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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 4, Appendix - Author List
Author: Various
Language: English
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            THE
  ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

     ELEVENTH EDITION



  FIRST     edition, published in three       volumes, 1768-1771.
  SECOND       "         "        ten             "    1777-1784.
  THIRD        "         "        eighteen        "    1788-1797.
  FOURTH       "         "        twenty          "    1801-1810.
  FIFTH        "         "        twenty          "    1815-1817.
  SIXTH        "         "        twenty          "    1823-1824.
  SEVENTH      "         "        twenty-one      "    1830-1842.
  EIGHTH       "         "        twenty-two      "    1853-1860.
  NINTH        "         "        twenty-five     "    1875-1889.
  TENTH        "       ninth edition and eleven
                         supplementary volumes,        1902-1903.
  ELEVENTH     "     published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910-1911.



               COPYRIGHT
  in all countries subscribing to the
            Bern Convention

                   by
  THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS
                 of the
        UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

         _All rights reserved_



                   THE
         ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

                    A
                DICTIONARY
                    OF
  ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL
               INFORMATION

            ELEVENTH EDITION

                VOLUME IV

           BISHARIN to CALGARY


  New York
  Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  342 Madison Avenue


  Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910,
  by
  The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME IV. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS,[1]
WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.


A. B. R.
    ALFRED BARTON RENDLE, F.R.S., F.L.S., M.A., D.SC.
      Keeper of the Department of Botany, British Museum.

    Botany.


A. E. H.
    A. E. HOUGHTON.
      Formerly Correspondent of the _Standard_ in Spain. Author of
      _Restoration of the Bourbons in Spain._

    Cabrera.



A. E. S.
    ARTHUR EVERETT SHIPLEY, F.R.S., M.A., D.SC.
      Fellow and Tutor of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in
      Zoology, Cambridge University. Joint-editor of the _Cambridge
      Natural History_.

    Brachiopoda.


A. F. P.
    ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HIST.SOC.
      Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow
      of all Souls' College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the _Dictionary
      of National Biography_, 1893-1901. Lothian Prizeman (Oxford),
      1892. Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of _England under the
      Protector Somerset_, _Henry VIII._; _Thomas Cranmer_; &c.

    Bonner;
    Burghley;
    Baron.


A. Go.*
    REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A.
    Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.

    Blandrata;
    Brenz;
    Buckholdt.


A. H. B.
    ARTHUR HENRY BULLEN.
      Founder of the Shakespeare Head Press, Stratford-on-Avon. Editor
      of _Collection of Old English Plays_; _Lyrics from the Song Books
      of the Elizabethan Age_; &c.

    Burton, Robert.


A. H.-S.
    SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E.
      General in the Persian Army. Author of _Eastern Persian Irak_.

    Bushire.


A. H. Sm.
    ARTHUR HAMILTON SMITH, M.A., F.S.A.
      Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the
      British Museum. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological
      Institute. Author of _Catalogue of Greek Sculpture in the British
      Museum_; &c.

    Brooch.


A. J. G.
    REV. ALEXANDER J. GRIEVE, M.A., B.D.
      Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United
      Independent College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras
      University, and Member of Mysore Educational Service.

    Butler;
    Bishop (_in part_).


A. J. L.
    ANDREW JACKSON LAMOUREUX.
      Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of
      the _Rio News_ (Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901.

    Bogotá;
    Bolivia: _Geography and Statistics_;
    Brazil: _Geography and Statistics_;
    Buenos Aires.


A. Lo.
    AUGUSTE LONGNON.
      Professor at the Collège de France. Director of the École des
      Hautes Études. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Member of the
      Institute. Author of _Géographie de la Gaule au VI. siècle;
      Documents relatifs au comté de Champagne et de Brie;_ &c.

    Blois: _Countship of._


A. Me.
    MRS ALICE MEYNELL.
      Author of _Poems_; _Later Poems_; _The Rhythm of Life and other
      Essays_; &c.

    Browning, Elizabeth Barrett.


A. M. C.
    MISS AGNES MARY CLERKE.
      See the biographical article: CLERKE, A.M.

    Brahe, Tycho.

A. N.
    ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.
      See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED.

    Bunting; Bustard; Buzzard.


A. S. C.
    ALAN SUMMERLY COLE, C.B.
      Formerly Assistant Secretary, Board of Education, South
      Kensington. Author of _Ornament in European Silks_; _Catalogue of
      Tapestry_, _Embroidery_, _Lace and Egyptian Textiles in Victoria
      and Albert Museum_; &c.

    Brocade.

A. T. Q.-C.
    SIR ARTHUR T. QUILLER-COUCH.
      See the biographical article: QUILLER-COUCH, Sir A.T.

    Brown, Thomas Edward.


A. W. H.*
    ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND.
      Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of
      Gray's Inn, 1900. Burdett, Sir Francis.

    Brandenburg: _Margraviate;_ Burdett, Sir Francis.


A. W. Po.
    ALFRED WILLIAM POLLARD, M.A.
      Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of
      King's College, London. Hon. Secretary, Bibliographical Society.
      Editor of _Books about Books_ and _Bibliographica_. Joint-editor
      of _The Library_. Chief Editor of the "Globe" _Chaucer_.

    Book;
    Book Collecting.


A. W. R.
    ALEXANDER WOOD RENTON, M.A., LL.B.
      Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of
      _Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England_.

    Boarding-House.


B. R.
    SIR BOVERTON REDWOOD, D.SC., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.I.C., ASSOC. INST.
          C.E., M. INST. M.E.
      Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, Home Office, India Office,
      Corporation of London, and Port of London Authority. President of
      the Society of Chemical Industry. Member of the Council of the
      Chemical Society. Member of Council of Institute of Chemistry.
      Author of _Cantor Lectures on Petroleum_, _Petroleum and its
      Products_, _Chemical Technology_, &c.

    Bitumen.


C. B.*
    CHARLES BÉMONT, D.ÈS.L., LITT.D. (Oxon.).
      See the biographical article: BÉMONT, C.

    Bréquigny.


