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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 3 - "Capefigue" to "Carneades"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) [oo] stands for the infinity symbol.

(6) The following typographical error has been corrected:

    Article CAPILLARY ACTION: "Let the radius of this section PR be y,
      and let PT, the tangent at P, make an angle a with the axis." 'be'
      amended from 'by'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME V, SLICE III

          Capefigue to Carneades



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  CAPEFIGUE, JEAN-BAPTISTE RAYMOND  CARBON BISULPHIDE
  CAPEL, ARTHUR CAPEL               CARBONDALE
  CAPEL CURIG                       CARBONIC ACID
  CAPELL, EDWARD                    CARBONIFEROUS SYSTEM
  CAPELLA, MARTIANUS MINNEUS FELIX  CARBORUNDUM
  CAPE MAY                          CARBOY
  CAPENA                            CARBUNCLE
  CAPER, FLAVIUS                    CARCAGÉNTE
  CAPERCALLY                        CÁRCAR
  CAPERN, EDWARD                    CARCASS
  CAPERNAUM                         CARCASSONNE
  CAPERS                            CARDAMOM
  CAPET                             CARDAN, GIROLAMO
  CAPE TOWN                         CÁRDENAS
  CAPE VERDE ISLANDS                CARDIFF
  CAPGRAVE, JOHN                    CARDIGAN, JAMES THOMAS BRUDENELL
  CAP HAITIEN                       CARDIGAN
  CAPILLARY ACTION                  CARDIGANSHIRE
  CAPISTRANO, GIOVANNI DI           CARDINAL
  CAPITAL (architecture)            CARDINAL VIRTUES
  CAPITAL (economics)               CARDING
  CAPITAL PUNISHMENT                CARDIOID
  CAPITO WOLFGANG                   CARDONA
  CAPITULARY                        CARDOON
  CAPITULATION                      CARDS, PLAYING
  CAPITULATIONS                     CARDUCCI, BARTOLOMMEO
  CAPIZ                             CARDUCCI, GIOSUÈ
  CAPMANY Y MONTPALAU, ANTONIO DE   CARDWELL, EDWARD
  CAPO D'ISTRIA, GIOVANNI ANTONIO   CARDWELL, EDWARD CARDWELL
  CAPODISTRIA                       CARDWELL
  CAPONIER                          CAREW, GEORGE
  CAPPADOCIA                        CAREW, RICHARD
  CAPPEL                            CAREW, THOMAS
  CAPPEL, LOUIS                     CAREY, HENRY
  CAPPELLO, BIANCA                  CAREY, HENRY CHARLES
  CAPPERONNIER, CLAUDE              CAREY, WILLIAM
  CAPPONI, GINO                     CARGILL, DONALD
  CAPPONI, PIERO                    CARGO
  CAPRAIA                           CARIA
  CAPRERA                           CARIACO
  CAPRI                             CARIBBEE ISLANDS
  CAPRICCIO                         CARIBS
  CAPRICORNUS                       CARICATURE
  CAPRIFOLIACEAE                    CARIGARA
  CAPRIVI DE CAPRERA, GEORG VON     CARIGNANO
  CAPRONNIER, JEAN BAPTISTE         CARILLON
  CAPSICUM                          CARINI
  CAPSTAN                           CARINTHIA
  CAPSULE                           CARINUS, MARCUS AURELIUS
  CAPTAIN                           CARIPE
  CAPTAL                            CARISBROOKE
  CAPTION                           CARISSIMI, GIACOMO
  CAPTIVE                           CARLETON, WILLIAM
  CAPTURE                           CARLETON PLACE
  CAPUA (of Campania, Italy)        CARLILE, RICHARD
  CAPUA (ancient city of Italy)     CARLINGFORD, CHICHESTER FORTESCUE
  CAPUCHIN MONKEY                   CARLINGFORD
  CAPUCHINS                         CARLI-RUBBI, GIOVANNI RINALDO
  CAPUS, ALFRED                     CARLISLE, EARLS OF
  CAPYBARA                          CARLISLE (of England)
  CAR                               CARLISLE (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)
  CARABINIERS                       CARLOFORTE
  CARABOBO                          CARLOMAN (king of Bavaria and Italy)
  CARACAL (of Rumania)              CARLOMAN (Frankish princes)
  CARACAL (animal)                  CARLOS I
  CARACALLA                         CARLOS, DON (prince of Asturias)
  CARÁCAS                           CARLOS, DON (son of King Charles IV)
  CARACCI                           CARLOS, DON (prince of Bourbon)
  CARACCIOLO, FRANCESCO             CARLOW (county of Ireland)
  CARACOLE                          CARLOW (town of Ireland)
  CARACTACUS                        CARLSBAD
  CARADOC SERIES                    CARLSBAD DECREES
  CARALES                           CARLSTADT
  CARAN D'ACHE                      CARLYLE, ALEXANDER
  CARAPACE                          CARLYLE, JOSEPH DACRE
  CARAPEGUA                         CARLYLE, THOMAS
  CARAT                             CARMAGNOLA, FRANCESCO BUSSONE
  CARAUSIUS, MARCUS AURELIUS        CARMAGNOLA
  CARAVACA                          CARMAGNOLE
  CARAVAGGIO, MICHELANGELO DA       CARMARTHEN
  CARAVAGGIO, POLIDORO CALDARA DA   CARMARTHENSHIRE
  CARAVAN                           CARMATHIANS
  CARAVANSERAI                      CARMAUX
  CARAVEL                           CARMEL
  CARAVELLAS                        CARMELITES
  CARAWAY                           CARMICHAEL, GERSHOM
  CARBALLO                          CARMINE
  CARBAZOL                          CARMONA
  CARBIDE                           CARNAC
  CARBINE                           CARNARVON, EARLDOM OF
  CARBO                             CARNARVON
  CARBOHYDRATE                      CARNARVONSHIRE
  CARBOLIC ACID                     CARNATIC
  CARBON                            CARNATION
  CARBONADO                         CARNEA
  CARBONARI                         CARNEADES
  CARBONATES



CAPEFIGUE, JEAN-BAPTISTE HONORÉ RAYMOND (1801-1872), French historian
and biographer, was born at Marseilles in 1801. At the age of twenty he
went to Paris to study law; but he soon deserted law for journalism. He
became editor of the _Quotidienne_, and was afterwards connected, either
as editor or leading contributor, with the _Temps_, the _Messager des
Chambres_, the _Révolution de 1848_ and other papers. During the
ascendancy of the Bourbons he held a post in the foreign office, to
which is due the royalism of some of his newspaper articles. Indeed all
Capefigue's works receive their colour from his legitimist politics; he
preaches divine right and non-resistance, and finds polite words even
for the profligacy of Louis XV. and the worthlessness of his mistresses.
He wrote biographies of Catherine and Marie de' Medici, Anne and Maria
Theresa of Austria, Catherine II. of Russia, Elizabeth of England, Diana
of Poitiers and Agnes Sorel--for he delighted in passing from "queens of
the right hand" to "queens of the left." His historical works, besides
histories of the Jews from the fall of the Maccabees to the author's
time, of the first four centuries of the Christian church, and of
European diplomatists, extend over the whole range of French history. He
died at Paris in December 1872.

  The general catalogue of printed books for the Bibliothèque Nationale
  contains no fewer than seventy-seven works (145 volumes) published by
  Capefigue during forty years. Of these only the _Histoire de
  Philippe-Auguste_ (4 vols., 1829) and the _Histoire de la réforme, de
  la ligue et du règne de Henri IV_ (8 vols., 1834-1835) perhaps deserve
  still to be remembered. For Capefigue's style bears evident marks of
  haste, and although he had access to an exceptionally large number of
  sources of information, including the state papers, neither his
  accuracy nor his judgment was to be trusted.



CAPEL (OF HADHAM), ARTHUR CAPEL, BARON (fl. 1640-1649), English
royalist, son of Sir Henry Capel of Rayne Hall, Essex, and of
Theodosia, daughter of Sir Edward Montagu of Broughton,
Northamptonshire, was elected a member of the Short and Long Parliaments
in 1640 for Hertfordshire. He at first supported the opposition to
Charles's arbitrary government, but soon allied himself with the king's
cause, on which side his sympathies were engaged, and was raised to the
peerage by the title of Baron Capel of Hadham on the 6th of August 1641.
On the outbreak of the war he was appointed lieutenant-general of
Shropshire, Cheshire and North Wales, where he rendered useful military
services, and later was made one of the prince of Wales's councillors,
and a commissioner at the negotiations at Uxbridge in 1645. He attended
the queen in her flight to France in 1646, but disapproved of the
prince's journey thither, and retired to Jersey, subsequently aiding in
the king's escape to the Isle of Wight. He was one of the chief leaders
in the second Civil War, but met with no success, and on the 27th of
August, together with Lord Norwich, he surrendered to Fairfax at
Colchester on promise of quarter for life.[1] This assurance, however,
was afterwards interpreted as not binding the civil authorities, and his
fate for some time hung in the balance. He succeeded in escaping from
the Tower, but was again captured, was condemned to death by the new
"high court of justice" on the 8th of March 1649, and was beheaded
together with the duke of Hamilton and Lord Holland the next day. He
married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Sir Charles Morrison of
Cassiobury, Hertfordshire, through whom that estate passed into his
family, and by whom besides four daughters he had five sons, the eldest
Arthur being created earl of Essex at the Restoration. Lord Capel, who
was much beloved, and who was a man of deep religious feeling and
exemplary life, wrote _Daily Observations or Meditations: Divine,
Morall_, published with some of his letters in 1654, and reprinted, with
a short life of the author, under the title _Excellent Contemplations_,
in 1683.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Gardiner's _Hist. of the Civil War_, iv. 206; cf. article on
    Fairfax by C.H. Frith in the _Dict. of Nat. Biog._



CAPEL CURIG, a tourist resort in Carnarvonshire, North Wales, 14½ m.
from Bangor. It is a collection of a few houses, too scattered to form a
village properly so called. At the Roberts hotel is shown on a window
pane the supposed signature of Wellington. The road from Bettws y coed,
past the Swallow Falls to Capel Curig, and thence to Llanberis and
Carnarvon, is very interesting, grand and lonely. Excellent fishing is
to be had here, chiefly for trout. In summer, coaching tours discharge
numbers of visitors daily; the railway station is Bettws (London &
North-Western railway). Capel Curig means "chapel of Curig," a British
saint mentioned in Welsh poetry. The place is a centre for artists,
geologists and botanists, for the ascent of Snowdon, Moel Siabod, Glydyr
Fawr, Glydyr Fach, Tryfan, &c., and for visiting Llyn Ogwen, Llyn Idwal,
Twll du (Devil's Kitchen), Nant Ffrancon and the Penrhyn quarries.



CAPELL, EDWARD (1713-1781), English Shakespearian critic, was born at
Troston Hall in Suffolk on the 11th of June 1713. Through the influence
of the duke of Grafton he was appointed to the office of
deputy-inspector of plays in 1737, with a salary of £200 per annum, and
in 1745 he was made groom of the privy chamber through the same
influence. In 1760 appeared his _Prolusions, or Select Pieces of Ancient
Poetry_, a collection which included _Edward III._, placed by Capell
among the doubtful plays of Shakespeare. Shocked at the inaccuracies
which had crept into Sir Thomas Hanmer's edition of Shakespeare, he
projected an entirely new edition, to be carefully collated with the
original copies. After spending three years in collecting, and comparing
scarce folio and quarto editions, he published his own edition in 10
vols. 8vo (1768), with an introduction written in a style of
extraordinary quaintness, which was afterwards appended to Johnson's and
Steevens's editions. Capell published the first part of his commentary,
which included notes on nine plays with a glossary, in 1774. This he
afterwards recalled, and the publication of the complete work, _Notes
and Various Readings of Shakespeare_ (1779-1783), the third volume of
which bears the title of _The School of Shakespeare_, was completed,
under the superintendence of John Collins, in 1783, two years after the
author's death. It contains the results of his unremitting labour for
thirty years, and throws considerable light on the history of the times
of Shakespeare, as well as on the sources from which he derived his
plots. Collins asserted that Steevens had stolen Capell's notes for his
own edition, the story being that the printers had been bribed to show
Steevens the sheets of Capell's edition while it was passing through the
press. Besides the works already specified, he published an edition of
_Antony and Cleopatra_, adapted for the stage with the help of David
Garrick in 1758. His edition of Shakespeare passed through many editions
(1768, 1771, 1793, 1799, 1803, 1813). Capell died in the Temple on the
24th of February 1781.



CAPELLA, MARTIANUS MINNEUS FELIX, Latin writer, according to Cassiodorus
a native of Madaura in Africa, flourished during the 5th century,
certainly before the year 439. He appears to have practised as a lawyer
at Carthage and to have been in easy circumstances. His curious
encyclopaedic work, entitled _Satyricon_, or _De Nuptiis Philologiae et
Mercurii et de septem Artibus liberalibus libri novem_, is an elaborate
allegory in nine books, written in a mixture of prose and verse, after
the manner of the Menippean satires of Varro. The style is heavy and
involved, loaded with metaphor and bizarre expressions, and verbose to
excess. The first two books contain the allegory proper--the marriage of
Mercury to a nymph named Philologia. The remaining seven books contain
expositions of the seven liberal arts, which then comprehended all human
knowledge. Book iii. treats of grammar, iv. of dialectics, v. of
rhetoric, vi. of geometry, vii. of arithmetic, viii. of astronomy, ix.
of music. These abstract discussions are linked on to the original
allegory by the device of personifying each science as a courtier of
Mercury and Philologia. The work was a complete encyclopaedia of the
liberal culture of the time, and was in high repute during the middle
ages. The author's chief sources were Varro, Pliny, Solinus, Aquila
Romanus, and Aristides Quintilianus. His prose resembles that of
Apuleius (also a native of Madaura), but is even more difficult. The
verse portions, which are on the whole correct and classically
constructed, are in imitation of Varro and are less tiresome.

A passage in book viii. contains a very clear statement of the
heliocentric system of astronomy. It has been supposed that Copernicus,
who quotes Capella, may have received from this work some hints towards
his own new system.

  Editio princeps, by F. Vitalis Bodianus, 1499; the best modern edition
  is that of F. Eyssenhardt (1866); for the relation of Martianus
  Capella to Aristides Quintilianus see H. Deiters, _Studien zu den
  griechischen Musikern_ (1881). In the 11th century the German monk
  Notker Labeo translated the first two books into Old High German.



CAPE MAY, a city and watering-place of Cape May county, New Jersey,
U.S.A., on the Atlantic coast, 2 m. E.N.E. of Cape May, the S. extremity
of the state, and about 80 m. S. by E. of Philadelphia. Pop. (1890)
2136; (1900) 2257; (1905) 3006; (1910) 2471. Cape May is served by the
Maryland, Delaware & Virginia (by ferry to Lewes, Delaware), the West
Jersey & Seashore (Pennsylvania system), and the Atlantic City (Reading
system) railways, and, during the summer season, by steamboat to
Philadelphia. The principal part of the city is on a peninsula (formerly
Cape Island) between the ocean and Cold Spring inlet, which has been
dredged and is protected by jetties to make a suitable harbour. The
further improvement of the inlet and the harbour was authorized by
Congress in 1907. On the ocean side, along a hard sand beach 5 m. long,
is the Esplanade. There are numerous hotels and handsome cottages for
summer visitors, who come especially from Philadelphia, from New York,
from the South and from the West. Cape May offers good bathing, yachting
and fishing, with driving and hunting in the wooded country inland from
the coast. At Cape May Point is the Cape May lighthouse, 145 ft. high,
built in 1800 and rebuilt in 1859. In the city are canneries of
vegetables and fruit, glass-works and a gold-beating establishment. Fish
and oysters are exported. Cape May was named by Cornelis Jacobsen Mey,
director of the Prince Hendrick (Delaware) river for the West India
Company of Holland, who took possession of the river in 1623, and
planted the short-lived colony of Fort Nassau 4 m. below Philadelphia,
near the present Gloucester City, N.J. Cape May was settled about
1699,--a previous attempt to settle here made by Samuel Blommaert in
1631 was unsuccessful. It was an important whaling port early in the
18th century, and became prominent as a watering-place late in that
century. It was incorporated as the borough of Cape Island in 1848, and
chartered as the city of Cape Island in 1851; in 1869 the name was
changed to Cape May.



CAPENA, an ancient city of southern Etruria, frequently mentioned with
Veii and Falerii. Its exact site is, however, uncertain. According to
Cato it was a colony of the former, and in the wars between Veii and
Rome it appears as dependent upon Veii, after the fall of which town,
however, it became subject to Rome. Out of its territory the _tribus
Stellatina_ was formed in 367 B.C. In later republican times the city
itself is hardly mentioned, but under the empire a _municipium
Capenatium foederatum_ is frequently mentioned in inscriptions. Of these
several were found upon the hill known as Civitucola, about 4 m.
north-east of the post station of _ad Vicesimum_ on the ancient Via
Flaminia, a site which is well adapted for an ancient city. It lies on
the north side of a dried-up lake, once no doubt a volcanic crater.
Remains of buildings of the Roman period also exist there, while, in the
sides of the hill of S. Martino which lies on the north-east,[1]
rock-cut tombs belonging to the 7th and 6th centuries B.C. but used in
Roman times for fresh burials, were excavated in 1859-1864, and again in
1904. Inscriptions in early Latin and in local dialect were also found
(W. Henzen, _Bullettino dell' Istituto_, 1864, 143; R. Paribeni,
_Notizie degli Scavi_, 1905, 301). Similar tombs have also been found on
the hills south of Civitucola. G.B. de Rossi, however, supposed that the
games of which records (fragments of the _fasti ludorum_) were also
discovered at Civitucola, were those which were celebrated from time
immemorial at the Lucus Feroniae, with which he therefore proposed to
identify this site, placing Capena itself at S. Oreste, on the
south-eastern side of Mount Soracte. But there are difficulties in the
way of this assumption, and it is more probable that the Lucus Feroniae
is to be sought at or near Nazzano, where, in the excavation of a
circular building which some conjecture to have been the actual temple
of Feronia, inscriptions relating to a municipality were found. Others,
however, propose to place Lucus Feroniae at the church of S. Abbondio, 1
m. east of Rignano and 4 m. north-north-west of Civitucola, which is
built out of ancient materials. On the Via Flaminia, 26 m. from Rome,
near Rignano, is the Christian cemetery of Theodora.

  See R. Lanciani, _Bullettino dell' Istituto_, 1870, 32; G.B. de Rossi,
  _Annali dell' Istituto_, 1883, 254; _Bullettino Cristiano_, 1883, 115;
  G. Dennis, _Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria_ (London, 1883), i. 131;
  E. Bormann, _Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum_ (Berlin, 1888), xi. 571;
  H. Nissen, _Italische Landeskunde_ (Berlin, 1902), ii. 369; R.
  Paribeni, in _Monumenti dei Lincei_, xvi. (1906), 277 seq.     (T. As.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Some writers wrongly speak as though the two hills were identical.



CAPER, FLAVIUS, Latin grammarian, flourished during the and century. He
devoted special attention to the early Latin writers, and is highly
spoken of by Priscian. Caper was the author of two works--_De Lingua
Latina_ and _De Dubiis Generibus_. These works in their original form
are lost; but two short treatises entitled _De Orthographia_ and _De
Verbis Dubiis_ have come down to us under his name, probably excerpts
from the original works, with later additions by an unknown writer.

  See F. Osann, _De Flavio Capro_ (1849), and review by W. Christ in
  _Philologus_, xviii. 165-170 (1862), where several editions of other
  important grammarians are noticed; G. Keil, "De Flavio Grammatico," in
  _Dissertationes Halenses_, x. (1889); text in H. Keil's _Grammatici
  Latini_, vii.



CAPERCALLY, or CAPERKALLY,[1] a bird's name commonly derived from the
Gaelic _capull_, a horse (or, more properly, a mare), and _coille_, a
wood, but with greater likelihood, according to the opinion of Dr
M'Lauchlan, from _cabher_, an old man (and, by metaphor, an old bird),
and _coille_, the name of _Tetrao urogallus_, the largest of the grouse
family (_Tetraonidae_), and a species which was formerly indigenous to
Scotland and Ireland. The word is frequently spelt otherwise, as
capercalze, capercailzie (the z, a letter unknown in Gaelic, being
pronounced like y), and capercaillie, and the English name of
wood-grouse or cock-of-the-wood has been often applied to the same bird.
The earliest notice of it as an inhabitant of North Britain seems to be
by Hector Boethius, whose works were published in 1526, and it can then
be traced through various Scottish writers, to whom, however, it was
evidently but little known, for about 200 years, or may be more, and by
one of them only, Bishop Lesley, in 1578, was a definite _habitat_
assigned to it:--"In Rossia quoque Louguhabria [Lochaber], atque aliis
montanis locis" (_De Origine Moribus et rebus gestis Scotorum_. Romae:
ed. 1675, p. 24). Pennant, during one of his tours in Scotland, found
that it was then (1769) still to be met with in Glen Moriston and in The
Chisholm's country, whence he saw a cock-bird. We may infer that it
became extinct about that time, since Robert Gray (_Birds of the West of
Scotland_, p. 229) quotes the Rev. John Grant as writing in 1794: "The
last seen in Scotland was in the woods of Strathglass about thirty-two
years ago." Of its existence in Ireland we have scarcely more details.
If we may credit the _Pavones sylvestres_ of Giraldus Cambrensis with
being of this species, it was once abundant there, and Willughby (1678)
was told that it was known in that kingdom as the "cock-of-the-wood." A
few other writers mention it by the same name, and John Rutty, in 1772,
says (_Nat. Hist. Dublin_, i.p. 302) that "one was seen in the county of
Leitrim about the year 1710, but they have entirely disappeared of late,
by reason of the destruction of our woods." Pennant also states that
about 1760 a few were to be found about Thomastown in Tipperary, but no
later evidence is forthcoming, and thus it would seem that the species
was exterminated at nearly the same period in both Ireland and Scotland.

When the practice of planting was introduced, the restoration of this
fine bird to both countries was attempted. In Ireland the trial, of
which some particulars are given by J. Vaughan Thompson (_Birds of
Ireland_, ii. 32), was made at Glengariff, but it seems to have utterly
failed, whereas in Scotland, where it was begun at Taymouth, it finally
succeeded, and the species is now not only firmly established, but is
increasing in numbers and range. Mr L. Lloyd, the author of several
excellent works on the wild sports and natural history of Scandinavia,
supplied the stock from Sweden, but it must be always borne in mind that
the original British race was wholly extinct, and no remains of it are
known to exist in any museum.

This species is widely, though intermittently, distributed on the
continent of Europe, from Lapland to the northern parts of Spain, Italy
and Greece, but is always restricted to pine-forests, which alone afford
it food in winter. Its bones have been found in the kitchen-middens of
Denmark, proving that country to have once been clothed with woods of
that kind. Its remains have also been recognized from the caves of
Aquitaine. Its eastern or southern limits in Asia cannot be precisely
given, but it certainly inhabits the forests of a great part of Siberia.
On the Stannovoi Mountains, however, it is replaced by a distinct though
nearly allied species, the _T. urogalloides_ of Dr von Middendorff,[2]
which is smaller with a slenderer bill but longer tail.

The cock-of-the-wood is remarkable for his large size and dark plumage,
with the breast metallic green. He is polygamous, and in spring mounts
to the topmost bough of a tall tree, whence he challenges all comers by
extraordinary sounds and gestures; while the hens, which are much
smaller and mottled in colour, timidly abide below the result of the
frequent duels, patiently submitting themselves to the victor. While
this is going on it is the practice in many countries, though generally
in defiance of the law, for the so-called sportsman stealthily to draw
nigh, and with well-aimed gun to murder the principal performer in the
scene. The hen makes an artless nest on the ground, and lays therein
from seven to nine or even more eggs. The young are able to fly soon
after they are hatched, and towards the end of summer and beginning of
autumn, from feeding on the fruit and leaves of the bilberries and other
similar plants, which form the undercovert of the forests, get into
excellent condition and become good eating. With the first heavy falls
of snow they betake themselves to the trees, and then, feeding on the
pine-leaves, their flesh speedily acquires so strong a flavour of
turpentine as to be distasteful to most palates. The usual method of
pursuing this species on the continent of Europe is by encouraging a
trained dog to range the forest and spring the birds, which then perch
on the trees; while he is baying at the foot their attention is so much
attracted by him that they permit the near approach of his master, who
thus obtains a more or less easy shot. A considerable number, however,
are also snared. Hybrids are very frequently produced between the
capercally and the black grouse (_T. tetrix_), and the offspring has
been described by some authors under the name of _T. medius_, as though
a distinct species.     (A. N.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] This is the spelling of the old law-books, as given by Pennant,
    the zoologist, who, on something more than mere report, first
    included this bird among the British fauna. The only one of the
    "Scots Acts," however, in which the present writer has been able to
    ascertain that the bird is named is No. 30 of James VI. (1621), which
    was passed to protect "powties, partrikes, moore foulles, blakcoks,
    gray hennis, termigantis, quailzies, _capercailzies_," &c.

  [2] Not to be confounded with the bird so named previously by Prof.
    Nilsson, which is a hybrid.



CAPERN, EDWARD (1819-1894), English poet, was born at Tiverton,
Devonshire, on the 21st of January 1819. From an early age he worked in
a lace factory, but owing to failing eyesight he had to abandon this
occupation in 1847 and he was in dire distress until he secured an
appointment to be "the Rural Postman of Bideford," by which name he is
usually known. He occupied his leisure in writing occasional poetry
which struck the popular fancy. Collected in a volume and published by
subscription in 1856, it received the warm praise of the reviews and
many distinguished people. _Poems, by Edward Capern_, was followed by
_Ballads and Songs_ (1858), _The Devonshire Melodist_ (a collection of
the author's songs, some of them to his own music) and _Wayside Warbles_
(1865), and resulted in a civil list pension being granted him by Lord
Palmerston. He died on the 5th of June 1894.



CAPERNAUM ([Greek: Kapernaoum]; probably, "the village of Nahum"), an
ancient city of Galilee. More than any other place, it was the home of
Jesus after he began his mission; there he preached, called several of
his disciples, and did many works, but without meeting with much
response from the inhabitants, over whom he pronounced the heavy
denunciation:--"And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven,
shalt be brought down to hell." The site of the city has been a matter
of much dispute,--one party, headed by Dr E. Robinson, maintaining an
identification with Khan Minyeh at the north-west corner of the Sea of
Galilee, and another, represented especially by Sir C.W. Wilson,
supporting the claims of Tell Hum, midway between Khan Minyeh and the
mouth of the Jordan. Khan Minyeh is beautifully situated in a "fertile
plain formed by the retreat of the mountains about the middle of the
western shore" of the Sea of Galilee. Its ruins are not very extensive,
though they may have been despoiled for building the great Saracenic
Khan from which they take their name. In the neighbourhood is a
water-source, _Ain et-Tabighah_, an Arabic corruption of _Heptapegon_ or
Seven Springs (referred to by Josephus as being near Capernaum). Tell
Hum lies about 3 m. north of Khan Minyeh, and its ruins, covering an
area of "half a mile long by a quarter wide," prove it to have been the
site of no small town. It must be admitted that if it be not Capernaum
it is impossible to say what ancient place it represents. But it is
doubtful whether Tell Hum can be considered as a corruption of _Kefr
Nahum_, the Semitic name which the Greek represents: and there is not
here, as at Khan Minyeh, any spring that can be equated to the
Heptapegon of Josephus. On the whole the probabilities of the two sites
seem to balance, and it is practically impossible without further
discoveries to decide between them. The sites of the neighbouring cities
of Bethsaida and Chorazin are probably to be sought respectively at
El-Bateiha, a grassy plain in the north-east corner of the lake, and at
Kerazeh, 2 m. north of Tell Hum. According to the so-called
_Pseudo-Methodius_ there was a tradition that Antichrist would be born
at Chorazin, educated at Bethsaida and rule at Capernaum--hence the
curse of Jesus upon these cities.

  On the site of Capernaum see especially W. Sanday in _Journal of
  Theological Studies_, vol. v. p. 42.     (R. A. S. M.)



CAPERS, the unexpanded flower-buds of _Capparis spinosa_, prepared with
vinegar for use as a pickle. The caper plant is a trailing shrub,
belonging to the Mediterranean region, resembling in habit the common
bramble, and having handsome flowers of a pinkish white, with four
petals, and numerous long tassel-like stamens. The leaves are simple and
ovate, with spiny stipules. The plant is cultivated in Sicily and the
south of France; and in commerce capers are valued according to the
period at which the buds are gathered and preserved. The finest are the
young tender buds called "nonpareil," after which, gradually increasing
in size and lessening in value, come "superfine," "fine," "capucin" and
"capot." Other species of _Capparis_ are similarly employed in various
localities, and in some cases the fruit is pickled.



CAPET, the name of a family to which, for nearly nine centuries, the
kings of France, and many of the rulers of the most powerful fiefs in
that country, belonged, and which mingled with several of the other
royal races of Europe. The original significance of the name remains in
dispute, but the first of the family to whom it was applied was Hugh,
who was elected king of the Franks in 987. The real founder of the
house, however, was Robert the Strong (q.v.), who received from Charles
the Bald, king of the Franks, the countships of Anjou and Blois, and who
is sometimes called duke, as he exercised some military authority in the
district between the Seine and the Loire. According to Aimoin of
Saint-Germain-des-Prés, and the chronicler, Richer, he was a Saxon, but
historians question this statement. Robert's two sons, Odo or Eudes, and
Robert II., succeeded their father successively as dukes, and, in 887,
some of the Franks chose Odo as their king. A similar step was taken, in
922, in the case of Robert II., this too marking the increasing
irritation felt at the weakness of the Carolingian kings. When Robert
died in 923, he was succeeded by his brother-in-law, Rudolph, duke of
Burgundy, and not by his son Hugh, who is known in history as Hugh the
Great, duke of France and Burgundy, and whose domain extended from the
Loire to the frontiers of Picardy. When Louis V., king of the Franks,
died in 987, the Franks, setting aside the Carolingians, passed over his
brother Charles, and elected Hugh Capet, son of Hugh the Great, as their
king, and crowned him at Reims. Avoiding the pretensions which had been
made by the Carolingian kings, the Capetian kings were content, for a
time, with a more modest position, and the story of the growth of their
power belongs to the history of France. They had to combat the feudal
nobility, and later, the younger branches of the royal house established
in the great duchies, and the main reason for the permanence of their
power was, perhaps, the fact that there were few minorities among them.
The direct line ruled in France from 987 to 1328, when, at the death of
King Charles IV., it was succeeded by the younger, or Valois, branch of
the family. Philip VI., the first of the Valois kings, was a son of
Charles I., count of Valois and grandson of King Philip III. (see
VALOIS). The Capetian-Valois dynasty lasted until 1498, when Louis, duke
of Orleans, became king as Louis XII., on the death of King Charles
VIII. (see ORLEANS). Louis XII. dying childless, the house of
Valois-Angoulême followed from Francis I. to the death of Henry III. in
1589 (see ANGOULÊME), when the last great Capetian family, the Bourbons
(q.v.) mounted the throne.

Scarcely second to the royal house is the branch to which belonged the
dukes of Burgundy. In the 10th century the duchy of Burgundy fell into
the hands of Hugh the Great, father of Hugh Capet, on whose death in 956
it passed to his son Otto, and, in 965, to his son Henry. In 1032
Robert, the second son of Robert the Pious, king of the Franks, and
grandson of Hugh Capet, founded the first ducal house, which ruled until
1361. For two years the duchy was in the hands of the crown, but in
1363, the second ducal house, also Capetian, was founded by Philip the
Bold, son of John II., king of France. This branch of the Capetians is
also distinguished by its union with the Habsburgs, through the marriage
of Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, with
Maximilian, afterwards the emperor Maximilian I. Of great importance
also was the house of the counts of Anjou, which was founded in 1246, by
Charles, son of the French king Louis VIII., and which, in 1360, was
raised to the dignity of a dukedom (see ANJOU). Members of this family
sat upon the thrones of two kingdoms. The counts and dukes of Anjou were
kings of Naples from 1265 to 1442. In 1308 Charles Robert of Anjou was
elected king of Hungary, his claim being based on the marriage of his
grandfather Charles II., king of Naples and count of Anjou, with Maria,
daughter of Stephen V., king of Hungary. A third branch formed the house
of the counts of Artois, which was founded in 1238 by Robert, son of
King Louis VIII. This house merged in that of Valois in 1383, by the
marriage of Margaret, daughter of Louis, count of Artois, with Philip
the Bold, duke of Burgundy. The throne of Navarre was also filled by the
Capetians. In 1284 Jeanne, daughter and heiress of Henry I., king of
Navarre, married Philip IV., king of France, and the two kingdoms were
united until Philip of Valois became king of France as Philip VI. in
1328, when Jeanne, daughter of King Louis X., and heiress of Navarre,
married Philip, count of Evreux (see NAVARRE).

In the 13th century the throne of Constantinople was occupied by a
branch of the Capetians. Peter, grandson of King Louis VI., obtained
that dignity in 1217 as brother-in-law of the two previous emperors,
Baldwin, count of Flanders, and his brother Henry. Peter was succeeded
successively by his two sons, Robert and Baldwin, from whom in 1261 the
empire was recovered by the Greeks.

The counts of Dreux, for two centuries and a half (1132-1377), and the
counts of Evreux, from 1307 to 1425, also belonged to the family of the
Capets,--other members of which worthy of mention are the Dunois and the
Longuevilles, illegitimate branches of the house of Valois, which
produced many famous warriors and courtiers.



CAPE TOWN, the capital of the Cape Province, South Africa, in 33° 56'
S., 18° 28' E. It is at the north-west extremity of the Cape Peninsula
on the south shore of Table Bay, is 6181 m. by sea from London and 957
by rail south-west of Johannesburg. Few cities are more magnificently
situated. Behind the bay the massive wall of Table Mountain, 2 m. in
length, rises to a height of over 3500 ft., while on the east and west
projecting mountains enclose the plain in which the city lies. The
mountain to the east, 3300 ft. high, which projects but slightly
seawards, is the Devil's Peak, that to the west the Lion's Head (over
2000 ft. high), with a lesser height in front called the Lion's Rump or
Signal Hill. The city, at first confined to the land at the head of the
bay, has extended all round the shores of the bay and to the lower spurs
of Table Mountain.

The purely Dutch aspect which Cape Town preserved until the middle of
the 19th century has disappeared. Nearly all the stucco-fronted brick
houses, with flat roofs and cornices and wide spreading _stoeps_, of the
early Dutch settlers have been replaced by shops, warehouses and offices
in styles common to English towns. Of the many fine public buildings
which adorn the city scarcely any date before 1860. The mixture of races
among the inhabitants, especially the presence of numerous Malays, who
on all festive occasions appear in gorgeous raiment, gives additional
animation and colour to the street scenes. The mosques with their
cupolas and minarets, and houses built in Eastern fashion contrast
curiously with the Renaissance style of most of the modern buildings,
the medieval aspect of the castle and the quaint appearance of the Dutch
houses still standing.

_Chief Public Buildings_.--The castle stands near the shore at the head
of the bay. Begun in 1666 its usefulness as a fortress has long ceased,
but it serves to link the city to its past. West of the castle is a
large oblong space, the Parade Ground. A little farther west, at the
foot of the central jetty is a statue of Van Riebeek, the first governor
of the Cape. In a line with the jetty is Adderley Street, and its
continuation Government Avenue. Adderley Street and the avenue make one
straight road a mile long, and at its end are "the Gardens," as the
suburbs built on the rising ground leading to Table Mountain are called.
The avenue itself is fully half a mile long and is lined on either side
with fine oak trees. In Adderley Street are the customs house and
railway station, the Standard bank, the general post and telegraph
offices, with a tower 120 ft. high, and the Dutch Reformed church. The
church dates from 1699 and is the oldest church in South Africa. Of the
original building only the clock tower (sent from Holland in 1727)
remains. Government Avenue contains, on the east side, the Houses of
Parliament, government house, a modernized Dutch building, and the
Jewish synagogue; on the west side are the Anglican cathedral and
grammar schools, the public library, botanic gardens, the museum and
South African college. Many of these buildings are of considerable
architectural merit, the material chiefly used in their construction
being granite from the Paarl and red brick. The botanic gardens cover 14
acres, contain over 8000 varieties of trees and plants, and afford a
magnificent view of Table Mountain and its companion heights. In the
gardens, in front of the library is a statue of Sir George Grey,
governor of the Cape from 1854 to 1861. The most valuable portion of the
library is the 5000 volumes presented by Sir George Grey. In Queen
Victoria Street, which runs along the west side of the gardens, are the
Cape University buildings (begun in 1906), the law courts, City club and
Huguenot memorial hall. The Anglican cathedral, begun in 1901 to replace
an unpretentious building on the same site, is dedicated to St George.
It lies between the library and St George's Street, in which are the
chief newspaper offices, and premises of the wholesale merchants. West
of St George's Street is Greenmarket Square, the centre of the town
during the Dutch period. From the balcony of the town house, which
overlooks the square, proclamations were read to the burghers, summoned
to the spot by the ringing of the bell in the small-domed tower. Still
farther west, in Riebeek Square, is the old slave market, now used as a
church and school for coloured people.

Facing the north side of the Parade Ground are the handsome municipal
buildings, completed in 1906. The most conspicuous feature is the clock
tower and belfry, 200 ft. high. The hall is 130 ft. by 62, and 55 ft.
high. Opposite the main entrance is a statue of Edward VII. by William
Goscombe John, unveiled in 1905. The opera house occupies the north-west
corner of the Parade Ground. Plein Street, which leads south from the
Parade Ground, is noted for its cheap shops, largely patronized on
Saturday nights by the coloured inhabitants. In Sir Lowry Road, the
chief eastern thoroughfare, is the large vegetable and fruit market.
Immediately west of the harbour are the convict station and Somerset
hospital. They are built at the town end of Greenpoint Common, the open
space at the foot of Signal Hill. Cape Town is provided with an
excellent water supply and an efficient drainage system.

_The Suburbs_.--The suburbs of Cape Town, for natural beauty of
position, are among the finest in the world. On the west they extend
about 3 m., by Green Point to Sea Point, between the sea and the foot of
the Lion's Rump; on the east they run round the foot of the Devil's
Peak, by Woodstock, Mowbray, Rondebosch, Newlands, Claremont, &c., to
Wynberg, a distance of 7 m. Though these are managed by various
municipalities, there is practically no break in the buildings for the
whole distance. All the parts are connected by the suburban railway
service, and by an electric tramway system. A tramway also runs from the
town over the Kloof, or pass between Table Mountain and the Lion's Head,
to Camp's Bay, on the west coast south of Sea Point, to which place it
is continued, the tramway thus completely circling the Lion's Head and
Signal Hill. Of the suburbs mentioned, Green Point and Sea Point are
seaside resorts, Woodstock being both a business and residential
quarter. Woodstock covers the ground on which the British, in 1806,
defeated the Dutch, and contains the house in which the articles of
capitulation were signed. Another seaside suburb is Milnerton on the
north-east shores of Table Bay at the mouth of the Diep river. Near
Maitland, and 3 m. from the city, is the Cape Town observatory, built in
1820 and maintained by the British government. Rondebosch, 5 m. from
the city, contains some of the finest of the Dutch mansions in South
Africa. Less than a mile from the station is Groote Schuur, a typical
specimen of the country houses built by the Dutch settlers in the 17th
century. The house was the property of Cecil Rhodes, and was bequeathed
by him for the use of the prime minister of Federated South Africa. The
grounds of the estate extend up the slopes of Table Mountain. At
Newlands is Bishop's Court, the home of the archbishop of Cape Town.
More distant suburbs to the south-east are Constantia, with a famous
Dutch farm-house and wine farm, and Muizenberg and Kalk Bay, the two
last villages on the shore of False Bay. At Muizenberg Cecil Rhodes
died, 1902. Facing the Atlantic is Hout's Bay, 10 m. south-south-west of
Wynberg.

Most of the suburbs and the city itself are exposed to the south-east
winds which, passing over the flats which join the Cape Peninsula to the
mainland, reach the city sand-laden. From its bracing qualities this
wind, which blows in the summer, is known as the "Cape Doctor." During
its prevalence Table Mountain is covered by a dense whitish-grey cloud,
overlapping its side like a tablecloth.

_The Harbour._--Table Bay, 20 m. wide at its entrance, is fully exposed
to north and north-west gales. The harbour works, begun in 1860, afford
sheltered accommodation for a large number of vessels. From the west end
of the bay a breakwater extends north-east for some 4000 ft. East of the
breakwater and parallel to it for 2700 ft. is the South pier. From
breakwater and pier arms project laterally. In the area enclosed are the
Victoria basin, covering 64 acres, the Alfred basin of 8½ acres, a
graving dock 529 ft. long and a patent slip for vessels up to 1500 tons.
There is good anchorage outside the Victoria basin under the lee of the
breakwater, and since 1904 the foreshore east of the south pier has been
reclaimed and additional wharfage provided. Altogether there are 2½ m.
of quay walls, the wharfs being provided with electrical cranage. Cargo
can be transferred direct from the ship into railway trucks. Vessels of
the deepest draught can enter into the Victoria basin, the depth of
water at low tide ranging from 24 to 36 ft.

_Trade and Communication._--The port has a practical monopoly of the
passenger traffic between the Cape and England. Several lines of
steamers--chiefly British and German--maintain regular communication
with Europe, the British mail boats taking sixteen days on the journey.
By its railway connexions Cape Town affords the quickest means of
reaching, from western Europe, every other town in South Africa. In the
import trade Cape Town is closely rivalled by Port Elizabeth, but its
export trade, which includes diamonds and bar gold, is fully 70% of that
of the entire colony. In 1898, the year before the beginning of the
Anglo-Boer war, the volume of trade was:--Imports £5,128,292, exports
£15,881,952. In 1904, two years after the conclusion of the war the
figures were:--imports £9,070,757; exports £17,471,760. In 1907 during a
period of severe and prolonged trade depression the imports had fallen
to £5,263,930, but the exports owing entirely to the increased output of
gold from the Rand mines had increased to £37,994,658; gold and diamonds
represented over £37,000,000 of this total. The tonnage of ships
entering the harbour in 1887 was 801,033. In 1904 it had risen to
4,846,012 and in 1907 was 4,671,146. The trade of the port in tons was
1,276,350 in 1899 and 1,413,471 in 1904. In 1907 it had fallen to
658,721.

_Defence._--Cape Town, being in the event of the closing of the Suez
Canal on the main route of ships from Europe to the East, is of
considerable strategic importance. It is defended by several batteries
armed with modern heavy guns. It is garrisoned by Imperial and local
troops, and is connected by railway with the naval station at Simon's
Town on the east of the Cape Peninsula.

_Population._--The Cape electoral division, which includes Cape Town,
had in 1865 a population of 50,064, in 1875 57,319, in 1891 97,238, and
in 1904 213,167, of whom 120,475 were whites. Cape Town itself had a
population in 1875 of 33,000, in 1891 of 51,251 and in 1904 of 77,668.
Inclusive of the nearer suburbs the population was 78,866 in 1891 and
170,083 in 1904. Of the inhabitants of the city proper 44,203 were
white (1904). Of the coloured inhabitants 6561 were Malays; the
remainder being chiefly of mixed blood. The most populous suburbs in
1904 were Woodstock with 28,990 inhabitants, and Wynberg with 18,477.

_History and Local Government_.--Cape Town was founded in 1652 by
settlers sent from Holland by the Netherlands East India Co., under Jan
van Riebeek. It came definitely into the possession of Great Britain in
1806. Its political history is indistinguishable from that of Cape
Colony (q.v.). The town was granted municipal institutions in 1836.
(Among the councillors returned at the election of 1904 was Dr
Abdurrahman, a Mahommedan and a graduate of Edinburgh, this being, it is
believed, the first instance of the election of a man of colour to any
European representative body in South Africa.) The municipality owns the
water and lighting services. The municipal rating value was, in 1880
£2,054,204, in 1901 £9,475,260, in 1908 (when the rate levied was 3d. in
the £) £14,129,439. The total rateable value of the suburbs, not
included in the above figures, is over £8,000,000. Rates are based on
capital, not annual, value. The control of the port is vested in the
Harbour and Railway Board of the Union.

Cape Town is the seat of the legislature of the Union of South Africa,
of the provincial government, of the provincial division of the Supreme
Court of South Africa, and of the Cape University; also of an archbishop
of the Anglican and a bishop of the Roman Catholic churches.



CAPE VERDE ISLANDS (_Ilhas do Caba Verde_), an archipelago belonging to
Portugal; off the West African coast, between 17° 13' and 14° 47' N. and
22° 40' and 25° 22' W. Pop. (1905) about 138,620; area, 1475 sq. m. The
archipelago consists of ten islands:--Santo Antão (commonly miswritten
St Antonio), São Vicente, Santa Luzia, São Nicolao, Sal, Boa Vista,
Maio, São Thiago (the St Jago of the English), Fogo, and Brava, besides
four uninhabited islets. It forms a sort of broken crescent, with the
concavity towards the west. The last four islands constitute the leeward
(Sotavento) group and the other six the windward (Barlavento). The
distance between the coast of Africa and the nearest island (Boa Vista)
is about 300 m. The islands derive their name, frequently but
erroneously written "Cape Verd," or "Cape de Verd" Islands, from the
African promontory off which they lie, known as Cape Verde, or the Green
Cape. The entire archipelago is of volcanic origin, and on the island of
Fogo there is an active volcano. No serious eruption has taken place
since 1680, and the craters from which the streams of basalt issued have
lost their outline.

[Illustration: CAPE VERDE Is. map.]

_Climate_.--The atmosphere of the islands is generally hazy, especially
in the direction of Africa. With occasional exceptions during summer and
autumn, the north-east trade is the prevailing wind, blowing most
strongly from November to May. The rainy season is during August,
September and October, when there is thunder and a light variable wind
from south-east or south-west. The Harmattan, a very dry east wind from
the African continent, occasionally makes itself felt. The heat of
summer is high, the thermometer ranging from 80° to 90° Fahr. near the
sea. The unhealthy season is the period during and following the rains,
when vegetation springs up with surprising rapidity, and there is much
stagnant water, poisoning the air on the lower grounds. Remittent fevers
are then common. The people of all the islands are also subject in May
to an endemic of a bilious nature called locally _levadias_, but the
cases rarely assume a dangerous form, and recovery is usually attained
in three or four days without medical aid. On some of the islands rain
has occasionally not fallen for three years. The immediate consequence
is a failure of the crops, and this is followed by the death of great
numbers from starvation, or the epidemics which usually break out
afterwards.

_Flora_.--Owing largely to the widespread destruction of timber for
fuel, and to the frequency of drought, the flora of the islands is poor
when compared with that of the Canaries, the Azores or Madeira. It is
markedly tropical in character; and although some seventy wild-flowers,
grasses, ferns, &c., are peculiar to the archipelago, the majority of
plants are those found on the neighbouring African littoral. Systematic
afforestation has not been attempted, but the Portuguese have introduced
a few trees, such as the baobab, eucalyptus and dragon-tree, besides
many plants of economic value. Coffee-growing, an industry dating from
1790, is the chief resource of the people of Santo Antão, Fogo and São
Thiago; maize, millet, sugar-cane, manioc, excellent oranges, pumpkins,
sweet potatoes, and, to a less extent, tobacco and cotton are produced.
On most of the islands coco-nut and date palms, tamarinds and bananas
may be seen; orchil is gathered; and indigo and castor-oil are produced.
Of considerable importance is the physic-nut (_Jatropha curcas_), which
is exported.

_Fauna_.--Quails are found in all the islands; rabbits in Boa Vista, São
Thiago and Fogo; wild boars in São Thiago. Both black and grey rats are
common. Goats, horses and asses are reared, and goatskins are exported.
The neighbouring sea abounds with fish, and coral fisheries are carried
on by a colony of Neapolitans in São Thiago. Turtles come from the
African coast to lay their eggs on the sandy shores. The Ilheu Branco,
or White Islet, between São Nicolao and Santa Luzia, is remarkable as
containing a variety of puffin unknown elsewhere, and a species of large
lizard (_Macroscinctus coctei_) which feeds on plants.

_Inhabitants_.--The first settlers on the islands imported negro slaves
from the African coast. Slavery continued in full force until 1854, when
the Portuguese government freed the public slaves, and ameliorated the
conditions of private ownership. In 1857 arrangements were made for the
gradual abolition of slavery, and by 1876 the last slave had been
liberated. The transportation of convicts from Portugal, a much-dreaded
punishment, was continued until the closing years of the 19th century.
It was the coexistence of these two forms of servitude, even more than
the climate, which prevented any large influx of Portuguese colonists.
Hence the blacks and mulattoes far outnumber the white inhabitants. They
are, as a rule, taller than the Portuguese, and are of fine physique,
with regular features but woolly hair. Slavery and the enervating
climate have left their mark on the habits of the people, whose
indolence and fatalism are perhaps their most obvious qualities. Their
language is a bastard Portuguese, known as the _lingua creoula_. Their
religion is Roman Catholicism, combined with a number of pagan beliefs
and rites, which are fostered by the _curandeiros_ or medicine men.
These superstitions tend to disappear gradually before the advance of
education, which has progressed considerably since 1867, when the first
school, a lyceum, was opened in Ribeira Brava, the capital of São
Nicolao. On all the inhabited islands, except Santa Luzia, there are
churches and primary schools, conducted by the government or the
priests. The children of the wealthier classes are sent to Lisbon for
their education.

_Government_.--The archipelago forms one of the foreign provinces of
Portugal, and is under the command of a governor-in-chief appointed by
the crown. There are two principal judges, one for the windward and
another for the leeward group, the former with his residence at São
Nicolao, and the latter at Praia; and each island has a military
commandant, a few soldiers, and a number of salaried officials, such as
police, magistrates and custom-house directors. There is also an
ecclesiastical establishment, with a bishop, dean and canons.

_Industries_.--The principal industries, apart from agriculture, are the
manufacture of sugar, spirits, salt, cottons and straw hats and
fish-curing. The average yearly value of the exports is about £60,000;
that of the imports (including £200,000 for coal), about £350,000. The
most important of the exports are coffee, physic-nuts, millet, sugar,
spirits, salt, live animals, skins and fish. This trade is principally
carried on with Lisbon and the Portuguese possessions on the west coast
of Africa, and with passing vessels. The imports consist principally of
coal, textiles, food-stuffs, wine, metals, tobacco, machinery, pottery
and vegetables. Over 3000 vessels, with a total tonnage exceeding
3,500,000, annually enter the ports of the archipelago; the majority
call at Mindello, on São Vicente, for coal, and do not receive or
discharge any large quantities of cargo.

  _Santo Antão_ (pop. 25,000), at the extreme north-west of the
  archipelago, has an area of 265 sq. m. Its surface is very rugged and
  mountainous, abounding in volcanic craters, of which the chief is the
  Topoda Coroa (7300 ft.), also known as the Sugar-loaf. Mineral springs
  exist in many places. The island is the most picturesque, the
  healthiest, and, on its north-western slope, the best watered and most
  fertile of the archipelago. The south-eastern slope, shut out by lofty
  mountains from the fertilizing moisture of the trade-winds, has an
  entirely different appearance, black rocks, white pumice and red clay
  being its most characteristic features. Santo Antão produces large
  quantities of excellent coffee, besides sugar and fruit. It has
  several small ports, of which the chief are the sheltered and spacious
  Tarrafal Bay, on the south-west coast, and the more frequented Ponta
  do Sol, on the north-east, 8 m. from the capital, Ribeira Grande, a
  town of 4500 inhabitants. Cinchona is cultivated in the neighbourhood.
  In 1780 the slaves on Santo Antão were declared free, but this decree
  was not carried out. About the same time many white settlers, chiefly
  from the Canaries, entered the island, and introduced the cultivation
  of wheat.

  _São Vicente_, or _St Vincent_ (8000), lies near Santo Antão, on the
  south-east, and has an area of 75 sq. m. Its highest point is Monte
  Verde (2400 ft.). The whole island is as arid and sterile as the
  south-eastern half of Santo Antão, and for the same reason. It was
  practically uninhabited until 1795; in 1829 its population numbered
  about 100. Its harbour, an extinct crater on the north coast, with an
  entrance eroded by the sea, affords complete shelter from every wind.
  An English speculator founded a coaling station here in 1851, and the
  town of Mindello, also known as Porto Grande or St Vincent, grew up
  rapidly, and became the commercial centre of the archipelago. Most of
  the business is in English hands, and nine-tenths of the inhabitants
  understand English. Foodstuffs, wood and water are imported from Santo
  Antão, and the water is stored in a large reservoir at Mindello. São
  Vicente has a station for the submarine cable from Lisbon to
  Pernambuco in Brazil.

  _Santa Luzia_, about 5 m. south-east, has an area of 18 sq. m., and
  forms a single estate, occupied only by the servants or the family of
  the proprietor. Its highest point is 885 ft. above sea-level. On the
  south-west it has a good harbour, visited by whaling and fishing
  boats. Much orchil was formerly gathered, and there is good pasturage
  for the numerous herds of cattle. A little to the south are the
  uninhabited islets of Branco and Razo.

  _São Nicolao_, or _Nicolau_ (12,000), a long, narrow, crescent-shaped
  island with an area of 126 sq. m., lies farther east, near the middle
  of the archipelago. Its climate is not very healthy. Maize,
  kidney-beans, manioc, sugar-cane and vines are cultivated; and in
  ordinary years grain is exported to the other islands. The interior is
  mountainous, and culminates in two peaks which can be seen for many
  leagues; one has the shape of a sugar-loaf, and is near the middle of
  the island; the other, Monte Gordo, is near the west end, and has a
  height of 4280 ft. All the other islands of the group can be seen from
  São Nicolao in clear weather. Vessels frequently enter Preguiça, or
  Freshwater Bay, near the south-east extremity of the island, for water
  and fresh provisions; and the custom-house is here. The island was one
  of the first colonized; in 1774 its inhabitants numbered 13,500, but
  famine subsequently caused a great decrease. The first capital, Lapa,
  at the end of a promontory on the south, was abandoned during the
  period of Spanish ascendancy over Portugal (1580-1640) in favour of
  Ribeira Brava (4000), on the north coast, a town which now has a
  considerable trade.

  _Sal_ (750), in the north-east of the archipelago, has an area of 75
  sq. m. It was originally named _Lana_, or _Lhana_ ("plain"), from the
  flatness of the greater part of its surface. It derives its modern
  name from a natural salt-spring, but most of the salt produced here is
  now obtained from artificial salt-pans. Towards the close of the 17th
  century it was inhabited only by a few shepherds, and by slaves
  employed in the salt-works. In 1705 it was entirely abandoned, owing
  to drought and consequent famine; and only in 1808 was the manufacture
  of salt resumed. A railway, the first built in Portuguese territory,
  was opened in 1835. The hostile Brazilian tariffs of 1889 for a time
  nearly destroyed the salt trade. Whales, turtles and fish are
  abundant, and dairy-farming is a prosperous industry. There are many
  small harbours, which render every part of the island easily
  accessible.

  _Boa Vista_ (2600), the most easterly island of the archipelago, has
  an area of 235 sq. m. It was named São Christovão by its discoverers
  in the 15th century. Its modern name, meaning "fair view," is
  singularly inappropriate, for with the exception of a few coco-nut
  trees there is no wood, and in the dry season the island seems nothing
  but an arid waste. The little vegetation that then exists is in the
  bottom of ravines, where corn, beans and cotton are cultivated. The
  springs of good water are few. The coast is indented by numerous
  shallow bays, the largest of which is the harbour of the capital,
  Porto Sal-Rei, on the western side (pop. about 1000). A chain of
  heights, flanked by inferior ranges, traverses the middle of Boa
  Vista, culminating in Monte Gallego (1250 ft.), towards the east. In
  the north-western angle of the island there is a low tract of loose
  sand, which is inundated with water during the rainy season; and here
  are some extensive salt-pans, where the sea-water is evaporated by the
  heat of the sun. Salt and orchil are exported. A good deal of fish is
  taken on the coast and supplies the impoverished islanders with much
  of their food.

  _Maio_ (1000) has an area of 70 sq. m., and resembles Sal and Boa
  Vista in climate and configuration, although it belongs to the
  Sotavento group. Its best harbour is that of Nossa Senhora da Luz, on
  the south-west coast, and is commonly known as Porto Inglez or English
  Road, from the fact that it was occupied until the end of the 18th
  century by the British, who based their claim on the marriage-treaty
  between Charles II. and Catherine of Braganza (1662). The island is a
  barren, treeless waste, surrounded by rocks. Its inhabitants, who live
  chiefly by the manufacture of salt, by cattle-farming and by fishing,
  are compelled to import most of their provisions from São Thiago, with
  which, for purposes of local administration, Maio is included.

  _São Thiago_ (63,000) is the most populous and the largest of the Cape
  Verde Islands, having an area of 350 sq. m. It is also one of the most
  unhealthy, except among the mountains over 2000 ft. high. The interior
  is a mass of volcanic heights, formed of basalt covered with chalk and
  clay, and culminating in the central Pico da Antonia (4500 ft.), a
  sharply pointed cone. There are numerous ravines, furrowed by
  perennial streams, and in these ravines are grown large quantities of
  coffee, oranges, sugar-cane and physic-nuts, besides a variety of
  tropical fruits and cereals. Spirits are distilled from sugar-cane,
  and coarse sugar is manufactured. The first capital of the islands was
  Ribeira Grande, to-day called Cidade Velha or the Old City, a
  picturesque town with a cathedral and ruined fort. It was built in the
  15th century on the south coast, was made an episcopal see in 1532,
  and became capital of the archipelago in 1592. In 1712 it was sacked
  by a French force, but despite its poverty and unhealthy situation it
  continued to be the capital until 1770, when its place was taken by
  Praia on the south-east. Praia (often written Praya) has a fine
  harbour, a population of 21,000 and a considerable trade. It contains
  the palace of the governor-general, a small natural history museum, a
  meteorological observatory and an important station for the cables
  between South America, Europe and West Africa. It occupies a basalt
  plateau, overlooking the bay (Porto da Praia), and has an attractive
  appearance, with its numerous coco-nut trees and the peak of Antonia
  rising in the background above successive steps of tableland. Its
  unhealthiness has been mitigated by the partial drainage of a marsh
  lying to the east.

  _Fogo_ (17,600) is a mass of volcanic rock, almost circular in shape
  and measuring about 190 sq. m. In the centre a still active volcano,
  the Pico do Cano, rises to a height of about 10,000 ft. Its crater,
  which stands within an older crater, measures 3 m. in circumference
  and is visible at sea for nearly 100 m. It emits smoke and ashes at
  intervals; and in 1680, 1785, 1799, 1816, 1846, 1852 and 1857 it was
  in eruption. After the first and most serious of these outbreaks, the
  island, which had previously been called São Felippe, was renamed
  Fogo, _i.e._ "Fire." The ascent of the mountain was first made in 1819
  by two British naval officers, named Vidal and Mudge. The island is
  divided, like Santo Antão, into a fertile and a sterile zone. Its
  northern half produces fine coffee, beans, maize and sugar-cane; the
  southern half is little better than a desert, with oases of cultivated
  land near its few springs. São Felippe or Nossa Senhora da Luz (3000),
  on the west coast, is the capital. The islanders claim to be the
  aristocracy of the archipelago, and trace their descent from the
  original Portuguese settlers. The majority, however, are negroes or
  mulattoes. Drought and famine, followed by severe epidemics, have
  been especially frequent here, notably in the years 1887-1889.

  _Brava_ (9013), the most southerly of the islands, has an area of 23
  sq. m. Though mountainous, and in some parts sterile, it is very
  closely cultivated, and, unlike the other islands, is divided into a
  multitude of small holdings. The desire to own land is almost
  universal, and as the population numbers upwards of 380 per sq. m.,
  and the system of tenure gives rise to many disputes, the peasantry
  are almost incessantly engaged in litigation. The women, who are
  locally celebrated for their beauty, far outnumber the men, who
  emigrate at an early age to America. These emigrants usually return
  richer and better educated than the peasantry of the neighbouring
  islands. To the north of Brava lie a group of reefs among which two
  islets (Ilheus Seccos or Ilheus do Rombo) are conspicuous. These are
  usually known as the Ilheu de Dentro (Inner Islet) and the Ilheu de
  Fóra (Outer Islet). The first is used as a shelter for whaling and
  fishing vessels, and as pasturage for cattle; the second has supplied
  much guano for export.

_History_.--The earliest known discovery of the islands was made in 1456
by the Venetian captain Alvise Cadamosto (q.v.), who had entered the
service of Prince Henry the Navigator. The archipelago was granted by
King Alphonso V. of Portugal to his brother, Prince Ferdinand, whose
agents completed the work of discovery. Ferdinand was an absolute
monarch, exercising a commercial monopoly. In 1461 he sent an expedition
to recruit slaves on the coast of Guinea and thus to people the islands,
which were almost certainly uninhabited at the time. On his death in
1470 his privileges reverted to the crown, and were bestowed by John II.
on Prince Emanuel, by whose accession to the throne in 1495 the
archipelago finally became part of the royal dominions. Its population
and importance rapidly increased; its first bishop was consecrated in
1532, its first governor-general appointed about the end of the century.
It was enriched by the frequent visits of Portuguese fleets, on their
return to Europe laden with treasure from the East, and by the presence
of immigrants from Madeira, who introduced better agricultural methods
and several new industries, such as dyeing and distillation of spirits.
The failure to maintain an equal rate of progress in the 18th and 19th
centuries was due partly to drought, famine and disease--in particular,
to the famines of 1730-1733 and 1831-1833--and partly to gross
misgovernment by the Portuguese officials.

  The best general account of the islands is given in vols. xxiii. and
  xxvii. of the _Boletim_ of the Lisbon Geographical Society (1905 and
  1908), and in _Madeira, Cabo Verde, e Guiné_, by J.A. Martins (Lisbon,
  1891). Official statistics are published in Lisbon at irregular
  intervals. See also _Über die Capverden_ (Leipzig, 1884) and _Die
  Vulcane der Capverden_ (Graz, 1882), both by C. Dölter. A useful map,
  entitled _Ocean Atlantico Norte, Archipelago do Cabo Verde_, was
  issued in 1900 by the _Commissão de Cartographia_, Lisbon.



CAPGRAVE, JOHN (1393-1464), English chronicler and hagiologist, was born
at Lynn in Norfolk on the 21st of April 1393. He became a priest, took
the degree of D.D. at Oxford, where he lectured on theology, and
subsequently joined the order of Augustinian hermits. Most of his life
he spent in the house of the order at Lynn, of which he probably became
prior; he was certainly provincial of his order in England, which
involved visits to other friaries, and he made at least one journey to
Rome. He died on the 12th of August 1464.

Capgrave was an indefatigable student, and was reputed one of the most
learned men of his age. The bulk of his works are theological: sermons,
commentaries and lives of saints. His reputation as a hagiologist rests
on his _Nova legenda Angliae_, or _Catalogus_ of the English saints, but
this was no more than a recension of the _Sanctilogium_ which the
chronicler John of Tinmouth, a monk of St Albans, had completed in 1366,
which in its turn was largely borrowed from the _Sanctilogium_ of Guido,
abbot of St Denis. The _Nova legenda_ was printed by Wynkyn de Worde in
1516 and again in 1527. Capgrave's historical works are _The Chronicle
of England_ (from the Creation to 1417), written in English and
unfinished at his death, and the _Liber de illustribus Henricis_,
completed between 1446 and 1453. The latter is a collection of lives of
German emperors (918-1198), English kings (1100-1446) and other famous
Henries in various parts of the world (1031-1406). The portion devoted
to Henry VI. of England is a contemporary record, but consists mainly of
ejaculations in praise of the pious king. The accounts of the other
English Henries are transferred from various well-known chroniclers. The
_Chronicle_ was edited for the "Rolls" Series by Francis Charles
Hingeston (London, 1858); the _Liber de illustrious Henricis_ was edited
(London, 1858) for the same series by F.C. Hingeston, who published an
English translation the same year. The editing of both the works is very
uncritical and bad.

  See Potthast, _Bibliotheka Med. Aev_.; and U. Chevalier, _Répertoire
  des sources hist. Bio-bibliographie, s.v._



CAP HAITIEN, CAPE HAÏTIEN or HAYTIEN, a seaport of Haiti West Indies.
Pop. about 15,000. It is situated on the north coast, 90 m. N. of Port
au Prince, in 19° 46' N. and 72° 14' W. Its original Indian name was
Guarico, and it has been known, at various times, as Cabo Santo, Cap
Français and Cape Henri, while throughout Haiti it is always called Le
Cap. It is the most picturesque town in the republic, and the second in
importance. On three sides it is hemmed in by lofty mountains, while on
the fourth it overlooks a safe and commodious harbour. Under the French
rule it was the capital of the colony, and its splendour, wealth and
luxury earned for it the title of the "Paris of Haiti." It was then the
see of an archbishop and possessed a large and flourishing university.
The last remains of its former glory were destroyed by the earthquake of
1842 and the British bombardment of 1865. Although now but a collection
of squalid wooden huts, with here and there a well-built warehouse, it
is the centre of a thriving district and does a large export trade. It
was founded by the Spaniards about the middle of the 17th century, and
in 1687 received a large French colony. In 1695 it was taken and burned
by the British, and in 1791 it suffered the same fate at the hands of
Toussaint L'Ouverture. It then became the capital of King Henri
Christophe's dominions, but since his fall has suffered severely in
numerous revolutions.



CAPILLARY ACTION.[1] A tube, the bore of which is so small that it will
only admit a hair (Lat. _capilla_), is called a capillary tube. When
such a tube of glass, open at both ends, is placed vertically with its
lower end immersed in water, the water is observed to rise in the tube,
and to stand within the tube at a higher level than the water outside.
The action between the capillary tube and the water has been called
capillary action, and the name has been extended to many other phenomena
which have been found to depend on properties of liquids and solids
similar to those which cause water to rise in capillary tubes.

The forces which are concerned in these phenomena are those which act
between neighbouring parts of the same substance, and which are called
forces of cohesion, and those which act between portions of matter of
different kinds, which are called forces of adhesion. These forces are
quite insensible between two portions of matter separated by any
distance which we can directly measure. It is only when the distance
becomes exceedingly small that these forces become perceptible. G.H.
Quincke (_Pogg. Ann._ cxxxvii. p. 402) made experiments to determine the
greatest distance at which the effect of these forces is sensible, and
he found for various substances distances about the twenty-thousandth
part of a millimetre.

_Historical_.--According to J.C. Poggendorff (_Pogg. Ann._ ci. p. 551),
Leonardo da Vinci must be considered as the discoverer of capillary
phenomena, but the first accurate observations of the capillary action
of tubes and glass plates were made by Francis Hawksbee
(_Physico-Mechanical Experiments_, London, 1709, pp. 139-169; and _Phil.
Trans._, 1711 and 1712), who ascribed the action to an attraction
between the glass and the liquid. He observed that the effect was the
same in thick tubes as in thin, and concluded that only those particles
of the glass which are very near the surface have any influence on the
phenomenon. Dr James Jurin (_Phil. Trans._, 1718, p. 739, and 1719, p.
1083) showed that the height at which the liquid is suspended depends on
the section of the tube at the surface of the liquid, and is independent
of the form of the lower part of the tube. He considered that the
suspension of the liquid is due to "the attraction of the periphery or
section of the surface of the tube to which the upper surface of the
water is contiguous and coheres." From this he showed that the rise of
the liquid in tubes of the same substance is inversely proportional to
their radii. Sir Isaac Newton devoted the 31st query in the last edition
of his _Opticks_ to molecular forces, and instanced several examples of
the cohesion of liquids, such as the suspension of mercury in a
barometer tube at more than double the height at which it usually
stands. This arises from its adhesion to the tube, and the upper part of
the mercury sustains a considerable tension, or negative pressure,
without the separation of its parts. He considered the capillary
phenomena to be of the same kind, but his explanation is not
sufficiently explicit with respect to the nature and the limits of the
action of the attractive force.

It is to be observed that, while these early speculators ascribe the
phenomena to attraction, they do not distinctly assert that this
attraction is sensible only at insensible distances, and that for all
distances which we can directly measure the force is altogether
insensible. The idea of such forces, however, had been distinctly formed
by Newton, who gave the first example of the calculation of the effect
of such forces in his theorem on the alteration of the path of a
light-corpuscle when it enters or leaves a dense body.

Alexis Claude Clairault (_Théorie de la figure de la terre_, Paris,
1808, pp. 105, 128) appears to have been the first to show the necessity
of taking account of the attraction between the parts of the fluid
itself in order to explain the phenomena. He did not, however, recognize
the fact that the distance at which the attraction is sensible is not
only small but altogether insensible. J.A. von Segner (_Comment. Soc.
Reg. Götting_, i. (1751) p. 301) introduced the very important idea of
the surface-tension of liquids, which he ascribed to attractive forces,
the sphere of whose action is so small "ut nullo adhuc sensu percipi
potuerit." In attempting to calculate the effect of this surface-tension
in determining the form of a drop of the liquid, Segner took account of
the curvature of a meridian section of the drop, but neglected the
effect of the curvature in a plane at right angles to this section.

The idea of surface-tension introduced by Segner had a most important
effect on the subsequent development of the theory. We may regard it as
a physical fact established by experiment in the same way as the laws of
the elasticity of solid bodies. We may investigate the forces which act
between finite portions of a liquid in the same way as we investigate
the forces which act between finite portions of a solid. The experiments
on solids lead to certain laws of elasticity expressed in terms of
coefficients, the values of which can be determined only by experiments
on each particular substance. Various attempts have also been made to
deduce these laws from particular hypotheses as to the action between
the molecules of the elastic substance. We may therefore regard the
theory of elasticity as consisting of two parts. The first part
establishes the laws of the elasticity of a finite portion of the solid
subjected to a homogeneous strain, and deduces from these laws the
equations of the equilibrium and motion of a body subjected to any
forces and displacements. The second part endeavours to deduce the facts
of the elasticity of a finite portion of the substance from hypotheses
as to the motion of its constituent molecules and the forces acting
between them. In like manner we may by experiment ascertain the general
fact that the surface of a liquid is in a state of tension similar to
that of a membrane stretched equally in all directions, and prove that
this tension depends only on the nature and temperature of the liquid
and not on its form, and from this as a secondary physical principle we
may deduce all the phenomena of capillary action. This is one step of
the investigation. The next step is to deduce this surface-tension from
a hypothesis as to the molecular constitution of the liquid and of the
bodies that surround it. The scientific importance of this step is to be
measured by the degree of insight which it affords or promises into the
molecular constitution of real bodies by the suggestion of experiments
by which we may discriminate between rival molecular theories.

In 1756 J.G. Leidenfrost (_De aquae communis nonnullis qualitatibus
tractatus_, Duisburg) showed that a soap-bubble tends to contract, so
that if the tube with which it was blown is left open the bubble will
diminish in size and will expel through the tube the air which it
contains. He attributed this force, however, not to any general property
of the surfaces of liquids, but to the fatty part of the soap which he
supposed to separate itself from the other constituents of the solution,
and to form a thin skin on the outer face of the bubble.

In 1787 Gaspard Monge (_Mémoires de l'Acad. des Sciences_, 1787, p. 506)
asserted that "by supposing the adherence of the particles of a fluid to
have a sensible effect only at the surface itself and in the direction
of the surface it would be easy to determine the curvature of the
surfaces of fluids in the neighbourhood of the solid boundaries which
contain them; that these surfaces would be _linteariae_ of which the
tension, constant in all directions, would be everywhere equal to the
adherence of two particles, and the phenomena of capillary tubes would
then present nothing which could not be determined by analysis." He
applied this principle of surface-tension to the explanation of the
apparent attractions and repulsions between bodies floating on a liquid.

In 1802 John Leslie (_Phil. Mag._, 1802, vol. xiv. p. 193) gave the
first correct explanation of the rise of a liquid in a tube by
considering the effect of the attraction of the solid on the very thin
stratum of the liquid in contact with it. He did not, like the earlier
speculators, suppose this attraction to act in an upward direction so as
to support the fluid directly. He showed that the attraction is
everywhere normal to the surface of the solid. The direct effect of the
attraction is to increase the pressure of the stratum of the fluid in
contact with the solid, so as to make it greater than the pressure in
the interior of the fluid. The result of this pressure if unopposed is
to cause this stratum to spread itself over the surface of the solid as
a drop of water is observed to do when placed on a clean horizontal
glass plate, and this even when gravity opposes the action, as when the
drop is placed on the under surface of the plate. Hence a glass tube
plunged into water would become wet all over were it not that the
ascending liquid film carries up a quantity of other liquid which
coheres to it, so that when it has ascended to a certain height the
weight of the column balances the force by which the film spreads itself
over the glass. This explanation of the action of the solid is
equivalent to that by which Gauss afterwards supplied the defect of the
theory of Laplace, except that, not being expressed in terms of
mathematical symbols, it does not indicate the mathematical relation
between the attraction of individual particles and the final result.
Leslie's theory was afterwards treated according to Laplace's
mathematical methods by James Ivory in the article on capillary action,
under "Fluids, Elevation of," in the supplement to the fourth edition of
the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_, published in 1819.

In 1804 Thomas Young (Essay on the "Cohesion of Fluids," _Phil. Trans._,
1805, p. 65) founded the theory of capillary phenomena on the principle
of surface-tension. He also observed the constancy of the angle of
contact of a liquid surface with a solid, and showed how from these two
principles to deduce the phenomena of capillary action. His essay
contains the solution of a great number of cases, including most of
those afterwards solved by Laplace, but his methods of demonstration,
though always correct, and often extremely elegant, are sometimes
rendered obscure by his scrupulous avoidance of mathematical symbols.
Having applied the secondary principle of surface-tension to the various
particular cases of capillary action, Young proceeded to deduce this
surface-tension from ulterior principles. He supposed the particles to
act on one another with two different kinds of forces, one of which, the
attractive force of cohesion, extends to particles at a greater distance
than those to which the repulsive force is confined. He further supposed
that the attractive force is constant throughout the minute distance to
which it extends, but that the repulsive force increases rapidly as the
distance diminishes. He thus showed that at a curved part of the
surface, a superficial particle would be urged towards the centre of
curvature of the surface, and he gave reasons for concluding that this
force is proportional to the sum of the curvatures of the surface in two
normal planes at right angles to each other.

The subject was next taken up by Pierre Simon Laplace (_Mécanique
céleste_, supplement to the tenth book, pub. in 1806). His results are
in many respects identical with those of Young, but his methods of
arriving at them are very different, being conducted entirely by
mathematical calculations. The form into which he threw his
investigation seems to have deterred many able physicists from the
inquiry into the ulterior cause of capillary phenomena, and induced them
to rest content with deriving them from the fact of surface-tension. But
for those who wish to study the molecular constitution of bodies it is
necessary to study the effect of forces which are sensible only at
insensible distances; and Laplace has furnished us with an example of
the method of this study which has never been surpassed. Laplace
investigated the force acting on the fluid contained in an infinitely
slender canal normal to the surface of the fluid arising from the
attraction of the parts of the fluid outside the canal. He thus found
for the pressure at a point in the interior of the fluid an expression
of the form

  p = K + ½H(1/R + 1/R')

where K is a constant pressure, probably very large, which, however,
does not influence capillary phenomena, and therefore cannot be
determined from observation of such phenomena; H is another constant on
which all capillary phenomena depend; and R and R' are the radii of
curvature of any two normal sections of the surface at right angles to
each other.

In the first part of our own investigation we shall adhere to the
symbols used by Laplace, as we shall find that an accurate knowledge of
the physical interpretation of these symbols is necessary for the
further investigation of the subject. In the _Supplement to the Theory
of Capillary Action_, Laplace deduced the equation of the surface of the
fluid from the condition that the resultant force on a particle at the
surface must be normal to the surface. His explanation, however, of the
rise of a liquid in a tube is based on the _assumption_ of the constancy
of the angle of contact for the same solid and fluid, and of this he has
nowhere given a satisfactory proof. In this supplement Laplace gave many
important applications of the theory, and compared the results with the
experiments of Louis Joseph Gay Lussac.

The next great step in the treatment of the subject was made by C.F.
Gauss (_Principia generalia Theoriae Figurae Fluidorum in statu
Aequilibrii_, Göttingen, 1830, or _Werke_, v. 29, Göttingen, 1867). The
principle which he adopted is that of virtual velocities, a principle
which under his hands was gradually transforming itself into what is now
known as the principle of the conservation of energy. Instead of
calculating the direction and magnitude of the resultant force on each
particle arising from the action of neighbouring particles, he formed a
single expression which is the aggregate of all the potentials arising
from the mutual action between pairs of particles. This expression has
been called the force-function. With its sign reversed it is now called
the potential energy of the system. It consists of three parts, the
first depending on the action of gravity, the second on the mutual
action between the particles of the fluid, and the third on the action
between the particles of the fluid and the particles of a solid or fluid
in contact with it.

The condition of equilibrium is that this expression (which we may for
the sake of distinctness call the potential energy) shall be a minimum.
This condition when worked out gives not only the equation of the free
surface in the form already established by Laplace, but the conditions
of the angle of contact of this surface with the surface of a solid.

Gauss thus supplied the principal defect in the great work of Laplace.
He also pointed out more distinctly the nature of the assumptions which
we must make with respect to the law of action of the particles in order
to be consistent with observed phenomena. He did not, however, enter
into the explanation of particular phenomena, as this had been done
already by Laplace, but he pointed out to physicists the advantages of
the method of Segner and Gay Lussac, afterwards carried out by Quincke,
of measuring the dimensions of large drops of mercury on a horizontal or
slightly concave surface, and those of large bubbles of air in
transparent liquids resting against the under side of a horizontal plate
of a substance wetted by the liquid.

In 1831 Siméon Denis Poisson published his _Nouvelle Théorie de l'action
capillaire_. He maintained that there is a rapid variation of density
near the surface of a liquid, and he gave very strong reasons, which
have been only strengthened by subsequent discoveries, for believing
that this is the case. He proceeded to an investigation of the
equilibrium of a fluid on the hypothesis of uniform density, and arrived
at the conclusion that on this hypothesis none of the observed capillary
phenomena would take place, and that, therefore, Laplace's theory, in
which the density is supposed uniform, is not only insufficient but
erroneous. In particular he maintained that the constant pressure K,
which occurs in Laplace's theory, and which on that theory is very
large, must be in point of fact very small, but the equation of
equilibrium from which he concluded this is itself defective. Laplace
assumed that the liquid has uniform density, and that the attraction of
its molecules extends to a finite though insensible distance. On these
assumptions his results are certainly right, and are confirmed by the
independent method of Gauss, so that the objections raised against them
by Poisson fall to the ground. But whether the assumption of uniform
density be physically correct is a very different question, and Poisson
rendered good service to science in showing how to carry on the
investigation on the hypothesis that the density very near the surface
is different from that in the interior of the fluid.

The result, however, of Poisson's investigation is practically
equivalent to that already obtained by Laplace. In both theories the
equation of the liquid surface is the same, involving a constant H,
which can be determined only by experiment. The only difference is in
the manner in which this quantity H depends on the law of the molecular
forces and the law of density near the surface of the fluid, and as
these laws are unknown to us we cannot obtain any test to discriminate
between the two theories.

We have now described the principal forms of the theory of capillary
action during its earlier development. In more recent times the method
of Gauss has been modified so as to take account of the variation of
density near the surface, and its language has been translated in terms
of the modern doctrine of the conservation of energy.[2]

J.A.F. Plateau (_Statique expérimentale et théorique des liquides_), who
made elaborate study of the phenomena of surface-tension, adopted the
following method of getting rid of the effects of gravity. He formed a
mixture of alcohol and water of the same density as olive oil, and then
introduced a quantity of oil into the mixture. It assumes the form of a
sphere under the action of surface-tension alone. He then, by means of
rings of iron-wire, disks and other contrivances, altered the form of
certain parts of the surface of the oil. The free portions of the
surface then assume new forms depending on the equilibrium of
surface-tension. In this way he produced a great many of the forms of
equilibrium of a liquid under the action of surface-tension alone, and
compared them with the results of mathematical investigation. He also
greatly facilitated the study of liquid films by showing how to form a
liquid, the films of which will last for twelve or even for twenty-four
hours. The debt which science owes to Plateau is not diminished by the
fact that, while investigating these beautiful phenomena, he never
himself saw them, having lost his sight in about 1840.

G.L. van der Mensbrugghe (_Mém. de l'Acad. Roy. de Belgique_, xxxvii.,
1873) devised a great number of beautiful illustrations of the
phenomena of surface-tension, and showed their connexion with the
experiments of Charles Tomlinson on the figures formed by oils dropped
on the clean surface of water.

Athanase Dupré in his 5th, 6th and 7th Memoirs on the Mechanical Theory
of Heat (_Ann. de Chimie et de Physique_, 1866-1868) applied the
principles of thermodynamics to capillary phenomena, and the experiments
of his son Paul were exceedingly ingenious and well devised, tracing the
influence of surface-tension in a great number of very different
circumstances, and deducing from independent methods the numerical value
of the surface-tension. The experimental evidence which Dupré obtained
bearing on the molecular structure of liquids must be very valuable,
even if our present opinions on this subject should turn out to be
erroneous.

F.H.R. Lüdtge (_Pogg. Ann._ cxxxix. p. 620) experimented on liquid
films, and showed how a film of a liquid of high surface-tension is
replaced by a film of lower surface-tension. He also experimented on the
effects of the thickness of the film, and came to the conclusion that
the thinner a film is, the greater is its tension. This result, however,
was tested by Van der Mensbrugghe, who found that the tension is the
same for the same liquid whatever be the thickness, as long as the film
does not burst. [The continued coexistence of various thicknesses, as
evidenced by the colours in the same film, affords an instantaneous
proof of this conclusion.] The phenomena of very thin liquid films
deserve the most careful study, for it is in this way that we are most
likely to obtain evidence by which we may test the theories of the
molecular structure of liquids.

Sir W. Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin) investigated the effect of the
curvature of the surface of a liquid on the thermal equilibrium between
the liquid and the vapour in contact with it. He also calculated the
effect of surface-tension on the propagation of waves on the surface of
a liquid, and determined the minimum velocity of a wave, and the
velocity of the wind when it is just sufficient to disturb the surface
of still water.


THEORY OF CAPILLARY ACTION

When two different fluids are placed in contact, they may either diffuse
into each other or remain separate. In some cases diffusion takes place
to a limited extent, after which the resulting mixtures do not mix with
each other. The same substance may be able to exist in two different
states at the same temperature and pressure, as when water and its
saturated vapour are contained in the same vessel. The conditions under
which the thermal and mechanical equilibrium of two fluids, two
mixtures, or the same substance in two physical states in contact with
each other, is possible belong to thermodynamics. All that we have to
observe at present is that, in the cases in which the fluids do not mix
of themselves, the potential energy of the system must be greater when
the fluids are mixed than when they are separate.

It is found by experiment that it is only very close to the bounding
surface of a liquid that the forces arising from the mutual action of
its parts have any resultant effect on one of its particles. The
experiments of Quincke and others seem to show that the extreme range of
the forces which produce capillary action lies between a thousandth and
a twenty-thousandth part of a millimetre.

We shall use the symbol [epsilon] to denote this extreme range, beyond
which the action of these forces may be regarded as insensible. If [chi]
denotes the potential energy of unit of mass of the substance, we may
treat [chi] as sensibly constant except within a distance [epsilon] of
the bounding surface of the fluid. In the interior of the fluid it has
the uniform value [chi]0. In like manner the density, [rho], is sensibly
equal to the constant quantity [rho]0, which is its value in the
interior of the liquid, except within a distance [epsilon] of the
bounding surface. Hence if V is the volume of a mass M of liquid bounded
by a surface whose area is S, the integral
       _ _ _
      / / /
  M = | | | [rho] dx dy dz,         (1)
     _/_/_/

where the integration is to be extended throughout the volume V, may be
divided into two parts by considering separately the thin shell or skin
extending from the outer surface to a depth [epsilon], within which the
density and other properties of the liquid vary with the depth, and the
interior portion of the liquid within which its properties are constant.

Since [epsilon] is a line of insensible magnitude compared with the
dimensions of the mass of liquid and the principal radii of curvature of
its surface, the volume of the shell whose surface is S and thickness
[epsilon] will be S[epsilon], and that of the interior space will be
V - S[epsilon].

  If we suppose a normal [nu] less than [epsilon] to be drawn from the
  surface S into the liquid, we may divide the shell into elementary
  shells whose thickness is d[nu], in each of which the density and
  other properties of the liquid will be constant.

  The volume of one of these shells will be Sd[nu]. Its mass will be
  S[rho]d[nu]. The mass of the whole shell will therefore be
       _
      / [epsilon]
    S |        [ro]d[nu],
     _/0

  and that of the interior part of the liquid (V - S[epsilon])[rho]0. We
  thus find for the whole mass of the liquid
                      _
                     / [epsilon]
    M = V [rho]0 - S |     ([rho]0 - [rho]) d[nu].       (2)
                    _/0

  To find the potential energy we have to integrate
         _ _ _
        / / /
    E = | | | [chi][rho] dx dy dz                        (3)
       _/_/_/


  Substituting [chi][rho] for [rho] in the process we have just gone
  through, we find
                           _
                          / [epsilon]
    E = V[chi]0[rho]0 - S |     ([chi]0[rho]0 - [chi][rho]) d[nu].  (4)
                         _/0

  Multiplying equation (2) by [chi]0, and subtracting it from (4),
                     _
                    / [epsilon]
    E - M[chi]0 = S |     ([chi] - [chi]0) d[nu].       (5)
                   _/0

  In this expression M and [chi]0 are both constant, so that the
  variation of the right-hand side of the equation is the same as that
  of the energy E, and expresses that part of the energy which depends
  on the area of the bounding surface of the liquid. We may call this
  the surface energy.

  The symbol [chi] expresses the energy of unit of mass of the liquid at
  a depth [nu] within the bounding surface. When the liquid is in
  contact with a rare medium, such as its own vapour or any other gas,
  [chi] is greater than [chi]0, and the surface energy is positive. By
  the principle of the conservation of energy, any displacement of the
  liquid by which its energy is diminished will tend to take place of
  itself. Hence if the energy is the greater, the greater the area of
  the exposed surface, the liquid will tend to move in such a way as to
  diminish the area of the exposed surface, or, in other words, the
  exposed surface will tend to diminish if it can do so consistently
  with the other conditions. This tendency of the surface to contract
  itself is called the surface-tension of liquids.

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.]

       +-----------------------+
       |///////////////////////|
       |///////////////////////|
       |//A+---------------+A//|
       |///|               |///|
       |///|               |///|
    B =========================== B
       |///|C             C|///|
       +---+               +---+

  Dupré has described an arrangement by which the surface-tension of a
  liquid film may be illustrated. A piece of sheet metal is cut out in
  the form AA (fig. 1). A very fine slip of metal is laid on it in the
  position BB, and the whole is dipped into a solution of soap, or M.
  Plateau's glycerine mixture. When it is taken out the rectangle AACC
  if filled up by a liquid film. This film, however, tends to contract
  on itself, and the loose strip of metal BB will, if it is let go, be
  drawn up towards AA, provided it is sufficiently light and smooth.

  Let T be the surface energy per unit of area; then the energy of a
  surface of area S will be ST. If, in the rectangle AACC, AA = a, and
  AC = b, its area is S = ab, and its energy Tab. Hence if F is the
  force by which the slip BB is pulled towards AA,

         d
    F = --- Tab = Ta,          (6)
        db

  or the force arising from the surface-tension acting on a length a of
  the strip is Ta, so that T represents the surface-tension acting
  transversely on every unit of length of the periphery of the liquid
  surface. Hence if we write
         _
        / [epsilon]
    T = |     ([chi] - [chi]0) [rho] d[nu],       (7)
       _/0

  we may define T either as the surface-energy per unit of area, or as
  the surface-tension per unit of contour, for the numerical values of
  these two quantities are equal.

  If the liquid is bounded by a dense substance, whether liquid or
  solid, the value of [chi] may be different from its value when the
  liquid has a free surface. If the liquid is in contact with another
  liquid, let us distinguish quantities belonging to the two liquids by
  suffixes. We shall then have
                        _
                       / [epsilon]1
    E1 - M1[chi]01 = S |     ([chi]1 - [chi]01) [rho]1 d[nu]1,     (8)
                      _/ 0
                        _
                       / [epsilon]2
    E2 - M2[chi]02 = S |     ([chi]2 - [chi]02) [rho]2 d[nu]2.     (9)
                      _/ 0

  Adding these expressions, and dividing the second member by S, we
  obtain for the tension of the surface of contact of the two liquids
            _                                    _
           / [epsilon]1                         / [epsilon]2
    T1·2 = | ([chi]1 - [chi]01) [rho]1 d[nu]1 + | ([chi]2 - [chi]02) [rho]2 d[nu]2.   (10)
          _/0                                  _/0

  If this quantity is positive, the surface of contact will tend to
  contract, and the liquids will remain distinct. If, however, it were
  negative, the displacement of the liquids which tends to enlarge the
  surface of contact would be aided by the molecular forces, so that the
  liquids, if not kept separate by gravity, would at length become
  thoroughly mixed. No instance, however, of a phenomenon of this kind
  has been discovered, for those liquids which mix of themselves do so
  by the process of diffusion, which is a molecular motion, and not by
  the spontaneous puckering and replication of the bounding surface as
  would be the case if T were negative.

  It is probable, however, that there are many cases in which the
  integral belonging to the less dense fluid is negative. If the denser
  body be solid we can often demonstrate this; for the liquid tends to
  spread itself over the surface of the solid, so as to increase the
  area of the surface of contact, even although in so doing it is
  obliged to increase the free surface in opposition to the
  surface-tension. Thus water spreads itself out on a clean surface of
  glass. This shows that
      _
     / [epsilon]
     | ([chi] - [chi]0) [rho] d[nu]
    _/0

  must be negative for water in contact with glass.

_On the Tension of Liquid Films._--The method already given for the
investigation of the surface-tension of a liquid, all whose dimensions
are sensible, fails in the case of a liquid film such as a soap-bubble.
In such a film it is possible that no part of the liquid may be so far
from the surface as to have the potential and density corresponding to
what we have called the interior of a liquid mass, and measurements of
the tension of the film when drawn out to different degrees of thinness
may possibly lead to an estimate of the range of the molecular forces,
or at least of the depth within a liquid mass, at which its properties
become sensibly uniform. We shall therefore indicate a method of
investigating the tension of such films.

  Let S be the area of the film, M its mass, and E its energy; [sigma]
  the mass, and e the energy of unit of area; then

    M = S[sigma],        (11)

    E = Se.              (12)

  Let us now suppose that by some change in the form of the boundary of
  the film its area is changed from S to S + dS. If its tension is T the
  work required to effect this increase of surface will be TdS, and the
  energy of the film will be increased by this amount. Hence

    TdS = dE = Sde + edS.      (13)

  But since M is constant,

    dM = Sd[sigma] + [sigma]dS = 0.    (14)

  Eliminating dS from equations (13) and (14), and dividing by S, we
  find

                      de
    T = e - [sigma]--------,      (15)
                   d[sigma]

  In this expression [sigma] denotes the mass of unit of area of the
  film, and e the energy of unit of area.

  If we take the axis of z normal to either surface of the film, the
  radius of curvature of which we suppose to be very great compared with
  its thickness c, and if [rho] is the density, and [chi] the energy of
  unit of mass at depth z, then
               _
              / c
    [sigma] = |   [rho] dz,        (16)
             _/0

  and
         _
        / c
    e = |  [chi] [rho] dz.         (17)
       _/0

  Both [rho] and [chi] are functions of z, the value of which remains
  the same when z - c is substituted for z. If the thickness of the film
  is greater than 2 [epsilon], there will be a stratum of thickness c -
  2 [epsilon] in the middle of the film, within which the values of
  [rho] and [chi] will be [rho]0 and [chi]0. In the two strata on either
  side of this the law, according to which [rho] and [chi] depend on the
  depth, will be the same as in a liquid mass of large dimensions. Hence
  in this case
                                           _
                                          / [epsilon]
    [sigma] = (c - 2[epsilon]) [rho]0 + 2 | [rho]d[nu],       (18)
                                         _/0
                                           _
                                          / [epsilon]
    e = (c - 2[epsilon]) [chi]0[rho]0 + 2 | [chi][rho]d[nu],  (19)
                                         _/ 0

    d[sigma]             de                       de
    -------- = [rho]0,   -- = [chi]0[rho]0, .: -------- = [chi]0,
       dc                dc                    d[sigma]
           _                            _
          / [epsilon]                  / [epsilon]
    T = 2 |  [chi][rho]d[nu] - 2[chi]0 | [rho]d[nu] =
         _/0                          _/ 0
                   _
                  / [epsilon]
                2 |  ([chi] - [chi]0)[rho]d[nu].      (20)
                 _/0

  Hence the tension of a thick film is equal to the sum of the tensions
  of its two surfaces as already calculated (equation 7). On the
  hypothesis of uniform density we shall find that this is true for
  films whose thickness exceeds [epsilon].

  The symbol [chi] is defined as the energy of unit of mass of the
  substance. A knowledge of the absolute value of this energy is not
  required, since in every expression in which it occurs it is under the
  form [chi] - [chi]0, that is to say, the difference between the
  energy in two different states. The only cases, however, in which we
  have experimental values of this quantity are when the substance is
  either liquid and surrounded by similar liquid, or gaseous and
  surrounded by similar gas. It is impossible to make direct
  measurements of the properties of particles of the substance within
  the insensible distance [epsilon] of the bounding surface.

  When a liquid is in thermal and dynamical equilibrium with its vapour,
  then if [rho]' and [chi]' are the values of [rho] and [chi] for the
  vapour, and [rho]0 and [chi]0 those for the liquid,

    [chi]' - [chi]0 = JL - p(1/[rho]' - 1/[rho]0),     (21)

  where J is the dynamical equivalent of heat, L is the latent heat of
  unit of mass of the vapour, and p is the pressure. At points in the
  liquid very near its surface it is probable that [chi] is greater than
  [chi]0, and at points in the gas very near the surface of the liquid
  it is probable that [chi] is less than [chi]', but this has not as yet
  been ascertained experimentally. We shall therefore endeavour to apply
  to this subject the methods used in Thermodynamics, and where these
  fail us we shall have recourse to the hypotheses of molecular physics.

  We have next to determine the value of [chi] in terms of the action
  between one particle and another. Let us suppose that the force
  between two particles m and m' at the distance f is

    F = mm' ([phi](f) + Cf^-2),      (22)

  being reckoned positive when the force is attractive. The actual force
  between the particles arises in part from their mutual gravitation,
  which is inversely as the square of the distance. This force is
  expressed by mm' Cf^-2. It is easy to show that a force subject to
  this law would not account for capillary action. We shall, therefore,
  in what follows, consider only that part of the force which depends on
  [phi](f), where [phi](f) is a function of f which is insensible for
  all sensible values of f, but which becomes sensible and even
  enormously great when f is exceedingly small.

  If we next introduce a new function of f and write
      _
     / [oo]
     |  [phi](f)df = [Pi](f),      (23)
    _/f

  then mm' [Pi](f) will represent--(1) The work done by the attractive
  force on the particle m, while it is brought from an infinite distance
  from m' to the distance f from m'; or (2) The attraction of a particle
  m on a narrow straight rod resolved in the direction of the length of
  the rod, one extremity of the rod being at a distance f from m, and
  the other at an infinite distance, the mass of unit of length of the
  rod being m'. The function [Pi](f) is also insensible for sensible
  values of f, but for insensible values of f it may become sensible and
  even very great.

  If we next write
      _
     / [oo]
     |  f[Pi](f)df = [psi](z),        (24)
    _/z

  then 2[pi]m[sigma][psi](z) will represent--(1) The work done by the
  attractive force while a particle m is brought from an infinite
  distance to a distance z from an infinitely thin stratum of the
  substance whose mass per unit of area is [sigma]; (2) The attraction
  of a particle m placed at a distance z from the plane surface of an
  infinite solid whose density is [sigma].

  [Illustration: FIG. 2]

  Let us examine the case in which the particle m is placed at a
  distance z from a curved stratum of the substance, whose principal
  radii of curvature are R1 and R2. Let P (fig. 2) be the particle and
  PB a normal to the surface. Let the plane of the paper be a normal
  section of the surface of the stratum at the point B, making an angle
  [omega] with the section whose radius of curvature is R1. Then if O is
  the centre of curvature in the plane of the paper, and BO = u,

    1    cos²[omega]   sin²[omega]
    -- = ----------- + -----------.       (25)
    u        R1            R2

  Let POQ = [theta], PO = r, PQ = f, BP = z,

    f² = u² + r² - 2ur cos[theta].        (26)

  The element of the stratum at Q may be expressed by

    [sigma]u² sin[theta] d[theta] d[omega],

  or expressing d[Greek: th] in terms of df by (26),

    [sigma]ur^-1 f df d[omega].

  Multiplying this by m and by [pi](f), we obtain for the work done by
  the attraction of this element when m is brought from an infinite
  distance to P1,

    m[sigma]ur^-1 f[Pi](f)dfd[omega].

  Integrating with respect to f from f = z to f = a, where a is a line
  very great compared with the extreme range of the molecular force, but
  very small compared with either of the radii of curvature, we obtain
  for the work
      _
     /
     | m[sigma]ur^-1 ([psi](z) - [psi](a))d[omega],
    _/

  and since [psi](a) is an insensible quantity we may omit it. We may
  also write

    ur^-1 = 1 + zu^-1 + &c.,

  since z is very small compared with u, and expressing u in terms of
  [omega] by (25), we find
      _                   _                                   _
     / 2[pi]             |        /cos²[omega]   sin²[omega]\  |
     |  m[sigma][psi](z) | 1 + z (------------ + ----------- ) | d[omega] =
    _/0                  |_       \    R1            R2     / _|
                                          _                   _
                                         |     1    /1    1 \  |
                   2[pi]m[sigma][psi](z) | 1 + --z ( -- + -- ) |.
                                         |_    2    \R1   R2/ _|

  This then expresses the work done by the attractive forces when a
  particle m is brought from an infinite distance to the point P at a
  distance z from a stratum whose surface-density is [sigma], and whose
  principal radii of curvature are R1 and R2.

  To find the work done when m is brought to the point P in the
  neighbourhood of a solid body, the density of which is a function of
  the depth [nu] below the surface, we have only to write instead of
  [sigma][rho]dz, and to integrate
            _                                      _
           / [oo]                      /1    1 \  / [oo]
    2[pi]m |  [rho][psi](z)dz + [pi]m ( -- + -- ) |  [rho]z[psi](z)dz,
          _/z                          \R1   R2/ _/z

  where, in general, we must suppose [rho] a function of z. This
  expression, when integrated, gives (1) the work done on a particle m
  while it is brought from an infinite distance to the point P, or (2)
  the attraction on a long slender column normal to the surface and
  terminating at P, the mass of unit of length of the column being m. In
  the form of the theory given by Laplace, the density of the liquid was
  supposed to be uniform. Hence if we write
               _                             _
              / [oo]                        / [oo]
    K = 2[pi] |  [psi](z)dz,      H = 2[pi] |  z[psi](z)dz,
             _/0                           _/0

  the pressure of a column _of the fluid itself_ terminating at the
  surface will be

    [rho]² {K + ½H(1/R1 + 1/R2)},

  and the work done by the attractive forces when a particle m is
  brought to the surface of the fluid from an infinite distance will be

    m[rho] {K + ½H(1/R1 + 1/R2)},

  If we write
      _
     / oo
     | [psi](z)dz = [theta](z),
    _/z

  then 2[pi]m[rho][theta](z) will express the work done by-the
  attractive forces, while a particle m is brought from an infinite
  distance to a distance z from the plane surface of a mass of the
  substance of density [rho] and infinitely thick. The function
  [theta](z) is insensible for all sensible values of z. For insensible
  values it may become sensible, but it must remain finite even when z =
  0, in which case [theta](0) = K.

  If [chi]' is the potential energy of unit of mass of the substance in
  vapour, then at a distance z from the plane surface of the liquid

    [chi] = [chi]' - 2[pi][rho][theta](z).

  At the surface

    [chi] = [chi]' - 2[pi][rho][theta](0).

  At a distance z within the surface

    [chi] = [chi]' - 4[pi][rho][theta](0) + 2[pi][rho][theta](z).

  If the liquid forms a stratum of thickness c, then

    [chi] = [chi]' - 4[pi][rho][theta](0) + 2[pi][rho][theta](z) +

          + 2[pi][rho][theta](z - c).

  The surface-density of this stratum is [sigma] = c[rho]. The energy
  per unit of area is
         _
        / c
    e = | [chi][rho]dz = c[rho]([chi]' - 4[pi][rho][theta](0)) +
       _/0
                       _                            _
                      / c                          / c
        + 2[pi][rho]² | [theta](z)dz + 2[pi][rho]² | [theta](z - c)dz.
                     _/0                          _/0

  Since the two sides of the stratum are similar the last two terms are
  equal, and
                                                             _
                                                            / c
    e = c[rho]([chi]' - 4[pi][rho][theta](0)) + 4[pi][rho]² | [theta](z)dz.
                                                           _/0

  Differentiating with respect to c, we find

    d[sigma]          de
    -------- = [rho], -- = [rho]([chi]' - 4[pi][rho][theta](0)) + 4[pi][rho]²[theta](c).
       dc             dc

  Hence the surface-tension
                                                _
                       de                   /  / c                         \
    T = e - [sigma] -------- = 4[pi][rho]² (   | [theta](z)dz - c[theta](c) ).
                    d[sigma]                \ _/0                          /

  Integrating the first term within brackets by parts, it becomes
                                 _
                                / c   d[theta]
    c[theta](c) - 0[theta](0) - |   z -------- dz.
                               _/0       dz

  Remembering that c(0) is a finite quantity, and that

    d[theta]
    -------- = -[psi](z),
       dz

  we find
                     _
                    / c
    T = 4[pi][rho]² |  z[psi](z)dz.        (27)
                   _/0

  When c is greater than [epsilon] this is equivalent to 2H in the
  equation of Laplace. Hence the tension is the same for all films
  thicker than [epsilon], the range of the molecular forces. For thinner
  films

    dT
    -- = 4[pi][rho]²c[psi](c).
    dc

  Hence if [psi](c) is positive, the tension and the thickness will
  increase together. Now 2[pi]m[rho][psi](c) represents the attraction
  between a particle m and the plane surface of an infinite mass of the
  liquid, when the distance of the particle outside the surface is c.
  Now, the force between the particle and the liquid is certainly, on
  the whole, attractive; but if between any two small values of c it
  should be repulsive, then for films whose thickness lies between these
  values the tension will increase as the thickness diminishes, but for
  all other cases the tension will diminish as the thickness diminishes.

  We have given several examples in which the density is assumed to be
  uniform, because Poisson has asserted that capillary phenomena would
  not take place unless the density varied rapidly near the surface. In
  this assertion we think he was mathematically wrong, though in his own
  hypothesis that the density does actually vary, he was probably right.
  In fact, the quantity 4[pi][rho]²K, which we may call with van der
  Waals the molecular pressure, is so great for most liquids (5000
  atmospheres for water), that in the parts near the surface, where the
  molecular pressure varies rapidly, we may expect considerable
  variation of density, even when we take into account the smallness of
  the compressibility of liquids.

  The pressure at any point of the liquid arises from two causes, the
  external pressure P to which the liquid is subjected, and the pressure
  arising from the mutual attraction of its molecules. If we suppose
  that the number of molecules within the range of the attraction of a
  given molecule is very large, the part of the pressure arising from
  attraction will be proportional to the square of the number of
  molecules in unit of volume, that is, to the square of the density.
  Hence we may write

    p = P + A[rho]²,

  where A is a constant [equal to Laplace's intrinsic pressure K. But
  this equation is applicable only at points in the interior, where
  [rho] is not varying.]

  [The intrinsic pressure and the surface-tension of a uniform mass are
  perhaps more easily found by the following process. The former can be
  found at once by calculating the mutual attraction of the parts of a
  large mass which lie on opposite sides of an imaginary plane
  interface. If the density be [sigma], the attraction between the whole
  of one side and a layer upon the other distant z from the plane and of
  thickness dz is 2[pi][sigma]²[psi](z)dz, reckoned per unit of area.
  The expression for the intrinsic pressure is thus simply
                       _
                      / [oo]
    K = 2[pi][sigma]² |  [psi](z)dz.    (28)
                     _/0

  In Laplace's investigation [sigma] is supposed to be unity. We may
  call the value which (28) then assumes K0, so that as above
                _
               / [oo]
    K0 = 2[pi] |  [psi](z)dz.           (29)
              _/0

  The expression for the superficial tension is most readily found with
  the aid of the idea of superficial energy, introduced into the subject
  by Gauss. Since the tension is constant, the work that must be done to
  extend the surface by one unit of area measures the tension, and the
  work required for the generation of any surface is the product of the
  tension and the area. From this consideration we may derive Laplace's
  expression, as has been done by Dupre (_Théorie mécanique de la
  chaleur_, Paris, 1869), and Kelvin ("Capillary Attraction," _Proc.
  Roy. Inst._, January 1886. Reprinted, _Popular Lectures and
  Addresses_, 1889). For imagine a small cavity to be formed in the
  interior of the mass and to be gradually expanded in such a shape that
  the walls consist almost entirely of two parallel planes. The distance
  between the planes is supposed to be very small compared with their
  ultimate diameters, but at the same time large enough to exceed the
  range of the attractive forces. The work required to produce this
  crevasse is twice the product of the tension and the area of one of
  the faces. If we now suppose the crevasse produced by direct
  separation of its walls, the work necessary must be the same as
  before, the initial and final configurations being identical; and we
  recognize that the tension may be measured by half the work that must
  be done per unit of area against the mutual attraction in order to
  separate the two portions which lie upon opposite sides of an ideal
  plane to a distance from one another which is outside the range of the
  forces. It only remains to calculate this work.

  If [sigma]1, [sigma]2 represent the densities of the two infinite
  solids, their mutual attraction at distance z is per unit of area
                           _
                          / [oo]
    2[pi][sigma]1[sigma]2 |  [psi](z)dz,   (30)
                         _/z

  or 2[pi][sigma]1[sigma]2[theta](z), if we write
      _
     / [oo]
     |  [psi](z)dz = [theta](z).           (31)
    _/z

  The work required to produce the separation in question is thus
                           _
                          / [oo]
    2[pi][sigma]1[sigma]2 |  [theta](z)dz;     (32)
                         _/ 0

  and for the tension of a liquid of density [sigma] we have
                      _
                     / [oo]
    T = [pi][sigma]² |  [theta](z)dz.          (33)
                    _/0

  The form of this expression may be modified by integration by parts.
  For
      _                               _                                  _
     /                               /   d[theta](z)                    /
     | [theta](z)dz = [theta](z)·z - | z -----------dz = [theta](z)·z + | z[psi](z)dz.
    _/                              _/       dz                        _/

  Since theta(0) is finite, proportional to K, the integrated term
  vanishes at both limits, and we have simply
      _                 _
     / [oo]            / [oo]
     |  [theta](z)dz = |  z[psi](z)dz,       (34)
    _/0               _/0

  and
                      _
                     / [oo]
    T = [pi][sigma]² |  z[psi](z)dz.         (35)
                    _/0

  In Laplace's notation the second member of (34), multiplied by 2[pi],
  is represented by H.

  As Laplace has shown, the values for K and T may also be expressed in
  terms of the function [phi], with which we started. Integrating by
  parts, we get
      _                                               _
     /                                               /
     | [psi](z)dz = z[psi](z) + (1/3)z³[PI](z) + 1/3 | z³[phi](z)dz,
    _/                                              _/
      _                                                   _
     /                                                   /
     | z[psi](z)dz = ½z²[psi](z) + (1/8)z^4[PI](z) + 1/8 | z^4 [phi](z)dz.
    _/                                                  _/

  In all cases to which it is necessary to have regard the integrated
  terms vanish at both limits, and we may write
      _                  _                  _                   _
     / [oo]          1  / [oo]             / [oo]           1  / [oo]
     |  [psi](z)dz = -- |  z³ [phi](z)dz,  |  z[psi](z)dz = -- |  z^4 [phi](z)dz; (36)
    _/0              3 _/0                _/0               8 _/0

  so that
                _                            _
         2[pi] / [oo]                  [pi] / [oo]
    K0 = ----- |  z³[phi](z)dz,   T0 = ---- |  z^4 [phi](z)dz.    (37)
           3  _/0                       8  _/0

  A few examples of these formulae will promote an intelligent
  comprehension of the subject. One of the simplest suppositions open to
  us is that

    [phi](f) = e^([beta] f).       (38)

  From this we obtain

    [Pi](z) = [beta]^(-1) e^([beta] z), [psi](z) = [beta]^(-3)([beta]z + 1) e^(-[beta] z),   (39)

    K0 = 4[pi][beta]^(-4),   T0 = 3[pi][beta]^(-5).      (40)

  The range of the attractive force is mathematically infinite, but
  practically of the order [beta]^(-1), and we see that T is of higher
  order in this small quantity than K. That K is in all cases of the
  fourth order and T of the fifth order in the range of the forces is
  obvious from (37) without integration.

  An apparently simple example would be to suppose [phi](z) = z^n. We
  get

                z^(n+1)                z^(n+3)
    [PI](z) = - -------,   [psi](z) = ---------,
                  n+1                 n+3 · n+1

           2[pi]z^(n+4)  |[oo]
    K0 = --------------- |          (41)
         n+4 · n+3 · n+1 |0

  The intrinsic pressure will thus be infinite whatever n may be. If n +
  4 be positive, the attraction of infinitely distant parts contributes
  to the result; while if n + 4 be negative, the parts in immediate
  contiguity act with infinite power. For the transition case, discussed
  by William Sutherland (_Phil. Mag._ xxiv. p. 113, 1887), of n + 4 = 0,
  K0 is also infinite. It seems therefore that nothing satisfactory can
  be arrived at under this head.

  As a third example, we will take the law proposed by Young, viz.

