883) to bring about a satisfactory settlement were feeble and
futile, and fighting continued until peace was made entirely on Boer
lines. The Transvaal government was to have supreme power, and to be the
final arbiter in case of future quarrels arising among the native
chiefs. This agreement, arrived at without any reference to the British
government, was a breach of the Pretoria convention, and led to an
intimation on the part of Great Britain that she could not recognize the
new republics. In South Africa, as well as in England, strong feeling
was aroused by this act of aggression. Unless steps were taken at once,
the whole of Bechuanaland might be permanently lost, while German
territory on the west might readily be extended to join with that of the
Boers. In the London convention of February 1884, conceded by Lord Derby
in response to the overtures of Boer delegates, the Transvaal boundaries
were again defined, part of eastern Bechuanaland being included in Boer
territory. In spite of the convention the Boers remained in Stellaland
and Goshen--which were west of the new Transvaal frontier, and in April
1884 the Rev. John Mackenzie, who had succeeded Livingstone, was sent to
the country to arrange matters. He found very little difficulty in
negotiating with the various Bechuana chiefs, but with the Boers he was
not so successful. In Goshen the Boers defied his authority, while in
Stellaland only a half-hearted acceptance of it was given. At the
instance of the new Cape government, formed in May and under control of
the Afrikander Bond, Mackenzie, who was accused of being too
"pro-Bechuana" and who had been refused the help of any armed force, was
recalled on the 30th of July by the high commissioner, Sir Hercules
Robinson. In his place Cecil Rhodes, then leader of the Opposition in
the Cape parliament, was sent to Bechuanaland.


  Rhodes's Mission.

  Warren expedition.

Rhodes's mission was attended with great difficulty. British prestige
after the disastrous Boer War of 1881 was at a very low ebb, and he
realized that he could not count on any active help from the imperial or
colonial authorities. He adopted a tone of conciliation, and decided
that the Stellaland republic should remain under a sort of British
suzerainty. But in Goshen the Boers would let him do nothing. Commandant
P.J. Joubert, after meeting him at Rooi Grond, entered the country and
attacked Montsioa. Rhodes then left under protest, declaring that the
Boers were making war against Great Britain. The Boers now (10th of
September) proclaimed the country under Transvaal protection. This was a
breach of the London convention, and President Kruger explained that the
steps had been taken in the "interests of humanity." Indignant protest
in Cape Town and throughout South Africa, as well as England, led to the
despatch in October 1884 of the Warren expedition, which was sent out by
the British government to remove the filibusters, to bring about peace
in the country, and to hold it until further measures were decided upon.
Before Sir Charles Warren reached Africa, Sir Thomas Upington, the Cape
premier, and Sir Gordon Sprigg, the treasurer-general, went to
Bechuanaland and arranged a "settlement" which would have left the Boer
filibusters in possession, but the imperial government refused to take
notice of this "settlement." Public opinion throughout Great Britain was
too strong to be ignored. The limit of concessions to the Boers had been
reached, and Sir Charles Warren's force--4000 strong--had reached the
Vaal river in January 1885. On the 22nd of January Kruger met Warren at
the Modder river, and endeavoured to stop him from proceeding farther,
saying that he would be responsible for keeping order in the country.
Warren, however, continued his march, and without firing a shot broke up
the republics of Stellaland and Goshen. Bechuanaland was formally taken
under British protection (30th of September 1885), and the sphere of
British influence was declared to extend N. to 22° S. and W. to 20° E.
(which last-mentioned line marks the eastern limit of German South-West
Africa).


  British protectorate.

The natives cheerfully accepted this new departure in British policy,
and from this time forward Khama's country was known as the British
protectorate of Bechuanaland. That portion lying to the south of the
Molopo river was described as British Bechuanaland, and was constituted
a crown colony. In 1891 the northern frontier of the protectorate was
extended to its present boundaries, and the whole of it placed under the
administration of a resident commissioner, a protest being made at the
time by the British South Africa Company on the ground that the
protectorate was included in the sphere of their charter. Under the able
administration (1885-1895) of Sir Sidney Shippard (q.v.) peace was
maintained among the natives, who have shown great loyalty to British
rule.

The history of the country shows how much has been due to the efforts of
men like Livingstone, Mackenzie and Rhodes. It is quite clear that had
they not represented the true state of affairs to the authorities the
whole of this territory would have gradually been absorbed by the Boers,
until they had effected a union with the Germans on the west. The great
road to the north would thus have been effectually shut against trade
and British colonization. With regard to the precise effect of
missionary influence upon the natives, opinion will always remain
divided. But Livingstone, who was not only a missionary but also an
enlightened traveller, stated that a considerable amount of benefit had
been conferred upon the native races by missionary teaching. Livingstone
was a great advocate of the prohibition of alcohol among the natives,
and that policy was always adhered to by Khama.

In 1891 the South African Customs Union was extended to British
Bechuanaland, and in 1895 the country was annexed to Cape Colony. At the
same time it was provisionally arranged that the Bechuanaland
protectorate should pass under the administration of the British South
Africa Company (see RHODESIA). Khama and two other Bechuana chiefs came
to England and protested against this arrangement. The result was that
their territories and those of other petty chiefs lying to the north of
the Molopo were made native reserves, into which the importation of
alcohol was forbidden. A British resident officer was to be appointed to
each of the reserves. A stipulation, however, was made with these chiefs
that a strip of country sufficient for the purposes of a railway to
Matabeleland should be conceded to the Chartered Company. In December
1895 the occurrence of the Jameson Raid, which started from these
territories, prevented the completion of negotiations, and the
administration of the protectorate remained in the hands of the imperial
government. The administration, besides fostering the scanty material
resources of the country, aids the missionaries in their endeavours to
raise the Bechuanas in the scale of civilization. The results are full
of encouragement. The natives proved staunch to the British connexion
during the war of 1899-1902, and Khama and other chiefs gave help by
providing transport. Anxiety was caused on the western frontier during
the German campaigns against the Hottentots and Herero (1903-1908), many
natives seeking refuge in the protectorate. A dispute concerning the
chieftainship of the Batawana in the Ngami district threatened trouble
in 1906, but was brought to a peaceful issue. The Bechuana were entirely
unaffected by the Kaffir rebellion in Natal.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Of early works the most valuable are David Livingstone,
  _Missionary Travels in South Africa_ (London, 1857); Robert Moffat,
  _Missionary Labours and Scenes in Southern Africa_ (London, 1842); J.
  Campbell, _Travels in South Africa_ (London, 1815), _Travels ... a
  Second Journey_ ... (2 vols., London, 1822); and A.A. Anderson,
  _Twenty-five Years in a Waggon in the Gold Regions of Africa_, vol. i.
  (London, 1887). See also J.D. Hepburn, _Twenty Years in Khama's
  Country_ (London, 1895); S. Passarge's _Die Kalahari_ (Berlin, 1904)
  deals chiefly with geological and allied questions; John Mackenzie's
  _Austral Africa, Losing it or Ruling it_ (London, 1887); _John
  Mackenzie_, a biography by W.D. Mackenzie (London, 1902); and the
  article "Bechuanaland" by Sir S. Shippard in _British Africa_ (London,
  1899), give the story of the beginnings of British rule in the
  protectorate. Of larger works dealing incidentally with Bechuanaland
  consult G.M. Theal's _History of South Africa_; E.A. Pratt's _Leading
  Points in South African History_ (London, 1900); and _Cecil Rhodes,
  His Political Life and Speeches_, by Vindex (London, 1900). See also
  the _Statistical Register, Cape of Good Hope_, issued yearly at Cape
  Town, and the _Annual Report, Bechuanaland Protectorate_, issued by
  the Colonial Office, London.     (F. R. C.; A. P. H.)



