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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 4 - "Carnegie Andrew" to "Casus Belli"
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Slice 4 - "Carnegie Andrew" to "Casus Belli"" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
      printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
      underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
      paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
      inserted.

(5) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

    Article CARTESIANISM: "Admitting that intelligence is under a law
      of necessity, he claimed for the Will a certain latitude or liberty
      of indifference ..." 'Admitting' amended from 'Admiting'.

    Article CASTE: "The great Sanskrit scholar, Rudolf von Roth
      (1821-1895), in his Brahma und die Brahmanan[13] held that the
      Vedic people advanced from their home in the Punjab ..."
      'Sanskrit' amended from 'Sanscrit'.



          ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

  A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE
           AND GENERAL INFORMATION

              ELEVENTH EDITION


            VOLUME V, SLICE IV

          Carnegie to Casus Belli



ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


  CARNEGIE, ANDREW                  CASAMARI
  CARNEGIE                          CASANOVA DE SEINGALT, GIOVANNI JACOPO
  CARNELIAN                         CASAS GRANDES
  CARNESECCHI, PIETRO               CASAUBON, FLORENCE ESTIENNE MÉRIC
  CARNIOLA                          CASAUBON, ISAAC
  CARNIVAL                          CASCADE MOUNTAINS
  CARNIVORA                         CASE, JOHN
  CARNOT, LAZARE HIPPOLYTE          CASE
  CARNOT, LAZARE MARGUERITE         CASEMATE
  CARNOT, MARIE FRANÇOIS SADI       CASEMENT
  CARNOT, SADI NICOLAS LÉONHARD     CASERTA
  CARNOUSTIE                        CASE-SHOT
  CARNUNTUM                         CASH
  CARNUTES                          CASHEL
  CARO, ANNIBALE                    CASHEW NUT
  CARO, ELME MARIE                  CASHIBO
  CAROL                             CASHIER
  CAROLINE                          CASH REGISTER
  CAROLINE AMELIA AUGUSTA           CASILINUM
  CAROLINE ISLANDS                  CASIMIR III
  CAROLINGIANS                      CASIMIR IV
  CAROLUS-DURAN                     CASIMIR-PÉRIER, JEAN PAUL PIERRE
  CARORA                            CASINO
  CARP                              CASINUM
  CARPACCIO, VITTORIO               CASIRI, MIGUEL
  CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS              CASKET
  CARPATHUS                         CASKET LETTERS
  CARPEAUX, JEAN BAPTISTE           CASLON
  CARPENTARIA, GULF OF              CASPARI, KARL PAUL
  CARPENTER, LANT                   CASPIAN SEA
  CARPENTER, MARY                   CASS, LEWIS
  CARPENTER, WILLIAM BENJAMIN       CASSABA
  CARPENTRAS                        CASSAGNAC, BERNARD ADOLPHE GRANIER DE
  CARPENTRY                         CASSANA, NICCOLÒ
  CARPET                            CASSANDER
  CARPET-BAGGER                     CASSANDER, GEORGE
  CARPET-KNIGHT                     CASSANDRA
  CARPI, GIROLAMO DA                CASSANO ALL' IONIO
  CARPI, UGO DA                     CASSAVA
  CARPI (Dacian tribe)              CASSEL (town of France)
  CARPI (town of Italy)             CASSEL (city of Germany)
  CARPINI, JOANNES DE PLANO         CASSELL, JOHN
  CARPOCRATES                       CASSIA
  CARPZOV                           CASSIA, VIA
  CARRANZA, BARTOLOMÉ               CASSIANUS, JOANNES EREMITA
  CARRARA (family of Longobard)     CASSINI
  CARRARA (town of Tuscany, Italy)  CASSIODORUS
  CARREL, JEAN BAPTISTE ARMAND      CASSIOPEIA
  CARRERA, JOSÉ MIGUEL              CASSITERIDES
  CARRIAGE                          CASSITERITE
  CARRICKFERGUS                     CASSIUS (ancient Roman family)
  CARRICKMACROSS                    CASSIUS, AVIDIUS
  CARRICK-ON-SHANNON                CASSIUS, GAIUS
  CARRICK-ON-SUIR                   CASSIVELAUNUS
  CARRIER, JEAN BAPTISTE            CASSOCK
  CARRIER                           CASSONE
  CARRIÈRE, MORITZ                  CASSOWARY
  CARRINGTON, WYNN-CARINGTON        CAST
  CARRINGTON, RICHARD CHRISTOPHER   CASTAGNO, ANDREA DEL
  CARROCCIO                         CASTALIA
  CARRODUS, JOHN TIPLADY            CASTANETS
  CARROLL, CHARLES                  CASTE
  CARROLL, JOHN                     CASTEL, LOUIS BERTRAND
  CARRONADE                         CASTELAR Y RIPOLL, EMILIO
  CARROT                            CASTELFRANCO NELL' EMILIA
  CARRYING OVER                     CASTELFRANCO VENETO
  CARSIOLI                          CASTELL, EDMUND
  CARSON, CHRISTOPHER               CASTELLAMMARE DI STABIA
  CARSON CITY                       CASTELLESI, ADRIANO
  CARSTARES, WILLIAM                CASTELLI, IGNAZ FRANZ
  CARSTENS, ARMUS JACOB             CASTELLO, BERNARDO
  CARSULAE                          CASTELLO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA
  CART                              CASTELLO, VALERIO
  CARTAGENA (city of Colombia)      CASTELLO BRANCO, CAMILLO
  CARTAGENA (seaport of Spain)      CASTELLO BRANCO
  CARTAGO                           CASTELLÓN DE LA PLANA
  CARTE, THOMAS                     CASTELLÓN DE LA PLANA
  CARTER, ELIZABETH                 CASTELNAU, MICHEL DE
  CARTERET, SIR GEORGE              CASTELNAUDARY
  CARTESIANISM                      CASTELSARRASIN
  CARTHAGE (ancient city)           CASTI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA
  CARTHAGE (city of U.S.A.)         CASTIGLIONE, BALDASSARE
  CARTHAGE, SYNODS OF               CASTIGLIONE, CARLO OTTAVIO
  CARTHUSIANS                       CASTIGLIONE, GIOVANNI BENEDETTO
  CARTIER, SIR GEORGES ÉTIENNE      CASTIGLIONE DELLE STIVIERE
  CARTIER, JACQUES                  CASTIGLIONE OLONA
  CARTILAGE                         CASTILE
  CARTOON                           CASTILHO, ANTONIO FELICIANO DE
  CARTOUCHE                         CASTILLEJO, CRISTÓBAL DE
  CARTRIDGE                         CASTILLO SOLÓRZANO, ALONSO DE
  CARTWRIGHT, EDMUND                CASTLE
  CARTWRIGHT, JOHN                  CASTLEBAR
  CARTWRIGHT, PETER                 CASTLECONNELL
  CARTWRIGHT, SIR RICHARD JOHN      CASTLE DONINGTON
  CARTWRIGHT, THOMAS                CASTLE DOUGLAS
  CARTWRIGHT, WILLIAM               CASTLEFORD
  CARUCATE                          CASTLE-GUARD
  CARÚPANO                          CASTLEMAINE
  CARUS, KARL GUSTAV                CASTLE RISING
  CARUS, MARCUS AURELIUS            CASTLETON
  CARVACROL                         CASTLETOWN
  CARVAJAL, ANTONIO FERNANDEZ       CASTOR and POLLUX
  CARVAJAL, LUISA DE                CASTOR OIL
  CARVER, JOHN                      CASTRÉN, MATTHIAS ALEXANDER
  CARVER, JONATHAN                  CASTRENSIS, PAULUS
  CARVING                           CASTRES
  CARVING AND GILDING               CASTRO, INEZ DE
  CARY, ALICE, and PHOEBE           CASTRO, JOÃO DE
  CARY, ANNIE LOUISE                CASTROGIOVANNI
  CARY, HENRY FRANCIS               CASTRO URDIALES
  CARYATIDES                        CASTRO Y BELLVIS, GUILLÉN DE
  CARYL, JOSEPH                     CASTRUCCIO DEGLI ANTELMINELLI
  CARYOPHYLLACEAE                   CASTRUM MINERVAE
  CASABIANCA, RAPHAEL               CASUARINA
  CASABLANCA                        CASUISTRY
  CASALE MONFERRATO                 CASUS BELLI



CARNEGIE, ANDREW (1837-   ), American "captain of industry" and
benefactor, was born in humble circumstances in Dunfermline, Scotland,
on the 25th of November 1837. In 1848 his father, who had been a
Chartist, emigrated to America, settling in Allegheny City,
Pennsylvania. The raw Scots lad started work at an early age as a
bobbin-boy in a cotton factory, and a few years later was engaged as a
telegraph clerk and operator. His capacity was perceived by Mr T.A.
Scott of the Pennsylvania railway, who employed him as a secretary; and
in 1859, when Scott became vice-president of the company, he made
Carnegie superintendent of the western division of the line. In this
post he was responsible for several improvements in the service; and
when the Civil War opened he accompanied Scott, then assistant secretary
of war, to the front. The first sources of the enormous wealth he
subsequently attained were his introduction of sleeping-cars for
railways, and his purchase (1864) of Storey Farm on Oil Creek, where a
large profit was secured from the oil-wells. But this was only a
preliminary to the success attending his development of the iron and
steel industries at Pittsburg. Foreseeing the extent to which the demand
would grow in America for iron and steel, he started the Keystone Bridge
works, built the Edgar Thomson steel-rail mill, bought out the rival
Homestead steel works, and by 1888 had under his control an extensive
plant served by tributary coal and iron fields, a railway 425 m. long,
and a line of lake steamships. As years went by, the various Carnegie
companies represented in this industry prospered to such an extent that
in 1901, when they were incorporated in the United States Steel
Corporation, a trust organized by Mr J. Pierpont Morgan, and Mr Carnegie
himself retired from business, he was bought out at a figure equivalent
to a capital of approximately £100,000,000.

From this time forward public attention was turned from the shrewd
business capacity which had enabled him to accumulate such a fortune to
the public-spirited way in which he devoted himself to utilizing it on
philanthropic objects. His views on social subjects, and the
responsibilities which great wealth involved, were already known in a
book entitled _Triumphant Democracy_, published in 1886, and in his
_Gospel of Wealth_ (1900). He acquired Skibo Castle, in Sutherlandshire,
Scotland, and made his home partly there and partly in New York; and he
devoted his life to the work of providing the capital for purposes of
public interest, and social and educational advancement. Among these the
provision of public libraries in the United States and United Kingdom
(and similarly in other English-speaking countries) was especially
prominent, and "Carnegie libraries" gradually sprang up on all sides,
his method being to build and equip, but only on condition that the
local authority provided site and maintenance, and thus to secure local
interest and responsibility. By the end of 1908 he had distributed over
£10,000,000 for founding libraries alone. He gave £2,000,000 in 1901 to
start the Carnegie Institute at Pittsburg, and the same amount (1902) to
found the Carnegie Institution at Washington, and in both of these, and
other, cases he added later to the original endowment. In Scotland he
gave £2,000,000 in 1901 to establish a trust for providing funds for
assisting education at the Scottish universities, a benefaction which
resulted in his being elected lord rector of St Andrews University. He
was a large benefactor of the Tuskegee Institute under Booker Washington
for negro education. He also established large pension funds--in 1901
for his former employés at Homestead, and in 1905 for American college
professors. His benefactions in the shape of buildings and endowments
for education and research are too numerous for detailed enumeration,
and are noted in this work under the headings of the various localities.
But mention must also be made of his founding of Carnegie Hero Fund
commissions, in America (1904) and in the United Kingdom (1908), for the
recognition of deeds of heroism; his contribution of £500,000 in 1903
for the erection of a Temple of Peace at The Hague, and of £150,000 for
a Pan-American Palace in Washington as a home for the International
Bureau of American republics. In all his ideas he was dominated by an
intense belief in the future and influence of the English-speaking
people, in their democratic government and alliance for the purpose of
peace and the abolition of war, and in the progress of education on
unsectarian lines. He was a powerful supporter of the movement for
spelling reform, as a means of promoting the spread of the English
language. Mr Carnegie married in 1887 and had one daughter. Among other
publications by him were _An American Four-in-hand in Britain_ (1883),
_Round the World_ (1884), _The Empire of Business_ (1902), a _Life of
James Watt_ (1905) and _Problems of To-day_ (1908).



CARNEGIE, a borough of Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 6 m. S.W.
of Pittsburg. Pop. (1900) 7330 (1816 being foreign-born); (1910) 10,009.
It is served by the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the
Pittsburg, Chartiers & Youghiogheny, and the Wabash Pittsburg Terminal
railways, and the Pittsburg street railway. Carnegie is situated in the
beautiful valley of Chartiers Creek, and is in one of the coal and
natural gas districts of the state. In the borough are a Carnegie
library and St Paul's orphan asylum. Among the borough's manufactures
are steel, lead, glass, ploughs and enamel- and tin-ware. There are
alkaline and lithia mineral springs here. In 1894 Carnegie, named in
honour of Andrew Carnegie, was formed by the union of the boroughs
Chartiers and Mansfield.



CARNELIAN, a red variety of chalcedony, much used as an ornamental
stone, especially for seals. The old name was cornelian, said to have
been given in reference either to the horny appearance of the stone
(Lat. _cornu_, "horn") or to its resemblance in colour to the berry of
the cornel; but the original word was corrupted to carnelian, probably
in allusion to its reddish colour (_carneus_, "flesh-coloured"). Some
carnelian, however, is brown, yellow or even white. Certain kinds of
brown and bright red chalcedony, much resembling carnelian, pass under
the name of sard (q.v.). The Hebrew _odem_ was probably a red stone,
either carnelian, sard or jasper. All carnelian is translucent and is
thus distinguished from jasper of similar colour, which is always
opaque. The red colour of typical carnelian is due to the presence of
ferric oxide. This is often developed artificially by exposure to
sunshine, or to artificial heat, whereby any ferric hydrate in the stone
becomes more or less dehydrated; or the stone is treated with a solution
of an iron salt, like ferrous sulphate, and then heated, when ferric
oxide is formed in the pores of the stone. An opaque white surface is
sometimes produced artificially on a red carnelian: this is said to be
done by coating the stone with carbonate of soda and then placing it on
a red-hot iron; or by using a mixture of potash, white lead and certain
vegetable juices, and heating it on charcoal. Inscriptions and figures
in white on red carnelian ("burnt carnelian") are well known from the
East. Much carnelian comes from India, being mostly derived from
agate-gravels, resulting from the disintegration of the Deccan traps, in
the neighbourhood of Ratanpur, near Broach. A good deal of the carnelian
now sold, however, is Brazilian agate, artificially stained. (See
AGATE.)



CARNESECCHI, PIETRO (1508-1567), Italian humanist, was the son of a
Florentine merchant, who under the patronage of the Medici, and
especially of Giovanni de' Medici as Pope Clement VII., rapidly rose to
high office at the papal court. He came into touch with the new learning
at the house of his maternal uncle, Cardinal Bernardo Dovizzi, in Rome.
At the age of twenty-five he held several rich livings, had been notary
and protonotary to the Curia, and was first secretary to the pope, in
which capacity he conducted the correspondence with the nuncios (among
them Pier Paolo Bergerio in Germany) and a host of other duties. By his
conduct at the conference with Francis I. at Marseilles he won the
favour of Catherine de' Medici and other influential personages at the
French court, who in later days befriended him. He made the acquaintance
of the Spanish reformer Juan de Valdes at Rome, and got to know him as a
theologian at Naples, being especially drawn to him through the
appreciation expressed by Bernardino Ochino, and through their mutual
friendship with the Lady Julia Gonzaga, whose spiritual adviser he
became after the death of Valdes. He became a leading spirit in the
literary and religious circle that gathered round Valdes in Naples, and
that aimed at effecting from within the spiritual reformation of the
church. Under Valdes' influence he whole-heartedly accepted Luther's
doctrine of justification by faith, though he repudiated a policy of
schism. When the movement of suppression began, Carnesecchi was
implicated. For a time he found shelter with his friends in Paris, and
from 1552 he was in Venice leading the party of reform in that city. In
1557 he was cited (for the second time) before the tribunal in Rome, but
refused to appear. The death of Paul IV. and the accession of Pius IV.
in 1559 made his position easier, and he came to live in Rome. With the
accession of Pius V. (Michael Ghislieri) in 1565 the Inquisition renewed
its activities with fiercer zeal than ever. Carnesecchi was in Venice
when the news reached him, and betook himself to Florence, where,
thinking himself safe, he was betrayed by Cosimo, the duke, who wished
to curry favour with the pope. From July 1566 he lay in prison over a
year. On the 21st of September 1567 sentence of degradation and death
was passed on him and sixteen others, ambassadors from Florence vainly
kneeling to the pope for some mitigation, and on the 1st of October he
was publicly beheaded and then burned.



CARNIOLA (Ger. _Krain_), a duchy and crown-land of Austria, bounded N.
by Carinthia, N.E. by Styria, S.E. and S. by Croatia, and W. by Görz and
Gradisca, Trieste and Istria. It has an area of 3856 sq. m. Carniola is
for the most part a mountainous region, occupied in the N. by the Alps,
and in the S. by the Karst (q.v.) or Carso Mountains. It is traversed by
the Julian Alps, the Karawankas and the Steiner Alps, which belong all
to the southern zone of the Eastern Alps. The highest point in the
Julian Alps is formed by the three sugar-loaf peaks of the Triglav or
Terglou (9394 ft.), which offers one of the finest views in the whole of
the Alps, and which bears on its northern declivity the only glacier in
the province. The Triglav is the dividing range between the Alps and the
Karst Mountains, and its huge mass also forms the barrier between three
races: the German, the Slavonic and the Italian. Other high peaks are
the Mangart (8784 ft.) and the Jaluz (8708 ft.). The Karawankas, which
form the boundary between Carinthia and Carniola, have as their highest
peak the Stou or Stuhlberg (7344 ft.), and are traversed by the Loibl
Pass (4492 ft.). They are continued by the Steiner or Santhaler Alps,
which have as their highest peak the Grintouz or Grintovc (8393 ft.).
This peak is situated on the threefold boundary of Carinthia, Carniola
and Styria, and affords a magnificent view of the whole Alpine
neighbouring region. The southern part of Carniola is occupied by the
following divisions of the northern ramifications of the Karst
Mountains: the Birnbaumer Wald with the highest peak, the Nanos (4275
ft.), and the Krainer Schneeberg (5890 ft.); the Hornwald with the
highest peak, the Hornbüchl (3608 ft.), and the Uskokengebirge (3874
ft.). The portion of Carniola belonging to the Karst region presents a
great number of caves, subterranean streams, funnels and similar
phenomena. Amongst the best-known are the grottos of Adelsberg, the
larger ones of Planina and the Kreuzberghöhle near Laas.

With the exception of the Idria and the Wippach, which as tributaries of
the Isonzo belong to the basin of the Adriatic, Carniola belongs to the
watershed of the Save. The Save or Sau rises within the duchy, and is
formed by the junction at Radmannsdorf of its two head-streams the
Wurzener Save and the Wocheiner Save. Its principal affluents are the
Kanker and the Steiner Feistritz on the left, and the Zeyer or Sora, the
Laibach and the Gurk on the right. The most remarkable of these rivers
is the Laibach, which rises in the Karst region under the name of Poik,
takes afterwards a subterranean course and traverses the Adelsberg
grotto, and appears again on the surface near Planina under the name of
Unz. Shortly after this it takes for the second time a subterranean
course, to appear finally on the surface near Oberlaibach. The small
torrent of Rothwein, which flows into the Wurzener Save, forms near
Veldes the splendid series of cascades known as the Rothwein Fall.
Amongst the principal lakes are the Wochein, the Weissenfels, the
Veldes, and the seven small lakes of the Triglav; while in the Karst
region lies the famous periodical lake of Zirknitz, known to the Romans
as _Lacus Lugens_ or _Lugea Palus._

The climate is rather severe, and the southern part is exposed to the
cold north-eastern wind, known as the Bora. The mean annual temperature
at Laibach is 48.4° F., and the rainfall amounts to 72 ins. Of the total
area only 14.8% is under cultivation, and the crops do not suffice for
the needs of the province; forests occupy 44.4%, 17.2% are meadows,
15.7% are pastures, and 1.17% of the soil is covered by vineyards. Large
quantities of flax are grown, while the timber trade is of considerable
importance. Fish and game are plentiful, and the silkworm is bred in the
warmer districts. The principal mining product is mercury, extracted at
Idria, while iron and copper ore, zinc and coal are also found. The
industry is not well developed, but the weaving of linen and lace is
pursued as a household industry.

Carniola had in 1900 a population of 508,348, which corresponds to 132
inhabitants per sq. m. Nearly 95% were Slovenes and 5% Germans, while
99% of the population belonged to the Roman Catholic Church. The local
diet, of which the bishop of Laibach is a member _ex officio_, is
composed of thirty-seven members, and Carniola sends eleven deputies to
the Reichsrat at Vienna. For administrative purposes the province is
divided into eleven districts and one autonomous municipality, Laibach
(pop. 36,547), the capital. Other important places are Oberlaibach
(5882), Idria (5772), Gurkfeld (5294), Zirknitz (5266), Adelsberg
(3636), Neumarktl (2626), Krainburg (2484) and Gottschee (2421).

Carniola derives its modern name from the Slavonic word _Krajina_
(frontier). During the Roman Empire it formed part of Noricum and
Pannonia. The Slavonic population settled here during the end of the 6th
and the beginning of the 7th century. Conquered by Charlemagne, the most
of the district was bestowed on the duke of Friuli; but in the 10th
century the title of margrave of Carniola began to be borne by a family
resident in the castle of Kieselberg near Krainburg. Various parts of
the present territory were, however, held by other lords, such as the
duke of Carinthia and the bishop of Freising. Towards the close of the
14th century all the separate portions had come by inheritance or
bequest into the hands of Rudolph IV. of Austria, who took the title of
duke of Carniola; and since then the duchy has remained a part of the
Austrian possessions, except during the short period from 1809 to 1813,
when it was incorporated with the French Illyrian Provinces. In 1849 it
became a separate crown-land.

  See Dimitz, _Geschichte Krains von der ältesten Zeit his 1813_ (4
  vols., Laibach, 1874-1876).



CARNIVAL (Med. Lat. _carnelevarium_, from _caro, carnis_, flesh, and
_levare_, to lighten or put aside; the derivation from _valere_, to say
farewell, is unsupported), the last three days preceding Lent, which in
Roman Catholic countries are given up to feasting and merry-making.
Anciently the carnival was held to begin on twelfth night (6th January)
and last till midnight of Shrove Tuesday. There is little doubt that
this period of licence represents a compromise which the church always
inclined to make with the pagan festivals and that the carnival really
represents the Roman Saturnalia. Rome has ever been the headquarters of
carnival, and though some popes, notably Clement IX. and XI. and
Benedict XIII., made efforts to stem the tide of Bacchanalian revelry,
many of the popes were great patrons and promoters of carnival keeping.
Paul II. was notable in this respect. In his time the Jews of Rome were
compelled to pay yearly a sum of 1130 golden florins (the thirty being
added as a special memorial of Judas and the thirty pieces of silver),
which was expended on the carnival. A decree of Paul II., minutely
providing for the diversions, orders that four rings of silver gilt
should be provided, two in the Piazza Navona and two at the Monte
Testaccio--one at each place for the burghers and the other for the
retainers of the nobles to practise riding at the ring. The pope also
orders a great variety of races, the expenses of which are to be paid
from the papal exchequer--one to be run by the Jews, another for
Christian children, another for Christian young men, another for
sexagenarians, a fifth for asses, and a sixth for buffaloes. Under
Julius III. we have long accounts of bull-hunts--or rather
bull-baits--in the Forum, with gorgeous descriptions of the magnificence
of the dresses, and enormous suppers in the palace of the Conservatori
in the capitol, where seven cardinals, together with the duke Orazio
Farnese, supped at one table, and all the ladies by themselves at
another. After the supper the whole party went into the courtyard of the
palace, which was turned into the semblance of a theatre, "to see a most
charming comedy which was admirably played, and lasted so long that it
was not over till ten o'clock!" Even the austere and rigid Paul IV.
(_ob_. 1559) used to keep carnival by inviting all the Sacred College to
dine with him. Sixtus V., who was elected in 1585, set himself to the
keeping of carnival after a different fashion. Determined to repress the
lawlessness and crime incident to the period, he set up gibbets in
conspicuous places, as well as whipping-posts, the former as a hint to
robbers and cut-throats, the latter in store for minor offenders. We
find, further, from the provisions made at the time, that Sixtus
reformed the evil custom of throwing dirt and dust and flour at
passengers, permitting only flowers or sweetmeats to be thrown.

The later popes for the most part restricted the public festivities of
the carnival to the last six or seven days immediately preceding Ash
Wednesday. The municipal authorities of the city, on whom the regulation
of such matters now depends, allow ten days. The carnival sports at Rome
anciently consisted of three divisions: (1) the races in the Corso
(formerly called the Via Lata, and taking its present name from them),
which appear to have been from time immemorial a part of the festivity;
(2) the spectacular pageant of the Agona; (3) that of the Testaccio.

Of other Italian cities, Venice used in old times to be the principal
home, after Rome, of carnival. To-day Turin, Milan, Florence, Naples,
all put forth competing programmes. In old times Florence was
conspicuous for the licentiousness of its carnival; and the _Canti
Carnascialeschi_, or carnival songs, of Lorenzo de' Medici show to what
extent the licence was carried. The carnival in Spain lasts four days,
including Ash Wednesday. In France the merry-making is restricted almost
entirely to Shrove Tuesday, or _mardi gras_. In Russia, where no Ash
Wednesday is observed, carnival gaieties last a week from Sunday to
Sunday.



CARNIVORA, the zoological order typified by the larger carnivorous
placental land mammals of the present day, such as lions, tigers and
wolves, but also including species like bears whose diet is largely
vegetable, as well as a number of smaller flesh-eating species, together
with the seals and their relatives, and an extinct Tertiary group. Apart
from this distinct group (see CREODONTA), the Carnivora are
characterized by the following features. They are unguiculate, or clawed
mammals, with never less than four toes to each foot, of which the first
is never opposable to the rest; the claws, or nails, being more or less
pointed although occasionally rudimentary. The teeth comprise a
deciduous and a permanent series, all being rooted, and the latter
divisible into the usual four series. In front there is a series of
small pointed incisors, usually three in number, on each side of both
jaws, of which the first is always the smallest and the third the
largest, the difference being most marked in the upper jaw; these are
followed by strong conical, pointed, recurved canines; the premolars and
molars are variable, but generally, especially in the anterior part of
the series, more or less compressed, pointed and trenchant; if the
crowns are flat and tuberculated, they are never complex or divided into
lobes by deep inflexions of enamel. The condyle of the lower jaw is a
transversely placed half-cylinder working in a deep glenoid fossa of
corresponding form. The brain varies much in size and form, but the
hemispheres are never destitute of convolutions. The stomach is always
simple and pyriform; the caecum is either absent or short and simple;
and the colon is not sacculated or much wider than the small intestine.
Vesiculae seminales are never developed, but Cowper's glands may be
present or absent. The uterus is two-horned, and the teats are abdominal
and variable in number; while the placenta is deciduate, and almost
always zonary. The clavicle is often absent, and when present never
complete. The radius and ulna are distinct; the scaphoid and lunar of
the tarsus are united; there is never an os centrale in the adult; and
the fibula is distinct.

The large majority of the species subsist chiefly on animal food, though
many are omnivorous, and a few chiefly vegetable-eaters. The more
typical forms live altogether on recently-killed warm-blooded animals,
and their whole organization is thoroughly adapted to a predaceous mode
of life. In conformity with this manner of obtaining their subsistence,
they are generally bold and savage in disposition, though some are
capable of being domesticated, and when placed under favourable
circumstances exhibit a high degree of intelligence.


I. FISSIPEDIA

[Illustration: FIG. I.--Left upper sectorial or carnassial teeth of
Carnivora. I, _Felis_; II, _Canis_; III, _Ursus_. 1, anterior, 2,
middle, and 3, posterior cusp of blade; 4, inner cusp supported on
distinct root; 5, inner cusp, posterior in position, and without
distinct root, characteristic of the _Ursidae_.]

The typical section of the group, the Carnivora Vera, Fissipedia or
Carnassidentia, includes all the existing terrestrial members of the
order, together with the otters and sea-otters. In this section the
fore-limbs never have the first digit, or the hind-limbs the first and
fifth digits, longer than the others; and the incisors are 3/3 on each
side, with very rare exceptions. The cerebral hemispheres are more or
less elongated; always with three or four convolutions on the outer
surface forming arches above each other, the lowest surrounding the
Sylvian fissure. In the cheek-series there is one specially modified
tooth in each jaw, to which the name of "sectorial" or "carnassial" is
applied. The teeth in front of this are more or less sharp-pointed and
compressed; the teeth behind broad and tuberculated. The characters of
the sectorial teeth deserve special attention, as, though fundamentally
the same throughout the group, they are greatly modified in different
genera. The upper sectorial is the most posterior of the teeth which
have predecessors, and is therefore reckoned as the last premolar (p. 4
of the typical dentition). It consists of a more or less compressed
blade supported on two roots and an inner lobe supported by a distinct
root (see fig. 1). The blade when fully developed has three cusps (i, 2
and 3), but the anterior is always small, and often absent. The middle
cusp is conical, high and pointed; and the posterior cusp has a
compressed, straight, knife-like edge. The inner cusp. (4) varies in
extent, but is generally placed near the anterior end of the blade,
though sometimes median in position. In the _Ursidae_ alone both the
inner cusp and its root are wanting, and there is often a small internal
and posterior cusp (5) without root. In this family also the sectorial
is relatively to the other teeth much smaller than in other Carnivora.
The lower sectorial (fig. 2) is the most anterior of the teeth without
predecessors in the milk-series, and is therefore reckoned the first
molar. It has two roots supporting a crown, consisting when fully
developed of a compressed bilobed blade (1 and 2), a heel (4), and an
inner tubercle (3). The cusps of the blade, of which the hinder (2) is
the larger, are separated by a notch, generally prolonged into a linear
fissure. In the specialized _Felidae_ (I) the blade alone is developed,
both heel and inner tubercle being absent or rudimentary. In _Meles_
(V) and _Ursus_ (VI) the heel is greatly developed, broad and
tuberculated. The blade in these cases is generally placed obliquely,
its flat or convex (outer) side looking forwards, so that the two lobes
or cusps are almost side by side, instead of anterior and posterior. The
inner tubercle (3) is generally a conical pointed cusp, placed to the
inner side of the hinder lobe of the blade. The special characters of
these teeth are more disguised in the sea-otter than in any other
species, but even here they can be traced.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Left lower sectorial or carnassial teeth of
Carnivora, I, _Felis_; II, _Canis_; III, _Herpestes_; IV, _Lutra_; V,
_Meles_; VI, _Ursus_. 1, Anterior cusp of blade; 2, posterior cusp of
blade; 3, inner tubercle; 4, heel. It will be seen that the relative
size of the two roots varies according to the development of the portion
of the crown they respectively support.]

The toes are nearly always armed with large, strong, curved and sharp
claws, ensheathing the terminal phalanges and held firmly in place by
broad plates of bone reflected over their attached ends from the bases
of the phalanges. In the _Felidae_ these claws are "retractile"; the
terminal phalange with the claw attached, folding back in the fore-foot
into a sheath by the outer or ulnar side of the middle phalange of the
digit, and retained in this position when at rest by a strong elastic
ligament. In the hind-foot the terminal joint or phalange is retracted
on to the top, and not the side of the middle phalange. By the action of
the deep flexor muscles the terminal phalanges are straightened, the
claws protruded from their sheath, and the soft "velvety" paw becomes
suddenly converted into a formidable weapon of offence. The habitual
retraction of the claws preserves their points from wear.

The land Carnivora are best divided into two subgroups or sections--(A)
the Aeluroidea, or Herpestoidea, and (B) the Arctoidea; the recognition
of a third section, Cynoidea, being rendered untenable by the evidence
of extinct forms.

(A) _Aeluroidea_.--In this section, which comprises the cats
(_Felidae_), civets (_Viverridae_), and hyenas (_Hyaenidae_), the
tympanic bone is more or less ring-like, and forms only a part of the
outer wall of the tympanic cavity; an inflated alisphenoid bulla is
developed; and the external auditory meatus is short. In the nasal
chamber the maxillo-turbinal is small and doubly folded, and does not
cut off the naso-turbinal and adjacent bones from the nasal aperture.
The carotid canal in the skull is short or absent. Cowper's glands are
present, as is a prostate gland and a caecum, as well as a
duodenal-jejunal flexure in the intestine, but an os penis is either
wanting or small.


    Cat tribe.

  The members of the cat tribe, or _Felidae_, are collectively
  characterized by the following features. An alisphenoid is lacking on
  the lower aspect of the skull. In existing forms the usual dental
  formula is i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. 3/2, m. 1/1; the upper molar being
  rudimentary and placed on the inner side of the carnassial, but the
  first premolar may be absent, while, as an abnormality, there may be a
  small second lower molar, which is constantly present in some of the
  extinct forms. The auditory bulla and the tympanic are divided by an
  internal partition. The paroccipital process is separate from, or only
  extends to a slight degree upon the auditory bulla. The thoracic
  vertebrae number 13; the feet are digitigrade, with five front and
  four hind toes, of which the claws are retractile; and the metatarsus
  is haired all round. Anal glands are present.

  As regards the teeth, when considered in more detail, the incisors are
  small, and the canines large, strong, slightly recurved, with
  trenchant edges and sharp points, and placed wide apart. The premolars
  are compressed and sharp-pointed; the most posterior in the upper jaw
  (the sectorial) being a large tooth, consisting of a compressed blade,
  divided into three unequal cusps supported by two roots, with a small
  inner lobe placed near the front and supported by a distinct root
  (fig. 1, I). The upper molar is a small tubercular tooth placed more
  or less transversely at the inner side of the hinder end of the last.
  In the lower jaw the molar (sectorial) is reduced to the blade, which
  is large, trenchant, compressed and divided into two subequal lobes
  (fig. 2, I). Occasionally it has a rudimentary heel, but never an
  inner tubercle. The skull generally is short and rounded, though
  proportionally more elongated in the larger forms; with the facial
  portion short and broad, and the zygomatic arches wide and strong. The
  auditory bullae are large, rounded and smooth. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 13,
  L. 7, S. 3, Ca. 13-29. Clavicles better developed than in other
  Carnivora, but not articulating with either the shoulder-bones or
  sternum. Of the five front toes, the third and fourth are nearly equal
  and longest, the second slightly, and the fifth considerably shorter.
  The first is still shorter, not reaching the metacarpophalangeal
  articulation of the second. In the hind-feet the third and fourth toes
  are the longest, the second and fifth somewhat shorter and nearly
  equal, while the first is represented only by the rudimentary
  metatarsal bone. The claws are large, strongly curved, compressed,
  very sharp, and exhibit the retractile condition in the highest
  degree. The tail varies greatly in length, being in some species a
  mere stump, in others nearly as long as the body. The ears are of
  moderate size, more or less triangular and pointed; and the eyes
  rather large, with the iris mobile, and with a pupillary aperture
  which contracts under the influence of light in some species to a
  narrow vertical slit, in others to an oval, and in some to a circular
  aperture. The tongue is thickly covered with sharp, pointed, recurved
  horny papillae; and the caecum is small and simple.

  As in structure so in habits, the cat may be considered the most
  specialized of all Carnivora, although they exhibit many features
  connecting them with extinct types. All the members of the group feed
  almost exclusively on warm-blooded animals which they have themselves
  killed, but one Indian species, _Felis viverrina_, is said to prey on
  fish, and even fresh-water molluscs. Unlike dogs, they never associate
  in packs, and rarely hunt their prey on open ground, but from some
  place of concealment wait until the unsuspecting victim comes within
  reach, or with noiseless and stealthy tread, crouching close to the
  ground for concealment, approach near enough to make the fatal spring.
  In this manner they frequently attack and kill animals considerably
  exceeding their own size. They are mostly nocturnal, and the greater
  number, especially the smaller species, more or less arboreal. None
  are aquatic, and all take to the water with reluctance, though some
  may habitually haunt the banks of rivers or pools, because they more
  easily obtain their prey in such situations. The numerous species are
  widely diffused over the greater part of the habitable world, though
  most abundant in the warm latitudes of both hemispheres. None are,
  however, found in the Australian region, or in Madagascar. Although
  the Old World and New World cats (except perhaps the northern lynx)
  are all specifically distinct, no common structural character has been
  pointed out by which the former can be separated from the latter. On
  the contrary, most of the groups into which the family may be divided
  have representatives in both hemispheres.

  Notwithstanding the considerable diversity in external appearance and
  size between different members of this extensive family, the
  structural differences are but slight. The principal differences are
  to be found in the form of the cranium, especially of the nasal and
  adjoining bones, the completeness of the bony orbit posteriorly, the
  development of the first upper premolar and of the inner lobe of the
  upper sectorial, the length of the tail, the form of the pupil, and
  the condition and coloration of the fur, especially the presence or
  absence of tufts or pencils of hair on the external ears.

  In the typical genus _Felis_, which includes the great majority of the
  species, and has a distribution coextensive with that of the family,
  the upper sectorial tooth has a distinct inner cusp, the claws are
  completely contractile, the tail is long or moderate, and the ears do
  not carry distinct tufts of hair. As regards the larger species, the
  lion (_F. leo_), tiger (_F. tigris_), leopard (_F. pardus_), ounce or
  snow-leopard (_F. uncia_) and clouded leopard (_F. nebulosa_) are
  described in separate articles. Of other Old World species it must
  suffice to mention that the Tibetan Fontanier's cat (_F. tristis_),
  and the Indian marbled cat (_F. marmorata_), an ally of the
  above-mentioned clouded leopard, appear to be the Asiatic
  representatives of the American ocelots. The Tibetan Pallas's cat (_F.
  manul_) has been made the type of a distinct genus, _Trichaelurus_, in
  allusion to its long coat. One of the largest of the smaller species
  is the African serval, q.v. (_F. serval_), which is yellow with solid
  black spots, has long limbs, and a relatively short tail. Numerous
  "tiger-cats" and "leopard-cats," such as the spotted _F. bengalensis_
  and the uniformly chestnut _F. badia_, inhabit tropical Asia; while
  representative species occur in Africa. The jungle-cat (_F. chaus_),
  which in its slightly tufted ears and shorter tail foreshadows the
  lynxes, is common to both continents. Another African species (_F.
  ocreata_) appears to have been the chief progenitor of the European
  domestic cat, which has, however, apparently been crossed to some
  extent with the ordinary wild cat (_F. catus_). Of the New World
  species, _F. concolor_, the puma or couguar, commonly called "panther"
  in the United States, is about the size of a leopard, but of a uniform
  brown colour, spotted only when young, and is extensively distributed
  in both North and South America, ranging between the parallels of 60°
  N. and 50° S., where it is represented by numerous local races,
  varying in size and colour. _F. onca_, the jaguar, is a larger and
  more powerful animal than the last, and more resembles the leopard in
  its colours; it is also found in both North and South America,
  although with a less extensive range, reaching northwards only as far
  as Texas, and southwards nearly to Patagonia (see JAGUAR). _F.
  pardalis_ and several allied smaller, elegantly-spotted species
  inhabiting the intratropical regions of America, are commonly
  confounded under the name of ocelot or tiger-cat. _F. yaguarondi_,
  rather larger than the domestic cat, with an elongated head and body,
  and of a uniform brownish-grey colour, ranges from northern Mexico to
  Paraguay; while the allied _F. eyra_ is a small cat, weasel-like in
  form, having an elongated head, body and tail, and short limbs, and is
  of a uniform light reddish-brown colour. It is a native of South
  America and Mexico. _F. pajeros_ is the Pampas cat.

  The typical lynxes, as represented by _Lynx borealis_ (_L. lynx_), the
  southern _L. pardina_, and the American _L. rufa_, are a northern
  group common to both hemispheres, and characterized by their tufted
  ears, short tail, and the presence of a rudimentary heel to the lower
  carnassial tooth. As a rule, they are more or less spotted in winter,
  but tend to become uniformly-coloured in summer. They are connected
  with the more typical cats by the long-tailed and uniformly red
  caracal, _Lynx (Caracal) caracal_, of India, Persia and Africa, and
  the propriety of separating them from _Felis_ may be open to doubt
  (see LYNX and CARACAL).

  However this may be, there can be no doubt of the right of the
  hunting-leopard or chita (cheeta), as, in common with the leopard, it
  is called in India, to distinction from all the other cats as a
  distinct genus, under the name of _Cynaelurus jubatus_. From all the
  other _Felidae_ this animal, which is common to Asia and Africa, is
  distinguished by the inner lobe of the upper sectorial tooth, though
  supported by a distinct root, having no salient cusp upon it, by the
  tubercular molar being more in a line with the other teeth, and by the
  claws being smaller, less curved and less completely retractile, owing
  to the feebler development of the elastic ligaments. The skull is
  short and high, with the frontal region broad and elevated in
  consequence of the large development of air-sinuses. The head is small
  and round, the body light, the limbs and tail long, and the colour
  pale yellowish-brown with small solid black spots (see CHEETA).


    Civet tribe.

  The family _Viverridae_, which includes the civet-cats, genets and
  mongooses, is nearly allied to the _Felidae_, but its members have a
  fuller dentition, and exhibit certain other structural differences
  from the cats, to the largest of which they make no approach in the
  matter of bodily size. As a rule, there is an alisphenoid canal; the
  cheek-dentition is p. (3 or 4)/(3 or 4), m. (1 or 2)/(1 or 2). The
  bulla is small and the tympanic large, with a low division between
  them; and the paroccipital process is leaf-like and spread over the
  bulla. The number of dorsal vertebrae, except in the aberrant
  _Proteles_, is 13 or 14; the claws may be either completely or
  partially retractile or non-retractile; generally each foot has five
  toes, but there may be four in front and five behind, the reverse of
  this, or only four on each foot; the gait may be either digitigrade or
  partially plantigrade; and the metatarsus may be either hairy or naked
  inferiorly. Anal, and in some cases also perineal, glands are
  developed. The family is limited to the warmer parts of the Old World.

  Considerable difference of opinion prevails with regard to the serial
  position of the fossa, or foussa (_Cryptoprocta ferox_), of
  Madagascar, some writers considering that its affinities are so close
  to the _Felidae_ that it ought not to be included in the present
  family at all. Others, on the contrary, see no reason to separate it
  from the _Viverrinae_ or more typical representatives of the
  civet-tribe. As a medium course, it may be regarded as the sole
  representative of a special subfamily--_Cryptoproctinae_--of the
  _Viverridae_. The subfamily and genus are characterized by possessing
  a total of 36 teeth, arranged as i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. 4/4, m. 1/1. The
  teeth generally closely resemble those of the _Felidae_, the first
  premolar of both jaws being very minute and early deciduous; the upper
  sectorial has a small inner lobe, quite at the anterior part; the
  molar is small and placed transversely; and the lower sectorial has a
  large trenchant bilobed blade, and a minute heel, but no inner
  tubercle. The skull is generally like that of _Felis_, but
  proportionally longer and narrower, with the orbit widely open behind.
  Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 13, L. 7, S. 3, Ca. 29. Body elongated. Limbs
  moderate in size. Feet subplantigrade, with five well-developed toes
  on each, carrying sharp, compressed, retractile claws. Ears moderate.
  Tail long and cylindrical. The foussa is a sandy-coloured animal with
  an exceedingly long tail (see FOUSSA).

  The more typical members of the group, constituting the subfamily
  _Viverrinae_, are characterized by their sharp, curved and largely
  retractile claws, the presence of five toes to each foot, and of
  perineal and one pair of anal glands, and a tympanic bone which
  retains to a great extent the primitive ring-like form, so that the
  external auditory meatus has scarcely any inferior lip, its orifice
  being close to the tympanic ring. The first representatives of the
  subfamily are the civet-cats, or civets (_Viverra_ and _Viverricula_),
  and the genets (_Genetta_), in all of which the dentition is _i. 3/3,
  c. 1/1, p. 4/4, m. 2/2_; total 40. The skull is elongated, with the
  facial portion small and compressed, and the orbits well-defined but
  incomplete behind. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 13, L. 7 (or D. 14, L. 6), S.
  3, Ca. 22-30. Body elongated and compressed. Head pointed in front;
  ears rather small. Extremities short. Feet small and rounded. Toes
  short, the first on fore and hind feet much shorter than the others.
  Palms and soles covered with hair, except the pads of the feet and
  toes, and in some species a narrow central line on the under side of
  the sole, extending backwards nearly to the heel. Tail moderate or
  long. The pair of large glands situated on the perineum (in both
  sexes) secretes an oily substance of a peculiarly penetrating odour.
  In the true civets, which include the largest members of the group,
  the teeth are stouter and less compressed than in the other genera;
  the second upper molar being especially large, and the auditory bulla
  smaller and more pointed in front; the body is shorter and stouter;
  the limbs are longer; the tail shorter and tapering. The under side of
  the tarsus is completely covered with hair, and the claws are longer
  and less retractile. Fur rather long and loose, and in the middle line
  of the neck and back especially elongated so as to form a sort of
  crest or mane. Pupil circular when contracted. Perineal glands greatly
  developed. These characters apply especially to _V. civetta_, the
  African civet, or civet-cat, as it is commonly called, an animal
  rather larger than a fox, and an inhabitant of intratropical Africa.
  _V. zibetta_, the Indian civet, of about equal size, approaches in
  many respects, especially in the characters of the teeth and feet and
  absence of the crest of elongated hair on the back, to the next
  section. It inhabits Bengal, China, the Malay Peninsula and adjoining
  islands. _V. tangalunga_ is a smaller but nearly allied animal from
  the same part of the world. From these three species and the next the
  civet of commerce, once so much admired as a perfume in England, and
  still largely used in the East, is obtained. The animals are kept in
  cages, and the odoriferous secretion collected by scraping the
  interior of the perineal follicles with a spoon or spatula. The single
  representative of the genus _Viverricula_ resembles in many respects
  the genets, but agrees with the civets in having the whole of the
  under side of the tarsus hairy; the alisphenoid canal is generally
  absent. _V. malaccensis_, the rasse, inhabiting India, China, Java and
  Sumatra, is an elegant little animal which affords a favourite perfume
  to the Javanese. The genets (_Genetta_) are smaller animals, with more
  elongated and slender bodies, and shorter limbs than the civets. The
  skull is elongated and narrow; and the auditory bulla large, elongated
  and rounded at both ends. The teeth are compressed and sharp-pointed,
  with a lobe on the inner side of the third, upper premolar not present
  in the previous genera. Pupil contracting to a linear aperture. Tail
  long, slender, ringed. Fur short and soft, spotted or cloudy. Under
  side of the metatarsus with a narrow longitudinal bald streak.
  _Genetta vulgaris_, or _G. genetta_, the common genet, is found in
  France south of the river Loire, Spain, south-western Asia and North
  Africa. _G. felina, senegalensis, tigrina, victoriae_ and _pardalis_
  are other named species, all African in habitat.

  The Malagasy fossane (_Fossa daubentoni_), which has but little
  markings on the fur of the adult, differs by the absence of a
  scent-pouch and the presence of a couple of bare spots on the under
  surface of the metatarsus. The beautiful linsangs (_Linsanga_ or
  _Prionodon_), ranging from the eastern Himalaya to Java and Borneo,
  are represented by two or three species, easily recognizable by the
  broad transverse bands of blackish brown and yellow with which the
  body and tail are marked. They are specially distinguished by having
  only one pair of upper molars, thereby resembling the cats, with
  which, in correlation with their arboreal habits, they agree in their
  highly retractile claws, and the hairy surface of the under side of
  the metatarsus. About 15 in. is the length of the type species. In
  West Africa the linsangs are represented by _Poiana richardsoni_, a
  small species with a spotted genet-like coat, and also with a narrow
  naked stripe on the under surface of the metatarsus, as in genets.

  Here may be placed the two African spotted palm-civets of the genus
  _Nandinia_, namely _N. binotata_ from the west and _N. gerrardi_ from
  the east forest-region. In common with the true palm-civets, they have
  a dentition numerically identical with that of _Viverra_ and
  _Genetta_, but the cusps of the hinder premolars and molars are much
  less sharp and pointed. They are peculiar in that the wall of the
  inner chamber of the auditory bulla never ossifies, while the
  paroccipital process is not flattened out and spread over the bulla.
  In this respect they resemble the Miocene European genus _Amphictis_,
  as they do in the form of their teeth, so that they may be regarded as
  nearly related to the ancestral _Viverridae_, and forming in some
  degree a connecting link between the present and the next subfamily.
  _Nandinia_ is also peculiar in possessing a kind of rudimentary
  marsupial pouch. Apparently _Eupleres goudoti_, of Madagascar, which
  has been generally classed in the _Herpestinae_, is a nearly related
  animal, characterized by the reduction of its dentition, due to
  insectivorous habits (fig. 3); the canines being small, the anterior
  premolars canine-like, and the hinder premolars molariform. It is a
  uniformly-coloured creature of medium size.

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--Skull of _Eupleres goudoti_.]

  The palm-civets, or paradoxures, constituting the Asiatic genus
  _Paradoxurus_, have, as already stated, the following dental formula,
  viz. i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. 4/4, m. 2/2, total 40; the cusps of the molars
  being low and blunted, and these teeth in the upper jaw much broader
  than in the civets. The head is pointed in front, with small rounded
  ears; the limbs are of medium length, with the soles of the feet
  almost completely naked, and fully retractile claws; while the long
  tail is not prehensile and clothed with hair of moderate length. Spots
  are the chief type of marking. The vertebrae number C. 7, D. 13, L. 7,
  S. 3, Ca. 29-36. Numerous relatively large species ranging from India
  to Borneo, Sumatra and Celebes, with one in Tibet, represent the
  genus. Nearly allied are _Arctogale leucotis_, with a wide
  distribution, and _A. trivirgata_, of Java, both longitudinally
  striped species, with small and slightly separated molars, and a
  prolonged bony palate (see PALM-CIVET).

  The binturong (_Arctictis binturong_) has typically the same dental
  formula as the last, but the posterior upper molar and the first lower
  premolar are often absent. Molars small and rounded, with a distinct
  interval between every two, but formed generally on the same pattern
  as _Paradoxurus_. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 14, L. 5, S. 3, Ca. 34. Body
  elongated; head broad behind, with a small pointed face, long and
  numerous whiskers, and small ears, rounded, but clothed with a pencil
  of long hairs. Eyes small. Limbs short, with the soles of the feet
  broad and entirely naked. Tail very long and prehensile. Fur long and
  harsh. Caecum extremely small. The binturong inhabits southern Asia
  from Nepal through the Malay Peninsula to the islands of Sumatra and
  Java. Although structurally agreeing closely with the paradoxures, its
  tufted ears, long, coarse and dark hair, and prehensile tail give it a
  very different external appearance. It is slow and cautious in its
  movements, chiefly if not entirely arboreal, and appears to feed on
  vegetables as well as animal substances (see BINTURONG).

  _Hemigale_ is another modification of the paradoxure type, represented
  by _H. hardwickei_ of Borneo, an elegant-looking animal, smaller and
  more slender than the paradoxures, of light grey colour, with
  transverse broad dark bands across the back and loins.

  _Cynogale_ also contains one Bornean species, _C. bennetti_, a curious
  otter-like modification of the viverrine type, having semi-aquatic
  habits, both swimming in the water and climbing trees, living upon
  fish, crustaceans, small mammals, birds and fruits. The number and
  general arrangement of the teeth are as in _Paradoxurus_, but the
  premolars are peculiarly elongated, compressed, pointed and recurved,
  though the molars are tuberculated. The head is elongated, with the
  muzzle broad and depressed, the whiskers are very long and abundant,
  and the ears small and rounded. Toes short and slightly webbed at the
  base. Tail short, cylindrical, covered with short hair. Fur very dense
  and soft, of a dark-brown colour, mixed with black and grey.

  In the mongoose group, or _Herpestinae_, the tympanic or anterior
  portion of the auditory bulla is produced into an ossified external
  auditory meatus of considerable length; while the paroccipital process
  never projects below the bulla, on the hinder surface of which, in
  adult animals, it is spread out and completely lost. The toes are
  straight, with long, unsheathed, non-retractile claws.

  In the typical mongooses or ichneumons, _Herpestes_, the dental
  formula is i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. (4 or 3)/(4 or 3), m. 2/2; total 40 or
  36; the molars having generally strongly-developed, sharply-pointed
  cusps. The skull is elongated and constricted behind the orbits. The
  face is short and compressed, with the frontal region broad and
  arched. Post-orbital processes of frontal and jugal bones well
  developed, generally meeting so as to complete the circle of the orbit
  behind. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 13, L. 7, S. 3, Ca. 21-26. Head pointed in
  front. Ears short and rounded. Body long and slender. Extremities
  short. Five toes on each foot, the first, especially that on the
  hind-foot, very short. Toes free, or but slightly palmated. Soles of
  fore-feet and terminal portion of those of hind-pair naked; under
  surface of metatarsus clothed with hair. Tail long or moderate,
  generally thick at the base, and sometimes covered with more or less
  elongated hair. The longer hairs covering the body and tail almost
  always ringed. The genus is common to the warmer parts of Asia and
  Africa, and while many of the species, like the Egyptian _H.
  ichneumon_ and the ordinary Indian mongoose, _H. mungo_, are
  pepper-and-salt coloured, the large African _H. albicauda_ has the
  terminal two-thirds of the tail clothed with long white hairs (see
  ICHNEUMON).

  The following distinct African and Malagasy generic representatives of
  the subfamily are recognized, viz. _Helogale_, with 3/3 premolars, and
  containing the small South African _H. parvula _and a variety of the
  same. _Bdeogale crassicauda_ and two allied tropical African species
  differ from _Herpestes_ in having only four toes on each foot. The
  orbit is nearly complete, and the tail of moderate length and rather
  bushy. In _Cynictis_, which has the orbit completely closed, there are
  five front and four hind toes; and the skull is shorter and broader
  than in _Herpestes_, rather contracted behind the orbits, the face
  short, and the anterior chamber of the auditory bulla very large. The
  front claws are elongated. Includes only _C. penicillata_ from South
  Africa.

  All the foregoing herpestines have the nose short, with its under
  surface flat, bald, and with a median longitudinal groove. The
  remaining forms have the nose more or less produced, with its under
  side convex, and a space between the nostrils and the upper lip
  covered with closely pressed hairs, and without any median groove. The
  South African _Rhynchogale muelleri_, a reddish animal with five toes
  to each foot and 4/4 (abnormally 5/5) premolars, alone represents the
  first genus. The cusimanses (_Crossarchus_), which differ by having
  only 3/3 premolars, and thus a total of 36 teeth, include, on the
  other hand, several species. The muzzle is elongated, the claws on the
  fore-feet are long and curved, the first front toe is very short; the
  under surface of the metatarsus naked; and the tail shorter than the
  body, tapering. Fur harsh. Includes _C. obscurus_, the cusimanse, a
  small burrowing animal from West Africa, of uniform dark-brown colour,
  _C. fasciatus, C. zebra, C. gambianus_ and others. Lastly, we have
  _Suricata_, a more distinct genus than any of the above. The dental
  formula is as in the last, but the teeth of the molar series are
  remarkably short in the antero-posterior direction, corresponding with
  the shortness of the skull generally. Orbits complete behind.
  Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 15, L. 6, S. 3, Ca. 20. Though the head is short
  and broad, the nose is pointed and rather produced and movable, while
  the ears are very short. Body shorter and limbs longer than in
  _Herpestes_. Toes 4-4. Claws on fore-feet very long and narrow,
  arched, pointed and subequal. Hind-feet with shorter claws, soles
  hairy. Tail rather shorter than the body. One species only is known,
  the meerkat or suricate, _S. tetradactyla_, a small grey-brown animal,
  with dark transverse stripes on the hinder part of the back, from
  South Africa.

  The names _Galidictis, Galidia_ and _Hemigalidia_ indicate three
  generic modifications of the _Herpestinae_, all inhabitants of
  Madagascar. The best-known, _Galidia elegans, is _a lively
  squirrel-like little animal with soft fur and a long bushy tail, which
  climbs and jumps with agility. It is of a chestnut-brown colour, the
  tail being ringed with darker brown. _Galidictis vittata_ and _G.
  striata_ chiefly differ from the ichneumons in their coloration, being
  grey with parallel longitudinal stripes of dark brown.

  Considerable diversity of opinion prevails with regard to the serial
  position of the aard-wolf, or maned jackal (_Proteles cristatus_), of
  southern and eastern Africa, some authorities making it the
  representative of a family by itself, others referring it to the
  _Hyaenidae_, while others again regard it as a modified member of the
  _Viverridae_. After all, the distinction either way cannot be very
  great, since the two families just named are intimately connected by
  marks of the extinct _Ictitherium_, With the _Viverridae_ it agrees in
  having the auditory bulla divided, while in the number of dorsal
  vertebrae it is hyena-like. The cheek-teeth are small, far apart, and
  almost rudimentary in character (see fig. 4), and the canines long and
  rather slender. The dental formula is i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. m. 4/(3 or 4);
  total 30 or 32. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 15, L. 5, S. 2, Ca. 24. The
  fore-feet with five toes; the first, though short, with a distinct
  claw. The hind-feet with four subequal toes; all, like those of the
  fore-foot, furnished with strong, blunt, non-retractile claws (see
  AARD-WOLF).


    Hyena tribe.

  The hyenas or hyaenas (_Hyaenidae_) differ from the preceding family
  (_Viverridae_) in the absence of a distinct vertical partition between
  the two halves of the auditory bulla; and are further characterized by
  the absence of an alisphenoid canal, the reduction of the molars to
  1/1, and the presence of 15 dorsal vertebrae. The dental formula in
  the existing forms (to which alone all these remarks apply) is i. 3/3,
  c. 1/1. p. 4/3 m. 1/1; total 34; the teeth, especially the canines and
  premolars, being very large, strong and conical. Upper sectorial with
  a large, distinctly trilobed blade and a moderately developed inner
  lobe placed at the anterior extremity of the blade. Molar very small,
  and placed transversely close to the hinder edge of the last, as in
  the _Felidae_. Lower sectorial consisting of little more than the
  bilobed blade. Zygomatic arches of skull very wide and strong; and
  sagittal crest high, giving attachment to very powerful biting
  muscles. Orbits incomplete behind. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 15, L. 5, S. 4,
  Ca. 19. Limbs rather long, especially the anterior pair, digitigrade,
  four subequal toes on each, with stout non-retractile claws, the first
  toes being represented by rudimentary metacarpal and metatarsal bones.
  Tail rather short. A large post-anal median glandular pouch, into
  which the largely developed anal scent glands pour their secretion.

  [Illustration: FIG. 4.--Skull and Dentition of Aard-Wolf (_Proteles
  cristatus_.)]

  The three well-characterized species of _Hyaena_ are divisible into
  two sections, to which some zoologists assign generic rank. In the
  typical species the upper molar is moderately developed and
  three-rooted; and an inner tubercle and heel more or less developed on
  the lower molar. Ears large and pointed. Hair long, forming a mane on
  the back and shoulders. Represented firstly by _H. striata_, the
  striped hyena of northern and eastern Africa and southern Asia; and
  _H. brunnea_ of South Africa, in some respects intermediate between
  this and the next section. In the second section, forming the subgenus
  _Crocuta_, the upper molar is extremely small, two- or one-rooted,
  often deciduous; the lower molar without trace of inner tubercle, and
  with an extremely small heel. Ears moderate, rounded. Hair not
  elongated to form a mane. The spotted hyena, _Hyaena (Crocuta)
  crocuta_, of which, like the striped species, there are several local
  races, represents this group, and ranges all over Africa south of the
  Sahara. In dental characters the first section inclines more to the
  _Viverridae_, the second to the _Felidae_; or the second may be
  considered as the more specialized form, as it certainly is in its
  visceral anatomy, especially in that of the reproductive organs of the
  female. (See HYENA.)

(B) _Arctoidea_.--So far as the auditory region of the skull is
concerned, the existing representatives of the dog tribe or _Canidae_
are to a great extent intermediate between the cat and civet group
(_Aeluroidea_) on the one hand, and the typical representatives of the
bear and weasel group on the other. They were consequently at one time
classed in an intermediate group--the Cynoidea; but fossil forms show
such a complete transition from dogs to bears as to demonstrate the
artificial character of such a division. Consequently, the dogs are
included in the bear-group. In this wider sense the Arctoidea will be
characterized by the tympanic bone being disk-shaped and forming the
whole of the outer wall of the tympanic cavity; the large size of the
external auditory meatus or tube; and the large and branching
maxillo-turbinal bone, which cuts off the naso-turbinal and two adjacent
bones from the anterior nasal chamber. The tympanic bulla has no
internal partition. There is a large carotid canal. Cowper's glands are
lacking; and there is a large penial bone.


    Dog tribe.

  From all the other members of the group the _Canidae_ are broadly
  distinguished (in the case of existing forms) by the large and
  well-developed tympanic bulla, with which the paroccipital process is
  in contact. An alisphenoid canal is present. The feet are digitigrade,
  usually with five (in one instance four) front and always four
  hind-toes. The molars--generally 2/3--have tall cusps, and the
  sectorials are large and powerful (figs. 1 and 2). The intestine has
  both a duodeno-jejunal flexure and a caecum. A prostate gland is
  present; but there are no glands in the vasa deferentia; the penial
  bone is grooved; and anal glands are generally developed. The
  distribution of the family is cosmopolitan. The normal dentition is i.
  3/3, c. 1/1, p. 4/4, m. 2/3; total 42; thus differing from the typical
  series only by the loss of the last pair of upper molars (present in
  certain extinct forms). In the characters of the teeth the group is
  the most primitive of all Carnivora. Typically the upper secterial
  (fig. 1, II) consists of a stout blade, of which the anterior cusp is
  almost obsolete, the middle cusp large, conical and pointed backwards,
  and the posterior cusp in the form of a compressed ridge; the inner
  lobe is very small, and placed at the fore part of the tooth. The
  first molar is more than half the antero-posterior length of the
  sectorial, and considerably wider than long; its crown consists of two
  prominent conical cusps, of which the anterior is the larger, and a
  low, broad inward prolongation, supporting two more or less distinct
  cusps and a raised inner border. The second molar resembles the first
  in general form, but is considerably smaller. The lower sectorial
  (fig. 2, II) is a large tooth, with a strong compressed bilobed blade,
  the hinder lobe being considerably the larger and more pointed, a
  small but distinct inner tubercle placed at the hinder margin of the
  posterior lobe of the blade, and a broad, low, tuberculated heel,
  occupying about one-third of the whole length of the tooth. The second
  molar is less than half the length of the first, with a pair of cusps
  placed side by side anteriorly, and a less distinct posterior pair.
  The third is an extremely small and simple tooth with a subcircular
  tuberculated crown and single root.

  Views differ in regard to the best classification of the _Canidae_,
  some writers adopting a number of generic groups, while others
  consider that very few meet the needs of the case. In retaining the
  old genus _Canis_ in the wide sense, that is to say, inclusive of the
  foxes, Professor Max Weber is followed. The best cranial character by
  which the different members of the family may be distinguished is that
  in dogs, wolves and jackals the post-orbital process of the frontal
  bone is regularly smooth and convex above, with its extremity bent
  downwards, whereas in foxes the process is hollowed above, with its
  outer margin (particularly of the anterior border) somewhat raised.
  This modification coincides in the main with the division of the group
  into two parallel series, the Thooids or Lupine forms and Alopecoids
  or Vulpine forms, characterized by the presence of frontal air-sinuses
  in the former, which not only affects the external form but to a still
  greater degree the shape of the anterior part of the cranial cavity,
  and the absence of such sinuses in the latter. The pupil of the eye
  when contracted is round in most members of the first group, and
  vertically elliptical in the others, but more observations are
  required before this character can be absolutely relied upon. The form
  and length of the tail is often used for the purposes of
  classification, but its characters do not coincide with those of the
  cranium, as many of the South American _Canidae_ have the long bushy
  tails of foxes and the skulls of wolves.

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--The African Hunting-Dog (_Lycaon pictus_).]

  The most aberrant representative of the thooid series is the African
  hunting-dog (_Lycaon pictus_, fig. 5), which differs from the other
  members of this series by the teeth being rather more massive and
  rounded, the skull shorter and broader, and the presence of but four
  toes on each limb, as in _Hyena_. The hunting-dog, from south and east
  Africa, is very distinct externally from all other _Canidae_; being
  nearly as large as a mastiff, with large, broadly ovate erect ears and
  a singular colouring, often consisting of unsymmetrical large spots of
  white, yellow and black. It presents some curious superficial
  resemblances to _Hyena crocuta_, perhaps a case of mimetic analogy,
  and hunts its prey in large packs. Several local races, one of which
  comes from Somaliland, differing in size and colour, are recognized
  (see HUNTING-DOG). Nearly related to the hunting-dog are the dholes or
  wild dogs of Asia, as represented by the Central Asian _Cyan
  primaevus_ and the Indo-Malay _C. javanicus_. They have, however, five
  front-toes, but lack the last lower molar; while they agree with
  _Lycaon_ and _Speothos_ in that the heel of the lower sectorial tooth
  has only a single compressed cutting cusp, in place of a large outer
  and a smaller inner cusp as in _Canis_. Dholes are whole-coloured
  animals, with short heads; and hunt in packs. The bush-dog
  (_Speothos_, or _Icticyon venaticus_) of Guiana is a small,
  short-legged, short-tailed and short-haired species characterized by
  the molars being only (2 or 1)/2; the carnassial having no inner cusp.
  The long-haired raccoon-dog (_Nyctereutes procyonoides_) of Japan and
  China agrees essentially in everything but general appearance (which
  is strangely raccoon-like) with _Canis_. The typical group of the
  latter includes some of the largest members of the family, such as the
  true wolves of the northern parts of both Old and New Worlds (_C.
  lupus, &c._), and the various breeds of the domestic dog (_C.
  familiaris_), the origin of which is still involved in obscurity.
  Some naturalists believe it to be a distinct species, descended from
  one that no longer exists in a wild state; others have sought to find
  its progenitors in some one of the wild or half-wild races, either of
  true dogs, wolves or jackals; while others again believe that it is
  derived from the mingling of two or more wild species or races. It is
  probably the earliest animal domesticated by man, and few if any other
  species have undergone such an extraordinary amount of variation in
  size, form and proportion of limbs, ears and tail, variations which
  have been perpetuated and increased by careful selective breeding (see
  DOG). The dingo or Australian dog is met with wild, and also as the
  domestic companion of the aboriginal race of the country, by whom it
  appears to have been originally introduced. It is nearly related to a
  half-wild dog inhabiting Java, and also to the pariah dogs of India
  and other eastern countries. Dogs were also in the possession of the
  natives of New Zealand and other islands of the Pacific, where no
  placental mammals exist naturally, on their discovery by Europeans in
  the 18th century. The slender-jawed _C. simensis_ of Abyssinia and the
  South American _C. jubatus_ and _C. antarcticus_ are also generally
  placed in this group. On the other hand, the North American coyote
  (_C. latrans_), with its numerous subspecies, and the Old World
  jackals, such as the Indo-European _C. aureus_ the Indian _C.
  pallipes_, and the African _C. lupaster, C. anthus, C. adustus, C.
  variegatus_ and _C. mesomelas_ (the black-backed jackal), although
  closely related to the wolves, have been placed in a separate group
  under the name of _Lupulus_. Again, _Thous_ (or _Lycalopex_), is a
  group proposed for certain South American _Canidae_, locally known as
  foxes, and distinguished from all the foregoing by their fox-like
  aspect and longer tails, although with skulls of the thöoid type.
  Among these are the bright-coloured colpeo, _C. magellanicus_, the
  darker _C. thous, C. azarae, C. griseus, C. cancrivorus_ and _C.
  brasiliensis_. Some of these, such as _C. azarae_ and _C. griseus_,
  show a further approximation to the fox in that the pupil of the eye
  forms a vertical slit. More distinct from all the preceding are the
  members of the alopecoid or vulpine section, which are unknown in
  South America. The characteristic feature of the skull has been
  already mentioned. In addition to this, reference may be made to the
  elliptical (in place of circular) pupil of the eye, and the general
  presence of ten (rarely eight) teats instead of a smaller number. The
  typical groups constituting the subgenus (or genus) _Vulpes_, is
  represented by numerous species and races spread over the Old World
  and North America. Foremost among these is the European fox (_C.
  vulpes_--otherwise _Vulpes alopex_, or _V. vulpes_), represented in
  the Himalaya by the variety _C. v. montanus_ and in North Africa by
  _C. v. niloticus_, while the North American _C. pennsylvanicus_ or
  _fulvus_, can scarcely be regarded as more than a local race. On the
  other hand, the Asiatic _C. bengalensis_ and _C. corsac_, and the
  North American _C. velox_ (kit-fox) are smaller and perfectly distinct
  species. From all these the North American _C. cinereo-argentatus_
  (grey fox) and _C. littoralis_ are distinguished by having a fringe of
  stiff hairs in the tail, whence they are separated as _Urocyon_.
  Again, the Arctic fox (_C. lagopus_), of which there is a blue and a
  white phase, has the tail very full and bushy and the soles of the
  feet thickly haired, and has hence been distinguished as _Leucocyon_.
  Lastly, we have the elegant little African foxes known as fennecs
  (_Fennecus_), such as _C. zerda_ and _C. famelicus_ of the north, and
  the southern _C. chama_, all pale-coloured animals, with enormously
  long ears, and correspondingly inflated auditory bullae to the skull
  (see WOLF, JACKAL, FOX).

  Whatever differences of opinion may obtain among naturalists as to the
  propriety of separating generically the foxes from the wolves and
  dogs, there can be none as to the claim of the long-eared fox
  (_Otocyon megalotis_) of south and east Africa to represent a genus by
  itself. In this animal the dental formula is i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. 4/4, m.
  (3 or 4)/4; total 46 or 48. The molar teeth being in excess of almost
  all other placental mammals with a differentiated series of teeth.
  They have the same general characters as in _Canis_, with very pointed
  cusps. The lower sectorial shows little of the typical character,
  having five cusps on the crown-surface; these can, however, be
  identified as the inner tubercle, the two greatly reduced and
  obliquely placed lobes of the blade, and two cusps on the heel. The
  skull generally resembles that of the smaller foxes, particularly the
  fennecs. The auditory bullae are very large. The hinder edge of the
  lower jaw has a peculiar form, owing to the great development of an
  expanded, compressed and somewhat inverted subangular process.
  Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 13, L. 7, S. 3, Ca. 22. Ears very large. Limbs
  rather long, with the normal number of toes. The two parietal ridges
  on the skull remain widely separated, so that no sagittal crest is
  formed. The animal is somewhat smaller than an ordinary fox. In the
  year 1880 Professor Huxley suggested that in the long-eared fox we
  have an animal nearly representing the stock from which have been
  evolved all the other representatives of the dog and fox tribe. One of
  the main grounds for arriving at this conclusion was the fact that
  this animal has very generally four true molars in each jaw, and
  always that number in the lower jaw; whereas three is the maximum
  number of these teeth to be met with in nearly all placental mammals,
  other than whales, manatis, armadillos and certain others. The
  additional molars in _Otocyon_ were regarded as survivals from a
  primitive type when a larger number was the rule. Palaeontology has,
  however, made great strides since 1880, and the idea that the earlier
  mammals had more teeth than their descendants has not only received no
  confirmation, but has been practically disproved. Consequently Miss
  Albertina Carlsson had a comparatively easy task (in a paper published
  in the _Zoologisches Jahrbuch_ for 1905) in demonstrating that the
  long-eared fox is a specialized, and to some extent degraded, form
  rather than a primitive type. This, however, is not all, for the lady
  points out that, as was suggested years previously by the present
  writer, the creature is really the descendant of the fossil _Canis
  curvipalatus_ of northern India. This is a circumstance of
  considerable interest from a distributional point of view, as
  affording one more instance of the intimate relationship between the
  Tertiary mammalian fauna of India and the existing mammals of Africa.

  In regard to the members of the dog-tribe as a whole, it may be stated
  that they are generally sociable animals, hunting their prey in packs.
  Many species burrow in the ground; none habitually climb trees. Though
  mostly carnivorous, feeding chiefly on animals they have chased and
  killed themselves, many, especially among the smaller species, eat
  garbage, carrion, insects, and also fruit, berries and other vegetable
  substances. The upper surface of the tail of the fox has a gland
  covered with coarse straight hair. This gland, which emits an aromatic
  odour, is found in all _Canidae_, with possibly the exception of
  _Lycaon pictus_. Although the bases of the hair covering the gland are
  usually almost white, the tips are always black; this colour being
  generally extended to the surrounding hairs, and often forming dark
  bars on the buttocks. The dark spot on the back of the tail is
  particularly conspicuous, notably in such widely separated species as
  the wolves, Azara's dog and the fennec.


    Bear tribe.

  Although its existing representatives are very different, the
  bear-family or _Ursidae_, as will be more fully mentioned in the
  sequel, was in past times intimately connected with the _Canidae_. In
  common with the next two families, the modern _Ursidae_ are
  characterized by the very small tympanic bulla, and the broad
  paroccipital process, which is, however, independent of the bulla. The
  feet are more or less completely plantigrade and five-toed. The
  intestine has neither duodeno jejunal flexure nor a caecum; the
  prostate gland is rudimentary; but glands occur in the vasa
  deferentia; and the penial bone is cylindrical. As distinctive
  characteristics of the _Ursidae_, may be mentioned the presence of an
  alisphenoid canal on the base of the skull; the general absence of a
  perforation on the inner side of the lower end of the humerus; the
  presence of two pairs of upper and three of lower molars, which are
  mostly elongated and low-cusped; and the non-cutting character and
  fore-and-aft shortening of the upper sectorial, which has no inner
  root and one inner cusp (fig. I, III.). Anal glands are apparently
  wanting. The short tail, bulky build, completely plantigrade feet and
  clumsy gait are features eminently characteristic of the bears.

  The great majority of existing bears may be included in the typical
  genus _Ursus_, of which, in this wide sense, the leading
  characteristics will be as follows. The dentition is i. 3/3, c. 1/1,
  p. 4/4, m. 2/3 = 42; but the three anterior premolars, above and
  below, are one-rooted, rudimentary and frequently wanting. Usually the
  first (placed close to the canine) is present, and after a
  considerable interval the third, which is situated close to the other
  teeth of the cheek-series. The fourth (upper sectorial) differs
  essentially from the corresponding tooth of other Carnivora in that
  the inner lobe is not supported by a distinct root; its sectorial
  characters being very slightly marked. The crowns of both true molars
  are longer than broad, with flattened, tuberculated, grinding
  surfaces; the second having a large backward prolongation or heel. The
  lower sectorial has a small and indistinct blade and greatly developed
  tubercular heel; the second molar is of about the same length, but
  with a broader and more flattened tubercular crown; while the third is
  smaller. The milk-teeth are comparatively small, and shed at an early
  age. The skull is more or less elongated, with the orbits small and
  incomplete behind, and the palate prolonged considerably behind the
  last molar. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 14, L. 6, S. 5, Ca. 8-10. Body heavy.
  Feet broad, completely plantigrade; the five toes on each well
  developed, and armed with long compressed and moderately curved,
  non-retractile claws, the soles being generally naked. Tail very
  short. Ears moderate, erect, rounded, hairy. Fur generally long, soft
  and shaggy.

  Bears are animals of considerable bulk, and include among them the
  largest members of the order. Though the species are not numerous,
  they are widely spread over the earth, although absent from Africa
  south of the Sahara and Australasia. As a rule, they are omnivorous,
  or vegetable feeders, even the polar bear, which subsists for most of
  the year on flesh and fish, eating grass in summer. On the other hand,
  many of the brown bears live largely on salmon in summer. Among the
  various species the white polar bear of the Arctic regions, _Ursus
  (Thalassarctus) maritimus_, differs from the rest by its small and low
  head, small, narrow and simple molars, and the presence of a certain
  amount of hair on the soles of the feet. The typical group of the
  genus is represented by the brown bear (_U. arctus_) of Europe and
  Asia, of which there are many local races, such as the Syrian _U. a.
  syriacus_, the Himalayan _U. a. isabellinus_, the North Asiatic _U. a.
  collaris_, and the nearly allied Kamchadale race, which is of great
  size. In Alaska the group is represented by huge bears, which can
  scarcely claim specific distinctness from _U. arctus_; and if these
  are ranked only as races, it is practically impossible to regard the
  Rocky Mountain grizzly bear (_U. horribilis_) as of higher rank,
  although it naturally differs more from the Asiatic animal. On the
  other hand, the small and light-coloured _U. pruinosus_ of Tibet may
  be allowed specific rank. More distinct is the North American black
  bear _U. americanus_, and its white relative _U. kermodei_ of British
  Columbia; and perhaps we should affiliate to this group the Himalayan
  and Japanese black bears (_U. torquatus_ and _U. japonicus_). Very
  distinct is the small Malay sun-bear _U. (Helarctus) malayanus_,
  characterized by its short, smooth fur, extensile tongue, short and
  wide head, and broad molars. Finally, the spectacled bear of the
  Andes, _U. (Tremarctus) ornatus_, which is also a broad-skulled black
  species, differs from all the rest in having a perforation, or
  foramen, on the inner side of the lower end of the humerus. A second
  genus, _Melursus_, represented by the Indian sloth-bear (_M.
  ursinus_), differs from the preceding in having only two pairs of
  upper incisors, the small size of the cheek-teeth, and the extensile
  lips. Ants, white-ants, fruits and honey form the chief food of this
  shaggy black species,---a diet which accounts for its feeble dentition
  (see BEAR).

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.--The Parti-coloured Bear, or Giant Panda
  (_Aeluropus melanoleucus_).]

  The parti-coloured bear or giant panda (_Aeluropus melanoleucus_, fig.
  6) of eastern Tibet and north-west China forms in some degree a
  connecting link between the bears and the true panda, although placed
  by Professor E.R. Lankester in the same family as the latter. In the
  number of the teeth, and to some extent in the character of the
  molars, as well as in the abbreviated tail, _Aeluropus_ resembles the
  bears, but in the structure of the sectorial tooth, the presence of an
  extra radial carpal bone, and the osteology generally, it is more like
  the panda. In the absence of an alisphenoid canal to the skull it
  differs both from the latter and the bears, and thereby resembles the
  raccoons; while in having a perforation at the lower end of the
  humerus, it agrees with the spectacled bear, the panda and raccoons.
  The dentition is i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. 4/3, m. 2/3; total 40; premolars
  increasing in size from first to last, and two-rooted except the
  first; the first upper molar with quadrate crown, broader than long;
  and the second larger than the first. Skull with the zygomatic arches
  and sagittal crest immensely developed, ascending branch of lower jaw
  very high, giving great space for attachment of temporal muscle, and
  facial portion short. Bony palate not extending behind the last molar.
  No alisphenoid canal. Feet bear-like, but soles more hairy, and
  perhaps less completely plantigrade. Fur long and thick; and tail
  extremely short. Humerus with a perforation on the inner side of the
  lower end; a very large extra radial carpal bone. The colour of this
  strange animal is black and white (fig. 6).

  With the panda (_Aelurus fulgens_) we reach an undoubted
  representative of the _Procyonidae_, or raccoon tribe, differing,
  however, from all the rest except the doubtful _Aeluropus_, in its
  Asiatic habitat. If the latter be included, the family may be defined
  as follows. Molars 3/2, except in _Aeluropus_, with blunt or sharp
  cusps; no alisphenoid canal, except in _Aelurus_; humerus generally
  with a foramen; feet plantigrade; tail, except in _Aeluropus_, long
  and generally ringed.

  In the panda the dentition is i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. 3/4, m. 2/2; total
  38; the first lower molar being minute and deciduous, and the upper
  molars broad with numerous and complicated cusps. Vertebrae: C. 7,
  D. 14, L. 6, S. 3, Ca. 18. Skull high and compressed, with an
  alisphenoid canal, a short facial portion, and the ascending branch of
  the lower jaw, as in _Aeluropus_, very tall. Face cat-like, with
  moderate, erect, pointed ears. Claws blunt. Tail cylindrical and
  ringed. Fur long and thick. Extra radial carpal bone moderate. The
  panda is a bright golden red animal, with black under-parts, ranging
  from the eastern Himalaya to north-western China, where it is
  represented by a distinct race. Fossil species occur in the later
  Tertiary deposits of Europe (see PANDA).

  The raccoons (_Procyon_) are the first and typical representatives of
  the American section of the family, in which an alisphenoid canal is
  always wanting. In this genus the dentition is i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. 4/4,
  m. 2/2; total 40; the upper molars being broad and tuberculated; the
  upper sectorial (like that of _Aeluropus_ and _Aelurus_) having three
  outer cusps and a broad bicuspid inner lobe, giving an almost quadrate
  form to the crown. First upper molar with a large tuberculated crown,
  rather broader than long; second considerably smaller, with
  transversely oblong crown. Lower sectorial (first molar) with an
  extremely small and ill-defined blade, placed transversely in front,
  and a large inner tubercle and heel; second molar as long as the
  first, but narrower behind, with five obtuse cusps. Vertebrae: C. 7,
  D. 14, L. 6, S. 3, Ca. 16-20. Body stout. Head broad behind, but with
  a pointed muzzle. In walking the entire sole not applied to the
  ground, as it is when the animal is standing. Toes, especially of the
  fore-foot, very free, and capable of being spread wide apart; claws
  compressed, curved and pointed. Tail moderately long, cylindrical,
  thickly covered with hair, ringed, non-prehensile. Fur long, thick and
  soft. The common raccoon (_Procyon lotor_) of North America is the
  type of this genus; it is replaced in South America by _P.
  cancrivorus_ (see RACCOON). The cacomistles (_Bassariscus_) are nearly
  allied to _Procyon_, but of more slender and elegant proportions, with
  sharper nose, longer tail, and more digitigrade feet, and teeth
  smaller and more sharply cusped. The typical _B. astuta_ is from the
  southern parts of the United States and Mexico, while _B. (Wagneria)
  annulata_ is Mexican and Central American.

  The name _Bassaricyon_ has been given to a distinct modification of
  the procyonine type of which at present two species are known, one
  from Costa Rica and the other from Ecuador respectively, named _B.
  gabbi_ and _B. alleni_. They much resemble the kinkajou in external
  appearance, but the skull and teeth are more like those of _Procyon_
  and _Nasua_. In the coatis, _Nasua_, the dentition is as in _Procyon_,
  but the upper canines are larger and more strongly compressed, and the
  molars smaller; while the facial portion of the skull is more
  elongated and narrow. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 14, L. 6, S. 3, Ca. 22-23.
  Body elongated and rather compressed. Nose prolonged into a somewhat
  upturned, obliquely-truncated, mobile snout. Tail long,
  non-prehensile, tapering and ringed. Coatis, or coati-mundis, live in
  small troops of eight to twenty, are chiefly arboreal, and feed on
  fruits, young birds, eggs, insects, &c. The two best-known species are
  _N. narica_ of Mexico and Central America, and _N. rufa_ of South
  America from Surinam to Paraguay (see COATI).

  In the kinkajou (q.v.), an animal long known as _Cercoleptes
  caudivolvulus_, but whose designation it has been proposed to change
  to the unclassical _Potos flavus_, the dentition is i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p.
  3/3, m. 2/2 = 36. Molars with low flat crowns, very obscurely
  tuberculated. Skull short and rounded, with flat upper surface.
  Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 14, L. 6, S. 3, Ca. 26-28. Clavicles present, but
  in a very rudimentary condition. Head broad and round. Ears short.
  Body long and musteline. Limbs short. Tail long, tapering and
  prehensile. Fur short and soft. Tongue long and very extensile.


    Weasel tribe.

  The last existing family of the land Carnivora is that typified by the
  martens and weasels, and hence known as the _Mustelidae_. The group is
  characterized by the absence of an alisphenoid canal in the skull, the
  reduction of the molars to ½ or even 1/1, the medium size of the
  sectorial tooth in each jaw, the absence or presence of a perforation
  in the humerus, and the presence of anal glands. The family is
  cosmopolitan in distribution, with the exception of Australasia and
  Madagascar.

  The first section of the family, forming the subfamily _Mustelinae_,
  is typically characterized by the short and partially webbed toes,
  furnished with short, compressed, sharp, curved and often partially
  retractile claws. The upper molar is always of moderate size and
  elongated in the transverse direction. In the martens and sables
  (_Mustela_) the dentition is i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. 4/3, m. ½; total 38;
  the upper sectorial having its inner lobe close to the anterior edge
  of the tooth; and the upper molar being nearly as large as the
  sectorial. Lower sectorial with small inner tubercle. Vertebrae: C. 7,
  D. 14, L. 6, S. 3, Ca. 18-23. Body long and slender. Limbs short,
  partially digitigrade, with the feet rounded and the toes short, with
  compressed, acute, semi-retractile claws. Tail moderate or long, more
  or less bushy. One species, _M. martes_, the pine-marten, is British;
  the remainder inhabit the northern regions of Europe, Asia and
  America. Many of the species, as the sable (_M. zibellina_), yield fur
  of great value (see MARTEN).

  The dentition of _Putorius_ differs from that of _Mustela_ chiefly in
  the absence of the anterior premolars of both jaws. The teeth are more
  sharply cusped, and the lower sectorial wants the inner tubercle.
  External characters generally similar to those of the martens, but the
  body longer and more slender, and the limbs even shorter. All the
  species are small animals, of active, bloodthirsty and courageous
  disposition, living chiefly on birds and small mammals, and rather
  terrestrial than arboreal, dwelling among rocks, stones and
  out-buildings. Some of the species, as the stoat or ermine (_P.
  ermineus_), inhabiting cold climates, undergo a seasonal change of
  colour, being brown in summer and white in winter, though the change
  does not affect the whole of the fur, the end of the tail remaining
  black in all seasons. This is a large genus, having a very extensive
  geographical range throughout the Old and New Worlds, and includes the
  animals commonly known as weasels, polecats, ferrets and minks (q.v.).

  In the glutton (_Gulo luscus_) the dentition is i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p.
  4/4, m. 1/2; total 38; the crowns of the teeth being stout, and the
  upper molar much smaller than the sectorial. Lower sectorial large,
  with small heel and no inner tubercle. The dentition, though really
  but a modification of that of the weasels, presents a general
  resemblance to that of hyena. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 15, L. 5, S. 3, Ca.
  15. Body and limbs stoutly made; feet large and powerful,
  subplantigrade, with large, compressed, much-curved and sharp-pointed
  claws. Soles of the feet (except the pads of the toes) covered with
  thick bristly hairs. Ears very small, nearly concealed by the fur.
  Eyes small. Tail short, thick and bushy. Fur full, long and rather
  coarse. The one species, the wolverine or glutton, is an inhabitant of
  the forest regions of northern Europe, Asia and America, and much
  resembles a small bear in appearance. It is a very powerful animal for
  its size, climbs trees and lives on squirrels, hares, beavers,
  reindeer, and is said to attack even horses and cows.

  The South American grison and tayra represent the genus _Galictis_, in
  which the dentition is i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. 3/3, m. 1/2; total 34; the
  molars being small but stout, and the upper sectorial with the inner
  lobe near the middle of the inner border. Lower sectorial with heel
  small, and inner tubercle small or absent. Body long; limbs short,
  with non-retractile claws and naked soles. Head broad and depressed.
  Tail of moderate length. The species include the grison (_G.
  vittata_), _G. allamandi_, and the tayra (_G. barbara_); the last,
  which extends northward into Central America, being sub-generically
  separated as _Galera_. Nearly allied to these is the smaller and more
  weasel-like _Lyncodon patagonicus_. All the foregoing South American
  carnivores display a marked tendency to being darker on the lower than
  on the upper surface. The same feature obtains in the African and
  Indian ratels, or honey-badgers, constituting the genus _Mellivora_,
  distinguished from all the other members of the family by having only
  a single pair of lower molars, the dentition being i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p.
  3/3, m. 1/1; total 32; the upper sectorial is large, with its inner
  cusp at the anterior end of the blade, the molar much smaller and
  transversely extended, having a small outer and a larger rounded inner
  lobe. Heel of lower sectorial very small, scarcely one-fourth of the
  whole length of the tooth, with but one cusp. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 14,
  L. 4, S. 4, Ca. 15. Body stout, depressed; limbs short, strong; head
  depressed; nose rather pointed; ears rudimentary. Tail short. _M.
  indica_, from India, and _M. ratel_, from south and west Africa, have
  nearly the same general appearance and size, being rather larger than
  a common badger, and may be only races of the same species. Their
  coloration is peculiar, all the upper surface of the body, head and
  tail being ash-grey, while the lower parts, separated by a distinct
  longitudinal boundary line, are black. They live chiefly on the
  ground, into which they burrow, but can also climb trees. They feed on
  small mammals, birds, reptiles and insects, and are partial to honey.

  In the Indo-Malay ferret-badger, _Helictis_, the dentition is i. 3/3,
  c. 1/1, p. 4/4, m. 1/2; total 38. Upper sectorial with a large
  bicusped inner lobe, molar smaller, wider transversely than in the
  antero-posterior direction. Lower sectorial with heel about one-third
  the length of the tooth. Skull elongated, rather narrow and depressed;
  facial portion especially narrow; infraorbital foramen very large.
  Head rather small and produced in front, with an elongated, obliquely
  truncated, naked snout and small ears. Body elongated, limbs short.
  Tail short or moderate, bushy. Several species are described, such as
  _H. orientalis, moschata, nipalensis_, and _subaurantiaca_, from
  eastern Asia, all small animals, climbing trees with agility and
  living on fruits and berries as well as on small mammals and birds.

  The African striped zorilles, or _Muis-honds_ (_Ictonyx_), have a
  dental formula of i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. 3/3, m. 1/2; total 34; the teeth
  much resembling those of the polecats, and the upper molar being
  smaller than the sectorial, and narrow from before backwards. Lower
  sectorial with a smalt narrow heel and distinct inner tubercle.
  General form of body musteline. Limbs short, fore-feet large and
  broad, with five stout, nearly straight, blunt and non-retractile
  claws, of which the first and fifth are considerably shorter than the
  others. Tail moderate, with longer hairs towards the end, giving it a
  bushy appearance. Hair generally long and loose. The best-known
  species of this genus, the Cape polecat, _Ictonyx capensis_ (or
  _Zorilla zorilla_), is about the size of a polecat, but conspicuous by
  its broad, longitudinal bands of dark-brown, alternating with white.
  Its odour is said to be as offensive as that of the American skunks.
  From the Cape of Good Hope it ranges as far north as Senegal. Another
  species, _I. lybicus_, from Sennaar, has been described. The small
  striped polecat of southern Africa, _Poecilogale albinucha_,
  represents a genus by itself, and is a shorter-haired animal.

  The skunks of America are very similar to the two genera last
  mentioned in their colouring, and with the latter serve to form a
  connecting link with the more typical _Mustelinae_, and the badger
  group, or _Melinae_, in which the feet are elongated, with straight
  toes and non-retractile, slightly curved, subcompressed, blunt claws,
  especially large on the fore-foot. In all cases the upper molar is
  larger than the sectorial, and in the more typical genera is much
  longer than broad.

  In the North American skunks of the genus _Mephitis_ the dentition is
  i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. 3/3, m. 1/2; total 34. Upper molar larger than the
  sectorial, subquadrate, rather broader than long; lower sectorial with
  heel less than half the length of the whole tooth. Bony palate
  terminating posteriorly opposite the hinder border of the last molar.
  Facial portion of skull short and somewhat truncated in front.
  Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 16, L. 6, S. 2, Ca. 21. Head small. Body
  elongated. Limbs moderate, subplantigrade. Ears short and rounded.
  Tail long, abundantly clothed with long fine hair. Anal glands largely
  developed; their secretion, which can be discharged at the will of the
  animal, has an intolerably offensive odour and has rendered skunks
  proverbial. The South American species, which have only two upper
  premolars, and differ in some other characters, are generically
  separated under the name of _Conepatus_; while the small North
  American arboreal skunks are distinguished as _Spilogale_ (see SKUNK).


    Badger tribe.