    [phi](z) = 1 from z = 0 to z = a,    \
    [phi](z) = 0 from z = a to z = [oo]; /       (42)

  and corresponding therewith,

    [Pi](z) = a - z from z = 0 to z = a,     \
    [Pi](z) = 0     from z = a to z = [oo],  /   (43)

    [psi](z) = ½a(a² - z²) = 1/3(a³ - z³) from z = 0 to z = a,    \
    [psi](z) = 0                          from z = a to z = [oo], /  (44)

  Equations (37) now give
                _
         2[pi] / [oo]     [pi]a^4
    K0 = ----- |   z³dz = -------,              (45)
           3  _/0            6
               _
         [pi] / a         [pi]a^5
    T0 = ---- |  z^4 dz = -------.              (46)
          8  _/0             40

  The numerical results differ from those of Young, who finds that "_the
  contractile force is one-third of the whole cohesive force of a
  stratum of particles, equal in thickness to the interval to which the
  primitive equable cohesion extends_," viz. T = (1/3)aK; whereas
  according to the above calculation T = (3/20)aK. The discrepancy seems
  to depend upon Young having treated the attractive force as operative
  in one direction only. For further calculations on Laplace's
  principles, see Rayleigh, _Phil. Mag._, Oct. Dec. 1890, or _Scientific
  Papers_, vol. iii. p. 397.]


ON SURFACE-TENSION

Definition.--_The tension of a liquid surface across any line drawn on
the surface is normal to the line, and is the same for all directions of
the line, and is measured by the force across an element of the line
divided by the length of that element._

_Experimental Laws of Surface-Tension._--1. For any given liquid
surface, as the surface which separates water from air, or oil from
water, the surface-tension is the same at every point of the surface and
in every direction. It is also practically independent of the curvature
of the surface, although it appears from the mathematical theory that
there is a slight increase of tension where the mean curvature of the
surface is concave, and a slight diminution where it is convex. The
amount of this increase and diminution is too small to be directly
measured, though it has a certain theoretical importance in the
explanation of the equilibrium of the superficial layer of the liquid
where it is inclined to the horizon.

2. The surface-tension diminishes as the temperature rises, and when the
temperature reaches that of the critical point at which the distinction
between the liquid and its vapour ceases, it has been observed by
Andrews that the capillary action also vanishes. The early writers on
capillary action supposed that the diminution of capillary action was
due simply to the change of density corresponding to the rise of
temperature, and, therefore, assuming the surface-tension to vary as the
square of the density, they deduced its variations from the observed
dilatation of the liquid by heat. This assumption, however, does not
appear to be verified by the experiments of Brunner and Wolff on the
rise of water in tubes at different temperatures.

3. The tension of the surface separating two liquids which do not mix
cannot be deduced by any known method from the tensions of the surfaces
of the liquids when separately in contact with air.

When the surface is curved, the effect of the surface-tension is to make
the pressure on the concave side exceed the pressure on the convex side
by T (1/R1 + 1/R2), where T is the intensity of the surface-tension and
R1, R2 are the radii of curvature of any two sections normal to the
surface and to each other.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

If three fluids which do not mix are in contact with each other, the
three surfaces of separation meet in a line, straight or curved. Let O
(fig. 3) be a point in this line, and let the plane of the paper be
supposed to be normal to the line at the point O. The three angles
between the tangent planes to the three surfaces of separation at the
point O are completely determined by the tensions of the three surfaces.
For if in the triangle abc the side ab is taken so as to represent on a
given scale the tension of the surface of contact of the fluids a and b,
and if the other sides bc and ca are taken so as to represent on the
same scale the tensions of the surfaces between b and c and between c
and a respectively, then the condition of equilibrium at O for the
corresponding tensions R, P and Q is that the angle ROP shall be the
supplement of abc, POQ of bca, and, therefore, QOR of cab. Thus the
angles at which the surfaces of separation meet are the same at all
parts of the line of concourse of the three fluids. When three films of
the same liquid meet, their tensions are equal, and, therefore, they
make angles of 120° with each other. The froth of soap-suds or beaten-up
eggs consists of a multitude of small films which meet each other at
angles of 120°.

If four fluids, a, b, c, d, meet in a point O, and if a tetrahedron ABCD
is formed so that its edge AB represents the tension of the surface of
contact of the liquids a and b, BC that of b and c, and so on; then if
we place this tetrahedron so that the face ABC is normal to the tangent
at O to the line of concourse of the fluids abc, and turn it so that the
edge AB is normal to the tangent plane at O to the surface of contact of
the fluids a and b, then the other three faces of the tetrahedron will
be normal to the tangents at O to the other three lines of concourse of
the liquids, and the other five edges of the tetrahedron will be normal
to the tangent planes at O to the other five surfaces of contact.

If six films of the same liquid meet in a point the corresponding
tetrahedron is a regular tetrahedron, and each film, where it meets the
others, has an angle whose cosine is -1/3. Hence if we take two nets of
wire with hexagonal meshes, and place one on the other so that the point
of concourse of three hexagons of one net coincides with the middle of a
hexagon of the other, and if we then, after dipping them in Plateau's
liquid, place them horizontally, and gently raise the upper one, we
shall develop a system of plane laminae arranged as the walls and floors
of the cells are arranged in a honeycomb. We must not, however, raise
the upper net too much, or the system of films will become unstable.

When a drop of one liquid, B, is placed on the surface of another, A,
the phenomena which take place depend on the relative magnitude of the
three surface-tensions corresponding to the surface between A and air,
between B and air, and between A and B. If no one of these tensions is
greater than the sum of the other two, the drop will assume the form of
a lens, the angles which the upper and lower surfaces of the lens make
with the free surface of A and with each other being equal to the
external angles of the triangle of forces. Such lenses are often seen
formed by drops of fat floating on the surface of hot water, soup or
gravy. But when the surface-tension of A exceeds the sum of the tensions
of the surfaces of contact of B with air and with A, it is impossible to
construct the triangle of forces; so that equilibrium becomes
impossible. The edge of the drop is drawn out by the surface-tension of
A with a force greater than the sum of the tensions of the two surfaces
of the drop. The drop, therefore, spreads itself out, with great
velocity, over the surface of A till it covers an enormous area, and is
reduced to such extreme tenuity that it is not probable that it retains
the same properties of surface-tension which it has in a large mass.
Thus a drop of train oil will spread itself over the surface of the sea
till it shows the colours of thin plates. These rapidly descend in
Newton's scale and at last disappear, showing that the thickness of the
film is less than the tenth part of the length of a wave of light. But
even when thus attenuated, the film may be proved to be present, since
the surface-tension of the liquid is considerably less than that of pure
water. This may be shown by placing another drop of oil on the surface.
This drop will not spread out like the first drop, but will take the
form of a flat lens with a distinct circular edge, showing that the
surface-tension of what is still apparently pure water is now less than
the sum of the tensions of the surfaces separating oil from air and
water.

The spreading of drops on the surface of a liquid has formed the subject
of a very extensive series of experiments by Charles Tomlinson; van der
Mensbrugghe has also written a very complete memoir on this subject
(_Sur la tension superficielle des liquides_, Bruxelles, 1873).

When a solid body is in contact with two fluids, the surface of the
solid cannot alter its form, but the angle at which the surface of
contact of the two fluids meets the surface of the solid depends on the
values of the three surface-tensions. If a and b are the two fluids and
c the solid then the equilibrium of the tensions at the point O depends
only on that of thin components parallel to the surface, because the
surface-tensions normal to the surface are balanced by the resistance of
the solid. Hence if the angle ROQ (fig. 4) at which the surface of
contact OP meets the solid is denoted by [alpha],

  T_(bc) - T_(ca) - T_(ab) cos[alpha] = 0,

Whence

  cos[alpha] = (T_(bc) - T_(ca))/T_(ab).

As an experiment on the angle of contact only gives us the difference of
the surface-tensions at the solid surface, we cannot determine their
actual value. It is theoretically probable that they are often negative,
and may be called surface-pressures.

[Illustration: FIG. 4. ]

The constancy of the angle of contact between the surface of a fluid and
a solid was first pointed out by Dr Young, who states that the angle of
contact between mercury and glass is about 140°. Quincke makes it 128°
52'.

If the tension of the surface between the solid and one of the fluids
exceeds the sum of the other two tensions, the point of contact will not
be in equilibrium, but will be dragged towards the side on which the
tension is greatest. If the quantity of the first fluid is small it will
stand in a drop on the surface of the solid without wetting it. If the
quantity of the second fluid is small it will spread itself over the
surface and wet the solid. The angle of contact of the first fluid is
180° and that of the second is zero.

If a drop of alcohol be made to touch one side of a drop of oil on a
glass plate, the alcohol will appear to chase the oil over the plate,
and if a drop of water and a drop of bisulphide of carbon be placed in
contact in a horizontal capillary tube, the bisulphide of carbon will
chase the water along the tube. In both cases the liquids move in the
direction in which the surface-pressure at the solid is least.

[In order to express the dependence of the tension at the interface of
two bodies in terms of the forces exercised by the bodies upon
themselves and upon one another, we cannot do better than follow the
method of Dupré. If T12 denote the interfacial tension, the energy
corresponding to unit of area of the interface is also T12, as we see
by considering the introduction (through a fine tube) of one body into
the interior of the other. A comparison with another method of
generating the interface, similar to that previously employed when but
one body was in question, will now allow us to evaluate T12.

The work required to cleave asunder the parts of the first fluid which
lie on the two sides of an ideal plane passing through the interior, is
per unit of area 2T1, and the free surface produced is two units in
area. So for the second fluid the corresponding work is 2T2. This having
been effected, let us now suppose that each of the units of area of free
surface of fluid (1) is allowed to approach normally a unit area of (2)
until contact is established. In this process work is gained which we
may denote by 4T'12, 2T'12 for each pair. On the whole, then, the work
expended in producing two units of interface is 2T1 + 2T2 - 4T'12, and
this, as we have seen, may be equated to 2T12. Hence

  T12 = T1 + T2 - 2T'12         (47)

If the two bodies are similar,

  T1 = T2 = T'12;

and T12 = 0, as it should do.

Laplace does not treat systematically the question of interfacial
tension, but he gives incidentally in terms of his quantity H a relation
analogous to (47).

If 2T'12 > T1 + T2, T12 would be negative, so that the interface would
of itself tend to increase. In this case the fluids must mix.
Conversely, if two fluids mix, it would seem that T'12 must exceed the
mean of T1 and T2; otherwise work would have to be _expended_ to effect
a close alternate stratification of the two bodies, such as we may
suppose to constitute a first step in the process of mixture (Dupré,
_Théorie mécanique de la chaleur_, p. 372; Kelvin, _Popular Lectures_,
p. 53).

The value of T'12 has already been calculated (32). We may write

                               _
                              / [oo]
  T'12 = [pi][sigma]1[sigma]2 |  [theta](z)dz =
                             _/0
                                    _
           1                       / [oo]
         = -- [pi][sigma]1[sigma]2 |  z^4 [phi](z)dz;     (48)
           8                      _/0

and in general the functions [theta], or [phi], must be regarded as
capable of assuming different forms. Under these circumstances there is
no limitation upon the values of the interfacial tensions for three
fluids, which we may denote by T12, T23, T31. If the three fluids can
remain in contact with one another, the sum of any two of the quantities
must exceed the third, and by Neumann's rule the directions of the
interfaces at the common edge must be parallel to the sides of a
triangle, taken proportional to T12, T23, T31. If the above-mentioned
condition be not satisfied, the triangle is imaginary, and the three
fluids cannot rest in contact, the two weaker tensions, even if acting
in full concert, being incapable of balancing the strongest. For
instance, if T31 > T12 + T23, the second fluid spreads itself
indefinitely upon the interface of the first and third fluids.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]
                _
                /| T23
               /
        3     /
  <----------* 2
  T31   1     \
               \
               _\| T12

The experimenters who have dealt with this question, C.G.M. Marangoni,
van der Mensbrugghe, Quincke, have all arrived at results inconsistent
with the reality of Neumann's triangle. Thus Marangoni says (_Pogg.
Annalen_, cxliii. p. 348, 1871):--"Die gemeinschaftliche Oberfläche
zweier Flüssigkeiten hat eine geringere Oberflächenspannung als die
Differenz der Oberflächenspannung der Flüssigkeiten selbst (mit Ausnahme
des Quecksilbers)." Three pure bodies (of which one may be air) cannot
accordingly remain in contact. If a drop of oil stands in lenticular
form upon a surface of water, it is because the water-surface is already
contaminated with a greasy film.

On the theoretical side the question is open until we introduce some
limitation upon the generality of the functions. By far the simplest
supposition open to us is that the functions are the same in all cases,
the attractions differing merely by coefficients analogous to densities
in the theory of gravitation. This hypothesis was suggested by Laplace,
and may conveniently be named after him. It was also tacitly adopted by
Young, in connexion with the still more special hypothesis which Young
probably had in view, namely that the force in each case was constant
within a limited range, the same in all cases, and vanished outside that
range.

As an immediate consequence of this hypothesis we have from (28)

  K = K0[sigma]²,      (49)

  T = T0[sigma]²,      (50)

where K0, T0 are the same for all bodies.

But the most interesting results are those which Young (_Works_, vol. i.
p. 463) deduced relative to the interfacial tensions of three bodies. By
(37), (48),

  T'12 = [sigma]1[sigma]2T0;         (51)

so that by (47), (50),

  T12 = ([sigma]1 - [sigma]2)² T0    (52)

According to (52), the interfacial tension between any two bodies is
proportional to the square of the difference of their densities. The
densities [sigma]1, [sigma]2, [sigma]3 being in descending order of
magnitude, we may write

  T31 = ([sigma]1 - [sigma]2 + [sigma]2 - [sigma]3)² T0

      = T12 + T23 + 2([sigma]1 - [sigma]2)([sigma]2 - [sigma]3) T0;

so that T31 necessarily exceeds the sum of the other two interfacial
tensions. We are thus led to the important conclusion that according to
this hypothesis Neumann's triangle is necessarily imaginary, that one of
three fluids will always spread upon the interface of the other two.

Another point of importance may be easily illustrated by this theory,
viz. the dependency of capillarity upon abruptness of transition. "The
reason why the capillary force should disappear when the transition
between two liquids is sufficiently gradual will now be evident. Suppose
that the transition from 0 to [sigma] is made in two equal steps, the
thickness of the intermediate layer of density ½[sigma] being large
compared to the range of the molecular forces, but small in comparison
with the radius of curvature. At each step the difference of capillary
pressure is only one-quarter of that due to the sudden transition from 0
to [sigma], and thus altogether half the effect is lost by the
interposition of the layer. If there were three equal steps, the effect
would be reduced to one-third, and so on. When the number of steps is
infinite, the capillary pressure disappears altogether." ("Laplace's
Theory of Capillarity," Rayleigh, _Phil. Mag._, 1883, p. 315.)

According to Laplace's hypothesis the whole energy of any number of
contiguous strata of liquids is least when they are arranged in order of
density, so that this is the disposition favoured by the attractive
forces. The problem is to make the sum of the interfacial tensions a
minimum, each tension being proportional to the square of the difference
of densities of the two contiguous liquids in question. If the order of
stratification differ from that of densities, we can show that each step
of approximation to this order lowers the sum of tensions. To this end
consider the effect of the abolition of a stratum [sigma]_(n+1),
contiguous to [sigma]_n and [sigma]_(n+2). Before the change we have
([sigma]_n - [sigma](n+1))² + ([sigma]_(n+1) - [sigma]_(n+2))², and
afterwards ([sigma]_n - [sigma]_(n+2))². The second _minus_ the first,
or the increase in the sum of tensions, is thus

  2([sigma]_n - [sigma]_(n+1))([sigma]_(n+1) - [sigma]_(n+2)).

Hence, if [sigma]_(n+1) be intermediate in magnitude between [sigma]_n
and [sigma]_(n+2), the sum of tensions is increased by the abolition of
the stratum; but, if [sigma]_(n+1) be not intermediate, the sum is
decreased. We see, then, that the removal of a stratum from between
neighbours where it is out of order and its introduction between
neighbours where it will be in order is doubly favourable to the
reduction of the sum of tensions; and since by a succession of such
steps we may arrive at the order of magnitude throughout, we conclude
that this is the disposition of minimum tensions and energy.

So far the results of Laplace's hypothesis are in marked accordance with
experiment; but if we follow it out further, discordances begin to
manifest themselves. According to (52)
      ____     ____     ____
    \/ T31 = \/ T12 + \/ T23,     (53)

a relation not verified by experiment. What is more, (52) shows that
according to the hypothesis T12 is necessarily positive; so that, if
the preceding argument be correct, no such thing as mixture of two
liquids could ever take place.

There are two apparent exceptions to Marangoni's rule which call for a
word of explanation. According to the rule, water, which has the lower
surface-tension, should spread upon the surface of mercury; whereas the
universal experience of the laboratory is that drops of water standing
upon mercury retain their compact form without the least tendency to
spread. To Quincke belongs the credit of dissipating the apparent
exception. He found that mercury specially prepared behaves quite
differently from ordinary mercury, and that a drop of water deposited
thereon spreads over the entire surface. The ordinary behaviour is
evidently the result of a film of grease, which adheres with great
obstinacy.

The process described by Quincke is somewhat elaborate; but there is
little difficulty in repeating the experiment if the mistake be avoided
of using a free surface already contaminated, as almost inevitably
happens when the mercury is poured from an ordinary bottle. The mercury
should be drawn from underneath, for which purpose an arrangement
similar to a chemical wash bottle is suitable, and it may be poured into
watch-glasses, previously dipped into strong sulphuric acid, rinsed in
distilled water, and dried over a Bunsen flame. When the glasses are
cool, they may be charged with mercury, of which the first part is
rejected. Operating in this way there is no difficulty in obtaining
surfaces upon which a drop of water spreads, although from causes that
cannot always be traced, a certain proportion of failures is met with.
As might be expected, the grease which produces these effects is largely
volatile. In many cases a very moderate preliminary warming of the
watch-glasses makes all the difference in the behaviour of the drop.

The behaviour of a drop of carbon bisulphide placed upon clean water is
also, at first sight, an exception to Marangoni's rule. So far from
spreading over the surface, as according to its lower surface-tension it
ought to do, it remains suspended in the form of a lens. Any dust that
may be lying upon the surface is not driven away to the edge of the
drop, as would happen in the case of oil. A simple modification of the
experiment suffices, however, to clear up the difficulty. If after the
deposition of the drop, a little lycopodium be scattered over the
surface, it is seen that a circular space surrounding the drop, of about
the size of a shilling, remains bare, and this, however often the
dusting be repeated, so long as any of the carbon bisulphide remains.
The interpretation can hardly be doubtful. The carbon bisulphide is
really spreading all the while, but on account of its volatility is
unable to reach any considerable distance. Immediately surrounding the
drop there is a film moving outwards at a high speed, and this carries
away almost instantaneously any dust that may fall upon it. The
phenomenon above described requires that the water-surface be clean. If
a very little grease be present, there is no outward flow and dust
remains undisturbed in the immediate neighbourhood of the drop.]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.]

_On the Rise of a Liquid in a Tube_.--Let a tube (fig. 6) whose internal
radius is r, made of a solid substance c, be dipped into a liquid a. Let
us suppose that the angle of contact for this liquid with the solid c is
an acute angle. This implies that the tension of the free surface of the
solid c is greater than that of the surface of contact of the solid with
the liquid a. Now consider the tension of the free surface of the liquid
a. All round its edge there is a tension T acting at an angle a with the
vertical. The circumference of the edge is 2[pi]r, so that the resultant
of this tension is a force 2[pi]rT cos[alpha] acting vertically upwards
on the liquid. Hence the liquid will rise in the tube till the weight
of the vertical column between the free surface and the level of the
liquid in the vessel balances the resultant of the surface-tension. The
upper surface of this column is not level, so that the height of the
column cannot be directly measured, but let us assume that h is the mean
height of the column, that is to say, the height of a column of equal
weight, but with a flat top. Then if r is the radius of the tube at the
top of the column, the volume of the suspended column is [pi]r²h, and
its weight is [pi][rho]gr²h, when [rho] is its density and g the
intensity of gravity. Equating this force with the resultant of the
tension

  [pi][rho]gr²h = 2[pi]rT cos[alpha],

or

  h = 2T cos ([alpha]/[rho]gr).

Hence the mean height to which the fluid rises is inversely as the
radius of the tube. For water in a clean glass tube the angle of contact
is zero, and

  h = 2T/[rho]gr.

For mercury in a glass tube the angle of contact is 128° 52', the cosine
of which is negative. Hence when a glass tube is dipped into a vessel of
mercury, the mercury within the tube stands at a lower level than
outside it.

_Rise of a Liquid between Two Plates_.--When two parallel plates are
placed vertically in a liquid the liquid rises between them. If we now
suppose fig. 6 to represent a vertical section perpendicular to the
plates, we may calculate the rise of the liquid. Let l be the breadth of
the plates measured perpendicularly to the plane of the paper, then the
length of the line which bounds the wet and the dry parts of the plates
inside is l for each surface, and on this the tension T acts at an angle
[alpha] to the vertical. Hence the resultant of the surface-tension is
2lT cos[alpha]. If the distance between the inner surfaces of the plates
is a, and if the mean height of the film of fluid which rises between
them is h, the weight of fluid raised is [rho]ghla. Equating the
forces--

  [rho]ghla = 2lT cos[alpha],

whence

  h = 2T cos ([alpha]/[rho]ga).

This expression is the same as that for the rise of a liquid in a tube,
except that instead of r, the radius of the tube, we have a the distance
of the plates.

_Form of the Capillary Surface_.--The form of the surface of a liquid
acted on by gravity is easily determined if we assume that near the part
considered the line of contact of the surface of the liquid with that of
the solid bounding it is straight and horizontal, as it is when the
solids which constrain the liquid are bounded by surfaces formed by
horizontal and parallel generating lines. This will be the case, for
instance, near a flat plate dipped into the liquid. If we suppose these
generating lines to be normal to the plane of the paper, then all
sections of the solids parallel to this plane will be equal and similar
to each other, and the section of the surface of the liquid will be of
the same form for all such sections.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.]

Let us consider the portion of the liquid between two parallel sections
distant one unit of length. Let P1, P2 (fig. 7) be two points of the
surface; [theta]1, [theta]2 the inclination of the surface to the
horizon at P1 and P2; y1, y2 the heights of P1 and P2 above the level of
the liquid at a distance from all solid bodies. The pressure at any
point of the liquid which is above this level is negative unless another
fluid as, for instance, the air, presses on the upper surface, but it is
only the difference of pressures with which we have to do, because two
equal pressures on opposite sides of the surface produce no effect.

We may, therefore, write for the pressure at a height y

  p = -[rho]gy,

where [rho] is the density of the liquid, or if there are two fluids the
excess of the density of the lower fluid over that of the upper one.

The forces acting on the portion of liquid P1P2A2A1 are--first, the
horizontal pressures, -½[rho]g y1² and ½[rho]g y2²; second, the
surface-tension T acting at P1 and P2 in directions inclined [theta]1
and [theta]2 to the horizon. Resolving horizontally we find--

  T(cos[theta]2 - cos[theta]1) + ½g[rho](y2² - y1²) = 0,

whence

                              g[rho]y1²   g[rho]y2²
  cos[theta]2 = cos[theta]1 + --------- - ---------,
                                 2T          2T

or if we suppose P1 fixed and P2 variable, we may write

  cos[theta] = constant - ½g[rho]y²/T.

This equation gives a relation between the inclination of the curve to
the horizon and the height above the level of the liquid.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.]

Resolving vertically we find that the weight of the liquid raised above
the level must be equal to T(sin[theta]2 - sin[theta]1), and this is
therefore equal to the area P1P2A2A1 multiplied by g[rho]. The form of
the capillary surface is identical with that of the "elastic curve," or
the curve formed by a uniform spring originally straight, when its ends
are acted on by equal and opposite forces applied either to the ends
themselves or to solid pieces attached to them. Drawings of the
different forms of the curve may be found in Thomson and Tait's _Natural
Philosophy_, vol. i. p. 455.

We shall next consider the rise of a liquid between two plates of
different materials for which the angles of contact are [alpha]1 and
[alpha]2, the distance between the plates being a, a small quantity.
Since the plates are very near one another we may use the following
equation of the surface as an approximation:--

  y = h1 + Ax + Bx², h2 = h1 + Aa + Ba²,

whence

  cot[alpha]1 = -A, cot[alpha]2 = A + 2Ba

  T(cos[alpha]1 + cos[alpha]2) = [rho]ga(h1 + ½Aa + (1/3)Ba²),

whence we obtain

           T     /                         \    a  /                          \
  h1  = ------- ( cos[alpha]1 + cos[alpha]2 ) + --( 2cot[alpha]1 - cot[alpha]2 )
        [rho]ga  \                         /    6  \                          /

           T     /                         \    a  /                          \
  h2  = ------- ( cos[alpha]1 + cos[alpha]2 ) + --( 2cot[alpha]2 - cot[alpha]1 ).
        [rho]ga  \                         /    6  \                          /

Let X be the force which must be applied in a horizontal direction to
either plate to keep it from approaching the other, then the forces
acting on the first plate are T + X in the negative direction, and T sin
[alpha]1 + ½g[rho]h1² in the positive direction. Hence

  X = ½g[rho]h1² - T(1 - sin[alpha]1).

For the second plate

  X = ½g[rho]h2² - T (1 - sin[alpha]2).

Hence

  X = ¼g[rho](h1² + h2²) - T{1 - ½(sin[alpha]1 + sin[alpha]2)},

or, substituting the values of h1 and h2,

          1     T²
      X = -- -------- (cos[alpha]1 + cos [alpha]2)²
          2  [rho]ga²

         - T {1 - ½(sin [alpha]1 + sin[alpha]2)

         - (1/12)(cos[alpha]1 + cos[alpha]2)(cot[alpha]1 + cot[alpha]2)},

the remaining terms being negligible when a is small. The force,
therefore, with which the two plates are drawn together consists first
of a positive part, or in other words an attraction, varying inversely
as the square of the distance, and second, of a negative part of
repulsion independent of the distance. Hence in all cases except that in
which the angles [alpha]1 and [alpha]2 are supplementary to each other,
the force is attractive when [alpha] is small enough, but when
cos[alpha]1 and cos[alpha]2 are of different signs, as when the liquid
is raised by one plate, and depressed by the other, the first term may
be so small that the repulsion indicated by the second term comes into
play. The fact that a pair of plates which repel one another at a
certain distance may attract one another at a smaller distance was
deduced by Laplace from theory, and verified by the observations of the
abbé Haüy.

_A Drop between Two Plates._--If a small quantity of a liquid which
wets glass be introduced between two glass plates slightly inclined to
each other, it will run towards that part where the glass plates are
nearest together. When the liquid is in equilibrium it forms a thin
film, the outer edge of which is all of the same thickness. If d is the
distance between the plates at the edge of the film and [PI] the
atmospheric pressure, the pressure of the liquid in the film is [Pi] -
(2T cos[alpha])/d, and if A is the area of the film between the plates
and B its circumference, the plates will be pressed together with a
force

  2AT cos[alpha]
  ------------- + BT sin[alpha],
        d

and this, whether the atmosphere exerts any pressure or not. The force
thus produced by the introduction of a drop of water between two plates
is enormous, and is often sufficient to press certain parts of the
plates together so powerfully as to bruise them or break them. When two
blocks of ice are placed loosely together so that the superfluous water
which melts from them may drain away, the remaining water draws the
blocks together with a force sufficient to cause the blocks to adhere by
the process called _Regelation_.

[An effect of an opposite character may be observed when the fluid is
mercury in place of water. When two pieces of flat glass are pressed
together under mercury with moderate force they cohere, the mercury
leaving the narrow crevasses, even although the alternative is a vacuum.
The course of events is more easily followed if one of the pieces of
glass constitutes the bottom, or a side, of the vessel containing the
mercury.]

In many experiments bodies are floated on the surface of water in order
that they may be free to move under the action of slight horizontal
forces. Thus Sir Isaac Newton placed a magnet in a floating vessel and a
piece of iron in another in order to observe their mutual action, and
A.M. Ampère floated a voltaic battery with a coil of wire in its circuit
in order to observe the effects of the earth's magnetism on the electric
circuit. When such floating bodies come near the edge of the vessel they
are drawn up to it, and are apt to stick fast to it. There are two ways
of avoiding this inconvenience. One is to grease the float round its
water-line so that the water is depressed round it. This, however, often
produces a worse disturbing effect, because a thin film of grease
spreads over the water and increases its surface-viscosity. The other
method is to fill the vessel with water till the level of the water
stands a little higher than the rim of the vessel. The float will then
be repelled from the edge of the vessel. Such floats, however, should
always be made so that the section taken at the level of the water is as
small as possible.

[_The Size of Drops._--The relation between the diameter of a tube and
the weight of the drop which it delivers appears to have been first
investigated by Thomas Tate (_Phil. Mag._ vol. xxvii. p. 176, 1864),
whose experiments led him to the conclusion that "other things being the
same, the weight of a drop of liquid is proportional to the diameter of
the tube in which it is formed." Sufficient time must of course be
allowed for the formation of the drops; otherwise no simple results can
be expected. In Tate's experiments the period was never less than 40
seconds.

The magnitude of a drop delivered from a tube, even when the formation
up to the phase of instability is infinitely slow, cannot be calculated
a priori. The weight is sometimes equated to the product of the
capillary tension (T) and the circumference of the tube (2[pi]a), but
with little justification. Even if the tension at the circumference of
the tube acted vertically, and the whole of the liquid below this level
passed into the drop, the calculation would still be vitiated by the
assumption that the internal pressure at the level in question is
atmospheric. It would be necessary to consider the curvatures of the
fluid surface at the edge of attachment. If the surface could be treated
as a cylindrical prolongation of the tube (radius a), the pressure would
be T/a, and the resulting force acting downwards upon the drop would
amount to one-half ([pi]aT) of the direct upward pull of the tension
along the circumference. At this rate the drop would be but one-half of
that above reckoned. But the truth is that a complete solution of the
statical problem for all forms up to that at which instability sets in,
would not suffice for the present purpose. The detachment of the drop is
a _dynamical_ effect, and it is influenced by collateral circumstances.
For example, the bore of the tube is no longer a matter of indifference,
even though the attachment of the drop occurs entirely at the outer
edge. It appears that when the external diameter exceeds a certain
value, the weight of a drop of water is sensibly different in the two
extreme cases of a very small and of a very large bore.

But although a complete solution of the dynamical problem is
impracticable, much interesting information may be obtained from the
principle of dynamical similarity. The argument has already been applied
by Dupré (_Théorie mécanique de la chaleur_, Paris, 1869, p. 328), but
his presentation of it is rather obscure. We will assume that when, as
in most cases, viscosity may be neglected, the mass (M) of a drop
depends only upon the density ([sigma]), the capillary tension (T), the
acceleration of gravity (g), and the linear dimension of the tube (a).
In order to justify this assumption, the formation of the drop must be
sufficiently slow, and certain restrictions must be imposed upon the
shape of the tube. For example, in the case of water delivered from a
glass tube, which is cut off square and held vertically, a will be the
external radius; and it will be necessary to suppose that the ratio of
the internal radius to a is constant, the cases of a ratio infinitely
small, or infinitely near unity, being included. But if the fluid be
mercury, the flat end of the tube remains unwetted, and the formation of
the drop depends upon the internal diameter only.

The "dimensions" of the quantities on which M depends are:--

  [sigma] = (Mass)^1 (Length)^(-3),
     T    = (Force)^1 (Length)^(-1) = (Mass)^1 (Time)^(-2),
     g    = Acceleration = (Length)^1 (Time)^(-2),

of which M, a mass, is to be expressed as a function. If we assume

  M [approximately equals] T^{x}·g^{y}·[sigma]^{z}·a^{u},

we have, considering in turn length, time and mass,

  y - 3z + u = 0, 2x + 2y = 0, x + z = 1;

so that

  y = -x, z = 1 - x, u = 3 - 2x.

Accordingly

      Ta   /    T     \x-1
  M ~ --- ( ---------- ).
       g   \g[sigma]a²/

Since x is undetermined, all that we can conclude is that M is of the
form

      Ta    /    T     \
  M = ---·F( ---------- ),      (1)
       g    \g[sigma]a²/

where F denotes an arbitrary function.

Dynamical similarity requires that T/g[sigma]a² be constant; or, if g be
supposed to be so, that a² varies as T/[sigma]. If this condition be
satisfied, the mass (or weight) of the drop is proportional to T and to
a.

If Tate's law be true, that _ceteris paribus_ M varies as a, it follows
from (1) that F is constant. For all fluids and for all similar tubes
similarly wetted, the weight of a drop would then be proportional not
only to the diameter of the tube, but also to the superficial tension,
and it would be independent of the density.

Careful observations with special precautions to ensure the cleanliness
of the water have shown that over a considerable range, the departure
from Tate's law is not great. The results give material for the
determination of the function F in (1).

  +----------------+------------+
  | T/(9[sigma]a²) |   gM/Ta    |
  +----------------+------------+
  |     2.58       |    4.13    |
  |     1.16       |    3.97    |
  |     0.708      |    3.80    |
  |     0.441      |    3.73    |
  |     0.277      |    3.78    |
  |     0.220      |    3.90    |
  |     0.169      |    4.06    |
  +----------------+------------+

In the preceding table, applicable to thin-walled tubes, the first
column gives the values of T/g[sigma]a², and the second column those of
gM/Ta, all the quantities concerned being in C.G.S. measure, or other
consistent system. From this the weight of a drop of any liquid of which
the density and surface tension are known, can be calculated. For many
purposes it may suffice to treat F as a constant, say 3.8. The formula
for the weight of a drop is then simply

  Mg = 3.8Ta,       (2)

in which 3.8 replaces the 2[pi] of the faulty theory alluded to earlier
(see Rayleigh, _Phil. Mag._, Oct. 1899).]

_Phenomena arising from the Variation of the Surface-tension._--Pure
water has a higher surface-tension than that of any other substance
liquid at ordinary temperatures except mercury. Hence any other liquid
if mixed with water diminishes its surface-tension. For example, if a
drop of alcohol be placed on the surface of water, the surface-tension
will be diminished from 80, the value for pure water, to 25, the value
for pure alcohol. The surface of the liquid will therefore no longer be
in equilibrium, and a current will be formed at and near the surface
from the alcohol to the surrounding water, and this current will go on
as long as there is more alcohol at one part of the surface than at
another. If the vessel is deep, these currents will be balanced by
counter currents below them, but if the depth of the water is only two
or three millimetres, the surface-current will sweep away the whole of
the water, leaving a dry spot where the alcohol was dropped in. This
phenomenon was first described and explained by James Thomson, who also
explained a phenomenon, the converse of this, called the "tears of
strong wine."

If a wine-glass be half-filled with port wine the liquid rises a little
up the side of the glass as other liquids do. The wine, however,
contains alcohol and water, both of which evaporate, but the alcohol
faster than the water, so that the superficial layer becomes more
watery. In the middle of the vessel the superficial layer recovers its
strength by diffusion from below, but the film adhering to the side of
the glass becomes more watery, and therefore has a higher
surface-tension than the surface of the stronger wine. It therefore
creeps up the side of the glass dragging the strong wine after it, and
this goes on till the quantity of fluid dragged up collects into a drop
and runs down the side of the glass.

The motion of small pieces of camphor floating on water arises from the
gradual solution of the camphor. If this takes place more rapidly on one
side of the piece of camphor than on the other side, the surface-tension
becomes weaker where there is most camphor in solution, and the lump,
being pulled unequally by the surface-tensions, moves off in the
direction of the strongest tension, namely, towards the side on which
least camphor is dissolved.

If a drop of ether is held near the surface of water the vapour of ether
condenses on the surface of the water, and surface-currents are formed
flowing in every direction away from under the drop of ether.

If we place a small floating body in a shallow vessel of water and wet
one side of it with alcohol or ether, it will move off with great
velocity and skim about on the surface of the water, the part wet with
alcohol being always the stern.

The surface-tension of mercury is greatly altered by slight changes in
the state of the surface. The surface-tension of pure mercury is so
great that it is very difficult to keep it clean, for every kind of oil
or grease spreads over it at once.

But the most remarkable effects of change of surface-tension are those
produced by what is called the electric polarization of the surface. The
tension of the surface of contact of mercury and dilute sulphuric acid
depends on the electromotive force acting between the mercury and the
acid. If the electromotive force is from the acid to the mercury the
surface-tension increases; if it is from the mercury to the acid, it
diminishes. Faraday observed that a large drop of mercury, resting on
the flat bottom of a vessel containing dilute acid, changes its form in
a remarkable way when connected with one of the electrodes of a battery,
the other electrode being placed in the acid. When the mercury is made
positive it becomes dull and spreads itself out; when it is made
negative it gathers itself together and becomes bright again. G.
Lippmann, who has made a careful investigation of the subject, finds
that exceedingly small variations of the electromotive force produce
sensible changes in the surface-tension. The effect of one of a
Daniell's cell is to increase the tension from 30.4 to 40.6. He has
constructed a capillary electrometer by which differences of electric
potential less than 0.01 of that of a Daniell's cell can be detected by
the difference of the pressure required to force the mercury to a given
point of a fine capillary tube. He has also constructed an apparatus in
which this variation in the surface-tension is made to do work and drive
a machine. He has also found that this action is reversible, for when
the area of the surface of contact of the acid and mercury is made to
increase, an electric current passes from the mercury to the acid, the
amount of electricity which passes while the surface increases by one
square centimetre being sufficient to decompose .000013 gramme of water.

[The movements of camphor scrapings referred to above afford a useful
test of the condition of a water surface. If the contamination exceed a
certain limit, the scrapings remain quite dead. In a striking form of
the experiment, the water is contained, to the depth of perhaps one
inch, in a large flat dish, and the operative part of the surface is
limited by a flexible hoop of thin sheet brass lying in the dish and
rising above the water-level. If the hoop enclose an area of (say)
one-third of the maximum, and if the water be clean, camphor fragments
floating on the interior enter with vigorous movements. A touch of the
finger will then often reduce them to quiet; but if the hoop be
expanded, the included grease is so far attenuated as to lose its
effect. Another method of removing grease is to immerse and remove
strips of paper by which the surface available for the contamination is
in effect increased.

The thickness of the film of oil adequate to check the camphor movements
can be determined with fair accuracy by depositing a weighed amount of
oil (such as .8 mg.) upon the surface of water in a large bath.
Calculated as if the density were the same as in a normal state, the
thickness of the film is found to be about two millionths of a
millimetre.

Small as is the above amount of oil, the camphor test is a comparatively
coarse one. Conditions of a contaminated surface may easily be
distinguished, upon all of which camphor fragments spin vigorously.
Thus, a shallow tin vessel, such as the lid of a biscuit box, may be
levelled and filled with tap-water through a rubber hose. Upon the
surface of the water a little sulphur is dusted. An application of the
finger for 20 or 30 seconds to the under surface of the vessel will then
generate enough heat to lower appreciably the surface-tension, as is
evidenced by the opening out of the dust and the formation of a bare
spot perhaps 1½ in. in diameter. When, however, the surface is but very
slightly greased, a spot can no longer be cleared by the warmth of the
finger, or even of a spirit lamp, held underneath. And yet the greasing
may be so slight that camphor fragments move with apparently unabated
vigour.

The varying degrees of contamination to which a water surface is subject
are the cause of many curious phenomena. Among these is the _superficial
viscosity_ of Plateau. In his experiments a long compass needle is
mounted so as to swing in the surface of the liquid under investigation.
The cases of ordinary clean water and alcohol are strongly contrasted,
the motion of the needle upon the former being comparatively sluggish.
Moreover, a different behaviour is observed when the surfaces are
slightly dusted over. In the case of water the whole of the surface in
front of the needle moves with it, while on the other hand the dust
floating on alcohol is scarcely disturbed until the needle actually
strikes it. Plateau attributed these differences to a special quality of
the liquids, named by him "superficial viscosity." It has been proved,
however, that the question is one of contamination, and that a water
surface may be prepared so as to behave in the same manner as alcohol.

Another consequence of the tendency of a moderate contamination to
distribute itself uniformly is the calming effect of oil, investigated
by B. Franklin. On pure water the propagation of waves would be attended
by temporary extensions and contractions of the surface, but these, as
was shown by O. Reynolds, are resisted when the surface is contaminated.

Indeed the possibility of the continued existence of films, such as
constitute foam, depends upon the properties now under consideration.
If, as is sometimes stated, the tension of a vertical film were
absolutely the same throughout, the middle parts would of necessity fall
with the acceleration of gravity. In reality, the tension adjusts itself
automatically to the weight to be supported at the various levels.

Although throughout a certain range the surface-tension varies rapidly
with the degree of contamination, it is remarkable that, as was first
fully indicated by Miss Pockels, the earlier stages of contamination
have little or no effect upon surface-tension. Lord Rayleigh has shown
that the fall of surface-tension _begins_ when the quantity of oil is
about the half of that required to stop the camphor movements, and he
suggests that this stage may correspond with a complete coating of the
surface with a single layer of molecules.]


  Spherical soap-bubble.

_On the Forms of Liquid Films which are Figures of Revolution._--A soap
bubble is simply a small quantity of soap-suds spread out so as to
expose a large surface to the air. The bubble, in fact, has two
surfaces, an outer and an inner surface, both exposed to air. It has,
therefore, a certain amount of surface-energy depending on the area of
these two surfaces. Since in the case of thin films the outer and inner
surfaces are approximately equal, we shall consider the area of the film
as representing either of them, and shall use the symbol T to denote the
energy of unit of area of the film, both surfaces being taken together.
If T' is the energy of a single surface of the liquid, T the energy of
the film is 2T'. When by means of a tube we blow air into the inside of
the bubble we increase its volume and therefore its surface, and at the
same time we do work in forcing air into it, and thus increase the
energy of the bubble.

That the bubble has energy may be shown by leaving the end of the tube
open. The bubble will contract, forcing the air out, and the current of
air blown through the tube may be made to deflect the flame of a candle.
If the bubble is in the form of a sphere of radius r this material
surface will have an area

  S = 4[pi]r²           (1)

If T be the energy corresponding to unit of area of the film the
surface-energy of the whole bubble will be

  ST = 4[pi]r²T         (2)

The increment of this energy corresponding to an increase of the radius
from r to r + dr is therefore

  TdS = 8[pi]rTdr       (3)

Now this increase of energy was obtained by forcing in air at a pressure
greater than the atmospheric pressure, and thus increasing the volume of
the bubble.

Let [Pi] be the atmospheric pressure and [Pi] + p the pressure of the
air within the bubble. The volume of the sphere is

  V = 4/3 [pi]r³,     (4)

and the increment of volume is

  dV= 4[pi]r²dr       (5)

Now if we suppose a quantity of air already at the pressure [Pi] + p,
the work done in forcing it into the bubble pdV. Hence the equation of
work and energy is

  pdV = Tds           (6)

or

  4[pi]pr²dr = 8[pi]r drT     (7)

or

  p = 2T/r           (8)

This, therefore, is the excess of the pressure of the air within the
bubble over that of the external air, and it is due to the action of the
inner and outer surfaces of the bubble. We may conceive this pressure to
arise from the tendency which the bubble has to contract, or in other
words from the surface-tension of the bubble.

If to increase the area of the surface requires the expenditure of
work, the surface must resist extension, and if the bubble in
contracting can do work, the surface must tend to contract. The surface
must therefore act like a sheet of india-rubber when extended both in
length and breadth, that is, it must exert surface-tension. The tension
of the sheet of india-rubber, however, depends on the extent to which it
is stretched, and may be different in different directions, whereas the
tension of the surface of a liquid remains the same however much the
film is extended, and the tension at any point is the same in all
directions.

The intensity of this surface-tension is measured by the stress which it
exerts across a line of unit length. Let us measure it in the case of
the spherical soap-bubble by considering the stress exerted by one
hemisphere of the bubble on the other, across the circumference of a
great circle. This stress is balanced by the pressure p acting over the
area of the same great circle: it is therefore equal to [pi]r²p. To
determine the intensity of the surface-tension we have to divide this
quantity by the length of the line across which it acts, which is in
this case the circumference of a great circle 2[pi]r. Dividing [pi]r²p
by this length we obtain ½pr as the value of the intensity of the
surface-tension, and it is plain from equation 8 that this is equal to
T. Hence the numerical value of the intensity of the surface-tension is
equal to the numerical value of the surface-energy per unit of surface.
We must remember that since the film has two surfaces the
surface-tension of the film is double the tension of the surface of the
liquid of which it is formed.

To determine the relation between the surface-tension and the pressure
which balances it when the form of the surface is not spherical, let us
consider the following case:--

[Illustration: Fig. 9.]


  Non-spherical soap bubble

Let fig. 9 represent a section through the axis Cc of a soap-bubble in
the form of a figure of revolution bounded by two circular disks AB and
ab, and having the meridian section APa. Let PQ be an imaginary section
normal to the axis. Let the radius of this section PR be y, and let PT,
the tangent at P, make an angle a with the axis.

Let us consider the stresses which are exerted across this imaginary
section by the lower part on the upper part. If the internal pressure
exceeds the external pressure by p, there is in the first place a force
[pi]y²p acting upwards arising from the pressure p over the area of the
section. In the next place, there is the surface-tension acting
downwards, but at an angle a with the vertical, across the circular
section of the bubble itself, whose circumference is 2[pi]y, and the
downward force is therefore 2[pi]yT cos a.

Now these forces are balanced by the external force which acts on the
disk ACB, which we may call F. Hence equating the forces which act on
the portion included between ACB and PRQ

  [pi]y²p - 2[pi]yT cos[alpha] = -F       (9).

If we make CR=z, and suppose z to vary, the shape of the bubble of
course remaining the same, the values of y and of a will change, but the
other quantities will be constant. In studying these variations we may
if we please take as our independent variable the length s of the
meridian section AP reckoned from A. Differentiating equation 9 with
respect to s we obtain, after dividing by 2[pi] as a common
factor,

     dy                dy                 d[alpha]
  py -- - T cos[alpha] -- + Ty sin[alpha] -------- = 0     (10).
     ds                ds                    ds

Now

  dy
  -- = sin[alpha]    (11).
  ds

The radius of curvature of the meridian section is

            ds
  R1 = - --------    (12).
         d[alpha]

The radius of curvature of a normal section of the surface at right
angles to the meridian section is equal to the part of the normal cut
off by the axis, which is

  R2 = PN = y/cos[alpha]     (13).

Hence dividing equation 10 by $y sin \alpha$, we find

  p = T(1/R1 + 1/R2)         (14).

This equation, which gives the pressure in terms of the principal radii
of curvature, though here proved only in the case of a surface of
revolution, must be true of all surfaces. For the curvature of any
surface at a given point may be completely defined in terms of the
positions of its principal normal sections and their radii of curvature.

Before going further we may deduce from equation 9 the nature of all the
figures of revolution which a liquid film can assume. Let us first
determine the nature of a curve, such that if it is rolled on the axis
its origin will trace out the meridian section of the bubble. Since at
any instant the rolling curve is rotating about the point of contact
with the axis, the line drawn from this point of contact to the tracing
point must be normal to the direction of motion of the tracing point.
Hence if N is the point of contact, NP must be normal to the traced
curve. Also, since the axis is a tangent to the rolling curve, the
ordinate PR is the perpendicular from the tracing point P on the
tangent. Hence the relation between the radius vector and the
perpendicular on the tangent of the rolling curve must be identical with
the relation between the normal PN and the ordinate PR of the traced
curve. If we write r for PN, then y = r cos[alpha], and equation 9
becomes

     /  T    \      F
  y²( 2 -- -1 ) = -----.
     \  pr   /    [pi]p

This relation between y and r is identical with the relation between the
perpendicular from the focus of a conic section on the tangent at a
given point and the focal distance of that point, provided the
transverse and conjugate axes of the conic are 2a and 2b respectively,
where

       T              F
  a = ---, and b² = -----.
       p            [pi]p

Hence the meridian section of the film may be traced by the focus of
such a conic, if the conic is made to roll on the axis.

_On the different Forms of the Meridian Line._--1. When the conic is an
ellipse the meridian line is in the form of a series of waves, and the
film itself has a series of alternate swellings and contractions as
represented in figs. 9 and 10. This form of the film is called the
unduloid.

1a. When the ellipse becomes a circle, the meridian line becomes a
straight line parallel to the axis, and the film passes into the form of
a cylinder of revolution.

1b. As the ellipse degenerates into the straight line joining its foci,
the contracted parts of the unduloid become narrower, till at last the
figure becomes a series of spheres in contact.

In all these cases the internal pressure exceeds the external by 2T/a
where a is the semi-transverse axis of the conic. The resultant of the
internal pressure and the surface-tension is equivalent to a tension
along the axis, and the numerical value of this tension is equal to the
force due to the action of this pressure on a circle whose diameter is
equal to the conjugate axis of the ellipse.

2. When the conic is a parabola the meridian line is a catenary (fig.
11); the internal pressure is equal to the external pressure, and the
tension along the axis is equal to 2[pi]Tm where m is the distance of
the vertex from the focus.

3. When the conic is a hyperbola the meridian line is in the form of a
looped curve (fig. 12). The corresponding figure of the film is called
the nodoid. The resultant of the internal pressure and the
surface-tension is equivalent to a pressure along the axis equal to that
due to a pressure p acting on a circle whose diameter is the conjugate
axis of the hyperbola.

When the conjugate axis of the hyperbola is made smaller and smaller,
the nodoid approximates more and more to the series of spheres touching
each other along the axis. When the conjugate axis of the hyperbola
increases without limit, the loops of the nodoid are crowded on one
another, and each becomes more nearly a ring of circular section,
without, however, ever reaching this form. The only closed surface
belonging to the series is the sphere.

These figures of revolution have been studied mathematically by C.W.B.
Poisson,[3] Goldschmidt,[4] L.L. Lindelöf and F.M.N. Moigno,[5] C.E.
Delaunay,[6] A.H.E. Lamarle,[7] A. Beer,[8] and V.M.A. Mannheim,[9] and
have been produced experimentally by Plateau[10] in the two different
ways already described.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Unduloid.]

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--Catenoid.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--Noboid.]

The limiting conditions of the stability of these figures have been
studied both mathematically and experimentally. We shall notice only two
of them, the cylinder and the catenoid.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.]

_Stability of the Cylinder._--The cylinder is the limiting form of the
unduloid when the rolling ellipse becomes a circle. When the ellipse
differs infinitely little from a circle, the equation of the meridian
line becomes approximately y = a + c sin(x/a) where c is small. This is
a simple harmonic wave-line, whose mean distance from the axis is a,
whose wave-length is 2[pi]a and whose amplitude is c. The internal
pressure corresponding to this unduloid is as before p = T/a. Now
consider a portion of a cylindric film of length x terminated by two
equal disks of radius r and containing a certain volume of air. Let one
of these disks be made to approach the other by a small quantity dx. The
film will swell out into the convex part of an unduloid, having its
largest section midway between the disks, and we have to determine
whether the internal pressure will be greater or less than before. If A
and C (fig. 13) are the disks, and if x the distance between the disks
is equal to [pi]r half the wave-length of the harmonic curve, the disks
will be at the points where the curve is at its mean distance from the
axis, and the pressure will therefore be T/r as before. If A1, C1 are
the disks, so that the distance between them is less than [pi]r, the
curve must be produced beyond the disks before it is at its mean
distance from the axis. Hence in this case the mean distance is less
than r, and the pressure will be greater than T/r. If, on the other
hand, the disks are at A2 and C2, so that the distance between them is
greater than [pi]r, the curve will reach its mean distance from the axis
before it reaches the disks. The mean distance will therefore be greater
than r, and the pressure will be less than T/r. Hence if one of the
disks be made to approach the other, the internal pressure will be
increased if the distance between the disks is less than half the
circumference of either, and the pressure will be diminished if the
distance is greater than this quantity. In the same way we may show that
if the distance between the disks is increased, the pressure will be
diminished or increased according as the distance is less or more than
half the circumference of either.

Now let us consider a cylindric film contained between two equal fixed
disks. A and B, and let a third disk, C, be placed midway between. Let C
be slightly displaced towards A. If AC and CB are each less than half
the circumference of a disk the pressure on C will increase on the side
of A and diminish on the side of B. The resultant force on C will
therefore tend to oppose the displacement and to bring C back to its
original position. The equilibrium of C is therefore stable. It is easy
to show that if C had been placed in any other position than the middle,
its equilibrium would have been stable. Hence the film is stable as
regards longitudinal displacements. It is also stable as regards
displacements transverse to the axis, for the film is in a state of
tension, and any lateral displacement of its middle parts would produce
a resultant force tending to restore the film to its original position.
Hence if the length of the cylindric film is less than its
circumference, it is in stable equilibrium. But if the length of the
cylindric film is greater than its circumference, and if we suppose the
disk C to be placed midway between A and B, and to be moved towards A,
the pressure on the side next A will diminish, and that on the side next
B will increase, so that the resultant force will tend to increase the
displacement, and the equilibrium of the disk C is therefore unstable.
Hence the equilibrium of a cylindric film whose length is greater than
its circumference is unstable. Such a film, if ever so little disturbed,
will begin to contract at one secton and to expand at another, till its
form ceases to resemble a cylinder, if it does not break up into two
parts which become ultimately portions of spheres.

_Instability of a Jet of Liquid._--When a liquid flows out of a vessel
through a circular opening in the bottom of the vessel, the form of the
stream is at first nearly cylindrical though its diameter gradually
diminishes from the orifice downwards on account of the increasing
velocity of the liquid. But the liquid after it leaves the vessel is
subject to no forces except gravity, the pressure of the air, and its
own surface-tension. Of these gravity has no effect on the form of the
stream except in drawing asunder its parts in a vertical direction,
because the lower parts are moving faster than the upper parts. The
resistance of the air produces little disturbance until the velocity
becomes very great. But the surface-tension, acting on a cylindric
column of liquid whose length exceeds the limit of stability, begins to
produce enlargements and contractions in the stream as soon as the
liquid has left the orifice, and these inequalities in the figure of the
column go on increasing till it is broken up into elongated fragments.
These fragments as they are falling through the air continue to be acted
on by surface-tension. They therefore shorten themselves, and after a
series of oscillations in which they become alternately elongated and
flattened, settle down into the form of spherical drops.

This process, which we have followed as it takes place on an individual
portion of the falling liquid, goes through its several phases at
different distances from the orifice, so that if we examine different
portions of the stream as it descends, we shall find next the orifice
the unbroken column, then a series of contractions and enlargements,
then elongated drops, then flattened drops, and so on till the drops
become spherical.

[The circumstances attending the resolution of a cylindrical jet into
drops were admirably examined and described by F. Savart ("Mémoire sur
la constitution des veines liquides lancées par des orifices circulaires
en minces parois," _Ann. d. Chim._ t. liii., 1833) and for the most part
explained with great sagacity by Plateau. Let us conceive an infinitely
long circular cylinder of liquid, at rest (a motion common to every part
of the fluid is necessarily without influence upon the stability, and
may therefore be left out of account for convenience of conception and
expression), and inquire under what circumstances it is stable or
unstable, for small displacements, symmetrical about the axis of figure.

Whatever the deformation of the originally straight boundary of the
axial section may be, it can be resolved by Fourier's theorem into
deformations of the harmonic type. These component deformations are in
general infinite in number, of very wave-length and of arbitrary phase;
but in the first stages of the motion, with which alone we are at
present concerned, each produces its effect independently of every
other, and may be considered by itself. Suppose, therefore, that the
equation of the boundary is

  r = a + a cos kz,     (1)

where a is a small quantity, the axis of z being that of symmetry. The
wave-length of the disturbance may be called [lambda], and is connected
with k by the equation k =2[pi]/[lambda]. The capillary tension
endeavours to contract the surface of the fluid; so that the stability,
or instability, of the cylindrical form of equilibrium depends upon
whether the surface (enclosing a given volume) be greater or less
respectively after the displacement than before. It has been proved by
Plateau (_vide supra_) that the surface is greater than before
displacement if ka > 1, that is, if [lambda] < 2[pi]a; but less if ka <
1, or [lambda] > 2[pi]a. Accordingly, the equilibrium is stable if
[lambda] be less than the circumference; but unstable if [lambda] be
greater than the circumference of the cylinder. Disturbances of the
former kind lead to _vibrations_ of harmonic type, whose amplitudes
always remain small; but disturbances, whose wave-length exceeds the
circumference, result in a greater and greater departure from the
cylindrical figure. The analytical expression for the motion in the
latter case involves exponential terms, one of which (except in case of
a particular relation between the initial displacements and velocities)
increases rapidly, being equally multiplied in equal times. The
coefficient (q) of the time in the exponential term (e^{qt}) may be
considered to measure the degree of dynamical instability; its
reciprocal 1/q is the time in which the disturbance is multiplied in the
ratio 1 : e.

The degree of instability, as measured by q, is not to be determined
from statical considerations only; otherwise there would be no limit to
the increasing efficiency of the longer wave-lengths. The joint
operation of superficial tension and _inertia_ in fixing the wave-length
of maximum instability was first considered by Lord Rayleigh in a paper
(_Math. Soc. Proc._, November 1878) on the "Instability of Jets." It
appears that the value of q may be expressed in the form

         / /    T   \
  q =   / ( -------- )·F(ka),      (2)
      \/   \[rho]a³ /

where, as before, T is the superficial tension, [rho] the density, and F
is given by the following table: --

  +-------+--------+-------+--------+
  | k²a². | F(ka). | k²a². | F(ka). |
  +-------+--------+-------+--------+
  |  .05  | .1536  |  .4   | .3382  |
  |  .1   | .2108  |  .5   | .3432  |
  |  .2   | .2794  |  .6   | .3344  |
  |  .3   | .3182  |  .8   | .2701  |
  |       |        |  .9   | .2015  |
  +-------+--------+-------+--------+

The greatest value of F thus corresponds, not to a zero value of k²a²,
but approximately to k²a² = .4858, or to [lambda] = 4.508 × 2a. Hence
the maximum instability occurs when the wave-length of disturbance is
about half as great again as that at which instability first commences.

Taking for water, in C.G.S. units, T = 81, [rho] = 1, we get for the
case of maximum instability

             a^(3/2)
  q_(-1) =  --------- = .115d^(3/2)       (3),
            81 × .343

if d be the diameter of the cylinder. Thus, if d = 1, q^(-1) = .115; or
for a diameter of one centimetre the disturbance is multiplied 2.7 times
in about one-ninth of a second. If the disturbance be multiplied 1000
fold in time, t, qt = 3log_e 10 = 6.9, so that t = .79d^(3/2). For
example, if the diameter be one millimetre, the disturbance is
multiplied 1000 fold in about one-fortieth of a second. In view of these
estimates the rapid disintegration of a fine jet of water will not cause
surprise.

The relative importance of two harmonic disturbances depends upon their
initial magnitudes, and upon the rate at which they grow. When the
initial values are very small, the latter consideration is much the more
important; for, if the disturbances be represented by a1e^(q1t),
a2e^(q2t), in which q1 exceeds q2, their ratio is (a1/a2) e^{-(q1-q2)t};
and this ratio decreases without limit with the time, whatever be the
initial (finite) ratio [alpha]2:[alpha]1. If the initial disturbances
are small enough, that one is ultimately preponderant for which the
measure of instability is greatest. The smaller the causes by which the
original equilibrium is upset, the more will the cylindrical mass tend
to divide itself regularly into portions whose length is equal to 4.5
times the diameter. But a disturbance of less favourable wave-length
may gain the preponderance in case its magnitude be sufficient to
produce disintegration in a less time than that required by the other
disturbances present.

The application of these results to actual jets presents no great
difficulty. The disturbances by which equilibrium is upset are impressed
upon the fluid as it leaves the aperture, and the continuous portion of
the jet represents the distance travelled during the time necessary to
produce disintegration. Thus the length of the continuous portion
necessarily depends upon the character of the disturbances in respect of
amplitude and wave-length. It may be increased considerably, as F.
Savart showed, by a suitable isolation of the reservoir from tremors,
whether due to external sources or to the impact of the jet itself in
the vessel placed to receive it. Nevertheless it does not appear to be
possible to carry the prolongation very far. Whether the residuary
disturbances are of external origin, or are due to friction, or to some
peculiarity of the fluid motion within the reservoir, has not been
satisfactorily determined. On this point Plateau's explanations are not
very clear, and he sometimes expresses himself as if the time of
disintegration depended only upon the capillary tension, without
reference to initial disturbances at all.

Two laws were formulated by Savart with respect to the length of the
continuous portion of a jet, and have been to a certain extent explained
by Plateau. For a given fluid and a given orifice the length is
approximately proportional to the square root of the head. This follows
at once from theory, if it can be assumed that the disturbances remain
always of the same character, so that the _time_ of disintegration is
constant. When the head is given, Savart found the length to be
proportional to the diameter of the orifice. From (3) it appears that
the time in which a disturbance is multiplied in a given ratio varies,
not as d, but as d^(3/2). Again, when the fluid is changed, the time
varies as [rho]^½ T^(-½). But it may be doubted whether the length of
the continuous portion obeys any very simple laws, even when external
disturbances are avoided as far as possible.

When the circumstances of the experiment are such that the reservoir is
influenced by the shocks due to the impact of the jet, the
disintegration usually establishes itself with complete regularity, and
is attended by a musical note (Savart). The impact of the regular series
of drops which is at any moment striking the sink (or vessel receiving
the water), determines the rupture into similar drops of the portion of
the jet at the same moment passing the orifice. The pitch of the note,
though not absolutely definite, cannot differ much from that which
corresponds to the division of the jet into wave-lengths of maximum
instability; and, in fact, Savart found that the frequency was directly
as the square root of the head, inversely as the diameter of the
orifice, and independent of the nature of the fluid--laws which follow
immediately from Plateau's theory.

From the pitch of the note due to a jet of given diameter, and issuing
under a given head, the wave-length of the nascent divisions can be at
once deduced. Reasoning from some observations of Savart, Plateau finds
in this way 4.38 as the ratio of the length of a division to the
diameter of the jet. The diameter of the orifice was 3 millims., from
which that of the jet is deduced by the introduction of the coefficient
.8. Now that the length of a division has been estimated a priori, it is
perhaps preferable to reverse Plateau's calculation, and to exhibit the
frequency of vibration in terms of the other data of the problem. Thus

                ____
              \/(2gh)
  frequency = -------       (4)
              4.508d

But the most certain method of obtaining complete regularity of
resolution is to bring the reservoir under the influence of an external
vibrator, whose pitch is approximately the same as that proper to the
jet. H.G. Magnus (_Pogg. Ann._ cvi., 1859) employed a Neef's hammer,
attached to the wooden frame which supported the reservoir. Perhaps an
electrically maintained tuning-fork is still better. Magnus showed that
the most important part of the effect is due to the forced vibration of
that side of the vessel which contains the orifice, and that but little
of it is propagated through the air. With respect to the limits of
pitch, Savart found that the note might be a fifth above, and more than
an octave below, that proper to the jet. According to theory, there
would be no well-defined lower limit; on the other side, the external
vibration cannot be efficient if it tends to produce divisions whose
length is less than the circumference of the jet. This would give for
the interval defining the upper limit [pi] : 4.508, which is very nearly
a fifth. In the case of Plateau's numbers ([pi] : 4.38) the discrepancy
is a little greater.

The detached masses into which a jet is resolved do not at once assume
and retain a spherical form, but execute a series of vibrations, being
alternately compressed and elongated in the direction of the axis of
symmetry. When the resolution is effected in a perfectly periodic
manner, each drop is in the same phase of its vibration as it passes
through a given point of space; and thence arises the remarkable
appearance of alternate swellings and contractions described by Savart.
The interval from one swelling to the next is the space described by the
drop during one complete vibration, and is therefore (as Plateau shows)
proportional _ceteris paribus_ to the square root of the head.

The time of vibration is of course itself a function of the nature of
the fluid and of the size of the drop. By the method of dimensions alone
it may be seen that the time of infinitely small vibrations varies
directly as the square root of the mass of the sphere and inversely as
the square root of the capillary tension; and it may be proved that its
expression is

        / / 3[pi][rho]V \
  r =  / (  -----------  ),      (5)
     \/   \     8T      /

V being the volume of the vibrating mass.

In consequence of the rapidity of the motion some optical device is
necessary to render apparent the phenomena attending the disintegration
of a jet. Magnus employed a rotating mirror, and also a rotating disk
from which a fine slit was cut out. The readiest method of obtaining
instantaneous illumination is the electric spark, but with this Magnus
was not successful. The electric spark had, however, been used
successfully for this purpose some years before by H. Buff (_Liebigs
Ann._ lxxviii. 1851), who observed the _shadow_ of the jet on a white
screen. Preferable to an opaque screen is a piece of ground glass, which
allows the shadow to be examined from the farther side (Lord Rayleigh).
Further, the jet may be very well observed directly, if the illumination
is properly managed. For this purpose it is necessary to place it
between the source of light and the eye. The best effect is obtained
when the light of the spark is somewhat diffused by being passed (for
example) through a piece of ground glass.

The spark may be obtained from the secondary of an induction coil, whose
terminals are in connexion with the coatings of a Leyden jar. By
adjustment of the contact breaker the series of sparks may be made to
fit more or less perfectly with the formation of the drops. A still
greater improvement may be effected by using an electrically maintained
fork, which performs the double office of controlling the resolution of
the jet and of interrupting the primary current of the induction coil.
In this form the experiment is one of remarkable beauty. The jet,
illuminated only in one phase of transformation, appears almost
perfectly steady, and may be examined at leisure. In one experiment the
jet issued horizontally from an orifice of about half a centimetre in
diameter, and almost immediately assumed a rippled outline. The
gradually increasing amplitude of the disturbance, the formation of the
elongated ligament, and the subsequent transformation of the ligament
into a spherule, could be examined with ease. In consequence of the
transformation being in a more advanced stage at the forward than at the
hinder end, the ligament remains for a moment connected with the mass
behind, when it has freed itself from the mass in front, and thus the
resulting spherule acquires a backwards relative velocity, which of
necessity leads to a collision. Under ordinary circumstances the
spherule rebounds, and may be thus reflected backwards and forwards
several times between the adjacent masses. Magnus showed that the stream
of spherules may be diverted into another path by the attraction of a
powerfully electrified rod, held a little below the place of resolution.

Very interesting modifications of these phenomena are observed when a
jet from an orifice in a thin plate (Tyndall has shown that a pinhole
gas burner may also be used with advantage) is directed obliquely
upwards. In this case drops which break away with different velocities
are carried under the action of gravity into different paths; and thus
under ordinary circumstances a jet is apparently resolved into a
"sheaf," or bundle of jets all lying in one vertical plane. Under the
action of a vibrator of suitable periodic time the resolution is
regularized, and then each drop, breaking away under like conditions, is
projected with the same velocity, and therefore follows the same path.
The apparent gathering together of the sheaf into a fine and
well-defined stream is an effect of singular beauty.

In certain cases where the tremor to which the jet is subjected is
compound, the single path is replaced by two, three or even more paths,
which the drops follow in a regular cycle. The explanation has been
given with remarkable insight by Plateau. If, for example, besides the
principal disturbance, which determines the size of the drops, there be
another of twice the period, it is clear that the alternate drops break
away under different conditions and therefore with different velocities.
Complete periodicity is only attained after the passage of a _pair_ of
drops; and thus the odd series of drops pursues one path, and the even
series another.

Electricity, as has long been known, has an extraordinary influence upon
the appearance of a fine jet of water ascending in a nearly
perpendicular direction. In its normal state the jet resolves itself
into drops, which even before passing the summit, and still more after
passing it, are scattered through a considerable width. When a feebly
electrified body (such as a stick of sealing-wax gently rubbed upon the
coat sleeve) is brought into its neighbourhood, the jet undergoes a
remarkable transformation and appears to become coherent; but under more
powerful electrical action the scattering becomes even greater than at
first. The second effect is readily attributed to the mutual repulsion
of the electrified drops, but the action of feeble electricity in
producing apparent coherence was long unexplained.

It was shown by W. von Beetz that the coherence is apparent only, and
that the place where the jet breaks into drops is not perceptibly
shifted by the electricity. By screening the various parts with metallic
plates in connexion with earth, Beetz further proved that, contrary to
the opinion of earlier observers, the seat of sensitiveness is not at
the root of the jet where it leaves the orifice, but at the place of
resolution into drops. An easy way of testing this conclusion is to
excite the extreme tip of a glass rod, which is then held in succession
to the root of the jet, and to the place of resolution. An effect is
observed in the latter, and not in the former position.

The normal scattering of a nearly vertical jet is due to the _rebound_
of the drops when they come into collision with one another. Such
collisions are inevitable in consequence of the different velocities
acquired by the drops under the action of the capillary force, as they
break away irregularly from the continuous portion of the jet. Even when
the resolution is regularized by the action of external vibrations of
suitable frequency, as in the beautiful experiments of Savart and
Plateau, the drops must still come into contact before they reach the
summit of their parabolic path. In the case of a continuous jet, the
equation of continuity shows that as the jet loses velocity in
ascending, it must increase in section. When the stream consists of
drops following one another in single file, no such increase of section
is possible; and then the constancy of the total stream requires a
gradual approximation of the drops, which in the case of a nearly
vertical direction of motion cannot stop short of actual contact.
Regular vibration has, however, the effect of postponing the collisions
and consequent scattering of the drops, and in the case of a direction
of motion less nearly vertical, may prevent them altogether.

Under moderate electrical influence there is no material change in the
resolution into drops, nor in the subsequent motion of the drops up to
the moment of collision. The difference begins here. Instead of
rebounding after collision, as the unelectrified drops of clean water
generally, or always, do, the electrified drops _coalesce_, and then the
jet is no longer scattered about. When the electrical influence is more
powerful, the repulsion between the drops is sufficient to prevent
actual contact, and then, of course, there is no opportunity for
amalgamation.

These experiments may be repeated with extreme ease, and with hardly any
apparatus. The diameter of the jet may be about 1/20 in., and it may
issue from a glass nozzle. The pressure may be such as to give a
fountain about 2 ft. high. The change in the sound due to the falling
drops as they strike the bottom of the sink should be noticed, as well
as that in the appearance of the jet.

The actual behaviour of the colliding drops becomes apparent under
instantaneous illumination, e.g. by sparks from a Leyden jar. The jet
should be situated between the sparks and the eye, and the observation
is facilitated by a piece of ground glass held a little beyond the jet,
so as to diffuse the light; or the _shadow_ of the jet may be received
on the ground glass, which is then held as close as possible on the side
towards the observer.

In another form of the experiment, which, though perhaps less striking
to the eye, lends itself better to investigation, the collision takes
place between two still unresolved jets issuing horizontally from glass
nozzles in communication with reservoirs containing water. One at least
of the reservoirs must be insulated. In the absence of dust and greasy
contamination, the obliquely colliding jets may rebound from one another
without coalescence for a considerable time. In this condition there is
complete electrical insulation between the jets, as may be proved by the
inclusion in the circuit of a delicate galvanometer, and a low
electromotive force. But if the difference of potential exceed a small
amount (1 or 2 volts), the jets instantaneously coalesce. There is no
reason to doubt that in the case of the fountain also, coalescence is
due to _differences_ of potential between colliding drops.

If the water be soapy, and especially if it contain a small proportion
of milk, coalescence ensues without the help of electricity. In the case
of the fountain the experiment may be made by leading tap-water through
a Woulfe's bottle in which a little milk has been placed. As the milk is
cleared out, the scattering of the drops is gradually re-established.

In attempting to explain these curious phenomena, it is well to consider
what occurs during a collision. As the liquid masses approach one
another, the intervening air has to be squeezed out. In the earlier
stages of approximation the obstacle thus arising may not be important;
but when the thickness of the layer of air is reduced to the point at
which the colours of thin plates are visible, the approximation must be
sensibly resisted by the viscosity of the air which still remains to be
got rid of. No change in the capillary conditions can arise until the
interval is reduced to a small fraction of a wave-length of light; but
such a reduction, unless extremely local, is strongly opposed by the
remaining air. It is true that this opposition is temporary. The
question is whether the air can everywhere be squeezed out during the
short time over which the collision extends.

It would seem that the forces of electrical attraction act with peculiar
advantage. If we suppose that upon the whole the air cannot be removed,
so that the mean distance between the opposed surfaces remains constant,
the electric attractions tend to produce an instability whereby the
smaller intervals are diminished while the larger are increased.
Extremely local contacts of the liquids, while opposed by capillary
tension which tends to keep the surfaces flat, are thus favoured by the
electrical forces, which moreover at the small distances in question act
with exaggerated power.

A question arises as to the mode of action of milk or soap turbidity.
The observation that it is possible for soap to be in excess may here
have significance. It would seem that the surfaces, coming into
collision within a fraction of a second of their birth, would still be
subject to further contamination from the interior. A particle of soap
rising accidentally to the surface would spread itself with rapidity.
Now such an outward movement of the liquid is just what is required to
hasten the removal of intervening air. It is obvious that the effect
would fail if the contamination of the surface had proceeded too far
previously to the collision.

This view is confirmed by experiments in which other gases are
substituted for air as the environment of colliding jets. Oxygen and
coal-gas were found to be without effect. On the other hand, the more
soluble gases, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, sulphur dioxide, and
steam, at once caused union.]

_Stability of the Catenoid._--When the internal pressure is equal to the
external, the film forms a surface of which the mean curvature at every
point is zero. The only surface of revolution having this property is
the catenoid formed by the revolution of a catenary about its directrix.
This catenoid, however, is in stable equilibrium only when the portion
considered is such that the tangents to the catenary at its extremities
intersect before they reach the directrix.

To prove this, let us consider the catenary as the form of equilibrium
of a chain suspended between two fixed points A and B. Suppose the chain
hanging between A and B to be of very great length, then the tension at
A or B will be very great. Let the chain be hauled in over a peg at A.
At first the tension will diminish, but if the process be continued the
tension will reach a minimum value and will afterwards increase to
infinity as the chain between A and B approaches to the form of a
straight line. Hence for every tension greater than the minimum tension
there are two catenaries passing through A and B. Since the tension is
measured by the height above the directrix these two catenaries have the
same directrix. Every catenary lying between them has its directrix
higher, and every catenary lying beyond them has its directrix lower
than that of the two catenaries.

Now let us consider the surfaces of revolution formed by this system of
catenaries revolving about the directrix of the two catenaries of equal
tension. We know that the radius of curvature of a surface of revolution
in the plane normal to the meridian plane is the portion of the normal
intercepted by the axis of revolution.

The radius of curvature of a catenary is equal and opposite to the
portion of the normal intercepted by the directrix of the catenary.
Hence a catenoid whose directrix coincides with the axis of revolution
has at every point its principal radii of curvature equal and opposite,
so that the mean curvature of the surface is zero.

The catenaries which lie between the two whose direction coincides with
the axis of revolution generate surfaces whose radius of curvature
convex towards the axis in the meridian plane is less than the radius of
concave curvature. The mean curvature of these surfaces is therefore
convex towards the axis. The catenaries which lie beyond the two
generate surfaces whose radius of curvature convex towards the axis in
the meridian plane is greater than the radius of concave curvature. The
mean curvature of these surfaces is, therefore, concave towards the
axis.

Now if the pressure is equal on both sides of a liquid film, and if its
mean curvature is zero, it will be in equilibrium. This is the case with
the two catenoids. If the mean curvature is convex towards the axis the
film will move from the axis. Hence if a film in the form of the
catenoid which is nearest the axis is ever so slightly displaced from
the axis it will move farther from the axis till it reaches the other
catenoid.

If the mean curvature is concave towards the axis the film will tend to
approach the axis. Hence if a film in the form of the catenoid which is
nearest the axis be displaced towards the axis, it will tend to move
farther towards the axis and will collapse. Hence the film in the form
of the catenoid which is nearest the axis is in unstable equilibrium
under the condition that it is exposed to equal pressures within and
without. If, however, the circular ends of the catenoid are closed with
solid disks, so that the volume of air contained between these disks and
the film is determinate, the film will be in stable equilibrium however
large a portion of the catenary it may consist of.

The criterion as to whether any given catenoid is stable or not may be
obtained as follows:--

[Illustration: FIG. 14.]

Let PABQ and ApqB (fig. 14) be two catenaries having the same directrix
and intersecting in A and B. Draw Pp and Qq touching both catenaries, Pp
and Qq will intersect at T, a point in the directrix; for since any
catenary with its directrix is a similar figure to any other catenary
with its directrix, if the directrix of the one coincides with that of
the other the centre of similitude must lie on the common directrix.
Also, since the curves at P and p are equally inclined to the directrix,
P and p are corresponding points and the line Pp must pass through the
centre of similitude. Similarly Qq must pass through the centre of
similitude. Hence T, the point of intersection of Pp and Qq, must be the
centre of similitude and must be on the common directrix. Hence the
tangents at A and B to the upper catenary must intersect above the
directrix, and the tangents at A and B to the lower catenary must
intersect below the directrix. The condition of stability of a catenoid
is therefore that the tangents at the extremities of its generating
catenary must intersect before they reach the directrix.

_Stability of a Plane Surface._--We shall next consider the limiting
conditions of stability of the horizontal surface which separates a
heavier fluid above from a lighter fluid below. Thus, in an experiment
of F. Duprez ("Sur un cas particulier de l'équilibre des liquides,"
_Nouveaux Mém. del' Acad. de Belgique, 1851 et 1853_), a vessel
containing olive oil is placed with its mouth downwards in a vessel
containing a mixture of alcohol and water, the mixture being denser than
the oil. The surface of separation is in this case horizontal and
stable, so that the equilibrium is established of itself. Alcohol is
then added very gradually to the mixture till it becomes lighter than
the oil. The equilibrium of the fluids would now be unstable if it were
not for the tension of the surface which separates them, and which, when
the orifice of the vessel is not too large, continues to preserve the
stability of the equilibrium.

When the equilibrium at last becomes unstable, the destruction of
equilibrium takes place by the lighter fluid ascending in one part of
the orifice and the heavier descending in the other. Hence the
displacement of the surface to which we must direct our attention is one
which does not alter the volume of the liquid in the vessel, and which
therefore is upward in one part of the surface and downward in another.
The simplest case is that of a rectangular orifice in a horizontal
plane, the sides being a and b.

  Let the surface of separation be originally in the plane of the
  orifice, and let the co-ordinates x and y be measured from one corner
  parallel to the sides a and b respectively, and let z be measured
  upwards. Then if [rho] be the density of the upper liquid, and [sigma]
  that of the lower liquid, and P the original pressure at the surface
  of separation, then when the surface receives an upward displacement
  z, the pressure above it will be P - [rho]gz, and that below it will
  be P - [sigma]gz, so that the surface will be acted on by an upward
  pressure ([rho] - [sigma])gz. Now if the displacement z be everywhere
  very small, the curvature in the planes parallel to xz and yz will be
  d²z/dx² and d²z/dy² respectively, and if T is the surface-tension the
  whole upward force will be

       / d²z   d²z \
    T (  --- + ---  ) + ([rho] - [sigma])gz.
       \ dx²   dy² /

  If this quantity is of the same sign as z, the displacement will be
  increased, and the equilibrium will be unstable. If it is of the
  opposite sign from z, the equilibrium will be stable. The limiting
  condition may be found by putting it equal to zero. One form of the
  solution of the equation, and that which is applicable to the case of
  a rectangular orifice, is

    z = C sin px sin qy.

  Substituting in the equation we find the condition

                                       / + ^(ve) stable.
    (p² + q²)T - ([rho] - [sigma])g = <  0       neutral.
                                       \ - ^(ve) unstable.

  That the surface may coincide with the edge of the orifice, which is
  a rectangle, whose sides are a and b, we must have

    pa = m[pi], qb = n[pi],

  when m and n are integral numbers. Also, if m and n are both unity,
  the displacement will be entirely positive, and the volume of the
  liquid will not be constant. That the volume may be constant, either n
  or m must be an even number. We have, therefore, to consider the
  conditions under which

           / m²   n²\
    [pi]² (  -- + -- )T - ([rho] - [sigma])g
           \ a²   b²/

  cannot be made negative. Under these conditions the equilibrium is
  stable for all small displacements of the surface. The smallest
  admissible value of

    m²   n²    4    1
    -- + -- is -- + --,
    a²   b²    a²   b²

  where a is the longer side of the rectangle. Hence the condition of
  stability is that

           / 4    1 \
    [pi]² (  -- + -- )T - ([rho] - [sigma])g
           \ a² + b²/

  is a positive quantity. When the breadth b is less than
        __________________
       /      [pi]² T
      / ------------------
    \/  ([rho] - [sigma])g

  the length a may be unlimited.

  When the orifice is circular of radius a, the limiting value of a is
        _______
       /  T
      / ------- z, where z is the least root of the equation
    \/  g [rho]

     2               z²    z^4        z^6
    --- J1(z) = 1 - --- + ------ + --------- + &c., = 0.
     z              2·4   2·4²·6   2·4²·6²·8

  The least root of this equation is

    z = 3.83171.

  If h is the height to which the liquid will rise in a capillary tube
  of unit radius, then the diameter of the largest orifice is
                   ____            ___
    2a = 3.83171 \/(2h) = 5.4188 \/(h).

  Duprez found from his experiments
                 ___
    2a = 5.485 \/(h).

[The above theory may be well illustrated by a lecture experiment. A
thin-walled glass tube of internal diameter equal to 14½ mm. is ground
true at the lower end. The upper end is contracted and is fitted with a
rubber tube under the control of a pinch-cock. Water is sucked up from a
vessel of moderate size, the rubber is nipped, and by a quick motion the
tube and vessel are separated, preferably by a downward movement of the
latter. The inverted tube, with its suspended water, being held in a
clamp, a beaker containing a few drops of ether is brought up from below
until the free surface of the water is in contact with ether vapour. The
lowering of tension, which follows the condensation of the vapour, is
then strikingly shown by the sudden precipitation of the water.]

_Effect of Surface-tension on the Velocity of Waves._--When a series of
waves is propagated on the surface of a liquid, the surface-tension has
the effect of increasing the pressure at the crests of the waves and
diminishing it in the troughs. If the wave-length is [lambda], the
equation of the surface is

  y = b sin 2[pi](x/[lambda]).

The pressure due to the surface tension T is

          d²y     4[pi]²
  p = - T --- = --------- Ty.
          dx²   [lambda]²

This pressure must be added to the pressure due to gravity g [rho] y.
Hence the waves will be propagated as if the intensity of gravity had
been

            4[pi]²    T
  f = g + --------- -----
          [lambda]² [rho]

instead of g. Now it is shown in hydrodynamics that the velocity of
propagation of waves in deep water is that acquired by a heavy body
falling through half the radius of the circle whose circumference is the
wave-length, or

       f[lambda]   g[lambda]      2[pi]T
  v² = --------- = --------- + -------------.     (1)
         2[pi]       2[pi]     [rho][lambda]

This velocity is a minimum when
                       ______
                      /   T
  [lambda] = 2 [pi]  / ------,
                   \/  g[rho]

and the minimum value is
         _______
      4 /    Tg
  v =  / 4 -----.
     \/    [rho]


For waves whose length from crest to crest is greater than [lambda], the
principal force concerned in the motion is that of gravitation. For
waves whose length is less than [lambda] the principal force concerned
is that of surface-tension. Lord Kelvin proposed to distinguish the
latter kind of waves by the name of ripples.

When a small body is partly immersed in a liquid originally at rest, and
moves horizontally with constant velocity V, waves are propagated
through the liquid with various velocities according to their respective
wave-lengths. In front of the body the relative velocity of the fluid
and the body varies from V where the fluid is at rest, to zero at the
cutwater on the front surface of the body. The waves produced by the
body will travel forwards faster than the body till they reach a
distance from it at which the relative velocity of the body and the
fluid is equal to the velocity of propagation corresponding to the
wave-length. The waves then travel along with the body at a constant
distance in front of it. Hence at a certain distance in front of the
body there is a series of waves which are stationary with respect to the
body. Of these, the waves of minimum velocity form a stationary wave
nearest to the front of the body. Between the body and this first wave
the surface is comparatively smooth. Then comes the stationary wave of
minimum velocity, which is the most marked of the series. In front of
this is a double series of stationary waves, the gravitation waves
forming a series increasing in wave-length with their distance in front
of the body, and the surface-tension waves or ripples diminishing in
wave-length with their distance from the body, and both sets of waves
rapidly diminishing in amplitude with their distance from the body.

If the current-function of the water referred to the body considered as
origin is [psi], then the equation of the form of the crest of a wave of
velocity w, the crest of which travels along with the body, is

  d[psi] = w ds

where ds is an element of the length of the crest. To integrate this
equation for a solid of given form is probably difficult, but it is easy
to see that at some distance on either side of the body, where the
liquid is sensibly at rest, the crest of the wave will approximate to an
asymptote inclined to the path of the body at an angle whose sine is
w/V, where w is the velocity of the wave and V is that of the body.

The crests of the different kinds of waves will therefore appear to
diverge as they get farther from the body, and the waves themselves will
be less and less perceptible. But those whose wave-length is near to
that of the wave of minimum velocity will diverge less than any of the
others, so that the most marked feature at a distance from the body will
be the two long lines of ripples of minimum velocity. If the angle
between these is 2[theta], the velocity of the body is w sec[theta],
where w for water is about 23 centimetres per second.

[Lord Kelvin's formula (1) may be applied to find the surface-tension of
a clean or contaminated liquid from observations upon the length of
waves of known periodic time, travelling over the surface. If v =
[lambda]/[tau] we have

      [rho][lambda]³        2[pi]h    g[lambda]²[rho]
  T = -------------- - coth-------- - ---------------      (2)
       2[pi][tau]²         [lambda]       4[pi]²

h denoting the depth of the liquid. In observations upon ripples the
factor involving h may usually be omitted, and thus in the case of water
([rho] = 1)

       [lambda]³     g[lambda]²
  T = ----------- - -----------      (3)
      2[pi][tau]²      4[pi]²

simply. The method has the advantage of independence of what may occur
at places where the liquid is in contact with solid bodies.

The waves may be generated by electrically maintained tuning-forks from
which dippers touch the surface; but special arrangements are needed for
rendering them visible. The obstacles are (1) the smallness of the
waves, and (2) the changes which occur at speeds too rapid for the eye
to follow. The second obstacle is surmounted by the aid of the
stroboscopic method of observation, the light being intermittent in the
period of vibration, so that practically only one phase is seen. In
order to render visible the small waves employed, and which we may
regard as deviations of a plane surface from its true figure, the
method by which Foucault tested reflectors is suitable. The following
results have been obtained

  Clean                                                   74.0
  Greasy to the point where camphor motions nearly cease  53.0
  Saturated with olive oil                                41.0
  Saturated with sodium oleate                            25.0

(_Phil. Mag._ November 1890) for the tensions of various water-surfaces
at 18° C., reckoned in C.G.S. measure.

The tension for clean water thus found is considerably lower than that
(81) adopted by Quincke, but it seems to be entitled to confidence, and
at any rate the deficiency is not due to contamination of the surface.

A calculation analogous to that of Lord Kelvin may be applied to find
the frequency of small transverse vibrations of a cylinder of liquid
under the action of the capillary force. Taking the case where the
motion is strictly in two dimensions, we may write as the polar equation
of the surface at time t

  r = a + a_n cos n[theta] cos pt,     (4)

where p is given by

                  T
  p² = (n³ - n)-------.     (5)
               [rho]a³

If n = 1, the section remains circular, there is no force of
restitution, and p = 0. The principal vibration, in which the section
becomes elliptical, corresponds to n = 2.

Vibrations of this kind are observed whenever liquid issues from an
elliptical or other non-circular hole, or even when it is poured from
the lip of an ordinary jug; and they are superposed upon the general
progressive motion. Since the phase of vibration depends upon the time
elapsed, it is always the same at the same point in space, and thus the
motion is _steady_ in the hydrodynamical sense, and the boundary of the
jet is a fixed surface. In so far as the vibrations may be regarded as
isochronous, the distance between consecutive corresponding points of
the recurrent figure, or, as it may be called, the _wave-length_ of the
figure, is directly proportional to the velocity of the jet, i.e. to the
square root of the head. But as the head increases, so do the _lateral_
velocities which go to form the transverse vibrations. A departure from
the law of isochronism may then be expected to develop itself.

The transverse vibrations of non-circular jets allow us to solve a
problem which at first sight would appear to be of great difficulty.
According to Marangoni the diminished surface-tension of soapy water is
due to the formation of a film. The formation cannot be instantaneous,
and if we could measure the tension of a surface not more than 1/100 of
a second old, we might expect to find it undisturbed, or nearly so, from
that proper to pure water. In order to carry out the experiment the jet
is caused to issue from an elliptical orifice in a thin plate, about 2
mm. by 1 mm., under a head of 15 cm. A comparison under similar
circumstances shows that there is hardly any difference in the
wave-lengths of the patterns obtained with pure and with soapy water,
from which we conclude that at this initial stage, the surface-tensions
are the same. As early as 1869 Dupré had arrived at a similar conclusion
from experiments upon the vertical rise of fine jets.

A formula, similar to (5), may be given for the frequencies of vibration
of a spherical mass of liquid under capillary force. If, as before, the
frequency be p/2[Pi], and a the radius of the sphere, we have

                         T
  p² = n(n - 1)(n + 2)-------,     (6)
                      [rho]a³

n denoting the order of the spherical harmonic by which the deviation
from a spherical figure is expressed. To find the radius of the sphere
of water which vibrates seconds, put p = 2[Pi], T = 81, [rho] = 1, n =
2. Thus a = 2.54 cms., or one inch very nearly.]


TABLES OF SURFACE-TENSION

In the following tables the units of length, mass and time are the
centimetre, the gramme and the second, and the unit of force is that
which if it acted on one gramme for one second would communicate to it a
velocity of one centimetre per second:--

  _Table of Surface-Tension at 20° C. (Quincke)._

  +----------------------------------+---------+----------------------------+----------------------------+
  |                                  |         |     Tension of surface     |    Angle of contact with   |
  |              Liquid.             | Specific| separating the liquid from |    glass in presence of    |
  |                                  | Gravity.+-------+---------+----------+---------+--------+---------+
  |                                  |         |  Air. |  Water. | Mercury. |   Air.  | Water. | Mercury.|
  +----------------------------------+---------+-------+---------+----------+---------+--------+---------|
  | Water                            |  1      |  81   |   · ·   |  418     | 25° 32' |   · ·  | 25° 6'  |
  | Mercury                          | 13.5432 | 540   |  418    |   · ·    | 51° 8'  | 26° 8' |   · ·   |
  | Bisulfuride of Carbon            |  1.2687 |  32.1 |   41.75 |  372.5   | 32° 16' | 15° 8' |   · ·   |
  | Chloroform                       |  1.4878 |  30.6 |   29.5  |  399     |   · ·   |   · ·  |   · ·   |
  | Alcohol                          |  0.7906 |  25.5 |   · ·   |  399     | 25° 12' |   · ·  |   · ·   |
  | Olive Oil                        |  0.9136 |  36.9 |   20.56 |  335     | 21° 50' | 17°    | 47° 2'  |
  | Turpentine                       |  0.8867 |  29.7 |   11.55 |  250.5   | 37° 44' | 37° 44'| 47° 2'  |
  | Petroleum                        |  0.7977 |  31.7 |   27.8  |  284     | 36° 20' | 42° 46'|   · ·   |
  | Hydrochloric Acid                |  1.1    |  70.1 |   · ·   |  377     |   · ·   | 42° 46'|   · ·   |
  | Solution of Hyposulphite of Soda |  1.1248 |  77.5 |   · ·   |  442.5   | 23° 20' |   · ·  | 10° 42' |
  +----------------------------------+---------+-------+---------+----------+---------+--------+---------+

  Olive Oil and Alcohol, 12.2.

  Olive oil and aqueous alcohol (sp. g. .9231, tension of free surface
  25.5), 6.8, angle 87° 48'.

Quincke has determined the surface-tension of a great many substances
near their point of fusion or solidification. His method was that of
observing the form of a large drop standing on a plane surface. If K is
the height of the flat surface of the drop, and k that of the point
where its tangent plane is vertical, then

  T = ½(K - k)² g[rho]

  _Surface-Tensions of Liquids at their Point of Solidification. From
  Quincke._

  +--------------------+-----------------+----------+
  |     Substance.     | Temperature of  | Surface- |
  |                    | Solidification. | Tension. |
  +--------------------+-----------------+----------+
  | Platinum           |      2000° C.   |  1658    |
  | Gold               |      1200°      |   983    |
  | Zinc               |       360°      |   860    |
  | Tin                |       230°      |   587    |
  | Mercury            |       -40°      |   577    |
  | Lead               |       330°      |   448    |
  | Silver             |      1000°      |   419    |
  | Bismuth            |       265°      |   382    |
  | Potassium          |        58°      |   364    |
  | Sodium             |        90°      |   253    |
  | Antimony           |       432°      |   244    |
  | Borax              |      1000°      |   212    |
  | Carbonate of Soda  |      1000°      |   206    |
  | Chloride of Sodium |       · ·       |   114    |
  | Water              |         0°      |    86.2  |
  | Selenium           |       217°      |    70.4  |
  | Sulphur            |       111°      |    41.3  |
  | Phosphorus         |        43°      |    41.1  |
  | Wax                |        68°      |    33.4  |
  +--------------------+-----------------+----------+

Quincke finds that for several series of substances the surface-tension
is nearly proportional to the density, so that if we call (K - k)² =
2T/g[rho] the specific cohesion, we may state the general results of
his experiments as follows:--

The bromides and iodides have a specific cohesion about half that of
mercury. The nitrates, chlorides, sugars and fats, as also the metals
lead, bismuth and antimony, have a specific cohesion nearly equal to
that of mercury. Water, the carbonates and sulphates, and probably
phosphates, and the metals platinum, gold, silver, cadmium, tin and
copper have a specific cohesion double that of mercury. Zinc, iron and
palladium, three times that of mercury, and sodium, six times that of
mercury.


RELATION OF SURFACE-TENSION TO TEMPERATURE

It appears from the experiments of Brunner and of Wolf on the ascent of
water in tubes that at the temperature t° centigrade

  T = 75.20 (1 - 0.00187t) (Brunner);
    = 76.08 (1 - 0.002t + 0.00000415t²), for a tube .02346 cm. diameter
       (Wolf);
    = 77.34 (1 - 0.00181t), for a tube .03098 cm. diameter (Wolf).

Lord Kelvin has applied the principles of Thermodynamics to determine
the thermal effects of increasing or diminishing the area of the free
surface of a liquid, and has shown that in order to keep the temperature
constant while the area of the surface increases by unity, an amount of
heat must be supplied to the liquid which is dynamically equivalent to
the product of the absolute temperature into the decrement of the
surface-tension per degree of temperature. We may call this the _latent
heat of surface-extension_.

It appears from the experiments of C. Brunner and C.J.E. Wolf that at
ordinary temperatures the latent heat of extension of the surface of
water is dynamically equivalent to about half the mechanical work done
in producing the surface-extension.

  REFERENCES.--Further information on some of the matters discussed
  above will be found in Lord Rayleigh's _Collected Scientific Papers_
  (1901). In its full extension the subject of capillarity is very wide.
  Reference may be made to A.W. Reinold and Sir A.W. Rücker (_Phil.
  Trans._ 1886, p. 627); Sir W. Ramsay and J. Shields (_Zeitschr.
  physik. Chem._ 1893, 12, p. 433); and on the theoretical side, see
  papers by Josiah Willard Gibbs; R. Eötvös (_Wied. Ann._, 1886, 27, p.
  452); J.D. Van der Waals, G. Bakker and other writers of the Dutch
  school.     (J. C. M.; R.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] In this revision of James Clerk Maxwell's classical article in
    the ninth edition of the _Encyclopaedia Britannica_, additions are
    marked by square brackets.

  [2] See Enrico Betti, _Teoria della Capillarità: Nuovo Cimento_
    (1867); a memoir by M. Stahl, "Ueber einige Punckte in der Theorie
    der Capillarerscheinungen," _Pogg. Ann._ cxxxix. p. 239 (1870); and
    J.D. Van der Waal's _Over de Continuiteit van den Gasen
    Vloeistoftoestand_. A good account of the subject from a mathematical
    point of view will be found in James Challis's "Report on the Theory
    of Capillary Attraction," _Brit. Ass. Report_, iv. p. 235 (1834).

  [3] _Nouvelle théorie de l'action capillaire_ (1831).

  [4] _Determinatio superficiei minimae rotatione curvae data duo
    puncta jungentis circa datum axem ortae_ (Göttingen, 1831).

  [5] _Leçons de calcul des variations_ (Paris, 1861).

  [6] "Sur la surface de révolution dont la courbure moyenne est
    constante," _Liouville's Journal_, vi.

  [7] "Théorie géometrique des rayons et centres de courbure," _Bullet,
    de l'Acad. de Belgique_, 1857.

  [8] _Tractatus de Theoria Mathematica Phaenomenorum in Liquidis
    actioni gravitatis detractis observatorum_ (Bonn, 1857).

  [9] _Journal de l'Institut_, No. 1260.

  [10] _Statique expérimental et théorique des liquides_, 1873.



CAPISTRANO, GIOVANNI DI (1386-1456), Italian friar, theologian and
inquisitor, was born in the little village of Capistrano in the Abruzzi,
of a family which had come to Italy with the Angevins. He lived at first
a wholly secular life, married, and became a successful magistrate; he
took part in the continual struggles of the small Italian states in such
a way as to compromise himself. During his captivity he was practically
ruined and lost his young wife. He then in despair entered the
Franciscan order and at once gave himself up to the most rigorous
asceticism, violently defending the ideal of strict observance. He was
charged with various missions by the popes Eugenius IV. and Nicholas V.,
in which he acquitted himself with implacable violence. As legate or
inquisitor he persecuted the last Fraticelli of Ferrara, the Jesuati of
Venice, the Jews of Sicily, Moldavia and Poland, and, above all, the
Hussites of Germany, Hungary and Bohemia; his aim in the last case was
to make conferences impossible between the representatives of Rome and
the Bohemians, for every attempt at conciliation seemed to him to be
conniving at heresy. Finally, after the taking of Constantinople, he
succeeded in gathering troops together for a crusade against the Turks
(1455), which at least helped to raise the siege of Belgrade, which was
being blockaded by Mahommed II. He died shortly afterwards (October 23,
1456), and was canonized in 1690. Capistrano, in spite of this restless
life, found time to work both in the lifetime of his master St
Bernardino of Siena and after, at the reform of the order of the minor
Franciscans, and to uphold both in his writings and his speeches the
most advanced theories upon the papal supremacy as opposed to that of
the councils.

  See E. Jacob, _Johannes von Capistrano_, vol. i.: "Das Leben und
  Wirken Capistrans;" vol. ii.: "Die handschriftlichen Aufzeichnungen
  von Reden und Tractaten Capistrans," (1st series, Breslau, 1903-1905).
       (P. A.)



CAPITAL (Lat. _caput_, head), in architecture, the crowning member of
the column, which projects on each side as it rises, in order to support
the abacus and unite the square form of the latter with the circular
shaft. The bulk of the capital may either be convex, as in the Doric
capital; concave, as in the bell of the Corinthian capital; or bracketed
out, as in the Ionic capital. These are the three principal types on
which all capitals are based. The capitals of Greek, Doric, Ionic and
Corinthian orders are given in the article ORDER.

From the prominent position it occupies in all monumental buildings, it
has always been the favourite feature selected for ornamentation, and
consequently it has become the clearest indicator of any style.

The two earliest capitals of importance are those which are based on the
lotus (fig. 1) and papyrus (fig. 2) plants respectively, and these, with
the palm tree capital, were the chief types employed by the Egyptians
down to the 3rd century B.C., when, under the Ptolemaic dynasties,
various river plants were employed decoratively and the lotus capital
goes through various modifications (fig 3) Some kind of volute capital
is shown in the Assyrian bas-reliefs, but no Assyrian capital has ever
been found, those exhibited as such in the British Museum are bases.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Lotus Capital from Karnak.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Papyrus Capital from Karnak.]

The Persian capital belongs to the third class above mentioned, the
brackets are carved with the lion (fig. 4) or the griffin projecting
right and left to support and lessen the bearing of the architrave, and
on their backs carry other brackets at right angles to support the cross
timbers. The profuse decoration underneath the bracket capital in the
palace of Xerxes and elsewhere, serves no structural function, but gives
some variety to the extenuated shaft.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Modified Lotus Capital from Philae.]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Persian Capital from Persepolis.]

The earliest Greek capital is that shown in the Temple-fresco at Cnossus
in Crete (1600 B.C.); it was of the first type--convex, and was probably
moulded in stucco: the second is represented by the richly carved
example of the columns (fig 5) flanking the tomb of Agamemnon in Mycenae
(c. 1100 B.C.), also convex, carved with the chevron device, and with an
apophyge on which the buds of some flowers are sculptured. The Doric
capital of the temple of Apollo at Syracuse (c. 700 B.C.) follows, in
which the echinus moulding has become a more definite form: this in the
Parthenon reaches its culmination, where the convexity is at the top and
bottom with a delicate uniting curve The sloping side of the echinus
becomes flatter in the later examples, and in the Colosseum at Rome
forms a quarter round.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Early Greek Capital from the Tomb of Agamemnon,
Mycenae.]

In the Ionic capital of the Archaic temple of Diana at Ephesus (560
B.C.) the width of the abacus is twice that of its depth, consequently
the earliest Ionic capital known was virtually a bracket capital. A
century later, in the temple on the Ilissus, published in Stuart and
Revett, the abacus has become square. One of the most beautiful
Corinthian capitals is that from the Tholos of Epidaurus (400 B.C.)
(fig. 6); it illustrates the transition between the earlier Greek
capital of Bassae and the Roman version of the temple of Mars Ultor
(fig. 7).

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Corinthian Capital from the Tholos of
Epidaurus.]

The foliage of the Greek Corinthian capital was based on the Acanthus
spinosus, that of the Roman on the Acanthus mollis; the capital of the
temple of Vesta and other examples at Pompeii are carved with foliage of
a different type.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Roman Capital from the Temple of Mars Ultor,
Rome.]

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Byzantine Capitals from the central portal of St
Mark's, Venice.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Byzantine Capital from the Church of S. Vitale,
Ravenna.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Byzantine Capital from the Church of S. Vitale,
Ravenna.]

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--Cushion Capital.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--Romanesque Capitals from the Cloister of
Monreale, near Palermo, Sicily.]

Byzantine capitals are of endless variety; the Roman composite capital
would seem to have been the favourite type they followed at first:
subsequently, the block of stone was left rough as it came from the
quarry, and the sculptor, set to carve it, evolved new types of design
to his own fancy, so that one rarely meets with many repetitions of the
same design. One of the most remarkable is the capital in which the
leaves are carved as if blown by the wind; the finest example being in
Sta Sophia, Thessalonica; those in St Mark's, Venice (fig. 8) specially
attracted Ruskin's fancy. Others are found in St Apollinare-in-classe,
Ravenna. The Thistle and Pine capital is found in St Mark's, Venice; St
Luke's, Delphi; the mosques of Kairawan and of Ibn Tulun, Cairo, in the
two latter cases being taken from Byzantine churches. The illustration
of the capital in S. Vitale, Ravenna (figs. 9 and 10) shows above it the
dosseret required to carry the arch, the springing of which was much
wider than the abacus of the capital.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--Gothic Capitals from Wells Cathedral.]

The Romanesque and Gothic capitals throughout Europe present the same
variety as in the Byzantine and for the same reason, that the artist
evolved his conception of the design from the block he was carving, but
in these styles it goes further on account of the clustering of columns
and piers.

The earliest type of capital in Lombardy and Germany is that which is
known as the cushion-cap, in which the lower portion of the cube block
has been cut away to meet the circular shaft (fig. 11). These early
types were generally painted at first with various geometrical designs,
afterwards carved.

In Byzantine capitals, the eagle, the lion and the lamb are occasionally
carved, but treated conventionally.

[Illustration: FIG 14.--Gothic Capitals from Amiens Cathedral.]

In the Romanesque and Gothic styles, in addition to birds and beasts,
figures are frequently introduced into capitals, those in the Lombard
work being rudely carved and verging on the grotesque; later, the
sculpture reaches a higher standard; in the cloisters of Monreale (fig.
12) the birds being wonderfully true to nature. In England and France
(figs. 13 and 14), the figures introduced into the capitals are
sometimes full of character. These capitals, however, are not equal to
those of the Early English school, in which the foliage is
conventionally treated as if it had been copied from metal work, and is
of infinite variety, being found in small village churches as well as in
cathedrals.

[Illustration: FIG 15.--Italian Renaissance Capital from S. Maria dei
Miracoli, Venice.]

Reference has only been made to the leading examples of the Roman
capitals; in the Renaissance period (fig. 15) the feature became of the
greatest importance and its variety almost as great as in the Byzantine
and Gothic styles. The pilaster, which was employed so extensively in
the Revival, called for new combinations in the designs for its
capitals. Most of the ornament can be traced to Roman sources, and
although less vigorous, shows much more delicacy and refinement in its
carving.     (R. P. S.)



CAPITAL (i.e. capital stock or fund), in economics, generally, the
accumulated wealth either of a man or a community, that is available for
earning interest and producing fresh wealth. In social discussion it is
sometimes treated as antithetical to labour, but it is in reality the
accumulated savings of labour and of the profits accruing from the
savings of labour. It is that portion of the annual produce reserved
from consumption to supply future wants, to extend the sphere of
production, to improve industrial instruments and processes, to carry
out works of public utility, and, in short, to secure and enlarge the
various means of progress necessary to an increasing community. It is
the increment of wealth or means of subsistence analogous to the
increment of population and of the wants of civilized man. Hence J.S.
Mill and other economists, when seeking a graphic expression of the
service of capital, have called it "abstinence." The labourer serves by
giving physical and mental effort in order to supply his means of
consumption. The capitalist, or labourer-capitalist, serves by
abstaining from consumption, by denying himself the present enjoyment of
more or less of his means of consumption, in the prospect of a future
profit. This quality, apparent enough in the beginnings of capital,
applies equally to all its forms and stages; because whether a
capitalist stocks his warehouse with goods and produce, improves land,
lends on mortgage or other security, builds a factory, opens a mine, or
orders the construction of machines or ships, there is the element of
self-deprival for the present, with the risk of ultimate loss of what is
his own, and what, instead of saving and embodying income productive
form, he might choose to consume. On this ground rests the justification
of the claims of capital to its industrial rewards, whether in the form
of rent, interest or profits of trade and investment.

To any advance in the arts of industry or the comforts of life, a rate
of production exceeding the rate of consumption, with consequent
accumulation of resources, or in other words, the formation of capital,
is indispensable. The primitive cultivators of the soil, whether those
of ancient times or the pioneers who formed settlements in the forests
of the New World, soon discovered that their labour would be rendered
more effective by implements and auxiliary powers of various kinds, and
that until the produce from existing means of cultivation exceeded what
was necessary for their subsistence, there could be neither labour on
their part to produce such implements and auxiliaries, nor means to
purchase them. Every branch of industry has thus had a demand for
capital within its own circles from the earliest times. The flint
arrow-heads, the stone and bronze utensils of fossiliferous origin, and
the rude implements of agriculture, war and navigation, of which we read
in Homer, were the forerunners of that rich and wonderful display of
tools, machines, engines, furnaces and countless ingenious and costly
appliances, which represent so large a portion of the capital of
civilized countries, and without the pre-existing capital could not have
been developed. Nor in the cultivation of land, or the production simply
of food, is the need of implements, and of other auxiliary power,
whether animal or mechanical, the only need immediately experienced. The
demands on the surplus of produce over consumption are various and
incessant. Near the space of reclaimed ground, from which the cultivator
derives but a bare livelihood, are some marshy acres that, if drained
and enclosed, would add considerably in two or three years to the
produce; the forest and other natural obstructions might also be driven
farther back with the result, in a few more years, of profit; fences are
necessary to allow of pasture and field crops, roads have to be made and
farm buildings to be erected; as the work proceeds more artificial
investments follow, and by these successive outlays of past savings in
improvements, renewed and enhanced from generation to generation, the
land, of little value in its natural state either to the owner and
cultivator or the community, is at length brought into a highly
productive condition. The history of capital in the soil is
substantially the history of capital in all other spheres. No progress
can be made in any sphere, small or large, without reserved funds
possessed by few or more persons, in small or large amounts, and the
progress in all cases is adventured under self-deprival in the meanwhile
of acquired value, and more or less risk as to the final result.

Capital is necessarily to be distinguished from money, with which in
ordinary nomenclature it is almost identical. Wealth may be in other
things than money; oxen, wives, tools, have at different stages of
civilization represented the recognized form of capital; and modern
usage only treats capital as meaning the command of money because money
is the ordinary form of it nowadays. The capital of a country can scarce
be said to be less than the whole sum of its investments in a productive
form, and possessing a recognized productive value.

Adam Smith's distinction of "fixed" and "circulating" capital in the
_Wealth of Nations_ (book ii. c. i.) cannot fail to be always useful in
exhibiting the various forms and conditions under which capital is
employed. Yet the principal phenomena of capital are found to be the
same, whether the form of investment be more or less permanent or
circulable. The machinery in which capital is "fixed," and which yields
a profit without apparently changing hands, is in reality passing away
day by day, until it is worn out, and has to be replaced. So also of
drainage and other land improvements. When the natural forests have been
consumed and the landowners begin to plant trees on the bare places, the
plantations while growing are a source of health, shelter and
embellishment--they are not without a material profit throughout their
various stages to maturity--and when, at the lapse of twenty or more
years, they are ready to be cut down, and the timber is sold for useful
purposes, there is a harvest of the original capital expended as
essentially as in the case of the more rapid yearly crops of wheat or
oats. The chief distinction would appear to rest in the element of time
elapsing between the outlay of capital and its return. Capital may be
employed in short loans or bills of exchange at two or three months, in
paying wages of labour for which there may be return in a day or not in
less than a year or more, or in operations involving within themselves
every form of capital expenditure, and requiring a few years or
ninety-nine years for the promised fructification on which they proceed.
But the common characteristic of capital is that of a fund yielding a
return and reproducing itself whether the time to this end be long or
short. The division of expenditure or labour (all expenditure having a
destination to labour of one kind or another) into "productive" and
"unproductive" by the same authority (book ii. c. 3) is also apposite
both for purposes of political economy and practical guidance, though
economists have found it difficult to define where "productive
expenditure" ends and "unproductive expenditure" begins. Adam Smith
includes in his enumeration of the "fixed capital" of a country "the
acquired and useful abilities of all the inhabitants"; and in this sense
expenditure on education, arts and sciences might be deemed expenditure
of the most productive value, and yet be wanting in strict commercial
account of the profit and loss. It must be admitted that there is a
personal expenditure among all ranks of society, which, though not in
any sense a capital expenditure, may become capital and receive a
productive application, always to be preferred to the grossly
unproductive form, in the interest both of the possessors and of the
community.