C. D.
    CYRIL J.H. DAVENPORT, F.S.A.
      Assistant to the Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Cantor
      Lecturer on Decorative Bookbindings, Society of Arts. Author of
      _Royal English Bookbindings_, _English Embroidered Bookbindings_,
      _History of the Book_, &c.

    Bookbinding.


C. D. W.
    HON. CARROLL DAVIDSON WRIGHT.
      See the biographical article: WRIGHT, C. D.

    Building Societies: _United States._


C. E.*
    CHARLES EVERITT, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S.
      Formerly Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford.

    Bone: _Industrial._


C. E. A.
    C. E. AKERS.
      Formerly _The Times_ Correspondent in Buenos Aires. Author of _A
      History of South America, 1854-1904_.

    Brazil: _History (in part)_.


C. El.
    SIR CHARLES NORTON EDGCUMBE ELIOT, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D.,
         D.C.L.
      Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of
      Trinity College, Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and
      Commander-in-Chief for the British East Africa Protectorate, Agent
      and Consul-General at Zanzibar, and Consul-General for German East
      Africa, 1900-1904. Author of _Turkey in Europe_; _Letters from the
      Far East_, &c.

    Bokhara (_in part_).


C. E. S.
    HON. CHARLES EMORY SMITH.
      See the biographical article: SMITH, CHARLES EMORY.

    Blaine.


C. H.
    CHARLES HOSE, D.SC.
      Formerly Divisional Resident and Member of the Supreme Council of
      Sarawak. Author of _A Descriptive Account of the Mammals of
      Borneo_, and numerous papers in scientific journals.

    Brunei.


C. K. S.
    CLEMENT KING SHORTER.
      Editor of the _Sphere_. Author of _Charlotte Bronte and her
      Circle_, _The Brontes Life and Letters_, &c.

    Bronte, C., E. and A.


C. L. K.
    CHARLES LETHBRIDGE KINGSFORD, M.A., F.R.HIST.S., F.S.A.
      Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of _Life of
      Henry V._ Editor of _Chronicles of London_ and Stow's _Survey of
      London_.

    Buckingham, 2nd Duke of.


C. Pf.
    CHRISTIAN PFISTER, D. ÈS. L.
      Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of
      Honour. Author of _Étude sur le regne de Robert le Pieux_, _Le
      Duche merovingien d'Alsace et la legende de Saint Odile_.

    Brunhilda.


C. S. S.
    CHARLES SCOTT SHERRINGTON, D.SC., M.D., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.
      Professor of Physiology, University of Liverpool. Foreign Member
      of Academies of Rome, Vienna, Brussels, Gottingen, &c. Author of
      _The Integrative Action of the Nervous System_.

    Brain: _Physiology_.


C. W. W.
    MAJOR-GENERAL SIR CHARLES WILLIAM WILSON, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S.,
         R.E. (1836-1897).
      Secretary to the North American Boundary Commission, 1858-1862.
      British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Commission.
      Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894.
      Director-General of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of _From
      Korti to Khartum_; _Life of Lord Clive_, &c.

    Caesarea Mazaca (_in part_).


D. B. Ma.
    DUNCAN BLACK MACDONALD, M.A., D.D.
      Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary,
      U.S.A. Author of _Development of Muslim Theology_, _Jurisprudence
      and Constitutional Theory_,_ Selections from Ibn Khaldun_,
      _Religious Attitude and Life in Islam_, &c.

    Bukhari;
    Cadi.


D. C. B.
    DEMETRIUS CHARLES BOULGER.
      Author of _History of Belgium_, _England and Russia in Central
      Asia_, _History of China_, _Life of Gordon_, _India in the 19th
      Century_, &c.

    Bruges;
    Brussels.


D. C. T.
    DAVID CROAL THOMSON.
      Formerly Editor of the _Art Journal_. Author of _The Brothers
      Maris_, _The Barbizon School of Painters_, _Life of "Phiz"_, _Life
      of Bewick_, &c.

    Browne, Hablôt Knight.


D. F. T.
    DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY.
      Balliol College, Oxford. Author of _Essays in Musical Analysis_,
      comprising _The Classical Concerts_, _The Goldberg Variations_,
      and analyses of many other classical works.

    Boccherini;
    Bruckner.


D. H.
    DAVID HANNAY.
      Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of _Short
      History of Royal Navy, 1217-1688_, _Life of Emilio Castelar_, &c.

    Bouvet;
    Brenton;
    Brigandage;
    Buccaneers;
    Byng;
    Calderon, Rodrigo.


D. Ll. T.
    DANIEL LLEUFER THOMAS.
      Stipendiary Magistrate for Pontypridd and Rhondda. Formerly
      Assistant Commissioner to the Labour Commission and Secretary to
      the Welsh Land Commission.

    Brecon;
    Caerphilly.


D. Mn.
    REV. DUGALD MACFADYEN, M.A.
      Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director
      of the London Missionary Society. Author of _Constructive
      Congregational Ideals_.

    Blaikie;
    Boston, Thomas;
    Bruce, Alexander Balmain;
    Cairns, John.


E. Br.
    ERNEST BARKER, M.A.
      Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern History at, St John's College,
      Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven
      Scholar, 1895.

    Bohemund.


E. Ca.
    EGERTON CASTLE, M.A., F.S.A.
      Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of _English Book Plates_,
      _Bibliotheca Dimicateria_, &c.

    Book Plates.


E. C. B.
    RIGHT REV. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., D.LITT.
      Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath.

    Bridgittines;
    Brothers of Common Life;
    Bruno, Saint.


E. Es.
    EDMOND ESMONIN.

    Bombelles, Mare Marie, Marquis de.


E. G.
    EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D.
      See the biographical article: GOSSE, EDMUND

    Bjornson;
    Blank Verse;
    Bouts-Rimés;
    Bucolics;
    Busken-Huet.


E. H. C.
    ERNEST HARTLEY COLERIDGE, M.A.
      Balliol College, Oxford. Editor of _Byron's Poems_, _Letters of
      Samuel Taylor Coleridge_, &c.

    Byron.


E. H. B.
    SIR EDWARD H. BUNBURY, BART., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895).
      M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1847-1852. Author of _A History of
      Ancient Geography_, &c.