  Passing on to the more typical members of the badger group, we have
  first the genus _Arctonyx_, with the dentition i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. 4/4,
  m. 1/2; total 38. The incisor line is curved, the outer teeth being
  placed posteriorly to the others: lower incisors inclined forwards.
  First premolars often rudimentary or absent; upper molar much larger
  than the sectorial, longer in the antero-posterior direction than
  broad; lower sectorial with a very large, low, tuberculated heel.
  Skull elongated and depressed; face long, narrow and concave above;
  bony palate extending as far backwards as the level of the glenoid
  fossa; and palatal bones dilated. Suborbital foramina very large.
  Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 16, L. 4, S. 4, Ca. 20. Snout long, naked, mobile
  and truncated, with large terminal nostrils, much like those of a pig.
  Eyes small; ears very small and rounded. Body compressed, rather than
  depressed. Limbs of moderate length, and partially digitigrade in
  walking. Tail moderate, tapering. A full soft under-fur, with longer
  bristly hairs interspersed. The longest-known species is _A.
  collaris_, the _bhalu-soor_ (bear-pig) or _bali-soor_ (sand-pig) of
  the natives of the mountains of north-eastern India, Burma and Borneo.
  It is rather larger than the badger, higher on its legs, and very
  pig-like in general aspect, of a light grey colour, with
  flesh-coloured snout and feet; nocturnal and omnivorous. Other species
  or local varieties have been described from north China and Burma.

  In the genus _Mydaus_ the dentition is as the last, but the cusps of
  the teeth are more acutely pointed. Skull elongated, face narrow and
  produced. Suborbital foramen small, and the palate, as in all the
  succeeding genera of this group, produced backwards about midway
  between the last molar and the glenoid fossa. Vertebrae: C. 7, D.
  14-15, L. 6-5, S. 3, Ca. 12. Head pointed in front; snout produced,
  mobile, obliquely truncated, the nostrils being inferior. Limbs rather
  short and stout. Tail extremely short, but clothed with rather long
  bushy hair. Anal glands largely developed, and emitting an odour like
  that of the skunks. One species, _M. meliceps_, the teledu, a small
  burrowing animal from the mountains of Java, at an elevation of 7000
  or more ft. above the sea-level; and a second (_M. marchei_) from the
  Philippines.

  In the true badger of the genus _Meles_ the dentition is i. 3/3, c.
  1/1, p. 4/4, m. 1/2; total 38. The first premolar in both jaws is
  extremely minute and often deciduous; while the upper molar is much
  larger than the sectorial, subquadrate, and as broad as long. Lower
  sectorial with a broad, low, tuberculated heel, more than half the
  length of the whole tooth. The postglenoid process of the skull so
  strongly developed, and the glenoid fossa so deep, that the condyle of
  the lower jaw is firmly held in place after the soft parts are
  removed. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 15, L. 5, S, 3, Ca. 18. Muzzle pointed.
  Ears very short. Body stout, broad. Limbs short, strong,
  subplantigrade. Tail short. Typified by the common badger (_M. taxus_
  or _M. meles_) of Europe and northern Asia, still found in many parts
  of England, where it lives in woods, is nocturnal, burrowing and very
  omnivorous, feeding on mice, reptiles, insects, fruit, acorns and
  roots. Other nearly allied species, _M. leucurus_ and _M. chinensis_,
  are found in continental Asia, and _M. anakuma_ in Japan.

  In the nearly-allied genus _Taxidea_ the dental formula is as in
  _Meles_, except that the rudimentary anterior premolars appear to be
  always wanting in the upper jaw. The upper sectorial is much larger in
  proportion to the other teeth; and the upper molar about the same size
  as the sectorial, triangular, with the apex turned backwards. Heel of
  lower sectorial less than half the length of the tooth. Skull very
  wide in the occipital region; the lambdoidal crest greatly developed,
  and the sagittal but slightly, contrary to what obtains in _Meles._
  Vertebrae: C. 7. D. 15. L. 5, S. 3, Ca. (?). Body stoutly built and
  depressed. Tail short. The animals of this genus are peculiar to North
  America, where they represent the badgers of the Old World, resembling
  them much in appearance and habits. _T. americana_ is the common
  American badger of the United States, _T. berlandieri_, the Mexican
  badger, being a local variety.


    Otter tribe.

  The third and last subfamily is that of the otters, or _Lutrinae_, in
  which the feet (with the exception of the hind pair in the sea-otter)
  are short and rounded, with the toes webbed, and the claws small,
  curved and blunt. The head is broad and much depressed. The upper
  posterior cheek-teeth are large and quadrate. The kidneys are
  conglomerate. Habits aquatic.

  In the true otter of the genus _Lutra_ the dentition is i. 3/3, c.
  1/1, p. 4/3, m. 1/2; total 36. Upper sectorial with a trenchant
  tricusped blade, and a very large inner lobe, hollowed on the free
  surface, with a raised sharp edge, extending along two-thirds or more
  of the length of the blade. Upper molar large, with a quadricuspidate
  crown, broader than long. Skull broad and depressed, contracted
  immediately behind the orbits; with the facial portion very short and
  the brain-case large. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 14-15, L. 6-5, S. 3, Ca.
  20-26. Body very long. Ears short and rounded. Limbs short. Feet
  completely webbed, with well-developed claws on all the toes. Tail
  long, thick at the base and tapering, rather depressed. Fur short and
  close.

  Otters are more or less aquatic, living on the margins of rivers,
  lakes, and in some cases the sea; are expert divers and swimmers, and
  feed chiefly on fish. They have an extensive geographical range, and
  so much resemble each other in outward appearance, especially in the
  nearly uniform brown colouring, that in some cases the species are by
  no means well-defined. The Brazilian otter (_L. brasiliensis_) is a
  very large species from Brazil, Demerara and Surinam, with a prominent
  ridge along each lateral margin of the tail. In two small species the
  feet are only slightly webbed; claws exceedingly small or altogether
  wanting on some of the toes; the first upper premolar very small,
  sometimes wanting; and the molars very broad and massive. The species
  in question are _L. inunguis_ of South Africa, and _L. leptonyx_ or
  _cinerea_ of India, Java and Sumatra, and have been separated as a
  distinct genus, Aonyx.

  The sea-otter, _Latax_ (or _Enhydra_) _lutra_, with a dentition of i.
  3/2, c. 1/1, p. 3/3, m. 1/2, total 32, differs from other Carnivora in
  having but two incisors on each side of the lower jaw, the one
  corresponding to the first (very small in the true otters) being
  absent. Though the molar teeth generally resemble those of _Lutra_ in
  their proportions, they differ in the exceeding roundness and
  massiveness of their crowns and bluntness of their cusps. Feet webbed;
  fore-feet short, with five subequal toes, with short compressed claws;
  hind-feet very large, depressed and fin-like, their phalanges
  flattened as in seals. The fifth toe the longest and stoutest, the
  rest gradually diminishing in size to the first, all with moderate
  claws. Tail moderate, cylindrical (see OTTER).


II. PINNIPEDIA

The second suborder is formed by the seals, walruses and eared seals,
which differ from the rest of the Carnivora mainly in the limbs being
modified for aquatic progression; the two upper segments being very
short and partially enveloped in the general integument of the body,
while the third, especially in the hind extremities, is elongated,
expanded and webbed. There are always five well-developed digits on each
limb. In the hind-limb the two marginal digits (first and fifth) are
stouter and generally larger than the others. The teeth also differ from
those of the more typical Carnivora. The incisors are always fewer than
3/3. The chsek series consists generally of four premolars and one molar
of uniform characters, with never more than two roots, and with conical,
more or less compressed, pointed crowns, which may have accessory cusps,
placed before or behind the principal one, but are never broad and
tuberculated. The milk-teeth are small, simple and shed or absorbed at
an early age, usually either before or within a few days after birth.
The brain is relatively large, the cerebral hemispheres broad in
proportion to their length, and with numerous and complex convolutions.
There is a very short caecum; the kidneys are divided into numerous
distinct lobules. There are no Cowper's glands. Teats two or four,
abdominal. No clavicles. Tail always short. Eyes large and exposed, with
flat cornea. The nostrils close by the elasticity of their walls, and
are opened at will by muscular action.

The members of this group are aquatic, spending the greater part of
their time in the water, swimming and diving with great facility,
feeding mainly on fish, crustaceans and other marine animals, and
progressing on land with difficulty, but always coming on shore for the
purpose of bringing forth their young. They are generally marine, but
occasionally ascend large rivers, and some inhabit inland seas and
lakes, as the Caspian and Baikal. Though not numerous in species, they
are widely distributed over the world, but occur most abundantly on the
coasts of lands situated in cold and temperate zones.

As mentioned in the article CREODONTA, the true seals (_Phocidae_),
together with the walruses, may be directly descended from the primitive
Creodont Carnivora. The eared seals, on the other hand, show signs of
affinity with the bears; but as they are of earlier geological age than
the latter, they cannot be derived from that group.


    Seals.

  The true seals (family _Phocidae_) are the most completely adapted for
  aquatic life of all the Pinnipedia. When on land the hind-limbs are
  extended backwards and take no part in progression, which is effected
  by a series of jumping movements produced by the muscles of the trunk,
  in some species aided by the fore-limbs. The soles of the feet are
  hairy. There is no pinna to the ear, and no scrotum, the testes being
  abdominal. The upper incisors have simple, pointed crowns, and vary in
  number in the different groups. All have well developed canines and
  5/5 teeth of the cheek series. In those species of which the
  milk-dentition is known, there are three milk molars, which precede
  the second, third, and fourth permanent molars; the dentition is
  therefore p. 4/4, m. 1/1, the first premolar having as usual no milk
  predecessor. The skull has no post-orbital process and no alisphenoid
  canal. The fur is stiff and adpressed, without woolly under-fur.

  In the typical group, or subfamily _Phocinae_, the incisors are 3/2.
  All the feet have five well-developed claws with the toes on the
  hind-feet subequal, the first and fifth not greatly exceeding the
  others in length, the interdigital membrane not extending beyond them.
  In the genus _Halichoerus_ the dentition is i. 3/2, c. 1/1, p. 4/4, m.
  1/1; total 34. Molars with large, simple, conical, recurved, slightly
  compressed crowns, having sharp anterior and posterior edges, but
  without accessory cusps, except sometimes the two hinder ones of the
  lower jaw. With the exception of the last one or two in the upper jaw
  and the last in the lower jaw, all are single-rooted. Vertebrae: C. 7,
  D. 15, L. 5, S. 4, Ca. 14. Includes only one species _H. grypus_, the
  grey seal of the coasts or Scandinavia and the British Isles.

  In _Phoca_ the dental formula is as in the last, but the teeth are
  smaller and more pointed. Molars with two roots (except the first in
  each jaw). Crowns with accessory cusps. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 14-15, L.
  5, S. 4, Ca. 11-14. Head round and short. Fore-feet short with five
  strong, subcompressed, slightly curved, subequal, rather sharp claws.
  On the hind-feet the claws much narrower and less curved. The species
  of this genus are widely distributed throughout the northern
  hemisphere, and include _P. barbata_, the bearded seal; _P.
  groenlandica_, the Greenland seal; _P. vitulina_, the common seal; _P.
  hispida_, the ringed seal of the north Atlantic; _P. caspica_, from
  the Caspian and Aral Seas; and _P. sibirica_, from Lake Baikal. (See
  SEAL).

  The members of the second subfamily, _Monachinae_, have incisors 2/2;
  and the molars two-rooted, except the first. On the hind-feet the
  first and fifth toes greatly exceeding the others in length, with
  nails rudimentary or absent. In the genus _Monachus_, the dentition is
  i. 2/2, c. 1/1, p. 4/4, m. 1/1; total 32. Crowns of molars strong,
  conical, compressed, hollowed on the inner side, with a
  strongly-marked lobed cingulum, especially on the inner side, and
  slightly developed accessory cusps before and behind. The first and
  last upper and the first lower molar smaller than the others.
  Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 15, L. 5, S. 2, Ca. 11. All the nails of both fore
  and hind feet very small and rudimentary. Represented by _M.
  albiventer_, the monk-seal of the Mediterranean and adjacent parts of
  the Atlantic, and the West Indian _M. tropicalis._

  The other genera of this section have the same dental formula, but are
  distinguished by the characters, of the cheek-teeth and the feet. They
  are all inhabitants of the shores of the southern hemisphere.

  In _Ogmorhinus_ all the teeth of the cheek-series have three distinct
  pointed cusps, deeply separated from each other, of which the middle
  or principal cusp is largest and slightly recurved; the other two are
  nearly equal in size, and have their tips directed towards the middle
  one. Skull much elongated. One species, _O. leptonyx_, the
  sea-leopard, widely distributed in the Antarctic and southern
  temperate seas. In _Lobodon_ the molars have compressed elongated
  crowns, with a principal recurved cusp, rounded and somewhat bulbous
  at the apex, and one anterior, and one, two or three posterior
  distinct accessory cusps. One species, _L. carcinophagus_, the
  crab-eating seal. In the third genus, _Leptonychotes_, represented by
  _L. weddelli_, the molars are small, with simple, subcompressed,
  conical crowns, and a broad cingulum, but no distinct accessory cusps.
  Finally in the white seal (_Ommatophoca rossi_) all the teeth are very
  small, those of the cheek-series with pointed, recurved crowns, and
  small posterior and still less developed anterior accessory cusps.
  Orbits very large. Nails rudimentary on front and absent on hind-feet.
  The skull bears a considerable resemblance to that of the next
  subfamily.

  The presence of two pairs of upper and one pair of lower incisors is
  characteristic of the members of the subfamily _Cystophorinae_, in
  which the teeth of the cheek-series are generally one-rooted. The nose
  of the males has an appendage capable of being inflated. First and
  fifth toes of hind-feet greatly exceeding the others in length, with
  prolonged cutaneous lobes, and rudimentary or no nails. In the typical
  genus _Cystophora_ the dentition is i. 2/1, c. 1/1, p. 4/4, m. 1/1;
  total 30; the last molar having generally two distinct roots. Beneath
  the skin over the face of the male, and connected with the nostrils,
  is a sac capable of inflation, when it forms a kind of hood covering
  the upper part of the head. Nails present, though small on the
  hind-feet. Represented by _C. cristata_, the hooded or bladder-nosed
  seal of the Polar Seas. In _Macrorhinus_ the dentition is numerically
  the same as in the last, but the molars are of simpler character and
  all one-rooted. All the teeth, except the canines, very small
  relatively to the size of the animal. Hind-feet without nails.
  Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 15, L. 5, S. 4, Ca. 11. Nose of adult male
  produced into a short tubular proboscis, ordinarily flaccid, but
  capable of dilatation and elongation under excitement. One species,
  _M. leoninus_, the elephant-seal, or "sea elephant" of the whalers,
  the largest of the whole family, attaining the length of nearly 20 ft.
  Formerly abundant in the Antarctic Seas, and also found on the coast
  of California.


    Walrus

  The next family is that of the walruses, or _Odobaenidae_, the single
  generic representative of which is in some respects intermediate
  between the _Phocidae_ and _Otariidae_, but has a completely aberrant
  dentition. Walruses have no external ears, as in the _Phocidae_; but
  when on land the hind-feet are turned forwards and used in
  progression, though less completely than in the _Otariidae_. The upper
  canines are developed into immense tusks, which descend a long
  distance below the lower jaw. All the other teeth, including the lower
  canines, are much alike, small, simple and one-rooted, the molars with
  flat crowns. The skull is without post-orbital process, but has an
  alisphenoid canal. In the young the dentition is i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p.
  and m. 5/4, but many of these teeth are, however, lost early or remain
  through life in a rudimentary state, concealed by the gums. The teeth
  which are usually developed functionally are i. 1/0, c. 1/1, p. 3/3,
  m. 0/0; total 18. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 14, L. 6, S. 4, Ca. 9. Head
  round. Eyes rather small. Muzzle short and broad, with a group of
  long, very stiff, bristly whiskers on each side. The remainder of the
  hair-covering very short and closely pressed. Tail rudimentary.
  Fore-feet with subequal toes, carrying five minute flattened nails.
  Hind-feet with subequal toes, the fifth slightly the largest, with
  cutaneous lobes projecting beyond the ends as in _Otaria_; first and
  fifth with minute flattened nails; second, third and fourth with
  large, elongated, subcompressed pointed nails. The two species are
  _Odobaenus rosmarus_, of the Atlantic, and the closely allied _O.
  obesus_, of the Pacific. (See WALRUS.)

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.--Skull and dentition of Australian Sea-Bear
  (_Otaria forsteri_).]


    Sea-lions

  The third and last family of the Pinnipedia, and thus of existing
  Carnivora, is the _Otariidae_, which includes the eared seals, or
  sea-lions and sea-bears. In all these animals, when on land, the
  hind-feet are turned forwards under the body, and aid in supporting
  and moving the trunk as in ordinary quadrupeds. There are small
  external ears. Testes suspended in a distinct external scrotum. Skull
  with post-orbital processes and alisphenoid canal. Soles of feet
  naked. By many naturalists these seals are arranged in a number of
  generic groups, but as the differences between them are not very
  great, they may all be included in the typical genus _Otaria_. The
  dental formula is i. 3/2, c. 1/1, p. 4/4, m. (1 or 2)/1; total 34 or
  36. The first and second upper incisors are small, with the summits of
  their crowns divided by deep transverse grooves into an anterior and a
  posterior cusp of nearly equal height; the third large and
  canine-like. Canines large, conical, pointed, recurved. Molars and
  premolars usually 5/5, of which the second, third and fourth are
  preceded by milk-teeth shed a few days after birth; sometimes (as in
  fig. 7) a sixth upper molar (occasionally developed on one side and
  not the other); all with similar characters, generally single-rooted;
  crown moderate, compressed, pointed, with a single principal cusp, and
  sometimes a cingulum, and more or less developed anterior and
  posterior accessory cusps. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 15, L. 5, S. 4, Ca.
  9-10. Head rounded. Eyes large; ears small, narrow and pointed. Neck
  long. Skin of the feet extended far beyond the nails and ends of the
  digits, with a deeply-lobed margin. The nails small and often quite
  rudimentary, especially those of the first and fifth toes of both
  feet; the best-developed and most constant being the three middle
  claws of the hind-foot, which are elongated, compressed and curved.

  Sea-bears and sea-lions are widely distributed, especially in the
  temperate regions of both hemispheres, though absent from the coasts
  of the North Atlantic. They spend more of their time on shore, and
  range inland to greater distances than the true seals, especially at
  the breeding-time, though they are obliged to return to the water to
  seek their food. They are gregarious and polygamous, and the males
  usually much larger than the females. Some possess, in addition to the
  stiff, close, hairy covering common to the group, a fine, dense,
  woolly under-fur. The skins of these, when dressed and deprived of
  the longer harsh outer hairs, constitute the "sealskin" of commerce.
  The species include _O. stelleri_, the northern sea-lion, the largest
  of the genus, from the North Pacific, about 10 ft. in length; _O.
  jubata_, the southern sea-lion, from the Falkland Islands and
  Patagonia; _O. californiana_, from California; _O. ursina_, the
  sea-bear or fur-seal of the North Pacific, the skins of which are
  imported in immense numbers from the Pribiloff Islands; _O.
  antarctica_ or _pusilla_, from the Cape of Good Hope; and _O.
  forsteri_, from Australia and various islands in the southern
  hemisphere. (See SEAL-FISHERIES.)

  Little is known as to the past history of the sea-lions and sea-bears,
  but a skull has been obtained from the Miocene strata of Oregon, which
  Mr F.W. True states to be considerably larger than any existing
  sea-lion skull; its basal length when entire being probably about 20
  in. The name _Pontoleon magnus_ has been proposed for this fossil
  sea-lion, as the character of the skull and teeth do not agree
  precisely with those of any living member of the group. If, however,
  all the modern eared seals are included in the genus _Otaria_, there
  is apparently no reason to exclude the fossil species.


  EXTINCT CARNIVORA

  Modern Carnivora are undoubtedly the descendants of the Creodonta
  (q.v.), an extinct early Tertiary suborder. It has been observed that
  as the Miocene is approached, some of these Carnivora Creodonta, or
  Primitiva, begin to assume more and more of the characteristics of the
  Carnivora Vera, till at last it is difficult to determine where the
  one group ends and the other commences. The creodont genera
  _Stypolophus_ and _Proviverra_ show some of these modern characters;
  but it is not till we reach the European Oligocene genus _Amphictis_,
  with the dental formula i. 3/3, c. 1/2, p. 4/4, m. 2/2, that we meet a
  type in which the fourth upper premolar and the first lower molar
  assume the truly sectorial character of the Carnivora Vera, while the
  teeth behind them are proportionally reduced in size. From the
  _Amphictidae_ are probably descended the _Viverridae_, the connecting
  genus being the African _Nandinia_, which, as already mentioned,
  retains the imperfectly ossified bulla of the ancestral forms. In
  another direction, _Amphictis_, through the Old World Lower Pliocene
  genus _Ictitherium_, has given rise to the _Hyaenidae_. The _Felidae_
  have apparently an ancestral type in the creodont _Palaeonictis_,
  which has been regarded as the direct ancestor of the sabre-toothed
  cats, or _Machaerodontinae_ (see MACHAERODUS); but it is possible that
  _Palaeonictis_ may be off the direct line, and that the _Felidae_ are
  sprung from _Amphictis_. Be this as it may, from another group of
  creodonts, represented by _Vulpavus_ (_Miacis_), _Viverravus_
  (_Didymictis_), and _Uintacyon_, is probably derived the Oligocene
  _Cynodictis_, with a dental formula like that of _Canis_ or _Cyon_, a
  perforation to the humerus, and an apparently undivided auditory
  bulla; and from _Cynodictis_ the transition is easy to the _Canidae_.
  It should be mentioned, however, that there is a group of North
  American Oligocene dog-like animals, such as _Daphaenus_,
  _Protemnocyon_, and _Temnocyon_, which agree with _Cyon_ in the
  shortness of the jaws, and with that genus and _Speothos_ in the
  cutting-heel of the lower sectorial. Possibly these genera may be
  nearly related to _Cyon_. Other dog-like North American types are
  _Oligohinis_, _Enhydrocyon_ and _Hyaenocyon_.

  By means of the _Amphicyonidae_, as represented by the Middle Tertiary
  genera _Proamphicyon, Pseudamphicyon_, and _Amphicyon_, in which there
  were three upper molars, we have a transition from the
  _Cynodictis_-type to the bear-group; one of the later intermediate
  forms being the Lower Pliocene Old World _Hyaenarctus_, in which the
  two upper molars are squared and foreshadow those of _Ursus_ itself.
  In some unknown manner _Hyaenarctus_ appears to be related to
  _Aeluropus_. An allied type is found in _Arctotherium_ of the South
  American Pleistocene.

  By the loss of the third lower molar and certain modifications of the
  other teeth and skull, the Miocene genus _Plesictis_ may be derived
  from _Cynodictis_, its dental formula being i. 3/3, c. 1/1, p. 4/4, m.
  (1 or 2)/2. Now _Plesictis_ is nothing more than a generalized
  representative of the _Mustelidae_. We have thus traced three out of
  the four modern arctoid families to the _Cynodictis_-type. The
  _Procyonidae_, or fourth family (apart from the Asiatic _Aelurus_ and
  _Aeluropus_) are connected with the last-named genus through the North
  American Oligocene _Phlaeocyon_, which is stated to be in almost every
  respect intermediate between _Procyon_ and _Cynodictis_ while the
  living _Bassariscus_ is stated to show closer signs of affinity with
  _Cynodictis_ than with _Phlaeocyon_.

  To deal with fossil representatives of living genera, or extinct
  genera nearly related to groups still existing, would here be
  impracticable. It may be stated, however, that aberrant groups like
  the otters are linked up with more normal types by means of extinct
  forms (in this particular instance by the Miocene _Potamotherium_), so
  that the gaps in the phylogeny of the Carnivora are comparatively few.

  LITERATURE.--The above article is based on that by Sir W.H. Flower in
  the 9th edition of this Encyclopaedia. The principal works on
  Carnivora are the following: W.H. Flower, "On the Value of the Base of
  the Cranium in the Classification of the Carnivora," _Proc. Zool. Soc.
  London_, 1869; T.H. Huxley, "Cranial and Dental Characters of the
  Canidae," _Proc. Zool. Soc. London_, 1880; St G. Mivart, "On the
  Classification and Distribution of the Aeluroidea ... and Arctoidea",
  _Proc. Zool. Soc. London_, 1882 and 1885; E.R. Lankester, "On the
  Affinities of Aeluropus," _Trans. Linn. Soc. London_, vol. viii. part
  iv., 1901; Miss A. Carlsson, "Über die systematische Stellung von
  Nandinia," _Zool. Jahrb. Syst._, vol. xiii., 1900, and "Ist Otocyon
  die Ausgangsform des Hundegeschlechts oder nicht?" op. cit. vol.
  xxii., 1905; J.L. Wortman and W.D. Matthew, "The Ancestry of Certain
  Members of the Canidae, Viverridae, and Procyonidae," _Bull. Amer.
  Mus._, vol. xii., 1899.     (R. L.*)



CARNOT, LAZARE HIPPOLYTE (1801-1888), French statesman, the second son
of L.N.M. Carnot (q.v.), was born at Saint-Omer on the 6th of October
1801. Hippolyte Carnot lived at first in exile with his father,
returning to France only in 1823. Unable then to enter active political
life, he turned to literature and philosophy, publishing in 1828 a
collection of _Chants helléniques_ translated from the German of W.
Müller, and in 1830 an _Exposé de la doctrine Saint-Simonienne_, and
collaborating in the Saint-Simonian journal _Le Producteur._ He also
paid several visits to England and travelled in other countries of
Europe. In March 1839, after the dissolution of the chamber by Louis
Philippe, he was elected deputy for Paris (re-elected in 1842 and in
1846), and sat in the group of the Radical Left, being one of the
leaders of the party hostile to Louis Philippe. On the 24th of February
1848 he pronounced in favour of the republic. Lamartine chose him as
minister of education in the provisional government, Carnot set to work
to organize the primary school systems, proposing a law for obligatory
and free primary instruction, and another for the secondary education of
girls. But he declared himself against purely secular schools, holding
that "the minister and the schoolmaster are the two columns on which
rests the edifice of the republic." By this attitude he alienated both
the Right and the Republicans of the Extreme Left, and was forced to
resign on the 5th of July 1848. He was one of those who protested
against the _coup d'état_ of the 2nd of December 1851, but was not
proscribed by Louis Napoleon. He refused to sit in the _Corps
Législatif_ until 1864, in order not to have to take the oath to the
emperor. From 1864 to 1869 he was in the republican opposition, taking a
very active part. He was defeated at the election of 1869. On the 8th of
February 1871 he was named deputy for the Seine et Oise, and
participated in the drawing up of the Constitutional Laws of 1875. On
the 16th of December 1875, he was named by the National Assembly senator
for life. He died on the 16th of March 1888, three months after the
election of his elder son, M.F.S. Carnot (q.v.), to the presidency of
the republic. He had published _Le Ministère de l'instruction publique
et des cultes du 24e février au 5e juillet 1848_, (1849), _Mémoires sur
Lazare Carnot_ (2 vols., 1861-1864), _Mémoires de Barère_ (with David
Angers, 4 vols., 1842-1843). His second son, Marie Adolphe Carnot (b.
1839), became a distinguished mining-engineer and director of the École
des Mines (1899), his studies in analytical chemistry placing him in the
front rank of French scientists. He was made a member of the Academy of
Sciences in 1895.

  See Vermorel, _Les Hommes de 1848_, (3rd ed., 1869); E. Spuller,
  _Histoire parlementaire de la Seconde République_ (1891); P. de la
  Gorce, _Histoire du Second Empire_ (1894 et seq.).



CARNOT, LAZARE NICOLAS MARGUERITE(1753-1823), French general, was born
at Nolay in Burgundy in 1753. He received his training as an engineer at
Mézières, becoming an officer of the Corps de Génie in 1773 and a
captain ten years later. He had then just published his first work, an
_Essai sur les machines en général_. In 1784 he wrote an essay on
balloons, and his. _Éloge_ of Vauban, read by him publicly, won him the
commendation of Prince Henry of Prussia. But as the result of a
controversy with Montalembert, Carnot abandoned the official, or Vauban,
theories of the art of fortification, and went over to the
"perpendicular" school of Montalembert. He was consequently imprisoned,
on the pretext of having fought a duel, and only released when selected
to accompany Prince Henry of Prussia in a visit to Vauban's
fortifications. In 1791 he married. The Revolution drew him into
political life, and he was elected a deputy for the Pas de Calais. In
the Assembly he took a prominent part in debates connected with the
army. Carnot was a stern and sincere republican, and voted for the
execution of the king. In the campaigns of 1792 and 1793 he was
continually employed as a commissioner in military matters, his greatest
service being in April 1793 on the north-eastern frontier, where the
disastrous battle of Neerwinden and the subsequent defection of
Dumouriez had thrown everything into confusion. After doing what was
possible to infuse energy into the operations of the French forces, he
returned to Paris and was made a member of the Committee of Public
Safety. He was charged with duties corresponding to those of the modern
chief of the general staff and adjutant-general. As a member of the
committee he signed its decrees and was thus at least technically
responsible for the acts of the Reign of Terror. His energies were,
however, directed to the organization, not yet of victory, but of
defence. His labours were incessant; practically every military document
in the archives of the committee was Carnot's own work, and he was
repeatedly in the field with the armies. His part in Jourdan's great
victory at Wattignies was so important that the credit of the day has
often been assigned to Carnot. The winter of 1793-1794 was spent in new
preparations, in instituting a severe discipline in the new and
ill-trained troops of the republic, and in improvising means and
material of war. He continued to visit the armies at the front, and to
inspire them with energy. He acquiesced in the fall of Robespierre in
1794, but later defended Barère and others among his colleagues,
declaring that he himself had constantly signed papers without reading
them, as it was physically impossible to do so in the press of business.
When Carnot's arrest was demanded in May 1795, a deputy cried "Will you
dare to lay hands on the man who has organized victory?" Carnot had just
accepted promotion to the rank of major in the engineers. Throughout
1793, when he had been the soul of the national defence, and 1794, in
which year he had "organized victory" in fourteen armies, he was a
simple captain.

Carnot was elected one of the five Directors in November 1795, and
continued to direct the war department during the campaign of 1796. Late
in 1796 he was made a member (1st class) of the Institute, which he had
helped to establish. He was for two periods president of the Directory,
but on the _coup d'état_ of the 18th Fructidor (1797) was forced to take
refuge abroad. He returned to France after the 18th Brumaire (1799) and
was re-elected to the Institute in 1800. Early in 1800 he became
minister of war, and he accompanied Moreau in the early part of the
Rhine campaign. His chief work was, however, in reducing the expenses of
the armies. Contrary to the usual custom he refused to receive presents
from contractors, and he effected much-needed reforms in every part of
the military administration. He tendered his resignation later in the
year, but it was long before the First Consul would accept it. From 1801
he lived in retirement with his family, employing himself chiefly in
scientific pursuits. As a senator he consistently opposed the increasing
monarchism of Napoleon, who, however, gave him in 1809 a pension and
commissioned him to write a work on fortification for the school of
Metz. In these years he had published _De la corrélation des figures de
géométrie_ (1801), _Géométrie de position_ (1803), and _Principes
fondamentaux de l'équilibre et du mouvement_ (1803), all of which were
translated into German. His great work on fortification appeared at
Paris in 1810 (_De la défense de places fortes_) and was translated for
the use of almost every army in Europe. He took Montalembert as his
ground-work. Without sharing Montalembert's antipathy to the bastioned
trace, and his predilection for high masonry caponiers, he followed out
the principle of retarding the development of the attack, and provided
for the most active defence. To facilitate sorties in great force he did
away with a counterscarp wall, providing instead a long gentle slope
from the bottom of the ditch to the crest of the glacis. This, he
imagined, would compel an assailant to maintain large forces in the
advanced trenches, which he proposed to attack by vertical fire from
mortars. Along the front of his fortress was built a heavy detached
wall, loop-holed for fire, and sufficiently high to be a most
formidable obstacle. This "Carnot wall," and, in general, Carnot's
principle of active defence, played a great part in the rise of modern
fortification.

He did not seek employment in the field in the aggressive wars of
Napoleon, remaining a sincere republican, but in 1814, when France
itself was once more in danger, Carnot at once offered his services. He
was made a general of division, and Napoleon sent him to the important
fortress of Antwerp as governor. His defence of that place was one of
the most brilliant episodes of the campaign of 1814. On his return to
Paris he addressed a political memoir to the restored king of France,
which aroused much attention both in France and abroad. He joined
Napoleon during the Hundred Days and was made minister of the interior,
the office carrying with it the dignity of count, and on the 2nd of June
he was made a peer of France. On the second Restoration he was
proscribed. He lived thenceforward in Magdeburg, occupying himself still
with science. But his health rapidly declined, and he died at Magdeburg
on the 2nd of August 1823. His remains were solemnly removed to the
Panthéon in 1889. Long before this, in 1836, Antwerp had erected a
statue to its defender of 1814. In 1837 Arago pronounced his _éloge_
before the Académie des Sciences. The sincerity of his patriotism and
his political convictions was proved in 1801-1804 and in 1814. The
memory of his military career is preserved in the title, given to him in
the Assembly, of "The organizer of victory." His sons, Sadi and L.
Hippolyte, are separately noticed.

  AUTHORITIES.--Baron de B..., _Vie privée, politique, et morale de
  L.N.M. Carnot_ (Paris, 1816); Sérieys, _Carnot, sa vie politique et
  privée_ (Paris, 1816); Mandar, _Notice biographique sur le général
  Carnot_, &c. (Paris, 1818); W. Körte, _Das Leben L.N.M. Carnots_
  (Leipzig, 1820); P.F. Tissot, _Mémoires historiques et militaires sur
  Carnot_ (Paris, 1824); Arago, _Biographie de Carnot_ (Paris, 1850);
  Hippolyte Carnot, _Mémoires sur Carnot_ (Paris, 1863); C. Rémond,
  _Notice biographique sur le grand Carnot_ (Dijon 1880); A. Picaud,
  _Carnot, l'organisateur de la victoire_ (Paris, 1885 and 1887); A.
  Burdeau, _Une Famille de patriotes_ (Paris, 1888); L. Hennet, _Lazare
  Carnot_ (Paris, 1888); G. Hubbard, _Une Famille républicaine_ (Paris,
  1888); M. Dreyfous, _Les Trois Carnot_ (Paris, 1888); M. Bonnal,
  _Carnot, d'après les archives_, &c. (Paris, 1888); and memoir by E.
  Charavaray in _La Grande Encyclopédie._



CARNOT, MARIE FRANÇOIS SADI (1837-1894), fourth president of the third
French Republic, son of L. Hippolyte Carnot, was born at Limoges on the
11th of August 1837. He was educated as a civil engineer, and after
having highly distinguished himself at the École Polytechnique and the
École des Ponts et Chaussées, obtained an appointment in the public
service. His hereditary republicanism recommended him to the government
of national defence, by which he was entrusted in 1870 with the task of
organizing resistance in the departments of the Eure, Calvados and Seine
Inférieure, and made prefect of the last named in January 1871. In the
following month he was elected to the National Assembly by the
department Côte d'Or. In August 1878 he was appointed secretary to the
minister of public works. In September 1880 he became minister, and
again in April 1885, passing almost immediately to the ministry of
finance, which he held under both the Ferry and the Freycinet
administrations until December 1886. When the Wilson scandals occasioned
the downfall of Grévy in December 1887, Carnot's high character for
integrity marked him out as a candidate for the presidency, and he
obtained the support of Clémenceau and of all those who objected to the
candidatures of men who have been more active in the political arena, so
that he was elected by 616 votes out of 827. He assumed office at a
critical period, when the republic was all but openly attacked by
General Boulanger. President Carnot's ostensible part during this
agitation was mainly confined to augmenting his popularity by well-timed
appearances on public occasions, which gained credit for the presidency
and the republic. When early in 1889, Boulanger was finally driven into
exile, it fell to President Carnot's lot to appear at the head of the
state on two occasions of especial interest, the celebration of the
centenary of 1789 and the opening of the Paris Exhibition of that year.
The perfect success of both was regarded, not unreasonably, as a popular
ratification of the republic, and though continually harassed by the
formation and dissolution of ephemeral ministries, by socialist
outbreaks, and the beginnings of anti-Semitism, Carnot had but one
serious crisis to surmount, the Panama scandals of 1892, which, if they
greatly damaged the prestige of the state, increased the respect felt
for its head, against whose integrity none could breathe a word. Carnot
seemed to be arriving at the zenith of popularity, when on the 24th of
June 1894, after delivering at a public banquet at Lyons a speech in
which he appeared to imply that he nevertheless would not seek
re-election, he was stabbed by an Italian anarchist named Caserio and
expired almost immediately. The horror and grief excited by this tragedy
were boundless, and the president was honoured with a splendid funeral
in the Panthéon, Paris.

His son, FRANÇOIS CARNOT, was first elected deputy for the Cote d'Or in
1902.

  See E. Zevort, _Histoire de la Troisième République_, tome iv., "La
  Présidence de Carnot" (Paris, 1901).



CARNOT, SADI NICOLAS LÉONHARD (1796-1832), French physicist, elder son
of L.N.M. Carnot, was born at Paris on the 1st of June 1796. He was
admitted to the École Polytechnique in 1812, and late in 1814 he left
with a commission in the Engineers and with prospects of rapid
advancement in his profession. But Waterloo and the Restoration led to a
second and final proscription of his father; and though not himself
cashiered, Sadi was purposely told off for the merest drudgeries of his
service. Disgusted with an employment which afforded him neither leisure
for original work nor opportunities for acquiring scientific
instruction, he presented himself in 1819 at the examination for
admission to the staff corps (_état-major_) and obtained a lieutenancy.
He then devoted himself with astonishing ardour to mathematics,
chemistry, natural history, technology and even political economy. He
was an enthusiast in music and other fine arts; and he habitually
practised as an amusement, while deeply studying in theory, all sorts of
athletic sports, including swimming and fencing. He became captain in
the Engineers in 1827, but left the service altogether in the following
year. His naturally feeble constitution, further weakened by excessive
study, broke down finally in 1832. An attack of scarlatina led to brain
fever, and he had scarcely recovered when he fell a victim to cholera,
of which he died in Paris on the 24th of August 1832. He was one of the
most original and profound thinkers who have ever devoted themselves to
science. The only work he published was his _Réflexions sur la puissance
motrice du feu et sur les machines propres à développer cette puissance_
(Paris, 1824). This contains but a fragment of his scientific
discoveries, but it is sufficient to put him in the very foremost rank,
though its full value was not recognized until pointed out by Lord
Kelvin in 1848 and 1849. Fortunately his manuscripts had been preserved,
and extracts were appended to a reprint of his _Puissance motrice_ by
his brother, L.H. Carnot, in 1878. These show that he had not only
realized for himself the true nature of heat, but had noted down for
trial many of the best modern methods of finding its mechanical
equivalent, such as those of J.P. Joule with the perforated piston and
with the friction of water and mercury. Lord Kelvin's experiment with a
current of gas forced through a porous plug is also given. "Carnot's
principle" is fundamental in the theory of thermodynamics (q.v.).



CARNOUSTIE, a police burgh and watering-place of Forfarshire, Scotland.
Pop. (1901) 5204. It lies on the North Sea, 10¾ m. E.N.E. of Dundee by
the North British railway. Bathing and golfing are good. Barry Links, a
triangular sandy track occupying the south-eastern corner of the shire,
are used as a camping and manoeuvring ground for the artillery and
infantry forces of the district, and occasionally of Scotland. Its most
extreme point is called Buddon Ness, off which are the dangerous shoals
locally known as the Roaring Lion, in consequence of the deep boom of
the waves. On the Ness two lighthouses have been built at different
levels, the lights of which are visible at 13 and 16 m.



CARNUNTUM ([Greek: Karnous] in Ptolemy), an important Roman fortress,
originally belonging to Noricum, but after the 1st century A.D. to
Pannonia. It was a Celtic town, the name, which is nearly always found
with K on monuments, being derived from _Kar, Karn_ ("rock," "cairn").
Its extensive ruins may still be seen near Hainburg, between
Deutsch-Altenburg and Petronell, in lower Austria. Its name first occurs
in history during the reign of Augustus (A.D. 6), when Tiberius made it
his base of operations in the campaigns against Maroboduus (Marbod). A
few years later it became the centre of the Roman fortifications along
the Danube from Vindobona (Vienna) to Brigetio (O-Szöny), and (under
Trajan or Hadrian) the permanent quarters of the XIV legion. It was also
a very old mart for the amber brought to Italy from the north. It was
created a municipium by Hadrian (Aelium Carnuntum). Marcus Aurelius
resided there for three years (172-175) during the war against the
Marcomanni, and wrote part of his _Meditations_. Septimius Severus, at
the time governor of Pannonia, was proclaimed emperor there by the
soldiers (193). In the 4th century it was destroyed by the Germans, and,
although partly restored by Valentinian I., it never regained its former
importance, and Vindobona became the chief military centre. It was
finally destroyed by the Hungarians in the middle ages.

  A special society (_Carnuntumverein_) exists for the exploration of
  the numerous ruins, the results of which will be found in J.W.
  Kubitschek and S. Frankfurter, _Führer durch Carnuntum_ (3rd ed.,
  1894); see also E. von Sacken, "Die römische Stadt Carnuntum," in
  _Sitzungsberichte der k. Akad. der Wissenschaften_, ix. (Vienna,
  1852); article by Kubitschek in Pauly-Wissowa's _Realencydopadie_,
  iii. part ii. (1899); _Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum_, iii., part i.
  p. 550.



CARNUTES (Carnuti, Carnutae, [Greek: Karnoutinoi] in Plutarch), a Celtic
people of central Gaul, between the Sequana (Seine) and the Liger
(Loire). Their territory corresponded to the dioceses of Chartres,
Orléans and Blois, that is, the greater part of the modern departments
of Eure-et-Loir, Loiret, Loir-et-Cher. It was regarded as the political
and religious centre of the Gallic nation. The chief towns were Cenabum
(not Genabum; Orléans) and Autricum (Chartres). According to Livy (v.
34) the Carnutes were one of the tribes which accompanied Bellovesus in
his invasion of Italy during the reign of Tarquinius Priscus. In the
time of Caesar they were dependents of the Remi, who on one occasion
interceded for them. In 52 they joined in the rebellion of
Vercingetorix. As a punishment for the treacherous murder of some Roman
merchants and one of Caesar's commissariat officers at Cenabum, the town
was burnt and the inhabitants put to the sword or sold as slaves. During
the war they sent 12,000 men to relieve Alesia, but shared in the defeat
of the Gallic army. Having attacked the Bituriges Cubi, who appealed to
Caesar for assistance, they were forced to submit. Under Augustus, the
Carnutes, as one of the peoples of Lugdunensis, were raised to the rank
of _civitas socia_ or _foederata_, retaining their own institutions, and
only bound to render military service to the emperor. Up to the 3rd
century Autricum (later Carnutes, whence Chartres) was the capital, but
in 275 Aurelian changed Cenabum from a _vicus_ into a _civitas_ and
named it Aurelianum or Aurelianensis urbs (whence Orléans).

  See Caesar, _Bell. Gall._ v. 25, 29, vii. 8, 11, 75, viii. 5, 31;
  Strabo iv. pp. 191-193; R. Boutrays, _Urbis gentisque Carnutum
  historia_ (1624); A. Desjardins, _Géographie historique de la Gaule_,
  ii. (1876-1893); article and bibliography in _La Grande Encyclopédie_,
  T.R. Holmes, _Caesar's Conquest of Gaul_ (1899), p. 402, on Cenabum.



CARO, ANNIBALE (1507-1566), Italian poet, was born at Civita Nuova, in
Ancona, in 1507. He became tutor in the family of Lodovico Gaddi, a rich
Florentine, and then secretary to his brother Giovanni, by whom he was
presented to a valuable ecclesiastical preferment at Rome. At Gaddi's
death, he entered the service of the Farnese family, and became
confidential secretary in succession to Pietro Lodovico, duke of Parma,
and to his sons, duke Ottavio and cardinals Ranuccio and Alexander.
Caro's most important work was his translation of the _Aeneid_ (Venice,
1581; Paris, 1760). He is also the author of _Rime, Canzoni_, and
sonnets, a comedy named _Gli Straccioni_, and two clever _jeux
d'esprit_, one in praise of figs, _La Ficheide_, and another in eulogy
of the big nose of Leoni Ancona, president of the Academia della Vertu.
Caro's poetry is distinguished by very considerable ability, and
particularly by the freedom and grace of its versification; indeed he
may be said to have brought the _verso sciolto_ to the highest
development it has reached in Italy. His prose works consist of
translations from Aristotle, Cyprian and Gregory Nazianzen; and of
letters, written in his own name and in those of the cardinals Farnese,
which are remarkable both for the baseness they display and for their
euphemistic polish and elegance. His fame has been greatly damaged by
the virulence with which he attacked Lodovico Castelvetro in one of his
canzoni, and by his meanness in denouncing him to the Holy Office as
translator of some of the writings of Melanchthon. He died at Rome about
1566.



CARO, ELME MARIE (1826-1887), French philosopher, was born on the 4th of
March 1826 at Poitiers. His father, a professor of philosophy, gave him
an excellent education at the Stanislas College and the École Normale,
where he graduated in 1848. After being professor of philosophy at
several provincial universities, he received the degree of doctor, and
came to Paris in 1858 as master of conferences at the École Normale. In
1861 he became inspector of the Academy of Paris, in 1864 professor of
philosophy to the Faculty of Letters, and in 1874 a member of the French
Academy. He married Pauline Cassin, the authoress of the _Péché de
Madeleine_ and other well-known novels. He died in Paris on the 13th of
July 1887. In his philosophy he was mainly concerned to defend
Christianity against modern Positivism. The philosophy of Cousin
influenced him strongly, but his strength lay in exposition and
criticism rather than in original thought. Besides important
contributions to _La France_ and the _Revue des deux mondes_, he wrote
_Le Mysticisme au XVIII^e siècle_ (1852-1854), _L'Idee de Dieu_ (1864),
_Le Matérialisme et la science_ (1868), _Le Pessimisme au XIX^e siècle_
(1878), _Jours d'épreuves_ (1872), _M. Littré et le positivisme_ (1883),
_George Sand_ (1887), _Mélanges et portraits_ (1888), _La Philosophie de
Goethe_ (2nd ed., 1880).



CAROL (O. Fr. _carole_), a hymn of praise, especially such as is sung at
Christmas in the open air. The origin of the word is obscure. Diez
suggests that the word is derived from _chorus_. Others ally it with
_corolla_, a garland, circle or coronet,[1] the earliest sense of the
word being apparently "a ring" or "circle," "a ring dance." Stonehenge,
often called the Giants' Dance, was also frequently known as the Carol;
thus Harding, _Chron._ lxx. x., "Within (the) Giauntes Carole, that so
they hight, The (Stone hengles) that nowe so named been." The Celtic
forms, often cited as giving the origin of the word, are derivatives of
the English or French. The crib set up in the churches at Christmas was
the centre of a dance, and some of the most famous of Latin Christmas
hymns were written to dance tunes. These songs were called
_Wiegenlieder_ in German, _noéls_ in French, and carols in English. They
were originally modelled on the songs written to accompany the choric
dance, which were probably the starting-point of the lyric poetry of the
Germanic peoples. Strictly speaking, therefore, the word should be
applied to lyrics written to dance measures; in common acceptation it is
applied to the songs written for the Christmas festival. Carolling, i.e.
the combined exercise of dance and song, found its way from pagan ritual
into the Christian church, and the clergy, however averse they might be
from heathen survivals, had to content themselves in this, as in many
other cases, with limiting the practice. The third council of Toledo
(589) forbade dancing in the churches on the vigils of saints' days, and
secular dances in church were forbidden by the council of Auxerre in the
next year. Even as late as 1209 it was necessary for the council of
Avignon to forbid theatrical dances and secular songs in churches.
Religious dances persisted longest on Shrove Tuesday, and a castanet
dance by the choristers round the lectern is permitted three times a
year in the cathedral of Seville. The Christmas festival, which
synchronized with and superseded the Latin and Teutonic feasts of the
winter solstice, lent itself especially to gaiety. The "crib" of the
Saviour was set up in the churches or in private houses, in the
traditional setting of the stable, with earthen figures of the Holy
Family, the ox and the ass; and carols were sung and danced around it.
The "rocking of the cradle" was the occasion of dialogue between Joseph
and Mary which was not without elements of comedy, and gave rise to
lullabies such as the well-known German _Dormi fili_. The adoration of
the shepherds and the visit of the Magi also provided matter for
dramatic and choral representation. The singing of the carol has
survived in places where the institution of the "crib," said to have
been originated by St Francis of Assisi to inculcate the doctrine of the
incarnation, has been long in disuse, but in the West Riding of
Yorkshire the children who go round carol-singing still carry
"milly-boxes" (My Lady boxes) containing figures which represent the
Virgin and Child.

That carol-singing early became a pretext for the asking of alms is
obvious from an Anglo-Norman carol preserved in the British Museum (MS.
Reg. 16 E. viii.), _Seigneurs ore entendey à nus_, which is little more
than a drinking song. Carols were an important element in the mystery
plays of the Nativity, and one of these, included in the _Marguerites de
la Marguerite des princesses, très-illustre reine de Navarre_ (Lyons,
1547), incidentally gives evidence of the connexion of dancing and
carol-singing, for the shepherds and shepherdesses open their chorus at
the manger with "_Dansons, chantons, faisons rage_." There is a long
English carol relating the chief incidents of the life of Christ, which
is a curious example of the mixture of the sacred and profane common in
this species of composition. It begins "To-morrow shall be my dancing
day," and has for refrain--

  "Sing, oh! my love, oh! my love, my love, my love;
   This have I done for my true love."

There are extant numerous carols dating from the 15th century which have
the characteristic features of folksong. The famous Cherry-tree Carol,
"Joseph was an old man," is based on an old legend which is related in
the Coventry mystery plays. "I saw three ships come sailing in," and
"The Camel and the Crane," though of more modern date, preserve curious
legends. Numerous entries in the household accounts of the Tudor
sovereigns show that carol-singing was popular throughout the 16th
century, and the literature of Christmas was enriched in the next
century by poems which are often included in collections of carols,
though they were probably written to be read rather than sung. Milton,
Crashaw, Southwell, Ben Jonson, George Herbert and George Wither all
produced Christmas poems, but the richest collection by any one poet is
to be found in the poems of Herrick, whose "Come, bring with a noise" is
a typical carol of the jovial kind, and may well have been written to a
dance tune. Among 18th-century religious carols perhaps the most famous
is Charles Wesley's "Hark, how all the welkin rings," better known in
the variant, "Hark, the herald angels sing." The artificial modern
revival of carol-singing has produced a quantity of new carols, the best
of which are perhaps mostly derived from medieval Latin Christmas hymns.
Among the many modern Christmas poems one of the most striking is
Swinburne's "Three Damsels in the Queen's Chamber," which is, however, a
ballad rather than a carol.

The earliest printed collection of carols was issued by Wynkyn de Worde
in 1521. It contained the famous Boar's Head carol, _Caput apri defero,
Reddens laudes Domino_, which in a slightly altered form is sung at
Queen's College, Oxford, on the bringing in of the boar's head. Modern
collections of ancient carols are derived chiefly from three tracts
belonging to the collection of Anthony à Wood, preserved in the Bodleian
library, from a 15th-century MS. (Sloane 2593), a 16th-century MS. with
the music (Add. 5665), and other MSS. in the British Museum, and from
oral tradition. In the 15th century T. Bloomer of Birmingham published a
number of carols in the form of broad-sides. Among the numerous
collections of French carols is _Noei Borguignon de Gui Barôzai_ (1720),
giving the words and the music of thirty-four _noëls_, many of them very
free in character. The term _noël_ passed into the English carol as a
favourite refrain, "nowell," and seems to have been in common use in
France as an equivalent for _vivat_.

  Among the more important modern collections of Christmas carols are:
  _Songs and Carols_ (1847), edited by T. Wright for the Percy Society
  from Sloane MS. 2593; W. Sandys, _Christmastide, its History,
  Festivities and Carols_ (1852); _Christmas with the Poets_ (edited by
  V.H., 4th ed., 1872); T. Helmore and J.M. Neale, _Carols for
  Christmastide_ (1853-1854), with music; R.R. Chope, _Carols_ (new and
  complete edition, 1894), a tune-book for church use, with an
  introduction by S. Baring-Gould; H.R. Bramley, _Christmas Carols, New
  and Old_, the music by Dr Stainer; A.H. Bullen, _Carols and Poems_
  (1885); J.A. Fuller Maitland and W.S. Rockstro, _Thirteen Carols of
  the Fifteenth Century_, from a Trinity Coll., Cambridge, MS. (1891).
  See also Julian's _Dictionary of Hymnology_, s.v. "Carol"; E. Cortet,
  _Essai sur les fêtes religieuses_ (1867).


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] In architecture, the term "carol" (also wrongly spelled "carrel"
    or "carrol") is used, in the sense of an enclosure, of a small chapel
    or oratory enclosed by screens, and also sometimes of the rails of
    the screens themselves. It is more particularly applied to the
    separate seats near the windows of a cloister (q.v.), used by the
    monks for the purposes of study, &c. The term "carol" has, by a
    mistake, been sometimes used of a scroll bearing an inscription of a
    text, &c.



CAROLINE (1683-1737), wife of George II., king of Great Britain and
Ireland, was a daughter of John Frederick, margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
(d. 1686). Born at Ansbach on the 1st of March 1683, the princess passed
her youth mainly at Dresden and Berlin, where she enjoyed the close
friendship of Sophie Charlotte, wife of Frederick I. of Prussia; she
married George Augustus, electoral prince of Hanover, in September 1705.
The early years of her married life were spent in Hanover. She took a
continual interest in the approaching accession of the Hanoverian dynasty
to the British throne, was on very friendly terms with the old electress
Sophia, and corresponded with Leibnitz, whose acquaintance she had made in
Berlin. In October 1714 Caroline followed her husband and her
father-in-law, now King George I., to London. As princess of Wales she was
accessible and popular, and took the first place at court, filling a
difficult position with tact and success. When the quarrel between the
prince of Wales and his father was attaining serious proportions, Caroline
naturally took the part of her husband, and matters reached a climax in
1717. Driven from court, ostracized by the king, deprived even of the
custody of their children, the prince and princess took up their residence
in London at Leicester House, and in the country at Richmond. They
managed, however, to surround themselves with a distinguished circle;
Caroline had a certain taste for literature, and among their attendants
and visitors were Lord Chesterfield, Pope, Gay, Lord Hervey and his wife,
the beautiful Mary Lepel. A formal reconciliation with George I. took
place in 1720. In October 1727 George II. and his queen were crowned.
During the rest of her life Queen Caroline's influence in English politics
was very chiefly exercised in support of Sir Robert Walpole; she kept this
minister in power, and in control of church patronage. She was exceedingly
tolerant, and the bishops appointed by her were remarkable rather for
learning than for orthodoxy. During the king's absences from England she
was regent of the kingdom on four occasions. On the whole, Caroline's
relations with her husband, to whom she bore eight children, were
satisfactory. A clever and patient woman, she was very complaisant towards
the king, flattering his vanity and acknowledging his mistresses, and she
retained her influence over him to the end. She died on the 20th of
November 1737.

  Caroline appears in Scott's _Heart of Midlothian_; see also Lord
  Hervey, _Memoirs of the Reign of George II._, ed. by J.W. Croker
  (1884); W.H. Wilkins, _Caroline the Illustrious_ (1904); and A.D.
  Greenwood, _Lives of the Hanoverian Queens of England_, vol. i.
  (1909).



CAROLINE AMELIA AUGUSTA (1768-1821), queen of George IV. of Great
Britain, second daughter of Charles William Ferdinand, duke of
Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, was born on the 17th of May 1768. She was
brought up with great strictness, and her education did not fit her well
for her subsequent station in life. In 1795 she was married to the then
prince of Wales (see GEORGE IV.), who disliked her and separated from
her after the birth of a daughter in January 1796. The princess resided
at Blackheath; and as she was thought to have been badly treated by her
profligate husband, the sympathies of the people were strongly in her
favour. About 1806 reports reflecting on her conduct were circulated so
openly that it was deemed necessary for a commission to inquire into the
circumstances. The princess was acquitted of any serious fault, but
various improprieties in her conduct were pointed out and censured. In
1814 she left England and travelled on the continent, residing
principally in Italy. On the accession of George in 1820, orders were
given that the English ambassadors should prevent the recognition of the
princess as queen at any foreign court. Her name also was formally
omitted from the liturgy. These acts stirred up a strong feeling in
favour of the princess among the English people generally, and she at
once made arrangements for returning to England and claiming her rights.
She rejected a proposal that she should receive an annuity of £50,000 a
year on condition of renouncing her title and remaining abroad. Further
efforts at compromise proved unavailing; Caroline arrived in England on
the 6th of June, and one month later a bill to dissolve her marriage
with the king on the ground of adultery was brought into the House of
Lords. The trial began on the 17th of August 1820, and on the 10th of
November the bill, after passing the third reading, was abandoned. The
public excitement had been intense, the boldness of the queen's counsel,
Brougham and Denman, unparalleled, and the ministers felt that the
smallness of their majority was virtual defeat. The queen was allowed to
assume her title, but she was refused admittance to Westminster Hall on
the coronation day, July 19, 1821. Mortification at this event seems to
have hastened her death, which took place on the 7th of August of the
same year.

  See _A Queen of Indiscretions, the Tragedy of Caroline of Brunswick,
  Queen of England_, translated by F. Chapman from the Italian of
  Graziano Paolo Clerici (London, 1907), with numerous portraits, &c. Of
  contemporary authorities the _Creevy Papers_ (1905) throw the most
  interesting sidelights on the subject.



CAROLINE ISLANDS, a widely-scattered archipelago in the Pacific Ocean,
E. of the Philippines and N. of New Guinea, included in Micronesia,
between 5° and 10° N., and 135° and 165° E., belonging to Germany. They
fall into three main groups, the Western, Central and Eastern Carolines,
the central being the most numerous, while the western include the Pelew
group. The total land area is about 380 sq. m., and out of this, 307 sq.
m. is covered by the four main islands, Ponape and Kusaie in the eastern
group, Truk or Hogolu in the central, and Yap in the western. These
islands are of considerable elevation (the highest point of Ponape
approaches 3000 ft.), but the rest are generally low coral islets. The
climate is equable and moist, but healthy; but the islands are subject
to heavy storms. The total population is estimated at 36,000. The
natives, who are Micronesian hybrids of finer physique than their
kinsmen of the Pelew Islands, have a comparatively high mental standard,
being careful agriculturists, and peculiarly clever boatbuilders and
navigators. The Germans divide the whole archipelago into two
administrative districts, eastern and western, having the seats of
government at Ponape and Yap respectively. The principal article of
export is copra. The islands were discovered (at least in part) by the
Portuguese Diego da Rocha in 1527, and called by him the Sequeira
Islands. In 1686 Admiral Francesco Lazeano, who made further
explorations, renamed them the Carolines in honour of Charles II. of
Spain. The islands were subsequently visited by a few travellers; but
the natives have only in modern times been reconciled to the presence of
foreigners; an early visit of missionaries (1731) resulted in one of
several murderous attacks on white men which darken the history of the
islands; and it was only in 1875 that Spain, claiming the group, made
some attempt to assert her rights. These were contested by Germany,
whose flag was hoisted on Yap, and the matter was referred to the
arbitration of Pope Leo XIII. in 1885. He decided in favour of Spain,
but gave Germany free trading rights; and in 1899 Germany took over the
administration of the islands from Spain, paying 25,000,000 pesetas
(nearly £1,000,000 sterling).

_Ancient Stone Buildings._--In Ponape and Kusaie, massive stone
structures, similar to those which occur in several other parts of the
Pacific Ocean, have long been known to exist. They have been closely
explored by Herr Kubary, Mr F.J. Moss, and later Mr F.W. Christian. None
of the colossal structures hitherto described appears to have been
erected by the present Melanesian or Polynesian peoples, while their
wide diffusion, extending as far as Easter Island, within 400 m. of the
New World, points to the occupation of the Pacific lands by a
prehistoric race which had made some advance in general culture. The
Funafuti borings (1897) show almost beyond doubt that Polynesia is an
area of comparatively recent subsidence. Hence the land connexions must
have formerly been much easier and far more continuous than at present.
The dolmen-builders of the New Stone Age are now known to have long
occupied both Korea and Japan, from which advanced Asiatic lands they
may have found little difficulty in spreading over the Polynesian world,
just as in the extreme west they were able to range over Scandinavia,
Great Britain and Ireland. To Neolithic man, still perhaps represented
by some of the more light-coloured and more regular-featured Polynesian
groups, may therefore not unreasonably be attributed these astonishing
remains, which assume so many different forms according to the nature of
the locality, but seem generally so out of proportion with the present
restricted areas on which they stand. With the gradual subsidence of
these areas their culture would necessarily degenerate, although echoes
of sublime theogonies and philosophies are still heard in the oral
traditions and folklore of many Polynesian groups. In the islet of Lele,
close to Kusaie, at the eastern extremity of Micronesia, the ruins
present the appearance of a citadel with cyclopean ramparts built of
large basaltic blocks. There are also numerous canals, and what look
like artificial harbours constructed amid the shallow lagoons.

In Ponape the remains are of a somewhat similar character, but on a much
larger scale, and with this difference, that while those of Lele all
stand on the land, those of Ponape are built in the water. The whole
island is strewn with natural basaltic prisms, some of great size: and
of this material, brought by boats or rafts from a distance of 30 m. and
put together without any mortar, but sustained by their own weight, are
built all the massive walls and other structures on the east side of the
island. The walls of the main building near the entrance of Metalanim
harbour form a massive quadrangle 200 ft. on all sides, with inner
courts, vault and raised platform with walls 20 to 40 ft. high and from
8 to 18 ft. thick. Some of the blocks are 25 ft. long and 8 ft. in
circumference, and many of them weigh from 3 to 4 tons. There are also
numerous canals from 30 to 100 ft. wide, while a large number of islets,
mainly artificial, covering an area of 9 sq. m., have all been built up
out of the shallow waters of the lagoon round about the entrance of the
harbour, with high sea-walls composed of the same huge basaltic prisms.
In, some places the walls of this "Pacific Venice" are now submerged to
some depth, as if the land had subsided since the construction of these
extensive works. Elsewhere huge breakwaters had been constructed, the
fragments of which may still be seen stretching away for a distance of
from 2 to 3 m. Most observers, such as Admiral Sir Cyprian Bridge and
Mr. Le Hunte, agree that these structures could not possibly be the work
of any of the present Polynesian peoples, and attribute them to a now
extinct prehistoric race, the men of the New Stone Age from the Asiatic
mainland.

_Stone Money._--The inhabitants of Yap are noted for possessing the most
extraordinary currency, if it can be so called, in the whole world.
Besides the ordinary shell money, there is a sort of stone coinage,
consisting of huge calcite or limestone discs or wheels from 6 in. to 12
ft. in diameter, and weighing up to nearly 5 tons. These are all
quarried in the Pelew Islands, 200 m. to the south, and are now brought
to Yap in European vessels. But some were in the island long before the
arrival of the whites, and must consequently have been brought by native
vessels or on rafts. The stones, which are rather tokens than money, do
not circulate, but are piled up round about the chief's treasure-house,
and appear to be regarded as public property, although it is hard to say
what particular use they can serve. They appear to be kept rather for
show and ornament than for use.

  See F.W. Christian, _The Caroline Islands_ (London, 1899); G. Volkens,
  "Über die Karolinen Insel Yap," in _Verhandlungen Gesellschaft
  Erdkunde Berlin_., xxviii. (1901); J.S. Kubary, _Ethnographische
  Beitrage zur Kentniss des Karolinen-Archipel_ (Leiden, 1889-1892); De
  Abrade, _Historia del conflicto de las Carolinas, &c._ (Madrid, 1886).



CAROLINGIANS, the name of a family (so called from Charlemagne, its most
illustrious member) which gained the throne of France A.D. 751. It
appeared in history in 613, its origin being traced to Arnulf (Arnoul),
bishop of Metz, and Pippin, long called Pippin of Landen, but more
correctly Pippin the Old or Pippin I. Albeit of illustrious descent, the
genealogies which represent Arnulf as an Aquitanian noble, and his
family as connected--by more or less complicated devices--with the
saints honoured in Aquitaine, are worthless, dating from the time of
Louis the Pious in the 9th century. Arnulf was one of the Austrasian
nobles who appealed to Clotaire II., king of Neustria, against
Brunhilda, and it was in reward for his services that he received from
Clotaire the bishopric of Metz (613). Pippin, also an Austrasian noble,
had taken a prominent part in the revolution of 613. These two men
Clotaire took as his counsellors; and when he decided in 623 to confer
the kingdom of Austrasia upon his son Dagobert, they were appointed
mentors to the Austrasian king, Pippin with the title of mayor of the
palace. Before receiving his bishopric, Arnulf had had a son
Adalgiselus, afterwards called Anchis; Pippin's daughter, called Begga
in later documents, was married to Arnulf's son, and of this union was
born Pippin II. Towards the end of the 7th century Pippin II., called
incorrectly Pippin of Heristal, secured a preponderant authority in
Austrasia, marched at the head of the Austrasians against Neustria, and
gained a decisive victory at Tertry, near St Quentin (687). From that
date he may be said to have been sole master of the Frankish kingdom,
which he governed till his death (714). In Neustria Pippin gave the
mayoralty of the palace to his son Grimoald, and afterwards to
Grimoald's son Theodebald; the mayoralty in Austrasia he gave to his son
Drogo, and subsequently to Drogo's children, Arnulf and Hugh. Charles
Martel, however, a son of Pippin by a concubine Chalpaïda, seized the
mayoralty in both kingdoms, and he it was who continued the Carolingian
dynasty. Charles Martel governed from 714 to 741, and in 751 his son
Pippin III. took the title of king. The Carolingian dynasty reigned in
France from 751 to 987, when it was ousted by the Capetian dynasty. In
Germany descendants of Pippin reigned till the death of Louis the Child
in 911; in Italy the Carolingians maintained their position until the
deposition of Charles the Fat in 887. Charles, duke of Lower Lorraine,
who was thrown into prison by Hugh Capet in 991, left two sons, the last
male descendants of the Carolingians, Otto, who was also duke of Lower
Lorraine and died without issue, and Louis, who after the year 1000
vanishes from history.

  See P.A.F. Gérard and L.A. Warnkönig, _Histoire des Carolingiens_
  (Brussels, 1862); H.E. Bonnell, _Anfange des Karoling. Hauses_
  (Berlin, 1866); J.F. Böhmer and E. Mühlbacher, _Regesten d.
  Kaiserreichs unter d. Karolingern_ (Innsbruck, 1889 seq.); E.
  Mühlbacher, _Deutsche Gesch. unter d. Karolingern_ (Stuttgart, 1896);
  F. Lot, _Les Derniers Carolingiens_ (Paris, 1891).     (C. Pf.)



CAROLUS-DURAN, the name adopted by the French painter Charles Auguste
Emile Durand (1837-   ), who was born at Lille on the 4th of July 1837.
He studied at the Lille Academy and then went to Paris, and in 1861 to
Italy and Spain for further study, especially devoting himself to the
pictures of Velasquez. His subject picture "Murdered," or "The
Assassination" (1866), was one of his first successes, and is now in the
Lille museum, but he became best known afterwards as a portrait-painter,
and as the head of one of the principal ateliers in Paris, where some of
the most brilliant artists of a later generation were his pupils. His
"Lady with the Glove" (1869), a portrait of his own wife, was bought for
the Luxembourg. In 1889 he was made a commander of the Legion of Honour.
He became a member of the Académie des Beaux-arts in 1904, and in the
next year was appointed director of the French academy at Rome in
succession to Eugène Guillaume.



CARORA, an inland town of the state of Lara, Venezuela, on the Carora, a
branch of the Tocuyo river, about 54 m. W. by S. of the city of
Barquisimeto, and 1128 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1908 estimate) 6000.
The town is comparatively well-built and possesses a fine parish
church, and a Franciscan convent and hermitage. It was founded in 1754,
and its colonial history shows considerable prosperity, its population
at that time numbering 9000 to 10,000. The neighbouring country is
devoted principally to raising horses, mules and cattle; and in addition
to hides and leather, it exports rubber and other forest products.



CARP, the typical fish of a large family (_Cyprimdae_) of Ostariophysi,
as they have been called by M. Sagemehl, in which the air-bladder is
connected with the ear by a chain of small bones (so-called Weberian
ossicles). The mouth is usually more or less protractile and always
toothless; the lower pharyngeal bones, which are large and falciform,
subparallel to the branchial arches, are provided with teeth, often
large and highly specialized, in one, two or three series (pharyngeal
teeth), usually working against a horny plate attached to a vertical
process of the basioccipital bone produced under the anterior vertebrae,
mastication being performed in the gullet. These teeth, adapted to
various requirements, vary according to the genus, being conical,
hooked, spoon-shaped, molariform, &c.

The species are extremely numerous, about 1400 being known, nearly
entirely confined to fresh water, and feeding on vegetable substances or
small animals. They are dispersed over the whole world with the
exception of South America, Madagascar, Papuasia, and Australasia.
Remains of several of the existing genera have been found in Oligocene
and later beds of Europe, Sumatra and North America. One member of the
_Cyprinidae_ is at present known to be viviparous, but no observations
have as yet been made on its habits. It is a small barbel discovered in
Natal by Max Weber, and described by him under the name _Barbus
viviparus_.

The _Cyprinidae_[1] are divided into four subfamilies:--_Catostominae_
(mostly from North America, with a few species from China and eastern
Siberia), in which the maxillary bones take a share in the border of the
mouth, and the pharyngeal teeth are very numerous and form a single,
comb-like series; _Cyprininae_, the great bulk of the family, more or
less conforming to the type of the carp; _Cobitinae_, or loaches
(Europe, Asia, Abyssinia), which are dealt with in a separate article
(see LOACH); and the _Homalopterinae_ (China and south-eastern Asia),
mountain forms allied to the loaches, with a quite rudimentary
air-bladder.

For descriptions of other Cyprinids than the carp, see GOLDFISH, BARBEL,
GUDGEON, RUDD, ROACH, CHUB, DACE, MINNOW, TENCH, BREAM, BLEAK,
BITTERLING, MAHSEER.

[Illustration: The Common Carp.]

The carp itself, _Cyprinus carpio_, has a very wide distribution, having
spread, through the agency of man, over nearly the whole of Europe and a
part of North America, where it lives in lakes, ponds, canals, and
slow-running rivers with plenty of vegetation. The carp appears to be a
native of temperate Asia and perhaps also of south-eastern Europe, and
to have been introduced into other parts in the 12th and 13th century;
it was first mentioned in England in 1496. The acclimatization of the
carp in America has been a great success, especially in the northern
waters, where, the growth continuing throughout the entire year, the
fish soon attains a remarkable size. The presence of carp in Indo-China
and the Malay Archipelago is probably also to be ascribed to human
agency. In the British Isles the carp seldom reaches a length of 2½
ft., and a weight of 20 lb., whilst examples of that size are quite
frequent on the continent, and others measuring 4½ ft. and weighing 60
lb or more are on record. The fish is characterized by its large scales
(34 to 40 in the lateral line), its long dorsal fin, the first ray of
which is stiff and serrated, and the presence of two small barbels on
each side of the mouth. But it varies much in form and scaling, and some
most aberrant varieties have been fixed by artificial selection, the
principal being the king-carp or mirror-carp, in which the scales are
enlarged and reduced in number, forming more or less regular
longitudinal series on the sides, and the leather-carp, in which the
scales have all but disappeared, the fish being covered with a thick,
leathery skin. Deformed examples are not of rare occurrence.

Although partly feeding on worms and other small forms of animal life,
the carp is principally a vegetarian, and the great development of its
pharyngeal apparatus renders it particularly adapted to a graminivorous
régime. The longevity of the fish has probably been much exaggerated,
and the statements of carp of 200 years living in the ponds of
Pont-Chartrain and other places in France and elsewhere do not rest on
satisfactory evidence.

A close ally of the carp is the Crucian carp, _Cyprinus carassius_,
chiefly distinguished by the absence of barbels. It inhabits Europe and
northern and temperate Asia, and is doubtfully indigenous to Great
Britain. It is a small fish, rarely exceeding a length of 8 or 9 in. It
has many varieties. One of these, remarkable for its very short, thick
head and deep body, is the so-called Prussian carp, _C. gibelio_, often
imported into English ponds, whilst the best known is the goldfish
(q.v.), _C. auralus_, first produced in China.     (G. A. B.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The name of the fishes of the genus _Cyprinus_ is derived from
    the island of Cyprus, the ancient sanctuary of Venus; this name is
    supposed to have arisen from observations of the fecundity and
    vivacity of carp during the spawning period.



CARPACCIO, VITTORIO, or VITTORE (c. 1465-c. 1522), Italian painter, was
born in Venice, cf an old Venetian family. The facts of his life are
obscure, but his principal works were executed between 1490 and 1519;
and he ranks as one of the finest precursors of the great Venetian
masters. The date of his birth is conjectural. He is first mentioned in
1472 in a will of his uncle Fra Ilario, and Dr Ludwig infers from this
that he was born c. 1455, on the ground that no one could enter into an
inheritance under the age of fifteen; but the inference ignores the
possibility of a testator making his will in prospect of the beneficiary
attaining his legal age. Consideration of the youthful style of his
earliest dated pictures ("St Ursula" series, Venice, 1490) makes it
improbable that at that time he had reached so mature an age as
thirty-five; and the date of his birth is more probably to be guessed
from his being about twenty-five in 1490. What is certain is that he was
a pupil (not, as sometimes thought, the master) of Lazzaro Bastiani,
who, like the Bellini and Vivarini, was the head of a large _atelier_ in
Venice, and whose own work is seen in such pictures as the "S.
Veneranda" at Vienna, and the "Doge Mocenigo kneeling before the Virgin"
and "Madonna and Child" (formerly attributed to Carpaccio) in the
National Gallery, London. In later years Carpaccio appears to have been
influenced by Cima da Conegliano (e.g. in the "Death of the Virgin,"
1508, at Ferrara). Apart from the "St Ursula" series, his scattered
series of the "Life of the Virgin" and "Life of St Stephen," and a "Dead
Christ" at Berlin, may be specially mentioned.

  For an authoritative and detailed account, see the _Life and Works of
  Vittorio Carpaccio_, by Pompeo Molmenti and Gustav Ludwig, Eng. trans,
  by R.H. Cust (1907); and the criticism by Roger Fry, "A Genre Painter
  and his Critics," in the _Quarterly Review_ (London, April 1908).



CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS[1] (Lat. _Monies Sarmatici_; Med. Lat. _Montes
Nivium_), the eastern wing of the great central mountain system of
Europe. With the exception of the extreme southern and south-eastern
ramifications, which belong to Rumania, the Carpathians lie entirely
within Austrian and Hungarian territory. They begin on the Danube near
Pressburg, surround Hungary and Transylvania in a large semicircle, the
concavity of which is towards the south-west, and end on the Danube near
Orsova. The total length of the Carpathians is over 800 m., and their
width varies between 7 and 230 m., the greatest width of the Carpathians
corresponding with its highest altitude. Thus the system attains its
greatest breadth in the Transylvanian plateau, and in the meridian of
the Tatra group. It covers an area of 72,600 sq. m., and after the Alps
is the most extensive mountain system of Europe. The Carpathians do not
form an uninterrupted chain of mountains, but consist of several
orographically and geologically distinctive groups; in fact they present
as great a structural variety as the Alps; but as regards magnificence
of scenery they cannot compare with the Alps. The Carpathians, which
only in a few places attain an altitude of over 8000 ft., lack the bold
peaks, the extensive snow-fields, the large glaciers, the high
waterfalls and the numerous large lakes which are found in the Alps.
They are nowhere covered by perpetual snow, and glaciers do not exist,
so that the Carpathians, even in their highest altitude, recall the
middle region of the Alps, with which, however, they have many points in
common as regards appearance, structure and flora. The Danube separates
the Carpathians from the Alps, which they meet only in two points,
namely, the Leitha Mountains at Pressburg, and the Bakony Mountains at
Vacz (Waitzen), while the same river separates them from the Balkan
Mountains at Orsova. The valley of the March and Oder separates the
Carpathians from the Silesian and Moravian chains, which belong to the
middle wing of the great central mountain system of Europe. The
Carpathians separate Hungary and Transylvania from Lower Austria,
Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Bukovina and Rumania, while its ramifications
fill the whole northern part of Hungary, and form the quadrangular mass
of the Transylvanian plateau. Unlike the other wings of the great
central system of Europe, the Carpathians, which form the watershed
between the northern seas and the Black Sea, are surrounded on all sides
by plains, namely the great Hungarian plain on the south-west, the plain
of the Lower Danube (Rumania) on the south, and the Galician plain on
the north-east.

The Carpathian system can be divided into two groups: the Carpathians
proper, and the mountains of Transylvania. The Carpathians proper
consist of an outer wall, which forms the frontier between Hungary and
the adjacent provinces of Austria, and of an inner wall which fills the
whole of Upper Hungary, and forms the central group. The outer wall is a
complex, roughly circular mass of about 600 m. extending from Pressburg
to the valley of the Visó, and the Golden Bistritza, and is divided by
the Poprad into two parts, the western Carpathians and the eastern or
wooded Carpathians. Orographically, therefore, the proper Carpathians
are divided into: (a) the western Carpathians, (b) the eastern or wooded
Carpathians, and (c) the central groups.


    Ranges.

  (a) The western Carpathians, which begin at the _Porta Hungarica_ on
  the Danube, just opposite the Leitha Mountains, and extend to the
  Poprad river, are composed of four principal groups: the Little
  Carpathians (also called the Pressburg group) with the highest peak
  Bradlo (2670 ft.); the White Carpathians or Miava group, with the
  highest peak Javornik (3325 ft.), and the Zemerka (3445 ft.); the
  Beskid proper or western Beskid group, which extends from a little
  west of the Jablunka pass to the river Poprad, with the highest peaks,
  Beskid (3115 ft.), Smrk (4395 ft.), Lissa Hora (4350 ft.) and Ossus
  (5106 ft.); and the Magura or Arva Magura group, which extends to the
  south of Beskid Mountains, and contains the Babia Gora (5650 ft.), the
  highest peak in the whole western Carpathians.

  (b) The eastern or wooded Carpathians extend from the river Poprad to
  the sources of the river Visó and the Golden Bistritza, whence the
  Transylvanian Mountains begin, and form the link between these
  mountains and the central groups or High Carpathians. They are a
  monotonous sandstone range, covered with extensive forests, which up
  to the sources of the rivers Ung and San are also called the eastern
  Beskids, and are formed of small parallel ranges. The northern
  two-thirds of this range has a mean altitude of 3250 ft., and only in
  its southern portion it attains a mean altitude of 5000 ft. The
  principal peaks are Rusky Put (4264 ft.), Popadjé (5690 ft.), Bistra
  (5936 ft.), Pop Ivan (6214 ft.), Tomnatik (5035 ft.), Giumaleu (6077
  ft.) and Cserna Gora (6505 ft.), the culminating peak of the whole
  range. To the eastern Carpathians belongs also the range of mountains
  extending between the Laborcza and the Upper Theiss, called Vihorlat,
  which attains in the peak of the same name an altitude of 3495 ft. As
  indicated by its name, which means "burnt," it is of volcanic origin,
  and plays an important part in the folklore and in the superstitious
  legends of the Hungarian people.

  (c) The central groups or the High Carpathians extend from the
  confluence of the rivers Arva and Waag to the river Poprad, and
  include the highest group of the Carpathian system. They consist of
  the High Tatra group (see TATRA MOUNTAINS), where is found the
  Gerlsdorfer or Franz Josef peak (Hung. _Gerlachfalvi-Csúcs_), with an
  altitude of 8737 ft., the highest peak in the whole Carpathian
  Mountains. On its west are the Liptauer Magura, with the highest peak
  the Biela Szkala (6900 ft.), and on its east are the Zipser Magura,
  which have a mean altitude of 3000 ft. South of the central groups
  lies a widely extending mountain region, which fills the whole of
  northern Hungary, and is known as the Hungarian highland. It is
  composed of several groups, which are intersected by the valleys of
  numerous rivers, and which descend in sloping terraces towards the
  Danube and the Hungarian plain. The principal groups are: the Neutra
  or Galgóc Mountains (4400 ft.), between the rivers Waag and Neutra;
  the Low or Nizna Tatra, which extends to the south of the High Tatra,
  and has its highest peaks, the Djumbir (6700 ft.) and the Králova Hola
  (6400 ft.); this group is continued towards the east up to the
  confluence of the Göllnitz with the Hernad, by the so-called
  Carpathian foot-hills, with the highest peak the Zelesznik (2675 ft.).
  West of the Low Tatra extend the Fatra group, with the highest peak,
  the Great Fatra (5825 ft.), to the south and east of which lie the
  Schemnitz group, the Ostrowsky group, and several other groups, all of
  which are also called the Hungarian Ore Mountains, on account of their
  richness in valuable ores. South-east of the Low Tatra extend the
  Zips--Gömör Ore Mountains, while the most eastern group is the
  Hegyalja Mountains, between the Topla, Tarcza and Hernad rivers, which
  run southward from Eperjes to Tokaj. In their northern portion, they
  are also called Sóvár Mountains, and reach in their highest peak,
  Simonka, an altitude of 3350 ft., while their southern portion, which
  ends with the renowned Tokaj Hill (1650 ft.), is also called Tokaj
  Mountains. The smaller groups of the Hungarian highland are: on the
  south-west the Neograd Mountains (2850), whose offshoots reach the
  Danube; to the east of them extends the Matra group, with the highest
  peak the Saskö (3285 ft.). The Matra group is of volcanic origin,
  rising abruptly in the great Hungarian plain, and constitutes one of
  the most beautiful groups of the Carpathians; lastly, to its east
  extend the thickly-wooded Bükk Mountains (3100 ft.).


    Lakes.

  Throughout the whole of the Carpathian system there are numerous
  mountain lakes, but they cannot compare with the Alpine lakes either
  in extension or beauty. The largest and most numerous are found in the
  Tatra Mountains. These lakes are called by the people "eyes of the
  sea," through their belief that they are in subterranean communication
  with the sea.


    Passes.

  The western and central Carpathians are much more accessible than the
  eastern Carpathians and the Transylvanian Mountains. The principal
  passes in the western Carpathians are: Strany, Hrozinkau, Wlara, Lissa
  and the Jablunka pass (1970 ft.), the principal route between Silesia
  and Hungary, crossed by the Breslau-Budapest railway; and the Jordanow
  pass. In the central Carpathians are: the road from Neumarkt to
  Késmárk through the High Tatra, the Telgárt pass over the Králova Hola
  from the Poprad to the Gran, and the Tylicz pass from Bartfeld to
  Tarnow. In the eastern Carpathians are: the Dukla pass, the
  Mezo-Laborcz pass crossed by the railway from Tokaj to Przemysl; the
  Uszok pass, crossed by the road from Ungvár to Sambor; the Vereczke
  pass, crossed by the railway from Lemberg to Munkács; the Delatyn or
  Körösmezö pass (3300 ft.), also called the Magyar route, crossed by
  the railway from Kolomea to Debreczen; and the Stiol pass in Bukovina.


    Geology.

  The Carpathians consist of an outer zone of newer beds and an inner
  zone of older rocks. Between the two zones lies a row of _Klippen_,
  while towards the Hungarian plain the inner zone is bordered by a
  fringe of volcanic eruptions of Tertiary age. The _outer zone_ is
  continuous throughout the whole extent of the chain, and is remarkably
  uniform both in composition and structure. It is formed almost
  entirely of a succession of sandstones and shales of Cretaceous and
  Tertiary age--the so-called Carpathian Sandstone--and these are thrown
  into a series of isoclinal folds dipping constantly to the south. The
  folding of this zone took place during the Miocene period. The _inner
  zone_ is not continuous, and is much more complex in structure. It is
  visible only in the west and in the east, while in the central
  Carpathians, between the Hernad and the headwaters of the Theiss, it
  is lost beneath the modern deposits of the Hungarian plain. In the
  western Carpathians the inner zone consists of a foundation of
  Carboniferous and older rocks, which were folded and denuded before
  the deposition of the succeeding strata. In the outer portion of the
  zone the Permian and Mesozoic beds are crushed and folded against the
  core of ancient rocks; in the inner portion of the zone they rest upon
  the old foundation with but little subsequent disturbance. In the
  eastern Carpathians also, the Permian and Mesozoic beds are not much
  folded except near the outer margin of the zone. The _Klippen_ are
  isolated hills, chiefly of Jurassic limestone, rising up in the midst
  of the later and softer deposits on the inner border of the sandstone
  zone. Their relations to the surrounding beds are still obscure. They
  may be "rootless" masses brought upon the top of the later beds by
  thrustplanes. They may be the pinched-up summits of sharp anticlinals,
  which in the process of folding have been forced through the softer
  rocks which lay upon them. Or, finally, they may have been islands
  rising above the waters, in which were deposited the later beds which
  now surround them. The so-called _Klippen_ of the Swiss Alps are now
  usually supposed to rest upon thrustplanes, but they are not strictly
  analogous, either in structure or in position, with those of the
  Carpathians. Of all the peculiar features of the Carpathian chain,
  perhaps the most remarkable is the fringe of volcanic rocks which lies
  along its inner margin. The outbursts began in the later part of the
  Eocene period, and continued into the Pliocene, outlasting the period
  of folding. They appear to be associated with faulting upon the inner
  margin of the chain. Trachytes, rhyolites, andesites and basalts
  occur, and a definite order of succession has been made out in several
  areas; but this order is not the same throughout the chain.


    Climate, Flora, Fauna.

  The Carpathians, like the Alps, form a protective wall to the regions
  south of them, which enjoy a much milder climate than those situated
  to the north. The vegetation of these regions is naturally subjected
  to the different climateric conditions. The mountains themselves are
  mostly covered with forests, and their vegetation presents four zones:
  that of the beech extends to an altitude of 4000 ft.; that of the
  Scottish fir to 1000 ft. higher. Above this grows a species of pine,
  which becomes dwarfed and disappears at an altitude of about 6000 ft.,
  beyond which is a zone of lichen and moss covered or almost bare rock.
  The highest parts in the High Tatra and in the Transylvanian Mountains
  have a flora similar to that of the Alps, more specially that of the
  middle region. Remarkable is the sea-shore flora, which is found in
  the numerous salt-impregnated lakes, ponds and marshes in
  Transylvania. As regards the fauna, the Carpathians still contain
  numerous bears, wolves and lynxes, as well as birds of prey. It
  presents a characteristic feature in its mollusc fauna, which contains
  many species not found in the neighbouring regions, and only found in
  the Alpine region. Cattle and sheep are pastured in great numbers on
  its slopes.


    Minerals.

  The Carpathian system is richer in metallic ores than any other
  mountain system of Europe, and contains large quantities of gold,
  silver, copper, iron, lead, coal, petroleum, salt, zinc, &c., besides
  a great variety of useful mineral. A great number of mineral springs
  and thermal waters are found in the Carpathians, many of which have
  become frequented watering-places.


    History.

  The systematic and scientific exploration of the Carpathians dates
  only from the beginning of the 19th century. The first ascension of
  the Lomnitzer peak in the High Tatra was made by one David or Johann
  Fröhlich in 1615. The first account of the Tatra Mountains was written
  by Georg Buchholz, a resident of Kesmark in 1664. The English
  naturalist, Robert Townson, explored the Tatra in 1793 and 1794, and
  was the first to make a few reliable measurements. The results of his
  exploration appeared in his book, _Travels in Hungary_, published in
  1797. But the first real important work was undertaken by the Swedish
  naturalist, Georg Wablenberg (1780-1851), who in 1813 explored the
  central Carpathians as a botanist, but afterwards also made
  topographical and geological studies of the system. The results of all
  the former explorations were embodied by A. von Sydow in an extensive
  work published in 1827. During the 19th century the measurements of
  the various parts of the Carpathians was undertaken by the ordnance
  survey of the Austrian army, which published their first map of the
  central Carpathians in 1870. A great stimulus to the study of this
  mountain system was given by the foundation of the Hungarian
  Carpathian Society in 1873, and a great deal of information has been
  added to our knowledge since. In 1880 two new Carpathian societies
  were formed: a Galician and a Transylvanian.

  AUTHORITIES.--F.W. Hildebrandt, _Karpathenbilder_ (Glogau, 1863); E.
  Sagorski and G. Schneider, _Flora Carpatorum Centralium_ (2 vols.,
  Leipzig, 1891); Muriel Dowie, _A Girl in the Carpathians_ (London,
  1891); _Orohydrographisches Tableau der Karpathen_ (Vienna, 1886), in
  six maps of scale 1:750,000; V. Uhlig, "Bau und Bild der Karpaten," in
  _Bau und Bild Österreichs_ (Vienna, 1903).     (O. Br.; P. La.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] The name is derived from the Slavonic word _Chrb_, which means
    mountain-range. As _Chrawat_, it was first applied to the inhabitants
    of the region, whence it passed in the form _Krapat_ or _Karpa_ as
    the name of mountain system. In official Hungarian documents of the
    13th and 14th centuries the Carpathians are named Thorchal or
    Tarczal, and also _Montes Nivium_.



CARPATHUS (Ital. _Scarpanto_), an island about 30 m. south-west of
Rhodes, in that part of the Mediterranean which was called, after it,
the Carpathian Sea (_Carpathium Mare_). It was both in ancient and
medieval times closely connected with Rhodes; it was held by noble
families under Venetian suzerainty, notably the Cornari from 1306 to
1540, when it finally passed into the possession of the Turks. From its
remote position Carpathus has preserved many peculiarities of dress,
customs and dialect, the last resembling those of Rhodes and Cyprus.

  See L. Ross, _Reisen auf den gr. Inseln_ (Halle, 1840-1845); T. Bent,
  _Journal of Hellenic Studies_, vi. (1885), p. 235; R.M. Dawkins,
  _Annual of British School at Athens_, ix. and x.



CARPEAUX, JEAN BAPTISTE (1827-1875), French sculptor, was born at
Valenciennes, France, on the 11th of May 1827. He was the son of a
mason, and passed his early life in extreme poverty. In 1842 he came to
Paris, and after working for two years in a drawing-school, was admitted
to the École des Beaux-Arts on the 9th of September 1854. The Grand Prix
de Rome was awarded to his statue of "Hector bearing in his arms his son
Astyanax." His first work exhibited at the Salon, in 1853, did not show
the spirit of an innovator, and was very unlike the work of his master
Rude. At Rome he was fascinated by Donatello, and yet more influenced by
Michelangelo, to whom he owes his feeling for vehement and passionate
action. He sent from Rome a bust, "La Palombella," 1856; and a
"Neapolitan Fisherman," 1858. This work was again exhibited in the Salon
of 1859, and took a second-class medal; but it was not executed in
marble till 1863. In his last year in Rome he sent home a dramatic
group, "Ugolino and his Sons," and exhibited at the same time a "Bust of
Princess Mathilde." This gained him a second-class medal and the favour
of the Imperial family. In 1864 he executed the "Girl with a Shell," the
companion figure to the young fisherman; and although in 1865 he did not
exhibit at the Salon, busts of "Mme. A.E. André," of "Giraud" the
painter, and of "Mlle. Benedetti" showed that he was not idle. He was
working at the same time on the decorations of the Pavilion de Flore, of
which the pediment alone was seen at the Salon, though the bas-relief
below is an even better example of his style. After producing a statue
of the prince imperial, Carpeaux was made chevalier of the Legion of
Honour in 1866. Two years later he received an important commission to
execute one of the four groups for the façade of the new opera house.
His group, representing "Dancing," 1869, was greeted with indignant
protests; it is nevertheless a sound work, full of movement, with no
fault but that of exceeding the limitations prescribed. In 1869 he
exhibited a "Bust of M. Gamier," and followed this up with two pieces
intended for his native city: a statue of Watteau, and a bas-relief,
"Valenciennes repelling Invasion." During the Commune he came to
England, and made a "Bust of Gounod" in 1871. His last important work
was a fountain, the "Four Quarters of the World," in which the globe is
sustained by four female figures personifying Europe, Asia, Africa and
America. This fountain is now in the Avenue de l'Observatoire in Paris.
Carpeaux, though exhausted by illness, continued designing
indefatigably, till he died at the Château de Bécon, near Courbevoie, on
the 12th of October 1875, after being promoted to the higher grade of
the Legion of Honour. Many of his best drawings have been presented by
Prince Stirbey to the city of Valenciennes.