  The subject in its details is full of controversies, and a discussion
  of it at any length would embrace the whole field of economics. The
  subject will be found fully dealt with in every important economic
  work, but the following may be specially consulted:--J.S. Mill,
  _Principles of Political Economy_; J.E. Cairns, _Some Leading
  Principles of Political Economy_; F.A. Walker, _Political Economy_; A.
  Marshall, _Principles of Economics_; E. Bohm v. Bawerk, _Capital and
  Interest_; K. Marx, _Capital_; J.B. Clark, _Capital and its Earnings_;
  see also the economic works of W.H. Mallock (_Critical Examination of
  Socialism_, 1908, &c.) for an insistence on the importance of
  "ability," or brain-work, as against much of modern socialist
  theorizing against "capitalism."



CAPITAL PUNISHMENT. By this term is now meant the infliction of the
penalty of death for crime under the sentence of some properly
constituted authority, as distinguished from killing the offender as a
matter of self-defence or private vengeance, or under the order of some
self-constituted or irregular tribunal unknown to the law, such as that
of the Vigilantes of California, or of lynch law (q.v.). In the early
stages of society a man-slayer was killed by the "avenger of blood" on
behalf of the family of the man killed, and not as representing the
authority of the state (Pollock and Maitland, _Hist. Eng. Law_, ii.
447.) This mode of dealing with homicide survives in the vendetta of
Corsica and of the Mainotes in Greece, and in certain of the southern
states of North America. The obligation or inclination to take vengeance
depends on the fact of homicide, and not on the circumstances in which
it was committed, i.e. it is a part of the _lex talionis_. The mischief
of this system was alleviated under the Levitical law by the creation of
cities of refuge, and in Greece and Italy, both in Pagan and Christian
times, by the recognition of the right of sanctuary in temples and
churches. A second mode of dealing with homicide was that known to early
Teutonic and early Celtic law, where the relatives of the deceased,
instead of the life of the slayer, received the wer of the deceased,
i.e. a payment in proportion to the rank of the slain, and the king
received the blood-wite for the loss of his man. But even under this
system certain crimes were in Anglo-Saxon law bot-less, i.e. no
compensation could be paid, and the offender must suffer the penalty of
death. In the laws of Khammurabi, king of Babylon (2285-2242 B.C.), the
death penalty is imposed for many offences. The modes for executing it
specially named are burning, drowning and impalement (_Oldest Code of
Laws_, by C.H.W. Johns, 1903). Under the Roman law, "capital" punishment
also included punishments which deprived the offender of the status of
Roman citizen (_capitis deminutio, capitis amissio_), e.g. condemnation
to servitude in the mines or to deportation to an island (_Dig._ 48.
19).


  British and foreign laws and methods.

_United Kingdom._--The modes of capital punishment in England under the
Saxon and Danish kings were various: hanging, beheading, burning,
drowning, stoning, and precipitation from rocks. The principle on which
this variety depended was that where an offence was such as to entitle
the king to outlaw the offender, he forfeited all, life and limb, lands
and goods, and that the king might take his life and choose the mode of
death. William the Conqueror would not allow judgment of death to be
executed by hanging and substituted mutilation; but his successors
varied somewhat in their policy as to capital punishment, and by the
13th century the penalty of death became by usage (without legislation)
the usual punishment for high and petty treason and for all felonies
(except mayhem and petty larceny, i.e. theft of property worth less than
1s.); see Stephen, _Hist. Cr. Law_, vol. i. 458; Pollock and Maitland,
_Hist. Eng. Law_, vol. ii. 459. It therefore included all the more
serious forms of crime against person or property, such as murder,
manslaughter, arson, highway robbery, burglary (or hamesucken) and
larceny; and when statutory felonies were created they were also
punishable by death unless the statute otherwise provided. The death
penalty was also extended to heretics under the writ _de heretico
comburendo_, which was lawfully issuable under statute from 1382 (5 Ric.
II. stat. 5) until 1677 (29 Chas. II. c. 9). For this purpose the
legislature had adopted the civil law of the Roman Empire, which was not
a part of the English common law (Stephen, _Hist. Cr. Law_, vol. ii.
438-469).

The methods of execution by crucifixion (as under the Roman law), or
breaking on the wheel (as under the Roman Dutch law and the Holy Roman
Empire), were never recognized by the common law, and would fall within
the term "cruel and unusual punishments" in the English Bill of Rights,
and in the United States would seem to be unconstitutional (see
_Wilkinson v. Utah_, 1889, 136 U.S. 436, 446).

The severity of barbarian and feudal laws was mitigated, so far as
common-law offences were concerned, by the influence of the Church as
the inheritor of Christian traditions and Roman jurisprudence. The Roman
law under the empire did not allow the execution of citizens except
under the _Lex Porcia_. But the right of the emperors to legislate _per
rescriptum principis_ enabled them to disregard the ordinary law when so
disposed. The 83rd novel of Justinian provided that criminal causes
against clerics should be tried by the judges, and that the convicted
cleric should be degraded by his bishop before his condemnation by the
secular power, and other novels gave the bishops considerable influence,
if not authority, over the lay judiciary. In western Europe the right
given by imperial legislation in the Eastern Empire was utilized by the
Papacy to claim privilege of clergy, i.e. that clerks must be remitted
to the bishop for canonical punishment, and not subjected to civil
condemnation at all. The history of benefit of clergy is given in
Pollock and Maitland, _Hist. English Law_, vol. i. pp. 424-440, and
Stephen, _Hist. Cr. Law_, vol. iii. 459, 463. By degrees the privilege
was extended not only to persons who could prove ordination or show a
genuine tonsure, but all persons who had sufficient learning to be able
to read the neck-verse (Ps. li. v. 1). Before the Reformation the
ecclesiastical courts had ceased to take any effective action with
respect to clerks accused of offences against the king's laws; and by
the time of Henry VII. burning on the hand under the order of the king's
judges was substituted for the old process of compurgation in use in the
spiritual courts.

The effect of the claim of benefit of clergy is said to have been to
increase the number of convictions, though it mitigated the punishment;
and it became, in fact, a means of showing mercy to certain classes of
individuals convicted of crime as a kind of privilege to the educated,
i.e. to all clerks whether secular or religious (25 Edw. III. stat. 3);
and it was allowed only in case of a first conviction, except in the
case of clerks who could produce their letters of orders or a
certificate of ordination. To prevent a second claim it was the practice
to brand murderers with the letter M, and other felons with the Tyburn
T, and Ben Jonson was in 1598 so marked for manslaughter.

The reign of Henry VIII. was marked by extreme severity in the execution
of criminals--as during this time 72,000 persons are said to have been
hanged. After the formation of English settlements in America the
severity of the law was mitigated by the practice of reprieving persons
sentenced to death on condition of their consenting to be transported to
the American colonies, and to enter into bond service there. The
practice seems to have been borrowed from Spain, and to have been begun
in 1597 (39 Eliz. c. 4). It was applied by Cromwell after his campaign
in Ireland, and was in full force immediately after the Restoration, and
is recognized in the Habeas Corpus Act 1677, and was used for the
Cameronians during Claverhouse's campaign in south-west Scotland. In the
18th century the courts were empowered to sentence felons to
transportation (see DEPORTATION) instead of to execution, and this state
of the law continued until 1857 (6 _Law Quarterly Review_, p. 388). This
power to sentence to transportation at first applied only to felonies
with benefit of clergy; but in 1705, on the abolition of the necessity
of proving capacity to read, all criminals alike became entitled to the
benefit previously reserved to clerks. Benefit of clergy was finally
abolished in 1827 as to all persons not having privilege of peerage, and
in 1841 as to peers and peeresses. Its beneficial effect had now been
exhausted, since no clergyable offences remained capital crimes.

At the end of the 18th century the criminal law of all Europe was
ferocious and indiscriminate in its administration of capital punishment
for almost all forms of grave crime; and yet owing to poverty, social
conditions, and the inefficiency of the police, such forms of crime were
far more numerous than they now are. The policy and righteousness of the
English law were questioned as early as 1766 by Goldsmith through the
mouth of the vicar of Wakefield: "Nor can I avoid even questioning the
validity of that right which social combinations have assumed of
capitally punishing offences of a slight nature. In cases of murder
their right is obvious, as it is the duty of us all from the law of
self-defence to cut off that man who has shown a disregard for the life
of another. Against such all nature rises in arms; but it is not so
against him who steals my property." He adds later: "When by
indiscriminate penal laws the nation beholds the same punishment affixed
to dissimilar degrees of guilt, the people are led to lose all sense of
distinction in the crime, and this distinction is the bulwark of all
morality."

The opinion expressed by Goldsmith was strongly supported by Bentham,
Romilly, Basil Montaguand Mackintosh in England, and resulted in
considerable mitigation of the severity of the law. In 1800 over 200 and
in 1819 about 180 crimes were capital. As the result of the labour of
these eminent men and their disciples, and of Sir Robert Peel, there are
now only four crimes (other than offences against military law or naval
discipline) capitally punishable in England--high treason, murder,
piracy with violence, and destruction of public arsenals and dockyards
(The Dockyards, &c., Protection Act 1772). An attempt to abolish the
death penalty for this last offence was made in 1837, but failed, and
has not since been renewed. In the case of the last two offences
sentence of death need not be pronounced, but may be recorded (4 Geo.
IV. c. 48). Since 1838 it has in practice been executed only for murder;
the method being by hanging.

The change in the severity of the law is best illustrated by the
following statistics:--

  +--------+-------------------+---------------------+
  |        |  Death Sentences. | Sentences Executed. |
  | Years. +---------+---------+----------+----------+
  |        | For all |   For   |  For all |   For    |
  |        | Crimes. | Murder. |  Crimes. |  Murder. |
  +--------+---------+---------+----------+----------+
  |  1831  |  1601   |   14    |    52    |    12    |
  |  1833* |   931   |    9    |    33    |     6    |
  |  1838* |   116   |   25    |     6    |     5    |
  |  1862* |    29   |   28    |    15    |    15    |
  +--------+---------+---------+----------+----------+

  * Each of these years followed upon legislation mitigating severity
    of punishment.

During the twelve years from 1893 to 1904, 788 persons were committed
for trial for murder, being an average of 65. The highest number was in
1893 (82) and the lowest in 1900 (51). Of those tried in 1904, 28 (26
males and 2 females) were convicted of murder, 16 (all males) were
executed; 9 males and 2 females had their sentences commuted to penal
servitude for life.

In Scotland capital punishment can be imposed only for treason, murder
and offences against 10 Geo. IV. c. 38, i.e., wilful shooting, stabbing,
strangling or throwing corrosives with intent to murder, maim,
disfigure, disable, or do grievous bodily harm, in all cases where if
death had ensued the offence would have been murder. Prior to 1887 rape,
robbery, wilful fire-raising and incest, and many other crimes, were
also capital offences; but in practice the pains of law were restricted
at the instance of the prosecution. The method is by hanging.

In Ireland capital punishment may be inflicted for the same offences as
in England, except offences under the Dockyards Protection Act 1772, and
it is carried out in the same manner.

_Offences under Military Law_.--Thus far only crimes against the
ordinary law of the land have been dealt with. But both the Naval
Discipline Act of 1866 and the Army Act empower courts-martial to pass
sentence for a number of offences against military and naval laws. Such
sentences are rarely if ever passed where an ordinary court is within
reach, or except in time of war. The offences extend from traitorous
communication with the enemy and cowardice on the field to falling
asleep while acting as a sentinel on active service. It is for the
authority confirming a sentence of death by court-martial to direct the
mode of execution, which both in the British and United States armies is
usually by shooting or hanging. During the Indian Mutiny some mutineers
were executed by being blown from the mouth of cannon. As to the history
of military punishments see Clode, _Military and Martial Law_.

_British Colonies and Possessions_.--Under the Indian Penal Code
sentence of death may be passed for waging war against the king (s. 121)
and for murder (s. 302). If the murder is committed by a man under
sentence of transportation for life the death penalty must be imposed
(s. 303). In other cases it is alternative. This code has been in
substance adopted in Ceylon, in Straits Settlements and Hong-Kong, and
in the Sudan. In most of the British colonies and possessions the death
penalty may be imposed only in the case of high treason, wilful murder
and piracy with violence. But in New South Wales and Victoria sentence
of death may be passed for rape and criminal abuse of girls under ten.
In Queensland the law was the same until the passing of the Criminal
Code of 1899.

Under the Canadian Criminal Code of 1892 the death sentence may be
imposed for treason (s. 657), murder (s. 231), rape (s. 267), piracy
with violence (s. 127), and upon subjects of a friendly power who levy
war on the king in Canada (s. 68). But the judge is bound by statute to
report on all death sentences, and the date of execution is fixed so as
to give time for considering the report. The sentence is executed by
hanging. In South Africa the criminal law is based on the Roman-Dutch
law, under which capital punishment is liable for treason (_crimen
perduellionis_ or _laesae majestatis_), murder and rape (van Lecuwen, c.
36). In the Cape Colony rape is still capital (_R. v. Nonosi_, 1885; 1
Buchanan, 1898). In Natal rape may be punished by hanging (act no. 22,
1898). Though the Roman-Dutch modes of executing the sentence by
decapitation or breaking on the wheel have not been formally abolished,
in practice the sentence in the Cape Colony is executed by hanging. In
the Transvaal hanging is now the sole mode of executing capital
punishment (Criminal Procedure Code, 1903, s. 244). The Roman-Dutch law
as to crime and punishments has been superseded in Ceylon and British
Guiana by ordinance.

_Austria-Hungary_.--In Austria capital punishment was in 1787 for a time
abolished, but was reintroduced in 1795 for high treason, and in 1803
for certain other crimes. Under the penal code still in force in 1906 it
might be inflicted for the offences in the table given below, but not on
offenders who were under twenty when they committed the offence. The
annexed table indicates that the full sentence was sparingly executed.
Under a Penal Code drafted in 1906, however, only two offences were made
capital, viz. high treason against the person of the emperor and the
graver cases of murder. The sentence is executed by hanging.

  +-----------------------------+----------------------+----------------------+----------------------+
  |    Crimes Punishable by     |     1853 to 1873.    |     1875 to 1900.    |     1901 to 1903.    |
  |           Death.            +----------------------+-----------+----------+-----------+----------+
  |                             | Condemned.| Executed.| Condemned.| Executed.| Condemned.| Executed.|
  +-----------------------------+----------------------+-----------+----------+-----------+----------+
  | High treason                |      4    |     0    |      1    |     0    |     0     |    0     |
  | Murder s. 136               |    880    |   102    |   2085    |    81    |   180     |    9     |
  | Killing by robbers, s. 141  |     12    |     3    |     35    |     1    |     3     |    0     |
  | Public violence, ss. 85, 87 |    · ·    |   · ·    |      1    |     0    |     0     |    0     |
  | Incendiarism, s. 167        |      5    |     0    |      0    |     0    |     0     |    0     |
  | Criminal use of explosives  |    · ·    |   · ·    |    · ·    |    · ·   |   · ·     |   · ·    |
  |   (explosives law, s. 4)    |           |          |           |          |           |          |
  +-----------------------------+-----------+----------+-----------+----------+-----------+----------+

_Belgium_.--Under the Belgian Penal Code of 1867 the death penalty is
retained for certain forms of high treason, and for assassination and
parricide by poisoning. It may not be pronounced on a person under
eighteen. The sentence is executed publicly by the guillotine. No
execution seems to have taken place since 1863.

_Denmark_.--Sentence of death may be imposed for most forms of high
treason, aggravated cases of murder, rape and piracy. It is executed
publicly by the axe. Offenders under eighteen are not liable.

_Finland_.--In Finland the death penalty is alleged not to have been
inflicted since 1824. It may be imposed for the assassination of the
grand duke or grand duchess or the head of a friendly state, and wilful
murder of other persons.

_France_.--Under the _ancien régime_ in France, 115 crimes had become
capital in 1789. The mode of execution varied, but in some cases it was
effected by breaking on the wheel or burning, and was coupled with
mutilation. Under the Penal Code of 1810, as amended in or after 1832,
even so late as 1871, thirty offences were capital, one being perjury
against a prisoner resulting in his condemnation to death (art. 361). At
present it may be imposed for wounding a public official with intent to
murder (art. 233), assassination, parricide, poisoning, killing to
commit a crime or escape from justice (arts. 302, 304). But juries
freely exercise the power of acquitting in capital cases, or of
defeating the capital sentence by finding extenuating circumstances in
more than seven-eighths of the cases, which compels the court to reduce
the punishment by one or more degrees, i.e. below the penalty of death.
And in recent times the prerogative of mercy has been continually
exercised by the president, even in gross cases where public opinion
demanded the extreme penalty. The sentence is executed in public by the
guillotine.

_Germany_.--In many of the states of Germany capital punishment had been
abolished (Brunswick, Coburg, Nassau, Oldenburg in 1849; Saxe-Meiningen,
Saxe-Weimar, 1862; Baden, 1863; Saxony, 1868). But it has been restored
by the Imperial Criminal Code of 1872, in the case of attempts on the
life of the emperor, or of the sovereign of any federal state in which
the offender happens to be (s. 80), and for deliberate homicide (s.
211)--as opposed to intentional homicide without deliberation--and for
certain treasonable acts committed when a state of siege has been
proclaimed. The sentence is executed by beheading (s. 13).

_Holland_.--In Holland there have been no executions since 1860. Capital
punishment (by hanging) was abolished in 1870, and was not reintroduced
in the Penal Code of 1886.

_Italy_.--Capital punishment was abolished in Tuscany as far back as
1786, and from Italy has come the chief opposition to the death penalty,
originated by Beccaria, and supported by many eminent jurists. Under the
Penal Code of 1888 the death penalty was abrogated for all crimes, even
for regicide. The cases of homicide in Italy are very numerous compared
with those in England, amounting in 1905 to 105 per million as compared
with 27 per million in the United Kingdom.

_Japan_.--The penalty of death is executed by hanging within a prison.
It may be imposed for executing or contriving acts of violence against
the mikado or certain of his family, and for seditious violence with the
object of seizing the territory or subverting the government or laws of
Japan, or conspiring with foreign powers to commence hostilities against
Japan. It is inflicted for certain forms of homicide, substantially
wilful murder in the first degree.

_Norway_.--Under Norwegian law, up to 1905, sentence of death might be
passed for murder with premeditation, but the court might as an
alternative decree penal servitude for life. Sentence of death had also
to be passed in cases where a person under sentence of penal servitude
for life committed murder or culpable homicide, or caused bodily
injuries in circumstances warranting a sentence of penal servitude for
life, or committed robbery or the graver forms of wilful fire-raising.
The sentence was carried out by decapitation (see BEHEADING); but there
had been no execution since 1876. The new Norwegian Code, which came
into force on the 6th of January 1905, abolished capital punishment.

_Portugal_.--There has been considerable objection in Portugal to
capital punishment, and it was abolished in 1867.

_Rumania_.--Capital punishment was abolished in 1864.

_Russia_.--In 1750, under the empress Elizabeth, capital punishment was
abolished; but it was restored later and was freely inflicted, the
sentence being executed by shooting, beheading or hanging. According to
a Home Office Return in England in 1907 the death penalty is abolished,
except in cases where the lives of the emperor, empress or heir to the
throne are concerned.

_Spain_.--Under the Spanish Penal Code of 1870 the following crimes are
capital:--inducing a foreign power to declare war against Spain, killing
the sovereign, parricide and assassination. The method employed is
execution in public by the garrote. But the death sentence is rarely
imposed, the customary penalty for murder being penal servitude in
chains for life, while a parricide is imprisoned in chains "in
perpetuity until death."

_Sweden_.--The severity of the law in Sweden was greatly mitigated so
far back as 1777. Under the Penal Code of 1864 the penalty of death may
be imposed for certain forms of treason, including attempts on the life
of the sovereign or on the independence of Sweden, and for premeditated
homicide (_assassinat_), and in certain cases for offences committed by
persons under sentence of imprisonment for life. In 1901 a bill to
abolish capital punishment was rejected by both houses of the Swedish
parliament.

_Switzerland_.--Capital punishment was abolished in Switzerland in 1874
by Federal legislation; but in 1879, in consequence of a plebiscite,
each canton was empowered to restore the death penalty for offences in
its territory. The Federal government was unwilling to take this course,
but was impelled to it by the fact that, between 1874 and 1879, cases of
premeditated murder had considerably increased. Seven of the cantons out
of twenty-two have exercised the power given to restore capital
punishment. But there do not seem to have been any cases in which the
death penalty has been inflicted; and on the assassination of the
empress of Austria at Geneva in 1898 it was found that the laws of the
canton did not permit the execution of the assassin. The canton of Zug
imposes the lowest minimum penalty known, i.e. three years' imprisonment
for wilful homicide, the maximum being imprisonment for life.

_United States of America_.--Under the Federal laws sentence of death
may be passed for treason against the United States and for piracy and
for murder within the Federal jurisdiction. But for the most part the
punishment of crime is regulated by the laws of the constituent states
of the Union.

The death penalty was abolished in Michigan in 1846 except for treason,
and wholly in Wisconsin in 1853. In Maine it was abolished in 1876,
re-enacted in 1883, and again abolished in 1887. In Rhode Island it was
abolished in 1852, but restored in 1882, only in case of murder
committed by a person under sentence of imprisonment for life (Laws,
1896, c. 277, s. 2). In all the other states the death penalty may still
be inflicted: in Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, and West
Virginia, for treason, murder, arson and rape; in Alaska, Arizona,
Kansas, New Jersey, Mississippi, Montana, New York, North Dakota,
Oregon, and South Dakota, for treason and murder; in Colorado, Idaho,
Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New
Mexico, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Utah and Wyoming, for
murder only; in Kentucky and Virginia, for treason, murder and rape; in
Vermont, for treason, murder and arson; in Indiana, for treason, murder,
and for arson if death result; in California, for treason, murder and
train-wrecking; in North Carolina, for murder, rape, arson and burglary;
in Florida, Missouri, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas, for murder
and rape; in Arkansas and Louisiana, for treason, murder, rape, and
administering poison or use of dangerous weapons with intent to murder.
Louisiana is cited by Girardin (_le droit de punir_) as a state in which
the death penalty was abolished in 1830. Under the influence of the
eminent jurist, E. Livingston, who framed the state codes, the
legislature certainly passed a resolution against capital punishment.
But since as early as 1846 it has been there lawful, subject to a power
given to the jury, to bring in a verdict of guilty, "but no capital
punishment," which had the effect of imposing a sentence of hard labour
for life. In certain states the jury has, under local legislation, the
right to award the sentence. The constitutionality of such legislation
has been doubted, but has been recognized by the courts of Illinois and
Iowa. Sentence of death is executed by hanging, except in seven of the
states, where it is carried out by "electrocution" (q.v.).


  The question of abolition.

With the mitigation of the law as to punishment, agitation against the
theory of capital punishment has lost much of its force. But many
European and American writers, and some English writers and
associations, advocate the total abolition of the death punishment. The
ultimate argument of the opponents of capital punishment is that society
has no right to take the life of any one of its members on any ground.
But they also object to capital punishment: (1) on religious grounds,
because it may deprive the sinner of his full time for repentance; (2)
on medical grounds, because homicide is usually if not always evidence
of mental disease or irresponsibility; (3) on utilitarian grounds,
because capital punishment is not really deterrent, and is actually
inflicted in so few instances that criminals discount the risks of
undergoing it; (4) on legal grounds, i.e. that the sentence being
irrevocable and the evidence often circumstantial only, there is great
risk of gross injustice in executing a person convicted of murder; (5)
on moral grounds, that the punishment does not fit the case nor effect
the reformation of the offender. It is to be noted that the English
Children Act 1908 expressly forbids the pronouncing or recording the
sentence of death against any person under the age of sixteen (s. 103).

The punishment is probably retained, partly from ingrained habit, partly
from a sense of its appropriateness for certain crimes, but also that
the _ultima ratio_ may be available in cases of sufficient gravity to
the commonweal. The apparent discrepancy between the number of trials
and convictions for murder is not in England any evidence of hostility
on the part of juries to capital punishment, which has on the whole
lessened rather than increased since the middle of the 19th century. It
is rarely if ever necessary in England, though common in America, to
question the jurors as to their views on capital punishment. The reasons
for the comparatively small number of convictions for murder seem to be:
(1) that court and jury in a capital case lean _in favorem vitae_, and
if the offence falls short of the full gravity of murder, conviction for
manslaughter only results; (2) that in the absence of a statutory
classification of the degrees of murder, the prerogative of mercy is
exercised in cases falling short of the highest degree of gravity
recognized by lawyers and by public opinion; (3) that where the
conviction rests on circumstantial evidence the sentence is not executed
unless the circumstantial evidence is conclusive; (4) that charges of
infanticide against the mothers of illegitimate children are treated
mercifully by judge and jury, and usually terminate in acquittal, or in
a conviction of concealment of birth; (5) that many persons tried as
murderers are obviously insane; (6) that coroners' juries are somewhat
recklessly free in returning inquisitions of murder without any evidence
which would warrant the conviction of the person accused.

The medical doctrine, and that of Lombroso with respect to criminal
atavism and irresponsibility, have probably tended to incline the public
mind in favour of capital punishment, and Sir James Stephen and other
eminent jurists have even been thereby tempted to advocate the execution
of habitual criminals. It certainly seems strange that the community
should feel bound carefully to preserve and tend a class of dangerous
lunatics, and to give them, as Charles Kingsley says, "the finest air in
England and the right to kill two gaolers a week."

The whole question of capital punishment in the United Kingdom was
considered by a royal commission appointed in 1864, which reported in
1866 (Parl. Pap., 1866, 10,438). The commission took the opinions of all
the judges of the supreme courts in the United Kingdom and of many other
eminent persons, and collected the laws of other countries so far as
this was ascertainable. The commissioners differed on the question of
the expediency of abolishing or retaining capital punishment, and did
not report thereon. But they recommended: (1) that it should be
restricted throughout the United Kingdom to high treason and murder; (2)
alteration of the law of homicide so as to classify homicides according
to their gravity, and to confine capital punishment to murder in the
first degree; (3) modification of the law as to child murder so as to
punish certain cases of infanticide as misdemeanours; (4) authorizing
judges to direct sentence of death to be recorded; (5) the
abolition--since carried out--of public executions.

  AUTHORITIES.--Beccaria, _Dei Delitte e delle Pene_ (1790); Bentham,
  _Rationale of Punishment_; Lammasch, _Grundris des Strafrechts_
  (Leipzig, 1902); Olivecrona, _De la peine de mort_; Mittermaier,
  _Capital Punishment; Report of the Royal Commission on Capital
  Punishment_ (Parl. Pap., 1866, No. 10,438); Oldfield, _The Penalty of
  Death_ (1901); Pollock and Maitland, _History of English Law_; Pike,
  _History of Crime_; Sir J.F. Stephen, _History of Crime in England_;
  S. Walpole, _History of England_, vol. i. p. 191; vol. iv. p. 74;
  Andrews' _Old Time Punishments; A Century of Law Reform_ (London,
  1901); Lecture ii. by Sir H.B. Poland; Howard Association
  Publications.     (W. F. C.)



CAPITO (or KÖPFEL), WOLFGANG [FABRICIUS] (1478-1541), German reformer,
was born of humble parentage at Hagenau in Alsace. He was educated for
the medical profession, but also studied law, and applied himself so
earnestly to theology that he received the doctorate in that faculty
also, and, having joined the Benedictines, taught for some time at
Freiburg. He acted for three years as pastor in Bruchsal, and was then
called to the cathedral church of Basel (1515). Here he made the
acquaintance of Zwingli and began to correspond with Luther. In 1519 he
removed to Mainz at the request of Albrecht, archbishop of that city,
who soon made him his chancellor. In 1523 he settled at Strassburg,
where he remained till his death in November 1541. He had found it
increasingly difficult to reconcile the new religion with the old, and
from 1524 was one of the leaders of the reformed faith in Strassburg. He
took a prominent part in the earlier ecclesiastical transactions of the
16th century, was present at the second conference of Zurich and at the
conference of Marburg, and along with Martin Bucer drew up the
_Confessio Tetrapolitana_. Capito was always more concerned for the
"unity of the spirit" than for dogmatic formularies, and from his
endeavours to conciliate the Lutheran and Zwinglian parties in regard to
the sacraments, he seems to have incurred the suspicions of his own
friends; while from his intimacy with Martin Cellarius and other divines
of the Socinian school he drew on himself the charge of Arianism. His
principal works were:--_Institutionum Hebraicarum libri duo;
Enarrationes in Habacuc et Hoseam Prophetas_; a life of Oecolampadius
and an account of the synod of Berne (1532).



CAPITULARY (Med. Lat. _capitularium_), a series of legislative or
administrative acts emanating from the Merovingian and Carolingian
kings, so called as being divided into sections or chapters
(_capitula_). With regard to these capitularies two questions arise: (1)
as to the means by which they have been handed down to us; (2) as to
their true character and scope.

(1) As soon as the capitulary was composed, it was sent to the various
functionaries of the Frankish empire, archbishops, bishops, _missi_ and
counts, a copy being kept by the chancellor in the archives of the
palace. At the present day we do not possess a single capitulary in its
original form: but very frequently copies of these isolated capitularies
were included in various scattered manuscripts, among pieces of a very
different nature, ecclesiastical or secular. We find, therefore, a fair
number of them in books which go back as far as the 9th or 10th
centuries. In recent editions in the case of each capitulary it is
carefully indicated from what manuscripts it has been collated.

These capitularies make provisions of a most varied nature; it was
therefore found necessary at quite an early date to classify them into
chapters according to the subject. In 827 Ansegisus, abbot of St
Wandrille at Fontenelle, made such a collection. He embodied them in
four books: one of the ecclesiastical capitularies of Charlemagne, one
of the ecclesiastical capitularies of Louis the Pious, one of the
secular capitularies of Charlemagne, and one of the secular capitularies
of Louis, bringing together similar provisions and suppressing
duplicates. This collection soon gained an official authority, and after
829 Louis the Pious refers to it, citing book and section.

After 827 new capitularies were naturally promulgated, and before 858
there appeared a second collection in three books, by an author calling
himself Benedictus Levita. His aim was, he said, to complete the work of
Ansegisus, and bring it up to date by continuing it from 827 to his own
day; but the author has not only borrowed prescriptions from the
capitularies; he has introduced other documents into his collection,
fragments of Roman laws, canons of the councils and especially spurious
provisions very similar in character to those of the same date found in
the _False Decretals_. His contemporaries did not notice these spurious
documents, but accepted the whole collection as authentic, and
incorporated the four books of Ansegisus and the three of Benedictus
Levita into a single collection in seven books. The serious historian of
to-day, however, is careful not to use books v., vi. and vii. for
purposes of reference.

Early editors chose to republish this collection of Ansegisus and
Benedictus as they found it. It was a distinguished French scholar,
Étienne Baluze, who led the way to a fresh classification. In 1677 he
brought out the _Capitularia regum francorum_, in two folio volumes, in
which he published first the capitularies of the Merovingian kings, then
those of Pippin, of Charles and of Louis the Pious, which he had found
complete in various manuscripts. After the date of 840, he published as
supplements the unreliable collection of Ansegisus and Benedictus
Levita, with the warning that the latter was quite untrustworthy. He
then gave the capitularies of Charles the Bald, and of other Carolingian
kings, either contemporaries or successors of Charles, which he had
discovered in various places. A second edition of Baluze was published
in 1780 in 2 volumes folio by Pierre de Chiniac.

The edition of the Capitularies made in 1835 by George Pertz, in the
_Monumenta Germaniae_ (folio edition, vol. i., of the _Leges_) was not
much advance on that of Baluze. A fresh revision was required, and the
editors of the _Monumenta_ decided to reissue it in their quarto series,
entrusting the work to Dr Alfred Boretius. In 1883 Boretius published
his first volume, containing all the detached capitularies up to 827,
together with various appendices bearing on them, and the collection of
Ansegisus. Boretius, whose health had been ruined by overwork, was
unable to finish his work; it was continued by Victor Krause, who
collected in vol. ii. the scattered capitularies of a date posterior to
828. Karl Zeumer and Albrecht Werminghoff drew up a detailed index of
both volumes, in which all the essential words are noted. A third
volume, prepared by Emil Seckel, was to include the collection of
Benedictus Levita.

(2) Among the capitularies are to be found documents of a very varied
kind. Boretius has divided them into several classes:--

(a) The _Capitula legibus addenda._--These are additions made by the
king of the Franks to the barbarian laws promulgated under the
Merovingians, the Salic law, the Ripuarian or the Bavarian. These
capitularies have the same weight as the law which they complete; they
are particular in their application, applying, that is to say, only to
the men subject to that law. Like the laws, they consist chiefly of
scales of compensation, rules of procedure and points of civil law. They
were solemnly promulgated in the local assemblies where the consent of
the people was asked. Charlemagne and Louis the Pious seem to have made
efforts to bring the other laws into harmony with the Salic law. It is
also to be noted that by certain of the capitularies of this class, the
king adds provisions affecting, not only a single law, but all the laws
in use throughout the kingdom.

(b) The _Capitula ecclesiastica._--These capitularies were elaborated in
the councils of the bishops; the kings of the Franks sanctioned the
canon of the councils, and made them obligatory on all the Christians in
the kingdom.

(c) The _Capitula per se scribenda._--These embodied political decrees
which all subjects of the kingdom were bound to observe. They often bore
the name of _edictum_ or of _constitutio_, and the provisions made in
them were permanent. These capitularies were generally elaborated by the
king of the Franks in the autumn assemblies or in the committees of the
spring assemblies. Frequently we have only the proposition made by the
king to the committee, _capitula tractanda cum comitibus, episcopis, et
abbatibus_, and not the final form which was adopted.

(d) The _Capitula missorum_, which are the instructions given by
Charlemagne and his successors to the _missi_ sent into the various
parts of the empire. They are sometimes drawn up in common for all the
_missi_ of a certain year--_capitula missorum generalia_; sometimes for
the _missi_ sent only on a given circuit--_capitula missorum specialia_.
These instructions sometimes hold good only for the circuit of the
_missus_; they have no general application and are merely temporary.

(e) With the capitularies have been incorporated various documents; for
instance, the rules to be observed in administering the king's private
domain (the celebrated capitulary _de villis_, which is doubtless a
collection of the instructions sent at various times to the agents of
these domains); the partitions of the kingdom among the king's sons, as,
the _Divisio regnorum_ of 806, or the _Ordinatio imperii_ of 817; the
oaths of peace and brotherhood which were taken on various occasions by
the sons of Louis the Pious, &c.

The merit of clearly establishing these distinctions belongs to
Boretius. He has doubtless exaggerated the difference between the
_Capitula missorum_ and the _Capitula per se scribenda;_ among the first
are to be found provisions of a general and permanent nature, and among
the second temporary measures are often included. But the idea of
Boretius is none the less fruitful. In the capitularies there are
usually permanent provisions and temporary provisions intermingled; and
the observation of this fact has made it possible more clearly to
understand certain institutions of Charlemagne, _e.g._ military service.

After the reign of Louis the Pious the capitularies became long and
diffuse. Soon, from the 10th century onwards, no provision of general
application emanates from the kings. Henceforth the kings only regulated
private interests by charters; it was not until the reign of Philip
Augustus that general provisions again appeared; but when they did so,
they bore the name of ordinances (_ordonnances_).

There were also capitularies of the Lombards. These capitularies formed
a continuation of the Lombard laws, and are printed as an appendix to
these laws by Boretius in the folio edition of the _Monumenta Germaniae,
Leges_, vol. iv.

  AUTHORITIES.---Boretius, _Die Capitularien im Longobardenreich_
  (Halle, 1864); and _Beitrage zur Capitularienkritik_ (Leipzig, 1874);
  G. Seeliger, _Die Kapitularien der Karolinger_ (Munich, 1893). See
  also the histories of institutions or of law by Waitz, Brunner, Fustel
  de Coulanges, Viollet, Esmein.     (C. Pf.)



CAPITULATION (Lat. _capitulum_, a little head or division; _capitulare_,
to treat upon terms), an agreement in time of war for the surrender to a
hostile armed force of a particular body of troops, a town or a
territory. It is an ordinary incident of war, and therefore no previous
instructions from the captor's government are required before finally
settling the conditions of capitulation. The most usual of such
conditions are freedom of religion and security of private property on
the one hand, and a promise not to bear arms within a certain period on
the other. Such agreements may be rashly concluded with an inferior
officer, on whose authority the enemy are not in the actual position of
the war entitled to place reliance. When an agreement is made by an
officer who has not the proper authority or who has exceeded the limits
of his authority, it is termed a _sponsion_, and, to be binding, must be
confirmed by express or tacit ratification. Article 35 of the Hague
Convention (1899) on the laws and the customs of war lays down that
"capitulations agreed on between the contracting parties must be in
accordance with the rules of military honour. When once settled they
must be observed by both the parties."

In another sense, capitulation is the name given to an arrangement by
which foreigners are withdrawn, for most civil and criminal purposes,
from the jurisdiction of the state making the capitulation. Thus in
Turkey arrangements termed capitulations (q.v.), and treaties
confirmatory of them, have been made between the Porte and other states
by which foreigners resident in Turkey are subject to the laws of their
respective countries. The term is also applied by French writers to the
oath which on his election the Holy Roman emperor used to make to the
college of electors; this related chiefly to such matters as regalian
rights, appeals from local jurisdictions, the rights of the pope, &c.



CAPITULATIONS (from Lat. _caput_, or its Low-Latin diminutive
_capitulum_, as indicating the form in which these acts were set down in
"chapters"; the Gr. equivalent _cephaleosis_, kephalaiosis, is
occasionally used in works of the 17th century), treaties granted by a
state and conferring the privilege of extra-territorial jurisdiction
within its boundaries on the subjects of another state. Thus, in the 9th
century, the caliph Harun-al-Rashid engaged to grant guarantees and
commercial facilities to such Franks, subjects of the emperor
Charlemagne, as should visit the East with the authorization of their
emperor. After the break-up of the Frank empire, similar concessions
were made to some of the practically independent Italian city states
that grew up on its ruins. Thus, in 1098, the prince of Antioch granted
a charter of this nature to the city of Genoa; the king of Jerusalem
extended the same privilege to Venice in 1123 and to Marseilles in 1136.
Salah-ud-din (Saladin), sultan of Babylon (Cairo), granted a charter to
the town of Pisa in 1173. The Byzantine emperors followed this example,
and Genoa, Pisa and Venice all obtained capitulations. The explanation
of the practice is to be found in the fact that the sovereignty of the
state was held in those ages to apply only to its subjects; foreigners
were excluded from its rights and obligations. The privilege of
citizenship was considered too precious to be extended to the alien, who
was long practically an outlaw. But when the numbers, wealth and power
of foreigners residing within the state became too great, it was found
to be politic to subject them to some law, and it was held that this law
should be their own. When the Turkish rule was substituted for that of
the Byzantine emperors, the system already in existence was continued;
the various non-Moslem peoples were allowed their semi-autonomy in
matters affecting their personal status, and the Genoese of Galata were
confirmed in their privileges. But the first capitulation concluded with
a foreign state was that of 1535 granted to the French. Lest it should
be imagined that this was a concession wrested by the victorious
Christian monarch from the decadent Turk, it should be borne in mind
that Turkey was then at the height of her power, and that Francis I. had
shortly before sustained a disastrous defeat at Pavia. His only hope of
assistance lay in Suleiman I., whose attack on Vienna had been checked
by the victorious Charles V. The appeal to Suleiman on the ground of the
common interest of France and Turkey in overcoming Charles V.'s
overweening power was successful; the secret mission of Frangipani, an
unofficial envoy who could be disowned in case of failure, paved the way
for De la Forest's embassy in 1534, and in 1536 the capitulations were
signed.[1] They amounted to a treaty of commerce and a treaty allowing
the establishment of Frenchmen in Turkey and fixing the jurisdiction to
be exercised over them: individual and religious liberty is guaranteed
to them, the king of France is empowered to appoint consuls in Turkey,
the consuls are recognized as competent to judge the civil and criminal
affairs of French subjects in Turkey according to French law, and the
consuls may appeal to the officers of the sultan for their aid in the
execution of their sentences. This, the first of the capitulations, is
practically the prototype of its successors. Five years later, similar
capitulations were concluded with Venice. The capitulations were at
first held to be in force only during the lifetime of the sultan by whom
they were granted; thus in 1569 Sultan Selim II. renewed the French
capitulations granted by his predecessor. In 1583 England obtained her
first capitulation, until which time France had been the official
protector of all Europeans established in Turkey. Later on, England
claimed to protect the subjects of other nations, a claim which is
rejected in the French capitulations of 1597, 1604 and 1607, the
last-named of which explicitly lays down that the subjects of all
nations not represented at Constantinople by an ambassador shall be
under French protection. In 1613 Holland obtained her first
capitulation, with the assistance of the French ambassador, anxious to
help a commercial rival of England. In 1673 the French, represented by
the marquis de Nointel, succeeded in obtaining the renewal of the
capitulations which, for various reasons, had remained unconfirmed since
1607. Louis XIV. had been anxious to secure the protectorate of all
Catholics in Turkey, but was obliged to content himself with the
recognition of his right to protect all Latins of non-Turkish
nationality; his claims for the restoration to the Catholics of the Holy
Places usurped by the Greeks was also rejected, the sultan only
undertaking to promise to restore their churches to the Jesuit
Capuchins. An important commercial gain was the reduction of the import
duties from 5 to 3%; and all suits the value of which exceeded 4000
_aspres_ in which French subjects sued, or were sued by, an Ottoman
subject, were to be heard not by the ordinary tribunals but at the Porte
itself. Later, France's friendship secured for Turkey a successful
negotiation of the peace of Belgrade in 1739, and the result was the
capitulation of 1740; this is no longer limited in duration to the
sultan's lifetime but is made perpetual, and, moreover, declares that it
cannot be modified without the assent of the French. It conferred on the
French ambassador precedence over his colleagues. Austria had obtained
capitulations in 1718, modified in 1784; Russia secured similar
privileges in 1784. In the course of the 18th century nearly every
European power had obtained these, and such newly-established countries
as the United States of America, Belgium and Greece followed in the 19th
century.

The chief privileges granted under the capitulations to foreigners
resident in Turkey are the following: liberty of residence,
inviolability of domicile, liberty to travel by land and sea, freedom of
commerce, freedom of religion, immunity from local jurisdiction save
under certain safeguards, exclusive extra-territorial jurisdiction over
foreigners of the same nationality, and competence of the forum of the
defendant in cases in which two foreigners are concerned (though the
Sublime Porte has long claimed to exercise jurisdiction in criminal
cases in which two foreigners of different nationality are
concerned--the capitulations are silent on the point and the claim is
resisted by the powers).

The same system has been followed by such countries as Persia, China,
Japan and Siam.

The practical result of the capitulations in Turkey is to form each
separate foreign colony into a sort of _imperium in imperio_, and to
hamper the local jurisdiction very considerably. As the state granting
the capitulations progresses in civilization it chafes under these
restraints in its sovereignty. Turkey's former vassals, Rumania and
Servia, though theoretically bound to respect the capitulations so long
as they formed part of Turkey, had practically abrogated them long
before securing their independence through the treaty of Berlin in 1878.
The same may be said of Bulgaria. Japan was liberated from the burden of
the capitulations some years ago.

The extra-territorial jurisdiction exercised by the foreign powers over
their subjects in Turkey and other countries where capitulations exist
is regulated by special legislative enactments; in the case of the
United Kingdom by orders in council.

In Turkey the capitulations are practically the only treaties in force
with the powers, since the expiration about 1889 of the commercial
treaties concluded in 1861-1862. As they all contain the "most-favoured
nation" clause, the privileges in any one apply to all the powers,
though not always claimed. Thus America and Belgium claim under their
treaties with Turkey the right to try all their subjects, even if
accused of offences against Ottoman subjects--a claim recently made by
Belgium in the case of the Belgian subject Joris, accused of
participation in the bomb outrage of 1905 at Yildiz. One peculiar
privilege granted in the capitulations of 1675 (Art. 74) authorizes the
king of England to buy in Turkey with his own money two cargoes of figs
and raisins, in fertile and abundant years and not in times of dearth or
scarcity, and provides that after a duty of 3% has been paid thereon no
obstacle or hindrance shall be given thereto.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] La Forest, a knight of St John of Jerusalem, was the first
    resident ambassador of France at Constantinople. He died in 1537.



CAPIZ, a town and the capital of the province of Capiz, Panay,
Philippine Islands, on the Capiz or Panay river, about 4 m. from its
mouth on the N. coast. Pop. (1903) 18,525. Capiz has a large and
beautiful Roman Catholic church (of stone), a Protestant church (with a
hospital) and good government buildings, and is the seat of the
provincial high school. Alcohol of a superior quality is manufactured in
large quantities from the fermented juice of the nipa palm, which grows
plentifully in the neighbouring swamps. Fishing and the weaving of
fabrics of cotton, hemp and pineapple fibre are important industries.
Rice and sugar are raised in abundance. Tobacco, Indian corn and cacao
are produced to a limited extent; and rice, alcohol, sugar and copra are
exported. Coasting vessels ascend the river to the town. The language is
Visayan.



CAPMANY Y MONTPALAU, ANTONIO DE (1742-1813), Spanish polygraph, was born
at Barcelona on the 24th of November 1742. He retired from the army in
1770, and was subsequently elected secretary of the Royal Academy of
History at Madrid. His principal works are--_Memorias históricas sobre
la marina, commercio, y artes de la antigua ciudad de Barcelona_ (4
vols. 1779-1792); _Teatro histórico-critico de la elocuencia Española_
(1786); _Filiosofía de la elocuencia_ (1776), and _Cuestiones críticas
sobre varias puntos de historia ecónomica, política, y militar_ (1807).
Capmany died at Barcelona on the 14th of November 1813. His monograph on
the history of his birthplace still preserves much of its original
value.



CAPO D'ISTRIA, GIOVANNI ANTONIO [JOANNES],[1] COUNT (1776-1831), Russian
statesman and president of the Greek republic, was born at Corfu on the
11th of February 1776. He belonged to an ancient Corfiot family which
had immigrated from Istria in 1373, the title of count being granted to
it by Charles Emmanuel, duke of Savoy, in 1689. The father of Giovanni,
Antonio Maria Capo d'Istria, was a man of considerable importance in the
island, a stiff aristocrat of the old school, who in 1798, after the
treaty of Campo Formio had placed the Ionian Islands under French rule,
was imprisoned for his opposition to the new regime, his release next
year being the earliest triumph of his son's diplomacy. On the
establishment in 1800, under Turkish suzerainty, of the septinsular
republic--a settlement negotiated at Constantinople by the elder Capo
d'Istria--Giovanni, who had meanwhile studied medicine at Padua, entered
the government service as secretary to the legislative council, and in
one capacity or another exercised for the next seven years a determining
voice in the affairs of the republic. At the beginning of 1807 he was
appointed "extraordinary military governor" to organize the defence of
Santa Maura against Ali Pasha of Iannina, an enterprise which brought
him into contact with Theodores Kolokotrones and other future chiefs of
the war of Greek independence, and awoke in him that wider Hellenic
patriotism which was so largely to influence his career.

Throughout the period of his official connexion with the Ionian
government, Capo d'Istria had been a consistent upholder of Russian
influence in the islands; and when the treaty of Tilsit (1807) dashed
his hopes by handing over the Ionian republic to Napoleon, he did not
relinquish his belief in Russia as the most reliable ally of the Greek
cause. He accordingly refused the offers made to him by the French
government, and accepted the invitation of the Russian chancellor
Romanzov to enter the tsar's service. He went to St Petersburg in 1809,
and was appointed to the honorary post of attaché to the foreign office,
but it was not till two years after, in 1811, that he was actually
employed in diplomatic work as attaché to Baron Stackelberg, the Russian
ambassador at Vienna. His knowledge of the near East was here of great
service, and in the following year he was attached, as chief of his
diplomatic bureau, to Admiral Chichagov, on his mission to the Danubian
principalities to stir up trouble in the Balkan peninsula as a diversion
on the flank of Austria, and to attempt to supplement the treaty of
Bucharest by an offensive and defensive alliance with the Ottoman
empire. The Moscow campaign of 1812 intervened; Chichagov was disgraced
in consequence of his failure to destroy Napoleon at the passage of the
Beresina; but Capo d'Istria was not involved, was made a councillor of
state and continued in his diplomatic functions. During the campaign of
1813 he was attached to the staff of Barclay de Tolly and was present at
the battles of Lützen, Bautzen, Dresden and Leipzig. With the advance of
the allies he was sent to Switzerland to secure the withdrawal of the
republic from the French alliance. Here, in spite of his instructions to
guarantee the neutrality of Switzerland, he signed on his own
responsibility the proclamation issued by Prince Schwarzenberg, stating
the intention of the allied troops to march through the country. His
motive was to prevent any appearance of disagreement among the allies.
The emperor Alexander, to whom he hastened to make an explanation in
person, endorsed his action.

Capo d'Istria was present with the allies in Paris, and after the
signing of the first peace of Paris he was rewarded by the tsar with the
order of St Vladimir and his full confidence. At the congress of Vienna
his influence was conspicuous; he represented the tsar on the Swiss
committee, was associated with Rasumovsky in negotiating the tangled
Polish and Saxon questions, and was the Russian plenipotentiary in the
discussions with the Baron vom Stein on the affairs of Germany. His
_Mémoire sur l'empire germanique_, of the 9th of February 1815,
presented to the tsar, was based on the policy of keeping Germany weak
in order to secure Russian preponderance in its councils. It was perhaps
from a similar motive that, after the Waterloo campaign, he strenuously
opposed the proposals for the dismemberment of France. It was on his
advice that the duc de Richelieu persuaded Louis XVIII. to write the
autograph letter in which he declared his intention of resigning rather
than submit to any diminution of the territories handed down to him by
his ancestors.[2] The treaty of the 20th of November 1815, which formed
for years the basis of the effective concert of Europe, was also largely
his work.

On the 26th of September 1815, after the proclamation of the Holy
Alliance at the great review on the plain of Vertus, Capo d'Istria was
named a secretary of state. On his return to St Petersburg, he shared
the ministry of foreign affairs with Count Nesselrode, though the latter
as senior signed all documents. Capo d'Istria, however, had sole charge
of the newly acquired province of Bessarabia, which he governed
conspicuously well. In 1818 he attended the emperor Alexander at the
congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, and in the following year obtained leave to
visit his home. He travelled by way of Venice, Rome and Naples, his
progress exciting the liveliest apprehensions of the powers, notably of
Austria. The "Jacobin" pose of the tsar was notorious, his all-embracing
ambition hardly less so; and Russian travellers in Italy, notably the
emperor's former tutor, César de Laharpe, were little careful in the
expression of their sympathy for the ideals of the Carbonari. In
Metternich's eyes Capo d'Istria, "the coryphaeus of liberalism," was
responsible for the tsar's vagaries, the fount of all the ills of which
the times were sick; and, for all the count's diplomatic reticence, the
Austrian spies who dogged his footsteps earned their salaries by
reporting sayings that set the reactionary courts in a flutter. For
Metternich the overthrow of Capo d'Istria's influence became a necessity
of political salvation. At Corfu Capo d'Istria became the repository of
all the grievances of his countrymen against the robust administration
of Sir Thomas Maitland. At the congress of Vienna the count had
supported the British protectorate over the Ionian Islands, the
advantages of which from the point of view of trade and security were
obvious; but the drastic methods of "King Tom's" government, symbolized
by a gallows for pirates and other evil-doers in every popular gathering
place, offended his local patriotism. He submitted a memorandum on the
subject to the tsar, and before returning to Russia travelled via Paris
to England to lay the grievances of the Ionians before the British
government. His reception was a cold one, mainly due to his own
disingenuousness, for he refused to show British ministers the
memorandum which he had already submitted to the Russian emperor, on the
ground that it was intended only for his own private use. The whole
thing seemed, rightly or wrongly, an excuse for the intervention of
Russia in affairs which were by treaty wholly British.

On his return to St Petersburg in the autumn of 1819, Capo d'Istria
resumed his influence in the intimate counsels of the tsar. The murder
of the Russian agent, Kotzebue, in March, had shaken but not destroyed
Alexander's liberalism, and it was Capo d'Istria who drew up the
emperor's protest against the Carlsbad decrees and the declaration of
his adherence to constitutional views (see ALEXANDER I.). In October
1820 Capo d'Istria accompanied the tsar to the congress at Troppau. The
events of the year--the murder of the due de Berry in March, the
Revolutions in Spain and in Naples--had produced their effect. Alexander
was, in Metternich's exultant language, "a changed man," and Capo
d'Istria apparently shared his conversion to reactionary principles. The
Austrian chancellor now put forth all his powers to bring Alexander
under his own influence, and to overthrow Capo d'Istria, whom he
despised, distrusted and feared. In 1821 Alexander Ypsilanti's misguided
raid into the Danubian principalities gave him his opportunity. The news
reached the tsar at the congress of Laibach, and to Capo d'Istria was
entrusted the task of writing the letter to Ypsilanti in which the tsar
repudiated his claim, publicly proclaimed that he had the sympathy and
support of Russia. For a while the position of Capo d'Istria was saved;
but it was known that he had been approached by the agent of the Greek
_Hetairia_ before Ypsilanti, and that he had encouraged Ypsilanti to
take up the ill-fated adventure which he himself had refused; he was
hated at the Russian court as an upstart Greek, and Metternich was never
weary of impressing on all and sundry that he was "using Russian policy
for Greek ends." At last nothing but long habit and native loyalty to
those who had served him well, prevented Alexander from parting with a
minister who had ceased to possess his confidence. Capo d'Istria,
anticipating his dismissal, resigned on the eve of the tsar's departure
for the congress of Verona (1822), and retired into private life at
Geneva.

On the 11th of April 1827, the Greek national assembly at Troezene
elected Capo d'Istria president of the republic. The vote was a triumph
for the Russian faction, for the count, even after his fall, had not
lost the personal regard of the emperor Alexander, nor ceased to
consider himself a Russian official. He accepted the offer, but was in
no hurry to take up the thankless task. In July he visited the emperor
Nicholas I. at Tsarskoye Selo, receiving permission to proceed and
instructions as to the policy he should adopt, and he next made a tour
of the courts of Europe in search of moral and material support. The
news of the battle of Navarino (20th of October 1827) hastened his
arrival; the British frigate "Warspite" was placed at his disposal to
carry him to Greece, and on the 19th of January 1828 he landed at
Nauplia.

Capo d'Istria's rule in Greece had to contend against immense
difficulties--the utter poverty of the treasury, the barbarism of the
people but recently emancipated, the continued presence of Ibrahim
Pasha, with an unbroken army, in the south of the Morea. His strength
lay in his experience of affairs and in the support of Russia; but he
was by inheritance an aristocrat and by training an official, lacking in
broad human sympathy, and therefore little fitted to deal with the wild
and democratic elements of the society it was his task to control. The
Greeks could understand the international status given to them by his
presidency, and for a while the enthusiasm evoked by his arrival made
him master of the situation. He thoroughly represented Greek sentiment,
too, in his refusal to accept the narrow limits which the powers, in
successive protocols, sought to impose on the new state (see GREECE).
But the Russian administrative system by which he sought to restrain the
native turbulence was bound in the end to be fatal to him. The wild
chiefs of the revolution won over at first by their inclusion in his
government, were offended by his European airs and Russian uniform, and
alienated by his preference for the educated Greeks of the Phanar and of
Corfu, his promotion of his brothers Viaro and Agostino to high commands
causing special offence. Dissatisfaction ended in open rebellion; the
islands revolted; Capo d'Istria called in the aid of the Russian
admiral; and Miaoulis, the hero of the Greek war at sea, blew up the
warships under his command to prevent their falling into the hands of
the government. On land, so far as the president was concerned, the
climax was reached with the attempt to coerce the Mavromichales of the
Maina, the bravest and most turbulent of the mountain clans, whose chief
Petros Mavromichales, commonly known as Petrobey, had played a leading
part in the War of Independence. The result was an insurrection in the
Maina (Easter, 1830), and the imprisonment of those of the
Mavromichales, including Petrobey, who happened to be in the power of
the government. At the news of their chieftain's imprisonment the
Mainots, who had for a while been pacified, once more flew to arms and
threatened to march on Nauplia; but negotiations were opened, and on the
advice of the Russian minister Petrobey consented to make his submission
to the president. Unhappily, when he was brought under guard to the
appointed interview, Capo d'Istria, in a moment of irritation and
weariness, refused to see him. Maddened with rage at this insult from a
man who had not struck a blow for Greece, the proud old chief, on his
way back to prison, called out to two of his kinsmen, his son George and
his brother Constantino, "You see how I fare," and passed on. According
to the code of the Maina this was a command to take revenge. Next day,
the 9th of October 1831, the two placed themselves at the door of the
church where Capo d'Istria was accustomed to worship. As he passed in
Constantine shot him down, and as he fell George thrust a dagger into
his heart.

  AUTHORITIES.--Carl W.P. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy's _Graf Johann
  Kapodistrias_ (Berlin, 1864) is based on all the sources, printed and
  unprinted, available at the time of publication, and contains an
  excellent guide to these. This may be supplemented by the historical
  sections of F. de Marten's _Recueil des traites condus par la Russie,
  &c._ (1874, &c.). A sketch of Capo d'Istria's activity as president
  will be found in W. Alison Phillips's _The War of Greek Independence_
  (London, 1897). Many of Capo d'Istria's despatches, &c., are published
  in the collections of diplomatic correspondence mentioned in the
  bibliography of the article EUROPE: _History_. Under the Russian title
  "Zapiska grapha Joanna Capodistrias" is published in the series of the
  Imperial Russian Historical Society, vol. iii. p. 163 (St Petersburg,
  1868)the _Aperçu de ma carriére publique_, written by Capo d'Istria for
  presentation to the emperor Alexander, and dated at Geneva 12/24
  December 1826. Of unpublished materials may be mentioned the letters
  of Capo d'Istria to Sir Richard Church, vol. xvi. of the Church Papers
  in the British Museum (_Add. MSS._ 36453-36571). See further
  bibliography to chapter vi. of vol. x. of the _Cambridge Modern
  History_ (1907).     (W. A. P.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] After his election to the Greek presidency in 1827, Capo
    d'Istria, whose baptismal names were Giovanni Antonio, signed himself
    Joannes Capodistrias, the form by which he is very commonly known.

  [2] The letter was written by Michael Stourdza and _copied_ by Louis.



CAPODISTRIA, a town and seaport of Austria, in Istria, 15 m. S.W. of
Trieste by rail. Pop. (1900) 10,711, mostly Italians. It is situated on
a small island, which occupies the end of a large bay in the Gulf of
Trieste, and which is connected with the mainland by a causeway half a
mile in length. Capodistria is an old town with small streets, and has
preserved remarkably well its Italian, almost its Venetian character.
The most noteworthy buildings are the cathedral, the town-hall and the
_Loggia_ or the old law-court, all situated in the principal square. In
addition to the extraction of salt from the sea in the extensive salt
works near the town, fishing and shipbuilding are the other principal
occupations of the population. Trade is chiefly in sea-salt, wine and
oil. Capodistria is usually identified with the town of Aegida,
mentioned by Pliny, which appears by an inscription to have afterwards
received (in the 6th century) the name of Justinopolis from Justin II.
When at the beginning of the 13th century Istria fell into the hands of
the patriarchs of Aquileia, they made this town the capital of the whole
province. Thence it acquired its actual name, which means the capital of
Istria. It was captured by the Venetians in 1279, and passed into
Austrian possession in 1797.



CAPONIER (from the Fr. _caponnière_, properly a capon-cote or house), in
fortification, a work constructed in the ditch of a fort. Its fire
(musketry, machine-guns, case shot, &c.) sweeps the bottom of the ditch
and prevents an enemy from establishing himself in it. The term is used
in a military sense as early as in the late 17th century. In various
bastioned systems of fortification a caponier served merely as a covered
means of access to outworks, the bastion trace providing for the defence
of the ditch by fire from the main parapet.



CAPPADOCIA, in ancient geography, an extensive inland district of Asia
Minor. In the time of Herodotus the Cappadocians occupied the whole
region from Mount Taurus to the Euxine. That author tells us that the
name of the Cappadocians (Katpatouka) was applied to them by the
Persians, while they were termed by the Greeks "Syrians," or "White
Syrians" (_Leucosyri_). Under the later kings of the Persian empire the
were divided into two satrapies or governments, the one comprising the
central and inland portion, to which the name of Cappadocia continued to
be applied by Greek geographers, while the other was called Cappadocia
[Greek: kata Poutou], or simply Pontus (q.v.). This division had already
come about before the time of Xenophon. As after the fall of the Persian
government the two provinces continued to be separate, the distinction
was perpetuated, and the name Cappadocia came to be restricted to the
inland province (sometimes called Great Cappadocia), which alone will be
considered in the present article.

Cappadocia, in this sense, was bounded S. by the chain of Mount Taurus,
E. by the Euphrates, N. by Pontus, and W. vaguely by the great central
salt "Desert" (_Axylon_). But it is impossible to define its limits with
accuracy. Strabo, the only ancient author who gives any circumstantial
account of the country, greatly exaggerated its dimensions; it was in
reality about 250 m. in length by less than 150 in breadth. With the
exception of a narrow strip of the district called Melitene, on the
east, which forms part of the valley of the Euphrates, the whole of this
region is a high upland tract, attaining to more than 3000 ft., and
constituting the most elevated portion of the great tableland of Asia
Minor (q.v.). The western parts of the province, where it adjoins
Lycaonia, extending thence to the foot of Mount Taurus, are open
treeless plains, affording pasture in modern as in ancient times to
numerous flocks of sheep, but almost wholly desolate. But out of the
midst of this great upland level rise detached groups or masses of
mountains, mostly of volcanic origin, of which the loftiest are Mount
Argaeus (still called by the Turks Erjish Dagh), (13,100 ft.), and
Hassan Dagh to the south-west (8000 ft.).

The eastern portion of the province is of a more varied and broken
character, being traversed by the mountain system called by the Greeks
Anti-Taurus. Between these mountains and the southern chain of Taurus,
properly so called, lies the region called in ancient times Cataonia,
occupying an upland plain surrounded by mountains. This district in the
time of Strabo formed a portion of Cappadocia and was completely
assimilated; but earlier writers and the Persian military system
regarded the Cataonians as a distinct people.

Cappadocia contained the sources of the Sarus and Pyramus rivers with
their higher affluents, and also the middle course of the Halys (see
ASIA MINOR), and the whole course of the tributary of Euphrates now
called Tokhma Su. But as no one of these rivers was navigable or served
to fertilize the lands along its torrential course, none has much
importance in the history of the province.

The kingdom of Cappadocia, which was still in existence in the time of
Strabo, as a nominally independent state, was divided, according to that
geographer, into ten districts. Of these _Cataonia_ has been described;
the adjoining district of _Melitene_, which did not originally form part
of Cappadocia at all, but was annexed to it by Ariarathes I., was a
fertile tract adjoining the Euphrates; its chief town retains the name
of Malatia. _Cilicia_ was the name given to the district in which
Caesarea, the capital of the whole country was situated, and in which
rose the conspicuous Mount Argaeus. _Tyanitis_, the region of which
Tyana was the capital, was a level tract in the extreme south, extending
to the foot of Mount Taurus. _Garsauritis_ appears to have comprised the
western or south-western districts adjoining Lycaonia; its chief town
was Archelais. _Laviansene_ or _Laviniane_ was the country south and
south-east of Sivas, through which ran the road from Sebastea to
Caesarea: _Sargarausene_ lay south of the above, and included Uzun Yaila
and the upper basin of the Tokhma Su; _Saravene_ lay west of Laviansene
and included the modern district of Ak Dagh; _Chamanene_ lay west again
of the above along the middle course of the Halys: _Morimene_ was the
north-western district extending along the edge of the central desert as
far south as Melegob.

The only two cities of Cappadocia considered by Strabo to deserve that
appellation were Mazaca, the capital of the kingdom under its native
monarchs (see CAESAREA-MAZACA); and Tyana, not far from the foot of the
Taurus, the site of which is marked by a great mound at a place called
Kiz (or Ekuz) Hissar, about 12 m. south-west of Nigdeh. Archelais,
founded by Archelaus, the last king of the country, subsequently became
a Roman colony, and a place of some importance. It is now Akserai.

Several localities in the Cappadocian country were the sites of famous
temples. Among these the most celebrated were those of Comana (q.v.) and
Venasa in Morimene, where a male god was served by over 3000
_hieroduli_. The local sanctity of Venasa has been perpetuated by the
Moslem veneration for Haji Bektash, the founder of the order of
dervishes to which the Janissaries used in great part to belong.
Cappadocia was remarkable for the number of its slaves, which
constituted the principal wealth of its monarchs. Large numbers were
sent to Rome but did not enjoy a good reputation. The Cappadocian
peasants are still in the habit of taking service in the West of the
peninsula and only returning to their homes after long absences; their
labour is now much valued by employers, as they are a strong sober folk.
The province was celebrated for its horses, as well as for its vast
flocks of sheep; but from its elevation above the sea, and the coldness
of its climate, it could never have been rich and fertile.

_History_.--Nothing is known of the history of Cappadocia before it
became subject to the Persian empire, except that the country was the
home of a great "Hittite" power centred at Boghaz-Keui (see PTERIA),
which has left monuments at many places, e.g. Nevsheher, Fraktin, Gorun,
Malatia, various points about Albistan and Derendeh, Bulgur Maden,
Andaval and Tyana. Possibly the princes of the last named city were
independent. With the decline of the Syro-Cappadocians after their
defeat by Croesus, Cappadocia was left in the power of a sort of feudal
aristocracy, dwelling in strong castles and keeping the peasants in a
servile condition, which later made them apt for foreign slavery. It was
included in the third Persian satrapy in the division established by
Darius, but long continued to be governed by rulers of its own, none
apparently supreme over the whole country and all more or less tributary
to the Great King. Thoroughly subdued at last by the satrap Datames,
Cappadocia recovered independence under a single ruler, Ariarathes
(hence called Ariarathes I.), who was a contemporary of Alexander the
Great, and maintained himself on the throne of Cappadocia after the fall
of the Persian monarchy.

The province was not visited by Alexander, who contented himself with
the tributary acknowledgment of his sovereignty made by Ariarathes
before the conqueror's departure from Asia Minor; and the continuity of
the native dynasty was only interrupted for a short time after
Alexander's death, when the kingdom fell, in the general partition of
the empire, to Eumenes. His claims were made good in 322 by the regent
Perdiccas, who crucified Ariarathes; but in the dissensions following
Eumenes's death, the son of Ariarathes recovered his inheritance and
left it to a line of successors, who mostly bore the name of the founder
of the dynasty, Under the fourth of the name Cappadocia came into
relations with Rome, first as a foe espousing the cause of Antiochus the
Great, then as an ally against Perseus of Macedon. The kings
henceforward threw in their lot with the Republic as against the
Seleucids, to whom they had been from time to time tributary. Ariarathes
V. marched with the Roman proconsul Crassus against Aristonicus, a
claimant to the throne of Pergammum, and their forces were annihilated
(130 B.C.). The imbroglio which followed his death ultimately led to
interference by the rising power of Pontus and the intrigues and wars
which ended in the failure of the dynasty. The Cappadocians, supported
by Rome against Mithradates, elected a native lord, Ariobarzanes, to
succeed (93 B.C.); but it was not till Rome had disposed at once of the
Pontic and Armenian kings that his rule was established (63 B.C.). In
the civil wars Cappadocia was now for Pompey, now for Caesar, now for
Antony, now against him. The Ariobarzanes dynasty came to an end and a
certain Archelaus reigned in its stead, by favour first of Antony, then
of Octavian, and maintained tributary independence till A.D. 17, when
the emperor Tiberius, on Archelaus's death in disgrace, reduced
Cappadocia at last to a province. Vespasian in A.D. 70 joined Armenia
Minor to it and made the combined province a frontier bulwark. It
remained, under various provincial redistributions, part of the Eastern
Empire till late in the 11th century, though often ravaged both by
Persians and Arabs. But before it passed into Seljuk hands (1074), and
from them ultimately to the Osmanlis, it had already become largely
Armenian in religion and speech; and thus we find the southern part
referred to as "Hermeniorum terra" by crusading chroniclers. At this day
the north-east and east parts of the province are largely inhabited by
Armenians. The native kings had done much to Hellenize Cappadocia, which
had previously received a strong Iranian colour; but it was left to
Christianity to complete their work. Though pre-Hellenic usages long
survived in the local cults and habits, a part of the people has
remained more or less Hellenic to this day, in spite of its envelopment
by Moslem conquerors and converts. The tradition of its early church,
illuminated by the names of the two Gregories and Basil of Caesarea, has
been perpetuated by the survival of a native Orthodox element throughout
the west and north-west of the province; and in the remoter valleys
Greek speech has never wholly died out. Its use has once more become
general under Greek propagandist influence, and the Cappadocian "Greeks"
are now a flourishing community.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--W. Wright, _Empire of the Hittites_ (1884); G. Perrot
  and C. Chipiez, _Hist. de l'art dans l'antiquité_, vol. iv. (1886);
  A.H. Sayce, _Hittites_ (1892) (see also PTERIA); J.G. Droysen, _Gesch.
  des Hellenismus_ (3rd ed., 1878); A. Holm, _Gesch. Griech._ (Eng.
  trans., 1886); Th. Reinach, _Mithridate Eupator_ (1890); E.R. Bevan,
  _House of Seleucus_ (1902); Th. Mommsen, _Provinces of the Roman
  Empire_ (Eng. trans., 1886); J. Marquardt, _Röm. Staatsverwaltung_, i.
  (1874); W.M. Ramsey, _Hist. Geog. of Asia Minor_ (1890); C. Ritter,
  _Erdkunde_, xviii. xix. (1858-1859); D.G. Hogarth and J.A.R. Munro,
  _Mod. and Anc. Roads in E. Asia Minor_ (R.G.S. Supp. Papers, iii.
  1893); G. Perrot, _Souvenirs d'un voyage dans l'A. Mineure_ (1864);
  H.J. v. Lennep, _Travels in Asia Minor_ (1870); E. Chantre, _Mission
  en Cappadocie_ (1898); H.F. Tozer, _Turkish Armenia_ (1881); H.C.
  Barkley, _Ride Through A.M. and Armenia_ (1891); Lord Warkworth,
  _Notes of a Diary in As. Turkey_ (1898); M. Sykes, _Dar ul-Islam_
  (1904).     (E. H. B.; D. G. H.)



CAPPEL, a French family which produced some distinguished jurists and
theologians in the 15th and 16th centuries. In 1491, Guillaume Cappel,
as rector of the university of Paris, protested against a tithe which
Innocent VIII. claimed from that body. His nephew, Jacques Cappel (d.
1541), the real founder of the family, was himself advocate-general at
the parlement of Paris, and in a celebrated address delivered before the
court in 1537, against the emperor Charles V., claimed for Francis I.
the counties of Artois, Flanders and Charolais. He left nine children,
of whom three became Protestants. The eldest, Jacques (1529-1586), sieur
du Tilloy, wrote several treatises on jurisprudence. Louis (1534-1586),
sieur de Moriambert, the fifth son, was a most ardent Protestant. In
1570 he presented a confession of faith to Charles IX. in the name of
his co-religionists. He disputed at Sedan before the duc de Bouillon
with the Jesuit, Jean Maldouat (1534-1583), and wrote in defence of
Protestantism. The seventh son, Ange (1537-1623), seigneur du Luat, was
secretary to Henry IV., and enjoyed the esteem of Sully. Among those who
remained Catholic should be mentioned Guillaume, the translator of
Machiavelli. The eldest son Jacques also left two sons, famous in the
history of Protestantism:--Jacques (1570-1624), pastor of the church
founded by himself on his fief of le Tilloy and afterwards at Sedan,
where he became professor of Hebrew, distinguished as historian,
philologist and exegetical scholar; and Louis (see below).

  On the protest of Guillaume Cappel, see Du Bellay, _Historia
  Universitatis Parisiensis_, vol. v. On the family, see the sketch by
  another Jacques Cappel, "De Capellorum gente," in the _Commentarii et
  notae criticae in Vetus Testamentum_ of Louis Cappel, his father
  (Amsterdam, 1689). Consult Eugène and Emile Haag, _La France
  protestante_, vol. iii. (new edition, 1881).



CAPPEL, LOUIS (1585-1658), French Protestant divine and scholar, a
Huguenot whose descent is traced above, was born at St Elier, near
Sedan, in 1585. He studied theology at Sedan and Saumur; and Arabic at
Oxford, where he spent two years. At the age of twenty-eight he accepted
the chair of Hebrew at Saumur, and twenty years afterwards was
appointed professor of theology. Amongst his fellow lecturers were Moses
Amyraut and Josué de la Place. As a Hebrew scholar he made a special
study of the history of the Hebrew text, which led him to the conclusion
that the vowel points and accents are not an original part of the Hebrew
language, but were inserted by the Massorete Jews of Tiberias, not
earlier than the 5th century A.D., and that the primitive Hebrew
characters are those now known as the Samaritan, while the square
characters are Aramaic and were substituted for the more ancient at the
time of the captivity. These conclusions were hotly contested by
Johannes Buxtorf, being in conflict with the views of his father,
Johannes Buxtorf senior, notwithstanding the fact that Elias Levita had
already disputed the antiquity of the vowel points and that neither
Jerome nor the Talmud shows any acquaintance with them. His second
important work, _Critica Sacra_, was distasteful from a theological
point of view. He had completed it in 1634; but owing to the fierce
opposition with which he had to contend, he was only able to print it at
Paris in 1650, by aid of a son, who had turned Catholic. The various
readings in the Old Testament text and the differences between the
ancient versions and the Massoretic text convinced him that the idea of
the integrity of the Hebrew text, as commonly held by Protestants, was
untenable. This amounted to an attack on the verbal inspiration of
Scripture. Bitter, however, as was the opposition to his views, it was
not long before his results were accepted by scholars.

  Cappel was also the author of _Annotationes et Commentarii in Vetus
  Testamentum_, _Chronologia Sacra_, and other biblical works, as well
  as of several other treatises on Hebrew, among which are the _Arcanum
  Punctuationis revelatum_ (1624) and the _Diatriba de veris et antiquis
  Ebraeorum literis_ (1645). His _Commentarius de Capellorum gente_,
  giving an account of the family to which he belonged, was published by
  his nephew James Cappel (1639-1722), who, at the age of eighteen,
  became professor of Hebrew at Saumur, but, on the revocation of the
  edict of Nantes, fled to England, where he died in 1722. See
  Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_.



CAPPELLO, BIANCA (1548-1587), grand duchess of Tuscany, was the daughter
of Bartolommeo Cappello, a member of one of the richest and noblest
Venetian families, and was famed for her great beauty. At the age of
fifteen she fell in love with Pietro Bonaventuri, a young Florentine
clerk in the firm of Salviati, and on the 28th of November 1563 escaped
with him to Florence, where they were married and she had a daughter
named Pellegrina. The Venetian government made every effort to have
Bianca arrested and brought back, but the grand duke Cosimo de' Medici
intervened in her favour and she was left unmolested. However she did
not get on well with her husband's family, who were very poor and made
her do menial work, until at last her beauty attracted Francesco, the
grand duke's son, a vicious and unprincipled rake. Although already
married to the virtuous and charming Archduchess Giovanna of Austria, he
seduced the fair Venetian and loaded her with jewels, money and other
presents. Bianca's accommodating husband was given court employment, and
consoled himself with other ladies; in 1572 he was murdered in the
streets of Florence in consequence of some amorous intrigue, though
possibly Bianca and Francesco were privy to the deed. On the death of
Cosimo in 1574 Francesco succeeded to the grand duchy; he now installed
Bianca in a fine palace close to his own and outraged his wife by
flaunting his mistress before her. As Giovanna had borne Francesco no
sons, Bianca was very anxious to present him with an heir, for otherwise
her position would remain very insecure. But although she resorted to
all sorts of expedients, even to that of trying to pass off a changeling
as the grand duke's child, she was not successful. In 1578 Giovanna
died; a few days later Francesco secretly married Bianca, and on the
10th of June, 1579, the marriage was publicly announced. The Venetian
government now put aside its resentment and was officially represented
at the magnificent wedding festivities, for it saw in Bianca Cappello an
instrument for cementing good relations with Tuscany. But the long
expected heir failed to come, and Bianca realized that if her husband
were to die before her she was lost, for his family, especially his
brother Cardinal Ferdinand, hated her bitterly, as an adventuress and
interloper. In October 1587 both the grand duke and his wife died of
colic within a couple of days of each other. At the time poison was
suspected, but documentary evidence has proved the suspicion to be
unfounded.

  See S. Romanin, _Lezioni di storia Veneta_, vol. ii. (Florence, 1875);
  G.E. Saltini, _Tragedie Medicee domestiche_ (Florence, 1898).
       (L. V.*)



CAPPERONNIER, CLAUDE (1671-1744), French classical scholar, the son of a
tanner, was born at Montdidier on the 1st of May 1671. He studied at
Amiens and Paris, and took orders in the Church of Rome, but devoted
himself almost entirely to classical studies. He declined a
professorship in the university of Bâle, and was afterwards appointed
(1722) to the Greek chair in the Collège de France. He published an
edition of Quintilian (1725) and left behind him at his death an edition
of the ancient Latin Rhetoricians, which was published in 1756. He
furnished much material for Robert Estienne's _Thesaurus Linguae
Latinae_. His nephew, Jean Capperonnier (1716-1775), his successor in
the chair of Greek at the Collège de France, was also a distinguished
scholar, and published valuable editions of classical authors--Caesar,
Anacreon, Plautus, Sophocles.



CAPPONI, GINO, MARQUIS (1792-1876), Italian statesman and historian, was
born on the 13th of September 1792. The Capponi family is one of the
most illustrious Florentine houses, and is mentioned as early as 1250;
it acquired great wealth as a mercantile and banking firm, and many of
its members distinguished themselves in the service of the republic and
the Medicis (see CAPPONI, PIERO), and later in that of the house of
Lorraine. Gino was the son of the Marquis Pier Roberto Capponi, a
nobleman greatly attached to the reigning grand duke of Tuscany,
Ferdinand III. When that prince was deposed by the French in 1799 the
Capponi family followed him into exile at Vienna, where they remained
until he exchanged his rights to the grand duchy for a German
principality (1803). The Capponi then returned to Florence, and in 1811
Gino married the marchesina Giulia Riccardi. Although the family were
very anti-French Gino was chosen with other notables to pay homage to
Napoleon in Paris in 1813. On the fall of Napoleon Ferdinand returned to
Tuscany (September 1814), but the restoration proved less reactionary
there than in any other part of Italy. Young Capponi was well received
at court, but not being satisfied with the life of a mere man of
fashion, he devoted himself to serious study and foreign travel. After
sundry journeys in Italy he again visited Paris in 1818, and then went
to England. He became deeply interested in English institutions, and
carefully studied the constitution, the electoral system, university
life, industrial organization, &c. At Edinburgh he met Francis Jeffrey,
the editor of the _Edinburgh Review_, and conceived a desire to found a
similar review in Italy. Besides knowing Jeffrey he made the
acquaintance of many prominent statesmen and men of letters, including
Lord John Russell, the duke of Bedford, Dugald Stewart, Ugo Foscolo, &c.
This visit had a great effect in forming his character, and while it
made him an ardent Anglophil, he realized more and more the distressing
conditions of his own country. He returned to Italy in 1820, and on
reaching Florence he set to work to found a review on the lines of the
_Edinburgh_, which should attract the best literary talent. This he
achieved with the help of the Swiss G.P. Vieusseux, and the result was
the _Antologia_. He contributed largely to its columns, as well as to
those of the _Archivio Storico_, another of Vieusseux's ventures.
Capponi began to take a more active interest in politics, and entered
into communication with the Liberals of all parts of Italy. He had
discussed the possibility of liberating Italy with Prince Charles Albert
of Savoy-Carignano, to whom he had introduced the Milanese revolutionist
Count Confalonieri (q.v.). But the collapse of the rising of 1821 and
the imprisonment of Confalonieri made Capponi despair of achieving
anything by revolution, and he devoted himself to the economic
development of Tuscany and to study. At his beautiful villa of
Varramista he collected materials for a history of the Church; his work
was interrupted by family troubles and by increasing blindness, but
although by 1844 he had completely lost his sight he continued to work
by means of amanuenses. In 1847 he again plunged into politics and
discussed plans for an Italian alliance against Austria. When the grand
duke Leopold II. decided in 1848 to grant his people a constitution,
Capponi was made a member of the commission to draw it up, and he
eventually became prime minister. During his short tenure of office he
conducted foreign affairs with great skill, and made every effort to
save the Italian situation after the defeat of Charles Albert on the
Mincio. In October 1848 he resigned; soon afterwards the grand duke
fled, anarchy followed, and then in 1849 he returned, but with an escort
of Austrian soldiery. The blind statesman thanked God that he could not
see the hated white uniforms in Florence. He returned to his studies and
commenced his great _Storia della Repubblica di Firenze_; but he
followed political affairs with great interest, and helped to convince
Lord John Russell, who stayed with him in 1859, of the hopelessness of
the grand duke's position. On Leopold's second flight (27th of April
1859) a Tuscan assembly was summoned, and Capponi elected member of it.
He voted for the grand duke's deposition and for the union of Tuscany
with Piedmont. King Victor Emmanuel made him senator in 1860. His last
years were devoted almost exclusively to his Florentine history, which
was published in 1875 and achieved an immediate success. This was
Capponi's swan song, for on the 3rd of February 1876 he died at the age
of eighty-four.

Capponi was one of the best specimens of the Tuscan landlord class. "He
represents," wrote his biographer Tabarrini, "one of the most striking
personalities of a generation, now wholly passed away, which did not
resign itself to the beatitudes of 1815, but wished to raise Italy from
the humble state to which the European peace of that year had condemned
her; and he succeeded by first raising the character of the Italians in
the opinion of foreigners, so as to deserve their esteem and respect."
He knew nearly all the most interesting people in Italy, besides many
distinguished foreigners: Giuseppe Giusti, the poet, A. Manzoni, the
novelist, Niccolò Tommaseo, Richard Cobden, A. von Reumont, the
historian, were among those whom he entertained at his palace or his
villas, and many were the struggling students and revolutionists to whom
he gave assistance. As a historian his reputation rests on his _Storia
della Repubblica di Firenze_ (Florence, 1875); it was the first
comprehensive Italian book on the subject based on documents and written
in a modern critical spirit, and if the chapters on the early history of
the city are now obsolete in view of recent discoveries, yet, as a
whole, it remains a standard work. Besides his history a large number of
essays and pamphlets have been published in his _Scritti Inediti_.

  See M. Tabarrini, _Gino Capponi_ (Florence, 1879); and A. von Reumont,
  _Gino Capponi_ (Gotha, 1880).     (L. V.*)



CAPPONI, PIERO (1447-1496), Florentine statesman and warrior. He was at
first intended for a business career, but Lorenzo de' Medici,
appreciating his ability, sent him as ambassador to various courts,
where he acquitted himself with distinction. On the death of Lorenzo
(1492), who was succeeded by his son, the weak and incapable Piero,
Capponi became one of the leaders of the anti-Medicean faction which two
years later expelled him from Florence. Capponi was then made chief of
the republic and conducted public affairs with great skill, notably in
the difficult negotiations with Charles VIII. of France, who had invaded
Italy in 1494 and in whose camp the exiled Medici had taken refuge. In
November Charles, on his way to Naples, entered Florence with his army,
and immediately began to behave as though he were the conqueror of the
city, because he had entered it lance in rest. The signory was anxious
to be on good terms with him, but when he spoke in favour of the Medici
their temper changed at once, and the citizens were ordered to arm and
be prepared for all emergencies. Tumults broke out between French
soldiers and Florentine citizens, barricades were erected and stones
began to fly from the windows. This alarmed Charles, who lowered his
tone and said nothing more about conquered cities or the Medici. The
Florentines were willing to pay him a large sum of money, but in
settling the amount further disagreements arose. Charles, who was full
of the Medici's promises, made exorbitant demands, and finally presented
an ultimatum to the signory, who rejected it. "Then we shall sound our
trumpets," said the king, to which Capponi replied "And we shall toll
our bells," and tore up the ultimatum in the king's face. Charles, who
did not relish the idea of house-to-house fighting, was forced to
moderate his claims, and concluded a more equitable treaty with the
republic. On the 28th of November he departed, and Capponi was appointed
to reform the government of Florence. But being more at home in the camp
than in the council chamber, he was glad of the opportunity of leading
the armies of the republic against the Pisan rebels. He proved a most
capable general, but while besieging the castle of Soiana, he was killed
on the 25th of September 1496. His death was greatly regretted, for the
Florentines recognized in him their ablest statesman and warrior.

  See under SAVONAROLA, FLORENCE, MEDICI, CHARLES VIII. The "Vita di
  Piero di Gino Capponi," by V. Acciaiuoli (published in the _Archivio
  Storico Italiano_, series 1, vol. iv. part 2^a, 1853), is the chief
  contemporary authority; see also P. Villari, _Savonarola_, vol. i.
  (Florence, 1887), and Gino Capponi, _Storia delta Repubblica di
  Firenze_, vol. ii. (Florence, 1875).     (L. V.*)



CAPRAIA (anc. _Capraria_, from Lat. _capra_, wild-goat), an island of
Italy, off the N.W. coast (the highest point 1466 ft. above sea-level),
belonging to the province of Genoa, 42 m. S.S.E. of Leghorn by sea. Pop.
(1901) 547. It is of volcanic origin, and is partly occupied by a penal
agricultural colony. It produces wine, and is a centre of the anchovy
fishery. It became Genoese in 1527 and was strongly fortified. In 1796
it was occupied for a short time by Nelson. About 20 m. to the north is
the island of Gorgona (highest point 836 ft.), also famous for its
anchovies.



CAPRERA, an island off the N.E. coast of Sardinia, about 1 m. in length.
It is connected by a bridge with La Maddalena. Its chief interest lies
in its connexion with Garibaldi, who first established himself there in
1854, and died there on the 2nd of June 1882. His tomb is visited on
this anniversary by Italians from all parts. Roman remains, including a
bust of Maximian, have been found upon the island.



CAPRI (anc. _Capreae_), an island on the S. side of the Bay of Naples,
of which it commands a fine view; it forms part of the province of
Naples, and is distant about 20 m. S. of the town of Naples. Pop. (1901)
of the commune of Capri, 3890, of Anacapri, 2316. It divides the exits
from the bay into two, the Bocca Grande, about 16 m. wide, between Capri
and Ischia, and the Bocca Piccola, 3 m. wide between Capri and the
extreme south-west point of the peninsula of Sorrento. It is 4 m. in
length and the greatest width is 1½ m., the total area being 5½ sq. m.
The highest point is the Monte Solaro (1920 ft.) on the west, while at
the east end the cliffs rise to a height of 900 ft. sheer from the sea.
The only safe landing-place is on the north side. There are two small
towns, Capri (450 ft.) and Anacapri (980 ft.), which until the
construction of a carriage road in 1874 were connected only by a flight
of 784 steps (the substructures of which at least are ancient). The
island lacks water, and is dusty during drought, but is fertile,
producing fruit, wine and olive oil; the indigenous flora comprises 800
species. The fishing industry also is important. But the prosperity of
the island depends mainly upon foreign visitors (some 30,000 annually),
who are attracted by the remarkable beauty of the scenery (that of the
coast being especially fine), the views of the sea and of the Bay of
Naples, and the purity of the air. The famous Blue Grotto, the most
celebrated of the many caves in the rocky shores of the island, was
known in Roman times, but lost until 1826, when it was rediscovered.
Another beautiful grotto has green instead of blue refractions; the
effect in both cases is due to the light entering by a small entrance.

The high land in the west of the island and the somewhat less elevated
region in the east are formed of Upper Tithonian and Lower Cretaceous
limestones, the latter containing Rudistes. The intervening depression,
which seems to be bounded on the west by a fault, is filled to a large
extent by sandstones and marls of Eocene age. A superficial layer of
recent volcanic tuffs occurs in several parts of the island. The Blue
Grotto is in the Tithonian limestones; it shows indications of recent
changes of level.

The earliest mythical inhabitants (though some have localized the Sirens
here) are the Teleboi from Acarnania under their king Telon. Neolithic
remains were found in 1882 in the Grotta delle Felci, a cave on the
south coast. In historical times we find the island occupied by Greeks.
It subsequently fell into the hands of Neapolis, and remained so until
the time of Augustus, who took it in exchange for Aenaria (Ischia) and
often resided there. Tiberius, who spent the last ten years of his life
at Capri, built no fewer than twelve villas there; to these the great
majority of the numerous and considerable ancient remains on the island
belong. All these villas can be identified with more or less certainty,
the best preserved being those on the east extremity, consisting of a
large number of vaulted substructures and the foundations perhaps of a
_pharos_ (lighthouse). One was known as Villa Jovis, and the other
eleven were probably named after other deities. The existence of
numerous ancient cisterns shows that in Roman as in modern times
rain-water was largely used for lack of springs. After Tiberius's death
the island seems to have been little visited by the emperors, and we
hear of it only as a place of banishment for the wife and sister of
Commodus. The island, having been at first the property of Neapolis, and
later of the emperors, never had upon it any community with civic
rights. Even in imperial times Greek was largely spoken there, for about
as many Greek as Latin inscriptions have been found. The medieval town
was on the north side at the chief landing-place (Marina Grande), and to
it belonged the church of S. Costanzo, an early Christian building. It
was abandoned in the 15th century on account of the inroads of pirates,
and the inhabitants took refuge higher up at the two towns of Capri and
Anacapri.

In 1806 the island was taken by the English fleet under Sir Sidney
Smith, and strongly fortified, but in 1808 it was retaken by the French
under Lamarque. In 1813 it was restored to Ferdinand I. of the Two
Sicilies.

  See J. Beloch, _Campanien_ (Breslau, 1890), 278 seq.; G. Feola,
  _Rapporto sullo stato dei ruderi Augusto-Tiberiani_--MS. inedito,
  publicato dal Dott. Ignazio Cerio (Naples, 1894); F. Furchheim,
  _Bibliografia dell' Isola di Capri e della provincia Sorrentina_
  (Naples, 1899); C. Weichhardt, _Das Schloss des Tiberius und andere
  Römerbauten auf Capri_ (Leipzig, 1900).     (T. As.)



CAPRICCIO, or CAPRICE (Ital. for a sudden motion or fancy), a musical
term for a lively composition of an original and fantastic nature, not
following a set musical form, although the first known, written for the
harpsichord, partook of the nature of a fugue. The word is also used for
pieces of a fanciful type, in the nature of transcriptions and
variations.



CAPRICORNUS ("THE GOAT"), in astronomy, the tenth sign of the zodiac
(q.v.), represented by the symbol [symbol] intended to denote the
crooked horns of this animal. The word is derived from Lat. _caper_, a
goat, and _cornu_, a horn. It is also a constellation of the southern
hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd
century B.C.); Ptolemy and Tycho Brahe catalogued 28 stars, Hevelius
gave 29. It was represented by the ancients as a creature having the
forepart a goat, and the hindpart a fish, or sometimes simply as a goat.
An interesting member of this constellation is [alpha]-_Capricorni_, a
pair of stars of 3rd and 4th magnitudes, each of which has a companion
of the 9th magnitude.



CAPRIFOLIACEAE, a natural order of plants belonging to the sympetalous
or higher division of Dicotyledons, that namely which is characterized
by having the petals of the flower united. The plants are mainly shrubs
and trees; British representatives are _Sambucus_ (elder), _Viburnum_
(guelder-rose and wayfaring tree), _Lonicera_ (honeysuckle) (see fig.);
_Adoxa_ (moschatel), a small herb with a creeping stem and small
yellowish-green flowers, is occasionally found on damp hedge-banks;
_Linnaea_, a slender creeping evergreen with a thread-like stem and pink
bell-shaped flower, a northern plant, occurs in fir-forests and
plantations in the north of England and Scotland. The leaves are
opposite, simple as in honeysuckle, or compound as in elder; they have
usually no stipules. The flowers are regular as in _Viburnum_ and
_Sambucus_, more rarely two-lipped as in _Lonicera_; the sepals and
petals are usually five in number and placed above the ovary, the five
stamens are attached to the corolla-tube, there are three to five
carpels, and the fruit is a berry as in honeysuckle or snowberry
(_Symphoricarpus_), or a stone fruit, with several, usually three,
stones, as in _Sambucus_.

[Illustration: Flowering shoot of _Lonicera Caprifolium_, slightly
reduced. 1, Fruit slightly reduced; 2, horizontal plan of arrangement of
flower.]

In _Sambucus_ and _Viburnum_ the small white flowers are massed in
heads; honey is secreted at the base of the styles and, the tube of the
flower being very short, is exposed to the visits of flies and insects
with short probosces. The flowers of _Lonicera_, which have a long tube,
open in the evening, when they are sweet-scented and are visited by
hawk-moths. The order contains about 250 species, chiefly natives of the
north temperate zone and the mountains of the tropics. Several genera
afford ornamental plants; such are _Lonicera_, erect shrubs or twiners
with long-tubed white, yellow or red flowers; _Symphoricarpus_, a North
American shrub, with small whitish pendulous flowers and white berries;
_Diervilla_ (also known as _Weigelia_), and _Viburnum_, including _V.
Opulus_, guelder rose, in the cultivated forms of which the corolla has
become enlarged at the expense of the essential organs and the flowers
are neuter.



CAPRIVI DE CAPRERA DE MONTECUCCOLI, GEORG LEO VON, COUNT (1831-1899),
German soldier and statesman, was born on the 24th of February 1831 at
Charlottenburg. The family springs from Carniola, and the name was
originally written Kopriva; in the 18th century one branch settled in
Wernigerode, and several members entered the Prussian service; the
father of the chancellor held a high judicial post, and was made a life
member of the Prussian House of Lords. Caprivi was educated in Berlin,
and entered the army in 1849; he took part in the campaign of 1866,
being attached to the staff of the ist army. In 1870 he served as chief
of the staff to the 10th army corps, which formed part of the 2nd army,
and took part in the battles before Metz as well as in those round
Orleans, in which he highly distinguished himself. One of the most
delicate strategical problems of the whole war was the question of
whether to change the direction of the 10th corps on the morning of the
16th of August before Vionville, and in this, as well as in the actual
manoeuvres of the corps on that day, Caprivi, as representative of, and
counsellor to, his chief, General v. Voigts-Rhetz, took a leading part.
At the battle of Beaune-la-Rolande, the turning-point of the Orleans
campaign, the 10th corps bore the brunt of the fighting. After the peace
he held several important military offices, and in 1883 was made chief
of the admiralty, in which post he had to command the fleet and to
organize and represent the department in the Reichstag. He resigned in
1888, when the command was separated from the representation in
parliament, and was appointed commander of the 10th army corps. Bismarck
had already referred to him as a possible successor to himself, for
Caprivi had shown great administrative ability, and was unconnected with
any political party; and in March 1890 he was appointed chancellor,
Prussian minister president and foreign minister. He was quite unknown
to the public, and the choice caused some surprise, but it was fully
justified. The chief events of his administration, which lasted for four
years, are narrated elsewhere, in the article on Germany. He showed
great ability in quickly mastering the business, with which he was
hitherto quite unacquainted, as he himself acknowledged; his speeches in
the Reichstag were admirably clear, dignified and to the point. His
first achievement was the conclusion in July 1890 of a general agreement
with Great Britain regarding the spheres of influence of the two
countries in Africa. Bismarck had supported the colonial parties in
Germany in pretensions to which it was impossible for Great Britain to
give her consent, and the relations between the two powers were in
consequence somewhat strained. Caprivi adopted a conciliatory attitude,
and succeeded in negotiating terms with Lord Salisbury which gave to
Germany all she could reasonably expect. But the abandonment of an
aggressive policy in East Africa and in Nigeria, and in the withdrawal
of German claims to Zanzibar (in exchange for Heligoland) aroused the
hostility of the colonial parties, who bitterly attacked the new
chancellor. Caprivi had, however, by making the frontiers of the Congo
Free State and German East Africa meet, "cut" the Cape to Cairo
connexion of the British, an achievement which caused much dismay in
British colonial circles, regular treaties having been obtained from
native chiefs over large areas which the chancellor secured for Germany.
In Nigeria also Caprivi by the 1890 agreement, and by another concluded
in 1893, made an excellent bargain for his country, while in South-West
Africa he obtained a long but narrow extension eastward to the Zambezi
of the German protectorate (this strip of territory being known as
"Caprivi's Finger"). In his African policy the chancellor proved
far-sighted, and gained for the new protectorates a period for internal
development and consolidation. The Anglo-German agreement of 1890 was
followed by commercial treaties with Austria, Rumania, &c.; by
concluding them he earned the express commendation of the emperor and
the title of count, but he was from this time relentlessly attacked by
the Agrarians, who made it a ground for their distrust that he was not
himself a landed proprietor; and from this time he had to depend much on
the support of the Liberals and other parties who had been formerly in
opposition. The reorganization of the army caused a parliamentary
crisis, but he carried it through successfully, only, however, to earn
the enmity of the more old-fashioned soldiers, who would not forgive him
for shortening the period of service. His position was seriously
compromised by the failure in 1892 to carry an education bill which he
had defended by saying that the question at issue was Christianity or
Atheism, and he resigned the presidency of the Prussian ministry, which
was then given to Count Eulenburg. In 1894, a difference arose between
Eulenburg and Caprivi concerning the bill for an amendment of the
criminal code (the _Umsturz Vorlage_), and in October the emperor
dismissed both. Caprivi's fall was probably the work of the Agrarians,
but it was also due to the fact that, while he showed very high ability
in conducting the business of the country, he made no attempt to secure
his personal position by forming a party either in parliament or at
court. He interpreted his position rather as a soldier; he did his duty,
but did not think of defending himself. He suffered much from the
attacks made on him by the followers of Bismarck, and he was closely
associated with the social ostracism of that statesman; we do not know,
however, in regard either to this or to the other events of his
administration, to what extent Caprivi was really the author of the
policy he carried out, and to what extent he was obeying the orders of
the emperor. With a loyalty which cannot be too highly praised, he
always refused, even after his abrupt dismissal, to justify himself, and
he could not be persuaded even to write memoirs for later publication.
The last years of his life were spent in absolute retirement, for he
could not return even to the military duties which he had left with
great reluctance at the orders of the emperor. He died unmarried on the
6th of February 1899, at the age of sixty-eight.

  See R. Arndt, _Die Reden des Grafen v. Caprivi_ (Berlin, 1894), with a
  biography.     (J. W. He.)



CAPRONNIER, JEAN BAPTISTE (1814-1891), Belgian stained-glass painter,
was born in Brussels in 1814, and died there in 1891. He had much to do
with the modern revival of glass-painting, and first made his reputation
by his study of the old methods of workmanship, and his clever
restorations of old examples, and copies made for the Brussels
archaeological museum. He carried out windows for various churches in
Brussels, Bruges, Amsterdam and elsewhere, and his work was commissioned
also for France, Italy and England. At the Paris Exhibition of 1855 he
won the only medal given for glass-painting.



CAPSICUM, a genus of plants, the fruits of which are used as peppers
(see CAYENNE PEPPER for botany, &c.). As used in medicine, the ripe
fruit of the _capsicum mimum_ (or _frutescans_), containing the active
principle capsaicin (capsacutin), first isolated by Thresh in 1876, has
remarkable physiological properties. Applied locally to the skin or
mucous membrane, it causes redness and later vesication. Internally in
small doses it stimulates gastric secretions and causes dilatation of
the vessels; but if used internally in excess for a long period it will
cause subacute gastritis. In single doses in excess it causes renal
irritation and inflammation and strangury. The administration of
capsicum is valuable in atony of the stomach due to chronic alcoholism,
its hot stimulating effect not only increasing the appetite but to a
certain degree satisfying the craving for alcohol. It is also useful in
the flatulency of the aged, where it prevents the development of gas,
and has a marked effect on anorexia. It has been used in functional
torpidity of the kidney. Externally capsicum plaster placed over the
affected muscles is useful in rheumatism and lumbago. Capsicum wool,
known as calorific wool, made by dissolving the oleoresin of capsicum in
ether and pouring it on to absorbent cotton-wool, is useful in rheumatic
affections.



CAPSTAN (also spelt in other forms, or as "capstock" and "cable stock,"
connected with the O. Fr. _capestan_ or _cabestan_, from Lat.
_capistrum_, a halter, _capere_, to take hold of; the conjecture that it
came from the Span. _cabra_, goat, and _estanto_, standing, is
untenable), an appliance used on board ship and on dock walls, for
heaving-in or veering cables and hawsers, whether of iron, steel or
hemp. It differs from a windlass, which is used for the same purposes,
in having the axis on which the rope is wound vertical instead of
horizontal. The word seems to have come into English (14th century) from
French or Spanish shipmen at the time of the Crusades. The earlier forms
were of a comparatively simple character, made of wood with an iron
spindle and worked by manual labour with wooden capstan bars. As heavier
cables were supplied to ships, difficulty was found, when riding at
anchor, in holding, checking and veering cable. A cable-holder (W.H.
Harfield's) was tested in H.M.S. "Newcastle" (wooden frigate) in 1870
and proved effective; its first development in 1876 was the application
in the form of a windlass secured to the deck, driven by a messenger
chain from the capstan, fitted in H.M.S. "Inflexible" (fig. 1).

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

The capstans and engine are shown at A, A, A, and the windlass B is
driven by messenger chains C, C. The four cables (dotted line D, D) lead
to their respective cable-holders, fitted with a brake, and by these
means each cable-holder can be connected to the main driving shaft, and
any cable hove-in or veered independently of the other; by using steam
power instead of manual, the previous slow motion was obviated. In
H.M.S. "Collingwood" steam power was used to work the windlass directly
by means of worm gearing; the windlass was divided into two parts, so
that the one on the port side could be worked independently of that on
the starboard, and vice versa. An independent capstan in both ships,
arranged to take either of the cables, could be worked by hand or steam.
In the "Collingwood's" windlass the cables remained on their holders,
and could be hove-in or veered without being touched.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Elevation looking aft.]

Napier's patent windlass for merchant ships (1906) resembles an
appliance fitted in the earlier second-class cruisers of the British
navy (1890 to 1900). Two cable wheels or cable-holders are mounted loose
on a horizontal axle, one on each side of a worm wheel which is tightly
keyed on the middle part of the axle. A vertical steam engine with two
cylinders, placed one on each side of the framing, drives a second
horizontal axle which is connected by a set of bevel gears to an upright
worm shaft, which works the worm wheel. This worm wheel can be connected
by means of sliding bolts to one or both of the cable wheels, enabling
one or both cables to be hove-in or veered as necessary. A brake, of
Napier's self-holding differential type, is fitted to each cable wheel,
and is controlled by hand wheels on the aft side of the windlass. For
warping purposes, warping drums are fitted (made portable if required).
A third central capstan, fitted forward of the windlass, is connected to
the upright worm shaft by a horizontal shaft and bevel wheels. It can
also be worked by manual labour with capstan bars. Fig. 2 represents the
arrangement of the capstans on the forecastle of a battleship, fitted by
Napier Brothers. Deep-bodied capstans have been superseded by low
drum-headed ones, over which the guns may be fired. The three capstans
or cable-holders of cast steel, capable of taking 2-11/16 in. cables,
are fitted on vertical spindles, which pass down through the main and
armoured decks to the platform one, where the steam engine and gearing
are placed. The gearing consists of worm and wheel gears, so arranged
that the three capstans can be worked singly or in conjunction, when
heaving-in or veering, and the brakes (of the type previously mentioned)
are controlled by a portable hand wheel fitted on the aft side of each.
The cable-holders can be used for riding at anchor (see CABLE). The
middle line capstan E is keyed to vertical spindles and can be coupled
up to the capstan engine, by clutch and drop bolts in the capstan engine
room; it is fitted with a cable-holder, to take either the port or
starboard cables, and in addition is provided with portable whelps,
enabling it to be used for warping. It can also be worked by manual
labour with capstan bars, a drum-head E', fitted on the spindle on the
main deck, enabling additional capstan bars to be used if required.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.-- Napier Brothers' capstan.]

To avoid carrying steam pipes aft, the after capstan is worked by an
electric motor which is kept below the water-line. Napier Brothers'
capstan (fig. 3) is for warping purposes, for working the stern anchor
with wire hawser and for coaling. It is placed on the upper deck, and is
fitted with a drum-head for capstan bars, with pawls and pawl rim on the
deck plate, the pawls A being lifted and placed on their rests B when
working with the motor. The upper portion of the capstan, together with
its drum-head, is portable, being fixed to the centre boss with keys and
gun-metal screws. The centre boss is keyed to the spindle, which passes
through the deck and carries at its lower end a coupling for connecting
to the worm wheel gear. For working by motor, the additional security of
two drop bolts is provided. The gearing consists of a single worm and
worm wheel, working in an oil-bath, the worm shaft being coupled direct
to the motor spindle. The motor is of the semi-enclosed type, the
working and live parts being protected by a perforated metallic
covering; it is worked off a 100-volt circuit, at a speed under full
load conditions of 300 revolutions per minute. The motor is of a 4-pole
type and compound wound, the shunt winding limiting the speed on light
load to not more than 1000 revolutions per minute. A frictional break is
provided, pulled off by means of a shunt-excited magnet. The controller
is of the reversing drum type, with not less than four steps in either
direction, and is fitted with a magnetic blow-out. The control is
effected by a removable hand wheel on a portable pedestal, fitted on top
with a circular dial plate and indicating pointer; the hand wheel
reverses the current as well as graduates the speed in either direction.
All capstans of the British navy, after being fitted on board ship, are
tested for lifting power and speed; with foremost (steam) capstans, the
steam being at 150 lb. pressure, the anchor is usually let go in 16 to 25
fathoms water, and the speed ascertained by observing the time taken to
heave-in not less than a length of cable, 75 ft.; the length must be
hove-in in three minutes, or at the rate of 25 ft. per minute. With the
after capstan (motor) of first-class battleships and cruisers, a weight
is used instead of an anchor, the test being to lift 9 tons at the rate
of 25 ft. per minute. Capstans on dock walls in British government
dockyards are usually driven by hydraulic or air pressure, conveyed
through pipes to small engines underneath the capstans.     (J. W. D.)



CAPSULE (from the Lat. _capsula_, a small box), a term in botany for a
dry seed vessel, as in the poppy, iris, foxglove, &c., containing one or
more cells. When ripe the capsule opens and scatters the seed (see
BOTANY). The word is used also for a small gelatinous case enclosing a
dose of medicine, and for a metal cap or cover on bottles and jars. In
anatomy the term is used to denote a cover or envelope partly or wholly
surrounding a structure. Every diarthrodial joint possesses a fibrous or
ligamentous capsule, lined with synovial membrane, attached to the
adjacent ends of the articulating bones. The term is particularly
applied to the sac which encloses the crystalline lens of the eye; to
Glisson's capsule, a thin areolar coat of fibrous tissue lying inside
the tunica serosa of the liver; to the glomerular capsules in the kidney
substance; to the suprarenal capsules, two small flattened organs in the
epigastric region; and to the internal and external capsules of the
brain (see BRAIN, fig. 14 and explanation).



CAPTAIN (derived from Lat. _caput_, head, through the Low Lat.
_capitanus_), a chief or leader, in various connexions, but particularly
a grade officer in the army or navy.

At sea the name of captain is given to all who command ships whether
they belong to the military navy of their country or not, or whether
they hold the substantive rank or not. Thus a lieutenant when in command
of a vessel is addressed as captain. In France a naval lieutenant is
addressed as _mon capitaine_ because he has that comparative rank in the
army. The master of a merchant ship is known as her captain. But the
name is also used in the strict sense of foreman, or head man, to
describe many of the minor or "petty" officers of a British or American
man-of-war--the captain of a top, of the forecastle, or of a gun. The
title "post captain" in the British navy means simply full captain, and
is the equivalent of the French _capitaine de vaisseau_. It had its
origin in the fact that captains appointed to a ship of twenty guns and
upwards were included in, or "posted" on, the permanent list of captains
from among whom the admirals were chosen. The captain of the fleet is an
officer who acts as chief of the staff to an admiral commanding a large
force. The position is equivalent to flag rank, but is held by a
captain. Staff captain is the highest grade of the officers entrusted
with the nayigation of a ship or fleet.

The military rank of captain (Fr. _capitaine_, Ger. _Hauptmann_, or in
the cavalry, _Rittmeister_), which was formerly the title of an officer
of high rank corresponding to the modern general officer or colonel, has
with the gradual subdivision and articulation of armies, come to be
applied to the commanders of companies or squadrons, and in general to
officers of the grade equivalent to this command (see OFFICERS).

The title of "captain-general" was formerly used in the general sense of
a military commander-in-chief, and is still similarly used in Spain. In
the Spanish army there are eight captains-general, each of whom has
command of a "region" corresponding to an army corps district. The same
title was formerly given to the Spanish governors of the colonial
provinces in the New World. The official title of the governor of
Jamaica is "captain-general and governor-in-chief."