    Bithynia (_in part_).


E. H. M.
    ELLIS HOVELL MINNS, M.A.
      Lecturer and Assistant Librarian, and formerly Fellow of Pembroke
      College, Cambridge. University Lecturer in Palaeography.

    Bosporus Cimmerius;
    Budini.


E. K.
    EDMUND KNECHT, PH.D., F.I.C.
      Professor of Technological Chemistry, Manchester University. Head
      of Chemical Department, Municipal School of Technology,
      Manchester. Examiner in Dyeing, City and Guilds of London
      Institute. Author of _A Manual of Dyeing_, &c. Editor of _Journal
      of the Society of Dyers and Colourists_.

    Bleaching.


E. L. B.
    EDWARD LIVERMORE BURLINGAME, A.M., PH.D.
      Editor of _Scribner's Magazine_. Formerly on Staff of _New York
      Tribune_.

    Brook Farm.


E. Ma.
    EDWARD MANSON.
      Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Joint-editor with Sir John
      Macdonell, C.B. of the _Journal of Comparative Legislation_.
      Author of _Law of Trading Companies_, &c.

    Bond.


E. O.*
    EDMUND OWEN, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.SC.
      Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the
      Children's Hospital, Great Ormond Street. Late Examiner in Surgery
      at the Universities of Cambridge, Durham and London. Author of _A
      Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students_.

    Bladder and Prostate Diseases;
    Bone: _Medical_.


E. Pr.
    EDGAR PRESTAGE.
      Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of
      Manchester. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago.
      Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon
      Geographical Society, &c. Examiner in Portuguese in the University
      of London, Manchester, &c.

    Bocage.


E. Wa.
    REV. EDMOND WARRE, M.A., D.D., D.C.L., C.B., C.V.O.
      Provost of Eton. Hon. Fellow of Balhol College, Oxford. Head
      Master of Eton College, 1884-1905. Author of _Grammar of Rowing_,
      &c.

    Boat.


E. W. B.
    SIR EDWARD WILLIAM BRABROOK, C.B.
      Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Chief Registrar of Friendly
      Societies, 1891-1904. Author of _Building Societies_, _Provident
      Societies and Industrial Welfare_, _Institutions for Thrift_, &c.

    Building Societies: _United Kingdom_.


F. By.
    FRANK BRINKLEY.
      Captain R.N. Foreign Adviser to Nippon Yusen Kaisha, Tokyo.
      Correspondent of _The Times_ in Japan; Editor of the _Japan Mail_.
      Formerly Professor of Mathematics at Imperial Engineering College,
      Tokyo. Author of _Japan_, &c.

    Bonin Islands.


F. D. A.
    FRANK DAWSON ADAMS, D.SC., PH.D., F.R.S., F.G.S.
      Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science, and Logan Professor of
      Geology, McGill University, Montreal. President of Canadian Mining
      Institute.

    British Columbia (_in part_).


F. G. P.
    FREDERICK GYMER PARSONS, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.ANTHROP.INST.
      Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
      Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School
      of Medicine for Women. Formerly Examiner in the Universities of
      Cambridge, Aberdeen, London and Birmingham, and Hunterian
      Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.

    Brain: _Anatomy_.


F. H.
    FRANCIS HUEFFER, PH.D. (1845-1899).
      Formerly Musical Critic of _The Times_. Author of _The
      Troubadours: a History of Provençal Life and Literature in the
      Middle Ages_, _Richard Wagner and the Music of the Future_. Editor
      of _Great Musicians_.

    Boccaccio.


F. J. C.
    SIR FRANCIS J. CAMPBELL, LL.D., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.
      Principal, Royal Normal College for the Blind, Norwood, London.
      Author of Papers on the Education of the Blind.

    Blindness.


F. J. H.
    FRANCIS JOHN HAVERFIELD, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A.
      Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford.
      Fellow of Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy.
      Formerly Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church,
      Oxford. Ford's Lecturer,1906-1907. Author of Monographs on Roman
      History, especially Roman Britain; &c.

    Boadicea;
    Britain: _Pre-Roman and Roman_;
    Caerleon;
    Caledonia.


F. Ll. G.
    FRANCIS LLEWELYN GRIFFITH, M.A., PH.D., F.S.A.
      Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the
      _Archaeological Survey_ and _Archaeological Reports_ of the Egypt
      Exploration Fund. Hon. Member of Imperial German Archaeological
      Institute, the Société Asiatique, and the Institut Égyptien,
      Cairo. Author of _Stones of the High Priests of Memphis_;
      _Catalogue of the Demotic Papyri in the Rylands Collection,
      Manchester_; &c.

    Bubastis;
    Busiris;
    Buto.


F. L. L.
    LADY LUGARD.
      See the biographical article: LUGARD, SIR F.J.D.

    Bornu;
    British Empire.


F. R. C.
    FRANK R. CANA.
      Author of _South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union_.

    British East Africa.


F. R. M.
    FRANCIS RICHARD MAUNSELL, C.M.G.
      Lieut.-Col. R.A. Military Vice-Consul, Sivas, Trebizond, Van
      (Kurdistan), 1897-1898. Military Attaché, British Embassy,
      Constantinople, 1901-1905. Author of _Central Kurdistan_; &c.

    Bitlis.


F. We.
    FREDERICK WEDMORE.
      See the biographical article: WEDMORE, F.

    Boudin.


F. W. Ha.
    FREDERICK WILLIAM HASLUCK, M.A.
      Assistant Director, British School of Archaeology, Athens. Fellow
      of King's College, Cambridge. Browne's Medallist, 1901.

    Bithynia (_in part_).


F. W. M.
    FREDERICK WILLIAM MAITLAND, LL.D.
      See the biographical article: MAITLAND, F.W.

    Bracton.


G. A. B.
    GEORGE A. BOULENGER, D.SC., PH.D., F.R.S.
      In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of
      Zoology, British Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society
      of London.

    Caecilia.


G. E.
    REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSON, M.A., F.R.HIST.S.
      Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's
      Lecturer, 1909-1910. Employed by British Government in preparation
      of the British Case in the British Guiana-Venezuelan and British
      Guiana-Brazilian boundary arbitrations.