BECK, CHRISTIAN DANIEL (1757-1832), German philologist, historian,
theologian and antiquarian, one of the most learned men of his time, was
born at Leipzig on the 22nd of January 1757. He studied at Leipzig
University, where he was appointed (1785) professor of Greek and Latin
literature. This post he resigned in 1819 in order to take up the
professorship of history, but resumed it in 1825. He also had the
management of the university library, was director of the institute for
the deaf and dumb, and filled many educational and municipal offices. In
1784 he founded a philological society, which grew into a philological
seminary, superintended by him until his death. In 1808 he was made a
_Hofrath_ by the king of Saxony, and in 1820 a knight of the civil order
of merit. His philological lectures, in which grammar and criticism were
subordinated to history, were largely attended by hearers from all parts
of Germany. He died at Leipzig on the 13th of December 1832. He edited a
number of classical authors: _Pedo Albinovanus_ (1783), Pindar and the
Scholia (1792-1795), Aristophanes (with others, 1794, &c.), Euripides
(1778-1788), Apollonius Rhodius (1797), Demosthenes _De Pace_ (1799),
Plato (1813-1819), Cicero (1795-1807), Titus Calpurnius Siculus (1803).
He translated Ferguson's _Fall of the Roman Republic_ and Goldsmith's
_History of Greece_, and added two volumes to Bauer's Thucydides. He
also wrote on theological and historical subjects, and edited
philological and bibliographical journals. He possessed a large and
valuable library of 24,000 volumes.

  See Nobbe, _Vita C.D. Beckii_ (1837); and G. Hermann, _Opuscula_, v.
  312.



BECK (or BEEK), DAVID (1621-1656), Dutch portrait-painter, was born at
Arnheim in Guelderland. He was trained by Van Dyck, from whom he
acquired the fine manner of pencilling and sweet style of colouring
peculiar to that great master. He possessed likewise that freedom of
hand and readiness, or rather rapidity of execution, for which Van Dyck
was so remarkable, insomuch that when King Charles I. observed the
expeditious manner of Beck's painting, he exclaimed, "Faith! Beck, I
believe you could paint riding post." He was appointed portrait-painter
and chamberlain to Queen Christina of Sweden, and he executed portraits
of most of the sovereigns of Europe to adorn her gallery. His death at
the Hague was suspected of being due to poisoning.



BECK, JAKOB SIGISMUND (1761-1840), German philosopher, was born at
Danzig in 1761. Educated at Königsberg, he became professor of
philosophy first at Halle (1791-1799) and then at Rostock. He devoted
himself to criticism and explanation of the doctrine of Kant, and in
1793 published the _Erläuternder Auszug aus Kants kritischen Schriften_,
which has been widely used as a compendium of Kantian doctrine. He
endeavoured to explain away certain of the contradictions which are
found in Kant's system by saying that much of the language is used in a
popular sense for the sake of intelligibility, e.g. where Kant
attributes to things-in-themselves an existence under the conditions of
time, space and causality, and yet holds that they furnish the material
of our apprehensions. Beck maintains that the real meaning of Kant's
theory is idealism; that of objects outside the domain of consciousness,
knowledge is impossible, and hence that nothing positive remains when we
have removed the subjective element. Matter is deduced by the "original
synthesis." Similarly, the idea of God is a symbolical representation of
the voice of conscience guiding from within. The value of Beck's
exegesis has been to a great extent overlooked owing to the greater
attention given to the work of Fichte. Beside the three volumes of the
_Erläuternder Auszug_, he published the _Grundriss der krit.
Philosophie_ (1796), containing an interpretation of the Kantian
_Kritik_ in the manner of Salomon Maimon.

  See Ueberweg, _Grundriss der Gesch. der Philos. der Neuzeit_; Dilthey
  in the _Archiv für Geschichte der Philos._, vol. ii. (1889), pp.
  592-650. For Beck's letters to Kant, see R. Reicke, _Aus Kants
  Briefwechsel_ (Königsberg, 1885).



BECKENHAM, an urban district in the Sevenoaks parliamentary division of
Kent, England, 10 m. S.S.E. of London by the South Eastern & Chatham
railway. Pop. (1881) 13,045; (1901) 26,331. It is a long straggling
parish extending from the western tower of the Crystal Palace almost to
the south end of Bromley, and contains the residential suburb of
Shortlands. Its rapid increase in size in the last decade of the 19th
century was owing to the popularity which it attained as a place of
residence for London business men. It retains, however, some of its
rural character, and has wide thoroughfares and many handsome residences
standing in extensive grounds. King William IV.'s Naval Asylum was
endowed by Queen Adelaide for 12 widows of naval officers. The church of
St George was built in 1866 on the site of an ancient Perpendicular
church. Some 16th-century brasses, an altar tomb and a piscina were
removed hither from the old church. The tower of the church was
completed in 1903, and furnished with two bells in memory of Cecil
Rhodes, in addition to the old bells, one of which dates from 1624.



BECKER, HEINRICH (1770-1822), German actor, whose real name was
BLUMENTHAL, was born at Berlin. He obtained, while quite a young man, an
appointment in the court theatre at Weimar, at that time under Goethe's
auspices. The poet recognized his talent, appointed him stage-manager,
entrusted him with several of the leading roles in his dramas and
consulted him in all matters connected with the staging of his plays.
For many years Becker was the favourite of the Weimar stage, and
although he was at his best in comedy, he played, to Goethe's great
satisfaction, Vansen in _Egmont_, and was also seen to great advantage
in the leading parts of several of Schiller's plays; notably Burleigh in
_Maria Stuart_, Karl Moor in _Die Räuber_, and Antonio in _Torquato
Tasso_. Becker left Weimar in the spring of 1809, played for a short
time at Hamburg (under Schröder) and at Breslau, and then began a
wandering life, now joining travelling companies, now playing at
provincial theatres. Broken in health and ruined in fortune he returned
in 1820 to Weimar, where he was again cordially received by Goethe, who
reinstated him at the theatre. After playing for two short years with
indifferent success, he died at Weimar in 1822.