CAPTAL (Lat. _capitalis_, "first," "chief"), a medieval feudal title in
Gascony. According to Du Cange the designation captal (_capital, captau,
capitau_) was applied loosely to the more illustrious nobles of
Aquitaine, counts, viscounts, &c., probably as _capitales domini_,
"principal lords," though he quotes more fanciful explanations. As an
actual title the word was used only by the lords of Trene, Puychagut,
Epernon and Buch. It is best known in connexion with the famous soldier,
Jean de Grailly, captal of Bush (d. 1376), the "captal de Buch" _par
excellence_, immortalized by Froissart as the confidant of the Black
Prince and the champion of the English cause against France. His active
part in the war began in 1364, when he ravaged the country between Paris
and Rouen, but was beaten by Bertrand du Guesclin at Cocherel and taken
prisoner. Released next year, he received the seigniory of Nemours and
took the oath of fealty to the French king, Charles V., but soon
resigned his new fief and returned to his allegiance to the English
king. In 1367 he took part in the battle of Navarette, in which Du
Guesclin was taken prisoner, the captal being entrusted with his
safe-keeping. In 1371 Jean de Grailly was appointed constable of
Aquitaine, but was taken prisoner next year and interned in the Temple
at Paris where, resisting all the tempting offers of the French king, he
remained till his death five years later.



CAPTION (Lat. _captio_, a taking or catching), a term still used in law,
especially Scots, for arrest or apprehension. From the obsolete sense of
a catching at any possible plea or objection comes the adjective
"captious," i.e. sophistical or fault-finding. The term also has an old
legal use, to signify the part of an indictment, &c., which shows where,
when and by what authority it is taken, found or executed; so its
opening or heading. From this is derived the modern sense of the heading
of an article in a book or newspaper.



CAPTIVE (from Lat. _capere_, to take), one who is captured in warfare.
As a term of International Law, it has been displaced by that of
"prisoner of war." The position and treatment of captives or prisoners
of war is now dealt with fully in chapter ii. of the regulations annexed
to the Hague Convention respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land,
of the 18th of October 1907.

  See PEACE CONFERENCE and WAR; also Sir T. Barclay, supplement to
  _Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy_, for comparison of
  texts of 1899 and 1907.



CAPTURE (from Lat. _capere_, to take; Fr. _prise maritime_; Ger.
_Wegnahme_), in international law, the taking possession by a
belligerent vessel of an enemy or neutral merchant or non-fighting ship.
If an enemy ship is captured she becomes forthwith lawful prize (q.v.);
when a neutral ship, the belligerent commander, in case her papers are
not conclusive, has a right to search her. If he finds contraband on
board or the papers or cargo or circumstances excite any serious
suspicion in his mind, which the master of the ship has been unable to
dispel, he places an officer and a few of his crew on board and sends
her to the nearest port where there is a prize court for trial. The word
is also used for the vessel thus captured (see BLOCKADE, CONTRABAND).
    (T. Ba.)



CAPUA (anc. _Casilinum_), a town and archiepiscopal see of Campania,
Italy, in the province of Caserta, 7 m. W. by rail from the town of
Caserta. Pop. (1901) 14,285. It was erected in 856 by Bishop Landulf on
the site of Casilinum (q.v.) after the destruction of the ancient Capua
by the Saracens in 840, but it only occupies the site of the original
pre-Roman town on the left (south) bank of the river.

The cathedral of S. Stefano, erected in 856, has a handsome atrium and a
lofty Lombard campanile, and a (modernized) interior with three aisles;
both it and the atrium have ancient granite columns. The Romanesque
crypt, with ancient columns, has also been restored. It has a fine
paschal candlestick, and the fragments of a pulpit with marble mosaic of
the 13th century. There are also preserved in the cathedral a fine
Exultet roll and an _evangelarium_ of the end of the 12th century, bound
in bronze decorated with gold filigree and enamels. The mosaics of the
beginning of the 12th century in the apses of the cathedral and of S.
Benedetto, were destroyed about 1720 and 1620 respectively. The small
church of S. Marcello was also built in 856. In 1232-1240 Frederick II.
erected a castle to guard the Roman bridge over the Volturno, composed
of a triumphal arch with two towers. This was demolished in 1557. The
statues with which it was decorated were contemporary imitations of
classical sculptures. Some of them are still preserved in the Museo
Campano (E. Bertaux, _L'Art dans l'Italie méridionale_, Paris, 1904, i.
707). The Museo Campano also contains a considerable collection of
antiquities from the ancient Capua.

Capua changed hands frequently during the middle ages. One of the most
memorable facts in its history is the terrible attack made on it in 1501
by Caesar Borgia, who had entered the town by treachery, in which 5000
lives were sacrificed. It remained a part of the kingdom of Naples until
the 2nd of November 1860, when, a month after the battle of the
Volturno, it surrendered to the Italian troops.     (T. As.)



CAPUA (mod. _S. Maria di Capua Vetere_), the chief ancient city of
Campania, and one of the most important towns of ancient Italy, situated
16 m. N. of Neapolis, on the N.E. edge of the Campanian plain. Its site
in a position not naturally defensible, together with the regularity of
its plan, indicates that it is not a very ancient town, though it very
likely occupies the site of an early Oscan settlement. Its foundation is
attributed by Cato to the Etruscans, and the date given as about 260
years before it was "taken" by Rome (Vell. i. 7). If this be referred,
not to its capture in the second Punic War (211 B.C.) but to its
submission to Rome in 338 B.C., we get about 600 B.C. as the date of its
foundation, a period at which the Etruscan power was at its highest, and
which may perhaps, therefore, be accepted.[1] The origin of the name is
probably _Campus_, a plain,[2] as the adjective _Campanus_ shows,
_Capuanus_ being a later form stigmatized as incorrect by Varro (_De
L.L._ x. 16). The derivation from [Greek: kapys] (a vulture, Latinized
into _Volturnum_ by some authorities who tell us that this was the
original name), and that from _caput_ (as though the name had been given
it as the "head" of the twelve Etruscan cities of Campania), must be
rejected. The Etruscan supremacy in Campania came to an end with the
Samnite invasion in the latter half of the 5th century B.C. (see
CAMPANIA); these conquerors, however, entered into alliance with Rome
for protection against the Samnite mountain tribes, and with Capua came
the dependent communities Casilinum, Calatia, Atella, so that the
greater part of Campania now fell under Roman supremacy. The citizens
received the _civitas sine suffragio_. In the second Samnite War they
proved untrustworthy, so that the Ager Falernus on the right bank of the
Volturnus was taken from them and distributed among citizens of Rome,
the _tribus Falerna_ being thus formed; and in 318 the powers of the
native officials (_meddices_) were limited by the appointment of
officials with the title _praefecti Capuam Cumas_ (taking their name
from the most important towns of Campania); these were at first mere
deputies of the _praetor urbanus_, but after 123 B.C. were elected Roman
magistrates, four in number; they governed the whole of Campania until
the time of Augustus, when they were abolished. In 312 B.C. Capua was
connected with Rome by the construction of the Via Appia, the most
important of the military highways of Italy. The gate by which it left
the Servian walls of Rome bore the name Porta Capena--perhaps the only
case in which a gate in this enceinte bears the name of the place to
which it led. At what time the Via Latina was prolonged to Casilinum is
doubtful (it is quite possible that it was done when Capua fell under
Roman supremacy, i.e. before the construction of the Via Appia); it
afforded a route only 6 m. longer, and the difficulties in connexion
with its construction were much less; it also avoided the troublesome
journey through the Pomptine Marshes (see T. Ashby in _Papers of the
British School at Rome_, i. 217, London, 1902). The importance of Capua
increased steadily during the 3rd century, and at the beginning of the
second Punic War it was considered to be only slightly behind Rome and
Carthage themselves, and was able to furnish 30,000 infantry and 4000
cavalry. Until after the defeat of Cannae it remained faithful to Rome,
but, after a vain demand that one of the consuls should always be
selected from it, it transferred its allegiance to Hannibal, who made it
his winter-quarters, with bad results to the _morale_ of his troops (see
PUNIC WARS). After a long siege it was taken by the Romans in 211 B.C.
and severely punished; its magistrates and communal organization were
abolished, the inhabitants losing their civic rights, and its territory
became Roman state domain. Parts of it were sold in 205 and 199 B.C.,
another part was divided among the citizens of the new colonies of
Volturnum and Liternum established near the coast in 194 B.C., but the
greater portion of it was reserved to be let by the state. Considerable
difficulties occurred in preventing illegal encroachments by private
persons, and it became necessary to buy a number of them out in 162 B.C.
It was, after that period, let, not to large but to small proprietors.
Frequent attempts were made by the democratic leaders to divide the land
among new settlers. Brutus in 83 B.C. actually succeeded in establishing
a colony, but it was soon dissolved; and Cicero's speeches _De Lege
Agraria_ were directed against a similar attempt by Servilius Rullus in
63 B.C. In the meantime the necessary organization of the inhabitants of
this thickly-populated district was in a measure supplied by grouping
them round important shrines, especially that of Diana Tifatina, in
connexion with which a _pagus Dianae_ existed, as we learn from many
inscriptions; a _pagus Herculaneus_ is also known. The town of Capua
belonged to none of these organizations, and was entirely dependent on
the _praefecti_. It enjoyed great prosperity, however, owing to its
spelt, which was worked into groats, wine, roses, spices, unguents, &c.,
and also owing to its manufactures, especially of bronze objects, of
which both the elder Cato and the elder Pliny speak in the highest terms
(_De agr._ 135; _Hist. Nat._ xxiv. 95). Its luxury remained proverbial;
and Campania is especially spoken of as the home of gladiatorial
combats. From the gladiatorial schools of Campania came Spartacus and
his followers in 73 B.C. Julius Caesar as consul in 59 B.C. succeeded in
carrying out the establishment of a colony in connexion with his
agrarian law, and 20,000 Roman citizens were settled in this territory.
The number of colonists was increased by Mark Antony, Augustus (who
constructed an aqueduct from the Mons Tifata, and gave the town of Capua
estates in the district of Cnossus in Crete to the value of 12 million
sesterces--£120,000), and Nero. In the war of A.D. 69 it took the side
of Vitellius. Under the later empire it is not often mentioned; but in
the 4th century it was the seat of the _consularis Campaniae_ and its
chief town, though Ausonius puts it behind Mediolanum (Milan) and
Aquileia in his _ordo nobilium urbium_. Under Constantine we hear of the
foundation of a Christian church in Capua. In A.D. 456 it was taken and
destroyed by Genseric, but must have been soon rebuilt: it was, however,
finally destroyed by the Saracens in 840 and the church of S. Maria
Maggiore, founded about 497, alone remained. It contains 52 ancient
marble columns, but was modernized in 1766. The site was only occupied
in the late middle ages by a village which has, however, outgrown the
medieval Capua in modern days.

_Remains_.--No pre-Roman remains have been found within the town of
Capua itself, but important cemeteries have been discovered on all sides
of it, the earliest of which go back to the 7th or 6th century B.C. The
tombs are of various forms, partly chambers with frescoes on the walls,
partly cubical blocks of peperino, hollowed out, with grooved lids. The
objects found within them consist mainly of vases of bronze (many of
them without feet, and with incised designs of Etruscan style) and of
clay, some of Greek, some of local manufacture, and of paintings. On the
east of the town, in the Patturelli property, a temple has been
discovered with Oscan votive inscriptions, some of them inscribed upon
terra-cotta tablets, others on _cippi_, while of a group of 150 tufa
statuettes (representing a matron holding one or more children in her
lap) three bore Latin inscriptions of the early imperial period. The
site of the town being in a perfectly flat plain, without natural
defences, it was possible to lay it out regularly. Its length from east
to west is accurately determined by the fact that the Via Appia, which
runs from north-west to south-east from Casilinum to Calatia, turns due
east very soon after passing the so-called Arco Campano (a triumphal
arch of good brickwork, once faced with marble, with three openings,
erected in honour of some emperor unknown), and continues to run in this
direction for 5413½ English feet (= 6000 ancient Oscan feet). The
west gate was the Porta Romana; remains of the east gate (the name of
which we do not know) have been found. This fact shows that the main
street of the town was perfectly orientated, and that before the Via
Appia was constructed, i.e. in all probability in pre-Roman times. The
width of the town from north to south cannot be so accurately determined
as the line of the north and south walls is not known, though it can be
approximately fixed by the absence of tombs (Beloch fixes it at 4000
Oscan feet = 3609 English feet), nor is it absolutely certain (though it
is in the highest degree probable, for Cicero praises its regular
arrangement and fine streets) that the plan of the town was rectangular.
Within the town are remains of thermae on the north of the Via Appia and
of a theatre opposite, on the south. The former consisted of a large
crypto-porticus round three sides of a court, the south side being open
to the road; it now lies under the prisons. Beloch (see below)
attributes this to the Oscan period; but the construction as shown in
Labruzzi's drawing (v. 17)[3] is partly of brick-work and _opus
reticulatum_, which may, of course, belong to a restoration. The stage
of the theatre had its back to the road; Labruzzi (v. 18) gives an
interesting view of the _cavea_. It appears from inscriptions that it
was erected after the time of Augustus. Other inscriptions, however,
prove the existence of a theatre as early as 94 B.C., so that the
existence of another elsewhere must be assumed. We know that the Roman
colony was divided into regions and possessed a capitolium, with a
temple of Jupiter, within the town, and that the market-place, for
unguents especially, was called Seplasia; we also hear of an _aedes
alba_, probably the original senate house, which stood in an open space
known as _albana_. But the sites of all these are quite uncertain.
Outside the town on the north is the amphitheatre, built in the time of
Augustus, restored by Hadrian and dedicated by Antoninus Pius, as the
inscription over the main entrance recorded. The exterior was formed by
80 Doric arcades of four storeys each, but only two arches now remain.
The keystones were adorned with heads of divinities. The interior is
better preserved; beneath the arena are subterranean passages like those
in the amphitheatre at Puteoli. It is one of the largest in existence;
the longer diameter is 185 yds., the shorter 152, and the arena measures
83 by 49 yds., the corresponding dimensions in the colosseum at Rome
being 205, 170, 93 and 58 yds. To the east are considerable remains of
baths--a large octagonal building, an apse against which the church of
S. Maria delle Grazie is built, and several heaps of debris. On the Via
Appia, to the south-east of the east gate of the town, are two large and
well-preserved tombs of the Roman period, known as _le Carceri vecchie_
and _la Conocchia_. To the east of the amphitheatre an ancient road, the
Via Dianae, leads north to the Pagus Dianae, on the west slopes of the
Mons Tifata, a community which sprang up round the famous and ancient
temple of Diana, and probably received an independent organization after
the abolition of that of Capua in 211 B.C. The place often served as a
base for attacks on the latter, and Sulla, after his defeat of C.
Norbanus, gave the whole of the mountain to the temple. Within the
territory of the _pagus_ were several other temples with their
_magistri_. After the restoration of the community of Capua, we find
_magistri_ of the temple of Diana still existing, but they were probably
officials of Capua itself. The site is occupied by the Benedictine
church of S. Angelo in Formis[4] which dates from 944, and was
reconstructed by the abbot Desiderius (afterwards Pope Victor III.) of
Monte Cassino in 1073, with interesting paintings, dating from the end
of the 11th century to the middle of the 12th, in which five different
styles may be distinguished. They form a complete representation of all
the chief episodes of the New Testament (see F.X. Kraus, _Jahrbuch d. k.
preuss. Kunstsammlungen_, xiv.). Deposits of votive objects
(_favissae_), removed from the ancient temple from time to time as new
ones came in and occupied all the available space, have been found, and
considerable remains of buildings belonging to the Vicus Dianae (among
them a triumphal arch and some baths, also a hall with frescoes,
representing the goddess herself ready for the chase) still exist.

The ancient road from Capua went on beyond the Vicus Dianae to the
Volturnus (remains of the bridge still exist) and then turned east along
the river valley to Caiatia and Telesia. Other roads ran to Puteoli and
Cumae (the so-called Via Campana) and to Neapolis, and as we have seen
the Via Appia passed through Capua, which was thus the most important
road centre of Campania (q.v.).

  See Th. Mommsen in _Corpus Inscrip. Lat_. x. (Berlin, 1883), p. 365
  seq.; J. Beloch, _Campanien_ (Breslau, 1890), 295 seq.; Ch. Hülsen in
  Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencyclopädie_ (Stuttgart, 1899), iii. 1555.
       (T. As.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] G. Patroni, in _Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Scienze
    Storiche_ (Rome, 1904), v. 217, is inclined to place it considerably
    earlier.

  [2] Livy iv. 37, "Vulturnum Etruscorum urbem quae nunc Capua est, ab
    Samnitibus captam (425 B.C.) Capuamque ab duce eorum Capye, vel, quod
    propius vero est, a campestri agro appellatam."

  [3] For these drawings see T. Ashby, "Dessins inédits de Carlo
    Labruzzi," in _Mélanges de l'École française_, 1903, 414.

  [4] The name comes from the aqueduct (_forma_) erected by Augustus
    for the supply of Capua, remains of which still exist.



CAPUCHIN MONKEY, the English name of a tropical American monkey
scientifically known as _Cebus capucinus_; the plural, capuchins, is
extended to embrace all the numerous species of the same genus, whose
range extends from Nicaragua to Paraguay. These monkeys, whose native
name is sapajou, are the typical representatives of the family
_Cebidae_, and belong to a sub-family in which the tail is generally
prehensile. From the other genera of that group (_Cebinae_) with
prehensile tails capuchins are distinguished by the comparative
shortness of that appendage, and the absence of a naked area on the
under surface of its extremity. The hair is not woolly, the general
build is rather stout, and the limbs are of moderate length and
slenderness. The name capuchin is derived from the somewhat cowl-like
form assumed by the thick hair on the crown of the head of the sapajous.
In their native haunts these monkeys go about in troops of considerable
size, frequenting the summits of the tall forest-trees, from which they
seldom, if ever, descend. In addition to fruits of various kinds, they
consume tender shoots and buds, insects, eggs and young birds. Many of
the species are difficult to distinguish, and very little is known of
their habits in a wild state, although several members of the group are
common in captivity (see PRIMATES).     (R. L.*)



CAPUCHINS, an order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, the chief
and only permanent offshoot from the Franciscans. It arose about the
year 1520, when Matteo di Bassi, an "Observant" Franciscan, became
possessed of the idea that the habit worn by the Franciscans was not the
one that St Francis had worn; accordingly he made himself a pointed or
pyramidal hood and also allowed his beard to grow and went about
bare-footed. His superiors tried to suppress these innovations, but in
1528 he obtained the sanction of Clement VII. and also the permission to
live as a hermit and to go about everywhere preaching to the poor; and
these permissions were not only for himself, but for all such as might
join him in the attempt to restore the most literal observance possible
of St Francis's rule. Matteo was soon joined by others. The Observants
opposed the movement, but the Conventuals supported it, and so Matteo
and his companions were formed into a congregation, called the Hermit
Friars Minor, as a branch of the Conventual Franciscans, but with a
vicar of their own, subject to the jurisdiction of the general of the
Conventuals. From their hood (_capuche_) they received the popular name
of Capuchins. In 1529 they had four houses and held their first general
chapter, at which their special rules were drawn up. The eremitical idea
was abandoned, but the life was to be one of extreme austerity,
simplicity and poverty--in all things as near an approach to St
Francis's idea as was practicable. Neither the monasteries nor the
congregation should possess anything, nor were any devices to be
resorted to for evading this law; no large provision against temporal
wants should be made, and the supplies in the house should never exceed
what was necessary for a few days. Everything was to be obtained by
begging, and the friars were not allowed even to touch money. The
communities were to be small, eight being fixed as the normal number and
twelve as the limit. In furniture and clothing extreme simplicity was
enjoined and the friars were to go bare-footed without even sandals.
Besides the choral canonical office, a portion of which was recited at
midnight, there were two hours of private prayer daily. The fasts and
disciplines were rigorous and frequent. The great external work was
preaching and spiritual ministrations among the poor. In theology the
Capuchins abandoned the later Franciscan school of Scotus, and returned
to the earlier school of Bonaventura (q.v.). The new congregation at the
outset of its history underwent a series of severe blows. The two
founders left it, Matteo di Bassi to return to the Observants, while his
first companion, on being superseded in the office of vicar, became so
insubordinate that he had to be expelled. The case of the third vicar,
Bernardino Ochino (q.v.), who became a Calvinist, 1543, and married, was
even more disastrous. This mishap brought the whole congregation under
the suspicion of heretical tendencies and the pope resolved to suppress
it; he was with difficulty induced to allow it to continue, but the
Capuchins were forbidden to preach. In a couple of years the authorities
were satisfied as to the soundness of the general body of Capuchin
friars, and the permission to preach was restored. The congregation at
once began to multiply with extraordinary rapidity, and by the end of
the 16th century the Capuchins had spread all over the Catholic parts of
Europe, so that in 1619 they were freed from their dependence on the
Conventual Franciscans and became an independent order, with a general
of their own. They are said to have had at that time 1500 houses divided
into fifty provinces. They were one of the chief factors in the Catholic
Counter-reformation, working assiduously among the poor, preaching,
catechizing, confessing in all parts, and impressing the minds of the
common people by the great poverty and austerity of their life. By these
means they were also extraordinarily successful in making converts from
Protestantism to Catholicism. Nor were the activities of the Capuchins
confined to Europe. From an early date they undertook missions to the
heathen in America, Asia and Africa, and at the middle of the 17th
century a Capuchin missionary college was founded in Rome for the
purpose of preparing their subjects for foreign missions. A large number
of Capuchins have suffered martyrdom for the Gospel. This activity in
Europe and elsewhere continued until the close of the 18th century, when
the number of Capuchin friars was estimated at 31,000.

Like all other orders, the Capuchins suffered severely from the
secularizations and revolutions of the end of the 18th century and the
first half of the 19th; but they survived the strain, and during the
latter part of the 19th century rapidly recovered ground. At the
beginning of the present century there were fifty provinces with some
500 monasteries and 300 hospices or lesser houses; and the number of
Capuchin friars, including lay-brothers, was reckoned at 9500. In
England there are ten or twelve Capuchin monasteries, and in Ireland
three. The Capuchins now possess the church of the Portiuncula at
Assisi. The Capuchins still keep up their missionary work and have some
200 missionary stations in all parts of the world--notably India,
Abyssinia and the Turkish empire. Though "the poorest of all orders," it
has attracted into its ranks an extraordinary number of the highest
nobility and even of royalty. The celebrated Father Mathew, the apostle
of Temperance in Ireland, was a Capuchin friar. Like the Franciscans the
Capuchins wear a brown habit.

The Capuchines are Capuchin nuns. They were founded in 1538 in Naples.
They lived according to the rules and regulations of the Capuchin
friars, and so austere was the life that they were called "Sisters of
Suffering." The order spread to France and Spain, and a few convents
still exist.

  In order fully to grasp the meaning of the Capuchin reform, it is
  necessary to know the outlines of Franciscan history (see
  FRANCISCANS). There does not appear to be any modern general history
  of the Capuchin order as a whole, though there are histories of
  various provinces and of the foreign missions. The references to all
  this literature will be found in the article "Kapuzinerorden" in
  Wetzer und Welte, _Kirchenlexicon_ (2nd ed.), which is the best
  general sketch on the subject. Shorter sketches, with the needful
  references, are given in Max Heimbucher, _Orden und Kongregationen_
  (1896), i. § 44, and in Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (3rd ed.),
  art. "Kapuziner." Helyot's _Hist. des ordres religieux_ (1792), vii.
  c. 24 and c. 27, gives an account of the Capuchins up to the end of
  the 17th century.     (E. C. B.)



CAPUS, ALFRED (1858-   ), French author, was born at Aix, in Provence,
on the 25th of November 1858. In 1878 he published, in collaboration
with L. Vonoven, a volume of short stories, and in the next year the two
produced a one-act piece, _Le Mari malgré lui_, at the Théâtre Cluny. He
had been educated as an engineer, but became a journalist, and joined
the staff of the _Figaro_ in 1894. His novels, _Qui perd gagne_ (1890),
_Faux Départ_ (1891), _Années d'aventures_ (1895), which belong to this
period, describe the struggles of three young men at the beginning of
their career. From the first of these he took his first comedy, _Brignol
et sa file_ (Vaudeville, 23rd November 1894). Among his later plays are
_Innocent_ (1896), written with Alphonse Allais; _Petites folles_
(1897); _Rosine_ (1897); _Mariage bourgeois_ (1898); _Les Maris de
Léontine_ (1900); _La Bourse ou la vie_ (1900), _La Veine_ (1901); _La
Petite Fonctionnaire_ (1901); _Les Deux Écoles_ (1902); _La Châtelaine
(1902); L' Adversaire_ (1903), with Emmanuel Arène, which was produced
in London by Mr George Alexander as _The Man of the Moment_, and _Notre
Jeunesse_ (1904), the first of his plays to be represented at the
Théâtre Français; _Monsieur Piégois_ (1905); and, in collaboration with
Lucien Descaves, _L' Attentat_ (1906).

  See Édouard Quet, _Alfred Capus_ (1904), with appreciations by various
  authors, in the series of _Célébrités d' aujourd'hui_.



CAPYBARA, or CARPINCHO (_Hydrochaerus capybara_), the largest living
rodent mammal, characterized by its moderately long limbs,
partially-webbed toes, of which there are four in front and three
behind, hoof-like nails, sparse hair, short ears, cleft upper lip and
the absence of a tail. The dentition is peculiar on account of the great
size and complexity of the last upper molar, which is composed of about
twelve plates, and exceeds in length the three teeth in front. The front
surface of the incisors has a broad, shallow groove. Capybaras are
aquatic rodents, frequenting the banks of lakes and rivers, and being
sometimes found where the water is brackish. They generally associate in
herds, and spend most of the day in covert on the banks, feeding in the
evening and morning. When disturbed they make for the water, in which
they swim and dive with expertness, often remaining below the surface
for several minutes. Their usual food consists of water-plants and bark,
but in cultivated districts they do much harm to crops. Their cry is a
low, abrupt grunt. From five to eight is the usual number in a litter,
of which there appears to be only one in the year; and the young are
carried on their parent's back when in the water. Extinct species of
capybara occur in the tertiary deposits of Argentina, some of which were
considerably larger than the living form. Capybaras belong to the family
_Caviidae_, the leading characteristics of which are given in RODENTIA.
When full-grown the entire length of the animal is about 4 ft., and the
girth 3 ft. Their geographical range extends from Guiana to the river
Plate. Capybaras can be easily tamed; numbers are killed on land by
jaguars and in the water by caimans--the alligators of South America.



CAR (Late Lat. _carra_), a term originally applied to a small
two-wheeled vehicle for transport (see CARRIAGE), but also to almost
anything in the nature of a carriage, chariot, &c., and to the
carrying-part of a balloon. With some specific qualification (tram-car,
street-car, railway-car, sleeping-car, motor-car, &c.) it is combined to
serve as a general word instead of carriage or vehicle. From Ireland
comes the "jaunting-car," which is in general use, both in the towns,
where it is the commonest public carriage for hire, and in the country
districts, where it is employed to carry the mails and for the use of
tourists. The gentry and more well-to-do farmers also use it as a
private carriage in all parts of Ireland. The genuine Irish jaunting-car
is a two-wheeled vehicle constructed to carry four persons besides the
driver. In the centre, at right angles to the axle, is a "well" about 18
in. deep, used for carrying parcels or small luggage, and covered with a
lid which is usually furnished with a cushion. The "well" provides a low
back to each of the two seats, which are in the form of wings placed
over each wheel, with foot boards hanging outside the wheel on hinges,
so that when not in use they can be turned up over the seats, thus
reducing the width of the car (sometimes very necessary in the narrow
country roads) and protecting the seats from the weather. The passengers
on each side sit with their backs to each other, with the "well" between
them. The driver sits on a movable box-seat, or "dicky," a few inches
high, placed across the head of the "well," with a footboard to which
there is usually no splash-board attached. A more modern form of
jaunting-car, known as a "long car," chiefly used for tourists, is a
four-wheeled vehicle constructed on the same plan, which accommodates as
many as eight or ten passengers on each side, and two in addition on a
high box-seat beside the driver. In the city of Cork a carriage known as
an "inside car" is in common use. It is a two-wheeled covered carriage
in which the passengers sit face to face as in a wagonette. In remote
country districts the poorer peasants still sometimes use a primitive
form of vehicle, called a "low-backed car," a simple square shallow box
or shelf of wood fastened to an axle without springs. The two wheels are
solid wooden disks of the rudest construction, generally without the
protection of metal tires, and so small in diameter that the body of the
car is raised only a few inches from the ground.



CARABINIERS, originally mounted troops of the French army, armed with
the carabine (carbine). In 1690 one company of carabiniers was
maintained in each regiment of cavalry. Their duties were analogous to
those of grenadiers in infantry regiments--scouting, detached work, and,
in general, all duties requiring special activity and address. They
fought mounted and dismounted alike, and even took part in siege warfare
in the trenches. At the battle of Neerwinden in 1693 all the carabinier
companies present were united in one body, and after the action Louis
XIV. consolidated them into a permanent regiment with the name Royal
Carabiniers. This was one of the old regiments which survived the French
Revolution, at which time the title was changed to "horse grenadiers";
it is represented in the French army of to-day by the 11th Cuirassiers.
The carabiniers (6th Dragoon Guards) of the British army date from 1685,
and received the title from being armed with the carabine in 1692.
Regimentally therefore they were one year senior to the French regiment
of Royal Carabiniers, and as a matter of fact they took part as a
regiment in the battle of Neerwinden. Up to 1745 their title was "The
King's Carabiniers"; from 1745 to 1788 they were called the 3rd Irish
Horse, and from 1788 they have borne their present title. In the German
army, one carabinier regiment alone (2nd Saxon Reiter regiment) remains
of the cavalry corps which formerly in various states bore the title. In
Italy the gendarmerie are called _carabinieri_.



CARABOBO, the smallest of the thirteen states of Venezuela, bounded N.
by the Caribbean Sea, E. by the state of Aragua, S. by Zamora and W. by
Lara. Its area is 2985 sq. m., and its population, according to an
official estimate of 1905, is 221,891. The greater part of its surface
is mountainous with moderately elevated valleys of great fertility and
productiveness, but south of the Cordillera there are extensive grassy
plains conterminous with those of Guárico and Zamora, on which large
herds of cattle are pastured. The principal products of the state are
cattle, hides and cheese from the southern plains, coffee and cereals
from the higher valleys, sugar and aguardiente from the lower valleys
about Lake Valencia, and cacao, coco-nuts and coco-nut fibre from the
coast. Various minerals are also found in its south-west districts,
about Nirgua. The capital is Valencia, and its principal towns are
Puerto Cabello, Montalbán (estimated pop. in 1904 7500), 30 m. W.S.W. of
Valencia; Nirgua (pop. in 1891 8394), an important commercial and mining
town 36½ m. S.W. of Valencia, 2500 ft. above sea level; and Ocumare
(pop. in 1891 7493), near the coast 18½ m. E. of Puerto Cabello,
celebrated for the fine quality of its cacao. Carabobo is best known for
the battle fought on the 24th of June 1821 on a plain at the southern
exit from the passes through the Cordillera in this state, between the
revolutionists under Bolívar and the Spanish forces under La Torre. It
was one of the four decisive battles of the war, though the forces
engaged were only a part of the two armies and numbered 2400
revolutionists (composed of 1500 mounted _llaneros_ known as the "Apure
legion," and 900 British), and 3000 Spaniards. The day was won by the
British, who drove the Spaniards from the field at the point of the
bayonet, although at a terrible loss of life. The British legion was
afterwards acclaimed by Bolívar as "Salvadores de mi Patria." The
Spanish forces continued the war until near the end of 1823, but their
operations were restricted to the districts on the coast.



CARACAL, the capital of the department of Romanatzi, Rumania; situated
in the plains between the lower reaches of the Jiu and Olt rivers, and
on the railway from Corabia, beside the Danube, to Hermannstadt in
Transylvania. Pop. (1900) 12,055. Caracal has little trade, except in
grain. Its chief buildings are the prefecture, school of arts and crafts
and several churches. There are some ruins of a tower, built in A.D. 217
by the Roman emperor Caracalla, after whom the place is named. In 1596
Michael the Brave of Walachia defeated the Turks near Caracal.



CARACAL (_Lynx caracal_), sometimes called Persian lynx, an animal
widely distributed throughout south-western Asia, and over a large
portion of Africa. It is somewhat larger than a fox, of a uniform
reddish brown colour above, and whitish beneath, with two white spots
above each of the eyes, and a tuft of long black hair at the tip of the
ears; to these it owes its name, which is derived from Turkish words
signifying "black-ear." There is little information as to the habits of
this animal in a wild state. Dr W.T. Blanford considers that it dwells
among grass and bushes rather than in forests. Its prey is said to
consist largely of gazelles, small deer, hares and peafowl and other
birds. The caracal is easily tamed, and in some parts of India is
trained to capture the smaller antelopes and deer and such birds as the
crane and pelican. According to Blyth, it is a favourite amusement among
the natives to let loose a couple of tame caracals among a flock of
pigeons feeding on the ground, when each will strike down a number of
birds before the flock can escape. Frequent reference is made in Greek
and Roman literature to the lynx, and from such descriptions as are
given of it there is little doubt that the caracal, and not the European
lynx, was referred to. In South Africa, where the caracal abounds, its
hide is made by the Zulus into skin-cloaks, known as karosses. According
to W.L. Sclater, these when used as blankets are said to be beneficial
in cases of rheumatism; an ointment prepared from the fat of the animal
being employed for the same purpose. The North African caracal has been
separated as _Lynx_, or _Caracal, berberorum_, but it is best regarded
as a local race.



CARACALLA (or CARACALLUS), MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS (186-217), Roman
emperor, eldest son of the emperor Septimius Severus, was born at
Lugdunum (Lyons) on the 4th of April 186. His original name was
Bassianus; his nickname Caracalla was derived from the long Gallic tunic
which he wore and introduced into the army. He further received the
imperial title of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus at the time when his father
declared himself the adopted son of M. Aurelius. After the death of
Severus (211) at Eboracum (York) in Britain, Caracalla and his brother
Geta, who had accompanied their father, returned to Rome as colleagues
in the supreme power. In order to secure the sole authority, Caracalla
barbarously murdered his brother in his mother's arms, and at the same
time put to death some 20,000 persons, who were suspected of favouring
him, amongst them the jurist Papinianus. An important act of his reign
(212) was the bestowal of the rights of Roman citizenship upon all free
inhabitants of the empire, although the main object of Caracalla was
doubtless to increase the amount of revenue derived from the tax on
inheritances or legacies to which only Roman citizens were liable. His
own extravagances and the demands of the soldiery were a perpetual drain
upon his resources, to meet which he resorted to taxes and extortion of
every description. He spent the remainder of his reign wandering from
place to place, a mode of life to which he was said to have been driven
by the pangs of remorse. Handing over the reins of government to his
mother, he set out in 213 for Raetia, where he carried on war against
the Alamanni; in 214 he attacked the Goths in Dacia, whence he proceeded
by way of Thrace to Asia Minor, and in 215 crossed to Alexandria. Here
he took vengeance for the bitter sarcasms of the inhabitants against
himself and his mother by ordering a general massacre of the youths
capable of bearing arms. In 216 he ravaged Mesopotamia because
Artabanus, the Parthian king, refused to give him his daughter in
marriage. He spent the winter at Edessa, and in 217, when he recommenced
his campaign, he was murdered between Edessa and Carrhae on the 8th of
April at the instigation of Opellius (Opilius) Macrinus, praefect of the
praetorian guard, who succeeded him. Amongst the numerous buildings with
which Caracalla adorned the city, the most famous are the _thermae_, and
the triumphal arch of Septimius Severus in the forum.

  AUTHORITIES.--Dio Cassius lxxvii., lxxviii.; Herodian iii. 10, iv. 14;
  lives of Caracalla, Severus and Geta, in _Scriptores Historiae
  Augustae_; Eutropius viii. 19-22; Aurelius Victor, _De Caesaribus_,
  20-23; _Epit._ 20-23; Zosimus i. 9-10; H. Schiller, _Geschichte der
  römischen Kaiserzeit_ (1883), 738 ff.; Pauly-Wissowa,
  _Realencyclopädie_, ii. 2434 ff. (von Rohden).



CARÁCAS, the principal city and the capital of the United States of
Venezuela, situated at the western extremity of an elevated valley of
the Venezuelan Coast Range known as the plain of Chacao, 6½ m. S.S.E. of
La Guaira, its port on the Caribbean coast, in lat. 10° 30' N., long.
67° 4' W. The plain is about 11 m. long by 3 m. wide, and is separated
from the coast by a part of the mountain chain which extends along
almost the entire water front of the republic. It is covered with
well-cultivated plantations. The Guaira river, a branch of the Tuy,
traverses the plain from west to east, and flows past the city on the
south. Among its many small tributaries are the Catuche, Caroata and
Anauco, which flow down through the city from the north and give it a
natural surface drainage. The city is built at the narrow end of the
valley and at the foot of the Cerro de Avila, and stands from 2887 to
3442 ft. above sea level, the elevation of the Plaza de Bolívar, its
topographical centre, being 3025 ft. Two miles north-east is the famous
Silla de Carácas, whose twin summits, like a gigantic old-fashioned
saddle (_silla_), rise to an elevation of 8622 ft.; and the Naigueté,
still farther eastward, overlooks the valley from a height of 9186 ft.
The climate of Carácas is often described as that of perpetual spring.
It is subject, however, to extreme and rapid variations in temperature,
to alternations of dry and humid winds (the latter, called _catias_,
being irritating and oppressive), to chilling night mists brought up
from the coast by the westerly winds, and to other influences productive
of malaria, catarrh, fevers, bilious disorders and rheumatism. The
maximum and minimum temperatures range from 84° to 48° F., the annual
mean being about 66°, and the daily variation is often as much as 15°.
The city is built with its streets running between the cardinal points
of the compass and crossing each other at right angles. Two intersecting
central streets also divide the city into four sections, in each of
which the streets are methodically named and numbered, as North 3rd,
5th, 7th, &c., or West 2nd, 4th, 6th, &c., according to direction and
location. This method of numeration dates from the time of Guzman
Blanco, but the common people adhere to the names bestowed upon the city
squares in earlier times. The streets are narrow, but are clean and
well-paved, and are lighted by electricity and gas. There are several
handsome squares and public gardens, adorned with statues, trees and
shrubbery. The principal square is the Plaza de Bolívar, the
conventional centre of the city, in which stands a bronze equestrian
statue of Bolívar, and on which face the cathedral, archbishop's
residence, Casa Amarilla, national library, general post office and
other public offices. The Independencia Park, formerly called Calvario
Park, which occupies a hill on the west side of the city, is the largest
and most attractive of the public gardens. Among the public edifices are
the capitol, which occupies a whole square, the university, of nearly
equal size, the cathedral, pantheon, masonic temple (built by the state
in the spendthrift days of Guzman Blanco), national library,
opera-house, and a number of large churches. The city is generously
provided with all the modern public services, including two street car
lines, local and long distance telephone lines, electric power and
light, and waterworks. The principal water supply is derived from the
Macarao river, 15 m. distant. Railway connexion with the port of La
Guaira was opened in 1883 by means of a line 23 m. long. Another line
(the Gran Ferrocarril de Venezuela) passes through the mountains to
Valencia, 111 m. distant, and two short lines run to neighbouring
villages, one to Petare and Santa Lucia, and the other to El Valle. The
archbishop of Venezuela resides in Carácas and has ecclesiastical
jurisdiction over the dioceses of Ciudad Bolívar, Calabozo,
Barquisimeto, Mérida and Maracaibo. There are no manufactures of note.

Carácas was founded in 1567 by Diego de Losada under the pious title of
Santiago de León de Carácas, and has been successively capital of the
province of Carácas, of the captaincy-general of Carácas and Venezuela,
and of the republic of Venezuela. It is also one of the two chief
cities, or capitals, of the Federal district. It was the birthplace of
Simón Bolívar, and claims the distinction of being the first colony in
South America to overthrow Spanish colonial authority. The city was
almost totally destroyed by the great earthquake of 1812. In the war of
independence it was repeatedly subjected to pillage and slaughter by
both parties in the strife, and did not recover its losses for many
years. In 1810 its population was estimated at 50,000; seventy-one years
later the census of 1881 gave it only 55,638. In 1891 its urban
population was computed to be 72,429, which in 1904 was estimated to
have increased to about 90,000.



CARACCI, LODOVICO, AGOSTINO, and ANNIBALE, three celebrated Italian
painters, were born at Bologna in 1555, 1557, and 1560 respectively.
Lodovico, the eldest, son of a butcher, was uncle to the two younger,
Agostino and Annibale, sons of a tailor, and had nearly finished his
professional studies before the others had begun their education. From
being a reputed dunce, while studying under Tintoretto in Venice, he
gradually rose, by an attentive observation of nature and a careful
examination of the works of the great masters preserved at Bologna,
Venice, Florence and Parma, to measure himself with the teachers of his
day, and ultimately projected the opening of a rival school in his
native place. Finding himself unable to accomplish his design without
assistance, he sent for his two nephews, and induced them to abandon
their handicrafts (Agostino being a goldsmith, and Annibale a tailor)
for the profession of painting. Agostino he first placed under the care
of Fontana, retaining Annibale in his own studio; but he afterwards sent
both to Venice and Parma to copy the works of Titian, Tintoretto and
Correggio, on which his own taste had been formed. On their return, the
three relatives, assisted by an eminent anatomist, Anthony de la Tour,
opened, in 1589, an academy of painting under the name of the
Incamminati (or, as we might paraphrase it, the Right Road), provided
with numerous casts, books and bassi-rilievi, which Lodovico had
collected in his travels. From the affability and kindness of the
Caracci, and their zeal for the scientific education of the students,
their academy rose rapidly in popular estimation, and soon every other
school of art in Bologna was deserted and closed. They continued
together till, at the invitation of Cardinal Farnese, Annibale and
Agostino went to Rome in 1600 to paint the gallery of the cardinal's
palace. The superior praises awarded to Agostino inflamed the jealousy
of Annibale, already kindled by the brilliant reception given by the
pupils of the Incamminati to Agostino's still highly celebrated picture
of the "Communion of St Jerome," and the latter was dismissed to Parma
to paint the great saloon of the Casino. Here he died in 1602, when on
the eve of finishing his renowned painting of "Celestial, Terrestrial
and Venal Love." Annibale continued to work alone at the Farnese gallery
till the designs were completed; but, disappointed at the miserable
remuneration offered by the cardinal, he retired to Naples, where an
unsuccessful contest for a great work in the church of the Jesuits threw
him into a fever, of which he died in 1609. Lodovico always remained at
his academy in Bologna (excepting for a short visit to his cousin at
Rome), though invited to execute paintings in all parts of the country.
He died in 1619, and was interred in the church of Santa Maria
Maddalena. The works of Lodovico are numerous in the chapels of Bologna.
The most famous are--The "Madonna standing on the moon, with St Francis
and St Jerome beside her, attended by a retinue of angels"; "John the
Baptist," "St Jerome," "St Benedict" and "St Cecilia"; and the "Limbo of
the Fathers." He was by far the most amiable of the three painters,
rising superior to all feelings of jealousy towards his rivals, and
though he received large sums for his productions, yet, from his almost
unparalleled liberality to the students of the academy, he died poor.
With skill in painting Agostino combined the greatest proficiency in
engraving (which he had studied under Cornelius de Cort) and high
accomplishments as a scholar. He died not untroubled by remorse for the
indecencies which, in accordance with the corruption of the time, he had
introduced into some of his engravings. The works of Annibale are more
diversified in style than those of the others, and comprise specimens of
painting after the manner of Correggio, Titian, Paolo Veronese, Raphael
and Michelangelo. The most distinguished are the "Dead Christ in the lap
of the Madonna"; the "Infant and St John"; "St Catherine"; "St Roch
distributing alms" (now in the Dresden gallery); and the "Saviour wailed
over by the Maries," at present in possession of the earl of Carlisle.
He frequently gave great importance to the landscape in his
compositions. The reputation of Annibale is tarnished by his jealousy
and vindictiveness towards his brother, and the licentiousness of his
disposition, which contributed to bring him to a comparatively early
grave.

The three Caracci were the founders of the so-called Eclectic school of
painting,--the principle of which was to study in the works of the great
masters the several excellences for which they had been respectively
pre-eminent, and to combine these in the productions of the school
itself; for instance, there was to be the design of Raphael, the power
of Michelangelo, the colour of Titian, and so on.

  See A. Venturi, _I Caracci e la loro scuola_, 1895.     (W. M. R.)



CARACCIOLO, FRANCESCO, PRINCE (1732-1799), Neapolitan admiral and
revolutionist, was born on the 18th of January 1732, of a noble
Neapolitan family. He entered the navy and learned his seamanship under
Rodney. He fought with distinction in the British service in the
American War of Independence, against the Barbary pirates, and against
the French at Toulon under Lord Hotham. The Bourbons placed the greatest
confidence in his skill. When on the approach of the French to Naples
King Ferdinand IV. and Queen Mary Caroline fled to Sicily on board
Nelson's ship the "Vanguard" (December 1798), Caracciolo escorted them
on the frigate "Sannita." He was the only prominent Neapolitan trusted
by the king, but even the admiral's loyalty was shaken by Ferdinand's
cowardly flight. On reaching Palermo Caracciolo asked permission to
return to Naples to look after his own private affairs (January 1799).
This was granted, but when he arrived at Naples he found all the
aristocracy and educated middle classes infatuated with the French
revolutionary ideas, and he himself was received with great enthusiasm.
He seems at first to have intended to live a retired life; but, finding
that he must either join the Republican party or escape to Procida, then
in the hands of the English, in which case even his intimates would
regard him as a traitor and his property would have been confiscated, he
was induced to adhere to the new order of things and took command of the
republic's naval forces. Once at sea, he fought actively against the
British and Neapolitan squadrons and prevented the landing of some
Royalist bands. A few days later all the French troops in Naples, except
500 men, were recalled to the north of Italy.

Caracciolo then attacked Admiral Thurn, who from the "Minerva" commanded
the Royalist fleet, and did some damage to that vessel. But the British
fleet on the one hand and Cardinal Fabrizio Ruffo's army on the other
made resistance impossible. The Republicans and the 500 French had
retired to the castles, and Caracciolo landed and tried to escape in
disguise. But he was betrayed and arrested by a Royalist officer, who on
the 29th of June brought him in chains on board Nelson's flagship the
"Foudroyant." It is doubtful whether Caracciolo should have been
included in the capitulation concluded with the Republicans in the
castles, as that document promised life and liberty to those who
surrendered before the blockade of the forts, whereas he was arrested
afterwards, but as the whole capitulation was violated the point is
immaterial. Moreover, the admiral's fate was decided even before his
capture, because on the 27th of June the British minister, Sir W.
Hamilton, had communicated to Nelson Queen Mary Caroline's wish that
Caracciolo should be hanged. As soon as he was brought on board, Nelson
ordered Thurn to summon a court martial composed of Caracciolo's former
officers, Thurn himself being a personal enemy of the accused. The court
was held on board the "Foudroyant," which was British territory--a most
indefensible proceeding. Caracciolo was charged with high treason; he
had asked to be judged by British officers, which was refused, nor was
he allowed to summon witnesses in his defence. He was condemned to death
by three votes to two, and as soon as the sentence was communicated to
Nelson the latter ordered that he should be hanged at the yard-arm of
the "Minerva" the next morning, and his body thrown into the sea at
sundown. Even the customary twenty-four hours' respite for confession
was denied him, and his request to be shot instead of hanged refused.
The sentence was duly carried out on the 30th of June 1799.

Caracciolo was technically a traitor to the king whose uniform he had
worn, but apart from the wave of revolutionary enthusiasm which had
spread all over the educated classes of Italy, and the fact that treason
to a government like that of the Neapolitan Bourbons could hardly be
regarded as a crime, there was no necessity for Nelson to make himself
the executor of the revenge of Ferdinand and Mary Caroline. His greatest
offence, as Captain Mahan remarks (_Life of Nelson_, i. 440), was
committed against his own country by sacrificing his inalienable
character as the representative of the king of Great Britain to his
secondary and artificial character as delegate of the king of Naples.
The only explanation of Nelson's conduct is to be found in his
infatuation for Lady Hamilton, whose low ambition made her use her
influence over him in the interest of Queen Mary Caroline's malignant
spite.

  AUTHORITIES.--Besides the general works on Nelson and Naples, such as
  P. Colletta's _Storia del Reame di Napoli_ (Florence, 1848), there is
  a large amount of special literature on the subject. _Nelson and the
  Neapolitan Jacobins_ (Navy Records Society, 1903), contains all the
  documents on the episode, including those incorrectly transcribed by
  A. Dumas in his _Borboni di Napoli_ (Naples, 1862-1863), with an
  introduction defending Nelson by H.C. Gutteridge; the work contains a
  bibliography. The case against Nelson is set forth by Professor P.
  Villari in his article "Nelson, Caracciolo, e la Repubblica
  Napolitana" (_Nuova Antologia_, 16th February 1899); Captain A.T.
  Mahan has replied in "The Neapolitan Republic and Nelson's Accusers"
  (_English Historical Review_, July 1899), "Nelson at Naples" (_ibid._,
  October 1900), and "Nelson at Naples" (_Athenaeum_, 8th July 1899);
  see also F. Lemmi, _Nelson e Caracciolo_ (Florence, 1898); C.
  Giglioli, _Naples in 1799_ (London, 1903); Freiherr von Helfert,
  _Fabrizio Ruffo_ (Vienna, 1882); H. Hüffer, _Die neapolitanische
  Republik des Jahres 1799_ (Leipzig, 1884).     (L. V.*)



CARACOLE (a Fr. word, the origin of which is doubtful, meaning the
wheeling about of a horse; in Spanish and Portuguese _caracol_ means a
snail with a spiral shell), a turn or wheeling in horsemanship to the
left or right, or to both alternately, so that the movements of the
horse describe a zig-zag course. The term has been used loosely and
erroneously to describe any display of fancy riding. It is also used for
a spiral staircase in a tower.



CARACTACUS, strictly CARATACUS, the Latin form of a Celtic name, which
survives in Caradoc and other proper names. The most famous bearer of
the name was the British chieftain who led the native resistance to the
Roman invaders in A.D. 48-51, and was finally captured and sent to Rome
(Tac. _Ann._ xii. 33, Dio. lx.). Two old camps on the Welsh border are
now called Caer Caradoc, but the names seem to be the invention of
antiquaries and not genuinely ancient memorials of the Celtic hero.



CARADOC SERIES, in geology, the name introduced by R.I. Murchison in
1839 for the sandstone series of Caer Caradoc in Shropshire, England.
The limits of Murchison's Caradoc series have since been somewhat
modified, and through the labours of C. Lapworth the several members of
the series have been precisely defined by means of graptolitic zones.
These zones are identical with those found in the rocks of the same age
in North Wales, the Bala series (q.v.), and the terms Bala or Caradoc
series are used indifferently by geologists when referring to the
uppermost substage of the Ordovician System. The Ordovician rocks of the
Caradoc district have been subdivided into the following beds, in
descending order: the _Trinucleus_ shales, Acton Scott beds, Longville
flags, Chatwell and Soudley sandstones, Harnage shales and Hoar Edge
grits and limestone. In the Corndon district in the same county the
Caradoc series is represented by the Harrington group of ashes and
shales and the Spy Wood group beneath them; these two groups of strata
are sometimes spoken of as the Chirbury series. In the Breidden district
are the barren Criggeon shales with ashes and flows of andesite.

  In the Lake district the Coniston limestone series represents the
  Upper Caradocian, the lower portion being taken up by part of the
  great Borrowdale volcanic series of rocks. The Coniston limestone
  series contains the following subdivisions:--

  Ashgill group (Ashgill shales and _Staurocephalus_ limestone).

  Kiesley limestone.

  Sleddale group (Applethwaite beds = Upper Coniston limestone
  conglomerate; Yarlside rhyolite; stye end beds = Lower Coniston
  limestone).

  Roman Fell group (Corona beds).

  The Dufton shales and Drygill shales are equivalents of the Sleddale
  group.

  Rocks of Caradoc age are well developed in southern Scotland; in the
  Girvan district they have been described as the Ardmillan series with
  the Drummock group and Barren Flagstone group in the upper portion,
  and the Whitehouse, Ardwell and Balclatchie groups in the lower part.
  Similarly, two divisions, known as the Upper and Lower Hartfell
  series, are recognized in the southern and central area, in
  Peeblesshire, Ayrshire and Dumfriesshire.

  In Ireland the Caradoc or Bala series is represented by the limestones
  of Portraine near Dublin and of the Chair of Kildare; by the
  Ballymoney series of Wexford and Carnalea shales of Co. Down. In the
  Lough Mask district beds of this age are found, as in Wales,
  interstratified with volcanic lavas and tuffs. Other localities are
  known in counties Tyrone, Meath and Louth, also in Lambay Island.

  See ORDOVICIAN SYSTEM; also C. Lapworth, _Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist._,
  5th series, vol. vi., 1880; _Geol. Mag._, 1889; C. Lapworth and W.W.
  Watts, _Proc. Geol. Assoc._, xiii., 1894; J.E. Marr, _Geol. Mag._,
  1892; J.E. Marr and T. Roberts, _Q.J.G.S._, 1885; B.N. Peach and J.
  Home, "Silurian Rocks of Great Britain," vol. I., 1899 (_Mem. Geol.
  Survey_).     (J. A. H.)



CARALES (Gr. [Greek: K['a]ralis], mod. _Cagliari_, q.v.), the most
important ancient city of Sardinia, situated on the south coast of the
island. Its foundation is generally attributed to the Carthaginians, and
Punic tombs exist in considerable numbers near the present cemetery on
the east and still more on the rocky plateau to the north-west of the
town. It first appears in Roman history in the Second Punic War, and
probably obtained full Roman civic rights from Julius Caesar. In
imperial times it was the most important town in the island, mainly
owing to its fine sheltered harbour, where a detachment of the _classis
Misenas_ was stationed. In the 4th and 5th centuries it was probably the
seat of the _praeses Sardiniae_. It is mentioned as an important harbour
in the Gothic and Gildonic wars. It was also the chief point of the road
system of Sardinia. Roads ran hence to Olbia by the east coast, and
through the centre of the island, to Othoca (Oristano) direct, and
thence to Olbia (probably the most frequented route), through the mining
district to Sulci and along the south and west coasts to Othoca. The
hill occupied by the Pisan fortifications and the medieval town within
them must have been the acropolis of the Carthaginian settlement; it is
impossible to suppose that a citadel presenting such natural advantages
was not occupied. The Romans, too, probably made use of it, though the
lower quarters were mainly occupied in imperial times. A. Taramelli
(_Notizie degli Scavi_, 1905, 41 seq.) rightly points out that the
nucleus of the Roman _municipium_ is probably represented by the present
quarter of the Marina, in which the streets intersect at right angles
and Roman remains are frequently found in the subsoil. An inscription
found some way to the north towards the amphitheatre speaks of paving in
the squares and streets, and of drains constructed under Domitian in
A.D. 83 (F. Vivanet in _Notizie degli Scavi_, 1897, 279). The
amphitheatre occupies a natural depression in the rock just below the
acropolis, and open towards the sea with a fine view. Its axes are
95½ and 79 yds., and it is in the main cut in the rock, though some
parts of it are built with concrete. Below it, to the south, are
considerable remains of ancient reservoirs for rain-water, upon which
the city entirely depended. This nucleus extended both to the east and
to the west; in the former direction it ran some way inland, on the east
of the castle hill. Here were the _ambulationes_ or public promenades
constructed by the pro-consul Q. Caecilius Metellus before A.D. 6
(_Corp. Inscrip. Lat._ x., Berlin, 1883, No. 7581). Here also, not far
from the shore, the remains of Roman baths, with a fine coloured mosaic
pavement, representing deities riding on marine monsters, were found in
1907. To the east was the necropolis of Bonaria, where both Punic and
Roman tombs exist, and where, on the site of the present cemetery,
Christian catacombs have been discovered (F. Vivanet in _Notizie degli
Scavi_, 1892, 183 seq.; G. Pinza in _Nuovo Bullettino di Archeologia
Cristiana_, 1901, 61 seq.). But the western quarter seems to have been
far more important; it extended along the lagoon of S. Gilla (which lies
to the north-west of the town, and which until the middle ages was an
open bay) and on the lower slopes of the hill which rises above it. The
chief discoveries which have been made are noted by Taramelli (loc.
cit.) and include some important buildings, of which a large Roman house
(or group of houses) is the only one now visible (G. Spano in _Notizie
degli Scavi_, 1876, 148, 173; 1877, 285; 1880, 105, 405). Beyond this
quarter begins an extensive Roman necropolis extending along the edge of
the hill north-east of the high road leading to the north-west; the most
important tomb is the so-called Grotta delle Vipere, the rock-hewn tomb
of Cassius Philippus and Atilia Pomptilla, the sides of which are
covered with inscriptions (_Corpus Inscr. Lat._ x., Berlin, 1883, Nos.
7563-7578). Other tombs are also to be found on the high ground near the
Punic tombs already mentioned. The latter are hewn perpendicularly in
the rock, while the Roman tombs are chambers excavated horizontally. In
the lagoon itself were found a large number of terra cottas, made of
local clay, some being masks of both divinities and men (among them
grotesques) others representing hands and feet, others various animals,
and of _amphorae_ of various sizes and other vases. Some of the
_amphorae_ contained animals' bones, possibly the remains of sacrifices.
These objects are of the Punic period; they were all found in groups,
and had apparently been arranged on a platform of piles in what was then
a bay, in readiness for shipment (F. Vivanet in _Notizie degli Scavi_,
1893, 255). It is probable that the acropolis of Carales was occupied
even in prehistoric times; but more abundant traces of prehistoric
settlements (pottery and fragments of obsidian, also kitchen middens,
containing bones of animals and shells of molluscs used for human food)
have been found on the Capo S. Elia to the south-east of the modern town
(see A. Taramelli in _Notizie degli Scavi_, 1904, 19 seq.). An
inscription records the existence of a temple of Venus Erycina on this
promontory in Roman times. The museum contains an interesting collection
of objects from many of the sites mentioned, and also from other parts
of the island; it is in fact the most important in Sardinia, and is
especially strong in prehistoric bronzes (see SARDINIA).

  For the Roman inscriptions see _C.I.L._ cit., Nos. 7552-7807.
       (T. As.)



CARAN D'ACHE, the pseudonym (meaning "lead-pencil") of Emmanuel Poiré
(1858-1909), French artist and illustrator, who was born and educated at
Moscow, being the grandson of one of Napoleon's officers who had settled
in Russia. He determined to be a military painter, and when he arrived
in Paris from Russia he found an artistic adviser in Detaille. He served
five years in the army, where the principal work allotted to him was the
drawing of uniforms for the ministry of war. He embellished a
short-lived journal, _La Vie militaire_, with a series of illustrations,
among them being some good-tempered caricatures of the German army,
which showed how accurately he was acquainted with military detail. His
special gift lay in pictorial anecdote, the story being represented at
its different stages with irresistible effect, in the artist's own
mannered simplicity. Much of his work was contributed to _La Vie
parisienne_, _Le Figaro illustré_, _La Caricature_, _Le Chat noir_, and
he also issued various albums of sketches, the _Carnet de chèques_,
illustrating the Panama scandals, _Album de croquis militaires et
d'histoire sans légendes_, _Histoire de Marlborough_, &c., besides
illustrating a good many books, notably the _Prince Kozakokoff_ of
Bemadaky. He died on the 26th of February 1909.

  A collection of his work was exhibited at the Fine Art Society's rooms
  in London in 1898. The catalogue contained a prefatory note by M.H.
  Spielmann.



CARAPACE (a Fr. word, from the Span, _carapacho_, a shield or armour),
the upper shell of a crustacean, tortoise or turtle. The covering of the
armadillo is called a carapace, as is also the hard case in which
certain of the Infusoria are enclosed.



CARAPEGUA, an interior town of Paraguay, 37 m. S.E. of Asunción on the
old route between that city and the missions. Pop. (est.) 13,000
(probably the population of the large rural district about the town is
included in this estimate). The town (founded in 1725) is situated in a
fertile country producing cotton, tobacco, Indian corn, sugar-cane and
mandioca. It has two schools, a church and modern public buildings.



CARAT (Arab. _Q[-i]r[-a]t_, weight of four grains; Gr. _[Greek:
ker['a]tion]_, little horn, the fruit of the carob or locust tree), a
small weight (originally in the form of a seed) used for diamonds and
precious stones, and a measure for determining the fineness of gold. The
exact weight of the carat, in practice, now varies slightly in different
places. In 1877 a syndicate of London, Paris and Amsterdam jewellers
fixed the weight at 205 milligrammes (3.163 troy grains). The South
African carat, according to Gardner Williams (general manager of the De
Beers mines), is equal to 3.174 grains (_The Diamond Mines of South
Africa_, 1902). The fineness of gold is measured by a ratio with 24
carats as a standard; thus 2 parts of alloy make it 22-carat gold, and
so on.



CARAUSIUS, MARCUS AURELIUS, tyrant or usurper in Britain, A.D. 286-293,
was a Menapian from Belgic Gaul, a man of humble origin, who in his
early days had been a pilot. Having entered the Roman army, he rapidly
obtained promotion, and was stationed by the emperor Maximian at
Gessoriacum (Bononia, _Boulogne_) to protect the coasts and channel from
Frankish and Saxon pirates. He at first acted energetically, but was
subsequently accused of having entered into partnership with the
barbarians and was sentenced to death by the emperor. Carausius
thereupon crossed over to Britain and proclaimed himself an independent
ruler. The legions at once joined him; numbers of Franks enlisted in his
service; an increased and well-equipped fleet secured him the command of
the neighbouring seas. In 289 Maximian attempted to recover the island,
but his fleet was damaged by a storm and he was defeated. Maximian and
Diocletian were compelled to acknowledge the rule of Carausius in
Britain; numerous coins are extant with the heads of Carausius,
Diocletian and Maximian, bearing the legend "Carausius et fratres sui."
In 292 Constantius Chlorus besieged and captured Gessoriacum (hitherto
in possession of Carausius), together with part of his fleet and naval
stores. Constantius then made extensive preparations to ensure the
reconquest of Britain, but before they were completed Carausius was
murdered by Allectus, his praefect of the guards (Aurelius Victor,
_Caesares_, 39; Eutropius ix. 21, 22; Eumenius, _Panegyrici_ ii. 12, v.
12). A Roman mile-stone found near Carlisle (1895) bears the inscription
IMP. C[aes] M. AUR[elius] MAUS. The meaning of MAUS is doubtful, but it
may be an anticipation of ARAUS (see F.J. Haverfield in _Cumberland and
Westmoreland Antiquarian Soc. Transactions_, 1895, p. 437).

A copper coin found at Richborough, inscribed _Domino Carausio Ces._,
must be ascribed to a Carausius of later date, since the type of the
reverse is not found until the middle of the 4th century at the
earliest. Nothing is known of this Carausius (A.J. Evans in _Numismatic
Chronicle_, 1887, "On a coin of a second Carausius Caesar in Britain in
the Fifth Century").

  See J. Watts de Peyster, _The History of Carausius, the Dutch
  Augustus_ (1858); P.H. Webb, _The Reign and Coinage of Carausius_
  (1908).



CARAVACA, a town of south-eastern Spain, in the province of Murcia; near
the left bank of the river Caravaca, a tributary of the Segura. Pop.
(1900) 15,846. Caravaca is dominated by the medieval castle of Santa
Cruz, and contains several convents and a fine parish church, with a
miraculous cross celebrated for its healing power, in honour of which a
yearly festival is held on the 3rd of May. The hills which extend to the
north are rich in marble and iron. Despite the lack of railway
communication, the town is a considerable industrial centre, with large
iron-works, tanneries and manufactories of paper, chocolate and oil.



CARAVAGGIO, MICHELANGELO AMERIGHI (or MERIGI) DA (1569-1609), Italian
painter, was born in the village of Caravaggio, in Lombardy, from which
he received his name. He was originally a mason's labourer, but his
powerful genius directed him to painting, at which he worked with
immitigable energy and amazing force. He despised every sort of idealism
whether noble or emasculate, became the head of the Naturalisti
(unmodified imitators of ordinary nature) in painting, and adopted a
style of potent contrasts of light and shadow, laid on with a sort of
fury, indicative of that fierce temper which led the artist to commit a
homicide in a gambling quarrel at Rome. To avoid the consequences of his
crime he fled to Naples and to Malta, where he was imprisoned for
another attempt to avenge a quarrel. Escaping to Sicily, he was attacked
by a party sent in pursuit of him, and severely wounded. Being pardoned,
he set out for Rome; but having been arrested by mistake before his
arrival, and afterwards released, and left to shift for himself in
excessive heat, and still suffering from wounds and hardships, he died
of fever on the beach at Pontercole in 1609. His best pictures are the
"Entombment of Christ," now in the Vatican; "St Sebastian," in the Roman
Capitol; a magnificent whole-length portrait of a grand-master of the
Knights of Malta, Alof de Vignacourt, and his page, in the Louvre; and
the Borghese "Supper at Emmaus."



CARAVAGGIO, POLIDORO CALDARA DA (1495 or 1492-1543), a celebrated
painter of frieze and other decorations in the Vatican. His merits were
such that, while a mere mortar-carrier to the artists engaged in that
work, he attracted the admiration of Raphael, then employed on his great
pictures in the Loggie of the palace. Polidoro's works, as well as those
of his master, Maturino of Florence, have mostly perished, but are well
known by the fine etchings of P.S. Bartoli, C. Alberti, &c. On the sack
of Rome by the army of the Constable de Bourbon in 1527, Polidoro fled
to Naples. Thence he went to Messina, where he was much employed, and
gained a considerable fortune, with which he was about to return to the
mainland of Italy when he was robbed and murdered by an assistant, Tonno
Calabrese, in 1543. Two of his principal paintings are a Crucifixion,
painted in Messina, and "Christ bearing the Cross" in the Naples
gallery.



CARAVAN (more correctly _Karwan_), a Persian word, adopted into the
later Arabic vocabulary, and denoting, throughout Asiatic Turkey and
Persia,[1] a body of traders travelling together for greater security
against robbers (and in particular against Bedouins, Kurds, Tatars and
the like, whose grazing-grounds the proposed route may traverse) and for
mutual assistance in the matter of provisions, water and so forth. These
precautions are due to the absence of settled government, inns and
roads. These conditions having existed from time immemorial in the major
part of western Asia, and still existing, caravans always have been the
principal means for the transfer of merchandise. In these companies
camels are generally employed for the transport of heavy goods,
especially where the track, like that between Damascus and Bagdad, for
example, lies across level, sandy and arid districts. The camels are
harnessed in strings of fifty or more at a time, a hair-rope connecting
the rear of one beast with the head of another; the leader is gaily
decorated with parti-coloured trappings, tassels and bells; an unladen
ass precedes the file, for luck, say some, for guidance, say others.
Where the route is rocky and steep, as that between Damascus and Aleppo,
mules, or even asses, are used for burdens. The wealthier members ride,
where possible, on horseback. Every man carries arms; but these are in
truth more for show than for use, and are commonly flung away in the
presence of any serious robber attack. Should greater peril than
ordinary be anticipated, the protection of a company of soldiers is
habitually pre-engaged,--an expensive, and ordinarily a useless adjunct.
A leader or director, called _Karawan-Bashi_ (headman), or, out of
compliment, _Karawan-Seraskier_ (general), but most often simply
designated _Raïs_ (chief), is before starting appointed by common
consent. His duties are those of general manager, spokesman, arbitrator
and so forth; his remuneration is indefinite. But in the matter of sales
or purchases, either on the way or at the destination, each member of
the caravan acts for himself.

The number of camels or mules in a single caravan varies from forty or
so up to six hundred and more; sometimes, as on the reopening of a
long-closed route, it reaches a thousand. The ordinary caravan seasons
are the months of spring, early summer and later autumn. Friday, in
accordance with a recommendation made in the Koran itself, is the
favourite day for setting out, the most auspicious hour being that
immediately following noonday prayer. The first day's march never does
more than just clear the starting-point. Subsequently each day's route
is divided into two stages,--from 3 or 4 A.M. to about 10 in the
forenoon, and from between 2 and 3 P.M. till 6 or even 8 in the evening.
Thus the time passed daily on the road averages from ten to twelve
hours, and, as the ordinary pace of a laden camel does not exceed 2 m.
an hour, that of a mule being 2-3/4, a distance varying from 23 to 28 m.
is gone over every marching day. But prolonged halts of two, three, four
and even more days often occur. The hours of halt, start and movement,
the precise lines of route, and the selection or avoidance of particular
localities are determined by common consent. But if, as sometimes
happens, the services of a professional guide, or those of a military
officer have been engaged, his decisions are final. While the caravan is
on its way, the five stated daily prayers are, within certain limits,
anticipated, deferred or curtailed, so as the better to coincide with
the regular and necessary halts,--a practice authorized by orthodox
Mahommedan custom and tradition.

Two caravans are mentioned in Genesis xxxvii.; the route on which they
were passing seems to have coincided with that nowadays travelled by
Syrian caravans on their way to Egypt. Other allusions to caravans may
be found in Job, in Isaiah and in the Psalms. Eastern literature is full
of such references.

The yearly pilgrim-bands, bound from various quarters of the Mahommedan
world to their common destination, Mecca, are sometimes, but
inaccurately, styled by European writers caravans; their proper
designation is _Hajj_, a collective word for pilgrimages and pilgrims.
The two principal pilgrim-caravans start yearly, the one from Damascus,
or, to speak more exactly, from Mozarib, a village station three days'
journey to the south of the Syrian capital, the other from Cairo in
Egypt.[2] This latter was formerly joined on its route, near Akaba of
the Red Sea, by the North African Hajj, which, however, now goes from
Egypt by sea from Suez; the former gathers up bands from Anatolia,
Kurdistan, Mesopotamia and Syria. Besides these a third, but smaller
Hajj of Persians, chiefly sets out from Suk-esh-Sheiukh, in the
neighbourhood of Meshed Ali, on the lower Euphrates; a fourth of
negroes, Nubians, etc., unites at Yambu on the Hejaz coast, whither they
have crossed from Kosseir in Upper Egypt; a fifth of Indians and Malays,
centres at Jidda; a sixth and seventh, of southern or eastern Arabs
arrive, the former from Yemen, the latter from Nejd.

The Syrian Hajj is headed by the pasha of Damascus, either in person or
by a vicarious official of high rank, and is further accompanied by the
_Sorrah Amir_ or "Guardian of the Purse," a Turkish officer from
Constantinople. The Egyptian company is commanded by an amir or ruler,
appointed by the Cairene government, and is accompanied by the famous
"Mahmal," or sacred pavilion. The other bands above mentioned have
each their own amir, besides their _mekowwams_ or agents, whose business
it is to see after provisions, water and the like, and are not seldom
encumbered with a numerous retinue of servants and other attendants.
Lastly, a considerable force of soldiery accompanies both the Syrian and
the Egyptian Hajj.

No guides properly so-called attend these pilgrim-caravans, the routes
followed being invariably the same, and well known. But Bedouin bands
generally offer themselves by way of escort, and not seldom designedly
lead their clients into the dangers from which they bargain to keep them
safe. This they are the readier to do because, in addition to the
personal luxuries with which many of the pilgrims provide themselves for
the journey, a large amount of wealth, both in merchandise and coins, is
habitually to be found among the travellers, who, in accordance with
Mahommedan tradition, consider it not merely lawful but praiseworthy to
unite mercantile speculation with religious duty. Nor has any one, the
pasha himself or the amir and the military, when present, excepted, any
acknowledged authority or general control in the pilgrim-caravans; nor
is there any orderly subdivision of management or service. The pilgrims
do, indeed, often coalesce in companies among themselves for mutual
help, but necessity, circumstance or caprice governs all details, and
thus it happens that numbers, sometimes as many as a third of the entire
Hajj, yearly perish by their own negligence or by misfortune,--dying,
some of thirst, others of fatigue and sickness, others at the hand of
robbers on the way. In fact the principal routes are in many places
lined for miles together with the bones of camels and men.

The numbers which compose these pilgrim caravans are much exaggerated by
popular rumour; yet it is certain that the Syrian and Egyptian sometimes
amount to 5000 each, with 25,000 or 30,000 camels in train. Large
supplies of food and water have to be carried, the more so at times that
the pilgrim season, following as it does the Mahommedan calendar, which
is lunar, falls for years together in the very hottest season. Hence,
too, the journey is usually accomplished by night marches, the hours
being from 3 to 4 P.M. to 6 or 7 A.M. of the following day. Torches are
lighted on the road, the pace is slower than that of an ordinary
caravan, and does not exceed 2 m. an hour.

  See MECCA and MAHOMMEDAN RELIGION.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] In Arabia proper it is rarely employed in speech and never in
    writing, strictly Arabic words such as _Rikb_ ("assembled riders") or
    _Qafila_ ("wayfaring band") being in ordinary use.

  [2] The Syrian and Egyptian haj; have been able, since 1908, to
    travel by the railway from Damascus to the Hejaz.



CARAVANSERAI, a public building, for the shelter of a caravan (q.v.) and
of wayfarers generally in Asiatic Turkey. It is commonly constructed in
the neighbourhood, but not within the walls, of a town or village. It is
quadrangular in form, with a dead wall outside; this wall has small
windows high up, but in the lower parts merely a few narrow air-holes.
Inside a cloister-like arcade, surrounded by cellular store-rooms, forms
the ground floor, and a somewhat lighter arcade, giving access to little
dwelling-rooms, runs round it above. Broad open flights of stone steps
connect the storeys. The central court is open to the sky, and generally
has in its centre a well with a fountain-basin beside it. A spacious
gateway, high and wide enough to admit the passage of a loaded camel,
forms the sole entrance, which is furnished with heavy doors, and is
further guarded within by massive iron chains, drawn across at night.
The entry is paved with flagstones, and there are stone seats on each
side. The court itself is generally paved, and large enough to admit of
three or four hundred crouching camels or tethered mules; the bales of
merchandise are piled away under the lower arcade, or stored up in the
cellars behind it. The upstairs apartments are for human lodging;
cooking is usually carried on in one or more corners of the quadrangle
below. Should the caravanserai be a small one, the merchants and their
goods alone find place within, the beasts of burden being left outside.
A porter, appointed by the municipal authority of the place, is always
present, lodged just within the gate, and sometimes one or more
assistants. These form a guard of the building and of the goods and
persons in it, and have the right to maintain order and, within certain
limits, decorum; but they have no further control over the temporary
occupants of the place, which is always kept open for all arrivals from
prayer-time at early dawn till late in the evening. A small gratuity is
expected by the porter, but he has no legal claim for payment, his
maintenance being provided for out of the funds of the institution.
Neither food nor provender is supplied.

Many caravanserais in Syria, Mesopotamia and Anatolia have considerable
architectural merit; their style of construction is in general that
known as Saracenic; their massive walls are of hewn stone; their
proportions apt and grand. The portals especially are often decorated
with intricate carving; so also is the prayer-niche within. These
buildings, with their belongings, are works of charity, and are
supported, repaired and so forth out of funds derived from pious
legacies, most often of land or rentals. Sometimes a municipality takes
on itself to construct and maintain a caravanserai; but in any case the
institution is tax-free, and its revenues are inalienable. When, as
sometimes happens, those revenues have been dissipated by peculation,
neglect or change of times, the caravanserai passes through downward
stages of dilapidation to total ruin (of which only too many examples
may be seen) unless some new charity intervene to repair and renew it.

_Khans, i.e._ places analogous to inns and hotels, where not lodging
only, but often food and other necessaries or comforts may be had for
payment, are sometimes by inaccurate writers confounded with
caravanserais. They are generally to be found within the town or village
precincts, and are of much smaller dimensions than caravanserais. The
khan of Asad Pasha at Damascus is a model of constructive skill and
architectural beauty.



CARAVEL, or CARVEL (from the Gr. [Greek: k['a]rabos], a light ship,
through the Ital. _carabella_ and the Span. _carabas_), a name applied
at different times and in different countries to ships of very varying
appearance and build, as in Turkey to a ship of war, and in France to a
small boat used in the herring fishery. In the 15th and 16th centuries,
caravels were much used by the Portuguese and Spanish for long voyages.
They were roundish ships, with a double tower at the stern, and a single
one in the bows, and were galley rigged. Two out of the three vessels in
which Columbus sailed on his voyage of discovery to America were
"caravels." Carvel, the older English form, is now used only in the term
"carvel-built," for a boat in which the planking is flush with the edges
laid side to side, in distinction from "clinker-built," where the edges
overlap.



CARAVELLAS, a small seaport of southern Bahia, Brazil, on the Caravellas
river a few miles above its mouth, which is dangerously obstructed by
sandbars. Pop. (1890) of the municipality 5482, about one-half of whom
lived in the town. Caravellas was once the centre of a flourishing whale
fishery, but has since fallen into decay. It is the port of the Bahia &
Minas railway, whose traffic is comparatively unimportant.



CARAWAY, the fruit, or so-called seed, of _Carum Carui_, an
umbelliferous plant growing throughout the northern and central parts of
Europe and Asia, and naturalized in waste places in England. The plant
has finely-cut leaves and compound umbels of small white flowers. The
fruits are laterally compressed and ovate, the mericarps (the two
portions into which the ripe fruit splits) being subcylindrical,
slightly arched, and marked with five distinct pale ridges. Caraways
evolve a pleasant aromatic odour when bruised, and they have an
agreeable spicy taste. They yield from 3 to 6% of a volatile oil, the
chief constituent of which is cymene aldehyde. Cymene itself is present,
having the formula CH3C6H4CH(CH3)2; also carvone C10H14O, and limonene,
a terpene. The dose of the oil is ½-3 minims. The plant is cultivated
in north and central Europe, and Morocco, as well as in the south of
England, the produce of more northerly latitudes being richer in
essential oil than that grown in southern regions. The essential oil is
largely obtained by distillation for use in medicine as an aromatic
stimulant and carminative, and as a flavouring material in cookery and
in liqueurs for drinking. Caraways are, however, more extensively
consumed entire in certain kinds of cheese, cakes and bread, and they
form the basis of a popular article of confectionery known as caraway
comfits.



CARBALLO, a town of north-western Spain, in the province of Corunna; on
the right bank of the river Allones, 20 m. S.W. of the city of Corunna.
Pop. (1900) 13,032. Carballo is the central market of a thriving
agricultural district. At San Juan de Carballo, on the opposite bank of
the Allones, there are hot sulphurous springs.



CARBAZOL, C12H9N, a chemical constituent of coal-tar and crude
anthracene. From the latter it may be obtained by fusion with caustic
potash when it is converted into carbazol-potassium, which can be easily
separated by distilling off the anthracene. It may be prepared
synthetically by passing the vapours of diphenylamine or aniline through
a red-hot tube; by heating diorthodiaminodiphenyl with 25% sulphuric
acid to 200° C. for 15 hours; by heating orthoaminodiphenyl with lime;
or by heating thiodiphenylamine with copper powder. It is also obtained
as a decomposition product of brucine or strychnine, when these
alkaloids are distilled with zinc dust. It is easily soluble in the
common organic solvents, and crystallizes in plates or tables melting at
238° C. It is a very stable compound, possessing feebly basic properties
and characterized by its ready sublimation. It distils unchanged, even
when the operation is carried out in the presence of zinc dust. On being
heated with caustic potash in a current of carbonic acid, it gives
carbazol carbonic acid C12H8N·COOH; melted with oxalic acid it gives
carbazol blue. It dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid to a clear
yellow solution. The potassium salt reacts with the alkyl iodides to
give N-substituted alkyl derivatives. It gives the pine-shaving
reaction, in this respect resembling pyrrol (q.v.).



CARBIDE, in chemistry, a compound of carbon with another element. The
introduction of the electric furnace into practical chemistry was
followed by the preparation of many metallic carbides previously
unknown, some of which, especially calcium carbide, are now of great
commercial importance. Carbides of the following general formulae have
been obtained by H. Moissan (M denotes an atom of metal and C of
carbon):--

M3C = manganese, iron; M2C = molybdenum; M3C2 = chromium; MC =
zirconium; M4C3 = beryllium, aluminium; M2C3 = uranium; MC2 = barium,
calcium, strontium, lithium, thorium, &c.; MC4 = chromium.

The principal methods for the preparation of carbides may be classified
as follows:--(1) direct union at a high temperature, e.g. lithium, iron,
chromium, tungsten, &c.; (2) by the reduction of oxides with carbon at
high temperatures, e.g. calcium, barium, strontium, manganese, chromium,
&c.; (3) by the reduction of carbonates with magnesium in the presence
of carbon, e.g. calcium, lithium; (4) by the action of metals on
acetylene or metallic derivatives of acetylene, e.g., sodium, potassium.
The metallic carbides are crystalline solids, the greater number being
decomposed by water into a metallic hydrate and a hydrocarbon; sometimes
hydrogen is also evolved. Calcium carbide owes its industrial importance
to its decomposition into acetylene; lithium carbide behaves similarly.
Methane is yielded by aluminium and beryllium carbides, and, mixed with
hydrogen, by manganese carbide. The important carbides are mentioned in
the separate articles on the various metals. The commercial aspect of
calcium carbide is treated in the article ACETYLENE.



CARBINE (Fr. _carabine_, Ger. _Karabiner_), a word which came into use
towards the end of the 16th century to denote a form of small fire-arm,
shorter than the musket and chiefly used by mounted men. It has retained
this significance, through all subsequent modifications of small-arm
design, to the present day, and is now as a rule a shortened and
otherwise slightly modified form of the ordinary rifle (q.v.).



CARBO, the name of a Roman plebeian family of the gens Papiria. The
following are the most important members in Roman history:--

1. GAIUS PAPIRIUS CARBO, statesman and orator. He was associated with C.
Gracchus in carrying out the provisions of the agrarian law of Tiberius
Gracchus (see GRACCHUS). When tribune of the people (131 B.C.) he
carried a law extending voting by ballot to the enactment and repeal of
laws; another proposal, that the tribunes should be allowed to become
candidates for the same office in the year immediately following, was
defeated by the younger Scipio Africanus. Carbo was suspected of having
been concerned in the sudden death of Scipio (129), if not his actual
murderer. He subsequently went over to the optimates, and (when consul
in 120) successfully defended Lucius Opimius, the murderer of Gaius
Gracchus, when he was impeached for the murder of citizens without a
trial, and even went so far as to say that Gracchus had been justly
slain. But the optimates did not trust Carbo. He was impeached by
Licinius Crassus on a similar charge, and, feeling that he had nothing
to hope for from the optimates and that his condemnation was certain, he
committed suicide.

  See Livy, _Epit._ 59; Appian, _Bell. Civ._ i. 18: Vell. Pat. ii. 4;
  Val. Max. iii. 7. 6; A.H.J. Greenidge, _History of Rome_ (1904).

2. His son, GAIUS PAPIRIUS CARBO, surnamed Arvina, was a staunch
supporter of the aristocracy, and was put to death by the Marian party
in 82. He is known chiefly for the law (Plautia Papiria) carried by him
and M. Plautius Silvanus when tribunes of the people in 90 (or 89),
whereby the Roman franchise was offered to every Italian ally domiciled
in Italy at the time when the law was enacted, provided he made
application personally within sixty days to the praetor at Rome (see
ROME: _History_, II. "The Republic," Period C.). The object of the law
was to conciliate the states at war with Rome and to secure the loyalty
of the federate states. Like his father, Carbo was an orator of
distinction.

  See Cicero, _Pro Archia_, 4; Vell. Pat. ii. 26; Appian, _Bell. Civ._
  i. 88.

3. GNAEUS PAPIRIUS CARBO (c. 130-82 B.C.), nephew of (1). He was a
strong supporter of the Marian party, and took part in the blockade of
Rome (87). In 85 he was chosen by Cinna as his colleague in the
consulship, and extensive preparations were made for carrying on war in
Greece against Sulla, who had announced his intention of returning to
Italy. Cinna and Carbo declared themselves consuls for the following
year, and large bodies of troops were transported across the Adriatic;
but when Cinna was murdered by his own soldiers, who refused to engage
in civil war, Carbo was obliged to bring them back. In 82 Carbo, then
consul for the third time with the younger Marius, fought an indecisive
engagement with Sulla near Clusium, but was defeated with great loss in
an attack on the camp of Sulla's general, Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius
[see under METELLUS (6)] near Faventia. Although he still had a large
army and the Samnites remained faithful to him, Carbo was so
disheartened by his failure to relieve Praeneste, where the younger
Marius had taken refuge, that he decided to leave Italy. He first fled
to Africa, thence to the island of Cossyra (Pentellaria), where he was
arrested, taken in chains before Pompey at Lilybaeum and put to death.

  See Appian, _Bell. Civ._ i. 67-98; Livy, _Epit._ 79, 84, 88, 89;
  Plutarch, _Pompey_, 5, 6, 10, and _Sulla_, 28; Cicero, _ad Fam._ ix.
  21; Eutropius, v. 8, 9; Orosius, v. 20; Valerius Maximus, v. 3. 5, ix.
  13. 2; art. SULLA, L. CORNELIUS.



CARBOHYDRATE, in chemistry, the generic name for compounds empirically
represented by the formula C_{x}(H2O)_{y}. They are essentially
vegetable products, and include the sugars, starches, gums and
celluloses (q.v.).



CARBOLIC ACID or PHENOL (hydroxy-benzene), C6H5OH, an acid found in the
urine of the herbivorae, and in small quantity in _castoreum_ (F.
Wöhler, _Ann._, 1848, 67, p. 360). Its principal commercial source is
the fraction of coal-tar which distils between 150 and 200° C., in which
it was discovered in 1834 by F. Runge. In order to obtain the phenol
from this distillate, it is treated with caustic soda, which dissolves
the phenol and its homologues together with a certain quantity of
naphthalene and other hydrocarbons. The solution is diluted with water,
and the hydrocarbons are thereby precipitated and separated. The
solution is then acidified, and the phenols are liberated and form an
oily layer on the surface of the acid. This layer is separated, and the
phenol recovered by a process of fractional distillation. It may be
synthetically prepared by fusing potassium benzene sulphonate with
caustic alkalis (A. Kekulé, A. Wurtz); by the action of nitrous acid on
aniline; by passing oxygen into boiling benzene containing aluminium
chloride (C. Friedel and J.M. Crafts, _Ann. Chim. Phys._, 1888 (6) 14,
p. 435); by heating phenol carboxylic acids with baryta; and, in small
quantities by the oxidation of benzene with hydrogen peroxide or nascent
ozone (A.R. Leeds, _Ber._, 1881, 14, p. 976).

It crystallizes in rhombic needles, which melt at 42.5-43° C., and boil
at 182-183° C.; its specific gravity is 1.0906 (0° C.). It has a
characteristic smell, and a biting taste; it is poisonous, and acts as a
powerful antiseptic. It dissolves in water, 15 parts of water dissolving
about one part of phenol at 16-17° C., but it is miscible in all
proportions at about 70° C.; it is volatile in steam, and is readily
soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, carbon bisulphide, chloroform and
glacial acetic acid. It is also readily soluble in solutions of the
caustic alkalis, slightly soluble in aqueous ammonia solution, and
almost insoluble in sodium carbonate solution. When exposed in the moist
condition to the air it gradually acquires a red colour. With ferric
chloride it gives a violet coloration, and with bromine water a white
precipitate of tribrom-phenol.

  When phenol is passed through a red-hot tube a complex decomposition
  takes place, resulting in the formation of benzene, toluene,
  naphthalene, &c. (J.G. Kramers, _Ann._, 1877, 189, p. 129). Chromium
  oxychloride reacts violently on phenol, producing hydroquinone ether,
  O(C6H4OH)2; chromic acid gives phenoquinone, and potassium
  permanganate gives paradiphenol, oxalic acid, and some salicylic acid
  (R. Henriques, _Ber._, 1888, 21, p. 1620). In alkaline solution,
  potassium permanganate oxidizes it to inactive tartaric acid and
  carbon dioxide (O. Doebner, _Ber._, 1891, 24, p. 1755). When distilled
  over lead oxide, it forms diphenylene oxide, (C6H4)2O; and when
  heated with oxalic acid and concentrated sulphuric acid, it forms
  aurin, C19H14O3. It condenses with aceto-acetic ester, in the presence
  of sulphuric acid, to ß-methyl coumarin (H. v. Pechmann and J.B.
  Cohen, _Ber_., 1884, 17, p. 2188).

  The hydrogen of the hydroxyl group in phenol can be replaced by
  metals, by alkyl groups and by acid radicals. The metallic derivatives
  (phenolates, phenates or carbolates) of the alkali metals are obtained
  by dissolving phenol in a solution of a caustic alkali, in the absence
  of air. Potassium phenolate, C6H5OK, crystallizes in fine needles, is
  very hygroscopic and oxidizes rapidly on exposure. Other phenolates
  may be obtained from potassium phenolate by precipitation. The alkyl
  derivatives may be obtained by heating phenol with one molecular
  proportion of a caustic alkali and of an alkyl iodide. They are
  compounds which greatly resemble the mixed ethers of the aliphatic
  series. They are not decomposed by boiling alkalis, but on heating
  with hydriodic acid they split into their components. _Anisol_, phenyl
  methyl ether, C6H5·O·CH3, is prepared either by the above method or by
  the action of diazo-methane on phenol, C6H5OH+CH2N2 = N2+C6H5·O·CH3
  (H. v. Pechmann, _Ber_., 1895, 28, p. 857); by distilling anisic acid
  (para-methoxy benzoic acid) with baryta or by boiling phenyl diazonium
  chloride with methyl alcohol. It is a colourless pleasant-smelling
  liquid which boils at 154.3° C. _Phenetol_, phenyl ethyl ether,
  C6H5·O·C2H5, a liquid boiling at 172° C., may be obtained by similar
  methods. A. Hantzsch (_Ber._, 1901, 34, p. 3337) has shown that in the
  action of alcohols on diazonium salts an increase in the molecular
  weight of the alcohol and an accumulation of negative groups in the
  aromatic nucleus lead to a diminution in the yield of the ether
  produced and to the production of a secondary reaction, resulting in
  the formation of a certain amount of an aromatic hydrocarbon.

  The acid esters of phenol are best obtained by the action of acid
  chlorides or anhydrides on phenol or its sodium or potassium salt, or
  by digesting phenol with an acid in the presence of phosphorus
  oxychloride (F. Rasinski, _Jour. f. prak. Chem._, 1882 [2], 26, p.
  62). Phenyl acetate, C6H5·O·COCH3, a colourless liquid of boiling
  point 193° C., may be prepared by heating phenol with acetamide. When
  heated with aniline it yields phenol and acetanilide. Phenyl benzoate,
  C6H5·O·COC5H5, prepared from phenol and benzoyl chloride, crystallizes
  in monoclinic prisms, which melt at 68-69° C. and boil at 314° C.

  Phenol is characterized by the readiness with which it forms
  substitution products; chlorine and bromine, for example, react
  readily with phenol, forming ortho- and para- chlor- and -bromphenol,
  and, by further action, trichlor- and tribrom-phenol. Iodphenol is
  obtained by the action of iodine and iodic acid on phenol dissolved in
  a dilute solution of caustic potash. Nitro-phenols are readily
  obtained by the action of nitric acid on phenol. By the action of
  dilute nitric acid, ortho- and para-nitrophenols are obtained, the
  ortho-compound being separated from the para-compound by distillation
  in a current of steam. Ortho-nitrophenol, C6H4·OH·NO2(1.2),
  crystallizes in yellow needles which melt at 45° C. and boil at 214°C.
  Para-nitrophenol, C6H4·OH·NO2(1.4), crystallizes in long colourless
  needles which melt at 114°C. Meta-nitrophenol, C6H4·OH·NO2·(1.3), is
  prepared from meta-nitraniline by diazotizing the base and boiling the
  resulting diazonium salt with water. By nitrating phenol with
  concentrated nitric acid, no care being taken to keep the temperature
  of reaction down, trinitrophenol (picric acid) is obtained (see PICRIC
  ACID). By the reduction of nitro-phenols, the corresponding
  aminophenols are obtained, and of these, the meta- and
  para-derivatives are the most important. Para-aminophenol,
  C6H4·OH·NH2(1.4) melts at 148° C., with decomposition. Its most
  important derivative is phenacetin. Meta-aminophenol,
  C6H4·OH·NH2(1.3), and dimethyl meta-aminophenol, C6H4·OH·N(CH3)2(1.3),
  are extensively employed in the manufacture of the important dyestuffs
  known as the rhodamines. The aminophenols also find application as
  developers in photography, the more important of these developers
  being amidol, the hydrochloride of diaminophenol, ortol, the
  hydrochloride of para-methylaminophenol, C6H4·OH·NHCH3·HCl(1.4),
  rodinal, para-aminophenol, and metol, the sulphate of a
  methylaminophenol sulphonic acid. Meta-aminophenol is prepared by
  reducing meta-nitrophenol, or by heating resorcin with ammonium
  chloride and ammonia to 200° C. Dimethyl-meta-aminophenol is prepared
  by heating meta-aminophenol with methyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid
  in an autoclave; by sulphonation of dimethylaniline, the sulphonic
  acid formed being finally fused with potash; or by nitrating
  dimethylaniline, in the presence of sulphuric, acid at 0° C. In the
  latter case a mixture of nitro-compounds is obtained which can be
  separated by the addition of sodium carbonate. The
  meta-nitro-compound, which is precipitated last, is then reduced, and
  the amino group so formed is replaced by the hydroxyl group by means
  of the Sandmeyer reaction. Dimethyl-meta-aminophenol crystallizes in
  small prisms which melt at 87° C. It condenses with phthalic anhydride
  to form rhodamine, and with succinic anhydride to rhodamine S.

  Phenol dissolves readily in concentrated sulphuric acid, a mixture of
  phenol-ortho- and -para-sulphonic acids being formed. These acids may
  be separated by conversion into their potassium salts, which are then
  fractionally crystallized, the potassium salt of the para-acid
  separating first. The ortho-acid, in the form of its aqueous solution,
  is sometimes used as an antiseptic, under the name of aseptol. A
  _thiophenol_, C6H5SH, is known, and is prepared by the action of
  phosphorus pentasulphide on phenol, or by distilling a mixture of
  sodium benzene sulphonate and potassium sulphydrate. It is a
  colourless liquid, which possesses a very disagreeable smell, and
  boils at 168° C.

  Various methods have been devised for the quantitative determination
  of phenol. J. Messinger and G. Vortmann (_Ber._, 1890, 23, p. 2753)
  dissolve phenol in caustic alkali, make the solution up to known
  volume, take an aliquot part, warm it to 60° C., and add decinormal
  iodine solution until the liquid is of a deep yellow colour. The
  mixture is then cooled, acidified by means of sulphuric acid, and
  titrated with decinormal sodium thiosulphate solution. S.B. Schryver
  (_Jour, of Soc. Chem. Industry_, 1899, 18, p. 553) adds excess of
  sodamide to a solution of the phenol in a suitable solvent, absorbs
  the liberated ammonia in an excess of acid, and titrates the excess of
  acid. See also C.E. Smith, _Amer. Jour. Pharm._, 1898, 369.

_Pharmacology and Therapeutics_.--Carbolic acid is an efficient
parasiticide, and is largely used in destroying the fungus of ringworm
and of the skin disease known as _pityriasis versicolor_. When a
solution of the strength of about 1 in 20 is applied to the skin it
produces a local anaesthesia which lasts for many hours. If
concentrated, however, it acts as a caustic. It never produces
vesication. The drug is absorbed through the unbroken skin--a very
valuable property in the treatment of such conditions as an incipient
whitlow. A piece of cotton wool soaked in strong carbolic acid will
relieve the pain of dental caries, but is useless in other forms of
toothache. Taken internally, in doses of from one to three grains,
carbolic acid will often relieve obstinate cases of vomiting and has
some value as a gastric antiseptic.

_Toxicology_.--Carbolic acid is distinguished from all other acids
so-called--except oxalic acid and hydrocyanic acid--in that it is a
neurotic poison, having a marked action directly upon the nervous
system. In all cases of carbolic acid poisoning the nervous influence is
seen. If it be absorbed from a surgical dressing there are no irritant
symptoms, but when the acid is swallowed in concentrated form, symptoms
of gastro-intestinal irritation occur. The patient becomes collapsed,
and the skin is cold and clammy. The breathing becomes shallow, the drug
killing, like nearly all neurotic poisons (alcohol, morphia, prussic
acid, &c.), by paralysis of the respiratory centre, and the patient
dying in a state of coma. The condition of the urine is of the utmost
importance, as it is often a clue to the diagnosis, and in surgical
cases may be the first warning that absorption is occurring to an undue
degree. The urine becomes dark green in colour owing to the formation of
various oxidation products such as pyrocatechin. Fifteen grains
constitute an exceedingly dangerous dose for an adult male of average
weight. Other symptoms of undue absorption are vertigo, deafness, sounds
in the ears, stupefaction, a subnormal temperature, nausea, vomiting and
a weak pulse (Sir Thomas Fraser).

The antidote in cases of carbolic acid poisoning is any soluble
sulphate. Carbolic acid and sulphates combine in the blood to form
sulpho-carbolates, which are innocuous. The symptoms of nerve-poisoning
are due to the carbolic acid (or its salts) which circulate in the blood
after all the sulphates in the blood have been used up in the formation
of sulpho-carbolates (hence, during administration of carbolic acid, the
urine should frequently be tested for the presence of free sulphates; as
long as these occur in the urine, they are present in the blood and
there is no danger). The treatment is therefore to administer an ounce
of sodium sulphate in water by the mouth, or to inject a similar
quantity of the salt in solution directly into a vein or into the
subcutaneous tissues. Magnesium sulphate may be given by the mouth, but
is poisonous if injected intravenously. If the acid has been swallowed,
wash out the stomach and give chalk, the carbolate of calcium being
insoluble. Alkalis which form soluble carbolates are useless. Give ether
and brandy subcutaneously and apply hot water-bottles and blankets if
there are signs of collapse.



CARBON (symbol C, atomic weight 12), one of the chemical non-metallic
elements. It is found native as the diamond (q.v.), graphite (q.v.), as
a constituent of all animal and vegetable tissues and of coal and
petroleum. It also enters (as carbonates) into the composition of many
minerals, such as chalk, dolomite, calcite, witherite, calamine and
spathic iron ore. In combination with oxygen (as carbon dioxide) it is
also found to a small extent in the atmosphere. It is a solid substance
which occurs in several modifications, differing very much in their
physical properties. _Amorphous carbon_ is obtained by the destructive
distillation of many carbon compounds, the various kinds differing very
greatly as regards physical characters and purity, according to the
substance used for their preparation. The most common varieties met with
are lampblack, gas carbon, wood charcoal, animal charcoal and coke.
_Lampblack_ is prepared by burning tar, resin, turpentine and other
substances rich in carbon, with a limited supply of air; the products of
combustion being conducted into condensing chambers in which cloths are
suspended, on which the carbon collects. It is further purified by
heating in closed vessels, but even then it still contains a certain
amount of mineral matter and more or less hydrocarbons. It is used in
the manufacture of printer's ink, in the preparation of black paint and
in calico printing. _Gas carbon_ is produced by the destructive
distillation of coal in the manufacture of illuminating gas (see GAS:
_Manufacture_), being probably formed by the decomposition of gaseous
hydrocarbons. It is a very dense form of carbon, and is a good conductor
of heat and electricity. It is used in the manufacture of carbon rods
for arc lights, and for the negative element in the Bunsen battery.

_Charcoal_ is a porous form of carbon; several varieties exist. _Sugar
charcoal_ is obtained by the carbonization of sugar. It is purified by
boiling with acids, to remove any mineral matter, and is then ignited
for a long time in a current of chlorine in order to remove the last
traces of hydrogen. _Animal charcoal_ (bone black) is prepared by
charring bones in iron retorts. It is a very impure form of carbon,
containing on the average about 80% of calcium phosphate. It possesses a
much greater decolorizing and absorbing power than wood charcoal. A
variety of animal charcoal is sometimes prepared by calcining fresh
blood with potassium carbonate in large cylinders, the mass being
purified by boiling out with dilute hydrochloric acid and subsequent
reheating. _Wood charcoal_ is a hard and brittle black substance, which
retains the external structure of the wood from which it is made. It is
prepared (where wood is plentiful) by stacking the wood in heaps, which
are covered with earth or with brushwood and turf, and then burning the
heap slowly in a limited supply of air. The combustion of the wood is
conducted from the top downwards, and from the exterior towards the
centre; great care has to be taken that the process is carried out
slowly. The disadvantage in this process is that the by-products, such
as pyroligneous acid, acetone, wood spirit, &c., are lost; as an
alternative method, wood is frequently carbonized in ovens or retorts
and the volatile products are condensed and utilized.

  Charcoal varies considerably in its properties, depending upon the
  particular variety of wood from which it is prepared, and also upon
  the process used in its manufacture. It can be made at a temperature
  as low as 300° C., and is then a soft, very friable material
  possessing a low ignition point. When made at higher temperatures it
  is much more dense, and its ignition point is considerably higher.
  Charcoal burns when heated in air, usually without the formation of
  flame, although a flame is apparent if the temperature be raised. It
  is characterized by its power of absorbing gases; thus, according to
  J. Hunter [_Phil. Mag._, 1863 (4), 25, p. 363], one volume of charcoal
  absorbs (at 0° C. and 760 mm. pressure) 171.7 ccs. of ammonia, 86.3
  ccs. of nitrous oxide, 67.7 ccs. of carbon monoxide, 21.2 ccs. of
  carbon dioxide, 17.9 ccs. of oxygen, 15.2 ccs. of nitrogen, and 4.4
  ccs. of hydrogen [see also J. Dewar, _Ann. Chim. Phys._, 1904 (8), 3,
  p. 5]. It also has the power of absorbing colouring matters from
  solution. Charcoal is used as a fuel and as a reducing agent in
  metallurgical processes.

  The element carbon unites directly with hydrogen to form acetylene
  when an electric arc is passed between carbon poles in an atmosphere
  of hydrogen (M. Berthelot); it also unites directly with fluorine,
  producing, chiefly, carbon tetrafluoride CF4. It burns when heated in
  an atmosphere of oxygen, forming carbon dioxide, and when heated in
  sulphur vapour it forms carbon bisulphide (q.v.). When heated with
  nitrogenous substances, in the presence of carbonated or caustic
  alkali, it forms cyanides. It combines directly with silicon, at the
  temperature of the electric furnace, yielding _carborundum_, SiC; and
  H. Moissan has also shown that it will combine with many metals at
  the temperature of the electric furnace, to form carbides (q.v.).

  The specific heat of carbon varies with the temperature the following
  values having been obtained by H.F. Weber (_Jahresberichte_, 1874, p.
  63):--

    +-----------------+-----------------+-------------------+
    |     Diamond.    |    Graphite.    |Porous wood carbon.|
    +-------+---------+-------+---------+--------+----------+
    |  t°.  | Sp. Ht. |  t°.  | Sp. Ht. |   t°.  |  Sp. Ht. |
    +-------+---------+-------+---------+--------+----------+
    | -50.5 | 0.0635  | -50.3 | 0.1138  |  0-23  |  0.1653  |
    | -10.6 | 0.0955  | -10.7 | 0.1437  |  0-99  |  0.1935  |
    | +10.7 | 0.1128  | +10.8 | 0.1604  |  0-223 |  0-2385  |
    |  85.5 | 0.1765  |  61.3 | 0.1990  |        |          |
    | 206.1 | 0.2733  | 201.6 | 0.2966  |        |          |
    | 606.7 | 0.4408  | 641.9 | 0.4454  |        |          |
    | 985.0 | 0.4589  | 977.0 | 0.4670  |        |          |
    +-------+---------+-------+---------+--------+----------+

  The atomic weight of carbon has been determined by J.B.A. Dumas and by
  J.S. Stas [_Ann. Chim. Phys._, 1841 (3), 1, p. 1: _Jahresb._, 1849,
  223] by estimating the amount of carbon dioxide formed on burning
  graphite or diamond in a current of oxygen, the value obtained being
  12.0 (O = 16). Confirmatory evidence has also been obtained by O.L.
  Erdmann and R.F. Marchand (_Jour. Prak. Chem._, 1841, 23, p. 159; see
  also F.W. Clarke, _Jahresb._, 1881, p. 7).

  _Compounds_.--Three oxides of carbon are known, namely, carbon
  suboxide, C3O2, carbon monoxide, CO, and carbon dioxide, CO2. _Carbon
  suboxide_, C3O2, is formed by the action of phosphorus pentoxide on
  ethyl malonate (O. Diels and B. Wolf, _Ber._, 1906, 39, p. 689),
  CH2(COOC2H5)2 = 2C2H4 + 2H2O + C3O2. At ordinary temperatures it is a
  colourless gas, possessing a penetrating and suffocating smell. It
  liquefies at 7° C. It is an exceedingly reactive compound, combining
  with water to form malonic acid, with hydrogen chloride to form
  malonyl chloride, and with ammonia to form malonamide. When kept for
  some time in sealed tubes it changes to a yellowish liquid, from which
  a yellow flocculent substance gradually separates, and finally it
  suddenly solidifies to a dark red mass, which appears to be a
  polymeric form. Its vapour density agrees with the molecular formula
  C3O2, and this formula is also confirmed by exploding the gas with
  oxygen and measuring the amount of carbon dioxide produced (see
  KETENES).

  _Carbon monoxide_, CO, is found to some extent in volcanic gases. It
  was first prepared in 1776 by J.M.F. Lassone (_Mem. Acad. Paris_) by
  heating zinc oxide with carbon, and was for some time considered to be
  identical with hydrogen. Cruikshank concluded that it was an oxide of
  carbon, a fact which was confirmed by Clement and J.B. Désormes (_Ann.
  Chim. Phys._, 1801, 38, p. 285). It may be prepared by passing carbon
  dioxide over red-hot carbon, or red-hot iron; by heating carbonates
  (magnesite, chalk, &c.) with zinc dust or iron; or by heating many
  metallic oxides with carbon. It may also be prepared by heating formic
  and oxalic acids (or their salts) with concentrated sulphuric acid (in
  the case of oxalic acid, an equal volume of carbon dioxide is
  produced); and by heating potassium ferrocyanide with a large excess
  of concentrated sulphuric acid, K4Fe(CN)6 + 6H2SO4 + 6H2O = 2K2SO4 +
  FeSO4 + 3(NH4)2SO4 + 6CO. It is a colourless, odourless gas of
  specific gravity 0.967 (air = 1). It is one of the most difficultly
  liquefiable gases, its critical temperature being -139.5° C., and its
  critical pressure 35.5 atmos. The liquid boils at -190° C., and
  solidifies at -211°C. (L.P. Cailletet, _Comptes rendus_, 1884, 99, p.
  706). It is only very slightly soluble in water. It burns with a
  characteristic pale blue flame to form carbon dioxide. It is very
  poisonous, uniting with the haemoglobin of the blood to form
  carbonyl-haemoglobin. It is a powerful reducing agent, especially at
  high temperatures. It is rapidly absorbed by an ammoniacal or acid
  (hydrochloric acid) solution of cuprous chloride. It unites directly
  with chlorine, forming carbonyl chloride or phosgene (see below), and
  with nickel and iron to form nickel and iron carbonyls (see NICKEL and
  IRON). It also combines directly with potassium hydride to form
  potassium formate (see FORMIC ACID). The volume composition of carbon
  monoxide is established by exploding a mixture of the gas with oxygen,
  two volumes of the gas combining with one volume of oxygen to form two
  volumes of carbon dioxide. This fact, coupled with the determination
  of the vapour density of the gas, establishes the molecular formula
  CO.

  _Carbon dioxide_, CO2, is a gas first distinguished from air by van
  Helmont (1577-1644), who observed that it was formed in fermentation
  processes and during combustion, and gave to it the name _gas
  sylvestre_. J. Black (_Edin. Phys. and Lit. Essays_, 1755) showed that
  it was a constituent of the carbonated alkalis and called it "fixed
  air." T.O. Bergman, in 1774, pointed out its acid character, and A.L.
  Lavoisier (1781-1788) first proved it to be an oxide of carbon by
  burning carbon in the oxygen obtained from the decomposition of
  mercuric oxide. It is a regular constituent of the atmosphere, and is
  found in many spring waters and in volcanic gases; it also occurs in
  the uncombined condition at the Grotto del Cane (Naples) and in the
  Poison Valley (Java). It is a constituent of the minerals cerussite,
  malachite, azurite, spathic iron ore, calamine, strontianite,
  witherite, calcite aragonite, limestone, &c. It may be prepared by
  burning carbon in excess of air or oxygen, by the direct decomposition
  of many carbonates by heat, and by the decomposition of carbonates
  with mineral acids, M2CO8 + 2HCl = 2MCl + H2O + CO2. It is also
  formed in ordinary fermentation processes, in the combustion of all
  carbon compounds (oil, gas, candles, coal, &c.), and in the process of
  respiration.

  It is a colourless gas, possessing a faint pungent smell and a
  slightly acid taste. It does not burn, and does not support ordinary
  combustion, but the alkali metals and magnesium, if strongly heated,
  will continue to burn in the gas with formation of oxides and
  liberation of carbon. Its specific gravity is 1.529 (air = 1). It is
  readily condensed, passing into the liquid condition at 0° C. under a
  pressure of 35 atmospheres. Its critical temperature is 31.35° C., and
  its critical pressure is 72.9 atmos. The liquid boils at -78.2° C. (l
  atmo.), and by rapid evaporation can be made to solidify to a
  snow-white solid which melts at -65° C.(see LIQUID GASES). Carbon
  dioxide is moderately soluble in water, its coefficient of solubility
  at 0° C. being 1.7977 (R. Bunsen). It is still more soluble in
  alcohol. The solution of the gas in water shows a faintly acid
  reaction and is supposed to contain _carbonic acid_, H2CO3. The gas is
  rapidly absorbed by solutions of the caustic alkalis, with the
  production of alkaline carbonates (q.v.), and it combines readily with
  potassium hydride to form potassium formate. It unites directly with
  ammonia gas to form ammonium carbamate, NH2COONH4. It may be readily
  recognized by the white precipitate which it forms when passed through
  lime or baryta water. Carbon dioxide dissociates, when strongly
  heated, into carbon monoxide and oxygen, the reaction being a balanced
  action; the extent of dissociation for varying temperatures and
  pressures has been calculated by H. Le Chateller (_Zeit. Phys. Chem._,
  1888, 2, p. 782; see H. Sainte-Claire Deville, _Comptes rendus_, 1863,
  56, p. 195 et seq.). The volume composition of carbon dioxide is
  determined by burning carbon in oxygen, when it is found that the
  volume of carbon dioxide formed is the same as that of the oxygen
  required for its production, hence carbon dioxide contains its own
  volume of oxygen. Carbon dioxide finds industrial application in the
  preparation of soda by the Solvay process, in the sugar industry, in
  the manufacture of mineral waters, and in the artificial production of
  ice.