    Bolivia: _History (in part)_;
    Brabant: _Duchy_;
    Brazil: _History (in part)_.


G. F. Z.
    G.F. ZIMMER, A.M.INST.C.E., F.Z.S.
      Author of _Mechanical Handling of Material_.

    Bread.


G. G. P.*
    GEORGE GRENVILLE PHILLIMORE, M.A., B.C.L.
      Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple.

    Burial and Burial Acts.


G. L. G.
    GEORGE LOVELL GULLAND, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. (Edin.).
      Assistant Physician to the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh. Lecturer on
      Medicine at Surgeons' Hall, Edinburgh.

    Blood: _Pathology of the_.


G. M. D.
    GEORGE MERCER DAWSON, LL.D., F.R.S.
      Formerly Director of the Geological Survey of Canada. Geologist
      and Naturalist to H.M. North American Boundary Commission,
      1873-1875; one of H.M. Bering Sea Commissioners, 1891. Author of
      numerous scientific and technical reports printed by the Canadian
      Government.

    British Columbia (_in part_).


G. T. G.
    SIR GEORGE D. TAUBMAN GOLDIE.
      See the biographical article: GOLDIE, SIR G.D.T.

    Brazza, Count de.


G. W. Ca.
    GEORGE WASHINGTON CABLE.
      See the biographical article: CABLE, G. W.

    Bryant, William Cullen.


G. W. T.
    REV. GRIFFITHES WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D.
      Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew
      and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.

    Buhturi;
    Busiri.


H. Br.
    HENRY BRADLEY, M.A., PH.D.
      Joint-editor of the _New English Dictionary_ (Oxford). Fellow of
      the British Academy. Author of _The Story of the Goths_; _The
      Making of English_; &c.

    Cædmon.


H. Ch.
    HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A.
      Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the
      11th Edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_. Co-editor of the
      10th edition.

    Boulanger;
    Bridgman, Laura D.


H. Cl.
    SIR HUGH CHARLES CLIFFORD, K.C.M.G.
      Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial
      Institute. Formerly Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad
      and Tobago, 1903-1907. Author of _Studies in Brown Humanity_;
      _Further India_; &c. Joint-author of _A Dictionary of the Malay
      Language_.

    Borneo.


H. De.
    REV. HIPPOLYTE DELEHAYE, S.J.
      Bollandist. Joint-editor of the _Acta Sanctorum_.

    Bollandists.


H. Fr.
    HENRI FRANTZ.
      Art Critic, _Gazette des Beaux Arts_ (Paris).

    Böcklin;
    Bonheur, Rosa.


H. H. J.
    SIR HENRY HAMILTON JOHNSTON, K.C.B., G.C.M.G.
      See the biographical article: JOHNSTON, SIR H.H.

    British Central Africa.


H. M. C.
    HECTOR MUNRO CHADWICK, M.A.
      Fellow and Librarian of Clare College, Cambridge. Author of
      _Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions_.

    Britain: _Anglo-Saxon_.


H. P. B.
    HENRY PERCIVAL BIGGAR.
      Author of _The Voyages of the Cabots to Greenland_.

    Cabot, John.


H. S. J.
    HENRY STUART JONES, M.A.
      Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director
      of the British School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial
      Archaeological Institute. Author of _The Roman Empire_, &c.

    Caesar, Julius.


H. W. C. D.
    HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS DAVIS, M.A.
      Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls'
      College, Oxford, 1895-1902. Author of _Charlemagne_, _England
      under the Normans and Angevins_, &c.

    Bohun;
    Breaute, Falkes de;
    Burgh, Hubert de.


H. W. S.
    H. WICKHAM STEED.
      Correspondent of _The Times_ at Rome (1897-1902) and Vienna.

    Bonghi, Ruggero.


J. A. F. M.
    JOHN ALEXANDER FULLER MAITLAND, M.A., F.S.A.
      Musical Critic of _The Times_. Author of _Life of Schumann_, _The
      Musician's Pilgrimage_, _Masters of German Music_, _English Music
      in the Nineteenth Century_, _The Age of Bach and Handel_. Editor
      of the new edition of Grove's _Dictionary of Music and Musicians_,
      &c.

    Brahms.


J. A. H.
    JOHN ALLEN HOWE, B.SC.
      Curator and Librarian, Museum of Practical Geology, London.

    Bunter;
    Cainozoic.


J. A. M.
    JAMES ALEXANDER MANSON.
      Formerly Literary Editor of the _Daily Chronicle_. Author of _The
      Bowler's Handbook_, &c.

    Bowls.


J. B.*
    JOSEPH BURTON.
      Partner in Pilkington's Tile and Pottery Co., Clifton Junction,
      Manchester.

    Brick (_in part_).


J. Bt.
    JAMES BARTLETT.
      Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities,
      &c., King's College, London. Member of Society of Architects,
      Institute of Junior Engineers, Quantity Surveyors' Association.
      Author of _Quantities_.

    Brickwork;
    Building.


J. C. C.
    J.W. COMYNS-CARR.
      Author of _Essays on Art_, &c.

    Blake, William.


J. D. B.
    JAMES DAVID BOURCHIER, M.A., F.R.G.S.
      Correspondent of _The Times_ in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of
      the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of
      Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.

    Bulgaria.


J. E.
    H. JULIUS EGGELING, PH.D.
      Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, Edinburgh
      University. Formerly Secretary and Librarian to Royal Asiatic
      Society.

    Brahman;
    Brahmana;
    Brahmanism.


J. F.-K.
    JAMES FITZMAURICE-KELLY, LITT.D., F.R.HIST.S.
      Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool
      University. Norman MacColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow
      of the British Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso
      XII. Author of _A History of Spanish Literature_, &c.

    Breton de los Herreros;
    Caballero;
    Calderon de la Barca.


J. G. C. A.
    JOHN GEORGE CLARK ANDERSON, M.A.
      Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of
      Lincoln College. Craven Fellow (Oxford), 1896. Conington Prizeman,
      1893.