Becker was twice married. His first wife, CHRISTIANE LUISE AMALIE BECKER
(1778-1797), was the daughter of a theatrical manager and dramatic poet,
Johann Christian Neumann, and made her first stage appearance in 1787 at
Weimar. Here she received some training from Goethe and from Corona
Schröter, the singer, and her beauty and charm made her the favourite
both of court and public. She married Heinrich Becker in 1793. She died
on the 22nd of September 1797. Her last part was that of Euphrosyne in
the opera _Das Petermännchen_, and it is under this name that Goethe
immortalized her in a poem which first appeared in Schiller's _Musen
Almanack_ of 1799.



BECKER, WILHELM ADOLF (1796-1846), German classical archaeologist, was
born at Dresden. At first destined for a commercial life, he was in 1812
sent to the celebrated school at Pforta. In 1816 he entered the
university of Leipzig, where he studied under Beck and Hermann. After
holding subordinate posts at Zerbst and Meissen, he was in 1842
appointed professor of archaeology at Leipzig. He died at Meissen on the
30th of September 1846. The works by which Becker is most widely known
are the _Gallus_ or _Römische Scenen aus der Zeit Augusts_ (1838, new
ed. by Göll, 1880-1882), and the _Charicles_ or _Bilder altgriechischer
Sitte_, (1840, new ed. by Göll, 1877-1878). These two books, which have
been translated into English by Frederick Metcalfe, contain a very
interesting description of the everyday life of the ancient Greeks and
Romans, in the form of a romance. The notes and appendixes are valuable.
More important is the great _Handbuch der röm. Alterthümer_ (1843-1868),
completed after Becker's death by Marquardt and Mommsen. Becker's
treatises _De Comicis Romanorum Fabulis_ (1837), _De Romae Veteris Muris
atque Portis_ (1842), _Die römische Topographie in Rom_ (1844), and _Zur
römischen Topographie_ (1845) may also be mentioned.



BECKET, THOMAS (c. 1118-1170), by his contemporaries more commonly
called Thomas of London, English chancellor and archbishop of Canterbury
under Henry II., was born about the year 1118 in London. His mother was
a native of Caen; his father, who came of a family of small Norman
landowners, had been a citizen of Rouen, but migrated to London before
the birth of Thomas, and held at one time the dignified office of
portreeve, although he ended his life in straitened circumstances. The
young Thomas received an excellent education. At the age of ten he was
put to school with the canons of Merton priory in Surrey. Later he spent
some time in the schools of London, which enjoyed at that time a high
reputation, and finally studied theology at Paris. Returning at the age
of twenty-two he was compelled, through the misfortunes of his parents,
to become a notary in the service of a wealthy kinsman, Osbert Huit
Deniers, who was of some importance in London politics. About 1142 a
family friend brought Thomas under the notice of Archbishop Theobald, of
whose household he at once became an inmate. He accompanied the primate
to Rome in 1143, and also to the council of Reims (1148), which Theobald
attended in defiance of a prohibition from the king. It appears to have
been at some time between the dates of these two journeys that he
visited Bologna and Auxerre, and began those studies in the canon law
to which he was in no small degree indebted for his subsequent
advancement and misfortunes. Although the bent of his mind was legal, he
never made himself an expert jurist; but he had the art of turning his
knowledge, such as it was, to excellent account. In 1151 he was sent to
Rome by the archbishop with instructions to dissuade the Curia from
sanctioning the coronation of Stephen's eldest son Eustace. It is said
that Thomas distinguished himself by the ability with which he executed
his commission; in any case it gave him a claim on the gratitude of the
Angevin party which was not forgotten. In 1154 he was promoted to be
archdeacon of Canterbury, after first taking deacon's orders. In the
following year Henry II., at the primate's recommendation, bestowed on
him the important office of chancellor. In this capacity Thomas
controlled the issue of royal writs and the distribution of
ecclesiastical patronage; but it was more important for his future that
he had ample opportunities of exercising his personal fascination upon a
prince who was comparatively inexperienced, and thirteen or fourteen
years his junior. He became Henry's bosom friend and was consulted in
all affairs of state. It had been the hope of Theobald that Becket's
influence would be exercised to support the extensive privileges which
the Church had wrested from Stephen. But the chancellor, although
preserving friendly relations with his old patron, subordinated the
interests of the Church to those of his new master. Under his
administration the Church was severely taxed for the prosecution of
Henry's foreign wars; and the chancellor incurred the reproach "of
plunging his sword into the bowels of his mother." Like Wolsey he
identified himself with the military aspirations of his sovereign. It
was Thomas who organized the Toulouse campaign of 1159; even in the
field he made himself conspicuous by commanding a company of knights,
directing the work of devastation, and superintending the conduct of the
war after the king had withdrawn his presence from the camp. When there
was war with France upon the Norman border, the chancellor acted as
Henry's representative; and on one occasion engaged in single combat and
unhorsed a French knight of reputation. Later it fell to his part to
arrange the terms of peace with France. He discharged the duties of an
envoy with equal magnificence and dexterity; the treaty of May 1160,
which put an end to the war, was of his making.