  See Ernest Chesneau, _Carpeaux, sa vie et son oeuvre_ (Paris, 1880);
  Paul Foucart, _Catalogue du Musée Carpeaux, Valenciennes_ (Paris,
  1882); Jules Claretie, _J. Carpeaux_ (1882); François Bournand, _J.B.
  Carpeaux_ (1893).



CARPENTARIA, GULF OF, an extensive arm of the sea deeply indenting the
north coast of Australia, between 10° 40' and 17° 40' S., and 135° 30'
and 142° E. Its length is 480 m. and its extreme breadth (E. to W.) 420
m. It is bounded E. by Cape York Peninsula, and W. by the Northern
Territory of South Australia. Near its southern extremity is situated a
group of islands called Wellesley; and towards the western side are the
Sir Edward Pellew Islands, the Groote Eylandt and others. A large number
of rivers find their way to the gulf, and some are of considerable size.
On the eastern side there is the Mitchell river; at the south-east
corner the Gilbert, the Norman, the Flinders, the Leichhardt and the
Gregory; and on the west the Roper river. Jan Carstensz, who undertook a
voyage of discovery in this part of the globe in 1623, gave the name of
Carpentier to a small river near Cape Duyfhen in honour of Pieter
Carpentier, at that time governor-general of the Dutch East Indies; and
after the second voyage of Abel Tasman in 1644, the gulf, which he had
successfully explored, began to appear on the charts under its present
designation.



CARPENTER, LANT (1780-1840), English Unitarian minister, was born at
Kidderminster on the 2nd of September 1780, the son of a carpet
manufacturer. After some months at a non-conformist academy at
Northampton, he proceeded to Glasgow University, and then joined the
ministry. After a short time as assistant master at a Unitarian school
near Birmingham, he was in 1802 appointed librarian at the Liverpool
Athenaeum. In 1805 he became pastor of a church in Exeter, removing in
1817 to Bristol. At both Bristol and Exeter he was also engaged in
school work, among his Bristol pupils being Harriet and James Martineau.
Carpenter did much to broaden the spirit of English Unitarianism. The
rite of baptism seemed to him a superstition, and he substituted for it
a form of infant dedication. His health, undermined by his constant
labours, broke down in 1839, and he was ordered to travel. He was
drowned on the night of the 5th of April 1840, having been washed
overboard from the steamer in which he was travelling from Leghorn to
Marseilles.



CARPENTER, MARY (1807-1877), English educational and social reformer,
was born on the 3rd of April 1807 at Exeter, where her father, Dr Lant
Carpenter, was Unitarian minister. In 1817 the family removed to
Bristol, where Dr Carpenter was called to the ministry of Lewin's Mead
Meeting. As a child Mary Carpenter was unusually earnest, with a deep
religious vein and a remarkable thoroughness in everything she
undertook. She was educated in her father's school for boys, learning
Latin, Greek and mathematics, and other subjects at that time not
generally taught to girls. She early showed an aptitude for teaching,
taking a class in the Sunday school, and afterwards helping her father
with his pupils. When Dr Carpenter gave up his school in 1829, his
daughters opened a school for girls under Mrs Carpenter's
superintendence. In 1833 the raja Rammohun Roy visited Bristol, and
inspired Miss Carpenter with a warm interest in India; and Dr Joseph
Tuckerman of Boston about the same time aroused her sympathies for the
condition of destitute children. Her life-work began with her taking
part in organizing, in 1835, a "Working and Visiting Society," of which
she was secretary for twenty years. In 1843 her interest in negro
emancipation was aroused by a visit from Dr S.G. Howe. Her interest in
general educational work was also growing. A bill introduced in this
year "to make provision for the better education of children in
manufacturing districts," as a first instalment of a scheme of national
education, failed to pass, largely owing to Nonconformist opposition,
and private effort became doubly necessary. So-called "Ragged Schools"
sprang up in many places, and Miss Carpenter conceived the plan of
starting one in Lewin's Mead. To this was added a night-school for
adults. In spite of many difficulties this was rendered a success,
chiefly owing to Miss Carpenter's unwearied enthusiasm and remarkable
organizing power. In 1848 the closing of their own private school gave
Miss Carpenter more leisure for philanthropic and literary work. She
published a memoir of Dr Tuckerman, and a series of articles on ragged
schools, which appeared in the _Inquirer_ and were afterwards collected
in book form. This was followed in 1851 by _Reformatory Schools for the
Children of the Perishing and Dangerous Classes, and for Juvenile
Offenders_. She sketched out three classes of schools as urgently
needed:--(1) good free day-schools; (2) feeding industrial schools; (3)
reformatory schools. This book drew public attention to her work, and
from that time onwards she was drawn into personal intercourse with
leading thinkers and workers. She was consulted in the drafting of
educational bills, and invited to give evidence before House of Commons
committees. To test the practical value of her theories, she herself
started a reformatory school at Bristol, and in 1852 she published
_Juvenile Delinquents, their Condition and Treatment_, which largely
helped on the passing of the Juvenile Offenders Act in 1854. Now that
the principle of reformatory schools was established, Miss Carpenter
returned to her plea for free day-schools, contending that the ragged
schools were entitled to pecuniary aid from the annual parliamentary
grant. At the Oxford meeting of the British Association (1860) she read
a paper on this subject, and, mainly owing to her instigation, a
conference on ragged schools in relation to government grants for
education was held at Birmingham (1861). In 1866 Miss Carpenter was at
last able to carry out a long-cherished plan of visiting India, where
she found herself an honoured guest. She visited Calcutta, Madras and
Bombay, inaugurated the Bengal Social Science Association, and drew up a
memorial to the governor-general dealing with female education,
reformatory schools and the state of gaols. This visit was followed by
others in 1868 and 1869. Her attempt to found a female normal school was
unsuccessful at the time, owing to the inadequate previous education of
the women, but afterwards such colleges were founded by government. A
start, however, was made with a model Hindu girls' school, and here she
had the co-operation of native gentlemen. Her last visit to India took
place in 1875, two years before her death, when she had the satisfaction
of seeing many of her schemes successfully established. At the meeting
of the prison congress in 1872 she read a paper on "Women's Work in the
Reformation of Women Convicts." Her work now began to attract attention
abroad. Princess Alice of Hesse summoned her to Darmstadt to organize a
Women's Congress. Thence she went to Neuchâtel to study the prison
system of Dr Guillaume, and in 1873 to America, where she was
enthusiastically received. Miss Carpenter watched with interest the
increased activity of women during the busy 'seventies. She warmly
supported the movement for their higher education, and herself signed
the memorial to the university of London in favour of admitting them to
medical degrees. She died at Bristol on the 14th of June 1877, having
lived to see the accomplishment of nearly all the reforms for which she
had worked and hoped.     (A. Z.)



CARPENTER, WILLIAM BENJAMIN (1813-1885), English physiologist and
naturalist, was born at Exeter on the 29th of October 1813. He was the
eldest son of Dr Lant Carpenter. He attended medical classes at
University College, London, and then went to Edinburgh, where he took
the degree of M.D. in 1839. The subject of his graduation thesis, "The
Physiological Inferences to be Deduced from the Structure of the Nervous
System of Invertebrated Animals," indicates a line of research which had
fruition in his _Principles of General and Comparative Physiology_. His
work in comparative neurology was recognized in 1844 by his election to
the Royal Society, which awarded him a Royal medal in 1861; and his
appointment as Fullerian professor of physiology in the Royal
Institution in 1845 enabled him to exhibit his powers as a teacher and
lecturer, his gift of ready speech and luminous interpretation placing
him in the front rank of exponents, at a time when the popularization of
science was in its infancy. His manifold labours as investigator,
author, editor, demonstrator and lecturer knew no cessation through
life; but in assessing the value of his work, prominence should be given
to his researches in marine zoology, notably in the lower organisms, as
Foraminifera and Crinoids. These researches gave an impetus to deep-sea
exploration, an outcome of which was in 1868 the "Lightning," and later
the more famous "Challenger," expedition. He took a keen and laborious
interest in the evidence adduced by Canadian geologists as to the
organic nature of the so-called _Eozoon Canadense_, discovered in the
Laurentian strata, and at the time of his death had nearly finished a
monograph on the subject, defending the now discredited theory of its
animal origin. He was an adept in the use of the microscope, and his
popular treatise on _The Microscope and its Revelations_ (1856) has
stimulated a host of observers to the use of the "added sense" with
which it has endowed man. In 1856 Carpenter became registrar of the
university of London, and held the office for twenty-three years; on his
resignation in 1879 he was made a C.B. in recognition of his services to
education generally. Biologist as he was, Carpenter nevertheless made
reservations as to the extension of the doctrine of evolution to man's
intellectual and spiritual nature. In his _Principles of Mental
Physiology_ he asserted both the freedom of the will and the existence
of the "Ego," and one of his last public engagements was the reading of
a paper in support of miracles. He died in London, from injuries
occasioned by the accidental upsetting of a spirit-lamp, on the 19th of
November 1885.



CARPENTRAS, a town of south-eastern France, capital of an arrondissement
in the department of Vaucluse 16 m. N.E. of Avignon by rail. Pop. (1906)
town, 7775; commune, 10,721. The town stands on the left bank of the
Auzon on an eminence, the summit of which is occupied by the church of
St Siffrein, formerly a cathedral, and the adjoining law-court. St
Siffrein, in its existing state, dates from the 15th and 16th centuries
and is Gothic in style, but it preserves remains of a previous church of
Romanesque architecture. The rich sculpture of the southern portal and
the relics and works of art in the interior are of some interest. The
law-court, built in 1640 as the bishop's palace, contains in its
courtyard a small but well-preserved triumphal arch of the Gallo-Roman
period. Other important buildings are the hospital, an imposing
structure of the 18th century, opposite which is a statue of its
founder, Malachie d'Inguimbert, bishop of Carpentras; and the former
palace of the papal legate, which dates from 1640. Of the old
fortifications the only survival is the Porte d'Orange, a gateway
surmounted by a fine machicolated tower. Their site is now occupied by
wide boulevards shaded by plane-trees. Water is brought to the town by
an aqueduct of forty-eight arches, completed in 1734.

Carpentras is the seat of a sub-prefect and of a court of assizes, and
has a tribunal of first instance, communal college for girls and boys, a
large library and a museum. Felt hats, confectionery, preserved fruits
and nails are its industrial products, and there are silk-works,
tanneries and dye-works. There is trade in silk, wool, fruit, oil, &c.
The irrigation-canal named after the town flows to the east of it (see
VAUCLUSE).

Carpentras is identified with _Carpentoracte_, a town of Gallia
Narbonensis mentioned by Pliny, which appears to have been of some
importance during the Roman period. Its medieval history is full of
vicissitudes; it was captured and plundered by Vandal, Lombard and
Saracen. In later times, as capital of the Comtat Venaissin, it was
frequently the residence of the popes of Avignon, to whom that province
belonged from 1228 till the Revolution. Carpentras was the seat of a
bishopric from the 5th century till 1805.



CARPENTRY, the art and work of a carpenter (from Lat. _carpentum_, a
carriage), a workman in wood, especially for building purposes. The
labour of the sawyer is applied to the division of large pieces of
timber or logs into forms and sizes to suit the purposes of the
carpenter and joiner. His working-place is called a sawpit, and his most
important tool is a pit-saw. A cross-cut saw, axes, dogs, files,
compasses, lines, lampblack, blacklead, chalk and a rule may also be
regarded as necessary to him. But this method of sawing timber is now
only used in remote country places, and in modern practice logs, &c.,
are converted into planks and small pieces at saw-mills, which are
equipped with modern machinery to drive all kinds of circular saws by
electricity, steam or gas.

Carpentry or carpenters' work has been divided into three principal
branches--descriptive, constructive and mechanical. The first shows the
lines or method for forming every species of work by the rules of
geometry; the second comprises the practice of reducing the timber into
particular forms, and joining the forms so produced in such a way as to
make a complete whole according to the intention or design; and the
third displays the relative strength of the timbers and the strains to
which they are subjected by their disposition. Here we have merely to
describe the practical details of the carpenter's work in the operations
of building. He is distinguished from the joiner by his operations being
directed to the mere carcass of a building, to things which have
reference to structure only. Almost everything the carpenter does to a
building is absolutely necessary to its stability and efficiency,
whereas the joiner does not begin his operations until the carcass is
complete, and every article of joiners' work might at any time be
removed from a building without undermining it or affecting its most
important qualities. Certainly in the practice of building a few things
do occur regarding which it is difficult to determine to whose immediate
province they belong, but the distinction is sufficiently broad for
general purposes.

The carpenter frames or combines separate pieces of timber by scarfing,
notching, cogging, tenoning, pinning and wedging, &c. The tools he uses
are the rule, axe, adze, saws, mallet, hammers, chisels, gouges, augers,
pincers, set squares, bevel, compasses, gauges, level, plumb rule, jack,
trying and smoothing planes, rebate and moulding planes, and gimlets and
wedges. The carpenter has little labour to put on to the stuff; his
chief work consists in fixing and cutting the ends of timbers, the
labour in preparing the timber being done by machinery.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Lapped Joint.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Fished Joint.]

[Illustration: FIGS. 3, 4 and 5.--Scarf Joints.]

_Joints._--The joints in carpentry are various, and each is designed
according to the thrust or strain put upon it. Those principally used
are the following: lap, fished, scarf, notching, cogging, dovetailing,
housing, halving, mortice and tenon, stub tenon, dovetailed tenon, tusk
tenon, joggle, bridle, foxtail wedging, mitre, birdsmouth, built-up,
dowel. Illustrations are given of the most useful joints in general use,
and these, together with the descriptions, will enable a good idea to be
formed of their respective merits and methods of application.

The lapped joint (fig. 1) is used for temporary structures in
lengthening timbers and is secured with iron straps and bolts; a very
common use of the lap joint is seen in scaffolding secured with cords
and wedges.

The fished joint (fig. 2) is used for lengthening beams and is
constructed by butting the ends of two pieces of timber together with an
iron plate on top and bottom, and bolting through the timber; these iron
connecting-plates are usually about 3 ft. long and ¼ in. and ½ in. in
thickness. This joint provides a good and cheap method of accomplishing
its purpose.

The scarf joint (figs. 3, 4 and 5) is used for lengthening beams, and is
made by cutting and notching the ends of timbers and lapping and fitting
and bolting through. This method cuts into the timber, but is very
strong and neat; in addition for extra strong work an iron fish-plate is
used as in the fished joint.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--Notching.]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Cogging.]

The ends of floor joints and rafters are usually _notched_ (fig. 6) over
plates to obtain a good bearing and bring them to the required levels.
Where one timber crosses another as in purlins, rafters, wood floor
girders, plates, &c, both timbers are notched so as to fit over each
other; this _cogging_ (fig. 7) serves instead of fastenings. The timbers
are held together with a spike. In this way they are not weakened, and
the joint is a very good one for keeping them in position.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Dovetail.]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Housing.]

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Halving.]

Dovetailing (fig. 8) is used for connecting angles of timber together,
such as lantern curbs or linings, and is the strongest form. When an end
of timber is let entirely into another timber it is said to be _housed_
(fig. 9). Where timbers cross one another and require to be flush on one
or both faces, sinkings are cut in each so as to fit over each other
(_halving_); these can either be square (fig. 10), bevelled (fig. 11) or
dovetailed sinkings (fig. 12). The end of one piece of timber cut so as
to leave a third of the thickness forms a _tenon_, and the piece of
timber which is to be joined to it has a mortice or slot cut through it
to receive the tenon; the two are then wedged or pinned with wood pins
(fig. 13).

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--Bevelled Halving.]

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--Dovetailed Halving.]

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--Mortice and Tenon.]

[Illustration: FIG. 14.--Stub Tenon or Joggle.]

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--Dovetailed Tenon.]

[Illustration: FIG. 16.--Tusk Tenon.]

[Illustration: FIG. 17.---Bridle Joint.]

[Illustration: FIG. 18.--Foxtail Wedging.]

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--Dowelling.]

A stub tenon or joggle (fig. 14) is used for fixing a post to a sill; a
sinking is cut in the sill and a tenon is cut on the foot of the post to
fit into the sinking to keep the post from sliding.

The purpose of a dovetailed tenon (fig. 15) is to hold two pieces of
wood together with mortice and tenon so that it can be taken apart when
necessary. The tenon is cut dovetail shape, and a long mortice permits
the wide part of the tenon to go through, and it is secured with wood
wedges. Where the floor joists or rafters are trimmed round fires,
wells, &c., the tusk tenon joint (fig. 16) is used for securing the
trimmer joist. It is formed by cutting a tenon on the trimmer joist and
passing it through the side of the trimming joist and fixing it with a
wood key. Where large timbers are tusk tenoned together, the tenons do
not pass right through, but are cut in about 4 in. and spiked.

A bridle joint or birdsmouth (fig. 17) is formed by cutting one end of
timber either V shape or segmental, and morticing the centre of this
shaped end. Similar sinkings are cut on the adjoining timber to fit one
into the other; these are secured with pins and also various other forms
of fastenings. Foxtail wedging (fig. 18) is a method very similar to
mortice and tenon. But the tenon does not go through the full thickness
of the timber; and also on the end of the tenon are inserted two wedges,
so that when the tenon is driven home the wedges split it and wedge
tightly into the mortice. This joint is used mostly in joinery. The
mitre is a universal joint, used for connecting angles of timber as in
the case of picture frames. Built-up joints involve a system of lapping
and bolting and fishing, as in the case of temporary structures, for
large spans of centering for arches, and for derrick cranes. Dowels are
usually 3 or 4 in. long and driven into a circular hole in the foot of a
door frame or post; the other end is let into a hole in the sill (fig.
19).

[Illustration: FIG. 20.--Method of supporting Centering for Concrete.]

_Centering._--Centering is temporary timber or framing erected so as to
carry concrete floors or arches of brick or stone, &c.; when the work
has set the centering is removed gradually. The centering for concrete
floors is usually composed of scaffold boards resting on wood bearers
(fig 20). One wood bearer rests along on top of the steel joists;
through this bearer long bolts are suspended, and to the bottom of these
bolts a second bearer is fixed, and on the bottom bearer the scaffold
boards rest. Another method, not much used now, is to fit the boards to
the size of the floor and prop them up on legs, but among other
disadvantages this process takes up much space and is more costly.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.]

Turning piece is a name given to centering required for turning an arch
over (fig. 21); it is only 4½ in. wide on the soffit or bed, and is
generally cut out of a piece of 3 or 4 in. stuff, the top edge being
made circular to the shape of the arch. It is kept in position whilst
the arch is setting with struts from ground or sills and is nailed to
the reveals, a couple of cross traces being wedged between. In the case
of a semicircular or elliptical arch with 4½ in. soffit this turning
piece would be constructed of ribs cut out of 4 in. stuff with ties and
braces. Or the ribs could be cut out of 1 in. stuff, in which case there
must be one set of ribs outside and one inside secured with ties and
braces; each set of ribs when formed of thin stuff is made of two
thicknesses nailed together so as to lap the joints. For spans up to 15
ft. the thin ribs would be used, and for spans above 15 ft. ribs out of
4 in. stuff and upwards. For arches with 9 in. soffit and upwards,
whether segmental or semicircular or elliptical, the centres are formed
with the thin ribs and laggings up to 15 ft. span; above 15 ft. with 4
in. ribs and upwards (fig. 22). The lower member of centres is called
the tie, and is fixed so as to tie the extremities together and to keep
the centre from spreading. Where the span is great, these ties, instead
of being fixed straight, are given a rise so as to allow for access or
traffic underneath. Braces are necessary to support the ribs from
buckling in, and must be strong enough and so arranged as to withstand
all stresses. Laggings are small pieces or strips of wood nailed on the
ribs to form the surface on which to build the arch, and are spaced 1
in. apart for ordinary arches; for gauged arches they are nailed close
together and the joints planed off. When centres are required to be
taken down, the wedges upon which the centre rests are first removed so
as to allow the arch to take its bearing gradually. Centres for brick
sewers and vault arching are formed in the same way as previously
mentioned, with ribs and laggings, but the thickness of the timbers
depends upon the weight to be carried.

[Illustration: FIG. 22.--Centering for Stone Arch.]

[Illustration: FIG. 23.--Single Floor.]

_Floors._--For ordinary residential purposes floors are chiefly
constructed of timber. Up to about the year 1895 nearly every modern
building was constructed with wood joists, but because of evidence
adduced by fire brigade experts and the serious fires that have occurred
fire-resisting floors have been introduced. These consist of steel
girders and joists, filled in with concrete or various patented brick
materials in accordance with such by-laws as those passed by the London
County Council and other authorities. The majority of the floors of
public buildings, factories, schools, and large residential flats are
now constructed of fire-resisting materials. There are two descriptions
of flooring, single and double.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.--Floor pugged to resist passage of sound.]


  Single flooring.

Single flooring (fig. 23) consists of one row of wood joists resting on
a wall or partition at each end without any intermediate support, and
receiving the floor boards on the upper surface and the ceiling on the
underside. Joists should never be less than 2 in. thick, or they are
liable to split when the floor brads are driven in; the thickness varies
from 2 to 4 in. and the depth from 5 to 11 in. (see _By-laws_, below),
the distance between each joist is usually 12 in. in the clear, but
greater strength is obtained in a floor by having deep joists and
placing them closer together. These floors are made firm and prevented
from buckling by the use of strutting as mentioned hereafter.

The efficiency of single flooring is materially affected by the
necessity which constantly occurs in practice of trimming round
fireplaces and flues, and round well holes such as lifts, staircases,
&c. Trimming is a method of supporting the end of a joist by tenoning it
into timber crossing it; the timber so tenoned is called the trimmer
joist, and the timber morticed for the tenon of the trimmer is called
the trimming joist, while the intermediate timbers tenoned into the
trimmer are known as the trimmed joists. This system has to be resorted
to when it is impossible to get a bearing on the wall.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.--Double Floor, with Steel Binders.]

A trimmer requires for the most part to be carried or supported at one
or both ends by the trimming joists, and both the trimmer and the
trimming joists are necessarily made stouter than if they had to bear no
more than their own share of the stress. In the usual practice the
trimmer and trimming joists are 1 in. thicker than the common joists,
but there are special regulations and by-laws set out in the various
districts and boroughs (see _By-laws_, below) to which attention must be
given.

[Illustration: FIG. 26.]

[Illustration: FIG. 27.--Construction of a Medieval Floor.]

The principal objection to single flooring is that the sound passes
through from floor to floor, so that, in some cases, conversation in one
room can almost be understood in another. To stop the sound from passing
through floors the remedy is to pug them (fig. 24). This consists in
using rough boarding resting on fillets nailed to the sides of the
joists about half-way up the depth of the joists, and then filling in on
top of the boarding with slag wool usually 3 in. thick. Also to further
prevent sound from passing through floors the flooring should be tongued
and the ceiling should have a good thick floating coat, in poor work the
stuff on ceilings is very stinted. In days gone by, ceiling joists were
put at right angles to the floor joists, but this took up head room and
was costly, and the arrangement is obsolete.

[Illustration: FIG. 28.--Herring-bone Strutting.]

[Illustration: FIG. 29.--Solid Strutting.]


  Double flooring.

Double flooring (fig. 25) consists of single fir joists trimmed into
steel girders; in earlier times a double floor consisted of fir joists
called binding, bridging and ceiling joists, but these are very little
used now and the single fir joists and steel girders have taken their
place. Steel girders span from wall to wall, and on their flanges are
bolted wood plates to receive the ends of the single joists which are
notched over plates and run at right angles to the girders (fig. 26).
The bearings of the joists on the wall also rest on wall plates, so as
to get a level bed, and are sometimes notched over them. Wall plates,
which are usually 4½ in. × 3 in. and are bedded on walls in motar, take
the ends of joists and distribute the weight along the wall. The plates
bolted on the side of girders are of sizes to suit the width of the
flanges.

The medieval floor (fig. 27) consisted of the framed floor with wood
girders, binding, bridging and ceiling joists; and the underside of all
the timbers was usually wrought, the girders and binders being boldly
moulded and the other timbers either square or stop chamfered.

Flooring is strengthened by the use of strutting, either herring-bone
(fig. 28) or solid (fig. 29). Herring-bone strutting consists of two
pieces of timber, usually 2 in. × 2 in., fixed diagonally between each
joist in continuous rows, the rows being about 6 ft. apart. Solid
strutting consists of 1¼ in. boards, nearly the same depth as the joists
and fitted tightly between the joists, and nailed in continuous rows 6
ft. apart. Where heavy weights are likely to be put on floors long bolts
are passed through the centre of joists at the side of strutting; since
this draws the strutting tightly together and does not produce any
forcing stress on the walls, it is undoubtedly the best method.

Floors are usually constructed to carry the following loads (including
weight of floor):--

  Residences, 1¼ cwt. per foot super of floor space.

  Public buildings, 1½ cwt. per foot super of floor space.

  Factories, 2½ to 4 cwt. per foot super of floor space.

  _Local By-laws._--With regard to floor joists in domestic buildings,
  the following are required in the Hornsey district, in the north of
  London. The size of every common bearing floor joist up to 3 ft. long
  in clear shall be 3 in. × 2½ in.; from 3 ft. to 6 ft. in clear it
  shall be 4½ in. × 3 in.; from 6 ft. to 8 ft., 6½ in. × 2½ in.; from 8
  ft. to 12 ft., 7 in. × 2½ in., and so on according to the clear span.
  The Hornsey by-laws with regard to trimmers are as follows:--A trimmer
  joist shall not receive more than six common joists, and the thickness
  of a trimming joist receiving a trimmer at not more than 3 ft. from
  one end and of every trimmer joist shall be 1/8th of an inch greater
  than the thickness for a common joist of the same bearing for every
  common joist carried by a trimmer. For example, if the common joists
  are 7 in. × 2½ in. and the trimmer has six joists trimmed into same,
  the size of trimmer would have to be 7 in. × 3¼ in. The Hornsey
  council also requires that the floor boards shall not be less than
  7/8ths of an inch thick.

  There is little difference in the requirements of the various
  localities. For example, the regulations of the Croydon council
  require that every common bearing joist for lengths up to 3 ft. 4 in.
  in clear shall be 3 in. × 2½ in.; for lengths between 3 ft. 4 in. and
  5 ft. 4 in., 4 in. × 2 in.; for lengths between 5 ft. 4 in. and 7 ft.
  4 in., 4 in. × 3 in.; and so on according to the clear span. The
  Croydon by-laws with regard to trimmers are as follows:--A trimmer
  joist shall not receive more than six common joists, and the thickness
  of a trimming joist shall be 1½ in. thicker than that for common
  joists of the same bearing, and the thickness of a trimmer joist shall
  be ¼ in. thicker for every joist trimmed into same than the common
  joist. For example, if the common joists are 4 in. × 3 in. the
  trimming joists would have to be 4 in. × 4¼ in., and the trimmer joist
  would have to be 4 in. × 4½ in.

_Partitions._--Partitions are screens used to divide large floor spaces
into smaller rooms and are sometimes constructed to carry the floors
above by a system of trussing. They are built of various materials;
those in use now are common stud partitions, bricknogged partitions, and
solid deal and hardwood partitions, 4½ in. brick walls or bricks laid on
their sides, so making a 3 in. partition, and various patent partitions
such as coke breeze concrete or hollow brick partitions (see BRICKWORK),
iron and wire partitions, and plaster slab partitions (see PLASTERWORK).

There are two kinds of stud or quarter partitions, common and trussed.

[Illustration: FIG. 30.--Common Partition.]


  Common partitions.

Common partitions (fig. 30) simply act as a screen to divide one room
from another, and do not carry any weight. They weigh about 25 lb. per
foot superficial including plastering on both sides, and are composed of
4 in. × 3 in. head and sill and 4 in. × 2 in. upright studs; 4 in. × 2
in. nogging pieces are fitted between the studs to keep them from
bending in, and are placed parallel with the head, usually 4 ft. apart.
Where door-openings occur in these partitions the studs next the opening
are 4 in. × 3 in. Should the floor boards have been laid, the sill of
the partition would be laid direct on them, but if the partitions are
erected at the time of building the structure the sill should either
rest directly over a joist, if parallel with it, or at right angles to
the joists; should the position of the sill come between two joists,
that is, parallel with them, then short pieces called bridging pieces of
4 in. × 2 in. stuff are wedged between the two joists and nailed to
carry the sill.

[Illustration: FIG. 31.--Trussed Partition.]


  Trussed partitions.

Trussed partitions (fig. 31) are very similar to the last, but they are
so built as to carry their own weight and also to support floors, and in
addition have braces; the head and sill are larger, and calculated
according to the clear bearing and the weight put upon them. There are
two forms of trussing, namely, queen post (fig. 32) and king post (fig.
33).


  Bricknogged partitions.

Bricknogged partitions are formed in the same manner as the common stud
partition, except that the studs are placed usually 18 or 27 in. apart
in the clear instead of 12 in., and the 18 and 27 in. widths being
multiples of a brick dimension, they are filled in with brickwork 4½ in.
thick and always built in cement. These are used to prevent sound from
passing from one room to another, and also to prevent fire from
spreading, and are vermin-proof. Another method is to fill the space
between the studs with coke breeze concrete instead of brickwork.

Timber partitions have the advantages that they are light and cheap and
substantial, and the disadvantages that they are not fire-resisting or
sound-resisting or vermin-proof; they should never be erected in damp
positions such as the lower floors of buildings.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.--Queen Post Trussed Partition.]

[Illustration: FIG. 33.--King Post Trussed Partition.]

Solid wood partitions are used in offices and classrooms of schools, the
upper portions usually being glazed; where these partitions enclose a
staircase in a public building the London Building Act requires them to
be of 2 in. hardwood, with only small panels of fire-resisting glass.

_Timber Work._--Half timber work consists of a framework of timber; the
upper storeys of suburban and country residences are often thus treated,
and the spaces between the timbers are filled in with brickwork and
plastered inside, and rough cast outside, though sometimes tiles are
hung on the outside. In some instances in country places there is no
filling between the timbers, and both sides are lath and plastered, and
in others the timbers are solid, or facing pieces are simply plugged to
the walls, the joints being pinned with hardwood pins. Half timber work
(fig. 34) well designed has a very pleasing, homely and rural effect.
The best and most durable wood to use is English oak worked smooth on
the external face and usually painted; the by-laws of various
authorities differ considerably as to the method of construction and in
the restrictions as to its use. Some very fine early examples are to be
seen in England, as at Holborn Bars, London, in the old parts of
Bristol, and at Moreton Old Hall, near Congleton, Cheshire (see HOUSE,
Plate IV. fig. 13).

[Illustration: FIG. 34.--Half Timber Construction.]

Timber-framed permanent buildings are not used in the towns of England,
not being allowed by the by-laws. In some English villages timber
bungalows are allowed, plastered inside, and either rough cast outside,
or with tiles, or with sheet iron painted. At the garden city of
Letchworth, in Hertfordshire, there are a few timber-framed bungalows
(erected about 1904 and originally intended to be used as week-end
cottages), the outsides of which are covered with sheet iron and
painted. Other instances of the temporary use of this kind of building
are found in soldiers' barracks, offices and chapels.

In America and the British colonies this class of building is very
largely erected on the outskirts of the cities. In American practice in
framing the walls of wooden buildings two distinct methods are used and
are distinguished as "braced" and "balloon."

The Braced (fig. 35) was the only kind in use previous to about the year
1850. In this method of framing the sills, posts, girts and plates are
made of heavy timber morticed and pinned together and braced with 4 in.
× 4 in. or 4 in. × 6 in. braces and common studding. To frame a building
in this way it is necessary to cut all the pieces and make all the
mortice holes on the ground, and then fit them together and raise a
whole side at a time or at least one storey of it. The common studs are
only one storey high.

The Balloon frame (fig. 36) is composed of much smaller scantlings and
is more rapidly erected and less expensive. The method is to first lay
the sill, generally 4 in. × 6 in., halved at the angles. After the floor
is laid, the corner posts, usually 4 in. × 6 in., are erected and
temporarily secured in place with the aid of stays. The common studs are
then set up and spiked to the sill, and a temporary board nailed across
their face on the inside. These common studs are the full height from
sill to roof plate, and the second tier of floor joists are supported by
notching a 1¼ in. × 7 in. board, called a false girt or ribbon, into
their inside edge at the height to receive the floor joists. The ends of
the joists are also placed against a stud and spiked. The tops of the
studs are cut to a line, and a 2 in. × 4 in. plate is spiked on top, an
additional 2 in. × 4 in. plate being placed on the top of the last
breaking joint. Should the studs not be long enough to reach the plate,
then short pieces are fished on with pieces of wood spiked on both
sides. The diagram shows a portion of the framework of a two-storey
house constructed in the manner described. In the balloon frame the
timbers are held together entirely by nails and spikes, thus permitting
them to be put up rapidly. The studs are doubled where windows or
openings occur. In both these methods dwarf brick foundations should be
built, upon which to rest the sill. For buildings of a superior kind a
combination of the braced and balloon frames is sometimes adopted.

[Illustration: FIG. 35.--Braced Frame.]

[Illustration: FIG. 36.--Balloon Frame.]

The sides of frame buildings are covered with siding, which is fastened
to a sheathing of rough boards nailed to the studs. The siding may
consist of matched boards placed diagonally, or of clapboards or weather
boards--which are thin boards thicker at one edge than the other, and
arranged horizontally with the thick edge downwards and overlapping the
thin edge of the board below. Shingles or wooden tiles are also
employed.

  AUTHORITIES.--The following are the principal publications on
  carpentry: T. Tredgold, _Carpentry_; Peter Nicholson, _Carpenter and
  Joiner_; J. Newlands, _Carpenter's Assistant_; J. Gwilt,
  _Encyclopaedia of Architecture_; Rivington, _Building Construction_
  (elementary and advanced); E.L. Tarbuck, _Encyclopaedia of Practical
  Carpentry and Joinery_; A.W. Pugin, _Details of Ancient Timber
  Houses_; Beresford Pite, _Building Construction_; J.P. Allen,
  _Building Construction_; H. Adams. _Notes on Building_; C.F. Mitchell,
  _Building Construction_ (elementary and advanced); Burrell, _Building
  Construction_; F.E. Kidder, _Building Construction_ (U.S.A.); E.E.
  Viollet le Duc, _Dictionnaire_; J.K. Krafft, _L'Art de la charpente_.
       (J. Bt.)



CARPET, the name given to any kind of textile covering for the ground or
the floor, the like of which has also been in use on couches and seats
and sometimes even for wall or tent hangings or curtains. In modern
times, however, carpet usually means a patterned fabric woven with a
raised surface of tufts (either cut or looped), and used as a floor
covering. Other floor coverings are and have been made also without such
a tufted surface, and of these some are simple shuttle-woven materials
plain or enriched with needlework or printed with patterns, others are
woven after the manner of tapestry-weaving (see TAPESTRY) or in
imitation of it, and a further class of carpets is made of felt (see
FELT). This last material is entirely different from that of shuttle or
tapestry weaving. Although carpet weaving by hand is, and for centuries
has been, an Oriental industry, it has also been, and is still, pursued
in many European countries. Carpet-weaving by steam-driven machinery is
solely European in origin, and was not brought to the condition of
meeting a widespread demand until the 19th century.


PLATE I

  [Illustration: FIG. 1.--PART OF A LINEN COVERING OVER-WROUGHT WITH
  ORNAMENT IN LOOPS OF COLOURED WOOLS.

  Egypto-Roman of the 3rd or 4th century A.D. (Victoria and Albert
  Museum, South Kensington.)]

  [Illustration: FIG. 2.--PART OF A LINEN COVERING OVER-WROUGHT WITH
  ORNAMENT IN LOOPS OF DARK-BROWN WOOL.

  Egypto-Roman of the 3rd or 4th century A.D. (Victoria and Albert
  Museum, South Kensington.)]

  [Illustration: FIG. 3.--CUT PILE TURKEY CARPET, 18th CENTURY,
  EXEMPLIFYING SUCH CHARACTERISTIC ANGULAR TREATMENT OF QUASI-BOTANICAL
  FORMS AS IS USUALLY FOUND IN CARPETS AND RUGS MADE IN ASIA MINOR. FROM
  DESIGNS OF PERSIAN OR MOSIL ORIGIN. (Victoria and Albert Museum, South
  Kensington.)]


PLATE II

  [Illustration: FIG 4.--RUG MADE IN PERSIA IN THE MANNER OF TAPESTRY
  WEAVING]

  [Illustration: FIG. 5.--CARPET OF STOUT FLAX OR HEMP WOVEN AND THEN
  COMPLETELY COVERED WITH ORNAMENT WORKED IN CLOSE NEEDLE STITCHES IN
  COLOURED THREADS.]


  History.

In connexion with the word "carpet" (Lat. _carpita_, rug; O. Fr.
_carpite_) notice may be taken of the Gr. [Greek: Tapaes] and the Lat.
_tapetium_, whence also comes the Fr. _tapis_ (the present word for
"carpet") as well as our own word "tapestry." This latter, though now
more particularly descriptive of hangings and curtains woven in a
special way, was, in later medieval times, indiscriminately applied to
them and to stuffs used as floor and seat coverings. From a very early
period classical writers make mention of them. In ancient Egypt, for
instance, floor and seat coverings were used in temples for religious
ceremonies by the priests of Amen Ra; later on they were used to
garnish the palaces of the Pharaohs. If one may judge from rare remains
of decorative textiles, in the museum at Cairo especially, dating from
at least 1480 B.C., such Egyptian fabrics were of linen inwoven with
coloured wools in a tapestry-weaving manner, and were not tufted or
piled textures. Taken from the palace at Nineveh is a large marble slab
carved in low relief with a geometrical pattern surrounded by a border
of lotus flowers and buds, evidently a copy of an Assyrian floor cover
or rug about 705 B.C., such as was also woven probably in the
tapestry-weaving manner. On the other hand, its design equally well
suggests patchwork--a method of needlework in vogue with Egyptians, at
least 900 years B.C., for ornamental purposes, as indicated by the
elaborately patterned canopy which covered the bier of an Egyptian
queen--the mother-in-law of Shishak who took Jerusalem some three or
four years after the death of Solomon--and is preserved in the museum at
Cairo. In the _Odyssey, tapetia_ are frequently mentioned, but these
again, whether floor coverings or hangings, are more likely to have been
flat-textured and not piled fabrics. On the tomb of Cyrus was spread a
"covering of Babylonian tapestry, the carpets underneath of the finest
wrought purple" (Arrian vi. 29). Athenaeus (bk. v. ch. 27) gives from
Callixenus the Rhodian (c. 280 B.C.) an account of a banquet given by
Ptolemy Philadelphus at Alexandria, and describes "the purple carpets of
finest wool, with the pattern on both sides," as well as "handsomely
embroidered rugs very beautifully elaborated with figures"; these again
were probably not piled fabrics but kindred to the hangings in the
palace of Ptolemy Philadelphus decorated with portraits, which were
likely to have been of tapestry-weaving, and would be nearly the same in
appearance on both sides of the fabric. Of corresponding tapestry woven
work are Egypto-Roman specimens dating from the 2nd or 3rd century A.D.,
a considerable collection of which is in the Victoria and Albert Museum
at South Kensington. From about the same period date bits of hangings or
coverings woven in linen, over-wrought in a method of needlework with
ornament of compact loops of worsted (Plate I. figs, 1 and 2). These are
the earliest extant specimens of textiles presenting a tufted or piled
surface very kindred to that of woven pile carpets of much later date.
But the _modus operandi_ in producing the earlier only remotely
corresponds with that of the later--though making a surface of loops by
means of needlework as in the Coptic or Egypto-Roman specimens of Plate
I. figs, 1 and 2 seems to be a step in a progress towards the
introduction at an apparently later date of tufts into loom weavings
such as we find in 16th-century tufted or piled carpets.


  Method of making piled carpets.

The simple traditional Oriental method of making these latter is briefly
as follows:--The foundation is a warp of strong cotton or hempen or
woollen or silk threads, the number of which is regulated by the breadth
of the carpet and the fineness or coarseness to be given to its pile.
Short lengths of coloured wool or goats' or camels' hair or silk are
knotted on to each of the warp threads so that the two ends of each
twist or tuft of coloured yarn, of whatever material it is, project in
front. Across the width of the warp and above the range of tufts a weft
thread is run in; another line or row of tufts is then knotted, and
above this another weft thread is run in across the warps, and so on.
These rows of tufts and weft as made are compressed together by means of
a blunt fork or rude comb-like instrument, and thus a compact textile
with a pile or tufted surface is produced; the projecting tufts are then
carefully clipped to an even surface. In the East the rude wooden frames
in which the warp-threads are stretched either stand upright upon, or
are level with, the ground. They are easily transported and put
together, and the weaving in them is done chiefly by wandering groups of
weavers. The local surroundings, often those of rocky arid districts, in
which Kurdish and other families weave carpets are well illustrated in
_Oriental Rugs_ by J.H. Mumford. For making pile carpets and rugs two
traditional knots are in use; the first is termed the Turkish or
Ghiordes knot, from Ghiordes, an old city not far from Brusa. It is in
vogue principally throughout Asia Minor, as far east as Kurdistan and
the Caucasus, but it is also used farther south-east in parts of Persia
and India. The yard of the pile is knotted in short lengths upon the
warp-threads so that the two outstanding ends of each knot alternate
with every two threads of the warp. The second traditional knot is the
Persian or Sehna knot, which, though better calculated to produce a
close, fine, even, velvety surface, has in many parts of Persia been
abandoned for the Ghiordes knot, which is a trifle more easily tied. The
Persian or Sehna knot is tied so that from every space between the
warp-threads one end of the knot protrudes. The number of knots to the
inch tied according to either the Turkish or Persian method is
determined by the size and closeness of the warp-threads and the size
and number of weft-threads thrown across after each row of knots. The
patterns of the fabrics made by country weavers are usually taken by
them from old rugs. But in towns where weaving is conducted under more
organized conditions new patterns are often devised, and are traced
sometimes upon great cardboards, on which the stitches, or knots, are
indicated by squares each painted in its proper colour. In some of the
Persian carpets and rugs made at Sehna, Kirman and Tabriz, the warp is
of silk, a material that contributes to fine compact pile textures.


  Date of original pile textures.

There is much uncertainty as to the period when cut pile carpets were
first made in the East. Their texture is certainly akin to that of
fustian and velvet; while that of the finer Persian carpets, which were
not made much earlier than about the 15th century, is practically not
distinguishable from velvet, having long or heavy pile. Fustian, the
English name for a cut short pile textile, is derived from Fostat (old
Cairo), and such material is likely to have been made there, as soon as
anywhere else, by Saracens, especially during the propitious times of
the Fatimite Khalifs, who for more than two centuries previously to the
13th century were noted for the encouragement they gave to all sorts of
arts and manufactures. It seems that velvet came into use in Europe not
much earlier than the 14th century, and various French church
inventories of the time contain entries of "_tapis velus_ (cut pile
carpets) _d'aultre mer, à mettre par terre_" (see _Essai sur l'histoire
des tapisseries et tapis_, by W. Chocqueel, Paris, 1863, pp. 22-23). It
is an open question if the making of cut pile carpets in Persia or by
Saracens elsewhere preceded that of fustians and velvets or whether the
developments in making the three proceeded _pari passu._


  Carpets with flat surface.

The making of carpets with a flat surface, however, is probably far
older than that of cut pile carpets, and characteristic of one such old
method is that in the making of Soumak carpets (Plate II. fig. 5), the
ornament of which done in close needle stitches with coloured threads
completely conceals the stout flax or hemp web which is the essential
material of these carpets. Soumak is a distortion of Shernaka, a
Caucasian town in the far east of Asia Minor. But so-called Soumak
carpets are made in other districts, and the particular needlework used
in them is practically of the same kind as that on a smaller scale used
for the well-known Persian Nakshe or woman's trousering, and again that
used on a still smaller scale in the ornamentation of valuable Kashmir
shawls. Quilted and chain-stitched cotton prayer and bath rugs from
Persia are referred to in the article on EMBROIDERY.

Another method of making carpets with a flat surface is that of
tapestry-weaving (see Plate II. fig. 4), which, according to existing
and well-authenticated specimens of considerable antiquity (already
referred to), appears to be the oldest of any historic process of
ornamental weaving (see TAPESTRY).


  Motives in traditional designs in Oriental carpets.

Very broadly considered, the traditional designs or patterns of Oriental
carpets fall into two classes: the one, prevailing to a much larger
extent than the other, seems to reflect the austerity of the Sunni or
orthodox Mahommedans in making patterns with abstract geometric and
angular forms, stiff interlacing devices, cryptic signs and symbols and
the like; whilst the other suggests the freer thought of the Shiah or
unorthodox sect, in designs of ingenious blossom and leafy scrolls,
conventional arabesques, botanical and animal forms, and cartouches
enclosing Kufic inscriptions (see the splendid example known as the
Ardebil carpet, Plate III. fig. 7, and another in Plate IV. fig. 9).
Types of the more austere design occur in carpets from Afghanistan,
Turkestan, Bokhara and Asia Minor, N.W. India and even Morocco, the
other types of freer design being almost special to Persian rugs and
carpets.


  Indian Carpets.

Next in historic importance to Persia, Turkestan and Asia Minor is
India, where the making of cut pile carpets--known as Kalin and
Kalicha--was presumably introduced by the Mahommedans during the latter
part of the 14th century. But the industry did not apparently attain
importance until after the founding of the Mogul dynasty by Baber early
in the 16th century. The designs mainly derived from those of Persian
carpets of that period do not as a rule rise to the excellence of their
prototypes. Historical centres of Indian carpet making are in Kashmir,
the Punjab and Sind, and at Agra, Mirzapur, Jubbulpore, Warangal in the
Deccan, Malabar and Masulipatam. Velvets are richly embroidered in gold
and silver thread at Benares and Murshidabad and used as ceremonial
carpets, and silk pile carpets are made at Tanjore and Salem. For the
most part the best of the Indian woollen pile carpets have been produced
by workers of repute engaged by princes, great nobles and wealthy
persons to carry on the craft in their dwellings and palaces. These
groups of highly skilled workers as part of the household staff were
paid fixed salaries, but they were also allowed to execute private
orders. During the 19th century the carpet industry was developed in
government gaols. Produced in great quantities the prison-made carpets
as a rule are less well turned out, and the competition, set up between
them and the rugs and carpets of private factories has had a somewhat
detrimental effect upon the industry generally. Older in origin than the
cut pile carpets are those of thinner and flat surface texture, which
from almost immemorial times have been woven in cotton with blue and
white or blue and red stripes in the simplest way. These are called
_daris_ and _satranjis_, and are made chiefly in Benares and northern
India. They are also made in the south and by such aborigines retaining
primitive habits as the Todas of the Nilgiri Hills, a fact which points
to the age of this particular method of making ground or floor
coverings.


  Condition controlling designs of Oriental Carpets.

A condition that has always controlled the designs of Oriental carpets
is their rectangular shape, more often oblong than square. As a rule,
there is a well-schemed border, enclosing the main portion or field over
which the details of the pattern are symmetrically distributed. Simpler
patterns in the field of a carpet or rug consist of repetitions of the
same device or of a small number of different devices (see Plate II.
fig. 4). Richer patterns display more organic pattern in the
construction, of which the leading and continuous features are expressed
as diversified bands, scrolls and curved stems; amongst these latter are
very varied devices which play either predominant or subordinate parts
in the whole effect of the design (Plate III. fig. 7). Angular and
simplified treatments of these elaborate designs are rendered in many
Asia Minor or Turkey carpets (Plate I. fig. 3); but the typical flowing
and more graceful versions are of Persian origin (see Plate III. fig. 7,
and Plate IV. fig. 9), usually of the 16th century. Mingled in such
intricate stem designs or "arabesques" are details many of which have
been derived on the one hand from Sassanian and even from far earlier
Mesopotamian emblematical ornament based on cheetahs seizing gazelles,
on floral forms, blossoms and buds so well conventionalized in Assyrian
decoration, and on the other hand from Tatar and Chinese sources. The
style, strong in suggestion of successive historical periods, seems to
have been matured in Mosil engraved and damascened metal work of the
12th and 13th centuries before its occurrence in Persian carpet designs,
the finest of which were produced about the reign of Shah Abbas. A good
deal earlier than this period are carpets designed chiefly according to
the simpler taste of the Sunnites, and such as these appear to be
mentioned by Marco Polo (1256-1323) when writing that "in Turcomania
they weave the handsomest carpets in the world." He quotes Conia (Konieh
in Anatolia), Savast (Sivas in Asia Minor), some 300 m. north-east of
Konieh, and Cassaria (Kaisaria or Caesaraea in Anatolia) as the chief
weaving centres. It is the carpets from such places rather than from
Persia that appear to have been the first Oriental ones known in
European countries.


  Carpets in Europe.

Entries of Oriental carpets are frequent in the inventories of European
cathedral treasures. In England, for instance, carpets are said to have
been first employed by Queen Eleanor of Castile and her suite during the
latter part of the 13th century, who had them from Spain, where their
manufacture was apparently carried on by Saracens or Moors in the
southern part of the country. On the other hand, Pierre Dupont, a master
carpet-maker of the Savonnerie (see below), gives his opinion in 1632
that the introduction of carpet-making into France was due to the
Saracens after their defeat by Charles Martel in A.D. 726. But more
historically precise is the record in the book of crafts (_Livre des
metiers_) by Etienne Boileau, provost of the merchants in Paris
(1258-1268), of "the tapicers or makers of _tapis sarrasinois_,[1] who
say that their craft is for the service only of churches or great men
like kings and nobles." In the 13th and 14th centuries Saracen weavers
of rich and ornamental stuffs were also employed at Venice, which was a
chief centre for importing Oriental goods, including carpets, and
distributing them through western Europe. Dr Bode, in his
_Vorderasiatische Knüpfteppiche_, instances Oriental carpets with
patterns mainly of geometric and angular forms represented in frescoes
and other paintings by Domenico di Bartolo (1440), Niccolo di
Buonaccorso (1450), Lippo Memmi (1480) and others.

Of greater interest perhaps, and especially as throwing light upon the
trade, in, if not the making of, carpets in England somewhat in the
method of contemporary Turkey carpets, is the specimen represented in
Plate III. fig. 6. This may have been made in England, where foreign
workmen, especially Flemings, were from early times often encouraged to
settle in order to develop industries, amongst which pile carpet-making
probably and tapestry-weaving certainly were included. The earliest
record of tapestry-weaving works in England is that of William Sheldon's
at Barcheston, Warwickshire, in 1509, and, besides wall hangings,
carpets of tapestry-weaving were also possibly made there.[2] The cut
pile carpet belonging to Lord Verulam (Plate III. fig. 6) was perhaps
made at Norwich. It has a repeating and simply contrived continuous
pattern of carnations and intertwining stems with a large lozenge in the
centre bearing the royal arms of England with the letters E.R.
(Elizabeth Regina) and the date 1570. It also has the arms of the
borough of Ipswich and those of the family of Harbottle. The sequence or
continuity of its border pattern fails in the corners at one end of the
rug or carpet in a way very common to many Asia Minor and Spanish
carpets (see Plate I. fig. 3, Plate II. fig. 4, and Plate IV. fig. 10);
not, however, to the majority of Persian carpets (see Plate III. fig. 7,
and Plate IV. fig. 8). A large cut pile carpet in the Victoria and
Albert Museum has a repeating pattern of star devices, rather Moorish in
style, with the inscription on one end of the border, "Feare God and
Keep His Commandments, made in the yeare 1603," and in the field the
shield of arms of Sir Edward Apsley of Thakeham, Sussex, impaling those
of his wife, Elizabeth Elmes of Lifford, Northamptonshire. This may have
been made in England. A carpet of very similar design, especially in its
border, is to be seen in a painting by Marc Gheeraedts of the conference
at old Somerset House of English and Spanish plenipotentiaries (1604),
now in the National Portrait Gallery, London. A more important and
finer carpet belongs to the Girdlers' Company (Plate IV. fig. 8), and
is of Persian design, into which are introduced the arms of the company,
shields with eagles, and white panels with English letters, the monogram
of Robert Bell the master in 1634, but this was made at Lahore[3] to his
order.


  Spanish carpets.

Before dealing with later phases of the carpet industry in England,
mention may now be made of Spanish carpets, of European as distinct from
Saracenic or Persian design; the making of them dates at least from the
end of the 15th century or the beginning of the 16th century. It is only
within recent years that specimens of them have been obtained for public
collections, and at present little is known of the factories in Spain
whence they came. A large and most interesting series is shown in the
Victoria and Albert Museum, and a portion of one of the earlier of the
Spanish cut pile carpets in that museum is given in Plate IV. fig. 10.
The inner repeating pattern has suggestions of a lingering Moorish
influence, but a superior version of it with better definition is to be
seen in extant bits of Spanish shuttle-woven silks of the 16th century.
The border of distorted dragon-like creatures is of a Renaissance style,
and this style is more pronounced in other Spanish carpets having
borders of poorly treated Italian 16th-century pilaster ornament. Beside
cut pile, many Spanish carpets of the 17th and 18th centuries have
looped and flat surfaces, and bear Spanish names and inscriptions; many
too are of needlework in tent or cross stitch.


  Polish carpets

Another interesting class of very fine pile carpets that has also become
known comparatively recently to collectors is the so-called Polish
carpets, generally made of silk pile for the ornament, which is
distinctively Oriental, and of gold and silver thread textile for the
ground, very much after the manner of early 17th-century Brusa fabrics.
Many of these carpets are in the Czartoryski collection at Cracow. They
are discussed by Dr Bode in his treatise on Oriental carpets already
referred to. European coats of arms of the persons for whom they were
made are often introduced into them, sometimes different in workmanship
from that of the carpets, though there are specimens in which the
workmanship is the same throughout. The details of their designs consist
for the most part of arabesques and long curved serrated leaves similar
to such as are commonly used in Rhodian pottery decoration of the 16th
century, though more typical of those so frequent in 17th-century
Turkish ornament. Various considerations lead to the conclusion that
these so-called Polish carpets were probably made in either
Constantinople or Damascus (_tapete Damaschini_ frequently occur in
Venetian inventories of the 16th century) rather than, as has been
thought, by the Persian workmen employed at the Mazarski silk factory
which lasted for a short period only during the 18th century at Sleucz
in Poland.


  Carpets made in France.

The European carpet manufactory, of which a continuous history for some
two hundred and fifty years is recorded with exceptional completeness,
is that which has been maintained under successive regimes, royal,
imperial and republican, in France--at the Hotel des Gobelins in Paris.
Seventy years before its organization under Colbert in 1667 as a state
manufactory (_Manufacture Royale des Meubles de la Couronne_), Henry IV.
had founded royal art workshops for all sorts of decorative work, at the
Louvre; and here in 1604 a workroom was established for making Oriental
carpets by the side of that which existed for making _tapis flamands_.
In 1610 letters patent were granted to the Sieur Fortier, who has been
reputed to be the first inventor in France of the art of making in silk
and wool real Turkey and other piled carpets with grounds of gold
thread, which must have been sumptuous fabrics probably resembling the
so-called Polish carpets of this date. Some ten years later it is
recorded that Pierre Dupont and Simon Lourdet started a pile carpet
(_tapis veloutés_) manufactory at Chaillot (Paris) in large premises
which had been used for the manufacture of soap--whence the name of
"Savonnerie." To this converted manufactory were transferred in 1631 the
carpet-makers from the Louvre, and under the direct patronage of the
crown it continued its operations for many years at Chaillot. It was not
until 1828 that the making of _tapis de la Savonnerie_ (pile carpets of
a fine velvety character) was transferred to the Hôtel des Gobelins.
Here, in contradistinction to the Savonnerie, carpets are made others
which, like those of Beauvais (where a manufactory of hangings and
carpets was established by Colbert in 1664), are _tapis ras_ or
non-piled carpets, being of tapestry-weaving, as also are those made by
old-established firms at Aubusson and at Felletin, where the manufacture
was flourishing, at the former place in 1732 and at the latter in 1737.

Returning now to England, there are evidences towards the end of the
17th century, if not earlier, that Walloon and Flemish makers of Turkey
pile carpets had settled and set up works in different parts of the
country. A protective charter, for instance, was granted in 1701 by
William III. to weavers in Axminster and Wilton. The ultimate celebrity
of the pile carpet industry at Wilton was due mainly to the interest
taken in it during the earlier part of the 18th century by Henry, earl
of Pembroke and Montgomery, who in the course of his travels abroad
collected certain French and Walloon carpet-makers to work for him in
Wiltshire--over them he put two Frenchmen, Antoine Dufossy and Pierre
Jemale. More notable, however, than these is Pere Norbert, who
naturalized himself as an Englishman, changed his name to Parisot, and
started a manufactory of pile carpets and a training school in the craft
at Fulham about 1751. In 1753 he wrote and published "An account of the
new manufactory of Tapestry after the manner of that at the Gobelins,
and of carpets after the manner of that at Chaillot (i.e. Savonnerie)
now undertaken at Fulham by Mr Peter Parisot." Two refugee French
carpet-makers from the Savonnerie had arrived in London in 1750, and
started weaving a specimen carpet in Westminster. Parisot, having found
them out, induced the duke of Cumberland to furnish funds for their
removal to better workrooms at Paddington. The carpet when finished was
presented by the duke to the princess dowager of Wales. Parisot
quarrelled with his two employees, enticed others to come over, and then
removed the carpet works from Paddington to Fulham. A worker, J.
Baptiste Grignon, writing to "Mr Parisot in Foulleme Manufactory,"
mentions the marked preference "shown by the English court for velvet,"
and how much a "chair-back he had worked in the manner of the Savonnerie
had been admired." Correspondence published in the _Nouvelles Archives
de l'art français_ (1878) largely relates to the efforts of the French
government to stop the emigration to England of workers from the
Gobelins and the Savonnerie. Parisot's Fulham works were sold up in
1755. He then tried to start a manufactory at Exeter, but apparently
without success, as in 1756 his Exeter stock was sold in the Great
Piazza auction rooms, Covent Garden. Joseph Baretti (Dr Johnson's
friend), writing from Plymouth on the 18th of April 1760, alludes to his
having that morning visited the Exeter manufactory of _tapisseries de
Gobelins_ "founded by a distinguished anti-Jesuit--the renowned Father
Nobert." Previously to this a Mr Passavant of Exeter[4] had received in
1758 a premium from the Society of Arts of London for making a carpet in
"imitation of those brought from the East and called Turky carpets."
Similar premiums had been awarded by the society in 1757 to a Mr Moore
of Chiswell Street, Moorfields, and to a Mr Whitty of Axminster. In 1759
a society's premium was won by Mr Jeffer of Frome. In the _Transactions
of the Society_, vol. i., dated 1783, it is stated that by their
rewards, the manufacture of "Turky carpets is now established in
different parts of the kingdom, and brought to a degree of elegance and
beauty which the Turky carpets never attained." Such records as these
convey a fair notion of the sporadic attempts which immediately preceded
a systematic manufacture of pile carpets in this country. Whilst the
Wilton industry survived, that actually carried on at Axminster died
towards the end of the 18th century, and the name of Axminster like that
of Savonnerie carpets now perpetuates the memory of a locally deceased
manufactory, much as in a parallel way Brussels carpets seem to owe
their name to the renown of Brussels as an important centre in the 15th
and 16th centuries for tapestry-weaving.


  Modern machinery.

Before the existence of steam-driven carpet-making machinery in England,
employers, following the example set by the French, applied the Jacquard
apparatus, for regulating and facilitating the weaving of patterns, to
the hand manufacture of carpets. This was early in the 19th century; a
great acceleration in producing English carpets occurred, severely
threatening the industry as pursued (largely for _tapis ras_) at Tournai
in Belgium, at Nimes, Abbeville, Aubusson, Beauvais, Tourcoing and
Lannoy in France. The severity of the competition, however, was still
more increased when English enterprise, developing the inventions of
Erastus B. Bigelow (1814-1879) of America and Mr William Wood of
England, took the lead in perfecting Jacquard weaving carpet looms
worked by steam, which resulted in the setting up of many power-loom
carpet manufactories in the United Kingdom. It was not until 1880 that
French pile carpet manufacturers began to adopt similar carpet
power-looms, importing them from England.

These machines for weaving pile carpets, either looped (_bouclé_) as in
Brussels, or cut (_velouté_) as in Wilton or Axminster carpets, were
similar in all respects to such as had been in use by the important
English manufacturers--Crossley of Halifax, Templeton of Glasgow,
Humphreys of Kidderminster, Southwell of Bridgnorth, and others. A
so-called tapestry carpet weaving-loom was invented by Richard Whytock
of Edinburgh in 1832, but it was not brought to sufficient completeness
for sustained manufacture until 1855. The essential feature of Mr
Whytock's process was that the warp-threads were dyed and
parti-coloured, in such a way that when woven the several points of
colour formed the pattern of the whole fabric. Although the name
"tapestry" is used, the texture of these wares has but a remote likeness
to that of hand-made tapestry hangings and carpets such as those of the
Gobelins and Aubusson manufactories, nor is it the same as the texture
of Brussels carpets. Machine-made tapestry carpets are also called
"ingrain" carpets, because the wool or worsted is dyed in the grain,
i.e. before manufacture. Germany in her manufacture of carpets resorts
chiefly to the "ingrain" process, but in common with Holland and Belgium
she produces pile (looped and cut) carpets from power-looms. In the
United States of America there are many similar and very important
carpet manufactories; and Austria produces fine cut pile carpets
(_veloutés_), the designs of which are largely derived from those of the
Aubusson tapestry-woven carpets (_tapis ras_).

Lengths or pieces of felt and other substantial material are frequently
made for floor and stair carpeting, and are often printed with patterns.
These of course come into quite another class technically. The
technological aspects of the several branches of carpet manufacture by
machinery are treated in the articles on TEXTILE-PRINTING and WEAVING.
Briefly, the products of carpet manufacture practically fall into three
main divisions: (1) Pile carpets (_tapis moquettes_) which are either
looped (_bouclé_) or cut (_velouté_); (2) flat surface carpets (_tapis
ras_) as in hand tapestry-woven material; and (3) printed stuffs used
for carpeting.


  Modern hand-made carpets.

Whilst the production of carpets by steam power predominates in Europe
and the United States of America, and at one time appeared to be giving
the _coup de grâce_ to the craft of making carpets by hand, there has
been in recent times a revival in this latter, and many carpets of
characteristic modern design, several of them made in England, are due
to the influence of the late William Morris, who devoted much of his
varied energies to tapestry weaving and pile carpet weaving by hand,
both of which crafts are being fostered as cottage industries in parts
of Ireland, as well as in England. At the same time leading English
carpet manufactures continue to produce hand-made carpets as occasion
requires. In France a much more systematic existence of tapestry weaving
and pile carpet making by hand has been maintained and is of course
attributable to the perennial activity of the state tapestry works in
Paris (at the Gobelins workshops) and in Beauvais, and of corresponding
works managed by private enterprise at Aubusson and elsewhere.

Designing patterns for English carpet manufacture is now more organized
than it was, and greater thought and invention are given to devising
ornament suitable to the purpose of floor coverings. Before 1850 and for
a few years later, rather rude realistic representations of animals and
botanical forms (decadent versions of Savonnerie designs) were often
wrought in rugs and carpets, and survivals of these are still to be met
with, but the lessons that have been subsequently derived from
intelligent study of Oriental designs have resulted in the definite
designing of conventional forms for surface patterns. The early movement
in this direction owes much to the teaching of Owen Jones, and in its
later and rather freer phases the Morris influence has been powerful.
Schools of art at Glasgow, at Manchester, Birmingham and elsewhere in
the United Kingdom have trained and continue to train designers, whose
work has contributed to the formation of an English style with a new
note, which, as a French writer puts it, has created a sensation in
France, in Germany, in fact in all Europe and America.

France retains that facility of execution and liveliness in invention
which have been nurtured for over three hundred years by systematic,
governmental solicitude for education in decorative design and
enterprise in perfecting manufacture. Her Aubusson and Savonnerie
carpets have maintained a style of design in form and colour entirely
different from any that clearly throws back to Oriental principles, and
many of the designs for the finer and larger of these carpets are
schemed with large central oval panels, garlands of flowers and
fantastic frames very much on the plan of what is frequently to be seen
in the decoration of ceilings. At the same time the style called _l'art
nouveau_ has become developed. It largely grows from very fanciful
dispositions of free-growing natural forms, as well as curiously curved
and tenuous forms, many of which are bone-like and fibre-like in
character, flat in treatment and rather thin and washy in colour, and
its influence has slightly percolated into designs for pile carpets.
This style, sometimes intermixed with the more robust, less fantastic
and rather fuller-coloured English style, has found followers in
England, America and Germany, but the bulk of the designs now used in
power carpet looms seems to be mainly of Oriental descent.

The more important art museums in Europe contain collections of Oriental
carpets, and the history of many is fairly well established. The subject
has become one of serious study, the results of which have been
published and elucidated by means of well-executed coloured
reproductions of carpets and rugs preserved in both public and private
collections.


PLATE III.

  [Illustration: FIG. 6.--CUT PILE WORSTED CARPET, BEARING ROYAL ARMS OF
  ENGLAND WITH E.R. (ELIZABETH REGINA); DATE 1570.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 7.--VERY FINE CUT PILE PERSIAN CARPET KNOWN AS THE
  HOLY CARPET OF THE MOSQUE AT ARDEBIL.]


PLATE IV.

  [Illustration: FIG. 8.--FINE CUT PILE LAHORE CARPET (c. 1664)
  BELONGING TO GIRDLERS' COMPANY IN LONDON. OF PERSIAN DESIGN.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 9.--CORNER OF A CUT PILE CARPET OF PERSIAN
  MANUFACTURE, 16TH CENTURY.]

  [Illustration: FIG. 10.--CUT PILE CARPET OF SPANISH MANUFACTURE, EARLY
  16TH CENTURY.]

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--(1) _An Account of the New Manufactory of Tapestry
  after the manner of that at the Gobelins; and of Carpets after the
  manner of that at Chaillot, &c., now undertaken at Fulham, by Mr Peter
  Parisot_ (London, Dodsley, 1753, 8vo). This is probably the only
  account of carpet-making in England during the 18th century; it is of
  peculiar interest in that respect, and as containing a statement that
  "the Manufacture of Chaillot is altogether of wool, and worked in the
  manner of Velvet. All sorts of Figures of Men and Animals may be
  imitated in this work; but Fruits and Flowers answer better; and the
  properest employment for this Art is to make Carpets and all sorts of
  Skreens." (2) _Essai sur l'histoire et la situation actuelle de
  l'industrie des tapisseries et tapis_, by W. Chocqueel (Paris, 1863).
  (3) Vol. xi. of _Reports on the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1867_,
  containing "Report on Carpets, Tapestry and other stuffs for
  Furniture," by Matthew Digby Wyatt, F.S.A. (1868). In reviewing the
  modern products shown at the exhibition, Sir Digby Wyatt discusses at
  some length the aesthetics of carpet design. (4) _British
  Manufacturing Industries_, edited by G. Phillips Bevan, "Carpets," by
  Christopher Fresser (London, 1876). (5) _Altorientalische
  Teppichmuster nach Bildern und Originalen des xv.-xvi. Jahrhunderts_,
  by Julius Lessing (Berlin, 1877). Numerous references are made in this
  illustrated work to the carpet designs that occur in paintings by
  Italian and Flemish masters. (6) _Eastern Carpets_, by Vincent J.
  Robinson, with water-colour drawings by E. Julia Robinson (London,
  1882, large 4to). In this publication, which precedes by nine or
  ten years the more learned works by Riegl and Bode, there are two
  examples, one ascribed to the manufactory at Alcaraz in La Mancha, and
  one to the supposed manufactory of the 17th century at Warsaw. By the
  light of later and more complete investigations Mr Robinson's
  ascriptions are scarcely borne out. (7) _Oriental Carpets_, by Herbert
  Coxon (London, 1884, 8vo). (8) _Altorientalische Teppiche_, by Alois
  Riegl (Leipzig, 1891); a useful book of reference (containing
  thirty-six illustrations) of manufacturing, archaeological and
  artistic interest. (9) _Jahrbuch der kunsthistorischen Sammlungen des
  Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses_, vol. xiii. (Wien, 1892). Containing an
  important and finely illustrated article, "Ältere orientalische
  Teppiche aus dem Besitze des Allerhöchsten Kaiserhauses," by Alois
  Riegl, in the course of which comparisons are made between the designs
  in Persian MS. illustrations, in engraved metal work and those of
  carpets. (10) _Oriental Carpets_, published by the Austrian Commercial
  Museum (English edition by C. Purdon Clarke) (Vienna, 1892-1896). This
  contains a series of monographs by I.M. Stockel, Smyrna; Dr William
  Bode, Berlin; Vincent Robinson, London; M. Gerspach, Paris; T.A.
  Churchill, Tehran; Sir George Birdwood, London; C. Purdon Clarke,
  London; and Alois Riegl, Vienna, and a preface by A. von Scala,
  Vienna, (n) _Ancient Oriental Carpets_, a supplement to the above,
  four parts containing twenty-five plates with text (Leipzig, 1906,
  large folio). (12) _Vorderasiatische Knüpfteppiche aus älterer Zeit_,
  by Wilhelm Bode (Leipzig, 1901). This learned treatise gives _inter
  alia_ suggestive notes upon the production of the so-called Polish
  carpets and of Spanish carpets. (13) _Ein orientalischer Teppich vom
  Jahre 1202 und die ältesten orientalischen Teppiche_, by Alois Riegl
  (Berlin, 1895). A coloured illustration is given of a pile curtain
  with a triple niche design and an Armenian inscription that it was
  made by "Gorzi the Artist" to the glory of the church of St
  Hripsime--an Armenian martyr. The date 651 appears in the inscription,
  but Riegl adduces valid reasons for reading it as the equivalent of
  A.D. 1202. Another pile carpet of conventional garden design, probably
  not of earlier manufacture than 14th century, is also illustrated and
  carefully discussed, especially in connexion with the appearance in it
  of well-authenticated Sassanid devices--streams with fishes and birds,
  &c. (14) _Report on Carpets at the Paris Exhibition of 1900_, by
  Ferdinand Leborgne (1901, 8vo). (15) _Oriental Rugs_, by John Kimberly
  Mumford (London, 1901), contains twenty-four colour-plate and autotype
  reproductions of rugs and eight photo-engravings of phases of the rug
  industry--amongst which latter are: "A Nomad Studio," "Kurdish Girls
  at the Loom," "Boy Weavers of Tabriz," and a "Rug Market in Iran."
  (16) _Rugs, Oriental and Occidental_, by Rosa Belle Holt (Chicago,
  1901), well illustrated, with colour-plate reproductions of various
  types of rugs, including less known Chinese and Navajo specimens. (17)
  _The Art Workers' Quarterly_, vol. iii. No. II, July 1904; article on
  the pile carpet belonging to the Worshipful Company of Girdlers of the
  City of London, by A.F. Kendrick, with a colour-plate of this
  remarkable carpet, made to the order of the master of the company in
  1634 at Lahore. (18) _Journal of Indian Art and Industry: Indian
  Carpets and Rugs_ (parts 87 to 94) (London, 1905 and 1906). Upwards of
  ninety-nine illustrations of many varieties of Indian and Persian
  carpets are given in this publication, a large number showing debased
  versions of fine designs, e.g. some from the Punjab, Warangal,
  Mirzapur and Elura; those from Yarkand exhibit Tatar and Chinese
  influences. (19) _A History of Oriental Carpets before 1800_, by F.R.
  Martin, published by the State Printing Office in Vienna (Bernard
  Quaritch, London, 1906). This contains a series of excellent
  reproductions in colours of Oriental carpets, many of which, being
  presents to kings of Sweden by the shah of Persia in the 17th century,
  are to be seen in the castles of Stockholm and Copenhagen--others are
  in the Imperial Museum at Constantinople or belong to private owners.
       (A. S. C.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The _tapissiers sarrasinois_ were apparently the makers of piled
    or velvety carpets, and have always been written about in
    contradistinction to the _tapissiers de haute lisse_ or _tapissiers
    nostrez_, who it appears did not weave piled or velvety material, but
    made tapestry-woven hangings and coverings for furniture.

  [2] In Hakluyt's _Voyages_ mention is made of directions having been
    given to Morgan Hubblethorne, a dyer, to proceed (about 1579) to
    Persia to learn the arts of dyeing and of making carpets.

  [3] The Royal Factory at Lahore was established by Akbar the Great in
    the 16th century.

  [4] A wealthy serge-maker of Swiss nationality, who had been settled
    for some years in Exeter, and bought up the plant of Parisot's Exeter
    works. (See _Bulletin de la société de l'histoire de l'art français_,
    p. 97, vol. 1875 to 1878.)



CARPET-BAGGER, a political slang term for a person who stands as a
candidate for election in a locality in which he is a stranger. It is
particularly used of such a candidate sent down by the central party
organization. The term was first used in the western states of America
of speculative bankers who were said to have started business with no
other property than what they could carry in a carpet-bag, and absconded
when they failed. The term became of general use in American politics in
the reconstruction period after the Civil War, as a term of contempt for
the northern political adventurers in the South who, by the help of the
negro vote, gained control of the administration.



CARPET-KNIGHT, properly one who has been knighted in time of peace on
the carpet before the king's throne, and not on the field of battle as
an immediate reward for valour. It is used as a term of reproach for a
soldier who stays at home, and avoids active service and its hardships,
with a particular reference to the carpet of a lady's chamber, in which
such a _sainéant_ soldier lingers.



CARPI, GIROLAMO DA (1501-1556), Italian historical and portrait painter,
born at Ferrara, was one of Benvenuto Garofalo's best pupils. Becoming
infatuated with the work of Correggio, he quitted Ferrara, and spent
several years in copying that master's paintings at Parma, Modena and
elsewhere, succeeding in aping his mannerisms so well as to be able to
dispose of his own works as originals by Correggio. It is probable that
not a few pictures yet attributed to the great painter are in reality
the work of his parasite. Da Carpi's best paintings are a Descent of the
Holy Spirit, in the church of St Francis at Rovigo; a Madonna, an
Adoration of the Magi, and a St Catharine, at Bologna; and the St George
and the St Jerome, at Ferrara.



CARPI, UGO DA, Italian 15th-century painter, was long held the inventor
of the art of printing in chiaroscuro, afterwards brought to such
perfection by Parmigiano and by Baltasar Peruzzi of Siena. The
researches of Michael Huber (1727-1804) and Johann Gottlob Immanuel
Breitkopf (1719-1794) have proved, however, that this art was known and
practised in Germany by Johann Ulrich Pilgrim (Wächtlin) and Nikolaus
Alexander Mair (1450-c. 1520), at least as early as 1499, while the date
of the oldest of Da Carpi's prints is 1518. Printing in chiaroscuro is
performed by using several blocks. Da Carpi usually employed three--one
for the outline and darker shadows, another for the lighter shadows, and
a third for the half-tint. By means of them he printed engravings after
several pictures and after some of the cartoons of Raphael. Of these a
Sybil, a Descent from the Cross, and a History of Simon the Sorcerer are
the most remarkable.



CARPI, a Dacian tribe established upon the lower Danube from the 1st
century B.C. They rose to considerable power during the 3rd century
A.D., and claiming to be superior to the Goths accordingly demanded that
their incursions into Roman territory likewise should be bought off by
tribute. When this was refused they invaded in force, but were beaten
back by the emperor Philip. After this they joined with the Goths in
their successful inroads until both nations were defeated by Claudius
Gothicus. Later, after repeated defeats under Diocletian and Galerius,
they were taken under Roman protection and the greater part established
in the provinces of Pannonia and Moesia; some were left beyond the
Danube, and they are last heard of as allies of the Huns and Sciri in
the time of Theodosius I. Ptolemy speaks of Harpii and a town Harpis.
This was no doubt the form the name assumed in the mouths of their
Germanic neighbours, Bastarnae and Goths.     (E. H. M.)



CARPI, a town and episcopal see of Emilia, Italy, in the province of
Modena, 9 m. N.N.W. by rail from the town of Modena. Pop. (1905) 7118
(town), 27,135 (commune). It is the junction of a branch line to Reggio
nell' Emilia via Correggio, and the centre of a fertile agricultural
district. Carpi contains several Renaissance buildings of interest, the
façade of the old cathedral (an early Romanesque building in origin,
with some early 15th-century frescoes), the new cathedral (after 1513),
perhaps the nave of S. Niccolò and a palace, all being by Baldassare
Peruzzi: while the prince's palace (with a good court and a chapel
containing frescoes by Bernardino Loschi of Parma, 1489-1540) and the
colonnades opposite the theatre are also good. These, and the
fortifications, are all due to Alberto Pio of Carpi, a pupil of Aldus
Manutius, expelled in 1525 by Charles V., the principality being given
to the house of Este.



CARPINI, JOANNES DE PLANO, the first noteworthy European explorer of the
Mongol empire (in the 13th century), and the author of the earliest
important Western work on northern and central Asia, Russian Europe, and
other regions of the Tatar dominion. He appears to have been a native of
Umbria, where a place formerly called Pian del Carpine, but now Piano
della Magione, stands near Perugia, on the road to Cortona. He was one
of the companions and disciples of his countryman St Francis of Assisi,
and from sundry indications can hardly have been younger than the
latter, born in 1182. Joannes bore a high repute in the order, and took
a foremost part in the propagation of its teaching in northern Europe,
holding successively the offices of warden (_custos_) in Saxony, and of
provincial (_minister_) of Germany, and afterwards of Spain, perhaps of
Barbary, and of Cologne. He was in the last post at the time of the
great Mongol invasion of eastern Europe and of the disastrous battle of
Liegnitz (April 9, 1241), which threatened to cast European Christendom
beneath the feet of barbarous hordes. The dread of the Tatars was,
however, still on men's mind four years later, when Pope Innocent IV.
despatched the first formal Catholic mission to the Mongols (1245),
partly to protest against the latter's invasion of Christian lands,
partly to gain trustworthy information regarding the hordes and their
purposes; behind there may have lurked the beginnings of a policy much
developed in after-time--that of opening diplomatic intercourse with a
power whose alliance might be invaluable against Islam.

At the head of this mission the pope placed Friar Joannes, at this time
certainly not far from sixty-five years of age; and to his discretion
nearly everything in the accomplishment of the mission seems to have
been left. The legate started from Lyons, where the pope then resided,
on Easter day (April 16, 1245), accompanied by another friar, one
Stephen of Bohemia, who broke down at Kanev near Kiev, and was left
behind. After seeking counsel of an old friend, Wenceslaus, king of
Bohemia, Carpini was joined at Breslau by another Minorite, Benedict the
Pole, appointed to act as interpreter. The onward journey lay by Kiev;
the Tatar posts were entered at Kanev; and thence the route ran across
the Dnieper (_Neper, Nepere_, in Carpini and Benedict) to the Don and
Volga (_Ethil_ in Benedict; Carpini is the first Western to give us the
modern name). Upon the last-named stood the _Ordu_ or camp of Batu, the
famous conqueror of eastern Europe, and the supreme Mongol commander on
the western frontiers of the empire, as well as one of the most senior
princes of the house of Jenghiz. Here the envoys, with their presents,
had to pass between two fires, before being presented to the prince
(beginning of April 1246). Batu ordered them to proceed onward to the
court of the supreme khan in Mongolia; and on Easter day once more
(April 8, 1246) they started on the second and most formidable part of
their journey--"so ill," writes the legate, "that we could scarcely sit
a horse; and throughout all that Lent our food had been nought but
millet with salt and water, and with only snow melted in a kettle for
drink." Their bodies were tightly bandaged to enable them to endure the
excessive fatigue of this enormous ride, which led them across the
_Jaec_ or Ural river, and north of the Caspian and the Aral to the
Jaxartes or Syr Daria (_quidam fluvius magnus cujus nomen ignoramus_),
and the Mahommedan cities which then stood on its banks; then along the
shores of the Dzungarian lakes; and so forward, till, on the feast of St
Mary Magdalene (July 22), they reached at last the imperial camp called
_Sira Orda_ (i.e. Yellow Pavilion), near Karakorum and the Orkhon
river--this stout-hearted old man having thus ridden something like 3000
m. in 106 days.

Since the death of Okkodai the imperial authority had been in
_interregnum_. Kuyuk, Okkodai's eldest son, had now been designated to
the throne; his formal election in a great _Kurultai_, or diet of the
tribes, took place while the friars were at Sira Orda, along with 3000
to 4000 envoys and deputies from all parts of Asia and eastern Europe,
bearing homage, tribute and presents. They afterwards, on the 24th of
August, witnessed the formal enthronement at another camp in the
vicinity called the Golden Ordu, after which they were presented to the
emperor. It was not till November that they got their dismissal, bearing
a letter to the pope in Mongol, Arabic and Latin, which was little else
than a brief imperious assertion of the khan's office as the scourge of
God. Then commenced their long winter journey homeward; often they had
to lie on the bare snow, or on the ground scraped bare of snow with the
traveller's foot. They reached Kiev on the 9th of June 1247. There, and
on their further journey, the Slavonic Christians welcomed them as risen
from the dead, with festive hospitality. Crossing the Rhine at Cologne,
they found the pope still at Lyons, and there delivered their report and
the khan's letter.

Not long afterwards Friar Joannes was rewarded with the archbishopric
of Antivari in Dalmatia, and was sent as legate to St Louis. The date of
his death may be fixed, with the help of the _Franciscan Martyrology_
and other authorities, as the 1st of August 1252; hence it is clear that
John did not long survive the hardships of his journey.

He recorded the information that he had collected in a work, variously
entitled in the MSS. _Historia Mongalorum quos nos Tartaros appellamus_,
and _Liber Tartarorum_, or _Tatarorum_. This treatise is divided into
eight ample chapters on the country, climate, manners, religion,
character, history, policy and tactics of the Tatars, and on the best
way of opposing them, followed by a single (ninth) chapter on the
regions passed through. The book thus answers to its title. Like some
other famous medieval itineraries it shows an entire absence of a
traveller's or author's egotism, and contains, even in the last chapter,
scarcely any personal narrative. Carpini was not only an old man when he
went cheerfully upon this mission, but was, as we know from accidental
evidence in the annals of his order, a fat and heavy man (_vir gravis et
corpulentus_), insomuch that during his preachings in Germany he was
fain, contrary to Franciscan precedent, to ride a donkey. Yet not a word
approaching more nearly to complaint than those which we have quoted
above appears in his narrative. His book, both as to personal and
geographical detail, is inferior to that written a few years later by a
younger brother of the same Order, Louis IX.'s most noteworthy envoy to
the Mongols, William of Rubrouck or Rubruquis. But in spite of these
defects, due partly to his conception of his task, and in spite of the
credulity with which he incorporates the Oriental tales, sometimes of
childish absurdity, from which Rubruquis is so free, Friar Joannes'
_Historia_ is in many ways the chief literary memorial of European
overland expansion before Marco Polo. It first revealed the Mongol world
to Catholic Christendom; its account of Tatar manners, customs and
history is perhaps the best treatment of the subject by any Christian
writer of the middle ages. We may especially notice, moreover, its four
name-lists:--of the nations conquered by the Mongols; of the nations
which had up to this time (1245-1247) successfully resisted; of the
Mongol princes; and of the witnesses to the truth of his narrative,
including various merchants trading in Kiev whom he had met. All these
catalogues, unrivalled in Western medieval literature, are of the utmost
historical value. To the accuracy of Carpini's statements upon Mongol
life, a modern educated Mongol, Galsang Gomboyev, has borne detailed and
interesting testimony (see _Mélanges asiat. tirés du Bullet. Hist.
Philol. de l'Acad. Imp. de St Pétersbourg_, ii. p. 650, 1856).

The book must have been prepared immediately after the return of the
traveller, for the Friar Salimbeni, who met him in France in the year of
his return (1247), gives us these interesting particulars:--"He was a
clever and conversable man, well lettered, a great discourser, and full
of a diversity of experience.... He wrote a big book about the Tattars
(sic), and about other marvels that he had seen, and whenever he felt
weary of telling about the Tattars, he would cause that book of his to
be read, as I have often heard and seen" ("Chron. Fr. Salimbeni
Parmensis" in _Monum. Histor. ad Prov. et Placent. pertinentia_, Parma,
1857).

For a long time the work was but partially known, and that chiefly
through an abridgment in the vast compilation of Vincent of Beauvais
(_Speculum Historiale_) made in the generation following the traveller's
own, and printed first in 1473. Hakluyt (1598) and Bergeron (1634)
published portions of the original work; but the complete and genuine
text was not printed till 1838, when it was put forth by the late M.
D'Avezac, an editorial masterpiece, embodied (1839) in the 4th volume of
the _Recueil de voyages et de mémoires_ of the Geographical Society of
Paris.

Joannes' companion, Benedictus Polonus, also left a brief narrative
taken down from his oral relation. This was first published by M.
D'Avezac in the work just named.

  The following four MSS. may be noticed: (1) "Corpus," i.e. Corpus
  Christi College, Cambridge, No. 181; (2) "Petau," i.e. Leiden
  University, 77 (formerly 104)--both these are certainly earlier than
  1300; (3) "Colbert," i.e. Paris, National Library, Fonds Lat. 2477, of
  about 1350; (4) "London-Lumley," i.e. London, British Museum, MSS.
  Reg. 13 A xiv., of late 13th century. Three other MSS. certainly
  exist; yet six more are perhaps to be found, but none of these
  possesses the value of those given above. Besides the editions
  referred to in the body of the article, we may also mention (1) P.
  Girolamo Golubovich, _Biblioteca bio-bibliografica della Terra Santa e
  dell' Oriente Francescano_ (1906), vol. i. (1215-1300), pp. 190-213;
  (2) _William of Rubruck ... with ... John of Pian de Carpine_, edited
  by W.W. Rockhill, Hakluyt Society (1900), especially pp. 1-39; (3) C.
  Raymond Beazley, _Dawn of Modern Geography_, ii. (1901), 279-317,
  375-380; in. 85, 544, 553; and _Carpini and Rubruquis_, Hakluyt
  Society (1903), especially pp. vii.-xviii. 43-144, 249-295.
       (H. Y.; C. R. B.)



CARPOCRATES, a Gnostic of the 2nd century, about whose life and opinions
comparatively little is known. He is said to have been a native of
Alexandria and by birth a Jew. His family, however, seem to have been
converted to Christianity. With Epiphanes, his son, he was the leader of
a philosophic school basing its theories mainly upon Platonism, and
striving to amalgamate Plato's _Republic_ with the Christian ideal of
human brotherhood. The image of Jesus was crowned along with those of
Pythagoras, Plato and Aristotle. Carpocrates made especial use of the
doctrines of reminiscence and pre-existence of souls. He regarded the
world as formed by inferior spirits who are out of harmony with the
supreme unity, knowledge of which is the true _Gnosis_. The souls which
remember their pre-existing state can attain to this contemplation of
unity, and thereby rise superior to all the ordinary doctrines of
religion or life. Jesus is but a man in whom this reminiscence is
unusually strong, and who has consequently attained to unusual spiritual
excellence and power. To the Gnostic the things of the world are
worthless; they are to him matters of indifference. From this position
it easily followed that actions, being merely external, were morally
indifferent, and that the true Gnostic should abandon himself to every
lust with perfect indifference. The express declaration of these
antinomian principles is said to have been given by Epiphanes. The
notorious licentiousness of the sect was the carrying out of their
theory into practice.



CARPZOV (Latinized _Carpzovius_), the name of a family, many of whose
members attained distinction in Saxony in the 17th and 18th centuries as
jurists, theologians and statesmen. The family traced its origin to
Simon Carpzov, who was burgomaster of Brandenburg in the middle of the
16th century, and who left two sons, Joachim (d. 1628), master-general
of the ordnance in the service of the king of Denmark, and BENEDIKT
(1565-1624), an eminent jurist.

BENEDIKT CARPZOV was born in Brandenburg on the 22nd of October 1565,
and after studying at Frankfort and Wittenberg, and visiting other
German universities, was made doctor of laws at Wittenberg in 1590. He
was admitted to the faculty of law in 1592, appointed professor of
institutions in 1599, and promoted to the chair _Digesti infortiati et
novi_ in 1601. In 1602 he was summoned by Sophia, widow of the elector
Christian I. of Saxony, to her court at Colditz, as chancellor, and was
at the same time appointed councillor of the court of appeal at Dresden.
After the death of the electress in 1623 he returned to Wittenberg, and
died there on the 26th of November 1624, leaving five sons. He published
a collection of writings entitled _Disputationes juridicae_.

BENEDIKT CARPZOV (1595-1666), second of the name, was the second son of
the preceding, and like him was a great lawyer. He was born at
Wittenberg on the 27th of May 1595, was at first a professor at Leipzig,
obtained an honourable post at Dresden in 1639, became ordinary of the
faculty of jurists at Leipzig in 1645, and was named privy councillor at
Dresden in 1653. Among his works which had a very extensive influence on
the administration of justice, even beyond the limits of Saxony, are
_Definitiones forenses_ (1638), _Practica nova Imperialis Saxonica rerum
criminalium_ (1635), _Opus decisionum illustrium Saxoniae_ (1646),
_Processus juris Saxonici_ (1657), and others. He did much, both by his
writings and by his official work, to systematize the body of German
jurisprudence which had resulted from the intersection of the common law
of Saxony with the Roman and Canon laws. His last years were spent at
Leipzig, and his time was entirely devoted to sacred studies. He read
the Bible through fifty-three times, studying also the comments of
Osiander and Cramer, and making voluminous notes. These have been
allowed to remain in manuscript. He died at Leipzig on the 30th of
August 1666.

JOHANN BENEDIKT CARPZOV (1607-1657), fourth son of the first Benedikt,
was born at Rochlitz in 1607. He became professor of theology at Leipzig
in 1643, made himself chiefly known by his _Isagoge in Libros
Ecclesiarum Lutheranarum Symbolicos_ (published in 1665), and died at
Leipzig on the 22nd of October 1657, leaving five sons, all of whom
attained some literary eminence.

AUGUST CARPZOV (1612-1683), fifth son of the first Benedikt,
distinguished himself as a diplomatist. Born at Colditz on the 4th of
June 1612, he studied at the universities of Wittenberg, Leipzig and
Jena, and in 1637 was appointed advocate of the court of justice
(_Hofgericht_) at Wittenberg. Entering the service of Frederick William
II., duke of Saxe-Altenburg, he took part in the negotiations which led
to the peace of Westphalia in 1648, and was appointed chancellor by the
duke in 1649. From 1672 to 1680 he was chief minister of Ernest I. and
Frederick I., dukes of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and died at Coburg on the 19th
of November 1683. August, who was a man of earnest piety, wrote _Der
gekreuzigte Jesus_ (1679) and some treatises on jurisprudence.

JOHANN GOTTLOB CARPZOV (1670-1767), grandson of Johann Benedikt, was
born at Dresden in 1679. He was educated at Wittenberg, Leipzig and
Altdorf, became a learned theologian, and in 1719 was appointed
professor of Oriental languages at Leipzig. In 1730 he was made
superintendent and first pastor at Lübeck. His most important works were
the _Introductio in libros canonicos bibliorum Veteris Testamenti_
(1721), _Critica sacra V.T._ (1728), and _Apparatus Historico-criticus
Antiquitatum V. Test._ (1748). He died at Lübeck on the 7th of April
1767.

JOHANN BENEDIKT CARPZOV (1720-1803), great-grandson of the first Johann
Benedikt, was born at Leipzig, became professor of philosophy there in
1747, and in the following year removed to Helmstädt as professor of
poetry and Greek. In 1749 he was named also professor of theology. He
was author of various philological works, wrote a dissertation on
Mencius, and published an edition of Musaeus. He died on the 28th of
April 1803.

  On the family of Carpzov, see Dreyhaupt, _Beschreibung des
  Saalkreises_, Beilagen zu Theil 2. S. 26.