  _Carbonyl chloride_ (phosgene), COCl2, was first obtained by John Davy
  (_Phil. Trans._, 1812, 40, p. 220). It may be prepared by the direct
  union of carbon monoxide and chlorine in sunlight (Th. Wilm and G.
  Wischin, _Ann_., 1868, 14, p. 150); by the action of phosphorus
  pentoxide on carbon tetrachloride at 200-210° C. (G. Gustavson,
  _Ber_., 1872, 5, p. 30), 4CCl4 + P4O10 = 2CO2 + 4POCl3 + 2COCl2; by
  the oxidation of chloroform with chromic acid mixture (A. Emmerling
  and B. Lengyel, _Ber_., 1869, 2, p. 54), 4CHCl3 + 3O2 = 4COCl2 + 2H2O
  + 2Cl2; or most conveniently by heating carbon tetrachloride with
  fuming sulphuric acid (H. Erdmann, _Ber_., 1893, 26, p. 1993), 2SO3 +
  CCl4 = S2O5Cl2 + COCl2.

  It is a colourless gas, possessing an unpleasant pungent smell. Its
  vapour density is 3.46 (air = 1). It may be condensed to a liquid,
  which boils at 8° C. It is readily soluble in benzene, glacial acetic
  acid, and in many hydrocarbons. Water decomposes it violently, with
  formation of carbon dioxide and hydrochloric acid. It reacts with
  alcohol to form chlorcarbonic ester and ultimately diethyl carbonate
  (see CARBONATES), and with ammonia it yields urea (q.v.). It is
  employed commercially in the production of colouring matters (see
  BENZOPHENONE), and for various synthetic processes.

  _Carbon oxysulphide_, COS, was first prepared by C. Than in 1867
  (_Ann. Suppl._, 5, p. 236) by passing carbon monoxide and sulphur
  vapour through a tube at a moderate heat. It is also formed by the
  action of sulphuretted hydrogen on the isocyanic esters, 2CONC2H5 +
  H2S = COS + CO(NHC2H5)2, by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid
  on the isothiocyanic esters, RNCS + H2O = COS + RNH2, or of dilute
  sulphuric acid on the thiocyanates. In the latter reaction various
  other compounds, such as carbon dioxide, carbon bisulphide and
  hydrocyanic acid, are produced. They are removed by passing the
  vapours in succession through concentrated solutions of the caustic
  alkalis, concentrated sulphuric acid, and triethyl phosphine; the
  residual gas is then purified by liquefaction (W. Hempel, _Zeit.
  angew. Chemie_, 1901, 14, p. 865). It is also formed when sulphur
  trioxide reacts with carbon bisulphide at 100° C., CS2 + 3SO3 = COS +
  4SO2, and by the decomposition of ethyl potassium thiocarbonate with
  hydrochloric acid, CO(OC2H5)SK + HCl = COS + KCl + C2H5OH. It is a
  colourless, odourless gas, which burns with a blue flame and is
  decomposed by heat. Its vapour density is 2.1046 (air = 1). The
  liquefied gas boils at -47° C. under atmospheric pressure. It is
  soluble in water; the aqueous solution gradually decomposes on
  standing, forming carbon dioxide and sulphuretted hydrogen. It is
  easily soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis, provided they are
  not too concentrated, forming solutions of alkaline carbonates and
  sulphides, COS + 4KHO = K2CO3 + K2S + 2H2O.



CARBONADO, a name given in Brazil to a dark massive form of impure
diamond, known also as "carbonate" and in trade simply as carbon. It is
sometimes called black diamond. Generally it is found in small masses of
irregular polyhedral form, black, brown or dark-grey in colour, with a
dull resinoid lustre; and breaking with a granular fracture, paler in
colour, and in some cases much resembling that of fine-grained steel.
Being slightly cellular, its specific gravity is rather less than that
of crystallized diamond. It is found almost exclusively in the state of
Bahia in Brazil, where it occurs in the _cascalho_ or diamond-bearing
gravel. Borneo also yields it in small quantity. Formerly of little or
no value, it came into use on the introduction of Leschot's
diamond-drills, and is now extremely valuable for mounting in the steel
crowns used for diamond-boring. Having no cleavage, the carbon is less
liable to fracture on the rotation of the drill than is crystallized
diamond. The largest piece of carbonado ever recorded was found in Bahia
in 1895, and weighed 3150 carats. Pieces of large size are, however,
relatively less valuable than those of moderate dimensions, since they
require the expenditure of much labour in reducing them to fragments of
a suitable size for mounting in the drill-heads. Ilmenite has sometimes
been mistaken in the South African mines for carbonado.     (F. W. R.*)



CARBONARI (an Italian word meaning "charcoal-burners"), the name of
certain secret societies of a revolutionary tendency which played an
active part in the history of Italy and France early in the 19th
century. Societies of a similar nature had existed in other countries
and epochs, but the stories of the derivation of the Carbonari from
mysterious brotherhoods of the middle ages are purely fantastic. The
Carbonari were probably an offshoot of the Freemasons, from whom they
differed in important particulars, and first began to assume importance
in southern Italy during the Napoleonic wars. In the reign (1808-1815)
of Joachim Murat a number of secret societies arose in various parts of
the country with the object of freeing it from foreign rule and
obtaining constitutional liberties; they were ready to support the
Neapolitan Bourbons or Murat, if either had fulfilled these aspirations.
Their watch-words were freedom and independence, but they were not
agreed as to any particular form of government to be afterwards
established. Murat's minister of police was a certain Malghella (a
Genoese), who favoured the Carbonari movement, and was indeed the
instigator of all that was Italian in the king's policy. Murat himself
had at first protected the sectarians, especially when he was
quarrelling with Napoleon, but later, Lord William Bentinck entered into
negotiations with them from Sicily, where he represented Great Britain,
through their leader Vincenzo Federici (known as Capobianco), holding
out promises of a constitution for Naples similar to that which had been
established in Sicily under British auspices in 1812. Some Carbonarist
disorders having broken out in Calabria, Murat sent General Manhès
against the rebels; the movement was ruthlessly quelled and Capobianco
hanged in September 1813 (see Greco, _Intorno al tentativo dei Carbonari
di Citeriore Calabria nel 1813_). But Malghella continued secretly to
protect the Carbonari and even to organize them, so that on the return
of the Bourbons in 1815 King Ferdinand IV. found his kingdom swarming
with them. The society comprised nobles, officers of the army, small
landlords, government officials, peasants and even priests. Its
organization was both curious and mysterious, and had a fantastic ritual
full of symbols taken from the Christian religion, as well as from the
trade of charcoal-burning, which was extensively practised in the
mountains of the Abruzzi and Calabria. A lodge was called a _vendita_
(sale), members saluted each other as _buoni cugini_ (good cousins), God
was the "Grand Master of the Universe," Christ the "Honorary Grand
Master," also known as "the Lamb," and every Carbonaro was pledged to
deliver the Lamb from the Wolf, i.e. tyranny. Its red, blue and black
flag was the standard of revolution in Italy until substituted by the
red, white and green in 1831.

When King Ferdinand felt himself securely re-established at Naples he
determined to exterminate the Carbonari, and to this end his minister of
police, the prince of Canosa, set up another secret society called the
_Calderai del Contrappeso_ (braziers of the counterpoise), recruited
from the brigands and the dregs of the people, who committed hideous
excesses against supposed Liberals, but failed to exterminate the
movement. On the contrary, Carbonarism flourished and spread to other
parts of Italy, and countless lodges sprang up, their adherents
comprising persons in all ranks of society, including, it is said, some
of royal blood, who had patriotic sentiments and desired to see Italy
free from foreigners. In Romagna the movement was taken up with
enthusiasm, but it also led to a certain number of murders owing to the
fiery character of the Romagnols, although its criminal record is on the
whole a very small one. Among the foreigners who joined it for love of
Italy was Lord Byron. The first rising actively promoted by the
Carbonari was the Neapolitan revolution of 1820. Several regiments were
composed entirely of persons affiliated to the society, and on the 1st
of July a military mutiny broke out at Monteforte, led by two officers
named Morelli and Silvati, to the cry of "God, the King and the
Constitution." The troops sent against them, under General Pepe, himself
a Carbonaro, sympathized with the mutineers, and the king, being
powerless to resist, granted the constitution (13th of July), which he
swore on the altar to observe. But the Carbonari were unable to carry on
the government, and after the separatist revolt of Sicily had broken out
the king went to the congress of Laibach, and obtained from the emperor
of Austria the loan of an army with which to restore the autocracy. He
returned to Naples early in 1821 with 50,000 Austrians, defeated the
constitutionalists under Pepe, dismissed parliament, and set to work to
persecute all who had been in any way connected with the movement.

A similar movement broke out in Piedmont in March 1821. Here as in
Naples the Carbonari comprised many men of rank, such as Santorre di
Santarosa, Count San Marzano, Giacinto di Collegno, and Count Moffa di
Lisio, all officers in the army, and they were more or less encouraged
by Charles Albert, the heir-presumptive to the throne. The rising was
crushed, and a number of the leaders were condemned to death or long
terms of imprisonment, but most of them escaped. At Milan there was only
the vaguest attempt at conspiracy; but Silvio Pellico, Maroncelli and
Count Confalonieri were implicated as having invited the Piedmontese to
invade Lombardy, and were condemned to pass many years in the dungeons
of the Spielberg.

The French revolution of 1830 had its echo in Italy, and Carbonarism
raised its head in Parma, Modena and Romagna the following year. In the
papal states a society called the Sanfedisti or Bande della Santa Fede
had been formed to checkmate the Carbonari, and their behaviour and
character resembled those of the Calderai of Naples. In 1831 Romagna and
the Marches rose in rebellion and shook off the papal yoke with
astonishing ease. At Parma the duchess, having rejected the demand for a
constitution, left the city and returned under Austrian protection. At
Modena, Duke Francis IV., the worst of all Italian tyrants, was expelled
by a Carbonarist rising, and a dictatorship was established under Biagio
Nardi on the 5th of February. Francis returned with an Austrian force
and hanged the conspirators, including Ciro Menotti. The Austrians
occupied Romagna and restored the province to the pope, but though many
arrests of Carbonari were made there were no executions. Among those
implicated in the Carbonarist movement was Louis Napoleon, who even in
after years, when he was ruling France as Napoleon III., never quite
forgot that he had once been a conspirator, a fact which influenced his
Italian policy. The Austrians retired from Romagna and the Marches in
July 1831, but Carbonarism and anarchy having broken out again, they
returned, while the French occupied Ancona. The Carbonari after these
events ceased to have much importance, their place being taken by the
more energetic Giovane Italia Society presided over by Mazzini.

In France, Carbonarism began to take root about 1820, and was more
thoroughly organized than in Italy. The example of the Spanish and
Italian revolutions incited the French Carbonari, and risings occurred
at Belfort, Thouars, La Rochelle and other towns in 1821, which though
easily quelled revealed the nature and organization of the movement. The
Carbonarist lodges proved active centres of discontent until 1830, when,
after contributing to the July revolution of that year, most of their
members adhered to Louis Philippe's government.

The Carbonarist movement undoubtedly played an important part in the
Italian Risorgimento, and if it did not actively contribute to the wars
and revolutions of 1848-49, 1859-60 and 1866, it prepared the way for
those events. One of its chief merits was that it brought Italians of
different classes and provinces together, and taught them to work in
harmony for the overthrow of tyranny and foreign rule.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--Much information on the Carbonari will be found in R.M.
  Johnston's _Napoleonic Empire in Southern Italy_ (2 vols., London,
  1904), which contains a full bibliography; D. Spadoni's _Sette,
  cospirazioni, e cospiratori_ (Turin, 1904) is an excellent monograph;
  _Memoirs of the Secret Societies of Southern Italy_, said to be by one
  Bertoldi or Bartholdy (London, 1821, Ital. transl. by A.M. Cavallotti,
  Rome, 1904); Saint-Edme, _Constitution et organisation des Carbonari_,
  P. Colletta, _Storia del Reame di Napoli_ (Florence, 1848); B. King,
  _A History of Italian Unity_ (London, 1899), with bibliography.
       (L. V.*)



CARBONATES. (1) The metallic carbonates are the salts of carbonic acid,
H2CO3. Many are found as minerals, the more important of such naturally
occurring carbonates being cerussite (lead carbonate, PbCO3), malachite
and azurite (both basic copper carbonates), calamine (zinc carbonate,
ZnCO3), witherite (barium carbonate, BaCO3), strontianite (strontium
carbonate, SrCO3), calcite (calcium carbonate, CaCO3), dolomite (calcium
magnesium carbonate, CaCO3·MgCO3), and sodium carbonate, Na2CO3. Most
metals form carbonates (aluminium and chromium are exceptions), the
alkali metals yielding both acid and normal carbonates of the types
MHCO3 and M2CO3 (M=one atom of a monovalent metal); whilst bismuth,
copper and magnesium appear only to form basic carbonates. The acid
carbonates of the alkali metals can be prepared by saturating an aqueous
solution of the alkaline hydroxide with carbon dioxide, M·OH + CO2 =
MHCO3, and from these acid salts the normal salts may be obtained by
gentle heating, carbon dioxide and water being produced at the same
time, 2MHCO3 = M2CO3 + HO2 + CO2. Most other carbonates are formed by
precipitation of salts of the metals by means of alkaline carbonates.
All carbonates, except those of the alkali metals and of thallium, are
insoluble in water; and the majority decompose when heated strongly,
carbon dioxide being liberated and a residue of an oxide of the metal
left. The alkaline carbonates undergo only a very slight decomposition,
even at a very bright red heat. The carbonates are decomposed by mineral
acids, with formation of the corresponding salt of the acid, and
liberation of carbon dioxide. Many carbonates which are insoluble in
water dissolve in water containing carbon dioxide. The individual
carbonates are described under the various metals.

(2) The organic carbonates are the esters of carbonic acid, H2CO3, and
of the unknown ortho-carbonic acid, C(OH)4. The acid esters of carbonic
acid of the type HO·CO·OR are not known in the free state, but J.B.
Dumas obtained barium methyl carbonate by the action of carbon dioxide
on baryta dissolved in methyl alcohol (_Ann._, 1840, 35, p. 283).

  Potassium ethyl carbonate, KO·CO·OC2H5, is obtained in the form of
  pearly scales when carbon dioxide is passed into an alcoholic solution
  of potassium ethylate, CO2 + KOC2H5 = KO·CO·OC2H5. It is not very
  stable, water decomposing it into alcohol and the alkaline carbonate.
  The normal esters may be prepared by the action of silver carbonate on
  the alkyl iodides, or by the action of alcohols on the chlorcarbonic
  esters. These normal esters are colourless, pleasant-smelling liquids,
  which are readily soluble in water. They show all the reactions of
  esters, being readily hydrolysed by caustic alkalis, and reacting with
  ammonia to produce carbamic esters and urea. By heating with
  phosphorus pentachloride an alkyl group is eliminated and a
  chlorcarbonic ester formed. Dimethylcarbonate, CO(OCH3)2, is a
  colourless liquid, which boils at 90.6° C., and is prepared by heating
  the methyl ester of chlorcarbonic acid with lead oxide.
  Diethylcarbonate, CO(OC2H5)2, is a colourless liquid, which boils at
  125.8° C.; its specific gravity is 0.978 (20°) [H. Kopp]. When it is
  heated to 120° C. with sodium ethylate it decomposes into ethyl ether
  and sodium ethyl carbonate (A. Geuther, _Zeit. f. Chemie_, 1868).

  Ortho-carbonic ester, C(OC2H5)4 is formed by the action of sodium
  ethylate on chlorpicrin (H. Bassett, _Ann._, 1864, 132, p. 54),
  CCl3NO2 + 4C2H5ONa = C(OC2H5)4 + NaNO2 + 3NaCl. It is an
  ethereal-smelling liquid, which boils at 158-159° C., and has a
  specific gravity of 0.925. When heated with ammonia it yields
  guanidine, and on boiling with alcoholic potash it yields potassium
  carbonate.

  Chlorcarbonic ester, Cl·CO·OC2H5, is formed by the addition of
  well-cooled absolute alcohol to phosgene (carbonyl chloride). It is a
  pungent-smelling liquid, which fumes strongly on exposure to air. It
  boils at 93.1°C., and has a specific gravity of 1.144 (15°C.). When
  heated with ammonia it yields urethane. Sodium amalgam converts it
  into formic acid; whilst with alcohol it yields the normal carbonic
  ester. It is easily broken down by many substances (aluminium
  chloride, zinc chloride, &c.) into ethyl chloride and carbon dioxide.

  _Percarbonates._--Barium percarbonate, BaCO4, is obtained by passing
  an excess of carbon dioxide into water containing barium peroxide in
  suspension; it is fairly stable, and yields hydrogen peroxide when
  treated with acids (E. Merck, _Abs. J.C.S._, 1907, ii. p. 859). Sodium
  percarbonates of the formulae Na2CO4, Na2C2O6, Na2CO5, NaHCO4 (two
  isomers) are obtained by the action of gaseous or solid carbon dioxide
  on the peroxides Na2O2, Na2O3, NaHO2 (two isomers) in the presence of
  water at a low temperature (R. Wolffenstein and E. Peltner, _Ber._,
  1908, 41, pp. 275, 280). Potassium percarbonate, K2C2O6, is obtained
  in the electrolysis of potassium carbonate at -10 to -15°.



CARBON BISULPHIDE, CS2, a chemical product first discovered in 1796 by
W.A. Lampadius, who obtained it by heating a mixture of charcoal and
pyrites. It may be more conveniently prepared by passing the vapour of
sulphur over red hot charcoal, the uncondensed gases so produced being
led into a tower containing plates over which a vegetable oil is allowed
to flow in order to absorb any carbon bisulphide vapour, and then into a
second tower containing lime, which absorbs any sulphuretted hydrogen.
The crude product is very impure and possesses an offensive smell; it
may be purified by forcing a fine spray of lime water through the liquid
until the escaping water is quite clear, the washed bisulphide being
then mixed with a little colourless oil and distilled at a low
temperature. For further methods of purification see J. Singer (_Journ.
of Soc. Chem. Ind._, 1889, p. 93), Th. Sidot (_Jahresb._, 1869, p. 243),
E. Allary (_Bull. de la Soc. Chim._, 1881, 35, p. 491), E. Obach (_Jour.
prak. Chem._, 1882 (2), 26, p. 282).

When perfectly pure, carbon bisulphide is a colourless, somewhat
pleasant smelling, highly refractive liquid, of specific gravity 1.2661
(18°/4°) (J.W. Brühl) or 1.29215 (0°/4°) (T.E. Thorpe). It boils at
46.04° C. (T.E. Thorpe, _Journ. Chem. Soc._, 1880, 37, p. 364). Its
critical temperature is 277.7° C., and its critical pressure is 78.1
atmos. (J. Dewar, _Chem. News_, 1885, 51, p. 27). It solidifies at about
-116°C., and liquefies again at about -110°C. (K. Olszewski, _Jahresb._,
1883, p. 75). It is a mono-molecular liquid (W. Ramsay and J. Shields,
_Jour. Chem. Soc._, 1893, 63, p. 1089). It is very volatile, the vapour
being heavy and very inflammable. It burns with a pale blue flame to
form carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide. It is almost insoluble in
water, but mixes in all proportions with absolute alcohol, ether,
benzene and various oils. It is a good solvent for sulphur, phosphorus,
wax, iodine, &c. It dissociates when heated to a sufficiently high
temperature. A mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and nitric oxide
burns with a very intense blue-coloured flame, which is very rich in the
violet or actinic rays. When heated with water in a sealed tube to 150°
C. it yields carbon dioxide and sulphuretted hydrogen. Zinc and
hydrochloric acid reduce it to tri-thioformaldehyde (CH2S)3 (A. Girard,
_Comptes rendus_, 1856, 43, p. 396). When passed through a red-hot tube
with chlorine it yields carbon tetrachloride and sulphur chloride (H.
Kolbe). Potassium, when heated, burns in the vapour of carbon
bisulphide, forming potassium sulphide and liberating carbon. In contact
with chlorine monoxide it forms carbonyl chloride and thionyl chloride
(P. Schützenberger, _Ber._, 1869, 2, p. 219). When passed with carbon
dioxide through a red-hot tube it yields carbon oxysulphide, COS (C.
Winkler), and when passed over sodamide it yields ammonium thiocyanate.
A mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and sulphuretted hydrogen, when
passed over heated copper, gives, amongst other products, some methane.

  Carbon bisulphide slowly oxidizes on exposure to air, but by the
  action of potassium permanganate or chromic acid it is readily
  oxidized to carbon dioxide and sulphuric acid. By the action of
  aqueous alkalis, carbon bisulphide is converted into a mixture of an
  alkaline carbonate and an alkaline thiocarbonate (J. Berzelius,
  _Pogg. Ann._, 1825, 6, p. 444), 6KHO + 3CS2 = K2CO3 + 2K2CS3 + 3H2O;
  on the other hand, an alcoholic solution of a caustic alkali converts
  it into a xanthate (A. Vogel, _Jahresb._, 1853, p. 643),

    CS2 + KHO + R·OH = H2O + RO·CS·SK.

  Aqueous and alcoholic solutions of ammonia convert carbon bisulphide
  into ammonium dithiocarbamate, which readily breaks down into ammonium
  thiocyanate and sulphuretted hydrogen (A.W. Hofmann),

    CS2 + 2NH3 -> NH2·CSS·NH4 -> H2S + NH4CNS.

  Carbon bisulphide combines with primary amines to form alkyl
  dithiocarbamates, which when heated lose sulphuretted hydrogen and
  leave a residue of a dialkyl thio-urea,

    CS2+2R·NH2 -> R·NH·CSS·NH3R -> CS(NHR)2 + H2S;

  or if the aqueous solution of the dithiocarbamate be boiled with
  mercuric chloride or silver nitrate solution, a mustard oil (q.v.) is
  formed,

    R·NH·CSS·NH3R + HgCl2 -> Hg(R·NH·CSS)2 -> 2RNCS + HgS + H2S.

  Carbon bisulphide is used as a solvent for caoutchouc, for extracting
  essential oils, as a germicide, and as an insecticide.

  _Carbon monosulphide_, CS, is formed when a silent electric discharge
  is passed through a mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and hydrogen
  or carbon monoxide (S.M. Losanitsch and M.Z. Jovitschitsch, _Ber.,_
  1897, 30. p. 135).



CARBONDALE, a city of Lackawanna county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on the
Lackawanna river, 16 m. N.E. of Scranton. Pop. (1890) 10,833; (1900)
13,536, of whom 2553 were foreign-born; (1910 census) 17,040. Carbondale
is served by the Erie, the Delaware & Hudson (which has machine shops
here), and the New York, Ontario & Western railways. The city lies near
the upper end of the Lackawanna valley, and the scenery of the
surrounding mountains makes it a summer resort of some importance. It
has a public library, a small park, an emergency hospital and the
Carbondale city private hospital. Carbondale is situated in one of the
richest anthracite coal regions of the state, and its principal interest
is in coal. Among its manufactures are foundry and machine shop
products, sheet-iron, silk, glass, thermometers and hydrometers, bobbins
and refrigerating machines. The value of the city's factory products
increased from $1,146,181 in 1900 to $2,315,695 in 1905, or 102%. The
settlement of the place began in 1824 with the opening of the coal
mines, and Carbondale was chartered as a city in 1851.



CARBONIC ACID, in chemistry, properly H2CO3, the acid assumed to be
formed when carbon dioxide is dissolved in water; its salts are termed
carbonates. The name is also given to the neutral carbon dioxide from
its power of forming salts with oxides, and on account of the acid
nature of its solution; and, although not systematic, this use is very
common.



CARBONIFEROUS SYSTEM, in geology, the whole of the great series of
stratified rocks and associated volcanic rocks which occur above the
Devonian or Old Red Sandstone and below the Permian or Triassic
systems, belonging to the Carboniferous period. The name was first
applied by W.D. Conybeare in 1821 to the coal-bearing strata of England
and Wales, including the related grits and limestones immediately
beneath them. The term is a relic of that early period in the history
of stratigraphy when each group of strata was supposed to be
distinguished by some peculiar lithological character. In this case the
carbonaceous beds--coal-seams--naturally appealed most strongly to the
imagination, and the name is a good one, notwithstanding the fact that
coal-seams occupy but a small fraction of the total thickness of the
Carboniferous system; and although subsequent investigations have
demonstrated the existence of coal in other geological formations, in
none of these does it play so prominent a part. The stratified rocks of
this system include marine limestones, shales and sandstones;
estuarine, lagoonal and fresh-water shales, sandstones and marls with
beds of coal, oil-bearing rocks, gypsum and salt.

In many parts of the world there is no sharp line of demarcation between
the Devonian and the Carboniferous rocks; neither can the fossil faunas
and floras be clearly separated at any well-defined line; this is true
in Britain, Belgium, Russia, Westphalia and parts of North America.
Again, at the summit of the Carboniferous series, both the rocks and
their fossil contents merge gradually into those of the succeeding
Permian system, as in Russia, Bohemia, the Saar region and Texas. This
has led certain geologists to classify the Devonian, Carboniferous and
Permian into one grand system; E. Renevier in 1874 proposed to include
these three into a single "Carbonique" system, later he retained only
the two latter groups. There seems to be sufficient reason, however, to
maintain each of these groups as a separate system and limit the term
Carboniferous (_carbonifèrien_) in the manner indicated above. At the
same time it must be remembered that there is in India, South Africa,
the Urals, in Australasia and parts of North America an important series
of rocks, with a "Permo-Carboniferous" fauna, which constitutes a
passage formation between the Carboniferous, _sensu stricto_, and
Jurassic rocks.

[Illustration: Distribution of Carboniferous Rocks]

  _Stratigraphy._--No assemblage of stratified rocks has received such
  careful and detailed examination as the Carboniferous system;
  consequently our knowledge of the stratigraphical sequence in isolated
  local areas, where the coals have been exploited, is very full.

  In Europe, the system is very completely developed in the British
  Isles, where was made the first successful attempt at a classification
  of its various members, although at a somewhat earlier date Omalius
  d'Halloy had recognized a _terrain bituminifère_ or coal-bearing
  series in the Belgian region.

  The area within which the Carboniferous rocks of Britain occur is
  sufficiently extensive to contain more than one type of the system,
  and thus to cast much light on the varied geographical conditions
  under which these rocks were accumulated. In prosecuting the study of
  this part of British geology it is soon discovered, and it is
  essential to bear in mind, that, during the Carboniferous period, the
  land whence the chief supplies of sediment were derived rose mainly to
  the north and north-west, as it seems to have done from very early
  geological time. While therefore the centre and south of England lay
  under clear water of moderate depth, the north of the country and the
  south of Scotland were covered by shallow water, which was continually
  receiving sand and mud from the adjacent northern land. Hence vertical
  sections of the Carboniferous formations of Britain differ greatly
  according to the districts in which they are taken.

  The Coal-Measures and Millstone Grit are usually grouped together in
  the _Upper Carboniferous_, the Carboniferous Limestone series
  constituting the _Lower Carboniferous_.

  In addition to the above broad subdivisions, Murchison and Sedgwick,
  when working upon the rocks of Devonshire and Cornwall, recognized,
  with the assistance of W. Lonsdale, another phase of sedimentation.
  This comprised dark shales, with grits and thin limestones and thin,
  impure coals, locally called "culm" (q.v.). These geologists
  appropriated the term "culm" for the whole of this facies in the west
  of England, and subsequently traced the same type on the European
  continent, where it is widely developed in the western centre.

  Besides the considerable exposed area of Carboniferous rocks in Great
  Britain, there is as much or more that is covered by younger
  formations; this is true particularly of the eastern side of England
  and the south-eastern counties, where the coal-measures have already
  been found at Dover.

  From England, Carboniferous rocks can be followed across northern and
  central France, into Germany, Bohemia, the Alps, Italy and Spain. In
  Russia this system occupies some 30,000 sq. m., and it extends
  northward at least as far as Spitsbergen. Carboniferous rocks are
  present in North and South Africa, and in India and Australasia; in
  China they cover thousands of square miles, and in the United States
  and British North America they occupy no less than 200,000 sq. m.;
  they are known also in South America.

  The subjoined table expresses the typical subdivisions which can be
  recognized, with modifications, in the United Kingdom.

               / Upper: Red and grey sandstones, marls and clays with
              |  occasional breccias, thin coals and limestones with
              |  _Spirorbis_, workable coals in the South Wales,
              |  Bristol, Somerset and Forest of Dean coalfields.
     Coal     |
   Measures. <   Middle: Sandstones, marls, shales and the most
              |  important of the British coals.
              |
              |  Lower: Flaggy hard sandstones (ganister), shales and
               \ thin coal seams.

              /  Grits (coarse and fine), shales, thin coal seams and
   Millstone <   occasional thin limestones. The fossil plants connect
      Grit.   |  this group with the coal-measures; the marine fossils
               \ have, to some extent, a Carboniferous limestone aspect.

                /_Upper black shales_ with thin limestones (Pendleside
               | group) connecting this series with the Millstone grit
               | above.
               |
               | _The thick, main or scaur limestone_ (mountain
               | limestone) of the centre and south of England, Wales
               | and Ireland, which splits up in the Yorkshire dales
 Carboniferous | (Yoredale group) into a succession of stout limestone
   Limestone  <  beds between beds of sandstone and shale, and becomes
    Series.    | increasingly detrital in character as it is traced
               | northwards.
               |
               | _Lower limestone shales_ of the south and centre of
               | England with marine fossils, and the Calciferous
               | Sandstone group of Scotland with marine, estuarine and
                \terrestrial fossils.

  (See BERNICIAN, TUEDIAN and AVONIAN.)

  At an early period, owing to the immense commercial importance of the
  coal seams, it became the practice to distinguish a "productive"
  (_flotzfuhrend, terrain houiller_) and an "unproductive," barren
  (_flotzleerer_) Lower Carboniferous; these two groups correspond in
  North America to the "Carboniferous" and "Sub-Carboniferous"
  respectively, or, as they are now sometimes styled, the
  "Pennsylvanian" and "Mississippian." But it was soon discovered that
  the "productive" beds were not regularly restricted to the upper or
  younger division, and, as E. Kayser points out, the real state of the
  matter is more accurately represented by the subjoined tabular scheme.

    +-------------+-------------------+------------------------------+
    |             | Continental Type  |       Marine Type of         |
    |             |    of Deposit.    |         Formation.           |
    +-------------+-------------------+------------------------------+
    |             |                   |Younger Carboniferous         |
    |    Upper    |Upper _Productive_ | limestone and the _Fusulina_ |
    |Carboniferous| Carboniferous     | limestone of Russia and      |
    |             |                   | Western North America        |
    +-------------+-------------------+---------+--------------------+
    |    Lower    |Lower _Productive_ |  Culm   |Lower Carboniferous |
    |Carboniferous| Carboniferous     |(in part)| limestone series   |
    +-------------+-------------------+---------+--------------------+

  While the continental type of deposit, with its coal beds, was the
  earliest to be formed in certain areas, and the marine series came on
  later, in other regions this order was reversed. It should be
  observed, however, that the repeated intercalation of marine deposits
  within the continental series and the frequent occurrence of thin
  coaly layers in the marine series makes any hard and fast distinction
  of this kind impossible.

  The so-called "unproductive" or barren strata, that is, those without
  workable coals, are not always limestones; quite as often they are
  shales, red sandstones and red marls.

  In subdividing the strata of the Carboniferous system and correlating
  the major divisions in different areas, just as in other great
  systems, use has to be made of the fossil contents of the rocks;
  stratigraphical units, based on lithology, are useless for this
  purpose. The groups of organisms utilized for zoning and correlation
  by different workers include brachiopods, pelecypods, cephalopods,
  corals, fishes and plants; and the results of the comparison of the
  faunas and floras of different areas where Carboniferous rocks occur
  are generalized in the table below.

  The relative value of any group of animals or plants for the
  correlation of distant areas must vary greatly with the varying
  conditions of sedimentation and with the precise definition of the
  zonal species and with many other factors. It is found that the
  subdivisions in this system demanded by palaeobotanists do not always
  coincide with those acknowledged by palaeozoologists; nevertheless
  there is general agreement as to the main divisional lines.

  _Breaks in the Stratigraphic Sequence._--The sequence of Carboniferous
  strata is not everywhere one of unbroken continuity. From central
  France eastward towards the Carpathians only later portions of the
  system are found. These generally rest upon crystalline rocks, but in
  places they contain evidence of the denuded surfaces of Lower
  Carboniferous, as in the basin of Charleroi, where the equivalent of
  the Millstone Grit contains fragments of chert which can only have
  come from the waste of the earlier limestones. This unconformity is
  generally found about the same horizon in the continental Culm areas,
  and it occurs again in the western part of the English Culm.

    _Tabular Statement of the Principal Subdivisions of the Carboniferous
    System._

    +-------------+------------------------+---------------+-------------+
    |             |  Lower Carboniferous   |     Upper Carboniferous     |
    +-------------+------------------------+---------------+-------------+
    |             |  Carboniferous         |      Coal Measures =        |
    |             |  Limestone Series.     |      Terrain Houiller.      |
    +-------------+------------------------+---------------+-------------+
    |             |       Dinantien =      |  Moscovien =  |  Ouralien = |
    |             | (marine pelagic,       | (marine type) |(marine type)|
    |             | including continental  |               |             |
    |   European  | deposits in some areas)|      and      |     and     |
    | Development.|          and           |               |             |
    |             |                        | Westphalien = | Stephanien =|
    |             |         Culm =         |(continental   |(continental |
    |             |  (marine littoral)     |  type)        |  type)      |
    +-------------+------------------------+---------------+-------------+
    |  America.   |      Missippian        |         Pennsylvanian       |
    +-------------+------------------------+---------------+-------------+
    | Predominant |       Lycopods.        |  Sigillarias  |  Ferns and  |
    | Plant Types.|                        | and Calamites | Annularias  |
    +-------------+------------------------+---------------+-------------+

  In the eastern border of the Rhenish Schiefergebirge the Permian rests
  unconformably upon Lower Carboniferous rocks. In the United States, in
  Missouri, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio and elsewhere,
  there is an unconformable junction between the Lower and Upper
  Carboniferous, representing an interval of time during which the lower
  member was strongly eroded; it has even been proposed to regard the
  Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) as a distinct geological period,
  mainly on account of this break in the succession.

  _Thickness of Carboniferous Rocks._--The great variety of conditions
  under which the sediments and limestones were formed naturally
  produced corresponding inequalities in the thickness. In the Eurasian
  land area the greatest thickness of Carboniferous rocks is in the
  west; in North America it is in the east. In Britain the Carboniferous
  limestone series is 2000-3500 ft. thick; in the Ural mountains it is
  over 4500 ft.; the Culm in Moravia is credited with the enormous
  thickness of over 42,000 ft. The Upper Carboniferous in Lancashire is
  from 12,000 to 13,000 ft.; elsewhere in Britain it is thinner. In
  western Germany this portion attains a thickness of 10,000 ft. In
  Pennsylvania the sandstone and shale, at its maximum, reaches 4400
  ft., but even within the limits of the state this formation has
  thinned out to no more than 300 ft. in places. In Colorado the Lower
  Carboniferous is only 400-500 ft. thick; while the limestones of the
  Mississippi basin amount to 1500 ft. and in Virginia are 2000 ft.
  thick.

  _Life of the Carboniferous Period._--We have seen that in the
  Carboniferous rocks there are two phases of sedimentation, the one
  marine, the other continental; corresponding with these there are two
  distinct faunal facies.

  (1) _Fauna of the Marine Strata._--Numerically, the most important
  inhabitants of the clear Carboniferous seas were the crinoids, corals,
  Foraminifera and brachiopods. Each of these groups contributed at one
  place or another towards the upbuilding of great masses of limestone.
  For the first time in the earth's history we find Foraminifera taking
  a prominent part in the marine faunas; the genus _Fusulina_ was
  abundant in what is now Russia, China, Japan, North America;
  _Valvulina_ had a wide range, as also had _Endothyra_ and
  _Archaediscus; Saccammina_ is a form well known in Britain and
  Belgium, and many others have been described; some Carboniferous
  genera are still extant. Radiolaria are found in cherts in the Culm of
  Devonshire and Cornwall, in Russia, Germany and elsewhere. Sponges are
  represented by spicules and anchor ropes. Corals, both reef-builders
  and others, flourished in the clearer waters; rugose forms are
  represented by Amplexoid, Zaphrentid and Cyathophyllid types, and by
  _Lithostrotion_ and _Phillipsastraea_; common tabulate forms are
  _Chaetetes, Chladochonus, Michelinia_, &c. Amongst the echinoderms
  crinoids were the most numerous individually, dense submarine thickets
  of the long-stemmed kinds appear to have flourished in many places
  where their remains consolidated into thick beds of rock; prominent
  genera are _Cyathocrinus, Woodocrinus, Actinocrinus_; sea-urchins,
  _Archaeocidaris, Palaeechinus_, &c., were present; while the curious
  extinct Blastoids, which included the groups of _Pentremitidae_ and
  _Codasteridae_, attained their maximum development.

  Annelids (_Spirorbis, Serpulites_, &c.) are common fossils on certain
  horizons. The Bryozoa were also abundant in some regions (_Polypora,
  Fenestella_), including the remarkable form known as _Archimedes_.

  Brachiopods occupied an important place; most typical were the
  Productids, some of which reached a great size and had very thick
  shells. Other common genera are _Spirifer, Chonetes, Athyris_,
  Rhynchonellids and Terebratulids, _Discina_ and _Crania_. Some species
  had an almost world-wide range with only minor variations; such are
  _Productus semireticulatus, P. cora, P. pustulosus; Orthotetes
  (Streptorhynchus) crenistria, Dielasma hastata_, and many others.

  Pelecypods among the true mollusca were increasing in numbers and
  importance (_Aviculopecten, Posidonomya_); _Nucula, Carbonicola,
  Edmondia, Conocardium, Modiola_. Gasteropods also were numerous
  (_Murchisonia, Euomphalus, Naticopsis_). The Pteropods were well
  represented by _Conularia_ and _Bellerophon_. Amongst the Cephalopods,
  the most striking feature is the rise and development of the
  Goniatites (_Glyphioceras, Gastrioceras_, &c.); straight-shelled forms
  still lived on in some variety (_Orthoceras, Actinoceras_), along with
  numerous nautiloids.

  Trilobites during this period sank to a very subordinate position, but
  Ostracods (_Cythere, Kirkbya, Beyrichia_) were abundant.

  Many fish inhabited the Carboniferous seas and most of these were
  Elasmobranchs, sharks with crushing pavement teeth (_Psammodus_),
  adapted for grinding the shells of brachiopods, crustaceans, &c. Other
  sharks had piercing teeth (_Cladoselache_ and _Cladodus_); some, the
  petalodonts, had peculiar cycloid cutting teeth. The Arthrodirans, so
  prominent during the Devonian period, disappeared before the close of
  the Carboniferous. Most of the sharks lived in the sea continuously,
  but the ganoids frequenting the coastal waters appear to have migrated
  inland. About 700 species of Carboniferous fish have been described
  largely from teeth, spines and dermal ossicles.

  (2) _Flora and Fauna of the Lagoonal or Continental Facies._--The
  strata deposited during this period are the earliest in which the
  remains of plants take a prominent place. The fossil plants which are
  found in the upper beds of the preceding Devonian system are so
  closely related to those in the Lower Carboniferous, that from a
  palaeobotanical standpoint the two form one indivisible period.

  In the Lower Carboniferous the flora was composed of six great groups
  of plants, viz. the Equisetales (Horse-tails), the Lycopodiales (Club
  mosses), the Filicales (Ferns) and Cycadofilices, the Sphenophyllales
  and Cordaitales. These six groups were the dominant types throughout
  the period, but during Upper Carboniferous time three other groups
  arose, the Coniferales, the Cycadophyta, and the Ginkgoales (of which
  _Ginkgo biloba_ is the only modern representative). Algae and fungi
  also were present, but there were no flowering plants. The true ferns,
  including tree ferns with a height of upwards of 60 ft., were
  associated with many plants possessing a fern-like habit
  (Cycadofilices) and others whose affinities have not yet been
  definitely determined. The fronds of some of these Carboniferous ferns
  are almost identical with those of living species. Probably many of
  the ferns were epiphytic. _Pecopteris, Cyclopteris, Neuropteris,
  Alethopteris, Sphenopteris_ are common genera; _Megaphyton_ and
  _Caulopteris_ were tree ferns. Our modern diminutive "horse-tails"
  with scaly leaves were represented in the Carboniferous period by
  gigantic calamites, often with a diameter of 1 to 2 ft. and a height
  of 50 to 90 ft. The Carboniferous forerunners of the tiny club-moss
  were then great trees with dichotomously branching stems and crowded
  linear leaves, such as _Lepidodendron_ (with its fruit cone called
  _Lepidostrobus), Halonia, Lepidophloios_ and _Sigillaria_, the largest
  plants of the period, with trunks sometimes 5 ft. in diameter and 100
  ft. high. The roots of several of these forms are known as _Stigmaria.
  Sphenophyllum_ was a slender climbing plant with whorls of leaves,
  which was probably related both to the calamites and the lycopods.
  _Cordaites_, a tall plant (20-30 ft.) with yucca-like leaves, was
  related to the cycads and conifers; the catkin-like inflorescence,
  which bore yew-like berries, is called _Cardiocarpus_. Many large
  trees which have been looked upon as conifers on account of their wood
  structure may perhaps belong more properly to the Cordaitales. True
  coniferous trees (_Walchia_) do appear at the top of the coal
  measures.

  The animals preserved in the continental type of Carboniferous deposit
  naturally differ markedly from the fossil remains of the purely marine
  portions of the system. The inhabitants of the waters of this
  geographical phase include mollusca, which are supposed to have lived
  in brackish or fresh water, such as _Anthracomya, Naiadites,
  Carbonicola_, and many forms of Crustacea, e.g. (_Bairdia Carbonia_),
  phyllopods (_Estheria_), phyllocarids (_Acanthocaris, Dithyrocaris_),
  schizopods (_Anthrapalaemon_), Eurypterids (_Eurypterus,
  Glyptoscorpius_). Fishes were abundant, many of the smaller ganoids
  are beautifully preserved in an entire condition, other larger forms
  are represented by fin spines, teeth and bones; _Ctenodus, Uronemus,
  Acanthodes, Cheirodus, Gyracanthus_ are characteristic genera.

  Frequently a temporary return of marine conditions permitted the
  entombment of such salt water genera as _Lingula, Orbiculoidea,
  Productus_ in the thin beds known as "marine bands."

  Remains of air-breathing insects, myriapods and arachnids show that
  these forms of life were both well developed and individually
  numerous. Among the insects we find the Orthoptera, Neuroptera,
  Hemiptera and Coleoptera represented; cockroaches were particularly
  abundant; crickets, beetles, locusts, walking-stick insects, mayflies
  and bugs are found, but there were neither flies, moths, butterflies
  nor bees, which is no more than we should expect from the conditions
  of plant life. Many insects, &c., have been obtained from the
  coalfields of Saarbrück and Commentry, and from the hollow trunks of
  fossil trees in Nova Scotia. Certain British coalfields have yielded
  good specimens: _Archaeoptilus_, from the Derbyshire coalfield, had a
  spread of wing extending to more than 14 in.; some specimens
  (_Brodia_) still exhibit traces of brilliant wing colours. In the Nova
  Scotian tree trunks land snails (_Archaeozonites, Dendropupa_) have
  been found.

  In the later Carboniferous rocks the earliest amphibians make their
  appearance in considerable numbers; they were all Stegocephalians
  (Labyrinthodonts) with long bodies, a head covered with bony plates
  and weak or undeveloped limbs. The largest were about 7 or 8 ft. long,
  the smallest only a few inches. Some were probably fluviatile in habit
  (_Loxomma, Anthracosaurus, Ophiderpeton_); others may have been
  terrestrial (_Dendrerpeton, Hylerpeton_). Certain footprints in the
  coal measures of Kansas have been supposed to belong to lacertilian or
  dinosaurian forms.

  _The Physical Conditions during the Period._--In western Europe the
  advent of the Carboniferous period was accompanied by the production
  of a series of synclines which permitted the formation of organic
  limestones, free from the sediments which generally characterized the
  concluding phases of the preceding Devonian deposition. The old land
  area still existed to the north, but doubtless much reduced in height;
  against this land, detrital deposits still continued to be formed, as
  in Scotland; while over central Ireland and central and northern
  England the clearer waters of the sea furnished a suitable home for
  countless corals, brachiopods and foraminifera and great beds of sea
  lilies; sponges flourished in many parts of the sea, and their remains
  contributed largely to the formation of the beds of chert. This
  clearer water extended from Ireland across north-central England and
  through South Wales and Somerset into Belgium and Westphalia; but a
  narrow ridge of elevated older rocks ran across the centre of England
  towards Belgium at this time.

  Traced eastward into north Germany, Thuringia and Silesia, the
  limestones pass into the detrital culm formations, which owe their
  existence to a southern uplifted massif, the complement of the
  synclines already mentioned. Sediments approaching to the culm type,
  with similar flora and fauna, were deposited in synclinal hollows in
  parts of France and Spain.

  Thus western Europe in early Carboniferous time was occupied by a
  series of constricted, gulf-like seas; and on account of the steady
  progress of intermittent warping movements of the crust, we find that
  the areas of clearer water, in which the limestone-building organisms
  could exist, were repeatedly able to spread, thus forming those thin
  limestones found interbedded with shale and sandstone which occur
  typically in the Yoredale district of Yorkshire and in the region to
  the north, and also in the culm deposits of central Europe. The spread
  of these limestones was repeatedly checked by the steady influx of
  detritus from the land during the pauses in movements of depression.
  Looking eastward, towards central and northern Russia, we find a wider
  and much more open sea; but the continental type of deposit prevailed
  in the northern portion, and here, as in Scotland, we find coal-beds
  amongst the sediments (Moscow basin). Farther south in the Donetz
  basin the coals only appear at the close of the Lower Carboniferous.

  In North America, the crustal movements at the beginning of the period
  are less evident than in Europe, but a marked parallelism exists; for
  in the east, in the Appalachian tract, we find detrital sediments
  prevailing, while the open sea, with great deposits of limestone, lay
  out towards the west in the direction of that similar open sea which
  lay towards the east of Europe and extended through Asia.

  The close of the early Carboniferous period was marked by an
  augmentation of the orogenic movements. The gentler synclines and
  anticlines of the earlier part of the period became accentuated,
  giving rise to pronounced mountain ridges, right across Europe.

  This movement commenced in the central and western part of the
  continent and continued throughout the whole Carboniferous period. The
  mountains then formed have been called the "Palaeozoic Alps" by E.
  Kayser, the "Hercynian Mountains" by M. Bertrand. The most western
  range extended from Ireland through Wales and the south of England to
  the central plateau of France; this was the "Armorican range" of E.
  Suess. The eastern part of the chain passed from South France through
  the Vosges, the Black Forest, Thuringia, Harz, the Fichtelgebirge,
  Bohemia, the Sudetes, and possibly farther east; this constitutes the
  "Varischen Alps" of Suess.

  The sea had gained somewhat at the beginning of the Carboniferous
  period in western Europe, but the effect of these movements, combined
  with the rapid formation of detrital deposits from the rising land
  areas, was to drive the sea steadily from the north towards the south,
  until the open sea (with limestones) was relegated to what is now the
  Mediterranean and to Russia and thence eastward. Similar events were
  meanwhile happening in North America, for the seas were steadily
  filled with sediments which drove them from the north-east towards the
  south-west, and doubtless those movements which at the close of this
  period uplifted the Appalachian mountains were already operative in
  the same direction.

  The folding of the Ural mountains began in the earlier part of this
  period and was continued, after its close, into the Permian; and there
  are traces of uplifts in central Asia and Armenia.

  None of these movements appears to have affected the southern
  hemisphere.

  The net result of the erogenic movements was, that at the close of the
  period there existed a great northern continental mass, embracing
  Europe, North Asia and North America; and a great southern continental
  mass, including South America, Africa, Australia and India. Between
  these land masses lay a great Mediterranean sea--the "Tethys" of
  Suess.

  The conditions under which the beds of coal were formed will be found
  described under that head; it will be sufficient to notice here that
  some coal seams were undoubtedly formed by jungle or swamp-like
  growths on the site of the deposit, and it is equally true that others
  were formed by the transport and deposition of vegetable detritus. The
  main point to observe in this connexion is that large tracts of land
  in many parts of the world were at a critical level as regards the
  sea, a condition highly favourable to frequent extensive incursions of
  marine waters over the low-lying areas in a period of extreme crustal
  instability.

  _Vulcanicity._--In intimate relationship with the mountain-building
  orogenic crustal movements was the prevalence of volcanic activity
  during the earlier part of this period. In the Lower Carboniferous
  rocks of Scotland intercalated volcanic rocks are strikingly abundant,
  and now form an important feature in the geology of the southern
  portion of that country. Of these rocks Sir Archibald Geikie says:
  "Two great phases or types of volcanic action during Carboniferous
  time may be recognized--(1) Plateaus, where the volcanic materials
  discharged copiously from many scattered openings now form broad
  tablelands or ranges of hills, sometimes many hundreds of square miles
  in extent and 1500 ft. or more in thickness; (2) Puys, where the
  ejections were often confined to the discharge of a small amount of
  fragmentary materials from a single independent vent." The plateau
  type was most extensively developed during the formation of the
  Calciferous Sandstone; the puy type was of somewhat later date. Basic
  lavas, with andesites, trachytes, tuffs and agglomerates are the most
  common Scottish rocks of this period. Similar eruptions, but on a much
  smaller scale, took place in other parts of Great Britain.

  Granites, porphyries and porphyrites belonging to this period occur in
  the Saxon Erzgebirge, the Harz, Thüringerwald, Vosges, Brittany,
  Cornwall and Christiania. Porphyrites and tuffs are known in the
  French Carboniferous. In China, at the close of the period, there were
  enormous eruptions of melaphyre, porphyrite and quartz-porphyry. In
  North America, the principal region of volcanic activity lay in the
  west; great thicknesses of igneous rocks occur in the Lower
  Carboniferous rocks of British Columbia, and from the middle of the
  period until near its close volcanoes were active from Alaska to
  California. Igneous rocks of this period are found also in
  Australasia.

  _Climate_.--That the vegetation during this period was unusually
  exuberant there can be no doubt, and that a general uniformity of
  climatic conditions prevailed is shown not only by the wide
  distribution of coal measures, but by the uniformity of plant types
  over the whole earth. It is well, however, to guard against an
  over-estimation of this exuberance; it must be borne in mind that the
  physiographic conditions were peculiarly favourable to the
  preservation of plant remains, conditions that do not appear to have
  obtained so completely in any other period. The climate, we may assume
  from the distribution of land and water, was generally moist, and it
  was probably mild if not warm; conditions favourable to the growth of
  certain types of plants. But there is no good evidence for an excess
  of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere--an assumption founded on the
  luxuriance of the vegetation, coupled with the fact that vulcanicity
  was active and wide-ranging. Carbon dioxide may have been present in
  the air in greater abundance in earlier periods than it is at present,
  but there is no reason to suppose that the percentage was appreciably
  higher in the Carboniferous period than it is now.

  The occurrence of _red deposits_ in western Australia, Scotland, the
  Ural mountains, in Michigan, Montana and Nova Scotia, &c., associated
  in some instances with the formation of gypsum and salt, clearly
  points to the existence of areas of excessive evaporation, such as are
  found in land-locked waters in regions where something like desert
  conditions prevail. The xerophytic structures found in some of the
  plants might seem to corroborate this view; but similar structures are
  assumed by many plants when dwelling in brackish marshes and morasses.

  The abundance of corals in some of the Carboniferous seas and possibly
  also the large size of some of the Productids and foraminifera may be
  taken as evidence of warm or temperate waters.

  In spite of the bulk of the evidence being in favour of geniality of
  climate, it is necessary to observe that certain deposits have been
  recognized as glacial; in the culm of the Frankenwald, in the coal
  basins of central France, and in central England, certain
  conglomeratic beds have been assigned, somewhat doubtfully, to this
  origin. They have also been regarded as the result of torrential
  action. Glacial deposits certainly do exist in the Permo-carboniferous
  formations, which are described under that head, but in the true
  Carboniferous system glaciation may be taken as not proven. The
  foreign boulders of granite, gneiss, &c., found in the coal-measures
  of some districts, are quite as likely to have been dropped by rafts
  of vegetation as to have been carried by floating icebergs.

  _Economic Products._--Foremost among the useful products of the
  Carboniferous rocks is the coal (_q.v._) itself; but associated with
  the coal seams in Great Britain, North America and elsewhere, are very
  important beds of ironstone, fire-clay, terra-cotta clay, and
  occasionally oil shale and alum shale. Oil and gas are of importance
  in the Lower Carboniferous Pocono sandstone of West Virginia and in
  the Berea grit of Ohio, where brine also occurs.

  In the Carboniferous Limestone series, the purer kinds of limestone
  are used for the manufacture of lime, bleaching powder and similar
  products, also as a flux in the smelting of iron; some of the less
  pure varieties are used in making cement. The beds of chert are
  utilized in the pottery industry, and some of the harder and more
  crystalline limestones are beautiful marbles, capable of taking a high
  polish.

  The sandstones are used for building, and for millstones and
  grindstones. Within the Carboniferous rocks, but due to the action of
  various agencies long after their deposition, are important ore
  formations; such are the Rio Tinto ores of Spain, the lead and zinc
  ores and some haematite of the Pennine and Mendip hills and other
  British localities, and many ore regions in the United States.

  REFERENCES.--For a good general account of the Carboniferous system,
  see A. Geikie, _Text Book of Geology_, vol. ii. (4th ed., 1903); and
  for the American development see T.C. Chamberlin and R.D. Salisbury,
  _Geology_, vol. ii. (1906). These two works give abundant references
  to the literature of the subject. See also, _Recent Additions to
  Geological Literature_, published annually by the Geological Society
  of London since 1893; and _Neues Jahrbuch fur Mineralogie_
  (Stuttgart).     (J. A. H.)



CARBORUNDUM, a silicide of carbon formed by the action of carbon on sand
(silica) at high temperatures, which on account of its great hardness is
an important abrasive, and also has possible applications in the
metallurgy of iron and steel. Its name was derived from _carbon_ and
_corundum_ (a form of alumina), from a mistaken view as to its
composition. It was first obtained accidentally in 1891 by Acheson in
America, when he was experimenting with the electric furnace in the hope
of producing artificial diamonds. The experiments were followed up in an
incandescence furnace, which on a larger scale is now employed for the
industrial manufacture of the product. A full description of the process
has been given in the _Journ. Soc. Chem. Industry_, 1897, vol. xvi. p.
863. The furnace is rectangular, about 16 ft. long and 5 ft. wide by 5
ft. high, with massive brick end walls 2 ft. thick, through which are
built the carbon poles, consisting of bundles of 60 parallel 3-in.
carbon rods, each 3 ft. in length, with a copper rod let into the outer
end to connect it with a copper cap, which in turn is connected with one
of the terminals of the generating dynamo. The spaces between the
carbons of the electrode are packed tightly with graphite. In preparing
the furnace for use, transverse iron screens are placed temporarily
across each end, the space between these and the end walls being rammed
with fine coke, and that in the interior is filled to the level of the
centre of the carbon poles with the charge, consisting of 34 parts of
coke, with 54 of sand, 10 of sawdust and 2 of salt. A longitudinal
trench is then formed in the middle, and in this is arranged a
cylindrical pile of fragments of coke about ½ in. or more in diameter,
so that they form a core, about 21 in. in diameter, connecting the
carbon poles in the end walls. Temporary side walls are then built up,
the iron screens are removed, and a further quantity of charge is heaped
up about 3 ft. above the top of the furnace. An alternating current of
about 1700 amperes at 190 volts is now switched on; as the mass becomes
heated by the passage of the current the resistance diminishes, and the
current is regulated until after about 2 hours or less from starting it
is maintained constant at about 6000 amperes and 125 volts. Carbon
monoxide is given off and burns freely around the sides and top of the
furnace, tinged yellow after a time by the sodium in the salt mixed with
the charge. Meanwhile a shrinkage takes place, which is made good by the
addition of a further quantity of charge until the operation is
complete, usually in about 36 hours from the commencement. The current
is then switched off, and the side walls, after cooling for a day, are
taken down, the comparatively unaltered charge from the top is removed,
and the products are carefully extracted. These consist of the inner
carbon core, which at the temperature of the furnace will have been for
the most part converted into graphite, then a thin black crust of
graphite mixed with carborundum, next a layer of nearly pure
crystallized carborundum about a foot in thickness, then grey amorphous
carbide of silicon mixed with increasing proportions of unaltered
charge, and lastly, on the outside, the portion of the charge which had
never reached the temperature necessary for reaction, and which is
altered only by the intrusion of salt from the inner part of the
furnace. Special precautions are taken in making and breaking the
intense current here used (amounting at the end to about 750 kilowatts,
or 1000 E.H.P.), a water-regulator consisting of removable iron plates
dipped in salt water being used for the purpose. In such a furnace as
that above described the charge weighs about 14 tons, the yield of
carborundum is about 3 tons, and the expenditure of energy about 3.9
kilowatt-hours (5.2 H.P.-hours) per pound of finished product. The
carborundum thus produced is crystalline, greenish, bluish or brownish
in colour, sometimes opaque, but often translucent, resisting the action
of even the strongest acids, and the action of air or of sulphur at high
temperatures. The crude product can therefore be treated with hot
sulphuric acid to purify it. In hardness it nearly equals the diamond,
and it is used for tool-grinding in the form of vitrified wheels (mixed
with powdered porcelain and iron, pressed into shape and fired in a
kiln). Carborundum paper, made like emery paper, is now largely used in
place of garnet paper in American shoe factories, and finds a market in
other directions. The amorphous carbide, which was at first a waste
product, has been tried, it is reported, with success as a lining for
steel furnaces, as it is said not to be affected by iron or iron oxide
at a white heat.     (W. G. M.)



CARBOY (from the Pers. _qarabah_, a flagon), a large globular glass
vessel or bottle, encased in wicker or iron-work for protection, used
chiefly for holding vitriol, nitric acid and other corrosive liquids.



CARBUNCLE (Lat. _carbunculus_, diminutive of _carbo_, a glowing coal),
in mineralogy, a garnet (q.v.) cut with a convex surface. In medicine
the name given to an acute local inflammation of the deeper layers of
the skin, followed by sloughing. It is accompanied by great local
tension and by constitutional disturbance, and in the early stages the
pain is often extremely acute. A hard flattened swelling of a deep-red
colour is noticed on the back, face or extremities. This gradually
extends until in some instances it may become as large as a
dinner-plate. Towards the centre of the mass numerous small openings
form on the surface, from which blood and matter escape. Through these
openings a yellow slough or "core" of leathery consistence can be seen.
Carbuncle is an intense local inflammation caused by septic germs which
have in some manner found their way to the part. It is particularly apt
to occur in persons whose health is depressed by mental worries, or by
such troubles as chronic disease of the kidneys or blood-vessels, or by
diabetes. The attack ends in mortification of the affected tissue, and,
after much suffering, the core or mortified part slowly comes away. The
modern treatment consists in cutting into the inflamed area, scraping
out the germ-laden core at the earliest possible moment, and applying
germicides. This method relieves the pain at once, materially diminishes
the risk of blood-poisoning, and hastens convalescence.     (E. O.*)



CARCAGÉNTE, or CARCAJÉNTE, a town of eastern Spain, in the province of
Valencia; near the right bank of the river Júcar, at the junction
between the Valencia-Murcia and Carcagénte-Denia railways. Pop. (1900)
12,262. Carcagénte is a picturesque town, of considerable antiquity.
Various Roman remains have been found in its neighbourhood. It is
surrounded by groves of orange, palm and mulberry trees, and contains
many Moorish houses, whose old-fashioned blue-tiled cupolas contrast
with the chimneys of the silk mills and linen factories opened in modern
times. An important local industry is the cultivation of rice, for which
the moist and warm climate of the low-lying Júcar valley is well suited.

CÁRCAR, a town of the province of Cebú, island of Cebú, Philippine
Islands, on the Cárcar river near its mouth at the head of Cárcar Bay,
23 m. S.W. of Cebú, the capital. It is connected with Cebú by a railway,
and a branch of this railway extending across the island to Barili and
Dumanjug was projected in 1908. Cárcar has some coast trade. The
surrounding country is rugged, and produces Indian corn and sugar in
considerable quantity. The language is Cebú-Visayan. Cárcar was founded
in 1624.



CARCASS, the dead body of an animal. As a butcher's term, the word means
the body of an animal without the head, extremities and offal. It is
also used of a hollow iron case filled with combustibles, and fired from
a howitzer to set fire to buildings, ships, &c., the flames issuing
through holes pierced in the sides. The word is common in various forms
to Romanic languages, but the ultimate origin is obscure. Possible
derivations are from the Lat. _caro_, flesh, and Ital. _casso_ or
_cassa_, chest, or from a Med. Gr. _[Greek: tarkasion]_, a quiver, for
which the Fr. is _carquois_, and Port. _carcaz_.



CARCASSONNE, a city of south-western France, capital of the department
of Aude, 57 m. S.E. of Toulouse, on the Southern railway between that
city and Narbonne. Pop. (1906) 25,346. Carcassonne is divided by the
river Aude into two distinct towns, the Ville Basse and the Cité, which
are connected by two bridges, one modern, the other dating from the 13th
century. The Cité occupies the summit of an abrupt and isolated hill on
the right bank of the river. Its dirty and irregular streets are
inhabited by a scanty population of workpeople, and its interest lies
mainly in its ancient fortifications (see FORTIFICATION AND SIEGECRAFT)
which, for completeness and strength, are unique in France and probably
in Europe. They consist of a double line of ramparts, of which the outer
measures more than 1600 yds. in circumference. These are protected at
frequent intervals by towers, and can be entered only by two gates, one
to the east, the other to the west, both of which are themselves
elaborately fortified (see GATE). In the interior, and to the north of
the western gate, a citadel adjoins the fortifications. A portion of the
inner line is attributed to the Visigoths of the 6th century; the rest,
including the castle, seems to belong to the 11th or 12th century, while
the outer circuit has been referred mainly to the end of the 13th. The
old cathedral of St Nazaire dates from the 11th to the 14th centuries.
The nave was begun in 1096 and is Romanesque in style; the transept and
choir, which contain magnificent stained glass of the Renaissance
period, are of Gothic architecture. Both the fortifications and the
church were restored by Viollet-le-Duc between 1850 and 1880. On the
left bank of the Aude, between it and the Canal du Midi, lies the new
town, clean, well-built and flourishing, with streets intersecting each
other at right angles. It is surrounded by boulevards occupying the site
of its ramparts, and is well provided with fountains, public squares and
gardens planted with fine plane-trees. The most interesting buildings
are the cathedral of St Michel, dating from the 13th century but
restored in modern times, and St Vincent, a church of the 14th century,
remarkable for the width of its nave.

Carcassonne is the seat of a bishop, a prefect and a court of assizes,
and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of
commerce and a branch of the Bank of France. It also has a lycée for
boys, training-colleges, theological seminaries, a library and a museum
rich in paintings. The old cloth industry is almost extinct. The town
is, however, an important wine-market, and the vineyards of the vicinity
are the chief source of its prosperity, which is enhanced by its port on
the Canal du Midi. Tanning and leather-dressing, distilling, the
manufacture of agricultural implements, furniture and corks, cooperage
and the preparation of preserved fruits, are prominent industries.

Carcassonne occupies the site of _Carcaso_, an ancient city of Gallia
Narbonensis, which belonged to the Volcae Tectosages. It was a place of
some importance at the time of Caesar's invasion, but makes almost no
appearance in Roman history. On the disintegration of the empire, it
fell into the hands of the Visigoths, who, in spite of the attacks of
the Franks, especially in 585, retained possession till 724, when they
were expelled by the Arabs, destined in turn to yield before long to
Pippin the Short. From about 819 to 1082 Carcassonne formed a separate
countship, and from the latter date till 1247 a viscountship. Towards
the end of the 11th century the viscounts of Carcassonne assumed the
style of viscounts of Béziers, which town and its lords they had
dominated since the fall of the Carolingian empire. The viscounty of
Carcassonne, together with that of Béziers, was confiscated to the crown
in 1247, as a result of the part played by the viscount Raymond Roger
against Simon de Montfort in the Albigensian crusade, during which in
1209 the city was taken by the Crusaders (see ALBIGENSES). A revolt of
the city against the royal authority was severely punished in 1262 by
the expulsion of its principal inhabitants, who were, however, permitted
to take up their quarters on the other side of the river. This was the
origin of the new town, which was fortified in 1347. During the
religious wars, Carcassonne several times changed hands, and it did not
recognize Henry IV. till 1596.

  See E.E. Viollet-le-Duc, _La Cité de Carcassonne_ (Paris, 1858); L.
  Fédié, _Histoire de Carcassonne_ (Carcassonne, 1887).



CARDAMOM, the fruit of several plants of the genera _Elettaria_ and
_Amomum_, belonging to the natural order Zingiberaceae, the principal of
which is _Elettaria Cardamomum_, from which the true officinal or
Malabar cardamom is derived. The Malabar cardamom plant is a large
perennial herb with a thick fleshy root-stock, which sends up flowering
stems, 6 to 12 ft. high. The large leaves are arranged in two rows, have
very long sheaths enveloping the stem and a lanceolate spreading blade 1
to 2½ ft. long. The fruit is an ovate-triangular, three-celled,
three-valved capsule (about 1/5 in. long, of a dirty yellow colour)
enclosing numerous angular seeds, which form the valuable part of the
plant. It is a native of the mountainous parts of the Malabar coast of
India, and the fruits are procured either from wild plants or by
cultivation throughout Travancore, western Mysore, and along the western
Ghauts. A cardamom of much larger size found growing in Ceylon was
formerly regarded as belonging to a distinct species, and described as
such under the name of _Elettaria major_; but it is now known to be only
a variety of the Malabar cardamom. In commerce, several varieties are
distinguished according to their size and flavour. The most esteemed are
known as "shorts," a name given to such capsules as are from a quarter
to half an inch long and about a quarter broad. Following these come
"short-longs" and "long-longs," also distinguished by their size, the
largest reaching to about an inch in length. The Ceylon cardamom attains
a length of an inch and a half and is about a third of an inch broad,
with a brownish pericarp and a distinct aromatic odour. Among the other
plants, the fruits of which pass in commerce as cardamoms, are the round
or cluster cardamom, _Amomum Cardamomum_, a native of Siam and Java; the
bastard cardamom of Siam, _A. xanthioides_ --the Bengal cardamom, which
is the fruit of _A. subulatum_, a native of Nepal; the Java cardamom,
produced by _A. maximum_; and the Korarima cardamom of Somaliland. The
last-named is the product of a plant which is unknown botanically.
Cardamoms generally are possessed of a pleasant aromatic odour, and an
agreeable, spicy taste. On account of their flavour they are much used
with other medicines, and they form a principal ingredient in curries
and compounded spices. In the north of Europe they are much used as a
spice and flavouring material for cakes and liqueurs; and they are very
extensively employed in the East for chewing with betel, &c.



CARDAN [Ital. CARDANO], GIROLAMO [GERONYMO or HIERONIMO] (1501-1576),
Italian mathematician, physician and astrologer, born at Pavia on the
24th of September 1501, was the illegitimate son of Facio Cardano
(1444-1524), a learned jurist of Milan, himself distinguished by a taste
for mathematics. He was educated at the university of Pavia, and
subsequently at that of Padua, where he graduated in medicine. He was,
however, excluded from the College of Physicians at Milan on account of
his illegitimate birth, and it is not surprising that his first book
should have been an exposure of the fallacies of the faculty. A
fortunate cure of the child of the Milanese senator Sfondrato now
brought him into notice, and the interest of his patron procured him
admission into the medical body. About this time (1539) he obtained
additional celebrity by the publication of his _Practica arithmeticae
generalis_, a work of great merit for the time, and he became engaged
in a correspondence with Niccolo Tartaglia, who had discovered a
solution of cubic equations. This discovery Tartaglia had kept to
himself, but he was ultimately induced to communicate it to Cardan under
a solemn promise that it should never be divulged. Cardan, however,
published it in his comprehensive treatise on algebra (_Artis magnae
sive de regulis Algebrae liber unus_) which appeared at Nuremberg in
1545 (see ALGEBRA: _History_). Two years previously he had published a
work even more highly regarded by his contemporaries, his celebrated
treatise on astrology. As a believer in astrology Cardan was on a level
with the best minds of his age; the distinction consisted in the
comparatively cautious spirit of his inquiries and his disposition to
confirm his assertions by an appeal to facts, or what he believed to be
such. A very considerable part of his treatise is based upon
observations carefully collected by himself, and seemingly well
calculated to support his theories so far as they extend. Numerous
instances of his belief in dreams and omens may be collected from his
writings, and he especially valued himself on being one of the five or
six celebrated men to whom, as to Socrates, had been vouchsafed the
assistance of a guardian daemon.

In 1547 he was appointed professor of medicine at Pavia. The publication
of his works on algebra and astrology at this juncture had gained for
him a European renown, and procured him flattering offers from Pope Paul
III. and the king of Denmark, both of which he declined. In 1551 his
reputation was crowned by the publication of his great work, _De
Subtilitate Rerum_, which embodied the soundest physical learning of his
time and simultaneously represented its most advanced spirit of
speculation. It was followed some years later by a similar treatise, _De
Varietate Rerum_ (1557), the two making in effect but one book. A great
portion of this is occupied by endeavours, commonly futile, to explain
ordinary natural phenomena, but its chief interest for us consists in
the hints and glimpses it affords of principles beyond the full
comprehension of the writer himself, and which the world was then by no
means ready to entertain. The inorganic realm of Nature he asserts to be
animated no less than the organic; all creation is progressive
development; all animals were originally worms; the inferior metals must
be regarded as _conatus naturae_ towards the production of gold. The
indefinite variability of species is implied in the remark that Nature
is seldom content with a single variation from a customary type. The
oviparous habits of birds are explained by their tendency to favour the
perpetuation of the species, precisely in the manner of modern
naturalists. Animals were not created for the use of man, but exist for
their own sakes. The origin of life depends upon cosmic laws, which
Cardan naturally connects with his favourite study of astrology. The
physical divergencies of mankind arise from the effects of climate and
the variety of human circumstances in general. Cardan's views on the
dissimilarity of languages are much more philosophical than usual at his
time; and his treatise altogether, though weak in particular details, is
strong in its pervading sense of the unity and omnipotence of natural
law, which renders it in some degree an adumbration of the course of
science since the author's day. It was attacked by J.C. Scaliger, whom
Cardan refuted without difficulty.

The celebrity which Cardan had acquired led in the same year (1551) to
his journey to Scotland as the medical adviser of Archbishop Hamilton of
St Andrews. The archbishop was supposed to be suffering from
consumption, a complaint which Cardan, under a false impression, as he
frankly admits, had represented himself as competent to cure. He was of
great service to the archbishop, whose complaint proved to be
asthmatical; but the principal interest attaching to his expedition is
derived from his account of the disputes of the medical faculty at
Paris, and of the court of Edward VI. of England. The Parisian doctors
were disturbed by the heresies of Vesalius, who was beginning to
introduce anatomical study from the human subject. Cardan's liberality
of temper led him to sympathize with the innovator. His account of
Edward VI.'s disposition and understanding is extremely favourable, and
is entitled to credit as that of a competent observer without bias
towards either side of the religious question. He cast the king's
nativity, and indulged in a number of predictions which were effectually
confuted by the royal youth's death in the following year.

Cardan had now attained the summit of his prosperity, and the rest of
his life was little but a series of disasters. His principal misfortunes
arose from the crimes and calamities of his sons, one of whom was an
utter reprobate, while the tragic fate of the other overwhelmed the
father with anguish. This son, Giovanni Battista, also a physician, had
contracted an imprudent marriage with a girl of indifferent character,
Brandonia Seroni, who subsequently proved unfaithful to him. The injured
husband revenged himself with poison; the deed was detected, and the
exceptional severity of the punishment seems to justify Cardan in
attributing it to the rancour of his medical rivals, with whom he had
never at any time been on good terms. The blow all but crushed him; his
reputation and his practice waned; he addicted himself to gaming, a vice
to which he had always been prone; his mind became unhinged and filled
with distempered imaginations. He was ultimately banished from Milan on
some accusation not specified, and although the decree was ultimately
rescinded, he found it advisable to accept a professorship at Bologna
(1562). While residing there in moderate comfort, and mainly occupied
with the composition of supplements to his former works, he was suddenly
arrested on a charge not stated, but in all probability heresy. Though
he had always been careful to keep on terms with the Church, the bent of
his mind had been palpably towards free thought, and the circumstance
had probably attracted the attention of Pius V., who then ruled the
Church in the spirit, as he had formerly exercised the functions, of an
inquisitor. Through the intercession, as would appear, of some
influential cardinals, Cardan was released, but was deprived of his
professorship, prohibited from teaching and publishing any further, and
removed to Rome, where he spent his remaining years in receipt of a
pension from the pope. It seems to have been urged in his favour that
his intellect had been disturbed by grief for the loss of his son--an
assertion to which his frequent hallucinations lent some countenance,
though the existence of any serious derangement is disproved by the
lucidity and coherence of his last writings. He occupied his time at
Rome in the composition of his commentaries, _De Vita Propria_, which,
along with a companion treatise, _De Libris Propriis_, is our principal
authority for his biography. Though he had burned much, he left behind
him more than a hundred MSS., not twenty of which have been printed. He
died at Rome on the 21st of September 1576.

Alike intellectually and morally, Cardan is one of the most interesting
personages connected with the revival of science in Europe. He had no
especial bent towards any scientific pursuit, but appears as the man of
versatile ability, delighting in research for its own sake. He possessed
the true scientific spirit in perfection; nothing, he tells us, among
the king of France's treasures appeared to him so worthy of admiration
as a certain natural curiosity which he took for the horn of a unicorn.
It has been injurious to his fame to have been compelled to labour,
partly in fields of research where no important discovery was then
attainable, partly in those where his discoveries could only serve as
the stepping-stones to others, by which they were inevitably eclipsed.
His medical career serves as an illustration of the former case, and his
mathematical of the latter. His medical knowledge was wholly empirical;
restrained by the authority of Galen, and debarred from the practice of
anatomy, nothing more could be expected than that he should stumble on
some fortunate nostrums. As a mathematician, on the other hand, he
effected important advances in science, but such as merely paved the way
for discoveries which have obscured his own. From his astrology no
results could be expected; but even here the scientific character of his
mind is displayed in his common-sense treatment of what usually passed
for a mystical and occult study. His prognostications are as strictly
empirical as his prescriptions, and rest quite as much upon the
observations which he supposed himself to have made in his practice. As
frequently is the case with men incapable of rightly ordering their own
lives, he is full of wisdom and sound advice for others; his ethical
precepts and practical rules are frequently excellent. To complete the
catalogue of his accomplishments, he is no contemptible poet.

The work of Cardan's, however, which retains most interest for this
generation is his autobiography, _De Vita Propria_. In its clearness and
frankness of self-revelation this book stands almost alone among records
of its class. It may be compared with the autobiography of another
celebrated Italian of the age, Benvenuto Cellini, but is much more free
from vanity and self-consciousness, unless the extreme candour with
which Cardan reveals his own errors is to be regarded as vanity in a
more subtle form. The general impression is highly favourable to the
writer, whose impetuosity and fits of reckless dissipation appear as
mere exaggerations of the warmth of heart which imparted such strength
to his domestic affections, and in the region of science imparted that
passionate devotion to research which could alone have enabled him to
persevere so resolutely and effect such marked advances in such
multifarious fields of inquiry.

  Cardan's autobiography has been most ably condensed, and at the same
  time supplemented by information from the general body of his writings
  and other sources, by Henry Morley (_Jerome Cardan_, 1854, 2 vols).
  His capital treatises, _De Subtilitate_ and _De Varietate Rerum_, are
  combined and fully analysed in vol. ii. of Rixner and Siber's _Leben
  und Lehrmeinungen berühmter Physiker am Ende des xvi. und am Anfange
  des xvii. Jahrhunderts_ (Sulzbach, 1820). Cardan's works were edited
  in ten volumes by Sponius (Lyons, 1663). A biography was prefixed by
  Gabriel Naudé, whose unreasonable depreciation has unduly lowered
  Cardan's character with posterity.     (R. G.)



CÁRDENAS (_San Juan de Dios de Cárdenas_), a maritime town of Cuba, in
Matanzas province, about 75 m. E. of Havana, on the level and somewhat
marshy shore of a spacious bay of the northern coast of the island,
sheltered by a long promontory. Pop. (1907) 24,280. It has railway
communication with the trunk railway of the island, and communicates by
regular steamers with all the coast towns. The city lies between the sea
and hills. There are broad streets, various squares (including the Plaza
de Colón, with a bronze statue of Columbus given to the city by Queen
Isabel II. and erected in 1862) and substantial business buildings.
Cárdenas is one of the principal sugar-exporting towns of Cuba. The
shallowness of the harbour necessitates lighterage and repeated loading
of cargoes. The surrounding region is famed for its fertility. A large
quantity of asphalt has been taken from the bed of the harbour. A flow
of fresh water from the bed of the harbour is another peculiar feature;
it comes presumably from the outlets of subterranean rivers. There is a
large United States business element, which has been, indeed, prominent
in the city ever since its foundation. At El Varadero, on a peninsula at
the mouth of the bay, there is fine sea-bathing on a long beach, and El
Varadero is a winter resort. Cárdenas was founded in 1828, and in 1861
already had 12,910 inhabitants. In 1850 General Narciso Lopez landed
here on a filibustering expedition, and held the town for a few hours,
abandoning it when he saw that the people would not rise to support him
in his efforts to secure Cuban independence. On the 11th of May 1898 an
American torpedo-boat and revenue cutter here attacked three Spanish
gun-boats, and Ensign Worth Bagley (1874-1898) was killed--the first
American naval officer to lose his life in the Spanish-American War.



CARDIFF, a city, municipal, county and parliamentary borough, seaport
and market-town, and the county town of Glamorganshire, South Wales,
situated on the Taff, 1 m. above its outflow, 145¼ m. from London by the
Great Western railway via Badminton, 40½ m. W. of Bristol and 45½ m.
E.S.E. of Swansea. Cardiff is also the terminus of both the Taff Vale
and the Rhymney railways, the latter affording the London &
North-Western railway access to the town. The Barry line from Barry dock
joins the Great Western and Taff Vale railways at Cardiff, and the
Cardiff Railway Company (which owns all the docks) has a line from
Pontypridd via Llanishen to the docks. The Glamorganshire canal, opened
in 1794, runs from Cardiff to Merthyr Tydfil, with a branch to Aberdare.
The increase of the population of Cardiff during the 19th century was
phenomenal; from 1870 inhabitants in 1801, and 6187 in 1831 it grew to
32,954 in 1861. The borough, which originally comprised only the
parishes of St John's and St Mary's, was in 1875 and 1895 extended so as
to include Roath and a large part of Llandaff, known as Canton, on the
right of the Taff. The whole area was united as one civil parish in
1903, and the population in 1901 was 164,333, of whom only about 8%
spoke Welsh.

Probably no town in the kingdom has a nobler group of public buildings
than those in Cathays Park, which also commands a view of the castle
ramparts and the old keep. On opposite sides of a fine avenue are the
assize courts and new town hall (with municipal offices), which are both
in the Renaissance style. The Glamorgan county council has also a site
of one acre in the park for offices.

The University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire, founded in
1883, under the principalship of J. Viriamu Jones, for some time carried
on its work in temporary buildings, pending the erection of the
commodious and imposing building from the plans of Mr W.D. Caröe, in
Cathays Park, where the registry of the university of Wales (of which
the college is a constituent) is also situated. The Drapers' Company has
given £15,500 towards building a library, in addition to previous
donations to the engineering department and the scholarship fund of the
college. The college has departments for arts, pure and applied science
and technology, medicine, public health, music, and for the training of
men and women teachers for elementary and secondary schools. Its library
includes the Salesbury collection of books relating to Wales. Aberdare
Hall is a hostel for the women students. The Baptist theological college
of Pontypool was removed to Cardiff in 1895.

The public library and museum were founded in 1863, but in 1882 were
removed to a new building which was enlarged in 1896. The library is
especially rich in books and MSS. relating to Wales and in Celtic
literature generally. These comprise the Welsh portion of the MSS. which
belonged to Sir Thomas Phillipps of Middlehill (including the Book of
Aneurin--one of the "Four ancient books of Wales"), purchased for £3500.
A catalogue of the printed books in the Welsh department, which soon
became a standard work of reference, was published in 1898, while a
calendar of the Welsh MSS. was issued by the Historical MSS. Commission
in 1903. There are six branch libraries, while a scheme of school
libraries has been in operation since 1899. The chief features of the
museum are collections of the fossils, birds and flora of Wales and of
obsolete Welsh domestic appliances, casts of the pre-Norman monuments of
Wales, and reproductions of metal and ivory work illustrating various
periods of art and civilization. There is also a unique collection of
Swansea and Nantgarw china. The fine arts department contains
twenty-seven oil paintings by modern English and continental artists
bequeathed by William Menelaus of Dowlais in 1883, the Pyke-Thompson
collection of about 100 water-colour paintings presented in 1899, and
some 3000 prints and drawings relating to Wales. In 1905 Cardiff was
selected by a privy council committee to be the site of a state-aided
national museum for Wales, the whole contents of the museum and art
gallery, together with a site in Cathays Park, having been offered by
the corporation for the purpose. A charter providing for its government
was granted on the 19th of March 1907. In Cathays Park there is also a
"gorsedd" or bardic circle of huge monoliths erected in connexion with
the eisteddfod of 1899.

The other public buildings of the town include the infirmary founded in
1837, the present buildings being erected in 1883, and subsequently
enlarged; the sanatorium, the seamen's hospital, the South Wales
Institute of Mining Engineers (which has a library) built in 1894, the
exchange, an institute for the blind, a school for the deaf and dumb,
and one of the two prisons for the county (the other being at Swansea).
There are a technical school, an intermediate school for boys and
another for girls, a "higher-grade" and a pupil teachers' school. A
musical festival is held triennially.

In the business part the buildings are also for the most part imposing
and the thoroughfares spacious, while the chief suburban streets are
planted with trees. The Taff is spanned by two bridges, one a
four-arched bridge rebuilt in 1858-1859 leading to Llandaff, and the
other a cantilever with a central swinging span of 190 ft. 8 in.

In virtue of its being the shire-town, Cardiff acquired in 1535 the
right to send one representative to parliament, which it did until 1832,
from which date Cowbridge and Llantrisant have been joined with it as
contributory boroughs returning one member. The great sessions for the
county were during their whole existence from 1542 to 1830 held at
Cardiff, but the assizes (which replaced them) have since then been held
at Swansea and Cardiff alternately, as also are the quarter sessions for
Glamorgan. The borough has a separate commission of the peace, having a
stipendiary magistrate since 1858. It was granted a separate court of
quarter sessions in 1890, it was constituted a county borough in 1888,
and, by letters patent dated the 28th of October 1905, it was created a
city and the dignity of lord mayor conferred on its chief magistrate.
The corporation consists of ten aldermen and thirty councillors, and the
area of the municipal borough is 8408 acres.

Under powers secured in 1884, the town obtains its chief water supply
from a gathering ground near the sources of the Taff on the old red
sandstone beyond the northern out-crop of the mineral basin and on the
southern slopes of the Brecknock Beacons. Here two reservoirs of a
combined capacity of 668 million gallons have been constructed, and a
conduit some 36 m. long laid to Cardiff at a total cost of about
£1,250,000. A third reservoir is authorized. A gas company, first
incorporated in 1837, supplies the city as well as Llandaff and Penarth
with gas, but the corporation also supplies electric power both for
lighting and working the tramways, which were purchased from a private
company in 1898. The city owned in 1905 about 290 acres of parks and
"open spaces," the chief being Roath Park of 100 acres (including a
botanical garden of 15 acres), Llandaff fields of 70 acres, and Cathays
Park of 60 acres, which was acquired in 1900 mainly with the view of
placing in it the chief public buildings of the town.

_Commerce and Industries._--Edward II.'s charter of 1324 indicates that
Cardiff had become even then a trading and shipping centre of some
importance. It enjoyed a brief existence as a staple town from 1327 to
1332. During the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. it was notorious as a
resort of pirates, while some of the ironfounders of the district were
suspected of secretly supplying Spain with ordnance. It was for
centuries a "head port," its limits extending from Chepstow to Llanelly;
in the 18th century it sank to the position of "a creek" of the port of
Bristol, but about 1840 it was made independent, its limits for customs'
purposes being defined as from the Rumney estuary to Nash Point, so that
technically the "port of Cardiff" includes Barry and Penarth as well as
Cardiff proper. Down to the end of the 18th century there was only a
primitive quay on the river side for shipping purposes. Coal was brought
down from the hills on the backs of mules, and iron carried in two-ton
wagons. In 1798 the first dock (12 acres in extent) was constructed at
the terminus of the Glamorgan canal from Merthyr. The commercial
greatness of Cardiff is due to the vast coal and iron deposits of the
country drained by the Taff and Rhymney, between whose outlets the town
is situated. But a great impetus to its development was given by the 2nd
marquess of Bute, who has often been described as the second founder of
Cardiff. In 1830 he obtained the first act for the construction of a
dock which (now known as the West Bute dock) was opened in 1839 and
measures (with its basin) 19½ acres. The opening of the Taff Vale
railway in 1840 and of the South Wales railway to Cardiff in 1850
necessitated further accommodation, and the trustees of the marquess
(who died in 1848) began in 1851 and opened in 1855 the East Bute dock
and basin measuring 46¼ acres. The Rhymney railway to Cardiff was
completed in 1858 and the trade of the port so vastly increased that the
shipment of coal and coke went up from 4562 tons in 1839 to 1,796,000
tons in 1860. In 1864 the Bute trustees unsuccessfully sought powers for
constructing three additional docks to cost two millions sterling, but
under the more limited powers granted in 1866, the Roath basin (12
acres) was opened in 1874, and (under a substituted act of 1882) the
Roath dock (33 acres) was opened in 1887. All these docks were
constructed by the Bute family at a cost approaching three millions
sterling. Still they fell far short of the requirements of the district
for in 1865 the Taff Vale Railway Company opened a dock of 26 acres
under the headland at Penarth, while in 1884 a group of colliery owners,
dissatisfied with their treatment at Cardiff, obtained powers to
construct docks at Barry which are now 114 acres in extent. The Bute
trustees in 1885 acquired the Glamorgan canal and its dock, and in the
following year obtained an act for vesting their various docks and the
canal in a company now known as the Cardiff Railway Company. The South
Bute dock of 50½ acres, authorized in 1894 and capable of accommodating
the largest vessels afloat, was opened in 1907, bringing the whole dock
area of Cardiff (including timber ponds) to about 210 acres. There are
also ten private graving and floating docks and one public graving dock.
There is ample equipment of fixed and movable staiths and cranes of
various sizes up to 70 tons, the Lewis-Hunter patent cranes being
largely used for shipping coal owing to their minimizing the breakage of
coal and securing its even distribution. The landing of foreign cattle
is permitted by the Board of Trade, and there are cattle lairs and
abattoirs near the Cardiff wharf. The total exports of the Cardiff docks
in 1906 amounted to 8,767,502 tons, of which 8,433,629 tons were coal,
coke and patent fuel, 151,912 were iron and steel and their
manufactures, and 181,076 tons of general merchandise. What Cardiff
lacks is a corresponding import trade, for its imports in 1906 amounted
to only 2,108,133 tons, of which the chief items were iron ore (895,610
tons), pit-wood (303,407), grain and flour (298,197). Taking "the port
of Cardiff" in its technical sense as including Barry and Penarth, it is
the first port in the kingdom for shipping cleared to foreign countries
and British possessions, second in the kingdom for its timber imports,
and first in the world for shipment of coal.

The east moors, stretching towards the outlet of the Rhymney river, have
become an important metallurgical quarter. Copper works were established
here in 1866, followed long after by tin-stamping and enamel works. In
1888 the Dowlais Iron Company (now Messrs Guest, Keen & Nettlefold,
Ltd.) acquired here some ninety acres on which were built four blast
furnaces and six Siemens' smelting furnaces. There are also in the city
several large grain mills and breweries, a biscuit factory, wire and
hemp roperies, fuel works, general foundries and engineering works. At
Ely, 3½ m. out of Cardiff, there are also breweries, a small tin works
and large paper works. The newspapers of Cardiff include two weeklies,
the _Cardiff Times_ and _Weekly Mail_, founded in 1857 and 1870
respectively, two morning dailies, the _South Wales Daily News_ and
_Western Mail_, established in 1872 and 1869 respectively, and two
evening dailies.

_History and Historic Buildings._--In documents of the first half of the
12th century the name is variously spelt as _Kairdif_, _Cairti_ and
_Kardid_. The Welsh form of the name, Caerdydd (pronounced Caerdeeth,
with the accent on the second syllable) suggests that the name means
"the fort of (Aulus?) Didius," rather than Caer Dâf ("the fortress on
the Taff"), which is nowhere found (except in Leland), though Caer Dyv
once existed as a variant. No traces have been found of any pre-Roman
settlement at Cardiff. Excavations carried out by the marquess of Bute
from 1889 onward furnished for the first time conclusive proof that
Cardiff had been a Roman station, and also revealed the sequence of
changes which it had subsequently undergone. There was first, on the
site occupied by the present castle, a camp of about ten acres, probably
constructed after the conquest of the Silures A.D. 75-77, so as to
command the passage of the Taff, which was here crossed by the Via
Maritima running from Gloucester to St David's. In later Roman times
there were added a series of polygonal bastions, of the type found at
Caerwent. To this period also belongs the massive rampart, over 10 ft.
thick, and the north gateway, one of the most perfect Roman gateways in
Great Britain. After the departure of the Romans the walls became
ruinous or were partly pulled down, perhaps by sea rovers from the
north. In this period of anarchy the native princes of Glamorgan had
their principal demesne, not at the camp but a mile to the north at
Llystalybont, now merely a thatched farmhouse, while some Saxon invaders
threw up within the camp a large moated mound on which the Normans about
the beginning of the 12th century built the great shell-keep which is
practically all that remains of their original castle. Its builder was
probably Robert, earl of Gloucester, who also built Bristol castle. Then
or possibly even earlier the old rampart was for two-thirds of its
circuit buried under enormous earthworks, the remainder being rebuilt.
It was in the keep, and not, as tradition says, in the much later "Black
Tower" (also called "Duke Robert's Tower"), that Robert, duke of
Normandy, was imprisoned by order of his brother Henry I. from 1108
until his death in 1134. Considerable additions of later date, in the
Decorated and Perpendicular styles, are due to the Despensers and to
Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, while the present residential part is of
various dates ranging from the 15th century down to the last half of the
19th, when a thorough restoration, including the addition of a superbly
ornamented clock-tower, was carried out. The original ditch, about 20
yds. wide, still exists on three sides, but it is now converted into a
"feeder" for the docks and canal. Geoffrey of Monmouth was at one time
chaplain of the castle, where he probably wrote some of his works. The
scene of the "sparrow-hawk" tournament, described in _Geraint and Enid_,
one of the Arthurian romances, is laid at Cardiff.

On the conquest of the district by the Normans under Fitz Hamon, Cardiff
became the caput of the seigniory of Glamorgan, and the castle the
residence of its lords. The castle and lordship descended by heirship,
male and female, through the families of De Clare, Despenser, Beauchamp
and Neville to Richard III., on whose fall they escheated to the Crown,
and were granted later, first to Jasper Tudor, and finally by Edward VI.
in 1550 to Sir William Herbert, afterwards created Baron Herbert of
Cardiff and earl of Pembroke. Through the daughter and grand-daughter of
the 7th earl the castle and estates became the property of the 1st
marquess of Bute (who was created Baron Cardiff in 1776), to whose
direct descendant they now belong.

The town received its earliest known grant of municipal privileges
sometime before 1147 from Fitz Hamon's successor and son-in-law Robert,
earl of Gloucester. In 1284 the inhabitants petitioned the burgesses of
Hereford for a certified copy of the customs of the latter town, and
these furnished a model for the later demands of the growing community
at Cardiff from its lords, while Cardiff in turn furnished the model for
the Glamorgan towns such as Neath and Kenfig. In 1324 Edward II. granted
a number of exemptions to Cardiff and other towns in South Wales, and
this grant was confirmed by Edward III. in 1359, Henry IV. in 1400,
Henry VI. in 1452, and Edward IV. in 1465.

Its most important early charter was that granted in 1340 by Hugh le
Despenser, whereby the burgesses acquired the right to nominate persons
from whom the constable of the castle should select a bailiff and other
officers, two ancient fairs, held on the 29th of June and 19th of
September, were confirmed, and extensive trading privileges were
granted, including the right to form a merchant gild. A charter granted
in 1421 by Richard de Beauchamp provided that the town should be
governed by twelve elected aldermen, but that the constable of the
castle should be mayor. In 1581 Queen Elizabeth granted a confirmatory
charter to the mayor and bailiffs direct without reference to the lord
of the castle. The town was treated as a borough by prescription until
1608, when James I. confirmed its status by express incorporation,
adding also to its rights of self-government, and granting it a third
fair (on the 30th of November). In 1687 the town surrendered this
charter to James II., who in a substituted one, which, however, was
never acted upon, reserved to the Crown the right of removing any member
of the corporation from office. The first step towards the modern
improvement of the town was taken in 1774, when a special act was
obtained for the purpose. Nineteen private acts and provisional orders
were obtained during the 19th century.

Among the many early English kings who visited or passed through Cardiff
was Henry II., on whom in 1171, outside St Piran's chapel (which has
long since disappeared), was urged the duty of Sunday observance. About
1153, Ivor Bâch (or the Little), a neighbouring Welsh chieftain, seized
the castle and for a time held William, earl of Gloucester, and the
countess prisoners in the hills. In 1404 Owen Glendower burnt the town,
except the quarters of the Friars Minors. In 1645, after the battle of
Naseby, Charles I. visited the town, which until then had been mainly
Royalist, but about a month later was taken by the Parliamentarians. In
1648, a week after the Royalists had been decisively defeated by Colonel
Horton at St Fagan's, 4 m. west of Cardiff, Cromwell passed through the
town on his way to Pembroke.

Outside the north-west angle of the castle, Richard de Clare in 1256
founded a Dominican priory, which was burnt by Glendower in 1404. Though
rebuilt, the building fell into decay after the Dissolution. The site
was excavated in 1887. Outside the north-east angle a Franciscan friary
was founded in 1280 by Gilbert de Clare, which at the Dissolution became
the residence of a branch of the Herbert family. Its site was explored
in 1896. The only other building of historic interest is the church of
St John the Baptist, which is in the Perpendicular style, its fine tower
having been built about 1443 by Hart, who also built the towers of
Wrexham and St Stephen's, Bristol. In the Herbert chapel is a fine altar
tomb of two brothers of the family. A sculptured stone reredos by W.
Goscombe John was erected in 1896. The original church of St Mary's, at
the mouth of the river, was swept away by a tidal wave in 1607:
Wordsworth took this as a subject for a sonnet.

In 1555 Rawlins White, a fisherman, was burnt at Cardiff for his
Protestantism, and in 1679 two Catholic priests were executed for
recusancy. Cardiff was the birthplace of Christopher Love (b. 1618),
Puritan author, and of William Erbury, sometime vicar of St Mary's in
the town, who, with his curate, Walter Cradock, were among the founders
of Welsh nonconformity.

  As to Roman Cardiff see articles by J. Ward in the _Archaeologia_ for
  1901 (vol. lvii.), and in _Archaeologia Cambrensis_ for 1908. As to
  the castle and the Black and Gray Friars see _Archaeologia
  Cambrensis_, 3rd series, viii. 251 (reprinted in Clark's _Medieval
  Military Architecture_), 5th series, vi. 97; vii. 283; xvii. 55; 6th
  series, i. 69. The charters of Cardiff and "Materials for a History of
  the County Borough from the Earliest Times" were published by order of
  the corporation in _Cardiff Records_ (5 vols., 1898, sqq.). See also a
  _Handbook of Cardiff and District_, prepared for the use of the
  British Association, 1891; _Cardiff, an Illustrated Handbook_, 1896;
  the _Annual Report_ of the Cardiff Chamber of Commerce; the _Calendar_
  of the University College.     (D. Ll. T.)



CARDIGAN, JAMES THOMAS BRUDENELL, 7TH EARL OF (1797-1868), English
lieutenant-general, son of the 6th earl of Cardigan (the title dating
from 1661), was born at Hambleden, Bucks, on the 16th of October 1797.
He studied for several terms at Christ Church, Oxford; and in 1818
entered parliament. He entered the army in 1824 as cornet in the 8th
Hussars, and was promoted within eight years, by purchase, to be
lieutenant-colonel in the 15th Hussars. With this regiment he made
himself one of the most unpopular of commanding officers. He gave the
reins to his natural overbearing and quarrelsome temper, treating his
men with excessive rigour and indulging in unscrupulous licentiousness.
Within two years he held 105 courts-martial, and made more than 700
arrests, although the actual strength of his regiment was only 350 men.
In consequence of one of his numerous personal quarrels, he left the
regiment in 1834; but two years later, at the urgent entreaty of his
father, he was appointed to the command of the 11th Hussars. He played
the same part as before, and was censured for it; but he was allowed to
retain his post, and the discipline and equipment of his regiment, in
which he took great pride, and on which he spent large sums of money,
received high commendation from the duke of Wellington. He succeeded to
the peerage on the death of his father in August 1837. In September 1840
Lord Cardigan fought a duel, on Wimbledon common, with one of his own
officers. The latter was wounded, and Lord Cardigan was tried before
the House of Lords on a charge of feloniously shooting his adversary.
But the trial was a mere sham, and on a trivial technical ground he was
acquitted. In 1854, at the outbreak of the Crimean War, he was appointed
to the command of the light cavalry brigade, with the rank of
major-general, and he spent a very large sum in the purchase of horses
and on the equipment of his regiment. He took a prominent part in the
early actions of the campaign, and displayed throughout the greatest
personal courage and the greatest recklessness in exposing his men. In
the charge of the light brigade at Balaklava (q.v.) he was the first man
to reach the line of the Russian guns; and Cardigan and his men alike
have been credited by the bitterest critics of the charge with splendid
daring and unquestioning obedience to orders. At the close of the war he
was created K.C.B., and was appointed inspector-general of cavalry, and
this post he held till 1860. In 1863 he engaged without success in legal
proceedings against an officer who had published an account of Balaklava
which the earl held to contain a reflection on his military character.
He attained the rank of lieutenant-general in 1861. He was twice
married, in 1826 and 1858, but had no children. On his death, which took
place on the 28th of March 1868, the family titles (including the
English barony of Brudenell, cr. 1628) passed to his relative, the
second marquess of Ailesbury.



CARDIGAN (_Aberteifi_), a seaport, market-town and municipal borough,
and the county town of Cardiganshire, Wales, picturesquely situated on
the right bank of the Teifi about 3 m. above its mouth. Pop. (1901)
3511. It is connected by an ancient stone bridge with the suburb of
Bridgend on the southern or Pembroke bank of the river. It is the
terminal station of the Whitland-Cardigan branch of the Great Western
railway. Owing to the bar at the estuary of the Teifi, the shipping
trade is inconsiderable, but there are brick-works and foundries in the
town; and as the centre of a large agricultural district, Cardigan
market is well attended. There is a curious local custom of mixing
"culm," a compound of clay and small coal, in the streets. The town has
for the most part a modern and prosperous appearance. Two bastions with
some of the curtain wall of the ancient castle remain, whilst the
dwelling-house known as Castle Green contains part of a drum tower, and
some vaulted chambers of the 13th century. The chancel of the Priory
church of St Mary is an interesting specimen of early Perpendicular
work, and the elaborate tracery of its fine east window contains some
fragments of ancient stained glass. It is the only existing portion of a
Benedictine house which was originally founded by Prince Rhys ap
Griffith in the 12th century.

Although a Celtic settlement doubtless existed near the mouth of the
Teifi from an early period, it was not until Norman times that Cardigan
became a place of importance. Its castle was first erected by Roger de
Montgomery about the year 1091, and throughout the 12th and 13th
centuries this stronghold of Cardigan played no small part in the
constant warfare between Welsh and English, either side from time to
time gaining possession of the castle and the small town dependent on
it. In 1136 the English army under Randolf, earl of Chester, was
severely defeated by the Welsh at Crûg Mawr, now called Bank-y-Warren, a
rounded hill 2 m. north-east of the town. During the latter part of the
12th century the castle became the residence of Rhys ap Griffith, prince
and justiciar of South Wales (d. 1196), who kept considerable state
within its walls, and entertained here in 1188 Archbishop Baldwin and
Giraldus Cambrensis during their preaching of the Third Crusade. In 1284
Edward I. spent a month in the castle, settling the affairs of South
Wales. This famous pile was finally taken and destroyed by the
Parliamentarian Major-General Laugharne in 1645. The lordship, castle
and town of Cardigan formed part of the dower bestowed on Queen
Catherine of Aragon by King Henry VII. Henry VIII.'s charter of 1542
confirmed earlier privileges granted by Edward I. and other monarchs,
and provided for the government of the town by a duly elected mayor, two
bailiffs and a coroner. In the assizes and quarter sessions were removed
hence to Lampeter, which has a more central position in the county.
Cardigan was declared a parliamentary borough in 1536, but in 1885 its
representation was merged in that of the county.



CARDIGANSHIRE (_Ceredigion, Sîr Aberteifi_), a county of South Wales,
bounded N. by Merioneth, E. by Montgomery, Radnor and Brecon, S. by
Carmarthen and Pembroke, and W. by Cardigan Bay of the Irish Sea. It has
an area of 688 sq. m., so that it ranks fifth in size of the Welsh
countries. The whole of Cardiganshire is hilly or undulating, with the
exception of the great bogs of Borth and Tregaron, but the mountains
generally have little grandeur in their character; Plinlimmon itself, on
the boundary of the county with Montgomeryshire, in spite of its
elevation of 2463 ft., being singularly deficient in boldness of
outline. Of other hills, only Tregaron Mountain (1778 ft.) exceeds 1500
ft. in height. Of the rivers by far the most important is the Teifi, or
Tivy, which rises above Tregaron in Llyn Teifi, one of a group of tiny
lakes which are usually termed the Teifi Pools, and flows southward
through the county as far as Lampeter, forming from this point onwards
its southern boundary. A succession of deep pools and rushing shallows,
the Teifi has from the earliest times been celebrated for the quantity
and quality of its salmon, which are netted in great numbers on Cardigan
Bar. Trout and sewin (a local species of sea-trout) are also plentiful,
so that the Teifi is much frequented by anglers. This river is also
believed to have been the last British haunt of the beaver (_afangc,
lost-llydan_), for the slaying of which a very heavy penalty was exacted
by the old royal laws of Wales. Giraldus Cambrensis, Michael Drayton,
and other writers allude to this circumstance, though at what date the
beaver became extinct in these waters is quite uncertain. On the Teifi
may frequently be observed fishermen in coracles. Other rivers worthy of
mention are the Dovey (Dyfi), separating Cardigan from Merioneth in the
extreme north; the Rheidol and the Ystwyth, which rise in Plinlimmon;
and the Aeron, which has its source in Llyn Eiddwen, a pool in the hilly
district known as Mynydd Bach. All these streams flow westward into
Cardigan Bay.

The valley of the Teifi presents many points of great beauty and
interest between Llandyssul and the sea. The rapids of Henllan, the
falls of Cenarth and the wooded cliffs of Coedmore constitute some of
the finest scenery in South Wales. The valley of the Aeron is well
wooded and fertile, while the Rheidol contains amidst striking
surroundings the famous cascade spanned by the Devil's Bridge, which is
known to the Welsh as Pont-ar-Fynach (the Monks' Bridge).

  _Geology._--The rocks of Cardiganshire consist of shales, slates and
  grits which have been folded and uptilted so that nowhere do they
  retain their original horizontality. They belong entirely to the
  Ordovician and Silurian periods; they have yielded few fossils, and
  much work remains to be done upon them before the stratigraphical
  subdivisions can be clearly defined. Many metalliferous lodes occur in
  the rocks, and the lead mines have long been famous; it was from the
  profits of his mining speculations, carried on chiefly in this county,
  that the celebrated Sir Hugh Myddleton was enabled to carry out his
  gigantic project for supplying London with water by means of the New
  River. Copper and zinc ores have also been obtained. Tregaron is the
  centre of the mining district, and the Lisburne, Goginan and Cwm
  Ystwyth mines are among the most important.

  The slates have been worked at Devil's Bridge, Corris, Strata Florida,
  Goginan, &c. Glacial drift occupies some of the lower ground, and
  peaty bogs are common on the mountains. A small tract of blown sand
  lies at the mouth of the river Dovey.

_Industries._--The climate on the coast is mild and salubrious, but that
of the hill country is cold, bleak and rainy. The cultivated crops
consist of oats, wheat, barley, turnips and potatoes; and in the lower
districts on the coast, especially in the neighbourhood of Cardigan,
Aberaeron and Llanrhystyd, good crops are raised. The uplands are mostly
covered by wild heathy pastures, which afford good grazing for Welsh
mountain sheep and ponies. The country has long been celebrated for its
breed of "Cardiganshire cobs," for which high prices are often obtained
from English dealers, who frequent the local horse fairs, especially
Dalis Fair at Lampeter. Cattle, sheep, pigs, butter, oats, wool, flannel
and coarse slates form the principal articles of export. Hand-looms are
by no means uncommon in the remote parts of the country, and clog-making
of alder wood meets a local demand. The North Cardiganshire lead-mines,
of which the Lisburne, Goginan and Cwm Ystwyth mines are the most noted,
have been famous, and are said to have been worked by the Romans. Some
of the lead raised is very rich in silver, and in the 17th century so
great was the amount of silver obtained that a mint for coining it was
erected by virtue of letters patent at Aberystwyth.

_Communications._--The railways within the county are the Cambrian, by
means of which access is given to Aberystwyth from all parts of the
kingdom; and the former Manchester & Milford line, which runs south from
Aberystwyth by Lampeter to Pencader, and has been acquired by the Great
Western railway. The lower valley of the Teifi, or Tivyside, is reached
by means of two branch lines of the Great Western railway--one from
Whitland to Cardigan, and the other from Pencader to Llandyssul and
Newcastle-Emlyn.

_Population and Administration._--The area of the administrative county
is 443,071 acres, with a population in 1891 of 63,467, and in 1901 of
60,237. The municipal boroughs are Aberystwyth (pop. 8013), Cardigan
(3511) and Lampeter (1722). Aberaeron and New Quay are urban districts.
Other towns are Tregaron (1509), an ancient but decayed market-town in a
wild boggy district; Aberaeron (1331), a small seaport, and Llandyssul
(2801,) a rising place on the Teifi with woollen factories. In modern
times several small watering-places have sprung up on the coast, notably
at Borth, New Quay, Tresaith, Aberporth and Gwbert. Quarter sessions are
held at Lampeter, and here also are held the assizes for the county,
which lies in the South Wales circuit. The county returns one member of
parliament, and has no parliamentary borough. Ecclesiastically it lies
wholly in the diocese of St David's, and contains sixty-six parishes.

_History._--In spite of its poverty and sparse population, Cardiganshire
has never ceased to play a prominent part in all Welsh political,
literary and educational movements. The early history of the district is
obscure, but at the time of the Roman invasion it was tenanted by the
Dimetae, a Celtic tribe, within whose limits was comprised the greater
portion of the south-west of Wales. After the departure of the Romans,
the whole basin of the Teifi eventually fell into the power of Ceredig,
son of Cunedda Wledig of North Wales; and the district, peopled with his
subjects and nearly co-extensive with the existing shire, obtained the
name of Ceredigion, later corrupted into Cardigan. During the 5th and
6th centuries Ceredigion was largely civilized by Celtic missionaries,
notably by St David and St Padarn, the latter of whom founded a
bishopric at Llanbadarn Fawr, which in the 8th century became merged in
the see of St David's. Two important local traditions, evidently based
on fact, are associated with this remote era:--the inundation of the
Cantref-y-Gwaelod and the synod of Llanddewi Brefi. The
Cantref-y-Gwaelod (the lowland Hundred), a large tract of flat
pasture-land containing sixteen townships, and protected from the inroad
of the sea by sluices, was suddenly submerged at an uncertain date about
the year 500. The legend of its destruction declares that Seithenyn, the
drunken keeper of the sluices, carelessly let in the waters of the bay,
with the result that the land was lost for ever, and Prince Gwyddno and
his son Elphin, with all their subjects, were forced to migrate to the
wild region of Snowdon. This tale has ever been a favourite theme with
Welsh bards, so that "the sigh of Gwyddno when the wave turned over his
land" remains a familiar figure of speech throughout Wales. In support
of this story it may be mentioned that there are indications of
submerged dwellings and roads (_e.g._ the Sarn Cynfelin and Sarn Badrig)
between the mouth of the Dovey and Cardigan Head. The famous synod of
Brefi, an historical fact clouded by miraculous details, probably took
place early in the 6th century, when at a largely attended meeting of
the Welsh clergy held at Brefi, near the source of the Teifi, St David's
eloquence for ever silenced the champions of the Pelagian heresy. In the
10th and 11th centuries the coast of Ceredigion suffered much from the
inroads of the Danes, and in later times of the Normans and Flemings;
but on the whole the native inhabitants seem to have maintained a
successful resistance. By the close of the 11th century most of
Ceredigion had been reduced by the Normans, and during the 12th and 13th
centuries it formed a favourite battle ground between the Welsh princes
and the English forces. By the Statutes of Rhuddlan (1284) Edward I.
constituted Ceredigion out of the former principality of Wales a shire
on the English model, dividing the new county into six hundreds and
fixing the assizes at Carmarthen. By the act of Union in the reign of
Henry VIII., the boundaries of the county were subsequently enlarged to
their present size by the addition of certain outlying portions of the
Marches round Tregaron and Cardigan, and the assizes were assigned to
the county town. During the rebellion of Owen Glendower in the opening
years of the 15th century, the county was again disturbed, and Owen for
a short time actually held a court in Aberystwyth Castle. In the year
1485, according to local tradition, Henry of Richmond marched through
South Cardiganshire on his way to Bosworth Field, and he is stated to
have raised recruits round Llanarth, where the old mansion of Wern,
still standing, is pointed out as his halting-place on this occasion.
Under Henry VIII. Cardiganshire was for the first time empowered to send
a representative member to parliament, and under Mary the same privilege
was extended to the boroughs. During the Great Rebellion the
county--which possessed at least three leading Parliamentarians in the
persons of Sir John Vaughan, of Crosswood, afterwards chief justice of
the common pleas; Sir Richard Pryse, of Gogerddan; and James Philipps,
of Cardigan Priory--seems to have been less Royalist in its sympathies
than other parts of Wales. At this time the castles of Cardigan and
Aberystwyth, both held in the name of King Charles, were reduced to
ruins by the Cromwellian army. In the 18th century the Methodist
movement found great support in the county; in fact, Daniel Rowland
(1713-1790), curate of Llangeitho, was one of the chief leaders of this
important revival. The 19th century witnessed the foundation of two
important educational centres in the county:--St David's College at
Lampeter (1827), and one of the three colleges of the university of
Wales at Aberystwyth (1872). In the years 1842-1843 the county was much
disturbed by the Rebecca Riots, during which a large number of turnpike
gates were destroyed by local mobs. Forty-five years later it was
affected by the Welsh agrarian agitation against payment of tithe, which
produced some scenes of violence against the distraining police,
especially in the district round Llangranog.