In 1162 he was transferred to a new sphere of action. Henry bestowed on
him the see of Canterbury, left vacant by the death of Theobald. The
appointment caused some murmurs; since Becket, at the time when it was
made, was still a simple deacon. But it had been desired by Theobald as
the one means of averting an attack on clerical privileges which had
been impending almost since the accession of Henry II.; and the bishops
accepted it in silence. Henry on his side looked to find in Becket the
archbishop a coadjutor as loyal as Becket the archdeacon; and
anticipated that the Church would once more be reduced to that state of
dependence in which she had stood during the latter years of Henry I.
Becket, however, disappointed all the conflicting expectations excited
by his appointment. He did not allow himself to be made the king's tool;
nor on the other hand did he attempt to protect the Church by humouring
the king in ordinary matters. He devoted himself to ascetic practices,
confined himself to the society of churchmen, and resigned the
chancellorship in spite of a papal dispensation (procured by the king)
which authorized him to hold that office concurrently with the primacy.
By nature a violent partisan, the archbishop now showed himself the
uncompromising champion of his order and his see. Hence he was on the
worst of terms with the king before a year had elapsed. They came into
open conflict at the council of Woodstock (July 1163), when Becket
successfully opposed the king's proposal that a land-tax, known as the
sheriff's aid, which formed part of that official's salary, should be
henceforth paid into the Exchequer. But there were more serious
differences in the background. Becket had not shrunk from
excommunicating a tenant in chief who had encroached upon the lands of
Canterbury, and had protected against the royal courts a clerk named
Philip de Brois who was charged with an assault upon a royal officer.
These disputes involved questions of principle which had long occupied
Henry's attention, and Becket's defiant attitude was answered by the
famous Constitutions of Clarendon (q.v.), in which the king defined,
professedly according to ancient use and custom, the relations of Church
and State. Becket and the bishops were required to give these
constitutions their approval. Henry's demands were more defensible in
substance than might be supposed from the manner in which he pressed
them on the bishops. On the most burning question, that of criminous
clerks, he offered a compromise. He was willing that the accused should
be tried in the courts Christian provided that the punishment of the
guilty were left to the lay power. Becket's opposition rested upon a
casuistic interpretation of the canon law, and an extravagant conception
of the dignity attaching to the priesthood; he showed, moreover, a
disposition to quibble, to equivocate, and to make promises which he had
no intention of fulfilling. His conduct may be excused on the ground
that the bishops were subjected to unwarrantable intimidation. But when
he renounced his promise to observe the constitutions his conduct was
reprobated by the other bishops, although approved by the pope. It was
fortunate for Becket's reputation that Henry punished him for his change
of front by a systematic persecution in the forms of law. The archbishop
was thus enabled to invoke the pope's assistance, and to quit the
country with some show of dignity.

Becket fled to France in November 1164. He at once succeeded in
obtaining from Alexander III. a formal condemnation of the
constitutions. But Alexander, a fugitive from Italy and menaced by an
alliance of the emperor with an antipope, was indisposed to take extreme
measures against Henry; and six years elapsed before the king found
himself definitely confronted with the choice between an interdict and a
surrender. For the greater part of this time the archbishop resided at
the Burgundian monastery of Pontigny, constantly engaged in negotiations
with Alexander, whose hand he desired to force, and with Henry, from
whom he hoped to extract an unconditional submission. In 1166 Becket
received from the pope a commission to publish what censures he thought
fit; of which he at once availed himself to excommunicate the king's
principal counsellors. In 1169 he took the same step against two of the
royalist bishops. In more sweeping measures, however, the pope refused
to support him, until in 1170 Henry infringed the rights of Canterbury
by causing Archbishop Roger of York to crown the young king. In that
year the threats of the pope forced Henry to a reconciliation which took
place later at Fréteval on the 22nd of July. It was a hollow truce,
since the subject of the constitutions was not mentioned; and Thomas
returned to England with the determination of riding roughshod over the
king's supporters. If he had not given a definite pledge to forgive the
bishops who had taken part in the young king's coronation, he had at
least raised expectations that he would overlook all past offences. But
the archbishop prevailed upon the pope to suspend the bishops, and
before his return published papal letters which, in announcing these
sentences, spoke of the constitutions as null and void. It was only to
be expected that such a step, which was virtually a declaration of war
against the king, should arouse in him the strongest feelings of
resentment. The archbishop's murder, perpetrated within a month of his
return to England (29th December 1170), was, however, the work of over
zealous courtiers and regretted by no one more than Henry.

Becket was canonized in 1172. Within a short time his shrine at
Canterbury became the resort of innumerable pilgrims. Plenary
indulgences were given for a visit to the shrine, and an official
register was kept to record the miracles wrought by the relics of the
saint. The shrine was magnificently adorned with the gold and silver and
jewels offered by the pious. It was plundered by Henry VIII., to whom
the memory of Becket was specially obnoxious; but the reformers were
powerless to expunge the name of the saint from the Roman calendar, on
which it still remains. Even to those who are in sympathy with the
principles for which he fought, the posthumous reputation of Becket must
appear strangely exaggerated. It is evident that in the course of his
long struggle with the state he fell more and more under the dominion of
personal motives. At the last he fought not so much for an idea as for
the humiliation of an opponent by whom he had been ungenerously treated.
William of Newburgh appears to express the verdict of the most impartial
contemporaries when he says that the bishop was _zelo justitiae
fervidus, utrum autem plene secundum scientiam novit Deus_: "burning
with zeal for justice, but whether altogether according to wisdom God
knows."

  AUTHORITIES.--_Original:_--The correspondence of Becket and most of
  the contemporary biographies are collected by J.C. Robertson in
  _Materials for the History of Thomas Becket_ (7 vols., Rolls Series,
  1875-1885). See also the _Vie de Saint Thomas_, by Garníer de Pont
  Sainte Maxence (ed. Hippeau, Paris, 1859). For the chronology of the
  controversy see Eyton's _Itinerary of Henry II._

  _Modern:_--Morris, _Life and Martyrdom of St Thomas Becket_ (London,
  1885); Lhuillier, _Saint Thomas de Cantorbéry_ (2 vols., Paris,
  1891-1892); J.C. Robertson, _Becket_ (London, 1859); F.W. Maitland,
  _Roman Canon Law in the Church of England_, c. iv.; J.A. Froude in his
  _Short Studies_, vol. iv., and Freeman in his _Historical Essays_
  (1871), give noteworthy but conflicting appreciations.
       (H. W. C. D.)



BECKFORD, WILLIAM (1760-1844), English author, son of Alderman William
Beckford (1709-1770), was born on the 1st of October 1760. His father
was lord mayor of London in 1762 and again in 1769; he was a famous
supporter of John Wilkes, and on his monument in the Guildhall were
afterwards inscribed the words of his manly and outspoken reproof to
George III. on the occasion of the City of London address to the king in
1770. At the age of eleven young Beckford inherited a princely fortune
from his father. He married Lady Margaret Gordon in 1783, and spent his
brief married life in Switzerland. After his wife's death (1786) he
travelled in Spain and Portugal, and wrote his _Portuguese Letters_
(published 1834, 1835), which rank with his best work. He afterwards
returned to England, and after selling his old house, Fonthill Abbey,
Wiltshire, began to build a magnificent residence there, on which he
expended in about eighteen years the sum of £273,000. His
eccentricities, together with the strict seclusion in which he lived,
gave rise to scandal, probably unjustified. In 1822 he sold his house,
together with its splendid library and pictures, to John Farquhar, and
soon after one of the towers, 260 ft. high, fell, destroying part of the
villa in the ruins. Beckford erected another lofty structure on
Lansdowne Hill, near Bath, where he continued to reside till his death
in 1844. His first work, _Biographical Memoirs of Extraordinary
Painters_ (1780) was a slight, sarcastic _jeu d'esprit_. In 1782 he
wrote in French his oriental romance, _The History of the Caliph
Vathek_, which appeared in English, translated by the Rev. Samuel
Henley, in 1786 and has taken its place as one of the finest productions
of luxuriant imagination.