CARRANZA, BARTOLOMÉ (1503-1576), Spanish theologian, sometimes called de
Miranda or de Carranza y Miranda, younger son of Pedro Carranza, a man
of noble family, was born at Miranda d'Arga, Navarre, in 1503. He
studied (1515-1520) at Alcalá, where Sancho Carranza, his uncle, was
professor; entering (1520) the Dominican order, and then (1521-1525) at
Salamanca and at Valladolid, where from 1527 he was teacher of theology.
No Spaniard save Melchior Canus rivalled him in learning; students from
all parts of Spain flocked to hear him. In 1530 he was denounced to the
Inquisition as limiting the papal power and leaning to opinions of
Erasmus, but the process failed; he was made professor of philosophy and
(1533-1539) regent in theology. In 1539, as representative to the
chapter-general of his order he visited Rome; here he was made doctor of
theology, and while he mixed with the liberal circle associated with
Juan de Valdés, he had also the confidence of Paul III. Returning to
Valladolid, he acted as censor (_cualificador_) of books (including
versions of the Bible) for the Inquisition. In 1540 he was nominated to
the sees of Canaria and of Cusco, Peru, but declined both. Charles V.
chose him as envoy to the council of Trent (1546). He insisted on the
imperative duty of bishops and clergy to reside in their benefices,
publishing at Venice (1547) his discourse to the council _De necessaria
residentia personali_, which he treated as _juris divini_. His Lenten
sermon to the council, on justification, caused much remark. He was made
provincial of his order for Castile. Charles sent him to England (1554)
with his son Philip on occasion of the marriage with Mary. He became
Mary's confessor, and laboured earnestly for the re-establishment of the
old religion, especially in Oxford. In 1557 Philip appointed him to the
archbishopric of Toledo; he accepted with reluctance, and was
consecrated at Brussels on the 27th of February 1558. He was at the
deathbed of Charles V. (21st of September) and gave him extreme unction;
then raised a curious controversy as to whether Charles, in his last
moments, had been infected with Lutheranism. The same year he was again
denounced to the Inquisition, on the ground of his _Comentarios sobre el
Catechismo_ (Antwerp, 1558), which in 1563, however, was approved by a
commission of the council of Trent. He had evidently lost favour with
Philip, by whose order he was arrested at Tordelaguna (1559) and
imprisoned for nearly eight years, and the book was placed on the Index.
The process dragged on. Carranza appealed to Rome, was taken thither in
December 1566, and confined for ten years in the castle of St Angelo.
The final judgment found no proof of heresy, but compelled him to abjure
sixteen errors, rather extorted than extracted from his writings,
suspended him from his see for five years, and secluded him to the
Dominican cloister of Sta Maria sopra Minerva. Seven days after his
abjuration he died, on the 2nd of May 1576. He was succeeded in his see
by the inquisitor-general, Gaspar Quiroga. Yet the Spanish people
honoured him as a saint; Gregory XIII. placed a laudatory inscription on
his tomb in the church of Sta Maria. His real crime was not heresy but
reform. His _Summa Conciliorum et Pontificum_ (Venice, 1546) has been
often reprinted (as late as 1821), and has permanent value.

  See P. Salazar de Miranda, _Vida_ (1788); H. Laugwitz, _Bartholomaus
  Carranza_ (1870); J.A. Llorente, _Hist. Inquisition in Spain_ (English
  abridgment, 1826); Hefele in I. Goschler's _Dict. encyclopédique de la
  théol. cath._ (1858).     (A. Go.*)



CARRARA, or CARRARESI, a powerful family of Longobard origin which ruled
Padua in the 14th century. They take their name from the village of
Carrara near Padua, and the first recorded member of the house is
Gamberto (d. before 970). In the wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines
the Carraresi at first took the latter side, but they subsequently went
over to the Guelphs. This brought them into conflict with Ezzelino da
Romano; Jacopo da Carrara was besieged by Ezzelino in his castle of
Agna, and while trying to escape was drowned. Another Jacopo led the
Paduans in 1312 against Cangrande della Scala, lord of Verona, and
though taken prisoner managed to negotiate a peace in 1318. To put an
end to the perpetual civil strife the Paduans elected him their lord,
and he seems to have governed well, leaving the city at his death (1324)
to his nephew Marsiglio a man famed for his cunning. But Cangrande was
bent on acquiring Padua, and Marsiglio, unable to resist, gave it over
to him and was appointed its governor. Cangrande died in 1319, being
succeeded by his nephew Martino, and Marsiglio soon began to meditate
treachery; he negotiated with the Venetians in 1336, and in the
following year he secretly introduced Venetian troops into Padua,
arrested Alberto della Scala, Martino's brother, then in charge of the
town, and thus regained the lordship. He died in 1338, and was succeeded
by his relative Ubertino, a typical medieval tyrant, who earned an
unenviable notoriety for his murders and acts of treachery, but was also
a patron of the arts; he built the Palazzo dei Principi, the castle of
Este, constructed a number of roads and canals, and protected commerce.
He died in 1345. His distant kinsman Marsiglietto da Carrara succeeded
to him, but was immediately assassinated by Jacopo da Carrara, a prince
famed as the friend of Petrarch. In 1350 Jacopo was murdered by
Guglielmo da Carrara, and his brother Jacopino succeeded, reigning
together with his nephew Francesco.

In 1355 Francesco (il Vecchio) rose against his uncle and imprisoned
him. Francesco changed the traditional policy of his house by
quarrelling with the Venetians, in the hope of obtaining more advantages
from the Visconti of Milan. When the former were at war with Hungary
over Dalmatia in 1356 and asked Carrara to help them, he refused. Their
resentment was all the more bitter when at the instance of the pope he
mediated between them and Hungary and brought about peace on terms
unfavourable to the republic. He received Feltre, Belluno and Cividale
from the Hungarian king, but in 1369 a frontier dispute led to war
between him and Venice. After some defeats, Venice was victorious and
dictated peace; Carrara had to pay a huge indemnity and ask the
republic's pardon (1373). In 1378 he joined the league against Venice
formed by Genoa, Hungary and the Scala, and took part in the siege of
Chioggia. But the Venetians were victorious, and by the peace of Turin
Carrara found himself in the _status quo ante_, but he bought Treviso
from Austria, to whom Venice had given it in the day of her trouble. In
1385 the Venetians set the Scala against Carrara, who thereupon allied
himself with the treacherous Gian Galeazzo Visconti. The Scala were
expelled from Verona, but Carrara and Visconti quarrelled over the
division of the spoils. Visconti was determined to capture Padua as well
as Verona, and made an alliance with Venice and the house of Este for
the purpose. Francesco, seeing that the situation was hopeless,
surrendered to Visconti, in whose hands he remained a prisoner until his
death in 1392.

Francesco Novello, his son, resisted bravely, but was compelled to
surrender owing to dissensions in Padua itself. He was forced to
renounce his dominions, and received a castle near Asti, but he escaped
to France, and after a series of romantic adventures succeeded in making
peace with Venice, who was becoming alarmed at the restless ambition and
treachery of Visconti; in 1390 he raised a small armed force and seized
Padua, where he was enthusiastically welcomed by the citizens, and for
several years reigned there in peace. But in 1399 Visconti recommenced
his wars of conquest, which were to have included Padua had not death
cut short his schemes in 1402. Carrara then allied himself with
Guglielmo Scala, seized Verona, and tried to capture Vicenza. But the
Vicentini had always hated the Carraresi, and after a short siege gave
themselves over to Venice. This led to a war between that republic and
Padua, for now that Visconti was dead the Venetians had no longer any
reason to protect Carrara. Padua and Verona were besieged; the latter,
defended by Novello's son Jacopo, was soon captured. Novello himself,
besieged in his capital, although repeatedly offered favourable terms,
held out for some months hoping for help from Florence and also from
certain Venetian nobles with whom he was intriguing. Hunger, plague, the
treachery of his captains and internal discontent at last forced him to
surrender (November 1405). He and his sons Francesco III. and Jacopo
were conveyed to Venice, and at first treated with consideration; but
when their intrigues with Venetian traitors for the overthrow of the
republic came to light, they were tried, condemned, and strangled in
prison (1406). Novello's other son Marsiglio made a desperate attempt to
recover Padua in 1435, but was discovered and killed. With him the house
of Carrara ceased from troubling.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--G. Gattaro, "Istoria Padovana," in _Muratori's Rer. It.
  Script._ xvii., a very full account; P.P. Vergerius, _Vitae
  Carrarensium, ibid._ xii., untrustworthy; Verci, _Storia della Marca
  Trivigiana_ (Venice, 1789); P. Litta, _Le Famiglie celebri italiane_,
  vol. iii. (Milan, 1831); W. Lenel, _Studien zur Geschichte Paduas und
  Veronas im XIII. Jahrh._ (Strassburg, 1893); G. Cittadella, _Storia
  della Dominazione Carrarese in Padova_ (Padua, 1842); and Horatio
  Brown's brilliant essay on "The Carraresi" in his _Studies in Venetian
  History_ (London, 1907).     (L. V.*)



CARRARA, a town of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Massa e Carrara,
390 ft. above sea-level, 3 m. by rail N.N.E. of Avenza, which is 16 m.
E.S.E. of Spezia. Pop. (1881) 26,325; (1905) town, 38,100; commune,
48,493. The cathedral (1272-1385) is a fine Gothic building dating from
the period of Pisan supremacy; the other churches, and indeed all the
principal buildings of the town, are constructed of the local marble, to
which the place owes its importance. The Accademia di Belle Arti
contains several Roman antiquities found in the quarries, and some
modern works by local sculptors. A large theatre was inaugurated in
1892. Some of the quarries were worked in Roman times (see LUNA), but
were abandoned after the downfall of the western empire, until the
growth of Pisan architecture and sculpture in the 12th and 13th
centuries created a demand for it. The quarries now extend over almost
the whole of the Apuan Alps, and some 600 of them are being worked, of
which 345, with 4400 workmen, are at Carrara itself, and 50 (700 men)
at Massa. The amount exported in 1899 was 180,000 tons. The quarries are
served by a separate railway, with several branch lines.



CARREL, JEAN BAPTISTE NICOLAS ARMAND (1800-1836), French publicist, was
born at Rouen on the 8th of May 1800. His father was a merchant in good
circumstances, and he received a liberal education at the college of
Rouen, afterwards attending the military school at St Cyr. He had an
intense admiration for the great generals of Napoleon, and his
uncompromising spirit, bold uprightness and independent views marked him
as a man to be suspected. Entering the army as sub-lieutenant he took a
secret but active part in the unsuccessful conspiracy of Belfort. On the
outbreak of war with Spain in 1823, Carrel, whose sympathies were
altogether with the liberal cause, sent in his resignation, and
succeeded in effecting his escape to Barcelona. He enrolled himself in
the foreign legion and fought gallantly against his former comrades.
Near Figuières the legion was compelled to surrender, and Carrel became
the prisoner of his old general, Damas. There was considerable
difficulty about the terms of capitulation, and one council of war
condemned Carrel to death. Fortunately some informality prevented the
sentence being executed, and he was soon afterwards acquitted and set at
liberty. His career as a soldier being then finally closed, Carrel
resolved to devote himself to literature. He came to Paris and began as
secretary to Augustin Thierry, the historian. His services were found to
be of great value, and he not only obtained admirable training in habits
of composition, but was led to investigate for himself some of the most
interesting portions of English history. His first work of importance
(he had already written one or two historical abstracts) was the
_History of the Counter-Revolution in England_, an exceedingly able
political study of the events which culminated in the Revolution of
1688. He gradually became known as a skilful writer in various
periodicals; but it was not till he formed his connexion with the
_National_ that he became a power in France. The _National_ was at first
conducted by Thiers, Mignet and Carrel in conjunction; but after the
revolution of July, Thiers and Mignet assumed office, and the whole
management fell into the hands of Carrel. Under his direction this
journal became the first political organ in Paris. His judgment was
unusually clear, his principles solid and well founded, his sincerity
and honesty beyond question; and to these qualities he united an
admirable style, lucid, precise and well balanced. As the defender of
democracy he had frequently to face serious dangers. He was once in Ste
Pelagie, and several times before the tribunal to answer for his
journal. Nor was he in less danger from private enmities. Before his
last fatal encounter he was twice engaged in duels with editors of rival
papers. The dispute which led to the duel with Émile de Girardin was one
of small moment, and might have been amicably arranged had it not been
for some slight obstinacy on Carrel's part. The meeting took place on
the morning of the 22nd of July 1836. De Girardin was wounded in the
thigh, Carrel in the groin. The wound was at once seen to be dangerous,
and Carrel was conveyed to the house of a friend, where he died after
two days' suffering.

  His works, with biographical notice by Littré, were published in five
  volumes (Paris, 1858), A fine estimate of his character will be found
  in Mill's _Dissertations_, vol. i.



CARRERA, JOSÉ MIGUEL (1785-1821), the principal leader in the early
fighting for the independence of Chile, was born at Santiago on the 15th
of October 1785. Sent to Spain for a military career, he served in the
Spanish army in the Napoleonic war, but returned to Chile in July 1811,
where his vigorous character and military experience enabled him by
means of a series of coup d'etats to place himself at the head of the
nationalist government. Though at first he laboured patriotically to
establish a stable administration, to promote education, and to organize
the Chilean forces, his selfish arrogant spirit produced dissensions
between himself and other patriots, and it was his rivalry with Bernardo
O'Higgins that led to the defeat of the nationalist forces at Rancagua
in 1814. In the expedition of 1817, led by José de San Martin and
Bernardo O'Higgins, which resulted in the liberation of Chile, Carrera
had no share, owing to his hostility to the leaders, but he attempted to
procure in the United States materials for a fresh enterprise of his
own. The Argentine government, however, suspicious of his intentions,
would not allow him to go to Chile, and Carrera, enraged by this
treatment and by the execution of his brothers at Mendoza by the San
Martin party, proceeded to organize rebellion in Argentina, but was
eventually captured and shot at Mendoza on the 4th of September 1821.

  See A. Valdes, _Revolucion Chilena y Campañas de la Independencia_
  (Santiago, 1888), which is practically a vindication of Carrera's
  career; also P.B. Figueroa, _Diccionario biografico de Chile,
  1550-1887_ (Santiago, 1888), and J.B. Suarez, _Rasgos biograficos de
  hombres notables de Chile_ (Valparaiso, 1886), both giving
  biographical sketches of prominent characters in Chilean history.



CARRIAGE, a term which in its widest signification is used, as its
derivation permits, for any form of "carrying"; thus, a person's
"carriage" is still spoken of in the sense of the way he bears himself.
But it is more specifically the general term for all vehicular
structures employed for the purposes of transport of merchandise and
movable goods and of human beings. Such vehicles are generally mounted
on wheels, but the sledge and the litter are types of the exception to
this rule. Within this definition a vast variety of forms is included,
ranging from the coster's barrow and rude farm-cart up to the
luxuriously appointed sleeping-cars of railways and the state carriages
of royal personages. A narrower application, however, limits the term to
such vehicles as are used for the conveyance of persons and are drawn by
horses, and it is with carriages in this restricted sense that we are
here concerned. Tramcars, railway carriages and motor-cars are dealt
with in other articles.

_History_.--A wheeled carriage appears to have been in very general use
in Egypt at an early period, called a car or chariot (q.v.); in the
Bible the word is usually translated "chariot." The bodies of these
chariots were small, usually containing only two persons standing
upright. They were very light, and could be driven at great speed. They
were narrow, and therefore suitable to Eastern cities, in which the
streets were very narrow, and to mountainous roads, which were often
only 4 ft. wide. From Egypt the use of chariots spread into other
countries, and they were used in war in large numbers on the great
plains of Asia. We read of the 900 chariots of Jabin, king of Canaan;
how David took 700 chariots from the kings of Syria and 1000 from the
king of Zobah. Solomon had 1400 chariots, and his merchants supplied
northern Syria and the surrounding countries with chariots brought out
of Egypt at 600 shekels (about £50) apiece. From the ancient sculptures
preserved from Nineveh and Babylon, some of which are in the British
Museum, we observe the use of chariots continued for the purpose of
hunting as well as for war. Homer describes the chief warriors on both
sides at the siege of Troy as going into battle and fighting from their
chariots. The Roman nation as it increased in power adopted the car,
though chiefly for purposes of show and state. A beautiful marble model
of one of these still exists at the Vatican in Rome: a copy of it and
the horses drawing it is in the museum at South Kensington. The war
chariots used by the Persians were larger; the idea seems to have been
to form a sort of turret upon the car, from which several warriors might
shoot or throw their spears. These chariots were provided with curved
blades projecting from the axle-trees. Alexander the Great, king of
Macedon, invading Asia was met upon the banks of the river Indus by King
Porus, in whose army were a number of elephants and also several
thousand chariots. On Alexander's return from India towards Persia, he
travelled in a chariot drawn by eight horses, followed by an innumerable
number of others covered with rich carpets and purple coverlets. After
Alexander's death a funeral car was prepared to convey his body from
Babylon to Alexandria in Egypt, and this car has perhaps never been
excelled in the annals of coach-building. It was designed by the
celebrated architect Hieronymus, and took two years to build. It was 18
ft. long and 12 ft. wide, on four massive wheels, and drawn by
sixty-four mules, eight abreast. The car was composed of a platform,
with a lofty roof, supported by eighteen columns, and was profusely
adorned with drapery, gold and jewels; round the edge of the roof was a
row of golden bells; in the centre was a throne, and before it the
coffin; around were placed the weapons of war and the armour that
Alexander had used.

The Romans established the use of carriages as a private means of
conveyance, and with them carriages attained great variety of form as
well as richness of ornamentation. In all times the employment of
carriages depended greatly on the condition of the roads over which they
had to be driven, and the establishment of good roads, such as the
Appian Way, constructed 331 B.C., and others, greatly facilitated the
development of carriage travelling among the Romans. In Rome itself, and
probably also in other large towns, it was necessary to restrict
travelling in carriages to a few persons of high rank, owing to the
narrowness and crowded state of the streets. For the same reason the
transport of goods along the streets was forbidden between sunrise and
sunset. For long journeys and to convey large parties the _reda_ and
_carruca_ appear to have been mostly used, but what their construction
and arrangements were is not known. During the empire the carriage which
appears in representations of public ceremonials is the _carpentum_. It
is very slight, with two wheels, sometimes covered, and generally drawn
by two horses. If a carriage had four horses they were yoked abreast,
among the Greeks and Romans, not in two pairs as now. From the _carruca_
are traced the modern European names,--the English _carriage_, the
French _carrosse_ and the Italian _carrozza_. The _sirpea_ was a very
ancient form of vehicle, the body of which was of osier basket-work. It
originated with the Gauls, by whom it was named _lenna_, and by them it
was employed for the conveyance of persons and goods in time of peace,
and baggage during war. With its name are connected the modern French
_banne, banneton, vannerie_ and _panier_,--all indicating basket-work.

The ancient Britons used a car for warlike purposes which was evidently
new to the Romans. It was open in front, instead of at the back as in
their cars; and the pole, which went straight out between the horses,
was broad, so that the driver could walk along, and if needful drive
from the end. Above all, it possessed a seat, and was called _essedum_
from this peculiarity. For war purposes this car was provided with
scythes projecting from the ends of the axle-trees. Cicero, writing to a
friend in Britain, remarks "that there appeared to be very little worth
bringing away from Britain except the chariots, of which he wished his
friend to bring him one as a pattern."

The Roman vehicles were sometimes very splendidly ornamented with gold
and precious stones; and covered carriages seem more and more to have
become appendages of Roman pomp and magnificence. Sumptuary laws were
enacted on account of the public extravagance, but they were little
regarded, and were altogether abrogated by the emperor Alexander
Severus. Suetonius states that Nero took with him on his travels no less
than a thousand carriages.

On the introduction of the feudal system the use of carriages was for
some time prohibited, as tending to render the vassals less fit for
military service. Men of all grades and professions rode on horses or
mules, and sometimes the monks and women on she-asses. Horseback was the
general mode of travelling; and hence the members of the council, who at
the diet and on other occasions were employed as ambassadors, were
called _Rittmeister_. In this manner also great lords made their public
entry into cities.

Covered carriages (see COACH) were known in the beginning of the 15th
century, but their use was confined to ladies of the first rank; and as
it was accounted a reproach for men to ride in them, the electors and
princes sometimes excused their non-attendance at meetings of the state
by the plea that their health would not permit them to ride on
horseback. Covered carriages were for a long time forbidden even to
women; but about the end of the 15th century they began to be employed
by the emperor, kings and princes in journeys, and afterwards on state
occasions. In 1474 the emperor Frederick III. visited Frankfort in a
close carriage, and again in the following year in a very magnificent
covered carriage. Shortly afterwards carriages began to be splendidly
decorated; that, for instance, of the electress of Brandenburg at the
tournament held at Ruppin in 1509 was gilded all over, and that of the
duchess of Mecklenburg was hung with red satin. When Cardinal
Dietrichstein made his entrance into Vienna in 1611, forty carriages
went to meet him; and in the same year the consort of the emperor
Matthias made her public entrance on her marriage in a carriage covered
with perfumed leather. The wedding carriage of the first wife of the
emperor Leopold, who was a Spanish princess, cost, together with the
harness, 38,000 florins. Those of the emperor are thus described: "In
the imperial coaches no great magnificence was to be seen; they were
covered over with red cloth and black nails. The harness was black, and
in the whole work there was no gold. The panels were of glass, and on
this account they were called the imperial glass coaches. On festivals
the harness was ornamented with red silk fringes. The imperial coaches
were distinguished only by their having leather traces; but the ladies
in the imperial suite were obliged to be contented with carriages the
traces of which were made of ropes." At the magnificent court of Duke
Ernest Augustus at Hanover, in 1681, there were fifty gilt coaches with
six horses each. The first time that ambassadors appeared in coaches on
a public solemnity was at the imperial commission held at Erfurt in
1613. Soon after this time coaches became common all over Germany,
notwithstanding various orders and admonitions to deter vassals from
using them. These vehicles appear to have been of very rude
construction. Beckmann describes a view he had seen of Bremen, painted
by John Landwehr in 1661, in which was represented a long quadrangular
carriage, apparently not suspended by straps, and covered with a canopy
supported by four pillars, but without curtains. In the side was a small
door, and in front a low seat or box; the coachman sat upon the horses;
and the dress of the persons within proved them to be burgomasters. At
Paris in the 14th, 15th and even 16th centuries, the French monarchs
rode commonly on horses, the servants of the court on mules, and the
princesses and principal ladies sometimes on asses. Persons even of the
highest rank sometimes sat behind their equerry on the same horse.
Carriages, however, were used at a very early period in France; for
there is still extant an ordinance of Philip the Fair, issued in 1294,
by which citizens' wives are prohibited from using them. It appears,
however, that about 1550 there were only three carriages at Paris,--one
belonging to the queen, another to Diana of Poitiers, and the third to
René de Laval, a very corpulent nobleman who was unable to ride on
horseback. The coaches used in the time of Henry IV. were not suspended
by straps (an improvement referred to the time of Louis XIV.), though
they were provided with a canopy supported by four ornamental pillars,
and with curtains of stuff or leather.

Occasional allusion is made to the use of some kinds of vehicles in
England during the middle ages. In _The Squyr of Low Degree_, a poem of
a period anterior to Chaucer, a description of a sumptuous carriage
occurs:

  "To-morrow ye shall on hunting fare
   And ride, my daughter, in a chare.
   It shall be cover'd with velvet red,
   And cloth of fine gold all about your head,
   With damask white and azure blue
   Well diaper'd with lilies new."

Chaucer himself describes a chare as

  "With gold wrought and pierrie."

When Richard II. of England, towards the end of the 14th century, was
obliged to fly before his rebellious subjects, he and all his followers
were on horseback, while his mother alone used a carriage. The oldest
carriages used in England were known as chares, cars, chariots, caroches
and whirlicotes; but these became less fashionable when Ann, the wife of
Riehard II., showed the English ladies how gracefully she could ride on
the side-saddle, Stow, in his _Survey of London_, remarking, "so was
riding in those whirlicotes and chariots forsaken except at coronations
and such like spectacles."

There were curious sumptuary laws enacted during the 16th century in
various Italian cities against the excessive use of silk, velvet,
embroidery and gilding, on the coverings of coaches and the trappings of
horses. In 1564 Pope Pius IV. exhorted the cardinals and bishops not to
ride in coaches, according to the fashion of the times, but to leave
such things to women, and themselves ride on horseback. The use of
coaches in Germany in the 16th century was not less common than in
Italy. The current of trade, especially from the East, had for a long
time poured into those two countries towards Holland, enriching all the
cities in its progress. Macpherson, in his _History of Commerce_, says
that Antwerp possessed 500 coaches in 1560. France and England appear to
have been behind the rest of Europe at this period.

The first coach in England was made in 1555 for the earl of Rutland by
Walter Rippon, who also made a coach in 1556 for Queen Mary, and in 1564
a state coach for Queen Elizabeth. That one of the carriages used by
Queen Elizabeth could be opened and closed at pleasure may be inferred
from her causing at Warwick during one of her progresses--"every part
and side of her coach to be opened that all her subjects present might
behold her, which most gladly they desired."

Coaches of the type now properly so-called were first known in England
about the year 1580, and were introduced, according to Stow, from
Germany by Henry Fitzalan, 12th earl of Arundel. By the beginning of the
17th century the use of coaches had become so prevalent in England that
in 1601 the attention of parliament was drawn to the subject, and a bill
"to restrain the excessive use of coaches" was introduced, which,
however, was rejected on the second reading. Their use told severely on
the occupation of the Thames watermen, and Taylor the poet and waterman
complained bitterly both in prose and verse against the new-fangled
practice:--

  "Carroaches, coaches, jades, and Flanders mares
   Doe rob us of our shares, our wares, our fares.
   Against the ground we stand and knock our heels
   Whilest all our profit runs away on wheeles."

The sneers of wits and watermen notwithstanding, coaches became so
common, that in the early part of the 17th century they were estimated
to number more than 6000 in London and its surrounding country.

We now arrive gradually at the modern conception of carriage-building.
No trace of glass windows or complete doors for coaches seems to have
existed up to 1650. But plain and rude as was the first coach of Louis
XIV., it was in his reign, which lasted till 1715, that the most rapid
progress was made. The credit for this is equally due to Germany, Italy,
France and England. There is very little mention made by historians of
steel springs, but they were first applied to wheel carriages about
1670, prior to which bodies were suspended by long straps from the four
corners to pillars erected upon the under carriage. The great advantage
of the introduction of springs was speedily recognized as reducing
vibration, enabling carriages to be built much lighter and lessening the
draught for the horses. In the diary of Samuel Pepys there are many
amusing and interesting references to the art of coach-building, which
was beginning to attract much attention at that period.

In the French _Encyclopédie_ (1772) by Diderot there are elaborate
descriptions of the art of coach-building, the workshops and tools used,
and plates of the different carriages in use. The 18th century is
remarkable for the rapid development which took place, more especially
in the manufacture of state carriages of a sumptuous and ornate
character, which were largely in demand by the various courts of Europe.
One of the most beautiful of these is that belonging to the imperial
family of Vienna, which was built in 1696, and is shaped with all the
curves that are familiar to us in cabinets and furniture of the style of
Louis XIV. The panels are beautifully painted with nymphs in the style
of Rubens. There is an unusual quantity of plate glass in the panels,
and on the centre of the roof is a large imperial crown. In 1757 was
built the elaborate state coach of the city of London, and in 1761 the
royal state coach of England, built for King George III. (see COACH).
During the reigns of George II. and George III. all English manufactures
had received an immense impulse from the energy of the men of the time,
in which they were much encouraged by the action of the Society of Arts
in offering money prizes for improvements; and in these coach-builders
largely participated.

In the year 1804 Obadiah Elliot patented his plan for hanging vehicles
upon elliptical springs, thus dispensing with the heavy wood and iron
perch and cross beds, invariably used in four-wheeled carriages up to
that time. Elliot was rewarded by the grant of a gold medal by the
Society of Arts, and extensive orders for the carriages of a lighter
character, which he was thus enabled to produce.

Of carriages much in fashion and characteristic of this period may be
mentioned the "curricle," a cabriolet (see below) on two wheels, driven
with a pair of horses, the balance being secured by an ornamental bar
across the horses' backs, connected by a leather brace to a spring under
the pole. For lack of perfect safety this was gradually superseded by
the "gentleman's cabriolet," for one horse, on C springs, fitted with
folding leather hood and platform behind, on which stood a youthful trim
servant in top-boots, popularly termed a "tiger." To produce this
satisfactorily, the best coach-building talent was required, and to work
it a horse of exceptional strength and breeding was needful, but when
complete this equipage had a distinction never surpassed. During this
period the pair-horse "mail phaeton" was introduced, and has enjoyed a
long period of popularity. As a travelling carriage with the needful
appointments the "britzska," having a straight body with ogee curves at
front and back, with single folding hood, and hung on C springs, was a
distinctive and popular feature among carriages of the period from 1824
until after 1840. Of two-wheeled vehicles the "stanhope" and "tilbury"
gigs, the "dog cart" and "tandem cart," came into use during these
years, and have afforded facilities of agreeable locomotion to many
thousands of people at a moderate cost. But the greatest improvement of
this period was the introduction of the "brougham." Several attempts had
been made to arrive at a light carriage of this description, but it was
not until 1839 that a carriage was produced to a design adopted by Lord
Brougham, and called after him. The "victoria" was known as a carriage
for public hire in continental cities for several years before being
adopted as a fashionable carriage by the wealthy classes. In 1869 the
prince of Wales brought one from Paris of the cab shape, and Baron
Rothschild brought one from Vienna of the square shape, examples
speedily followed. In various elegant and artistic forms, either as an
elliptic or C spring, it has since become a most popular and convenient
carriage.

Public carriages for hire, or hackney (q.v.) coaches, were first
established in London in 1625. In 1635 the number was restricted to
fifty. Still they increased, notwithstanding the opposition of the court
and king, who thought they would break up the roads, till in 1650 there
were as many as 300. In Paris they were introduced during the minority
of Louis XIV. by Nicholas Sauvage, who lived in the rue St Martin at the
sign of St Fiacre, from which circumstance hackney carriages in Paris
have since been called _fiacres_. In 1694 the number in London had
increased to 700. Many of these were old private coaches of the nobility
and gentry, and it was not until 1790 that coaches on a smaller scale
were built specially for hackney purposes (see COACH).

We are told that in 1673 there were stage coaches from London to York,
to Chester and to Exeter, having each forty horses on the road, and
carrying each six inside-passengers. The coach occupied eight days
travelling to Exeter. In 1706 a coach went from London to York every
Monday, Wednesday and Friday, performing the journey in four days. In
the same year there was a coach from London to Birmingham starting on
Monday and arriving on Wednesday. In 1754 a coach was started from
Manchester called the flying coach, which was advertised to reach London
in four days and a half. In 1784 coaches became universal at the speed
of 8 m. an hour.

In the year 1786 the prince of Wales, afterwards George IV., began to
erect the pavilion at Brighton, and this led to a great increase of
traffic, so that in 1820 no less than 70 coaches daily visited and left
Brighton. The number continued to increase, until in 1835 there were as
many as 700 mail coaches throughout Great Britain and Ireland. The
system of road construction introduced by Mr McAdam during this time was
of great value in facilitating this development.

Notwithstanding the competition of the sedan-chair (q.v.), the
hackney-coach held its place and grew in importance, till it was
supplanted about 1820 by the _cabriolet de place_, now shortened into
"cab" (q.v.), which had previously held a most important place in Paris.
In that city the cabriolet came into great public favour about the
middle of the 18th century, and in the year 1813 there were 1150 such
vehicles plying in the Parisian streets. The original cabriolet was a
kind of hooded gig, inside which the driver sat, besides whom there was
only room left for a single passenger. For hackney purposes Mr Boulnois
introduced a four-wheeled cab to carry two persons, which was followed
by one to carry four persons, introduced by Mr Harvey, the prototype of
the London "four-wheeler."

The hansom patent safety cab (1834) owes its invention to J.A. Hansom
(q.v.), the architect of the Birmingham town-hall. This has passed
through many stages of improvement with which the name of Forder of
Wolverhampton is conspicuously associated.

The prototype of the modern "omnibus" first began plying in the streets
of Paris on the 18th of March 1662, going at fixed hours, at a stated
fare of five sous. Soldiers, lackeys, pages and livery servants were
forbidden to enter such conveyances, which were announced to be _pour la
plus grande commodité et liberté des personnes de mérite_. In the time
of Charles X. the omnibus system in reality was established; for no
exclusion of any class or condition of person who tendered the proper
fare was permitted in the vehicles then put on various routes, and the
fact of the carriages being thus "at the service of all" gave rise to
the present name. The first London omnibus was started in July 1829 by
the enterprising Mr Shillibeer. The first omnibuses were drawn by three
horses abreast and carried twenty-two passengers, all inside. Though
appearing unwieldy they were light of draught and travelled speedily.
They were, however, too large for the convenience of street traffic, and
were superseded by others carrying twelve passengers inside. In 1849 an
outside seat along the centre of the roof was added. The London General
Omnibus Company was founded in 1856; since then continual improvements
in this system of public conveyance have been introduced.

_Modern Private Carriages_.--At the accession of Queen Victoria the
means of travelling by road and horse-power, in the case of public
coaches, had reached in England its utmost limits of speed and
convenience, and the travelling-carriages of the nobility and the
wealthy were equipped with the completest and most elaborate
contrivances to secure personal comfort and safety. More particularly
was this the case as regards continental tours, which had become
indispensable to all who had at their command the means for this costly
educational and pleasurable experience. Concurrently with this
development the style and character of court equipages had also reached
a consummate degree of splendour and artistic excellence. Not only was
this the case in points of decoration, in which livery colour and
heraldic devices were effectively employed, but also in the beauty of
outline and skilful structural adaptation, in which respect carriages of
that period made greater demands upon the capacity of the builder and
the skill of the workman than do those of the present day. For this
attainment the art of coachmaking was indebted to a very few leading
men, whose genius has left its impress upon the art, and is still
jealously cherished by those who in early life had experience of their
achievements. The early portion of Queen Victoria's reign was an age of
much emulation; the best-equipped carriages of that period, distinctive
of noble families and foreign embassies, with their graceful outline and
superb appointments, and harnessed to a splendid breed of horses--all
harmoniously blended, perfect in symmetry and adaptation--gave to the
London season, more especially on drawing-room days, and at other times
in Hyde Park, an attractiveness unequalled in any other capital. After
the death of the prince consort, the pageantry of that period very much
declined and, except as an appendage of royalty, full-dress carriages
have since been comparatively few, though there are hopes of a revival
in this direction. Meanwhile, owing to the rapid development of railways
and the wide extension of commerce, the demand for carriages greatly
increased. The larger types gave place to others of a lighter build and
more general utility, in which in some cases an infusion of American
ideas made its appearance. In accordance with the universal rule of
supply meeting the demand, Mr Stenson, an ironmaster of Northampton, was
successful in producing a mild forging steel, which proved for some
years, until the manufacture ceased, very conducive to the object of
securing lightness with strength. In the early 'seventies the eminent
mechanician, Sir Joseph Whitworth, in the course of his scientific
studies in the perfecting of artillery, succeeded in manufacturing a
steel of great purity, perfectly homogeneous and possessing marvellous
tenacity and strength, known as "fluid compressed steel." Incidentally
carriage-building was able to participate in the results of this
discovery. Two firms well known to Sir Joseph were asked to test its
merits as a material applicable to this industry. In this test much
difficulty was experienced, the nature of the steel not being favourable
to welding, of which so much is required in the making of coach
ironwork; but after much perseverance by skilful hands this was at
length accomplished, and for some years there existed not a little
rivalry in the use of this material, more especially in the case of
carriages on the C and under-spring principle, which for lightness,
elegance and luxurious riding left nothing to be desired. Many of these
carriages may be referred to to-day as rare examples of constructive
skill. Unfortunately, the original cost of the material, still more of
the labour to be expended upon it, and the difficulty of educating men
into the art of working it, were effectual barriers to its general
adoption. The idea, however, had taken hold, and attention was given by
other firms to the manufacture of the steel now in general use,
admitting of easier application, with approximate, if not equal,
results.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

From C and under-spring carriages there arose another application of
springs which was very prominently before the public during this period,
by means of which it was professed that two drawbacks recognized in the
C and under-spring carriages were obviated, which were caused by the
perch or bar which passes under the body holding the front and hind
parts in rigid connexion, and yet making use of a form of spring to
which the same terms may be applied. These objections are the weight of
the perch, and the limitation which it causes to the facility of
turning, which in narrow roads and crowded thoroughfares is an
inconvenience. The objection to weight is, however, minimized by the
introduction of steel, and as the more advanced builders almost always
construct the perch with a _forked_ arch in front, allowing the wheels
to pass under, the difficulty of a limited lock is in a great measure
overcome (fig. 1). It must be noted, however (and this cannot be too
emphatically stated), that the so-called C springs above referred to are
not at all the same in action as the C spring proper; they are but an
elongation of the ordinary elliptic spring in the form of the letter C
(fig. 2), without adding anything to, but rather lessening their
elasticity, and entirely ignoring the principle of _suspension_ by
leather braces over the C spring proper, by which alone the advantage of
superior ease is to be obtained.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

Another improvement which stamps the period under review is the
introduction of indiarubber for the tires of wheels. To produce a
carriage as nearly as possible free from noise and rattle has always
been the aim of high-class coachmaking. A structure composed of wood,
iron and glass, with axle-trees, doors, windows, lamps and other parts,
in use upon the road in all weathers, must from time to time require
some attention with this object. To meet this difficulty, the
introduction of indiarubber has been received by carriage-users as a
great boon. It was about the year 1852 that Mr Reading, who at that time
was known as a builder of invalid carriages, conceived the idea of
encircling wheels with that material, but his method only admitted of
its use on vehicles travelling slowly over good roads. This was improved
upon at a later date by Uriah Scott, who, taking advantage of the
tempering capacity of indiarubber by the chemical action of sulphur,
produced an inner rim of such density as to hold bolts, by which it
could be secured through the felloe, forming a base for the outer
covering of soft pliable rubber. This system was attended with
satisfactory results, and was in favour for some years with persons
whose health needed such provision. Another method, originated by Mr
Mulliner of Liverpool in the early 'seventies, was to screw on iron
flanges to the outer and inner sides of the felloes, having a kind of
lip to press into the indiarubber filling the intervening space; but the
cost of this--£36 per set--rendered its adoption prohibitive. Meanwhile
another invention by Uriah Scott, afterwards improved upon by an
American patentee, came into use; this was known as the
"rubber-cushioned axle," cylindrical rings being introduced between the
axle-box and hub of the wheel, thus insulating the body of the carriage
from the concussion of the road. This, however, necessitated the cutting
away of so much of the timber of the hub as to impair its durability,
and had, therefore, after a few years' experience, to be abandoned in
favour of an invention by a Parisian builder, who introduced indiarubber
bearings between the spring and axle-tree. This was thoroughly
practicable, and met with general acceptance, and it is still used in
conjunction with iron and steel tires. In 1890 the pneumatic tire was
first applied to road carriages. Its bulky appearance is a great
drawback, contrasting strongly with the qualities which distinguish a
graceful equipage; and in spite of its practical advantages it never
became popular in England or America. In Paris and its neighbourhood and
many parts of France, pneumatic tires are to be seen in frequent use
both on public and private conveyances. In another form the indiarubber
tire has become of almost universal application. Owing to an ingenious
invention of Mr Carment, what appeared to be an insuperable difficulty
in rolling a grooved tire was overcome (fig. 3). This so simplified the
application as to bring the cost within practicable limits. The grooved
tire is now made in several sections, in some of which the inward
projection for securing the rubber is dispensed with, this being kept in
position by wires running through the whole length, and electrically
welded at the point of contact. Whatever be the method chosen for
securing the tire, the best tires, both for durability and ease, are
those in which the rubber provided is most resilient in its nature.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

For the lifting and lowering of the hoods of victorias and other such
carriages, and the opening and closing of landaus, there are now many
automatic contrivances, of which the simplest are the most to be
preferred. The quarter-light or five-glass landau is a carriage which
has been greatly improved. The complicated adjustments of pillars,
windows and roof have been replaced by one simple parallel movement. The
first public exhibition of a finished carriage on this principle was by
an English firm at the Paris Exhibition of 1876 (fig. 4).

In the matter of style certain types of carriages have passed through
marked changes. Extreme lightness was at one time considered by many the
one desideratum both as to appearance and actual weight, in providing
which ease of movement and comfortable seating of the occupants became
secondary considerations--though to these extremes builders of repute
were always opposed. Still, when at the International Exhibition of
Paris 1889, it was seen that the Parisian builders had suddenly gone in
the opposite direction, the world of fashion in carriages was taken by
surprise. From being built upon easy, flowing, graceful lines, it was
seen, with some revulsion of feeling, that these were to be displaced by
the deep, full-bodied victoria, brougham and landau. Only by slow
degrees did this characteristic find acceptance with English
connoisseurs, and then only in a modified form, though eventually in a
greater or less degree it is now the prevailing style.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

While the better types of English carriages are still preeminent in
their constructive qualities, and represent the well-known
characteristics of individual firms, some emulation may be excited by
the elegant taste and careful workmanship which French builders display
in points of finish, both internally and externally. Of the various
types of carriages now in vogue, the victoria, in its many varieties of
form, is the most popular, accompanied, as of necessity, by the double
victoria, sociable, brougham, landaulet and landau. Four-in-hand coaches
for private use, as well as the "road" coaches, are built on a smaller
scale than formerly; 6 ft. 8 in. may now be taken as the standard height
of the roof from the ground. Owing to the encouragement given by the
Four-in-hand and Coaching Clubs, the ascendancy of this style of driving
is still preserved to Great Britain; and in association with it the
char-à-banc, mail phaeton, wagonette, and four-wheel dog-cart retain
their popularity. Of two-wheeled vehicles the polo-cart and ralli-cart
are most in favour, to which may be added the governess-car, which is
found convenient for many purposes not implied by its name. For a few
years an effort was made, but with very indifferent success, to bring
into fashion the tandem-cart, which may again be considered almost
obsolete in England.

America has long held a prominent position in connexion with the
carriage industry. In all the chief cities manufactories on a colossal
scale are to be found, producing thousands of vehicles annually and
equipped with the most perfect labour-saving machinery; and as vehicles
of any particular pattern--many of small value--are required, not
singly, but in large numbers, much economy is exercised in their
manufacture. It is remarkable that, as a contrast to the popular buggy,
wagon and rockaway of the United States, which are to be found in
infinite variety, carriage establishments of the wealthy are not
considered complete unless furnished with some of a European character,
selected from the most eminent firms of London or Paris, in addition to
others of their own manufacture. In Paris preference is given to an
excess of bulk, with elaborate scroll ornamentation and diminutive
windows, forming indeed, by reason of its exaggeration, a distinctive
class. In respect of workmanship and finish, carriages by the best-known
American builders leave nothing to be desired.

The International Exhibition of Paris 1900 brought together examples
from various continental countries, in some of which a preference for
curvilinear outline was displayed, but the best examples followed very
closely the well-known English styles. In the French section it was
interesting to find a revival of the once all-prevailing chariot,
barouche and britzska, suspended on C and under-springs, with perch, but
with ideas of lightness somewhat out of proportion to their general
character.

  _Coach-making_, or the carriage-manufacturing industry, is a
  combination of crafts rarely united in one trade, embracing as it does
  work in such divers materials as wood, iron, steel, brass, cloth,
  silk, leather, oils and colours, glass, ivory, hair, indiarubber, &c.
  Many divisions of labour and numerous highly-skilled artisans are
  consequently employed in the various stages in the construction of a
  high-class carriage. The workmen include body-makers, who build up the
  parts in which persons sit; carriage-makers, who make and fit together
  all the under parts of the vehicle on which the body rests;
  wheelwrights, joiners and fitters; several classes of smiths, for
  special work connected with the strengthening of the body framework by
  means of long edge plates, the construction of under works, tiring and
  wheels, manufacture of springs, axle-trees, &c. Painting is an
  important part of the business, those professing it being divided into
  body, carriage and heraldry painters. Trimmers are needed who fit up
  the upholstery of the interior, and budget trimmers who sew on the
  patent leather covering to dasher wings, &c.

  A very great deal in the coach-making industry depends upon the
  selection of materials. Ash is the kind of wood required in the
  framework both of body and carriage. The quality best suited for the
  body is that of full-grown mild and free nature; for the carriage that
  which is strong and robust; that for carriage-poles should be of
  younger growth, straight and tough in quality. An important
  consideration is the seasoning of this timber. Planks of various
  thicknesses are required, varying from 1½ in. to 6 in., the time
  required for seasoning being one year for every inch of thickness.
  After the framework is made, the body is panelled with ¼ in. mild
  Honduras mahogany, plain and free from grain, every joint and groove
  carefully coated with ground white lead to exclude water. The roof is
  covered with ¼ in. wide pine boards, unless when superseded by an
  American invention, by which, in order to obtain the needful width
  frequently of 5 ft. or upwards, boards are cut from the circumference
  of the tree, instead of through its diameter; three thicknesses of
  very thin wood are then glued together under pressure, the grain of
  the centre running across the outer plies, the whole forming a solid
  covering without joints. Birch and elm of 1 in. thickness also enter
  into the construction in many carriages; for floor and lining boards
  pine is the material used.

  Wheel-making is a very important branch of the business, in which,
  owing to the increased lightness now required, many modern
  improvements have been introduced. The timber used in an ordinary
  carriage wheel is wych elm for the naves, heart of oak for the spokes,
  and ash for the felloes. American hickory has of late years been also
  largely used for spokes in exceptionally light wheels, as well as the
  American method of making the rim in two sections of straight-grained
  ash or hickory bent to the required circle. This method has much to
  recommend it, more especially for wheels with indiarubber tires, in
  which the wood felloes are not required to be nearly so deep as for
  steel tires. One well-known feature in light wheels is the "Warner
  nave," which is a solid iron casting with mortices to receive the
  spokes, and being of small diameter gives the wheel a light
  appearance.

  For springs the finest quality of steel is made from Swedish ore, but
  the ordinary English spring steel by the best makers leaves nothing to
  be desired. To secure the most perfect elasticity it is important that
  the tapering down of the ends of each plate should be done by hand
  labour on the anvil, and that the plates should not be more than ¼ in.
  in thickness. To obtain cheapness wholesale spring-makers adopt the
  method of squeezing the ends of spring plates between eccentric
  rollers, and so produce the tapered form, which, however, is too short
  and gives a lumpy and unsightly appearance to the spring when put
  together, so that by this they lose much of their pliability.

  The iron mounting of coach work requires the skill of experienced
  smiths, and gives scope for much taste and judgment in shaping the
  work, and providing strength suited to the relative strain to which it
  will be subjected. Axle-trees are not made by coach-builders, but by
  firms who make it their special business. They are of two kinds, the
  "mail," which are secured to the wheel by three bolts passing through
  the nave, and the "collinge" (invented in 1792), the latter made
  secure by gun-metal cone-shaped collets and nuts. The axle boxes which
  are wedged into the nave are of three kinds, cast, chilled and wrought
  iron, in all cases case-hardened, the first being the cheapest and the
  last the most costly. Many attempts have been made to improve upon the
  collinge axle-tree, but none of them has got far beyond the
  experimental stage.

  No branch of coach-building contributes more to the elegance of the
  vehicle than that of painting. To obtain the needful perfection the
  work has to pass through several stages before reaching the finishing
  colour, which must be of the finest quality. The varnish used is
  copal, of which there are two kinds, the one for finishing the body,
  the other the carriage. In first-class work as many as eighteen or
  twenty coats will be required to complete the various stages. After a
  carriage has been in use about twelve months, it is practicable to
  revive the brilliant gloss on the panels by hand-polishing with the
  aid of rottenstone and oil, a process which requires a specially
  trained man to do successfully.

  The trimming of the interior of a carriage requires much skill and
  judgment on the part of the workmen in providing really comfortable,
  well-fitted seats and neatness of workmanship. In the middle of the
  19th century figured tabaret or satin were much used, but for many
  years past morocco has been almost universally preferred. Silk
  lutestring spring curtains, Brussels or velvet pile carpet, complete
  the interior, unless are added neat morocco covered trays with mirror,
  &c., for ladies' convenience. Electric light is now frequently used
  for the interior, and can be applied with much neatness and
  efficiency. Road lamps, door handles, polished silver or brass
  furniture, are supplied to the coach-builder by firms whose special
  business it is to make them. Lever brakes are now a very ordinary
  requirement. Much judgment is needful to make them efficient, and
  careful workmanship to prevent rattle. Indiarubber is the best
  material for blocks applied to steel tires, and cast iron for
  indiarubber tires. The "Bowden wire" recently introduced is in some
  cases a convenient and light alternative to the long bar connecting
  the handle with the hind cross levers, and has the advantage of
  passing out of sight through the interior of the body.
       (J. A. M'N.)



CARRICKFERGUS, a seaport and watering-place of Co. Antrim, Ireland, in
the east parliamentary division; on the northern shore of Belfast Lough,
9½ m. N.E. of Belfast by the Northern Counties (Midland) railway. Pop.
of urban district (1901) 4208. It stretches for about 1 m. along the
shore of the Lough. The principal building is the castle, originally
built by John de Courci towards the close of the 12th century, and
subsequently much enlarged. It stands on a projecting rock above the
sea, and was formerly a place of much strength. It is still maintained
as an arsenal, and mounted with heavy guns. The ancient donjon or keep,
90 ft. in height, is still in good preservation. The town walls, built
by Sir Henry Sidney, are still visible on the west and north, and the
North Gate remains. The parish church of St Nicholas, an antiquated
cruciform structure with curious Elizabethan work in the north transept,
and monuments of the Chichester family, was originally a chapel or
oratory dependent on a Franciscan monastery. The entrance to a
subterranean passage between the two establishments is still visible
under the communion-table of the church. The gaol, built on the site of
the monastery above mentioned, was formerly the county of Antrim prison.
The court-house, which adjoins the gaol, is a modern building. The town
has some trade in domestic produce, and in leather and linen
manufactures, there being several flax spinning-mills and bleach-works
in the immediate neighbourhood. Distilling is carried on. The harbour
admits vessels of 500 tons. The fisheries are valuable, especially the
oyster fisheries. At Duncrue about 2 m. from the town, rock salt of
remarkable purity and in large quantity is found in the Triassic
sandstone. The neighbouring country is generally hilly, and Slieve True
(1100 ft.) commands a magnificent prospect.

In 1182, John de Courci, to whom Henry II. had granted all the parts of
Ulster he could obtain possession of by the sword, fixed a colony in
this district. The castle came in the 13th century into possession of
the De Lacy family, who, being ejected, invited Edward Bruce to besiege
it (1315). After a desperate resistance the garrison surrendered. In
1386, the town was burned by the Scots, and in 1400 was destroyed by the
combined Scots and Irish. Subsequently, it suffered much by famine and
the occasional assaults of the neighbouring Irish chieftains, whose
favour the townsmen were at length forced to secure by the payment of an
annual tribute. In the reign of Charles I. many Scottish Covenanters
settled in the neighbourhood to avoid the persecution directed against
them. In the civil wars, from 1641, Carrickfergus was one of the chief
places of refuge for the Protestants of the county of Antrim; and on the
10th of June 1642, the first Presbytery held in Ireland met here. In
that year the garrison was commanded by General Robert Munro, who,
having afterwards relinquished the cause of the English parliament, was
surprised and taken prisoner by Sir Robert Adair in 1648. At a later
period Carrickfergus was held by the partisans of James II., but
surrendered in 1689 to the forces under King William's general
Schomberg; and in 1690 it was visited by King William, who landed here
on his expedition to Ireland. In 1760 it was surprised by a French
squadron under Commodore Thurot, who landed with about 1000 men, and,
after holding the place for a few days, evacuated it on the approach of
the English troops. Eighteen years later Paul Jones, in his ship the
"Ranger," succeeded in capturing the "Drake," a British sloop-of war, in
the neighbouring bay; but he left without molesting the town. In the
reign of Queen Elizabeth the town obtained a charter, and this was
confirmed by James I., who added the privilege of sending two burgesses
to the Irish parliament. The corporation, however, was superseded, under
the provisions of the Municipal Reform Act of 1840, by a board of
municipal commissioners. Carrickfergus was a parliamentary borough until
1885; and a county of a town till 1898, having previously (till 1850)
been the county town of county Antrim. But its importance was sapped by
the vicinity of Belfast, and its historical associations are now its
chief interest.



CARRICKMACROSS, a market town of Co. Monaghan, Ireland, in the south
parliamentary division, 68 m. N.W. of Dublin on a branch of the Great
Northern railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 1874. It has a pleasant,
elevated site, a considerable agricultural trade, and a famous
manufacture of lace, which is carried on in various conventual
establishments. There are some remains of an Elizabethan castle, a seat
of the earls of Essex, which was destroyed during the wars of 1641; the
ruins of the old church of St Finbar commemorate the same disastrous
period.



CARRICK-ON-SHANNON, a market town and the county town of Co. Leitrim,
Ireland, in the south parliamentary division, beautifully situated on
the left bank of the upper Shannon, between Loughs Allen and Boderg,
close to the confluence of the Boyle. Pop. (1901) 1118. It is on the
Sligo branch of the Midland Great Western railway, 90 m. W.N.W. of
Dublin, the station being across the river in county Roscommon. Though
having so small a population it is the largest town in the county, is
the seat of the assizes, and has quays and some river trade. The
surrounding country, with its waterways, loughs and woods, is of
considerable beauty.



CARRICK-ON-SUIR, a market town of Co. Tipperary, Ireland, in the east
parliamentary division, on the north (left) bank of the Suir, 14¼ m.
W.N.W. from Waterford by the Waterford & Limerick line of the Great
Southern & Western railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 5406. It was
formerly a walled town, and contains some ancient buildings, such as the
castle, erected in 1309, formerly a seat of the dukes of Ormonde, now
belonging to the Butler family, a branch of which takes the title of
earl from the town. On the other side of the river, connected by a
bridge of the 14th century, and another of modern erection, stands the
suburb of Carrickbeg, in county Waterford, where an abbey was founded in
1336. The woollen manufactures for which the town was formerly famous
are extinct. A thriving export trade is carried on in agricultural
produce, condensed milk is manufactured, and slate is extensively
quarried in the neighbourhood, while some coal is exported from the
neighbouring fields. Dredging has improved the navigable channel of the
river, which is tidal to this point and is lined with quays.



CARRIER, JEAN BAPTISTE (1756-1794), French Revolutionist and Terrorist,
was born at Yolet, a village near Aurillac in Upper Auvergne. In 1790 he
was a country attorney (counsellor for the _bailliage_ of Aurillac) and
in 1792 he was chosen deputy to the National Convention. He was already
known as one of the influential members of the Cordeliers club and of
that of the Jacobins. After the subjugation of Flanders he was one of
the commissioners nominated in the close of 1792 by the Convention, and
sent into that country. In the following year he took part in
establishing the Revolutionary Tribunal. He voted for the death of Louis
XVI., was one of the first to call for the arrest of the duke of
Orleans, and took a prominent part in the overthrow of the Girondists
(on the 31st of May). After a mission into Normandy, Carrier was sent,
early in October 1793, to Nantes, under orders from the Convention to
suppress the revolt which was raging there, by the most severe measures.
Nothing loth, he established a revolutionary tribunal, and formed a body
of desperate men, called the Legion of Marat, for the purpose of
destroying in the swiftest way the masses of prisoners heaped in the
jails. The form of trial was soon discontinued, and the victims were
sent to the guillotine or shot or cut down in the prisons _en masse_. He
also had large numbers of prisoners put on board vessels with trap doors
for bottoms, and sunk in the Loire. This atrocious process, known as the
_Noyades_ of Nantes, gained for Carrier a reputation for wanton cruelty.
Since in his mission to Normandy he had been very moderate, it is
possible that, as he was nervous and ill when sent to Nantes, his mind
had become unbalanced by the atrocities committed by the Vendean and
royalist armies. Naturally, the stories told of him are not all true. He
was recalled by the Committee of Public Safety on the 8th of February
1794, took part in the attack on Robespierre on the 9th Thermidor, but
was himself brought before the Revolutionary Tribunal on the 11th and
guillotined on the 16th of November 1794.

  See Comte Fleury, _Carrier à Nantes_, 1793-1794 (Paris, 1897); Alfred
  Lallié, _J.B. Carrier, représentant du Cantal à la Convention
  1756-1794 d'après de nouveaux documents_ (Paris, 1901). These works,
  and the others of Lallié, are inspired by strong royalist sympathies
  and are not altogether to be accepted.



CARRIER, a general term for any person who conveys the goods of another
for hire, more specifically applied to the tradesmen, now largely
superseded by the railway system, who convey goods in carts or wagons on
the public roads. In jurisprudence, however, the term is collectively
applied to all conveyers of property, whether by land or water; and in
this sense the changes and enlargements of the system of transit
throughout the world have given additional importance to the subject.
The law by which carriers, both by land and sea, are made responsible
for the goods entrusted to them, is founded on the praetorian edict of
the civil law, to which the ninth title of the fourth book of the
Pandect is devoted. The edict itself is contained in these few words,
"_nautae, caupones, stabularii, quod cujusque salvum fore receperint,
nisi restituent, in eos judicium dabo._" The simplicity of the rule so
announced has had a most beneficial influence on the commerce of the
world. Throughout the great civilized region which took its law directly
from Rome, and through the other less civilized countries which followed
the same commercial code, it laid a foundation for the principle that
the carrier's engagement to the public is a contract of indemnity. It
bound him in the general case, to deliver what he had been entrusted
with, or its value,--thus sweeping away all secondary questions or
discussions as to the conditions of mere or less culpability on his part
under which loss or damage may have occurred; and it left any
limitations of this general responsibility to be separately adjusted by
special contract.

The law of England recognizes a distinction between a common and a
private carrier. The former is one who holds himself out to the public
as ready to carry for hire from place to place the goods of such persons
as choose to employ him. The owner of a stagecoach, a railway company,
the master of a general ship, a wharfinger carrying goods on his own
lighters are common carriers; and it makes no difference that one of the
_termini_ of the journey is out of England. It has been held, however,
that a person who carries only passengers is not a common carrier; nor
of course is a person who merely engages to carry the goods of
particular individuals or to carry goods upon any particular occasion. A
common carrier is subject at law to peculiar liabilities. He is bound to
carry the goods of any person who offers to pay his hire, unless there
is a good reason to the contrary, as, for example, when his carriage is
full, or the article is not such as he is in the habit of conveying. He
ought to carry the goods in the usual course without unnecessary
deviation or delay. To make him liable there must be a due delivery of
the goods to him in the known course of his business. His charge must be
reasonable; and he must not give undue preference to any customer or
class of customers. The latter principle, as enforced by statute, has
come to be of great importance in the law of railway companies. In
respect of goods entrusted to him, the carrier's liability, unless
limited by a special contract, is, as already stated, that of an
insurer. There is no question of negligence as in the case of injury to
passengers, for the warranty is simply to carry safely and securely. The
law, however, excepts losses or injuries occasioned immediately "by the
act of God or the king's enemies"--words which have long had a strict
technical signification. It would appear that concealment without fraud,
on the part of the customer, will relieve the carrier from his liability
for _negligence_, but not for actual _misfeasance_. Fraud or deceit by
the customer (e.g., in misrepresenting the real value of the goods)
will relieve the carrier from his liability. The responsibility of the
carrier ceases only with the delivery of the goods to the proper
consignee. By the Carriers' Act 1830 the liability of carriers for gold,
silver, &c. (in general "articles of great value in small compass") is
determined. Should the article or parcel exceed £10 in value, the
carrier is not to be liable for loss unless such value is declared by
the customer and the carrier's increased charge paid. Where the value is
thus declared, the carrier may, by public notice, demand an increased
charge, for which he must, if required, sign a receipt. Failing such
receipt or notice, the carrier must refund the increased charge and
remain liable as at common law. Except as above no mere notice or
declaration shall affect a carrier's liability; but he may make special
contracts with his customers. The carriage of goods by sea is subject to
special regulations (see AFFREIGHTMENT). The carriage of goods by
railway and canal is subject to the law of common carrier, except where
varied by particular statutes, as the Railway and Canal Traffic Acts
1854 to 1894 and the Regulation of Railways Acts 1840 to 1893. The
effect of these acts is to prevent railway companies as common carriers
from limiting by special contract their liability to receive, forward
and deliver goods, unless the conditions embodied in the special
contract are reasonable, and the contract is in writing and signed by,
or on behalf of, the sender. A railway company must provide reasonable
facilities for forwarding passengers' luggage; where luggage is taken
into the carriage with a passenger, the company is responsible for it
only in so far as loss or damage is due to the passenger's interference
with the company's exclusive control of it. As carriers of passengers
companies are bound, in the absence of any special contract, to exercise
due care and diligence, and are responsible for personal injuries only
when they have been occasioned by negligence or want of skill. Where
there has been contributory negligence on the part of the passenger,
i.e. where he might, by the exercise of ordinary care, have avoided the
consequences of the defendants' negligence--he is not entitled to
recover. By the act of 1846 (commonly called Lord Campbell's Act), when
a person's death has been caused by such negligence as would have
entitled him to an action had he survived, an action may be maintained
against the party responsible for the negligence on behalf of the wife,
husband, parent or child of the deceased. Previously such cases had been
governed by the maxim _actio personalis moritur cum persona_.



CARRIÈRE, MORITZ (1817-1895), German philosopher and historian, was born
at Griedel in Hesse Darmstadt on the 5th of March 1817. After studying
at Giessen, Göttingen and Berlin, he spent a few years in Italy studying
the fine arts, and established himself in 1842 at Giessen as a teacher
of philosophy. In 1853 he was appointed professor at the university of
Munich, where he lectured mainly on aesthetics. He died in Munich on the
19th of January 1895. An avowed enemy of Ultramontanism, he contributed
in no small degree to making the idea of German unity more palatable to
the South Germans. Carrière identified himself with the school of the
younger Fichte as one who held the theistic view of the world which
aimed at reconciling the contradictions between deism and pantheism.
Although no obstinate adherent of antiquated forms and prejudices, he
firmly upheld the fundamental truths of Christianity. His most important
works are: _Aesthetik_ (Leipzig, 1859; 3rd ed., 1885), supplemented by
_Die Kunst im Zusammenhang der Kulturentwicklung und der Ideale der
Menschheit_ (3rd ed., 1877-1886); _Die philosophische Weltanschauung der
Reformationszeit_ (Stuttgart, 1847; 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1886), and _Die
sittliche Weltordnung_ (Leipzig, 1877; 2nd ed., 1891), in which he
recognized both the immutability of the laws of nature and the freedom
of the will. He described his view of the world and life as
"real-idealism." His essay on Cromwell (in _Lebensskizzen_, 1890), which
may be considered his political confession of faith, also deserves
mention. His complete works were published at Leipzig, 14 vols., in
1886-1894.

  See S.P.V. Lind in _Zeitschrift f. Philos._ (cvi, 1895, pp. 93-101);
  W. Christ in _Allgemeine deutsche Biographie_ (1903).



CARRINGTON, CHARLES ROBERT WYNN-CARINGTON, 1ST EARL (1843-   ), English
statesman, son of the 2nd Baron Carrington (d. 1868), was educated at
Eton and Trinity, Cambridge, and sat in the House of Commons as a
Liberal for High Wycombe from 1865 till he succeeded to the title in
1868. He was governor of New South Wales 1885-1890, lord chamberlain
1892-1895, and became president of the board of agriculture in 1905,
having a seat in the cabinet in Sir H. Campbell-Bannerman's and Mr
Asquith's ministries. He was created Earl Carrington and Viscount
Wendover in 1895. The Carrington barony was conferred in 1796 on Robert
Smith (1752-1838), M.P. for Nottingham, a member of a famous banking
family, the title being suggested by one held from 1643 to 1706 in
another family of Smith in no way connected. The 2nd baron married as
his second wife one of the two daughters of Lord Willoughby de Eresby,
and their son, through her, became in 1879 joint hereditary lord great
chamberlain of England. The 2nd Baron took the surname of Carrington,
afterwards altered to Carington, instead of Smith.



CARRINGTON, RICHARD CHRISTOPHER (1826-1875), English astronomer, son of
a brewer at Brentford, was born in London on the 26th of May 1826.
Though intended for the Church, his studies and tastes inclined him to
astronomy, and with a view to gaining experience in the routine of an
observatory he accepted the post of observer in the university of
Durham. Finding, however, that there was little chance of obtaining
instruments suitable for the work which he wished to undertake, he
resigned that appointment and established in 1853 an observatory of his
own at Redhill. Here he devoted three years to a survey of the zone of
the heavens within 9 degrees of the North Pole, the results of which are
contained in his _Redhill Catalogue of 3735 Stars_. But his name is
chiefly perpetuated through his investigation of the motions of
sun-spots, by which he determined the elements of the sun's rotation and
made the important discovery of a systematic drift of the photosphere,
causing the rotation-periods of spots to lengthen with increase of solar
latitude. He died on the 27th of November 1875.

  For further information see _Month. Notices Roy. Astr. Society_, xiv.
  13, xviii. 23, 109, xix. 140, 161, xxxvi. 137; _Memoirs Roy. Astr.
  Soc._, xxvii. 139; _The Times_, Nov. 22 and Dec. 7, 1875; _Roy.
  Society's Cat. Scient. Papers_, vols. i. and vii.; Introductions to
  Works.



CARROCCIO; a war chariot drawn by oxen, used by the medieval republics
of Italy. It was a rectangular platform on which the standard of the
city and an altar were erected; priests held services on the altar
before the battle, and the trumpeters beside them encouraged the
fighters to the fray. In battle the carroccio was surrounded by the
bravest warriors in the army and it served both as a rallying-point and
as the palladium of the city's honour; its capture by the enemy was
regarded as an irretrievable defeat and humiliation. It was first
employed by the Milanese in 1038, and played a great part in the wars of
the Lombard league against the emperor Frederick Barbarossa. It was
afterwards adopted by other cities, and first appears on a Florentine
battlefield in 1228. The Florentine carroccio was usually followed by a
smaller car bearing the _martinella_, a bell to ring out military
signals. When war was regarded as likely the _martinella_ was attached
to the door of the church of Santa Maria in the Mercato Nuovo in
Florence and rung to warn both citizens and enemies. In times of peace
the carroccio was in the keeping of some great family which had
distinguished itself by signal services to the republic.

  Accounts of the carroccio will be found in most histories of the
  Italian republics; see for instance, M. Villani's _Chronache_, vi. 5
  (Florence, 1825-1826); P. Villari, _The Two First Centuries of
  Florentine History_, vol. i. (Engl. transl., London, 1894); Gino
  Capponi, _Storia della Repubblica di Firenze_, vol. i. (Florence,
  1875).



CARRODUS, JOHN TIPLADY (1836-1895), English violinist, was born on the
20th of January 1836, at Keighley, in Yorkshire. He made his first
appearance as a violinist at the age of nine, and had the advantage of
studying between the ages of twelve and eighteen at Stuttgart, with
Wilhelm Bernhard Molique. On his return to England in 1853 Costa got him
engagements in the leading orchestras. He was a member of the Covent
Garden opera orchestra from 1855, made his début as a solo player at a
concert given on the 22nd of April 1863 by the Musical Society of
London, and succeeded Sainton as leader at Covent Garden in 1869. He
died at Hampstead on the 13th of July 1895. For many years he had led
the Philharmonic orchestra and those of the great provincial festivals.
He published two violin solos and a "_Morceau de salon_," and was a very
successful teacher.



CARROLL, CHARLES (1737-1832), American political leader, of Irish
ancestry, was born at Annapolis, Maryland, on the 19th of September
1737. He was educated abroad in French Jesuit colleges, studied law at
Bourges, Paris and London, and in February 1765 returned to Maryland,
where an estate known as "Carrollton," in Frederick county, was settled
upon him; he always signed his name as "Charles Carroll of Carrollton."
Before and during the War of Independence, he was a whig or patriot
leader, and as such was naturally a member of the various local and
provincial extra-legal bodies--committees of correspondence, committees
of observation, council of safety, provincial convention (1774-1776) and
constitutional convention (1776). From 1777 until 1800 he was a member
of the Maryland senate. In April-June 1776 he, with Samuel Chase and
Benjamin Franklin, was a member of the commission fruitlessly sent by
the continental congress to Canada for the purpose of persuading the
Canadians to join the thirteen revolting colonies. From 1776 to 1779 he
sat in the continental congress, rendering important services as a
member of the board of war, and signing on the 2nd of August 1776 the
Declaration of Independence, though he had not been elected until the
day on which that document was adopted. He out-lived all of the other
signers. He was a member of the United States Senate from 1789 to 1792.
From 1801 until his death, at Baltimore, on the 14th of November 1832,
he lived in retirement, his last public act being the formal ceremony of
starting the construction of the Baltimore and Ohio railway (July 4,
1828). In politics, after the formation of parties, he was a staunch
Federalist. Of unusual ability, high character and great wealth, he
exercised a powerful influence, particularly among his co-religionists
of the Roman Catholic faith, and he used it to secure the independence
of the colonies and to establish a stable central government.

  See the _Life_ by Kate Mason Rowland (1898).



CARROLL, JOHN (1735-1815), American Roman Catholic prelate, was born at
Upper Marlborough, Prince George's county, Maryland, on the 8th of
January 1735, the son of wealthy Catholic parents and a cousin of
Charles Carroll "of Carrollton." He was educated at St Omer's in
Flanders, becoming a novitiate in the Society of Jesus in 1753, and then
at the Jesuit college in Liège, being ordained priest in 1769 and
becoming professor of philosophy and theology. In 1771 he became a
professed father of the Society of Jesus and professor at Bruges. As
tutor to the son of Lord Stourton, he travelled through Europe in
1772-1773. After the papal brief of the 21st of July 1773 suppressed the
Society of Jesus, he accompanied its English members then in Flanders
to England. In 1774 he returned to America, and set to work at a mission
at Rock Creek, Montgomery county, Maryland, where his mother lived. He
shared the feeling for independence growing among the American
colonists, foreseeing that it would mean greater religious freedom. In
1776, at the request of the continental congress, he accompanied
Benjamin Franklin, Charles Carroll and Samuel Chase on their mission to
secure the aid or neutrality of the French-Canadians, and though
unsuccessful it gained for him the friendship of Franklin. In 1783 he
took a prominent part in the petition to Rome to take the control of the
American church away from London; and on Franklin's recommendation,
Carroll was named prefect apostolic, the American church being
recognized as a distinct body in a decree issued by Cardinal Antonelli
on the 9th of June 1784. In the summer of 1785 he began his visitations;
in 1786 he induced the general chapter to authorize a Catholic seminary
(now Georgetown University); and at the same session it was voted that
the condition of the church required a bishop, accountable directly to
the pope (and not to the Congregation of the Propaganda) and chosen by
the American clergy. Consent to this course was given by Antonelli in a
letter of the 12th of July 1788. The clergy met at Whitemarsh, Maryland,
and Baltimore was adopted as the episcopal seat, Carroll being chosen as
bishop; and on the 6th of November 1789 Pius VI. issued a bull to that
effect, Carroll being consecrated at Lulworth Castle, England, on the
15th of August 1790.

On his return from England the bishop saw Georgetown College completed
(1791), thanks to moneys he had received from English Catholics. His
first synod met on the 7th of November 1791; and on the 16th he issued
the "Circular on Christian Marriage," which attacked marriage by any
save "lawful pastors of our church." In 1795 the Rev. Leonard Neale
(1746-1817) was appointed his coadjutor. In 1799, after the death of
Washington, Bishop Carroll bade his clergy hold the 22nd of February
1800 as a day of mourning, and on that day delivered in his
pro-cathedral a memorial discourse which attracted much attention.
Already in 1802 he was pressing for the creation of new sees in his
diocese, and the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 gave added weight to this
request; in September 1805 the Propaganda made him administrator
apostolic of the diocese of New Orleans, to which he appointed John
Olivier as vicar general; and in 1808 Pius VII. divided Carroll's great
diocese into four sees, Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Bardstown
(Kentucky), suffragan to the metropolitanate of Baltimore, of which
Carroll actually became archbishop by the assumption of the long delayed
_pallium_ on the 18th of August 1811, having consecrated three
suffragans in the autumn of 1810. In 1811 ecclesiastical jurisdiction
over the Danish and Dutch West Indies was bestowed upon him. Carroll was
now an old man, and the shock of the war of 1812, which as a staunch
Federalist he had opposed until its actual declaration, together with
the action of the Holy See in appointing to the sees of Philadelphia and
New York other candidates than those of his recommendation, weighed on
his mind. He died in Georgetown on the 3rd of December 1815. He may well
be reckoned the greatest figure in the Roman Catholic Church of the
United States. His position in the church had never been easy, partly
because he had been a prominent member of the Society of Jesus. The
great size of his diocese had made it unwieldy; and his struggle to
secure the independence of the American church had been a difficult one.
As a defender of papal and episcopal authority he had, especially in
Philadelphia and Baltimore, to deal with churches whose trustees
insisted that they and their parishes alone could choose priests, that
bishop or prefect could not object to their choice. Akin to this
difficulty was the desire of Catholics of different nationalities to
have separate churches, a desire often created or encouraged by
intriguing and ambitious priests. Besides these and other internal
annoyances, Carroll had to meet the deep-seated distrust of his church
in communities settled almost exclusively by Protestants.

  See John Gilmary Shea, _History of the Catholic Church in the United
  States_, vol. ii. (1763-1815), (Akron and New York, 1888); and Daniel
  Brent, _Biographical Sketch of the Most Rev. John Carroll, First
  Archbishop of Baltimore, with Select Portions of His Writings_, edited
  by John Carroll Brent (Baltimore, 1843).



CARRONADE, a piece of ordnance invented, by the application of an old
principle of gun construction, to serve as a ship's gun. The inventor
was the antiquary General Robert Melville (1728-1809). He designed the
piece in 1759, and called it the "smasher," but it was not adopted in
the British navy till 1779, and was then known as the "carronade," from
the Carron works on the Carron river in Stirlingshire, Scotland, where
it was first cast by Mr Gascoigne. The carronade had a powder chamber
like many of the earliest guns known, and was similar to a mortar. It
was short, light, had a limited range, but was destructive at close
quarters. Carronades were added to the existing armaments of guns proper
or long guns. A 38-gun frigate carried ten carronades, and was therefore
armed with 48 pieces of ordnance. As the official classifications were
not changed, they were misleading guides to the real strength of British
ships, which always carried more pieces than they were described as
carrying. The same remark applies to French and American ships when the
use of the carronade extended from the British to other navies.



CARROT. Wild carrot, _Daucus carota_, a member of the natural order
Umbelliferae, grows wild in fields and on roadsides and sea-shores in
Britain and the north temperate zone generally of the Old World. It is
an annual and resembles the cultivated carrot, except in the root, which
is thin and woody. It is the origin of the cultivated carrot, which can
be developed from it in a few generations. M. Vilmorin succeeded in
producing forms with thick fleshy roots and the biennial habit in four
generations. In the cultivated carrot, during the first season of
growth, the stem remains short and bears a rosette of graceful,
long-stalked, branched leaves with deeply cut divisions and small,
narrow ultimate segments. During this period the plant devotes its
energies to storing food, chiefly sugar, in the so-called root, which
consists of the upper part of the true root and the short portion of the
stem between the root and the lowest leaves. A transverse section of the
root shows a central core, generally yellow in colour, and an outer red
or scarlet rind. The core represents the wood of an ordinary stem and
the outer ring the soft outer tissue (bast and cortex). In the second
season the terminal bud in the centre of the leaf-rosette grows at the
expense of the stored nourishment and lengthens to form a furrowed,
rather rough, branched stem, 2 or 3 ft. high, and bearing the flowers in
a compound umbel. The umbel is characterized by the fact that the small
leaves (bracts) which surround it, resemble the foliage leaves on a much
reduced scale, and ultimately curve inwards, the whole inflorescence
forming a nest-like structure. The flowers are small, the outer white,
the central ones often pink or purplish. The fruit consists of two
one-seeded portions, each portion bearing four rows of stiff spinous
projections, which cause the fruits when dropped to cling together, and
in a natural condition help to spread the seed by clinging to the fur of
animals. On account of these projections the seeds cannot be sown evenly
without previous rubbing with sand or dry ashes to separate them. As
usual in the members of the order Umbelliferae, the wall of the fruit is
penetrated lengthwise by canals containing a characteristic oil.

Carrots vary considerably in the length, shape and colour of their
roots, and in the proportion of rind to core. The White Belgian, which
gives the largest crops, has a very thick root which is white, becoming
pale green above, where it projects above ground. For nutritive purposes
it is inferior to the red varieties. The carrot delights in a deep sandy
soil, which should be well drained and deeply trenched. The ground
should be prepared and manured in autumn or winter. For the long-rooted
sorts the soil should be at least 3 ft. deep, but the Short Horn
varieties may be grown in about 6 in. of good compost laid on the top of
a less suitable soil. Peat earth may be usefully employed in lightening
the soil. Good carrots of the larger sorts may be grown in unfavourable
soils by making large holes 18 in. deep with a crowbar, and filling them
up with sandy compost in which the seeds are to be sown. The main crop
is sown at the end of March or beginning of April. After sowing, it is
only necessary to thin the plants, and keep them clear of weeds. The
roots are taken up in autumn and stored during winter in a cool shed or
cellar.



CARRYING OVER, or CONTINUATION, a stock exchange term for the operation
by which the settlement of a bargain transacted for money or for a given
account, may for a consideration (called either a "contango" or a
"backwardation") be postponed from one settling day to another. Such a
continuation is equivalent to a sale "for the day" and a repurchase for
the succeeding account, or to a purchase "for the day" and a resale for
the succeeding account. The price at which such transactions are
adjusted is the "making-up" price of the day. (See ACCOUNT and STOCK
EXCHANGE.)



CARSIOLI (mod. _Carsoli_), an ancient city of Italy, on the Via Valeria,
42 m. E. by N. of Rome. It was founded in the country of the Aequi
between 302 and 298 B.C., just after the establishment of Alba Fucens,
no doubt as a stronghold to guard the road to the latter. It is
mentioned in 211 B.C. as one of the twelve out of thirty Latin colonies
which protested their inability to furnish more men or money for the war
against Hannibal. We find it used in 168 B.C. like Alba Fucens as a
place of confinement for political prisoners. It was sacked in the
Social War, but probably became a _municipium_ after it, though we hear
but little of it. The modern town of Carsoli first appears in a diploma
of A.D. 866, but the old site does not seem to have been abandoned until
the 13th century. It is now occupied only by vineyards, and lies about
2100 ft. above sea-level, in a plain surrounded by mountains, now called
Piano del Cavaliere. The line of the city walls (originally in tufa, and
reconstructed in limestone), built of rectangular blocks, can be traced,
and so can the scanty remains of several buildings, including the
_podium_ or base, of a temple, and also the ancient branch road from the
Via Valeria (which itself keeps just south-east of Carsioli), traversing
the site from north to south. The forty-third milestone of the Via
Valeria still lies at or near its original site; it was set up by Nerva
in A.D. 97. One mile to the north-west of Carsioli are the remains of an
ancient aqueduct consisting of a buttressed wall of concrete crossing a
valley.

  See G.J. Pfeiffer and T. Ashby in _Supplementary Papers of the
  American School in Rome_, i. (1905), 108 seq.     (T. As.)



CARSON, CHRISTOPHER ["KIT"] (1809-1868), American hunter and scout, was
born in Madison county, Kentucky, on the 24th of December 1809. When he
was a year old his parents removed to Howard county, Missouri, then a
frontier settlement, and the boy was early trained in the hardships and
requirements of pioneer life. He served for a while as a saddler's
apprentice, and after 1826 devoted himself to the life of a professional
guide and hunter. He was hunter for the garrison at Bent's Fort on the
Arkansas river in what is now Bent county, Colorado, from 1832 to 1840,
and accompanied John C. Frémont on his exploring expeditions of 1842 and
1843-1844, and on his California expedition in 1845-1846. Carson took
part in the Mexican War, and, after the rush to the Pacific Coast began,
engaged as a guide to convoy emigrants and drovers across the plains and
mountains. In 1854 he became Indian agent at Taos, New Mexico, in which
position, through his knowledge of the Indian traits and language, he
was able to exercise for many years a restraining influence over the
warlike Apaches and other tribes. During the Civil War he rendered
invaluable services to the Federal cause in the south-west as chief
scout in charge of the various bodies of irregular scouts and rangers
participating in the constant border warfare that characterized the
conflict in that part of the Union. In March 1865 he was breveted
brigadier-general of volunteers for gallantry in the battle of Valverde
(on the 21st of February 1862) and for distinguished services in New
Mexico, and after the war resumed his position as Indian agent, which he
held until his death at Fort Lyon, Colorado, on the 23rd of May 1868.
"Kit" Carson occupies in the latter period of American pioneer history a
position somewhat similar to that held by Daniel Boone and David
Crockett at an earlier period, as the typical frontier hero and Indian
fighter, and his hairbreadth escapes and personal prowess are the
subject of innumerable stories.

  See Charles Burdett, _Life of Kit Carson, the Great Western Hunter and
  Guide_ (New York, 1859; new ed., 1877); and De Witt C. Peters, _The
  Life and Adventures of Kit Carson, the Nestor of the Rocky Mountains,
  from Facts Narrated by Himself_ (New York, 1858).



CARSON CITY, the capital of Nevada, U.S.A., and the county seat of
Ormsby county, about 120 m. N.E. of Sacramento, California. Pop. (1890)
3950; (1900) 2100; (1910) 2466. It is served by the Virginia and Truckee
railway, which has repair shops here, and by stage to Lake Tahoe, 12 m.
W. of the city. It is picturesquely situated in Eagle valley, near the
east base of the Sierra Nevada, at an elevation of 4720 ft. above the
sea. Within 1 m. of the city are Shaws Hot Springs. The city is a
distributing point for the neighbouring mining region. Among the public
buildings are the capitol, the United States government building, a
United States mint, and a state orphans' home; in the vicinity are the
state prison and a United States government school for Indians. The
industrial interests of the city are principally in mining, lumbering
and agriculture. It has an excellent supply of mountain spring water.
Carson City (named in honour of Christopher Carson) was settled in 1851
as a trading post, was laid out as a town in 1858, was made the capital
of the state and the county seat of the newly erected county in 1861,
and was chartered as a city in 1875.



CARSTARES (or CARSTAIRS), WILLIAM (1649-1715), Scottish clergyman, was
born at Cathcart, near Glasgow, on the 11th of February 1649, the son of
the Rev. John Carstares, a member of the extreme Covenanting party of
Protestors. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, and then
passed over to Utrecht, where he commenced his lifelong friendship with
the prince of Orange, and began to take an active part in the politics
of his country. The government disliked Carstares for several reasons.
He was the intimate of William; he had been the bearer of messages
between the disaffected in Scotland and Holland; and he was believed to
be concerned with Sir James Steuart (1635-1715) in the authorship of a
pamphlet--_An Account of Scotland's Grievances by reason of the D. of
Lauderdale's Ministrie, humbly tendered to his Sacred Majesty_.
Accordingly, on his return to England, at the close of 1674, he was
committed to the Tower; the following year he was transferred to
Edinburgh Castle, and it was not till August 1679 that he was released.
After this he visited Ireland, and then became pastor to a Nonconformist
congregation at Cheshunt. During 1682 he was in Holland, but in the
following year he was again in London, and was implicated in the Rye
House Plot. On its discovery he was examined before the Scottish
Council; though the torture of the thumb-screw was applied, he refused
to utter a word till he was assured that his admissions would not be
used in evidence, and in the disclosures he then made he displayed great
discretion. On his return to Holland he was rewarded by William's still
warmer friendship, and the post of court chaplain; and after the
Revolution he continued to hold this office, under the title of royal
chaplain for Scotland. He was the confidential adviser of the king,
especially with regard to Scottish affairs, and rendered important
service in promoting the Revolution Settlement. On the accession of
Anne, Carstares retained his post as royal chaplain, but resided in
Edinburgh, having been elected principal of the university. He was also
minister of Greyfriars', and afterwards of St Giles', and was four times
chosen moderator of the general assembly. He took an important part in
promoting the Union, and was consulted by Harley and other leading
Englishmen concerning it. During Anne's reign, the chief object of his
policy was to frustrate the measures which were planned by Lord Oxford
to strengthen the Episcopalian Jacobites--especially a bill for
extending the privileges of the Episcopalians and the bill for replacing
in the hands of the old patrons the right of patronage, which by the
Revolution Settlement had been vested in the elders and the Protestant
heritors. On the accession of George I., Carstares was appointed, with
five others, to welcome the new dynasty in the name of the Scottish
Church. He was received graciously, and the office of royal chaplain was
again conferred upon him. A few months after he was struck with
apoplexy, and died on the 28th of December 1715.

  See _State-papers and Letters addressed to William Carstares_, to
  which is prefixed a Life by M'Cormick (1774); Story's _Character and
  Career of William Carstares_ (1874); Andrew Lang's _History of
  Scotland_ (1907).



CARSTENS, ARMUS JACOB (1754-1798), German painter, was born in
Schleswig, and in 1776 went to Copenhagen to study. In 1783 he went to
Italy, where he was much impressed by the work of Giulio Romano. He then
settled in Lübeck as a portrait painter, but was helped to visit Rome
again in 1792, and gradually produced some fine subject and historical
paintings, e.g. "Plato's Symposium" and the "Battle of Rossbach"--which
made him famous. He was appointed professor at Berlin, and in 1795 a
great exhibition of his works was held in Rome, where he died in 1798.
Carstens ranks as the founder of the later school of German historical
painting.



CARSULAE, an ancient city of Umbria, on the Via Flaminia, 19 m. N. of
Narnia (mod. _Narni_) and 24 m. S.S.W. of Mevania (mod. _Bevagna_). It
is little mentioned in ancient literature. The town was a _municipium_.
The Via Flaminia is well preserved and enters the north gate of the
town, the archway of which still stands. Remains of buildings may also
be seen upon the site, and the outline of an amphitheatre is visible.
The town of Cesi, 3 m. to the south-east, has polygonal walls, and may
perhaps be regarded as an Umbrian city which was destroyed by the
Romans, Carsulae being constructed in its stead. The medieval city, as
so often happened in Italy, returned to the pre-Roman site.

  See G. Gamurrini in _Notizie degli Scavi_ (1884), 149; for the tombs,
  L. Lanzi, in _Notizie degli Scavi_ (1902), 592.



CART (A.S. _croet_, Gaelic _cairt_; connected with "car"), a general
term for various kinds of vehicles (see CARRIAGE), in some cases for
carrying people, but more particularly for transporting goods, for
agricultural or postal purposes, &c., or for carriers. Though
constructed in various ways, the simplest type for goods is two-wheeled,
topless and springless; but as a general term "cart" is used in
combination with some more specific qualification (dog-cart,
donkey-cart, road-cart, polo-cart, &c.), when it is employed for
pleasure purposes. The "dog-cart," so called because originally used to
convey sporting dogs, is a more or less elevated two-wheeled carriage,
generally with scats back to back, in front and behind; the
"governess-cart" (presumably so called from its use for children), a
very low two-wheeled pony-carriage, has two side seats facing inwards;
the "tax-cart," a light two-wheeled farmer's cart, was so called because
formerly exempted from taxation as under the value of £21.



CARTAGENA, or CARTHAGENA, a city, seaport, and the capital of the
department of Bolívar, Colombia, South America, on the Caribbean coast,
in 10° 25' 48" N., 75° 34' W. Pop. (1905, official estimate) 14,000. The
population of Cartagena is largely composed of blacks and mixed races,
which form the predominant type on the lowland plains of northern
Colombia. The well-to-do whites of Cartagena usually have country houses
on the Turbaco hills, where the temperature is much lower than on the
coast. The mean annual temperature in the city is 82°, and the port is
classed as very unhealthful, especially for unacclimatized foreigners.
The harbour, which is the best on the north coast of South America, is
formed by an indentation of the coast-line shut in by two long islands
lying parallel to the mainland. It covers an area of about 62.5 sq. m.
and affords deep and secure anchorages and ample facilities for loading
and unloading large vessels. The city itself has no modern quays, and
large vessels do not approach within a mile of its landing-stages, but
the railway pier (lengthened 120 ft. in 1898) on the mainland opposite
permits the mooring of vessels alongside. There were formerly two
entrances to the harbour--the Boca Grande (large mouth) between the low
sandy island or peninsula on which the city stands and the island of
Tierra Bomba, and the Boca Chica (small mouth) at the south end of the
latter island. The Boca Grande was filled with stone after the city had
been captured three times, because of the ease with which an enemy's
ships could pass through it at any time, and the narrow and more easily
defended Boca Chica, 7 m. farther south, has since been used.

The city occupies a part of the upper island or peninsula facing the
northern end of the harbour, and is separated from the mainland on the
east by a shallow lagoon-like extension of the bay which is bridged by a
causeway passing through the extramural suburb of Xiximani on another
island. The old city, about ¾ m. long, north and south, and ½ m. wide,
is enclosed by a heavy wall, in places 40 ft. thick, and is defended by
several formidable-looking forts, which have long been dismantled, but
are still in a good state of preservation. At the mainland end of the
causeway leading from the city is the fort of San Felipe, about 100 ft.
above sea-level, adapted as a distributing reservoir in the city's
waterworks; and behind it are verdure-covered hills rising to an
elevation of 500 ft., forming a picturesque background to the grey walls
and red-tiled roofs of the city. The streets are narrow, irregular and
roughly paved, but are lighted by electricity; tramway lines run between
the principal points of the city and suburbs. The houses are built with
thick walls of stone and brick round open courts, in the Moorish style,
and their iron-barred doors and windows give them the appearance of
being a part of the fortifications. Among the numerous churches, the
largest and most imposing is the Jesuit church of San Juan de Dios, with
its double towers and celebrated marble pulpit; an old monastery
adjoins. Cartagena is an episcopal see, and its cathedral dates from
colonial times. The city was once the headquarters of the Inquisition in
South America, and the edifice which it occupied, now private property,
is an object of much interest. The water supply of the city was formerly
obtained from rainwater tanks on the walls or by carriage from springs a
few miles inland. But in 1906 an English company received a concession
to bring water by pipes from springs on the Turbaco hills, 300 ft. above
the sea.

The commercial importance of Cartagena declined greatly during the
period of civil disorders which followed the war for independence, but
in later years has revived. In the reign of Philip II. the Spaniards had
opened a canal ("El Dique") through some marshes and lagoons into a
small western outlet of the Magdalena, which gave access to that river
at Calamar, about 81 m. above the bar at its mouth; during Cartagena's
decline this was allowed to fill up; it was reopened in 1846 for a short
time and then was obstructed again by river floods; but in 1881 it was
reopened for steam navigation. Towards the end of the 19th century a
railway, 65 m. long, was built between Cartagena and Calamar. Imports
consist of cotton, linen and woollen fabrics, hardware, cutlery and
machinery, kerosene, glass and earthenware; and the exports of cattle,
sugar, tobacco, coffee, coco-nuts and fibre, dividivi and dye-woods,
vegetable ivory, rubber, hides and skins, medicinal forest products,
gold, silver and platinum. The aggregate value of the exports in 1906
was $3,788,094 U.S. gold.

Cartagena was founded in 1533 by Pedro de Heredia. In 1544 it was
captured by pirates, who plundered the town; in 1585 by Sir Francis
Drake, who exacted a large ransom; and in 1697 by the French, who
obtained from it more than £1,000,000. In 1741 Admiral Vernon
unsuccessfully besieged the town. It was taken by Bolívar in 1815, but
was surrendered to the royalists in the same year. It was recaptured by
the republicans on the 25th of September 1821, and thereafter remained
in their possession. It figured prominently in the political agitations
and revolutions which followed, and underwent a siege in the civil war
of 1885. It was an important naval station under Spanish colonial rule,
and is the principal naval station of Colombia.



CARTAGENA, or CARTHAGENA, a seaport of south-eastern Spain, in the
province of Murcia; in 37° 36' N. and 0° 58' W., at the terminus of a
branch railway from the city of Murcia, and on the Mediterranean Sea.
Pop. (1900) 99,871. Cartagena is fortified, and possesses an arsenal and
naval dockyards. Together with Ferrol and San Fernando near Cadiz, the
other great naval stations of Spain, it is governed by an admiral with
the title of captain-general. It has also an episcopal see.