Chief amongst the county families of Cardigan is that of Lloyd,
descendants of the powerful Cadifor ap Dinawal, lord of Castle Howell,
in the 12th century. Certain branches of this family, such as the Lloyds
of Millfield (Maes-y-felin), the Lloyds of Llanlyr and the Lloyds of
Peterwell, are extinct, but others are still flourishing. The family of
Vaughan of Crosswood, or Trawscoed (now represented by the earl of
Lisburne), has held its family estates in the male line for many
centuries. A representative in the female line of the ancient house of
Pryse, long prominent in the annals of the county, still possesses the
old family seat of Gogerddan. Other families worthy of mention are Lloyd
of Bronwydd, Powell of Nanteos and Johnes of Hafod and Llanfair-Clydogau.

_Antiquities._--Scattered over all parts of the county are numerous
British or early medieval tumuli and camps. Traces of the ancient Roman
road, the _Via Occidentalis_--called by the Welsh _Sarn Helen_, a
corruption of _Sarn Lleon_, Road of the Legion--are to be found in the
eastern districts of the county; and at Llanio are to be seen what are
perhaps the remains of the Roman military station of Loventium. There
are also various inscribed and incised stones, of which good examples
exist in the churchyards of Llanbadarn Fawr and Llanddewi Brefi. In
buildings of interest Cardiganshire is singularly deficient. Besides the
ruins of Aberystwyth and Cardigan Castles, and of Strata Florida Abbey,
there is a large cruciform church of the 12th century at Llanbadarn
Fawr; whilst the massive parish church of Llanddewi Brefi once formed
part of the minster of a prebendal college founded by Bishop Beck of St
David's towards the close of the 13th century. Tregaron, Llanwenog,
Llandyssul and Llanarth own parish churches with western towers of early
date, but for the most part the ecclesiastical structures of
Cardiganshire are small in size and mean in appearance, and many of them
were entirely rebuilt during the latter half of the 19th century. The
little church of Eglwys Newydd, near the Devil's Bridge, contains one of
Sir Francis Chantrey's masterpieces, a white marble group in memory of
Mariamne Johnes (1818), the daughter of Thomas Johnes, of Hafod
(1748-1816), the translator of Froissart.

_Customs, etc._--The old Welsh costume, customs and superstitions are
fast disappearing, although they linger in remote districts such as the
neighbourhood of Llangeitho. The steeple-crowned beaver hat has
practically vanished, although it was in general use within living
memory; but the short petticoat and overskirt (_pais-a-gwn-bâch_),
the frilled mob-cap, little check shawl and buckled shoes are still worn
by many of the older women. Of peculiarly Welsh customs, the bidding
(_gwahoddiad_) is not quite extinct in the county. The bidding was a
formal invitation sent by a betrothed pair through a bidder
(_gwahoddwr_) to request the presence and gifts of all their neighbours
at the forthcoming marriage. All presents sent were duly registered in a
book with a view to repayment, when a similar occasion should arise in
the case of the donors. When printing became cheap and common, the
services of the professional bidder were often dispensed with, and
instead printed leaflets were circulated. The curious horse wedding
(_priodas ceffylau_) at which the man and his friends pursued the future
bride to the church porch on horseback, and then returned home at full
gallop, became obsolete before the end of the 19th century. Of the
practices connected with death, the wake, or watching of the corpse,
alone remains; but the habit of attending funerals, even those of
strangers, is still popular with both sexes, so that a funeral
procession in Cardiganshire is often a very imposing sight. Nearly all
the old superstitions, once so prevalent, concerning the fairies
(_tylwyth teg_) and fairy rings, goblins (_bwbachod_), and the teulu, or
phantom funeral, are rapidly dying out; but in the corpse candle
(_canwll corph_), a mysterious light which acts as a death-portent and
is traditionally connected with St David, are still found many
believers.

  AUTHORITIES.--Sir S.R. Meyrick, _History and Antiquities of
  Cardiganshire_ (London, 1806); Rev. G. Eyre Evans, _Cardiganshire and
  its Antiquities_ (Aberystwyth, 1903); E.R. Horsfall-Turner, _Walks and
  Wanderings in County Cardigan_ (Bingley).



CARDINAL (Lat. _cardinalis_), in the Roman Church, the title of the
highest dignitaries next to the pope. The cardinals constitute the
council or senate of the sovereign pontiff, his auxiliaries in the
general government of the Church; it is they who act as administrators
of the Church during a vacancy of the Holy See and elect the new pope.
Together they constitute a spiritual body called the Sacred College. The
dignity of cardinal is not an essential part of the legal constitution
of the Church; it is a reflection of and participation in the sovereign
dignity of the Head of the Church, by the chief clergy of the Church of
Rome. The present position is the result of a long process of evolution,
of which there are several interesting survivals.

The name is derived from _cardo_, hinge; like many other words (the word
_pope_ in particular) it was originally of a more general application,
before it was reserved exclusively to the members of the Sacred College,
and the word is still used adjectivally in the sense of pre-eminent or
that on which everything else "hinges." As early as the 6th century we
find mentioned, in the letters of St Gregory, cardinal bishops and
priests. This expression signifies clergy who are attached to their
particular church in a stable relation, as a door is attached to a
building by its hinges (see Thomassin, _Vetus et nova discipl._ vol. 1,
lib. ii. cap. 113-115). Moreover, this sense is still preserved in the
present day in the expressions _incardinatio_, _excardinatio_, which
signify the act by which a bishop permanently attaches a foreign cleric
to his diocese, or allows one of his own clergy to leave his diocese in
order to belong to another. For a long time, too, the superior clergy,
and especially the canons of cathedrals or the heads of important
churches, were _cardinales_ (see examples in Du Cange, _Glossarium_,
s.v.). Gradually, however, this title was confined by usage to the Roman
cardinals, until Pius V., by his constitution of the 15th of February
1568, reserved it to them exclusively.


  The Sacred College.

The grouping of the cardinals into a body called the Sacred College, the
College of Cardinals, is connected, in the case at least of cardinal
priests, with the ancient _presbyterium_, which existed in each church
from the earliest times. The Sacred College as such was not, however,
definitively constituted until the uniting of the three orders of
cardinals into a single body, the body which was to elect the pope; and
this only took place in the 12th century. Up till that time the elements
remained distinct, and there were separate classes: the "Roman" bishops,
i.e. bishops of sees near Rome, presbyters of the "titles" (_tituli_) of
Rome, and deacons of the Roman Church. Nowadays, the Sacred College is
still composed of three orders or categories: cardinal bishops, cardinal
priests, and cardinal deacons. But the process of evolution has not been
the same in the case of all these orders.


  Cardinal bishops.

Cardinal bishops are the bishops of suburbicarian churches, situated in
the immediate neighbourhood of Rome. Very early we find them assisting
the pope in his ritual functions and in dealing with important business;
they formed a kind of permanent synod (cf. the [Greek: synodos
endêmousa] of Constantinople): and they also took the place of the pope
in the ceremonies of the liturgy, excepting the most important ones, and
especially in the service of the cathedral at Rome, the Lateran. A
passage from the life of Stephen II. (A.D. 769), in the _Liber
Pontificalis_ (ed. Duchesne, i. p. 478), shows clearly that they were
seven in number and served for a week in turn: _Hic constituit ut omni
dominico die a septem Episcopis cardinalibus hebdomadariis, qui in
ecclesia Salvatoris_ (the Lateran) _observant, missarum solemnia super
altare Beati Petri celebrarentur_. They were called "cardinal bishops of
the Lateran church," as recorded by St Peter Damian in 1058 (Ep. 1, lib.
ii.). Their sees are the same to-day as they were then: Ostia, Porto,
Santa Rufina (Sylva Candida), Albano, Sabina, Tusculum (Frascati) and
Palestrina. From time immemorial the bishop of Ostia has had the
privilege of sacring the pope, and on this ground he enjoys the right of
wearing the "pallium"; he is _ex officio_ dean of the suburbicarian
bishops, and consequently dean of the Sacred College. His episcopal see
having been in ruins for a long time, that of Velletri has been joined
to it. The second rank belongs to the bishop of Porto, who is _ex
officio_ vice-dean of the Sacred College; his episcopal see being also
in ruins Calixtus II. added to it that of Santa Rufina, thus reducing
the number of suburbicarian bishoprics and cardinal bishops to six; this
number was adhered to by Sixtus V., and has not varied since.


  Cardinal priests.

The second order of cardinals is that of the cardinal priests. It
represents and is a continuation of the ancient _presbyterium_; but in
Rome the process of evolution was different from that in the other
episcopal towns. In the latter, the division into parishes was but
slowly accomplished; there is no authority for their existence before
the year 1000; the bishop with the higher clergy, now developed into the
chapter, were in residence at the cathedral, which formed, as it were,
the one parish in the town. At Rome, on the contrary (and doubtless at
Alexandria), certain churches, to which were attached certain districts,
were at an early date entrusted to one or more priests. These churches,
in which the liturgy was celebrated, or certain sacraments administered,
were called _tituli_ (titles). According to the _Liber Pontificalis_
(ed. Duchesne, i. pp. 122, 126, 164), the titles of Rome, numbering
twenty-five, were already established as early as the 1st century; this
seems hardly probable, but it was certainly the case in the 5th century.
The priest serving one of these churches was the priest of that title,
and, similarly, the church which he served was that priest's title. When
several priests were attached to the same church, only the first, or
principal one, had the title; he alone was the _presbyter cardinalis_.
This practice explains how it is that the Roman presbyterium did not
give rise to a cathedral chapter, but to cardinal priests, each attached
to his title. As the higher clergy of Rome gradually acquired a more
important status, the relations between the cardinal priest and the
church of which he bore the title became more and more nominal; but they
have never entirely ceased. Even to-day every cardinal priest has his
title, a church in Rome of which he is the spiritual head, and the name
of which appears in his official signature, e.g. "Herbertus tituli
sanctorum Andreae et Gregorii sanctae romanae ecclesiae presbyter
cardinalis Vaughan." When the attachment of the cardinal priest to his
title had become no more than a tradition, the number of cardinal
titles, which in the 11th century had reached twenty-eight, was
increased according to need, and it was held an honour for a church to
be made titulary. The last general rearrangement of the titular churches
was begun by Clement VIII. and completed by Paul V.; Leo XIII. made a
title of the church of San Vitale. To-day, according to the _Gerarchia
Pontificia_ the cardinal titles number fifty-three; since the highest
possible number of cardinal priests is fifty, and this number is never
reached, it follows that there are always a certain number of vacant
titles. The first title is that of San Lorenzo in Lucina, and the
cardinal priest of the oldest standing takes the name of "first priest,"
_protopresbyter_.


  Cardinal deacons.

The third order of cardinals is that of the cardinal deacons. For a long
time the Roman Church, faithful to the example of the primitive church
at Jerusalem (Acts vi.), had only seven deacons. Their special function
was the administration of her temporal property, and particularly works
of charity. Between them were divided at an early date the fourteen
districts (_regiones_) of Rome, grouped two by two so as to constitute
the seven ecclesiastical districts. Now the charitable works were
carried on in establishments called _diaconiae_, adjoining churches
which were specially appropriated to each _diaconia_. The connexion
between the names (_diaconus_) and (_diaconia_) and the presence of a
church in connexion with each diaconia gradually established for the
deacons a position analogous to that of priests. In the 8th century Pope
Adrian found sixteen diaconiae and founded two others (_Lib. Pont._ ed.
Duchesne, i. p. 509); in the 12th century the cardinal deacons, who then
numbered eighteen, were no longer distinguished by an ecclesiastical
district, as they had formerly been, but by the name of the church
connected with some diaconia (loc. cit. p. 364). By the time of Sixtus
V. the connexion between a cardinal deacon and his diaconia was merely
nominal. Sixtus reduced the number of cardinal deacons to fourteen; and
this is still the number to-day. Except that his church is called a
diaconia, and not a title, the cardinal deacon is in this respect
assimilated to the cardinal priest; but he does not mention his diaconia
in his official signature: e.g. "Joannes Henricus diaconus cardinalis
Newman." There are at present sixteen diaconiae, the chief being that of
Santa Maria in Via lata; the cardinal deacon of longest standing takes
the name of "first deacon," _protodiaconus_.

  Cardinals can pass from one order, title or see to another, by a
  process of "option." When a suburbicarian see falls vacant, the
  cardinals resident at Rome have the right of "opting" for it in order
  of rank,--that is to say, of claiming it in consistory and receiving
  their promotion to it. In the same way cardinal deacons can pass after
  ten years to the order of priests, while retaining after their passage
  the rank in the Sacred College given them by the date of their
  promotion.

  With the exception of the classes resulting from the order to which
  they belong, there are no distinctions between the rights of the
  various cardinals. As to the ordination obligatory upon them, it is
  that indicated in their title; cardinal bishops must naturally be
  bishops; for cardinal priests it is enough to have received the
  priesthood, though many of them are actually bishops; similarly, it is
  enough for cardinal deacons to have received the diaconate, though
  most of them are priests; cases have occurred, however, even in quite
  recent times, of cardinals who have only received the diaconate, e.g.
  Cardinal Mertel.

  There is one cardinal chosen by the pope from among the Sacred College
  to whom is entrusted the administration of the common property; this
  is the cardinal camerlengo or chamberlain (_camerarius_). His office
  is an important one, for during the vacancy of the Holy See it is he
  who exercises all external authority, especially that connected with
  the Conclave.


  Number and distribution.

The number of the cardinals reaches a total of 70: six cardinal
bishops, fifty cardinal priests and fourteen cardinal deacons. This
number was definitively fixed by Sixtus V. (constit. _Postquam_, 5th
December 1586); but the Sacred College never reaches its full number,
and there are always ten or so "vacant hats," as the saying goes. Though
the rule laid down by Sixtus V. has not been modified since, before him
the number of cardinals was far from being constant. For a long time it
varied in the neighbourhood of twenty; in 1331 John XXII. said that
there were twenty cardinals; in 1378 they were reckoned at 23. Their
number increased during the Great Schism because there were several
rival obediences. The councils of Constance and Basel reduced the number
of cardinals to 24; but it did not rest at that for long, and in the
16th century was more than doubled. In 1517 Leo X., in order to
introduce strong supporters of himself into the Sacred College, created
31 cardinals at the same time. The highest number was reached under Pius
IV., when the cardinals numbered as many as 76.

The composition of the Sacred College is subject to no definite law; but
the necessity for giving a first representation to different interests,
especially in view of the election of the popes, has for a long time
past thrown open the Sacred College to representatives of the episcopate
of the Catholic nations. From the 11th century onwards are to be found
cases in which the pope summoned to its ranks persons who did not belong
to the Roman Church, particularly abbots, who were not even required to
give up the direction of their monasteries. In the following century
occur a few cases of bishops being created cardinals without having to
leave their see, and of cardinals upon whom were conferred foreign
bishoprics (cf. Thomassin, loc. cit. cap. 114, n. 9). Of the cardinals
created by the popes of Avignon the majority were French, and in 1331
John XXII. remarks that 17 cardinals were French out of the 20 who then
existed. The councils of Constance and Basel forbade that more than a
third of the cardinals should belong to the same country. After the
return of the popes to Rome and after the Great Schism, the ancient
customs were soon resumed; the cardinals were for the most part
Italians, the entire number of cardinals' hats conferred on the other
Catholic nations only amounting to a minority. The non-Italian
cardinals, with rare exceptions, are not resident in Rome; together with
the rank of cardinal they receive a dispensation from residing _in
curia_; they are none the less, as cardinals, priests or deacons of the
Roman Church.


  Qualifications.

The reform of the College of Cardinals inaugurated by the councils of
Constance and Basel, though without much immediate success, was not only
concerned with the number and nationality of the cardinals; it also
dealt with conditions of age, learning and other qualifications: men of
the most honourable character, aged not less than thirty, were to be
chosen; at least a third were to be chosen from among the graduates of
the universities; persons of royal blood and princes were not to be
admitted in too great numbers, and lastly, relatives of the pope were to
be set aside. Moreover, in order to secure the effectiveness of these
reforms, selection of the new cardinals was to be made by the votes of
the members of the Sacred College given in writing. This mode of control
was perhaps excessive, and the reform consequently remained ineffective.
Up to the middle of the 16th century there were still instances of
unfortunate and even scandalous appointments to the cardinalate of very
young men, of relatives or favourites of the popes and of men whose
qualifications were by no means ecclesiastical. In the Sacred College as
elsewhere nepotism and an exaggerated estimate of temporal interests
were rife. At last a real reform was effected. The council of Trent
(sess. xxiv. cap. i. _de reform._) requires for cardinals all the
qualifications prescribed by law for bishops. Sixtus V. defined these
still more clearly, and his regulations are still in force: a cardinal
must, in the year of his promotion, be of the canonical age required for
his reception into the order demanded by his rank. i.e. 22 for the
diaconate, 23 for the priesthood and 30 for the episcopate, and if not
already ordained he must take orders in the year of his appointment. Men
of illegitimate birth are excluded, as well as near relatives of the
pope (with one exception) and of the cardinals; the personal qualities
to be most sought for are learning, holiness and an honourable life. All
these recommendations have been, on the whole, well observed, and are so
better than ever in the present day. We may add that the religious
orders have had a certain number of representatives, four, at least, in
the Sacred College, since Sixtus V., several of whom, as we know, became
popes. As to the cardinals' hats granted at the request of the heads of
Catholic states, they are subject to negotiations analogous to those
concerning nominations to the episcopate, though entailing no
concordatory agreement, strictly speaking, on the part of the popes.


  Creation.

The _creation_ of cardinals (to use the official term) is in fact
nowadays the function of the pope alone. It is accomplished by the
publication of the persons chosen by the pope in secret consistory
(q.v.). No other formality is essential; and the provision of Eugenius
IV., which required the reception of the insignia of the cardinalate for
the promotion to be valid, was abrogated before long, and definitely
annulled by the declaration of Pius V. of the 26th of January 1571.
Similarly neither the consent nor the vote of the Sacred College is
required. It is true that a Roman _Ceremoniale_ of 1338 (Thomassin, loc.
cit. cap. 114, n. 12) still enjoins upon the pope to consult the Sacred
College, on the Wednesdays during Ember days, as to whether it is
necessary to nominate new cardinals, and if so, how many; but this is
only a survival of the ritual of the ancient form of ordination. The
injunctions of the councils of Constance and Basel as to the written
vote of the cardinals became before very long a dead letter, but there
still remains a relic of them. In the consistory, when the pope has
nominated those whom he desires to raise to the purple, he puts to the
cardinals present the question: "Quid vobis videtur?" The cardinals bend
the head as a sign of their consent, and the pope then continues:
"Itaque, auctoritate omnipotentis Dei, sanctorum Apostolorum Petri et
Pauli, et Nostra, creamus et publicamus sanctae romanae Ecclesiae
cardinales N. et N., etc."

The new dignitary, who has been warned of his nomination several weeks
in advance by "biglietto" (note) from the office of the secretary of
state, is then officially informed of it by a _ceremoniarius_ of the
pope; he at once waits upon the pope, to whom he is presented by one of
the cardinals. The pope first invests him with the rochet and red
biretta, but there is no formal ceremony. The conferring of the
cardinal's red hat takes place a few days later in a public consistory;
while placing the hat on his head the pope pronounces the following
words: "Ad laudem omnipotentis Dei et Sanctae Sedis ornamentum, accipe
galerum rubrum, insigne singularis dignitatis cardinalatus, per quod
designatur quod usque ad mortem et sanguinis effusionem inclusive pro
exaltatione sanctae fidei, pace et quiete populi christiani, augmento et
statu sacrosanctae romanae Ecclesiae, te intrepidum exhibere debeas, in
nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti." While pronouncing the last
words the pope makes the sign of the cross three times over the new
cardinal. The public consistory is immediately followed by a secret
consistory, to accomplish the last ceremonies. The pope begins by
closing the mouth of the new cardinal, who is led before him, as a
symbol of the discretion he should observe; after this he bestows on him
the cardinal's ring, assigns him a title or diaconia; and finally, after
going through the formality of consulting the Sacred College, finishes
with the symbolic ceremony of the opening of the mouth, signifying the
right and duty of the new cardinal to express his opinion and vote in
the matters which it will fall to him to consider.

When the cardinals are resident abroad and appointed at the request of
the heads of their state, a member of the Noble Guard is sent on the
same day that the consistory is held to take the new dignitary the
cardinal's "calotte"; after a few days the red biretta is brought to him
by a Roman prelate, with the powers of an _ablegatus_; the biretta is
conferred on him with great pomp by the head of the state. But the
conferring of the red hat always takes place at the hands of the pope in
a public consistory.


  Cardinals "in petto."

Sometimes, after nominating the cardinals, the pope adds that he also
appoints a certain number of others, whose names he does not divulge,
but reserves the right of publishing at a later date. These cardinals,
whose names he conceals "in his breast," are for that reason called
cardinals _in pectore_ (Ital. _in petto_). This practice seems to go
back to Martin V., who may have had recourse to this expedient in order
to avoid the necessity of soliciting the votes of the cardinals; but for
a long time past the popes have only resorted to it for quite other
reasons. If the pope dies before making known the cardinals _in petto_,
the promotion is not valid; if he publishes them, the cardinals take
rank from the day on which they were reserved _in pectore_, the
promotion acting retrospectively, even in the matter of emoluments. This
method has sometimes been used by the popes to ensure to certain
prelates who had merit, but were poor, the means of paying the expenses
of their promotion. In March 1875 Pius IX. announced the nomination of
several cardinals _in petto_, whose names would be given in his will. It
was pointed out to the pope that this posthumous publication would not
be a pontifical act, and ran the risk of being contested, or even
declared invalid; Pius IX. gave way before this reasoning, and published
the names in a subsequent consistory (Sept. 17).


  Dignity.

The dignity of the cardinals is a participation in that of the sovereign
pontiff, and as such places them above all the other ecclesiastical
dignitaries and prelates. This rank, however, has not always been
assigned to them; but was attributed to the cardinal bishops before it
was to the rest. Their common prerogative was definitively established
when they became the sole electors of the pope, at a period when the
papacy, under pontiffs like Innocent III., shone with its most brilliant
lustre. For example, at the council of Lyons in 1245 all the cardinals
took precedence of the archbishops and bishops. It was in 1245, or
perhaps the year before, that Innocent IV. granted the cardinals the
privilege of wearing the red hat; as to the scarlet robe which still
forms their costume of ceremony, it was already worn by cardinals
performing the functions of legate; and the use was soon extended to
all. As to their civil relations, cardinals were assimilated by the
Catholic kings to the rank of princes of the blood royal, cardinals
being the highest in the Church, after the pope, just as princes of the
blood royal are the first in the kingdom after the king. Of the many
ecclesiastical privileges enjoyed by the cardinals, we will mention only
two: the real, though nowadays restricted, jurisdiction which they
exercise over the churches forming their title or diaconia; and the
official style of address conferred on them by Urban VIII. (10th of June
1630), of Eminence, _Eminentissimo signore_.


  Functions.

The most lofty function of the cardinals is the election of the pope
(see CONCLAVE). But this function is necessarily intermittent, and they
have many others to fulfil _sede plena_. On those rare occasions on
which the pope officiates in person, they carry out, according to their
respective orders, their former functions in the ritual. But they are,
above all, the assistants of the pope in the administration of the
Church; they fill certain permanent offices, such as those of
chancellor, penitentiary, &c.; or again, temporary missions, such as
that of legate _a latere_; they have seats in the councils and tribunals
which deal with the affairs of the Church, and the Roman congregations
of cardinals (see CURIA ROMANA).

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--All works on canon law contain a treatise on the
  cardinals. See particularly, for the history, Thomassin, _Vetus et
  nova discipl._, tom. I., lib. ii., cap. 113-115. For history and law,
  Phillips, _Kirchenrecht_, vol. vi.; Hinschius, _System des kathol.
  Kirchenrechts_, vol. i. p. 312. For the canonical aspect, Ferraris,
  _Prompta bibliotheca_, s.v. "Cardinales"; Bouix, _De curia romana_
  (Paris, 1859), pp. 5-141; Card. de Luca, _Relatio curiae romanae_,
  disc. 5. For details of the ceremonies and costume, Grimaldi, _Les
  Congrégations romaines_ (Sienna, 1890), p. 99 et seq.; Barbier de
  Montault, _Le Costume et les usages ecclésiastiques_ (Paris), s.d. For
  a list of the names of the cardinals, according to their titles, see
  De Mas-Latrie, _Trésor de chronologie_, col. 2219-2264; and in the
  chronological order of their promotion, from St Leo IX. to Benedict
  XIV., ibid. 1177-1242; also _Dictionnaire des cardinaux_ (Paris,
  1856).     (A. Bo.*)



CARDINAL VIRTUES (Lat. _cardo_, a hinge; the fixed point on which
anything turns), a phrase used for the principal virtues on which
conduct in general depends. Socrates and Plato (see _Republic_, iv. 427)
take these to be Prudence, Courage (or Fortitude), Temperance and
Justice. It is noticeable that the virtue of Benevolence, which has
played so important a part in Christian ethics and in modern altruistic
and sociological theories, is omitted by the ancients. Further, against
the Platonic list it may be urged (1) that it is arbitrary, and (2) that
the several virtues are not specifically distinct, that the basis of the
division is unsound, and that there is overlapping. It is said that St
Ambrose was the first to adapt the Platonic classification to Christian
theology. By the Roman Catholic Church these virtues are regarded as
_natural_ as opposed to the _theological_ virtues, Faith, Hope and
Charity. Some authors, combining the two lists, have spoken of the Seven
Cardinal Virtues. In English literature the phrase is found as far back
as the _Cursor Mundi_ (1300) and the _Ayenbite of Inwit_ (1340).

  See B. Jowett, _Republic of Plato_ (Eng. trans., Oxford, 1887, Introd.
  p. lxiii); Plato, _Protagoras_ (329-330); Aristotle, _Nicomachean
  Ethics_, vi. 13. 6; Th. Ziegler, _Gesch. d. chr. Eth._ (2nd ed.); H.
  Sidgwick, _History of Ethics_ (5th ed.), pp. 44, 133, 143; and
  _Methods of Ethics_, p. 375.



CARDING, the process of using the "card" (Lat. _carduus_, a thistle or
teasel) for combing textile fibrous materials. The practice of carding
is of such great antiquity that its origin cannot be traced. It consists
in combing or brushing fibres until they are straight and placed in
parallel lines; in doing this, imperfect fibres are separated from
perfect ones, all impurities are removed, and the sound fibres are in
condition for further treatment. The teasels once used have long given
place to hand cards, and these in turn to what, in the rudest form, were
known as "stock cards," namely, two wire brushes, each 4 in. broad by 12
in. long, and having teeth bent at a uniform angle. One was nailed upon
a bench with the teeth sloping from the operator, the other was
similarly secured upon a two-handled bar with the teeth sloping towards
the operator. The material to be treated was thinly spread upon the
fixed card, and the movable one drawn by hand to and fro over it. When
sufficiently carded, a rod furnished with parallel projecting needles,
called a "needle stick," was pushed amongst the card teeth to strip the
fibres from the comb. The strip thus procured was rolled into a sliver
and spun. James Hargreaves, the inventor of the spinning jenny,
suspended the movable comb by passing two cords over pulleys fixed in
the ceiling and attached balance weights to opposite ends of the cords.
This enabled him to lengthen the cards, to apply two or three to the
same stock and to manipulate the top one with less labour, as well as to
produce more and better work. In May of 1748, Daniel Bourn, of
Leominster, patented a machine in which four parallel rollers were
covered with cards, and set close together. Fibres were fed to the first
rotating roller, each in turn drew them from the preceding one, and a
grid was employed to remove the carded material from the last roller.
This introduced the principle of carding with revolving cylinders whose
surfaces were clothed with cards working point to point. In December of
the same year Lewis Paul, of Birmingham, the inventor of drawing
rollers, patented two types of carding engines. In one, parallel rows of
spaced cards were nailed upon a cylinder which was revolved by a winch
handle. Beneath the cylinder a concave trough had a card fixed on the
inside, so that as the fibres passed between the two series of teeth
they were combed. This was the origin of "flat-carding," namely, nailing
strips of stationary cards upon transverse pieces of wood and adjusting
the strips or flats by screws to the cylinder. In 1762, the father of
Sir Robert Peel, with the assistance of Hargreaves, erected and used a
cylinder carding engine which differed in some important particulars
from Bourn's invention. But although roller-carding and flat-carding are
the only principles in use at the present time, to Sir Richard Arkwright
belongs the merit of introducing an automatic carding engine, for
between the years 1773 and 1775 he combined the various improvements of
his predecessors, entirely remodelled the machine, and added parts
which made the operation continuous. So successful were these cards that
some of them were in use at the beginning of the present century.
Notwithstanding the numerous and important changes that have been made
since Arkwright's time, carding remains essentially the same as
established by him. (See COTTON-SPINNING MACHINERY.)     (T. W. F.)



CARDIOID, a curve so named by G.F.M.M. Castillon (1708-1791), on account
of its heart-like form (Gr. [Greek: kardia], heart). It was
mathematically treated by Louis Carré in 1705 and Koersma in 1741. It is
a particular form of the limaçon (q.v.) and is generated in the same
way. It may be regarded as an epicycloid in which the rolling and fixed
circles are equal in diameter, as the inverse of a parabola for its
focus, or as the caustic produced by the reflection at a spherical
surface of rays emanating from a point on the circumference. The polar
equation to the cardioid is r = a(1 + cos [theta]). There is symmetry
about the initial line and a cusp at the origin. The area is
{3/2}[pi]a², i.e. 1½ times the area of the generating circle; the length
of the curve is 8a. (For a figure see LIMAÇON.)



CARDONA (perhaps the anc. _Udura_), a town of north-eastern Spain, in
the province of Barcelona; about 55 m. N.W. of Barcelona, on a hill
almost surrounded by the river Cardoner, a branch of the Llobregat. Pop.
(1900) 3855. Cardona is a picturesque and old-fashioned town, with
Moorish walls and citadel, and a 14th-century church. It is celebrated
for the extensive deposit of rock salt in its vicinity. The salt forms a
mountain mass about 300 ft. high and 3 m. in circumference, covered by a
thick bed of a reddish-brown clay, and apparently resting on a
yellowish-grey sandstone. It is generally more or less translucent, and
large masses of it are quite transparent. The hill is worked like a
mine; pieces cut from it are carved by artists in Cardona into images,
crucifixes and many articles of an ornamental kind.



CARDOON, _Cynara cardunculus_ (natural order Compositae), a perennial
plant from the south of Europe and Barbary, a near relation of the
artichoke. The edible part, called the _chard_, is composed of the
blanched and crisp stalks of the inner leaves. Cardoons are found to
prosper on light deep soils. The seed is sown annually about the middle
of May, in shallow trenches, like those for celery, and the plants are
thinned out to 10 or 12 in. from each other in the lines. In Scotland it
is preferable to sow the seed singly in small plots, placing them in a
mild temperature, and transplanting them into the trenches after they
have attained a height of 8 or 10 in. Water must be copiously supplied
in dry weather, both to prevent the formation of flower-stalks and to
increase the succulence of the leaves. In autumn the leaf-stalks are
applied close to each other, and wrapped round with bands of hay or
straw, only the points being left free. Earth is then drawn up around
them to the height of 15 or 18 in. Sometimes cardoons are blanched by a
more thorough earthing up, in the manner of celery, but in this case the
operation must be carried on from the end of summer. During severe frost
the tops of the leaves should be defended with straw or litter. Besides
the common and Spanish cardoons, there are the prickly-leaved Tours
cardoon, the red-stemmed cardoon and the Paris cardoon, all of superior
quality, the Paris being the largest and most tender. The common
artichoke is also used for the production of chard.



CARDS, PLAYING. As is the case with all very ancient pastimes, the
origin of playing-cards is obscure, many nations having been credited
with the invention, but the generally accepted view is that they come
from Asia. In the Chinese dictionary, _Ching-tsze-tung_ (1678), it is
said that cards were invented in the reign of Sèun-ho, 1120 A.D., for
the amusement of his concubines. There is a tradition that cards have
existed in India from time immemorial--very ancient ones, round in form,
are preserved in museums--and that they were invented by the Brahmans.
Their invention has also been assigned to the Egyptians, with whom they
were said to have had a religious meaning, and to the Arabs. A very
ingenious theory, founded on numerous singular resemblances to the
ancient game of chess (_chaturanga_, the four _angas_ or members of an
army), has been advanced that they were suggested by chess (see "Essay
on the Indian Game of Chess," by Sir William Jones, in his _Asiatic
Researches_, vol. ii.).

The time and manner of the introduction of cards into Europe are matters
of dispute. The 38th canon of the council of Worcester (1240) is often
quoted as evidence of cards having been known in England in the middle
of the 13th century; but the games _de rege et regina_ there mentioned
are now thought to have been a kind of mumming exhibition (Strutt says
chess). No queen is found in the earliest European cards. In the
wardrobe accounts of Edward I. (1278), Walter Stourton is paid 8s. 3d.
_ad opus regis ad ludendum ad quatuor reges_, a passage which has been
thought to refer to cards, but it is now supposed to mean chess, which
may have been called the "game of four kings," as was the case in India
(_chaturaji_). If cards were generally known in Europe as early as 1278,
it is very remarkable that Petrarch, in his dialogue that treats of
gaming, never once mentions them; and that, though Boccaccio, Chaucer
and other writers of that time notice various games, there is not a
single passage in them that can be fairly construed to refer to cards.
Passages have been quoted from various works, of or relative to this
period, but modern research leads to the supposition that the word
rendered _cards_ has often been mistranslated or interpolated. An early
mention of a distinct series of playing cards is the entry of Charles or
Charbot Poupart, treasurer of the household of Charles VI. of France, in
his book of accounts for 1392 or 1393, which runs thus: _Donné à
Jacquemin Gringonneur, peintre, pour trois jeux de cartes, à or et à
diverses couleurs, ornés de plusieurs devises, pour porter devers le
Seigneur Roi, pour son êbatement, cinquante-six sols parisis_. This, of
course, refers only to the painting of a set or pack of cards, which
were evidently already well known. But, according to various conjectural
interpretations of documents, the earliest date of the mention of cards
has been pushed farther back by different authorities. For instance, in
the account-books of Johanna, duchess of Brabant, and her husband,
Wenceslaus of Luxemburg, there is an entry, under date of the 14th of
May 1379, as follows: "Given to Monsieur and Madame four peters, two
florins, value eight and a half moutons, wherewith to buy a pack of
cards" (_Quartspel met te copen_). This proves their introduction into
the Netherlands at least as early as 1379. In a British Museum MS.
(Egerton, 2, 419) mention is made of a game of cards (_qui ludus
cartarum appellatur_) in Germany in 1377. The safe conclusion with
regard to their introduction is that, though they may possibly have been
known to a few persons in Europe about the middle of the 14th century,
they did not come into general use until about a half-century later.
Whence they came is another question that has not yet been answered
satisfactorily. If we may believe the evidence of Covelluzzo of Viterbo
(15th century) cards were introduced into Italy from Arabia. On the
authority of a chronicle of one of his ancestors he writes: "In the year
1379 was brought into Viterbo the game of cards, which comes from the
country of the Saracens, and is with them called _naib_." The Crusaders,
who were inveterate gamblers, may have been the instruments of their
introduction (see _Istoria della città di Viterbo_, by F. Bussi, Rome,
1743). According to other authorities, cards came first to Spain from
Africa with the Moors, and it is significant that, to this day, playing
cards are called in Spain _naipes_ (probably a corruption of the Arabic
_Nabi_, prophet). Taken in connexion with the statement of Covelluzzo,
this fact would seem to prove the wide popularity of the game of _naib_,
or cards, among the Arab tribes. The meaning of the word (prophet) has
been suggested to refer to the fortune-telling function of cards, and
the theory has been advanced that they were used by the Moorish gypsies
for that purpose. Gypsies are, however, not known to have appeared in
Spain before the 15th century, at a time when cards were already well
known. In regard to the word _naib_, the Italian language still
preserves the name _naibi_, playing cards.

Towards the end of the 14th century cards seem to have become common,
for in an edict of the provost of Paris, 1397, working-people are
forbidden to play at tennis, bowls, dice, cards or nine-pins on working
days. From an omission of any mention of cards in an ordonnance of
Charles V. in 1369, forbidding certain other games, it may be reasonably
concluded that cards became popular in France between that date and the
end of the century. In Italy it is possible that they were generally
known at a somewhat earlier date. In the 15th century they were often
the object of the attacks of the clergy. In 1423 St Bernardino of Siena
preached a celebrated sermon against them at Bologna, in which, like the
English Puritans after him, he attributed their invention to the devil.
Cards in Germany are referred to in a manuscript of Nuremberg about
1384, which illustrates the rapid spread of the new game throughout
Europe. In form the earliest cards were generally rectangular or square,
though sometimes circular.

Not long after their introduction, cards began to be used for other
purposes than gaming. In 1509 a Franciscan friar, Thomas Murner,
published an exposition of logic in the form of a pack of cards, and a
pack invented in 1651 by Baptist Pendleton purported to convey a
knowledge of grammar. These were soon followed by packs teaching
geography and heraldry, the whole class being called "scientiall cards."
Politics followed, and in England satirical and historical sets
appeared, one of them designed to reveal the plots of the Popish
agitators. The first mention of cards in the New World is found in the
letters of Herrera, a companion of Cortes, who describes the interest
manifested by the Aztecs in the card games of the Spanish soldiers.

Early in the 15th century the making of cards had become a regular trade
in Germany, whence they were sent to other countries. Cards were also
manufactured in Italy at least as early as 1425, and in England before
1463; for by an act of parliament of 3 Edw. IV. the importation of
playing cards is forbidden, in consequence, it is said, of the
complaints of manufacturers that importation obstructed their business.
No cards of undoubted English manufacture of so early a date have been
discovered; and there is reason to believe, notwithstanding the act of
Edward IV., that the chief supplies came from France or the Netherlands.
In the reign of Elizabeth the importation of cards was a monopoly; but
from the time of James I. most of the cards used in this country were of
home manufacture. A duty was first levied on cards in the reign of James
I.; since when they have always been taxed.

It has been much disputed whether the earliest cards were printed from
wood-blocks. If so, it would appear that the art of wood-engraving,
which led to that of printing, may have been developed through the
demand for the multiplication of implements of play. The belief that the
early card-makers or card-painters of Ulm, Nuremberg and Augsburg, from
about 1418-1450, were also wood-engravers, is founded on the assumption
that the cards of that period were printed from wood-blocks. It is,
however, clear that the earliest cards were executed by hand, like those
designed for Charles VI. Many of the earliest wood-cuts were coloured by
means of a stencil, so it would seem that at the time wood-engraving was
first introduced, the art of depicting and colouring figures by means of
stencil plates was well known. There are no playing cards engraved on
wood to which so early a date as 1423 (that of the earliest dated
wood-engraving generally accepted) can be fairly assigned; and as at
this period there were professional card-makers established in Germany,
it is probable that wood-engraving was employed to produce cuts for
sacred subjects before it was applied to cards, and that there were
hand-painted and stencilled cards before there were wood-engravings of
saints. The German _Briefmaler_ or card-painter probably progressed into
the wood-engraver; but there is no proof that the earliest
wood-engravers were the card-makers.

It is undecided whether the earliest cards were of the kind now common,
called _numeral_ cards, or whether they were _tarocchi_ or _tarots_,
which are still used in some parts of France, Germany and Italy, but the
probability is that the tarots were the earlier. A pack of tarots
consists of seventy-eight cards, four suits of numeral cards and
twenty-two emblematic cards, called _atutti_ or _atouts_ (=trumps). Each
suit consists of fourteen cards, ten of which are the pip cards, and
four court (or more properly _coat_ cards), viz. king, queen, chevalier
and valet. The _atouts_ are numbered from 1 to 21; the unnumbered card,
called the _fou_, has no positive value, but augments that of the other
_atouts_ (see _Académie des jeux_, Corbet, Paris, 1814, for an account
of the mode of playing tarocchino or tarots).

The marks of the suits on the earliest cards (German) are hearts, bells,
leaves and acorns. No ace corresponding to the earliest known pack has
been discovered; but other packs of about the same date have aces, and
it seems unlikely that the suits commenced with the deuces.

Next in antiquity to the marks mentioned are swords, batons, cups and
money. These are the most common on Italian cards of the late 15th
century, and are used both in Italy and in Spain. French cards of the
16th century bear the marks now generally used in France and England,
viz. _coeur_ (hearts), _trèfle_ (clubs), _pique_ (spades) and _carreau_
(diamonds).

The French _trèfle_, though so named from its resemblance to the trefoil
leaf, was in all probability copied from the acorn; and the _pique_
similarly from the leaf (_grün_) of the German suits, while its name is
derived from the sword of the Italian suits. It is not derived from its
resemblance to a pike head, as commonly supposed. In England the French
marks are used, and are named--hearts, clubs (corresponding to _trèfle_,
the French symbol being joined to the Italian name, _bastoni_), spades
(corresponding to the French _pique_, but having the Italian name,
_spade_=swords) and diamonds. This confusion of names and symbols is
accounted for by Chatto thus--"If cards were actually known in Italy and
Spain in the latter part of the 14th century, it is not unlikely that
the game was introduced into this country by some of the English
soldiers who had served, under Hawkwood and other free captains, in the
wars of Italy and Spain. However this may be, it seems certain that the
earliest cards commonly used in this country were of the same kind, with
respect to the marks of the suits, as those used in Italy and Spain."

About the last quarter of the 15th century, packs with animals, flowers
and human figures, for marks of the suits, were engraved upon copper;
and later, numerous variations appeared, dictated by the caprice of
individual card-makers; but they never came into general use.

The court cards of the early packs were king, chevalier and knave. The
Italians were probably the first to substitute a queen for the
chevalier, who in French cards is altogether superseded by the queen.
The court cards of French packs received fanciful names, which varied
from time to time.

  AUTHORITIES.--Abbé Rive, _Éclaircissements sur l'invention des cartes
  à jouer_ (Paris, 1780); J.G.I. Breitkopf, _Versuch den Ursprung der
  Spielkarten zu erforschen_ (Leipzig, 1784); Samuel Weller Singer,
  _Researches into the History of Playing Cards, with Illustrations of
  the Origin of Printing and Engraving on Wood_ (London, 1816); G.
  Peignot, _Analyse critique et raisonnée de toutes les recherches
  publiées jusqu'à ce jour, sur l'origine des cartes à jouer_ (Dijon,
  1826); M.C. Leber, _Études historiques sur les cartes à jouer,
  principalement sur les cartes françaises_ (Paris, 1842); William
  Andrew Chatto, _Facts and Speculations on the Origin and History of
  Playing Cards_ (London, 1848); P. Boiteau D'Ambly, _Les Cartes à jouer
  et la cartomancie_ (Paris, 1854), translated into English with
  additions under the title of _The History of Playing Cards, with
  Anecdotes of their use in Conjuring, Fortune-telling, and
  Card-sharping_, edited by the Rev. E.S. Taylor, B.A. (London, 1865);
  W. Hughes Willshire, M.D., _A Descriptive Catalogue of Playing and
  other Cards in the British Museum_, printed by order of the trustees
  (London, 1876); _Origine des cartes à jouer_, by R. Merlin (Paris,
  1869); _The Devil's Picture Books_, by Mrs J.K. Van Rensselaer (New
  York, 1890); _Bibliography of Works in English on Playing Cards and
  Gaming_, by F. Jessel (London, 1905); and especially _Les Cartes à
  jouer_, by Henri René d'Allemagne (Paris, 1906) (an exhaustive
  account).



CARDUCCI, BARTOLOMMEO (1560-1610), Italian painter, better known as
CARDUCHO, the Spanish corruption of his Italian patronymic, was born in
Florence, where he studied architecture and sculpture under Ammanati,
and painting under Zuccaero. The latter master he accompanied to Madrid,
where he painted the ceiling of the Escorial library, assisting also in
the production of the frescos that adorn the cloisters of that famous
palace. He was a great favourite with Philip III., and lived and died
in Spain, where most of his works are to be found. The most celebrated
of them is a Descent from the Cross, in the church of San Felipe el
Real, in Madrid.

His younger brother VINCENZO (1568-1638), was born in Florence, and was
trained as a painter by Bartolommeo, whom he followed to Madrid. He
worked a great deal for Philip III. and Philip IV., and his best
pictures are those he executed for the former monarch as decorations in
the Prado. Examples of his work are preserved at Toledo, at Valladolid,
at Segovia, and at several other Spanish cities. For many years he
laboured in Madrid as a teacher of his art, and among his pupils were
Giovanni Ricci, Pedro Obregon, Vela, Francisco Collantes, and other
distinguished representatives of the Spanish school during the 17th
century. He was also author of a treatise or dialogue, _De las
Excelencias de la Pintura_, which was published in 1633.



CARDUCCI, GIOSUÈ (1836-1907), Italian poet, was born at Val-di-Castello,
in Tuscany, on the 27th of July 1836, his father being Michele Carducci,
a physician, of an old Florentine family, who in his youth had suffered
imprisonment for his share in the revolution of 1831. Carducci received
a good education. He began life as a public teacher, but soon took to
giving private lessons at Florence, where he became connected with a set
of young men, enthusiastic patriots in politics, and in literature bent
on overthrowing the reigning romantic taste by a return to classical
models. These aspirations always constituted the mainsprings of
Carducci's poetry. In 1860 he became professor at Bologna, where, after
in 1865 astonishing the public by a defiant _Hymn to Satan_, he
published in 1868 _Levia Gravia_, a volume of lyrics which not only gave
him an indisputable position at the head of contemporary Italian poets,
but made him the head of a school of which the best Italian men of
letters have been disciples, and which has influenced all. Several other
volumes succeeded, the most important of which were the _Decennalia_
(1871), the _Nuove Poesie_ (1872), and the three series of the _Odi
Barbare_ (1877-1889).

Carducci had been brought into more fraternal contact with the aims of
the younger generation by the efforts of Angelo Sommaruga who became,
about 1880, the publisher of a group of young unknown writers all
destined to some, and a few to great, accomplishment. The period of his
prosperity was a strange one for Italy. The first ten years of the newly
constituted kingdom had passed more in stupor than activity; original
contributions to literature had been scarce, and publishers had
preferred bringing out inferior translations of not always admirable
French authors to encouraging the original work of Italians--work which
it must be confessed was generally mediocre and entirely lifeless.
Sommaruga's creation, a literary review called _La Cronaca Bizantina_,
gathered together such beginners as Giovanni Marradi, Matilde Serao,
Edoardo Scarfoglio, Guido Magnoni and Gabriele d'Annunzio. In order to
obtain the sanction of what he considered an enduring name, the founder
turned to Giosuè Carducci, then living in retirement at Bologna,
discontented with his fate, and still not generally known by the public
of his own country. The activity of Sommaruga exercised a great
influence on Giosuè Carducci. Within the next few years he published the
three admirable volumes of his _Confessioni e Batlaglie_, the _Ça Ira_
sonnets, the _Nuove Odi Barbare_, and a considerable number of articles,
pamphlets and essays, which in their collected edition form the most
living part of his work. His lyrical production, too, seemed to reach
its perfection in those five years of tense, unrelenting work; for the
_Canzone di Legnano_, the Odes to Rome and to Monte Mario, the Elegy on
the urn of Percy Bysshe Shelley, the ringing rhymes of the _Intermezzo_,
in which he happily blended the satire of Heine with the lyrical form of
his native poetry--all belong to this period, together with the essays
on Leopardi and on Parini, the admirable discussions in defence of his
_Ça Ira_, and the pamphlet called _Eterno Femminino regale_, a kind of
self-defence, undertaken to explain the origin of the Alcaic metre to
the queen of Italy, which marks the beginning of the last evolution in
Carducci's work (1881). The revolutionary spirits of the day, who had
always looked upon Giosuè Carducci as their bard and champion, fell
away from him after this poem written in honour of a queen, and the
poet, wounded by the attitude of his party, wrote what he intended to be
his defence and his programme for the future in pages that will remain
amongst the noblest and most powerful of contemporary literature. From
that time Carducci appears in a new form, evolved afterwards in his last
Odes, _Il Piemonte_, _Li Bicocca di San Giacomo_, the Ode to the
daughter of Francesco Crispi on her marriage, and the one to the church
where Dante once prayed, _Alla Chiesetta dei Polenta_, which is like the
withdrawing into itself of a warlike soul weary of its battle.

For a few months in 1876 Carducci had a seat in the Italian Chamber. In
1881 he was appointed a member of the higher council of education. In
1890 he was made a senator. And in 1906 he was awarded the Nobel prize
for literature. He died at Bologna on the 16th of February 1907. By his
marriage in 1859 he had two daughters, who survived him, and one son,
who died in infancy.

The same qualities which placed Carducci among the classics of Italy in
his earlier days remained consistently with him in later life. His
thought flows limpid, serene, sure of itself above an undercurrent of
sane and vigorous if pagan philosophy. Patriotism, the grandeur of work,
the soul-satisfying power of justice, are the poet's dominant ideals.
For many years the national struggle for liberty had forced the best
there was in heart and brain into the atmosphere of political intrigue
and from one battlefield to another; Carducci therefore found a poetry
emasculated by the deviation into other channels of the intellectual
virility of his country. On this mass of patriotic doggerel, of sickly,
languishing sentimentality as insincere as it was inane, he grafted a
poetry not often tender, but always violently felt and thrown into a
mould of majestic form; not always quite expected or appreciated by his
contemporaries, but never commonplace in structure; always high in tone
and free in spirit. The adaptation of various kinds of Latin metres to
the somewhat sinewless language he found at his disposal, whilst it
might have been an effort of mere pedantry in another, was a life-giving
and strengthening inspiration in his case. Another of his
characteristics, which made him peculiarly precious to his countrymen,
is the fact that his poems form a kind of lyric record of the Italian
struggle for independence. The tumultuous vicissitudes of all other
nations, however, and the pageantry of the history of all times, have in
turns touched his particular order of imagination. The more important
part of his critical work which belongs to this later period consists of
his _Conversazioni critiche_, his _Storia filosofica della letteratura
Italiana_, and a masterly edition of Petrarch. That he should have had
the faults of his qualities is not remarkable. Being almost a pioneer in
the world of criticism, his essays on the authors of other countries,
though appearing in the light of discoveries to his own country,
absorbed as it had hitherto been in its own vicissitudes, have little of
value to the general student beyond the attraction of robust style. And
in his unbounded admiration for the sculptural lines of antique Latin
poetry he sometimes relapsed into that fascination by mere sound which
is the snare of his language, and against which his own work in its
great moments is a reaction.



CARDWELL, EDWARD (1787-1861), English theologian, was born at Blackburn
in Lancashire in 1787. He was educated at Brasenose College, Oxford
(B.A. 1809; M.A. 1812; B.D. 1819; D.D. 1831), and after being for
several years tutor and lecturer, was appointed, in 1814, one of the
examiners to the university. In 1825 he was chosen Camden professor of
ancient history; and during his five years' professorship he published
an edition of the _Ethics_ of Aristotle, and a course of his lectures on
_The Coinage of the Greeks and Romans_. In 1831 he succeeded Archbishop
Whately as principal of St Alban's Hall. He published in 1837 a
student's edition of the Greek Testament, and an edition of the Greek
and Latin texts of the _History of the Jewish War_, by Josephus, with
illustrative notes. But his most important labours were in the field of
English church history. He projected an extensive work, which was to
embrace the entire synodical history of the church in England, and was
to be founded on David Wilkins's _Concilia Magnae Britanniae et
Hiberniae_. Of this work he executed some portions only. The first
published was _Documentary Annals of the Reformed Church of England from
1546 to 1716_, which appeared in 1839. It was followed by a _History of
Conferences, &c., connected with the Revision of the Book of Common
Prayer_ (1840). On 1842 appeared _Synodalia, a Collection of Articles of
Religion, Canons, and Proceedings of Convocation from 1547 to 1717_,
completing the series for that period. Closely connected with these
works is the _Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum_ (1850), which treats of
the efforts for reform during the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., and
Elizabeth. Cardwell also published in 1854 a new edition of Bishop
Gibson's _Synodus Anglicana_. He was one of the best men of business in
the university, and held various important posts, among which were those
of delegate of the press, curator of the university galleries, manager
of the Bible department of the press, and private secretary to
successive chancellors of the university. He established the Wolvercot
paper mill. He died at Oxford on the 23rd of May 1861.



CARDWELL, EDWARD CARDWELL, VISCOUNT (1813-1886), English statesman, was
the son of a merchant of Liverpool, where he was born on the 24th of
July 1813. After a brilliant career at Oxford, where he gained a double
first-class, he entered parliament as member for Clitheroe in 1842, and
in 1845 was made secretary to the treasury. He supported Sir Robert
Peel's free-trade policy, and went out of office with him. In 1847 he
was elected for Liverpool, but lost his seat in 1852 for having
supported the repeal of the navigation laws. He soon found another
constituency at Oxford, and upon the formation of Lord Aberdeen's
coalition ministry became president of the Board of Trade, although
debarred by the jealousy of his Whig colleagues from a seat in the
cabinet. In 1854 he carried, almost without opposition, a most important
and complicated act consolidating all existing shipping laws, but in
1855 resigned, with his Peelite colleagues, upon the appointment of Mr
Roebuck's Sevastopol inquiry committee, declining the offer of the
chancellorship of the Exchequer pressed upon him by Lord Palmerston. In
1858 he moved the famous resolution condemnatory of Lord Ellenborough's
despatch to Lord Canning on the affairs of Oude, which for a time seemed
certain to overthrow the Derby government, but which ultimately
dissolved into nothing. He obtained a seat in Lord Palmerston's cabinet
of 1859, and after filling the uncongenial posts of secretary for
Ireland and chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster (1861), became
secretary for the colonies in 1864. Here he reformed the system of
colonial defence, refusing to keep troops in the colonies during time of
peace unless their expense was defrayed by the colonists; he also laid
the foundation of federation in Canada and, rightly or wrongly, censured
Sir George Grey's conduct in New Zealand. Resigning with his friends in
1866, he again took office in 1868 as secretary for war. In this post he
performed the most memorable actions of his life by the abolition of
purchase and the institution of the short service system and the reserve
in the army, measures which excited more opposition than any of the
numerous reforms effected by the Gladstone government of that period,
but which were entirely justified by their successful working
afterwards. On the resignation of the Gladstone ministry in 1874 he was
raised to the peerage as Viscount Cardwell of Ellerbeck, but took no
further prominent part in politics. His mental faculties, indeed, were
considerably impaired during the last few years of his life, and he died
at Torquay on the 15th of February 1886. He was not a showy, hardly even
a prominent politician, but effected far more than many more conspicuous
men. The great administrator and the bold innovator were united in him
in an exceptional degree, and he allowed neither character to
preponderate unduly.



CARDWELL, a town of Cardwell county, Queensland, Australia, on
Rockingham Bay, about 800 m. direct N.W. by N. of Brisbane. Pop. of town
and district (1901) 3435. It has one of the best harbours in the state,
easy of access in all weathers, with a depth ranging from 4 to 10
fathoms. Various minerals, including gold and tin, exist in the
district; and there are preserve and sauce factories, and works for
meat extract and tinning. The dugong fishery is carried on, and the oil
is extracted. There are large timber forests in the district, and much
cedar is exported.



CAREW, GEORGE (d. about 1613), English diplomatist and historian, second
son of Sir Wymond Carew of Antony, was educated at Oxford, entered the
Inns of Court, and passed some years in continental travel. At the
recommendation of Queen Elizabeth, who conferred on him the honour of
knighthood, he was appointed secretary to Sir Christopher Hatton, and
afterwards, having been promoted to a mastership in chancery, was sent
as ambassador to the king of Poland. In the reign of James he was
employed in negotiating the treaty of union with Scotland, and for
several years was ambassador to the court of France. On his return he
wrote a _Relation of the State of France_, with sketches of the leading
persons at the court of Henry IV. It is written in the classical style
of the Elizabethan age, and was appended by Dr Birch to his _Historical
View of the Negotiations between the Courts of England, France and
Brussels, from 1592 to 1617_. Much of the information regarding Poland
contained in De Thou's _History of His Own Times_ was furnished by
Carew.



CAREW, RICHARD (1555-1620), English poet and antiquary, was born on the
17th of July 1555, at Antony House, East Antony, Cornwall. At the age of
eleven, he entered Christ Church, Oxford, and when only fourteen was
chosen to carry on an extempore debate with Sir Philip Sidney, in
presence of the earls of Leicester and Warwick and other noblemen. From
Oxford he removed to the Middle Temple, where he spent three years, and
then went abroad. By his marriage with Juliana Arundel in 1577 he added
Coswarth to the estates he had already inherited from his father. In
1586 he was appointed high-sheriff of Cornwall; he entered parliament in
1584; and he served under Sir Walter Raleigh, then lord lieutenant of
Cornwall, as treasurer. He became a member of the Society of Antiquaries
in 1589, and was a friend of William Camden and Sir Henry Spelman. His
great work is the _Survey of Cornwall_, published in 1602, and reprinted
in 1769 and 1811. It still possesses interest, apart from its
antiquarian value, for the picture it gives of the life and interests of
a country gentleman of the days of Elizabeth. Carew's other works
are:--a translation of the first five Cantos of Tasso's _Gerusalemme_
(1594), printed in the first instance without the author's knowledge,
and entitled _Godfrey of Balloigne, or the Recouerie of Hierusalam_;
_The Examination of Men's Wits_ (1594), a translation of an Italian
version of John Huarte's _Examen de Ingenios_; and _An Epistle
concerning the Excellences of the English Tongue_ (1605). Carew died on
the 6th of November 1620.

His son, Sir RICHARD CAREW (d. 1643?), was the author of a _True and
Readie Way to learn the Latine Tongue_, by writers of three nations,
published by Samuel Hartlib in 1654.



CAREW, THOMAS (1595-1645?), English poet, was the son of Sir Matthew
Carew, master in chancery, and his wife, Alice Ingpenny, widow of Sir
John Rivers, lord mayor of London. The poet was probably the third of
the eleven children of his parents, and was born at West Wickham in
Kent, in the early part of 1595, for he was thirteen years of age in
June 1608, when he matriculated at Merton College, Oxford. He took his
degree of B.A. early in 1611, and proceeded to study at the Middle
Temple. Two years later his father complained to Sir Dudley Carleton
that he was doing little at the law. He was in consequence sent to
Italy, as a member of Sir Dudley's household, and when the ambassador
returned from Venice, he seems to have kept Thomas Carew with him, for
he is found in the capacity of secretary to Sir Dudley Carleton, at the
Hague, early in 1616. From this office he was dismissed in the autumn of
that year for levity and slander; he had great difficulty in finding
another situation. In August 1618 his father died, and Carew entered the
service of Lord Herbert of Cherbury, in whose train he started for
France in March 1619, and it is believed that he travelled in Herbert's
company until that nobleman returned to England, at the close of his
diplomatic missions, in April 1624. Carew "followed the court before he
was of it," not receiving the definite appointment of gentleman of the
privy chamber until 1628. While Carew held this office, he displayed
his tact and presence of mind by stumbling and extinguishing the candle
he was holding to light Charles I. into the queen's chamber, because he
saw that Lord St Albans had his arm round her majesty's neck. The king
suspected nothing, and the queen heaped favours on the poet. Probably in
1630, Carew was made "server" or taster-in-ordinary to the king. To this
period may be attributed his close friendship with Sir John Suckling,
Ben Jonson and Clarendon; the latter says that Carew was "a person of
pleasant and facetious wit." Donne, whose celebrity as a court-preacher
lasted until his death in 1631, exercised a powerful if not entirely
healthful influence over the genius of Carew. In February 1633 a masque
by the latter, entitled _Coelum Britanicum_, was acted in the
banqueting-house at Whitehall, and was printed in 1634. The close of
Carew's life is absolutely obscure. It was long supposed that he died in
1639, and this has been thought to be confirmed by the fact that the
first edition of his _Poems_, published in 1640, seems to have a
posthumous character. But Clarendon tells us that "after fifty years of
life spent with less severity and exactness than it ought to have been,
he died with the greatest remorse for that licence." If Carew was more
than fifty years of age, he must have died in or after 1645, and in fact
there were final additions made to his _Poems_ in the third edition of
1651. Walton tells us that Carew in his last illness, being afflicted
with the horrors, sent in great haste to "the ever-memorable" John Hales
(1584-1656); Hales "told him he should have his prayers, but would by no
means give him then either the sacrament or absolution."

Carew's poems, at their best, are brilliant lyrics of the purely
sensuous order. They open to us, in his own phrase, "a mine of rich and
pregnant fancy." His metrical style was influenced by Jonson and his
imagery still more clearly by Donne, for whom he had an almost servile
admiration. His intellectual power was not comparable with Donne's, but
Carew had a lucidity and directness of lyrical utterance unknown to
Donne. It is perhaps his greatest distinction that he is the earliest of
the Cavalier song-writers by profession, of whom Rochester is the
latest, poets who turned the disreputable incidents of an idle
court-life into poetry which was often of the rarest delicacy and the
purest melody and colour. The longest and best of Carew's poems, "A
Rapture," would be more widely appreciated if the rich flow of its
imagination were restrained by greater reticence of taste.

  The best edition of Carew's _Poems_ is that prepared by Arthur Vincent
  in 1899.     (E. G.)



CAREY, HENRY (d. 1743), English poet and musician, reputed to be an
illegitimate son of George Savile, marquess of Halifax, was born towards
the end of the 17th century. His mother is supposed to have been a
schoolmistress, and Carey himself taught music at various schools. He
owed his knowledge of music to Olaus Linnert, and later he studied with
Roseingrave and Geminiani. He wrote the words and the music of _The
Contrivances; or More Ways than One_, a farce produced at Drury Lane in
1715. His _Hanging and Marriage; or The Dead Man's Wedding_ was acted at
Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1722. _Chrononhotonthologos_ (1734), described
as "The most Tragical Tragedy that ever was tragedized by any Company of
Tragedians," was a successful burlesque of the bombast of the
contemporary stage. The best of his other pieces were _A Wonder; or the
Honest Yorkshireman_ (1735), a ballad opera, and the _Dragon of Wantley_
(1737), a burlesque opera, the music of which was by J.F. Lampe. He was
the author of _Namby-Pamby_, a once famous parody of Ambrose Philips's
verses to the infant daughter of the earl of Carteret. Carey is best
remembered by his songs. "Sally in our Alley" (printed in his _Musical
Century_) was a sketch drawn after following a shoemaker's 'prentice and
his sweetheart on a holiday. The present tune set to these words,
however, is not the one written by Carey, but is borrowed from an
earlier song, "The Country Lasse," which is printed in _The Merry
Musician_ (vol. iii., c. 1716). It has been claimed for him that he was
the author of "God save the King" (see NATIONAL ANTHEMS). He died in
London on the 4th of October 1743, and it was asserted, without
justification, that he had committed suicide. Edmund Kean, the
tragedian, was one of his great-grandchildren.

  The completest edition of his poems is _Poems on Several Occasions_
  (1729). His dramatic works were published by subscription in 1743.



CAREY, HENRY CHARLES (1793-1879), American economist, was born in
Philadelphia on the 15th of December 1793. At the age of twenty-eight he
succeeded his father, Mathew Carey (1760-1839)--an influential
economist, political reformer, editor, and publisher, of Irish birth,
but for many years a resident of Philadelphia--as a member of the
publishing firm of Carey & Lea, which was long the most conspicuous in
America. He died in Philadelphia on the 13th of October 1879.

Among Mathew Carey's many writings had been a collection (1822) of
_Essays on Political Economy_, one of the earliest of American treatises
favouring protection, and Henry C. Carey's life-work was devoted to the
propagation of the same theory. He retired from business in 1838, almost
simultaneously with the appearance (1837-1840) of his _Principles of
Political Economy_. This treatise, which was translated into Italian and
Swedish, soon became the standard representative in the United States of
the school of economic thought which, with some interruptions, has since
dominated the tariff system of that country. Carey's first large work on
political economy was preceded and followed by many smaller volumes on
wages, the credit system, interest, slavery, copyright, &c.; and in
1858-1859 he gathered the fruits of his lifelong labours into _The
Principles of Social Science_, in three volumes. This work is a most
comprehensive as well as mature exposition of his views. In it Carey
sought to show that there exists, independently of human wills, a
natural system of economic laws, which is essentially beneficent, and of
which the increasing prosperity of the whole community, and especially
of the working classes, is the spontaneous result--capable of being
defeated only by the ignorance or perversity of man resisting or
impeding its action. He rejected the Malthusian doctrine of population,
maintaining that numbers regulate themselves sufficiently in every
well-governed society, and that their pressure on subsistence
characterizes the lower, not the more advanced, stages of civilization.
He denied the universal truth, for all stages of cultivation, of the law
of diminishing returns from land.

His fundamental theoretic position relates to the antithesis of wealth
and value. Carey held that land, as we are concerned with it in
industrial life, is really an instrument of production which has been
formed as such by man, and that its value is due to the labour expended
on it in the past--though measured, not by the sum of that labour, but
by the labour necessary under existing conditions to bring new land to
the same stage of productiveness. He studied the occupation and
reclamation of land with peculiar advantage as an American, for whom the
traditions of first settlement were living and fresh, and before whose
eyes the process was indeed still going on. The difficulties of adapting
a primitive soil to the work of yielding organic products for man's use
can be lightly estimated only by an inhabitant of a country long under
cultivation. It is, in Carey's view, the overcoming of these
difficulties by arduous and continued effort that entitles the first
occupier of land to his property in the soil. Its present value forms a
very small proportion of the cost expended on it, because it represents
only what would be required, with the science and appliances of our
time, to bring the land from its primitive into its present state.
Property in land is therefore only a form of invested capital--a
quantity of labour or the fruits of labour permanently incorporated with
the soil; for which, like any other capitalist, the owner is compensated
by a share of the produce. He is not rewarded for what is done by the
powers of nature, and society is in no sense defrauded by his sole
possession. The so-called Ricardian theory of rent is a speculative
fancy, contradicted by all experience. Cultivation does not in fact, as
that theory supposes, begin with the best, and move downwards to the
poorer soils in the order of their inferiority. The light and dry higher
lands are first cultivated; and only when population has become dense
and capital has accumulated, are the low-lying lands, with their greater
fertility, but also with their morasses, inundations, and miasmas,
attacked and brought into occupation. Rent, regarded as a proportion of
the produce, sinks, like all interest on capital, in process of time,
but, as an absolute amount, increases. The share of the labourer
increases, both as a proportion and an absolute amount. And thus the
interests of these different social classes are in harmony. But, Carey
proceeded to say, in order that this harmonious progress may be
realized, what is taken from the land must be given back to it. All the
articles derived from it are really separated parts of it, which must be
restored on pain of its exhaustion. Hence the producer and the consumer
must be close to each other; the products must not be exported to a
foreign country in exchange for its manufactures, and thus go to enrich
as manure a foreign soil. In immediate exchange value the landowner may
gain by such exportation, but the productive powers of the land will
suffer.

Carey, who had set out as an earnest advocate of free trade, accordingly
arrived at the doctrine of protection: the "coordinating power" in
society must intervene to prevent private advantage from working public
mischief. He attributed his conversion on this question to his
observation of the effects of liberal and protective tariffs
respectively on American prosperity. This observation, he says, threw
him back on theory, and led him to see that the intervention referred to
might be necessary to remove (as he phrases it) the obstacles to the
progress of younger communities created by the action of older and
wealthier nations. But it seems probable that the influence of List's
writings, added to his own deep-rooted and hereditary jealousy and
dislike of English predominance, had something to do with his change of
attitude (see PROTECTION).



CAREY, WILLIAM (1761-1834), English Oriental scholar, and the pioneer of
modern missionary enterprise, was born at Paulerspury, Northamptonshire,
on the 17th of August 1761. When a youth he worked as a shoemaker; but
having joined the Baptists when he was about twenty-one, he devoted much
of his time to village preaching. In 1787 he became pastor of a Baptist
church in Leicester, and began those energetic movements among his
fellow religionists which resulted in the formation of the Baptist
Missionary Society, Carey himself being one of the first to go abroad.
On reaching Bengal in 1793, he and his companions lost all their
property in the Hugli; but having received the charge of an indigo
factory at Malda, he was soon able to prosecute the work of translating
the Bible into Bengali. In 1799 he quitted Malda for Serampore, where he
established a church, a school, and a printing-press for the publication
of the Scriptures and philological works. In 1801 Carey was appointed
professor of Oriental languages in a college founded at Fort William by
the marquess of Wellesley. From this time to his death he devoted
himself to the preparation of numerous philological works, consisting of
grammars and dictionaries in the Mahratta, Sanskrit, Punjabi, Telinga,
Bengali and Bhotanta dialects. The Sanskrit dictionary was unfortunately
destroyed by a fire which broke out in the printing establishment. From
the Serampore press there issued in his lifetime over 200,000 Bibles and
portions in nearly forty different languages and dialects, Carey himself
undertaking most of the literary work. He died on the 9th of June 1834.

  See _Lives_ by J. Culross (1881) and G. Smith (1884).



CARGILL, DONALD (1610-1681), Scottish Covenanter, was born in 1610. He
was educated at St Andrews, and afterwards attached himself to the
Protesters. After his appointment to one of the churches in Glasgow, he
openly resisted the measures of the government. Compelled to remain at a
distance from his charge, he ventured back to celebrate the Communion,
and was arrested, but was liberated at the instance of some of his
private friends. He was afterwards wounded at the battle of Bothwell
Bridge, and fled to Holland, where he remained a few months. On his
return he joined Richard Cameron in publishing the Sanquhar declaration,
and boldly excommunicated the king and his officials. He was soon
afterwards apprehended, and brought to Edinburgh, where he was beheaded
on the 27th of July 1681.



CARGO (Span. for "loading," from Lat. _carrus_, car), a shipload, or the
goods (or even, less technically, persons) carried on board a ship; and
so, by analogy, a term used for any large amount. The maritime law
affecting the cargo of a ship is dealt with in the articles AVERAGE,
AFFREIGHTMENT, INSURANCE, SALVAGE, BOTTOMRY, LIEN; and the specialities
of cargo-ships under SHIP.



CARIA, an ancient district of Asia Minor, bounded on the N. by Ionia and
Lydia, on the W. and S. by the Aegean Sea, and on the E. by Lycia and a
small part of Phrygia. The coast-line consists of a succession of great
promontories alternating with deep inlets. The most important inlet, the
Ceramic Gulf, or Gulf of Cos, extends inland for 70 m., between the
great mountain promontory terminating at Myndus on the north, and that
which extends to Cnidus and the remarkable headland of Cape Krio on the
south. North of this is the deep bay called in ancient times the Gulf of
Iasus (now known as the Gulf of Mendeliyah), and beyond this again was
the deeper inlet which formerly extended inland between Miletus and
Priene, but of which the outer part has been entirely filled up by the
alluvial deposits of the Maeander, while the innermost arm, the ancient
Latmic Gulf, is now a lake. South of Cape Krio again is the gulf known
as the Gulf of Doris, with several subordinate inlets, bounded on the
south by the rugged promontory of Cynossema (mod. Cape Alupo). Between
this headland and the frontier of Lycia is the sheltered bay of
Marmarice, noted in modern times as one of the finest harbours of the
Mediterranean.

Almost the whole of Caria is mountainous. The two great masses of Cadmus
(Baba-dagh) and Salbacum (Boz-dagh), which are in fact portions of the
great chain of Taurus (see ASIA MINOR), form the nucleus to which the
whole physical framework of the country is attached. From these lofty
ranges there extends a broad tableland (in many parts more than 3000 ft.
high), while it sends down offshoots on the north towards the Maeander,
and on the west towards the Aegean. Of these ranges the summit of Mt
Latmus alone reaches 4500 ft.

The coast is fringed by numerous islands, in some instances separated
only by narrow straits from the mainland. Of these the most celebrated
are Rhodes and Cos. Besides these are Syme, Telos, Nisyros, Calymnos,
Leros and Patmos, all of which have been inhabited, both in ancient and
modern times, and some of which contain excellent harbours. Of these
Nisyros alone is of volcanic origin; the others belong to the same
limestone formation with the rocky headlands of the coast. The country
known as Caria was shared between the Carians proper and the Caunians,
who were a wilder people, inhabiting the district between Caria and
Lycia. They were not considered to be of the same blood as the Carians,
and were, therefore, excluded from the temple of the Carian Zeus at
Mylasa, which was common to the Carians, Lydians and Mysians, though
their language was the same as that of the Carians proper. Herodotus (i.
172) believed the Caunians to have been aborigines, the Carians having
been originally called Leleges, who had been driven from the Aegean
islands by the invading Greeks. This seems to have been a prevalent view
among the Greek writers, for Thucydides (i. 8) states that when Delos
was "purified" more than half the bodies found buried in it were those
of "Carians." Modern archaeological discovery, however, is against this
belief; and the fact that Mysus, Lydus and Car were regarded as brothers
indicates that the three populations who worshipped together in the
temple of Mylasa all belonged to the same stock. Homer (_Il_. x.
428-429) distinguishes the Leleges (_q.v._) from the Carians, to whom is
ascribed the invention of helmet-crests, coats of arms, and shield
handles.

A considerable number of short Carian inscriptions has been found, most
of them in Egypt. They were first noticed by Lepsius at Abu-Simbel,
where he correctly inferred that they were the work of the Carian
mercenaries of Psammetichus. The language, so far as it has been
deciphered, is "Asianic" and not Indo-European.

The excavations of W.R. Paton at Assarlik (_Journ. Hell. Studies_, 1887)
and of F. Winter at Idrias have resulted in the discovery of
Late-Mycenaean and Geometric pottery. Caria, however, figured but little
in history. It was absorbed into the kingdom of Lydia, where Carian
troops formed the bodyguard of the king. Cnidus and Halicarnassus on the
coast were colonized by Dorians. At Halicarnassus (q.v.) the Mausoleum,
the monument erected by Artemisia to her husband Mausolus, about 360
B.C., was excavated by Sir C.T. Newton in 1857-1858. Cnidus (q.v.) was
excavated at the same time, when the "Cnidian Lion," now in the British
Museum, was found crowning a tomb near the site of the old city (C.T.
Newton, _History of Discoveries at Cnidus, Halicarnassus and
Branchidae_). On the border-land between Caria and Lydia lay other Greek
cities, Miletus, Priene, and Magnesia (see articles s.v.), colonized in
early times by the Ionians. Inland was Tralles (mod. Aidin), which also
had an Ionic population, though it never belonged to the Ionic
confederacy (see TRALLES). The excavations of the English in 1868-1869,
of the French under O. Rayet and A. Thomas in 1873, and more recently of
the Germans under Th. Wiegand and Schrader in 1895-1898 have laid bare
the site of the Greek Priene, and the same has been done for the remains
of Magnesia ad Maeandrum by French excavators in 1842-1843 and the
German expedition under K. Humann in 1891-1893. A German expedition
under Th. Wiegand carried on excavations at Miletus (see articles on
these towns).

In the Persian epoch, native dynasts established themselves in Caria and
even extended their rule over the Greek cities. The last of them seems
to have been Pixodarus, after whose death the crown was seized by a
Persian, Orontobates, who offered a vigorous resistance to Alexander the
Great. But his capital, Halicarnassus, was taken after a siege, and the
principality of Caria conferred by Alexander on Ada, a princess of the
native dynasty. Soon afterwards the country was incorporated into the
Syrian empire and then into the kingdom of Pergamum.

  See W.M. Ramsay, "Historical Geography of Asia Minor" (_R.G.S._ iv.,
  1890); W. Ruge and E. Friedrich, _Archäologische Karte von Kleinasien_
  (1899); Perrot and Chipiez, _History of Art in Phrygia, Lydia, Caria
  and Lycia_ (Eng. trans., 1892); A.H. Sayce, "The Karian Language and
  Inscriptions" (_T.S.B.A._ ix. 1, 1887); P. Kretschmer, _Einleitung in
  die Geschichte der griechischen Sprache_, pp. 376-384 (1896). For the
  coinage see NUMISMATICS.     (A. H. S.)



CARIACO, or SAN FELIPE DE AUSTRIA, a town on the north coast of
Venezuela, 40 m. east of the city of Cumaná at the head of the gulf
bearing the same name. Pop. (1908, estimate) 7000. It stands a short
distance up the Cariaco river and its port immediately on the coast is
known as Puerto Sucre. The surrounding district produces cotton,
tobacco, cacáo, cattle and fruit, and there is considerable trade
through Puerto Sucre, although that port has no regular connexion with
foreign ports.



CARIBBEE ISLANDS, a name chiefly of historical importance, sometimes
applied to the whole of the West Indies, but strictly comprehending only
the chain of islands stretching from Porto Rico to the coast of South
America. These are also known as the Lesser Antilles, and the bulk of
them are divided into the two groups of the Leeward and Windward
Islands.



CARIBS, the name, used first by Columbus (from _Cariba_, said to mean "a
valiant man"), of a South American people, who, at the arrival of the
Spanish, occupied parts of Guiana and the lower Orinoco and the Windward
and other islands in what is still known as the Caribbean Sea. They were
believed to have had their original home in North America, spreading
thence through the Antilles southward to Venezuela, the Guianas, and
north-east Brazil. This view has been abandoned, as Carib tribes, the
Bakairi and Nahuquas, using an archaic type of Carib speech and
primitive in habits, have been met by German explorers in the very heart
of Brazil. It may thus be assumed that the cradle of the race was the
centre of South America; their first migrating movements being to Guiana
and the Antilles. A cruel, ferocious and warlike people, they made a
stout resistance to the Spaniards. They were cannibals, and it is to
them that we owe that word, Columbus's _Caribal_ being transformed into
_Cannibal_ in apparent reference to the _canine_ voracity of the Caribs.
They are physically by no means a powerful race, being distinguished by
slight figures with limbs well formed but lacking muscle, and with a
tendency to be pot-bellied, due apparently to their habit of drinking
_paiwari_ (liquor prepared from the cassava plant) in great quantities.
Their colour is a red cinnamon, but varies with different tribes. Their
hair is thick, long, very black, and generally cut to an even edge, at
right angles to the neck, round the head. The features are strikingly
Mongoloid. Among the true Caribs a 2-in. broad belt of cotton is knitted
round each ankle, and just below each knee of the young female children.
All body-hair in both sexes is pulled out, even to the eye-brows. Among
the women the lower lips are often pierced, pins of wood being passed
through and forming a sort of _chevaux de frise_ round the mouth.
Sometimes a bell-shaped ornament is hung by men to a piece of string
passed through the lower lip. The Carib government was patriarchal.
Though the women did most of the hard work, they were kindly treated.
Polygamy prevailed. Very little ceremony attended death. The Caribs of
the West Indies, known as "Red" and "Black," the first pure, the second
mixed with negro blood, after a protracted war with the British were
transported in 1796 to the number of 5000 from Dominica and St Vincent
to the island of Ruatan near the coast of Honduras. A few were
subsequently allowed back to St Vincent, but the majority are settled in
Honduras and Nicaragua.



CARICATURE (Ital. _caricatura, i.e. "ritratto ridicolo,"_ from
_caricare_, to load, to charge; Fr. _charge_), a general term for the
art of applying the grotesque to the purposes of satire, and for
pictorial and plastic ridicule and burlesque. The word, "caricatura" was
first used as English by Sir Thomas Browne (1605-1682), in his
_Christian Morals_, a posthumous work; it is next found, still in its
Italian form, in No. 537 of the _Spectator_; it was adopted by Johnson
in his dictionary (1757), but does not appear in Bailey's dictionary,
for example, as late as 1773; and it only assumed its modern guise
towards the end of the 18th century, when its use and comprehension
became general.

Little that is not conjectural can be written concerning caricature
among the ancients. Few traces of the comic are discoverable in Egyptian
art--such papyri of a satirical tendency as are known to exist appearing
to belong rather to the class of ithyphallic drolleries than to that of
the ironical grotesque. Among the Greeks, though but few and dubious
data are extant, it seems possible that caricature may not have been
altogether unknown. Their taste for pictorial parody, indeed, has been
sufficiently proved by plentiful discoveries of pottery painted with
burlesque subjects. Aristotle, moreover, who disapproved of grotesque
art, condemns in strong terms the pictures of a certain Pauson, who,
alluded to by Aristophanes, and the subject of one of Lucian's
anecdotes, is hailed by Champfleury as the _doyen_ of caricaturists.
That the grotesque in graphic art conceived in the true spirit of
intentional caricature was practised by the Romans is evident from the
curious frescoes uncovered at Pompeii and Herculaneum; from the mention
in Pliny of certain painters celebrated for burlesque pictures; from the
curious fantasies graven in gems and called Grylli; and from the number
of ithyphallic caprices that have descended to modern times. But in
spite of these evidences of Greek and Roman humour, in spite of the
famous comic statuette of Caracalla, and of the more famous _graffito_
of the Crucifixion, the caricaturists of the old world must be sought
for, not among its painters and sculptors, but among its poets and
dramatists. The comedies of Aristophanes and the epigrams of Martial
were, to the Athens of Pericles and the Rome of Domitian, what the
etchings of Gillray and the lithographs of Daumier were to the London of
George III. and the Paris of the Citizen King.

During the middle ages a vast mass of grotesque material was
accumulated, but selection becomes even more difficult than with the
scarce relics of antiquity. With the building of the cathedrals
originated a new style of art; a strange mixture of memories of paganism
and Christian imaginings was called into being for the adornment of
those great strongholds of urban Catholicism, and in this the coarse and
brutal materialism of the popular humour found its largest and freest
expression. On missal-marge and sign-board, on stall and entablature, in
gargoyle and initial, the grotesque displayed itself in an infinite
variety of forms. The import of this inextricable tangle of imagery,
often obscene and horrible, often quaint and fantastic, is difficult, if
not impossible, to determine. We recognize the prevalence of three great
popular types or figures, each of which may be credited with a satirical
intention--of Reynard the Fox, the hero of the famous medieval romance;
of the Devil, that peculiarly medieval antithesis of God; and of Death,
the sarcastic and irreverent skeleton. The popularity of the last is
evidenced by the fact that no fewer than forty-three towns in England,
France and Germany are enumerated as possessing sets of the Dance of
Death, that grandiose all-levelling series of caprices in the
contemplation of which the middle ages found so much consolation. It was
reserved for Holbein (1498-1554), seizing the idea and resuming all that
his contemporaries thought and felt on the subject, to produce, in his
fifty-three magnificent designs of the Danse Macabre, the first and
perhaps the greatest set of satirical moralities known to the modern
world.

It is in the tumult of the Renaissance, indeed, that caricature in its
modern sense may be said to have been born. The great popular movements
required some such vehicle of comment or censure; the perfection to
which the arts of design were attaining supplied the means; the
invention of printing ensured its dissemination. The earliest genuine
piece of graphic irony that has been discovered is a caricature (1499)
relating to Louis XII. and his Italian war. But it was the Reformation
that produced the first full crop of satirical ephemerae, and the heads
of Luther and Alexander VI. are therefore the direct ancestors of the
masks that smirk and frown from the "cartoons" of _Punch_ and the
_Charivari_. Fairly started by Lucas Cranach, a friend of Luther, in his
_Passionale of Christ and Antichrist_ (1521), caricature was naturalized
in France under the League, but only to pass into the hands of the
Dutch, who supplied the rest of Europe with satirical prints during the
whole of the next century. A curious reaction is visible in the work of
Pieter Breughel (1510-1570) towards the grotesque _diablerie_ and
macaberesque morality of medieval art, the last original and striking
note of which is caught in the compositions of Jacques Callot
(1593-1635), and, in a less degree, in those of his followers, Stefano
della Bella (1610-1664) and Salvator Rosa (1615-1673). On the other
hand, however, Callot, one of the greatest masters of the grotesque that
ever lived, in certain of his _Caprices_, and in his two famous sets of
prints, the _Misères de la guerre_, may be said to anticipate certain
productions of Hogarth and Goya, and so to have founded the modern
school of ironic _genre_.

In England one of the earliest caricatures extant is that in the margin
of the Forest Roll of Essex, 5, ed. 1, now at the Record Office; it is a
grotesque portrait of "Aaron fil Diabole" (Aaron, son of the devil),
probably representing Cok, son of Aaron. It is dated 1277. Another
caricature, undated, appears on a Roll containing an account of the
tallages and fines paid by Jews, 17. Henry III., belonging to 1233
(Exch. of Receipt, Jews' Roll, No. 8). It is an elaborate satirical
design of Jews and devils, arranged in a pediment. During the 16th
century, caricature can hardly be said to have existed at all,--a
grotesque of Mary Stuart as a mermaid, a pen and ink sketch of which is
yet to be seen in the Rolls Office, being the only example of it known.
The Great Rebellion, however, acted as the Reformation had done in
Germany, and Cavaliers and Roundheads caricatured each other freely. At
this period satirical pictures usually did duty as the title-pages of
scurrilous pamphlets; but one instance is known of the employment during
the war of a grotesque allegory as a banner, while the end of the
Commonwealth produced a satirical pack of playing cards, probably of
Dutch origin. The Dutch, indeed, as already has been stated, were the
great purveyors of pictorial satire at this time and during the early
part of the next century. In England the wit of the victorious party was
rather vocal than pictorial; in France the spirit of caricature was
sternly repressed; and it was from Holland, bold in its republican
freedom, and rich in painters and etchers, that issued the flood of
prints and medals which illustrate, through cumbrous allegories and
elaborate symbolization, the principal political passages of both the
former countries, from the Restoration (1660) to the South Sea Bubble
(1720). The most distinguished of the Dutch artists was Romain de Hooghe
(1638-1720), a follower of Callot, who, without any of the weird power
of his master, possessed a certain skill in grouping and faculty of
grotesque suggestiveness that made his point a most useful weapon to
William of Orange during the long struggle with Louis XIV.

The 18th century, however, may be called emphatically the age of
caricature. The spirit is evident in letters as in art; in the fierce
grotesques of Swift, in the coarser _charges_ of Smollett, in the keen
ironies of Henry Fielding, in the Aristophanic tendency of Foote's
farces, no less than in the masterly moralities of Hogarth and the
truculent satires of Gillray. The first event that called forth
caricatures in any number was the prosecution (1710) of Dr Sacheverell;
most of these, however, were importations from Holland, and only in the
excitement attendant on the South Sea Bubble, some ten years later, can
the English school be said to have begun. Starting into active being
with the ministry of Walpole (1721), it flourished under that statesman
for some twenty years,--the "hieroglyphics," as its prints were named,
graphically enough, often circulating on fans. It continued to increase
in importance and audacity till the reign of Pitt (1757-1761), when its
activity was somewhat abated. It rose, however, to a greater height than
ever during the rule of Bute (1761-1763), and since that time its
influence has extended without a check. The artists whose combinations
amused the public during this earlier period are, with few exceptions,
but little known and not greatly esteemed. Among them were two amateurs,
Dorothy, wife of Richard Boyle, 3rd earl of Burlington, and General
George Townshend (afterwards 1st Marquess Townshend); Goupy, Boitard and
Liotard were Frenchmen; Vandergucht and Vanderbank were Dutchmen. This
period witnessed also the rise of William Hogarth (1697-1764). As a
political caricaturist Hogarth was not successful, save in a few
isolated examples, as in the portraits of Wilkes and Churchill; but as a
moralist and social satirist he has not yet been equalled. The
publication, in 1732, of his _Modern Midnight Conversation_ may be said
to mark an epoch in the history of caricature. Mention must also be made
of Paul Sandby (1725-1809), who was not a professional caricaturist,
though he joined in the pictorial hue-and-cry against Hogarth and Lord
Bute, and who is best remembered as the founder of the English school of
water-colour; and of John Collet (1723-1788), said to have been a pupil
of Hogarth, a kindly and industrious humorist, rarely venturing into the
arena of politics. During the latter half of the century, however,
political caricature began to be somewhat more skilfully handled than of
old by James Sayer, a satirist in the pay of the younger Pitt, while
social grotesques were pleasantly treated by Henry William Bunbury
(1750-1811) and George Moutard Woodward. These personalities, however,
interesting as they are, are dwarfed into insignificance by the great
figure of James Gillray (1757-1815), in whose hands political caricature
became almost epic for grandeur of conception and far-reaching
suggestiveness. It is to the works of this man of genius, indeed, and
(in a less degree) to those of his contemporary, Thomas Rowlandson
(1756-1827), an artist of great and varied powers, that historians must
turn for the popular reflection of all the political notabilia of the
end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries. England may be
said to have been the chosen home of caricature during this period. In
France, timid and futile under the Monarchy, it had assumed an immense
importance under the Revolution, and a cloud of hideous pictorial libels
was the result; but even the Revolution left no such notes through its
own artists, though Fragonard (1732-1806) himself was of the number, as
came from the gravers of Gillray and Rowlandson. In Germany caricature
did not exist. Only in Spain was there to be found an artist capable of
entering into competition with the masters of the satirical grotesque of
whom England could boast. The works of Francesco Goya y Lucientes
(1746-1828) are described by Théophile Gautier as "a mixture of those of
Rembrandt, Watteau, and the comical dreams of Rabelais," and
Champfleury discovers analogies between him and Honoré Daumier, the
greatest caricaturist of modern France.

The satirical grotesque of the 18th century had been characterized by a
sort of grandiose brutality, by a certain vigorous obscenity, by a
violence of expression and intention, that appear monstrous in these
days of reserve and restraint, but that doubtless sorted well enough
with the strong party feelings and fierce political passions of the age.
After the downfall of Napoleon (1815), however, when strife was over and
men were weary and satisfied, a change in matter and manner came over
the caricature of the period. In connection with this change, the name
of George Cruikshank (1792-1878), an artist who stretches hands on the
one side towards Hogarth and Gillray, and on the other towards Leech and
Tenniel, deserves honourable mention. Those of Cruikshank's political
caricatures which were designed for the squibs of William Hone
(1779-1842) are, comparatively speaking, uninteresting; his ambition was
that of Hogarth--the production of "moral comedies." Much of his work,
therefore, may be said to form a link in the chain of development
through which has passed that ironical _genre_ to which reference has
already been made. In 1829, however, began to appear the famous series
of lithographs, signed H.B., the work of John Doyle (1798-1868). These
jocularities are interesting otherwise than politically; thin and weakly
as they are, they inaugurated the style of later political caricature.
In France, meanwhile, with the farcical designs of Edme Jean Pigal (b.
1794) and the realistic sketches of Henri Monnier (1805-1872), the
admirable portrait-busts of Jean Pierre Dantan the younger (1800-1869)
and the fine military and low-life drolleries of Nicolas Toussaint
Charlet (1792-1845) were appearing. Up to this date, though journalism
and caricature had sometimes joined hands (as in the case of the
_Craftsman_ and the _Anti-Jacobin_, and particularly in _Les Révolutions
de France et de Brabant_ and _Les Actes des Apôtres_), the alliance had
been but brief; it was reserved for Charles Philipon (1802-1862), who
may be called the father of comic journalism, to make it lasting. The
foundation of _La Caricature_, by Philipon in 1831, suppressed in 1835
after a brief but glorious career, was followed by _Le Charivari_
(December 1832), which is perhaps the most renowned of the innumerable
enterprises of this extraordinary man. Among the artists he assembled
round him, the highest place is held by Honoré Daumier (1808-1879), a
draughtsman of great skill, and a caricaturist of immense vigour and
audacity. Another of Philipon's band was Sulpice Paul Chevalier
(1801-1866), better known as Gavarni, in whose hands modern social
caricature, advanced by Cruikshank and Charlet, assumed its present
guise and became elegant. Mention must also be made of Grandville
(J.I.I. Gérard) (1803-1847), the illustrator of La Fontaine, and a
modern patron of the medieval skeleton; of Charles Joseph Traviès de
Villers, the father of the famous hunchback "Mayeux"; and of Amedée de
Noé, or "Cham," the wittiest and most ephemeral of pictorial satirists.
In 1840 the pleasantries of "H.B." having come to an end, there was
founded, in imitation of this enterprise of Philipon, the comic journal
which, under the title of _Punch, or the London Charivari_, has since
become famous all over the world. Among its early illustrators were John
Leech (1817-1864) and Richard Doyle (1824-1883), whose drawings were
full of the richest grotesque humour.

In 1862 Carlo Pellegrini, in _Vanity Fair_, began a series of portraits
of public men, which may be considered the most remarkable instances of
personal caricature in England.

For the later developments of caricature, it is convenient to take them
by countries in the following sections:--

  _Great Britain_.--During the later 19th century the term caricature,
  somewhat loosely used at all times, came gradually to cover almost
  every form of humorous art, from the pictorial wit and wisdom of Sir
  John Tenniel to the weird grotesques of Mr S.H. Sime, from the gay
  pleasantries of Randolph Caldecott to the graceful but sedate fancies
  of Mr Walter Crane. It is made to embrace alike the social studies,
  satirical and sympathetic, of Du Maurier and Keene, the political
  cartoons of Mr Harry Furniss and Sir F.C. Gould, the unextenuating
  likenesses of "Ape," and "Spy," and "Max," the subtle conceits of Mr
  Linley Sambourne, the whimsicalities of Mr E.T. Reed, the exuberant
  burlesques of Mr J.F. Sullivan, the frank buffooneries of W.G. Baxter,
  Of these diverse forms of graphic humour, some have no other object
  than to amuse, and therefore do not call for serious notice. The work
  of Mr Max Beerbohm ("Max") has the note of originality and
  extravagance too; while that of "Spy" (Mr Leslie Ward) in _Vanity
  Fair_, if it does not rival the occasional brilliancy of his
  predecessor "Ape" (Carlo Pellegrini, 1839-1889), maintains a higher
  average of merit. The pupil, too, is much more genial than the master,
  and he is content if his pencil evokes the comment, "How ridiculously
  like!" Caricature of this kind is merely an entertainment. Here we are
  concerned rather with those branches of caricature which, merrily or
  mordantly, reflect and comment upon the actual life we live. In
  treating of recent caricature of this kind, we must give the first
  place to _Punch_. Mr Punch's outlook upon life has not changed much
  since the 'seventies of the last century. His influence upon the tone
  of caricature made itself felt most appreciably in the days of John
  Leech and Richard Doyle. Their successors but follow in their steps.
  In their work, says a clever German critic, is to be found no vestige
  of the "sour bilious temper of John Bull" that pervaded the pictures
  of Hogarth and Rowlandson. Charles Keene (1823-1891) and Du Maurier
  (1834-1896), he declares, are not caricaturists or satirists, but
  amiable and tenderly grave observers of life, friendly optimists. The
  characterization is truer of Keene, perhaps, than of Du Maurier.
  Charles Keene's sketches are almost always cheerful; almost without
  exception they make you smile or laugh. In many of Du Maurier's, on
  the other hand, there is an underlying seriousness. While Keene looks
  on at life with easy tolerance, an amused spectator, Du Maurier shows
  himself sensitive, emotional, sympathetic, taking infinite delight in
  what is pretty and gay and charming, but hurt and offended by the
  sordid and the ugly. Thus while Keene takes things dispassionately as
  they come, seeing only the humorous side of them, we find Du Maurier
  ever and anon attacking some new phase of snobbishness or philistinism
  or cant. For all his kindliness in depicting congenial scenes, he is
  at times as unrelenting a satirist as Rowlandson. The other _Punch_
  artists, whose work is in the same field, resemble Keene in this
  respect rather than Du Maurier. Mr Leonard Raven-Hill recalls Charles
  Keene not merely in temperament but in technique; like Keene, too, he
  finds his subjects principally in _bourgeois_ life. Mr J. Bernard
  Partridge, though, like Du Maurier, he has an eye for physical beauty,
  is a spectator rather than a critic of life, yet he has made his mark
  as a "cartoonist." Phil May (d. 1903), a modern Touchstone, is less
  easily classified. Though he wears the cap and bells, he is alive to
  the pity of things; he sees the pathos no less than the humour of his
  street-boys and "gutter-snipes." He is, however, a jester primarily:
  an artist, too, of high achievement. Two others stand out as masters
  of the art of social caricature--Frederick Barnard and Mr J.F.
  Sullivan. Barnard's illustrations to Dickens, like his original
  sketches, have a lively humour--the humour of irrepressible high
  spirits--and endless invention. High spirits and invention are
  characteristics also of Mr Sullivan. It is at the British artisan and
  petty tradesman--at the grocer given to adulteration and the plumber
  who outstays his welcome--that he aims his most boisterous fun. He
  rebels, too, delightfully, against red tape and all the petty
  tyrannies of officialdom. In political caricature Sir John Tenniel
  (_q.v._) remained the leading artist of his day. The death of Abraham
  Lincoln, Bismarck's fall from power, the tragedy of Khartum--to
  subjects such as these, worthy of a great painter, Tenniel has brought
  a classic simplicity and a sense of dignity unknown previously to
  caricature. It is hard to say in which field Tenniel most
  excels--whether in those ingenious parables in which the British Lion
  and the Russian Bear, John Chinaman, Jacques Bonhomme and Uncle Sam
  play their part--or in the ever-changing scenes of the great
  parliamentary Comedy--or in sombre dramas of Anarchy, Famine or
  Crime--or in those London extravaganzas in which the symbolic
  personalities of Gog and Magog, Father Thames and the Fog Fiend, the
  duke of Mudford and Mr Punch himself, have become familiar. Subjects
  similar to these have been treated also for many years by Mr Linley
  Sambourne in his fanciful and often beautiful designs. In the field of
  humorous portraiture also, as in cartoon-designing, Mr Sambourne has
  made his mark, and he may be said almost to have originated, in a
  small way, that practice of illustrating the doings of parliament with
  comic sketches in which Mr Furniss, Mr E.T. Reed and Sir F.C. Gould
  were his most notable successors. Mr Furniss satirized the Royal
  Academy as effectively as the Houses of Parliament, but he has been
  above all the illustrator of parliament--the creator of Mr Gladstone's
  collars, the thief of Lord Randolph Churchill's inches, the
  immortalizer of so many otherwise obscure politicians who has worked
  the House of Commons and its doings into so many hundreds of eccentric
  designs. But Mr Furniss was never, like Sir F.C. Gould (of the
  _Westminster Gazette_), a politician first and a caricaturist
  afterwards. Gould is an avowed partisan, and his caricatures became
  the most formidable weapons of the Radical party. Caustic, witty and
  telling, not specially well drawn, but drawn well enough--the
  likenesses unfailingly caught and recognizable at a glance--his
  "Picture Politics" won him a place unique in the ranks of
  caricaturists. There is no evidence of such strenuousness in the work
  of Mr E.T. Read (of _Punch_). In his parliamentary sketches, as in
  his "Animal Land" and "Prehistoric Peeps," Mr Reed is a wholly
  irresponsible humorist and parodist. One finds keen satire, however,
  in those "Ready-made Coats of Arms," in which he turned at once his
  heraldic lore and his insight into character to excellent account. In
  his more serious picture in which he has drawn a parallel between the
  _tricoteuses_ awaiting with grim enjoyment the fall of the guillotine
  and those modern English gentlewomen who flock to the Old Bailey as to
  the play, we have the true Hogarthian touch. Mr Gunning King, Mr F.H.
  Townshend, Mr C.E. Brock, Mr Tom Browne, are among the younger
  humorists who have advanced to the front rank. Though there have been
  some notable competitors with _Punch_, there has never been a really
  "good second." In Matt Morgan the _Tomahawk_ (1865-1867) could boast
  an original cartoonist after Tenniel's style, but without Tenniel's
  power and humour. Morgan's _Tomahawk_ cartoons gained in effect from
  an ingenious method of printing in two colours. In Fred Barnard, W.G.
  Baxter, and Mr J.F. Sullivan, _Judy_ (founded in 1867) possessed a
  trio of pictorial humorists of the first rank, and in W. Bowcher a
  political cartoonist thoroughly to the taste of those hot and strong
  Conservatives to whom _Punch's_ faint Whiggery was but Radicalism in
  disguise. His successor, Mr William Parkinson, was not less loyal to
  Tory ideas, though more urbane in his methods. _Fun_ has had
  cartoonists of high merit in Mr Gordon Thomson and in Mr John Proctor,
  who worked also for _Moonshine_ (founded in 1879, now extinct).
  _Moonshine_ afterwards enlisted the services of Alfred Bryan, to whose
  clever pencil the Christmas number of the _World_ was indebted for
  many years. _Ally Sloper_, founded in 1884, is notable only as the
  widely circulated medium for W.G. Baxter's wild humours, kept up in
  the same spirit by Mr W.F. Thomas, his successor. _Pick-me-up_ could
  once count a staff which rivalled at least the social side of _Punch_;
  Mr Raven-Hill, Phil May, Mr Maurice Greiffenhagen and Mr Dudley Hardy
  all contributed in their time to its sprightly pages, while Mr S.H.
  Sime made it the vehicle for his "squint-brained" imaginings. The
  _Will o' the Wisp_, the _Butterfly_ and the _Unicorn_, kindred
  ventures, though on different lines, all met with an early death.
  _Lika Joko_, founded in 1894 by Mr Harry Furniss, who in that year
  abandoned _Punch_, and afterwards _Fair Game_, were also short-lived.
  To this brief list of purely comic or satirical journals should be
  added the names of several daily and weekly publications--and among
  monthlies the _Idler_, with its caricatures by Mr Scott Rankin, Mr
  Sime and Mr Beerbohm--which have made a special feature of humorous
  art. Among these are the _Graphic_, whose Christmas numbers were first
  brightened by Randolph Caldecott; the _Daily Graphic_, enlivened
  sometimes by Phil May and Mr A.S. Boyd; _Vanity Fair_, with its
  grotesque portraits; _Truth_, to whose Christmas numbers Sir F.C.
  Gould contributed some of his best and most ambitious work, printed in
  colours; the _Sketch_, with Phil May and others; _Black and White_,
  with Mr Henry Meyer; the _Pall Mall Gazette_, first with Sir F.C.
  Gould, and later with Mr G.R. Halkett. The _St Stephen's Review_,
  whose crudely powerful cartoons, the work of Tom Merry, were so
  popular, ceased publication in 1892. A tribute should be paid in
  conclusion to the coloured cartoons of the _Weekly Freeman_ and other
  Irish papers, often remarkable for their humour and talent. (See also
  CARTOON and ILLUSTRATION.)

  _France_.--In that peculiar branch of art which is based on irony,
  fun, oddity and wit, and in which Honoré Daumier (1808-1879), next to
  "Gavarni" (1804-1866), remains the undisputed master, France--as has
  already been shown--can produce an unbroken series of draughtsmen of
  strong individuality. Though "Cham" died in 1879, Eugène Giraud in
  1881, "Randon" in 1884, "André Gill" in 1885, "Marcelin" in 1887,
  Edouard de Beaumont in 1888, Lami in 1891, Alfred Grévin in 1892, and
  "Stop" in 1899, a new group arose under the leadership of "Nadar" (b.
  1820) and Etienne Carjat (b. 1828). Mirthful or satirical, and less
  philosophical than of yore, neglecting history for incident, and
  humanity for the puppets of the day, their drawings, which illustrate
  daily events, will perpetuate the manner and anecdotes of the time,
  though the illustrations to newspapers, or prints which need a
  paragraph of explanation, show nothing to compare with the _Propos de
  Thomas Virelocque_ by "Gavarni." Quantity perhaps makes up for
  quality, and some of these artists deserve special mention. "Draner"
  (b. 1833) and "Henriot" (b. 1857) are journalists, carrying on the
  method first introduced by "Cham" in the _Univers Illustré_: realistic
  sketches, with no purpose beyond the droll illustration of facts,
  amusing at the time, but of no value to the print-collector. M. J.L.
  Forain, born at Reims in 1852, studied at the École des Beaux Arts
  under Jean Léon Gérôme and J.B. Carpeaux. He first worked for the
  _Courrier Français_ in 1887, and afterwards for _Figaro_; he was then
  drawn into the polemical work of politics. Though he has created some
  great types of flunkeydom, the explanatory story is more to him than
  the picture, which is often too sketchy, though masterly. Reduced
  reproductions of his work have been issued in volumes, a common form
  of popularity never attempted with Daumier's fine lithographs. M. A.L.
  Willette, born at Châlons-sur-Marne in 1857, a son of Colonel
  Willette, the aide-de-camp to Marshal Bazaine, worked for four years
  in Alexandre Cabanel's studio, and so gained an artistic training
  which alone would have distinguished him from his fellows, even
  without the delightful poetical fancy and Watteau-like grace which are
  somewhat unexpected amid the ugliness of modern life. His work has
  the value, no doubt, of deep and various meaning, but it has also
  intrinsic artistic worth. M. Willette is, in fact, the ideal
  delineator of the more voluptuous and highly spiced aspects of
  contemporary life. "Caran d'Ache," a native of Moscow, born in 1858,
  borrowed from the German caricaturists--mainly from W. Busch--his
  methods of illustrating "a story without words." He makes fun even of
  animals, and is a master of canine physiognomy. His simple and
  unerring outline is a method peculiarly his own; now and again his wit
  rises to grandiloquence, as in his _Bellona_, rushing on an automobile
  through massacre and conflagrations, and in his _Épopée_ (Epic) of
  shadows thrown on a sheet. Among his followers may be included A.
  Guillaume and Gerbault. M.C.L. Léandre, born at Champsecret (Orne), in
  1862, is, like "André Gill," a draughtsman of monstrosities; he can
  get a perfect likeness of a face while exaggerating some particular
  feature, gives his figure a hump-back, as Dantan did in his
  statuettes, and has a facial dexterity which sometimes does scant
  justice to his very original wit. At the same time he has a true sense
  of beauty. M. Théophile A. Steinlen, born at Lausanne in 1859, went to
  Paris in 1881. He should be studied in his illustrations to _Bruant_.
  He knows the inmost core of the Butte-Montmartre, and depicts it with
  realistic and brutal relish. M. Albert Robida, born at Compiègne in
  1848, collaborated with Decaux in 1871 to found _La Caricature_; he is
  a paradoxical seer of the possible future and a curiosity-hunter of
  the past. Old Paris has no secrets from him; he knows all the old
  stones and costumes of the middle ages, and has illustrated Rabelais;
  and for fertility of fancy he reminds us of Gustave Doré, but with a
  sense of movement so vibrant as to be almost distressing. "Bac," born
  at Vienna in 1859, has infused a strain of the Austrian woman into the
  Parisienne; representing her merely as a pleasure- and love-seeking
  creature, as the toy of an evening, he has recorded her peccadilloes,
  her witcheries and her vices. Others who have shot folly as it flies
  are M. Albert Guillaume, who illustrated the Exhibition of 1900 in a
  series of remarkable silhouettes; "Mars"; "Henri Somm"; Gerbault; and
  Grün. M. Huard depicts to perfection the country townsfolk in their
  elementary psychology. M. Hermann Paul, M. Forain's not unworthy
  successor on the _Figaro_, is a cruel satirist, who in a single face
  can epitomize a whole class of society, and could catalogue the actors
  of the _comédie humaine_ in a series of drawings. M. Jean Veber loves
  fantastic subjects, the gnomes of fairy-tales and myths; but he has a
  biting irony for contemporary history, as in the _Butcher's Shop_,
  where Bismarck is the blood-stained butcher. M. Abel Faivre, a refined
  and charming painter, is a whimiscal humorist with the pencil. He
  shows us monstrous women, fabulously hideous, drawing them with a sort
  of realism which is droll by sheer ugliness. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
  startles us by extraordinary dislocations, scrawled limbs and
  inexplicable anatomy; he has left an inimitable series of sketches of
  Mme Yvette Guilbert when she was at her thinnest. M. Felix Vallotton
  reproduces crows in blots of black with a Japanese use of the brush.
  M. G. Jeanniot, a notable illustrator, sometimes amuses himself by
  contributing to _Le Rire, Le Sourire, Le Pompon, L'Assiette au
  Beurre_, &c., drawing the two types he most affects: the fashionable
  world and soldiers. M. Ibels, Capiello and many more might be
  enumerated, but it is impossible to chronicle all the clever humorous
  artists of the illustrated papers.