Beckford's wealth and large expenditure, his position as a collector and
patron of letters (he bought Gibbon's library at Lausanne), his literary
industry, and his reputation as author of _Vathek_, make him an
interesting figure in literary history. He had a seat in parliament from
1784 to 1793, and again from 1806 to 1820. He left two daughters, the
eldest of whom was married to the 10th duke of Hamilton.

  Cyrus Redding's _Memoir_ (1859) is the only full biography, but
  prolix; see Dr R. Garnett's introduction to his edition of _Vathek_
  (1893).



BECKINGTON (or BEKYNTON), THOMAS (c. 1390-1465), English statesman and
prelate, was born at Beckington in Somerset, and was educated at
Winchester and New College, Oxford. Having entered the church he held
many ecclesiastical appointments, and became dean of the Arches in 1423;
then devoting his time to secular affairs he was sent on an embassy to
Calais in 1439, and to John IV., count of Armagnac, in 1442. At this
time Beckington was acting as secretary to Henry VI., and soon after his
return in 1443 he was appointed lord privy seal and bishop of Bath and
Wells. The bishop erected many buildings in Wells, and died there on the
14th of January 1465. The most important results of Beckington's
missions to France were one Latin journal, written by himself, referring
to the embassy to Calais; and another, written by one of his attendants,
relating to the journey to Armagnac.

  Beckington's own journal is published in the _Proceedings of the Privy
  Council_, vol. v., edited by N.H. Nicolas (1835); and the other
  journal in the _Official Correspondence of Thomas Bekynton_, edited by
  G. Williams for the Rolls Series (1872), which contains many
  interesting letters. This latter journal has been translated into
  English by N.H. Nicolas (1828). See G.G. Perry, "Bishop Beckington and
  Henry VI.," in the _English Historical Review_ (1894).



BECKMANN, JOHANN (1739-1811), German scientific author, was born on the
4th of June 1739 at Hoya in Hanover, where his father was postmaster and
receiver of taxes. He was educated at Stade and the university of
Göttingen. The death of his mother in 1762 having deprived him of his
means of support, he went in 1763 on the invitation of the pastor of the
Lutheran community, Anton Friedrich Büsching, the founder of the modern
historic statistical method of geography, to teach natural history in
the Lutheran academy, St Petersburg. This office he relinquished in
1765, and travelled in Denmark and Sweden, where he studied the methods
of working the mines, and made the acquaintance of Linnaeus at Upsala.
In 1766 he was appointed extraordinary professor of philosophy at
Göttingen. There he lectured on political and domestic economy with such
success that in 1770 he was appointed ordinary professor. He was in the
habit of taking his students into the workshops, that they might acquire
a practical as well as a theoretical knowledge of different processes
and handicrafts. While thus engaged he determined to trace the history
and describe the existing condition of each of the arts and sciences on
which he was lecturing, being perhaps incited by the _Bibliothecae_ of
Albrecht von Haller. But even Beckmann's industry and ardour were unable
to overtake the amount of study necessary for this task. He therefore
confined his attention to several practical arts and trades; and to
these labours we owe his _Beiträge zur Geschichte der Erfindungen_
(1780-1805), translated into English as the _History of Inventions_--a
work in which he relates the origin, history and recent condition of the
various machines, utensils, &c., employed in trade and for domestic
purposes. This work entitles Beckmann to be regarded as the founder of
scientific technology, a term which he was the first to use in 1772. In
1772 Beckmann was elected a member of the Royal Society of Göttingen,
and he contributed valuable scientific dissertations to its proceedings
until 1783, when he withdrew from all further share in its work. He died
on the 3rd of February 1811. Other important works of Beckmann are
_Entwurf einer allgemeinen Technologie_ (1806); _Anleitung zur
Handelswissenschaft_ (1789); _Vorbereitung zur Warenkunde_ (1795-1800);
_Beiträge zur Ökonomie, Technologie, Polizei- und, Kameralwissenschaft_
(1777-1791).



BECKWITH, JAMES CARROLL (1852-), American portrait-painter, was born at
Hannibal, Missouri, on the 23rd of September 1852. He studied in the
National Academy of Design, New York City, of which he afterwards became
a member, and in Paris (1873-1878) under Carolus Duran. Returning to the
United States in 1878, he gradually became a prominent figure in
American art. He took an active part in the formation of the Fine Arts
Society, and was president of the National Free Art League, which
attempted to secure the repeal of the American duty on works of art.
Among his portraits are those of W.M. Chase (1882), of Miss Jordan
(1883), of Mark Twain, T.A. Janvier, General Schofield and William
Walton. He decorated one of the domes of the Manufactures Building at
the Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893.



BECKWITH, SIR THOMAS SYDNEY (1772-1831), British general, was the son of
Major-General John Beckwith, who was colonel of the 20th regiment
(Lancashire Fusiliers) in the charge at Minden. In 1791 he entered the
71st regiment (then commanded by Colonel David Baird), in which he
served in India and elsewhere until 1800, when he obtained a company in
Colonel Coote Manningham's experimental regiment of riflemen, shortly
afterwards numbered as the 95th Rifles and now called the Rifle Brigade.
In 1802 he was promoted major, and in the following year
lieutenant-colonel. Beckwith was one of the favourite officers of Sir
John Moore in the famous camp of Shorncliffe, and aided that general in
the training of the troops which afterwards became the Light Division.
In 1806 he served in the expedition to Hanover, and in 1807 in that
which captured Copenhagen. In 1806 the Rifles were present at Vimeira,
and in the campaign of Sir John Moore they bore the brunt of the
rearguard fighting. Beckwith took part in the great march of Craufurd to
the field of Talavera, in the advanced guard fights on the Coa in 1810
and in the campaign in Portugal. On the formation of the Light Division
he was given a brigade command in it. After the brilliant action of
Sabugal, Beckwith had to retire for a time from active service, but the
Rifles and the brigade he had trained and commanded added to their fame
on every subsequent battlefield. In 1812 he went to Canada as assistant
quartermaster-general, and he took part in the war against the United
States. In 1814 he became major-general, and in 1815 was created K.C.B.
In 1827 he was made colonel commandant of the Rifle Brigade. He went to
India as commander-in-chief at Bombay in 1829, and was promoted
lieutenant-general in the following year. He died on the 15th of January
1831 at Mahableshwar.