The city stands on a hill separated by a little plain from the harbour;
towards the north and east it communicates with a fertile valley; on the
south and west it is hemmed in by high mountains. Its grey houses have a
neglected, almost a dilapidated appearance, from the friable stone of
which they are constructed; and there are no buildings of antiquarian
interest or striking architectural beauty, except, perhaps, the ruined
citadel and the remnants of the town walls. The wide streets are
traversed by a system of tramways, which pass through modern suburbs to
the mining district about two leagues inland, and on the west a canal
enables small vessels to enter the town without using the port. The
harbour, the largest in Spain after that of Vigo, and the finest on the
east coast, is a spacious bay, deep, except near its centre, where there
is a ledge of rock barely 5 ft. under water. It is dominated, on the
seaward side, by four hills, and approached by a narrow entrance, with
forts on either hand; a breakwater affords shelter on the east, and on
the west is the Arsenal Basin, often regarded as the original harbour of
the Carthaginians and Romans. The island called La Escombrera, the
ancient _Scombraria_ (i.e. "mackerel fishery"), 2½ m. south, protects
Cartagena from the violence of wind and waves. The mines near the city
are very productive, and thousands of men and beasts are employed in
transporting lead, iron, copper, zinc and sulphur to the coast. The
industrial and commercial progress of Cartagena was much hindered,
during the first half of the 19th century, by the prevalence of epidemic
diseases, the abandonment of the arsenal, and rivalry with the
neighbouring port of Alicante. Its sanitary condition, though still
defective, was improved by the drainage of the adjacent Almajar Marsh;
and after 1870, when the population had dwindled to about 26,000,
Cartagena advanced rapidly in size and wealth. The opening of the
railway enabled it to compete successfully with Alicante, and revived
the mining and metallurgical industries, while considerable sums were
expended on bringing the coast and land defences up to date, and adding
new quays, docks and other harbour works. As a naval station, Cartagena
suffered severely in 1898 from the maritime disasters of the
Spanish-American War; and its commerce was much affected when, at the
beginning of the same year, Porman, or Portman, a mining village on a
well-sheltered bay about 11 m. east, was declared by royal order an
independent port. Vessels go to Porman to land coke and coal, and to
load iron ore and lead. From Cartagena the principal exports are
metallic ores, esparto grass, wine, cereals and fruit. Esparto grass,
which grows freely in the vicinity, is the _spartum_, or Spanish broom,
which gave the town its Roman designation of _Carthago Spartaria_. It is
still used locally for making shoes, ships' cables, mats and a kind of
spun cloth. Timber is largely imported from the United States, Sweden
and Russia; coal from Great Britain; dried codfish from Norway and
Newfoundland. In 1904, exclusive of coasters and small craft trading
with north-west Africa, 662 ships of 604,208 tons entered the port of
Cartagena, 259 being British and 150 Spanish; while 90 vessels were
accommodated at Porman.

Cartagena was founded about the year 243 B.C. by the Carthaginian
Hasdrubal, and was called _Carthago Nova_ or New Carthage, to
distinguish it from the African city of Carthage. It was conveniently
situated opposite to the Carthaginian territory in Africa, and was early
noted for its harbour. Its silver and gold mines were the source of
great wealth both to the Carthaginians and to the Romans. In 210 B.C.
this important place, the headquarters and treasure city of the Punic
army, was stormed and taken with great slaughter by P. Scipio. The city
continued to flourish under the Romans, who made it a colony, with the
name _Colonia Victrix Julia Nova Carthago_. In A.D. 425 it was pillaged
and nearly destroyed by the Goths. Cartagena was a bishopric from about
400 to 1289, when the see was removed to Murcia. Under the Moors it
became an independent principality, which was destroyed by Ferdinand II.
of Castile in 1243, restored by the Moors, and finally conquered by
James I. of Aragon in 1276. It was rebuilt by Philip II. of Spain
(1527-1598) for the sake of its harbour. In 1585 it was sacked by an
English fleet under Sir Francis Drake. In 1706, in the War of the
Spanish Succession, it was occupied by Sir John Leake; and in the next
year it was retaken by the duke of Berwick. On the 5th of November 1823
it capitulated to the French. In consequence of the insurrection in
Spain, Cartagena was in 1844 again the scene of warfare. On the 23rd of
August 1873 it was bombarded by the Spanish fleet under Admiral Lobos;
on the 11th of October a battle took place off the town, between the
ships of the government and the rebels, and on the 12th of January 1874
Cartagena was occupied by the government troops.

  See _Biblioteca histórica de Cartagena_, by G. Vicent y Portillo
  (Madrid, 1889, &c.); _Fechos y fechas de Cartagena_, by I. Martinez
  Rito (Cartagena, 1894); and _Serie de los obispos de Cartagena_, by P.
  Diaz Casson (Madrid, 1895).



CARTAGO, the capital of the province of Cartago, in Costa Rica, Central
America; 13 m. E.S.E. of San José by the trans-continental railway. Pop.
(1900) 4536. Cartago is built 4930 ft. above sea-level, on the fertile
and beautiful plateau of San José, and at the southern base of the
volcano Irazú (11,200 ft.). Some of its older buildings, especially the
churches, are of considerable interest; but all bear marks of the
volcanic disturbances from which the town has suffered on many
occasions--notably in 1723, when it was nearly overwhelmed by the
bursting of the flooded crater of Irazú, and in 1841, when it was
shattered by an earthquake. There are hot mineral springs much
frequented by invalids at Bella Vista, a suburb connected with the town
by a tramway 3 m. long. The local trade is chiefly in coffee of fine
quality, which is readily cultivated in the rich volcanic soil of the
neighbourhood. Cartago is said to have been in existence as early as
1522; it was probably named in 1563 by the Spaniard Vazquez de Coronado,
to whom its foundation is often ascribed. Though several times plundered
by buccaneers, it retained its importance as the capital of Costa Rica
until 1823, when it is said by tradition to have contained 30,000
inhabitants. Its prosperity rapidly diminished after the transference of
the seat of government to San José, in 1823, but somewhat revived with
the development of railways after 1871.



CARTE, THOMAS (1686-1754), English historian, was born at Dusmoon, near
Clifton. He was educated at Oxford, and was first brought into notice by
his controversy with Dr Henry Chandler regarding the Irish massacre, in
which he defended Charles I. His attachment to the Stuarts also caused
him to remain a non-juror, and on the discovery of the plot of
Atterbury, whose secretary he was, he was forced to flee to France.
There he collected materials for an English edition of De Thou and
Rigault, which were purchased and published by Dr Mead. Being recalled
to England through the influence of Queen Caroline, he published, in
1738, _A General Account of the Necessary Materials for a History of
England_. The first volume of his _Central History of England_, which is
only of value for its vast and careful collection of facts, was
published in 1747. By the insertion in it of the statement that the
king's evil had been cured by the Pretender, Carte forfeited the favour
of most of his patrons. He, however, continued to publish; and the 2nd
volume appeared in 1750, the 3rd in 1752, the 4th in 1755. He published
also a _Life of James, duke of Ormond_, containing a collection of
letters, &c. (3 vols., 1735-1736; new ed., in 6 vols., Oxford, 1851),
and a _History of the Revolutions of Portugal_, with letters of Sir R.
Southwell during his embassy there (London, 1740). His papers became the
property of the university of Oxford, and were deposited in the Bodleian
library.



CARTER, ELIZABETH (1717-1806), English poet and translator, daughter of
the Rev. Nicholas Carter, was born at Deal, in Kent, on the 16th of
December 1717. Dr Carter educated his children, boys and girls, alike;
but Elizabeth's slowness tired his patience, and it was only by great
perseverance that she conquered her natural incapacity for learning. She
studied late at night and early in the morning, taking snuff and chewing
green tea to keep herself awake; thus causing severe injury to her
health. She learned Greek and Latin, and Dr Johnson said concerning a
celebrated scholar that he "understood Greek better than any one whom he
had ever known except Elizabeth Carter." She learned also Hebrew,
French, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and lastly some Arabic.
She studied astronomy, ancient geography, and ancient and modern
history. Edward Cave was a friend of Dr Carter, and in 1734 some of
Elizabeth's verses, signed "Eliza," appeared in the _Gentleman's
Magazine_, to which she contributed for many years. In 1738 Cave
published her _Poems upon Particular Occasions_; in 1739 she translated
from the French an attack on Pope's _Essay on Man_ by J.P. de Crousaz;
and in the same year appeared her translation from the Italian of
Algarotti's _Newtonianismo per le Dame_, under the title of _Sir Isaac
Newton's Philosophy explained for the use of the Ladies, in six
Dialogues on Light and Colour_. Her translation of Epictetus (1758) was
undertaken in 1749 to please her friends, Thomas Secker (afterwards
archbishop of Canterbury) and his niece, Catherine Talbot, to whom the
translation was sent, sheet by sheet, as it was done. In 1762 Miss
Carter printed a second collection of _Poems on Several Occasions_. Her
letters to Miss Talbot contain an account of a tour on the continent
undertaken in 1763 in company with Edward and Elizabeth Montagu and
William Pulteney, 1st earl of Bath. Dr Carter, from 1762 to his death in
1774, lived with his daughter in a house at Deal, which she had
purchased. An annuity was settled on her by Sir William Pulteney and his
wife, who had inherited Lord Bath's fortune; and she had another annuity
from Mrs Montagu. Among Miss Carter's friends and correspondents were
Samuel Johnson, Bishop Butler, Richard Savage, Horace Walpole, Samuel
Richardson, Edmund Burke, Hannah More, and Elizabeth Vesey, who was a
leader of literary society. She died in Clarges Street, Piccadilly, on
the 19th of February 1806.

  Her _Memoirs_ were published in 1807; her correspondence with Miss
  Talbot and Mrs Vesey in 1809; and her letters to Mrs Montagu in 1817.
  See also _A Woman of Wit and Wisdom_ (1906), a biography by Alice C.C.
  Gaussen.



CARTERET, SIR GEORGE (c. 1610-1680), English politician, was born
between 1609 and 1617 on the island of Jersey, where his family had long
been prominent landholders. He was the son of Helier de Carteret of St
Ouen, and in his youth was trained to follow the sea. In 1639 he became
comptroller of the English navy. During the Civil War he was active in
behalf of the king. In 1643 he succeeded by reversion from his uncle,
Sir Philip Carteret, to the post of bailiff of Jersey, and in the same
year was appointed by the king lieutenant-governor of the island. After
subduing the Parliamentary party in the island, he was commissioned
(1644) a vice-admiral of Jersey and "the maritime parts adjacent," and
by virtue of that office he carried on from there an active privateering
campaign in the Royalist cause. Parliament branded him as a pirate and
excluded him specifically from future amnesty. His rule in Jersey was
severe, but profitable to the island; he developed its resources and
made it a refuge for Royalists, among whom in 1646 and again in
1649-1650 was Prince Charles, who created Carteret a knight and baronet.
In 1650, in consideration of Carteret's services, Charles granted to him
"a certain island and adjacent islets near Virginia, in America," which
were to be called New Jersey; but no settlement upon this grant was
made. In 1651 Carteret, after a seven weeks' siege, was compelled to
surrender Jersey to a Parliamentary force; he then joined the Royalist
exiles in France, where for a time he held a command in the French navy.
He returned to England at the Restoration, became a privy councillor,
sat in parliament for Portsmouth, and also served as vice-chamberlain of
the royal household, a position to which he had been appointed in 1647.
From 1661 to 1667 he was treasurer of the navy. He rendered valuable
service during the Dutch War, but his lax methods of keeping accounts
led to his being censured by parliament. In 1667 he became a deputy
treasurer of Ireland. He continued nevertheless in the royal favour, and
subsequently was appointed one of the commissioners of the admiralty and
a member of the board of trade and plantations. He belonged to that
group of courtiers interested in the colonization of America, and was
one of the eight to whom Charles II. granted the country of the
Carolinas by the charters of 1663 and 1665. In 1664 James, duke of York,
granted that part of his American territory between the Hudson and
Delaware rivers to Sir George Carteret and John, Lord Berkeley, and in
Carteret's honour this tract received the name of New Jersey. Sir
George's relative, Philip Carteret (d. 1682), was sent over as governor
in 1665, but was temporarily deposed in 1672 by the discontented
colonists, who chose James Carteret (perhaps a natural son of Sir
George) as "president." Philip Carteret was restored to his office in
1674. In this year Lord Berkeley disposed of his share of the grant,
which finally fell under the control of William Penn and his associates.
With them Carteret agreed (1676) upon a boundary line which divided the
colony into East and West Jersey. He died in January 1680, and two years
later his heirs disposed of his New Jersey holdings to Penn and other
Quakers.



CARTESIANISM,[1] the general name given to the philosophy developed
principally in the works of Descartes, Malebranche and Spinoza. It is
impossible to exhibit the full meaning of these authors except in
connexion, for they are all ruled by one and the same thought in
different stages of its evolution. It may be true that Malebranche and
Spinoza were prepared, the former by the study of Augustine, the latter
by the study of Jewish philosophy, to draw from Cartesian principles
consequences which Descartes never anticipated. But the foreign light
did not alter the picture on which it was cast, but only let it be seen
more clearly. The consequences were legitimately drawn. It may be shown
that they lay in the system from the first, and that they were evolved
by nothing but its own immanent dialectic. At the same time it is not
likely that they would ever have been brought into such clear
consciousness, or expressed with such consistency, except by a
philosopher whose circumstances and character had completely detached
him from all the convictions and prejudices of the age. In Malebranche,
Cartesianism found an interpreter whose meditative spirit was fostered
by the cloister, but whose speculative boldness was restrained by the
traditions of the Catholic church. In Spinoza it found one who was in
spirit and position more completely isolated than any monk, who was
removed from the influence of the religious as well as the secular world
of his time, and who in his solitude seemed scarcely ever to hear any
voice but the voice of philosophy. It is because Cartesianism found such
a pure organ of expression that its development is, in some sense,
complete and typical. Its principles have been carried to their ultimate
result, and we have before us all the data necessary to determine their
value.


  Principle of doubt.

  Certainty of the thinking self.

_The Philosophy of Descartes._--Descartes was, in the full sense of the
word, a partaker of the modern spirit. He was equally moved by the
tendencies that produced the Reformation, and the tendencies that
produced the revival of letters and science. Like Erasmus and Bacon, he
sought to escape from a transcendent and unreal philosophy of the other
world, to the knowledge of man and the world he lives in. But like
Luther, he found within human experience, among the matters nearest to
man, the consciousness of God, and therefore his renunciation of
scholasticism did not end either in materialism or in that absolute
distinction between faith and reason which inevitably leads to the
downfall of faith. What was peculiar to Descartes, however, was the
speculative interest which made it impossible for him to rest in mere
experience, whether of things spiritual or of things secular, which made
him search, both in our consciousness of God and our consciousness of
the world, for the links by which they are bound to the consciousness of
self. In both cases it is his aim to go back to the beginning, to
retrace the unconscious process by which the world of experience was
built up, to discover the hidden logic that connects the different parts
of the structure of belief, to substitute a reasoned system, all whose
elements are interdependent, for an unreasoned congeries of opinions.
Hence his first step involves reflection, doubt and abstraction. Turning
the eye of reason upon itself, he tries to measure the value of that
collection of beliefs of which he finds himself possessed; and the first
thing that reflection seems to discover is its accidental and
unconnected character. It is a mass of incongruous materials,
accumulated without system and untested. Its elements have been put
together under all kinds of influences, without any conscious
intellectual process, and therefore we can have no assurance of them.
In order that we may have such assurance we must unweave the web of
experience and thought which we have woven in our sleep, that we may
begin again at the beginning and weave it over again with "clear and
distinct" consciousness of what we are doing. _De omnibus dubitandum
est._ We must free ourselves by one decisive effort from the weight of
custom, prejudice and tradition with which our consciousness of the
world has been overlaid, that in that consciousness in its simplest and
most elementary form we may find the true beginning of knowledge. The
method of doubt is at the same time a method of abstraction, by which
Descartes rises above the thought of the particular objects of
knowledge, in order that he may find the primary truth in which lies the
very definition of knowledge, of the reason why anything can be said to
be true. First disappears the whole mass of dogmas and opinions as to
God and man which are confessedly received on mere authority. Then the
supposed evidence of sense is rejected, for external reality is not
immediately given in sensation. It is acknowledged by all that the
senses often mislead us as to the nature of things without us, and
perhaps they may also mislead us as to there being anything without us
at all. Nay, by an effort, we can even carry doubt beyond this point; we
can doubt even mathematical truth. When, indeed, we have our thoughts
directed to the geometrical demonstration, when the steps of the process
are immediately before our minds, we cannot but assent to the
proposition that the angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles;
but when we forget or turn away our thoughts from such demonstration, we
can imagine that God or some powerful spirit is playing upon our minds
to deceive them, also that even our most certain judgments may be
illusory. In this naïve manner does Descartes express the idea that
there are necessities of thought prior to, and presupposed in the truth
of geometry. He is seeking to strip thought of all the "lendings" that
seem to come to it from anything but itself, of all relation to being
that can be supposed to be given to it from without, that he may
discover the primary unity of thought and being on which all knowledge
depends. And this he finds in pure self-consciousness. Whatever I
abstract from, I cannot abstract from self, from the "I think" that, as
Kant puts it, accompanies all our ideas; for it was in fact the very
independence of this universal element on the particulars that made all
our previous abstraction possible. Even doubt rests on certitude; alone
with self I cannot get rid of this self. By an effort of thought I
separate my thinking self from all that I think, but the thinking self
remains, and in thinking I am. _Cogito, ergo sum_: "I think, therefore I
am." The objective judgment of self-consciousness is bound up with or
involved in the very faculty of judging, and therefore remains when we
abstract from all other objective judgments. It is an assertion involved
in the very process by which we dismiss all other assertions. Have we
not then a right to regard it as a primitive unity of thought and being,
in which is contained, or out of which may be developed, the very
definition of truth?


    Difficulties of the "cogito, ergo sum."

  The sense in which Descartes understood his first principle becomes
  clearer when we look at his answers to the objections made against it.
  On the one hand it was challenged by those who asked, like Gassendi,
  why the argument should be based especially on thought, and why we
  might not say with as good a right, _ambulo, ergo sum_: "I walk,
  therefore I am." Descartes explains that it is only as referred to
  consciousness that walking is an evidence of my existence; but if I
  say, "I am conscious of walking, therefore I exist," this is
  equivalent to saying, "I think in one particular way, therefore I
  exist." But it is not thinking in a particular way, but thinking in
  general that is coextensive with my existence. I am not always
  conscious of walking or of any other special state or object, but I am
  always conscious, for except in consciousness there is no ego or self,
  and where there is consciousness there is always an ego. "Do I then
  always think, even in sleep?" asks the objector; and Descartes exposes
  himself to the criticisms of Locke, by maintaining that it is
  impossible that there should ever be an interval in the activity of
  consciousness, and by insisting that as man is essentially a thinking
  substance, the child thinks, or is self-conscious, even in its
  mother's womb. The difficulty disappears when we observe that the
  question as to the conditions under which self-consciousness is
  developed in the individual human subject does not affect the nature
  of self-consciousness in itself or in its relation to knowledge. The
  force of Descartes's argument really lies in this, that the world as
  an intelligible world exists only for a conscious self, and that
  therefore the unity of thought and being in self-consciousness is
  presupposed in all knowledge. Of this self it is true to say that it
  exists only as it thinks, and that it thinks always. _Cogito, ergo
  sum_ is, as Descartes points out, not a syllogism, but the expression
  of an identity which is discerned by the simple intuition of the
  mind.[2] If it were otherwise, the major "_omne quod cogitat existit_"
  would require to have been known before the minor "_cogito_"; whereas
  on the contrary it is from the immediate consciousness of being as
  contained in self-consciousness that that major can alone be derived.
  Again, when Hobbes and others argued that thinking is or may be a
  property of a material substance, Descartes answers that the question
  whether the material and the thinking substance are one does not meet
  us at the outset, but can only be solved after we have considered what
  is involved in the conception of these different substances
  respectively.[3] In other words, to begin by treating thinking as a
  quality of a material substance, is to go outside of the intelligible
  world for an explanation of the intelligible world. It is to ask for
  something prior to that which is first in thought. If it be true that
  the consciousness of self is that from which we cannot abstract, that
  which is involved in the knowledge of anything, then to go beyond it
  and seek for a reason or explanation of it in anything else is to go
  beyond the beginning of knowledge; it is to ask for a knowledge before
  knowledge.

  Descartes, however, is himself unfaithful to this point of view; for,
  strictly taken, it would involve the consequence, not only that there
  is nothing prior to the pure consciousness of self, but that there can
  be no object which is not in necessary relation to it. Hence there can
  be no absolute opposition between thought and anything else, no
  opposition which thought itself does not transcend. But Descartes
  commits the error of making thought the property of a substance, a
  _res cogitans_, which as such can immediately or directly apprehend
  nothing but thoughts or ideas; while, altogether outside of these
  thoughts and ideas, there is another substance characterized by the
  property of extension, and with which thought has nothing to do.
  Matter in space is thus changed, in Kantian language, into a "thing in
  itself," an object out of all relation to the subject; and on the
  other hand, mind seems to be shut up in the magic circle of its own
  ideas, without any capacity of breaking through the circle or
  apprehending any reality but itself. Between thought and being, in
  spite of their _subjective_ unity in self-consciousness, a great gulf
  seems still to be fixed, which cannot be crossed unless thought should
  become extended, or matter think. But to Descartes the dualism is
  absolute, because it is a presupposition with which he starts. Mind
  cannot go out of itself, cannot deal with anything but thought,
  without ceasing to be mind; and matter must cease to be matter ere it
  can lose its absolute externality, its nature as having _partes extra
  partes_, and acquire the unity of mind. They are opposed as the
  divisible and the indivisible, and there is no possible existence of
  matter in thought except a representative existence. The ideal (or, as
  Descartes calls it, objective) existence of matter _in_ thought and
  the real (or, as Descartes calls it, formal) existence of matter _out
  of_ thought are absolutely different and independent things.


  Proof of existence of God.

It was, however, impossible for Descartes to be content with a
subjective idealism that confined all knowledge to the tautological
expression of self-consciousness "I am I," "What I perceive I perceive."
If the individual is to find in his self-consciousness the principle of
all knowledge, there must be something in it which transcends the
distinction of self and not self, which carries him beyond the limit of
his own individuality. What then is the point where the subjective
consciousness passes out into the objective, from which it seemed at
first absolutely excluded? Descartes answers that it is through the
connexion of the consciousness of self with the consciousness of God. It
is because we find God in our minds that we find anything else. The
proof of God's existence is therefore the hinge on which the whole
Cartesian philosophy turns, and it is necessary to examine the nature of
it somewhat closely.

Descartes, in the first place, tries to extract a criterion of truth out
of the _cogito, ergo sum_. Why am I assured of my own existence? It is
because the conception of existence is at once and immediately involved
in the consciousness of self. I can logically distinguish the two
elements, but I cannot separate them; whenever I clearly and distinctly
conceive the one, I am forced to think the other along with it. But this
gives me a rule for all judgments whatever, a principle which is
related to the _cogito, ergo sum_ as the formal to the material
principle of knowledge. Whatever we cannot separate from the clear and
distinct conception of anything, necessarily belongs to it in reality;
and on the other hand, whatever we can separate from the clear and
distinct conception of anything, does not necessarily belong to it in
reality. Let us therefore set an object clearly before us, let us sever
it in thought so far as is possible from all other objects, and we shall
at once be able to determine what properties and relations are essential
and what are not essential to it. And if we find empirically that any
object manifests a property or relation not involved in the clear and
distinct conception of it, we can say with certainty that such property
or relation does not belong to it except by arbitrary arrangement, or,
in other words, by the external combination of things which in their own
nature have no affinity or connexion.

Now, by the application of this principle, we might at once assure
ourselves of many mathematical truths; but, as has been already shown,
there is a point of view from which we may doubt even these, so long as
the idea of a God that deceives us is not excluded. If it is not certain
that there is a God that cannot lie, it is not certain that there is an
objective matter in space to which mathematical truth applies. But the
existence of God may be proved in two ways. In the first place, it may
be proved through the principle of causality, which is a self-evident
truth. We have in our mind many ideas, and according to the principle of
causality, all these ideas must be derived from something that contains
a "formal" reality which corresponds to their "objective" reality, i.e.
which contains at least as much reality in its existence out of thought
as they contain in their existence in thought. Now we might derive from
ourselves not only the ideas of other minds like ourselves, but possibly
also of material objects, since these are lower in the scale of
existence than ourselves, and it is conceivable that the idea of them
might be got by omitting some of the qualities which distinguish
ourselves. But the idea of God, of a being who is eternal and immutable,
all-powerful, all-wise, and all-good, cannot be derived from our own
limited and imperfect existence. The origin, therefore, must be sought
in a being who contains actually in himself all that is contained in our
idea of him.


    Descartes's metaphysics.

  It was objected by some of the critics of Descartes that the idea of
  God as the infinite Being is merely negative, and that it is derived
  from the finite simply by abstracting from its conditions. Descartes
  answers that the case is just the reverse--the infinite is the
  positive idea, and the finite is the negative, and therefore the
  former is the presupposition of the latter. As Kant, at a later date,
  pointed out that space is not a general conception, abstracted from
  the ideas of particular spaces, and representing the common element in
  them, but that, on the contrary, the ideas of particular spaces are
  got by the limitation of the one infinite space that is prior to them,
  so Descartes maintains in general that the idea of the finite is had
  only by limitation of the infinite, and not the idea of the infinite
  by abstraction from the particular determinations of the finite. It is
  a necessary consequence of this that the self-consciousness of a
  finite being is bound up with the consciousness of the infinite. Hence
  the idea of God is not merely one among other ideas which we have, but
  it is the one idea that is necessary to our very existence as thinking
  beings, the idea through which alone we can think ourselves, or
  anything else. "I ought never to suppose," says Descartes, "that my
  conception of the infinite is a negative idea, got by negation of the
  finite, just as I conceive repose to be merely negation of movement,
  and darkness merely the negation of light. On the contrary, I see
  manifestly that there is more reality in the infinite than in the
  finite substance, and that therefore I have in me the notion of the
  infinite, _even in some sense prior to the notion of the finite_, or,
  in other words, that the notion of myself in some sense presupposes
  the notion of God; for how could I doubt or desire, how could I be
  conscious of anything as a want, how could I know that I am not
  altogether perfect, if I had not in me the idea of a being more
  perfect than myself, by comparison with whom I recognize the defects
  of my own existence?"[4] Descartes then goes on in various ways to
  illustrate the thesis that the consciousness of a defective and
  growing nature cannot give rise to the idea of infinite perfection,
  but on the contrary presupposes it. We could not think of a series of
  approximations unless there were somehow present to us the idea of the
  completed infinite as the goal we aim at. If we had not the
  consciousness of ourselves as finite _in relation_ to the infinite,
  either we should not be conscious of ourselves at all, or we should
  be conscious of ourselves as infinite. The image of God is so
  impressed by him upon us, that we "conceive that resemblance wherein
  the idea of God is contained by the same faculty whereby we are
  conscious of ourselves." In other words, our consciousness of
  ourselves is at the same time consciousness of our finitude, and hence
  of our relation to a being who is infinite.

  The principle which underlies the reasoning of Descartes is that to be
  conscious of a limit, is to transcend it. We could not feel the limits
  either upon our thought or upon our existence, we could not doubt or
  desire, if we did not already apprehend something beyond these limits.
  Nay, we could not be conscious of our existence as individual selves
  if we were not conscious of that which is not ourselves, and of a
  unity in which both self and not-self are included. Our individual
  life is therefore to us as self-conscious beings a part of a wider
  universal life. Doubt and aspiration are but the manifestation of this
  essential division and contradiction of a nature which, as conscious
  of itself, is at the same time conscious of the whole in which it is a
  part. And as the existence of a self and its consciousness are one, so
  we may say that a thinking being is not only an individual, but always
  in some sense identified with that universal unity of being to which
  it is essentially related.

  If Descartes had followed out this line of thought, he would have been
  led at once to the pantheism of Spinoza, if not beyond it. As it is,
  he is on the verge of contradiction with himself when he speaks of the
  consciousness of God as _in some sense_ prior to the consciousness of
  self. How can anything be prior to the first principle of knowledge?
  It is no answer to say that the consciousness of God is the
  _principium essendi_, while the consciousness of self is the
  _principium cognoscendi_. For, if the idea of God is prior to the idea
  of self, knowledge must begin where existence begins, with God. The
  words "in some sense," with which Descartes qualifies his assertion of
  the priority of the idea of God, only betray his hesitation and his
  partial consciousness of the contradiction in which he is involved.
  Some of Descartes's critics presented this difficulty to him in
  another form, and accused him of reasoning in a circle when he said
  that it is because God cannot lie that we are certain that our clear
  and distinct ideas do not deceive us. The very existence of the
  conscious self, the _cogito, ergo sum_, which is the first of all
  truths and therefore prior in certitude to the existence of God, is
  believed only because of the clearness and distinctness with which we
  apprehend it. How then, they argued, could God's truthfulness be our
  security for a principle which we must use in order to prove the being
  of God? The answer of Descartes is somewhat lame. We cannot doubt any
  self-evident principle, or even any truth based on a self-evident
  principle, when we are directly contemplating it in all the necessity
  of its evidence; it is only when we forget or turn away from this
  evidence, and begin to think of the possibility of a deceitful God,
  that a doubt arises which cannot be removed except by the conviction
  that God is true.[5] It can scarcely be said that this is a _dignus
  vindice nodus_, or that God can fitly appear as a kind of second-best
  resource to the forgetful spirit that has lost its direct hold on
  truth and its faith in itself. God, truth, and the human spirit are
  thus conceived as having merely external and accidental relations with
  each other. What Descartes, however, is really expressing in this
  exoteric way is simply that beneath and beyond all particular truths
  lies the great general truth of the unity of thought and existence. In
  contemplating particular truth, we may not consciously relate it to
  this unity, but when we have to defend ourselves against scepticism we
  are forced to realize this relation. The ultimate answer to any attack
  upon a special aspect or element of truth must be to show that the
  fate of truth itself, the very possibility of knowledge, is involved
  in the rejection of it, and that we cannot doubt it without doubting
  reason itself. But to doubt reason is, in the language of Descartes,
  to doubt the truthfulness of God, for, in his view, the idea of God is
  involved in the very constitution of reason. Taken in this way then,
  the import of Descartes's answer is, that the consciousness of self,
  like every other particular truth, is not at first seen to rest on the
  consciousness of God, but that when we realize what it means we see
  that it does so rest. But if this be so, then in making the
  consciousness of self his first principle of knowledge, Descartes has
  stopped short of the truth. It can only be the first principle if it
  is understood, not as the consciousness of the individual self, but in
  a sense in which the consciousness of self is identical with the
  consciousness of God.

  Descartes, however, is far from a clear apprehension of the ultimate
  unity of thought and being, which nevertheless he strives to find in
  God. Beginning with an absolute separation of the _res cogitans_ from
  the _res extensa_, he is continually falling back into dualism just
  when he seemed to have escaped from it. Even in God the absolute
  unity, idea and reality fall asunder; our idea of God is not God in
  us, it is only an idea of which God's existence is the cause. But the
  category of causality, if it forms a bridge between different things,
  as here between knowing and being, at the same time repels them from
  each other. It is a category of external relation which may be
  adequate to express the relation of the finite to the finite, but not
  the relation of the finite to the infinite. We cannot conceive God as
  the cause of our idea of him, without making God a purely objective
  and therefore finite existence. Nor is the case better when we turn to
  the so-called ontological argument,--that existence is necessarily
  involved in the idea of God, just as the property of having its angles
  equal to two right angles is involved in the idea of a triangle. If
  indeed we understood this as meaning that thought transcends the
  distinction between itself and existence, and that therefore existence
  cannot be a thing in itself out of thought, but must be an
  intelligible world that exists as such only for the thinking being,
  there is some force in the argument. But this meaning we cannot find
  in Descartes, or to find it we must make him inconsistent with
  himself. He was so far from having quelled the phantom "thing in
  itself," that he treated matter in space as such a thing, and thus
  confused externality of space with externality to the mind. On this
  dualistic basis, the ontological argument becomes a manifest
  paralogism, and lies open to all the objections that Kant brought
  against it. That the idea of God involves existence, proves only that
  God, if he exists at all, exists by the necessity of his being. But
  the link that shall bind thought to existence is still wanting, and,
  in consistency with the other presuppositions of Descartes, it cannot
  be supplied.

  But again, even if we allow to Descartes that God is the unity of
  thought and being, we must still ask what kind of unity? Is it a mere
  generic unity, reached by abstraction, and therefore leaving out all
  the distinguishing characteristics of the particulars under it? Or is
  it a concrete unity to which the particular elements are subordinated,
  but in which they are nevertheless included? To answer this question,
  we need only look at the relation of the finite to the infinite, as it
  is expressed in that passage already quoted, and in many others.
  Descartes always speaks of the infinite as a purely affirmative or
  positive existence, and of the finite in so far as it is distinguished
  from the infinite, as purely negative, or in other words as a
  nonentity. "I am," he says, "a mean between God and nothing, between
  the Supreme Being and not-being. In so far as I am created by God,
  there is nothing in me that can deceive me or lead me into error. But
  on the other hand, if I consider myself as participating in
  nothingness or not-being, inasmuch as I am not myself the Supreme
  Being, but in many ways defective, I find myself exposed to an
  infinity of errors. Thus error as such is not something real that
  depends on God, but simply a defect; I do not need to explain it by
  means of any special faculty bestowed on me by God, but merely by the
  fact that the faculty for discerning truth from error with which he
  has endowed me, is not infinite."[6] But if we follow out this
  principle to its logical result, we must say not only that error is a
  consequence of finitude, but also that the very _existence_ of the
  finite as such is an error or illusion. All finitude, all
  determination, according to the well-known Spinozistic aphorism, is
  negation, and negation cannot constitute reality. To know the reality
  of things, therefore, we have to abstract from their limits, or in
  other words, the only reality is the infinite. Finite being, _qua_
  finite, has no existence, and finite self-consciousness, consciousness
  of a self in opposition to or limited by a not-self, is an illusion.
  But Descartes does not thus reason. He does not see "anything in the
  nature of the infinite which should exclude the existence of finite
  things." "What," he asks, "would become of the power of that imaginary
  infinite if it could create nothing? Perceiving in ourselves the power
  of thinking, we can easily conceive that there should be a greater
  intelligence elsewhere. And even if we should suppose that
  intelligence increased _ad infinitum_, we need not fear that our own
  would be lessened. And the same is true of all other attributes which
  we ascribe to God, even of his power, provided only that we do not
  suppose that the power in us is not subjected to God's will. In all
  points, therefore, he is infinite without any exclusion of created
  things."[7] The truth of this view we need not dispute; the question
  is as to its consistency with Cartesian principles. It may be a higher
  idea of God to conceive him as revealing himself in and to finite
  creatures; but it is a different idea from that which is implied in
  Descartes's explanations of error. It is an inconsistency that brings
  Descartes nearer to Christianity, and nearer, it may also be said, to
  a true metaphysic; but it is not the less an inconsistency with his
  fundamental principles, which necessarily disappears in their
  subsequent development. To conceive the finite as constituted not
  merely by the absence of some of the positive elements of the
  infinite, but as in necessary unity with the infinite; to conceive the
  infinite as not merely that which has no limits or determinations, but
  as that which is self-determined and self-manifesting, which through
  all finitude and manifestation returns upon itself, may not be
  erroneous. But it would not be difficult to show that the adoption of
  such a conception involves the rejection or modification of almost
  every doctrine of the Cartesian system.


    Mind and matter.

  In connexion with this inconsistency we may notice the very different
  relations in which Descartes conceives mind on the one side and matter
  on the other, to stand towards God, who yet is the cause of both, and
  must therefore, by the principle of causality, contain in himself all
  that is in both. Matter and mind are to Descartes absolute opposites.
  Whatever can be asserted of mind can be denied of matter, whatever can
  be asserted of matter can be denied of mind. Matter is passive, mind
  is active; matter is extended, and therefore divisible _ad infinitum_;
  mind is an indivisible unity. In fact, though of this Descartes is
  not conscious, the determination of the one is mediated by its
  opposition to the other; the ideas of object and subject, the self and
  not-self, are terms of a relation distinguishable but inseparable. But
  in the idea of God we must find a unity which transcends this
  difference in one way or another, whether by combining the two under a
  higher notion, or, as it would be more natural to expect on Cartesian
  principles, by abstracting equally from the particular characteristics
  of both. Descartes really does neither, or rather he acts partly on
  the one principle and partly on the other. In his idea of God he
  abstracts from the properties of matter but not from those of mind.
  "God," he says, "contains in himself _formaliter_ all that is in mind,
  but only _eminenter_ all that is in matter";[8] or, as he elsewhere
  expresses it more popularly, he _is_ mind, but he is only the creator
  of matter. And for this he gives as his reason, that matter as being
  divisible and passive is essentially imperfect. _Ipsa natura corporis
  multas imperfectiones involvit_, and, therefore, "there is more
  analogy between sounds and colours than there is between material
  things and God." But the real imperfection here lies in the
  abstractness of the Cartesian conception of matter as merely extended,
  merely passive; and this is balanced by the equal abstractness of the
  conception of mind or self-consciousness as an absolutely simple
  activity, a pure intelligence without any object but itself. If matter
  as absolutely opposed to mind is imperfect, mind as absolutely opposed
  to matter is equally imperfect. In fact they are the elements or
  factors of a unity, and lose all meaning when severed from each other,
  and if we are to seek this unity by abstraction, we must equally
  abstract from both.


    Reason and will.

  The result of this one-sidedness is seen in the fact that Descartes,
  who begins by separating mind from matter, ends by finding the essence
  of mind in pure will, i.e. in pure formal self-determination. Hence
  God's will is conceived as absolutely arbitrary, not determined by any
  end or law, for all laws, even the necessary truths that constitute
  reason, spring from God's determination, and do not precede it. "He is
  the author of the essence of things no less than their existence," and
  his will has no reason but his will. In man there is an intelligence
  with eternal laws or truths involved in its structure, which so far
  limits his will. "He finds the nature of good and truth already
  determined by God, and his will cannot be moved by anything else." His
  highest freedom consists in having his will determined by a clear
  perception of the nature of good and truth, and "he is never
  indifferent except when he is ignorant of it, or at least does not see
  it so clearly as to be lifted above the possibility of doubt."[9]
  Indifference of will is to him "the lowest grade of liberty," yet, on
  the other hand, in nothing does the image of God in him show itself
  more clearly than in the fact that his will is not limited by his
  clear and distinct knowledge, but is "in a manner infinite." For
  "there is no object of any will, even the infinite will of God, to
  which our will does not extend."[10] Belief is a free act, for as we
  can yield our assent to the obscure conceptions presented by sense and
  the imagination, and thus allow ourselves to be led into error, so on
  the other hand we can refuse to give this assent, or allow ourselves
  to be determined by anything but the clear and distinct ideas of
  intelligence. That which makes it possible for us to err is that also
  in which the divine image in us is most clearly seen. We cannot have
  the freedom of God whose will creates the object of his knowledge; but
  in reserving our assent for the clear and distinct perceptions of
  intelligence, we, as it were, re-enact for ourselves the divine law,
  and repeat, so far as is possible to finite beings, the transcendent
  act of will in which truth and good had their origin.

  The inherent defect of this view is the divorce it makes between the
  form and the matter of intelligence. It implies that reason or
  self-consciousness is one thing, and that truth is another and quite
  different thing, which has been united to it by the arbitrary will of
  God. The same external conception of the relation of truth to the mind
  is involved in the doctrine of innate ideas. It is true that Descartes
  did not hold that doctrine in the coarse form in which it was
  attributed to him by Locke, but expressly declares that he has "never
  said or thought at any time that the mind required innate ideas which
  were separated from the faculty of thinking. He had simply used the
  word innate to distinguish those ideas which are derived from that
  faculty, and not from external objects or the determination of the
  will. Just as when we say generosity is innate in certain families,
  and in certain others diseases, like the gout or the stone, we do not
  mean to imply that infants in their mother's womb are affected with
  these complaints."[11] Yet Descartes, as we have seen, does not hold
  that these truths are involved in the very nature of intelligence as
  such, so that we cannot conceive a self-conscious being without them.
  On the contrary, we are to regard the divine intelligence as by
  arbitrary act determining that two and two should be four, or that
  envy should be a vice. We are "_not_ to conceive eternal truth flowing
  from God as rays from the sun."[12] In other words, we are not to
  conceive all particular truths as different aspects of one truth. It
  is part of the imperfection of man's finite nature that he "finds
  truth and good determined for him." It is something given,--given,
  indeed, along with his very faculty of thinking, but still _given_ as
  an external limit to it. It belongs not to his nature as spirit, but
  to his finitude as man.


    Truth of external world.

  After what has been said, it is obvious that the transition from God
  to matter must be somewhat arbitrary and external. God's truthfulness
  is pledged for the reality of that of which we have _clear and
  distinct ideas_; and we have clear and distinct ideas of the external
  world so long as we conceive it simply as extended matter, infinitely
  divisible, and moved entirely from without,--so long, in short, as we
  conceive it as the direct opposite of mind, and do not attribute to it
  any one of the properties of mind. "Omnes proprietates, quas in ea
  clare percipimus, ad hoc unum reducuntur, quod sit partibilis et
  mobilis, secundum partes." We must, therefore, free ourselves from the
  obscure and confused modes of thought which arise whenever we
  attribute any of the secondary qualities, which exist merely in our
  sensations, to the objects that cause these sensations. The subjective
  character of such qualities is proved by the constant change which
  takes place in them, without any change of the object in which they
  are perceived. A piece of wax cannot lose its extension; but its
  colour, its hardness, and all the other qualities whereby it is
  presented to sense, may be easily altered. What is objective in all
  this is merely an extended substance, and the modes of motion or rest
  through which it is made to pass. In like manner we must separate from
  our notion of matter all ideas of _actio in distans_--e.g. we must
  explain weight not as a tendency to the centre of the earth or an
  attraction of distant particles of matter, but as a consequence of the
  pressure of other bodies, immediately surrounding that which is felt
  to be heavy.[13] For the only conceivable _actio in distans_ is that
  which is mediated by thought, and it is only in so far as we suppose
  matter to have in it a principle of activity like thought, that we can
  accept such explanations of its motion. Again, while we must thus keep
  our conception of matter clear of all elements that do not belong to
  it, we must also be careful not to take away from it those that _do_
  belong to it. It is a defect of distinctness in our ideas when we
  conceive an attribute as existing apart from its substance, or a
  substance without its attribute; for this is to treat elements that
  are only separated by a "distinction of reason," as if they were
  distinct things. The conception of the possibility of a vacuum or
  empty space arises merely from our confusing the possible separation
  of any mode or form of matter from matter in general with the
  impossible separation of matter in general from its own essential
  attribute. Accordingly, in his physical philosophy, Descartes attempts
  to explain everything on mechanical principles, starting with the
  hypothesis that a certain quantity of motion has been impressed on the
  material universe by God at the first, a quantity which can never be
  lost or diminished, and that space is an absolute plenum in which
  motion propagates itself in circles.


    Material universe a mechanism.

  It is unnecessary to follow Descartes into the detail of the theory of
  vortices. It is more to the purpose to notice the nature of the
  reasons by which he is driven to regard such a mechanical explanation
  of the universe as necessary. A real or substantive existence is, in
  his view, a _res completa_, a thing that can be conceived as a whole
  in itself without relations to any other thing. Now matter and mind
  are, he thinks, such complete existences, so long as we conceive them,
  as pure intelligence must conceive them, as abstract opposites of each
  other; and do not permit ourselves to be confused by those mixed modes
  of thought which are due to sense or imagination. Descartes does not
  see that in this very abstract opposition there is a bond of union
  between mind and matter, that they are correlative opposites, and
  therefore in their separation _res incompletae_. In other words, they
  are merely elements of reality substantiated by abstract thought into
  independent realities. He indeed partly retracts his assertion that
  mind and matter severed from each other are _res completae_, when he
  declares that neither can be conceived as existing apart from God, and
  that therefore, strictly speaking, God alone is a substance. But, as
  we have seen, he avoids the necessary inference that in God the
  opposition between mind and matter is reconciled or transcended, by
  conceiving God as abstract self-consciousness or will, and the
  material world not as his necessary manifestation, but simply as his
  creation,--as having its origin in an act of bare volition and that
  only. His God is the God of monotheism and not of Christianity, and
  therefore the world is to God always a foreign matter which he brings
  into being, and acts on from without, but in which he is not revealed.


    Animals automata.

  It is a natural consequence of this view that nature is essentially
  _dead matter_, that beyond the motion it has received from God at the
  beginning, and which it transmits from part to part without increase
  or diminution, it has no principle of activity in it. Every trace of
  vitality in it must be explained away as a mere false reflection upon
  it of the nature of mind. The world is thus "cut in two with a
  hatchet," and there is no attraction to overcome the mutual repulsion
  of its severed parts. Nothing can be admitted in the material half
  that savours of self-determination, all its energy must be
  communicated, not self-originated; there is no room for gravitation,
  still less for magnetism or chemical affinity, in this theory. _A
  fortiori_, animal life must be completely explained away. The machine
  may be very complicated, but it is still, and can be nothing but, a
  machine. If we once admitted that matter could be anything but
  mechanical, we should be on the way to admit that matter could become
  mind. When a modern physical philosopher declares that everything,
  even life and thought, is ultimately reducible to matter, we cannot
  always be certain that he means what he seems to say. Not seldom the
  materialist _soi-disant_, when we hear his account of the properties
  of matter, turns out to be something like a spiritualist in disguise;
  but when Descartes asserted that everything _but_ mind is material,
  and that the animals are automata, there is no such dubiety of
  interpretation. He said what he meant, and meant what he said, in the
  hardest sense his words can bear. _His_ matter was not even
  gravitating, much less living; it had no property except that of
  retaining and transmitting the motion received from without by
  pressure and impact. And _his_ animals were automata, not merely in
  the sense of being governed by sensation and instinct, but precisely
  in the sense that a watch is an automaton. Henry More cries out
  against the ruthless consequence with which he develops his principles
  to this result. "In this," he says, "I do not so much admire the
  penetrative power of your genius as I tremble for the fate of the
  animals. What I recognize in you is not only subtlety of thought, but
  a hard and remorseless logic with which you arm yourself as with a
  sword of steel, to take away life and sensation with one blow, from
  almost the whole animal kingdom." But Descartes was not the man to be
  turned from the legitimate result of his principles by a scream. "Nec
  moror astutias et sagacitates canum et vulpium, nec quaecunque alia
  propter cibum, venerem, aut metum a brutis fiunt. _Profiteor enim me
  posse perfacile illa omnia ut a sola membrorum conformatione profecta
  explicare._"[14]


    Nature of sensation.

  The difficulty reaches its height when Descartes attempts to explain
  the union of the body and spirit in man. Between two substances which,
  when clearly and distinctly conceived, do not imply each other, there
  can be none but an artificial unity,--a unity of composition that
  still leaves them external to each other. Even God cannot make them
  one in any higher sense.[15] And as it is impossible in the nature of
  mind to see any reason why it should be embodied, or in the nature of
  matter to see any reason why it should become the organ of mind, the
  union of the two must be taken as a mere empirical fact. When we put
  on the one side all that belongs to intelligence, and on the other all
  that belongs to matter, there is a residuum in our ideas which we
  cannot reduce to either head. This residuum consists of our appetites,
  our passions, and our sensations, including not only the feelings of
  pain and pleasure, but also the perceptions of colour, smell, taste,
  of hardness and softness, and all the other qualities apprehended by
  touch. These must be referred to the union of mind with body. They are
  subjective in the sense that they give us no information as to the
  nature either of things or of mind. Their function is only to indicate
  what things are useful or hurtful to our composite nature as such, or
  in other words what things tend to confirm or dissolve the unity of
  mind and body. They indicate that _something_ is taking place in our
  body, or without it, and so stimulate us to some kind of action, but
  _what_ it is that is taking place they do not tell us. There is no
  resemblance in the sensation of pain produced by great heat to the
  rending of the fibres of our body that causes it. But we do not need
  to know the real origin of our sensation to prevent us going too near
  the fire. Sensation leads us into error only when we are not conscious
  that its office is merely practical, and when we attempt to make
  objective judgments by means of its obscure and confused ideas, e.g.
  when we say that there is heat in our hands or in the fire. And the
  remedy for this error is to be found simply in the clear conviction of
  the subjectivity of sensation.


    Theory of occasional causes.

  These views of the nature of sense, however, at once force us to ask
  how Descartes can consistently admit that a subjective result such as
  sensation, a result in mind, should be produced by matter, and on the
  other hand how an objective result, a result in matter, should be
  effected by mind. Descartes explains at great length, according to his
  modification of the physiology of the day, that the pineal gland,
  which is the immediate organ of the soul, is acted on by the nerves
  through the "animal spirits," and again by reaction upon these spirits
  produces motions in the body. It is an obvious remark that this
  explanation either materializes mind, or else puts for the solution
  the very problem to be solved. It was therefore in the spirit of
  Descartes, it was only making explicit what is involved in many of his
  expressions, when Geulincx, one of his earliest followers, formulated
  the theory of occasional causes. The general approval of the Cartesian
  school proved that this was a legitimate development of doctrine. Yet
  it tore away the last veil from the absolute dualism of the system,
  which had so far stretched the antagonism of mind and matter that no
  mediation remained possible, or what is the same thing, remained
  possible only through an inexplicable will of God. The intrusion of
  such a _Deus ex machina_into philosophy only showed that philosophy by
  its violent abstraction had destroyed the unity of the known and
  intelligible world, and was, therefore, forced to seek that unity in
  the region of the unknown and unintelligible. If our light be
  darkness, then in our darkness we must seek for light; if reason be
  contradictory in itself, truth must be found in unreason. The
  development of the Cartesian school was soon to show what is the
  necessary and inevitable end of such worship of the unknown.


    Ethics.

  To the ethical aspect of his philosophy, Descartes, unlike Spinoza,
  only devoted a subordinate attention. In a short treatise, however, he
  discussed the relation of reason to the passions. After we have got
  over the initial difficulty, that matter should give rise to effects
  in mind, and mind in matter, and have admitted that in man the unity
  of mind and body turns what in the animals is mere mechanical
  reception of stimulus from without and reaction upon it into an action
  and reaction mediated by sensation, emotion and passion, another
  question presents itself. How can the mere natural movement of
  passion, the nature of which is fixed by the original constitution of
  our body, and of the things that act upon it, be altered or modified
  by pure reason? For while it is obvious that morality consists in the
  determination of reason by itself, it is not easy to conceive how the
  same being who is determined by passion from without should also be
  determined by reason from within. How, in other words, can a spiritual
  being maintain its character as self-determined, or at least
  determined only by the clear and distinct ideas of the reason which
  are its innate forms, in the presence of this foreign element of
  passion that seems to make it the slave of external impressions? Is
  reason able to crush this intruder, or to turn it into a servant? Can
  the passions be annihilated, or can they be spiritualized? Descartes
  could not properly adopt either alternative; he could not adopt the
  ethics of asceticism, for the union of body and mind is, in his view,
  natural; and hence the passions which are the results of that union
  are in themselves good. They are provisions of nature for the
  protection of the unity of soul and body, and stimulate us to the acts
  necessary for that purpose. Yet, on the other hand, he could not admit
  that these passions are capable of being completely spiritualized; for
  so long as the unity of body and soul is regarded as merely external
  and accidental, it is impossible to think that the passions which
  arise out of this unity can be transformed into the embodiment and
  expression of reason.

  Descartes, indeed, points out that every passion has a lower and a
  higher form, and while in its lower or primary form it is based on the
  obscure ideas produced by the motion of the animal spirits, in its
  higher form it is connected with the clear and distinct judgments of
  reason regarding good and evil. If, however, the unity of soul and
  body be a unity of composition, there is an element of obscurity in
  the judgments of passion which cannot be made clear, an element in
  desire that cannot be spiritualized. If the mind be external to the
  passions it can only impose upon them an external rule of moderation.
  On such a theory no _ideal_ morality is possible to man in his present
  state; for, in order to the attainment of such an ideal morality, it
  would be necessary that the accidental element obtruded into his life
  as a spiritual being by his connexion with the body should be
  expelled. What can be attained under present conditions is only to
  abstract so far as is possible from external things, and those
  relations to external things into which passion brings us. Hence the
  great importance which Descartes attaches to the distinction between
  things in our power and things not in our power. What is not in our
  power includes all outward things, and therefore it is our highest
  wisdom to regard them as determined by an absolute fate, or the
  eternal decree of God. We cease to wish for the impossible; and
  therefore to subdue our passions we only need to convince ourselves
  that no effort of ours can enable us to secure their objects. On the
  other hand, that which is within our power, and which, therefore, we
  cannot desire too earnestly, is virtue. But virtue in this abstraction
  from all objects of desire is simply the harmony of reason with
  itself, the [Greek: ataraxia] of the Stoic under a slight change of
  aspect. Thus in ethics, as in metaphysics, Descartes ends not with a
  reconciliation of the opposed elements, but with a dualism, or at
  best, with a unity which is the result of abstraction.

_The Philosophy of Malebranche._--Malebranche was prepared, by the
ascetic training of the cloister and the teaching of Augustine, to bring
to clear consciousness and expression many of the tendencies that were
latent and undeveloped in the philosophy of Descartes. To use a chemical
metaphor, the Christian Platonism of the church father was a medium in
which Cartesianism could precipitate the product of its elements. Yet
the medium was, as we shall see, not a perfect one, and hence the
product was not quite pure. Without metaphor, Malebranche, by his
previous habits of thought, was well fitted to detect and develop the
pantheistic and ascetic elements of his master's philosophy. But he was
not well fitted to penetrate through the veil of popular language under
which the discordance of that philosophy with orthodox Christianity was
hidden. On the contrary, the whole training of the Catholic priest, and
especially his practical spirit, with that tendency to compromise which
a practical spirit always brings with it, enabled him to conceal from
himself as well as from others the logical result of his principles. And
we do not wonder even when we find him treating as a "miserable" the
philosopher who tore away the veil.

Malebranche saw "_all things in God._" In other words, he taught that
knowledge is possible only in so far as thought is the expression, not
of the nature of the individual subject as such, but of a universal life
in which he and all other rational beings partake. "No one can feel my
individual pain; every one can see the truth which I contemplate--why is
it so? The reason is that my pain is a modification of my substance, but
truth is the common good of all spirits."[16] This idea is ever present
to Malebranche, and is repeated by him in an endless variety of forms of
expression. Thus, like Descartes, but with more decision, he tells us
that the idea of the infinite is prior to the idea of the finite. "We
conceive of the infinite being by the very fact that we conceive of
being without thinking whether it be finite or no. But in order that we
may think of a finite being, we must necessarily cut off or deduct
something from the general notion of being, which consequently we must
previously possess. Thus the mind does not apprehend anything whatever,
except in and through the idea that it has of the infinite; and so far
is it from being the case that this idea is formed by the confused
assemblage of all the ideas of particular things as the philosophers
maintain, that, on the contrary, all these particular ideas are only
participations in the general idea of the infinite, just as God does not
derive his being from the creatures, but all the creatures are imperfect
participations of the divine Being."[17] Again, he tells us, in the same
chapter, that "when we wish to think of any particular thing, we first
cast our view upon all being, and then apply it to the consideration of
the object in question. We could not desire to see any particular object
unless we saw it already in a confused and general way, and as there is
nothing which we cannot desire to see, so all objects must be in a
manner present to our spirit." Or, as he puts it in another place, "our
mind would not be capable of representing to itself the general ideas of
genera and species if it did not see all things as contained in one; for
every creature being an individual we cannot say that we are
apprehending any created thing when we think the general idea of a
triangle."


    Relation of the Divine mind to human knowledge.

  The main idea that is expressed in all these different ways is simply
  this, that to determine any individual object as such, we must relate
  it to, and distinguish it from, the whole of which it is a part; and
  that, therefore, thought could never apprehend anything if it did not
  bring with itself the idea of the intelligible world as a unity.
  Descartes had already expressed this truth in his _Meditations_, but
  he had deprived it of its full significance by making a distinction
  between the being and the idea of God, the former of which, in his
  view, was only the cause of the latter. Malebranche detects this
  error, and denies that there is any idea of the infinite, which is a
  somewhat crude way of saying that there is no division between the
  idea of the infinite and its reality. What Reid asserted of the
  external world, that it is not represented by an idea in our minds,
  but is actually present to them, Malebranche asserted of God. No
  individual thing, he tells us--and an idea is but an individual
  thing--could represent the infinite. On the contrary, all individual
  things are represented through the infinite Being, who contains them
  all in his substance "très efficace, et par conséquence très
  intelligible."[18] We know God by himself, material things only by
  their ideas in God, for they are "unintelligible in themselves, and we
  can see them only in the being who contains them in an intelligible
  manner." And thus, unless we in some way "saw God, we should be able
  to see nothing else." The vision _of_ God or _in_ God, therefore, is
  an "intellectual intuition" in which seer and seen, knower and known,
  are one. Our knowledge of things is our participation in God's
  knowledge of them.

  When we have gone so far with Malebranche, we are tempted to ask why
  he does not follow out his thought to its natural conclusion. If the
  idea of God is not separable from his existence, if it is through the
  idea of him that all things are known, and through his existence that
  all things are, then it would seem necessarily to follow that our
  consciousness of God is but a part of God's consciousness of himself,
  that our consciousness of self and other things is but God's
  consciousness of them, and lastly, that there is no existence either
  of ourselves or other things except in this consciousness. To
  understand Malebranche is mainly to understand how he stopped short of
  results that seemed to lie so directly in the line of his thought.

  To begin with the last point, it is easy to see that Malebranche only
  asserts unity of idea and reality in God, to deny it everywhere else,
  which with him is equivalent to asserting it in general and denying it
  in particular. To him, as to Descartes, the opposition between mind
  and matter is absolute. Material things cannot come into our minds nor
  can our minds go out of themselves "pour se promener dans les
  cieux."[19] Hence they are in themselves absolutely unknown; they are
  known only in God, in whom are their ideas, and as these ideas again
  are quite distinct from the reality, they "might be presented to the
  mind without anything existing." That they exist _out_ of God in
  another manner than the intelligible manner of their existence _in_
  God, is explained by a mere act of His will, that is, it is not
  explained at all. Though we see all things in God, therefore, there is
  no connexion between his existence and theirs. The "world is not a
  necessary emanation of divinity; God is perfectly self-sufficient, and
  the idea of the infinitely perfect Being can be conceived quite apart
  from any other. The existence of the creatures is due to the free
  decrees of God."[20] Malebranche, therefore, still treats of external
  things as "things in themselves," which have an existence apart from
  thought, even the divine thought, though it is only in and through the
  divine thought they can be known by us. "To see the material world, or
  rather to judge that it exists (since in itself it is invisible), it
  is necessary that God should reveal it to us, for we cannot see the
  result of his arbitrary will through necessary reason."[21]

  But if we know external things only through their idea in God, how do
  we know ourselves? Is it also through the idea of us in God? Here we
  come upon a point in which Malebranche diverges very far from his
  master. We do not, he says, properly _know_ ourselves at all as we
  know God or even external objects. We are conscious of ourselves by
  inner sense (_sentiment interieur_), and from this we know _that_ we
  are, but we do not know _what_ we are. "We know the existence of our
  soul more distinctly than of our body, but we have not so perfect a
  knowledge of our soul as of our body." This is shown by the fact that
  from our idea of body as extended substance, we can at once see what
  are its possible modifications. In other words, we only need the idea
  of extended substance to see that there is an inexhaustible number of
  figures and motions of which it is capable. The whole of geometry is
  but a development of what is given already in the conception of
  extension. But it is not so with our consciousness of self, which does
  not enable us to say prior to actual experience what sensations or
  passions are possible to us. We only know what heat, cold, light,
  colour, hunger, anger and desire are by feeling them. Our knowledge
  extends as far as our experience and no further. Nay, we have good
  reason to believe that many of these modifications exist in our soul
  only by reason of its accidental association with a body, and that if
  it were freed from that body it would be capable of far other and
  higher experiences. "We know by feeling that our soul is great, but
  perhaps we know almost nothing of what it is in itself." The
  informations of sense have, as Descartes taught, only a practical but
  no theoretical value; they tell us nothing of the external world, the
  real nature of which We know not through touch and taste and sight,
  but only through our idea of extended substances; while of the nature
  of the soul they do not tell us much more than that it exists and that
  it is not material. And in this latter case we have no idea, nothing
  better than sense to raise us above its illusions. It is clear from
  these statements that by self-consciousness Malebranche means
  consciousness of desires and feelings, which belong to the individual
  as such, and not consciousness of self as thinking. He begins, in
  fact, where Descartes ended, and identifies the consciousness of self
  as thinking, and so transcending the limits of its own particular
  being, with the consciousness or idea of God. And between the
  consciousness of the finite in sense and the consciousness of the
  infinite in thought, or in other words, between the consciousness of
  the universal and the consciousness of the individual, he sees no
  connexion. Malebranche is just one step from the pantheistic
  conclusion that the consciousness of finite individuality as such is
  illusory, and that as all bodies are but modes of one infinite
  extension, so all souls are but modes of one infinite thought. But
  while he willingly accepts this result in regard to matter, his
  religious feelings prevent him from accepting it in relation to mind.
  He is driven, therefore, to the inconsistency of holding that sense
  and feeling, through which in his view we apprehend the finite as
  such, give us true though imperfect knowledge of the soul, while the
  knowledge they give us of body is not only imperfect but false.[22]
  Thus the finite spirit is still allowed to be a substance, distinct
  from the infinite, though it holds its substantial existence on a
  precarious tenure. It is left hanging, we may say, on the verge of the
  infinite, whose attraction must soon prove too strong for it. Ideas
  are living things, and often remould the minds that admit them in
  spite of the greatest resistance of dead custom and traditionary
  belief. In the grasp of a logic that overpowers him the more easily in
  that he is unconscious of its tendency. Malebranche is brought within
  one step of the pantheistic conclusion, and all his Christian feeling
  and priestly training can do is _just_ to save him from denial of the
  personality of man.

  But even this denial is not the last word of pantheism. When the
  principle that the finite is known only in relation to the infinite,
  the individual only in relation to the universal, is interpreted as
  meaning that the infinite and universal is complete in itself without
  the finite and individual, when the finite and individual is treated
  as a mere accidental existence due to the "arbitrary will of God," it
  ceases to be possible to conceive even God as a spirit. Did
  Malebranche realize what he was saying when he declared that God was
  "being in general," but not any particular being? At any rate we can
  see that the same logic that leads him almost to deny the reality of
  finite beings, leads him also to seek the divine nature in something
  more abstract and general even than thought. If we must abstract from
  all relation to the finite in order to know God as he is, is it not
  necessary for us also to abstract from self-consciousness, for
  self-consciousness has a negative element in it that is something
  definite, and therefore limited? We do not wonder, therefore, when we
  find Malebranche saying that reason does not tell us that God is a
  spirit, but only that he is an infinitely perfect being, and that he
  must be conceived rather as a spirit than as a body simply because
  spirit is more perfect than body. "When we call God a spirit, it is
  not so much to show positively what he is, as to signify that he is
  not material." But as we ought not to give him a bodily form like
  man's, so we ought not to think of his spirit as similar to our own
  spirits, although we can conceive nothing more perfect. "It is
  necessary rather to believe that as he contains in himself the
  properties of matter without being material, so he comprehends in
  himself the perfections of created spirits without being a spirit as
  we alone can conceive spirits, and that his true name is 'He who is,'
  i.e. Being without restriction, Being infinite and universal."[23]
  Thus the essentially self-revealing God of Christianity gives way to
  pure spirit, and pure spirit in its turn to the eternal and
  incomprehensible substance of which we can say nothing but that it is.
  The divine substance contains in it, indeed, everything that is in
  creation, but it contains them _eminenter_ in some incomprehensible
  form that is reconcilable with its infinitude. But we have no adequate
  name by which to call it except Being. The curious metaphysic of
  theology by which, in his later writings, Malebranche tried to make
  room for the incarnation by supposing that the finite creation, which
  _as_ finite is unworthy of God, was made worthy by union with Christ,
  the divine Word, shows that Malebranche had some indistinct sense of
  the necessity of reconciling his philosophy with his theology; but it
  shows also the necessarily artificial nature of the combination. The
  result of the union of such incongruous elements was something which
  the theologians at once recognised as heterodox and the philosophers
  as illogical.

  There was another doctrine of Malebranche which brought him into
  trouble with the theologians, and which was the main subject of his
  long controversy with Arnauld. This was his denial of particular
  providence. As Leibnitz maintained that this is the best of all
  possible worlds, and that its evils are to be explained by the
  negative nature of the finite, so Malebranche, with a slight change of
  expression derived evil from the nature of particular or individual
  existence. It is not conformable to the nature of God to act by any
  but universal laws, and these universal laws necessarily involve
  particular evil consequences, though their ultimate result is the
  highest possible good. The question why there should be any particular
  existence, any existence but God, seeing such existence necessarily
  involves evil, remains insoluble so long as the purely pantheistic
  view of God is maintained; and it is this view which is really at the
  bottom of the assertion that he can have no particular volitions. To
  the coarse and anthropomorphic conception of particular providence
  Malebranche may be right in objecting, but on the other hand, it
  cannot be doubted that any theory in which the universal is absolutely
  opposed to the particular, the infinite to the finite, is unchristian
  as well as unphilosophical. For under this dualistic presupposition,
  there seem to be only two possible alternatives open to thought:
  either the particular and finite must be treated as something
  independent of the universal and infinite, which involves an obvious
  contradiction, or else it must be regarded as absolute nonentity. We
  find Malebranche doing the one or the other as occasion requires. Thus
  he vindicates the freedom of man's will on the ground that the
  universal will of God does not completely determine the particular
  volitions of man; and then becoming conscious of the difficulty
  involved in this conception, he tries, like Descartes, to explain the
  particular will as something merely negative, a defect, and not a
  positive existence.


    Reason and will.

  But to understand fully Malebranche's view of freedom and the ethical
  system connected with it, we must notice an important alteration which
  he makes in the Cartesian theory of the relation of will and
  intelligence. To Descartes, as we have seen, the ultimate essence of
  mind lay in pure abstract self-determination or will, and hence he
  based even moral and intellectual truth on the arbitrary decrees of
  God. With Malebranche, on the other hand, abstraction goes a step
  further; and the absolute is sought not in the subject as opposed to
  the object, not in pure formal self-determination as opposed to that
  which is determined, but in a unity that transcends this difference.
  With him, therefore, will ceases to be regarded as the essence of
  intelligence, and sinks into a property or separable attribute of it.
  As we can conceive an extended substance without actual movement, so,
  he says, we can conceive a thinking substance without actual volition.
  But "matter or extension without motion would be entirely useless and
  incapable of that variety of forms for which it is made; and we
  cannot, therefore, suppose, that an all-wise Being would create it in
  this way. In like manner, if a spiritual or thinking substance were
  without will, it is clear that it would be quite useless, for it would
  not be attracted towards the objects of its perception, and would not
  love the good for which it is made. We cannot therefore conceive an
  intelligent being so to fashion it."[24] Now God need not be conceived
  as creating at all, for he is self-sufficient; but if he be a creator
  of spirits, he must create them for himself. "God cannot will that
  there should exist a spirit that does not love him, or that loves him
  less than any other good."[25] The craving for good in general, for an
  absolute satisfaction, is a _natural_ love of God that is common to
  all. "The just, the wicked, the blessed, and the damned all alike love
  God with this love." Out of this love of God arises the love we have
  to ourselves and to others, which are the _natural inclinations_ that
  belong to all created spirits. For these inclinations are but the
  elements of the love which is in God, and which therefore he inspires
  in all his creatures. "Il s'aime, il nous aime, il aime toutes ses
  créatures; il ne fait donc point d'esprits qu'il ne les porte à
  l'aimer, à s'aimer, et à aimer toutes les créatures."[26] Stripping
  this thought of its theological vesture, what is expressed here is
  simply that as a spiritual being each man is conscious of his own
  limited and individual existence, as well as of the limited and
  individual existence of other beings like himself, only in relation to
  the whole in which they are parts, so he can find his own good only in
  the good of the whole, and he is in contradiction with himself so long
  as he rests in any good short of that. His love of happiness, his
  natural inclinations both selfish and social, may be therefore
  regarded as an undeveloped form of the love of God; and the ideal
  state of his inclinations is that in which the love of self and of
  others are explicitly referred to that higher affection, or in which
  his love does not proceed from a part to the whole, but from the whole
  to the parts.


    Ethics.

  The question of morals to Malebranche is the question how these
  _natural inclinations_ are related to the particular passions.
  Sensation and passion arise out of the connexion of body and soul, and
  their use is only to urge us to attend to the wants of the former. We
  can scarcely hear without a smile the simple monastic legend which
  Malebranche weaves together about the original nature of the passions
  and their alteration by the Fall. "It is visibly a disorder that a
  spirit capable of knowing and loving God should be obliged to occupy
  itself with the needs of the body." "A being altogether occupied with
  what passes in his body and with the infinity of objects that surround
  it cannot be thinking on the things that are truly good."[27] Hence
  the necessity of an immediate and instinctive warning from the senses
  in regard to the relations of things to our organism, and also of
  pains and pleasures which may induce us to attend to this warning.
  "Sensible pleasure is the mark that nature has attached to the use of
  certain things in order that without having the trouble of examining
  them by reason, we may employ them for the preservation of the body,
  but not in order that we may love them."[28] Till the Fall the mind
  was merely united to the body, not subjected to it, and the influence
  of these pleasures and pains was only such as to make men attend to
  their bodily wants, but not to occupy the mind, or fill it with
  sensuous joys and sorrows, or trouble its contemplation of that which
  is really good. Our moral aim should therefore be to restore this
  state of things, to weaken our union with the body and strengthen our
  union with God. And to encourage us in pursuing this aim we have to
  remember that union with God is natural to the spirit, and that, while
  even the condition of union with the body is artificial, the condition
  of subjection to the body is wholly unnatural to it. Our primary
  tendency is towards the supreme good, and we only love the objects of
  our passions in so far as we "determine towards particular, and
  therefore false goods, the love that God gives us for himself." The
  search for happiness is really the search for God in disguise, and
  even the levity and inconstancy with which men rush from one finite
  good to another, is a proof that they were made for the infinite.
  Furthermore, this natural love of God, or inclination for good in
  general, "gives us the power of suspending our consent in regard to
  those particular goods which do not satisfy it."[29] If we refuse to
  be led by the obscure and confused voice of instinctive feeling, which
  arises from and always tends to confirm our union with the body, and
  wait for the light of reason which arises from and always tends to
  confirm our union with God, we have done all that is in our power, the
  rest is God's work. "If we only judge precisely of that which we see
  clearly, we shall never be deceived. For then it will not be we that
  judge, but the universal reason that judges in us."[30] And as our
  love, even of particular goods, is a confused love of the supreme
  good, so the clear vision of God inevitably brings with it the love of
  him. "We needs must love the highest when we see it." When it is the
  divine reason that speaks in us it is the divine love that moves us,
  "the same love wherewith God loves himself and the things he has
  made."[31]

  The general result of the ethics of Malebranche is ascetic. The
  passions, like the senses, have no relation to the higher life of the
  soul; their value is only in relation to the union of soul and body, a
  union which is purely accidental or due to the arbitrary will of God.
  The more silently they discharge their provisional function, and the
  less they disturb or interfere with the pure activity of spirit, the
  more nearly they approach to the only perfection that is possible for
  them. Their ideal state is to remain or become again simple instincts
  that act mechanically like the circulation of the blood. Universal
  light of reason casts no ray into the obscurity of sense; its
  universal love cannot embrace any of the objects of particular
  passion. It is indeed recognized by Malebranche that sensation in man
  is mixed with thought, that the passions in him are forms of the love
  of good in general. But this union of the rational with the sensuous
  nature is regarded merely as a confusion which is to be cleared up,
  _not_ in a higher unity of the two elements, but simply by the
  withdrawal of the spirit from contact with that which darkens and
  defiles it. Of a transformation of sense into thought, of passion into
  duty--an elevation of the life of sense till it becomes the embodiment
  and expression of the life of reason--Malebranche has no conception.
  Hence the life of reason turns with him to mysticism in theory and to
  asceticism in practice. His universal is abstract and opposed to the
  particular; instead of explaining it, it explains it away.

  A certain tender beauty as of twilight is spread over the world as we
  view it through the eyes of this cloistered philosopher, and we do not
  at first see that the softness and ideality of the picture is due to
  the gathering darkness. Abstraction seems only to be purifying, and
  not destroying, till it has done its perfect work. Malebranche
  conceived himself to be presenting to the world only the purest and
  most refined expression of Christian ethics and theology. But if we
  obey his own continual advice to think clearly and distinctly, if we
  divest his system of all the sensuous and imaginative forms in which
  he has clothed it, and reduce it to the naked simplicity of its
  central thought, what we find is not a God that reveals himself in the
  finite, and to the finite, but the absolute substance which has no
  revelation, and whose existence is the negation of all but itself.
  Thus to tear away the veil, however, there was needed a stronger,
  simpler, and freer spirit--a spirit less influenced by opinion, less
  inclined to practical compromise, and gifted with a stronger "faith in
  the whispers of the lonely muse" of speculation than Malebranche.

_The Philosophy of Spinoza._--It is a remark of Hegel's that Spinoza, as
a Jew, first brought into European thought the idea of an absolute unity
in which the difference of finite and infinite is lost. Some later
writers have gone further, and attempted to show that the main doctrines
by which his philosophy is distinguished from that of Descartes were due
to the direct influences of Jewish writers like Maimonides, Gersonides,
and Hasdai Crescas, rather than to the necessary development of
Cartesian ideas. And it is undoubtedly true that many points of
similarity with such writers, reaching down even to verbal coincidence,
may be detected in the works of Spinoza, although it is not so easy to
determine how much he owed to their teaching. His own view of his
obligations is sufficiently indicated by the fact, that while in his
ethics he carries on a continual polemic against Descartes, and strives
at every point to show that his own doctrines are legitimately derived
from Cartesian principles, he only once refers to Jewish philosophy as
containing an obscure and unreasoned anticipation of these doctrines.
"Quod quidam Hebraeorum quasi per nebulam vidisse videntur qui scilicet
statuunt Deum Dei intellectum resque ab ipso intellectas unum et idem
esse."[32] It may be that the undeveloped pantheism and rationalism of
the Jewish philosophers had a deeper influence than he himself was aware
of, in emancipating him from the traditions of the synagogue, and giving
to his mind its first philosophical bias. In his earlier work there are
Neoplatonic ideas and expressions which in the _Ethics_ are rejected or
remoulded into a form more suitable to the spirit of Cartesianism. But
the question, after all, has little more than a biographical interest.
In the Spinozistic philosophy there are few differences from Descartes
which cannot be traced to the necessary development of Cartesian
principles; and the comparison of Malebranche shows that a similar
development might take place under the most diverse intellectual
conditions. What is most remarkable in Spinoza is just the freedom and
security with which these principles are followed out to their last
result. His Jewish origin and his breach with Judaism completely
isolated him from every influence but that of the thought that possesses
him. And no scruple or hesitation, no respect for the institutions or
feelings of his time interferes with his speculative consequence. He
exhibits to us the almost perfect type of a mind without superstitions,
which has freed itself from all but reasoned and intelligent
convictions, or, in the Cartesian phrase, "clear and distinct ideas";
and when he fails, it is not by any inconsistency, or arbitrary stopping
short of the necessary conclusions of his logic, but by the essential
defect of his principles.


    Geometrical method applied to metaphysics.

  Spinoza takes his idea of method from mathematics, and after the
  manner of Euclid, places at the head of each book of his _Ethics_ a
  certain number of definitions, axioms, and postulates which are
  supposed to be intuitively certain, and to form a sufficient basis for
  all that follows. Altogether there are twenty-seven definitions,
  twenty axioms, and eight postulates. If Spinoza is regarded as the
  most consequent of philosophers it cannot be because he has based his
  system upon so many fragmentary views of truth; it must be because a
  deeper unity has been discerned in the system than is visible on the
  first aspect of it. We must, therefore, to a certain extent
  distinguish between the form and the matter of his thought, though it
  is also true that the defective form itself involves a defect in the
  matter.

  What in the first instance recommends the geometrical method to
  Spinoza is, not only its apparent exactness and the necessity of its
  sequence, but, so to speak, its disinterestedness. Confusion of
  thought arises from the fact that we put ourselves, our desires and
  feelings and interests, into our view of things; that we do not regard
  them as they are in themselves, in their essential nature, but look
  for some final cause, that is, some relation to ourselves by which
  they may be explained. For this reason, he says, "the truth might for
  ever have remained hid from the human race, if mathematics, which
  looks not to the final cause of figures, but to their essential nature
  and the properties involved in it, had not set another type of
  knowledge before them." To understand things is to see how all that is
  true of them flows from the clear and distinct idea expressed in their
  definition, and ultimately, it is to see how all truth flows from the
  _essentia Dei_ as all geometrical truth flows from the idea of
  quantity. To take a mathematical view of the universe, therefore, is
  to raise ourselves above all consideration of the end or tendency of
  things, above the fears and hopes of mortality into the region of
  truth and necessity. "When I turned my mind to this subject," he says
  in the beginning of his treatise on politics, "I did not propose to
  myself any novel or strange aim, but simply to demonstrate by certain
  and indubitable reason those things which agree best with practice.
  And in order that I might inquire into the matters of this science
  with the same freedom of mind with which we are wont to treat lines
  and surfaces in mathematics, I determined not to laugh or to weep over
  the actions of men, but simply to understand them; and to contemplate
  their affections and passions, such as love, hate, anger, envy,
  arrogance, pity and all other disturbances of soul not as vices of
  human nature, but as properties pertaining to it in the same way as
  heat, cold, storm, thunder pertain to the nature of the atmosphere.
  For these, though troublesome, are yet necessary, and have certain
  causes through which we may come to understand them, and thus, by
  contemplating them in their truth, gain for our minds as much joy as
  by the knowledge of things that are pleasing to the senses." All our
  errors as to the nature of things arise from our judging them from the
  point of view of the part and not of the whole, from appoint of view
  determined by their relation to our own individual being, and not from
  a point of view determined by the nature of the things themselves; or,
  to put the same thing in another way, from the point of view of sense
  and imagination, and not from the point of view of intelligence.
  Mathematics shows us the inadequacy of such knowledge when it takes us
  out of ourselves into things, and when it presents these things to us
  as objects of universal intelligence apart from all special relation
  to our individual feelings. And Spinoza only wishes that the same
  universality and freedom of thought which belongs to mathematics,
  because its objects _do not_ interest the passions, should be extended
  to those objects that _do_ interest them. Purity from interest is the
  first condition of the philosopher's being; he must get beyond the
  illusion of sense and passion that makes our own lives so supremely
  important and interesting to us simply because they are our own. He
  must look at the present as it were through an inverted telescope of
  reason, that will reduce it to its due proportion and place in the sum
  of things. To the heat of passion and the higher heat of imagination,
  Spinoza has only one advice--"Acquaint yourself with God and be at
  peace." Look not to the particular but to the universal, view things
  not under the form of the finite and temporal, but _sub quadam specie
  aeternitatis._


    Sense the source of error.

  The illusion of the finite--the illusion of sense, imagination and
  passion, which, in Bacon's language, tends to make men judge of things
  _ex analogia hominis_ and not _ex analogia universi_, which raises the
  individual life, and even the present moment of the individual life,
  with its passing feelings, into the standard for measuring the
  universe--this, in the eyes of Spinoza, is the source of all error and
  evil to man. On the other hand, his highest good is to live the
  universal life of reason, or what is the same thing, to view all
  things from their centre in God, and to be moved only by the passion
  for good in general, "the intellectual love of God." In the treatise
  _De Emendatione Intellectus_, Spinoza takes up this contrast in the
  first instance from its moral side. "All our felicity or infelicity is
  founded on the nature of the object to which we are joined by love."
  To love the things that perish is to be in continual trouble and
  disturbance of passion; it is to be full of envy and hatred towards
  others who possess them; it is to be ever striving after that which,
  when we attain it, does not satisfy us; or lamenting over the loss of
  that which inevitably passes away from us; only "love to an object
  that is infinite and eternal feeds the soul with a changeless and
  unmingled joy." But again our love rests upon our knowledge; if we saw
  things as they really are we should love only the highest object. It
  is because sense and imagination give to the finite an independence
  and substantiality that do not belong to it, that we waste our love
  upon it as if it were infinite. And as the first step towards truth is
  to understand our error, so Spinoza proceeds to explain the defects of
  common sense, or in other words, of that first and unreflected view of
  the world which he, like Plato, calls opinion. Opinion is a kind of
  knowledge derived partly from hearsay, and partly from _experientia
  vaga_. It consists of vague and general conceptions of things, got
  either from the report of others or from an experience which has not
  received any special direction from intelligence. The mind that has
  not got beyond the stage of opinion takes things as they present
  themselves in its individual experience; and its beliefs grow up by
  association of whatever happens to have been found together in that
  experience. And as the combining principle of the elements of opinion
  is individual and not universal, so its conception of the world is at
  once fragmentary and accidental. It does not see things in their
  connexion with the unity of the whole, and hence it cannot see them in
  their true relation to each other. "I assert expressly," says Spinoza,
  "that the mind has no adequate conception either of itself or of
  external things, but only a confused knowledge of them, so long as it
  perceives them only in the common order of nature, i.e. so long as it
  is _externally determined_ to contemplate this or that object by the
  accidental concourse of things, and so long as it is not _internally_
  determined by the unity of thought in which it considers a number of
  things to understand their agreements, differences and
  contradictions."[33]


    Vices of abstraction and imagination.

  There are two kinds of errors which are usually supposed to exclude
  each other, but which Spinoza finds to be united in opinion. These are
  the errors of abstraction and imagination; the former explains its
  vice by defect, the latter its vice by excess. On the one hand,
  opinion is abstract and one-sided; it is defective in knowledge and
  takes hold of things only at one point. On the other hand, and just
  because of this abstractness and one-sidedness, it is forced to give
  an artificial completeness and independence to that which is
  essentially fragmentary and dependent. The word "abstract" is
  misleading, in so far as we are wont to associate with abstraction the
  idea of a mental effort by which parts are separated from a given
  whole; but it may be applied without violence to any imperfect
  conception, in which things that are really elements of a greater
  whole are treated as if they were _res completae_, independent
  objects, complete in themselves. And in this sense the ordinary
  consciousness of man is often the victim of abstractions when it
  supposes itself most of all to be dealing with realities. The essences
  and substances of the schoolman may delude him, but he cannot think
  these notions clearly without seeing that they are only abstract
  elements of reality, and that they have a meaning only in relation to
  the other elements of it. But common sense remains unconscious of its
  abstractness because imagination gives a kind of substantiality to the
  fragmentary and limited, and so makes it possible to conceive it as an
  independent reality. Pure intelligence seeing the part as it is in
  itself could never see it but as a part. Thought, when it rises to
  clearness and distinctness in regard to any finite object, must at
  once discern its relation to other finite objects and to the
  whole,--must discern, in Spinozistic language, that it is "modal" and
  not "real." But though it is not possible to _think_ the part as a
  whole it is possible to picture it as a whole. The limited image that
  fills the mind's eye seems to need nothing else for its reality. We
  cannot think a house clearly and distinctly in all the connexion of
  its parts with each other without seeing its necessary relation to the
  earth on which it stands, to the pressure of the atmosphere, &c. The
  very circumstances by which the possibility of such an existence is
  explained make it impossible to conceive it apart from other things.
  But nothing hinders me from resting on a house as a complete picture
  by itself. Imagination represents things in the externality of space
  and time, and is subjected to no other conditions but those of space
  and time. Hence it can begin anywhere and stop anywhere. For the same
  cause it can mingle and confuse together all manner of inconsistent
  forms--can imagine a man with a horse's head, a candle blazing in
  vacuo, a speaking tree, a man changed into an animal. There may be
  elements in the nature of these things that would prevent such
  combinations; but these elements are not necessarily present to the
  ordinary consciousness, the abstractness of whose conceptions leaves
  it absolutely at the mercy of imagination or accidental association.
  To thought in this stage anything is possible that can be pictured.
  On the other hand, as knowledge advances, this freedom of combination
  becomes limited, "the less the mind understands and the more it
  perceives the greater is its power of fiction, and the more it
  understands the narrower is the limitation of that power. For just as
  in the moment of consciousness we cannot imagine that we do not think,
  so after we have apprehended the nature of body we cannot conceive of
  a fly of infinite size, and after we know the nature of a soul we
  cannot think of it as a square, though we may use the words that
  express these ideas."[34] Thus, according to Spinoza, the range of
  possibility narrows as knowledge widens, until to perfected knowledge
  posibility is lost in necessity.


    Insufficiency of the individual.

  From these considerations it follows that all thought is imperfect
  that stops short of the absolute unity of all things. Our first
  imperfect notion of things as isolated from each other, or connected
  only by co-existence and succession, is a mere imagination of things.
  It is a fictitious substantiation of isolated moments in the eternal
  Being. Knowledge, so far as it deals with the finite, is engaged in a
  continual process of self-correction which can never be completed, for
  at every step there is an element of falsity, in so far as the mind
  rests in the contemplation of a certain number of the elements of the
  world, as if they constituted a complete whole by themselves, whereas
  they are only a part, the conception of which has to be modified at
  the next step of considering its relation to the other parts. Thus we
  rise from individuals of the first to individuals of the second order,
  and we cannot stop short of the idea of "all nature as one individual
  whose parts vary through an infinite number of modes, without change
  of the whole individual."[35] At first we think of pieces of matter as
  independent individuals, either because we can picture them
  separately, or because they preserve a certain proportion or relation
  of parts through their changes. But on further consideration, these
  apparent substances sink into modes, each of which is dependent on all
  the others. All nature is bound together by necessary law, and not an
  atom could be other than it is without the change of the whole world.
  Hence it is only in the whole world that there is any true
  individuality or substance. And the same principle applies to the
  minds of men. Their individuality is a mere semblance caused by our
  abstraction from their conditions. Isolate the individual man, and he
  will not display the character of a thinking being at all. His whole
  spiritual life is bound up with his relations to other minds, past and
  present. He has such a life, only in and through that universal life
  of which he is so infinitesimal a part that his own contribution to it
  is as good as nothing. "Vis qua homo in existendo perseverat limitata
  est, et a potentia causarum externarum infinite superatur."[36] What
  can be called his own? His body is a link in a cyclical chain of
  movement which involves all the matter of the world, and which as a
  whole remains without change through all. His mind is a link in a
  great movement of thought, which makes him the momentary organ and
  expression of one of its phases. His very consciousness of self is
  marred by a false abstraction, above which he must rise ere he can
  know himself as he really is.

  "Let us imagine," says Spinoza in his fifteenth letter, "a little worm
  living in blood which has vision enough to discern the particles of
  blood, lymph, &c., and reason enough to observe how one particle is
  repelled by another with which it comes into contact, or communicates
  a part of its motion to it. Such a worm would live in the blood as we
  do in this part of the universe, and would regard each particle of it,
  not as a part, but as a whole, nor could it know how all the parts are
  influenced by the universal nature of the blood, and are obliged to
  accommodate themselves to each other as is required by that nature, so
  that they co-operate together according to a fixed law. For if we
  suppose that there are no causes outside of the blood which could
  communicate new motions to it, and no space beyond the blood, nor any
  other bodies to which its particles could transfer their motion, it is
  certain that the blood as a whole would always maintain its present
  state, and its particles would suffer no other variations than those
  which may be inferred from the given relation of the motion of the
  blood to lymph, chyle, &c. And thus in that case the blood would
  require to be considered always as a whole and not as a part. But
  since there are many other causes which influence the laws of the
  nature of blood, and are in turn influenced thereby, other motions and
  other variations must arise in the blood which are not due to the
  proportion of motion in its constituents but also to the relation
  between that motion and external causes. And therefore we cannot
  consider the blood as a whole, but only as a part of a greater whole."

  "Now we can think, and indeed ought to think, of all natural bodies in
  the same manner in which we have thought of this blood, for all bodies
  are surrounded by other bodies, and reciprocally determine and are
  determined by them, to exist and operate in a fixed and definite way,
  so as to preserve the same ratio of motion and rest in the whole
  universe. Hence it follows that every body, in so far as it exists
  under a certain definite modification, ought to be considered as
  merely a part of the whole universe which agrees with its whole, and
  thereby is in intimate union with all the other parts; and since the
  nature of the universe is not limited like that of the blood, but
  absolutely infinite, it is clear that by this nature, with its
  infinite powers, the parts are modified in an infinite number of ways,
  and compelled to pass through an infinity of variations. Moreover,
  when I think of the universe as a substance, I conceive of a still
  closer union of each part with the whole; for, as I have elsewhere
  shown, it is the nature of substance to be infinite, and therefore
  every single part belongs to the nature of the corporeal substance, so
  that apart therefrom it neither can exist nor be conceived. And as to
  the human mind, I think of it also as of part of nature, for I think
  of nature as having in it an infinite power of thinking, which, as
  infinite, contains in itself the idea of all nature, and whose
  thoughts run parallel with all existence."


    The whole dominates the parts.

  From this point of view it is obvious that our knowledge of things
  cannot be real and adequate, except in so far as it is determined by
  the idea of the whole, and proceeds from the whole to the parts. A
  knowledge that proceeds from part to part must always be imperfect; it
  must remain external to its object, it must deal in abstractions or
  mere _entia rationis_, which it may easily be led to mistake for
  realities. Hence Spinoza, like Plato, distinguishes reason whose
  movement is regressive (from effect to cause, from variety to unity)
  from _scientia intuitiva_, whose movement is progressive, which
  "proceeds from the adequate idea of certain of God's attributes to an
  adequate knowledge of the nature of things."[37] The latter alone
  deserves to be called science in the highest sense of the term. "For
  in order that our mind may correspond to the exemplar of nature, it
  must develop all its ideas from the idea that represents the origin
  and source of nature, so that that idea may appear as the source of
  all other ideas."[38] The regressive mode of knowledge has its highest
  value in preparing for the progressive. The knowledge of the finite,
  ere it can become perfectly adequate, must be absorbed and lost in the
  knowledge of the infinite.


    Finite things modes of infinite substance.

  In a remarkable passage in the _Ethics_, Spinoza declares that the
  defect of the common consciousness of men lies not so much in their
  ignorance, either of the infinite or of the finite, as in their
  incapacity for bringing the two thoughts together, so as to put the
  latter in its proper relation to the former. All are ready to confess
  that God is the cause both of the existence and of the nature of
  things created, but they do not realize what is involved in this
  confession--and hence they treat created things as if they were
  substances, that is, as if they were Gods. "Thus while they are
  contemplating finite things, they think of nothing less than of the
  divine nature; and again when they turn to consider the divine nature,
  they think of nothing less than of their former fictions on which they
  have built up the knowledge of finite things, as if these things could
  contribute nothing to our understanding of the divine nature. Hence it
  is not wonderful that they are always contradicting themselves."[39]
  As Spinoza says elsewhere, it belongs to the very nature of the human
  mind to know God, for unless we know God we could know nothing else.
  The idea of the absolute unity is involved in the idea of every
  particular thing, yet the generality of men, deluded by sense and
  imagination, are unable to bring this implication into clear
  consciousness, and hence their knowledge of God does not modify their
  view of the finite. It is the business of philosophy to correct this
  defect, to transform our conceptions of the finite by relating it to
  the infinite, to complement and complete the partial knowledge
  produced by individual experience by bringing it into connexion with
  the idea of the whole. And the vital question which Spinoza himself
  prompts us to ask is how far and in what way this transformation is
  effected in the Spinozistic philosophy.

  There are two great steps in the transformation of knowledge by the
  idea of unity as that idea is conceived by Spinoza. The first step
  involves a change of the conception of individual finite things by
  which they lose their individuality, their character as independent
  substances, and come to be regarded as modes of the infinite. But
  secondly, this negation of the finite as such is not conceived as
  implying the negation of the distinction between mind and matter. Mind
  and matter still retain that absolute opposition which they had in the
  philosophy of Descartes, even after all limits have been removed. And
  therefore in order to reach the absolute unity, and transcend the
  Cartesian dualism, a second step is necessary, by which the
  independent substantiality of mind and matter is withdrawn, and they
  are reduced into attributes of the one infinite substance. Let us
  examine these steps successively.


    Application to nature of matter.