    Caesarea Mazaca (_in part_).


J. G. H.
    JOSEPH G. HORNER, A.M.I.MECH.E.
      Author of _Plating and Boiler Making_, _Practical Metal Turning_,
      &c.

    Boiler;
    Boiler-making;
    Brazing and Soldering.


J. G. Sc.
    SIR JAMES GEORGE SCOTT, K.C.I.E.
      Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author
      of _Burma_, _The Upper Burma Gazetteer_.

    Burma.

J. H. R.
    JOHN HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.).
      Author of _Feudal England_, _Studies in Peerage and Family
      History_, _Peerage and Pedigree_, &c.

    Burgh.


J. Hl. R.
    JOHN HOLLAND ROSE, M.A., LITT.D.
      Christ's College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the
      Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of _Life of
      Napoleon I._, _Napoleonic Studies_, _The Development of the
      European Nations_, _The Life of Pitt_, &c.

    Bonaparte: _Family (in part)_.;
    Bourrienne.


J. J.*
    JOSEPH JEFFERSON.
      See the biographical article: JEFFERSON, J.

    Booth, Edwin.


J. M. M.
    JOHN MALCOLM MITCHELL.
      Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics,
      East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of
      Grote's _History of Greece_.

    Boule;
    Bruno, Giordano (_in part_).


J. Mo.
    VISCOUNT MORLEY OF BLACKBURN.
      See the biographical article: MORLEY, VISCOUNT.

    Burke, Edmund.


J. N.
    JOHN NICHOL.
      See the biographical article: NICHOL, JOHN.

    Burns, Robert.


J. P.-B.
    JAMES GEORGE JOSEPH PENDEREL-BRODHURST.
      Editor of the _Guardian_ (London).

    Bookcase;
    Boulle;
    Cabinet: _Furniture_.


J. P. Pe.
    REV. JOHN PUNNETT PETERS, PH.D., D.D.
      Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of
      Hebrew in the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the
      University Expedition to Babylonia, 1888-1895. Author of _Nippur,
      or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates_; _Scriptures,
      Hebrew and Christian_.

    Bismya;
    Borsippa;
    Calah.


J. S. F.
    JOHN SMITH FLETT, D.SC., F.G.S.
      Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on
      Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal
      Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society
      of London.

    Borolanite;
    Breccia.


J. T. M.
    JAMES TAYLER MILTON, M.I.C.E.
      Chief Engineer Surveyor to Lloyd's Registry of Shipping.
      Vice-President, Institute of Naval Architects. Member of Council,
      Institute of Marine Engineers. Author of many papers on Marine
      Engineering subjects.

    Boiler.


J. T. S.*
    JAMES THOMSON SHOTWELL, PH.D.
      Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City.

    Boniface, Saint.


J. W. D.
    CAPTAIN J. WHITLY DIXON, R.N.
      Nautical Assessor to Court of Appeal since 1906. Formerly Staff
      Commander, Medway Fleet Reserve.

    Buoy;
    Cable.


J. W. He.
    JAMES WYCLIFFE HEADLAM, M.A.
      Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education.
      Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek
      and Ancient History at Queen's College, London. Author of
      _Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire_; &c.

    Bismarck;
    Bucher, Lothar.


K. G. J.
    KINGSLEY GARLAND JAYNE.
      Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. Matthew Arnold
      Prizeman, 1903. Author of _Vasco da Gama and his Successors_.

    Bosnia and Herzegovina;
    British Honduras.


K. J. A.
    KEITH JOHNSTON.
      See the biographical article: JOHNSTON, A.K.

    Brazil: _History (in part)_.


K. S.
    KATHLEEN SCHLESINGER.
      Author of _The Instruments of the Orchestra_, &c.

    Bombardon;
    Bow;
    Buccina;
    Bugle;
    Bumbulum.


L.
    COUNT LUTZOW, LITT.D. (Oxon.), Ph.D. (Prague), F.R.G.S.
      Chamberlain of H.M. the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia. Hon.
      Member of the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian
      Academy, &c. Author of _Bohemia: An Historical Sketch_; _The
      Historians of Bohemia_ (Ilchester Lecture, Oxford, 1904); _The
      Life and Times of John Hus_; &c.

    Bohemia: _History and Literature_.


L. B.
    LAURENCE BINYON.
      See the biographical article: BINYON, L.

    Burne-Jones, Sir E.B.


L. D.*
    LOUIS DUCHESNE.
      See the biographical article: DUCHESNE, L.M.O.

    Boniface (Popes I.-VII.).


L. F. S.
    LESLIE FREDERIC SCOTT, K.C., M.A.
      New College, Oxford. Joint Hon. Secretary of International
      Maritime Committee.

    Broker.


L. F. V.-H.
    LEVESON FRANCIS VERNON-HARCOURT, M.A., M.INST.C.E. (1839-1907).
      Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London,
      1882-1905. British Member of Jury for Civil Engineering, Paris
      Exhibition, 1900. Author of _Rivers and Canals_, _Harbours and
      Docks_, _Civil Engineering as Applied in Construction_, &c.

    Breakwater;
    Caisson.


L. G.
    LAURENCE GINNELL, M.P.
      Barrister, Middle Temple and Irish Bar. Author of _Brehon Laws_,
      _Land and Liberty_, &c. M.P. for North Westmeath since 1906.

    Brehon Laws.


L. J. S.
    LEONARD JAMES SPENCER, M.A.
      Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum,
      South Kensington. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College,
      Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the _Mineralogical
      Magazine_. Author of English translations of M. Bauer's _Precious
      Stones_ and R. Brauns's _Mineral Kingdom_.

    Bismuthite;
    Blende;
    Boracite;
    Bournonite;
    Brochantite;
    Bromlite;
    Bronzite;
    Brookite;
    Brucite;
    Bytownite;
    Calamine:
    Calcite.


L. R. D.
    LAWRENCE ROBERT DICKSEE, M. Com. (Birmingham), F.C.A.
      Lecturer, London School of Economics and Political Science.
      Formerly Professor of Accounting at Birmingham University. Author
      of _Auditing_, _Advanced Accounting_, _Book-keeping_, &c.