His elder brother, Sir GEORGE BECKWITH (1753-1823), distinguished
himself as a regimental officer in the American War of Independence, and
served subsequently in high administrative posts and in numerous
successful military operations in the West Indies during the French
Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. He was made a K.B. for his capture of
Martinique in 1809, and attained the full rank of general in 1814. Sir
George Beckwith commanded the forces in Ireland, 1816-1820. He died in
London on the 20th of March 1823.

Their nephew, Major-General JOHN CHARLES BECKWITH (1789-1862), joined
the 50th regiment in 1803, exchanging in 1804 into the 95th Rifles, with
which regiment he served in the Peninsular campaigns of 1808-10. He was
subsequently employed on the staff of the Light Division, and he was
repeatedly mentioned in despatches, becoming in 1814 a brevet-major, and
after the battle of Waterloo (in which he lost a leg) lieutenant-colonel
and C.B. In 1820 he left active service. Seven years later an accident
drew his attention to the Waldenses, whose past history and present
condition influenced him so strongly that he settled in the valleys of
Piedmont. The rest of his life was spent in the self-imposed task of
educating the Waldenses, for whom he established and maintained a large
number of schools, and in reviving the earlier faith of the people. In
1848 King Charles Albert made him a knight of the order of St Maurice
and St Lazarus. He was promoted colonel in the British army in 1837 and
major-general in 1846. He died on the 19th of July 1862 at La Torre,
Piedmont.



BECKX, PIERRE JEAN (1795-1887), general of the Society of Jesus, was
born at Sichem in Belgium on the 8th of February 1795, and entered the
novitiate of the order at Hildesheim in 1819. His first important post
was as procurator for the province of Austria, 1847; next year he became
rector of the Jesuit college at Louvain, and, after serving as secretary
to the provincials of Belgium and Austria, was elected head of the order
in 1853. His tenure of office was marked by an increased zeal for
missions in Protestant lands, and by the removal of the society's
headquarters from Rome to Fiesole near Florence in 1870. His chief
literary work was the often-translated _Month of Mary_ (Vienna, 1843).
He retired in September 1883, being succeeded by Anthony M. Anderledy, a
Swiss, who had seen service in the United States. He died at Rome on the
4th of March 1887.



BECQUE, HENRY FRANÇOIS (1837-1899), French dramatist, was born on the
9th of April 1837 in Paris. He wrote the book of an opera _Sardanapale_
in imitation of Lord Byron for the music of M. Victorin Joncières in
1867, but his first important work, _Michel Pauper_, appeared in 1870.
The importance of this sombre drama was first realized when it was
revived at the Odéon in 1886. _Les Corbeaux_ (1882) established Becque's
position as an innovator, and in 1885 he produced his most successful
play, _La Parisienne_. Becque produced little during the last years of
his life, but his disciples carried on the tradition he had created. He
died in May 1899.

  See his _Querelles littéraires_ (1890), and _Souvenirs d'un auteur
  dramatique_ (1895), consisting chiefly of reprinted articles in which
  he does not spare his opponents. His _Théâtre complet_ (3 vols., 1899)
  includes _L'Enfant prodigue_ (Vaudeville Theatre, 6th of Nov. 1868);
  _Michel Pauper_ (Théâtre de la Porte-Saint-Martin, 17th of June 1870);
  _L'Enlèvement_ (Vaudeville, 18th of Nov. 1871); _La Navette_ (Gymnase,
  15th of Nov. 1878); _Les Honnêtes Femmes_ (Gymnase, 1st of Jan. 1880);
  _Les Corbeaux_ (Comédie Française, 14th of Sept. 1882); _La
  Parisienne_ (Théâtre de la Renaissance, 7th of Feb. 1885).



BÉCQUER, GUSTAVO ADOLFO (1836-1870), Spanish poet and romance-writer,
was born at Seville on the 17th of February 1836. Left an orphan at an
early age, he was educated by his godmother, refused to adopt any
profession, and drifted to Madrid, where he obtained a small post in the
civil service. He was dismissed for carelessness, became an incorrigible
Bohemian, and earned a precarious living by translating foreign novels;
he died in great poverty at Madrid on the 22nd of December 1870. His
works were published posthumously in 1873. In such prose tales as _El
Rayo de Luna_ and _La Mujer de piedra_, Bécquer is manifestly influenced
by Hoffmann, and as a poet he has analogies with Heine. He dwells in a
fairyland of his own, crooning a weird elfin music which has no parallel
in Spanish; his work is unfinished and unequal, but it is singularly
free from the rhetoric characteristic of his native Andalusia, and its
lyrical ardour is of a beautiful sweetness and sincerity.



BECQUEREL, the name of a French family, several members of which have
been distinguished in chemical and physical research.

ANTOINE CÉSAR BECQUEREL (1788-1878), was born at Châtillon sur Loing on
the 8th of March 1788. After passing through the École Polytechnique he
became _ingénieur-officier_ in 1808, and saw active service with the
imperial troops in Spain from 1810 to 1812, and again in France in 1814.
He then resigned from the army and devoted the rest of his life to
scientific investigation. His earliest work was mineralogical in
character, but he soon turned his attention to the study of electricity
and especially of electrochemistry. In 1837 he received the Copley medal
from the Royal Society "for his various memoirs on electricity, and
particularly for those on the production of metallic sulphurets and
sulphur by the long-continued action of electricity of very low
tension," which it was hoped would lead to increased knowledge of the
"recomposition of crystallized bodies, and the processes which may have
been employed by nature in the production of such bodies in the mineral
kingdom." In biological chemistry he worked at the problems of animal
heat and at the phenomena accompanying the growth of plants, and he also
devoted much time to meteorological questions and observations. He was a
prolific writer, his books including _Traité d'électricité et du
magnétisme_ (1834-1840), _Traité de physique dans ses rapports avec la
chimie_ (1842), _Éléments de l'électro-chimie_ (1843), _Traité complet
du magnétisme_ (1845), _Éléments de physique terrestre et de
météorologie_ (1847), and _Des climats et de l'influence qu'exercent les
sols boisés et déboisés_ (1853). He died on the 18th of January 1878 in
Paris, where from 1837 he had been professor of physics at the Musée
d'Histoire Naturelle.