  The method by which the finite is reduced into a mode of the infinite
  has already been partially explained. Spinoza follows to its
  legitimate result the metaphysical or logical principles of Descartes
  and Malebranche. According to the former, as we nave seen, the finite
  presupposes the infinite, and, indeed, so far as it is real, it is
  identical with the infinite. The infinite is absolute reality, because
  it is pure affirmation, because it is that which _negationem nullam
  involvit_. The finite is distinguished from it simply by its limit,
  i.e. by its wanting something which the infinite has. At this point
  Spinoza takes up the argument. If the infinite be the real, and the
  finite, so far as it is distinguished therefrom, the unreal, then the
  supposed substantiality or individuality of finite beings is an
  illusion. In itself the finite is but an abstraction, to which
  imagination has given an apparent independence. All limitation or
  determination is negative, and in order to apprehend positive reality
  we must abstract from limits. By denying the negative, we reach the
  affirmative; by annihilating finitude in our thought, and so undoing
  the illusory work of the imagination, we reach the indeterminate or
  unconditioned being which alone truly is. All division, distinction
  and relation are but _entia rationis._ Imagination and abstraction can
  give to them, as they can give to mere negation and nothingness, "a
  local habitation and a name," but they have no objective meaning, and
  in the highest knowledge, in the _scientia intuitiva_, which deals
  only with reality, they must entirely disappear. Hence to reach the
  truth as to matter, we must free ourselves from all such ideas as
  figure or number, measure or time, which imply the separation and
  relation of parts. Thus in his 50th letter, in answer to some question
  about figure, Spinoza says, "to prove that figure is negation, and not
  anything positive, we need only consider that the whole of matter
  conceived indefinitely, or in its infinity, can have no figure; but
  that figure has a place only in finite or determinate bodies. He who
  says that he perceives figure, says only that he has before his mind a
  limited thing and the manner in which it is limited. But this
  limitation does not pertain to a thing in its 'esse,' but contrariwise
  in its 'non-esse' (i.e. it signifies, not that some positive quality
  belongs to the thing, but that something is wanting to it). Since,
  then, figure is but limitation, and limitation is but negation, we
  cannot say that figure is anything." The same kind of reasoning is
  elsewhere (_Epist._ 29) applied to solve the difficulties connected
  with the divisibility of space or extension. Really, according to
  Spinoza, extension is indivisible, though modally it is divisible. In
  other words, parts _ad infinitum_ may be taken in space by the
  abstracting mind, but these parts have no separate existence. You
  cannot rend space, or take one part of it out of its connexion with
  other parts. Hence arises the impossibility of asserting either that
  there is an infinite number of parts in space, or that there is not.
  The solution of the antinomy is that neither alternative is true.
  There are many things "quae nullo numero explicari possunt," and to
  understand these things we must abstract altogether from the idea of
  number. The contradiction arises entirely from the application of that
  idea to the infinite. We cannot say that space has a finite number of
  parts, for every finite space must be conceived as itself included in
  infinite space. Yet, on the other hand, an infinite number is an
  absurdity; it is a number which is not a number. We escape the
  difficulty only when we see that number is a category inapplicable to
  the infinite, and this to Spinoza means that it is not applicable to
  reality, that it is merely an abstraction, or _ens imaginationis._


    Nature of mind.

  The same method which solves the difficulties connected with the
  nature of matter is applied to mind. Here also we reach the reality,
  or thing in itself, by abstracting from all determination. All
  conceptions, therefore, that involve the independence of the finite,
  all conceptions of good, evil, freedom and responsibility disappear.
  When W. Blyenburg accuses Spinoza of making God the author of evil,
  Spinoza answers that evil is an _ens rationis_ that has no existence
  for God. "Evil is not something positive, but a state of privation,
  and that not in relation to the divine, but simply in relation to the
  human intelligence. It is a conception that arises from that
  generalizing tendency of our minds, which leads us to bring all beings
  that have the external form of man under one and the same definition,
  and to suppose that they are all equally capable of the highest
  perfection we can deduce from such a definition. When, therefore, we
  find an individual whose works are not consistent with this
  perfection, straightway we judge that he is deprived of it, or that he
  is diverging from his own nature,--a judgment we should never make if
  we had not thus referred him to a general definition, and supposed him
  to be possessed of the nature it defines. But since God does not know
  things abstractly, or through such general definitions, and since
  there cannot be more reality in things than the divine intelligence
  and power bestows upon them, it manifestly follows that the defect
  which belongs to finite things, cannot be called a privation in
  relation to the intelligence of God, but only in relation to the
  intelligence of man."[40] Thus evil and good vanish when we consider
  things _sub specie aeternitatis_, because they are categories that
  imply a certain independence in finite beings. For the idea of a moral
  standard implies a relation of man to the absolute good, a relation of
  the finite to the infinite, in which the finite is not simply lost and
  absorbed in the infinite. But Spinoza can admit no such relation. In
  the presence of the infinite the finite disappears, for it exists only
  by abstraction and negation; or it _seems_ to us to exist, not because
  of what is present to our thoughts, but because of what is not present
  to them. As we think ourselves free because we are conscious of our
  actions but not of their causes, so we think that we have an
  individual existence only because the infinite intelligence is not
  wholly but only partially realized in us. But as we cannot really
  divide space, though we can think of a part of it, so neither can we
  place any real division in the divine intelligence. In this way we can
  understand how Spinoza is able to speak of the human mind as part of
  the infinite thought of God, and of the human body as part of the
  infinite extension of God, while yet he asserts that the divine
  substance is simple, and not made up of parts. So far as they exist,
  they must be conceived as parts of the divine substance, but when we
  look directly at that divine substance their separate existence
  altogether disappears.


    Soul and body.

    Spinoza's refuge from Descartes' dualism.

  It has, however, been already mentioned that this ascending movement
  of abstraction does not at once and directly bring Spinoza to the
  absolute unity of substance. The principle that "determination is
  negation," and that therefore the absolute reality is to be found only
  in the indeterminate, would lead us to expect this conclusion; but the
  Cartesian dualism prevents Spinoza from reaching it. Mind and matter
  are so absolutely opposed, that even when we take away all limit and
  determination from both, they still retain their distinctness. Raised
  to infinity, they still refuse to be identified. We are forced,
  indeed, to take from them their substantial or substantive existence,
  for there can be no other substance but God, who includes all reality
  in himself. But though reduced to attributes of a common substance,
  the difference of thought and extension is insoluble. The independence
  of individual finite things disappears whenever we substitute thought
  for imagination, but even to pure intelligence, extension remains
  extension, and thought remains thought. Spinoza seems therefore
  reduced to a dilemma; he cannot surrender either the unity or the
  duality of things, yet he cannot relate them to each other. The only
  course left open to him is to conceive each attribute in its turn as
  the whole substance, and to regard their difference as the difference
  of expression. As the patriarch was called by the two names of Jacob
  and Israel, under different aspects, each of which included the whole
  reality of the man, so our minds apprehend the absolute substance in
  two ways, each of which expresses its whole nature.[41] In this way
  the extremes of absolute identity and absolute difference seem to be
  reconciled. There is a complete parallelism of thought and extension,
  "ordo et connexio idearum idem est ac ordo et connexio rerum,"[42] yet
  there is also a complete independence and absence of relation between
  them, for each is the whole. A thing in one expression cannot be
  related to itself in another expression. Hence in so far as we look at
  the substance under the attribute of thought, we must take no account
  of extension, and in so far as we look at it under the attribute of
  extension, we must equally refuse to take any account of thought. This
  parallelism may be best illustrated by Spinoza's account of the
  relation of the human soul and body. The soul is the idea of the body,
  and the body is the object of the soul, whatever is in the one really
  is in the other ideally; yet this relation of object and subject does
  not imply any connexion. The motions and changes of the body have to
  be accounted for partly by itself, partly by the influence of other
  bodies; and the thoughts of the soul in like manner have to be
  accounted for partly by what God thinks as constituting the individual
  mind, and partly by what he thinks as constituting the minds of other
  individuals. But to account for thought by the motions of the body, or
  for the motions of the body by thought, is to attempt to bridge the
  impassable gulf between thought and extension. It involves the double
  absurdity of accounting for a thing by itself, and of accounting for
  it by that which has nothing in common with it.


    Spinoza's higher idealsim.

  In one point of view, this theory of Spinoza deserves the highest
  praise for that very characteristic which probably excited most odium
  against it at the time it was first published, namely, its exaitation
  of matter. It is the mark of an imperfect spiritualism to hide its
  eyes from outward nature, and to shrink from the material as impure
  and defiling. But its horror and fear are proofs of weakness; it flies
  from an enemy it cannot overcome. Spinoza's bold identification of
  spirit and matter, God and nature, contains in it the germ of a higher
  idealism than can be found in any philosophy that asserts the claims
  of the former at the expense of the latter. A system that begins by
  making nature godless, will inevitably end, as Schelling once said, in
  making God unnatural. The expedients by which Descartes keeps matter
  at a distance from God, were intended to maintain his pure
  spirituality; but their ultimate effect was seen in his reduction of
  the spiritual nature to mere will. As Christianity has its superiority
  over other religions in this, that it does not end with the opposition
  of the human to the divine, the natural to the spiritual, but
  ultimately reconciles them, so a true idealism must vindicate its
  claims by absorbing materialism into itself. It was, therefore, a true
  instinct of philosophy that led Spinoza to raise matter to the
  co-equal of spirit, and at the same time to protest against the
  Cartesian conception of matter as mere inert mass, moved only by
  impulse from without. "What were a God that only impelled the world
  from without?" says Goethe. "It becomes him to stir it by an inward
  energy, to involve nature in himself, himself in nature, so that that
  which lives and moves and has a being in him can never feel the want
  of his power or his spirit."


    Logical diffculties in Spinoza's metaphysics.

  While, however, Spinoza thus escapes some of the inconsequences of
  Descartes, the contradiction that was _implicit_ in the Cartesian
  system between the duality and the unity, the attributes and the
  substance, in his system becomes _explicit_. When so great emphasis is
  laid upon the unity of substance, it becomes more difficult to explain
  the difference of the attributes. The result is, that Spinoza is
  forced to account for it, not by the nature of substance itself, but
  by the nature of the intelligence to which it is revealed. "By
  substance," he says, "I understand that which is in itself, and is
  conceived through itself. By attribute I understand the same thing,
  nisi quod attributum dicatur respectu inteltectus substantiae certum
  talem naturam tribuentis."[43] Hence we are naturally led with J.E.
  Erdmann to think of the intelligence dividing the substance as a kind
  of prism that breaks the white light into different colours, through
  each of which the same world is seen, only with a different aspect.
  But if the intelligence in itself is but a mode of one of the
  attributes, how can it be itself the source of their distinction?

  The key to this difficulty is that Spinoza has really, and almost in
  spite of his logical principles, two opposite conceptions of
  substance, between which he alternates without ever bringing them to a
  unity. On the one hand, in accordance with the principle that
  determination is negation, substance must be taken as that which is
  utterly indeterminate, like the Absolute of the Buddhist, which we can
  characterize only by denying of it everything that we assert of the
  finite. In this view, no predicate can be applied univocally to God
  and to the creatures; he differs from them, not only in existence, but
  in essence.[44] If we follow out this view to its legitimate result,
  God is withdrawn into his own absolute unity, and no difference of
  attributes can be ascribed to him, except in respect of something else
  than himself. It is owing to the defects of out intelligence that he
  appears under different forms or expressions; in himself he is pure
  being, without form or expression at all. But, on the other hand, it
  is to be observed, that while Spinoza really proceeds by abstraction
  and negation, he does not _mean_ to do so. The abstract is to him the
  unreal and imaginary, and what he means by substance is not simply
  Being in general, the conception that remains when we omit all that
  distinguishes the particulars, but the absolute totality of things
  conceived as a unity in which all particular existence is included and
  subordinated. Hence at a single stroke the indeterminate passes into
  the most determinate Being, the Being with no attributes at all into
  the Being constituted by an infinite number of attributes. And while,
  under the former conception, the defect of our intelligence seemed to
  be that it divided the substance, or saw a difference of attributes in
  its absolute unity, under the second conception its defect lies in its
  apprehending only two out of the infinite multitude of these
  attributes.

  To do justice to Spinoza, therefore, we must distinguish between the
  actual effect of his logic and its effect as he conceived it. The
  actual effect of his logic is to dissolve all in the ultimate
  abstraction of Being, from which we can find no way back to the
  concrete. But his intent was simply to relate all the parts to that
  absolute unity which is the presupposition of all thought and being,
  and so to arrive at the most concrete and complete idea of the reality
  of things. He failed to see what is involved in his own principle that
  determination is negation; for if affirmation is impossible without
  negation, then the attempt to divorce the two from each other, the
  attempt to find a purely affirmative being, must necessarily end in
  the barest of all abstractions being confused with the unity of all
  things. But even when the infinite substance is defined as the
  negative of the finite, the idea of the finite becomes an essential
  element in the conception of the infinite. Even the Pantheist, who
  says that God is what finite things are not, in spite of himself
  recognizes that God has a relation to finite things. Finite things may
  in his eyes have no positive relation to God, yet they have a negative
  relation; it is through their evanescence and transitoriness, through
  their nothingness, that the eternal, the infinite reality alone is
  revealed to him. Spinoza is quite conscious of this process, conscious
  that he reaches the affirmation of substance by a negation of what he
  conceives as the purely negative and unreal existence of finite
  things, but as he regards the assertion of the finite as merely an
  illusion due to _our_ imagination, so he regards the correction of
  this illusion, the negation of the finite as a movement of reflection
  which belongs merely to our intelligence, and has nothing to do with
  the nature of substance in itself. We find the true affirmation by the
  negation of the negative, but in itself affirmation has no relation to
  negation. Hence his absolute being is the dead all-absorbing substance
  and not the self-revealing spirit. It is the being without
  determination, and not the being that determines itself. There is no
  reason in the nature of substance why it should have either attributes
  or modes; neither individual finite things nor the general distinction
  of mind and matter can be deduced from it. The descending movement of
  thought is not what Spinoza himself said it should be, an evolution,
  but simply an external and empirical process by which the elements
  dropped in the ascending movement of abstraction are taken up again
  with a merely nominal change. For the sole difference in the
  conception of mind and matter as well as in the conception of
  individual minds and bodies which is made by their reference to the
  idea of God, is that they lose their substantive character and become
  adjectives. Aristotle objected to Plato that his ideas were merely
  [Greek: aisthêta aidia], that is, that his idealization of the world
  was merely superficial, and left the things idealized very much what
  they were before to the sensuous consciousness; and the same may be
  said of Spinoza's negation of finite things. It was an external and
  imperfect negation, which did not transform the idea of the finite,
  but merely substituted the names of attributes and modes for the names
  of general and individual substances.

  The same defective logic, by which the movement of thought in
  determining the substance is regarded as altogether external to the
  substance itself, is seen again in Spinoza's conceptions of the
  relations of the attributes to each other. Adopting the Cartesian
  opposition of mind and matter, he does not see, any more than
  Descartes, that in their opposition they are correlative. Or if he did
  see it (as seems possible from a passage in his earliest
  treatise),[45] he regarded the correlation as merely subjective,
  merely belonging to our thought. They are to him only the two
  attributes which we happen to know out of the infinite number
  belonging to God. There is no necessity that the substance should
  manifest itself in just these attributes and no others, for abstract
  substance is equally receptive of all determinations, and equally
  indifferent to them all. Just because the unity is merely generic, the
  differences are accidental, and do not form by their union any
  complete whole. If Spinoza had seen that matter in itself is the
  correlative opposite of mind in itself, he need not have sought by
  abstracting from the difference of these elements to reach a unity
  which is manifested in that very difference, and his absolute would
  have been not substance but spirit. This idea he never reached, but we
  find him approximating to it in two ways. On the one hand, he condemns
  the Cartesian conception of matter as passive and self-external, or
  infinitely divisible--as, in short, the mere opposite of thought.[46]
  And sometimes he insists on the parallelism of extension and thought
  at the expense of their opposition in a way that almost anticipates
  the assertion by Leibnitz of the essential identity of mind and
  matter. On the other hand, he recognizes that this parallelism is not
  complete. Thought is not like a picture; it is conscious, and
  conscious not only of itself, but of extension. It transcends
  therefore the absolute distinction between itself and other
  attributes. It is only because he cannot rid himself of the phantom of
  an extended matter as a thing in itself, which is entirely different
  from the idea of it, that Spinoza is prevented from recognising in
  mind that unity that transcends all distinctions, even its own
  distinction from matter. As it is, his main reason for saying that
  intelligence is not an attribute of God, but merely a mode, seems to
  be this, that the thought of God must be conceived as producing its
  own object, i.e. as transcending the distinction of subject and object
  which is necessary to our intelligence.[47] But this argument of
  itself points to a concrete quite as much as to an abstract unity. It
  is as consistent with the idea of absolute spirit as with that of
  absolute substance. Spinoza's deliberate and formal doctrine is
  undoubtedly the latter; but he constantly employs expressions which
  imply the former, as when he speaks of God as _causa sui_. The higher
  idea inspires him, though his consciousness only embraces the lower
  idea.


    Spinoza's ethical system.

  The ethical philosophy of Spinoza is determined by the same principles
  and embarrassed by the same difficulties as his metaphysics. In it
  also we find the same imperfect conception of the relation of the
  positive to the negative elements, and, as a consequence, the same
  confusion of the highest unity of thought, the affirmation that
  subordinates and transcends all negation with mere abstract
  affirmation. Or, to put the same thing in ethical language, Spinoza
  teaches a morality which is in every point the opposite of asceticism,
  a morality of self-assertion or self-seeking, and not of self-denial.
  The _conatus sese conservandi_ is to him the supreme principle of
  virtue;[48] yet this self-seeking is supposed, under the guidance of
  reason, to identify itself with the love of man and the love of God,
  and to find blessedness not in the reward of virtue, but in virtue
  itself. It is only confusion of thought and false mysticism that could
  object to this result on the ground of the element of self still
  preserved in the _amor Dei intellectualis_. For it is just the power
  of identifyihg himself with that which is wider and higher than his
  individual being that makes morality possible to man. But the
  difficulty lies in this, that Spinoza will not admit the negative
  element, the element of mortification or sacrifice, into morality at
  all, even as a moment of transition. For him there is no dead self, by
  which we may rise to higher things, no losing of life that we may find
  it. For the negative is nothing, it is evil in the only sense in which
  evil exists, and cannot be the source of good. The higher affirmation
  of our own being, the higher seeking of ourselves which is identical
  with the love of God, must therefore be regarded as nothing distinct
  in kind from that first seeking of our natural self which in Spinoza's
  view belongs to us in common with the animals, and indeed in common
  with all beings whatever. It must be regarded merely as a direct
  development and extension of the same thing. The main interest of the
  Spinozistic ethics therefore lies in observing by what steps he
  accomplishes this transition, while excluding altogether the idea of a
  real division of the higher and the lower life, the spirit and flesh,
  and of a conflict in which the former is developed through the
  sacrifice of the latter.

  Finite creatures exist only as modes of the divine substance, only so
  far as they partake in the infinite, or what is the same thing with
  Spinoza, in the purely affirmative or self-affirming nature of God.
  They therefore must also be self-affirming. They can never limit
  themselves; their limit lies in this, that they are not identified
  with the infinite substance which expresses itself also in other
  modes. In other words, the limit of any finite creature, that which
  makes it finite, lies without it, and its own existence, so far as it
  goes, must be pure self-assertion and self-seeking. "Unaquaeque res
  quantum in se est in suo esse perseverare conatur," and this _conatus_
  is its very essence or inmost nature.[49] In the animals this
  _conatus_ takes the form of appetite, in man of desire, which is
  "appetite with the consciousness of it."[50] But this constitutes no
  essential difference between appetite and desire, for "whether a man
  be conscious of his appetite or no, the appetite remains one and the
  same thing."[51] Man therefore, like the animals, is purely
  self-asserting and self-seeking. He can neither know nor will anything
  but his own being, or if he knows or wills anything else, it must be
  something involved in his own being. If he knows other beings, or
  seeks their good, it must be because their existence and their good
  are involved in his own. If he loves and knows God it must be because
  he cannot know himself without knowing God, or find his supreme good
  anywhere but in God.

  What at first makes the language difficult to us is the identification
  of will and intelligence. Both are represented as affirming their
  objects. Descartes had prepared the way for this when he treated the
  will as the faculty of judging or giving assent to certain
  combinations of ideas, and distinguished it from the purely
  intellectual faculties by which the ideas are apprehended. By this
  distinction he had, as he supposed, secured a place for human freedom.
  Admitting that intelligence is under a law of necessity, he claimed
  for the Will a certain latitude or liberty of indifference, a power of
  giving or withholding assent in all cases where the relations of ideas
  were not absolutely clear and distinct. Spinoza points out that there
  is no ground for such a distinction, that the acts of apprehension and
  judgment cannot be separated from each other. "In the mind there is no
  volition, i.e. no affirmation or negation which is not immediately
  involved in the idea it apprehends," and therefore "intellect and will
  are one and the same thing."[52] If, then, there is no freedom except
  the liberty of indifference, freedom is impossible. Man, like all
  other beings and things, is under an absolute law of necessity. All
  the actions of his will, as well as of his intelligence, are but
  different forms of the self-assertive tendency to which he cannot but
  yield, because it is one with his very being, or only ideally
  distinguishable therefrom. There is, however, another idea of liberty.
  Liberty as the opposite of necessity is an absurdity--it is impossible
  for either God or man; but liberty as the opposite of slavery is
  possible, and it is actually possessed by God. The divine liberty
  consists in this, that God acts from the necessity of his own nature
  alone, and is not in any way determined from without. And the great
  question of ethics is, How far can man partake in this liberty? At
  first it would seem impossible that he should partake in it. He is a
  finite being, whose power is infinitely surpassed by the power of
  other beings to which he is related. His body acts only as it is acted
  on, and his mind cannot therefore apprehend his body, except as
  affected by other things. His self-assertion and self-seeking are
  therefore confused with the asserting and seeking of other things, and
  are never pure. His thought and activity cannot be understood except
  through the influence of other things which lie outside of his
  consciousness, and upon which his will has no influence. He cannot
  know clearly and distinctly either himself or anything else; how then
  can he know his own good or determine himself by the idea of it?

  The answer is the answer of Descartes, that the apprehension of any
  finite thing involves the adequate idea of the infinite and eternal
  nature of God.[53] This is the primary object of intelligence, in
  which alone is grounded the possibility of knowing either ourselves or
  anything else. In so far as our knowledge is determined by this idea,
  or by the ideas of other things, which are referred to this idea and
  seen in its light, in so far its action flows from an internal and not
  an external necessity. In so far, on the other hand, as we are
  determined by the affections of the body, ideas in which the nature of
  our own body and the nature of other things are confused together, in
  so far we are determined by an external necessity. Or to put the same
  thing in what has been shown to be merely another way of expression,
  in so far as we are determined by pure intelligence we are free, but
  in so far as we are determined by opinion and imagination we are
  slaves.

  From these premises it is easy to see what form the opposition of
  reason and passion must necessarily take with Spinoza. The passions
  belong to our nature as finite; they are grounded on, or rather are
  but another form of inadequate ideas; but we are free only in so far
  as our ideas either immediately are, or can be made, adequate. Our
  idea of God is adequate _ex vi termini_; our ideas of the affections
  of our body are inadequate, but can be made adequate in so far as they
  are referred to the idea of God. And as the idea of God is purely
  affirmative, this reference to the idea of God implies the elimination
  of the negative element from the ideas of the affections of the body,
  "for nothing that is positive in a false idea is removed by the
  presence of truth as such."[54] Brought into contact with the idea of
  God, all ideas become true and adequate, by the removal of the
  negative or false element in them. The idea of God is, as it were, the
  touchstone which distinguishes the gold from the dross. It enables us
  to detect the higher spiritual element in the natural passions, and to
  sever the element belonging to that pure love of self which is
  identical with the love of perfection from the elements belonging to
  that impure love of our own finite individuality as such which is
  identical with the love of evil.


    Implicit difficulties.

  The imperfection in Spinoza's development of this principle has
  already been indicated. It is in fact the same imperfection which runs
  through his whole system. Just as he supposed that the ideas of finite
  things were at once made consistent with the idea of the infinite when
  he had named them modes, so here his conception of the change through
  which selfish natural desire must pass in order to become spiritual is
  far too superficial and external. Hence he has no sympathy with
  asceticism, but treats it, like Bentham, as a _torva el tristis
  superstitio_. Joy is the "transition from less to greater perfection,"
  and cannot be but good; pain is the "transition from greater to less
  perfection," and cannot be but evil. The revolt against the medieval
  opposition of the nature and spirit is visible in many of his sayings.
  "No Deity who is not envious can delight in my weakness or hurts, or
  can regard as virtues those fears and sighs and tears which are the
  signs of the mind's weakness; but contrariwise, the greater is our
  joy, the greater is our progress to perfection, and our participation
  in the divine nature."[55] "A free man thinks of nothing less than
  death, his wisdom is a meditation not of death but of life."[56] The
  same idea, combining with the idea of necessity, leads him to condemn
  repentance and pity, as well as pride and humility. Unconsciously,
  Spinoza reproduces the principle of asceticism, while in words he
  utterly rejects it. For though he tells us that pure self-complacency
  is the highest thing we can hope, yet from this self-complacency all
  regard to the finite individuality of the subject is eliminated. "Qui
  Deum amat, conari non potest ut Deus ipsum contra amet." In like
  manner, he absolutely condemns all hatred, envy, rivalry and ambition,
  as springing out of an over-estimate of those finite things which one
  only can possess, while the highest good is that which is enjoyed the
  more easily and fully the greater the number of participants. Yet
  Spinoza's exaltation of the social life, and of the love that binds it
  together, is too like the Buddhist's universal charity that embraces
  all creatures, and all creatures equally. Both are based on an
  abstraction from all that is individual, only the Buddhist's
  abstraction goes a step further, and erases even the distinction
  between man and the animals. Spinoza felt the pressure of this
  all-levelling logic when he said, "I confess I cannot understand how
  spirits express God more than the other creatures, for I know that
  between the finite and the infinite there is no proportion, and that
  the distinction between God and the most excellent of created things
  differs not a whit from the distinction between him and the lowest and
  meanest of them."[57] As Pope said, God is "as full and perfect in a
  hair as a heart"; in all finite things there is a ray of divinity, and
  in nothing more than a ray. Yet in another epistle Spinoza contradicts
  this view, and declares that, while he does not consider it necessary
  to "know Christ after the flesh, he does think it is necessary to know
  the eternal Son of God, i.e. God's eternal wisdom, which is manifested
  in all things, but chiefly in the mind of man, and most of all in
  Christ Jesus."[58] In the _Ethics_ the distinction of man and the
  animals is treated as an absolute distinction, and it is asserted with
  doubtful consistency that the human soul cannot all be destroyed along
  with the body, for that there is something of it which is eternal. Yet
  from this eternity we must, of course, eliminate all notion of the
  consciousness of the finite self as such. At this point, in short, the
  two opposite streams of Spinoza's thought, the positive method he
  _intends_ to pursue, and the negative or abstracting method he really
  _does_ pursue, meet in irreconcilable contradiction. The finite must
  be related to the infinite so as to preserve all that is in it of
  reality; and therefore its limit or the negative element in it must be
  abstracted from. But it turns out that, with this abstraction from a
  negative element involved in the existence of the finite, the positive
  also disappears, and God is all in all in a sense that absolutely
  excludes the existence of the finite. "The mind's intellectual love of
  God," says Spinoza, "is the very love wherewith God loves himself, not
  in so far as he is infinite, but in so far as he can be expressed by
  the essence of the human mind, considered under the form of eternity;
  i.e. the mind's intellectual love of God is part of the infinite love
  wherewith God loves himself."[59] This double "in so far," which
  returns so frequently in Spinoza, just conceals for a moment the
  contradiction of two streams of thought, one of which must be
  swallowed up by the other, if they are once allowed to meet.


  General importance of the Cartesian school.

We have now reviewed the main points of the system, which was the
ultimate result of the principles of Descartes. The importance of this
first movement of modern philosophy lies in its assertion and exhibition
of the unity of the intelligible world with itself and with the mind of
man. In this point of view, it was the philosophical counterpart of
Protestantism; but, like Protestantism in its earliest phase, it passed
rapidly from the doctrine that God is, without priest or authority,
present to man's spirit, to the doctrine that man's spirit is as nothing
before God. The object was too powerful for the subject, who effaced
himself before God that he might be strong towards men. But in this
natural movement of feeling and thought it was forgotten that God who
effaced the world and the finite spirit by his presence could not be a
living God. Spinoza gives the ultimate expression to this tendency, and
at the same time marks its limit, when he says that whatever reality is
in the finite is of the infinite. But he is unsuccessful in showing
that, on the principles on which he starts, there can be any reality in
the finite at all. Yet even if the finite be an illusion, still more if
it be better than an illusion, it requires to be accounted for. Spinoza
accounts for it neither as illusory nor as real. It was reserved for the
following generation of philosophers to assert, in different ways, the
reality of the finite, the value of experience and the futility of
abstractions. Spinoza had declared that true knowledge consists in
seeing things under the form of eternity, but it is impossible that
things can be seen under the form of eternity unless they have been
first seen under the form of time. The one-sided assertion of
individuality and difference in the schools of Locke and Leibnitz was
the natural complement of the one-sided assertion of universality and
unity in the Cartesian school. But when the individualistic tendency of
the 18th century had exhausted itself, and produced its own refutation
in the works of Kant, it was inevitable that the minds of men should
again turn to the great philosopher, who, with almost perfect insight
working through imperfect logic, first formulated the idea of a unity
presupposed in and transcending the difference of matter and mind,
subject and object.

  See the Histories of Philosophy, especially those by Hegel, Feuerbach,
  Erdmann and Fischer; F. Bouillier, _Histoire de la philosophie
  cartésienne_ (1854); Ollé-Laprune, _Philosophie de Malebranche_; E.
  Saisset, _Précurseurs et disciples de Descartes_ (1862). The German
  treatises on Spinoza are too numerous to mention. Jacobi's _Letters on
  Spinoza_, which were the beginning of a true interpretation of his
  philosophy, are still worth reading. We may also mention C.
  Schaarschmidt, _Descartes und Spinoza_ (1850); C. Sigwart, _Spinozas
  neuentdeckter Tractat von Gott, dem Menschen, und dessen
  Glückseligkeit_ (1866). Both these writers have published German
  translations of the _Tractatus de Deo. _See also Trendelenburg,
  _Historische Beiträge zur Philosophie_ (1867); R. Avenarius, _Über die
  beiden ersten Phasen des spinozischen Pantheismus_ (1868); M. Joël,
  _Zur Genesis der Lehre Spinozas_ (1871); R. Willis, _Benedict de
  Spinoza: his Ethics, Life and Influence on Modern Religious Thought_
  (1870); F. Pollock, _Spinoza, his Life and Philosophy_ (1880); J.
  Martineau, _Types of Ethical Theory_ (1885); J. Caird, _Spinoza_ (in
  Blackwood's Philosophical Series); H.H. Joachim, _A Study of the
  Ethics of Spinoza_ (1901); R. Adamson, _The Development of Modern
  Philosophy_ (1903); also articles DESCARTES, MALEBRANCHE, and SPINOZA.
       (E. C.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] For biographical details see DESCARTES; MALEBRANCHE; SPINOZA.

  [2] _Resp. ad secundas objectiones_, p. 74,--quoting from the Elzevir
    edition.

  [3] _Resp. ad tertias object_, p. 94.

  [4] _Meditatio tertia_, p. 21.

  [5] _Resp. quartae_, p. 234.

  [6] _Meditatio quarta_, p. 26.

  [7] _Resp. ad sec. object._ p. 75.

  [8] _Resp. ad sec. object._ pp. 72-73.

  [9] _Resp. Sextae_, 160-163.

  [10] _Principia_, i. 35.

  [11] _Notae in Programma_, p. 184.

  [12] _Epistolae_, i. 110.

  [13] _Resp. Sextae_, pp. 165-166.

  [14] _Epist_. i. 66, 67.

  [15] _Princ._ i. 60.

  [16] _Morale_, i. I, §2.

  [17] _Recherche_, iii. pt. ii. ch. vi.

  [18] _Recherche_, ch. vii.

  [19] _Recherche_, ch. i.

  [20] _Morale_, i. 2, § 5.

  [21] _Entretien_. i. § 5.

  [22] _Recherche_, iii. pt. ii ch. vii., § 4.

  [23] _Recherche_, ch. ix.

  [24] _Recherche_, i. pt. i. ch. i.

  [25] _Recherche_, i. pt. i. ch. iv.

  [26] _Recherche_, iv. ch. i.

  [27] _Entretien_, iv.

  [28] _Recherche_, v. ch. iv.

  [29] _Recherche_, iv. ch. i.

  [30] _Morale_, pt. i. ch. i. § 9.

  [31] _Recherche_, iv. ch. v.

  [32] _Eth._ ii. schol. 7.

  [33] _Eth._ i. schol. 29.

  [34] _De Emend._ viii. § 38.

  [35] _Eth._ ii. lemma, 7 schol.

  [36] _Eth._ iv. 3.

  [37] _Eth._ ii. 40, schol. 2.

  [38] _De Emend._ vii. § 42.

  [39] _Eth._ ii. schol. 10.

  [40] _Epist._ 32.

  [41] _Epist._ 27.

  [42] _Eth._ ii. 7.

  [43] _Epist._ 27.

  [44] _Eth._ i. schol. 17.

  [45] _Tractatus de Deo et homine._ ii. 19.

  [46] _Epist._ 29, 70.

  [47] _Eth._ i. schol. 17.

  [48] _Eth._ iv. schol. 22.

  [49] _Eth._ iii. 6, 7.

  [50] _Eth._ iii. 9.

  [51] _Eth._ iii. Def. Affect. 1.

  [52] _Eth._ ii. 49.

  [53] _Eth._ ii. 45.

  [54] _Eth._ iv. 1.

  [55] _Eth._ iv. schol. 45.

  [56] _Eth._ iv. 67.

  [57] _Epist._ 57.

  [58] _Epist._ 21.

  [59] _Eth._ v. 36.



CARTHAGE (Phoenician _Kart-hadshat_, "New City"; Gr. [Greek: Karchêdôn],
Lat. _Carthago_ or _Carchedon_), one of the most famous cities of
antiquity, on the north coast of Africa; it was founded about 822 B.C.
by the Phoenicians, destroyed for the first time by the Romans in 146
B.C., rebuilt by the Romans, and finally destroyed by the Arabs in A.D.
698. It was situated in the heart of the Sinus Uticensis (mod. Gulf of
Tunis), which is protected on the west by the promontory of Apollo (mod.
Ras Ali el Mekki), and on the east by the promontory of Mercury or Cape
Bon (mod. Ras Addar). Its position naturally formed a sort of bastion on
the inner curve of the bay between the Lake of Tunis on the south and
the marshy plain of Utica (Sukhara) on the north. Cape Gamart, the Arab
village of Sidi-bu-Saïd and the small harbour of Goletta (La Goulette,
Halk el Wad) form a triangle which represents the area of Carthage at
its greatest, including its extramural suburbs. Of this area the highest
point is Sidi-bu-Saïd, which stands on a lofty cliff about 490 ft. high.
On Cape Gamart (Kamart) was the chief cemetery; the citadel, Byrsa, was
on the hill on which to-day stand the convent of Les Pères Blancs (White
Fathers) and the cathedral of St Louis. The harbours lay about
three-fifths of a mile south of Byrsa, near the modern hospital of the
Khram, at Cartagenna. The tongue of land, which runs from the harbours
as far as Goletta, to the mouth of the Catadas which connects the Lake
of Tunis with the sea, was known as _taenia_ (ribbon, band) or _ligula_
(diminutive of _lingua_, tongue). The isthmus connecting the peninsula
of Carthage with the mainland was roughly estimated by Polybius as 25
stades (about 15,000 ft.); the peninsula itself, according to Strabo,
had a circumference of 360 stades (41 m.). The distance between Gamart
and Goletta is about 6 m.

From Byrsa, which is only 195 ft. above the sea, there is a fine view;
thence it is possible to see how Carthage was able at once to dominate
the sea and the gently undulating plains which stretch westward as far
as Tunis and the line of the river Bagradas (mod. Mejerda). On the
horizon, on the other side of the Gulf of Tunis, rise the chief heights
of the mountain-chain which was the scene of so many fierce struggles
between Carthage and Rome, between Rome and the Vandals:--the Bu-Kornaïn
("Two-Horned Mountain"), crowned by the ruins of the temple of Saturn
Balcaranensis; Jebel Ressas, behind which lie the ruins of Neferis;
Zaghwan, the highest point in Zeugitana; Hammam-Lif, Rades (Ghades,
Gades, the ancient Maxula) on the coast, and 10 m. to the south-west the
"white" Tunis ([Greek: Leukos Tunês] of Diodorus) and the fertile hills
of Ariana. All round Byrsa, alike on the plain and on the slopes, are
fields of barley, vineyards and patches of cactus, interrupted only by
huge heaps of rubbish and excavation-mounds, the haunts of green
lizards, and by houses and villages built of materials drawn for many a
century from the ancient ruins.

The ancient harbours were distinguished as the military and the
commercial. The remains of the latter are to be seen in a partially
ruined artificial lagoon which originally, according to Beulé, had an
area of nearly 60 acres; there were, however, in addition a large quay
for unloading freight along the shore, and huge basins or outer harbours
protected by jetties, the remains of which are still visible at the
water-level. The military harbour, known as Cothon, communicated with
the commercial by means of a canal now partially ruined; it was circular
in shape, surrounded by large docks 16¼ ft. wide, and capable of holding
220 vessels, though its area was only some 22 acres. In the centre was
an islet from which the admiral could inspect the whole fleet.[1]

Among the other ruins which have been identified are the circus or
hippodrome, traversed by the railway at the north of the village of
Duar-es-Shat; the forum, between Cothon and Byrsa, where stood the
Curia, the regular place of assembly of the senate, and near which were
the moneychangers' shops, the tribunal, the temple of Apollo, and in the
Byzantine period the baths of Theodora. Three main streets led from the
forum to Byrsa.

The hill of St Louis, the ancient citadel of Byrsa, has a circuit of
4525 ft. It appears to have been surrounded at least at certain points
by several lines of fortifications. It was, however, dismantled by P.
Scipio Africanus the younger, in 146 B.C., and was only refortified by
Theodosius II. in A.D. 424; subsequently its walls were again renewed by
Belisarius in 553. On the plateau of Byrsa have been found the most
ancient of the Punic tombs, huge cisterns in the eastern part, and near
the chapel of St Louis the foundations of the famous temple of Eshmun
(see below), and the palace of the Roman proconsul.

About 325 ft. from the railway station of La Malga are the still
imposing ruins of the amphitheatre. Near by, at the spot called Bir el
Jebana, Père Delattre has discovered four cemeteries, one of which
contains the tombs of state officials or servants of the imperial
government. Rather more than half a mile north-west of Byrsa are the
huge cisterns of La Malga, which, at the time of the Arab geographer,
Idrisi, still comprised twenty-four parallel covered reservoirs, 325 ft.
by 71½ ft.; of these fourteen only remain.

On the hill of the Petit Séminaire, which is separated from Byrsa by a
valley, Père Delattre has discovered a Christian basilica, the baths of
Gargilius, large graves with several levels of tombs, and much débris of
sculpture, which, however, is insufficient to enable us to say that this
is the site of the temple of Tanit or Juno Caelestis. The quarter of
Dermèche, near the sea, whose name recalls the Latin _Thermis_ or
_Thermas_, is remarkable for the imposing remains of the baths
(_thermae_) of Antoninus. In one place called Douimés was the Ceramicus
where excavation has discovered a graceful basilica, proto-Punic tombs,
potters' ovens with numerous terra-cotta moulds which were abandoned
after the siege in 146 B.C., and finally a Roman palace with superb
marble statues. Farther on are huge reservoirs of Borj-Jedid which are
sufficiently well-preserved to be used again.

Behind the small fort of Borj-Jedid is the plateau of the Odeum where
the theatre and fine marble statues of the Roman period have been laid
bare; beyond is the great Christian basilica of Damus-el-Karita (perhaps
a corruption of _Domus Caritatis_); in the direction of Sidi-bu-Saïd is
the _platea nova_, the huge stairway of which, like so many other
Carthaginian buildings, has of late years been destroyed by the Arabs
for use as building material; on the coast near St Monica is the
necropolis of Rabs where Delattre dug up fine anthropoid sarcophagi of
the Punic period.

In the quarter of Megara (Magaria, mod. La Marsa) it would seem that
there never were more than isolated buildings, villas in the midst of
gardens. At Jebel Khaui (Cape Kamart) there is a great necropolis, the
sepulchral chambers of which were long ago rifled by Arabs and Vandals.
This cemetery had a Jewish quarter.

We must mention finally the gigantic remains in the western plain of the
Roman aqueduct which carried water from Jebel Zaghwan (_Mons
Zeugitanus_) and Juggar (Zucchara) to the cisterns of La Malga. From the
_nymphaeum_ of Zaghwan to Carthage this aqueduct is 61 Roman miles
(about 56 English miles) long; in the plain of Manuba its arches are
nearly 49 ft. high.

  Though several famous travellers visited and described the ruins of
  Carthage during the first thirty years of the 19th century, such as
  Major Humbert, Chateaubriand, Estrup, no scientific investigations
  took place till 1833. In that year Captain Falbe, Danish consul at
  Tunis, made a plan of the ruins so far as they were visible. In 1837
  there was formed in Paris, on the initiative of Dureau de la Malle, a
  _Société pour les fouilles de Carthage_; under the auspices of this
  body Falbe and Sir Grenville Temple undertook researches, and a little
  later Sir Thomas Read, English consul, following the example of the
  Genoese and the Pisans, carried away to England the mosaics, columns
  and statues of the baths of Antoninus. The Abbé Bourgade, chaplain of
  the church of St Louis erected in 1841, collected together Punic
  stelae and other antiquities from the surrounding plain; these formed
  the nucleus of the magnificent museum subsequently formed by Père
  Delattre at the instigation of Cardinal Lavigerie. Between 1856 and
  1858 Nathan Davis made excavations on the supposed site of the Odeum,
  and in 1859 Beulé undertook his celebrated investigations on Byrsa.
  Among other explorers were A. Daux in 1866; von Maltzan in 1870; E. de
  Sainte-Marie in 1874; Ch. d'Hérisson in 1883; E. Babelon and S.
  Reinach in 1884; Vernaz in 1885; Gauckler in 1903. Of these the
  majority were sent officially by the French government. But their
  attempts were partial, disjointed and without any systematic plan;
  they were entirely superseded by the brilliant and persevering work of
  R.P. Delattre. The Musée Lavigerie, the result of his labours,
  contains a vast archaeological treasure, the interest of which is
  doubled by the fact that it stands in the very midst of the ancient
  site. Unfortunately Delattre's work suffered too often from the
  absence of a cordial understanding with the directors of the
  antiquities department, La Blanchère and P. Gauckler, who, having
  themselves undertaken excavations, transported their finds to the
  Bardo museum, by the help of the public funds at their disposal.

  The main authority for the topography and the history of the
  excavations is Aug. Audollent's _Carthage romaine_ (Paris, 1901). A
  topographical and archaeological map of the site was published under
  the direction of Colonel Dolot and with the assistance of Delattre and
  Gauckler by the Ministère de l'Instruction Publique in 1907.

_History._--The history of Carthage falls into four periods: (1) from
the foundation to the beginning of the wars with the Sicilian Greeks in
550 B.C.; (2) from 550 to 265, the first year of the Punic Wars; (3) the
Punic Wars to the fall of Carthage in 146 B.C.; (4) the periods of
Roman and Byzantine rule down to the destruction of the city by the
Arabs in A.D. 698.

(1) _Foundation to 550 B.C._--From an extremely remote period Phoenician
sailors had visited the African coast and had had commercial relations
with the Libyan tribes who inhabited the district which forms the modern
Tunis. In the 16th century B.C. the Sidonians already had trading
stations on the coast; with the object of competing with the Tyrian
colony at Utica they established a trading station called Cambe or
Caccabe on the very site afterwards occupied by Carthage. Near
Borj-Jedid unmistakable traces of this early settlement have been found,
though nothing is known of its history. According to the classical
tradition Carthage was founded about 850 B.C. by Tyrian emigrants led by
Elissa or Elissar, the daughter of the Tyrian king Mutton I., fleeing
from the tyranny of her brother Pygmalion. According to the story,
Elissa subsequently received the name of Dido, i.e. "the fugitive."
Cambe welcomed the new arrivals, who bought from the mixed
Libyo-Phoenician peoples of the neighbourhood, tributaries of the Libyan
king Japon, a piece of land on which to build a "new city,"
_Kart-hadshat_, the Greek and Roman forms of the name. The story goes
that Dido, having obtained "as much land as could be contained by the
skin of an ox," proceeded to cut the skin of a slain ox into strips
narrow enough to extend round the whole of the hill, which afterwards
from this episode gained the name of _Byrsa_. This last detail obviously
arose from a mere play on words by which [Greek: Bursa] "hide," "skin,"
is confused with the Phoenician _bosra, borsa_, "citadel," "fortress."
In memory of its Tyrian origin, Carthage paid an annual tribute to the
temple of Melkarth at Tyr, and under the Roman empire coins were struck
showing Dido fleeing in a galley, or presiding over the building of
Byrsa. On the Vatican _Virgil_ there is a representation in miniature of
workmen shaping marble blocks and columns for Dido's palace.

The early history of Carthage is very obscure. It is only in the 6th
century that real history begins. By this time the city is
unquestionably a considerable capital with a domain divided into the
three districts of Zeugitana (the environs of Carthage and the peninsula
of C. Bon), Byzacium (the shore of the Syrtes), and the third comprising
the emporia which stretch in the form of a crescent to the centre of the
Great Syrtis as far as Cyrenaica. The first contest against the Greeks
arose from a boundary question between the settlements of Carthage and
those of the Greeks of Cyrene. The limits were eventually fixed and
marked by a monument known as the "Altar of Philenae." The destruction
of Tyre by Nebuchadrezzar (q.v.), in the first half of the 6th century,
enabled Carthage to take its place as mistress of the Mediterranean. The
Phoenician colonies founded by Tyre and Sidon in Sicily and Spain,
threatened by the Greeks, sought help from Carthage, and from this
period dates the Punic[2] supremacy in the western Mediterranean. The
Greek colonization of Sicily was checked, while Carthage established
herself on all the Sicilian coast and the neighbouring islands as far as
the Balearic Islands and the coast of Spain. The inevitable conflict
between Greece and Carthage broke out about 550.

(2) _Wars with the Greeks._--In 550, the Carthaginians, led by the
suffetes Malchus, conquered almost all Sicily and expelled the Greeks.
In 536 they defeated the Phocaeans and the Massaliotes before Alalia on
the Corsican coast. But Malchus, having failed in Sardinia, was banished
by the stern Carthaginian senate and swore to avenge himself. He laid
siege to Carthage itself, and, after having sacrificed his son Carthalo
to his lust for vengeance, entered the city as a victor. He ruled until
he was put to death by the party which had supported him. Mago, son of
Hanno, succeeded Malchus, as suffetes and general-in-chief. He was the
true founder of the Carthaginian military power. He conquered Sardinia
and the Balearic Islands, where he founded Port Mahon (Portus Magonis),
and so increased the power of Carthage that he was able to force
commercial treaties upon the Etruscans, and the Greeks of both Sicily
and Italy. The first agreement between Carthage and Rome was made in
509, one year after the expulsion of the Tarquins, in the consulship of
Junius Brutus and Marcus Horatius. The text is preserved by Polybius
(_Hist._ iii. 22-23). It assigned Italy to the Romans and the African
waters to Carthage, but left Sicily as a dangerous neutral zone.

Mago was succeeded as commander-in-chief by his elder son Hasdrubal (c.
500), who was thrice chosen suffetes; he died in Sardinia about 485. His
brother Hamilcar, having collected a fleet of 200 galleys for the
conquest of Sicily, was defeated by the combined forces of Gelo of
Syracuse and Theron of Agrigentum under the walls of Himera in 480, the
year in which the Persian fleet was defeated at Salamis (some say the
two battles were simultaneous); it is said that 150,000 Carthaginians
were taken prisoners. The victory is celebrated by Pindar (_Pyth._ i.).

These two leaders of the powerful house of the Barcidae each left three
sons. Those of Hasdrubal were Hannibal, Hasdrubal and Sapho; those of
Hamilcar, Himilco, Hanno and Gisco. All, under various titles, succeeded
to the authority which it had already enjoyed. About 460 Hanno,[3]
passing beyond the Pillars of Hercules (Straits of Gibraltar), founded
settlements along the West African coast in the modern Senegal and
Guinea, and even in Madeira and the Canary Islands.

In Sicily the war lasted for a century with varying success. In 406
Hannibal and Himilco destroyed Agrigentum and threatened Gela, but the
Carthaginians were forced back on their strongholds in the south-west by
Dionysius the Elder, Dionysius the Younger, Timoleon and Agathocles
successively, whose cause was aided by a terrible plague and civil
troubles in Carthage itself, A certain Hanno, unquestionably of the
Barcide house, attempted to seize the supreme power, but his partisans
were overwhelmed and he himself suffered the most cruel punishment.
Profiting by these troubles, Timoleon defeated the Carthaginians at
Crimissus in 340, and compelled them to sue for peace. This peace was
not of long duration; Agathocles crossed to Africa and besieged
Carthage, which was then handicapped by the conspiracy of Bomilcar.
Bomilcar was crucified, and Agathocles having been obliged to return to
Sicily, his general Eumarcus was compelled to carry his army out of
Africa, where it had maintained itself for three years (August 310 to
October 307). After the death of Agathocles, the Carthaginians
re-established their supremacy in Sicily, and Mago even offered
assistance to Rome against the invasion of Pyrrhus (480). Pyrrhus
crossed to Sicily in 277, and was preparing to emulate Agathocles by
sailing to Africa when he was compelled to return to Italy (see SICILY:
_History_).

Delivered from these dangers and more arrogant than before, Carthage
claimed the monopoly of Mediterranean waters, and seized every foreign
ship found between Sardinia and the Pillars of Hercules. "At Carthage,"
said Polybius, "no one is blamed, however he may have acquired his
wealth." The sailors took the utmost care to conceal the routes which
they followed; there is a story that a Carthaginian ship, pursued by a
Roman galley as far as the Atlantic, preferred to be driven out of her
course and sunk rather than reveal the course to the Cassiterides,
whither she was bound in quest of tin. The owner being saved, the senate
made good his losses from the public treasury (Strabo, iii. 5. 11).

(3) _Wars with Rome._[4]--The first Punic War lasted twenty-seven years
(268-241); it was fought by Carthage for the defence of her Sicilian
possessions and her supremacy in the Tyrrhenian Sea. The Romans,
victorious at the naval battles of Mylae (Melazzo) and Ecnomus (260 and
256), sent M. Atilius Regulus with an army to Africa. But the
Carthaginians, by the help of the Spartan Xanthippus, were successful,
and Regulus was captured. The fighting was then transferred to Sicily,
where Hasdrubal was defeated at Panormus (250); subsequently the Romans
failed before Lilybaeum and were defeated at Drepanum, but their victory
at the Aegates Islands ended the war (241). Carthage now desired to
disband her forces, but the mercenaries claimed their arrears of pay,
and on being refused revolted under Spendius and Matho, pillaged the
suburbs of Carthage and laid siege to the city itself. Only the genius
of Hamilcar Barca raised the siege; the mercenaries were caught in the
defile of the Axe, where they were cut down without mercy. This war,
which all but ruined Carthage, is known to the Roman historians as the
_bellum inexpiabile._

This peril averted, Carthage undertook the conquest of Spain. It was the
work of Hamilcar, and lasted nine years up to the day of Hamilcar's
death, sword in hand, in 228. His son-in-law, Hasdrubal Pulcher, built
Carthagena in 227 and concluded with Rome a treaty by which the Ebro was
adopted as the boundary of the Carthaginian sphere. On his death the
soldiers chose for themselves as leader Hannibal, son of Hamilcar. At
this period Carthage, with a population of perhaps 1,000,000, was in the
enjoyment of extraordinary prosperity alike in its internal industries
and in its foreign trade. The manufacture of woven goods, especially,
was a flourishing industry; the Greek writer Polemo records a special
treaty dealing with Carthaginian fabrics which were a recognized luxury
throughout the ancient world. In Sicily, Italy and Greece the
Carthaginians sold especially black slaves, ivory, metals, precious
stones and all the products of Central Africa, which came thence by
caravan. In Spain they sought copper and silver, and it was by them that
the modern mines of Huelva, as also those of Osca and Carthagena, were
first exploited. The district round Carthage, with its amazing
fertility, was the granary of the city, as it was later that of Rome.
Mago had drawn up a treaty dealing with agriculture and' rural economy
generally, which was subsequently brought to Rome and translated into
Latin by Decimus Silanus by order of the senate (J.P. Mahaffy, "The Work
of Mago," in _Hermathena_, xv. pp. 29-35).

In the midst of this prosperity the Second War with Rome broke out. At
this time the genius of Carthage is incarnate in Hannibal; his campaigns
in Spain, Italy and Africa have won the admiration of military experts
of all periods. The war became inevitable in 210 when Hannibal captured
Saguntum, which was in alliance with Rome. Passing through Spain and
Gaul, Hannibal resolved to carry the war into the heart of Italy
(218-217). The battles of the Ticinus, Trebia and Trasimene Lake are but
stages in the wonderful progress which culminated in the battle of
Cannae (August 2, 216). The road to Rome was now open to him, but he did
not profit by his advantage, while the Carthaginian senate, to its
shame, withheld all further support. His brother Hasdrubal with his
relieving army was defeated at the Metaurus in 207; the Romans recovered
their hold in Spain, and, seeing that Hannibal was unable to move in
Italy, carried the war back to Africa. Hearing that Scipio had taken
Utica (203) and defeated Hasdrubal and Syphax, king of Numidia, Hannibal
returned from Italy, but with a hastily levied army was defeated at Zama
(October 19, 202). The subsequent peace was disastrous to Carthage,
which lost its fleet and all save its African possessions.

After the Second War Carthage soon revived. The population is said still
to have numbered 700,000, and despite its humiliation, the city never
ceased to inspire alarm at Rome. The Numidian prince Massinissa, rival
of Syphax and a Roman protégé, took advantage of a clause in the treaty
of 202, which forbade Carthage to make war without the consent of the
Roman senate, to extend his possessions at the expense of Carthage. In
response to a protest from Carthage an embassy including M. Porcius Cato
the Elder was sent to inquire into the matter, and Cato was so impressed
with the city as a whole that on returning to Rome he never made a
speech without concluding with the warning "Delenda est Carthago."

At this time there were three political parties in Carthage: (1) that
which upheld the Roman alliance, (2) hat which advocated the Numidian
alliance, and (3) the popular party. These three were led respectively
by Hanno, Hannibal Passer, Hasdrubal and Carthalo. The popular faction,
which was turbulent and exasperated by the bad faith of the Romans,
expelled the Numidian party and declared war in 149 on Massinissa, who
was victorious at Oroscope. Rome then intervened, determined finally to
destroy her now enfeebled rival. War was declared on the pretext that
Carthage had engaged in war with Massinissa without the sanction of
Rome. The third Punic War lasted three years, and after a heroic
resistance the City fell in 146. The last champions of liberty
entrenched themselves under Hasdrubal in the temple of Eshmun, the site
of which is now occupied by the chapel of St Louis. The Roman troops
were let loose to plunder and burn. The thick bed of cinders, blackened
stones, broken glass, fragments of metal twisted by fire, half-calcined
bones, which is found to-day at a depth of 13 to 16 ft. under the
remains of Roman Carthage between Byrsa and the harbours, bears grim
witness, in accord with the accounts of Polybius and Appian, to the
terrible fate which overtook this part of the city. Before long a
commission arrived from Rome to decide the fate of the province of
Carthage. In the city itself, temples, houses and fortifications were
levelled to the ground, the site was dedicated with solemn imprecations
to the infernal gods, and all human habitation throughout the vast
ruined area was expressly forbidden.

  _Constitutional History._--The narrative must here be interrupted by
  an account of the political and religious development of Phoenician
  Carthage. Carthage was an aristocratic republic based on wealth rather
  than on birth. Indeed, the popular party, which included certain noble
  families such as the Barcidae, was always powerful, and thus
  government by demagogues was not infrequent. So Aristotle, writing
  about 330, emphasizes the importance of great wealth in Carthaginian
  politics. The government was in fact a plutocracy. The aristocratic
  party was represented by the two suffetes and the senate; the
  democratic by the popular assembly. The suffetes (_Sofetim_) presided
  in the senate and controlled the civil administration; the office was
  annual, but there was no limit to re-election. Hannibal was elected
  for twenty-two years. The senate, which, like that of Tyre, was
  composed of 300 members, exercised ultimate control over all public
  affairs, decided on peace and war, nominated the Commission of Ten,
  which was charged with aiding and controlling the suffetes. This
  commission was subsequently replaced, by a council of one hundred,
  called by the Greeks _gerousia_. This tribunal, which maintained law
  and order and called the generals to account, gradually became a
  tyrannical inquisition. Frequently it met at night in the Temple of
  Eshmun On Byrsa, in secret sessions described by Aristotle as [Greek:
  sussitia tôn hetairiôn].

  The popular assembly was composed, not of all the citizens, but of the
  _timuchi_ (Gr. [Greek: timê, echein]), i.e. those who possessed a
  certain property-qualification. The election of the suffetes had to be
  ratified by this assembly. The two bodies were almost always in
  opposition, and this was one of the chief causes of the ruin of
  Carthage.

  The army was recruited externally by senators who were sent to the
  great _emporia_ or trade-centres, even to the most remote, to contract
  with local princes for men and officers. The payments, agreed upon in
  this way, were frequently in arrears; hence the terrible revolts such
  as that of the "bellum inexpiabile." It was not till the 3rd century
  that Carthage, in imitation of the kings of Syria and Egypt, began to
  make use of elephants in war. The elephant used was the African type
  (_elephas capensis_), which was smaller than the Asiatic (_elephas
  indicus_), though with longer ears. In addition to the mercenaries,
  the army contained a legion composed of young men belonging to the
  best families in the state; this force was important as a nursery of
  officers.

  _Religion_.--The religion of Carthage was that of the Phoenicians.
  Over an army of minor deities (_alonim_ and _baalim_) towered the
  trinity of great gods composed of Baal-Ammon or Moloch (identified by
  the Romans with Cronus or Saturn); Tanit, the virgin goddess of the
  heavens and the moon, the Phoenician Astarte, and known as Juno
  Caelestis in the Roman period; Eshmun, the protecting deity and
  protector of the acropolis, generally identified with Aesculapius.
  There were also special cults: of Iolaus or Tammuz-Adonis, whom the
  Romans identified to some extent with Mercury; of the god Patechus or
  Pygmaeus, a deformed and repulsive monster like the Egyptian Ptah,
  whose images were placed on the prows of ships to frighten the enemy;
  and lastly of the Tyrian Melkarth, whose functions were analogous to
  those of Hercules. The statue of this god was carried to Rome after
  the siege of 146 (Pliny, _Nat. Hist._ xxxvi. 12. 39). From
  inscriptions we know the names of other minor deities, which are
  perhaps only other names of the same gods, e.g. Rabbat Umma, "the
  great mother"; Baalat haedrat, "mistress of the sanctuary"; Ashtoreth
  (Astarte), Illat, Sakon, Tsaphon, Sid, Aris (? Ares).

  From the close of the 4th century B.C. the intimate relations between
  the Carthaginians and the Sicilian Greeks began to introduce Hellenic
  elements into this religion. In the forum of Carthage was a temple to
  Apollo containing a colossal statue, which was transported to Rome.
  The Carthaginians once at least sent offerings to Delphi, and Tanit
  approximated to some extent to Demeter; hence on the coins we find the
  head of Tanit or the Punic Astarte crowned with ears of corn, in
  imitation of the coins of the Greek Sicilian colonies. The symbol of
  Tanit is the crescent moon; in her temple at Carthage was preserved a
  famous veil or _peplus_ which was venerated as the city's palladium.
  On the innumerable votive stelae which have been unearthed, we find
  invocations to Tanit and Baal-Ammon, as two associate deities ([Greek:
  theoi paredroi]). The usual formula in these inscriptions is, "To the
  great lady Tanit, the manifestation [reflex, face] of Baal
  (_Tanti-Pene-Baal_) and to our lord Baal-Ammon, the vow of Bomilcar,
  son of Mago, son of Bomilcar, because they have heard his prayer"
  (_Corp. inscr. semit._ vol. i. pp. 276 f.; Audollent, _Carth. Rom._ p.
  369).

  Baal-Ammon or Moloch, the great god of all Libya, is represented as an
  old man with ram's horns on his forehead; the ram is frequently found
  with his statues. He appears also with a scythe in his hand ("_falcem
  ferens senex pingitur_." St Cyprian, _De idol. vanit._ 11). At
  Carthage children were sacrificed to him, and in his temple there was
  a colossal bronze statue in the arms of which were placed the children
  who were to be sacrificed (Diod. Sic. xx. 14; Justin xviii. 6, xix. 1;
  Plut. _De superstit._ 13, _De sera num. vindic._ 6.). The children
  slipped one by one from the arms into a furnace amid the plaudits of
  fanatical worshippers. These sacrifices persisted even under Roman
  rule; Tertullian states that even in his time they took place in
  secret (_Apolog._ cix.; cf. Delattre, "Inscript. de Carth.," in
  _Bulletin épigraphique_, iv. p. 317; Audollent, op. cit. p. 398).

(4) _Roman Period._--In 122 B.C., twenty-four years after the
destruction of the city by Scipio Aemilianus, the Roman senate, on the
proposal of Rubrius, decided to plant a Latin colony on the site. C.
Gracchus and Fulvius Flaccus were entrusted with the foundation of the
new city, which was christened _Colonia Junonia_, and placed under the
protection of Juno Caelestis, the new name for the Punic Tanit. But its
prosperity was obstructed both by unpropitious omens and by the very
recollection of the ancient feud, and fifty years later Marius,
proscribed by Sulla, found the ruins practically deserted. In the
neighbourhood were the scattered remnants of the old Punic population,
who, according to Athenaeus (_Deipnosoph._ v. 50), had actually had the
assurance to send ambassadors to Mithradates the Great assuring him of
their support against Rome. Ultimately M. Minucius Rufus passed a law
abrogating that of 122 and suppressing the _Colonia Junonia_.

Julius Caesar, pursuing the lost supporters of Pompey, encamped on the
ruins of the city, and there, according to tradition, had a dream which
induced him to re-establish the abandoned colony. Returning to Rome, he
despatched thither the poor citizens who were demanding land from him.
Later on Augustus sent new colonists, and, henceforward, the machinery
of administration was regularly centred there (Appian viii. 136; Dio
Cass. lxxx. 1; Audollent, op. cit. p. 46). The proconsuls of the African
province had hitherto lived at Utica; in 14-13 B.C. C. Sentius
Saturninus transferred his headquarters to Carthage, which was
henceforth known as _Colonia Julia Carthago_. Several inscriptions use
this name, as also the bronze coins which bear the heads of Augustus and
Tiberius, and were struck at first in the name of the _suffetes_,
afterwards in that of _duumviri_.

Pomponius Mela and Strabo already describe Carthage as among the
greatest and most wealthy cities of the empire. Herodian puts it second
to Rome, and such is the force of tradition that the Roman citizens
resident in Carthage boasted of its Punic past, and loved to recall its
glory. Virgil in the _Aeneid_ celebrated the misfortunes of Dido, whom
the colonists ultimately identified with Tanit-Astarte; a public
Dido-cult grew up, and the citizens even pretended to have discovered
the very house from which she had watched the departure of Aeneas. The
religious character of these legends, coupled with the city's resumption
of its old role as mistress of Africa, and its independent spirit,
reawakened the old distrust, and even up to the invasions of the Vandals
the jealous rivalry of Rome forbade the reconstruction of the city
walls.

The revolt of L. Clodius Macer, legate of Numidia, in A.D. 68 was warmly
supported by Carthage, and one of the coins of this short-lived power
bears the symbol of Carthage personified. At the moment of the accession
of Vitellius, Piso, governor of the province of Africa, was in his turn
proclaimed emperor at Carthage. A little later, under Antoninus Pius, we
read of a fire which devastated the quarter of the forum; about the
same time, i.e. under Hadrian and Antoninus, there was built the famous
Zaghwan aqueduct, which poured more than seven million gallons of water
a day into the reservoirs of the Mapalia (La Malga); the cost of this
gigantic work was defrayed by a special tax which pressed heavily on the
inhabitants as late as the reign of Septimius Severus; allusions to it
are made on the coin-types of this emperor (E. Babelon, _Revista
italiana di numismatica_, 1903, p. 157).

In the early history of Christianity Carthage played an auspicious part,
in virtue of the number of its disciples, the energy and learning of
their leaders, the courage and eloquence of its teachers, the
persecutions of which it was the scene, the number of its councils and
the heresies of which it witnessed the birth, propagation or extinction
(see CARTHAGE, SYNODS OF). The labours of Delattre have filled the St
Louis museum at Carthage with memorials of the early Church. From the
end of the 2nd century there was a bishop of Carthage; the first was
Agrippinus, the second Optatus. At the head of the apologists, whom the
persecutions inspired, stands Tertullian. In 202 or 203, in the
amphitheatre, where Cardinal Lavigerie erected a cross in commemoration,
occurred the martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicitas. Tertullian was
succeeded (248) by a no less famous bishop Cyprian. About this time the
proconsul Gordian had himself proclaimed (239) emperor at Thysdrus (El
Jem). Shortly afterwards Sabinianus, aspiring to the same dignity, was
besieged by the procurator of Mauretania; the inhabitants gave him up
and thus obtained a disgraceful pardon (R. Cagnat, _L'armée romaine
d'Afrique_ p. 52; Audollent, op. cit. p. 73). Peace being restored, the
persecution of the Christians was renewed by an edict of the emperor
Decius (250). Cyprian escaped by hiding, and subsequently caused the
heresy of Novatian to be condemned in the council of 251. In 257, in a
new persecution under Valerian, Cyprian was beheaded by the proconsul
Galerius Maximus.

About 264 or 265 a certain Celsus proclaimed himself emperor at
Carthage, but was quickly slain. Probus, like Hadrian and Severus,
visited the city, and Maximian had new baths constructed. Under
Constantius Chlorus, Maxentius proclaimed himself emperor in Africa;
this caused great excitement in Carthage, and the garrison, which was
hostile to the pretender, compelled L. Domitius Alexander to assume the
purple. Domitius was, however, captured by Maxentius and strangled at
Carthage. About 311 there arose the famous Donatist heresy, supported by
270 African bishops (see DONATISTS and CONSTANTINE I.). At the synod of
Carthage in 411 this heresy was condemned owing to the eloquence of
Augustine. Two years later the Carthaginian sectaries even ventured upon
a political rebellion under the leadership of Heraclianus, who
proclaimed himself emperor and actually dared to make a descent on Italy
itself, leaving his son-in-law Sabinus in command at Carthage. Being
defeated he fled precipitately to Carthage, where he was put to death
(413). Donatism was followed by Pelagianism (see PELAGIUS), also of
Carthaginian origin, and these religious troubles were not settled when
in May 429 the Vandals, on the appeal of Count Boniface, governor of
Africa, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar and invaded Mauretania.
Genseric, who was hailed with one accord by all the different sectaries
as the champion of their several views, appeared in 439 before the walls
of Carthage, which had been hastily rebuilt after five hundred years by
the order of Theodosius II. The priest Salvianus has left a splendid
picture of Carthage at this moment (_de Gubern._ vii. 16). It had
500,000 inhabitants, and 22 basilicas (several of which have been
discovered by Delattre). Genseric entered almost without a blow (October
19, 439), and gave over the city to plunder before departing for his
attack on Italy. From this time Carthage became, in the hands of the
Vandals, a mere pirate stronghold, such as Tunis and Algiers were
subsequently to become. Once, in 470, the fleet of the Eastern empire
under the orders of Basiliscus appeared in the Bay of Carthage, but
Genseric succeeded in setting fire to the attacking ships and from Byrsa
watched their entire annihilation.

_Byzantine Rule_.--Under Genseric's successors (see VANDALS), Carthage
was still the scene of many displays of savage brutality, though
Thrasamund built new baths and a basilica. Ultimately Gelimer, the last
Vandal king, was defeated at Ad Decimum by the Byzantine army under
Belisarius, who entered Carthage unopposed (September 14, 533). The
restored city now received the name of Colonia Justiniana Carthago;
Belisarius rebuilt the walls and entrusted the government to Solomon.
New basilicas and other monuments were erected, and Byzantine Carthage
recovered for a century the prosperity of the Roman city.

At length the Arabs, having conquered Cyrenaica and Tripolitana (647),
and founded Kairawan (670), arrived before Carthage. In 697 Hasan ibn
en-Noman, the Gassanid governor of Egypt, captured the city almost
without resistance. But the garrison left by the Arabs was quite unable
to defend itself against the patrician Joannes, who retook the city and
hastily put it in a state of defence. Hasan returned furious with anger,
defeated the Byzantines again, and decreed the entire destruction of the
city. His orders were fulfilled; and in 698 Carthage finally disappears
from history. Once again only does the name appear in the middle ages,
when the French king, Louis IX., at the head of the eighth crusade,
disembarked there on the 17th of July 1270. He died, however, of the
plague on the 25th of August without having recovered northern Africa
for civilization.

  BIBLIOGRAPHY.--I. _Ancient_.--(a) Polybius, Diodorus Siculus, Livy,
  Appian, Justin, Strabo; (b) for the Christian period, Tertullian,
  Cyprian, Augustine; (c) for the Byzantine and Vandal, Procopius and
  Victor de Vita. All the references to the topography of Roman and
  Byzantine Carthage are collected in Audollent, _Carthage romaine_
  (1901), pp. 775-825, which also contains a full list of modern works
  (pp. 13-32. and p. 835).

  II. _Modern_.--The most important are: Falbe, _Recherches sur
  l'emplacement de Carthage_ (Paris, 1833); Dureau de la Malle,
  _Topographie de Carthage_ (Paris, 1835); Nathan Davis, _Carthage and
  her Remains_ (London, 1861); Beulé, _Fouilles à Carthage_ (Paris,
  1861); Victor Guérin, _Voyage archéologique dans la régence de Tunis_
  (Paris, 1862); E. de Sainte Marie, _Mission à Carthage_ (Paris, 1884);
  C. Tissot, _Géographie comparée de la province romaine d'Afrique_
  (Paris, 1884-1888, 2 vols.); E. Babelon, _Carthage_ (Paris, 1896);
  Otto Meltzer, _Geschichte der Karthager_ (Berlin, 1879-1896, 2 vols.);
  Paul Monceaux, _Les Africains, étude sur la littérature latine de
  l'Afrique; Les Paiens_ (Paris, 1898); _Histoire littéraire de
  l'Afrique chrétienne_ (Paris, 1901-1909, 3 vols.); Pallu de Lessert,
  _Vicaires et comtes d'Afrique_ (Paris, 1892); _Fastes des provinces
  africaines sous la domination romaine_ (Paris, 1896-1901, 2 vols.); R.
  Cagnat, _L'Armée romaine d'Afrique_ (Paris, 1892); C. Diehl,
  _L'Afrique byzantine, histoire de la domination byzantine en Afrique_
  (Paris, 1896); Aug. Audollent, _Carthage romaine_ (Paris, 1901); A.J.
  Church and A. Gilman, _Carthage_ in "Story of the Nations" series
  (1886). For the numerous publications of Père Delattre scattered in
  various periodicals see _Etude sur les diverses publications du R.P.
  Delattre_, by Marquis d'Anselme de Puisaye (Paris, 1895); Miss Mabel
  Moore's _Carthage of the Phoenicians_ (London, 1905) contains a useful
  summary of Delattre's excavations. See further for the discussion of
  particular points: "Chronique archéologique africaine," published by
  Stéph. Gsell, in the _Revue africaine_ of Algiers, 1893, and following
  years; and in the _Mélanges d'archéologie et d'histoire de l'École
  française de Rome_, vol. xv. (1895 and following years); Dr Carton,
  "Chronique archéologique nord-africaine," in the _Revue tunisienne_.
       (E. B.*)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The whole question of these harbours has been fully discussed by
    Cecil Torr, Otto Meltzer, R. Öhler, S. Gsell, M. de Roquefeuil; see
    Aug. Audollent, _Carthage romaine_, pp. 198 seq.; _Revue archéol._
    3rd series, xxiv.; _Jahrbüch f. class. Philologie_, vols. cxlvii.,
    cxlix.; also _Classical Review_, vols. v., vii., viii.

  [2] i.e. "of the Poeni (Phoenicians)."

  [3] The identification of this Hanno with the son of Hamilcar is
    conjectural; see HANNO.

  [4] For the military side of these wars see PUNIC WARS; HANNIBAL;
    HASDRUBAL.



CARTHAGE, a city and the county-seat of Jasper county, Missouri, U.S.A.,
on the Spring river, about 950 ft. above sea-level, and about 150 m. S.
by E. of Kansas City. Pop. (1890) 7981; (1900) 9416, of whom 539 were
negroes; (1910 census) 9483. It is served by the St. Louis & San
Francisco, the Missouri Pacific, and the St. Louis, Iron Mountain &
Southern railways, and is connected with Webb City and Joplin, Mo., and
Galena, Kan., by the electric line of the Southwest Missouri railway.
The town is built on high ground underlain by solid limestone, and has
much natural and architectural beauty. It is the seat of the Carthage
Collegiate Institute (Presbyterian). A Chautauqua assembly and a county
fair are held annually. In the vicinity there are valuable lead, zinc
and coal mines, and quarries of Carthage "marble," with which the county
court house is built. Carthage is a jobbing centre for a fruit and grain
producing region; live-stock (especially harness horses) is raised in
the vicinity; and among the city's manufactures are lime, flour, canned
fruits, furniture, bed springs and mattresses, mining and quarrying
machinery, ploughs and woollen goods. In 1905 the factory products were
valued at $1,179,661. Natural gas for domestic use and for factories is
piped from the Kansas gas fields. The municipality owns and operates the
electric-lighting plant. Carthage, founded in 1833, was laid out as a
town and became the county-seat in 1842, was incorporated as a town in
1868, was chartered as a city in 1873, and in 1890 became a city of the
third class under the general (state) law. On the 5th of July 1861 about
3500 Confederates under General James E. Rains and M.M. Parsons,
accompanied by Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson (1807-1862), and 1500
Union troops under Colonel Franz Sigel, were engaged about 7 m. north of
the city in an indecisive skirmish which has been named the battle of
Carthage.



CARTHAGE, SYNODS OF. During the 3rd, 4th, and 5th centuries the town of
Carthage (q.v.) in Africa served as the meeting-place of a large number
of church synods, of which, however, only the most important can be
treated here.

1. In May 251 a synod, assembled under the presidency of Cyprian to
consider the treatment of the _lapsi_ (those who had fallen away from
the faith during persecution), excommunicated Felicissimus and five
other Novatian bishops (Rigorists), and declared that the _lapsi_ should
be dealt with, not with indiscriminate severity, but according to the
degree of individual guilt. These decisions were confirmed by a synod of
Rome in the autumn of the same year. Other Carthaginian synods
concerning the _lapsi_ were held in 252 and 254.

  See Hefele, 2nd ed., i. pp. 111 sqq. (English translation, i. pp. 93
  sqq.); Mansi, i. pp. 863 sqq., 905 sqq.; Hardouin, i. pp. 133 sqq.,
  147 sqq.; Cyprian, _Epp._ 52, 54, 55, 68.

2. Two synods, in 255 and 256, held under Cyprian, pronounced against
the validity of heretical baptism, thus taking direct issue with
Stephen, bishop of Rome, who promptly repudiated them, and separated
himself from the African Church. A third synod, September 256,
unanimously reaffirmed the position of the other two. Stephen's
pretensions to authority as "bishop of bishops" were sharply resented,
and for some time the relations of the Roman and African Churches were
severely strained.

  See Hefele, 2nd ed., i. pp. 117-119 (English translation, i. pp. 99
  sqq.); Mansi, i. pp. 921 sqq., 951 sqq.; Hardouin, i. pp. 153 sqq.;
  Cyprian, _Epp._ 69-75.

3. The Donatist schism (see DONATISTS) occasioned a number of important
synods. About 348 a synod of Catholic bishops, who had met to record
their gratitude for the effective official repression of the
"Circumcelliones" (Donatist terrorists), declared against the rebaptism
of any one who had been baptized in the name of the Trinity, and adopted
twelve canons of clerical discipline.

  See Hefele, 2nd. ed., i. pp. 632-633 (English translation, ii. pp.
  184-186); Mansi, iii. pp. 143 sqq.; Hardouin, i. pp. 683 sqq.

4. The "Conference of Carthage" (see DONATISTS), held by imperial
command in 411 with a view to terminating the Donatist schism, while not
strictly a synod, was nevertheless one of the most important assemblies
in the history of the African church, and, indeed of the whole Christian
church.

  See Hefele, 2nd ed., ii. pp. 103-104 (English translation, ii. pp.
  445-446); Mansi, iv. pp. 7-283; Hardouin, i. pp. 1043-1190.

5. On the 1st of May 418 a great synod ("A Council of Africa," St
Augustine calls it), which assembled under the presidency of Aurelius,
bishop of Carthage, to take action concerning the errors of Caelestius,
a disciple of Pelagius (q.v.), denounced the Pelagian doctrines of human
nature, original sin, grace and perfectibility, and fully approved the
contrary views of Augustine. Prompted by the reinstatement by the bishop
of Rome of a deposed African priest, the synod enacted that "whoever
appeals to a court on the other side of the sea (meaning Rome) may not
again be received into communion by any one in Africa" (canon 17).

  See Hefele, 2nd ed., ii. pp. 116 sqq. (English translation, ii. pp.
  458 sqq.); Mansi, iii. pp. 810 sqq., iv. pp. 377 sqq., 451 sqq.;
  Hardouin, i. pp. 926 sqq.

6. The question of appeals to Rome occasioned two synods, one in 419,
the other in 424. The latter addressed a letter to the bishop of Rome,
Celestine, protesting against his claim to appellate jurisdiction, and
urgently requesting the immediate recall of his legate, and advising him
to send no more judges to Africa.

  See Hefele, 2nd ed., ii. pp. 120 sqq., 137 sqq. (English translation,
  ii. pp. 462 sqq., 480 sqq.); Mansi, iii. pp. 835 sqq., iv. pp. 401
  sqq., 477 sqq.; Hardouin, i. pp. 943 sqq., 1241 sqq. (T.F.C.)



CARTHUSIANS, an order of monks founded by St Bruno (q.v.). In 1084 Bruno
and his six companions presented themselves before the bishop of
Grenoble and explained to him their desire to lead an ascetical life in
a solitary place. He pointed out to them a desolate spot named
Chartreuse, on the mountains near Grenoble, rocky and precipitous, and
snow-covered during a great portion of the year, and told them they
might there carry out their design. They built themselves three huts and
an oratory, and gave themselves up to a life of prayer and silence and
extreme austerity. After a few years Bruno was summoned to Rome by Urban
II., as an adviser in the government of the Church, c. 1090; but after a
year or so he obtained permission to withdraw from Rome, and was able to
found in the forests of Calabria near Squillace a second, and later on a
third and a fourth monastery, on the same lines as the Chartreuse. On
one of these south Italian foundations Bruno died in 1101. On leaving
the Chartreuse he had appointed a successor as superior, and the
institute steadily took more settled shape and further development.
Peter the Venerable, abbot of Cluny, writing about forty years later,
speaks thus of the mode of life of the earliest Carthusians:--

  "Warned by the negligence and lukewarmness of many of the older monks,
  they adopted for themselves and for their followers greater precaution
  against the artifices of the Evil One. As remedy against pride and
  vain-glory they chose a dress more poor and contemptible than that of
  any other religious body; so that it is horrible to look on these
  garments, so short, scanty, coarse and dirty are they. In order to cut
  up avarice by the roots, they enclosed around their cells a certain
  quantity of land, more or less, according to the fertility of the
  district; and they would not accept a foot of land beyond that limit
  if you were to offer them the whole world. For the same motive they
  limit the quantity of their cattle, oxen, asses, sheep and goats. And
  in order that they might have no motive for augmenting their
  possessions, either of land or animals, they ordained that in every
  one of their monasteries there should be no more than twelve monks,
  with their prior the thirteenth, eighteen lay brothers and a few paid
  servants. To mortify the flesh they always wear hair shirts of the
  severest kind, and their fasting is wellnigh continuous. They always
  eat bread of unbolted meal, and take so much water with their wine
  that it has hardly any flavour of wine left. They never eat meat,
  whether in health or ill. They never buy fish, but they accept it if
  it is given to them for charity. They may eat cheese and eggs only on
  Sundays and Thursdays. On Tuesdays and Saturdays they eat cooked
  vegetables. On Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays they take only bread
  and water. They eat once a day only, save during the octaves of
  Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, Epiphany and other solemnities. They
  live in separate little houses like the ancient monks of Egypt, and
  they occupy themselves continually with reading, prayer and the labour
  of their hands, especially the writing of books. They recite the
  prayers for minor canonical hours in their own dwellings, when warned
  by the bell of the church; but they all assemble in church for matins
  and vespers. On feast days they eat twice, and sing all the offices in
  the church, and eat in the refectory. They do not say mass save on
  festivals and Sundays. They boil the vegetables served out to them in
  their own dwellings, and never drink wine save with their food."
  (Migne, _Patrol. Lat._ clxxxix. 943.)

In its broad outlines this description of primitive Carthusian life has
remained true, even to the present day: the regulations as to food are
not quite so stringent, and the habit is now an ordinary religious habit
of white serge. It was not until 1170 that the Carthusians were formally
constituted a separate religious order by papal act. Owing to its very
nature, the institute never had any great expansion: at the middle of
the 13th century there were some 50 Charterhouses; at the beginning of
the 18th there were 170, 75 being in France.

There was no written rule before 1130, when Guigo, the fifth prior of
the Grande Chartreuse, reduced to writing the body of customs that had
been the basis of Carthusian life (Migne, _Patrol. Lat._ cliii. 631);
enlargements and modifications of this code were made in 1259, 1367,
1509 and 1681: this last form of the statutes is the present Carthusian
rule.

The life is very nearly eremitical: except on Sundays and feasts, the
Carthusians meet only three times a day in the church--for the Midnight
Office, for Mass and for Vespers; once a week, on Sundays (and feasts)
they have their meal in the refectory, and once a week they have
recreation together and a walk outside enclosure. All the rest of their
time is passed in solitude in their hermitages, which are built quite
separate from one another. Each hermitage is a house, containing
living-room, bedroom and oratory, workshop and store-room, and has a
small garden attached. The monks are supplied with such tools as they
wish to employ in workshop and garden, and with such books as they need
from the library. The Carthusian goes to bed every evening at 7 and is
called about 11, when he says in his private oratory the _Officium B.
Mariae Virginis_. Towards midnight all repair to the church for Matins
and Lauds, which are celebrated with extraordinary solemnity and
prolixity, so as to last from 2 to 3 hours, according to the office.
They then return to bed until 5, when they again go to the church for
the daily High Mass, still celebrated according to the phase of
liturgical and ritual development of the 11th century. The private
Masses are then said, and the monks betake themselves to work or study.
At 10 in summer, 11 in winter, 12 on feast days, they have their dinner,
alone except on Sundays and feasts; the dinner is supplied from the
common kitchen through a small window. On many days of the year there is
but one meal; meat is never eaten, even in sickness--this has always
been an absolute rule among the Carthusians. In the afternoon they again
assemble in the church for Vespers; the lesser portions of the canonical
office, as well as the Office of the Blessed Virgin and the Office of
the Dead, are said privately in the oratories.

This manner of life has been kept up almost without variation for eight
centuries: among the Carthusians there have never been any of those
revivals and reforms that are so striking a feature in the history of
other orders--"never reformed, because never deformed." The Carthusians
have always lived thus wholly cut off from the outer world, each one in
almost entire isolation. They introduced and have kept up in western
Europe a life resembling that of the early Egyptian monks, as under St
Anthony's guidance monasticism passed from the utter individualism of
the first hermits to the half eremitical, half cenobitical life of the
Lauras (see MONASTICISM). Owing to certain resemblances in external
matters to the Benedictine rule and practice, the Carthusians have
sometimes been regarded as one of the offshoots from the Benedictines;
but this view is not tenable, the whole Carthusian conception, idea and
spirit being quite different from the Benedictine.

The superiors of the Charterhouses are priors, not abbots, and the prior
of the Grande Chartreuse is the superior general of the order. A general
chapter of the priors is held annually at the Grande Chartreuse. The
Carthusians have always flourished most in France, but they had houses
all over western Europe; some of the Italian _Certose_, as those at
Pavia, Florence and Naples, are renowned for their wonderful beauty.

The first English Charterhouse was established in 1178 at Witham by
Selwood Forest, and at the Dissolution there were nine, the most
celebrated being those at Sheen in Surrey and at Smithfield in London
(for list see _Catholic Dictionary_, art. "Carthusians"). The
Carthusians were the only order that made any corporate resistance to
the ecclesiastical policy of Henry VIII. The community of the London
Charterhouse stood firm, and the prior and several of the monks were put
to death in 1535 under circumstances of barbarous cruelty. In Mary's
reign a community was reassembled at Sheen, and on her death it
emigrated, fifteen in number, to Flanders, and finally settled in
Nieuport; it maintained itself as an English community for a
considerable time, but gradually dwindled, and the last of the old
English Carthusian stock died in 1831. There is now one Charterhouse in
England established at Parkminster in Sussex in 1883; the community
numbers 50 choir-monks, but it is almost wholly made up of foreigners,
including many of those recently expelled from France.

At the French Revolution the monks were driven from the Grande
Chartreuse, but they returned in 1816; they were again driven out under
the Association Laws of 1901, and the community of the Grande Chartreuse
is now settled in an old Certosa near Lucca. Of late years the community
at the Grande Chartreuse had consisted of some 40 choir-monks and 20 lay
brothers. Before the recent expulsions from France there were in all
some 20 Charterhouses.

There have been since the middle of the 13th century a very few convents
of Carthusian nuns, not more than ten; in recent times there have been
but two or three, one situated a few miles from the Grande Chartreuse.
The rule resembles that of the monks, but the isolation, solitude and
silence are much less stringent. The habit of the Carthusians, both
monks and nuns, is white.

A word may be added as to the famous liqueur, known as Chartreuse, made
by the monks. At the Revolution the property of the Carthusians was
confiscated, and on their restoration they recovered only the barren
desert in which the monastery stood, and for it they had to pay rent.
Thus they were for some years in want even of the needful means of
subsistence. Then the liqueur was invented as a means of supplying the
wants of the community; it became a great commercial success and
produces a large yearly income. This income the monks have not spent on
themselves, nor does it accumulate. The first charge is the maintenance
of the Grande Chartreuse and the other Charterhouses, and out of it have
been built and established the new monasteries of the order, as at
Düsseldorf, Parkminster and elsewhere; but by far the largest portion
has been spent on religious and charitable purposes in France and all
over the world,--churches, schools, hospitals, almshouses, foreign
missions. One thing is certain: the profits made no difference at all to
the secluded and austere life of the monks of the Grande Chartreuse.

  AUTHORITIES.--The most comprehensive historical work on the Carthusian
  order is B. Tromby, _Storia del patriarca S. Brunone e del suo ordine_
  (10 vols., 1773). References to other histories, old and new, will be
  found in Max Heimbucher, _Orden u. Kongregationen_ (1896), i. § 36;
  Wetzer und Welte, _Kirchenlexicon_ (ed. 2), art. "Karthäuserorden";
  Herzog-Hauck, _Realencyklopadie_ (ed. 3), art. "Karthäuser." For the
  English Carthusians, see E. Margaret Thompson, _Somerset Carthusians_
  (1895), and Dom L. Hendriks, _London Charterhouse_ (1889). The best
  study on St Bruno and the foundation of the order is Hermann Löbbel,
  "Der Stifter des Karthäuser-Ordens," 1899 (vol. v. No. 1 of
  _Kirchengeschichtliche Studien_, Munster); and the best account of the
  actual life is by Algar Thorold (_Dublin Review_, April 1892), who
  spent some months in the noviciate at the Grande Chartreuse. A little
  tract (anonymous) translated from French, _The Carthusians_, 1902
  (Orphans Press, Buckley Hall, Rochdale), gives precise information on
  the history, spirit and life of the Carthusians.     (E. C. B.)



CARTIER, SIR GEORGES ÉTIENNE, Bart. (1814-1873), Canadian statesman, was
born in the province of Quebec on the 6th of September 1814. Called to
the bar in 1835, he soon gained a large practice. He took part in the
rebellion of 1837, and was forced for a time to fly the country. In 1848
he was elected to the Canadian parliament. His youthful ebullition of
1837 was soon repented of, and he became a loyal subject of the British
crown. So greatly had he changed that in 1854 he became a leading member
of the reconstructed Liberal-Conservative party. In 1855 he was
appointed provincial secretary, and in 1857 attorney-general for Lower
Canada. From 1858 to 1862 he and Sir John Macdonald were joint prime
ministers of Canada, and their alliance lasted till the death of
Cartier. He took the chief part in promoting many useful measures, such
as the abolition of seigneurial tenure in Lower Canada (see QUEBEC), and
the codification of the civil law of that province (1857-1864). Above
all he favoured the construction of railways, and to his energy and
fearless, optimism are largely due the eventual success of the Grand
Trunk railway, and the resolve to construct the Canadian Pacific. In the
face of great opposition, he carried his native province into federation
(1864-1867), which would have been impossible without his aid. In the
first cabinet of Sir John Macdonald he sat as minister of militia and
defence, and carried in 1868 an important act establishing the land
forces of Canada on a sound basis. Though a devout Catholic, he became
involved in a political quarrel with his church, and was defeated by
clerical influence at the general election of 1872. Another seat was
found for him, but his health failed and he died on the 20th of May
1873.

  The _Life_, by Alfred O. De Celles (Toronto, 1904), may be
  supplemented by the sketch in Dent's _Canadian Portrait Gallery_
  (Toronto, 1880).     (W. L. G.)



CARTIER, JACQUES (1491-1557), French navigator, discoverer of the
Canadian river St Lawrence, was born at St Malo in Brittany. Of his
early life nothing is known. On the suppression by Admiral Chabot of the
trade to Brazil, an expedition consisting of two ships and sixty-one men
was despatched from St Malo under Cartier on the 20th of April 1534, to
look for a north-west passage to the East. Cartier reached Newfoundland
on the 10th of May, and at once entered the strait of Belle Isle, then
known to the fishermen as the bay of Castles. While the ships renewed
their supply of wood and water in Belles Amours harbour on the north
side of the strait, the long-boats discovered that the coast farther
west was barren, rocky and uninviting. In view of this Cartier set sail
on Monday, the 15th of June, for the south side of the strait, by
following which he was led down almost the whole west coast of
Newfoundland. Off St George's Bay a storm drove the ships out into the
gulf, but on resuming his course Cartier fell in with the Bird Rocks.
The island south of these he named Brion Island, after Chabot. Cartier
mistook our Magdalen and Prince Edward Islands for the main shore on the
south side of this inland sea. Following the coast of New Brunswick
northward he was greatly disappointed to discover Chaleur Bay was not a
strait. During a ten days' stay in Gaspé Harbour Cartier made friends
with a tribe of Huron-Iroquois Indians from Quebec, two of whom he
carried off with him. A mirage deceived him into thinking the passage up
the river south of Anticosti was a bay, whereupon he proceeded to coast
the southern, eastern and northern shores of Anticosti. On discovering
the passage between this island and the Quebec shore a council was held,
at which it was decided to postpone the exploration of this strait until
the following year. Heading eastward along the Quebec shore, Cartier
soon regained the Strait of Belle Isle and, entering the Atlantic on the
15th of August, reached St Malo in safety on the 5th of September.

Cartier set sail again from St Malo with three vessels on the 16th of
May 1536, and passing through the strait of Belle Isle anchored on the
9th of August in Pillage Bay, opposite Anticosti. The next day he named
this the bay of St Lawrence. In course of time the name spread to the
gulf and finally to the river. Proceeding through the passage north of
Anticosti, Cartier anchored on the 1st of September at the mouth of the
Saguenay, which the two Indians who had passed the winter in France
informed him was the name of a kingdom "rich and wealthy in precious
stones." Again on reaching the island of Orleans, so named after the
third son of Francis I., they told Cartier he was now in the kingdom of
Canada, in reality the Huron-Iroquois word for village. Leaving his two
larger vessels in the St Charles, which there enters the St Lawrence,
Cartier set off westward with the bark and the long-boats. The former
grounded in Lake St Peter, but in the latter he reached, on the 2nd of
October, the Huron-Iroquois village of Hochelaga on the site of the city
of Montreal. Further progress was checked by the Lachine Rapid. From the
top of Mount Royal, a name still in use, Cartier beheld the St Lawrence
and the Ottawa stretching away to the west. On his return to the St
Charles, where during the winter twenty-five men died of scurvy, Cartier
sought further information about the rich country called Saguenay, which
he was informed could be reached more easily by way of the Ottawa. In
order to give Francis I. authentic information of this northern Mexico,
Cartier seized the chief and eleven of the headmen of the village and
carried them off to France. This time he passed south of Anticosti and,
entering the Atlantic through Cabot Strait, reached St Malo on the 16th
of July 1537.