    Book-keeping.


L. S.
    SIR LESLIE STEPHEN, K.C.B.
      See the biographical article: STEPHEN, SIR L.

    Browning, Robert.


L. V.*
    LUIGI VILLARI.
      Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper
      Correspondent in East of Europe, Italian Vice-Consul in New
      Orleans, 1906; Philadelphia, 1907; and Boston, U.S.A., 1907-1910.
      Author of _Italian Life in Town and Country_, _Giovanni
      Segantini_, _Russia under the Great Shadow_, _Fire and Sword in
      the Caucasus_; &c.

    Borgia Cesare;
    Borgia, Lucrezia;
    Caghostro.


M.
    LORD MACAULAY.
      See the biographical article: MACAULAY, T.B.M., BARON.

    Bunyan, John.


M. Bat.
    MISS MARY BATESON (1865-1906).
      Formerly Fellow of Newnham College, Cambridge. Author of _Medieval
      England, Borough Customs_; &c.

    Borough: _English_.


M. Br.
    MISS MARGARET BRYANT.

    Caesar: _Medieval Legends_.


M. G.
    MOSES GASTER, PH.D. (Leipzig)
      Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England.
      Vice-President, Zionist Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester
      Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine Literature, 1886 and
      1891. President, Folklore Society of England. Vice-President,
      Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of _History of Rumanian Popular
      Literature_; _A New Hebrew Fragment of Ben-Sira_; _The Hebrew
      Version of the Secretum Secretorum of Aristotle_.

    Bogomils;
    Brancovan.


M. P.*
    LEON JACQUES MAXIME PRINET.
      Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of
      the Institute of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences).
      Author of _L'Industrie du sel en Franche-Comte_; _Les Armoiries
      écartelés des conjoints_; _François I et le comté de Bourgogne_.

    Brienne-le-Château;
    Brissae, Dukes of.


M. St J.
    MOLYNEUX ST JOHN.

    British Columbia: (_in part_).


N. W. T.
    NORTHCOTE WHITBRIDGE THOMAS, M.A.
      Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding
      Member of the Société d'Anthropologie de Paris. Author of _Thought
      Transference_, _Kinship and Marriage in Australia_; &c.

    Boomerang.


O. Ba.
    OSWALD BARRON, F.S.A.
      Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the Honourable Society of
      the Baronetage. Editor of the _Ancestor_, 1902-1905.

    Butler: _Family_.


O. Br.
    OSCAR BRILIANT.

    Bohemia: _Geography and Statistics_;
    Budapest.


O. H.
    OLAUS MAGNUS FRIEDRICH HENRICI, PH.D., LL.D., F.R.S.
      Professor of Mechanics and Mathematics in the Central Technical
      College of the City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of
      _Vectors and Rotors_; _Congruent Figures_; &c.

    Calculating Machines.


P. A. K.
    PRINCE PETER ALEXEIVITCH KROPOTKIN.
      See the biographical article: KROPOTKIN, P.A.

    Bokhara: (_in part_);
    Bulgaria: _Eastern_.


P. C. M.
    PETER CHALMERS MITCHELL, M.A., D.SC., LL.D., F.R.S.
      Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University
      Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre
      Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. Lecturer on Biology at Charing
      Cross Hospital, 1892-1894; at London Hospital, 1894. Examiner in
      Biology to the Royal College of Physicians, 1892-1896, 1901-1903.
      Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903.

    Breeds and Breeding


P. C. Y.
    PHILIP CHESNEY YORKE, M.A.
      Magdalen College, Oxford.

    Boleyn, Anne;
    Bolingbroke;
    Bothwell;
    Bristol, 1st and 2nd Earls of;
    Buckingham, 1st Duke of (_in part_);
    Buckingham, 2nd Duke of.


P. Gi.
    PETER GILES, M.A., LL.D., LITT.D.
      Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and
      University Reader in Comparative Philology. Late Secretary of the
      Cambridge Philological Society. Author of _Manual of Comparative
      Philology_; &c.

    C.


P. G. K.
    PAUL G. KONODY.
      Art Critic of the _Observer_ and the _Daily Mail_. Formerly Editor
      of the _Artist_. Author of _The Art of Walter Crane_; _Velasquez,
      Life and Work_; &c.

    Bordone.


P. S.
    PHILIP SCHIDROWITZ, PH.D., F.C.S.
      Member of Council, Institute of Brewing. Member of Committee of
      Society of Chemical Industry. Author of numerous articles on the
      Chemistry and Technology of Brewing, Distilling, &c.

    Brandy;
    Brewing.


P. W. C.
    PETER WILLIAM CLAYDEN (d. 1902).
      Formerly President, Institute of Journalists, London. Literary
      Editor of the _Daily News_. Author of _Scientific Men and
      Religious Teachers_; _England under Lord Beaconsfield_; _Early
      Life of Samuel Rogers_; _Rogers and his Contemporaries_; _England
      under the Coalition_; &c.

    Bright, John.


R. A.*
    ROBERT ANCHEL.
      Archivist to the Department de l'Eure.

    Boissy D'Anglais, François Antoine de.


R. Ad.
    ROBERT ADAMSON, LL.D.
      See the biographical article: ADAMSON, R.

    Bonaventura, Saint;
    Bruno, Giordano (_in part_);
    Butler, Bishop (_in part_).


R. A. S. M.
    ROBERT ALEXANDER STEWART MACALISTER, M.A., F.S.A.
      St John's College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the
      Palestine Exploration Fund.

    Bozrah;
    Caesarea Palaestina;
    Caesarea Philippi.


R. G.
    RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D.
      See the biographical article: GARNETT, R.

    Burton, John Hill.


R. I. P.
    R.I. POCOCK, F.Z.S.
      Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London.

    Book-Scorpion;
    Caddis-Fly and Caddis-Worm.


R. J. M.
    RONALD JOHN MCNEILL, M.A.
      Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of _St
      James's Gazette_, London.

    Bunker Hill.


R. L.*
    RICHARD LYDEKKER, F.R.S., F.L.S.
      Member of Staff of Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author
      of _Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British
      Museum_; &c.