His son, ALEXANDRE EDMOND BECQUEREL (1820-1891), was born in Paris on
the 24th of March 1820, and was in turn his pupil, assistant and
successor at the Musée d'Histoire Naturelle; he was also appointed
professor at the short-lived Agronomic Institute at Versailles in 1849,
and in 1853 received the chair of physics at the Conservatoire des Arts
et Métiers. Edmond Becquerel was associated with his father in much of
his work, but he himself paid special attention to the study of light,
investigating the photochemical effects and spectroscopic characters of
solar radiation and the electric light, and the phenomena of
phosphorescence, particularly as displayed by the sulphides and by
compounds of uranium. It was in connexion with these latter inquiries
that he devised his phosphoroscope, an apparatus which enabled the
interval between exposure to the source of light and observation of the
resulting effects to be varied at will and accurately measured. He
published in 1867-1868 a treatise in two volumes on _La Lumière, ses
causes et ses effets_. He also investigated the diamagnetic and
paramagnetic properties of substances; and was keenly interested in the
phenomena of electrochemical decomposition, accumulating much evidence
in favour of Faraday's law and proposing a modified statement of it
which was intended to cover certain apparent exceptions. He died in
Paris on the 11th of May 1891.

ANTOINE HENRI BECQUEREL (1852-1908), son of the last-named, who
succeeded to his chair at the Musée d'Histoire Naturelle in 1892, was
born in Paris on the 15th of December 1852, studied at the École
Polytechnique, where he was appointed a professor in 1895, and in 1875
entered the department _des ponts et chaussées_, of which in 1894 he
became _ingénieur en chef_. He was distinguished as the discoverer of
radioactivity, having found in 1896 that uranium at ordinary
temperatures emits an invisible radiation which in many respects
resembles Röntgen rays, and can affect a photographic plate after
passing through thin plates of metal. For his researches in this
department he was in 1903 awarded a Nobel prize jointly with Pierre
Curie. He also engaged in work on magnetism, the polarization of light,
phosphorescence and the absorption of light in crystals. He died at
Croisic in Brittany on the 25th of August 1908.



BED (a common Teutonic word, cf. German _Bett_, probably connected with
the Indo-European root _bhodh_, seen in the Lat. _fodere_, to dig; so "a
dug-out place" for safe resting, or in the same sense as a garden
"bed"), a general term for a resting or sleeping place for men and
animals, and in particular for the article of household furniture for
that object, and so used by analogy in other senses, involving a
supporting surface or layer. The accompaniments of a domestic bed
(bedding, coverlets, &c.) have naturally varied considerably in
different times, and its form and decoration and social associations
have considerable historical interest. The Egyptians had high bedsteads
which were ascended by steps, with bolsters or pillows, and curtains to
hang round. Often there was a head-rest as well, semi-cylindrical and
made of stone, wood or metal. Assyrians, Medes and Persians had beds of
a similar kind, and frequently decorated their furniture with inlays or
_appliqués_ of metal, mother-of-pearl and ivory. The oldest account of a
bedstead is probably that of Ulysses which Homer describes him as making
in his own house, but he also mentions the inlaying of the woodwork of
beds with gold, silver and ivory. The Greek bed had a wooden frame, with
a board at the head and bands of hide laced across, upon which skins
were placed. At a later period the bedstead was often veneered with
expensive woods; sometimes it was of solid ivory veneered with
tortoise-shell and with silver feet; often it was of bronze. The pillows
and coverings also became more costly and beautiful; the most celebrated
places for their manufacture were Miletus, Corinth and Carthage. Folding
beds, too, appear in the vase paintings. The Roman mattresses were
stuffed with reeds, hay, wool or feathers; the last was used towards the
end of the Republic, when custom demanded luxury. Small cushions were
placed at the head and sometimes at the back. The bedsteads were high
and could only be ascended by the help of steps. They were often
arranged for two persons, and had a board or railing at the back as well
as the raised portion at the head. The counterpanes were sometimes very
costly, generally purple embroidered with figures in gold; and rich
hangings fell to the ground masking the front. The bedsteads themselves
were often of bronze inlaid with silver, and Elagabalus, like some
modern Indian princes, had one of solid silver. In the walls of some of
the houses at Pompeii bed niches are found which were probably closed by
curtains or sliding partitions. The marriage bed, _lectus genialis_, was
much decorated, and was placed in the atrium opposite the door. A low
pallet-bed used for sick persons was known as _scimpodium_. Other forms
of couch were called _lectus_, but were not beds in the modern sense of
the word except the _lectus funebris_, on which the body of a dead
person lay in state for seven days, clad in a toga and rich garments,
and surrounded by flowers and foliage. This bed rested on ivory legs,
over which purple blankets embroidered with gold were spread, and was
placed in the atrium with the foot to the door and with a pan of incense
by its side. The ancient Germans lay on the floor on beds of leaves
covered with skins, or in a kind of shallow chest filled with leaves and
moss. In the early middle ages they laid carpets on the floor or on a
bench against the wall, placed upon them mattresses stuffed with
feathers, wool or hair, and used skins as a covering. They appear to
have generally lain naked in bed, wrapping themselves in the large linen
sheets which were stretched over the cushions. In the 13th century
luxury increased, and bedsteads were made of wood much decorated with
inlaid, carved and painted ornament. They also used folding beds, which
served as couches by day and had cushions covered with silk laid upon
leather. At night a linen sheet was spread and pillows placed, while
silk-covered skins served as coverlets. Curtains were hung from the
ceiling or from an iron arm projecting from the wall. The Carolingian
MSS. show metal bedsteads much higher at the head than at the feet, and
this shape continued in use till the 13th century in France, many
cushions being added to raise the body to a sloping position. In the
12th-century MSS. the bedsteads appear much richer, with inlays, carving
and painting, and with embroidered coverlets and mattresses in harmony.
Curtains were hung above the bed, and a small hanging lamp is often
shown. In the 14th century the woodwork became of less importance, being
generally entirely covered by hangings of rich materials. Silk, velvet
and even cloth of gold were much used. Inventories from the beginning of
the 14th century give details of these hangings lined with fur and
richly embroidered. Then it was that the tester bed made its first
appearance, the tester being slung from the ceiling or fastened to the
walls, a form which developed later into a room within a room, shut in
by double curtains, sometimes even so as to exclude all draughts. The
space between bed and wall was called the _ruelle_, and very intimate
friends were received there. In the 15th century beds became very large,
reaching to 7 or 8 ft. by 6 or 7 ft. Viollet-le-Duc says that the
mattresses were filled with pea-shucks or straw--neither wool nor
horsehair is mentioned--but feathers also were used. At this time great
personages were in the habit of carrying most of their property about
with them, including beds and bed-hangings, and for this reason the
bedsteads were for the most part mere frameworks to be covered up; but
about the beginning of the 16th century bedsteads were made lighter and
more decorative, since the lords remained in the same place for longer
periods. In the museum at Nancy is a fine bedstead of this period which
belonged to Antoine de Lorraine. It has a carved head and foot as well
as the uprights which support the tester. Another is in the Musée Cluny
ascribed to Pierre de Gondi, very architectural in design, with a
bracketed cornice, and turned and carved posts; at the head figures of
warriors watch the sleeper. Louis XIV. had an enormous number of
sumptuous beds, as many as 413 being described in the inventories of his
palaces. Some of them had embroideries enriched with pearls, and figures
on a silver or golden ground. The carving was the work of Proux or
Caffieri, and the gilding by La Baronnière. The great bed at Versailles
had crimson velvet curtains on which "The Triumph of Venus" was
embroidered. So much gold was used that the velvet scarcely showed.
Under the influence of Madame de Maintenon "The Sacrifice of Abraham,"
which is now on the tester, replaced "The Triumph of Venus." In the 17th
century, which has been called "the century of magnificent beds," the
style _à la duchesse_, with tester and curtains only at the head,
replaced the more enclosed beds in France, though they lasted much
longer in England. In the 18th century feather pillows were first used
as coverings in Germany, which in the fashions of the bed and the
curious etiquette connected with the bedchamber followed France for the
most part. The beds were _à la duchesse_, but in France itself there was
great variety both of name and shape--the _lit à alcove, lit d'ange_,
which had no columns, but a suspended tester with curtains drawn back,
_lit à l'Anglaise_, which looked like a high sofa by day, _lit en
baldaquin_, with the tester fixed against the wall, _lit à couronne_
with a tester shaped like a crown, a style which appeared under Louis
XVI., and was fashionable under the Restoration and Louis Philippe, and
_lit à l'impériale_, which had a curved tester, are a few of their
varieties. The _lit en baldaquin_ of Napoleon I. is still at
Fontainebleau, and the Garde Meuble contains several richly carved beds
of a more modern date. The custom of the "bed of justice" upon which the
king of France reclined when he was present in parliament, the princes
being seated, the great officials standing, and the lesser officials
kneeling, was held to denote the royal power even more than the throne.
Louis XI. is credited with its first use, and the custom lasted till the
end of the monarchy. From the habit of using this bed to hear petitions,
etc., came the usage of the _grand lit_, which was provided wherever the
king stayed, called also _lit de parement_ or _lit de parade_, rather
later. Upon this bed the dead king lay in state. The beds of the king
and queen were saluted by the courtiers as if they were altars, and none
approached them even when there was no railing to prevent it. These
railings were apparently placed for other than ceremonial reasons
originally, and in the accounts of several castles in the 15th century
mention is made of a railing to keep dogs from the bed. In the _chambre
de parade_, where the ceremonial bed was placed, certain persons, such
as ambassadors or great lords, whom it was desired to honour, were
received in a more intimate fashion than the crowd of courtiers. The
_petit lever_ was held in the bedroom itself, the _grand lever_ in the
_chambre de parade_. At Versailles women received their friends in their
beds, both before and after childbirth, during periods of mourning, and
even directly after marriage--in fact in any circumstances which were
thought deserving of congratulation or condolence. During the 17th
century this curious custom became general, perhaps to avoid the
tiresome details of etiquette. Portable beds were used in high society
in France till the end of the _ancien régime_. The earliest of which
mention has been found belonged to Charles the Bold (see _Memoirs_ of
Philippe de Comines). They had curtains over a light framework, and were
in their way as fine as the stationary beds. Iron beds appear in the
18th century; the advertisements recommend them as free from the insects
which sometimes infested wooden bedsteads, but one is mentioned in the
inventory of the furniture of the castle of Nerac in 1569, "un lit de
fer et de cuivre, avec quatre petites colonnes de laiton, ensemble
quatre satyres de laiton, quatre petits vases de laiton pour mettre sur
les colonnes; dedans le dit lit il y a la figure d'Olopherne ensemble de
Judith, qui sont d'albâtre." In Scotland, Brittany and Holland the
closed bed with sliding or folding shutters has persisted till our own
day, and in England--where beds were commonly quite simple in form--the
four-poster, with tester and curtains all round, was the usual citizen's
bed till the middle of the 19th century. Many fine examples exist of
17th-century carved oak bedsteads, some of which have found their way
into museums. The later forms, in which mahogany was usually the wood
employed, are much less architectural in design. Some exceedingly
elegant mahogany bedsteads were designed by Chippendale, Hepplewhite and
Sheraton, and there are signs that English taste is returning to the
wooden bedstead in a lighter and less monumental form.     (J. P.-B.)