Francis I. was unable to do anything further until the spring of 1541,
when Cartier set sail with five vessels and took up his quarters at Cap
Rouge, 9 m. above Quebec. A soldier, the seigneur de Roberval, had been
chosen to lead the men to the conquest of Saguenay; but when he did not
arrive, Cartier made a fresh examination of the rapid of Lachine,
preparatory to sending the men up the river Ottawa. Roberval at length
set sail in April 1542, but on reaching St John's, Newfoundland, met
Cartier on his way back to France. In the summer of 1543, Cartier was
sent out to bring home Roberval, whose attempt to make his way up the
Ottawa to this mythical Saguenay had proved futile. From 1544 until his
death at St Malo, on the 1st of September 1557, Cartier appears to have
done little else than give technical advice in nautical matters and act
as Portuguese interpreter.

  A critical edition of Cartier's _Brief Récit de la navigation faicte
  ès isles de Canada_ (1545), from the MSS., has been published by the
  university of Toronto. The best English version is that by James
  Phinney Baxter, published at Portland, Maine, in 1906.     (H. P. B.)



CARTILAGE (Lat. _cartilago_, gristle), the firm elastic and gristly
connective tissue in vertebrates. (See CONNECTIVE TISSUES and JOINTS.)



CARTOON (Ital. _cartone_, pasteboard), a term used in pictorial art in
two senses, (1) In painting, a cartoon is used as a model for a large
picture in fresco, oil or tapestry, or for statuary. It was also
formerly employed in glass and mosaic work. When cartoons are used in
fresco-painting, the back of the design is covered with black-lead or
other colouring matter; and, this side of the picture being applied to
the wall, the artist passes over the lines of the design with a point,
and thus obtains an impression. According to another method the outlines
of the figures are pricked with a needle, and the cartoon, being placed
against the wall, is "pounced," i.e. a bag of black colouring-matter is
drawn over the perforations, and the outlines are thus transferred to
the wall. In fresco-painting, the portions of the cartoon containing
figures were formerly cut out and fixed (generally in successive
sections) upon the moist plaster. Their contour was then traced with a
pointed instrument, and the outlines appeared lightly incised upon the
plaster after the portion of the cartoon was withdrawn. In the
manufacture of tapestries upon which it is wished to give a
representation of the figures of cartoons, these figures are sometimes
cut out, and laid behind or under the woof, to guide the operations of
the artist. In this case the cartoons are coloured.

Cartoons have been executed by some of the most distinguished masters;
the greatest extant performances in this line of art are those of
Raphael. They are seven in number, coloured in distemper; and at present
they adorn the Victoria and Albert Museum, in South Kensington, having
been removed thither from their former home, the palace of Hampton
Court. With respect to their merits, they count among the best of
Raphael's productions; Lanzi even pronounces them to be in beauty
superior to anything else the world has ever seen. Not that they all
present features of perfect loveliness, and limbs of faultless
symmetry,--this is far from being the case; but in harmony of design, in
the universal adaptation of means to one great end, and in the grasp of
soul which they display, they stand among the foremost works of the
designing art. The history of these cartoons is curious. Leo X. employed
Raphael in designing (in 1515-1516) a series of Scriptural subjects,
which were first to be finished in cartoons, and then to be imitated in
tapestry by Flemish artists, and used for the decoration of the Sistine
Chapel. Two principal sets of tapestries were accordingly executed at
Arras in Flanders; but it is supposed that neither Leo nor Raphael lived
to see them. The set which went to Rome was twice carried away by
invaders, first in 1527 and afterwards in 1798. In the first instance
they were restored in a perfect state; but after their return in 1814
one was wanting--the cupidity of a Genoese having induced him to destroy
it for the sake of the precious metal which it contained. Authorities
differ as to the original number of cartoons, but there appear to have
been twenty-five,--some by Raphael himself, assisted by Gianfrancesco
Penni, others by the surviving pupils of Raphael. The cartoons after
which the tapestries were woven were not, ~~ it would seem, restored to
Rome, but remained as lumber about the manufactory in Arras till after
the revolution of the Low Countries, when seven of them which had
escaped destruction were purchased by Charles I., on the recommendation
of Rubens. They were found much injured, "holes being pricked in them
for the weavers to pounce the outlines, and in other parts they were
almost cut through by tracing." It has never been ascertained what
became of the other cartoons. Three tapestries, the cartoons of which by
Raphael no longer exist, are in the Vatican,--representing the stoning
of St Stephen, the conversion of St Paul, and St Paul in prison at
Philippi.

Besides the cartoons of Raphael, two, to which an extraordinary
celebrity in art-history attaches, were those executed in competition by
Leonardo da Vinci and by Michelangelo--the former named the Battle of
the Standard, and the latter the Cartoon of Pisa--soldiers bathing,
surprised by the approach of the enemy. Both these great works have
perished, but the general design of them has been preserved. In recent
times some of the most eminent designers of cartoons have been masters
of the German school,--Cornelius, Kaulbach, Steinle, Fuhrich, &c.;
indeed, as a general rule, these artists appear to greater advantage in
their cartoons than in the completed paintings of the same compositions.
In England cartoon-work developed considerably in 1843 and 1844, when a
competition was held for the decoration of the new Houses of Parliament.
Dyce and Maclise left examples of uncommon mark in this line. The
cartoon by Fred. Walker, A.R.A., made to advertise the dramatic version
of Wilkie Collins's _Woman in White_, is now at the Tate Gallery; and
cartoons by Ford Madox Brown are in the Victoria and Albert Museum,
South Kensington.     (W. M. R.)

(2) "Cartoon" is also a term now applied to the large political drawings
in the humorous or satirical papers of the day. At an earlier period
satirical prints were styled "caricatures," and were issued separately.
Gillray, Rowlandson, the three Cruikshanks, Heath and others were
popular favourites in this class of design. Even the insignificant
little cuts by Robert Seymour in _Figaro in London_, the _diableries_ in
_The Fly_, and the vulgar and rancorous political skits identified with
the flood of scurrilous little papers of the time, were dignified by the
same term. The long series of _Political Sketches_ by "H.B." (John
Doyle) were the first examples of unexaggerated statement, and fair and
decorous satire. With the advent of _Punch_ and its various rivals (_The
Peep-Show, The Great Gun, Diogenes_ and the like), the general tone was
elevated. _Punch_ at first adopted the word "pencilling" to describe the
"big cut," which dealt variously with political and social topics. But
when in 1843 there was held in Westminster Hall the great exhibition of
"cartoons" from which selection was to be made of designs for the
decoration in fresco of the new Houses of Parliament, _Punch_ jocularly
professed to range himself alongside the great artists of the day; so
that the "mad designe" of the reign of Charles I. became the "cartoon"
of that of Queen Victoria. John Leech's drawing in No. 105 of that
journal was the first caricature to be called a cartoon: it was entitled
"Substance and Shadow: the Poor ask for Bread, and the Philanthropy of
the State accords--an Exhibition." Later, _Punch_ dropped the word for a
while, but the public took it up. Yet the _New English Dictionary_
curiously attributes the first use of it to Miss Braddon in 1863.

In England the cartoon, no longer a weapon of venomous attack, has come
to be regarded as a humorous or sarcastic comment upon the topic
uppermost in the nation's mind, a witty or saturnine illustration of
views already formed, rather than as an instrument for the manufacture
of public opinion. It has almost wholly lost its rancour; it has totally
lost its ferocity--the evolutionary result of peace and contentment, for
satire in its more violent and more spontaneous form is but the outcome
of the dissatisfaction or the rage of the multitude. The cartoon, it is
agreed, must be suggestive; it must present a clear idea lucidly and, if
possible, laughably worked out; and, however reserved or restrained it
may be, or even, when occasion demands (as in the case of Sir John
Tenniel and some of his imitators), however epic in intuition, it must
always figure, so to say, as a leading article transformed into a
picture. (See CARICATURE and ILLUSTRATION.)     (M. H. S.)



CARTOUCHE (a French word adapted from the Ital. _cartoccio_, a roll of
paper, Med Lat. _carta_, for _charta_, paper), originally a roll of
paper, parchment or other material, containing the charge of powder and
shot for a firearm, a cartridge (q.v.), which itself is a corruption of
cartouche. The term was applied in architecture to various forms of
ornamentation taking the shape of a scroll, such as the volute of an
Ionian capital. It was particularly used of a sculptured tablet in the
shape of a partly unrolled scroll on which could be placed an
inscription or device. Such "cartouches" are used for titles, &c., on
engravings of maps, plans, and the like. The arms of the popes and
ecclesiastics of high birth were borne on an oval cartouche; and it is
thus particularly applied, in Egyptian archaeology, for the oblong
device with oval ends, enclosing the names of royal personages on the
monuments. It is properly an oval formed by a rope knotted at one end.
An amulet of similar shape, as the symbol of the "name," was worn by men
and women as a protection against the blotting out of the name after
death.



CARTRIDGE (corruption of Fr. _cartouche_), a case, of brass or other
metal, cardboard, silk, flannel, &c., containing an explosive charge,
and usually the projectile also, for small arms and ordnance (see
AMMUNITION).



CARTWRIGHT, EDMUND (1743-1823), English inventor, younger brother of
Major John Cartwright (q.v.), was born at Marnham, Nottinghamshire, on
the 24th of April 1743, and educated at Wakefield grammar school. He
began his academical studies at University College, Oxford, and in 1764
he was elected to a fellowship at Magdalen. In 1770 he published _Armine
and Elvira_, a legendary poem, which was followed in 1779 by _The Prince
of Peace_. In 1779 he was presented to the rectory of Goadby Marwood,
Leicestershire, to which in 1786 was added a prebend in the cathedral of
Lincoln. He took the degree of D.D. at Oxford in 1806. He would probably
have passed an obscure life as a country clergyman had not his attention
been accidentally turned in 1784 to the possibility of applying
machinery to weaving. The result was that he invented a power-loom, for
which he took out a patent in 1785; it was a rude contrivance, though it
was improved by subsequent patents in 1786 and 1787, and gradually
developed into the modern power-loom. Removing to Doncaster in 1785, he
started a weaving and spinning factory; it did not, however, prove a
financial success, and in 1793 he had to surrender it to his creditors.
A mill at Manchester, in which a number of his machines were installed,
was wilfully destroyed by fire in 1791. In 1789 he patented a
wool-combing machine, for which he took out further patents in 1790 and
1792; it effected large economies in the cost of manufacture, but its
financial results were not more satisfactory to its inventor than those
of the power-loom, even though in 1801 parliament extended the patent
for fourteen years. In 1807 a memorial was presented to the government
urging the benefits that had been conferred on the country by the
power-loom, and the House of Commons voted him £10,000 in 1809. He then
purchased a small farm at Hollander, near Sevenoaks, Kent, where he
spent the rest of his life. He died at Hastings on the 30th of October
1823. Other inventions of Cartwright's included a cordelier or machine
for making rope (1792), and an engine working with alcohol (1797),
together with various agricultural implements.



CARTWRIGHT, JOHN (1740-1824), English parliamentary reformer, was born
at Marnham in Nottinghamshire on the 17th of September 1740, being the
elder brother of Edmund Cartwright, inventor of the power-loom. He was
educated at Newark grammar school and Heath Academy in Yorkshire, and at
the age of eighteen entered the navy. He was present, in his first year
of service, at the capture of Cherbourg, and served in the following
year in the action between Sir Edward Hawke and Admiral Conflans.
Engaged afterwards under Sir Hugh Palliser and Admiral Byron on the
Newfoundland station, he was appointed to act as chief magistrate of the
settlement; and the duties of this post he discharged for five years
(1765-1770). Ill-health necessitated his retirement from active service
for a time in 1771. When the disputes with the American colonies began,
he saw clearly that the colonists had right on their side, and warmly
supported their cause. At the beginning of the war he was offered the
appointment of first lieutenant to the duke of Cumberland, which would
have put him on the path of certain promotion. But he declined to fight
against the cause which he felt to be just. In 1774 he published his
first plea on behalf of the colonists, entitled _American Independence
the Glory and Interest of Great Britain._ In the following year, when
the Nottinghamshire Militia was first raised, he was appointed major,
and in this capacity he served for seventeen years. He was at last
illegally superseded, because of his political opinions. In 1776
appeared his first work on reform in parliament, which, with the
exception of Earl Stanhope's pamphlets (1774), appears to have been the
earliest publication on the subject. It was entitled, _Take your
Choice_--a second edition appearing under the new title of _The
Legislative Rights of the Commonalty vindicated_. The task of his life
was thenceforth chiefly the attainment of universal suffrage and annual
parliaments. In 1778 he conceived the project of a political
association, which took shape in 1780 as the "Society for Constitutional
Information," including among its members some of the most distinguished
men of the day. From this society sprang the more famous "Corresponding
Society." Major Cartwright worked unweariedly for the promotion of
reform. He was one of the witnesses on the trial of his friends, Horne
Tooke, John Thelwall and Thomas Hardy, in 1794, and was himself indicted
for conspiracy in 1819. He was found guilty in the following year, and
was condemned to pay a fine of £100. He died in London on the 23rd of
September 1824. He had married in 1780, but had no children. In 1831 a
monument from a design by Macdowell was erected to him in Burton
Crescent where he had lived.

  _The Life and Correspondence of Major Cartwright_, edited by his niece
  F.D. Cartwright, was published in 1826.



CARTWRIGHT, PETER (1785-1872), American Methodist Episcopal preacher,
was born on the 1st of September 1785 in Amherst county, Virginia. His
father, a veteran of the War of Independence, took his family to
Kentucky in 1790, and lived near Lancaster until 1793, and then until
1802 in Logan county near the Tennessee line. Peter received little
education, and was a gambler at cards and horse-racing until 1801, when
he heard John Page preach. In June he was received into the church; in
May 1802 was licensed as a regular exhorter, becoming known as the
"Kentucky Boy"; in the autumn of 1802 was licensed to form the
Livingston circuit around the mouth of the Cumberland river; in 1806 was
ordained deacon by Bishop Asbury, and in 1808 presiding elder by Bishop
McKendree, under whose direction he had studied theology. He was
presiding elder of the Wabash district in 1812, and of Green river
district in 1813-1816, and, after four years on circuit in Kentucky and
two as presiding elder of the Cumberland district, was transferred in
1823 to the Illinois conference, in which he was presiding elder of
various districts until 1869. Up to 1856 he preached some 14,600 times,
received some 10,000 persons into the church, and baptized some 12,000
persons. He died near Pleasant Plains, Sangamon county, Illinois, on the
25th of September 1872. He was a typical backwoods preacher, an able,
vigorous speaker, and a racy writer.

  See the _Autobiography of Peter Cartwright, the Backwoods Preacher_,
  edited by W.P. Strickland (New York, 1856).



CARTWRIGHT, SIR RICHARD JOHN (1835-   ), Canadian statesman, was born in
Kingston, Canada, on the 4th of December 1835, son of the Rev. R.D.
Cartwright, chaplain to H.M. Forces. In 1863 he entered the Canadian
parliament as a Conservative, but soon after federation in 1867
quarrelled with his party on the question of their financial policy,
which he considered extravagant. By 1870 the breach was complete, and in
1873 he became finance minister of the Liberal ministry of the Hon.
Alexander Mackenzie. His honesty and economy were undoubted, but the
latter quality was sometimes pushed to extremes. From 1878 to 1896 he
was the chief financial critic on the side of the Liberal opposition,
and on the accession of Sir Wilfrid Laurier to power in 1896 he became
minister of trade and commerce. In 1898-1899 he represented Canada on
the Anglo-American joint high commission at Quebec. In 1904 failing
health led to his retirement to the senate. He acted in Sir Wilfrid
Laurier's absence at the Imperial Conference 1907 as acting premier.



CARTWRIGHT, THOMAS (c. 1535-1603), English Puritan divine, was born in
Hertfordshire. He studied divinity at St John's College, Cambridge, but
on Mary's accession had to leave the university, and found occupation as
clerk to a counsellor-at-law. On the accession of Elizabeth, he resumed
his theological studies, and was soon afterwards elected fellow of St
John's and later of Trinity College. In 1564 he opposed John Preston in
a theological disputation held on the occasion of Elizabeth's state
visit, and in the following year helped to bring to a head the Puritan
attitude on church ceremonial and organization. He was popular in
Ireland as chaplain to the archbishop of Armagh (1565-1567), and in 1569
he was appointed Lady Margaret professor of divinity at Cambridge; but
John Whitgift, on becoming vice-chancellor, deprived him of the post in
December 1570, and--as master of Trinity--of his fellowship in September
1571. This was a natural consequence of the use which he made of his
position; he inveighed bitterly against the hierarchy and constitution
of the Anglican Church, which he compared unfavourably with the
primitive Christian organization. So keen was the struggle between him
and Whitgift that the chancellor, William Cecil, had to intervene. After
his deprivation by Whitgift, Cartwright visited Beza at Geneva. He
returned to England in 1572, and might have become professor of Hebrew
at Cambridge but for his expressed sympathy with the notorious
"Admonition to the Parliament" by John Field and Thomas Wilcox. To
escape arrest he again went abroad, and officiated as clergyman to the
English residents at Antwerp and then at Middelburg. In 1576 he visited
and organized the Huguenot churches of the Channel Islands, and after
revising the Rhenish version of the New Testament, again settled as
pastor at Antwerp, declining the offer of a chair at St Andrews. In 1585
he returned without permission to London, was imprisoned for a short
time, and became master of the earl of Leicester's hospital at Warwick.
In 1590 he was summoned before the court of high commission and
imprisoned, and in 1591 he was once more committed to the Fleet. But he
was not treated harshly, and powerful influence soon secured his
liberation. He visited Guernsey (1595-1598), and spent his closing years
in honour and prosperity at Warwick, where he died on the 27th of
December 1603. Cartwright was a man of much culture and originality, but
exceedingly impulsive. His views were distinctly Presbyterian, and he
stoutly opposed the Brownists or Independents. He never conceived of a
separation between church and state, and would probably have refused to
tolerate any Nonconformity with his reformed national Presbyterian
church. To him, however, the Puritanism of his day owed its
systematization and much of its force.



CARTWRIGHT, WILLIAM (1611-1643), English dramatist and divine, the son
of a country gentleman who had been reduced to keeping an inn, was born
at Northway, Gloucestershire, in 1611. Anthony à Wood, whose notice of
Cartwright is in the nature of a panegyric, gives this account of his
origin, which is probably correct, although it is contradicted by
statements made in David Lloyd's _Memoirs_. He was educated at the free
school of Cirencester, at Westminster school, and at Christ Church,
Oxford, where he took his M.A. degree in 1635. He became, says Wood,
"the most florid and seraphical preacher in the university," and appears
to have been no less admired as a reader in metaphysics. In 1642 he was
made succentor of Salisbury cathedral, and in 1643 he was chosen junior
proctor of the university. He died on the 29th of November of the same
year. Cartwright was a "son" of Ben Jonson and an especial favourite
with his contemporaries. The collected edition of his poems (1651)
contains commendatory verses by Henry Lawes, who set some of his songs
to music, by Izaak Walton, Alexander Brome, Henry Vaughan and others,
and the king wore mourning on the day of his funeral. His plays are,
with the exception of _The Ordinary_, extremely fantastic in plot, and
stilted and artificial in treatment. They are: _The Royal Slave_ (1636),
produced by the students of Christ Church before the king and queen,
with music by Henry Lawes; _The Lady Errant_ (acted, 1635-1636; printed,
1651); _The Siege, or Love's Convert_ (printed 1651). In _The Ordinary_
(1635 ?) he produced a comedy of real life, in imitation of Jonson,
representing pot-house society. It is reprinted in Dodsley's _Old Plays_
(ed. Hazlitt, vol. xii.).



CARUCATE, or CARRUCATE (from the Med. Lat. _carrucata_, from _carruca_,
a wheeled plough), a measure of land, based probably on the area that
could be ploughed by a team of oxen in a year; hence "carucage" means a
tax levied on each "carucate" of land (see HIDE).



CARÚPANO, a town and port of the state of Bermúdez, Venezuela, 65 m.
N.E. of the city of Cumaná. Pop. (1908, estimate) 8600. Carúpano is
situated on the Caribbean coast at the opening of two valleys, and is a
port of call for several regular steamship lines. Its mean annual
temperature is 81° F., but the climate is healthy, because of its open
situation on the coast. The country immediately behind the town is
rough, but there is a considerable export of cacáo, coffee, sugar,
cotton, timber and rum.



CARUS, KARL GUSTAV (1789-1869), German physiologist and psychologist,
distinguished also as an art critic and a landscape painter, was born
and educated at Leipzig. After a course in chemistry, he began the
systematic study of medicine and in 1811 became a _Privat docent_. On
the subject which he selected (comparative anatomy) no lectures had
previously been given at Leipzig, and Carus soon established a
reputation as a medical teacher. In the war of 1813 he was director of
the military hospital at Pfaffendorf, near Leipzig, and in 1814
professor to the new medical college at Dresden, where he spent the
remainder of his life. He was made royal physician in 1827, and a privy
councillor in 1862. He died on the 28th of July 1869. In philosophy
Carus belonged to the school of Schelling, and his works are thoroughly
impregnated with the spirit of that system. He regarded inherited
tendency as a proof that the cell has a certain psychic life, and
pointed out that individual differences are less marked in the lower
than in the higher organisms. Of his many works the most important
are:--_Grundzuge der vergleichenden Anatomic und Physiologie_ (Dresden,
1828); _System der Physiologie_ (2nd ed., 1847-1849); _Psyche: zur
Entwickelungsgeschichte der Seele_ (1846, 3rd ed. Stuttgart, 1860);
_Physis, zur Geschichte des leiblichen Lebens_ (Stuttgart, 1851); _Natur
und Idee_ (Vienna, 1861); _Symbolik des menschlichen Gestalts_ (Leipz.,
1853, 2nd ed., 1857); _Atlas der Kranioskopie_ (2nd ed. Leipz., 1864);
_Vergleichende Psychologie_ (Vienna, 1866).

  See his autobiography, _Lebenserinnerungen und Denkwurdigkeiten_ (4
  vols., 1865-1866); K. von Reichenbach, _Odische Erwiederungen an die
  Herren Professoren Fortlage ... und Hofrath Carus_ (1856). His
  _England und Schottland im Jahre 1844_ was translated by S.C. Davison
  (1846).



CARUS, MARCUS AURELIUS, Roman emperor A.D. 282-283, was born probably at
Narbona (more correctly, Narona) in Illyria, but was educated at Rome.
He was a senator, and had filled various civil and military posts before
he was appointed prefect of the praetorian guards by the emperor Probus,
after whose murder at Sirmium he was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers.
Although Carus severely avenged the death of Probus, he was himself
suspected of having been an accessory to the deed. He does not seem to
have returned to Rome after his accession, but contented himself with an
announcement of the fact to the senate. Bestowing the title of Caesar
upon his sons Carinus and Numerianus, he left Carinus in charge of the
western portion of the empire, and took Numerianus with him on the
expedition against the Persians which had been contemplated by Probus.
Having defeated the Quadi and Sarmatians on the Danube, Carus proceeded
through Thrace and Asia Minor, conquered Mesopotamia, pressed on to
Seleucia and Ctesiphon, and carried his arms beyond the Tigris. But his
hopes of further conquest were cut short by his death. One day, after a
violent storm, it was announced that he was dead. His death was
variously attributed to disease, the effects of lightning, or a wound
received in a campaign against the Huns; but it seems more probable
that he was murdered by the soldiers, who were averse from further
campaigns against Persia, at the instigation of Arrius Aper, prefect of
the praetorian guard. Carus seems to have belied the hopes entertained
of him on his accession, and to have developed into a morose and
suspicious tyrant.



CARVACROL, or CYMOPHENOL, C10H13OH, or

     CH3
   / \ OH
  |   |
   \ /
    C3H7 (iso),

a constituent of the ethereal oil of _Origanum hirtum_, oil of thyme,
oil obtained from pepperwort, and wild bergamot. It may be synthetically
prepared by the fusion of cymol sulphonic acid with caustic potash; by
the action of nitrous acid on 1-methyl-2-amino-4-propyl benzene; by
prolonged heating of 5 parts of camphor with 1 part of iodine; or by
heating carvol with glacial phosphoric acid. It is extracted from
Origanum oil by means of a 10% potash solution. It is a thick oil which
sets at -20°C. to a mass of crystals of melting point 0°C, and boiling
point 236-237°C. Oxidation with ferric chloride converts it into
dicarvacrol, whilst phosphorus pentachloride transforms it into
chlorcymol.



CARVAJAL, ANTONIO FERNANDEZ (d. 1659), a Portuguese Marano (q.v.) or
Crypto-Jew, who came to England in the reign of Charles I. He was the
first "endenizened" Jew in England, and by his extensive trade with the
West Indies rendered considerable services to the Commonwealth. Besides
his commercial value to Cromwell, Carvajal was politically useful also,
for he acted as "intelligencer." When Manasseh ben Israel in 1655
petitioned for the return of the Jews who had been expelled by Edward
I., Carvajal took part in the agitation and boldly avowed his Judaism.
Carvajal may be termed the founder of the Anglo-Jewish community. He
died in 1659.

  See Lucien Wolf, "The First English Jew," _Trans. Jewish Historical
  Society_, ii. 14.



CARVAJAL, LUISA DE (1568-1614), Spanish missionary in England, was born
at Jaraicejo in Estremadura on the 2nd of January 1568. Her father, Don
Francisco de Carvajal, was the head of an old and wealthy family which
produced many men of note. Her mother, Doña Maria, belonged to the
powerful house of Mendoza. Both were people of pious character. The
mother died in 1572 from a fever contracted while visiting the poor, and
the father took the disease from his wife, and died of it. Luisa and a
brother were left to the care of their grand-aunt Maria Chacon,
governess of the young children of Philip II. On her death they passed
to the care of their maternal uncle, Francisco Hurtado de Mendoza, count
of Almazan. The count, who was named viceroy of Navarre by Philip II.,
was an able public servant in whom religious zeal was carried to the
point of inhuman asceticism. His niece attracted his favour by her
manifest disposition to the religious life; she sent her own share of
dinner to the poor, ate broken meats, wore a chain next her skin, and
invited humiliation; and at the age of seventeen she was instructed by
the count to make a surrender of her will to two female servants whom he
set over her, and by whom she was repeatedly scourged while naked,
trampled upon and otherwise ill-treated. But when Luisa came of age she
refused to enter a religious house, and decided to devote herself to the
conversion of England. The execution of the Jesuit emissary priest,
Henry Walpole, in 1596 had moved her deeply, and she prepared herself by
learning English and by the study of divinity. A lawsuit with her
brother caused temporary delay, but she secured her share of the family
fortune, which she devoted to founding a college for English Jesuits at
Louvain; it was transferred to Watten near Saint Omer in 1612, and
lasted till the suppression of the Order. In 1605 she was allowed to go
to England. She established herself under the protection of the Spanish
ambassador, whose house was in the Barbican. From this place of safety
she carried on an active and successful propaganda. She made herself
conspicuous by her attentions to the Gunpowder Plot prisoners, and won
converts, partly by persuasion, partly by helping women of the very
poorest class in childbirth, and taking charge of the children. Her
activity attracted the attention of the authorities, and she was
arrested in 1608. But the protection of the Spanish ambassador Zuñiga,
and the desire of King James I. to stand well with Spain, secured her
release. In 1613, while staying at a house in Spitalfields, where she
had in fact set up a disguised nunnery, she was arrested with all the
inmates by the pursuivants of Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury, who had
been on the watch for some time. Her release was again secured by the
new Spanish ambassador Gondomar, who played with effect on the weakness
of King James. By this time, however, the Spanish authorities had begun
to discover that she was a political danger to them, and recalled her.
Luisa, who had hoped for the crown of martyrdom, was bitterly
disappointed, and resisted the order. Before she could be forced to obey
she died in the Spanish ambassador's house on her birthday, the 2nd of
January 1614. Her body remained as an object of admiration for months
till it was carried back to Spain.

  The original authority for the life of Luisa de Carvajal is _La Vida y
  Virtudes de la Venerable Virgen Doña Luisa de Carvajal y Mendoza_
  (Madrid, 1632), by the Licentiate Lorenzo Muñoz. It is founded on her
  own papers collected by her English confessor Michael Walpole. It is
  largely autobiographical, and contains some examples of her verse. The
  _Vida y Virtudes_ is summarized by Southey in his _Letters from Spain
  and Portugal_ (1808). A life was written by Lady Georgiana Fullerton
  (1873), in which much that is shocking to modern sentiment is
  concealed. See also _Quatre Portraits de femmes_, by La Comtesse R. de
  Courson (Paris, 1895). There are several references to Luisa de
  Carvajal in the _Records of the English Province of the Society of
  Jesus_, by Henry Foley (1877-1883).     (D. H.)



CARVER, JOHN (1575?-1621), one of the "Pilgrim Fathers," first governor
of the Plymouth colony in America, was born, probably in
Nottinghamshire, England, about 1575. Owing to religious persecution at
home he took refuge in Holland about 1607, and eventually became a
deacon in the church at Leiden of which John Robinson was the pastor. In
1620 he emigrated to America in the "Mayflower," and founded the
Plymouth colony. Before leaving England he had probably been elected
governor; after the signing of the famous "Compact" this election was
confirmed; and on the 23rd of March 1620 (1621 N.S.) Carver was
re-elected for the ensuing year. Early in April, however, he died from
the effects of sunstroke.



CARVER, JONATHAN (c. 1725-1780), American traveller, was born probably
in Canterbury, Connecticut. The date usually given for his birth, 1732,
is now considered too late, since he was apparently married in 1746. In
early life he followed the trade of a shoemaker and subsequently served
with the provincial forces in the French and Indian wars. According to
his "Journal" he conceived the idea, after the peace of 1763, of
exploring Great Britain's newly acquired territory in the north-west. He
is said to have set out in 1766, journeyed westward by way of the
Straits of Mackinac and the Fox and Wisconsin rivers to the Mississippi,
viewed the Falls of St Anthony, lived for some time among the Indians,
and received from them a grant of 100 sq. m. of territory between the
Mississippi and St Croix rivers. Returning east in 1768 by way of the
north shore of Lake Superior he proceeded in 1769 to England, where he
presented a letter of introduction to Benjamin Franklin, and made vain
efforts to interest the board of trade in his investigations. In 1778
there was published in London what purported to be his own narrative of
his explorations under the title of _Travels through the Interior Parts
of North America in the Years 1766, 1767 and 1768._ It had an immediate
success, was translated into French, German and Dutch, and was long
generally accepted as a truthful narrative of his travels and
observations, and as one of the highest authorities on the manners,
customs and language of the Indians of the northern Mississippi valley.
Carver died in London on the 31st of January 1780, having married a
second time in England although his first wife was still living in
America.

Soon after his death a new edition of the _Travels_ was brought out by
the well-known Quaker physician and author, Dr John Coakley Lettsom
(1744-1815), who "edited" the work and furnished a biographical
introduction. Some doubt seems to have been early entertained as to the
real authorship of the work, Oliver Wolcott in 1792 writing to Jedediah
Morse, the geographer, that Carver was too unlettered to have written
it, and that in his belief the book was the work of some literary hack.
Careful investigation of Indian life and north-western history, notably
by H.R. Schoolcraft in 1823, William H. Keating in his narrative of
Major Long's Expedition (1824), and Robert Greenhow in his _History of
Oregon_ (1844), showed a remarkable similarity between the _Travels_ and
the accounts of several French authorities, but these criticisms were
scarcely noticed by later writers. Finally Professor E.G. Bourne, in a
paper contributed to the _American Historical Review_ for January 1906,
proved beyond dispute that the bulk of Carver's alleged narrative was
merely a close paraphrase of Charlevoix's _Journal_, La Hontan's _New
Voyages to North America_, and James Adair's _History of the American
Indians._ Professor Bourne's theory is that the entire book was probably
the work of the facile Dr Lettsom, whose personal relations with Carver
are known to have been intimate, the "journal" alone, which constituted
an inconsiderable part of the whole, having been, in part, founded on
Carver's random notes and recollections.

  See also J.G. Godfrey, _Jonathan Carver; His Travels in the
  North-west, 1766-1768_ (No. 5 of the Parkman Club Publications,
  Milwaukee, Wis., 1896), and Daniel S. Durrie, "Captain Jonathan Carver
  and the Carver Grant," in vol. vi. of the Wisconsin Historical
  Society's _Collections_ (1872).



CARVING. To carve (A.S. _ceorfan_: connected with Gr. [Greek: graphein])
is to cut, whatever the material; but apart from the domestic sense of
carving meat, the word is more particularly associated with the art of
sculpture. The name of sculptor (see SCULPTURE) is commonly reserved for
the great masters of the art, especially in stone and marble, while that
of carver is given to the artists or workmen who execute the subordinate
decorations of architecture. The word is also specially applied to
sculpture in ivory (q.v.) and its substitutes, and in wood (see
WOOD-CARVING) and other soft materials (see also GEM.)



CARVING AND GILDING, two allied operations which formerly were the most
prominent features in the important industry of frame-making. The
craftsmen who pursued the occupation were known as "carvers and
gilders," and the terms still continue to be the recognized trade-name
of frame-making, although very little of the ornamentation of frame-work
is now accomplished by carving, and much of the so-called gilt ornament
is produced without the use of gold. The trade has to do primarily with
the frames of pictures, engravings and mirrors, but many of the light
decorative fittings of houses, finished in "composition" and gilt work,
are also entrusted to the carver and gilder. Fashion in picture frames,
like all fashions, fluctuates greatly. Mouldings of the prevailing sizes
and patterns are generally manufactured in special factories, and
supplied in lengths to carvers and gilders ready for use. A large
proportion of such mouldings, especially those of a cheaper and inferior
quality, are made in Germany. What is distinctively known as a "German"
moulding is a cheap imitation of gilt work made by lacquering over the
surface of a white metallic foil. German artisans are also very
successful in the preparation of imitation of veneers of rosewood,
mahogany, walnut and other ornamental woods. The more expensive
mouldings are either in wood (such as oak or mahogany), in veneers of
any expensive ornamental wood, or real gilt.

A brief outline of the method of making a gilt frame, enriched with
composition ornaments, may be taken as a characteristic example of the
operations of the frame-maker. The foundation of such a frame is soft
pine wood, in which a moulding of the required size and section is
roughly run. To prevent warping the moulding is, or ought to be, made
from two or more pieces of wood glued together. The moulding is
"whitened up," or prepared for gilding by covering it with repeated
coatings of a mixture of finely powdered whiting and size. When a
sufficient thickness of the whitening mixture has been applied, the
whole surface is carefully smoothed off with pumice-stone and
glass-paper, care being taken to keep the angles and curves clear and
sharp. Were a plain gilt moulding only desired, it would now be ready
for gilding; but when the frame is to be enriched it first receives the
composition ornaments. Composition, or "compo," is a mixture of fine
glue, white resin, and linseed oil well boiled together, with as much
rolled and sifted whiting added as makes the whole into a doughy mass
while hot. This composition is worked in a hot state into moulds of
boxwood, and so pressed in as to take up every ornamental detail. On its
removal from the mould all superfluous matter is trimmed away, and the
ornament, while yet soft and plastic, is laid on the moulding, and
fitting into all the curves, &c., is fixed with glue. The ornamental
surface so prepared quickly sets and becomes very hard and brittle. When
very large bold ornaments are wanted for frames of unusual size they are
moulded in _papier maché._ Two methods of laying on gold--oil-gilding
and water-gilding--are practised, the former being used for frames
broken up with enrichments. For oil-gilding the moulding is prepared
with two coats of fine thin size to fill the pores of the wood, and
afterwards it receives a coat of oil gold-size, which consists of a
mixture of boiled linseed oil and ochre. When this gold-size is in a
"tacky" or "sticky" condition, gold-leaf is laid on and carefully
pressed over and into all parts of the surface; and when covered with a
coat of finish-size the gilding is complete. Water-gilding is applied to
plain mouldings and all considerable unbroken surfaces, and is finished
either "matt" or burnished. For these styles of work the mouldings are
properly sized, and after the size (which for "matt" is red in colour
and for burnish blue) is dry the gold is laid on with water. Matt-work
is protected with one or two coats of finish-size; but burnished gold is
finished only by polishing with an agate burnisher--no size or water
being allowed to touch such surfaces. The mitring up of frames, the
mounting and fitting up of paintings, engravings, &c., involve too many
minor operations to be noticed here in detail; but these, with the
cutting and fitting of glass, cleaning and repairing pictures and
prints, and similar operations, all occupy the attention of the carver
and gilder.



CARY, ALICE (1820-1871), and PHOEBE (1824-1871), American poets, were
born at Mount Healthy, near Cincinnati, Ohio, respectively on the 26th
of April 1820 and the 4th of September 1824. Their education was largely
self-acquired, and their work in literature was always done in unbroken
companionship. Their poems were first collected in a volume entitled
_Poems of Alice and Phoebe Carey_ [sic] (1850). In 1850-1851 they
removed to New York, where the two sisters, befriended by Rufus W.
Griswold (1815-1857), the _quasi-_dictator of American verse, and Horace
Greeley, occupied a prominent position in literary circles. In 1868-1869
Alice Cary served for a short time as the first president of Sorosis,
the first woman's club organized in New York. Alice, who was much the
more voluminous writer of the two, wrote prose sketches and novels, now
almost forgotten, and various volumes of verse, notably _The Lover's
Diary_ (1868). Her lyrical poem, _Pictures of Memory_, was much admired
by Edgar Allan Poe. Phoebe published two volumes of poems (1854 and
1868), but is best known as the author of the hymn "Nearer Home,"
beginning "One sweetly solemn thought," written in 1852. Alice died in
New York City on the 12th of February 1871, and Phoebe in Newport, Rhode
Island, on the 31st of July of the same year. The collected _Poetical
Works of Alice and Phoebe Cary_ were published in Boston in 1886.

  See Mrs Mary Clemmer Ames's _Memorial of Alice and Phoebe Carey_ (New
  York, 1873).



CARY, ANNIE LOUISE (1842-   ), American singer, was born in Wayne,
Maine, on the 22nd of October 1842. She studied in Milan, and made her
début as an operatic contralto in Copenhagen in 1868. She had a
successful European career for several years, singing in Stockholm,
Paris and London, and made her New York first appearance in 1870. She
only once returned to Europe for a brilliant Russian tour, and until she
retired in 1882, on her marriage to Charles M. Raymond, she was the most
popular singer in America.



CARY, HENRY FRANCIS (1772-1844), English author and translator, was born
at Gibraltar on the 6th of December 1772, the son of a captain in the
army. He was educated at the grammar schools of Rugby, Sutton Coldfield
and Birmingham, and at Christ Church, Oxford, which he entered in 1790.
He took holy orders, and was presented in 1797 to the vicarage of
Abbott's Bromley in Staffordshire. This benefice he held till his death.
In 1800 he was also presented to the vicarage of Kingsbury in
Warwickshire. While still at school he had become a regular contributor
to the _Gentleman's Magazine_, and had published a volume of _Sonnets
and Odes._ At Christ Church he devoted much time to the study of French
and Italian literature; and the fruits of these studies appeared in the
notes to his classic translation of Dante. The version of the _Inferno_
was published in 1805, together with the original text. Soon afterwards
Cary moved to London, where he became reader at Berkeley chapel, and
subsequently lecturer at Chiswick and curate of the Savoy. His version
of the whole _Divina Commedia_ did not appear till 1814. It was
published at Cary's own expense, as the publisher refused to undertake
the risk, owing to the failure incurred over the _Inferno_. The
translation was brought to the notice of Samuel Rogers by Thomas Moore.
Rogers made some additions to an article on it by Ugo Foscolo in the
_Edinburgh Review._ This article, and praise bestowed on the work by
Coleridge in a lecture at the Royal Institution, led to a general
acknowledgment of its merit. Gary's _Dante_ thus gradually took its
place among standard works, passing through four editions in the
translator's lifetime. It has the great merits of accuracy, idiomatic
vigour and readableness; it preserves the sincerity and vividness of the
original; and, although many rivals have since appeared in the field, it
still holds an honourable place. Its blank verse, however, cannot
represent the close woven texture and the stately music of the _terza
rima_ of the original. In 1824 Cary published a translation of _The
Birds_ of Aristophanes, and, about 1834, of the _Odes_ of Pindar. In
1826 he was appointed assistant-librarian in the British Museum, a post
which he held for about eleven years. He resigned because the
appointment of keeper of the printed books, which should have been his
in the ordinary course of promotion, was refused him when it fell
vacant. In 1841 a crown pension of £200 a year, obtained through the
efforts of Samuel Rogers, was conferred on him. Cary's _Lives of the
early French Poets_, and _Lives of English Poets_ (from Johnson to Henry
Kirke White), intended as a continuation of Johnson's _Lives of the
Poets_, were published in a collected form in 1846. He died in London on
the 14th of August 1844, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

  A memoir was published by his son, Henry Cary, in 1847.



CARYATIDES (Latinized from the Greek; the plural of Caryatis, i.e. a
woman of Caryae in Laconia), in architecture, the term given to the
draped female figures used for piers or supports, as found in the
porticos of the Erechtheum and of the Treasury of Cnidus at Delphi (see
GREEK ART, fig. 17).



CARYL, JOSEPH (1602-1673), English Nonconformist divine, was born in
London in 1602. He graduated at Exeter College, Oxford, and became
preacher at Lincoln's Inn. He frequently preached before the Long
Parliament, and was a member of the Westminster Assembly in 1643. By
order of the parliament he attended Charles I. in Holmby House, and in
1650 he was sent with John Owen to accompany Cromwell to Scotland. In
1662 he was ejected from his church of St Magnus near London Bridge, but
continued to minister to an Independent congregation in London till his
death in March 1673, when John Owen succeeded him. His piety and
learning are displayed in his ponderous commentary on Job (12 vols.,
4to., 1651-1666; 2nd ed., 2 vols., fol. 1676-1677).



CARYOPHYLLACEAE, a botanical order of dicotyledonous plants, containing
about 60 genera with 1300 species, and widely distributed, especially in
temperate, alpine and arctic regions. The plants are herbs, sometimes
becoming shrubby at the base, with opposite, simple, generally uncut
leaves and swollen nodes. The main axis ends in a flower (definite
inflorescence), and flower-bearing branches are borne one on each side
by which the branching is often continued (known technically as a
dichasial cyme). The flowers are regular, with four or five sepals which
are free or joined to form a tube in their lower portion, the same
number of petals, free and springing from below the ovary, twice as
many stamens, inserted with the petals, and a pistil of two to five
carpels joined to form an ovary containing a large number of ovules on a
central placenta and bearing two to five styles; the ovary is one-celled
or incompletely partitioned at the base into three to five cells; honey
is secreted at the base of the stamens. The fruit is a capsule
containing a large number of small seeds and opening by apical teeth;
the seed contains a floury endosperm and a curved embryo.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Stitchwort (_Stellaria Holostea_). 1, Flower cut
vertically; 2, seed; 3, same cut vertically; 4, same cut horizontally.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--1, Flowering shoot of Pink (_Dianthus_); 2,
horizontal plan of flower; 3, flower in vertical section.]

The order is divided into two well-defined tribes which are
distinguished by the character of the flower and the arrangements for
ensuring pollination.

Tribe I. _Alsineae_: the sepals are free and the flowers are open, with
spreading petals, and the honey which is secreted at the base of the
stamens is exposed to the visits of short-tongued insects, such as
flies and small bees; the petals are white in colour. It includes
several British genera, _Cerastium_ (mouse-ear chickweed), _Stellaria_
(fig. 1) (stitchwort and chickweed), _Arenaria_ (sandwort), _Sagina_
(pearlwort), _Spergula_ (spurrey) and _Spergularia_ (sandwort spurrey).

[Illustration: FIG. 3. a, Pistil of _Cerastium hirsutum_ cut vertically;
o, unilocular or monothecal ovary; p, free central placenta; g, ovules;
s, styles.

b, The same cut horizontally, and the halves separated so as to show the
interior of the cavity of the ovary o, with the free central placenta p,
covered with ovules g.]

Tribe II. _Sileneae_: the sepals are joined below to form a narrow tube,
in which stand the long claws of the petals and the stamens, partly
closing the tube and rendering the honey inaccessible to all but
long-tongued insects such as the larger bees and Lepidoptera. The
flowers are often red. It includes several British genera:--_Dianthus_
(pink) fig. 2, _Silene_ (catchfly, bladder campion), _Lychnis_ (campion,
_L. Flos-Cuculi_ is ragged robin), and _Githago_ or _Agrostemma_ (corn
cockle). Several, such as _Lychnis vespertina, Silene nutans_ and
others, are night-flowering, opening their flowers and becoming scented
in the evening or at night, when they are visited by night-flying moths.

The plants of this order are of little or no economic value, soap-wort,
_Saponaria officinalis_, forming a lather in water was formerly
officinal. _Dianthus_ (carnation and pink) _Gypsophila, Lychnis_ and
others, are garden plants.



CASABIANCA, RAPHAEL, COMTE DE (1738-1825), French general, was descended
from a noble Corsican family. In 1769 he took the side of France against
Genoa, then mistress of the island. In 1793, having entered the service
of the revolutionary government, he was appointed lieutenant-general in
Corsica in place of Pascale Paoli, who was outlawed for intrigues with
England. For his defence of Calvi against the English he was appointed
general of division, and he served in Italy from 1794 to 1798. After the
18th of Brumaire he entered the senate and was made count of the empire
in 1806. In 1814 he joined the party of Louis XVIII., rejoined Napoleon
during the Hundred Days, and in 1819 succeeded again in entering the
chamber of peers.

His nephew, LOUIS DE CASABIANCA (1762-1798), entered the French navy,
served in the convoy of the French troops sent to aid the revolted
American colonies, and took part in various naval actions off the North
American coast. He became captain in 1792, represented Corsica in the
Convention, and then received command of the _Orient_, which at the
battle of the Nile bore the flag of Admiral Brueys. When the latter was
killed, Casabianca, though badly wounded, fought the burning ship to the
end, and perished with most of the crew. His son, Giacomo Jocante, a boy
of ten years of age, refused to leave the ship and died in trying to
save his father. This heroic act was the subject of several poems,
including the well-known ballad by Mrs. Hemans.



CASABLANCA (_Dar el Baida_, "the white house"), a seaport on the
Atlantic coast of Morocco, in 33° 27' N., 7° 46' W. It is a wool and
grain port for central Morocco, chiefly for the provinces of Tadla and
Shawia. Third in importance of the towns on the Moorish coast, unimpeded
by bar or serious rocks, the roadstead is exposed to the north-west
winds. There is anchorage for steamers in 5 to 6 fathoms. Vessels were
loaded and discharged by lighters from the beach. In May 1907 the
construction began of harbour works which afford sheltered accommodation
for ships at all states of the tide. The value of the foreign trade of
the port for the period 1897-1907 was about £750,000 a year. A railway
to Ber Reshid, the first section of a line intended to tap the rich
agricultural region of which Casablanca is the port, was opened in
September 1908, being the first railway built in Morocco. The
population, about 20,000, includes numerous foreign merchants,
Franciscan and Protestant missions, and a consular corps. Built by the
Portuguese upon the site of the once prosperous town of Anfa, which they
had destroyed in 1468, Casablanca was held by them for some time, till
trouble with the natives compelled them to abandon it. In August 1907,
in consequence of the murder of a number of French and Spanish workmen
engaged on the harbour works, the town was bombarded and occupied by the
French (see MOROCCO: _History_).



CASALE MONFERRATO, a town and episcopal see of Piedmont, Italy, in the
province of Alessandria, 21 m. N.N.W. by rail from the town of
Alessandria. Pop. (1901) 18,874 (town); 31,370 (commune). It lies in the
plain on the right bank of the Po, 377 ft. above sea-level, and is a
junction for Mortara, Vercelli. Chivasso and Asti; it is also connected
by steam tramways with Alessandria, Vercelli and Montemagno. The fine
Lombard Romanesque cathedral, originally founded in 742, was rebuilt in
the early 12th century and consecrated in 1106; it suffered from
restoration in 1706, but has been brought back to its original form. It
contains some good pictures. The church of S. Domenico is a good
Renaissance edifice, and there are some fine palaces. The church of S.
Ilario is said to occupy the site of a pagan temple, but the name of the
ancient town (if any) which occupied this site is not known. About 10 m.
distant is the Sacro Monte di Crea, with eighteen chapels on its slopes
containing terra-cotta groups of statues, resembling those at Varallo.
Casale Monferrato was given by Charlemagne to the church of Vercelli,
but obtained its liberty from Frederick I. (Barbarossa). It was sacked
by the troops of Vercelli, Alessandria and Milan in 1215, but rebuilt
and fortified in 1220. It fell under the power of its marquises in 1292,
and became the chief town of a small state. In 1536 it passed to the
Gonzagas of Mantua, who fortified it very strongly. It has since been of
considerable importance as a fortress: it successfully resisted the
Austrians in 1849, and was strengthened in 1852. There is a large
Portland cement factory here.



CASAMARI, a Cistercian abbey in the province of Rome, 6 m. E.S.E. of
Veroli. It marks the site of Cereatae, the birthplace of Marius,
afterwards known, as inscriptions attest, as Cereatae Marianae, having
been separated perhaps by the triumvirs, from the territory of Arpinum.
We find it under the early empire as an independent community. The abbey
is a fine example of Burgundian early-Gothic (1203-1217), paralleled in
Italy by Fossanuova alone (which is almost contemporary with it), and is
very well preserved.

  See C. Enlart, "Origines françaises de l'architecture gothique en
  Italie" (_Bibliothèque des écoles françaises d'Athènes et de Rome_,
  fasc. 66), (Paris, 1894).



CASANOVA DE SEINGALT, GIOVANNI JACOPO (1725-1798), Italian adventurer,
was born at Venice in 1725. His father belonged to an ancient and even
noble family, but alienated his friends by embracing the dramatic
profession early in life. He made a runaway marriage with Zanetta
Farusi, the beautiful daughter of a Venetian shoemaker; and Giovanni was
their eldest child. When he was but a year old, his parents, taking a
journey to London, left him in charge of his grandmother, who,
perceiving his precocious and lively intellect, had him educated far
above her means. At sixteen he passed his examination and entered the
seminary of St Cyprian in Venice, from which he was expelled a short
time afterwards for some scandalous and immoral conduct, which would
have cost him his liberty, had not his mother managed somehow to procure
him a situation in the household of the Cardinal Acquaviva. He made but
a short stay, however, in that prelate's establishment, all restraint
being irksome to his wayward disposition, and took to travelling. Then
began that existence of adventure and intrigue which only ended with his
death. He visited Rome, Naples, Corfu and Constantinople. By turns
journalist, preacher, abbé, diplomatist, he was nothing very long,
except _homme à bonnes fortunes_, which profession he cultivated till
the end of his days. In 1755, having returned to Venice, he was
denounced as a spy and imprisoned. On the 1st of November 1756 he
succeeded in escaping, and made his way to Paris. Here he was made
director of the state lotteries, gained much financial reputation and a
considerable fortune, and frequented the society of the most notable
French men and women of the day. In 1759 he set out again on his
travels. He visited in turn the Netherlands, South Germany,
Switzerland--where he made the acquaintance of Voltaire,--Savoy,
southern France, Florence---whence he was expelled,--and Rome, where the
pope gave him the order of the Golden Spur. In 1761 he returned to
Paris, and for the next four or five years lived partly here, partly in
England, South Germany and Italy. In 1764 he was in Berlin, where he
refused the offer of a post made him by Frederick II. He then travelled
by way of Riga and St Petersburg to Warsaw, where he was favourably
received by King Stanislaus Poniatowski. A scandal, followed by a duel,
forced him to flee, and he returned by a devious route to Paris, only to
find a _lettre de cachet_ awaiting him, which drove him to seek refuge
in Spain. Expelled from Madrid in 1769, he went by way of Aix--where he
met Cagliostro--to Italy once more. From 1774, with which year his
memoirs close, he was a police spy in the service of the Venetian
inquisitors of state; but in 1782, in consequence of a satirical libel
on one of his patrician patrons, he had once more to go into exile. In
1785 he was appointed by Count Waldstein, an old Paris acquaintance, his
librarian at the château of Dux in Bohemia. Here he lived until his
death, which probably occurred on the 4th of June 1798.

  The main authority for Casanova's life is his _Mémoires_ (12 vols.,
  Leipzig, 1826-1838; later ed. in 8 vols., Paris, 1885), which were
  written at Dux. They are clever, well written and, above all, cynical,
  and interesting as a trustworthy picture of the morals and manners of
  the times. Among Casanova's other works may be mentioned _Confutazione
  della storia del governo Veneto d'Amelot de la Houssaye_ (Amsterdam,
  1769), an attempt to ingratiate himself with the Venetian government;
  and the _Histoire_ of his escape from prison (Leipzig, 1788; reprinted
  Bordeaux, 1884; Eng. trans, by P. Villars, 1892). Ottmann's _Jacob
  Casanova_ (Stuttgart, 1900) contains a bibliography.



CASAS GRANDES ("Great Houses"), a small village of Mexico, in the state
of Chihuahua, situated on the Casas Grandes or San Miguel river, about
35 m. S. of Llanos and 150 m. N.W. of the city of Chihuahua. The railway
from Ciudad Juarez to Terrazas passes through the town. It is celebrated
for the ruins of early aboriginal buildings still extant, about half a
mile from its present site. They are built of "sun-dried blocks of mud
and gravel, about 22 in. thick, and of irregular length, generally about
3 ft., probably formed and dried _in situ._" The walls are in some
places about 5 ft. thick, and they seem to have been plastered both
inside and outside. The principal edifice extends 800 ft. from north to
south, and 250 ft. east to west; its general outline is rectangular, and
it appears to have consisted of three separate piles united by galleries
or lines of lower buildings. The exact plan of the whole is obscure, but
the apartments evidently varied in size from mere closets to extensive
courts. The walls still stand at many of the angles with a height of
from 40 to 50 ft., and indicate an original elevation of several
storeys, perhaps six or seven. At a distance of about 450 ft. from the
main building are the substructions of a smaller edifice, consisting of
a series of rooms ranged round a square court, so that there are seven
to each side besides a larger apartment at each corner. The age of these
buildings is unknown, as they were already in ruins at the time of the
Spanish Conquest. The whole district of Casas Grandes is further studded
with artificial mounds, from which are excavated from time to time large
numbers of stone axes, metates or corn-grinders, and earthern vessels of
various kinds. These last have a white or reddish ground, with
ornamentation in blue, red, brown or black, and are of much better
manufacture than the modern pottery of the country. Similar ruins to
those of Casas Grandes exist near the Gila, the Salinas, and the
Colorado and it is probable that they are all the erections of one
people. Bancroft is disposed to assign them to the Moquis.

  See vol. iv. of H.H. Bancroft's _The Native Races of the Pacific
  States of North America_, of which the principal authorities are the
  _Noticias del Estado de Chihuahua_ of Escudero, who visited the ruins
  in 1819; an article in the first volume of the _Album Mexicano_, the
  author of which was at Casas Grandes in 1842; and the _Personal
  Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in Texas, New Mexico,
  California, Sonora and Chihuahua_ (1854), by John Russell Bartlett,
  who explored the locality in 1851.



CASAUBON, FLORENCE ESTIENNE MÉRIC (1599-1671), English classical
scholar, son of Isaac Casaubon, was born at Geneva on the 14th of August
1599. At an early age he joined his father in England, and completed his
education at Eton and Oxford (B.A. 1618). His defence of his father
against the attacks of certain Catholics (_Pietas contra maledicos
patrii Nominis el Religionis Hostes_, 1621), secured him the notice and
favour of James I., who conferred upon him a prebendal stall in
Canterbury cathedral. He also vindicated his father's literary
reputation against certain impostors who had published, under his name,
a work on _The Origin of Idolatry (Vindicatio Patris adversus
Impostores_, 1624). During the Civil War he lived a retired life, and
after its conclusion refused to acknowledge the authority of Cromwell,
who, notwithstanding, requested him to write an "impartial" history of
the events of the period. In spite of the tempting inducements held out,
he declined, and also refused the post of inspector of the Swedish
universities offered him by Queen Christina. After the Restoration, he
was reinstated in his benefice, and devoted the rest of his life to
literary work. He died at Canterbury on the 14th of July 1671. Méric
Casaubon's reputation was overshadowed by that of his father; but his
editions of numerous classical authors, and especially of the
_Meditations_ of Marcus Aurelius (also English translation, new ed. by
W.H.D. Rouse, 1900), were highly valued. Among his other works may be
mentioned: _De Quatuor Linguis Commentatio_ (1650), _Of the Necessity of
Reformation_ (1664), _On Credulity and Incredulity in Things natural,
civil and divine_ (1668).



CASAUBON, ISAAC (1550-1614), French (naturalized English) classical
scholar, was born at Geneva, on the 18th of February 1559, of French
refugee parents. On the publication of the edict of January 1562, the
family returned to France and settled at Crest in Dauphiné, where Arnaud
Casaubon, Isaac's father, became minister of a Huguenot congregation.
Till he was nineteen, Isaac had no other instruction than what could be
given him by his father during the years of civil war. Arnaud was away
from home whole years together in the Calvinist camp, or the family were
flying to the hills to hide from the fanatical bands of armed Catholics
who patrolled the country. Thus it was in a cave in the mountains of
Dauphiné, after the massacre of St Bartholomew, that Isaac received his
first lesson in Greek, the text-book being Isocrates _ad Demonicum_.

At nineteen Isaac was sent to the Academy of Geneva, where he read Greek
under Francis Portus, a native of Crete. Portus died in 1581, having
recommended Casaubon, then only twenty-two, as his successor. At Geneva
he remained as professor of Greek till 1596. Here he married twice, his
second wife being Florence, daughter of the scholar-printer, Henri
Estienne. Here, without the stimulus of example or encouragement, with
few books and no assistance, in a city peopled with religious refugees,
and struggling for life against the troops of the Catholic dukes of
Savoy, Casaubon made himself a consummate Greek scholar and master of
ancient learning. His great wants at Geneva were books and the sympathy
of learned associates. He spent all he could save out of his small
salary in buying books, and in having copies made of such classics as
were not then in print. Henri Estienne, Théodore de Beza (rector of the
university and professor of theology), and Jacques Lect (Lectius), were
indeed men of superior learning. But Henri, in those last years of his
life, was no longer the Estienne of the _Thesaurus_; he was never at
home, and would not suffer his son-in-law to enter his library. "He
guards his books," writes Casaubon, "as the griffins in India do their
gold!" Beza was engrossed by the cares of administration, and retained,
at most, an interest for theological reading, while Lect, a lawyer and
diplomatist, had left classics for the active business of the council.
The sympathy and help which Casaubon's native city could not afford him,
he endeavoured to supply by cultivating the acquaintance of the learned
of other countries. Geneva, as the metropolis of Calvinism, received a
constant succession of visitors. The continental tour of the young
Englishman of birth was not complete without a visit to Geneva. It was
there that Casaubon made the acquaintance of young Henry Wotton, the
poet and diplomatist, who lodged in his house and borrowed his money. Of
more consequence to Isaac Casaubon was the acquaintance of Richard
Thomson ("Dutch" Thomson), fellow of Clare College, Cambridge; for it
was through Thomson that the attention of Joseph Scaliger, settled in
1593 at Leiden, was directed to Casaubon. Scaliger and Casaubon first
exchanged letters in 1594. Their intercourse, which was wholly by
letter, for they never met, passes through the stages of civility,
admiration, esteem, regard and culminates in a tone of the tenderest
affection and mutual confidence. Influential French men of letters, the
Protestant Jacques Bongars, the Catholic Jacques de Thou, and the
Catholic convert Philippe Canaye, sieur du Fresne, aided him by presents
of books and encouragement, and endeavoured to get him invited, in some
capacity, to France.

This was effected in 1596, in which year Casaubon accepted an invitation
to the university of Montpellier, with the title of _conseiller du roi_
and _professeur stipendié aux langues et bonnes lettres_. In Montpellier
he never took root. He held the professorship there only three years,
with several prolonged absences. The hopes raised by his brilliant
reception were disappointed; he was badly treated by the authorities, by
whom his salary was only paid very irregularly, and, finally, not at
all. He was not, at any time, insensible to the attractions of teaching,
and his lectures at Montpellier were followed not only by the students,
but by men of mature age and position. But the love of knowledge was
gradually growing upon him, and he began to perceive that editing Greek
books was an employment more congenial to his peculiar powers than
teaching. At Geneva he had first tried his hand on some notes on
Diogenes Laërtius, on Theocritus and the New Testament, the last
undertaken at his father's request. His début as an editor had been a
complete Strabo (1587), of which he was so ashamed afterwards that he
apologized for its crudity to Scaliger, calling it "a miscarriage." This
was followed by the text of Polyaenus, an _editio princeps_, 1589; a
text of Aristotle, 1590; and a few notes contributed to Estienne's
editions of Dionysius of Halicarnassus and Pliny's _Epistolae_. It is
not till we come to his edition of Theophrastus's _Characteres_ (1592),
that we have a specimen of that peculiar style of illustrative
commentary, at once apposite and profuse, which distinguishes Casaubon
among annotators. At the time of his removal to Montpellier he was
engaged upon what is the capital work of his life, his edition of, and
commentary on, Athenaeus.

In 1598 we find Casaubon at Lyons, superintending the passage of his
Athenaeus through the press, for which he had been unable to find
facilities at Montpellier. Here he lived in the house of Méric de Vicq,
_surintendant de la justice_, a Catholic, but a man of acquirements,
whose connexions were with the circle of liberal Catholics in Paris. In
the suite of De Vicq Casaubon made a flying visit to Paris, and was
presented to Henry IV. The king was very gracious, and said something
about employing Casaubon's services in the "restoration" of the fallen
university of Paris. Full of hope he returned to Montpellier. In January
1599, he received a summons to repair to Paris. But the terms of the
letter missive were so vague that, though it bore the sign manual,
Casaubon hesitated to act upon it. However, he resigned his chair at
Montpellier, but instead of hastening to Paris, he lingered more than a
year at Lyons, in De Vicq's house, where he hoped to meet the king, who
was expected to visit the south. Nothing more was heard about the
professorship, but instead he was summoned by De Vicq, who was then in
Paris, to come to him in all haste on an affair of importance. The
business proved to be the Fontainebleau Conference. Casaubon allowed
himself to be persuaded to sit as one of the referees who were to
adjudicate on the challenge sent to Du Plessis Mornay by Cardinal
Duperron. By so doing he placed himself in a false position, as Scaliger
said: "Non debebat Casaubon interesse colloquio Plessiaeano; erat asinus
inter simias, doctus inter imperitos" (_Scaligerana_ 2^[alpha]). The
issue was so contrived that the Protestant party could not but be
pronounced to be in the wrong. By concurring in the decision, which was
unfavourable to Du Plessis Mornay, Casaubon lent the prestige of his
name to a court whose verdict would without him have been worthless, and
confirmed the suspicions already current among the Reformed churches
that, like his friend and patron, Canaye du Fresne, he was meditating
abjuration. From this time forward he became the object of the hopes and
fears of the two religious parties; the Catholics lavishing promises,
and plying him with arguments; the Reformed ministers insinuating that
he was preparing to forsake a losing cause, and only higgling about his
price. We now know enough of Casaubon's mental history to know how
erroneous were these computations of his motives. But, at the time, it
was not possible for the immediate parties to the bitter controversy to
understand the intermediate position between Genevan Calvinism and
Ultramontanism to which Casaubon's reading of the fathers had conducted
him.

Meantime the efforts of De Thou and the liberal Catholics to retain him
in Paris were successful. The king repeated his invitation to Casaubon
to settle in the capital, and assigned him a pension. No more was said
about the university. The recent reform of the university of Paris had
closed its doors to all but Catholics; and though the chairs of the
Collège de France were not governed by the statutes of the university,
public opinion ran so violently against heresy, that Henry IV. dared not
appoint a Calvinist to a chair, even if he had desired to do so. But it
was designed that Casaubon should succeed to the post of sub-librarian
of the royal library when it should become vacant, and a patent of the
reversion was made out in his favour. In November 1604, Jean Gosselin
died in extreme old age; and Casaubon succeeded him as sub-librarian,
with a salary of 400 livres in addition to his pension.

In Paris Casaubon remained till 1610. These ten years were the brightest
period of his life. He had attained the reputation of being, after
Scaliger, the most learned man of the age,--an age in which learning
formed the sole standard of literary merit. He was placed above penury,
though not in easy circumstances. He had such facilities for religious
worship as a Huguenot could have, though he had to go out of the city to
Hablon, and afterwards to Charenton, for them. He enjoyed the society of
men of learning, or of men who took an interest in learned publications.
He had the best opportunities of seeing men of letters from foreign
countries as they passed through Paris. Above all, he had ample
facilities for using Greek books, both printed and in MS., the want of
which he had felt painfully at Geneva and Montpellier, and which no
other place but Paris could at that period have supplied.

In spite of all these advantages we find Casaubon restless, and ever
framing schemes for leaving Paris, and settling elsewhere. It was known
that he was open to offers, and offers came to him from various
quarters,--from Nîmes, from Heidelberg, from Sedan. His friends Lect and
Giovanni Diodati wished, rather than hoped, to get him back to Geneva.
The causes of Casaubon's discomfort in Paris were various, but the
principal source of uneasiness lay in his religion. The life of any
Huguenot in Paris was hardly secure at that time, for it was doubtful if
the police of the city was strong enough to protect them against any
sudden uprising of the fanatical mob, always ready to re-enact the St
Bartholomew. But Casaubon was exposed to persecution of another sort.
Ever since the Fontainebleau Conference an impression prevailed that he
was wavering. It was known that he rejected the _outré_ anti-popery
opinions current in the Reformed churches; that he read the fathers, and
wished for a church after the pattern of the primitive ages. He was
given to understand that he could have a professorship only by
recantation. When it was found that he could not be bought, he was plied
by controversy. Henry IV., who liked Casaubon personally, made a point
of getting him to follow his own example. By the king's orders Duperron
was untiring in his efforts to convert him. Casaubon's knowledge of the
fathers was that of a scholar, Duperron's that of an adroit polemist;
and the scholar was driven to admit that the polemist was often too
hard for him. These encounters mostly took place in the king's library,
over which the cardinal, in his capacity of aumonier, exercised some
kind of authority; and it was therefore impossible for Casaubon to avoid
them. On the other hand, the Huguenot theologians, and especially Pierre
du Moulin, chief pastor of the church of Paris, accused him of conceding
too much, and of having departed already from the lines of strict
Calvinistic orthodoxy.

When the assassination of Henry IV. gave full rein to the Ultramontane
party at court, the obsessions of Duperron became more importunate, and
even menacing. It was now that Casaubon began to listen to overtures
which had been faintly made before, from the bishops and the court of
England. In October 1610 he came to England in the suite of the
ambassador, Lord Wotton of Marley (brother of Casaubon's early friend),
an official invitation having been sent him by Richard Bancroft,
archbishop of Canterbury. He had the most flattering reception from
James I., who was perpetually sending for him to discuss theological
matters. The English bishops were equally delighted to find that the
great French scholar was an Anglican ready made, who had arrived, by
independent study of the Fathers, at the very _via media_ between
Puritanism and Romanism, which was becoming the fashion in the English
Church. Casaubon, though a layman, was collated to a prebendal stall in
Canterbury, and a pension of £300 a year was assigned him from the
exchequer. Nor were these merely paper figures. When Sir Julius Caesar
made a difficulty about payment, James sent a note in his own hand:
"Chanceler of my excheker, I will have Mr Casaubon paid before me, my
wife, and my barnes." He still retained his appointments in France, and
his office as librarian. He had obtained leave of absence for a visit to
England, where his permanent settlement was not contemplated. In order
to retain their hold upon him, the government of the queen regent
refused to allow his library to be sent over. It required a special
request from James himself to get leave for Madame Casaubon to bring him
a part of his most necessary books. Casaubon continued to speak of
himself as the servant of the regent, and to declare his readiness to
return when summoned to do so.

Meanwhile his situation in London gradually developed unforeseen sources
of discomfort. Not that he had any reason to complain of his patrons,
the king and the bishops. James continued to the last to delight in his
company, and to be as liberal as the state of his finances allowed. John
Overall had received him and his whole family into the deanery of St
Paul's, and entertained him there for a year. Overall and Lancelot
Andrewes, then bishop of Ely, were the most learned men of a generation
in which extensive reading was more general among the higher clergy than
it has ever been since. These two were attracted to Casaubon by
congenial studies and opinions. With the witty and learned bishop of Ely
in particular Casaubon was always happy to spend such hours as he had to
spare from the labours of the study. Andrewes took him to Cambridge,
where he met with a most gratifying reception from the notabilities of
the university. They went on together to Downham, where Casaubon spent
six weeks of the summer of 1611, in which year he became naturalized. In
1613 he was taken to Oxford by Sir Henry Savile, where, amid the homage
and feasting of which he was the object, his principal interest was for
the MSS. treasures of the Bodleian. The honorary degree which was
offered him he declined.

But these distinctions were far from compensating the serious
inconveniences of his position. Having been taken up by the king and the
bishops, he had to share in their rising unpopularity. The courtiers
looked with a jealous eye on a pensioner who enjoyed frequent
opportunities of taking James I. on his weak side--his love of book
talk--opportunities which they would have known how to use. Casaubon was
especially mortified by Sir Henry Wotton's persistent avoidance of him,
so inconsistent with their former intimacy. His windows were broken by
the roughs at night, his children pelted in the streets by day. On one
occasion he himself appeared at Theobalds with a black eye, having
received a blow from some ruffian's fist in the street. The historian
Hallam thinks that he had "become personally unpopular"; but these
outrages from the vulgar seem to have arisen solely from the cockney's
antipathy to the Frenchman. Casaubon, though he could make shift to read
an English book, could not speak English, any more than Mme Casaubon.
This deficiency not only exposed him to insult and fraud, but restricted
his social intercourse. It excluded him altogether from the circle of
the "wits"; either this or some other cause prevented him from being
acceptable in the circle of the lay learned--the "antiquaries." William
Camden, the antiquary and historian, he saw but once or twice. Casaubon
had been imprudent enough to correct Camden's Greek, and it is possible
that the ex-head-master of Westminster kept himself aloof in silent
resentment of Casaubon's superior learning. With Robert Cotton and Henry
Spelman he was slightly acquainted. Of John Selden we find no mention.
Though Sir Henry Savile ostensibly patronized him, yet Casaubon could
not help suspecting that it was Savile who secretly prompted an attempt
by Richard Montagu to forestall Casaubon's book on Baronius. Besides the
jealousy of the natives, Casaubon had now to suffer the open attacks of
the Jesuit pamphleteers. They had spared him as long as there were hopes
of getting him over. The prohibition was taken off, now that he was
committed to Anglicanism. Not only Joannes Eudaemon, Heribert Rosweyd
and Scioppius (Gaspar Schoppe),[1] but a respectable writer, friendly to
Casaubon, Andreas Schott of Antwerp, gave currency to the insinuation
that Casaubon had sold his conscience for English gold.

But the most serious cause of discomfort in his English residence was
that his time was no longer his own. He was perpetually being summoned
out of town to one or other of James's hunting residences that the king
might enjoy his talk. He had come over from Paris in search of leisure,
and found that a new claim on his time was established. The king and the
bishops wanted to employ his pen in their literary warfare against Rome.
They compelled him to write first one, then a second, pamphlet on the
subject of the day,--the royal supremacy. At last, ashamed of thus
misappropriating Casaubon's stores of learning, they set him upon a
refutation of the _Annals_ of Baronius, then in the full tide of its
credit and success. Upon this task Casaubon spent his remaining strength
and life. He died in great suffering on the 1st of July 1614. His
complaint was an organic and congenital malformation of the bladder; but
his end was hastened by an unhealthy life of over-study, and latterly by
his anxiety to acquit himself creditably in his criticism on Baronius.
He was buried in Westminster Abbey. The monument by which his name is
there commemorated was erected in 1632 by his friend Thomas Morton when
bishop of Durham.

Besides the editions of ancient authors which have been mentioned,
Casaubon published with commentaries Persius, Suetonius, the _Scriptores
Historiae Augustae_. The edition of Polybius, on which he had spent vast
labour, he left unfinished. His most ambitious work was his revision of
the text of the _Deipnosophistae_ of Athenaeus, with commentary. The
Theophrastus perhaps exhibits his most characteristic excellences as a
commentator. The _Exercitationes in Baronium_ are but a fragment of the
massive criticism which he contemplated; it failed in bringing before
the reader the uncritical character of Baronius's history, and had only
a moderate success, even among the Protestants. His correspondence (in
Latin) was finally collected by Van Almeloveen (Rotterdam, 1709), who
prefixed to the letters a careful life of Isaac Casaubon. But this
learned Dutch editor was acquainted with Casaubon's diary only in
extract. This diary, _Ephemerides_, of which the MS. is preserved in the
chapter library of Canterbury, was printed in 1850 by the Clarendon
Press. It forms the most valuable record we possess of the daily life of
a scholar, or man of letters, of the 16th century. (M. P.)

  A few minor changes have been made in the above article, compared with
  its form in the 9th edition. The most complete account of Casaubon is
  the full biography by Mark Pattison (1875), of which a second and
  revised edition, by H. Nettleship, was published in 1892; the most
  recent work on the subject is _Isaac Casaubon, sa vie et son temps_,
  by L.J. Nazelle (1897); there is a monograph on the Fontainebleau
  conference by J.A. Lalot (1889). Casaubon is the subject of one of St
  Beuve's _Causeries_, the 30th of July 1860 (a notice of the Oxford
  edition of the _Ephemerides_). See also the article in E. Haag's _La
  France Protestante_ (1882), and J.E. Sandys, _Hist. of Class. Schol._
  vol. ii. (ed. 1908), pp. 204 foll.


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] Eudaemon was a Cretan, Rosweyd a Dutch, Jesuit; Schoppe, a German
    philologist and critic.



CASCADE MOUNTAINS, a continuation northward of the Sierra Nevada, some
500 m. across the states of Oregon and Washington, U.S.A., into British
Columbia. In American territory the range lies from 100 to 150 m. from
the coast. The Cascades are separated on the S. from the Sierras by deep
valleys near Mt. Shasta in California, while on the N., somewhat below
the international boundary of 49° N., they approach the northern
Rockies, mingling with these in inextricable confusion, although their
name is given also to the much-broken, river-dissected, central mountain
plateau that crosses British Columbia from S.E. to N.W. Geologically the
Sierras and Cascades are very different, though their exact relations
are not yet clearly determined; topographically they are also different.
The Cascades are in general a comparatively low, broad mass surmounted
by a number of imposing peaks in Oregon and Washington. Especially north
of the Columbia river, the range widens out into a plateau. There are no
notable elevations in British Columbia. Evidences of volcanic activity
in comparatively recent geologic time are abundant throughout the length
of the range, and all the highest summits are volcanic cones, covered
with snow fields and, in a number of instances, with glaciers. The
grandest peaks are Shasta (14,380 ft.) at the southern end, and Rainier
(or Tacoma, 14,363 ft.) in Washington, two of the most magnificent
mountains of America. Other notable summits are Mt. Pitt (9760), Mt.
Scott (9122), Diamond Peak (8807), Mt. Thielsen (9250), Mt. Jefferson
(10,200) and Mt. Hood (11,225), in Oregon; and Stuart (9470), St Helens
(10,000), Baker (10,827) and Adams (12,470), in Washington. The Fraser
river in the far north, the Columbia at the middle, and the Klamath in
the south cut athwart the range to the Pacific, and many minor streams
descend the range to swell their waters, while some drain directly from
the flanks of the mountains into Puget Sound and Gray's Harbor. The
Columbia has cut almost to the sea-level through the great mountain
mass, the Dalles being only about 100 ft. above the sea. It is to the
Cascades of the tremendous rapids at this point that the mountains owe
their name. The slopes of the Cascades, particularly on the west, which
has a very much moister climate than the eastern slope, are clothed with
magnificent forests, chiefly of coniferous evergreens: firs, pine,
tamarack and cedar. The Douglas fir, the "Oregon pine" of commerce,
often attaining a height of 250 ft., is one of the most beautiful trees
in the world. There are also a variety of deciduous trees, but in the
aggregate they are unimportant. In 1910 the mountain forests were
largely included in ten national forest reserves, with a total area of
nearly 16,000,000 acres, extending from the northern boundary of
Washington to the southern boundary of Oregon. The magnificent forest
cloak, splendid peaks, great open mountain plateau pastures, and
exquisite lakes embosomed in mountain fastnesses and forest gloom, give
variety to the scenery, which is often grand, and throughout the range
indescribably beautiful, though perhaps not equal to the Sierra Nevada
in splended light and colour. Large game--deer, bears, mountain sheep
and goats, wolves and panthers--still abound. Two great railway systems,
the Great Northern and the Northern Pacific, cross the Cascades through
noteworthy tunnels; that on the former line is 2½ m. long, that on the
latter a little less than 2 m.

  See OREGON and WASHINGTON; also G.O. Smith and F.C. Calkins, _A
  Geological Reconnaissance across the Cascade Range near the
  Forty-Ninth Parallel_ (Washington, D.C., 1904), being U.S. Geological
  Survey Bulletin 253.



CASE, JOHN (d. 1600), English Aristotelian scholar and physician, was
born at Woodstock. He was educated at Oxford, and elected to a
fellowship at St John's College, which he was obliged to resign in
consequence of his Roman Catholic sympathies. He subsequently opened a
philosophical school in Oxford, which was largely attended. He enjoyed a
great reputation as a logician and dialectician, and was in addition an
authority on music and a distinguished physician. He is described as "a
man of an innocent, meek, religious and studious life," an agreeable
conversationalist, an enthusiastic teacher, and a great favourite with
his pupils. Most of his works were commentaries on various treatises of
Aristotle (_Organon, Ethics, Politics, Oeconomics, Physics_) under
curious titles; they enjoyed a large circulation during his time, and
were frequently reprinted. He was also the author of _The Praise of
Musicke_ (1586), dedicated to Sir Walter Raleigh.



CASE. (1) (From Lat. _casus_, that which falls or happens; _cadere_, to
fall), a word used in various senses traceable to the derivation. In
grammar, the "cases" are the various forms in the declension of a noun,
adjective or pronoun, the Latin word being a translation of the Greek
[Greek: ptosis], falling, applied by Aristotle to the variations from
the simple form of the word, whether noun, verb or adjective (of which
the adverb would be a [Greek: ptosis]). Later grammarians confined the
term to nouns, and included the nominative. In law, "case" is the common
term for a cause or suit brought before a court of justice. Certain
particular legal usages may also be noted. _Action on the case_ means an
action for the recovery of damages for an injury to the person or
property, where the act done was not immediately injurious (see
CONTRACT; TORT). A _case stated_ is a statement of facts drawn up by one
court for the opinion of another on a point of law. A _special case_ is
a statement of facts agreed to on behalf of two or more litigant
parties, and submitted for the opinion of a court of justice as to the
law bearing upon the facts so stated. A _leading case_ is a decision
which settles some point of importance. In the legal systems of the
United Kingdom and of the United States decided cases are considered
authoritative for courts of at least equal jurisdiction with those in
which the judgments were given, but on the continent of Europe the rule
is, following that of the Roman law, that they are instructive but not
authoritative.

(2) (O. Fr. _casse_, mod. _châsse_, Lat. _capsa_, from _capere_, to
hold; cf. "cash"), a box, sheath or covering. The term is applied to the
natural protective covering of seed-vessels, and of a pupa or chrysalis.
It is also used of a box containing instruments, pistols, swords, &c.,
and sometimes of the contents. In building, a "case" is the facing where
the backing may be of inferior material; the framework in which a window
or door is hung; or the wall surrounding a stair, "staircase" properly
signifying the whole structure of walls and stairs. In bookbinding, a
"case" means the boards and back in which the books are bound; and in
typography, the tray, divided into partitions, containing the type ready
for the compositor's use.



CASEMATE (Ital. _casa_, a house, and _matta_, dull or dim), an armoured
vault or chamber, or in field fortification, a bombproof shelter; in
architecture, a hollow moulding, chiefly employed in cornices.



CASEMENT (from a Lat. form _casamentum_), in architecture, a frame in
wood or metal, which holds the glass of a window, and is hung by hinges
either at the top, bottom or sides.



CASERTA, a town and episcopal see of Campania, Italy, the capital of the
province of Caserta, situated 21 m. N. by E. of Naples by rail via
Accerra, and 23 m. via Aversa. Pop. (1901) town, 19,180; commune,
33,373. The modern town (229 ft.) was a mere village belonging to the
Caetani family of Sermoneta, who were counts of Caserta, until its
purchase from them by Charles IV. of Naples, and the erection of the
royal palace, begun by Luigi Vanvitelli (van Wittel) in 1752, but not
completed until 1774 for Charles's son Ferdinand IV. It forms a
rectangle, the south front being 830 ft. long and 134 ft. high, with 37
windows in each storey. The interior is richly decorated with marbles,
almost all of which, except the white Carrara marble, are Neapolitan or
Sicilian. The staircase, the chapel and the theatre are especially
sumptuous. The extensive gardens which occupy the hillside behind the
palace are adorned with fountains and cascades; the botanical garden
contains many trees from northern climates. Two miles north is S.
Leucio, a village founded by Ferdinand IV. in 1789, with a royal casino,
and large silk factories which are still active. The old town (Caserta
Vecchia) lies high (1310 ft.) about 3 m. to the north-east. It was
founded in the 9th century by the Lombards of Capua. The cathedral has
not suffered from restoration. It was completed in 1153. It is a copy of
that of Sessa Aurunca, and preserves the type of the Latin basilica. The
campanile, Sicilian in style, was completed in 1234, while the dome,
which betrays similar motives, is even later. Its pulpit is decorated
with the richest polychrome mosaic that can be found anywhere in Sicily
or south Italy, and is quite Moslem in its brilliance. It is indeed
remarkable to find these motives in a church so far inland (Bertaux,
_L'Art dans l'Italie méridionale_, Paris, 1904, i. 353, &c.). There are
also the ruins of the old walls.



CASE-SHOT, a projectile used in ordnance for fighting at close quarters.
It consists of a thin metal case containing a large number of bullets or
other small projectiles (see AMMUNITION). Case-shot was formerly called
"canister," though the term now used occurs as early as 1625.



CASH, (1) (From O. Fr. _casse_, mod. _caisse_, a box or chest; cf.
"case"), a term which, originally meaning a box in which money is kept,
is now commonly applied to ready money or coin. In commercial and
banking usage "cash" is sometimes confined to specie; it is also, in
opposition to bills, drafts or securities, applied to bank-notes. Hence
"to cash" means to convert cheques and other negotiable instruments into
coin. In bookkeeping, in such expressions as "petty cash," "cash-book,"
and the like, it has the same significance, and so also in
"cash-payment" or ready-money payment as opposed to "credit," however
the payment may be made, by coin, notes or cheque.

The "cash on delivery" or "collect on delivery" system, known as C.O.D.,
is one whereby a tradesman can, through a delivery agency, send goods to
a customer, and have the money due to him collected on the delivery of
the same, with a guarantee from the carrier that, if no money be
collected, the goods shall be returned. The function of such an agency
is performed in the United States of America by the express companies
(see EXPRESS). In most countries of the continent of Europe the post
office acts as such an agent, as in Germany (where the system is known
as _Post-Nachnahme_) and in France (_contre remboursement_). It is also
in use in India, where it is known as "value payable," and was
introduced in 1877 in Australia. The advantages of the system are
obvious, from the point of view both of the customer, who can, by post
or telegram, order and obtain speedy delivery from large towns, and of
the tradesman, whose area of trade is indefinitely extended. The system
does away with credit or the delay and inconvenience of paying in
advance. The success of the large "catalogue" houses in America has been
mainly due to the system as operated by the express companies. At
various times, notably in 1904, it has been proposed that the General
Post Office of the United Kingdom should adopt the system. The
consistent opposition of the retail traders in large urban centres other
than the large stores, and of the country shopkeeper generally, has been
sufficient to secure the refusal of the postmaster-general to the
proposed scheme, but a commencement was made in 1908 for orders not
exceeding £20 between the United Kingdom and Egypt, Cyprus and Malta,
and certain British post offices in Turkey and Tangier.

(2) (From Tamil _kasu_, Sinhalese _kasi_, a small coin, adopted by
Portuguese as _caixa_, a box, and similarly assimilated in English to
"cash" above), a name given by English residents in the East to native
coins of small value, and particularly to the copper coinage of China,
the native name for which is _tsien_. This, the only coin minted by the
government, should bear a fixed ratio of 1000 cash to one _tael_ of
silver, but in practice there is no such fixed value. It is the
universal medium of exchange throughout China for all retail
transactions. The _tsien_ is a round disk of copper alloy, with a square
hole punched through the centre for stringing. A "string of cash"
amounts to 500 or 1000 cash, strung in divisions of 50 or 100.



CASHEL, a city of Co. Tipperary, Ireland, in the east parliamentary
division, 5 m. S.E. of Goold's Cross and Cashel station on the main line
of the Great Southern & Western railway, 96 m. S.W. from Dublin. Pop. of
urban district (1901) 2938. The town, which lies at the base of the Rock
of Cashel, is of somewhat poor appearance, but contains several public
buildings. There are also the cathedral church of St John the Baptist
(c. 1780), the deanery house (once the bishop's palace), and a Roman
Catholic church. Cashel gives name to a Roman Catholic archdiocese.

The Rock of Cashel is the object of chief interest in the place. This
elevation of limestone formation rises abruptly from the plain to a
height of about 300 ft. and is a commanding object for many miles
around. Its summit is occupied by one of the most interesting
assemblages of ruins in Ireland, consisting of the remains of St
Patrick's cathedral, a round tower, Cormac's chapel, and an ancient
cross. The chapel, which is said to have been erected by King Cormac
M'Carthy in the 12th century, combines the ancient form of high stone
roof, having chambers between the pitch and the vault, with the richest
Norman decoration; the chancel arch being of especial magnificence. The
cathedral, of the 13th century, is cruciform in design, with lancet
windows and pointed arches, and contains many interesting sculptures and
tombs. In the adjoining cemetery there stands, on a rude pedestal,
whereon the kings of Munster were crowned, the "Cross of Cashel," with
an effigy of St Patrick and a portrayal of the Crucifixion sculptured on
its sides. The round tower, situated at the north-east angle of the
cathedral, is 80 ft. high with a circumference of 50 ft., and unlike the
neighbouring ruins is built, not of the limestone of the "Rock," but of
freestone. Of the defences of the Rock a massive guard-tower and
portions of the wall remain. At the base of the Rock is Hore Abbey, a
Cistercian foundation (1272), exhibiting a similar style of architecture
to that of the cathedral on the Rock; and within the town is a Dominican
priory (1243), of which the east window is a beautiful example of the
style of the period. From the Rock itself an extensive prospect is
commanded over the rich Golden Vale backed by the Galtee Mountains, the
Devil's Bit, and other ranges; the clustering roofs of the city
providing a picturesque foreground.

The history of Cashel belongs to the early period of Irish chronology.
Legend states that the vision of an angel blessing the Rock, seen by two
swineherds early in the 5th century, led Core Mac Luighdheach, king of
Munster, to establish a stronghold here. It became one of the principal
seats of the kings of Munster, but in 1101 it was given over to the
church by King Murkertagh O'Brien. It afterwards became noteworthy as
the place where Henry II. received the homage of O'Brien, king of
Limerick, and still later, where Edward Bruce held his Irish parliament.
The cathedral was burnt in 1495 by the earl of Kildare. Cashel was taken
by storm during the wars of 1647. It was reduced from an archbishopric
to a bishopric in 1839, and was disfranchised, on account of corrupt
practice, in 1870, having previously returned one member to parliament.



CASHEW NUT, the fruit of the cashew, cadju or acajou tree, _Anacardium
occidentale_ (nat. ord. Anacardiaceae), a native of the West Indian
Islands. The fruit is kidney-shaped, about an inch in length, and the
kernel is enclosed in two coverings, the outer of which is smooth, grey
and leathery. Inside this external rind is a dark-coloured layer,
containing an excessively acrid juice. The kernels have a bland, oily,
pleasant taste. They are much eaten, both raw and roasted, in the
tropical regions in which the tree is cultivated, and they yield a
light-coloured, sweet-tasted oil, said to be equal to olive oil for
culinary purposes. The fruit-stalk, immediately under the fruit, is
swollen and fleshy, and assumes a pear-like shape. This swollen portion
of the stalk has a pleasant acid taste, and is eaten under the name of
cashew apple. By fermentation it yields an alcoholic beverage, from
which a spirit for drinking is distilled in the West Indies and Brazil.
The stem of the tree yields a gum analogous to gum arabic.

[Illustration: _Anacardium occidentale_, Cashew Nut plant, belonging to
the nat. ord. Anacardiaceae.

  1. Branch (_reduced_), bearing flowers and fruit. The fruit-stalks are
  enlarged in a pear-like form, bearing the nut (the true fruit) at
  their apex.

  2. Flower expanded.

  3. Stamen and pistil, with the calyx; one fertile stamen longer than
  the others.

  4. Stamen separated.

  5. Nut constituting the fruit.

  6. Nut opened longitudinally.

  7. Seed separated from the nut.

  8. Cotyledons opened to show the radicle a, and the plumule.]



CASHIBO, or CARAPACHE ("bat"), a tribe of South American Indians of
Pannoan stock, living in scanty numbers on the west side of the Ucayali,
Peru. They are a wild, savage people who have always been foremost in
attacks on the Jesuits. They joined Juan Santos in 1744 in the
destruction of missions.



CASHIER. (1) (Adapted from the Fr. _caissier_, one in charge of the
_caisse_, or money-box), one who has charge of the payment or receiving
of money in a business house. The "cashier" may be a high executive
official of a banking or mercantile house--thus the name of chief
cashier of the Bank of England appears on all notes issued during his
occupation of the post--or he may be merely a clerk, who receives
payment for goods sold, and has the right to give receipts for the same.

(2) (In origin ultimately the same as "quash," to annul, from Lat.
_quassare_, to dash or break to pieces, a frequentative of _quatere_, to
shake, but also connected in form and meaning with _cassare_, to make,
_cassus_, empty or void), a military term, meaning originally to
disband, and probably adopted from the Dutch in the 16th century. The
word in various forms is used in the same sense in most European
languages. It is now used in English for the dismissal of a commissioned
officer from the army and navy for particularly serious offences, in the
words of the Army Act, 1881, s. 16, for "behaving in a scandalous
manner unbecoming an officer and a gentleman." "Cashiering" involves not
merely the loss of the commission, but also a permanent disqualification
from serving the state in any capacity.



CASH REGISTER, a species of calculating machine adapted for use in
connexion with the cash-tills of shops, in order to provide a record of
the money received. Such machines are made in great variety and widely
used. Sometimes the records are constituted by holes punched in a roll
of paper; in other cases they are shown on dials by the aid of adding
mechanism. A common form has a number of keys, each representing a
particular sum and each attached to a counting mechanism which records
how many times it has been used. By pressing appropriate combinations of
these keys the amount of any purchase can be registered, and the
combined records of all the counting mechanism give the total that has
been passed through the machine in any selected period. Each key when
pressed also raises an indicator which informs the customer how much he
has to pay. In their more elaborate forms these cash registers may have
a separate money-drawer for each assistant employed in the shop, thus
enabling the proprietor to ascertain how many customers each man has
served and how much money he has taken, and also to fix responsibility
for mistakes, bad money, &c. The machines are also made to deliver a
printed receipt for each purchase, showing the amount, date and
assistant concerned, and they may be arranged to keep separate records
of credit sales, money received on account, and money paid out.