    Bison;
    Bovidae;
    Buffalo.


R. N. B.
    ROBERT NISBET BAIN (d. 1909).
      Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of
      _Scandinavia: the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden,
      1513-1900_; _The First Romanovs, 1613 to 1725_; _Slavonic Europe:
      the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796_; &c.

    Boeskay, Stephen;
    Boris Fedorovich Godunov;
    Boyar;
    Brahe, Per;
    Buslaev, Fedor Ivanovich.


R. P.*
    ROBERT PEELE.
      Professor of Mining in Columbia University, New York.

    Blasting;
    Boring.


R. Po.
    RENE POUPARDIN, D. ÈS L.
      Secretary to the École des Chartes. Honorary Librarian to the
      Bibliothèque Nationale. Author of _Le Royaume de Bourgogne_; _Le
      Royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens_; &c.

    Burgundy.


S. A. C.
    STANLEY ARTHUR COOK, M.A.
      Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and
      Caius College, Cambridge. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund.
      Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908.
      Council of Royal Asiatic Society, 1904-1905. Author of _Glossary
      of Aramaic Inscriptions_; _The Laws of Moses and the Code of
      Hammurabi_; _Critical Notes on Old Testament History_; _Religion
      of Ancient Palestine_; &c.

    Cain;
    Caleb.


S. C.
    SIDNEY COLVIN, M.A., LITT.D.
      See the biographical article: COLVIN, SIDNEY.

    Botticelli.


St C.
    VISCOUNT ST CYRES.
      See the biographical article: IDDESLEIGH: 1ST EARL OF.

    Bossuet.


S. H. V.*
    SYDNEY HOWARD VINES, M.A., D.SC., F.R.S., F.L.S.
      Sherardian Professor of Botany, Oxford University. Fellow of
      Magdalen College. Author of _Lectures on the Physiology of
      Plants_; _Text-Book of Botany_; &c.

    Brongniart, Adolphe Theodore.


S. L.-P.
    STANLEY LANE-POOLE, M.A., LITT.D.
      Formerly Professor of Arabic, Dublin University, and Examiner in
      the University of Wales. Corresponding Member of the Imperial
      Russian Archaeological Society. Member of the Khedivial Commission
      for the Preservation of the Monuments of Arab Art, &c. Author of
      _Life of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe_; _Life of Sir Harry Parkes_;
      _Cairo_; _Turkey_; &c. Editor of _The Koran_; _The Thousand and
      One Nights_; &c.

    Burton, Sir Richard Francis.


S. R. G.
    SAMUEL RAWSON GARDINER, LL.D., D.C.L.
      See the biographical article: GARDINER, S. R.

    Buckingham, 1st Duke of (_in part_).


T. As.
    THOMAS ASHBY, M.A., D.LITT. (Oxon.).
      Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Member of the
      Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Scholar of
      Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman,
      1906. Author of _The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna_.

    Bologna;
    Bolsena;
    Bononia;
    Borgo San Donnino;
    Bovianum;
    Bovillae;
    Bracciano;
    Brescia;
    Bruttii;
    Caere;
    Cagli;
    Cagliari;
    Caietae Portus;
    Calabria.


T. Ba.
    SIR THOMAS BARCLAY, M.P.
      Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the
      Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of
      Honour. Author of _Problems of International Practice and
      Diplomacy_; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.

    Blockade.


T. G. Br.
    THOMAS GREGOR BRODIE, M.D., F.R.S.
      Professor of Physiology in the University of Toronto. Author of
      _Essentials of Experimental Physiology_.

    Blood: _Anatomy and Physiology_.


T. H. H.*
    SIR THOMAS HUNGERFORD HOLDICH, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.SC.
      Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold
      Medallist, R.G.S., London, 1887. Author of _The Indian
      Borderland_; _The Countries of the King's Award_; _India_;
      _Tibet_; &c.

    Bolan Pass;
    Brahmaputra.


T. Se.
    THOMAS SECCOMBE, M.A.
      Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University
      of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of
      _Dictionary of National Biography_, 1891-1901. Author of _The Age
      of Johnson_; &c.

    Boswell.


T. W.-D.
    THEODORE WATTS-DUNTON.
      See the biographical article: WATTS-DUNTON, T.

    Borrow.


T. W. R. D.
    T. W. RHYS DAVIDS, LL.D., PH.D.
      Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University.
      President of the Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy.
      Secretary and Librarian of Royal Asiatic Society, 1885-1902.
      Author of _Buddhism_; _Sacred Books of the Buddhists_; _Early
      Buddhism_; _Buddhist India_; _Dialogues of the Buddha_; &c.

    Buddha;
    Buddhaghosa;
    Buddhism.


W. A. B. C.
    REV. WILLIAM AUGUSTUS BREVOORT COOLIDGE, M.A., F.R.G.S., PH.D.
         (Bern).
      Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History,
      St David's College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of _Guide du Haut
      Dauphiné_; _The Range of the Todi_; _Guide to Grindelwald_; _Guide
      to Switzerland_; _The Alps in Nature and in History_; &c. Editor
      of the _Alpine Journal_, 1880-1889, &c.

    Bitzius;
    Blanc, Mont;
    Bonstetten;
    Botzen;
    Bourrit;
    Bregenz;
    Brenner Pass;
    Briançon;
    Brieg;
    Brienz, Lake of;
    Brignoles;
    Brixen;
    Burckhardt, Jakob;
    Burgdorf.


W. A. P.
    WALTER ALISON PHILLIPS, M.A.
      Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St
      John's College, Oxford. Author of _Modern Europe_; &c.

    Bishop;
    Brunhild.


W. B.*
    WILLIAM BURTON, M.A., F.C.S.
      Chairman, Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great
      Britain. Author of _English Stoneware and Earthenware_; &c.

    Brick (_in part_).


W. B. S.*
    WILLIAM BARCLAY SQUIRE, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S.
      Assistant in charge of Printed Music, British Museum. Hon.
      Secretary of the Purcell Society. Formerly Musical Critic of
      _Westminster Gazette_, _Saturday Review_ and _Globe_. Editor of
      _Byrd's Masses_.