  It is the frequent habit of French caricaturists to employ a
  _nom-de-guerre_. We therefore give here a list of the genuine names
  represented by the pseudonyms used above, together with others
  familiar to the public:--

    "André Gill"           = L.A. Gosset de Guine (1840-1885).
    "Bac" ("Cab" and
     "Saro")               = Ferdinand Bach (b. 1859).
    "Caran d'Ache"         = Emmanuel Poiré.
    "Cham"                 = Comte Amédée de Noé (b. 1818).
    "Crafty"               = Victor Gérusez (b. 1840).
    "Draner" (and "Paf")   = Jules Renard (b. 1833).
    "Faustin"              = Faustin Betbeder (b. 1847).
    "Gavarni"              = S.G. Chevalier (1804-1866).
    "Gédéon"               = Gédéon Baril (b. 1832).
    "Grandville"           = J.I.I. Gérard (1803-1847).
    "Henriot" (and "Piff") = Henri Maigrot (b. 1857).
    "Henri Somm"           = Henri Sommier (b. 1844).
    "Job"                  = J.O. de Bréville (b. 1858).
    "Marcelin"             = Émile Planat (1825-1887).
    "Mars"                 = Maurice Bonvoisin (b. 1849).
    "Moloch"               = Colomb (b. 1849).
    "Montbard"             = C.A. Loye (1841-1905).
    "Nadar"                = Félix Tournachon (b. 1820).
    "Pasquin"              = Georges Coutan (b. 1853).
    "Pépin"                = Ed. Guillaume (b. 1842).
    "Randon"               = Gilbert (1814-1845).
    "Sahib"                = L.E. Lesage (b. 1847).
    "Said"                 = Alphonse Lévy (b. 1845).
    "Sem"                  = George Goursat.
    "Stop"                 = L.P. Morel-Retz (b. 1825).

  _Germany_.--During the later 19th century German caricature flourished
  principally in the comic papers _Kladderadatsch_ of Berlin and
  _Fliegende Blätter_ of Munich; the former a political paper with
  little artistic value, in which the ideas alone are clever, whilst
  the illustrations are merely a more or less clumsy adjunct to the
  text, while the _Fliegende Blätter_, on the contrary, has artistic
  merit as well as wit. Wilhelm Busch (b. 1832), the most brilliant
  German draughtsman of the last generation, made his _dêbut_ with an
  illustrated poem "The Peasant and the Miller," and won a world-wide
  reputation with the following works: _Pater Filucius, Die Fromme
  Helene, Max und Moritz, Der heilige Antonius, Maler Kleksel, Balduin
  Bählamm, Die Erlebnisse Knopps des Junggesellen_. Busch stands alone
  among the caricaturists of his nation, inasmuch as he is both the
  author and the illustrator of these works, his witty doggerel
  supplying Germany with household words. The drawings that accompany
  the text are amazing for the skill and directness with which he hits
  the vital mark. A flourish or two and a few touches are enough to set
  before us figures of intensely comical aspect. This distinguishes
  Busch from Adolf Oberländer (1845), who became the chief draughtsman
  on _Fliegende Blätter_. Busch's drawings would have no meaning apart
  from the humorous words. Oberländer works with the pencil only. Men,
  animals, trees, objects, are endowed by him with a mysterious life of
  their own. Without the help of any verbal joke, he achieves the
  funniest results simply by seeing and accentuating the comical side of
  everything. His drawings are caricature in the strict sense of the
  word, its principle being the exaggeration of some natural
  characteristic. The new generation of contributors to _Fliegende
  Blätter_ do not work on these lines. Busch and Oberländer were both
  offshoots of the romantic school; they made fun of modern novelties.
  Hermann Schlittgen, Meggendorfer, H. Vogel-Plauen, Réne Reinicke,
  Adolf Hengeler and Fritz Wahle are the sons of a self-satisfied time,
  triumphing in its own _chic_, elegance and grace; hence they do not
  parody what they see, but simply depict it. The wit lies exclusively
  in the text; the illustrations aim merely at a direct representation
  of street or drawing-room scenes. It is this which gives to _Fliegende
  Blätter_ its value as a pictorial record of the history of German
  manners. Its pages are a permanent authority on the subject for those
  who desire to see the social aspects of Germany during the last
  quarter of the 19th century onwards. At the same time a falling-off in
  the brilliancy of this periodical was perceptible. Its fun became
  domestic and homely; it has faithfully adhered to the old technique of
  wood-engraving, and made no effort to keep pace with the modern
  methods of reproduction. German caricature, to live and flourish, was
  not keeping pace with the development of the art; it had to take into
  its service the gay effects of colour, and derive fresh inspiration
  from the sweeping lines of the ornamental draughtsman. This led to the
  appearance of three new weekly papers: _Jugend, Das Narrenschiff_ and
  _Simplicissimus_. _Jugend_, started in 1896 by Georg Hirth in Munich,
  collected from the first a group of gifted young artists, more
  especially Thöny, Bernhard Pankok and Julius Diez, who based their
  style on old German wood-engraving; Fidus, who lavished the utmost
  beauty of line in unshaded pen-and-ink work; Rudolf Wilke, whose
  grotesques have much in common with Forain's clever drawings; Angelo
  Jank and R.M. Eichler, who work with a delightful _bonhomie_. Among
  the draughtsmen on the _Narrenschiff_ (The Ship of Fools), Hans
  Baluschek is worthy of mention as having made the types of Berlin life
  all his own; and while this paper gives us for the most part
  inoffensive satire on society, _Simplicissimus_, first printed at
  Munich and then at Zurich, under the editorship of Albert Langen,
  shows a marked Socialist and indeed Anarchist tendency, subjecting to
  ridicule and mockery everything that has hitherto been held as
  unassailable by such weapons; it reminds us of the scathing satire of
  Honoré Daumier in _La Caricature_ at the time of Louis Philippe.
  Thomas Theodor Heine (1867) is unsurpassed in this style for his power
  of expression and variety of technique. We must admire his delicate
  draughtsmanship, or again, his drawing of the figure with the heavy
  line of heraldic ornament, and his broad and monumental grasp of the
  grotesque. His laughter is often insolent, but he is more often the
  preacher, scourge in hand, who ruthlessly unveils all the dark side of
  life. Next to him come Paul, an incomparable limner of student life
  and the manners and customs of the Bavarian populace; E. Thöny, a
  wonderfully clever caricaturist of the airs and assumption of the
  Prussian _Junker_ and the Prussian subaltern; J.C. Eugh and F. von
  Regnieck, who make fun of the townsman and political spouter in biting
  and searching satire. The standard of caricature is at the present
  time a high one in Germany; indeed, the modern adoption of the
  pen-line, which has arisen since the impressionists in oil-painting
  repudiated line, had its origin in the influence of caricature.

  _United States._--The proverbial irreverence of the American mind even
  towards its most cherished personages and ideals has made it
  particularly responsive to the appeal of caricature. At first an
  importation, it developed but slowly; then it burst into luxuriant
  growth, sometimes exceeding the limits of wise and careful
  cultivation. In the early period of American caricature, almost the
  only native is F.O.C. Darley (1822-1888), an illustrator of some
  importance; the other names include the engraver Paul Revere (chiefly
  famous for a picturesque exploit in the War of Independence); a
  Scotsman, William Charles; the Englishmen, Matt Morgan and E.P.
  Bellew; and the Germans, Thomas Nast and Joseph Keppler.

  The name of Thomas Nast overshadows and sums up American political
  caricature. Nast, who was born in Bavaria in 1840, was brought to
  America at the age of six; and his training and all his interests were
  strongly American. At fourteen he was an illustrator on _Leslie's
  Weekly_, and was sent at twenty to England to illustrate the famous
  Sayers-Heenan prize-fight. He then went as recorder of Garibaldi's
  campaign of 1860. He returned to America known only as an illustrator.
  The Civil War did not awaken his latent genius till 1864, when he
  published a cartoon of fierce irony against the political party which
  opposed Lincoln's re-election and advocated peace measures with the
  Southern confederacy. This cartoon not only made Nast famous, but may
  be said to contain the germ of American caricature; for all that had
  gone before was too crude in technique to pass muster even as good
  caricature.

  The magnificent corruption of Tammany Hall under the leadership of
  William M. Tweed, the first of the great municipal "bosses," gave Nast
  a subject worth attacking. Siegfried, earnest but light-hearted, armed
  with the mightier sword of the pen of ridicule, assailed the monster
  ensconced in his treasure-cave, and after a long battle won a
  brilliant victory. Nast did not always rely on a mere picture to carry
  his thrust; often his cartoon consisted of only a minor figure or two
  looking at a large placard on which a long and poignantly-worded
  attack was delivered in cold type. At other times the most ingenious
  pictorial subtlety was displayed. This long series sounds almost the
  whole gamut of caricature, from downright ridicule to the most lofty
  denunciation. A very happy device was the representation of Tweed's
  face by a money-bag with only dollar marks for features, a device
  which, strangely enough, made a curiously faithful likeness of the
  "boodle"-loving despot. When, finally, Tweed took to flight, to escape
  imprisonment, he was recognized and caught, it is said, entirely
  through the wide familiarity given to his image in Nast's cartoons.

  When Nast retired from _Harper's Weekly_, he was succeeded by Charles
  Green Bush (born 1842; died 1909). With even greater technical
  resources, he poured forth a series of cartoons of remarkable evenness
  of skill and interest; he soon left weekly for daily journalism. He
  never won, single-handed, such a battle as Nast's, but his drawings
  have a more general, perhaps a more lasting interest. When he left
  _Harper's Weekly_ he was succeeded by W.A. Rogers, who composed many
  ingenious and telling cartoons.

  The vogue which, through Nast, _Harper's Weekly_ gave to caricature,
  prepared the way for the first purely comic weekly paper, _Puck_,
  founded by two Germans, and for long published in a German as well as
  an English edition--a journal which has cast its influence generally
  in favour of the Democratic party. It is worth noting that not only
  the founders but the spirit of American caricature have been rather
  German than English, the American comic papers more closely resembling
  _Fliegende Blätter_, for example, than _Punch._ One of the founders of
  _Puck_ was Joseph Keppler (1838-1894), long its chief caricaturist.

  The Republican party soon found a champion in _Judge_, a weekly
  satirical paper which resembles _Puck_ closely in its crudely coloured
  pages, though somewhat broader and less ambitious in the spirit and
  execution of its black-and-white illustrations. These two papers have
  kept rather strictly to permanent staffs, and have furnished the
  opening for many popular draughtsmen, such as Bernhard Gillam (d.
  1896), and his brother, Victor; J.A. Wales (d. 1886); E. Zimmerman,
  whose extremely plebeian and broadly treated types often obscure the
  observation and Falstaffian humour displayed in them; Grant Hamilton;
  Frederick Opper, for many years devoted to the trials of suburban
  existence, and later concerned in combating the trusts; C.J. Taylor, a
  graceful technician; H. Smith; Frank A. Nankivell, whose pretty
  athletic girls are prone to attitudinizing; J. Mortimer Flagg; F.M.
  Howarth; Mrs Frances O'Neill Latham, whose personages are singularly
  well modelled and alive; and Miss Baker Baker, a skilful draughtswoman
  of animals.

  A stimulus to genuine art in caricature was given by the establishment
  (1883) of the weekly _Life_, edited by J.A. Mitchell, a clever
  draughtsman as well as an original writer. It is to this paper that
  America owes the discovery and encouragement of its most remarkable
  artist humorist, Charles Dana Gibson, whose technique has developed
  through many interesting phases from exceeding delicacy to a
  sculpturesque boldness of line without losing its rich texture, and
  without becoming monotonous. Mr Gibson is chiefly beloved by his
  public for his almost idolatrous realizations of the beautiful
  American woman of various types, ages and environments. His works are,
  however, full of the most subtle character-observations, and American
  men of all walks of life, and foreigners of every type, impart as much
  importance and humour to his pages as his "Gibson girls" give
  radiance. His admitted devotion to Du Maurier, in reverence for the
  beautiful woman beautifully attired, has led some critics to set him
  down as a mere disciple, while his powerful individuality has led
  others to accuse him of monotony; but a serious examination of his
  work has seemed to reveal that he has gone beyond the genius of Du
  Maurier in sophistication, if not in variety, of subjects and
  treatment. As much as any other artist Mr Gibson has studiously tried
  new experiments in the new fields opened by modernized processes of
  photo-engraving, and has been an important influence in both English
  and American line-illustration.

  Among other students of society, particular success has been achieved
  by C.S. Reinhart (1844-1896), Charles Howard Johnson (d. 1895), H.W.
  M'Vickar, S.W. van Schaick, A.E. Sterner, W.H. Hyde, W.T. Smedley and
  A.B. Wenzell, each of them strongly individual in manner and often
  full of _verve_ and truth.

  _Life_, and other comic papers, including for many years _Truth_, also
  brought forward caricaturists of distinct worth and a marked tendency
  to specialization. F.E. Atwood (d. 1900) was ingenious in cartoons
  lightly allegorical; Oliver Herford has shown a fascination elusive of
  analysis in his drawings as in his verse; T.S. Sullivant has made a
  quaintly intellectual application of the old-world devices of large
  heads, small bodies, and the like; Peter Newell has developed
  individuality both in treatment and in humour; E.W. Kemble is
  noteworthy among the exploiters of negro life; and H.B. Eddy, Augustus
  Dirk, Robert L. Wagner, A. Anderson, F. Sarka and J. Swinnerton have
  all displayed marked individuality.

  In distinction from the earlier period, the modern school of American
  caricature is strongly national, not only in subject, but in origin,
  training and in mental attitude, exception being made of a few notable
  figures, such as Michael Angelo Woolf, born in England, and of a
  somewhat Cruikshankian technique. He came to America while young, and
  contributed a long series of what may be called slum-fantasies,
  instinct alike with laughter and sorrow, at times strangely combining
  extravagant melodrama with a most plausible and convincing
  impossibility. His drawings must always lie very close to the
  affections of the large audience that welcomed them. American also by
  adoption is Henry Mayer, a German by birth, who has contributed to
  many of the chief comic papers of France, England, Germany and
  America.

  Entirely native in every way is the art of A.B. Frost (b. 1851), a
  prominent humorist who deals with the life of the common people. His
  caricature (he is also an illustrator of versatility and importance)
  is distinguished by its anatomical knowledge, or, rather, anatomical
  imagination. Violent as the action of his figures frequently is, it is
  always convincing. Such triumphs as the tragedy of the kind-hearted
  man and the ungrateful bull-calf; the spinster's cat that ate rat
  poison, and many others, force the most serious to laughter by their
  amazing velocity of action and their unctuousness of expression. Frost
  is to American caricature what "Artemus Ward" has been to American
  humour, and his field of publication has been chiefly the monthly
  magazine.

  The influence of the weekly periodicals has been briefly traced. A
  later development was the entrance of the omnivorous daily newspaper
  into the field of both the magazine and the weekly. For many years
  almost every newspaper has printed its daily cartoon, generally of a
  political nature. Few of the cartoonists have been able to keep up the
  pace of a daily inspiration, but C.G. Bush has been unusually
  successful in the attempt. Yet an occasional success atones for many
  slips, and the cartoonists are known and eagerly watched. The most
  influential has doubtless been Homer C. Davenport, whose slender
  artistic resources have been eked out by a vigour and mercilessness of
  assault rare even in American annals. He has a Rabelaisian complacency
  and skill in making a portrait magnificently repulsive, and his
  caricatures are a vivid example of the school of cartoonists who
  believe in slashing rather than merely prodding or tickling the object
  of attack. Charles Nelan (1859-1904) frequently scored, and in the
  wide extent of the United States one finds keen wits busily assailing
  the manifold evils of life. Noteworthy among them are: Thos. E.
  Powers, H.R. Heaton, Albert Levering, Clare Angell and R.C. Swayne.

  _Scandinavia._--Caricature flourishes also in the Scandinavian
  countries, but few names are known beyond their borders. Professor
  Hans Tegner of Denmark is an exception; his illustrations to Hans
  Andersen (English edition, 1900) have carried his name wherever that
  author is appreciated, yet his reputation was made in the Danish
  _Punch_, which was founded after the year 1870 but has long ceased to
  exist. Alfred Schmidt and Axel Thiess have contributed notable
  sketches to _Puk_ and its successor _Klockhaus_, but in point of style
  they scarcely carry on the tradition of their predecessor, Fritz
  Jürgensen. Among humorous artists of Norway, Th. Kittelsen perhaps
  holds the leading place, and in Sweden, Bruno Liljefors, best known as
  a brilliant painter of bird life.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--_Rules for Drawing Caricature, with an Essay on Comic
  Painting_, by Francis Grose (8vo, London, 1788); _Historical Sketch of
  the Art of Caricaturing_, by J. Peller Malcolm (4to, London, 1813);
  _History of Caricature and Grotesque in Literature and Art_, by Thomas
  Wright (8vo, London, 1865); _Musée de la caricature_, by Jaime; (a)
  _Histoire de la caricature antique_; (b) _Histoire de la caricature au
  moyen âge et sous la renaissance_; (c) _Histoire de la caricature sous
  la réforme et la ligue_; (d) _Histoire de la caricature sous la
  république, l'empire, et la restauration_; (e) _Histoire de la
  caricature moderne_ (5 vols.), by Champfleury (i.e. Jules Fleury),
  (8vo, Paris); _Le Musée secret de la caricature_, by Champfleury (i.e.
  Jules Fleury), (8vo, Paris); _L'Art du rire et de la caricature_, by
  Arsène Alexandre (8vo, Paris); _Caricature and other Comic Art_, by
  James Parton (sm. 4to, New York, 1878); _Le Miroir de la vie: la
  Caricature_, by Robert de la Sizeranne (8vo, Paris, 1902), (tracing
  the aesthetic development of the art and spirit of caricature); _La
  Caricature à travers les siècles_, by Georges Veyrat (4to, Paris); _La
  Caricature et les caricaturistes_, by Émile Bagaud (with a preface by
  Ch. Léandre), (fo., Paris); _Le Rire et la caricature_, by Paul
  Gaultier (with a preface by Sully Prudhomme), (8vo, Paris, 1906), (a
  work of originality, dwelling not only on the aesthetic but on the
  essentially pessimistic side of satiric art); _English Caricaturists
  and Graphic Humorists of the Nineteenth Century_, by Graham Everitt
  (i.e. William Rodgers Richardson), (4to, London, 1886), (a careful and
  interesting survey); _La Caricature en Angleterre_, by Augustin Filva
  (8vo, Paris, 1902), (an able criticism from the point of view of
  psycho-sociology); _The History of Punch_, by M.H. Spielmann (8vo,
  London, 1895), (dealing with caricature art of England during the
  half-century covered by the book); _Magazine of Art_, passim, for
  biographies of English caricaturists--"Our Graphic Humorists"; _Social
  Pictorial Satire_, by George du Maurier (12mo, London, 1898); _Les
  Moeurs et la caricature en France_, by J. Grand-Carteret (8vo, Paris,
  1885); _La Caricature et l'humeur français au XIXe siècle_, by Raoul
  Deberdt (8vo, Paris); _Les Maîtres de la caricature française en XIXe
  siècle_, by Armand Dayot (Paris); _Nos humoristes_, by Ad. Brisson
  (4to, Paris, 1900); _Les Moeurs et la caricature en Allemagne, &c._,
  by J. Grand-Carteret (8vo, Paris, 1885). See also biographies of
  Charles Keene, H. Daumier, John Leech, &c., indicated under those
  names.     (M. H. S.)



CARIGARA, a town of the province of Leyte, island of Leyte, Philippine
Islands, on Carigara Bay, 22 m. W. of Tacloban, the capital. Pop. (1903)
19,488, including that of Capoocan (3106), annexed to Carigara in the
same year. Carigara is open to coast trade, exports large quantities of
hemp, raises much rice, and manufactures cotton and abaca fabrics. It
also has important fisheries.



CARIGNANO, a town of Piedmont, Italy, in the province of Turin, 11 m. S.
by steam tramway from the town of Turin. Pop. (1901) town, 4672,
commune, 7104. It has a handsome church (S. Giovanni Battista) erected
in 1756-1766 by the architect Benedetto Alfieri di Sostegno (1700-1767),
uncle of the poet Alfieri. S. Maria delle Grazie contains the tomb of
Bianca Palaeologus, wife of Duke Charles I. of Savoy, at whose court
Bayard was brought up. The town passed into the hands of the counts of
Savoy in 1418.

Carignano was erected by Charles Emmanuel I. of Savoy into a
principality as an appanage for his third son, Thomas Francis
(1596-1656), whose descendant, Charles Albert, prince of Carignano,
became king of Sardinia on the extinction of the elder line of the house
of Savoy with the death of Charles Felix in 1831. The house of Carignano
developed two junior branches, those of Soissons and Villafranca. The
first of these, which became extinct in 1734, was founded by Eugene
Maurice, second son of Thomas, by his wife Marie de Condé, countess of
Soissons, who received his mother's countship as his appanage. In 1662
the town of Yvois in the Ardennes was raised by Louis XIV. into a duchy
in his favour, its name being changed at the same time to Carignan. The
famous Prince Eugene was the second son of the first duke of Carignan.
The branch of Villafranca started with Eugene Marie Louis (d. 1785),
second son of Louis Victor of Carignano, whose grandson Eugene
(1816-1888), afterwards an admiral in the Italian navy, was created
prince of Savoy-Carignano, by King Charles Albert in 1834. He had
contracted a morganatic marriage, and in 1888, on the occasion of his
silver wedding, the title of countess of Villafranca was bestowed upon
his wife, his eldest son, Filiberto, being at the same time created
count of Villafranca, and his younger son, Vittorio, count of Soissons.



CARILLON, an arrangement for playing tunes upon a set of bells by
mechanical means. The word is said to be a Fr. form of Late Lat. or
Ital. _quadriglio_, a simple dance measure on four notes or for four
persons (Lat. _quattuor_); and is used sometimes for the tune played,
sometimes (and more commonly in England) for the set of bells used in
playing it. The earliest medieval attempts at bell music, as distinct
from mere noise, seem to have consisted in striking a row of small bells
by hand with a hammer, and illustrations in MSS. of the 12th and 13th
centuries show this process on three, four or even eight bells. The
introduction of mechanism in the form either of a barrel (see
BARREL-ORGAN) set with pegs or studs and revolving in connexion with the
machinery of a clock, or of a keyboard struck by hand (_carillon à
clavier_), made it possible largely to increase the number of bells and
the range of harmonies. In Belgium, the home of the _carillon_ the art
of the _carillonneur_ was at one time brought to great perfection and
held in high esteem (see BELL); but even there it is gradually giving
way to mechanism. In England manual skill has never been much employed,
though keyboards on the continental model have been introduced, e.g. at
the Manchester town hall, at Eaton Hall, and elsewhere; carillon music
being mainly confined to hymn tunes at regular intervals (generally
three hours), or chimes at the hours and intervening quarters. The
"Cambridge" and "Westminster" chimes are very familiar; and more
recently chimes have been composed by Sir John Stainer for Freshwater in
the Isle of Wight ("Tennyson" Chimes), and by Sir Charles Stanford for
"Bow Bells" in London.



CARINI, a town in the province of Palermo, Sicily, 13 m. by rail W.N.W.
of Palermo. Pop. (1901) 13,931. On the coast are some ruins of the
ancient _Hyccara_, the only Sican settlement (probably a fishing
village) on the coast. It was stormed and taken by the Athenians in 415
B.C., and the inhabitants, among them the famous courtesan Lais, sold as
slaves. At La Grazia Christian catacombs have been found (_Not. degli
Scavi_, 1899, 362).



CARINTHIA (Ger. _Kärnten_), a duchy and crownland of Austria, bounded E.
by Styria, N. by Styria and Salzburg, W. by Tirol, and S. by Italy, Görz
and Gradisca and Carniola. It has an area of 4005 sq. m. Carinthia is
for the most part a mountainous region, divided by the Drave, which
traverses it from west to east into two parts. To the north of the
valley of the Drave the duchy is occupied by the Hohe Tauern and the
primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria, which belong to the central zone
of the Eastern Alps. The Hohe Tauern contains the massifs of the Gross
Glockner (12,455 ft.); the Hochnarr (10,670 ft.) and the Ankogel (11,006
ft.), and is traversed by the saddles of the Hochthor and the Malnitzer
Tauern, which separates these groups from one another. To the east of
the Hohe Tauern stretches the group of the primitive Alps of Carinthia
and Styria, namely the Pöllaer Alps with the glacier-covered peak of the
Hafner Eck (10,041 ft.); the Stang Alps with the highest peak the
Eisenhut (8007 ft.); the Saualpe with the highest peak the Grosse
Saualpe (6825 ft.); and finally the Koralpen chain or the Stainzer Alps
(7023 ft.) separated from the preceding group by the Lavant valley. The
country south of the Drave is occupied by several groups of the southern
limestone zone, namely the Carnic Alps, the Julian Alps, the Karawankas
and the Steiner Alps. The Carnic Alps are divided by the Gail valley
into the South Carnic group and the northern Gailthal Alps. They are
traversed by the Pontebba or Pontafel Pass, through which passes one of
the principal Alpine roads from Italy to Austria. The road is covered by
the fortress of Malborgeth, where Captain Hensel with a handful of men
met with a heroic death defending the place against an overwhelming
French force in the campaign of 1809. A similar fate overtook, on the
same day, the 18th of May 1809, Captain Hermann von Hermannsdorf and his
small garrison, who were defending the Predil fort. This fort covers the
road which traverses the Predil Pass in the Julian Alps and is the
principal road leading from Carinthia to the Coastland. Commemorative
monuments have been erected in both places. The Gailthal Alps end with
the Dobratsch or Villacher Alp (7107 ft.), situated to the south-west of
Villach (q.v.), which is celebrated as one of the finest views in the
whole eastern Alps. South of Hermagor, the principal place of the Gail
valley, is the chain of mountains which is famous as being the only
place where the beautiful _Wulfenia Carinthiaca_ is found. The highest
peaks in the Karawankas are the Grosse Mittagskogel (7033 ft.), the Och
Obir (7023 ft.) and the Petzen (6934 ft.). The Ursula Berg (5563 ft.)
ends the group of the Karawankas, which are continued by the Steiner
Alps.

The principal river is the Drave, which flows from west to east through
the length of the duchy, and receives in its course the waters of all
the other streams, except the Fella, which reaches the Adriatic by its
junction with the Tagliamento. Its principal tributaries are the Gail on
the right, and the Möll, the Lieser, the Gurk with the Glan, and the
Lavant on the left. Carinthia possesses a great number of Alpine lakes,
which, unlike the other Alpine lakes, lie in the longitudinal valleys.
The principal lakes are: the Millstätter-see (8½ sq. m. in extent, 908
ft. deep, at an altitude of 1902 ft.), the Wörther-see (17 sq. m. in
extent, 212 ft. deep, at an altitude of 1438 ft.), the Ossiach-see (10½
sq. m. in extent, 150 ft. deep, at an altitude of 1599 ft.), and the
elongated Weissen-see (4½ m. long, 309 ft. deep, at an altitude of 3037
ft.).

The climate is severe in the north and north-west parts, but the south
and south-east districts are milder, while the most favoured part is the
Lavant valley. Of the total area only 13.71% is arable land, 10.50% is
occupied by meadows and gardens, 5.18% by pastures, while 44.24% is
covered by forests, almost exclusively pine-forests. Cattle-rearing is
well developed, and the horses bred in Carinthia enjoy a good
reputation. The mineral wealth of Carinthia is great, and consists in
lead, iron, zinc and coal. Iron ore is extracted in the region of the
Saualpe, and is worked in the foundries of St Leonhard, St Gertraud,
Prävali, Hirt, Treibach and Eberstein. About two-thirds of the total
production of lead in Austria is extracted in Carinthia, the principal
places being Bleiberg and Raibl. The metallurgic industries are well
developed, and consist in the production of iron, steel, machinery,
small-arms, lead articles, wire-cables and rails. The principal
manufacturing places are Prävali, Brückl, Klagenfurt, Lippitzbach,
Wolfsberg, St Veit and Buchscheiden near Feldkirchen. The manufacture of
small-arms is concentrated at Ferlach. Other trades are the manufacture
of paper, leather, cement and the exploitation of forests.

The population of Carinthia in 1900 was 367,344, which corresponds to 91
inhabitants per sq. m. According to nationality, 71.54% were Germans,
and 28.39% Slovenes, mostly settled in the districts adjoining the
Slovene province of Carniola. Over 94% of the population were Roman
Catholics. The local diet, of which the bishop of Gurk is a member _ex
officio_, is composed of 37 members, and Carinthia sends 10 deputies to
the Reichsrat at Vienna. For administrative purposes, the province is
divided into seven districts, and an autonomous municipality, Klagenfurt
(pop. 24,314), the capital. Other principal places are: Villach (9690),
Wolfsberg (4852), St Veit (4667), an old town, the former capital of
Carinthia up to 1518, Prävali (4047), Travis (3640), a favourite
summer-resort and tourist place, Bleiberg (3435), Völkermarkt (2606) and
Spittal (2564).

Carinthia is so called from the Carni, a Celtic people, and in the time
of Augustus it formed part of Noricum. After the fall of the Roman
empire, it was the nucleus of the kingdom of Carentania, which was
founded by Samo, a Frankish adventurer, but soon fell to pieces after
his death. Under Charlemagne it constituted a margravate, which in 843
passed into the hands of Louis the German, whose grandson Arnulf was the
first to bear the title of duke of Carinthia. The duchy was held by
various families during the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries, and at length
in 1335 was bestowed by Louis the Bavarian on the dukes of Austria. It
was divided into Upper or Western Carinthia and Lower or Eastern; of
these the former fell to France in 1809, but was reconquered in 1813. It
was created a separate crownland in 1849.

  See Aelschker. _Geschichte Kärntens_ (Klagenfurt, 1885).



CARINUS, MARCUS AURELIUS, Roman emperor, A.D. 283-284, was the elder son
of the emperor Carus, on whose accession he was appointed governor of
the western portion of the empire. He fought with success against the
German tribes, but soon left the defence of the Upper Rhine to his
legates and returned to Rome, where he abandoned himself to all kinds of
debauchery and excess. He also celebrated the _ludi Romani_ on a scale
of unexampled magnificence. After the death of Carus, the army in the
East demanded to be led back to Europe, and Numerianus, the younger son
of Carus, was forced to comply. During a halt at Chalcedon, Numerianus
was murdered, and Diocletian, commander of the body-guards, was
proclaimed emperor by the soldiers. Carinus at once left Rome and set
out for the East to meet Diocletian. On his way through Pannonia he put
down the usurper M. Aurelius Julianus, and encountered the army of
Diocletian in Moesia. Carinus was successful in several engagements, and
at the battle on the Margus (Morava), according to one account, the
valour of his troops had gained the day, when he was assassinated by a
tribune whose wife he had seduced. In another account, the battle is
represented as having resulted in a complete victory for Diocletian.
Carinus has the reputation of having been one of the worst of the
emperors.

  Vopiscus, _Carinus_ (mainly the recital of his crimes); Aurelius
  Victor, _De Caesaribus_, 38, Epit. 38; Eutropius ix. 18-20; Zonaras
  xii. 30; Orosius vii. 25; Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencyclopadie_, ii. 24
  ff. (Henze).



CARIPE, a small town of Venezuela in the state of Bermúdez, about 53 m.
E.S.E. of Cumaná. It is the chief station of the Capuchin missions to
the Chayma Indians, founded toward the close of the 17th century, and
stands 2635 ft. above sea-level, in a fertile valley of the Sierra
Bergantín, long celebrated for its cool, invigorating climate. The
locality is also celebrated for the extensive system of caves in the
limestone rocks found in its vicinity, which were described by Humboldt
in his _Personal Narrative_. The principal cave, known as the Cueva del
Guácharo, extends inward a distance of 2800 ft. with a height of 70-80
ft. These caves are frequented by a species of night-hawk, called
_guacharo_, which nests in the recesses of the rocks. The young are
killed in great numbers for their oil. Caripe itself has a population of
only 580, but the valley and neighbouring stations have about ten times
that number. Caripe should not be confounded with Rio Caribe, a town and
port on the Caribbean coast a short distance east of Carúpano, which has
a population of about 6000.



CARISBROOKE, a town in the Isle of Wight, England, 1 m. S. of Newport.
Pop. (1901) 3993. The valley of the Lugley brook separates the village
from the steep conical hill crowned by the castle, the existence of
which has given Carisbrooke its chief fame. There are remains of a Roman
villa in the valley, but no reliable mention of Carisbrooke occurs in
Saxon times, though it has commonly been identified with the Saxon
_Wihtgaraburh_ captured by Cerdic in 530. Carisbrooke is not mentioned
by name in the Domesday Survey, but Bowcombe, its principal manor, was a
dependency of the royal manor of Amesbury, and was obtained from the
king by William Fitz Osbern in exchange for three Wiltshire manors. The
castle is mentioned in the Survey under Alvington, and was probably
raised by William Fitz Osbern, who was made first lord of the Isle of
Wight. From this date lordship of the Isle of Wight was always
associated with ownership of the castle, which thus became the seat of
government of the island. Henry I. bestowed it on Richard de Redvers, in
whose family it continued until Isabella de Fortibus sold it to Edward
I., after which the government was entrusted to wardens as
representatives of the crown. The keep was added to the castle in the
reign of Henry I., and in the reign of Elizabeth, when the Spanish
Armada was expected, it was surrounded by an elaborate pentagonal
fortification. The castle was garrisoned by Baldwin de Redvers for the
empress Maud in 1136, but was captured by Stephen. In the reign of
Richard II. it was unsuccessfully attacked by the French; Charles I. was
imprisoned here for fourteen months before his execution. Afterwards his
two youngest children were confined in the castle, and the Princess
Elizabeth died there. In 1904 the chapel of St Nicholas in the castle
was reopened and reconsecrated, having been rebuilt as a national
memorial of Charles I. The remains of the castle are extensive and
imposing, and the keeper's house and other parts are inhabited, but the
king's apartments are in ruins. Within the walls is a well 200 ft. deep;
and another in the centre of the keep is reputed to have been still
deeper. The church of St Mary, Carisbrooke, has a beautiful
Perpendicular tower, and contains transitional Norman portions. Only the
site can be traced of the Cistercian priory to which it belonged. This
was founded shortly after the Conquest and originated from the endowment
which the monks of Lyre near Evreux held in Bowcombe, including the
church, mill, houses, land and tithes of the manor. Richard II. bestowed
it on the abbey of Mountgrace in Yorkshire. It was restored by Henry
IV., but was dissolved by act of parliament in the reign of Henry V.,
who bestowed it on his newly-founded charter-house at Sheen. Carisbrooke
formerly had a considerable market, several mills, and valuable
fisheries, but it never acquired municipal or representative rights, and
was important only as the site of the castle.

  See _Victoria County History--Hampshire_; William Westall, _History of
  Carisbrooke Castle_ (1850).



CARISSIMI, GIACOMO (c. 1604-1674), one of the most celebrated masters of
the Italian, or, more accurately, the Roman school of music, was born
about 1604 in Marino (near Rome). Of his life almost nothing is known.
At the age of twenty he became chapel-master at Assisi, and in 1628 he
obtained the same position at the church of St Apollinaris belonging to
the Collegium Germanicum in Rome, which he held till his death on the
12th of January 1674, at Rome. He seems never to have left Italy. The
two great achievements generally ascribed to him are the further
development of the recitative, lately introduced by Monteverde, and of
infinite importance in the history of dramatic music; and the invention
of the chamber-cantata, by which Carissimi superseded the madrigals
formerly in use. His position in the history of church music and vocal
chamber music is somewhat similar to that of Cavalli in the history of
opera. It is impossible to say who was really the inventor of the
chamber-cantata; but Carissimi and Luigi Rossi were the composers who
first made this form the vehicle for the most intellectual style of
chamber-music, a function which it continued to perform until the death
of Alessandro Scarlatti, Astorga and Marcello. Of his oratorios
_Jephthah_ has been published by Novello & Co., and is well known; this
work and others are important as definitely establishing the form of
oratorio unaccompanied by dramatic action, which has maintained its hold
to the present day. He also may claim the merit of having given greater
variety and interest to the instrumental accompaniments of vocal
compositions. Dr Burney and Sir John Hawkins published specimens of his
compositions in their works on the history of music; and Dr Aldrich
collected an almost complete set of his compositions, at present in the
library of Christ Church, Oxford. The British Museum also possesses
numerous valuable works by this great Italian master. Most of his
oratorios are in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris.



CARLETON, WILLIAM (1794-1869), Irish novelist, was born at Prillisk,
Clogher, Co. Tyrone, on the 4th of March 1794. His father was a tenant
farmer, who supported a family of fourteen children on as many acres,
and young Carleton passed his early life among scenes precisely similar
to those he afterwards delineated with so much power and truthfulness.
His father was remarkable for his extraordinary memory, and had a
thorough acquaintance with Irish folklore; the mother was noted
throughout the district for the sweetness of her voice. The beautiful
character of Honor, the miser's wife, in _Fardorougha_, is said to have
been drawn from her.

The education received by Carleton was of a very humble description. As
his father removed from one small farm to another, he attended at
various places the hedge-schools, which used to be a notable feature of
Irish life. The admirable little picture of one of these schools is
given in the sketch called "The Hedge School" included in _Traits and
Stories of Irish Peasantry_. Most of his learning was gained from a
curate named Keenan, who taught a classical school at Donagh (Co.
Monaghan), which Carleton attended from 1814 to 1816. Before this
Carleton had resolved to prosecute his education as a poor scholar at
Munster, with a view to entering the church; but in obedience to a
warning dream, the story of which is told in the _Poor Scholar_, he
returned home, where he received the unbounded veneration of the
neighbouring peasantry for his supposed wonderful learning. An amusing
account of this phase of his existence is given in the little sketch,
"Denis O'Shaughnessy." About the age of nineteen he undertook one of the
religious pilgrimages then common in Ireland. His experiences as a
pilgrim, narrated in "The Lough Derg Pilgrim," made him resign for ever
the thought of entering the church, and he eventually became a
Protestant. His vacillating ideas as to a mode of life were determined
in a definite direction by the reading of _Gil Blas_. He resolved to
cast himself boldly upon the world, and try what fortune had in store
for him. He went to Killanny, Co Louth, and for six months acted as
tutor in the family of a farmer named Piers Murphy, and after some other
experiments he set out for Dublin, and arrived in the metropolis with 2s
9d. in his pocket. He first sought occupation as a bird-stuffer, but a
proposal to use potatoes and meal as stuffing failed to recommend him.
He then determined to become a soldier, but the colonel of the regiment
in which he desired to enlist persuaded him--Carleton had applied in
Latin--to give up the idea. He obtained some teaching and a clerkship in
a Sunday School office, began to contribute to the journals, and his
paper "The Pilgrimage to Lough Derg," which was published in the
_Christian Examiner_, excited great attention. In 1830 appeared the
first series of _Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry_ (2 vols.),
which at once placed the author in the first rank of Irish novelists. A
second series (3 vols.), containing, among other stories, "Tubber Derg,
or the Red Well," appeared in 1833, and _Tales of Ireland_ in 1834. From
that time till within a few years of his death Carleton's literary
activity was incessant. "Fardorougha the Miser, or the Convicts of
Lisnamona" appeared in 1837-1838 in the _Dublin University Magazine_.
Among his other famous novels are: _Valentine McClutchy, the Irish
Agent, or Chronicles of the Castle Cumber Property_ (3 vols., 1845);
_The Black Prophet, a Tale of the Famine_, in the _Dublin University
Magazine_ (1846), printed separately in the next year; _The Emigrants of
Ahadarra_ (1847); _Willy Reilly and his dear Colleen Bawn_ (in _The
Independent_, London, 1850); and _The Tithe Proctor_ (1849), the
violence of which did his reputation harm among his own countrymen. Some
of his later stories, _The Squanders of Castle Squander_ (1852) for
instance, are defaced by the mass of political matter with which they
are overloaded. In spite of his very considerable literary production
Carleton remained poor, but his necessities were relieved in 1848 by a
pension of £200 a year granted by Lord John Russell in response to a
memorial on Carleton's behalf signed by numbers of distinguished persons
in Ireland. He died at Sandford, Co. Dublin, on the 30th of January
1869.

Carleton's best work is contained in the _Traits and Stories of the
Irish Peasantry_. He wrote from intimate acquaintance with the scenes he
described; and he drew with a sure hand a series of pictures of peasant
life, unsurpassed for their appreciation of the passionate tenderness of
Irish home life, of the buoyant humour and the domestic virtues which
would, under better circumstances, bring prosperity and happiness. He
alienated the sympathies of many Irishmen, however, by his unsparing
criticism and occasional exaggeration of the darker side of Irish
character. He was in his own words the "historian of their habits and
manners, their feelings, their prejudices, their superstitions and their
crimes." (Preface to _Tales of Ireland_.)

  During the last months of his life Carleton began an autobiography
  which he brought down to the beginning of his literary career. This
  forms the first part of _The Life of William Carleton_ ... (2 vols.,
  1896), by D.J. O'Donoghue, which contains full information about lis
  life, and a list of his scattered writings. A selection from his
  stories (1889), in the "Camelot Series," has an introduction by Mr
  W.B. Yeats. He must not be confused with Will Carleton (b. 1845), the
  American author of _Farm Ballads_ (1873).



CARLETON PLACE, a town and port of entry of Lanark county, Ontario,
Canada, 28 m. S.W. of Ottawa, on the Mississippi river, and at the
junction of the main line and Brockville branch of the Canadian Pacific
railway. It has abundant water-power privileges, and extensive
railway-repair shops and woollen mills. Pop. (1901) 4059.



CARLILE, RICHARD (1790-1843), English freethinker, was born on the 8th
of December 1790, at Ashburton, Devonshire, the son of a shoemaker.
Educated in the village school, he was apprenticed to a tinman against
whose harsh treatment he frequently rebelled. Having finished his
apprenticeship, he obtained occupation in London as a journeyman tinman.
Influenced by reading Paine's _Rights of Man_, he became an
uncompromising radical, and in 1817 started pushing the sale of the
_Black Dwarf_, a new weekly paper, edited by Jonathan Wooler, all over
London, and in his zeal to secure the dissemination of its doctrines
frequently walked 30 m. a day. In the same year he also printed and sold
25,000 copies of Southey's _Wat Tyler_, reprinted the suppressed
_Parodies_ of Hone, and wrote himself, in imitation of them, the
_Political Litany_. This work cost him eighteen weeks imprisonment. In
1818 he published Paine's works, for which and for other publications
of a like character he was fined £1500, and sentenced to three years'
imprisonment in Dorchester gaol. Here he published the first twelve
volumes of his periodical the _Republican_. The publication was
continued by his wife, who was accordingly sentenced to two years'
imprisonment in 1821. A public subscription, headed by the duke of
Wellington, was now raised to prosecute Carlile's assistants. At the
same time Carlile's furniture and stock-in-trade in London were seized,
three years were added to his imprisonment in lieu of payment of his
fine, his sister was fined £500 and imprisoned for a year for publishing
an address by him, and nine of his shopmen received terms of
imprisonment varying from six months to three years. In 1825 the
government decided to discontinue the prosecutions. After his release in
that year Carlile edited the _Gorgon_, a weekly paper, and conducted
free discussions in the London Rotunda. For refusing to give sureties
for good behaviour after a prosecution arising out of a refusal to pay
church rates, he was again imprisoned for three years, and a similar
resistance cost him ten weeks' more imprisonment in 1834-1835. He died
on the 10th of February 1843, after having spent in all nine years and
four months in prison.



CARLINGFORD, CHICHESTER SAMUEL FORTESCUE, BARON (1823-1898), British
statesman, son of Chichester Fortescue (d. 1826), M.P. for Louth in the
Irish parliament, was born in January 1823. He came of an old family
settled in Ireland since the days of Sir Faithful Fortescue (1581-1666),
whose uncle, Lord Chichester, was lord deputy. The history of the family
was written by his elder brother Thomas (1815-1887), who in 1852 was
created Baron Clermont. The future Lord Carlingford, then Mr Chichester
Fortescue, went to Christ Church, Oxford, where he took a first in
classics (1844) and won the chancellor's English essay (1846); and in
1847 he was elected to parliament for Louth as a Liberal. He became a
junior lord of the treasury in 1854, and subsequently held minor offices
in the Liberal administrations till in 1865 he was made chief secretary
for Ireland under Lord Russell, a post which he again occupied under
Gladstone in 1868-1870; he then became president of the Board of Trade
(1871-1874), and later lord privy seal (1881-1885) and president of the
council (1883-1885). He was raised to the peerage in 1874. He parted
from Gladstone on the question of Irish Home Rule, but in earlier years
he was his active supporter on Irish questions. His influence in society
was due largely to his wife, Frances (1821-1879), previously the wife of
the 7th Earl Waldegrave, whom he married in 1863. In 1887 his brother,
Lord Clermont, died, and Carlingford inherited his peerage; but on his
own death without issue on the 30th of January 1898 both titles became
extinct.



CARLINGFORD, a small market town and port of Co. Louth, Ireland, in the
north parliamentary division. Pop. (1901) 606. It is beautifully
situated on the western shore of Carlingford Lough, at the foot of
Carlingford Mountain (1935 ft.), facing the fine heights of the Mourne
Mountains across the lough in Co. Down. It has a station on the railway
connecting Greenore and Newry, owned by the London & North-Western
railway of England. It was formerly a place of great importance, as
attested by numerous remains. King John's Castle (1210) commands the
lough from an isolated rock. There are other remains of the castellated
houses erected during the Elizabethan and previous wars. A Dominican
monastery was founded in 1305, and combines ecclesiastical and military
remains. The town received several charters between the reigns of Edward
II. and James II., was represented in the Irish parliament until the
Union, and possessed a mint from 1467. The lough is a typical rock-basin
hollowed out by glacial action, about 4 fathoms deep at its entrance,
but increasing to four times that depth within. The oyster-beds are
valuable.



CARLI-RUBBI, GIOVANNI RINALDO, COUNT OF (1720-1795), Italian economist
and antiquarian, was born at Capo d'Istria, in 1720. At the age of
twenty-four he was appointed by the senate of Venice to the newly
established professorship of astronomy and navigation in the university
of Padua, and entrusted with the superintendence of the Venetian marine.
After filling these offices for seven years with great credit, he
resigned them, in order to devote himself to the study of antiquities
and political economy. His principal economic works are his _Delle
monete, e della instituzione delle zecche d' Italia_; his _Ragionamento
sopra i bilanci economici delle nazioni_ (1759), in which he maintained
that what is termed the balance of trade between two nations is no
criterion of the prosperity of either, since both may be gainers by
their reciprocal transactions; and his _Sul libero commercio dei grani_
(1771), in which he argues that free trade in grain is not always
advisable. Count Carli's merits were appreciated by Leopold of Tuscany,
afterwards emperor, who in 1765 placed him at the head of the council of
public economy and of the board of public instruction. In 1769 he became
privy councillor, in 1771 president of the new council of finances. He
died at Milan in February 1795. During his leisure he completed and
published his _Antichità Italiche_, in which the literature and arts of
his country are ably discussed. Besides the above, he published many
works on antiquarian, economic and other subjects, including _L' Uomo
libero_, in confutation of Rousseau's _Contrat Social_; an attack upon
the abbé Tartarotti's assertion of the existence of magicians;
_Observazioni sulla musica antica e moderna_; and several poems.



CARLISLE, EARLS OF. This English title has been held by two families,
being created for James Hay in 1622, and being extinct in that line on
the death of his son in 1660, and then being given in 1661 to Charles
Howard, and descending to the present day in the Howard family.

JAMES HAY, 1st earl of Carlisle (d. 1636), was the son of Sir James Hay
of Kingask (a member of a younger branch of the Erroll family), and of
Margaret Murray, cousin of George Hay, afterwards 1st earl of Kinnoull.
He was knighted and taken into favour by James VI. of Scotland, brought
into England in 1603, treated as a "prime favourite" and made a
gentleman of the bedchamber. In 1604 he was sent on a mission to France
and pleaded for the Huguenots, which annoyed Henry IV. and caused a
substantial reduction of the present made to the English envoy. On the
21st of June 1606 he was created by patent a baron for life, with
precedence next to the barons, but without a place or voice in
parliament, no doubt to render his advancement less unpalatable to the
English lords. The king bestowed on him numerous grants, paid his debts,
and secured for him a rich bride in the person of Honora, only daughter
and heir of Edward, Lord Denny, afterwards earl of Norwich. In 1610 he
was made a knight of the Bath, and in 1613 master of the wardrobe, while
in 1615 he was created Lord Hay of Sawley, and took his seat in the
House of Lords. He was sent to France next year to negotiate the
marriage of Princess Christina with Prince Charles, and on his return,
being now a widower, married in 1617 Lady Lucy Percy (1599-1660),
daughter of the 9th earl of Northumberland, and was made a privy
councillor. In 1618 he resigned the mastership of the wardrobe for a
large sum in compensation. He was created Viscount Doncaster, and in
February 1619 was despatched on a mission to Germany, where he
identified himself with the cause of the elector palatine and urged
James to make war in his support. In 1621 and 1622 he was sent to France
to obtain peace for the Huguenots from Louis XIII., in which he was
unsuccessful, and in September 1622 was created earl of Carlisle. Next
year he went to Paris on the occasion of Prince Charles's journey to
Madrid, and again in 1624 to join Henry Rich, afterwards Lord Holland,
in negotiating the prince's marriage with Henrietta Maria, when he
advised James without success to resist Richelieu's demands on the
subject of religious toleration. On the 2nd of July 1627 Lord Carlisle
obtained from the king a grant of all the Caribbean Islands, including
Barbados, this being a confirmation of a former concession given by
James I. He was also a patentee and councillor of the plantation of New
England, and showed great zeal and interest in the colonies. He became
gentleman of the bedchamber to King Charles I. after his accession. In
1628, after the failure of the expedition to Rhé, he was sent to make a
diversion against Richelieu in Lorraine and Piedmont; he counselled
peace with Spain and the vigorous prosecution of the war with France,
but on his return home found his advice neglected. He took no further
part in public life, and died in March 1636. Carlisle was a man of good
sense and of accommodating temper, with some diplomatic ability. His
extravagance and lavish expenditure, his "double suppers" and costly
entertainments, were the theme of satirists and wonder of society, and
his debts were said at his death to amount to more than £80,000. "He
left behind him," says Clarendon, "a reputation of a very fine gentleman
and a most accomplished courtier, and after having spent, in a very
jovial life, above £400,000, which upon a strict computation he received
from the crown, he left not a house or acre of land to be remembered
by."

The charms and wit of his second wife, Lucy, countess of Carlisle, which
were celebrated in verse by all the poets of the day, including Carew,
Cartwright, Herrick and Suckling, and by Sir Toby Matthew in prose, made
her a conspicuous figure at the court of Charles I. There appears no
foundation for the scandal which made her the mistress successively of
Strafford and of Pym. Strafford valued highly her sincerity and
services, but after his death, possibly in consequence of a revulsion of
feeling at his abandonment by the court, she devoted herself to Pym and
to the interests of the parliamentary leaders, to whom she communicated
the king's most secret plans and counsels. Her greatest achievement was
the timely disclosure to Lord Essex of the king's intended arrest of the
five members, which enabled them to escape. But she appears to have
served both parties simultaneously, betraying communications on both
sides, and doing considerable mischief in inflaming political
animosities. In 1647 she attached herself to the interests of the
moderate Presbyterian party, which assembled at her house, and in the
second Civil War showed great zeal and activity in the royal cause,
pawned her pearl necklace for £1500 to raise money for Lord Holland's
troops, established communications with Prince Charles during his
blockade of the Thames, and made herself the intermediary between the
scattered bands of royalists and the queen. In consequence her arrest
was ordered on the 21st of March 1649, and she was imprisoned in the
Tower, whence she maintained a correspondence in cipher with the king
through her brother, Lord Percy, till Charles went to Scotland.
According to a royalist newsletter, while in the Tower she was
threatened with the rack to extort information. She was released on bail
on the 25th of September 1650, but appears never to have regained her
former influence in the royalist counsels, and died soon after the
Restoration, on the 5th of November 1660.

The first earl was succeeded by JAMES, his only surviving son by his
first wife, at whose death in 1660 without issue, the peerage became
extinct in the Hay family.

CHARLES HOWARD, 1st earl of Carlisle in the Howard line (1629-1685), was
the son and heir of Sir William Howard, of Naworth in Cumberland, by
Mary, daughter of William, Lord Eure, and great-grandson of Lord William
Howard, "Belted Will" (1563-1640), and was born in 1629. In 1645 he
became a Protestant and supported the government of the commonwealth,
being appointed high sheriff of Cumberland in 1650. He bought Carlisle
Castle and became governor of the town. He distinguished himself at the
battle of Worcester on Cromwell's side, was made a member of the council
of state in 1653, chosen captain of the protector's body-guard and
selected to carry out various public duties. In 1655 he was given a
regiment, was appointed a commissioner to try the northern rebels, and a
deputy major-general of Cumberland, Westmorland and Northumberland. In
the parliament of 1653 he sat for Westmorland, in those of 1654 and 1656
for Cumberland. In 1657 he was included in Cromwell's House of Lords and
voted for the protector's assumption of the royal title the same year.
In 1659 he urged Richard Cromwell to defend his government by force
against the army leaders, but his advice being refused he used his
influence in favour of a restoration of the monarchy, and after
Richard's fall he was imprisoned. In April 1660 he sat again in
parliament for Cumberland, and at the Restoration was made _custos
rotulorum_ of Essex and lord-lieutenant of Cumberland and Westmorland.
On the 20th of April 1661 he was created Baron Dacre of Gillesland,
Viscount Howard of Morpeth, and earl of Carlisle; the same year he was
made vice-admiral of Northumberland, Cumberland and Durham, and in 1662
joint commissioner for the office of earl marshal. In 1663 he was
appointed ambassador to Russia, Sweden and Denmark, and in 1668 he
carried the Garter to Charles XI. of Sweden. In 1667 he was made
lieutenant-general of the forces and joint commander-in-chief of the
four northernmost counties. In 1672 he became lord-lieutenant of Durham,
and in 1673 deputy earl marshal. In 1678 he was appointed governor of
Jamaica, and reappointed governor of Carlisle. He died on the 24th of
February 1685, and was buried in York Minster. He married Anne (d.
1696), daughter of Edward, 1st Lord Howard of Escrick; his eldest son
EDWARD (c. 1646-1692) succeeded him as 2nd earl of Carlisle, the title
descending to his son CHARLES (1674-1738) and grandson HENRY
(1694-1758).

FREDERICK HOWARD, 5th earl (1748-1825), son of the 4th earl, was born in
1748. During his youth he was chiefly known as a man of pleasure and
fashion; and after he had reached thirty years of age, his appointment
on a commission sent out by Lord North to attempt a reconciliation with
the American colonies was received with sneers by the opposition. The
failure of the embassy was not due to any incapacity on the part of the
earl, but to the unpopularity of the government from which it received
its authority. He was, indeed, considered to have displayed so much
ability that he was entrusted with the vice-royalty of Ireland in 1780.
The time was one of the greatest difficulty; for while the calm of the
country was disturbed by the American rebellion, it was drained of
regular troops, and large bands of volunteers not under the control of
the government had been formed. Nevertheless, the two years of
Carlisle's rule passed in quietness and prosperity, and the institution
of a national bank and other measures which he effected left permanently
beneficial results upon the commerce of the island. In 1789, in the
discussions as to the regency, Carlisle took a prominent part on the
side of the prince of Wales. In 1791 he opposed Pitt's policy of
resistance to the dismemberment of Turkey by Russia; but on the outbreak
of the French Revolution he left the opposition and vigorously
maintained the cause of war. In 1815 he opposed the enactment of the
Corn Laws; but from this time till his death, in 1825, he took no
important part in public life. Carlisle was the author of some political
tracts, a number of poems, and two tragedies, _The Father's Revenge_ and
_The Stepmother_, which received high praise from his contemporaries.
His mother was a daughter of the 4th Lord Byron, and in 1798 he was
appointed guardian to Lord Byron, the poet, who lampooned him in
_English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_.

GEORGE HOWARD, 6th earl (1773-1848), eldest son of the 5th earl, entered
parliament as Lord Morpeth in 1795 as a Whig. He was appointed to the
Indian board in 1806, when the "Ministry of all the Talents" took
office, but resigned in 1807, though he remained prominent in the House
of Commons. After his elevation to the House of Lords (1825), he held
various cabinet offices under Canning and Grey. He made some minor
contributions to literature and left the reputation of an amiable
scholar.

GEORGE WILLIAM FREDERICK HOWARD, 7th earl (1802-1864), was born in
London on the 18th of April 1802. He was the eldest son of the 6th earl
by his wife Lady Georgiana Cavendish, eldest daughter of the duke of
Devonshire. He was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, where (as
Lord Morpeth) he earned a reputation as a scholar and writer of graceful
verse, obtaining in 1821 both the chancellor's and the Newdigate prizes
for a Latin and an English poem. In 1826 he accompanied his uncle, the
duke of Devonshire, to Russia, to attend the coronation of the tsar
Nicholas, and became a great favourite in society at St Petersburg. At
the general election of the same year he was returned to parliament as
member for the family borough of Morpeth. In one of his earliest
speeches he undertook, at the risk of forfeiting the good opinion of
the Liberal party, the defence of the Russian emperor against severe
attacks made on him in reference to the suppression of the Polish
insurrection of 1830. In the agitation for parliamentary reform he took
the side of Earl Grey; and after the dissolution of parliament, which
took place about that time, he was elected member for Yorkshire. This
seat he held till after the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832. He was
then returned for the West Riding; and in 1835 he was appointed by Lord
Melbourne chief secretary for Ireland, a position at that time of great
difficulty, O'Connell being then at the height of his reputation. This
post he held for about six years (being included in the cabinet in
1839), winning great popularity by his amiable manners and kindly
disposition. Losing his seat at the election of 1841, he visited the
United States, but in 1846 he was again returned for the West Riding,
and was made chief commissioner of woods and forests in Lord John
Russell's cabinet. Succeeding to the peerage in 1848, he became
chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster in 1850. The great event of his
life, however, was his appointment by Lord Palmerston to the
lord-lieutenancy of Ireland in 1855. This office he continued to hold
till February 1858, and again from June 1859 till within a few months of
his death. His literary tastes and culture were displayed in various
popular lectures and in several published works. Among these may be
mentioned a lecture on _The Life and Writings of Pope_ (1851); _The Last
of the Greeks_, a tragedy (1828); a _Diary in Turkish and Greek Waters_
(1854), the fruit of travels in the East in 1853 and 1854; and a volume
of _Poems_, published after his death. In 1866 appeared his _Viceregal
Speeches_, collected and edited by J. Gaskin. He took warm interest in
the reformation of juvenile criminals, and established on his own estate
one of the best conducted reformatories in the country. Lord Carlisle
died at Castle Howard on the 5th of December 1864. He was never married,
and was succeeded in the peerage by his brother, the REV. WILLIAM GEORGE
HOWARD (d. 1889), as 8th earl.

GEORGE JAMES HOWARD, 9th earl, born in 1843, was the son of Charles,
fourth son of the 6th earl. He was educated at Eton and Trinity,
Cambridge, and, then being only Mr Howard, married in 1864 Rosalind,
daughter of the 2nd Lord Stanley of Alderley. He sat in parliament as a
Liberal in 1879-1880, and again from 1881 to 1885; and succeeded his
uncle in the peerage in 1889. His wife, a more active Liberal politician
than himself, took a prominent part in the temperance movement and other
advanced causes; and Lord Carlisle became best known as an art patron
and an artist of considerable ability, whose landscape painting had
considerable affinity to the work of Giovanni Costa. His position as a
connoisseur was recognized by his being made one of the trustees of the
National Gallery. His son, Viscount Morpeth (b. 1867), had a
distinguished career at Oxford, and after various defeats in other
constituencies was returned to parliament for South Birmingham as a
Unionist supporter of Mr Chamberlain in 1904.



CARLISLE, a city, municipal and parliamentary borough, and the county
town of Cumberland, England, 299 m. N.N.W. of London, and 8 m. S. of the
Scottish border. Pop. (1901) 45,480. It lies on the south bank of the
river Eden, a little below the point where it debouches upon the Solway
Plain, 8 m. above its mouth in the Solway Firth, at the junction of two
tributaries from the south, the Caldew and the Petteril. The city grew
up originally on and about the two slight eminences of the peninsula
enclosed between these three streams. To the north of the Eden lies the
suburb of Stanwix, connected with the city by a handsome bridge
(1812-1815). The rivers are not navigable, and a canal opened in 1823,
connecting the city with Port Carlisle on the Solway Firth, was
unsuccessful, and was converted into a railway. Silloth, on the Irish
Sea, is the nearest port of importance (21 m.). Carlisle, however, is
one of the principal railway centres in Great Britain. The London &
North-Western and the Midland railways of England, and the Caledonian,
North British and Glasgow & South-Western of Scotland, here make a
junction for through traffic between England and Scotland; and the city
is further served by the North Eastern (from Newcastle) and the
Maryport & Carlisle railways.

Carlisle is the seat of a bishop. Bede, in his life of St Cuthbert,
alludes to a monastery here, and the saint was also believed to have
founded a convent and school. But all was swept away by the Northmen,
and though William Rufus, who rehabilitated the town, doubtless made
provision for an ecclesiastical foundation, it was left for Henry I., in
1133, to create a bishopric out of the house of Augustinian canons,
founded in 1102. This was the sole episcopal chapter of regular canons
of St Augustine in England. It was dissolved in 1540. Between 1156 and
1204 the bishop's throne was unoccupied, but thereafter there was a
continuous succession. The diocese covers the whole of Westmorland, and
practically of Cumberland, with Furness and the adjacent district in the
north of Lancashire. The cathedral as it stands is a fine cruciform
building with a central tower, but it is incomplete. Of the Norman nave,
built by Aethelwold, the first prior and bishop, only two bays are
standing, the remainder having been destroyed by the Parliamentarians in
1646. The south transept, and the lower part of the tower piers, are
also of this period. Remarkable distortion is seen in the nave arches,
owing to the sinking of the foundations. The thinness of the aisle
walls, and the rude masonry of the foundations of the original apse
which have been discovered, point to native, not Norman, workmanship.
The choir is ornate and beautiful, and the huge Decorated east window,
with its wonderful elaborate tracery, is perhaps the finest of its kind
extant. The reconstruction of the Norman choir was begun in the middle
of the 13th century, but the work was almost wholly destroyed by fire in
1292. The north transept and the tower also suffered. Building began
again c. 1352, and the present tower, erected with some difficulty on
the weak foundations of the Norman period, dates from 1400-1419. The
conventual buildings are scanty, including little more than a
Perpendicular gateway and refectory. A stone inscribed with runes, and a
well, are among the objects of interest within the cathedral. Among the
numerous memorials is one to Archdeacon Paley; and a stained-glass
window commemorates the five children of Archibald Campbell Tait, dean
of the cathedral, and afterwards archbishop of Canterbury. Of the two
eminences within the three rivers, the cathedral occupies one, the
castle the other. It was moated and very strong; but has been so far
altered that only the keep is of special interest. A tower in which
Mary, queen of Scots, was imprisoned was taken down in 1835. The castle
serves as barracks. Fragments of the old city walls are seen on the
western side over against the river Caldew. At Carlisle are the county
gaol and the Cumberland infirmary, in connexion with which there is a
seaside convalescent institution at Silloth. Other notable public
buildings are the city hall, the court-houses, museum and art gallery.
The grammar school, of very early foundation, received endowment from
Henry VIII. Industries include the manufacture of cotton and woollen
goods, and there are iron foundries, breweries, tanneries and large
railway works. There is also a considerable agricultural trade. The
parliamentary borough returns one member. The municipal borough is under
a mayor, 10 aldermen and 30 councillors. Area, 2025 acres.

This was the Romano-British _Luguvallium_, probably rather a town than a
fort, being one of the few towns as distinct from forts in the north of
Britain. It lay a mile south of Hadrian's wall. There are no traces
above ground _in situ_; but many inscriptions, potsherds, coins and
other such-like relics have been discovered.

Carlisle (_Caer Luel, Karliol_) is first mentioned in 685, when under
the name of Luel it was bestowed by Ecgfrith on St Cuthbert to form part
of his see of Lindisfarne. It was then a thriving and populous city, and
when St Cuthbert visited it in 686 he was shown with pride the ancient
walls and a Roman fountain of marvellous construction. Nennius, writing
in the 9th century, mentions it in a list of British cities under the
name of Caer Luadiit, Caer Ligualid or Caer Lualid, but about this time
it was either wholly or in part destroyed by the Danes, and vanishes
completely from history until in 1092 it was re-established as the
political centre of the district by William Rufus, who built the castle
and sent husbandmen to dwell there and till the land. During the
centuries of border-strife which followed, the history of Carlisle
centres round that of the castle, which formed the chief bulwark against
the Scots on the western border, and played an important part in the
history of the country down to the rebellion of the young Pretender in
1745. In 1292 a great fire destroyed nearly all the buildings and
muniments of the city, so that no original charter is extant before that
date. A charter from Edward I., dated 1293, however, exemplifies two
earlier grants. The first, from Henry II., confirmed the liberties and
customs which the city had theretofore enjoyed, granting in addition a
free gild merchant, with other privileges. This grant is exemplified in
the second charter, from Henry III., dated 1251. By a writ dated 5 Henry
III. the citizens were allowed to hold the city direct from the king,
paying a fee-farm rent of £60, instead of the former rent of £50, paid
by the medium of the sheriff. A charter from Edward II., dated 1316,
grants to the citizens the city, the king's mills in the city, and the
fishery in the Eden, at a fee-farm rent of £80 a year. A charter from
Edward III. in 1352 enumerates the privileges and liberties hitherto
enjoyed by the citizens, including a market twice a week, on Wednesday
and Saturday; a fair for sixteen days at the feast of the Assumption of
the Virgin (15th of August); free election of a mayor, bailiffs and two
coroners; and the right to hold their markets in the place called
"Battailholm." It also mentions that the city was greatly impoverished
by reason of the devastations of the Scots and by pestilence.
Confirmations of former privileges were issued by Richard II., Henry IV.
and Henry VI. A charter from Edward IV. in 1461, after reciting the
damage sustained by the city through fire, reduced the fee-farm rent
from £80 to £40, and granted to the citizens the fishery called the
sheriff's net, free of rent. Further confirmations were granted by later
sovereigns. Although the city had been under the jurisdiction of a mayor
and bailiffs at least as early as 1290, the first charter of
incorporation was granted by Elizabeth in 1566; it established a
corporation under the style of "a mayor, eleven worshipful persons, and
twenty-four able persons." A charter of James I. confirmed former
liberties, and in 1638 Charles I. granted a charter under which the town
continued to be governed until 1835. It declared Carlisle a city by
itself, and established a corporation consisting of a mayor, 11
aldermen, 24 capital citizens, 2 bailiffs, 2 coroners and a recorder;
the mayor, the recorder and 2 senior aldermen to be justices of the
peace, and the mayor to be clerk of the market; other officers were a
common clerk, a sword-bearer and three serjeants-at-mace. Two charters
from Charles II. in 1664 and 1684 were never accepted. The latter
granted a three days' fair or market on the first Wednesday in June.
Much valuable information relating to the early history and customs of
Carlisle is furnished both by the Dormont Book, which contains an
elaborate set of bye-laws dated 1561, and by the records of the eight
craft gilds--weavers, smiths, tailors, tanners, shoemakers, skinners,
butchers and merchants. The defensive and offensive warfare in which the
citizens were constantly engaged until the union of the crowns of
England and Scotland left little time for the development of commercial
pursuits, and Fuller, writing in the 17th century, says that the sole
manufacture, that of fustian, though established shortly after the
Restoration, had met with scant encouragement. In 1750 the manufacture
of coarse linen cloth was established, and was followed in a few years
by the introduction of calico stamperies. The commercial prosperity of
Carlisle, however, began with the railway development of the 19th
century. In 1283 the citizens of Carlisle were summoned to send two
representatives to parliament, but no return is recorded. From 1295
Carlisle continued to return two members until the Redistribution Act of
1885. At the time of the Scottish wars Edward I. held two parliaments at
Carlisle--in 1300 and in 1307.

  See _Victoria County History, Cumberland_; R.S. Ferguson, _Some
  Municipal Records of the City of Carlisle_ (Cumberl. and Westm. Antiq.
  and Archaeol. Soc., Carlisle and London, 1887), and _Royal Charters of
  Carlisle_ (ditto, Carlisle, &c., 1894); Mandell Creighton, _Carlisle_
  in "Historic Towns" series (London, 1889).



CARLISLE, a borough and the county-seat of Cumberland county,
Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 18 m. W. by S. of Harrisburg and 118 m. W. by N.
of Philadelphia. Pop. (1890) 7620; (1900) 9626 (1148 being negroes);
(1910) 10,303. It is served by the Cumberland Valley (controlled by the
Pennsylvania railway) and the Gettysburg & Harrisburg railways. The
borough is pleasantly situated in the central part of the fertile
Cumberland Valley, which is here 12 m. wide. Mount Holly Springs and
Boiling Springs are near, and are important summer attractions. In
Carlisle is Dickinson College, founded in 1783 by Presbyterians, and
named in honour of John Dickinson (_q.v._), a benefactor of the college;
it was reorganized in 1833 as a Methodist Episcopal College, and is now
divided into the college, the school of law (founded in 1834) and Conway
Hall, the preparatory department. President James Buchanan and Chief
Justice R.B. Taney were graduates. Here are also Metzger College for
young ladies, and a well-known United States Indian industrial school,
established in 1879 through the efforts of Lieutenant (later
Brigadier-General) Richard Henry Pratt (b. 1840), its superintendent
until 1904; the school pays especial attention to industrial and
agricultural training, and its athletic organizations are famous. A
great effort is made to preserve and develop Indian arts and crafts; the
instruction given by Mrs Angel Decora Dietz, a Winnebago, in colour work
and design, decorating leather, making beadwork and weaving rugs, is
particularly noteworthy. On the initiative of the pupils the Leupp
Indian Art School was built on the campus in 1906-1907, all materials
being purchased with the funds of the athletic association and all work
being done by the students. The building is named in honour of Francis
Ellington Leupp (b. 1849), U.S. commissioner of Indian affairs in 1905.
Carlisle is prominent for the manufacture of boots and shoes, and has
machine shops and manufactories of carriages, ribbons, railway frogs and
switches, carpets and paper boxes. In 1905 the value of all the factory
products was $1,985,743, of which $1,078,401 was the value of boots and
shoes. The place was laid out as a town in 1751, was named from
Carlisle, Cumberland, England, and was incorporated as a borough in
1872. In 1753 Benjamin Franklin, with two other commissioners,
negotiated a treaty with the Ohio Indians here. During the War of
Independence the Americans kept here for secure confinement a number of
British prisoners, among them Major John André, and in 1794 Carlisle was
the headquarters of George Washington during the Whisky Rebellion. On
the night of the 1st of July 1863 Carlisle was bombarded by Confederate
troops.



CARLOFORTE, a town of Sardinia, in the province of Cagliari, the capital
of the small island (6 by 5 m.) of San Pietro (anc. _Accipitrum_ or
[Greek: Ierakouuaesos]) off the west coast of Sardinia. Pop. (1901)
7693. It lies on the east coast of the island, 6 m. west by sea from
Portoscuso, which is 47 m. west by rail from Cagliari. It was founded in
1737 by Charles Emmanuel III. of Savoy, who planted a colony of Genoese,
whose dialect and costume still prevail. In 1798 it was attacked by the
Tunisians and 933 inhabitants taken away as slaves. They were ransomed
after five years and the place fortified. It is now a centre of the
tunny fishery, and there are manganese mines also. The coral banks,
which were once important, are now exhausted. Three m. to the south-east
is the island of S. Antioco.



CARLOMAN (828-880), king of Bavaria and Italy, was the eldest son of
Louis the German, king of the East Franks. In 856 he undertook the
defence of the eastern frontier of Bavaria against the Bohemians and
Moravians, and won considerable fame in various campaigns. He married a
daughter of Ernest, count of the Bohemian mark, and in conjunction with
his father-in-law resisted the authority of his father in 861. For some
years he alternated between rebellion and submission to his father, but
in 865 an arrangement was made by which he became possessed of Bavaria
and Carinthia as his expectant share of the kingdom of Louis. During the
troubles between Louis and his two younger sons Carloman remained
faithful to his father, and carried on the war with the Moravians so
successfully that in 870 their territory was completely under the power
of the Franks; and when peace was made at Forchheim in 874, they
recognized the Frankish supremacy. In 875 the emperor Louis II. died,
having named his cousin Carloman as his successor in Italy. Carloman
crossed the Alps to claim his inheritance, but was cajoled into
returning by the king of the West Franks, Charles the Bald. In 876, on
his father's death, Carloman became actually king of Bavaria, and after
a short campaign against the Moravians he went again to Italy in 877 and
was crowned king of the Lombards at Pavia; but his negotiations with
Pope John VIII. for the imperial crown were fruitless, and personal
illness added to the outbreak of an epidemic in his army compelled him
to return to Bavaria. Stricken with paralysis, Carloman was unable to
prevent his brother Louis from seizing Bavaria; so making a virtue of
necessity, he bequeathed the whole of his lands to Louis. He died on the
22nd of September 880 at Öttingen, where he was buried, leaving an
illegitimate son, afterwards the emperor Arnulf.

  See "Annales Fuldenses," "Annales Bertiniani," Reginovon Prum,
  "Chronicon," all in the _Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scriptores_,
  Bandi. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826-1892); E. Mühlbacher, _Die Regesten
  des Kaiserreichs unter den Karolingern_ (Innsbruck, 1881); and E.
  Dümmler, _Geschichte des ostfrankischen Reiches_ (Leipzig, 1887-1888).



CARLOMAN, the name of three Frankish princes.

CARLOMAN (d. 754), mayor of the palace under the Merovingian kings, was
a son of Charles Martel, and, together with his brother, Pippin the
Short, became mayor on his father's death in 741, administering the
eastern part of the Frankish kingdom. He was successful in extending the
power of the Franks in various wars with his troublesome neighbours, and
was not less zealous in seeking to strengthen and reform the church in
the lands under his rule. In 747 Carloman laid down his office and
retired to a monastery which he founded on Monte Soracte, but troubled
by the number of his visitors, he subsequently entered a monastery on
Monte Casino. He died at Vienne on the 17th of August 754.

CARLOMAN (751-771), king of the Franks, was a son of King Pippin the
Short, and consequently a brother of Charlemagne. The brothers became
joint kings of the Franks on Pippin's death in 768, and some trouble
which broke out between them over the conduct of the war in Aquitaine
was followed by Carloman's death at Samoussy on the 4th of December 771.
He married Gerberga, a daughter of Desiderius, king of the Lombards,
who, together with her children, vanished from history soon after her
husband's death.

CARLOMAN (d. 884), king of France, was the eldest son of King Louis II.,
the Stammerer, and became king, together with his brother Louis III., on
his father's death in 879. Although some doubts were cast upon their
legitimacy, the brothers obtained recognition and in 880 made a division
of the kingdom, Carloman receiving Burgundy and the southern part of
France. In 882 he became sole king owing to his brother's death, but the
kingdom was in a very deplorable condition, and his power was very
circumscribed. Carloman met his death while hunting on the 12th of
December 884.

  See E. Lavisse, _Histoire de France_, tome ii. (Paris, 1903).



CARLOS I. (1863-1908), king of Portugal, the third sovereign of Portugal
of the line of Braganza-Coburg, son of King Louis I. and Maria Pia,
daughter of King Victor Emmanuel of Italy, was born on the 28th of
September 1863. When about twenty years of age he spent a considerable
time in travelling, visiting England in 1883. On the 22nd of May 1886 he
married Marie Amélie, daughter of Philippe, duc d'Orléans, comte de
Paris, and on the death of his father (19th of October 1889) he
succeeded to the throne of Portugal. In that year the British government
found it necessary to make formal remonstrances against Portuguese
encroachments in South Africa, and relations between the two countries
were greatly strained for some time. The king's attitude during this
critical period was one of conciliation, and his temperate, though firm,
speech on opening the Cortes in January 1890 did much to strengthen the
party of peace. In 1900-1901 also his friendly attitude towards Great
Britain was shown by cordial toasts at a banquet to the officers of the
British fleet at Lisbon. King Carlos distinguished himself as a patron
of science and literature, and was himself an artist of some repute. In
March 1894 he took a very active part in the celebration of the 500th
anniversary of the birth of Prince Henry the Navigator, and a year later
he decorated the Portuguese poet, João de Deus, with much honour at
Lisbon. He took a great personal interest in deep-sea soundings and
marine exploration, and published an account of some of his own
investigations, the results themselves being shown at an oceanographic
exhibition opened by him on the 12th of April 1897. In May 1907 the king
suspended the constitution of Portugal and temporarily appointed Senhor
Franco as dictator with a view to carrying out certain necessary
reforms. Some discontent was aroused by this proceeding; this was
increased by Franco's drastic measures, and on the 1st of February 1908
King Carlos and his elder son, Louis, duke of Braganza (1887-1908), were
assassinated whilst driving through the streets of Lisbon. The king was
succeeded by his only surviving son, Manuel, duke of Beja (b. 1889), who
took the title of Manuel II.

  See _S.M. El Rei D. Carlos I. e sua obra artistica, e scientifica_
  (Lisbon, 1908).



CARLOS, DON (1545-1568), prince of Asturias, was the son of Philip II.
king of Spain, by his first wife Maria, daughter of John III., king of
Portugal, and was born at Valladolid on the 8th of July 1545. His mother
died a few days after his birth, and the prince, who was very delicate,
grew up proud, wilful and indolent, and soon began to show signs of
insanity. In 1559 he was betrothed to Elizabeth, daughter of Henry II.,
king of France, a lady who a few months later became the third wife of
his father; in 1560 he was recognized as the heir to the throne of
Castile, and three years later to that of Aragon. Other brides were then
suggested for the prince; Mary, queen of Scots, Margaret, another
daughter of Henry II., and Anne, a daughter of the emperor Maximilian
II.; but meanwhile his mental derangement had become much more acute,
and his condition could no longer be kept secret. In 1562 he met with an
accident which was followed by a serious illness, and after his recovery
he showed more obvious signs of insanity, while his conduct both in
public and in private was extremely vicious and disorderly. He took a
marked dislike to the duke of Alva, possibly because he wished to
proceed to the Netherlands instead of the duke, and he exhibited a
morbid antipathy towards his father, whose murder he even contemplated.
At length in January 1568, when he had made preparations for flight from
Spain, he was placed in confinement by order of Philip, and on the 24th
of July of the same year he died. This event is still enveloped in some
mystery. Philip has been accused of murdering his son, and from what is
known of the king's character this supposition is by no means
improbable. It is known that the king appointed commissioners to try the
prince, and he may have been put to death for treason in accordance with
their verdict. It has also been suggested that his crime was heresy, and
that his death was due to poison, and other solutions of the mystery
have been put forward. On the other hand, it should be remembered that
the health of Carlos was very poor, and that his outrageous behaviour in
captivity would have undermined a much stronger constitution than his
own. Consequently there is nothing strange or surprising in his death
from natural causes, and while no decisive verdict upon this question
can be given, Philip may perhaps be granted the benefit of the doubt. By
some writers the sad fate and early death of Carlos have been connected
with the story of his unlawful attachment to his promised bride,
Elizabeth, who soon became his stepmother, and whose death followed so
quickly upon his own. There is circumstantial evidence for this tale.
The loss of an affianced bride, followed by hatred between supplanted
and supplanter, who were father and son, then the increasing infirmity
of the slighted prince, and finally the almost simultaneous deaths of
the pair. But mature historical research dismisses this story as a
fable. It has, however, served as the subject for romance. Schiller and
Alfieri, J.G. de Campristron in _Andronic_, and Lord John Russell have
made it the subject of dramas, and other dramas based upon the life of
Don Carlos have been written by Thomas Otway, M.A. Chénier, J.P. de
Montalvan, and D.N. de Enciso.

  See C.V. de Saint Réal, _Don Carlos, nouvelle historique_ (Paris,
  1672). This gives the story of the attachment of Carlos and Elizabeth,
  which has been refuted by L. von Ranke, _Zur Geschichte des don
  Carlos_ (Vienna, 1829); and J.A. Llorente, _Histoire critique de
  l'Inquisition_ (French translation, Paris, 1817). See also L.P.
  Gachard, _Don Carlos et Philippe II_ (Brussels, 1863); C. de Moüy,
  _Don Carlos et Philippe II_ (Paris, 1863); M. Büdinger, _Don Carlos,
  Haft und Tod_ (Vienna, 1891); L.A. Warnkönig, _Don Carlos, Leben,
  Verhaftung und Tod_ (Stuttgart, 1864); W. Maurenbrecher, _Don Carlos_
  (Berlin, 1876); and W.H. Prescott, _History of the Reign of Philip
  II._ vol. ii. (London, 1855, 1859).



CARLOS, DON (1788-1855), the first of the Carlist claimants of the
throne of Spain, was the second surviving son of King Charles IV. and
his wife, Louisa Maria of Parma. He was born on the 29th of March 1788,
and was christened Carlos Maria Isidro. From 1808 till 1814 he was a
prisoner in France at Valençay with his brothers, who had been
imprisoned by Napoleon when he seized the whole royal family of Spain at
Bayonne. After his return he lived quietly as a prince at Madrid. In
September 1816 he married Maria Francesca de Asis, daughter of King John
VI. of Portugal, and sister of the second wife of his elder brother King
Ferdinand VII. Though he took no part in the government of Spain, except
to hold a few formal offices, Don Carlos was known for the rigid
orthodoxy of his religious opinions, the piety of his life, and his firm
belief in the divine right of kings to govern despotically. During the
revolutionary troubles of 1820-1823 he was threatened by the extreme
radicals, but no attack was made on him. When the revolutionary
agitation was put down by French intervention in 1823, Don Carlos
continued to behave as the affectionate brother and loyal subject of
Ferdinand VII. The family affection between them was undoubtedly
sincere, and was one of the very few amiable traits in the character of
the elder brother. Towards the close of Ferdinand's reign Don Carlos was
forced against his own will into the position of a party leader, or
rather into the position of a prince whom a great party was forced to
take as its leader. The extreme clericals among the Spaniards, who were
the partisans of despotism because they rightly considered it as most
favourable to the church, began to be discontented with King Ferdinand,
who seemed wanting in energy. When the king showed his intention to
alter the law of succession in order to secure the crown for his
daughter Isabella, the clericals (in the Spanish phrase, "apostólicos")
banded to protect the rights of Don Carlos. There can be no question
that if he had been disposed to place himself at the head of an
insurrection he would have been followed, and might have put Ferdinand
under restraint. But Don Carlos held his principles honestly. He
considered rebellion as a sin in a prince as much as in other men, and
as wicked when made by "apostólicos" as by liberals. He would do no more
than assert his rights, and those of his children, in words. His wife
and her sister, the princess of Beira, widow of his first cousin the
infante Pedro, were less scrupulous. They were actively engaged in
intrigues with the "apostólicos." In March 1833 the princess of Beira
was informed by the king that her brother Don Miguel, then regent in
Portugal, desired her presence, and that she must pay him a visit. On
the 16th of March Don Carlos left for Portugal with his wife, in company
with the princess, after an interview with his brother the king which is
said to have been friendly. In the following month he was called upon by
the king to swear allegiance to the infanta Isabella, afterwards queen.
Don Carlos refused, in respectful terms but with great firmness, to
renounce his rights and those of his sons, in a public letter dated the
29th of April. The death of his brother on the 29th of September 1833
gave him an opportunity to vindicate his claims without offence to his
principles, for in his own opinion and that of his partisans he was now
king. But he was entangled in the civil war of Portugal and was shut off
from Spain. He did, and perhaps could do, nothing to direct the
Spaniards who rose on his behalf, and had proclaimed him king as Charles
V. When the Miguelite party was beaten in Portugal, Don Carlos escaped
to England on the 1st of June 1834 in H.M.S. "Donegal." His stay in
England was short. On the 2nd of July he passed over to France, where he
was actively aided by the legitimist party, and on the 11th he joined
his partisans at Elizondo in the valley of Bastan, in the western
Pyrenees. On the 27th of October of this year he was deprived of his
rights as infante by a royal decree, confirmed by the Cortes on the 15th
of January 1837. Don Carlos remained in Spain till the defeat of his
party, and then escaped to France on the 14th of September 1839. During
these years he accompanied his armies, without displaying any of the
qualities of a general or even much personal courage. But he endured a
good deal of hardship, and was often compelled to take to hiding in the
hills. On these occasions he was often carried over difficult places on
the back of a stout guide commonly known as the royal jackass (_burro
real_). The semblance of a court which he maintained was torn by
incessant personal intrigues, and by conflicts between his generals and
the ecclesiastics who exercised unbounded influence over his mind. The
defeat of his cause, which had many chances of success, was
unquestionably due to a very large extent to his want of capacity, his
apathy, and his increasing absorption in practices of puerile piety. His
first wife having died in England, Don Carlos married her elder sister,
the princess of Beira, in Biscay in October 1837. After his flight from
Spain, Don Carlos led a life of increasing insignificance. He abdicated
in May 1845, took a title of count of Molina, and died at Trieste on the
10th of March 1855.

By his first marriage, Don Carlos had three sons, Charles (1818-1861),
John (1822-1887), and Ferdinand (1824-1861). Charles succeeded to the
claims of his father, and was known to his partisans as Don Carlos VI.,
but was more commonly known as the count of Montemolin. In 1846, when
the marriage of queen Isabella was being negotiated, the Austrian
government endeavoured to arrange an alliance between her and the count
of Montemolin. But as he insisted on the complete recognition of his
rights, the Spanish government refused to hear of him as a candidate.
The Carlists took up arms on his behalf between 1846 and 1848, but the
count, who had been expelled from France by the police, did not join
them in the field. In April 1860 he and his brother Ferdinand landed at
San Carlos de la Rápita, at the mouth of the Ebro, in company with a
feather-headed officer named Ortega, who held a command in the Balearic
islands. They hoped to profit by the fact that the bulk of the Spanish
army was absent in a war with Morocco. But no Carlist rising took place.
The men who had been brought from the islands by Ortega deserted him.
Montemolin and his brother, together with their devoted partisan General
Elio, who had accompanied them from exile, lurked in hiding for a
fortnight and were then captured. Ortega was shot, but the princes saved
their lives, and that of Elio, by making an abject surrender of their
claims. When he had been allowed to escape and had reached Cologne, the
count of Montemolin publicly retracted his renunciation on the 15th of
June, on the ignominious ground that it had been extorted by fear.
Montemolin and his brother Ferdinand died within a fortnight of one
another in January 1861 without issue.

The third brother, John, who had advanced his own claims before his
brother's retraction, now came forward as the representative of the
legitimist and Carlist cause. As he had shown a disposition to accept
liberalism, and to make concessions to the spirit of the age, he was
unpopular with the party. On the 3rd of October 1868 he made a formal
renunciation in favour of his son Charles (Don Carlos VII.), who is
separately noticed below.

  See Hermann Baumgarten, _Geschichte Spaniens_ (Leipzig, 1861); H.
  Butler Clarke, _Modern Spain_ (Cambridge, 1906), which contains a
  useful bibliography.



CARLOS, DON (CHARLES MARIA DE LOS DOLORES JUAN ISIDORE JOSEPH FRANCIS
QUIRIN ANTONY MICHAEL GABRIEL RAPHAEL) (1848-1909), prince of Bourbon,
claimant, as Don Carlos VII., to the throne of Spain, was born at
Laibach on the 30th of March 1848, being the eldest surviving son of Don
Juan (John) of Bourbon and of the archduchess Maria Beatrix, daughter of
Francis IV., duke of Modena. Don Carlos was the grandson of the first
pretender, noticed above. He married in February 1867, at Frohsdorf,
Princess Marguerite, daughter of the duke of Parma and niece of the
comte de Chambord, who was born on the 1st of January 1847, and who
bore him a son, Don Jaime, in 1870, and three daughters. Don Carlos
boldly asserted his pretensions to the throne of Spain two years after
the revolution of 1868 had driven Queen Isabella II. and the other
branch of the Bourbons into exile. His manifesto, addressed to his
brother Alphonso, namesake of his rival, Alphonso XII., found an echo in
the fanatical priesthood and peasantry of many provinces of the
Peninsula, but little support among the more enlightened middle classes,
especially in the towns. The first rising was started in Catalonia by
the brother of the pretender, who himself entered Spain by way of Vera,
in the Basque provinces, on the 21st of May 1872. The troops of King
Amadeus under General Moriones, a progressist officer, who was one of
Spain's ablest and most popular commanders, surprised and very nearly
captured the pretender at Oroquista, sending him a fugitive to France in
headlong flight with a few followers. For more than a year he loitered
about in the French Pyrenees, the guest of old noble houses who showed
him much sympathy, while the French authorities winked at the fact that
he was fomenting civil war in Spain, where his guerilla bands, many of
them led by priests, committed atrocities, burning, pillaging, shooting
prisoners of war, and not unfrequently ill-using even foreign residents
and destroying their property. When the Federal Republic was proclaimed
on the abdication of King Amadeus, the Carlists had overrun Spain to
such an extent that they held all the interior of Navarre, the three
Basque provinces, and a great part of Catalonia, Lower Aragon, and
Valencia, and had made raids into the provinces of Old Castile and
Estremadura. Don Carlos re-entered Spain on the 15th of July 1873, just
before the Carlists took Estella, in Navarre, which became, with Tolosa
and Durango in the Basque provinces, his favourite residence. He
displayed very lax morals and an apathy which displeased his staff and
partisans. Don Carlos was present at some fights around Estella, and was
in the neighbourhood of Bilbao during its famous siege of three months
in 1874 until its relief by Marshals Serrano and Concha on the 2nd of
May. He was also present at the battle near Estella on the 27th of June
1874, in which Marshal Concha was killed and the liberals were repulsed
with loss. Twice he lost golden opportunities of making a rush for the
capital--in 1873, during the Federal Republic, and after Concha's death.
From the moment that his cousin Alphonso XII. was proclaimed king at
Sagunto, at Valencia, in Madrid, and at Logroño, by General Campos,
Daban, Jovellar, Primo de Rivera, and Laserna, the star of the pretender
was on the wane. Only once, a few weeks after the Alphonsist
restoration, the army of Don Carlos checked the Liberal forces in
Navarre, and surprised and made prisoners half a brigade, with guns and
colours, at Lacar, almost under the eyes of the new king and his
headquarters. This was the last Carlist success. The tide of war set in
favour of Alphonso XII., whose armies swept the Carlist bands out of
central Spain and Catalonia in 1875, while Marshal Quesada, in the upper
Ebro valley, Navarre, and Ulava, prepared by a series of successful
operations the final advance of 180,000 men, headed by Quesada and the
king, which defeated the Carlists at Estella, Peña Plata, and Elgueta,
thus forcing Don Carlos with a few thousand faithful Carlists to retreat
and surrender to the French frontier authorities in March 1876.

The pretender went to Pau, and there, singularly enough, issued his
proclamations bidding temporary adieu to the nation and to his
volunteers from the same chateau where Queen Isabella, also a refugee,
had issued hers in 1868. From that date Don Carlos became an exile and a
wanderer, travelling much in the Old and New World, and raising some
scandal by his mode of life. He fixed his residence for a time in
England, then in Paris, from which he was expelled at the request of the
Madrid government, and next in Austria, before he took up his abode at
Viarreggio in Italy. Like all pretenders, he never gave in, and his
pretensions, haughtily reasserted, often troubled the courts and
countries whose hospitality he enjoyed. His great disappointment was the
coldness towards him of Pope Leo XIII., and the favour shown by that
pontiff for Alphonso XII. and his godson, Alphonso XIII. Don Carlos had
two splendid chances of testing the power of his party in Spain, but
failed to profit by them. The first was when he was invited to unfurl
his flag on the death of Alphonso XII., when the perplexities and
uncertainties of Castilian politics reached a climax during the first
year of a long minority under a foreign queen-regent. The second was at
the close of the war with the United States and after the loss of the
colonies, when the discontent was so widespread that the Carlists were
able to assure their prince that many Spaniards looked upon his cause as
the one untried solution of the national difficulties. Don Carlos showed
his usual lack of decision; he wavered between the advice of those who
told him to unfurl his standard with a view to rally all the
discontented and disappointed, and of those who recommended him to wait
until a great _pronunciamiento_, chiefly military, should be made in his
favour--a day-dream founded upon the coquetting of General Weyler and
other officers with the Carlist senators and deputies in Madrid.
Afterwards the pretender continued to ask his partisans to go on
organizing their forces for action some day, and to push their
propaganda and preparations, which was easy enough in view of the
indulgence shown them by all the governments of the regency and the open
favour exhibited by many of the priesthood, especially in the rural
districts, the religious orders, and the Jesuits, swarming all over the
kingdom. After the death of his first wife in 1893, Don Carlos married
in the following year Princess Marie Bertha of Rohan. He died on the
18th of July 1909. His son by his first wife, Don Jaime, was educated in
Austrian and British military schools before he entered the Russian
army, in which he became a colonel of dragoons.



CARLOW, a county of Ireland in the province of Leinster, bounded N. by
the counties Kildare and Wicklow, E. by Wicklow and Wexford, S. by
Wexford, and W. by Queen's county and Kilkenny. Excepting Louth, it is
the smallest county in Ireland, having an area of 221,424 acres, or
about 346 sq. m. The surface of the county is in general level or gently
undulating, and of pleasing appearance, except the elevated tract of
land known as the ridge of Old Leighlin (Gallows Hill Bog, 974 ft.),
forming the beginning of the coal-measures of Leinster, and the
south-eastern portion of the county bordering on Wexford, where the wild
and barren granitic elevations of Knockroe (1746 ft.) and Mount Leinster
(2610 ft.) present a bolder aspect. Glacial deposits, which overspread
the lower grounds, sometimes afford good examples of the ridge-forms
known as eskers, as in the neighbourhood of Bagenalstown. There are no
lakes nor canals in the county, nor does it contain the source of any
important river; but on its western side it is intersected from north to
south by the Barrow, which is navigable throughout the county and
affords means of communication with the port of Waterford; while on the
eastern border the Slaney, which is not navigable in any part of its
course through the county, passes out of Carlow into Wexford at
Newtownbarry.

Carlow is largely a granite county; but here the Leinster Chain does not
form a uniform moorland. The mica-schists and Silurian slates of its
eastern flank are seen in the diversified and hilly country on the pass
over the shoulder of Mt. Leinster, between Newtownbarry and Borris. The
highland drops westward to the valley of the Barrow, Carlow and
Bagenalstown lying on Carboniferous Limestone, which here abuts upon the
granite. On the west of the hollow, the high edge of the Castle-comer
coalfields rises, scarps of limestone, grit, and coal-measures
succeeding one another on the ascent. Formerly clay-ironstone was raised
from the Upper Carboniferous strata.

The soil is of great natural richness, and the country is among the most
generally fertile in the island. Agriculture is the chief occupation of
the inhabitants, but is not so fully developed as the capabilities of
the land would suggest; in effect, the extent of land under tillage
shows a distinctly retrograde movement, being rather more than half that
under pasture. The pasture land is of excellent quality, and generally
occupied as dairy farms, the butter made in this county maintaining a
high reputation in the Dublin market. The farms are frequently large,
and care is given to the breeding of cattle. Sheep and poultry, however,
receive the greatest attention. The staple trade of the county is in
corn, flour, meal, butter and provisions, which are exported in large
quantities. There are no manufactures. The sandstone of the county is
frequently of such a nature as to split easily into layers, known in
commerce as Carlow flags.

Porcelain clay exists in the neighbourhood of Tullow; but no attempt is
made to turn this product to use.

The Great Southern & Western railway from Kildare to Wexford follows the
river Barrow through the county, with a branch from Bagenalstown to
Kilkenny, while another branch from the north terminates at Tullow.

As regards population (41,964 in 1891; 37,748 in 1901), the county shows
a decrease among the more serious of Irish counties, and correspondingly
heavy emigration returns. Of the total, about 89% are Roman Catholics,
and nearly the whole are rural. Carlow (pop. 6513), Bagenalstown (1882),
and Tullow (1725) are the only towns. The county is divided into seven
baronies, and contains forty-four civil parishes and parts of parishes.
It belongs to the Protestant diocese of Dublin and the Roman Catholic
diocese of Kildare and Leighlin. The assizes are held at Carlow, and
quarter sessions at that town and also at Bagenalstown and Tullow. One
member is returned to parliament.

Carlow, under the name of Catherlogh, is among the counties generally
considered to have been created in the reign of John. Leinster was
confirmed as a liberty to William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, by John,
and Carlow, among other counties in this area, had the privileges of a
palatinate on descending to one of the earl's heiresses. The relics of
antiquity in the county comprise large cromlechs at Browne's Hill near
Carlow and at Hacketstown, and a rath near Leighlin Bridge, in which
were found several urns of baked earth, containing only small quantities
of dust. Some relics of ecclesiastical and monastic buildings exist, and
also the remains of several castles built after the English settlement.
Old Leighlin, where the 12th century cathedral of St Lazerian is
situated, is merely a village, although until the Union it returned two
members to the Irish parliament.



CARLOW, the county town of Co. Carlow, Ireland, on the navigable river
Barrow. Pop. of urban district (1901) 6513. It is 56 m. S.W. of Dublin
by the Great Southern & Western railway. The castle (supposed to have
been founded by Hugh de Lacy, appointed governor of Ireland in 1179, but
sometimes attributed to King John), situated on an eminence overlooking
the river, is still a chief feature of attraction in the general view of
the town, although there is not much of the original building left. It
consisted of a hollow quadrangle, with a massive round tower at each
angle. The principal buildings are the Roman Catholic College of St
Patrick (1793), a plain but spacious building in a picturesque park
adjoining the Roman Catholic cathedral of the diocese of Kildare and
Leighlin; the Protestant parish church, with a handsome steeple of
modern erection; the court-house, where the assizes are held, an
octagonal stone building with a handsome Ionic portico; and other county
buildings. The cathedral, in the Perpendicular style, has a highly
ornamented west front, and a monument to Bishop James Doyle (d. 1834).
The Wellington Bridge over the river Barrow connects Carlow with the
suburb of Graigue. Two m. N.E. of the town is one of the finest
cromlechs in Ireland, and 3 m. to the west is the notable church, of
Norman and pre-Norman date, of Killeshin in Queen's county. The
industries of Carlow consist of brewing and flour-milling, and a
considerable trade is carried on in the sale of butter and eggs.

Carlow was of early importance. In the reign of Edward III. the king's
exchequer was removed thither, and £500, a large sum at that period,
applied towards surrounding the town with a strong wall. In the early
part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth the castle was taken, and the town
burned by the Irish chieftain, Rory Oge O'More. When summoned to
surrender by Ireton, the Commonwealth general, during the war of 1641,
Carlow submitted without resistance. In the insurrection of 1798 the
castle was attacked by an undisciplined body of insurgents. They were
speedily repulsed, and suffered severe loss, no quarter being given;
and, in the confusion of their flight, many of the insurgents took
refuge in houses, which the king's troops immediately set on fire.
Carlow obtained a charter of incorporation as early as the 13th century,
and was reincorporated, with enlarged privileges, by James I. The
corporation, which was styled "The Sovereign, Free Burgesses and
Commonalty of the Borough of Catherlogh," was authorized to return two
members to the Irish parliament. The town returned one member to the
Imperial parliament until 1885.



CARLSBAD, or KAISER-KARLSBAD (Czech, _Karlovy Vary_), a town and
celebrated watering-place of Bohemia, Austria, 116 m. W.N.W. of Prague
by rail. Pop. (1900) 14,640. It is situated at an altitude of 1227 ft.
and lies in the beautiful narrow and winding valley of the Tepl at its
junction with the Eger, being hemmed in by precipitous granite hills,
covered with magnificent forests of pine. The town is spread on both
banks of the river and in the valley of the Eger, its houses being built
up the mountain sides in tier above tier of terraces approached by long
flights of steps or steep and tortuous roads. This irregularity of site
and plan, together with the varied form and high-pitched roofs of the
houses, makes the place very picturesque. Among the principal buildings
of Carlsbad are the Catholic parish church, built in 1732-1736 in rococo
style; the gorgeous Russian church, finished in 1897; the English
church; and a handsome synagogue. In the first rank of the other
buildings stands the famous Mühlbrunnen Colonnade, erected between 1871
and 1878, which, with its 103 monolithic granite Corinthian columns, is
a fine example of modern classical architecture; the _Kurhaus_ (1865);
the magnificent _Kaiserbad_, built in 1895 in the French Renaissance
style, and several other bathing establishments; the Sprudel Colonnade,
an imposing iron and glass structure, built in 1879, within which rises
the Sprudel, the principal spring of Carlsbad; and several hospitals and
hospices for poor patients. Both banks of the Tepl are provided with
_quais_, planted with trees, which constitute the chief promenades of
the centre of the town; and there are, besides, a municipal park and
several public gardens.

The mineral springs, to which Carlsbad owes its fame, rise from beneath
a very hard kind of rock, known as Sprudelschale or Sprudeldecke,
beneath which it is believed that there exists a large common reservoir
of the hot mineral water, known as the Sprudelkessel. Several artificial
apertures in the rock have been made for the escape of the steam of this
subterranean cauldron, which, owing to the incrustations deposited by
the water, require to be cleared at regular intervals. Altogether there
are seventeen warm springs, with a temperature varying from 164° F. to
107.7° F., and two cold ones. The oldest, best-known, and at the same
time the most copious spring is the Sprudel, a hot geyser with a
temperature of 164° F., which gushes up in jets of 1½ ft. thick to a
height of about 3½ ft., and delivers about 405 gallons of water per
minute. Other springs are the Mühlbrunnen, with a temperature of 121°
F., which is after the Sprudel the most used spring; the Neubrunnen
(138° F.); the Kaiser-Karl-Quelle (112° F.); the Theresienbrunnen (134°
F.), &c. The warm springs belong to the class of alkaline-saline waters
and have all the same chemical composition, varying only in their degree
of temperature. The chemical composition of the Sprudel, taken to a
thousand parts of water, is: 2.405 sulphate of soda, 1.298 bicarbonate
of soda, 1.042 chloride of soda, 0.186 sulphate of potash, 0.166
bicarbonate of magnesia, 0.012 bicarbonate of lithium, and 0.966
carbonic acid gas. They contain also traces of arsenic, antimony,
selenium, rubidium, tin and organic substances. The water is colourless
and odourless, with a slightly acidulated and salt taste, and has a
specific gravity of 1.0053 at 64.4° F. The waters are used both for
drinking and bathing, and are very beneficent in cases of liver
affections, biliary and renal calculi, diabetes, gout, rheumatism, and
uric acid troubles. They are very powerful in their effect and must not
be used except under medical direction, and during the cure, a
carefully-regulated diet must be observed, coupled with a moderate
amount of exercise in the open air. The number of visitors in 1901 was
51,454; in 1756 it was only 257; in 1828 it was 3713; and it attained
14,182 in 1869, and 34,396 in 1890.

Carlsbad is encircled by mountains, covered with beautiful forests of
pine, which are made accessible by well-kept paths. Just above the town
towers the Hirschensprung (1620 ft.), a little farther the
Freundschaftshöhe (1722 ft.); the Franz-Josefs-Höhe (1663 ft.); and the
Aberg (1980 ft.). On the opposite bank of the Tepl lies the Rudolfshöhe
(1379 ft.); the Dreikreuzberg (1805 ft.); the König Otto's Höhe (1960
ft); and the Ewiges Leben (2086 ft.), with the Stephaniewarte, a tower,
98 ft. high, built in 1889, which commands a superb view. The town is
the centre of the porcelain and stoneware industry of Bohemia, and
manufactures a special liqueur (_Karlsbader Bitter_), besides various
objects from the Sprudel rock and confectionery. It exported, in 1901,
2-1/4 millions of bottles of mineral water, and 160,000 lb. of Sprudel
salt, i.e. salt obtained by evaporation from the water of the Sprudel.

Many interesting places are to be found near Carlsbad. To the north is
the village of Dallwitz, with a porcelain factory, a handsome castle and
beautiful oaks extolled by Theodor Körner, under which he composed in
1812 his touching elegy on the downfall of Germany. To the east is the
watering-place of Giesshübl-Puchstein with celebrated springs, which
contain alkaline waters impregnated with carbonic acid gas. To the west
in the valley of the Eger, the village of Aich, with a porcelain
factory, and a little farther the much-visited Hans Heiling's Rock, a
wild and romantic spot, with which a very touching legend is connected.
To the south-east the ruined castle of Engelhaus, situated on a rock of
phonolite, 2340 ft. high, built probably in the first part of the 13th
century and destroyed by the Swedes in 1635. At the foot of the mountain
lies the actual village of Engelhaus.

According to legend the springs of Carlsbad were discovered during a
hunting expedition by the emperor Charles IV., who built the town, which
derives its name from him, on both banks of the Tepl. But the hot
springs were already known two centuries before, as is indicated by the
name of the river _Tepl_ (warm), under which name the river was known in
the 12th century. Besides, on the same spot stood already in the 13th
century a place called _Vary_, which means the Sprudel. The truth is,
that the emperor Charles IV., after being cured here, built about 1358 a
castle in the neighbourhood and accorded many privileges to the town. It
obtained its charter as a town in 1370; the fame of the waters spread
and it was created a royal free town in 1707 by the emperor Joseph I.
The waters were used only for bathing purposes until 1520, when they
began to be prescribed also for drinking. The first _Kurhaus_ was
erected in 1711 near the Mühlbrunnen, and was replaced by a larger one,
built in 1761 by the empress Maria Theresa. Carlsbad was nearly
completely destroyed by fire in 1604, and another great fire raged here
in 1759. It also suffered much from inundations, especially in 1582 and
1890. In August 1819 a meeting of the ministers of the German courts
took place here under the presidency of Prince Metternich, when many
reactionary measures, embodied in the so-called "Carlsbad Decrees" (see
below), were agreed upon and introduced in the various states of the
German Confederation.

  Among the extensive literature of the place see Mannl, _Carlsbad and
  its Mineral Springs_ (Leipzig, 1850); Cartellieri, _Karlsbad als
  Kurort_ (Karlsbad, 1888); Friedenthal, _Der Kurort Karlsbad
  Topographisch und Medizinisch_ (Karlsbad, 1895).



CARLSBAD DECREES (_Karlsbader Beschlüsse_), the name usually given to a
series of resolutions (_Beschlüsse_) passed by a conference of the
ministers and envoys of the more important German states, held at
Carlsbad from the 6th to the 31st of August 1819. The occasion of the
meeting was the desire of Prince Metternich to take advantage of the
consternation caused by recent revolutionary outrages (especially the
murder of the dramatist Kotzebue by Karl Sand) to persuade the German
governments to combine in a system for the suppression of the Liberal
agitation in Germany. The pretended urgency of the case served as the
excuse for only inviting to the conference those states whose ministers
happened to be visiting Carlsbad at the time. The conferences were,
therefore, actually attended by the representatives of Austria,
Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, Württemberg, Hanover, Baden, Nassau and
Mecklenburg; at the fourth conference (August 9th) Baron von Fritsch,
minister of state for Saxe-Weimar, who "happened to be present" at
Carlsbad on that day, attended by special invitation. Prince Metternich
presided over the conferences, and Friedrich von Gentz acted as
secretary.

The business to be discussed, as announced in Metternich's opening
address, was twofold: (1) Matters of urgent importance necessitating
immediate action; (2) Questions affecting the fundamental constitution
of the German Confederation, demanding more careful and prolonged
discussion. To the first class belonged (a) the urgent necessity for a
uniform system of press regulation in Germany; (b) the most urgent
measures in regard to the supervision of universities and schools; (c)
measures in view of the already discovered machinations of the political
parties. To the second class belonged (a) the more clear definition of
article XIII. of the Act of Confederation (_i.e._ state constitutions);
(b) the creation of a permanent federal supreme court; (c) the creation
of a federal executive organization (_Bundes-Executions Ordnung_) armed
with power to make the decrees of the diet and the judgments of the high
court effective; (d) the facilitation of commercial intercourse within
the confederation in accordance with article XIX. of the Act of
Confederation (_Beilage A. zum ersten Protokoll_, Martens, iv. p. 74).

These questions were debated in twenty-three formal conferences. On the
issues raised by the first class there was practical unanimity. All were
agreed that the state of Germany demanded disciplinary measures, and as
the result of the deliberations it was determined to lay before the
federal diet definite proposals for (1) a uniform press censorship over
all periodical publications; (2) a system of "curators" to supervise the
education given in universities and schools, with disciplinary
enactments against professors and teachers who should use their position
for purposes of political propaganda; (3) the erection of a central
commission at Mainz, armed with inquisitorial powers, for the purpose of
unmasking the widespread revolutionary conspiracy, the existence of
which was assumed.

On the questions raised under the second class there was more
fundamental difference of opinion, and by far the greater part of the
time of the conference was occupied in discussing the burning question
of the due interpretation of article XIII. The controversy raged round
the distinction between "assemblies of estates," as laid down in the
article, and "representative assemblies," such as had been already
established in several German states. Gentz, in an elaborate memorandum
(_Nebenbeilage zum siebenten Protokoll_, iv. p. 102), laid down that
representation by estates was the only system compatible with the
conservative principle, as the "outcome of a well-ordered civil society,
in which the relations and rights of the several estates are due to the
peculiar position of the classes and corporations on which they are
based, which have been from time to time modified by law without
detracting from the essentials of the sovereign power"; whereas
representative assemblies are based on "the sovereignty of the people."
In answer to this, Count Wintzingerode, on behalf of the king of
Württemberg, placed on record (_Nebenbeilage 2 zum neunten Protokoll_,
p. 147) a protest, in which he urged that to insist on the system of
estates would be to stereotype caste distinctions foreign to the whole
spirit of the age, would alienate public opinion from the governments,
and--if enforced by the central power--would violate the sovereign
independence of those states which, like Württemberg, had already
established representative constitutions.