BED, in geology, a term for certain kinds of rock usually found to be
arranged in more or less distinct layers; these are the beds of rock or
strata. Normally, the bedding of rocks is horizontal or very nearly so;
when the upper and lower surfaces of a bed are parallel, the bedding is
said to be regular; if it is thickest at one point and thins away thence
in every direction, the bedding is lenticular. Beds may be thick (50 ft.
or more) or so thin as to be like sheets of paper, e.g. paper shales,
such thin beds being often termed layers or laminae; intermediate
regular varieties may be called flags, flagstones or tilestones. In
fine-grained rocks the bedding is usually thinner and more regular than
in coarser rocks, such as sandstones and grits. Bedding is confined to
rocks which have been formed under water or by the agency of wind; these
are the "stratified" rocks.

The deposition of rock material by moving water is not as a rule
uniform, slight changes in the velocity produce an immediate change in
the size of the particles deposited upon a given area; thus a coarse
sand layer may be succeeded by a finer sand or a mud, or two sandy
layers may be separated by a thin layer of muddy shale. Bedding is most
often induced by a change in the nature of the contiguous strata; thus a
sandstone is followed by a shale or vice versa--changes which may be due
to the varying volume or velocity of a current. Or the nature of the
deposit may be influenced by chemical actions, whereby we get beds of
rock-salt or gypsum between beds of marl. Or again, organic activities
may influence the deposit, beds of coal may succeed layers of shale,
iron-stone may lie between limestones or clays, a layer of large fossils
or of flints may determine a bedding plane in massive limestones. Flaky
minerals like mica frequently assist in the formation of bedding planes;
and the pressure of superincumbent strata upon earlier formed deposits
has no doubt often produced a tendency in the particles to arrange
themselves normal to the direction of pressure, thus causing the rock to
split more readily along the same direction.

Where rapidly-moving currents of water (or air) are transporting or
depositing sand, &c., the bedding is generally not horizontal, but
inclined more or less steeply; this brings about the formation of what
is variously called "cross-bedding," "diagonal bedding", "current
bedding" or improperly "false-bedding." Igneous materials, when
deposited through the agency of water or air, exhibit bedding, but no
true stratification is seen in igneous rocks that have solidified after
cooling, although in granites