    Byrd.


W. C. S.
    WILLIAM CHARLES SMITH, K.C., M.A., LL.D.
      Formerly Sheriff of Ross, Cromarty and Sutherland. Editor of
      _Judicial Review_, 1889-1900.

    Borough: _Irish and Scottish_.


W. C. U.
    WILLIAM CAWTHORNE UNWIN, LL.D., F.R.S., M.INST C.E., M.INST M.E.,
              A.R.I.B.A.
      Emeritus Professor of Engineering, Central Technical College, City
      and Guilds of London Institute. Author of _Wrought Iron Bridges
      and Roofs_; _Treatise on Hydraulics_.

    Bridges.


W. Hd.
    WILFRANC HUBBARD.
      Correspondent of _The Times_ in Rome.

    Bolivia: _History (in part)_.


W. H. L.
    WILLIAM H. LANG, D.SC.
      Barker Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, University of Manchester.
      Author of Papers on Botanical Subjects, including Morphology and
      life history of Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Gymnosperms, in
      scientific journals.

    Bryophyta.


W. H. W.*
    WILLIAM HENRY WHITFELD, M.A.
      Trinity College, Cambridge. Card Editor of the _Field_.

    Bridge: _Game_.


W. J. H.*
    W.J. HUGHAN.
      Past Senior Grand Deacon of Freemasons of England, 1874. Hon.
      Senior Warden of Grand Lodges of Egypt, Quebec and Iona, &c.

    Builders' Rites.


W. L.
    RIGHT REV. WILLIAM LAWRENCE, D.D., LL.D.
      Bishop of Massachusetts. Author of _Study of Phillips Brooks_;
      _Life of Roger Wolcott_; &c.

    Brooks, Phillips.


W. L. G.
    WILLIAM LAWSON GRANT, M.A.
      Professor of Colonial History, Queen's University, Kingston,
      Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in Colonial History, Oxford
      University. Editor of _Acts of the Privy Council_ (Canadian
      Series).

    Brock, Sir Isaac;
    Brown, George.


W. L. R. C.
    WILLIAM LIEST READWIN CATES (1821-1895).
      Editor of _Dictionary of General Biography_. Author of _A History
      of England from the Death of Edward the Confessor to the Death of
      King John_. Part author of _Encyclopaedia of Chronology_.

    Boscovich.


W. M. R.
    WILLIAM MICHAEL ROSSETTI.
      See the biographical article: ROSSETTI, DANTE GABRIEL.

    Brown, Ford Madox.


W. R. L.
    W.R. LETHABY, F.S.A.
      Principal of the Central School of Arts and Crafts under the
      London County Council. Author of _Architecture, Mysticism and
      Myth_, &c.

    Byzantine Art.


W. S. J.
    WILLIAM STANLEY JEVONS, LL.D.
      See the biographical article: JEVONS, WILLIAM STANLEY.

    Boole.


W. Wr.
    WILLISTON WALKER, PH.D., D.D.
      Professor of Church History, Yale University. Author of _History
      of the Congregational Churches in the United States_, _The
      Reformation_, _John Calvin_; &c.

    Bushnell, Horace.


W. W. F.*
    WILLIAM WARDE FOWLER, M.A.
      Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881-1904. Gifford
      Lecturer, Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of _The City-State of
      the Greeks and Romans_, _The Roman Festivals of the Republican
      Period_; &c.

    Bona Dea.


W. W. R.*
    WILLIAM WALKER ROCKWELL, LIC. THEOL.
      Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary,
      New York.

    Boniface (Popes VIII.-IX.).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in
    the final volume.



PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES

  Bismuth.              Bristol.
  Bizet, Georges.       Brittany.
  Black Sea.            Broglie, de.
  Blackstone.           Bromine.
  Blake, Robert.        Bronchitis.
  Blanc, Louis.         Bronze.
  Blasphemy.            Brooke, Fulke Greville.
  Blenheim.             Brooke, Sir James.
  Blowpipe.             Brooklyn.
  Blücher.              Brougham.
  Blüntschli.           Brown, John.
  Böekh.                Browne, Sir Thomas.
  Boehme.               Brunel.
  Boeotia.              Brunswick.
  Boetius.              Brush.
  Boileau-Despréaux.    Brutus.
  Bolivar.              Bryan, William J.
  Bombay.               Buchanan, George.
  Bonn.                 Buchanan, James.
  Bonnet, Charles.      Bucharest.
  Bookselling.          Buckingham, Earls, Marquesses and Dukes of.
  Bopp.                 Buckinghamshire.
  Boraginaceae.         Buckle.
  Bordeaux.             Budget.
  Borders, The.         Buffalo, U.S.A.
  Boric Acid.           Buffon, G.L.E., Comte de.
  Boron.                Bull-Fighting.
  Borromeo.             Bull Run.
  Boston.               Bülow, Prince von.
  Botocudos.            Bunsen, C.C.J., Baron von.
  Bottomry.             Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm von.
  Bouguereau.           Burdett-Coutts, Baroness.
  Bourbon.              Burglary.
  Bourges.              Burgos.
  Bourget.              Burmese Wars.
  Bow-Leg.              Burnet, Gilbert.
  Bowling.              Burney, Charles.
  Bowring, Sir John.    Burr, Aaron.
  Boxing.               Bushmen.
  Boyle, Robert.        Bute.
  Bracelet.             Butler, Benjamin Franklin.
  Brackley.             Butler, Samuel.
  Bradford.             Button.
  Bradlaugh, Charles.   Buxton.
  Brahma Samaj.         Buxtorf, Johannes.
  Brake.                Byzantium.
  Brandes.              Cab.
  Brassey.              Cabbage.
  Breadalbane.          Cabinet (_Political_).
  Bread-Fruit.          Cactus.
  Breconshire.          Cairnes, Prof. Elliot.
  Bremen.               Cairns, 1st Earl.
  Breslau.              Cairo.
  Brest.                Caisson Disease.
  Bretschneider.        Caithness.
  Breviary.             Calabar Bean.
  Brewster, Sir David.  Calcium.
  Bribery.              Calcutta.
  Brisbane.





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