Though the majority of the ministers present favoured the Austrian
interpretation of article XIII. as elaborated by Gentz, they were as
little prepared as the representative of Württemberg to agree to any
hasty measures for strengthening the federal government at the expense
of the jealously guarded prerogatives of the minor sovereignties. The
result was that the constitutional questions falling under the second
class were reserved for further discussion at a general conference of
German ministers to be summoned at Vienna later in the year. The
effective Carlsbad resolutions, subsequently issued as laws by the
federal diet, were therefore only those dealing with the curbing of the
"revolutionary" agitation. For the results of their operation see
GERMANY: _History._

  The acts, protocols and resolutions of the conference of Carlsbad are
  given in M. de Martens's _Nouveau Recueil général de traités_, &c., t.
  4, pp. 8-166 (Göttingen, 1846). An interesting criticism of the
  Carlsbad Decrees is appended (p. 166), addressed by Baron Hans von
  Gagern, Luxemburg representative in the federal diet, to Baron von
  Plessen, Mecklenburg plenipotentiary at the conference of Carlsbad.
       (W. A. P.)



CARLSTADT, KARLSTADT or KAROLOSTADT (1480-1541), German reformer, whose
real name was Andreas Rudolf Bodenstein, was born at Carlstadt in
Bohemia. He entered the university of Erfurt in the winter term of
1499-1500, and remained there till 1503, when he went to Cologne. In the
winter term of 1504-1505 he transferred himself to the newly founded
university of Wittenberg, where he soon established his reputation as a
teacher of philosophy, and a zealous champion of the scholastic system
of Thomas Aquinas, against the revised nominalism associated with the
name of Occam. In 1508 he was made canon of the _Allerheiligenstift_, a
collegiate church incorporated in the university; and in 1510 he became
doctor of theology and archdeacon, his duties being to preach, to say
mass once a week and to lecture before the university; in 1513 he was
appointed ordinary professor of theology. In 1515 he went to Rome, where
with a view to becoming provost of the _Allerheiligenstift_ he studied
law, taking his degree as _doctor juris utriusque._ His experiences in
the papal city produced upon him the same effect as upon Luther, and
when in 1516 he returned to Germany it was as an ardent opponent of the
Thomist philosophy and as a champion of the Augustinian doctrine of the
impotence of the human will and salvation through Divine grace alone.
The 151 theses of Carlstadt, dated the 16th of September 1516,
discovered by Theodor Kolde ("_Wittenberger Disputationsthesen"_ in
_Zeitschrift für Kirchengeschichte_, xi. p. 448, &c.), prove that, so
far from owing his change of view to Luther's influence, he was at this
time actually in advance of Luther. The two reformers were, in fact,
never friends; though from the end of 1516 onwards the development of
each was considerably influenced by the other.

In the spring of 1518, in reply to Eck's _Obelisci_, an attack on
Luther's 95 theses, Carlstadt published a series of theses, maintaining
the supremacy of the Holy Scriptures (which he regarded as verbally
inspired) over ecclesiastical tradition and the authority of the
fathers, and asserting the liability of general councils to error. Eck
challenged him to a public disputation, in which Luther also took part,
and which lasted from the 27th of June to the 15th of July 1519. In this
dialectical warfare Carlstadt was no match for Eck; but the dispute only
served to confirm him in his revolt from the dominant theology, and in
three violent polemical treatises against Eck he proclaimed the doctrine
of the exclusive operation of grace in the justification of believers.

This attitude led him in 1520, by a logical development, to an open
attack on all those ecclesiastical practices in which the doctrine of
justification by works had become crystallized; e.g. indulgences and the
abuse of holy water and consecrated salt. At the same time he appeared
as the first of modern biblical critics, denying the Mosaic authorship
of the Pentateuch and classing the Scriptures into three categories of
different value in accordance with the degrees of certainty as to their
traditional origin. He still, however, maintained the doctrine of verbal
inspiration, and attacked Luther for rejecting the epistle of James. In
1520 Carlstadt's name was included in the papal bull excommunicating
Luther; after a momentary hesitation he decided to remain firm in his
protestant attitude, published an appeal from the pope to a general
council, and attacked the corruptions of the papacy itself in a treatise
on "the holiness of the pope" (_Von päpstlicher Heiligkeit_, October
17th, 1520).

In May 1521 Carlstadt went to Denmark, on the invitation of King
Christian II., to assist in the reform of the church; but his
disposition was anything but conciliatory, and, though his influence is
traceable in the royal law of the 26th of May 1521 abolishing the
celibacy of the clergy, he was forced, by the hostility of nobles and
clerics alike, to leave after a few weeks' stay. In June he was back in
Wittenberg, busy with tracts on the Holy Sacrament (he still believed in
the corporeal presence) and against the celibacy of the clergy (_de
coelibatu_). Carlstadt has been unjustly accused of being responsible
for the riots against the Mass fomented by the Augustinian friars and
the students; as a matter of fact, he did his best to keep the peace,
pending a decision by the elector of Saxony and the authorities of the
university, and it was not till Christmas day that he himself publicly
communicated the laity under both species. The next day he announced his
engagement to a young lady of noble family, Anna von Mochau.

From this moment Carlstadt was accepted as the leader of Protestantism
in Wittenberg; and, at his instance, auricular confession, the elevation
of the Host and the rules for fasting were abolished. On the 19th of
January he was married, in the presence of many of the university
professors and city magistrates. A few days later the property of the
religious corporations was confiscated by the city and, after pensions
had been assigned to their former members, was handed over to charitable
foundations. A pronouncement of Carlstadt's against pictures and images,
supported by the town, also led to iconoclastic excesses.

The return of Luther early in March, however, ended Carlstadt's
supremacy. The elector Frederick the Wise was strenuously opposed to any
alteration in the traditional services, and at his command Luther
restored communion in one kind and the elevation of the Host. Carlstadt
himself, though still professor, was deprived of all influence in
practical affairs, and devoted himself entirely to theological
speculation, which led him ever nearer to the position of the mystics.
He now denied the necessity for a clerical order at all, called himself
"a new layman," doffed his ecclesiastical dress, and lived for a while
as a peasant with his wife's relations at Segrena. In the middle of
1523, however, he went to Orlamünde, a living held by him with his
canonry, and there in the parish church reformed the services according
to his ideas, abolishing the Mass and even preaching against the
necessity for sacraments at all. He still continued occasionally to
lecture at Wittenberg and to fulminate against Luther's policy of
compromise.

All this brought him into violent conflict with the elector, the
university and Luther himself. His professorship and living were
confiscated and, in September 1524, he went into exile with his wife and
child. He was now exposed to great privations and hardships, but found
opportunity for polemical writing, proclaiming for the first time his
disbelief in the "Real Presence." He preached wherever he could gain a
hearing, and visited Strassburg, Heidelberg, Zürich, Basel,
Schweinfurth, Kitzingen and Nördlingen, before he found a more permanent
resting-place at Rothenburg on the Tauber. He was here when the
Peasants' War broke out, and was sent as a delegate to reason with the
insurgents. His admonitions were unsuccessful, and he only succeeded in
bringing himself under suspicion of being in part responsible for their
excesses. When Rothenburg was taken by the margrave of Anspach (28th
June 1525) Carlstadt had to fly for his life. His spirit was now broken,
and from Frankfort he wrote to Luther humbly praying him to intercede
for him with the elector. Luther agreed to do so, on receiving from
Carlstadt a recantation of his heterodox views on the Lord's Supper, and
as the result the latter was permitted to return to Wittenberg (1525).
He was not, however, allowed to lecture, and he lived as a peasant,
first at Segrena and afterwards at Bergwitz, cultivating small
properties, in which he had invested the remnant of his fortune, with
such poor success that at the end of 1526 he had to eke out a living as
a pedlar in the little town of Kemberg. This was endurable; but not so
the demand presently made upon him to take up the cudgels against
Zwingli and Oecolampadius. Once more he revolted; to agree with "Dr
Martin's opinions on the sacrament" was as difficult as flying like a
bird; he appealed to the elector to allow him to leave Saxony; but the
elector's conscience was in Luther's keeping, and Carlstadt had to fly
ignominiously in order to avoid imprisonment. He escaped to Holstein,
where in March 1529 he stayed with the Anabaptist Melchior Hofmann.
Expelled by the authorities, he took refuge in East Friesland, where he
remained till the beginning of 1530 under the protection of a nobleman
in sympathy with the Helvetic reformers. His preaching gave him great
influence, but towards the close of the year persecution again sent him
on his travels. He ultimately reached Zürich, where the recommendations
of Bucer and Oecolampadius secured him a friendly reception by Zwingli,
who procured him employment. After Zwingli's death he remained in close
intercourse with the Zürich preachers, who defended him against renewed
attacks on Luther's part; and finally, in 1534, on Bullinger's
recommendation, he was called to Basel as preacher at the church of St
Peter and professor at the university. Here he remained till his death
on the 24th of December 1541.

During these latter years Carlstadt's attitude became more moderate. His
championship of the town council against the theocratic claims of
Antistes Myconius and the ecclesiastical council, in the matter of the
control of the university, was perhaps in consonance with his earlier
views on the relations of clergy and laity. He was, however, also
instrumental in restoring the abolished doctorate of theology and other
degrees; and, despatched on a mission to Strassburg in 1536, to take
part in a discussion on a proposed compromise in the matter of the
Lord's Supper between the theologians of Strassburg and Wittenberg, he
displayed a conciliatory attitude which earned him the praise of Bucer.
Carlstadt's historical significance lies in the fact that he was one of
the pioneers of the Reformation. But he was a thinker and dreamer rather
than a man of affairs, and though he had the moral and physical courage
to carry his principles to their logical conclusions (he was the first
priest to write against celibacy, and the first to take a wife), he
lacked the balance of mind and sturdy common sense that inspired
Luther's policy of consideration for "the weaker brethren" and built up
the Evangelical Church on a conservative basis. But though Carlstadt was
on friendly terms, and corresponded with Münzer and other Anabaptists,
he did not share their antinomian views, nor was he responsible for
their excesses. His opinion as to the relation of faith and "good works"
was practically that expressed in articles XI. and XII. of the Church of
England. In reply to Luther's violent onslaught on him in his _Wider die
himmlischen Propheten_ he issued from Rothenburg his _Anzeig etlicher
Hauptartikel christlicher Lehre_, a compendious exposition of his views,
in which he says: "Those who urge to good works do so, not that the
conscience may be justified by works, but that their freedom may redound
to God's glory and that their neighbours may be fired to praise God."

  See C.F. Jaeger, _Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt_ (Stuttgart, 1856);
  Hermann Barge, _Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt_, vol. i. (Leipzig,
  1905).



CARLYLE, ALEXANDER (1722-1805), Scottish divine, was born on the 26th of
January 1722, in Dumfriesshire, and passed his youth and early manhood
at Prestonpans, where he witnessed the battle of 1745. He was educated
at Edinburgh (M.A. 1743), Glasgow and Leiden. From 1748 until his death
on the 28th of August 1805 he was minister at Inveresk in Midlothian,
and during this long career rose to high eminence in his church not only
as leader of the moderate or "broad" Church section, but as moderator of
the General Assembly 1770 and dean of the Chapel Royal in 1789. His
influence was enhanced by his personal appearance, which was so striking
as to earn him the name of "Jupiter Carlyle"; and his autobiography
(published 1860), though written in his closing years and not extending
beyond the year 1770, is abundantly interesting as a picture of Scottish
life, social and ecclesiastical, in the 18th century. Carlyle's memory
recalled the Porteous Riots of 1736, and less remotely his friendship
with Adam Smith, David Hume, and John Home, the dramatist, for
witnessing the performance of whose tragedy _Douglas_ he was censured in
1757. He was distinctly a _bon vivant_, but withal an upright,
conscientious and capable minister.



CARLYLE, JOSEPH DACRE (1759-1804), British orientalist, was born in 1759
at Carlisle, where his father was a physician. He went in 1775 to
Cambridge, was elected a fellow of Queens' College in 1779, taking the
degree of B.D. in 1793. With the assistance of a native of Bagdad known
in England as David Zamio, then resident at Cambridge, he attained great
proficiency in Arabic literature; and after succeeding Dr Paley in the
chancellorship of Carlisle, he was appointed, in 1795, professor of
Arabic in Cambridge University. His translation from the Arabic of Yusuf
ibn Taghri Birdi, the _Rerum Egypticarum Annales_, appeared in 1792, and
in 1796 a volume of _Specimens of Arabic Poetry_, from the earliest
times to the fall of the Caliphate, with some account of the authors.
Carlyle was appointed chaplain by Lord Elgin to the embassy at
Constantinople in 1799, and prosecuted his researches in Eastern
literature in a tour through Asia Minor, Palestine, Greece and Italy,
collecting in his travels several valuable Greek and Syriac MSS. for a
projected critical edition of the New Testament, collated with the
Syriac and other versions--a work, however, which he did not live to
complete. On his return to England in 1801 he was presented by the
bishop of Carlisle to the living of Newcastle-on-Tyne, where he died on
the 12th of April 1804. After his death there appeared a volume of poems
descriptive of the scenes of his travels, with prefaces extracted from
his journal. Among other works which he left unfinished was an edition
of the Bible in Arabic, completed by H. Ford and published in 1811.



CARLYLE, THOMAS (1795-1881), British essayist, historian and
philosopher, born on the 4th of December 1795 at Ecclefechan, in
Annandale, was the eldest of the nine children of James Carlyle by his
second wife, Janet Aitken. The father was by trade a mason, and
afterwards a small farmer. He had joined a sect of seceders from the
kirk, and had all the characteristics of the typical Scottish Calvinist.
He was respected for his integrity and independence, and a stern outside
covered warm affections. The family tie between all the Carlyles was
unusually strong, and Thomas regarded his father with a reverence which
found forcible expression in his _Reminiscences_. He always showed the
tenderest love for his mother, and was the best of brothers. The narrow
means of his parents were made sufficient by strict frugality. He was
sent to the parish school when seven, and to Annan grammar-school when
ten years old. His pugnacity brought him into troubles with his fellows
at Annan; but he soon showed an appetite for learning which induced his
father to educate him for the ministry. He walked to Edinburgh in
November 1809, and entered the university. He cared little for any of
the professors, except Sir John Leslie, from whom he learned some
mathematics. He acquired a little classical knowledge, but the most
valuable influence was that of his contemporaries. A few lads in
positions similar to his own began to look up to him as an intellectual
leader, and their correspondence with him shows remarkable interest in
literary matters. In 1814 Carlyle, still looking forward to the career
of a minister, obtained the mathematical mastership at Annan. The salary
of £60 or £70 a year enabled him to save a little money. He went to
Edinburgh once or twice, to deliver the discourses required from
students of divinity. He does not seem, however, to have taken to his
profession very earnestly. He was too shy and proud to see many of the
Annan people, and found his chief solace in reading such books as he
could get. In 1816 he was appointed, through the recommendation of
Leslie, to a school at Kirkcaldy, where Edward Irving, Carlyle's senior
by three years, was also master of a school. Irving's severity as a
teacher had offended some of the parents, who set up Carlyle to be his
rival. A previous meeting with Irving, also a native of Annan, had led
to a little passage of arms, but Irving now welcomed Carlyle with a
generosity which entirely won his heart, and the rivals soon became the
closest of friends. The intimacy, affectionately commemorated in the
_Reminiscences_, was of great importance to Carlyle's whole career. "But
for Irving," he says, "I had never known what the communion of man with
man means." Irving had a library, in which Carlyle devoured Gibbon and
much French literature, and they made various excursions together.
Carlyle did his duties as a schoolmaster punctiliously, but found the
life thoroughly uncongenial. No man was less fitted by temperament for
the necessary drudgery and worry. A passing admiration for a Miss Gordon
is supposed to have suggested the "Blumine" of _Sartor Resartus_; but he
made no new friendships, and when Irving left at the end of 1818 Carlyle
also resigned his post.

He had by this time resolved to give up the ministry. He has given no
details of the intellectual change which alienated him from the church.
He had, however, been led, by whatever process, to abandon the dogmatic
system of his forefathers, though he was and always remained in profound
sympathy with the spirit of their teaching. A period of severe struggle
followed. He studied law for a time, but liked it no better than
schoolmastering. He took a pupil or two, and wrote articles for the
_Edinburgh Encyclopaedia_ under the editorship of Brewster. He
occasionally visited his family, and their unfailing confidence helped
to keep up his courage. Meanwhile he was going through a spiritual
crisis. Atheism seemed for a time to be the only alternative to his old
creed. It was, however, profoundly repugnant to him. At last, one day in
June 1821, after three weeks' total sleeplessness, he went through the
crisis afterwards described quite "literally" in _Sartor Resartus_. He
cast out the spirit of negation, and henceforth the temper of his misery
was changed to one, not of "whining," but of "indignation and grim
fire-eyed defiance." That, he says, was his spiritual new-birth, though
certainly not into a life of serenity. The conversion was coincident
with Carlyle's submission to a new and very potent influence. In 1819 he
had begun to study German, with which he soon acquired a very remarkable
familiarity. Many of his contemporaries were awakening to the importance
of German thought, and Carlyle's knowledge enabled him before long to
take a conspicuous part in diffusing the new intellectual light. The
chief object of his reverence was Goethe. In many most important
respects no two men could be more unlike; but, for the present, Carlyle
seems to have seen in Goethe a proof that it was possible to reject
outworn dogmas without sinking into materialism. Goethe, by singularly
different methods, had emerged from a merely negative position into a
lofty and coherent conception of the universe. Meanwhile, Carlyle's
various anxieties were beginning to be complicated by physical
derangement. A rat, he declared, was gnawing at the pit of his stomach.
He was already suffering from the ailments, whatever their precise
nature, from which he never escaped. He gave vent to his irritability by
lamentations so grotesquely exaggerated as to make it difficult to
estimate the real extent of the evil.

Irving's friendship now became serviceable. Carlyle's confession of the
radical difference of religious opinion had not alienated his friend,
who was settling in London, and used his opportunities for promoting
Carlyle's interest. In January 1822 Carlyle, through Irving's
recommendation, became tutor to Charles and Arthur Buller, who were to
be students at Edinburgh. Carlyle's salary was £200 a year, and this,
with the proceeds of some literary work, enabled him at once to help his
brother John to study medicine and his brother Alexander to take up a
farm. Carlyle spent some time with the elder Bullers, but found a life
of dependence upon fashionable people humiliating and unsatisfactory. He
employed himself at intervals upon a life of Schiller and a translation
of _Wilhelm Meister_. He received £50 for a translation of Legendre's
_Geometry_; and an introduction, explaining the theory of proportion, is
said by De Morgan to show that he could have gained distinction as an
expounder of mathematical principles. He finally gave up his tutorship
in July 1824, and for a time tried to find employment in London. The
impressions made upon him by London men of letters were most
unfavourable. Carlyle felt by this time conscious of having a message to
deliver to mankind, and his comrades, he thought, were making literature
a trade instead of a vocation, and prostituting their talents to
frivolous journalism. He went once to see Coleridge, who was then
delivering his oracular utterances at Highgate, and the only result was
the singularly vivid portrait given in a famous chapter in his life of
Sterling. Coleridge seemed to him to be ineffectual as a philosopher,
and personally to be a melancholy instance of genius running to waste.
Carlyle, conscious of great abilities, and impressed by such instances
of the deleterious effects of the social atmosphere of London, resolved
to settle in his native district. There he could live frugally and
achieve some real work. He could, for one thing, be the interpreter of
Germany to England. A friendly letter from Goethe, acknowledging the
translation of _Wilhelm Meister_, reached him at the end of 1824 and
greatly encouraged him. Goethe afterwards spoke warmly of the life of
Schiller, and desired it to be translated into German. Letters
occasionally passed between them in later years, which were edited by
Professor Charles Eliot Norton in 1887. Goethe received Carlyle's homage
with kind complacency. The gift of a seal to Goethe on his birthday in
1831 "from fifteen English friends," including Scott and Wordsworth, was
suggested and carried out by Carlyle. The interest in German, which
Carlyle did so much to promote, suggested to him other translations and
reviews during the next few years, and he made some preparations for a
history of German literature. British curiosity, however, about such
matters seems to have been soon satisfied, and the demand for such work
slackened.

Carlyle was meanwhile passing through the most important crisis of his
personal history. Jane Baillie Welsh, born 1801, was the only child of
Dr Welsh of Haddington. She had shown precocious talent, and was sent to
the school at Haddington where Edward Irving (q.v.) was a master. After
her father's death in 1819 she lived with her mother, and her wit and
beauty attracted many admirers. Her old tutor, Irving, was now at
Kirkcaldy, where he became engaged to a Miss Martin. He visited
Haddington occasionally in the following years, and a strong mutual
regard arose between him and Miss Welsh. They contemplated a marriage,
and Irving endeavoured to obtain a release from his previous engagement.
The Martin family held him to his word, and he took a final leave of
Miss Welsh in 1822. Meanwhile he had brought Carlyle from Edinburgh and
introduced him to the Welshes. Carlyle was attracted by the brilliant
abilities of the young lady, procured books for her and wrote letters to
her as an intellectual guide. The two were to perform a new variation
upon the theme of Abelard and Héloïse. [A good deal of uncertainty long
covered the precise character of their relations. Until 1909, when Mr.
Alexander Carlyle published his edition of the "love-letters," the full
material was not accessible; they had been read by Carlyle's biographer,
Froude, and also by Professor Charles Norton, and Norton (in his edition
of Carlyle's _Early Letters_, 1886) declared that Froude had distorted
the significance of this correspondence in a sense injurious to the
writers. The publication of the letters certainly seems to justify
Norton's view.] Miss Welsh's previous affair with Irving had far less
importance than Froude ascribes to it; and she soon came to regard her
past love as a childish fancy. She recognized Carlyle's vast
intellectual superiority, and the respect gradually deepened into
genuine love. The process, however, took some time. Her father had
bequeathed to her his whole property (£200 to £300 a year). In 1823 she
made it over to her mother, but left the whole to Carlyle in the event
of her own and her mother's death. She still declared that she did not
love him well enough to become his wife. In 1824 she gradually relented
so far as to say that she would marry if he could achieve independence.
She had been brought up in a station superior to that of the Carlyles,
and could not accept the life of hardship which would be necessary in
his present circumstances. Carlyle, accustomed to his father's
household, was less frightened by the prospect of poverty. He was
determined not to abandon his vocation as a man of genius by following
the lower though more profitable paths to literary success, and expected
that his wife should partake the necessary sacrifice of comfort. The
natural result of such discussions followed. The attraction became
stronger on both sides, in spite of occasional spasms of doubt. An odd
incident precipitated the result. A friend of Irving's, Mrs Basil
Montague, wrote to Miss Welsh, to exhort her to suppress her love for
Irving, who had married Miss Martin in 1823. Miss Welsh replied by
announcing her intention to marry Carlyle; and then told him the whole
story, of which he had previously been ignorant. He properly begged her
not to yield to the impulse without due consideration. She answered by
coming at once to his father's house, where he was staying; and the
marriage was finally settled. It took place on the 17th of October 1826.

Carlyle had now to arrange the mode of life which should enable him to
fulfil his aspiration. His wife had made over her income to her mother,
but he had saved a small sum upon which to begin housekeeping. A passing
suggestion from Mrs Carlyle that they might live with her mother was
judiciously abandoned. Carlyle had thought of occupying Craigenputtock,
a remote and dreary farm belonging to Mrs Welsh. His wife objected his
utter incapacity as a farmer; and they finally took a small house at
Comely Bank, Edinburgh, where they could live on a humble scale. The
brilliant conversation of both attracted some notice in the literary
society of Edinburgh. The most important connexion was with Francis,
Lord Jeffrey, still editor of the _Edinburgh Review_. Though Jeffrey had
no intellectual sympathy with Carlyle, he accepted some articles for the
_Review_ and became warmly attached to Mrs Carlyle. Carlyle began to be
known as leader of a new "mystic" school, and his earnings enabled him
to send his brother John to study in Germany. The public appetite,
however, for "mysticism" was not keen. In spite of support from Jeffrey
and other friends, Carlyle failed in a candidature for a professorship
at St Andrews. His brother, Alexander, had now taken the farm at
Craigenputtock, and the Carlyles decided to settle at the separate
dwelling-house there, which would bring them nearer to Mrs Welsh. They
went there in 1828, and began a hard struggle. Carlyle, indomitably
determined to make no concessions for immediate profit, wrote slowly and
carefully, and turned out some of his most finished work. He laboured
"passionately" at _Sartor Resartus_, and made articles out of fragments
originally intended for the history of German literature. The money
difficulty soon became more pressing. John, whom he was still helping,
was trying unsuccessfully to set up as a doctor in London; and
Alexander's farming failed. In spite of such drawbacks, Carlyle in later
years looked back upon the life at Craigenputtock as on the whole a
comparatively healthy and even happy period, as it was certainly one of
most strenuous and courageous endeavour. Though often absorbed in his
work and made both gloomy and irritable by his anxieties, he found
relief in rides with his wife, and occasionally visiting their
relations. Their letters during temporary separations are most
affectionate. The bleak climate, however, the solitude, and the
necessity of managing a household with a single servant, were
excessively trying to a delicate woman, though Mrs Carlyle concealed
from her husband the extent of her sacrifices. The position was
gradually becoming untenable. In the autumn of 1831 Carlyle was forced
to accept a loan of £50 from Jeffrey, and went in search of work to
London, whither his wife followed him. He made some engagements with
publishers, though no one would take _Sartor Resartus_, and returned to
Craigenputtock in the spring of 1832. Jeffrey, stimulated perhaps by his
sympathy for Mrs Carlyle, was characteristically generous. Besides
pressing loans upon both Thomas and John Carlyle, he offered to settle
an annuity of £100 upon Thomas, and finally enabled John to support
himself by recommending him to a medical position.[1] Carlyle's proud
spirit of independence made him reject Jeffrey's help as long as
possible; and even his acknowledgment of the generosity (in the
_Reminiscences_) is tinged with something disagreeably like resentment.
In 1834 he applied to Jeffrey for a post at the Edinburgh Observatory.
Jeffrey naturally declined to appoint a man who, in spite of some
mathematical knowledge, had no special qualification, and administered a
general lecture upon Carlyle's arrogance and eccentricity which left a
permanent sense of injury.

In the beginning of 1833 the Carlyles made another trial of Edinburgh.
There Carlyle found materials in the Advocates' Library for the article
on the _Diamond Necklace_, one of his most perfect writings, which led
him to study the history of the French Revolution. _Sartor Resartus_ was
at last appearing in _Fraser's Magazine_, though the rate of payment was
cut down, and the publisher reported that it was received with
"unqualified dissatisfaction." Edinburgh society did not attract him,
and he retreated once more to Craigenputtock. After another winter the
necessity of some change became obvious. The Carlyles resolved to "burn
their ships." They went to London in the summer of 1834, and took a
house at 5 (now 24) Cheyne Row, Chelsea, which Carlyle inhabited till
his death; the house has since been bought for the public. Irving, who
had welcomed him on former occasions, was just dying,--a victim, as
Carlyle thought, to fashionable cajoleries. A few young men were
beginning to show appreciation. J.S. Mill had made Carlyle's
acquaintance in the previous visit to London, and had corresponded with
him. Mill had introduced Ralph Waldo Emerson, who visited Craigenputtock
in 1833. Carlyle was charmed with Emerson, and their letters published
by Professor Norton show that his regard never cooled. Emerson's
interest showed that Carlyle's fame was already spreading in America.
Carlyle's connexion with Charles Buller, a zealous utilitarian,
introduced him to the circle of "philosophical radicals."

Carlyle called himself in some sense a radical; and J.S. Mill, though
not an intellectual disciple, was a very warm admirer of his friend's
genius. Carlyle had some expectation of the editorship of the _London
Review_, started by Sir W. Molesworth at this time as an organ of
philosophical radicalism. The combination would clearly have been
explosive. Meanwhile Mill, who had collected many books upon the French
Revolution, was eager to help Carlyle in the history which he was now
beginning. He set to work at once and finished the first volume in five
months. The manuscript, while entrusted to Mill for annotation, was
burnt by an accident. Mill induced Carlyle to accept in compensation
£100, which was urgently needed. Carlyle took up the task again and
finished the whole on the 12th of January 1837. "I can tell the world,"
he said to his wife, "you have not had for a hundred years any book that
comes more direct and flamingly from the heart of a living man. Do what
you like with it, you--"

The publication, six months later, of the _French Revolution_ marks the
turning-point of Carlyle's career. Many readers hold it to be the best,
as it is certainly the most characteristic, of Carlyle's books. The
failure of _Sartor Resartus_ to attract average readers is quite
intelligible. It contains, indeed, some of the most impressive
expositions of his philosophical position, and some of his most
beautiful and perfectly written passages. But there is something forced
and clumsy, in spite of the flashes of grim humour, in the machinery of
the _Clothes Philosophy_. The mannerism, which has been attributed to an
imitation of Jean Paul, appeared to Carlyle himself to be derived rather
from the phrases current in his father's house, and in any case gave an
appropriate dialect for the expression of his peculiar idiosyncrasy. But
it could not be appreciated by readers who would not take the trouble to
learn a new language. In the _French Revolution_ Carlyle had discovered
his real strength. He was always at his best when his imagination was
set to work upon a solid framework of fact. The book shows a unique
combination: on the one hand is the singularly shrewd insight into
character and the vivid realization of the picturesque; on the other is
the "mysticism" or poetical philosophy which relieves the events against
a background of mystery. The contrast is marked by the humour which
seems to combine a cynical view of human folly with a deeply pathetic
sense of the sadness and suffering of life. The convictions, whatever
their value, came, as he said, "flamingly from the heart." It was, of
course, impossible for Carlyle to satisfy modern requirements of
matter-of-fact accuracy. He could not in the time have assimilated all
the materials even then extant, and later accumulations would
necessitate a complete revision. Considered as a "prose epic," or a
vivid utterance of the thought of the period, it has a permanent and
unique value.

The book was speedily successful. It was reviewed by Mill in the
_Westminster_ and by Thackeray in _The Times_, and Carlyle, after a
heroic struggle, was at last touching land. In each of the years 1837 to
1840 he gave a course of lectures, of which the last only (upon "Hero
Worship") was published; they materially helped his finances. By
Emerson's management he also received something during the same period
from American publishers. At the age of forty-five he had thus become
independent. He had also established a position among the chief writers
of the day. Young disciples, among whom John Sterling was the most
accepted, were gathering round him, and he became an object of social
curiosity. Monckton Milnes (Lord Houghton), who won universal popularity
by the most genuine kindliness of nature, became a cordial friend.
Another important intimacy was with the Barings, afterwards Lord and
Lady Ashburton. Carlyle's conversational powers were extraordinary;
though, as he won greater recognition as a prophet, he indulged too
freely in didactic monologue. In his prophetic capacity he published two
remarkable books: _Chartism_ (1829), enlarged from an article which
Lockhart, though personally approving, was afraid to take for the
_Quarterly_; and _Past and Present_ (1843), in which the recently
published _Mediaeval Chronicle_ was taken as a text for the exposure of
modern evils. They may be regarded as expositions of the doctrine
implicitly set forth in the _French Revolution_. Carlyle was a "radical"
as sharing the sentiments of the class in which he was born. He had been
profoundly moved by the widely-spread distresses in his earlier years.
When the yeomanry were called out to suppress riots after the Peace, his
sympathies were with the people rather than with the authorities. So far
he was in harmony with Mill and the "philosophical radicals." A
fundamental divergence of principle, however, existed and was soon
indicated by his speedy separation from the party and alienation from
Mill himself. The Revolution, according to him, meant the sweeping away
of effete beliefs and institutions, but implied also the necessity of a
reconstructive process. _Chartism_ begins with a fierce attack upon the
_laissez faire_ theory, which showed blindness to this necessity. The
prevalent political economy, in which that theory was embodied, made a
principle of neglecting the very evils which it should be the great
function of government to remedy. Carlyle's doctrines, entirely opposed
to the ordinary opinions of Whigs and Radicals, found afterwards an
expositor in his ardent disciple Ruskin, and have obvious affinities
with more recent socialism. At the time he was as one crying in the
wilderness to little practical purpose. Liberals were scandalized by his
apparent identification of "right" with "might," implied in the demand
for a strong government; and though he often declared the true
interpretation to be that the right would ultimately become might, his
desire for strong government seemed too often to sanction the inverse
view. He came into collision with philanthropists, and was supposed to
approve of despotism for its own sake.

His religious position was equally unintelligible to the average mind.
While unequivocally rejecting the accepted creeds, and so scandalizing
even liberal theologians, he was still more hostile to simply sceptical
and materialist tendencies. He was, as he called himself, a "mystic";
and his creed was too vague to be put into any formula beyond a
condemnation of atheism. One corollary was the famous doctrine of "hero
worship" first expounded in his lectures. Any philosophy of history
which emphasized the importance of general causes seemed to him to imply
a simply mechanical doctrine and to deny the efficacy of the great
spiritual forces. He met it by making biography the essence of history,
or attributing all great events to the "heroes," who are the successive
embodiments of divine revelations. This belief was implied in his next
great work, the _Life and Letters of Oliver Cromwell_, published in
1845. The great Puritan hero was a man after his own heart, and the
portrait drawn by so sympathetic a writer is not only intensely vivid,
but a very effective rehabilitation of misrepresented character. The
"biographical" view of history, however, implies the weakness, not only
of unqualified approval of all Cromwell's actions, but of omitting any
attempt to estimate the Protector's real relation to the social and
political development of the time. The question, what was Cromwell's
real and permanent achievement, is not answered nor distinctly
considered. The effect may be partly due to the peculiar form of the
book as a detached series of documents and comments. The composition
introduced Carlyle to the "Dryasdust" rubbish heaps of which he here and
ever afterwards bitterly complained. A conscientious desire to unearth
the facts, and the effort of extracting from the dullest records the
materials for graphic pictures, made the process of production
excessively painful. For some years after _Cromwell_ Carlyle wrote
little. His growing acceptance by publishers, and the inheritance of her
property by Mrs Carlyle on her mother's death in 1842, finally removed
the stimulus of money pressure. He visited Ireland in 1846 and again in
1849, when he made a long tour in company with Sir C. Gavan Duffy, then
a young member of the Nationalist party (see Sir C.G. Duffy's
_Conversations with Carlyle_, 1892, for an interesting narrative).
Carlyle's strong convictions as to the misery and misgovernment of
Ireland recommended him to men who had taken part in the rising of 1848.
Although the remedies acceptable to a eulogist of Cromwell could not be
to their taste, they admired his moral teaching; and he received their
attentions, as Sir C.G. Duffy testifies, with conspicuous courtesy. His
aversion from the ordinary radicalism led to an article upon slavery in
1849, to which Mill replied, and which caused their final alienation. It
was followed in 1850 by the _Latterday Pamphlets_, containing
"sulphurous" denunciations of the do-nothing principle. They gave
general offence, and the disapproval, according to Froude, stopped the
sale for years. The _Life_ of Sterling (d. 1844), which appeared in
1851, was intended to correct the life by Julius Hare, which had given
too much prominence to theological questions. The subject roused
Carlyle's tenderest mood, and the _Life_ is one of the most perfect in
the language.

Carlyle meanwhile was suffering domestic troubles, unfortunately not
exceptional in their nature, though the exceptional intellect and
characters of the persons concerned have given them unusual prominence.
Carlyle's constitutional irritability made him intensely sensitive to
petty annoyances. He suffered the torments of dyspepsia; he was often
sleepless, and the crowing of "demon-fowls" in neighbours' yards drove
him wild. Composition meant for him intense absorption in his work;
solitude and quiet were essential; and he resented interruptions by
grotesque explosions of humorously exaggerated wrath. Mrs Carlyle had to
pass many hours alone, and the management of the household and of
devices intended to shield him from annoyances was left entirely to her.
House-cleanings and struggles with builders during the construction of a
"sound-proof room" taxed her energy, while Carlyle was hiding himself
with his family in Scotland or staying at English country houses.
Nothing could be more affectionate than his behaviour to his wife on
serious occasions, such as the death of her mother, and he could be
considerate when his attention was called to the facts. But he was often
oblivious to the strain upon her energies, and had little command of his
temper. An unfortunate aggravation of the difficulty arose from his
intimacy with the Ashburtons. Lady Ashburton, a woman of singular social
charm and great ability, appreciated the author, but apparently accepted
the company of the author's wife rather as a necessity than as an
additional charm. Mrs Carlyle was hurt by the fine lady's condescension
and her husband's accessibility to aristocratic blandishments. Carlyle,
as a wise man, should have yielded to his wife's wishes; unluckily, he
was content to point out that her jealousy was unreasonable, and, upon
that very insufficient ground, to disregard it and to continue his
intimacy with the Ashburtons on the old terms. Mrs Carlyle bitterly
resented his conduct. She had been willing to renounce any aspirations
of her own and to sink herself in his glory, but she naturally expected
him to recognize her devotion and to value her society beyond all
others. She had just cause of complaint, and a remarkable power, as her
letters prove, of seeing things plainly and despising sentimental
consolations. She was childless, and had time to brood over her wrongs.
She formed a little circle of friends, attached to her rather than to
her husband; and to one of them, Giuseppe Mazzini, she confided her
troubles in 1846. He gave her admirable advice; and the alienation from
her husband, though it continued still to smoulder, led to no further
results. A journal written at the same time gives a painful record of
her sufferings, and after her death made Carlyle conscious for the first
time of their full extent. The death of Lady Ashburton in 1857 removed
this cause of jealousy; and Lord Ashburton married a second wife in
1858, who became a warm friend of both Carlyles. The cloud which had
separated them was thus at last dispersed. Meanwhile Carlyle had become
absorbed in his best and most laborious work. Soon after the completion
of the _Cromwell_ he had thought of Frederick for his next hero, and had
in 1845 contemplated a visit to Germany to collect materials. He did
not, however, settle down finally to the work till 1851. He shut himself
up in his study to wrestle with the Prussian Dryasdusts, whom he
discovered to be as wearisome as their Puritan predecessors and more
voluminous. He went to Scotland to see his mother, to whom he had always
shown the tenderest affection, on her deathbed at the end of 1853. He
returned to shut himself up in the "sound-proof room." He twice visited
Germany (1852 and 1858) to see Frederick's battlefields and obtain
materials; and he occasionally went to the Ashburtons and his relations
in Scotland. The first two volumes of _Frederick the Great_ appeared in
1858, and succeeding volumes in 1862, 1864 and 1865. The success was
great from the first, though it did little to clear up Carlyle's gloom.
The book is in some respects his masterpiece, and its merits are beyond
question. Carlyle had spared no pains in research. The descriptions of
the campaigns are admirably vivid, and show his singular eye for
scenery. These narratives are said to be used by military students in
Germany, and at least convince the non-military student that he can
understand the story. The book was declared by Emerson to be the
wittiest ever written. Many episodes, describing the society at the
Prussian court and the relations of Frederick to Voltaire, are
unsurpassable as humorous portraiture. The effort to fuse the masses of
raw material into a well-proportioned whole is perhaps not quite
successful; and Carlyle had not the full sympathy with Frederick which
had given interest to the _Cromwell._ A hero-worshipper with
half-concealed doubts as to his hero is in an awkward position.
Carlyle's general conception of history made him comparatively blind to
aspects of the subject which would, to writers of other schools, have a
great importance. The extraordinary power of the book is undeniable,
though it does not show the fire which animated the _French Revolution._
A certain depression and weariness of spirit darken the general tone.

During the later labours Mrs Carlyle's health had been breaking.
Carlyle, now that happier relations had been restored, did his best to
give her the needed comforts; and in spite of his immersion in
_Frederick_, showed her all possible attention in later years. She had
apparently recovered from an almost hopeless illness, when at the end of
1865 he was elected to the rectorship of the university of Edinburgh. He
delivered an address there on the 2nd of April 1866, unusually mild in
tone, and received with general applause. He was still detained in
Scotland when Mrs Carlyle died suddenly while driving in her carriage.
The immediate cause was the shock of an accident to her dog. She had
once hurt her mother's feelings by refusing to use some wax candles. She
had preserved them ever since, and by her direction they were now
lighted in the chamber of death. Carlyle was overpowered by her loss.
His life thenceforward became more and more secluded, and he gradually
became incapable of work. He went to Mentone in the winter of 1866 and
began the _Reminiscences._ He afterwards annotated the letters from his
wife, published (1883) as _Letters and Memorials._ He was, as Froude
says, impressed by the story of Johnson's "penance" at Uttoxeter, and
desired to make a posthumous confession of his shortcomings in his
relations to his wife. A few later utterances made known his opinions of
current affairs. He joined the committee for the defence of Governor
Eyre in 1867; he also wrote in 1867 an article upon "shooting Niagara,"
that is, upon the tendency of the Reform Bill of that year; and in 1870
he wrote a letter defending the German case against France. The worth of
his _Frederick_ was acknowledged by the Prussian Order of Merit in 1874.
In the same year Disraeli offered him the Grand Cross of the Bath and a
pension. He declined very courteously, and felt some regret for previous
remarks upon the minister. The length of his literary career was now
softening old antipathies, and he was the object of general respect. His
infirmities enforced a very retired life, but he was constantly visited
by Froude, and occasionally by his disciple Ruskin. A small number of
other friends paid him constant attention. His conversation was still
interesting, especially when it turned upon his recollections, and
though his judgments were sometimes severe enough, he never condescended
to the scandalous. His views of the future were gloomy. The world seemed
to be going from bad to worse, with little heed to his warnings. He
would sometimes regret that it was no longer permissible to leave it in
the old Roman fashion. He sank gradually, and died on the 4th of
February 1881. A place in Westminster Abbey was offered, but he was
buried, according to his own desire, by the side of his parents at
Ecclefechan. He left Craigenputtock, which had become his own property,
to found bursaries at the university of Edinburgh. He gave his books to
Harvard College.

Carlyle's appearance has been made familiar by many portraits, none of
them, according to Froude, satisfactory. The statue by Boehm on the
Chelsea Embankment, however, is characteristic; and there is a fine
painting by Watts in the National Portrait Gallery. J. McNeill
Whistler's portrait of him is in the possession of the Glasgow
corporation.

During Carlyle's later years the antagonism roused by his attacks upon
popular opinions had subsided; and upon his death general expression was
given to the emotions natural upon the loss of a remarkable man of
genius. The rapid publication of the _Reminiscences_ by Froude produced
a sudden revulsion of feeling. Carlyle became the object of general
condemnation. Froude's biography, and the _Memorials_ of Mrs Carlyle,
published soon afterwards, strengthened the hostile feeling. Carlyle had
appended to the _Reminiscences_ an injunction to his friends not to
publish them as they stood, and added that no part could ever be
published without the strictest editing. Afterwards, when he had almost
forgotten what he had written, he verbally empowered Froude to use his
own judgment: Froude accordingly published the book at once, without any
editing, and with many inaccuracies. Omissions of a few passages written
from memory at a time of profound nervous depression would have altered
the whole character of the book. Froude in this and the later
publications held that he was giving effect to Carlyle's wish to imitate
Johnson's "penance." No one, said Boswell, should persuade him to make
his lion into a cat. Froude intended, in the same spirit, to give the
shades as well as the lights in the portrait of his hero. His admiration
for Carlyle probably led him to assume too early that his readers would
approach the story from the same point of view, that is, with an
admiration too warm to be repelled by the admissions. Moreover, Froude's
characteristic desire for picturesque effect, unchecked by any
painstaking accuracy, led to his reading preconceived impressions into
his documents. The result was that Carlyle was too often judged by his
defects, and regarded as a selfish and eccentric misanthrope with
flashes of genius, rather than as a man with many of the highest
qualities of mind and character clouded by constitutional infirmities.
Yet it would be difficult to speak too strongly of the great qualities
which underlay the superficial defects. Through long years of poverty
and obscurity Carlyle showed unsurpassed fidelity to his vocation and
superiority to the lower temptations which have ruined so many literary
careers, His ambition might be interpreted as selfishness, but certainly
showed no coldness of heart. His unstinted generosity to his brothers
during his worst times is only one proof of the singular strength of his
family affections. No one was more devoted to such congenial friends as
Irving and Sterling. He is not the only man whom absorption in work and
infirmity of temper have made into a provoking husband, though few wives
have had Mrs Carlyle's capacity for expressing the sense of injustice.
The knowledge that the deepest devotion underlies misunderstandings is
often a very imperfect consolation; but such devotion clearly existed
all through, and proves the defect to have been relatively superficial.

The harsh judgments of individuals in the _Reminiscences_ had no
parallel in his own writings. He scarcely ever mentions a contemporary,
and was never involved in a personal controversy. But the harshness
certainly reflects a characteristic attitude of mind. Carlyle was
throughout a pessimist or a prophet denouncing a backsliding world. His
most popular contemporaries seemed to him to be false guides, and
charlatans had ousted the heroes. The general condemnation of "shams"
and cant had, of course, particular applications, though he left them to
be inferred by his readers. Carlyle was the exponent of many of the
deepest convictions of his time. Nobody could be more in sympathy with
aspirations for a spiritual religion and for a lofty idealism in
political and social life. To most minds, however, which cherish such
aspirations the gentler optimism of men like Emerson was more congenial.
They believed in the progress of the race and the triumph of the nobler
elements. Though Carlyle, especially in his earlier years, could deliver
an invigorating and encouraging, if not a sanguine doctrine, his
utterances were more generally couched in the key of denunciation, and
betrayed a growing despondency. Materialism and low moral principles
seemed to him to be gaining the upper hand; and the hope that religion
might survive the "old clothes" in which it had been draped seemed to
grow fainter. The ordinary mind complained that he had no specific
remedy to propose for the growing evils of the time; and the more
cultivated idealist was alienated by the gloom and the tendency to
despair. To a later generation it will probably appear that, whatever
the exaggerations and the misconceptions to which he was led, his
vehement attacks at least called attention to rather grave limitations
and defects in the current beliefs and social tendencies of the time.
The mannerisms and grotesque exaggerations of his writings annoyed
persons of refinement, and suggest Matthew Arnold's advice to flee
"Carlylese" as you would flee the devil. Yet the shrewd common-sense,
the biting humour, the power of graphic description and the imaginative
"mysticism" give them a unique attraction for many even who do not fully
sympathize with the implied philosophy or with the Puritanical code of
ethics. The letters and autobiographical writings, whether they attract
or repel sympathy, are at least a series of documents of profound
interest for any one who cares to study character, and display an almost
unique idiosyncrasy.      (L. S.)

  The chief authorities for Carlyle's life are his own _Reminiscences_,
  the _Letters of Jane Welsh Carlyle_, the _Love Letters of Thomas
  Carlyle and Jane Welsh_ (ed. A. Carlyle), and the four volumes of J.A.
  Froude's biography; Froude was Carlyle's literary executor. Prof. C.E.
  Norton's edition of the _Reminiscences_ and his collection of
  Carlyle's _Early Letters_ correct some of Froude's inaccuracies. A
  list of many articles upon Carlyle is given by Mr Ireland in _Notes
  and Queries_, sixth series, vol. iv. Among other authors may be
  noticed Henry James, sen., in _Literary Remains_; Prof. Masson,
  _Carlyle, Personally and in his Writings_; Conway, _Thomas Carlyle_;
  Larkin, _The Open Secret of Carlyle's Life_; Mrs Oliphant in
  _Macmillan's Magazine_ for April 1881; G.S. Venables in _Fortnightly
  Review_ for May 1883 and November 1884. A good deal of controversy has
  arisen relating to Froude's treatment of the relations between Carlyle
  and his wife, and during 1903-1904 this was pushed to a somewhat
  unsavoury extent. Those who are curious to pry into the question of
  Carlyle's marital capacity, and the issues between Froude's assailants
  and his defenders, may consult _New Letters and Memorials of Jane
  Welsh Carlyle_, with introduction by Sir James Crichton-Browne; _My
  Relations with Carlyle_, by J.A. Froude; _The Nemesis of Froude_, by
  Sir J. Crichton-Browne and Alexander Carlyle; and articles in the
  _Contemporary Review_ (June, July, August, 1903), and _Nineteenth
  Century and After_ (May, July, 1903). See also Herbert Paul's _Life of
  Froude_ (1905). The precise truth in these matters is hardly
  recoverable, even if it concerns posterity: and though Froude was
  often inaccurate, he was given full authority by Carlyle, he had all
  the unpublished material before him, and he was dead and unable to
  reply to criticism when the later attacks were made.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] John Aitken Carlyle (1801-1879) finally settled near the Carlyles
    in Chelsea. He began an English prose version of Dante's _Divine
    Comedy_--which has earned him the name of "Dante Carlyle"--but only
    completed the translation of the _Inferno_ (1849). The work included
    a critical edition of the text and a valuable introduction and notes.



CARMAGNOLA, FRANCESCO BUSSONE, COUNT OF (1390-1432), Italian soldier of
fortune, was born at Carmagnola near Turin, and began his military
career when twelve years old under Facino Cane, a _condottiere_ then in
the service of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, duke of Milan. On the death of
the latter his duchy was divided among his captains, but his son and
heir, Filippo Maria, determined to reconquer it by force of arms. Facino
Cane being dead, Visconti applied to Carmagnola, then in his thirtieth
year, and gave him command of the army. That general's success was
astonishingly rapid, and soon the whole duchy was brought once more
under Visconti's sway. But Filippo Maria, although he rewarded
Carmagnola generously, feared that he might become a danger to himself,
and instead of giving him further military commands made him governor of
Genoa. Carmagnola felt greatly aggrieved, and failing to obtain a
personal interview with the duke, threw up his commission and offered
his services to the Venetians (1425). He was well received in Venice,
for the republic was beginning to fear the ambitions of the Visconti,
and the new doge, Francesco Foscari, was anxious to join the Florentines
and go to war with Milan. Carmagnola himself represented the duke's
forces as much less numerous than they were supposed to be, and said
that the moment was an opportune one to attack him. These arguments,
combined with the doge's warlike temper, prevailed; Carmagnola was made
captain-general of St Mark in 1426, and war was declared. But while the
republic was desirous of rapid and conclusive operations, it was to the
interest of Carmagnola, as indeed to all other soldiers of fortune, to
make the operations last as long as possible, to avoid decisive
operations, and to liberate all prisoners quickly. Consequently the
campaign dragged on interminably, some battles were won and others lost,
truces and peace treaties were made only to be broken, and no definite
result was achieved. Carmagnola's most important success was the battle
of Maclodio (1427), but he did not follow it up. The republic, impatient
of his dilatoriness, raised his emoluments and promised him immense
fiefs including the lordship of Milan, so as to increase his ardour, but
in vain. At the same time Carmagnola was perpetually receiving
messengers from Visconti, who offered him great rewards if he would
abandon the Venetians. The general trifled with his past as with his
present employers, believing in his foolish vanity that he held the fate
of both in his hand. But the Venetians were dangerous masters to trifle
with, and when they at last lost all patience, the Council of Ten
determined to bring him to justice. Summoned to Venice to discuss future
operations on the 29th of March 1432, he came without suspicion. On his
arrival at the ducal palace he was seized, imprisoned and brought to
trial for treason against the republic. Although the doge befriended him
he was condemned to death and beheaded on the 5th of May. A man of
third-rate ability, his great mistake was that he failed to see that he
could not do with a solvent and strong government what he could with
bankrupt tyrants without military resources, and that the astute
Visconti meant to ruin him for his abandonment.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--The best account of Carmagnola is Horatio Brown's essay
  in his _Studies in Venetian History_ (London, 1907); see also A.
  Battistella, _Il Conte di Carmagnola_ (Genoa, 1889); E. Ricotti,
  _Storia delle Compagnie di Ventura_ (Turin, 1845). Alessandro Manzoni
  (q.v.) made this episode the subject of a poetical drama, _Il Conte di
  Carmagnola_ (1826).     (L. V.*)



CARMAGNOLA, a town of Italy, in the province of Turin, 18 m. by rail S.
of Turin. Pop. (1901) 2447 (town), 11,721 (commune). It is the junction
where the lines for Savona and Cuneo diverge; it is also connected with
Turin by a steam tramway via Carignano. Carmagnola is a place of
medieval origin. The town was captured by the French in 1796.



CARMAGNOLE (from Carmagnola, the town in Italy), a word first applied to
a Piedmontese peasant costume, well known in the south of France, and
brought to Paris by the revolutionaries of Marseilles in 1798. It
consisted of a short skirted coat with rows of metal buttons, a
tricoloured waistcoat and red cap, and became the popular dress of the
Jacobins. The name was then given to the famous revolutionary song,
composed in 1792, the tune of which, and the wild dance which
accompanied it, may have also been brought into France by the
Piedmontese. The original first verse began:--

  "Monsieur Veto (i.e. Louis XVI.) avait promis
   D'être fidèle à sa patrie."

and each verse ends with the refrain:--

  "Vive le son, vive le son,
  Dansons la Carmagnole,
      Vive le son
      Du Canon."

The words were constantly altered and added to during the Terror and
later; thus the well-known lines,

  "Madame Veto avait promis
   De faire égorger tout Paris
   ...
   On lui coupa la tête," &c.,

were added after the execution of Marie Antoinette. Played in double
time the tune was a favourite march in the Revolutionary armies, until
it was forbidden by Napoleon, on becoming First Consul.



CARMARTHEN (_Caerfyrddin_), a municipal borough, contributory
parliamentary borough (united with Llanelly since 1832), and county town
of Carmarthenshire, and a county of itself, finely situated on the right
bank of the Towy, which is here tidal and navigable for small craft.
Pop. (1901) 10,025. It is the terminal station of a branch of the London
& North-Western railway coming southward from Shrewsbury, and is a
station on the main line of the Great Western running to Fishguard; it
is also the terminus of a branch-line of the Great Western running to
Newcastle-Emlyn. The station buildings lie on the left bank of the
river, which is here spanned by a fine old stone bridge. There are works
for the manufacture of woollens and ropes, also tanneries, but it is as
the central market of a large and fertile district that Carmarthen is
most important. The weekly Saturday market is well attended, and affords
interesting scenes of modern Welsh agricultural life. From the
convenient and accessible position of the town, the gaol and lunatic
asylum serving for the three south-western counties of Wales--Cardigan,
Pembroke and Carmarthen--have been fixed here. Although historically one
of the most important towns in South Wales, Carmarthen can boast of very
few ancient buildings, and the general aspect of the town is modern. A
well-preserved gateway of red sandstone and portions of two towers of
the castle are included in the buildings of the present gaol, and the
old parish church of St Peter contains some interesting monuments,
amongst them being the altar tomb (of the 16th century) of Sir Rhys ap
Thomas, K.G., and his wife, which was removed hither for safety at the
Reformation from the desecrated church of the neighbouring Priory of St
John. Some vestiges of this celebrated monastic house, which formerly
owned the famous Welsh MS. known as the "Black Book of Carmarthen," are
visible between the present Priory Street and the river. Of the more
recent erections in the town, mention may be made of the granite obelisk
in memory of General Sir Thomas Picton (1758-1815) and the bronze statue
of General Sir William Nott (1784-1846).

Carmarthen is commonly reputed to occupy the site of the Roman station
of Maridunum, and its present name is popularly associated with the
wizard-statesman Merlin, or Merddyn, whose memory and prophecies are
well remembered in these parts of Wales and whose home is popularly
believed to have been the conspicuous hill above Abergwili, known as
Merlin's Hill. Another derivation of the name is to be found in
_Caer-môr-din_, signifying "a fortified place near the sea." In any
case, the antiquity of the town is undisputed, and it served as the seat
of government for Ystrad Tywi until the year 877, when Prince Cadell of
South Wales abandoned Carmarthen for Dinefawr, near Llandilo, probably
on account of the maritime raids of the Danes and Saxons. Towards the
close of the 11th century a castle was built here by the Normans, and
for the next two hundred years town and castle were frequently taken and
retaken by Welsh or English. On the annexation of Wales, Edward I.
established here his courts of chancery and exchequer and the great
sessions for South Wales. Edward III., by the Statute Staple of 1353,
declared Carmarthen the sole staple for Wales, ordering that every bale
of Welsh wool should be sealed or "cocketed" here before it left the
Principality. The earliest charter recorded was granted in 1201 under
King John; a charter of James I. in 1604 constituted Carmarthen a county
of itself; and under a charter by George III. in 1764, which had been
specially petitioned for by the citizens, the two separate jurisdictions
of Old and New Carmarthen were fused and henceforth "called by the name
of Our Borough of Carmarthen." In 1555 Bishop Farrar of St David's was
publicly burned for heresy under Queen Mary at the Market Cross, which
was ruthlessly destroyed in 1846 to provide a site for General Nott's
statue. In 1646 General Laugharne took and demolished the castle in the
name of the parliament, and in 1649 Oliver Cromwell resided at
Carmarthen on his way to Ireland. In 1684 the duke of Beaufort with a
numerous train made his state entry into Carmarthen as lord-president of
Wales and the Marches. With the rise of Llanelly the industrial
importance of Carmarthen has tended to decline; but owing to its central
position, its close connexion with the bishops of St David's and its
historic past the town is still the chief focus of all social, political
and ecclesiastical movements in the three counties of Cardigan, Pembroke
and Carmarthen. Carmarthen was created a parliamentary borough in 1536.



CARMARTHENSHIRE. (_Sîr Gaerfyrddin_, colloquially known as _Sîr Gâr_), a
county of South Wales bounded N. by Cardigan, E. by Brecon and
Glamorgan, W. by Pembroke and S. by Carmarthen Bay of the Bristol
Channel. The modern county has an area of 918 sq. m., and is therefore
the largest in size of the South Welsh counties. Almost the whole of its
surface is hilly and irregular, though the coast-line is fringed with
extensive stretches of marsh or sandy burrows. Much of the scenery in
the county, particularly in the upper valley of the Towy, is exceedingly
beautiful and varied. On its eastern borders adjoining Breconshire rises
the imposing range of the Black Mountains (_Mynydd Dû_), sometimes
called the Carmarthenshire Beacons, where the Carmarthen Van attains an
elevation of 2632 ft. Mynydd Mallaen in the wild districts of the
north-east corner of the county is 1430 ft. in height, but otherwise few
of the numberless rounded hills with which Carmarthenshire is thickly
studded exceed 1000 ft. The principal river is the Towy (_Tywi_), which,
with its chief tributaries, the Gwili, the Cothi and the Sawdde, drains
the central part of the county and enters the Bay at Llanstephan, 9 m.
below Carmarthen. Coracles are frequently to be observed on this river,
as well as on the Teifi, which separates Carmarthenshire from
Cardiganshire on the north. Other streams are the Tâf, which flows
through the south-western portion of the county and reaches the sea at
Laugharne; the Gwendraeth, with its mouth at Kidwelly; and the Loughor,
or Llwchwr, which rises in the Black Mountains and forms for several
miles the boundary between the counties of Carmarthen and Glamorgan
until it falls into Carmarthen Bay at Loughor. All these rivers contain
salmon, sewin (_gleisiad_) and trout in fair numbers, and are
consequently frequented by anglers. With the exception of the Van Pool
in the Black Mountains the lakes of the county are inconsiderable in
size.

  _Geology._--The oldest rocks in Carmarthenshire come to the surface in
  the Vale of Towy at Llanarthney and near Carmarthen; they consist of
  black shales of Tremadoc (Cambrian) age, and are succeeded by
  conglomerates, sandstones and shales, with beds of volcanic ash and
  lava, of Arenig (Ordovician) age, which have been brought up along a
  belt of intense folding and faulting which follows the Towy from
  Llangadock to Carmarthen and extends westwards to the edge of the
  county at Whitland. The Llandeilo shales, flags and limestones and
  occasional volcanic ashes, which follow, are well developed at
  Llangadock and Llandeilo and near Carmarthen, and are famed for their
  trilobites, _Asaphus tyrannus_ and _Ogygia Buchi._ Shales and
  mudstones and impersistent limestones of Bala age come next in order,
  and, bounding the Vale of Towy on the north, extend as a narrow belt
  north-westwards towards the Presley hills. Except for the foregoing
  deposits the great area between the Teifi and the Towy, of which
  little is known, is made up of a monotonous succession of greatly
  folded slates and shales with interbedded conglomerates and sandstones
  which give rise to scarps, ridges and moorlands; they appear to be of
  Llandovery age.

  South of the Towy a narrow belt of steeply dipping and even inverted
  Silurian sandstones and mudstones (Upper Llandovery, Wenlock and
  Ludlow) extends south-westwards from Llandovery to Llanarthney, where
  they disappear under the Old Red Sandstone. This formation, which
  consists of red marls and sandstones with occasional thin impure
  limestones (cornstones), extends from near Llandovery to beyond
  Carmarthen Bay; its upper conglomeratic beds cap the escarpment of the
  Black Mountains (2460 ft.) on the south-eastern borders of the county.
  To the south the scarps and moorlands of the Carboniferous Limestone
  and Millstone Grit form the north-western rim of the South Wales
  coalfield. The rest of the county is occupied by the rich
  Coal-Measures of the Gwendraeth Valley and Llanelly districts. All the
  rocks in the county are affected by powerful folds and faults. Glacial
  deposits are plentiful in the valleys south of the Towy, striae abound
  on the Millstone Grit and show that the ice-sheet rose far up the
  slopes of the Black Mountains. Coal is the chief mineral, the iron-ore
  is no longer worked; the Carboniferous Limestone is burnt at
  Llandybie; fire-bricks are manufactured from the Millstone Grit, and a
  few lead-veins are found in the Ordovician rocks.

_Industries._--The climate is mild, except in the upland regions, but
the annual rainfall is very heavy. With the exception of its
south-eastern portion, which forms part of the great South Welsh
coalfield, Carmarthenshire may be considered wholly as an agricultural
county. The attention of the farmers is devoted to stock-raising and
dairy-farming rather than to the growth of cereals, whilst the large
tracts of unenclosed hill-country form good pastures for sheep and
ponies. The soil varies much, but in the lower valleys of the Towy and
Tâf it is exceedingly fertile. Outside agriculture the gathering of
cockles at the estuaries of the Towy and Tâf gives employment to a large
number of persons, principally women; Ferryside and Laugharne being the
chief centres of the cockling industry. The local textile factories at
Pencader, Penboyr, Llangeler, and in the valley of the Loughor are of
some importance. Gold has been found near Caio in the Cothi valley, but
the yield is trifling. There are lead-mines in various places, but none
of great value. The really important industries are restricted to the
populous south-eastern district, where coal-mining, iron-founding and
the smelting of tin and copper are carried on extensively at Llanelly,
Pembrey, Tirydail, Garnant, Pontardulais, Ammanford and other centres.

_Communications._--The Great Western railway traverses the lower part of
the county, whilst a branch of the London & North-Western enters it at
its extreme north-eastern point by a tunnel under the Sugar Loaf
Mountain, and has its terminal station at Carmarthen. A branch line of
the Great Western connects Llanelly with Llandilo by way of Ammanford,
and another branch of the same railway runs northward from Carmarthen to
Newcastle-Emlyn on the Teifi, joining the Aberystwyth branch, formerly
the Manchester & Milford line, at Pencader.

_Population and Administration._--The area of the county is 587,816
acres, and the population in 1891 was 130,566 and in 1901 it was
135,325. The municipal boroughs are Carmarthen (pop. 9935), Kidwelly
(2285) and Llandovery (1809). Urban districts are Ammanford, Llanelly,
Burry Port, Llandilo and Newcastle-Emlyn. The principal towns are
Carmarthen, Llanelly (25,617), Llandilo or Llandeilo Fawr (1934),
Llangadock (1578), Llandovery, Kidwelly, Pembrey (7513) and Laugharne
(1439). The county is in the South Wales circuit, and assizes are held
at Carmarthen. The borough of Carmarthen has a commission of the peace
and separate quarter sessions. The county is divided into two
parliamentary divisions, the eastern and western, and it also includes
the united boroughs of Carmarthen and Llanelly, thus returning three
members in all to parliament. The ancient county, which contains 75
parishes and part of another, is wholly in the diocese of St David's.

_History._--Carmarthenshire originally formed part of the lands of the
Dimetae conquered by the Romans, who constructed military roads and
built on the Via Julia the important station of Maridunum upon or near
the site of the present county town. After the retirement of the Roman
forces this fortified town became known in course of time as
Caerfyrddin, anglicized into Carmarthen, which subsequently gave its
name to the county. During the 5th and 6th centuries Carmarthenshire, or
Ystrad Tywi, was the scene of the labours of many Celtic missionaries,
notably of St David and St Teilo, who brought the arts of civilization
as well as the doctrines of Christianity to its rude inhabitants. In the
9th century the whole of Ystrad Tywi was annexed to the kingdom of
Roderick the Great (_Rhodri Mawr_), who at his death in 877 bequeathed
the principality of South Wales to his son, Cadell. The royal residence
of the South Welsh princes was now fixed at Dynevor (_Dinefawr_) on the
Towy near Llandilo. Cadell's son, Howell the Good (_Hywel Dda_), was the
first to codify the ancient laws of Wales at his palace of Ty Gwyn Ar
Dâf, the White Lodge on the banks of the Tâf, near the modern Whitland.
In 1080, during the troubled reign of Rhys ap Tudor, the Normans first
appeared on the shores of Carmarthen Bay, and before the end of King
Henry I.'s reign had constructed the great castles of Kidwelly,
Carmarthen, Laugharne and Llanstephan near the coast. From this period
until the death of Prince Llewelyn (1282) the history of Carmarthenshire
is national rather than local. By the Statutes of Rhuddlan (1284) Edward
I. formed the counties of Cardigan and Carmarthen out of the districts
of Ceredigion and Ystrad Tywi, the ancient possessions of the house of
Dinefawr, which were now formally annexed to the English crown. Nearly a
third of the present county, however, still remained under the
jurisdiction of the Lords Marchers, and it was not until the Act 27
Henry VIII. that these districts, including the commots of Kidwelly,
Iscennen and Carnwillion, were added to Edward I.'s original shire. The
prosperity of the new county increased considerably under Edward III.,
who named Carmarthen the chief staple-town in Wales for the wool trade.
The revolt of Owen Glendower had the effect of disturbing the peace of
the county for a time, and the French army, landed at Milford on his
behalf, was warmly received by the people of Carmarthenshire. In the
summer of 1485 Sir Rhys ap Thomas, of Abermarlais and Dinefawr, marched
through the county collecting recruits for Henry of Richmond, for which
service he was created a knight of the Garter and made governor of all
Wales. At the Reformation the removal of the episcopal residence from
distant St David's to Abergwili, a village barely two miles from
Carmarthen, brought the county into close touch with the chief Welsh
diocese, and the new palace at Abergwili will always be associated with
the first Welsh translations of the New Testament and the Prayer Book,
made by Bishop Richard Davies (1500-1581) and his friend William
Salesbury, of Llanrwst (16th century). In the early part of the 17th
century the county witnessed the first religious revival recorded in
Welsh annals, that led by Rhys Prichard (d. 1644), the Puritan vicar of
Llandovery, whose poetical works, the _Canwyll y Cymry_ ("the Welshman's
Candle") are still studied in the principality. At the time of the Civil
Wars, Richard Vaughan, earl of Carbery, the patron of Jeremy Taylor, was
in command of the royal fortresses and troops, but made a very feeble
and half-hearted resistance against the parliamentarian forces. During
the following century the great Welsh spiritual and educational
movement, which later spread over all Wales, had its origin in the quiet
and remote parish of Llanddowror, near Laugharne, where the vicar, the
celebrated and pious Griffith Jones (1684-1761), had become the founder
of the Welsh circulating charity schools. Other prominent members of
this important Methodist revival, likewise natives of Carmarthenshire,
were William Williams of Pantycelyn, the well-known hymn-writer
(1716-1791), and Peter Williams, the Welsh Bible commentator
(1722-1796). The county was deeply implicated in the Rebecca Riots of
1842-1843.

Foremost amongst the county families of Carmarthenshire is Rhys, or
Rice, of Dynevor Castle, near Llandilo, a modern castellated house
standing in a beautiful park which contains the historic ruin of the old
Dinefawr fortress. The present Lord Dynevor, the direct lineal
descendant of the princes of South Wales, is the head of this family.
Almost opposite Dynevor Castle (formerly known as Newtown), on the left
bank of the Towy, stands Golden Grove (_Gelli Aur_), once the seat of
the Vaughans, earls of Carbery, whose senior line and titles became
extinct early in the 18th century. The famous old mansion has been
replaced by a modern Gothic structure, and is now the property of Earl
Cawdor. Golden Grove contains the "Hirlas Horn," the gift of King Henry
VII. to Dafydd ap Evan of Llwyndafydd, Cardiganshire, perhaps the most
celebrated of Welsh historical relics. Other families of importance,
extinct or existing, are Johnes, formerly of Abermarlais and now of
Dolaucothi; Williams (now Drummond) of Edwinsford; Lloyd of Forest;
Lloyd of Glansevin; Stepney of Llanelly and Gwynne of Taliaris.

_Antiquities._--Carmarthenshire contains few memorials of the Roman
occupation, but it possesses various camps and tumuli of the British
period, and also a small but perfect cromlech near Llanglydwen on the
banks of the Tâf. Of its many medieval castles the most important still
in existence are: Kidwelly; Laugharne; Llanstephan, a fine pile of the
12th century on a hill at the mouth of the Towy; Carreg Cennen, an
imposing Norman fortress crowning a cliff not far from Llandilo; and
Dynevor Castle, the ancient seat of Welsh royalty, situated on a bold
wooded height above the Towy. The remains of the castles at Carmarthen,
Drysllwyn, Llandovery and Newcastle-Emlyn are inconsiderable. Of the
monastic houses Talley Abbey (Tal-y-Llychau, a name drawn from the two
small lakes in the neighbourhood of its site) was founded by Rhys ap
Griffith, prince of South Wales, towards the close of the 12th century
for Benedictine monks; Whitland, or Albalanda, also a Benedictine house,
was probably founded by Bishop Bernard of St David's early in the 12th
century, on a site long associated with Welsh monastic life; and the
celebrated Augustinian Priory of St John at Carmarthen was likewise
established in the 12th century. Very slight traces of these three
important religious houses now exist. The parish churches of
Carmarthenshire are for the most part small and of no special
architectural value. Of the more noteworthy mention may be made of St
Peter's at Carmarthen, and of the parish churches at Laugharne,
Kidwelly, Llangadock, Abergwili and Llangathen, the last named of which
contains a fine monument to Bishop Anthony Rudd (d. 1615). Many of these
churches are distinguished by tall massive western towers, usually of
the 12th or 13th centuries. Besides Golden Grove and Dynevor the county
contains some fine historic houses, prominent amongst which are
Abergwili Palace, the official residence of the bishops of St David's
since the Reformation, burnt down in 1902, but rebuilt on the old lines;
Aberglasney, a mansion near Llangathen, erected by Bishop Rudd and once
inhabited by the poet John Dyer (1700-1758); Court Henry, an ancient
seat of the Herbert family; and Abermarlais, once the property of Sir
Rhys ap Thomas.

_Customs, &c._--The old Welsh costume, folklore and customs have
survived longer in Carmarthenshire than perhaps in any other county of
Wales. The steeple-crowned beaver hat, now practically extinct, was
often to be seen in the neighbourhood of Carmarthen as late as 1890, and
the older women often affect the _pais-a-g[^w]n bâch_, the frilled
mob-cap and the small plaid shawl of a previous generation. Curious
instances of old Welsh superstitions are to be found amongst the
peasantry of the more remote districts, particularly in the lovely
country in the valleys of the Towy and Teifi, where belief in fairies,
fairy-rings, goblins and "corpse-candles" still lingers. The curious
mumming, known as "Mari Lwyd" (Blessed Mary), in which one of the
performers wears a horse's skull decked with coloured ribbands, was
prevalent round Carmarthen as late as 1885. At many parish churches the
ancient service of the "Pylgain" (a name said to be a corruption of the
Latin _pulli cantus_) is held at daybreak or cock-crow on Christmas
morning. A species of general catechism, known as _pwnc_, is also common
in the churches and Nonconformist chapels. The old custom of receiving
New Year's gifts of bread and cheese, or meal and money (_calenig_),
still flourishes in the rural parishes. The "bidding" before marriage
(as in Cardiganshire) was formerly universal and is not yet altogether
discontinued, and bidding papers were printed at Llandilo as late as
1900. The horse weddings (_priodas ceffylau_) were indulged in by the
farmer class in the neighbourhood of Abergwili as late as 1880.

  AUTHORITIES.--T. Nicholas, _Annals and Antiquities of the Counties of
  Wales_ (London, 1872); W. Spurrell, _Carmarthen and its Neighbourhood_
  (Carmarthen, 1879); J.B.D. Tyssen and Alcwyn C. Evans, _Royal
  Charters, &c., relating to the Town and County of Carmarthen_
  (Carmarthen, 1878).



CARMATHIANS (QARMATHIANS, KARMATHIANS), a Mahommedan sect named after
Hamdan Qarmat, who accepted the teaching of the Isma'ilites (see
MAHOMMEDAN RELIGION: _Sects_) from Hosain ul-Ahwazi, a missionary of
Ahmed, son of the Persian Abdallah ibn Maimun, toward the close of the
9th century. This was in the Sawad of Irak, which was inhabited by a
people little attached to Islam. The object of Abdallah ibn Maimun had
been to undermine Islam and the Arabian power by a secret society with
various degrees, which offered inducements to all classes and creeds and
led men on from an interpretation of Islam to a total rejection of its
teaching and a strict personal submission to the head of the society.
For the political history of the Carmathians, their conquests and their
decay, see ARABIA: _History_; CALIPHATE (sect. C. §§ 16, 17, 18, 23);
and EGYPT: _History_ (Mahommedan period).

In their religious teaching they claimed to be Shi'ites; i.e. they
asserted that the imamate belonged by right to the descendants of Ali.
Further, they were of the Isma'ilite branch of these, i.e. they
acknowledged the claim to the imamate of Isma'il the eldest son of the
sixth imam. The claim of Isma'il had been passed over by his father and
many Shi'ites because he had been guilty of drinking wine. The
Isma'ilites said that as the imam could do no wrong, his action only
showed that wine-drinking was not sinful. Abdallah taught that from the
creation of man there had always been an imam sometimes known, sometimes
hidden. Isma'il was the last known; a new one was to be looked for. But
while the imam was hidden, his doctrines were to be taught by his
missionaries (_da'is_). Hamdan Qarmat was one of these, Ahmed ibn
Abdallah being nominally the chief. The adherents of this party were
initiated by degrees into the secrets of its doctrines and were divided
into seven (afterwards nine) classes. In the first stage the convert was
taught the existence of mystery in the Koran and made to feel the
necessity of a teacher who could explain it. He took an oath of complete
submission and paid a sum of money. In the second stage the earlier
teachers of Islam were shown to be wrong in doctrine and the imams alone
were proved to be infallible. In the third it was taught that there were
only seven imams and that the other sects of the Shi'ites were in error.
In the fourth the disciple learnt that each of the seven imams had a
prophet, who was to be obeyed in all things. The prophet of the last
imam was Abdallah. The doctrine of Islam was that Mahomet was the last
of the prophets. In the fifth stage the uselessness of tradition and the
temporary nature of the precepts and practices of Mahomet were taught,
while in the sixth the believer was induced to give up these practices
(prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, &c.). At this point the Carmathian had
completely ceased to be a Moslem. In the remaining degrees there was
more liberty of opinion allowed and much variety of belief and teaching
existed.

The last contemporary mention of the Carmathians is that of Nasir ibn
Khosrau, who visited them in A.D. 1050. In Arabia they ceased to
exercise influence. In Persia and Syria their work was taken up by the
Assassins (q.v.). Their doctrines are said, however, to exist still in
parts of Syria, Persia, Arabia and India, and to be still propagated in
Zanzibar.

  See _Journal asiatique_ (1877), vol. i. pp. 377-386.     (G. W. T.)



CARMAUX, a town of southern France, in the department of Tarn, on the
left bank of the Cérou, 10 m. N. of Albi by rail. Pop. (1906) 8618. The
town gives its name to an important coal-basin, and carries on the
manufacture of glass.



CARMEL, the mountain promontory by which the seacoast of Palestine is
interrupted south of the Bay of Acre, 32° 50' N., 35° E. It continues as
a ridge of oolitic limestone, broken by ravines and honeycombed by
caves, running for about 20 m. in a south-easterly direction, and
finally joining the mountains of Samaria. Its maximum height is at
'_Esfia_, 1760 ft. It was included in the territory of the tribe of
Asher. No great political event is recorded in connexion with it; it
appears throughout the Old Testament "either as a symbol or as a
sanctuary"; its name means "garden-land." Its fruitfulness is referred
to by Isaiah and by Amos; Micah describes it as wooded, to which was no
doubt due its value as a hiding-place (Amos ix. 3). It is now wild, only
a few patches being cultivated; most of the mountain is covered with a
thick brushwood of evergreens, oaks, myrtles, pines, &c., which is
gradually being cleared away. That the cultivation was once much more
extensive is indicated by the large number of rock-hewn wine and olive
presses. Vines and olives are now found at '_Esfia_ only. The
outstanding position of Carmel, its solitariness, its visibility over a
wide area of country, and its fertility, marked it out as a suitable
place for a sanctuary from very ancient times. It is possibly referred
to in the Palestine lists of Thothmes III. as _Rosh Kodsu_, "the holy
headland." An altar of Jehovah existed here from early times; it was
destroyed when the Phoenician Baal claimed the country under Jezebel,
and repaired by Elijah (1 Kings xviii. 30) before the great sacrifice
which decided the claims of the contending deities. The traditional site
of this sacrifice is at _El-Muhraka_, at the eastern end of the ridge.
The Druses still visit this site, where is a dilapidated structure of
stones, as a holy place for sacrifice. On the bank of the Kishon below
is a mound known as _Tell el-Kusis_, "the Priest's mound," but the
connexion that has been sought between this name and the slaughter of
the priests of Baal is hardly justifiable. Other sites on the hill are
traditionally connected with Elijah, and some melon-like fossils are
explained as being fruits refused to him by its owner, who was punished
by having them turned to stone. Elisha was stationed here for a time.
Tacitus describes the hill as the site of an oracle, which Vespasian
consulted. Iamblichus in his life of Pythagoras speaks of it as a place
of great sanctity forbidden to the vulgar. A grove of trees, called the
"Trees of the Forty" [Martyrs], still remains, no doubt in former times
a sacred grove. So early as the 4th century Christian hermits began to
settle here, and in 1207 the Carmelite order was organized. The
monastery, founded at the fountain of Elijah in 1209, has had many
vicissitudes: the monks were slaughtered or driven to Europe in 1238 and
the building decayed; it was visited and refounded by St Louis in 1252;
again despoiled in 1291; once more rebuilt in 1631, and, in 1635 (when
the monks were massacred), sacked and turned into a mosque. Once more
the monks established themselves, only to be murdered after Napoleon's
retreat in 1799. The church and the monastery were entirely destroyed in
1821 by 'Abd Allah, pasha of Acre, on the plea that the monks would
favour the revolting Greeks; but it was shortly afterwards rebuilt by
order from the Porte, partly at 'Abd Allah's expense and partly by
contributions raised in Europe, Asia and Africa by Brother Giovanni
Battista of Frascati. The villages with which the mountain was once
covered have been to a large extent depopulated by the Druses.
     (R. A. S. M.)



CARMELITES, in England called White Friars (from the white mantle over a
brown habit), one of the four mendicant orders. The stories concerning
the origin of this order, seriously put forward and believed in the 17th
and 18th centuries, are one of the curiosities of history. It was
asserted that Elias established a community of hermits on Mount Carmel,
and that this community existed without break until the Christian era
and was nothing else than a Jewish Carmelite order, to which belonged
the Sons of the Prophets and the Essenes. Members of it were present at
St Peter's first sermon on Pentecost and were converted, and built a
chapel on Mount Carmel in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, who, as
well as the apostles, enrolled herself in the order. In 1668 the
Bollandist Daniel Papenbroek (1628-1714), in the March volumes of the
_Acta Sanctorum_, rejected these stories as fables. A controversy arose
and the Carmelites had recourse to the Inquisition. In Spain they
succeeded in getting the offending volumes of the _Acta_ censured, but
in Rome they were less successful, and so hot did the controversy
become that in 1698 a decree was issued imposing silence upon both
parties, until a formal decision should be promulgated--which has not
yet been done.

The historical origin of the Carmelites must be placed at the middle of
the 12th century, when a crusader from Calabria, named Berthold, and ten
companions established themselves as hermits near the cave of Elias on
Mount Carmel. A Greek monk, Phocas, who visited the Holy Land in 1185,
gives an account of them, and says that the ruins of an ancient building
existed on Mount Carmel; but though it is likely enough that there had
previously been Christian monks and hermits on the spot, it is
impossible to place the beginning of the Carmelite institute before
Berthold. About 1210 the hermits on Carmel received from Albert, Latin
patriarch of Jerusalem, a rule comprising sixteen articles. This was the
primitive Carmelite rule. The life prescribed was strictly eremitical:
the monks were to live in separate cells or huts, devoted to prayer and
work; they met only in the oratory for the liturgical services, and were
to live a life of great silence, seclusion, abstinence and austerity.
This rule received papal approbation in 1226. Soon, however, the losses
of the Christian arms in Palestine made Carmel an unsafe place of
residence for western hermits, and so, c. 1240, they migrated first to
Cyprus and thence to Sicily, France and England. In England the first
establishment was at Alnwick and the second at Aylesford, where the
first general chapter of the order was held in 1247, and St Simon Stock,
an English anchorite who had joined the order, was elected general.
During his generalate the institute was adapted to the conditions of the
western lands to which it had been transplanted, and for this purpose
the original rule had to be in many ways altered: the austerities were
mitigated, and the life was turned from eremitical into cenobitical, but
on the mendicant rather than the monastic model. The polity and
government were also organized on the same lines, and the Carmelites
were turned into mendicants and became one of the four great orders of
Mendicant Friars, in England distinguished as the "White Friars" from
the white mantle worn over the dark brown habit. This change was made
and the new rule approved in 1247, and under this form the Carmelites
spread all over western Europe and became exceedingly popular, as an
order closely analogous to the Dominicans and Franciscans. In the course
of time, further relaxations of the rule were introduced, and during the
Great Schism the Carmelites were divided between the two papal
obediences, rival generals being elected,--a state of things that caused
still further relaxations. To cope with existing evils Eugenius IV.
approved in 1431 of a rule notably milder than that of 1247, but many
houses clung to the earlier rule; thus arose among the Carmelites the
same division into "observants" and "conventuals" that wrought such
mischief among the Franciscans. During the 15th and 16th centuries
various attempts at reform arose, as among other orders, and resulted in
the formation of semi-independent congregations owing a titular
obedience to the general of the order. The Carmelite friars seem to have
flourished especially in England, where at the dissolution of the
monasteries there were some 40 friaries. (See F.A. Gasquet, _English
Monastic Life_, table and maps; _Catholic Dictionary_, art.
"Carmelites.") There were no Carmelite nunneries in England, and indeed
until the middle of the 15th century there were no nuns at all anywhere
in the order.

Of all movements in the Carmelite order by far the most important and
far-reaching in its results has been the reform initiated by St Teresa.
After nearly thirty years passed in a Carmelite convent in Avila under
the mitigated rule of 1431, she founded in the same city a small convent
wherein a rule stricter than that of 1247 was to be observed. This was
in 1562. In spite of opposition and difficulties of all kinds, she
succeeded in establishing a number, not only of nunneries, but (with the
co-operation of St John of the Cross, q.v.) also of friaries of the
strict observance; so that at her death in 1582 there were of the reform
15 monasteries of men and 17 of women, all in Spain. The interesting and
dramatic story of the movement should be sought for in the biographies
of the two protagonists; as also an account of the school of mystical
theology founded by them, without doubt the chief contribution made by
the Carmelites to religion (see MYSTICISM). Here it must suffice to say
that the idea of the reform was to go behind the settlement of 1247 and
to restore and emphasize the purely contemplative character of primitive
Carmelite life: indeed provision was made for the reproduction, for such
as desired it, of the eremitical life led by Berthold and his
companions. St Teresa's additions to the rule of 1247 made the life one
of extreme bodily austerity and of prolonged prayer for all, two hours
of private prayer daily, in addition to the choral canonical office,
being enjoined. From the fact that those of the reform wore sandals in
place of shoes and stockings, they have come to be called the Discalced,
or bare-footed, Carmelites, also Teresians, in distinction to the Calced
or older branch of the order. In 1580 the reformed monasteries were made
a separate province under the general of the order, and in 1593 this
province was made by papal act an independent order with its own general
and government, so that there are now two distinct orders of Carmelites.
The Discalced Carmelites spread rapidly all over Catholic Europe, and
then to Spanish America and the East, especially India and Persia, in
which lands they have carried on to this day extensive missionary
undertakings. Both observances suffered severely from the various
revolutions, but they both still exist, the Discalced being by far the
most numerous and thriving. There are in all some 2000 Carmelite friars,
and the nuns are much more numerous. In England and Ireland there are
houses, both of men and of women, belonging to each observance.

  AUTHORITIES.--A full account is given by Helyot, _Hist, des ordres
  religieux_ (1792), i. cc. 40-52; shorter accounts, continued to the
  end of the 19th century and giving references to all literature old
  and new, may be found in Max Heimbucher, _Orden u. Kongregationen_
  (1897), ii. §§ 92-96; Wetzer u. Welte, _Kirchenlexicon_ (ed. 2), art.
  "Carmelitenorden"; Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopädie_ (ed. 3), art.
  "Karmeliter." The story of St Teresa's reform will be found in lives
  of St Teresa and in her writings, especially the _Foundations._
  Special reference may be made to the works of Zimmerman, a Carmelite
  friar, _Carmel in England_ (1899), and _Monumenta historica
  Carmelitana_, i. (1905 foll.).     (E. C. B.)



CARMICHAEL, GERSHOM (c. 1672-1729), Scottish philosopher, was born
probably in London, the son of a Presbyterian minister who had been
banished by the Scottish privy council for his religious opinions. He
graduated at Edinburgh University in 1691, and became a regent at St
Andrews. In 1694 he was elected a master in the university of
Glasgow--an office that was converted into the professorship of moral
philosophy in 1727, when the system of masters was abolished at Glasgow.
Sir William Hamilton regarded him as "the real founder of the Scottish
school of philosophy." He wrote _Bremuscula Introductio ad Logicam_, a
treatise on logic and the psychology of the intellectual powers;
_Synopsis Theologiae Naturalis_; and an edition of Pufendorf, _De
Officio Hominis et Civis_, with notes and supplements of high value. His
son Frederick was the author of _Sermons on Several Important Subjects_
and _Sermons on Christian Zeal_, both published in 1753.



CARMINE, a pigment of a bright red colour obtained from cochineal
(q.v.). It may be prepared by exhausting cochineal with boiling water
and then treating the clear solution with alum, cream of tartar,
stannous chloride, or acid oxalate of potassium; the colouring and
animal matters present in the liquid are thus precipitated. Other
methods are in use; sometimes white of egg, fish glue, or gelatine are
added before the precipitation. The quality of carmine is affected by
the temperature and the degree of illumination during its
preparation--sunlight being requisite for the production of a brilliant
hue. It differs also according to the amount of alumina present in it.
It is sometimes adulterated with cinnabar, starch and other materials;
from these the carmine can be separated by dissolving it in ammonia.
Good carmine should crumble readily between the fingers when dry.
Chemically, carmine is a compound of carminic acid with alumina, lime
and some organic acid. Carmine is used in the manufacture of artificial
flowers, water-colours, rouge, cosmetics and crimson ink, and in the
painting of miniatures. "Carmine lake" is a pigment obtained by adding
freshly precipitated alumina to decoction of cochineal.



CARMONA, a town of south-western Spain, in the province of Seville; 27
m. N.E. of Seville by rail. Pop. (1900) 17,215. Carmona is built on a
ridge overlooking the central plain of Andalusia, from the Sierra
Morena, on the north, to the peak of San Cristobal, on the south. It has
a thriving trade in wine, olive oil, grain and cattle; and the annual
fair, which is held in April, affords good opportunity of observing the
costumes and customs of southern Spain. The citadel of Carmona, now in
ruins, was formerly the principal fortress of Peter the Cruel
(1350-1369), and contained a spacious palace within its defences. The
principal entrance to the town is an old Moorish gateway; and the gate
on the road to Cordova is partly of Roman construction. Portions of the
ancient college of San Teodomir are of Moorish architecture, and the
tower of the church of San Pedro is an imitation of the Giralda at
Seville.

In 1881 a large Roman necropolis was discovered close to the town,
beside the Seville road. It contains many rock-hewn sepulchral chambers,
with niches for the cinerary urns, and occasionally with vestibules
containing stone seats (_triclinia_). In 1881 an amphitheatre, and
another group of tombs, all belonging to the first four centuries A.D.,
were disinterred near the original necropolis, and a small museum,
maintained by the Carmona archaeological society, is filled with the
mosaics, inscriptions, portrait-heads and other antiquities found here.

Carmona, the Roman _Carmo_, was the strongest city of Further Spain in
the time of Julius Caesar (100-44 B.C.), and its strength was greatly
increased by the Moors, who surrounded it with a wall and ornamented it
with fountains and palaces. In 1247 Ferdinand III. of Castile took the
city, and bestowed on it the motto _Sicut Lucifer lucet in Aurora, sic
in Wandalia Carmona_ ("As the Morning-star shines in the Dawn, so shines
Carmona in Andalusia").

  For an account of the antiquities of Carmona, see _Estudios
  arqueologicos e historicos_, by M. Sales y Ferré (Madrid, 1887).



CARNAC, a village of north-western France, in the department of Morbihan
and arrondissement of Lorient, 9 m. S.S.W. of Auray by road. Pop. (1906)
667, Carnac has a handsome church in the Renaissance style of Brittany,
but it owes its celebrity to the stone monuments in its vicinity, which
are among the most extensive and interesting of their kind (see STONE
MONUMENTS). The most remarkable consist of long avenues of menhirs or
standing stones; but there is also a profusion of other erections, such
as dolmens and barrows, throughout the whole district. About half a mile
to the north-west of the village is the Menec system, which consists of
eleven lines, numbers 874 menhirs, and extends a distance of 3376 ft.
The terminal circle, whose longest diameter is 300 ft., is somewhat
difficult to make out, as it is broken by the houses and gardens of a
little hamlet. To the east-north-east there is another system at
Kermario (Place of the Dead), which consists of 855 stones, many of them
of great size--some, for example, 18 ft. in height --arranged in ten
lines and extending about 4000 ft. in length. Still further in the same
direction is a third system at Kerlescan (Place of Burning), composed of
262 stones, which are distributed into thirteen lines, terminated by an
irregular circle, and altogether extend over a distance of 1000 ft. or
more. These three systems seem once to have formed a continuous series;
the menhirs, many of which have been broken up for road-mending and
other purposes, have diminished in number by some thousands in modern
times. The alignment of Kermario points to the dolmen of Kercado (Place
of St Cado), where there is also a barrow, explored in 1863; and to the
south-east of Menec stands the great tumulus of Mont St Michel, which
measures 377 ft. in length, and has a height of 65 ft. The tumulus,
which is crowned with a chapel, was excavated by René Galles in 1862;
and the contents of the sepulchral chamber, which include several jade
and fibrolite axes, are preserved in the museum at Vannes. About a mile
east of the village is a small piece of moorland called the Bossenno,
from the _bocenieu_ or mounds with which it is covered; and here, in
1874, the explorations of James Miln, a Scottish antiquary, brought to
light the remains of a Gallo-Roman town. The tradition of Carnac is that
there was once a convent of the Templars or Red Cross Knights on the
spot; but this, it seems, is not supported by history. Similar traces
were also discovered at Mane Bras, a height about 3 m. to the east. The
rocks of which these various monuments are composed is the ordinary
granite of the district, and most of them present a strange appearance
from their coating of white lichens. Carnac has an interesting museum of
antiquities.

  See W.C. Lukis, _Guide to the Principal Chambered Barrows and other
  Prehistoric Monuments in the Islands of the Morbihan, &c._ (Ripon,
  1875); René Galles, _Fouilles du Mont Saint Michel en Carnac_ (Vannes,
  1864); A. Fouquet, _Des monuments celtiques et des ruines romaines
  dans le Morbihan_ (Vannes, 1853); James Miln, _Archaeological
  Researches at Carnac in Brittany: Kermario_ (Edinburgh, 1881); and
  _Excavations at Carnac: The Bossenno and the Mont St Michel_
  (Edinburgh, 1877).



CARNARVON, EARLDOM OF. The earldom of Carnarvon was created in 1628 for
Robert Dormer, Baron Dormer of Wyng (c. 1610-1643), who was killed at
the first battle of Newbury whilst fighting for Charles I., and it
became extinct on the death of his son Charles, the 2nd earl, in 1709.
From 1714 to 1789 it was held by the family of Brydges, dukes of Chandos
and marquesses of Carnarvon, and in 1793 Henry Herbert, Baron Porchester
(1741-1811), was created earl of Carnarvon.

His great-grandson, HENRY HOWARD MOLYNEUX HERBERT, 4th earl of Carnarvon
(1831-1890), was born on the 24th of June 1831. He succeeded to the
title in 1849, on the death of his father, Henry John George, the 3rd
earl (1800-1849). Soon after taking his degree at Oxford he began to
play a prominent part in the deliberations of the House of Lords. In
1858 he was under secretary for the colonies, and in 1866 secretary of
state. In this capacity he introduced in 1867 the bill for the
federation of the British North American provinces which set so many
political problems at rest; but he had not the privilege of passing it,
having, before the measure became law, resigned, owing to his distaste
for Disraeli's Reform Bill. Resuming office in 1874, he endeavoured to
confer a similar boon on South Africa, but the times were not ripe. In
1878 he again resigned, out of opposition to Lord Beaconsfield's policy
on the Eastern question; but on his party's return to power in 1885 he
became lord-lieutenant of Ireland. His short period of office, memorable
for a conflict on a question of personal veracity between himself and Mr
Parnell as to his negotiations with the latter in respect of Home Rule,
was terminated by another premature resignation. He never returned to
office, and died on the 29th of June 1890. As a statesman his career was
marred by extreme sensitiveness; but he was beloved as a man of worth
and admired as a man of culture. He was high steward of the university
of Oxford, and president of the Society of Antiquaries. The 4th earl was
succeeded by his son, George Edward Stanhope Molyneux (b. 1866).



CARNARVON, a market town and municipal borough, and the county town of
Carnarvonshire, north Wales, 68½ m. W. of Chester by the London &
North-Western railway. Pop. (1901) 9760. It stands very nearly on the
site of Caer Seint, capital of the Segontiaci, and was fortified in 1098
by Hugh Lupus, earl of Chester, after Roman occupation, a fort, baths
and villa, with coins and pottery, having been exhumed here. As the
castle was begun only in 1284, Edward II., supposed to have been born in
its Eagle Tower on the extreme west, can only have been born outside.
The castle is an irregular oblong building on the west of the town,
surrounded by walls and having thirteen polygonal towers. There is still
much of the town wall extant. The parish church (Llanbeblig) is some
half-mile out of the town, the institutions of which include a town and
county hall, a training college, and a gaol for Anglesey and
Carnarvonshire jointly. Manufactures in the town are scanty, but
Llanberis and Llanllyfni export hence slates, "sets" and copper ore. A
steam ferry unites Carnarvon and Tan y foel, Anglesey, while a summer
service of steamers runs to Menai Bridge, Bardsey, &c. The borough forms
part of a district returning a member to parliament since 1536. To this
district the Reform Act added Bangor. The county quarter sessions and
assizes are held in the town, which has a separate commission of the
peace, but no separate court of quarter sessions. Three weekly Welsh
(besides English) newspapers are published here.



CARNARVONSHIRE (Welsh _Caer'narfon_, for _Caer yn Arfon_), a county of
north Wales, bounded N. by the Irish Sea, E. by the county of Denbigh,
S.E. by Merioneth, S. by Tremadoc and Cardigan Bays, S.W. by Carnarvon
Bay, W. by the Menai Straits (separating the county from Anglesey), and
N.W. by Conway Bay. Area, 565 sq. m. There is, owing to the changed bed
of the Conwy stream, a small detached part of the county on the north
coast of Denbighshire, stretching inland for some 2½ m. between Old
Colwyn and Llandulas. About half the whole length of the county is a
peninsula, Lleyn, running south-west into the Irish Sea, and forming
Cardigan Bay on the south and Carnarvon Bay on the north. The county is
rich in minerals, e.g. lead, copper, some gold. Its slate quarries are
many and good. Its mountains include the highest in England and Wales,
the summit of Snowdon (Wyddfa or Eryri) being 3560 ft. The principal
mountains occupy the middle of the county and include Carnedd Llewelyn
(3484 ft.), Carnedd Dafydd (3426), Glydyr Fawr (3279) and Glydyr Fach
(3262), Elidr Fawr (3029), Moel Siabod (2860), Moel Hebog or Hebawg
(2566). The valleys vary from the wildness of Pont Aberglaslyn gorge to
the quiet of Nant Gwynnant. Those of Beddgelert and Llanberis--at the
south and north base of Snowdon respectively--are famous, while that of
the Conwy, from Llanrwst to Conway (Conwy), is well set off by the
background of Snowdonia.

The largest stream is the Conwy, tidal and navigable for some 12 m. from
Deganwy; this rises in Llyn Conwy, in the south-east, divides Carnarvon
from Denbigh (running nearly due north) for some 30 m., and falls into
the sea at Deganwy. The Seint (wrongly spelled Seiont) is a small stream
rising in Snowdon and falling into the sea at Carnarvon, to which it
gave its old name Segontium (Kaer Seint yn Arvon in the _Mabinogion_).
The Swallow Falls are near Nant Ffrancon (the stream of the Beaver or
Afanc, a mythological animal). Nant Ffrancon leads north-west from near
Capel Curig and Bettws y coed and past Bethesda, reaching the sea in
Beaumaris Bay. The lakes, numerous and occasionally large, include: Llyn
Peris and Llyn Padarn at Llanberis, north of Snowdon; Llyn Ogwen, north
of Glydyr Fawr; Llyn Cowlyd and Llyn Eigiau, both north of Capel Curig;
Llyn Llydaw, on Snowdon; Llyn Cwellyn, west of Snowdon; Llyn Gwynnant,
east of Snowdon; Llyniau (Nant y llef or) Nantlle, near Llanllyfni; Llyn
Conway.

  The greater part of the county, including the mountainous Snowdon
  district and nearly all the eastern portion of the promontory of
  Lleyn, is occupied by rocks of Ordovician age, the Arenig, Bala and
  Llandeilo series. These are dark slates and thin-bedded grits with
  enormous masses of interbedded igneous rocks, lavas and ashes, the
  product of contemporaneous volcanoes. At the base of Snowdon are Bala
  grits and slates, above them lie three beds of felspathic porphyry,
  which are in turn succeeded by a great mass of calcareous and sandy
  volcanic ashes, while upon the summit are the remnants of a lava
  sheet. The whole mountain is part of a syncline, the beds dipping into
  it from the north-west and south-east.

  Next to the Ordovician, the Cambrian rocks are the most important;
  they are found in three separate areas; the largest is in the
  north-west, and extends from Bangor to Bethesda, through Llyn Cwellyn
  and Llanwada to the coast near Clynnogfawr. The second area lies west
  of Tremadoc, which has given its name to the upper division of the
  Cambrian system. The third forms the promontory south of Llanenga.
  Cambrian slates are extensively quarried at Penrhyn, Llanberis and
  Dinorwic. Pre-Cambrian schists and igneous rocks occupy a strip, from
  2 to 3 m. wide, along the coast from Neirn to Bardsey Island. A very
  small area of the Denbighshire Silurian enters this county near Conway
  near the eastern border; it comprises Tarannon shale and Wenlock beds
  with graptolites.

  The striking headland of the Great Orme as well as Little Orme's Head
  is composed of carboniferous limestone, containing corals and large
  _Productus_ shells. A narrow strip of the same formation runs along
  the Menai Straits for several miles south of the tubular bridge. At
  the southern extremity of the limestone a small patch of coal measures
  is found.

  Glacial drift--gravel, boulders and clay--is abundant along the
  northern coast, and in the neighbourhood of Snowdon it is an important
  feature in the landscape; massive moraines, perched blocks, striated
  stones and other evidences of ice action are common. On Moel Trygarn
  and on the western flanks of Snowdon marine shells have been found in
  the drift up to an elevation of 1400 ft. above sea-level. Blown sand
  occurs along the coast near Conway, south-west of Carnarvon and on the
  south coast. Several hollows and pipes in the carboniferous limestone
  about Orme's Head contain clays and sands of mixed origin, including
  Upper Carboniferous, Triassic and drift materials. The igneous rocks,
  especially those of volcanic origin, constitute one of the most
  striking geological features of the county; they comprise felsites,
  rhyolites, quartz porphyries, enstatite diabases, andesite tuffs,
  diabases and granite.

The climate is cold and damp in winter, except in the peninsula, Lleyn,
and on the mild coast. Arable land, but a small proportion of the
surface, is mostly in the Conwy valley or near the sea. Principal crops
are oats, barley and potatoes, with some little wheat. The valley soil
(alluvial) is often fertile, chiefly as meadow and enclosed pasture.
Dairy and sheep-farming occupy most farmers. The small mountain ponies,
especially of Llanbedr (Conwy Vale), are famous, and Welsh ponies were
known for staying power even to Arrian (_Cynegetics_). Agriculture still
too much follows the old routine, besides losing by the influx of labour
into the towns or to the mining industry and "set works" (stone).

The county is served by the London & North-Western railway; its terminus
is Afon Wen, within 4 m. of Pwllheli. Between these stations plies the
Cambrian, which runs along the Cardigan Bay coast and terminates at
Pwllheli. The North Wales Narrow Gauge line runs from Dinas, south of
Carnarvon, to Snowdon Ranger, 4 m. from Beddgelert. The main line of the
London & North-Western runs along the northern coast, with branches from
Llandudno junction to Blaenau Festiniog, along the Denbighshire side of
the Conwy stream; from Menai Bridge to Carnarvon (thence continuing to
Llanberis, or, by another line, to Afon Wen). The chief ports are
Portmadoc, Pwllheli, Carnarvon, Port Dinorwic and Bangor. Near Portmadoc
is Criccieth, with a castle resorted to by visitors; Pwllheli is also a
summer resort, and a tramway runs thence to within a short distance of
Abersoch, another favourite watering-place. Nefyn (some 6 m. from
Pwllheli), still unserved by rail or tram, was the scene of a royal
tournament in the 15th century, and is another bathing resort; near are
Carreg Llam and Pistyll farm (see BARDSEY).

The area of the ancient county is 361,156 acres, with a population in
1901 of 126,883. The area of the administrative county is 365,986 acres.
The inhabitants practically all speak Welsh (slightly differing,
especially in Lleyn, from that of Anglesey). Over 80 is the percentage
in Carnarvonshire, as against over 90 for Anglesey. The county is
divided into two parliamentary divisions, south (Eifion) and north
(Arfon).

The Carnarvon district of boroughs is formed of Bangor city, Carnarvon,
Conway, Criccieth, Nefyn and Pwllheli. There are four municipal
boroughs: Bangor (pop. 11,269), Carnarvon (9760), Conway (4681) and
Pwllheli (3675). Other urban districts are: Bethesda (5281), Bettws y
coed (1070), Criccieth (1406), Llandudno (9279), Llanfairfechan (2769),
Penmaenmawr (3503) and Ynyscynhaiarn (4883). Carnarvon, where assizes
are held, is in the north Wales circuit. Except a few parishes (in and
near Llandudno) in St Asaph diocese, Carnarvonshire is in the diocese of
Bangor, and contains sixty-one ecclesiastical parishes or districts,
with parts of four others. Bangor, Carnarvon, Pwllheli and Llandudno are
the principal towns, with Criccieth, Nefyn, Portmadoc and Tremadoc.

Carnarvonshire was occupied by the Segontiaci, with difficulty subdued
by Ostorius Scapula and C. Suetonius Paulinus (Paullinus). From here
Agricola crossed to conquer Anglesey. Relics of British forts and camps
have been discovered. Caerhun (Caer Rhun) and Carnarvon (Caer Seint) are
respectively the old Conovium and Segontium of Britannia Secunda. The
county was part of Gwynedd kingdom, until Edward I. in 1277 restricted
that to Snowdon proper. The early fortresses at Deganwy, Dinorwic, Dinas
Dinlle, &c., and the later castles of Conwy (Conway), Carnarvon,
Criccieth and Dolbadarn, bear witness to the warlike character of its
inhabitants.

  See Edw. Breese, _Kalendar of Gwynedd_ (London, 1874).



CARNATIC, or KARNATAK (Kannada, Karnata, Karnatakadesa), a name given by
Europeans to a region of southern India, between the Eastern Ghats and
the Coromandel coast, in the presidency of Madras. It is ultimately
derived, according to Bishop Caldwell (_Grammar of the Dravidian
Languages_), from _kar_, "black," and _nadu_, "country," _i.e._ "the
black country," "a term very suitable to designate the 'black cotton
soil,' as it is called, of the plateau of the Southern Deccan." Properly
the name is, in fact, applicable only to the country of the Kanarese
extending between the Eastern and Western Ghats, over an irregular area
narrowing northwards, from Palghat in the south to Bidar in the north,
and including Mysore. The extension of the name to the country south of
the Karnata was probably due to the Mahommedan conquerors who in the
16th century overthrew the kingdom of Vijayanagar, and who extended the
name which they found used of the country north of the Ghats to that
south of them. After this period the plain country of the south came to
be called Karnata Payanghat, or "lowlands," as distinguished from
Karnata Balaghat, or "highlands." The misapplication of the name
Carnatic was carried by the British a step further than by the
Mahommedans, it being confined by them to the country below the Ghats,
Mysore not being included. Officially, however, this name is no longer
applied, "the Carnatic" having become a mere geographical term.
Administratively the name Carnatic (or rather Karnatak) is now applied
only to the Bombay portion of the original Karnata, viz. the districts
of Belgaum, Dharwar and Bijapur, part of North Kanara, and the native
states of the Southern Mahratta agency and Kolhapur.

The region generally known to Europeans as the Carnatic, though no
longer a political or administrative division, is of great historical
importance. It extended along the eastern coast about 600 m. in length,
and from 50 to 100 m. in breadth. It was bounded on the north by the
Guntur circar, and thence it stretched southward to Cape Comorin. It was
divided into the Southern, Central and Northern Carnatic. The region
south of the river Coleroon, which passes the town of Trichinopoly, was
called the Southern Carnatic. The principal towns of this division were
Tanjore, Trichinopoly, Madura, Tranquebar, Negapatam and Tinnevelly. The
Central Carnatic extended from the Coleroon river to the river Pennar;
its chief towns were Madras, Pondicherry, Arcot, Vellore, Cuddalore,
Pulicat, Nellore, &c. The Northern Carnatic extended from the river
Pennar to the northern limit of the country; and the chief town was
Ongole.[1] The Carnatic, as above defined, comprehended within its
limits the maritime provinces of Nellore, Chingleput, South Arcot,
Tanjore, Madura and Tinnevelly, besides the inland districts of North
Arcot and Trichinopoly. The population of this region consists chiefly
of Brahmanical Hindus, the Mahommedans being but thinly scattered over
the country. The Brahmans rent a great proportion of the land, and also
fill different offices in the collection of the revenue and the
administration of justice. Throughout the country they appropriate to
themselves a particular quarter in every town, generally the strongest
part of it. Large temples and other public monuments of civilization
abound. The temples are commonly built in the middle of a square area,
and enclosed by a wall 15 or 20 ft. high, which conceals them completely
from the public view, as they are never raised above it.

At the earliest period of which any records exist, the country known as
the Carnatic was divided between the Pandya and Chola kingdoms, which
with that of Chera or Kerala formed the three Tamil kingdoms of southern
India. The Pandya kingdom practically coincided in extent with the
districts of Madura and Tinnevelly; that of the Cholas extended along
the Coromandel coast from Nellore to Pudukottai, being bounded on the
north by the Pennar river and on the south by the Southern Vellaru. The
government of the country was shared for centuries with these dynasties
by numerous independent or semi-independent chiefs, evidence of whose
perennial internecine conflicts is preserved in the multitudes of forts
and fortresses the deserted ruins of which crown almost all the elevated
points. In spite, however, of this passion of the military classes for
war the Tamil civilization developed in the country was of a high type.
This was largely due to the wealth of the country, famous in the
earliest times as now for its pearl fisheries. Of this fishery Korkai
(the Greek [Greek: Kdlcha]), now a village on the Tambraparni river in
Tinnevelly, but once the Pandya capital, was the centre long before the
Christian era. In Pliny's day, owing to the silting up of the harbour,
its glory had already decayed and the Pandya capital had been removed to
Madura (_Hist. Nat._ vi. cap. xxiii. 26), famous later as a centre of
Tamil literature. The Chola kingdom, which four centuries before Christ
had been recognized as independent by the great Maurya king Asoka, had
for its chief port Kaviripaddinam at the mouth of the Cauvery, every
vestige of which is now buried in sand. For the first two centuries
after Christ a large sea-borne trade was carried on between the Roman
empire and the Tamil kingdoms; but after Caracalla's massacre at
Alexandria in A.D. 215 this ceased, and with it all intercourse with
Europe for centuries. Henceforward, until the 9th century, the history
of the country is illustrated only by occasional and broken lights. The
4th century saw the rise of the Pallava power,[2] which for some 400
years encroached on, without extinguishing, the Tamil kingdoms. When in
A.D. 640 the Chinese traveller Hsüan Tsang visited Kanchi (Conjevaram),
the capital of the Pallava king, he learned that the kingdom of Chola
(Chu-li-ya) embraced but a small territory, wild, and inhabited by a
scanty and fierce population; in the Pandya kingdom (Malakuta), which
was under Pallava suzerainty, literature was dead, Buddhism all but
extinct, while Hinduism and the naked Jain saints divided the religious
allegiance of the people, and the pearl fisheries continued to flourish.
The power of the Pallava kings was shaken by the victory of Vikramaditya
Chalukya in A.D. 740, and shattered by Aditya Chola at the close of the
9th century. From this time onward the inscriptional records are
abundant. The Chola kingdom, which in the 9th century had been weak, now
revived, its power culminating in the victories of Rajaraja the Great,
who defeated the Chalukyas after a four years' war, and, about A.D. 994,
forced the Pandya kings to become his trib