CASILINUM (mod. _Capua_), an ancient city of Campania, Italy, 3 m. N.W.
of the ancient Capua. Its position at the point of junction of the Via
Appia and Via Latina, and at their crossing of the river Volturnus by a
three-arched bridge, which still exists, gave it considerable importance
under the Roman republic; and while the original pre-Roman town, which
was doubtless dependent on the neighbouring Capua, stood entirely on the
left (S.) bank, surrounded on three sides by the river, the Roman city
extended to the right bank also; remains of it have been found at some
25 ft. below the modern ground-level, the river-bed having risen
considerably. In the Second Punic War it was occupied by Fabius
Cunctator in 217 B.C., taken by Hannibal after a gallant defence by
troops from Praeneste and Perusia in the winter of 216-215, but
recaptured in the following year, serving the Romans as their base of
operations against Capua. It lost its independence and became a
_praefectura_. Caesar conducted a colony thither in 59 B.C., which was
renewed by Antony in 44 B.C. The veterans took Octavian's side after
Caesar's death, but it seems to have been united with Capua before the
time of Vespasian, and it does not occur in the list of independent
communities given by Pliny, who indeed (_Hist. Nat._ iii. 70) speaks of
the _morientis Casilini reliquiae_, and only its position at the
junction of the roads redeemed it from utter insignificance. (T. As.)



CASIMIR III., called "THE GREAT," king of Poland (1310-1370), the son of
Wladislaus Lokietek, king of Poland, and Jadwiga, princess of Kalisch,
was born at Kowal in Kujavia in 1310. Casimir belongs to that remarkable
group of late medieval sovereigns who may be called the fathers of
modern diplomacy, inasmuch as they relegated warfare to its proper place
as the instrument of politics, and preferred the council-chamber to the
battle-field. He was educated at the court of Charles Robert of Hungary,
who had married Casimir's beautiful sister Elizabeth, and who gave his
brother-in-law an excellent education under Italian masters. In his
youth Casimir was considered frivolous and licentious; while his sudden
flight from the field of Plowce, the scene of his father's great victory
over the Teutonic knights, argued but poorly for his personal courage.
When, therefore, he ascended the Polish throne in 1333, the future of
his country, which then consisted of little more than the lately
reunited provinces of Great and Little Poland, seemed dark indeed;
especially as she was still at war with the Teutonic Order and with John
of Luxemburg, king of Bohemia, who claimed the crown of Poland also.
Fortunately Casimir was a man of penetrating genius. His father had been
a hero who trusted entirely to his sword, yet the heroic struggle of a
lifetime had barely sufficed to keep at bay the numerous and potent foes
with which Poland was environed. Casimir recognized from the first that
further fighting against tremendous odds was unprofitable. A careful,
calculating dynastic policy, which aimed at the establishment of an
equilibrium by means of prudent compromises and defensive alliances,
was, he rightly judged, the best guarantee for the future safety and
glory of Poland. Casimir began by tying the hands of the Teutonic Order
by the truce of Thorn; he induced the king of Bohemia to relinquish his
claims to the Polish throne by consenting to leave him a free hand in
Silesia (conference of Trencsén, early in 1335); and subsequently he
attended the celebrated congress of Visegrád (November 12-December 3,
1335), where Charles Robert entertained him and the king of Bohemia
magnificently. At this congress the differences between Casimir and John
of Bohemia were finally adjusted; peace was made between the king of
Poland and the Teutonic Order on the basis of the cession of Pomerania,
Kulm, and Michalow to the knights, who retroceded Kujavia and Dobrzyn;
and the kings of Hungary and Poland further agreed to assist each other
in the acquisition of the south-eastern border province of Halicz, or
Red Russia (very nearly corresponding to the modern Galicia), in case
the necessity for intervention should arise. The Holy See, jealous of
the growing power of the house of Luxemburg, attempted to set aside the
decrees of the congress of Visegrád, by urging Casimir to take up arms
against the knights once more; but Casimir prudently refrained from
hostilities, and ultimately compensated himself in the south-east for
his losses in the north. To guarantee still further the integrity of
Poland, Casimir, who had no male issue, concluded a compact with Charles
Robert whereby he recognized Louis, Charles Robert's son, as the
successor to the Polish crown; Louis on his part contracting to confirm
the privileges of the Polish gentry and clergy, and to rule Poland
through natives only.

In 1340 the death of George II. of Halicz, and the ravaging of that
fruitful border principality by the Tatars, induced Casimir and Charles
Robert to establish their joint influence there, and in 1344 the Red
Russian boyar, Demetrius Detko, was appointed _starosta_, or governor,
in the names of the two kings. Nine years later Lubart of Lithuania, who
also had claims upon Red Russia, disputed the sway of Poland in that
principality. Hungary coming to the assistance of Poland, Lubart was
defeated and taken prisoner; but Casimir, anxious to avoid a bloody war
with Lithuania's Tatar allies, came to a compromise with Lubart whereby
Poland retained Halicz with Lemberg, while Vladimir, Belz, and Brzesc
fell to the share of Lithuania. With the Teutonic knights, still
Poland's most dangerous foe, Casimir preserved peaceful relations
throughout his reign. He kept them within due bounds by using the
influence of the Luxemburgers against them at the papal court; but the
disputes between Poland and the order were ultimately settled by the
peace of Kalisz (July 23, 1343), when the knights engaged for the first
time to pay tribute to the Polish crown. John of Bohemia was also a
constant thorn in the side of Casimir. Silesia, now split up into
seventeen principalities, was the bone of contention between them; and
when Casimir suddenly invaded that country, took Wschowa, and made
Prince Charles of Bohemia a prisoner, war between the two kingdoms
actually broke out and Casimir was besieged in Cracow by the Czechs. But
his Hungarian allies hastened to his assistance, and the mediation of
the Holy See restored peace in 1346. The death of the adventurous John
at Crécy, and the election of his son as emperor, still further improved
the situation. Charles IV., a cautious sovereign with many cares, was as
anxious for the maintenance of peace as Casimir himself. Thus the
relations between them were never very seriously disturbed.

Throughout his reign Casimir never neglected the great work of domestic
reform, greatly aided by Jaroslaw Skotowicki, archbishop of Gnesen,
formerly a professor at Bologna. The first result of their joint labours
was the much-needed codification of the laws of Great and Little Poland
in 1347. This was followed by the establishment of a supreme court of
appeal in 1357. Towards everything like disorder, tyranny, or
aristocratic oppression, Casimir was always inexorably severe; all
disturbers of the peace were remorselessly put to death as the worst
enemies of their country and he enjoyed in consequence the honourable
title of "the Peasants' King." The lawlessness of the nobility was most
noticeable in the province of Great Poland, where outrageous acts of
violence were of everyday occurrence. To remedy the evil, Casimir drew
up and promulgated the severe statute of Great Poland, which went to the
very root of the matter and greatly strengthened the hands of the king's
justices. Casimir also did much for education. Stimulated by the example
of Charles IV., who had founded the university of Prague in 1348,
Casimir on the 12th of May 1364 established and richly endowed the first
university of Cracow, which had five professors of Roman law, three of
Canon law, two of physics, and one master of arts. The security of the
kingdom was sensibly promoted by the erection of a cordon of fortresses
on its north-eastern borders, and a blow was given to foreign
interference when Casimir succeeded in gaining dominant influence over
the independent Polish principality of Masovia, which had hitherto
gravitated between Bohemia and the Teutonic Order.

Casimir's last political act was the conclusion of a fresh alliance with
Louis of Hungary against Charles IV. at Buda in 1369. He died on the 5th
of November 1370 from the effects of an injury received while hunting.
Though married three times Casimir left no sons; but he had the
satisfaction of knowing that his domains would pass into the hands of a
nephew every whit as capable and sagacious as himself.

  See Jan Leniek, _The Congress of Visegrád_ (Pol.), (Lemberg, 1884);
  J.K. Kochanowski, _Casimir the Great_ (Pol.), (Warsaw, 1900);
  Kazimierz J. Gorzycki, _The Annexation of Red Russia by Casimir the
  Great_ (Pol.), (Lemberg, 1889); Stanislaw Kryzanowski, _The Embassy of
  Casimir the Great to Avignon_ (Pol.), (Cracow, 1900).     (R. N. B.)



CASIMIR IV., king of Poland (1427-1492), second son of Wladislaus II.
Jagiello, was appointed while still a lad grand-duke of Lithuania by his
father, and crowned king of Poland at Cracow in June 1447, three years
after the death of his elder brother, Wladislaus III., at the battle of
Varna. The cause of this long interregnum was the disinclination of the
Lithuanians to part with their prince till their outstanding differences
with Poland, relating chiefly to the delimitation of the frontiers of
the two states, had been settled. Casimir's reign of forty-five years
was epoch-making for Poland. He was without doubt one of the greatest
statesmen of his age, concealing beneath a simple exterior and homely
habits a profound political sagacity and an unerring common-sense, and
possessing in a high degree those useful qualities of patience,
moderation, and tenacity, which characterized nearly all the princes of
the house of Jagiello. Throughout life he steadily followed two guiding
principles--the preservation of the political union between Poland and
Lithuania at whatever cost, and the recovery of the lost lands of old
Poland. It was due entirely to his steadfast adherence to these
principles that Poland in the course of the 15th century rose to the
rank of a great power; but by a singular irony of fate, Casimir, in
consequence of his unswerving efforts to make his country glorious and
prosperous, entirely forfeited the popularity of his Polish subjects,
whose true interests he understood far better than they did themselves.
Thus his refusal to sacrifice Polish to Lithuanian or Lithuanian to
Polish interests caused both Poles and Lithuanians to accuse the
far-seeing monarch of partiality and favouritism; while his anti-German
policy, on which the future safety of the dual state depended, could
only be carried through by the most humiliating concessions to patrician
pride and greed. His difficulties were moreover considerably enhanced by
the fact that he was not of an essentially martial temperament, and
could not therefore appeal to the heroic side of the Polish character.

The great triumph of Casimir's reign was the final subjugation of the
Teutonic Order, a triumph only accomplished after a harassing and
desultory thirteen years' war, during which Casimir's own subjects gave
him more trouble than all his enemies. The pretext of the rupture was
the attempt of the knights to crush the Prussian diet, which, bearing
as it did most of the burdens, claimed fairly enough a proportionate
share in the government of the Prussian provinces. Excommunicated by the
pope and placed under the ban of the Empire, the Prussian cities and
gentry naturally turned to their nearest neighbour, Poland, for
protection. In October 1453 they placed themselves beneath the
overlordship of Casimir; on the 4th of February 1454 formally renounced
their ancient allegiance to the Order; and some weeks later captured no
fewer than fifty-seven towns and castles. On the 6th of March 1454
Casimir issued a manifesto directing the incorporation of the Prussian
provinces with Poland, but granting them at the same time freedom from
taxation and full autonomy. But except in the border province of Great
Poland, the acquisition of this new territory excited little interest
and no enthusiasm in Poland generally. The local diets granted subsidies
with a niggard hand, and for the conduct of the war the king soon had to
depend almost entirely on Hussite mercenaries, who frequently turned
against him when their wages were not paid. The Polish gentry on the
other hand exhibited far less energy in the field than in the council
chamber; they were defeated again and again by the knights, and showed
themselves utterly incapable of taking fortresses. No wonder then if in
the earlier years of the war the Order recovered its lost ground, and
the king, irritated beyond endurance by the suicidal parsimony of the
estates, threatened to retire to the forests of Lithuania. But manlier
counsels prevailed, the struggle was resumed, and after the bloody
victory of Puck (September 17, 1462) the scales of fortune inclined
decisively to the side of Poland. Finally the Holy See intervened, and
by the second peace of Thorn (October 14, 1466) all West Prussia, as it
is now called, was ceded to Poland, while East Prussia was left in the
hands of the knights, who held it as a fief of the Polish crown.

The intervention of the Curia, which hitherto had been hostile to
Casimir because of his steady and patriotic resistance to papal
aggression, was due to the permutations of European politics. The pope
was anxious to get rid of the Hussite king of Bohemia, George
Podebrad, as the first step towards the formation of a league against
the Turk. Casimir was to be a leading factor in this combination, and he
took advantage of it to procure the election of his son Wladislaus as
king of Bohemia. But he would not commit himself too far, and his
ulterior plans were frustrated by the rivalry of Matthias Corvinus, king
of Hungary, who even went so far as to stimulate the Teutonic Order to
rise against Casimir. The death of Matthias in 1490 was a great relief
to Poland, and Casimir employed the two remaining years of his reign in
consolidating his position still further. He expired rather suddenly
while hunting at Troki in Lithuania in June 1492.

The feature of Casimir's character which most impressed his
contemporaries was his extraordinary simplicity and sobriety. He, one of
the greatest monarchs in Europe, habitually wore plain Cracow cloth,
drank nothing but water, and kept the most austere of tables. His one
passion was the chase. Yet his liberality to his ministers and servants
was proverbial, and his vanquished enemies he always treated with
magnificent generosity. Casimir's married life was singularly happy. His
consort, Elizabeth of Austria, "the mother of the Jagiellos," bore him
six sons and seven daughters, and by her affection and good counsel
materially relieved the constant anxieties and grievous burdens of his
long and arduous reign.

  See Jan Dlugosz, _Opera_ (Cracow, 1887); August Sokolowski,
  _Illustrated History of Poland_ (Pol.), vol. ii. (Vienna, 1904).
       (R. N. B.)



CASIMIR-PÉRIER, JEAN PAUL PIERRE (1847-1907), fifth president of the
French Republic, was born in Paris on the 8th of November 1847, being the
grandson of Casimir Pierre Périer (q.v.) the famous premier of Louis
Philippe. He entered public life as secretary to his father, A.V.L.C.
Périer, who was minister of the interior under the presidency of Thiers.
In 1874 he was elected general councillor of the Aube, and was sent by
the same department to the chamber of deputies in the general elections
of 1876, and he was always re-elected until his presidency. In spite of
the traditions of his family, Casimir-Périer joined the group of
Republicans on the Left, and was one of the 363 on the _Seize-Mai_
(1877). If he refused to vote the expulsion of the princes in 1883, and
resigned as deputy upon the enactment of the law, it was only owing to
personal connexions with the family of Orleans. On the 17th of August
1883 he became under-secretary of state for war, and retained that
position until the 7th of January 1885. From 1890 to 1892 he was
vice-president of the chamber, then in 1893 president. On the 3rd of
December he became prime-minister, holding the department of foreign
affairs, resigned in May 1894, and was re-elected president of the
chamber. On the 24th of June 1894, after the assassination of President
Carnot, he was elected president of the republic by 451 votes against 195
for Henri Brisson and 97 for Charles Dupuy. His presidency lasted only
six months. The resignation of the Dupuy ministry on the 14th of January
1895 was followed the next day by that of the president. Casimir-Périer
explained his action by the fact that he found himself ignored by the
ministers, who did not consult him before taking decisions, and did not
keep him informed upon political events, especially in foreign affairs.
From that time he definitely and absolutely abandoned politics, and
devoted himself to business--especially mining. At the trial of Dreyfus
at Rennes, Casimir-Périer's evidence, as opposed to that of General
Mercier, was of great value to the cause of Dreyfus. He died on the 11th
of March 1907.



CASINO (diminutive of _casa_, a house), the Italian name for a
pleasure-house in a garden, which has been extended to a place of public
amusement at pleasure resorts, in which concerts, theatrical
performances and public balls are given, and which usually contains a
_café-restaurant_ and gaming saloons. "Casino" as an architectural term
is still employed in France, and the subject is given in competitive
programmes in the French schools of design. In the 18th century in
England many Italian examples were built in the parks of country
mansions, and Sir William Chambers in his treatise on civil architecture
publishes plates of the casinos he had built at Marino, near Dublin,
Wilton near Salisbury, and Birdshall, Yorkshire.

_Casino_ or _Cassino_ is also the name given to a game of cards of
obscure origin, played with a full whist-pack. The object is to take as
many cards as possible, particularly such as have special value. It may
be played by two, three or four persons, partners sitting opposite one
another. The player at the dealer's right is called the pony (_pone_),
the one at his left the eldest hand. The dealer (selected by the cut of
the lowest card) deals four cards to each player by twos and also, just
before dealing to himself, four to the table, face upwards. The eldest
hand begins the game by playing a card in one of three ways. Either he
may take one of the exposed cards on the table by matching it with one
from his own hand; or he may put one of his cards upon one of the table
hand and call the sum of the pips (called _building_); or thirdly,
failing to do either of these things, he must _trail_, i.e. lay a card
face upwards on the table beside the exposed cards, and the player at
his left then plays in his turn. When each player has played out all
four of his cards the dealer deals four more all round, and the game
proceeds until the pack is exhausted. The game either (1) ends at this
juncture, the player having secured the most points winning; or (2) the
side or player first securing 21 points wins; or (3) the points secured
in a given number of deals may determine the winner. The points and
their respective values are as follows:--_Big_ (or Great) _Casino_ (ten
of diamonds), 2; _Little Casino_ (deuce of spades), 1; _Cards_ (greatest
number), 3; _Spades_ (greatest number), 1; _Aces_, 1 each or 4 together;
_Sweeps_ 1 each. Thus, without _sweeps_, the maximum points in one deal
are 11. A sweep is a play that clears the table of all exposed cards.
The game then proceeds by the next player placing a card on the table
face upwards.

  "Building," referred to above, is done as follows. Should a 3 lie
  exposed on the table, a player may place a 4 upon it, saying, "I build
  a 7," and, if it is not disturbed before his next turn, he may then
  take the two cards with another 7 from his hand. It follows that no
  combination may be built unless the builder holds the proper card in
  his hand. But a build may be increased. Thus, in the case cited above,
  another player may put a 2 upon the two cards which make 7 and say, "I
  build 9," in which case the original builder loses control of the
  build unless he also holds a 9 in his hand or can himself increase the
  build again; for instance, adding an ace and calling 10. In the old
  way of playing the ace counted 1, the deuce 2, and so on as at whist,
  excepting that all court cards counted 10. But in the popular
  variation called _Royal Casino_, now almost universally played, the
  ace counts either 1 or 14, the king 13, the queen 12 and the knave 11.
  In this manner the opportunities for simple and increased building are
  greatly multiplied, resulting in a much livelier game.

  If a player has made a build he must take it in on his next play,
  unless he can take some other card. He cannot have two builds on the
  table at the same time, nor increase another build if he already has
  one of his own. _Double Builds_ cannot be increased, e.g. if a player
  combines a 3 and 4 lying on the table and places a 7 from his hand
  upon them, saying, "I build sevens," this build can be taken only with
  a 7, and cannot be built upon further. Of course in the case cited the
  builder must still have another 7 in his hand. In playing partners
  each may take in the other's builds, or may build to a card that has
  been declared by his partner; e.g. if his partner has built an 8 that
  has been captured by an opponent, he may build another 8 with a card
  from his own hand to the 8 that he knows to be in his partner's hand,
  even though he has no 8 himself. In _trailing_, i.e. laying down a
  card without matching or building, one usually plays small cards,
  avoiding aces and (if Big and Little Casino have not yet been played)
  tens and deuces, as well as any cards one has reason to think will be
  of service to the enemy. High cards are usually played last, as they
  are stronger in taking combinations. Such rules are, however, quite
  general, each situation calling for special treatment. In the last
  round all cards remaining on the table become the property of the
  player taking the last trick. A good memory and keen powers of
  observation are essential in playing this game.

  In _Twenty-One-Point Casino_ nothing is scored until the end of the
  deal. A second or third deal is usually necessary before one side
  scores the requisite 21. In the final deal each side keeps a mental
  count of the points made, and as soon as 21 are scored the game is
  claimed and the points shown. But if, when added to those already
  scored in previous deals, they make more or less than 21, the claimant
  loses the game. In counting out _cards_ count first, followed by
  _spades, Big Casino, Little Casino, aces_ and _sweeps_, in that order.

  _Spade Casino_ is a variation in which the usual 11 points count as in
  the regular game, and, in addition, each spade counts 1, excepting the
  knave of spades, which counts 2, making 24 points in all. These are
  scored on a cribbage-board, each point being marked as it is made. The
  game is for 61 points, or once round the board and into the game-hole.



CASINUM, an ancient town of Italy, probably of Volscian origin. Varro
states that the name was Sabine, and meant _forum vetus_, and also that
the town itself was Samnite, but he is probably wrong. When it came
under Roman supremacy is not known, but it probably received the
citizenship in 188 B.C. It was the most south-easterly town in _Latium
adjectum_, situated on the Via Latina about 40 m. N.W. of Capua. It
appears occasionally in the history of the Hannibalic War. Varro
possessed a villa near it, in which later on Mark Antony held his
orgies. Towards the end of the republic it was a _praefectura_, and
under the empire it appears as a colony (perhaps founded by the
triumvirs), though in two (not local) inscriptions it is called
_municipium_. Strabo speaks of it as an important town; Varro mentions
the olive-oil of its district as especially good. The older Volscian
Casinum must have stood on the hill (1715 ft.) above the Roman town (148
ft.), where considerable remains of fortifications in Cyclopean masonry,
of finely cut blocks of limestone, still exist. The site is now occupied
by the Benedictine monastery of Monte Cassino (q.v.) founded by St
Benedict himself in 529. A number of Roman inscriptions from Casinum are
preserved there. The wall which runs south-west and west starting from
the west side of the monastery, for a total length of about 300 yds., is
not so clearly traceable on the other side of the hill, though there is
one fragment under the east side of the monastery; but it seems to have
defended the summit and was perhaps the original acropolis. The Roman
town lay at the foot of the mountain, close to the Via Latina. The
amphitheatre, erected by Ummidia Quadratilla (whose passion for actors
is mentioned by Pliny, _Epist._ vii. 24, on the occasion of her death at
the age of about eighty), is still existing: it is built of _opus
reticulatum_ and the five entrances are by arches of larger blocks of
stone; it is approximately circular in plan. The external walls are 59
ft. high. The seats in the interior have disappeared. Above it on the
hillside is a theatre of _opus reticulatum_, less well preserved. Close
by is a building converted into the Cappella del Crocefisso, originally
perhaps a tomb in the Via Latina; it is a chamber in the form of a Greek
cross, constructed of large masses of travertine, with a domed roof of
the same material. On the opposite bank of the Rapido are the ruins
called Monticelli, attributed to the villa of Varro, a part of which was
frequently drawn by the architects of the 16th century (T. Ashby in
_Papers of the British School at Rome_, ii. 19). The medieval town of S.
Germano, which resumed the name Cassino in 1871, lies a little to the
north. The cathedral was founded in the 8th century, but the present
building was constructed in the 17th century. The church of S. Maria
delle Cinque Torri contains twelve ancient marble columns; above the
town is a picturesque medieval castle.     (T. As.)



CASIRI, MIGUEL (1710-1791), a learned Maronite, was born at Tripoli
(Syria) in 1710. He studied at Rome, where he lectured on Arabic,
Syriac, Chaldee, philosophy and theology. In 1748 he went to Spain, and
was employed in the royal library at Madrid. He was successively
appointed a member of the Royal Academy of History, interpreter of
oriental languages to the king, and joint-librarian at the Escorial. In
1763 he became principal librarian, a post which he appears to have held
till his death in 1791. Casiri published a work entitled _Bibliotheca
Arabico-Hispana Escurialensis_ (2 vols., Madrid, 1760-1770). It is a
catalogue of above 1800 Arabic MSS., which he found in the library of
the Escorial; it also contains a number of quotations from Arabic works
on history. The MSS. are classified according to subjects; the second
volume gives an account of a large collection of geographical and
historical MSS., which contain valuable information regarding the wars
between the Moors and the Christians in Spain. Casiri's work is not yet
obsolete, but a more scientific system is adopted in Hartwig
Derenbourg's incomplete treatise, _Les Manuscrits arabes de l'Escorial_
(Paris, 1884).



CASKET, a small box or coffer, commonly used for jewels, money, papers,
or other objects of value. The etymology is doubtful. It is possibly a
diminutive of "cask," a barrel for wine or other liquor. The Spanish
_casco_ meant also a skull, helmet, or rind of an onion, and is probably
connected with _cascar_, to break open, Latin _quassare_, French
_casser_, to break, shake. The French _casque, casquet_, of the same
origin is only used of a helmet, and the sense of "small chest" is not
found in languages other than English. Skeat suggests that the word is a
corruption of French _cassette_, diminutive of _casse_, box, Latin
_capsa_, from _capere_, to hold, contain, cf. English "case." History
and literature are full of references to the often disconcerting
contents of these famous receptacles. The "Casket Letters" (q.v.) are
one of the mysteries of history. Harpagnon's casket plays an important
part in Molière's _L'Avare_; Bluebeard gives his too-curious wife the
keys of his caskets filled with precious stones; the contents of
Sainte-Croix's casket brought about the trial and condemnation of the
marquise de Brinvilliers, the poisoner. This very ancient piece of
furniture was no doubt derived from the chest, which was the original
wardrobe. It was often an object of great value, covered with ivory,
enamel, or stamped leather, enriched with precious metals, or encrusted
with jewels. One which belonged to St Louis and is preserved in the
Louvre is covered with enamelled shields of arms and other decorations.
In the 16th and 17th centuries secret hiding-places were sometimes in
the thickness of the lid or in a false bottom. The word is now little
used--the natural result of the desuetude of the object; but auctioneers
occasionally announce that they will sell a "casket of jewels," and
undertakers, especially in the United States, frequently use it as a
grandiose synonym for "coffin."



CASKET LETTERS. This is the name generally given to eight letters, and a
sequence of irregular sonnets, all described as originally in French,
and said to have been addressed by Mary, queen of Scots, to the earl of
Bothwell, between January and April 1566-1567. The nature of these
documents--authentic, forged, or partly forged, partly genuine--has been
the theme of much discussion. If authentic throughout, they afford
perfect proof of Mary's complicity in the murder of her husband, Henry,
Lord Darnley. The topic is so perplexing, and possibilities are so
delicately balanced, that inquirers may change their views, and modify
or reverse their opinions, on the appearance of each fresh document that
is brought to light; or even upon a new consideration of existing
evidence. Controversy centres round a very long and singular undated
epistle called "The Glasgow Letter" or "Letter II." If Mary wrote all of
this, or even wrote some compromising parts of it, she was certainly
guilty. But two questions remain to be settled--(1) did her accusers at
one time possess another version of this letter which if it existed was
beyond doubt a forgery? and (2) is not part of Letter II. a forged
interpolation, based on another document, not by Mary?

The whole affair has been obscured and almost inextricably entangled, as
we shall see, by the behaviour of Mary's accusers. Of these Maitland of
Lethington was consenting to Darnley's murder; the earl of Morton had,
at least, guilty foreknowledge; the regent Moray (Mary's natural
brother) had "looked through his fingers" at the crime, and for months
remained on intimate terms with the criminals. He also perjured himself
when putting before Elizabeth's commission of inquiry at Westminster
(December 1568) a copy of the confession of Hepburn of Bowton (Cotton
MSS. British Museum. Caligula C.I. fol. 325). This is attested as a
"true copy," but Moray, who had been present when Bowton was examined
(December 8, 1567), knew that the copy presented at Westminster
(December 1568) had been mutilated because the excised passages were
damning to Lethington and the earl of Morton, accomplices in the crime
of Darnley's murder, and accomplices of Moray in his prosecution of his
sister. (See in Cambridge University Library, MS. Oo. 47, fol. 5 et seq.
Compare the MS. copy of the confession in the British Museum, Cotton
MSS. Caligula, C.I. fol. 325, printed in Anderson's _Collections_, vol.
ii. pp. 183-188.)

If Moray the righteous could act thus, much more might the murderer
Morton perjure himself in his averment that there had been no tampering
with the Casket Letters in his custody. We cannot, in short, believe
Mary's accusers on their oaths. When they all went, in October-December
1568, to York and London to accuse their queen--and before that, in
their proclamations--they contradicted themselves freely and frequently;
they put in a list of dates which made Mary's authorship of Letter II.
impossible; and they rang the changes on Scots translations of the
alleged French originals, and on the French itself. For example, when
Moray, after Mary was in Elizabeth's power (May 16, 1568), wished
Elizabeth to have the matter tried, he in May-June 1568 sent John Wood
to England with Scots translations of the letters. Wood was to ask, "if
the French originals are found to tally with the Scots translations,
will that be reckoned good evidence?" It was as easy to send copies of
the French, and thus give no ground for the suspicion that the Scots
letters were altered on the basis of information acquired between May
and October 1568, and that the French versions were made to fit the new
form of the Scots copies. Another source of confusion, now removed, was
the later publication in France of the letters in French. This French
did not correspond with French copies of some of the originals recently
discovered in Cecil's MSS. and elsewhere. But that is no ground of
suspicion, for the published French letters were not copies of the
alleged originals, but translations of Latin translations of them, from
the Scots (see T.F. Henderson, _The Casket Letters_, 1890). German
historians have not made matters more clear by treating the Letters on
the principle of "the higher criticism" of Homer and the Bible. They
find that the documents are of composite origin, partly notes from Mary
to Darnley, partly a diary of Mary's, and so on; all combined and edited
by some one who played the part of the legendary editorial committee of
Peisistratus (see HOMER), which compiled the _Iliad_ and _Odyssey_ out
of fragmentary lays! From all these causes, and others, arise confusion
and suspicion.

So much information unknown to older disputants such as Goodall, the
elder Tytler, Chalmers, and Malcolm Laing, and in certain cases unknown
even to Froude and Skelton, has accrued, that the question can now best
be studied in _The Casket Letters_, by T.F. Henderson (1889; second
issue, 1890, being the more accurate); in _The Mystery of Mary Stuart_,
by Andrew Lang (4th edition, 1904), and in Henderson's criticism of that
book, in his _Mary, Queen of Scots_ (1905) (Appendix A). The conclusion
arrived at here is that of Henderson, but it is reached independently.

The history of the letters must be given in summary. Henderson, in _The
Casket Letters_ (1889), was the first to publish and use as evidence a
document of which the existence was made known in the fifth report of
the royal commission on historical manuscripts. It is a sworn statement
of the earl of Morton, written in 1568. A silver casket (originally
Mary's property, but then in the possession of Bothwell) was placed in
his hands on the 20th of June, and was inspected by several nobles and
gentlemen on the 21st of June 1567. Morton denies that the contents, the
letters, sonnets, and some other papers, had been in any way tampered
with. But if Moray could knowingly submit garbled evidence, Morton's
oath is of no value if uncorroborated.

Mary was, on the 21st of June 1567, a prisoner in Loch Leven Castle. A
messenger was at once sent from Edinburgh to London with a letter from
Lethington and a verbal message. By the 12th of July, de Silva, the
Spanish ambassador, reports on the authority of the French ambassador
that du Croc, French envoy to Scotland, avers that Mary's Scottish
enemies have autograph letters of hers proving her guilt, and himself
possesses copies. Of these copies no more is heard, and they cannot be
found. According to de Silva, Elizabeth said that she did not believe in
the Letters, and that Lethington, who wrote to Cecil on the 21st of
June, and sent a verbal message by the bearer, "had behaved badly in the
matter,"--whether that of the letters, or in general. On what evidence
she based that opinion, if she really held it, is unknown. In December
1567 the Scottish parliament was informed that the letters were _signed_
by Mary (they are unsigned), but the phrase is not used in the
subsequent act of parliament. The letters were exhibited and apparently
were read, probably read aloud. Mary's party in September 1568 declared
that they were garbled, and that the handwriting was not hers. In the
end of July 1567 the earl of Moray, Mary's brother, passing through
London from France, told de Silva, as de Silva reported to his
government, that there was proof of Mary's guilt in a letter of three
double sheets of paper _signed_ by her.

According to Moray's version of the letter, Mary was to try to poison
Darnley in a house on the way between Glasgow and Edinburgh where he and
she were to stop. Clearly Lord Livingstone's house, Callendar, where
they did rest on their journey, is intended. If this failed, Mary would
put Darnley "in the house where the explosion was arranged for the night
upon which one of the servants was to be married." No such arrangement
had been made, as the confessions of the murderers, at which Moray was
present, clearly prove. It may be said that de Silva means "the house in
which the explosion was _afterwards_ arranged." But the earl of Lennox,
Darnley's father, understood Moray to mean that as early as January
21-22, 1567, the house of Kirk o' Field, where Darnley was slain, had
already been mined. Moray's version of the letter made Mary tell
Bothwell to poison or put away his wife. No such matters occur in Letter
II.; Moray spoke, he said, on the authority of "a man who had read the
letter." A similar account of this letter is given in a document of
Darnley's father, the earl of Lennox (Cambridge University Library MSS.
Oo. 7. 47; f. 17 b.). Can we suppose that "the man who had read the
letter" invented much of its contents, and told them to Moray, who told
de Silva, and told Darnley's father, Lennox, then in or near London?

At this point comes in the evidence--unknown to Froude, Skelton, Hosack,
and Henderson in his book _The Casket Letters_--of a number of
documents, notes of information, and indictments of Mary, written for or
by the earl of Lennox. These MSS are in the University Library of
Cambridge, and were transcribed by Father Stevenson. His transcripts
were brought to light by Father Pollen, S.J., who lent them, with his
own notes on them, to Andrew Lang for use in his book, _The Mystery of
Mary Stuart_ (1900-1904).

Not one of the Lennox documents is dated; all but one are endorsed in an
English hand of the period. It may be conjectured that they were
selected by Lennox from his papers, and lent by him to some one who was
writing against Mary. Among them (Cambridge University MSS. Oo. 7. 47.
fol. 17 b.) is a long indictment of Mary, in which Lennox describes a
wicked letter of hers. As has been said, he closely follows Moray's
version reported by de Silva in July 1567. Lennox also gives several
stories of cruel words of Mary spoken to Darnley in the hearing of her
servants.

Now, on the 11th of June 1568, Lennox was in the company of John Wood, a
creature of Moray's, and Wood, as we saw, brought copies of the Scots
renderings of the Letters into England in May-June 1568. It was argued
by Andrew Lang that Wood was likely to show these letters to Lennox; and
that as Lennox follows Moray's version of Mary's long and murderous
letter, and does _not_ follow Letter II., the murderous letter (a
forgery) was then part of the _dossier_ of Mary's accusers. Again, as
Lennox's indictment of Mary (Cambridge Oo. 7. 47. fol. 17 b.) is rife in
"reports and sayings of Mary's servants" about her cruel words to
Darnley, and as Lennox had not these reports on the 11th of June 1568,
for on that day he wrote to Scotland asking his friends to discover them
and send them to him, the indictment (Oo. 7. 47) must have been composed
long after the 11th of June. This must be so, for Lennox's letters of
the 11th of June were intercepted by his foes, the Hamiltons, and were
found in the Hamilton Muniment Room. Thus answers to his inquiries were
delayed. (The letters of Lennox were published in _Miscellany of the
Maitland Club_, vol. iv.)

Henderson, on the other side, believes that Wood "indubitably" showed to
Lennox the Scots copies of the Casket Letters about the 11th of June
1568. But Lennox, he says, could not quote Letter II. in his indictment
against Mary, and had to rest on Moray's version of July 1567, because
Lennox's indictment was completed, and even laid before Elizabeth, as
early as the 28th of May 1568. Henderson seeks to prove that this is so
by quoting from Chalmers's _Mary Queen of Scots_ (vol. ii. p. 289) the
statement that Lennox and his wife on that day presented to Elizabeth a
"Bill of Supplication"; and (though he submits that the indictment [Oo.
7. 47] is a _draft_ for the Bill) he strengthens his case by heading the
indictment, which he publishes, _Bill of Supplication_. The document, in
fact, is unendorsed, and without a title, and there is not a word of
"supplication" in it. It is a self-contradictory history of the
relations between Mary and Darnley.

Henderson's contention therefore seems erroneous. Lennox could not begin
to prepare an English indictment against Mary till she was in England
and in Elizabeth's power. He could not hear of this fact--Mary's arrival
in England (May 16, 1568)--before, say, the 19th of May; and between the
19th of May and the 28th of May he could not write for and receive from
Scotland "the reports and sayings of her servants." He did not possess
them on the 11th of June, when he asked for them; he did not get them at
once, for his letters were intercepted; the indictment (Oo. 7. 47) is
rich in them; therefore that paper is not the "Bill of Supplication" of
the 28th of May.

Thus the question remains, why, if Wood about the 11th of June showed to
Lennox Letter II. in Scots, did Lennox follow Moray's erroneous version
of July 1567? Because in June 1568 that version, forged, was in the
Scots collection of the Casket Letters? If so, there was time for Lennox
to lend to the accusers certain notes which a retainer of his, Thomas
Crawford of Jordan Hill, swore (December 9, 1568) that he had made for
Lennox (about January 22, 1567) of secret conversations between Darnley
and Mary. Lennox (June 11, 1568) asked Crawford for his reminiscences,
_not_ of Darnley's reports of his talks with Mary, but of Crawford's own
interview with her as she entered Glasgow to visit Darnley, probably on
the 21st of January 1567. It follows that Lennox possessed Crawford's
written notes of the Darnley and Mary conversations. If he had not
possessed them on the 11th of June 1568, he must have asked Crawford
for his reminiscences of these talks. But he did not ask.

Crawford's evidence was all-important, because it corroborated Mary's
own account of her interviews with Darnley in Letter II. That part of
the letter then, it is argued by many, is a forged interpolation based
on Crawford's notes and memories. The force of this contention lies in
the close verbal identities between Crawford's account of the
Darnley-Mary interviews (see Crawford's Declaration of December 9, 1568,
in Lang's _Mystery of Mary Stuart_, pp. 428-431; from _State Papers
Scotland_, Elizabeth vol. xiii. No. 14. Record Office) and the
corresponding passages in Letter II. (_Mystery of Mary Stuart_, pp.
396-398). The verbal identities can only be explained in one of the
following ways. Either Letter II. is here based on Crawford; or Crawford
has copied Letter II. by way of corroborating it (a fatal step, if the
case came before a modern English court of justice); or Darnley's memory
of his conversation with Mary was so fresh, when he dictated his
recollection of it to Crawford on 21st-22nd January 1567, that he
reported speeches in almost the very same words as Mary used in writing
Letter II. Henderson prefers the hypothesis that Lennox had lost
Crawford's notes; and that the identities are explained by the
"remarkably good memories of Crawford and Mary, or by the more likely
supposition that Crawford, before preparing his declaration for the
conference" (at Westminster, December 1568) "refreshed his memory by the
letter." (Letter II., _Mary Queen of Scots_, p. 650.)

Mary did not need a particularly good memory; if she wrote, she wrote
unchecked her recollections of the day's talk. But no human memory of a
conversation reported on the 22nd of January 1567, could be so nearly
"word perfect" as Crawford's must have been two years later. If Crawford
"refreshed his memory by the letter," he exposed himself, and the entire
case, by copying whole passages, often with few verbal changes. If he
had access to his original notes of the 21st and 22nd of January 1567,
then he was safe--that is, if Darnley's memory of the conversations
tallied so exactly with Mary's. Whether that could be, Darnley dictating
while still hot from the exciting interchange of words which he meant to
report, is a question for psychologists. Experiments made by a person
who possesses a good memory seem to show that the thing is very
possible, especially if Darnley revised Crawford's notes.

Thus the probabilities are delicately balanced. But if any one compares
Crawford's whole declaration with Letter II. in Scots, he will find that
Crawford has sources of information not yielded by Letter II.; while
Letter II. abounds in matter spoken by Mary and Darnley which could not
be borrowed by the hypothetical forger from Crawford's Declaration, for
it does not contain the facts. These facts, again, in Letter II., are
worthless to a forger, because they concern matters never alluded to in
any of the records; never employed in any indictment (though Lennox's
are copious in private talk between Darnley and Mary, "reports of her
servants "), and totally useless for the purposes of the accusers. Here
is one of several examples. Letter II. has, and Crawford has not, the
statement that Darnley "showed me, amongst other talk, that he knew well
enough that my brother had revealed to me what he (Darnley) had spoken
at Stirling. Of this he (Darnley) denies half, and above all that he
(the brother?) ever came to his (Darnley's) chamber."

Nothing is known about this matter. The Lennox papers are full of
reports of bitter words that passed between Darnley and Mary at Stirling
(December 1566), where Darnley was sulking apart while the festivities
of the baptism of his son (later James VI.) were being held. But nothing
is said in the Lennox papers of words spoken by Darnley to Mary's
brother (probably Lord Robert of Holyrood) and revealed by Lord Robert
to Mary. Lord Robert was the only friend of Darnley in Mary's entourage;
and he even, according to the accusers, warned him of his danger in Kirk
o' Field, to which they said that a Casket Letter (III.) referred. The
reference is only to be seen by willing eyes.

Is it credible that a forger, using Crawford's Declaration, which is
silent as to Mary's brother at Stirling, should have superfluously added
what is not to any purpose? Could he have combined with Crawford's
matter the passage "he (Darnley) showed me almost all that is in name of
the Bishop and Sutherland, and yet I have never touched a word of what
you (Bothwell) showed me ... and by complaining of the Bishop, I have
drawn it all out of him."

Who but Mary herself could have written about this unknown affair of the
Bishop, and what had the supposed forger to gain by inventing and adding
these references to affairs unconnected with the case?

There remains what looks like absolute proof that, in essence,
Crawford's Declaration and Letter II. are independent documents. We are
not aware that this crucial point has been noticed by the earlier
critics of the Letters. In Letter II. (paragraph 7, p. 398, in Lang's
_Mystery of Mary Stuart_, 1901) Mary writes, "I asked why he (Darnley)
would pass away in the English ship. He denies it, and swears thereunto;
but he grants that he spoke unto the men." Here Crawford's declaration
has, "She asked him why he would pass away in the English ship. He
answered that he had spoken with the Englishman, but not of mind to go
away with him. And, if he had, it had not been without cause,
considering how he was used. For he had neither [means] to sustain
himself nor his servants, and need not make further rehearsal thereof,
seeing she knew it as well as he." (_Mystery of Mary Stuart_, p. 429.)

It may seem to the reader doubtful whether these complaints are words of
Darnley's, or an indignant addition by his friend Crawford. But Mary, in
Letter II., shows that the complaints and the self-defence are Darnley's
own. It was in paragraph 7 that she wrote about the English ship; she
did not then give Darnley's remonstrances, as Crawford does. But in
paragraph 18 (_Mystery_, p. 406) Mary returns to the subject, and
writes, "He (Darnley) spoke very bravely at the beginning, as the bearer
will show you, upon the subject of the Englishmen, and of his departing;
but in the end he returned to his humility."

Thus it is certain that Darnley had reported to Crawford his brave words
and reproaches of Mary, which Crawford gives in the proper place. But
Letter II. omits them in that place (paragraph 7); and only on her
second day of writing, in paragraph 18, does Mary's mind recur to
Darnley's first brave words--"he spoke very bravely at the beginning,"
about his wrongs, "but in the end he returned again to his humility."

Here is proof positive that Crawford does not copy Letter II., but gives
Darnley's words as reported to him by Darnley--words that Darnley was
proud of,--while Mary, returning on the second day of writing to the
topic, does not quote Darnley's brave words, but merely contrasts his
speaking "very bravely at the beginning" with his pitiful and craven
later submission; "he has ever the tear in his eye," with what follows.
(_Mystery_, paragraph 12, p. 402.)

When we add to these and other proofs the strange lists of memoranda in
the middle of the pages of the letter, and the breach in internal
chronology which was apparently caused by Mary's writing, on her second
day, on the clean verso of a page on the other side of which she had
written some lines during her first night in Glasgow; when we add the
dramatic changes of her mood, and the heart-breaking evidence of a
remorse not stifled by lawless love, we seem compelled to believe that
she wrote the whole of Letter II.; that none of it is forged.

In _The Mystery of Mary Stuart_ the evidence for an early forged letter
was presented with confidence; the interpolation of forgeries based on
Crawford's declaration was more dubiously suggested. That position the
writer now abandons. It may be asked why, after being with Wood on the
11th of June, did Lennox still rely on Moray's version of Mary's letter?
The reply may be that the Scots versions were regarded as a great
secret; that Lennox was a married man; and that though Lennox in June
knew about Mary's letters, doubtless from Wood, or from common report
(Bishop Jewell in a letter of August 1567 mentions that he had heard of
them), yet Wood did not show to him the Scots copies. Lennox quotes
Letter II. later, in an indictment to be read to the commission sitting
at York (October 1568). But, on the other hand, as Lennox after meeting
Wood wrote to Crawford for his reminiscences of his own interview with
Mary (January 21, 1567), and as these reminiscences were only useful as
corroborative of Mary's account in Letter II., it seems that Wood had
either shown Lennox the letters or had spoken of their contents. In that
case, when Lennox later quotes Moray's version, not Letter II. itself,
he is only acting with the self-contradictory stupidity which pervades
his whole indictment (Oo. 7. 47. fol. 17 b.).

The letters are not known to have been seen by any man--they or the
silver casket--after the death of the earl of Gowrie (who possessed
them). In May 1584 Bowes, the English ambassador to Holyrood, had
endeavoured to procure them for Elizabeth, "for the secrecy and benefit
of the cause." Conceivably the letters fell into the hands of James VI.
and were destroyed by his orders.     (A. L.)



CASLON, the name of a famous family of English typefounders. William
Caslon (1692-1766), the first of the name, was born at Cradley,
Worcestershire, and in 1716 started business in London as an engraver of
gun locks and barrels, and as a bookbinder's tool-cutter. Being thus
brought into contact with printers, he was induced to fit up a type
foundry, largely through the encouragement of William Bowyer. The
distinction and legibility of his type secured him the patronage of the
leading printers of the day in England and on the continent. The use of
Caslon types, discontinued about the beginning of the 19th century, was
revived about 1845 at the suggestion of Sir Henry Cole, and used for
printing the _Diary of Lady Willoughby_ (a pseudo-17th-century story) by
the Chiswick Press. The headline on this page is "Caslon Old Face." He
died on the 23rd of January 1766. His son, William Caslon (1720-1778),
who had been partner with his father for some years, continued the
business.



CASPARI, KARL PAUL (1814-1892), German Lutheran theologian and
orientalist, was born of Jewish parents at Dessau, Anhalt, on the 8th of
February 1814. He studied at Leipzig and Berlin, became a Christian in
1838, and in 1857 was appointed professor of theology at Christiania,
having declined invitations to Rostock and Erlangen. He died at
Christiania on the 11th of April 1892. Caspari is best known as the
author of an Arabic grammar (_Grammatica Arabica_, 2 vols., 1844-1848;
new edition, _Arabische Grammatik_, edited by A. Müller; 5th ed. 1887).
He also wrote commentaries on the prophetical books of the Old
Testament, dogmatic and historical works on baptism, and from 1857
helped to edit the _Theologisk Tidskrift for den evangelisk-lutherske
Kirke i Norge_. His writings include: _Beiträge zur Einleitung in
Jesaja_ (1848), and _Alte und neue Quellen zur Geschichte des
Taufsymbols und der Glaubensregel_ (1879).



CASPIAN SEA (anc. _Mare Caspium_ or _Mare Hyrcanium_; Russian,
_Kaspiyskoe More_, formerly _Hvalynskoe More_; Persian, _Darya-i-Khyzyr_
or _Gurzem_; Tatar, _Ak-denghiz_; the _Sikim_ and _Jurjan_ of the
ancient Eastern geographers), an inland sea between Europe and Asia,
extending from 36° 40' to 47° 20' N. lat., and from 46° 50' to 55° 10'
E. long. Its length is 760 m. from N. to S., and its breadth 100 to 280
m., and its area reaches 169,330 sq. m., of which 865 sq. m. belong to
its islands. It fills the deepest part of a vast depression, sometimes
known as the Aralo-Caspian depression, once an inland sea, the Eurasian
Mediterranean or Sarmatian Ocean. At the present time its surface lies
86 ft. below the level of the ocean, or 96.7 ft. according to the
Aral-Caspian levelling[1] and 242.7 ft. below the level of the Aral.

_Hydrography and Shores._--The hydrography of the Caspian Sea has been
studied by von Baer, by N. Ivashintsev (1819-1871) in 1862-1870, by O.
Grimm, N.I. Andrusov (1895), and by J.B. Spindler (1897), N. von
Seidlitz and N. Knipovich (1904) since the last quoted date. Its basin
is divided naturally into three sections--(1) A northern, forming in the
east the Gulf of Mortvyi Kultuk or Tsarevich Bay. This is the shallowest
part, barely reaching a depth of 20 fathoms. It is being gradually
silted up by the sedimentary deposits brought down by the rivers Volga,
Ural and Terek. The western shore, from the delta of the Volga to the
mouth of the Kuma, a distance of 170 m., is gashed by thousands of
narrow channels or lagoons, termed _limans_, from 12 to 30 m. in length,
and separated in some cases by chains of hillocks, called _bugors_, in
others by sandbanks. These channels are filled, sometimes with
sea-water, sometimes with overflow water from the Volga and the Kuma.
The coast-line of the Gulf of Mortvyi Kultuk on the north-east is, on
the other hand, formed by a range of low calcareous hills, constituting
the rampart of the Ust-Urt plateau, which intervenes between the Caspian
and the Sea of Aral. On the south this gulf is backed by the conjoined
peninsulas of Busachi and Manghishlak, into which penetrates the long,
narrow, curving bay or fjord of Kaidak or Kara-su. (2) South of the line
joining the Bay of Kuma with the Manghishlak peninsula, in 44° 10' N.
lat., the western shore is higher and the water deepens considerably,
being over one-half of the area 50 fathoms, while the maximum depth
(between 41° and 42° N. lat.) reaches 437 fathoms. This, the middle
section of the Caspian, which extends as far as the Apsheron peninsula,
receives the Terek and several smaller streams (e.g. Sulak, Samur),
that drain the northern slopes of the Caucasus. At Derbent, just north
of 42° lat., a spur of the Caucasus approaches so close to the sea as to
leave room for only a narrow passage, the _Caspiae Pylae_ or _Albanae
Portae_, which has been fortified for centuries. The eastern shore of
this section of the sea is also formed by the Ust-Urt plateau, which
rises 550 ft. to 750 ft. above the level of the Caspian; but in 42° N.
lat. the Ust-Urt recedes from the Caspian and circles round the Gulf of
Kara-boghaz or Kara-bugaz (also called Aji-darya and Kuli-darya). This
subsidiary basin is separated from the Caspian by a narrow sandbar,
pierced by a strait 1¼ m. long and only 115 to 170 yds. wide, through
which a current flows continuously into the gulf at the rate of 1½ to 5
m. an hour, the mean velocity at the surface being 3 m. an hour. To this
there exists no compensating outflow current at a greater depth, as is
usually the case in similar situations. The area of this lateral basin
being about 7100 sq. m., and its depth but comparatively slight (3½ to
36 ft.), the evaporation is very appreciable (amounting to 3.2 ft. per
annum), and sufficient, according to von Baer, to account for the
perpetual inflow from the Caspian. South of the Kara-Boghaz Bay the
coast rises again in another peninsula, formed by an extension of the
Balkhan Mountains. This marks (40° N. lat.) the southern boundary of the
middle section of the Caspian. This basin may be, on the whole,
considered as a continuation of the synclinal depression of the Manych,
which stretches along the northern foot of the Caucasus from the Sea of
Azov. It is separated from (3), the southern and deepest section of the
Caspian, by a submarine ridge (30 to 150 fathoms of water), which links
the main range of the Caucasus on the west with the Kopet-dagh in the
Transcaspian region on the east. This section of the sea washes on the
south the base of the Elburz range in Persia, sweeping round from the
mouth of the Kura, a little north of the Bay of Kizil-agach, to
Astarabad at an average distance of 40 m. from the foot of the
mountains. A little east of the Gulf of Enzeli, which resembles the
Kara-boghaz, though on a much smaller scale, the Sefid-rud pours into
the Caspian the drainage of the western end of the Elburz range, and
several smaller streams bring down the precipitation that falls on the
northern face of the same range farther to the east. Near its south-east
corner the Caspian is entered by the Atrek, which drains the mountain
ranges of the Turkoman (N.E.) frontier of Persia. Farther north, on the
east coast, opposite to the Bay of Kizil-agach, comes the Balkhan or
Krasnovodsk Bay. In the summer of 1894 a subterranean volcano was
observed in this basin of the Caspian, in 38° 10' N. lat. and 52° 37' E.
long. The depth in this section ranges from 300 to 500 fathoms, with a
maximum of 602 fathoms.

_Drainage Area and Former Extent._--The catchment area from which the
Caspian is fed extends to a very much greater distance on the west and
north than it does on the south and east. From the former it is entered
by the Volga, which is estimated to drain an area of 560,000 sq. m., the
Ural 96,000 sq. m., the Terek 59,000 sq. m., the Sulak 7000 sq. m., the
Samur 4250 sq. m.; as compared with these, there comes from the south
and east the Kura and Aras, draining the south side of the Caucasus over
87,250 sq. m., and the Sefid-rud and the Atrek, both relatively short.
Altogether it is estimated (by von Dingelstedt) that the total discharge
of all the rivers emptying into the Caspian amounts annually to a volume
equal to 174.5 cub. m. Were there no evaporation, this would raise the
surface of the sea 5½ ft. annually. In point of fact, however, the
entire volume of fresh water poured into the Caspian is only just
sufficient to compensate for the loss by evaporation. Indeed in recent
times the level appears to have undergone several oscillations. From the
researches of Philippov it appears that during the period 1851-1888 the
level reached a maximum on three separate occasions, namely in
1868-1869, 1882 and 1885, while in 1853 and 1873 it stood at a minimum;
the range of these oscillations did not, however, exceed 3 ft. 6½ in.
The Russian expedition which investigated the Kara-boghaz in 1896
concluded that there is no permanent subsidence in the level of the sea.
In addition to these periodical fluctuations, there are also seasonal
oscillations, the level being lowest in January and highest in the
summer.

The level of the Caspian, however, was formerly about the same as the
existing level of the Black Sea, although now some 86 ft. below it. This
is shown by the evidences of erosion on the face of the rocks which
formed the original shore-line of its southern basin, those evidences
existing at the height of 65 to 80 ft. above the present level. That a
rapid subsidence did take place from the higher level is indicated by
the fact that between it and the present level there is an absence of
indications of erosive energy. There can be no real doubt that formerly
the area of the Caspian was considerably greater than it is at the
present time. Nearly one hundred and fifty years ago Pallas had his
attention arrested by the existence of the salt lakes and dry saline
deposits on the steppes to the east of the Caspian, and at great
distances from its shores, and by the presence in the same localities of
shells of the same marine fauna as that which now inhabits that sea, and
he suggested the obvious explanation that those regions must formerly
have been covered by the waters of the sea. And it is indeed the fact
that large portions of the vast region comprised between the lower
Volga, the Aral-Irtysh water-divide, the Dzungarian Ala-tau, and the
outliers of the Tian-shan and Hindu-kush systems are actually covered
with Aralo-Caspian deposits, nearly always a yellowish-grey clay, though
occasionally they assume the character of a more or less compact
sandstone of the same colour. These deposits attain their maximum
thickness of 90 ft. east of the Caspian, and have in many parts been
excavated and washed away by the rivers (which have frequently changed
their beds) or been transported by the winds, which sweep with
unmitigated violence across those wide unsheltered expanses. The typical
fossils unearthed in these deposits are shells of species now living in
both the Caspian and the Aral, though in the shallow parts of both seas
only, namely (according to Ivan V. Mushketov [1850-1902]) _Cardium
edule, Dreissena polymorpha, Neritina liturata, Adacna vitrea, Hydrobia
stagnalis_, in the Kara-kum desert, and _Lithoglyphus caspius, Hydrobia
stagnalis, Anodonta ponderosa_ and the sponge _Metchnikovia
tuberculata_, in the Kizil-kum desert. The exact limits of the ancient
Aralo-Caspian sea are not yet settled, except in the north-west, where
the Ergeni Hills of Astrakhan constitute an unmistakable barrier.
Northwards these marine deposits are known to exist 80 m. away from Lake
Aral, though they do not cross the Aral-Irtysh water-divide, so that
this sea will not probably have been at that time connected with the
Arctic, as some have supposed. The eastern limits of these deposits lie
about 100 m. from Lake Aral, though Severtsov maintained that they
penetrate into the basin of Lake Balkash. Southwards they have been
observed without a break for 160 m. from Lake Aral, namely in the
Sary-kamysh depression (the surface of which lies below the level of the
Caspian) and up the Uzboi trench for 100 m. from the latter sea. How
far they reach up the present courses of the Oxus (Amu-darya) and
Jaxartes (Syr-darya) is not known. Hence, it is plain that in late
Tertiary, and probably also in Post-Tertiary, times the Aralo-Caspian
Sea covered a vast expanse of territory and embraced very large islands
(e.g. Ust-Urt), which divided it into an eastern and a western portion,
communicating by one or two narrow straits only, such as on the south
the Sary-kamysh depression, and on the north the line of the lakes of
Chumyshty and Asmantai. More than this, the Caspian was also, it is
pretty certain, at the same epoch, and later, in direct communication
with the Sea of Azov, no doubt by way of the Manych depression; for in
the _limans_ or lagoons of the Black Sea many faunal species exist which
are not only identical with species that are found in the Caspian, but
also many which, though not exactly identical, are closely allied. As
examples of the former may be named--_Archaeobdella, Clessinia
variabilis, Neritina liturata, Gmelina, Gammarus moeoticus, Pseudocuma
pectinata, Paramysis Baeri, Mesomysis Kowalevskyi_ and _M. intermedia,
Limnomysis Benedeni_ and _L. Brandt_i, and species of the ichthyological
fauna _Gobius, Clupea_ and _Acipenser_; while as illustrating the latter
class the Black Sea contains _Dreissenia bugensis_ (allied to _D.
rostriformis_ and _D. Grimmi), Cardium ponticum_ (to _C. caspium), C.
coloratum_ (to _Monodacna edentula), Amphicteis antiqua_ (to _A.
Kowalevskyi_) and _Bythotrephes azovicus_ (to _B. socialis_).

In the opinion of Russian geologists the separation of the Caspian from
the great ocean must have taken place at a comparatively recent
geological epoch. During the early Tertiary age it belonged to the
Sarmatian Ocean, which reached from the middle Danube eastwards through
Rumania, South Russia, and along both flanks of the Caucasus to the
Aralo-Caspian region, and westwards had open communication with the
great ocean, as indeed the ancient geographers Eratosthenes, Strabo and
Pliny believed it still had in their day. This communication began to
fail, or close up presumably in the Miocene period; and before the dawn
of Pliocene times the Sarmatian Ocean was broken up or divided into
sections, one of which was the Aralo-Caspian sea already discussed.
During the subsequent Ice Age the Caspian flowed over the steppes that
stretch away to the north, and was probably still connected with the
Black Sea (itself as yet unconnected with the Mediterranean), while
northwards it sent a narrow gulf or inlet far up the Volga valley, for
Aralo-Caspian deposits have been observed along the lower Kama in 56° N.
lat. Eastwards it penetrated up the Uzboi depression between the Great
and Little Balkhan ranges, so that that depression, which is strewn (as
mentioned above) with Post-Tertiary marine deposits, was not (as is
sometimes supposed) an old bed of the Oxus, but a gulf of the Caspian.
After the great ice cap had thawed and a period of general desiccation
set in, the Caspian began to shrink in area, and simultaneously its
connexions with the Black Sea and the Sea of Aral were severed.

_Fauna_.--The fauna of this sea has been studied by Eichwald,
Kowalevsky, Grimm, Dybowski, Kessler and Sars. At the present time it
represents an intermingling of marine and fresh-water forms. To the
former belongs the herring (_Clupea_), and to the latter, species of
_Cyprinus, Perca_ and _Silurus_, also a lobster. Other marine forms are
Rhizopoda (_Rotalia_ and _Textillaria_), the sponge _Amorphina_, the
_Amphicteis_ worm, the molluscs _Cardium edule_ and other _Cardidae_,
and some Amphipods (_Cumacea_ and _Mysidae_,), but they are forms which
either tolerate variations in salinity or are especially characteristic
of brackish waters. But there are many species inhabiting the waters of
the Caspian which are not found elsewhere. These include Protozoa, three
sponges, Vermes, twenty-five Molluscs, numerous Amphipods, fishes of the
genera _Gobias, Benthophilus_ and _Cobitis_, and one mammal (_Phoca
caspia_). This last, together with some of the _Mysidae_ and the species
_Glyptonotus entomon_, exhibits Arctic characteristics, which has
suggested the idea of a geologically recent connexion between the
Caspian and the Arctic, an idea of which no real proofs have been as yet
discovered. The Knipovich expedition in 1904 found no traces of organic
life below the depth of 220 fathoms except micro-organisms and a single
Oligochaete; but above that level there exist abundant evidences of rich
pelagic life, more particularly from the surface down to a depth of 80
fathoms.

_Fisheries_.--No other inland sea is so richly stocked with fish as the
Caspian, especially off the mouths of the large rivers, the Volga, Ural,
Terek and Kura. The fish of greatest economic value are sturgeon (four
species), which yield great quantities of caviare and isinglass, the
herring, the salmon and the lobster. The annual catch of the entire sea
is valued at an average of one million sterling. Some 50,000 persons are
engaged in this industry off the mouth of the Volga alone. Seals are
hunted in Krasnovodsk Bay.

_Salinity_.--The proportion of salt in the water of the Caspian, though
varying in different parts and at different seasons, is generally much
less than the proportion in oceanic water, and even less than the
proportion in the water of the Black Sea. In fact the salinity of the
Caspian is only three-eights of that of the ocean. In the northern
section, which receives the copious volumes brought down by the Volga,
Ural and Terek, the salinity is so slight (only 0.0075% in the surface
layers) that the water is quite drinkable, its specific gravity being
not higher than 1.0016. In the middle section the salinity of the
surface layers increases to 0.015%, though it is of course greater along
the shores. The concentration of the saline ingredients proceeds with
the greatest degree of intensity in the large bays on the east side of
the sea, and more especially in that of Kara-boghaz, where it reaches
16.3% (Spindler expedition). The bottom of this almost isolated basin is
covered for an area of 1300 sq. m. with a deposit of Epsom salts
(sulphate of magnesia), 7 ft. thick, amounting to an estimated total of
1,000,000,000 tons. While the proportion of common salt to sulphate of
magnesia is as 11 to 1 in the water of the Black Sea and as 2 to 1 in
the Caspian water generally, it is as 12.8 to 5.03 in the Kara-boghaz.
The salinity of the surface water of the southern section of the Caspian
averages 1.5%.

_Climate_.--The temperature of the air over the Caspian basin is
remarkable for its wide range both geographically and seasonally. The
January isotherm of 15° F. skirts its northern shore; that of 40°
crosses its southern border. But the winter extremes go far below this
range: during the prevalence of north-east winds the thermometer drops
to -20°, or even lower, on the surrounding steppes, while on the Ust-Urt
plateau a temperature of -30° is not uncommon. Again, the July isotherm
of 75° crosses the middle section of the Caspian, nearly coinciding with
the January isotherm of 25°, while that of 80° skirts the southern shore
of the sea, nearly coinciding with the January curve of 40°, so that the
mean annual range over the northern section of the sea is 60° and over
the southern section 40°. The former section, which is too shallow to
store up any large amount of heat during the summer, freezes for three
or four months along the shores, effectually stopping navigation on the
lower Volga, but out in the middle ice appears only when driven there by
northerly winds.

The prevalent winds of the Caspian blow from the south-east, usually
between October and March, and from the north and north-west, commonly
between July and September. They sometimes continue for days together
with great violence, rendering navigation dangerous and driving the
sea-water up over the shores. They also, by heaping up the water at the
one end of the sea or the other, raise the level temporarily and locally
to the extent of 4 to 8 ft. The currents of the Caspian were
investigated by the Knipovich expedition; it detected two of special
prominence, a south-going current along the west shore and a north-going
current along the east shore. As a consequence of this the temperature
of the water is higher on the Asiatic than on the European side. The
lowest temperature obtained was 35°.24 on the bottom in shallow water,
the highest 70°.7 on the surface. But in March the temperature, as also
the salinity, was tolerably uniform throughout all the layers of water.
Another interesting fact ascertained by the same expedition is that the
amount of oxygen contained in the water decreases rapidly with the
depth: off Derbent in the middle section of the sea the amount
diminished from 5.6 cc. per litre at a depth of 100 metres (330 ft.) to
0.32 cc. per litre at a depth of 700 metres (say 2300 ft.). At the same
spot samples of water drawn from the bottom were found to contain 0.3
cc. of sulphuretted hydrogen per litre. In the southern section of the
sea the decrease is not so rapid. In this latter section Spindler
ascertained in July 1897 that the temperature of the surface water 60 m.
from Baku was 72.9°, but that below 10 fathoms it sank rapidly, and at
200 fathoms and below it was constant at 21.2°.

_Navigation_.--The development of the petroleum industry in the Apeshron
peninsula (Baku) and the opening (1886) of the Transcaspian railway have
greatly increased the traffic across the Caspian Sea. A considerable
quantity of raw cotton is brought from Ferghana by the latter route and
shipped at Krasnovodsk for the mills in the south and centre of Russia,
as well as for countries farther west. And Russia draws her own supplies
of petroleum, both for lighting and for use as liquid fuel, by the sea
route from Baku. Other ports in addition to those just mentioned are
Astrakhan, on the Volga; Petrovsk, Derbent and Lenkoran, on the west
shore; Enzeli or Resht, and Astarabad, on the Persian coast; and
Mikhailovsk, on the east coast. The Russians keep a small naval flotilla
on the Caspian, all other nations being debarred from doing so by the
treaty of Turkmanchai (1828).

At various times and by various persons, but more particularly by Peter
the Great, the project has been mooted of cutting a canal between the
Volga and the Don, and so establishing unrestricted water communication
between the Caspian and the Black Sea; but so far none of these schemes
has taken practical shape. In 1900 the Hydrotechnical Congress of Russia
discussed the plan of constructing a canal to connect the Caspian more
directly with the Black Sea by cutting an artificial waterway about 22
ft. deep and 180 ft. wide from Astrakhan to Taganrog on the Sea of Azov.

  See works quoted under ARAL; also von Baer, "Kaspische Studien," in
  _Bull. Sci. St-Pétersbourg_ (1855-1859), and in Erman's _Archiv russ._
  (1855-1856); Radde, _Fauna und Flora des sudwestlichen Kaspigebietes_
  (1886); J.V. Mushketov, _Turkestan_ (St Petersburg, 1886), with
  bibliographical references; Ivashintsev, _Hydrographic Exploration of
  the Caspian Sea_ (in Russian), with atlas (2 vols., 1866); Philippov,
  _Marine Geography of the Caspian Basin_ (in Russian, 1877); _Memoirs
  of the Aral-Caspian Expedition of 1876-1877_ (2 vols, in Russian),
  edited by the St Petersburg Society of Naturalists; Andrusov, "A
  Sketch of the Development of the Caspian Sea and its Inhabitants," in
  _Zapiski of Russ. Geog. Soc.: General Geog._ vol. xxiv.; Eichwald,
  _Fauna Caspio-Caucasica_ (1841); Seidlitz, "Das Karabugas Meerbusen,"
  in _Globus_, with map, vol. lxxvi. (1899); Knipovich,
  "Hydrobiologische Untersuchungert des Kaspischen Meeres," in
  _Petermanns Mitteilungen_, vol. l. (1904); and Spindler, in _Izvestia
  of Russ. Geog. Soc._ vol. xxxiv.     (P. A. K.; J. T. Be.)


FOOTNOTE:

  [1] By the triangulation of 1840 its level was found to be 84 ft.
    below the level of the Black Sea. The Caucasus triangulation of
    1860-1870 gave 89 ft.



CASS, LEWIS (1782-1866), American general and statesman, was born at
Exeter, New Hampshire, on the 9th of October 1782. He was educated at
Phillips Exeter Academy, joined his father at Marietta, Ohio, about
1799, studied law there in the office of Return Jonathan Meigs
(1765-1825), and was admitted to the bar at the age of twenty. Four
years later he became a member of the Ohio legislature. During the War
of 1812 he served under General William Hull, whose surrender at Detroit
he strongly condemned, and under General W.H. Harrison, and rose from
the rank of colonel of volunteers to be major-general of Ohio militia
and finally to be a brigadier-general in the regular United States army.
In 1813 he was appointed governor of the territory of Michigan, the area
of which was much larger than that of the present state. This position
gave him the chief control of Indian affairs for the territory, which
was then occupied almost entirely by natives, there being only 6000
white settlers. During the eighteen years in which he held this post he
rendered valuable services to the territory and to the nation; he
extinguished the Indian title to large tracts of land, instituted
surveys, constructed roads, and explored the lakes and sources of the
Mississippi river. His relations with the British authorities in Canada
after the War of 1812 were at times very trying, as these officials
persisted in searching American vessels on the Great Lakes and in
arousing the hostility of the Indians of the territory against the
American government. To those experiences was largely due the antipathy
for Great Britain manifested by him in his later career. Upon the
reorganization of President Jackson's cabinet in 1831 he became
secretary of war, and held this office until 1836. It fell to him,
therefore, to direct the conduct of the Black Hawk and Seminole wars. He
sided with the president in his nullification controversy with South
Carolina and in his removal of the Indians from Georgia, but not in his
withdrawal of the government deposits from the United States Bank.

In 1836 General Cass was appointed minister to France, and became very
popular with the French government and people. In 1842, when the
Quintuple Treaty was negotiated by representatives of England, France,
Prussia, Russia and Austria for the suppression of the slave trade by
the exercise of the right of search, Cass attacked it in a pamphlet
entitled "An Examination of the Questions now in Discussion between the
American and British Government Concerning the Right of Search," and
presented to the French government a formal memorial which was probably
instrumental in preventing the ratification of the treaty by France. In
this same year the Webster-Ashburton treaty between Great Britain and
the United States was concluded, and, as England did not thereby
relinquish her claim of the right to search American vessels, Cass,
after having taken such a decided stand in this controversy, felt
himself in an awkward position, and resigned his post. His attitude on
this question made him very popular in America, and he was a strong, but
unsuccessful, candidate for the Democratic nomination for the presidency
in 1844. From 1845 to 1848 and from 1849 to 1857 he was a member of the
United States Senate, and in 1846 was a leader of those demanding the
"re-annexation" of all the Oregon country south of 54° 40' or war with
England, and was one of the fourteen who voted against the ratification
of the compromise with England at the 49th parallel. He loyally
supported Polk's administration during the Mexican War, opposed the
Wilmot Proviso, and advocated the Compromise Measures of 1850 and the
Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854. In his famous "Nicholson letter" of
December 1847 he made what was probably the earliest enunciation of the
doctrine of "popular sovereignty," namely, that the people of the
territories should decide for themselves whether or not they should have
slavery.

In 1848 he received the Democratic nomination for the presidency, but
owing to the defection of the so-called "Barnburners" (see FREE-SOIL
PARTY) he did not receive the united support of his party, and was
defeated by the Whig candidate, Zachary Taylor. His name was again
prominent before the Democratic convention of 1852, which, however,
finally nominated Franklin Pierce. On account of his eminently
conservative attitude on all questions concerning slavery, General Cass
has been accused of pandering to the southern Democrats in order to
further his political aspirations. His ideas of popular sovereignty,
however, were not inconsistent with the vigorous Democratic spirit of
the west, of which he was a typical representative, and it is not clear
that he believed that the application of this principle would result in
the extension of slavery. As the west became more radically opposed to
slavery after the troubles in Kansas, Cass was soon out of sympathy with
his section, and when the Republicans secured control of the legislature
in 1857 they refused to return him to the Senate. President Buchanan
soon afterward made him secretary of state, and in this position he at
last had the satisfaction of obtaining from the British government an
acknowledgment of the correctness of the American attitude with regard
to the right of search (or "visitation," as Great Britain
euphemistically termed it). In December 1860 he retired from the cabinet
when the president refused to take a firmer attitude against secession
by reinforcing Fort Sumter, and he remained in retirement until his
death at Detroit, Michigan, on the 17th of June 1866. He wrote for the
_North American_ and the _American Quarterly_ Reviews, and published
_Inquiries Concerning the History, Traditions and Languages of Indians
Living Within the United States_ (1823), and _France: Its King, Court
and Government_ (1840).

  See W.T. Young, _Life and Public Services of General Lewis Cass_
  (Detroit, 1852); W.L.G. Smith, _Life and Times of Lewis Cass_ (New
  York, 1856). The best biography is by A.G. McLaughlin, _Lewis Cass_
  (revised edition, Boston, 1899), in the "American Statesmen" series.



CASSABA, a town of Asia Minor, in the sanjak of Manisa, 63 m. E. of
Smyrna, with which it is connected by rail. Pop. estimated at 23,000, of
which two-thirds are Mussulman; but the estimate is probably excessive.
It has considerable local trade, and exports the products of the
surrounding district. Cotton is the most important article, and there
are ginning factories in the town; the silkworm is largely raised and
exported; and the "melons of Cassaba" are sent not only to Smyrna but to
Constantinople. There are fragments of marbles built into the houses,
but the modern town does not seem to occupy any ancient site of
importance.



CASSAGNAC, BERNARD ADOLPHE GRANIER DE (1806-1880), French journalist,
was born at Avéron-Bergelle in the department of Gers on the 11th of
August 1806. In 1832 he began his career as a Parisian journalist,
contributing ardent defences of Romanticism and Conservatism to the
_Revue de Paris_, the _Journal des Débats_, and to _La Presse_. Then he
founded a political journal, _L'Époque_ (1845-1848), in which his
violent polemics in support of Guizot brought him notoriety and not a
few duels. In 1851, in the _Constitutionnel_, he declared himself openly
an imperialist; and in 1852 was elected as "official candidate" by the
department of Gers. As journalist and deputy he actively supported an
absolutist policy. He demanded the restoration of religion, opposed the
laws in favour of the press, and was a member of the club of the rue de
l'Arcade. In March 1868 he accused the Liberal deputies of having
received money from the king of Prussia for opposing the emperor, and
when called upon for proof, submitted only false or trivial documents.
After the proclamation of the republic (4th of September 1870) he fled
to Belgium. He returned to France for the elections of 1876, and was
elected deputy. He continued to combat all the republican reforms, but
with no advantage to his party. He died on the 31st of January 1880. In
addition to his journalistic articles he published various historical
works, now unimportant.

His son, PAUL ADOLPHE MARIE PROSPER GRANIER DE CASSAGNAC (1843-1904),
while still young was associated with his father in both politics and
journalism. In 1866 he became editor of the Conservative paper _Le
Pays_, and figured in a long series of political duels. On the
declaration of war in 1870 he volunteered for service and was taken
prisoner at Sédan. On his return from prison in a fortress in Silesia he
continued to defend the Bonapartist cause in _Le Pays_, against both
Republicans and Royalists. Elected deputy for the department of Gers in
1876, he adopted in the chamber a policy of obstruction "to discredit
the republican régime." In 1877 he openly encouraged MacMahon to attempt
a Bonapartist _coup d'état_, but the marshal's refusal and the death of
the prince imperial foiled his hopes. He now played but a secondary role
in the chamber, and occupied himself mostly with the direction of the
journal _L'Autorité_, which he had founded. He was not re-elected in
1902, and died in November 1904. His sons took over _L'Autorité_ and the
belligerent traditions of the family.



CASSANA, NICCOLÒ (1659-1714), often called NICOLETTO, Italian painter,
was born at Venice, and became a disciple of his father, Giovanni
Francesco Cassana, a Genoese, who had been taught the art of painting by
Bernardino Strozzi ("il Prete Genovese"). Having painted portraits of
the Florentine court, and also of some of the English nobility,
Nicoletto was invited to England, and introduced to Queen Anne, who sat
to him for her likeness, and conferred on him many marks of favour. He
died in London in 1714, having given way to drinking in his later years.
Cassana was a man of the most vehement temper, and would wallow on the
ground if provoked with his work. One of his principal paintings is the
"Conspiracy of Catiline," now in Florence.



CASSANDER (c. 350-297 B.C.), king of Macedonia, eldest son of Antipater,
first appears at the court of Alexander at Babylon, where he defended
his father against the accusations of his enemies. Having been passed
over by his father in favour of Polyperchon as his successor in the
regency of Macedonia, Cassander allied himself with Ptolemy Soter and
Antigonus, and declared war against the regent. Most of the Greek states
went over to him, and Athens also surrendered. He further effected an
alliance with Eurydice, the ambitious wife of King Philip Arrhidaeus of
Macedon. Both she and her husband, however, together with Cassander's
brother, Nicanor, were soon after slain by Olympias. Cassander at once
marched against Olympias, and, having forced her to surrender in Pydna,
put her to death (316). In 310 or 309 he also murdered Roxana and
Alexander, the wife and son of Alexander the Great, whose natural son
Heracles he bribed Polyperchon to poison. He had already connected
himself with the royal family by marriage with Thessalonica, Alexander
the Great's half-sister, and, having formed an alliance with Seleucus,
Ptolemy and Lysimachus, against Antigonus, he became, on the defeat and
death of Antigonus in 301, undisputed sovereign of Macedonia. He died of
dropsy in 297. Cassander was a man of literary taste, but violent and
ambitious. He restored Thebes after its destruction by Alexander the
Great, transformed Therma into Thessalonica, and built the new city of
Cassandreia upon the ruins of Potidaea.

  See Diod. Sic. xviii., xix., xx.; Plutarch, _Demetrius_, 18. 31,
  _Phocion_, 31; also MACEDONIAN EMPIRE.



CASSANDER (or CASSANT), GEORGE (1513-1566), Flemish theologian, born at
Pitthem near Bruges, went at an early age to Louvain and was teaching
theology and literature in 1541 at Bruges and shortly afterwards at
Ghent. About 1549 he removed to Cologne, where, after a profound study
of the points of difference between the Catholic and reformed churches,
he devoted himself to the project of reunion, thus anticipating the
efforts of Leibnitz. In 1561 he published anonymously _De Officiis pii
ac publicae tranquillitatis vere amantis viri in hoc dissidio
religionis_ (Basel), in which, while holding that no one, on account of
abuses, has a right utterly to subvert the Church, he does not disguise
his dislike of those who exaggerated the papal claims. He takes his
standpoint on Scripture explained by tradition and the fathers of the
first six centuries. At a time when controversy drowned the voice of
reason, such a book pleased neither party; but as some of the German
princes thought that he could heal the breach, the emperor Ferdinand
asked him to publish his _Consultatio de Articulis Fidei inter
Catholicos et Protestantes Controversis_ (1565), in which, like Newman
at a later date, he tried to put a Catholic interpretation upon
Protestant formularies. While never attacking dogma, and even favouring
the Roman church on the ground of authority, he criticizes the papal
power and makes reflections on practices. The work, attacked violently
by the Louvain theologians on one side, and by Calvin and Beza on the
other, was put on the Roman Index in 1617. He died at Cologne on the 3rd
of February 1566. The collected edition of his works was published in
1616 at Paris.     (E. Tn.)



CASSANDRA, in Greek legend, daughter of Priam and Hecuba. She was
beloved of Apollo, who promised to bestow on her the spirit of prophecy
if she would comply with his desires. Cassandra accepted the proposal;
but no sooner had she obtained the gift than she laughed at the tempter,
and refused to her promise. Apollo revenged himself by ordaining that
her predictions should be discredited (Apollodorus iii. 12. 5); and
hence it was in vain that on the arrival of Helen she prophesied the
ruin of Troy. On the capture of that city she was ravished by Ajax, the
son of Oïleus, in the temple of Minerva (Strabo vi. p. 264). In the
distribution of the booty, Cassandra fell to the lot of Agamemnon; but
again her foresight was useless, for he would not believe her prediction
that he should perish in his own country. The prophecy was fulfilled,
for both were slain through the intrigues of Clytaemnestra (_Odyssey_,
xi. 421 ff.). It is to be noticed that there is no mention in Homer of
her prophetic gifts. Together with Apollo, she was worshipped under the
name of Alexandra.



CASSANO ALL' IONIO, a town of Calabria, Italy, in the province of
Cosenza; its railway station (6 m. S. of the town) is 37 m. N. by E.
from the town of Cosenza, while it is 6 m. W. of Sibari, on the line
between Metaponto and Reggio. Pop. 6842. It is very finely situated, 820
ft. above sea-level: the rock above it is crowned by a medieval castle
commanding beautiful views: a tower is still pointed out as that from
which the stone was thrown which killed Milo, but this rests on an
erroneous identification of Cassano with the ancient Compsa (q.v.).
There are warm sulphurous springs here which are used for baths.



CASSAVA, the name given to the farinaceous root of two species of
Euphorbiaceous plants, the bitter cassava, _Manihot utilissima_, and the
sweet cassava, _M. Aipi_, both highly important sources of food
starches; Manihot is given as the native Brazilian name in Spanish
writings of the 16th century. They are herbaceous or semi-shrubby
perennials with very large fleshy, cylindrical, tapering roots as much
as 3 ft. long and 6 to 9 in. in diameter, and filled with milky juice.
The slender stems, 5 to 9 ft. high, bear large spreading long-stalked
leaves, with the blade divided nearly to the base into three to seven
long narrow segments. The plants are probably natives of South America,
but the bitter cassava, which is the more important of the two in an
economic sense, has been introduced into most tropical regions, and is
extensively cultivated in west tropical Africa and the Malay
Archipelago, from which, as well as from Brazil and other South American
states, its starch in the form of tapioca is a staple article of export.
The sap of the bitter cassava root contains hydrocyanic acid, and the
root, being therefore highly poisonous, cannot be eaten in a fresh
condition; while on the other hand the sweet cassava is perfectly
innocuous, and is employed as a table vegetable. Exposure to heat
dissipates the poisonous principle, and the concentrated juice is in
that state used as the basis of cassareep and other sauces. From the
bitter cassava roots many different food preparations are made in
Brazil. The roots are preserved for use by being simply cleaned, sliced
and dried; from such dried slices manioc or cassava meal, used for
cassava cakes, &c., is prepared by rasping. The starch also is separated
and used for food under the name of Brazilian arrowroot; and this, when
agglomerated into pellets on hot plates, forms the tapioca (q.v.) of
commerce. Cassava starch has a stellate hilum, which readily
distinguishes it under the microscope from other starches.

[Illustration: Cassava or Manioc (_Manihot utilissima_), less than half
nat. size.

  1, An inflorescence showing at a a fruit which will presently separate
  into five one-seeded parts, about ½ nat. size.

  2, Pistil of female flower.

  3, Stamens and fleshy disc of male flower.

  4, Seed with its appendage (strophiole or caruncle).]



CASSEL, a town of northern France in the department of Nord, 34 m. N.W.
of Lille by rail. Pop. (1906) 1844. It stands on an isolated hill (515
ft.) from which portions of France, Belgium and England can be seen,
with 32 towns and 100 villages, including St Omer, Dunkirk, Ypres and
Ostend. The former hôtel de ville (1634), the hôtel de la Noble Cour,
once the seat of the jurisdiction of maritime Flanders, now the
town-hall, and the hôtel des ducs d'Halluin are the historic buildings
of the town. Cassel has a communal college. Its industrial
establishments include tanneries, oil-mills, salt refineries and
breweries, and there is trade in cattle and butter.

The town, supposed to occupy the site of _Castellum Menapiorum_, was a
Roman station, as numerous remains of the Gallo-Roman period attest, and
an important centre of roads. It is frequently mentioned in the wars of
the middle ages, and was the scene of important battles in 1071, when
Robert, count of Flanders, vanquished his rival Arnulf; 1328, when
Philip of Valois defeated the Flemish; and 1677, when William of Orange
was defeated by Philip, duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV. General
D.R. Vandamme (1770-1830) was born in the town.



CASSEL, or KASSEL, a city of Germany, capital of the former electorate
of Hesse-Cassel, and, since its annexation by Prussia in 1866, capital
of the province of Hesse-Nassau. Pop. (1885) 64,083; (1905) 120,446. It
is pleasantly situated, in a hilly and well-wooded country, on both
sides of the river Fulda, over which a stone bridge leads to the lower
new town, 124 m. by rail N.N.E. from Frankfort-On-Main. The river is
navigable for barges, and railways connect the town with all parts of
Germany. The streets of the old town are narrow and crooked, and contain
many picturesque gabled houses, generally of the 17th century, but those
of the upper and lower new town, and the three suburbs, are not
surpassed by any in Germany. The principal streets are the
Königs-strasse (5100 ft. long and 60 broad), the Schöne Aussicht, and
the Stände-platz (180 ft. broad with four rows of linden trees). The
large Friedrichs-platz is 1000 by 450 ft. in area. In it stands a marble
statue of the landgrave Frederick II. There is a fine view from the open
side. The former residence of the electors (_Residenzschloss_) fronts
this square, as well as the Museum Fridericianum, with a _façade_ of
Roman-Ionic columns. The museum contains various valuable collections of
curiosities, interesting mosaics, coins, casts, a library of 230,000
volumes, and valuable manuscripts. In the cabinet of curiosities there
is a complete collection of clocks and watches from the earliest to the
present time. Among these is the so-called Egg of Nuremberg, a watch
made about 1500 by Peter Henlein. Among other public places and
buildings worthy of notice are the Roman Catholic church, with a
splendid interior; the Königs-platz, with a remarkable echo; the
Karls-platz, with the statue of the landgrave Charles; and the
Martins-platz, with a large church--St Martin's--with twin towers,
containing the burial-vaults of the Hessian princes. The gallery of
paintings, housed in a handsome building erected in 1880 on the Schöne
Aussicht, contains one of the finest small collections in Europe,
especially rich in the works of Rembrandt, Frans Hals and Van Dyck.

The town contains numerous educational institutions, including a
technical college, a school of painting, a celebrated classical school,
which the emperor William II. attended, and a military academy. The
descendants of the French refugees who founded the upper new town have a
church and hospital of their own. There are three Roman Catholic
churches, an English church, and two synagogues. Music is much
cultivated, and there is an opera with a first-rate orchestra, of which
Ludwig Spohr was at one time conductor. The opera-house or theatre was
built by Jerome Napoleon, but in 1906 money was voted for a new
building on the Auetor. A new Rathaus (town-hall) has been erected.
There are also the Bose Museum, containing collections of pictures and
antiquities of Hessian origin, museums of natural history and
ethnography, an industrial exhibition hall, and an industrial art
school. A handsome Gothic Lutheran church was erected in 1892-1897, a
post office (Renaissance) in 1881, and new administrative offices and
law courts in 1876-1880. The municipal (or Murhard) library, in the
Hanau park, contains 118,000 volumes. The most noticeable of the modern
public monuments are those to the emperor William I. (1898), to the
musician Spohr (1883), and the Löwenbrunnen (1881). In the Karlsaue, a
favourite public promenade lying just below the Schöne Aussicht, are the
Orangerie and the marble baths. Cassel is the headquarters of the XI.
German army corps, and has a large garrison. It is a favourite residence
for foreigners and retired officers and government officials. The
industries embrace engine-building, the manufacture of railway carriages
and plant, scientific instruments, porcelain, tobacco and cigars,
lithography, jute-spinning, iron-founding, brewing and gardening.

On a slope of the Habichtswald Mountains, 3 m. W. of Cassel, and
approached by an avenue, is the summer palace of Wilhelmshöhe, erected
in 1787-1794. Napoleon III. resided here, as a prisoner of war, after
the battle of Sedan. The surrounding gardens are adorned with fountains,
cascades, lakes and grottos, the principal fountain sending up a jet of
water 180 ft. high and 12 in. in diameter. Here also is an interesting
building called the Löwenburg, erected in 1793-1796 in the style of a
fortified castle, and containing among other things portraits of Tudors
and Stuarts. The principal curiosity is the Karlsburg cascade, which is
placed in a broad ravine, thickly wooded on both sides. A staircase of
900 steps leads to the top. On one of the landings is a huge
rudely-carved stone figure of the giant Enceladus, and at the top is an
octagon building called the Riesenschloss, surmounted by a colossal
copper figure of the Farnese Hercules, 31 ft. high, whose club alone is
sufficiently capacious to accommodate from eight to ten persons. In
different parts of the park, and especially from the Octagon, charming
views are obtained. The park was first formed by the landgrave Frederick
II., the husband of Mary, daughter of George II. of England, and was
finished by his successor the landgrave William, after whom it was
named.

The earliest mention of Cassel is in 913, when it is referred to as
Cassala. The town passed from the landgraves of Thuringia to the
landgraves of Hesse in the 13th century, becoming one of the principal
residences of the latter house in the 15th century. The burghers
accepted the reformed doctrines in 1527. The fortifications of the town
were restored by the landgrave Philip the Magnanimous and his son
William IV. during the 16th century, and it was greatly improved by the
landgrave Charles (1654-1730), who welcomed many Huguenots who founded
the upper new town. In 1762 Cassel was captured by the Germans from the
French; after this the fortifications were dismantled and New Cassel was
laid out by the landgrave Frederick II. In 1807 it became the capital of
the kingdom of Westphalia; in 1813 it was bombarded and captured by the
Russian general Chernichev; in 1830, 1831 and 1848 it was the scene of
violent commotions; from 1850 to 1851 it was occupied by the Prussians,
the Bavarians and the Austrians; in 1866 it was occupied by the
Prussians, and in 1867 was made the capital of the newly formed Prussian
province of Hesse-Nassau.

  See Piderit, _Geschichte der Haupt- und Residenzstadt Kassel_ (Kassel,
  1882); Fr. Müller, _Kassel seit 70 Jahren_ (2 vols., 2nd ed., Kassel,
  1893); and Hessler, _Die Residenzstadt Kassel und ihre Umgebung_
  (Kassel, 1902).



CASSELL, JOHN (1817-1865), British publisher, was born in Manchester on
the 23rd of January 1817. His father was the landlord of a public-house,
and John was apprenticed to a joiner. He was self-educated, gaining by
his own efforts a considerable acquaintance with English literature and
a knowledge of French. He came to London in 1836 to work at his trade,
but his energies at this time were chiefly centred in the cause of
temperance, for which he was an active worker. In 1847 he established
himself as a tea and coffee merchant, and soon after started a
publishing business with the aim of supplying good literature to the
working classes. From the offices of the firm, which became in 1859
Messrs. Cassell, Petter, Galpin & Co., were issued the _Popular
Educator_ (1852-1855), the _Technical Educator_ (1870-1872), the
_Magazine of Art_ (1878-1903), _Cassell's Magazine_ (from 1852), and
numerous editions of standard works. A special feature of Cassell's
popular books was the illustration. At the time of the Crimean War he
procured from Paris the cuts used in _L'Illustration_, and by printing
them in his _Family Paper_ (begun in 1853) secured a large circulation
for it. The firm was converted in 1883 into a limited liability company,
under the name of Cassell & Company, Limited. John Cassell died in
London on the 2nd of April 1865.



CASSIA (Lat. _cassia_, Gr. [Greek: kasia]), the aromatic bark derived
from _Cinnamomum cassia_. The greater part of the supply coming from
China, it is sometimes termed Chinese cinnamon. The bark is much thicker
than that of true cinnamon; the taste is more pungent and the flavour
less delicate, though somewhat similar to that of cinnamon. The
properties of cassia bark depend on the presence of a volatile oil--the
oil of cassia, which is imported in a fairly pure state as an article of
commerce from Canton. Cassia bark is in much more extensive demand on
the continent of Europe than in Great Britain, being preferred to
cinnamon by southern nations. The chief use of both the oil and bark is
for flavouring liqueurs and chocolate, and in cooking generally. When
ground as a spice it is difficult to distinguish cassia from cinnamon
(q.v.), and it is a common practice to substitute the cheap common spice
for the more valuable article. _Cassia Buds_, which have a pleasing
cinnamon flavour, are believed to be the immature fruits of the tree
which yields Chinese cinnamon. They are brought in considerable
quantities from Canton, and used as a spice and in confectionery.
_Cassia pulp_, used as a laxative, is obtained from the pods of _Cassia
fistula_, or pudding pipe tree, a native of Africa which is cultivated
in both the East and West Indies. Some confusion occasionally arises
from the fact that _Cassia_ is the generic name of an extensive genus of
leguminous plants, which, in addition to various other medicinal
products, is the source of the senna leaves which form an important
article of materia medica.



CASSIA, VIA, an ancient high-road of Italy, leading from Rome through
Etruria to Florentia (Florence); at the 11th mile the Via Clodia (see
CLODIA, VIA) diverged north-north-west, while the Via Cassia ran to the
east of the Lacus Sabatinus and then through the place now called Sette
Vene, where a road, probably the Via Annia, branched off to Falerii,
through Sutrium (where the Via Ciminia, running along the east edge of
the Lacus Ciminius, diverged from it, to rejoin it at Aquae Passeris,
north of the modern Viterbo[1]), Forum Cassii, Volsinii, Clusium and
Arretium, its line being closely followed by the modern highroad from
Rome to Florence. The date of its construction is uncertain: it cannot
have been earlier than 187 B.C.,[2] when the consul C. Flaminius
constructed a road from Bononia to Arretium (which must have coincided
with the portion of the later Via Cassia). It is not, it is true,
mentioned by any ancient authorities before the time of Cicero, who in
45 B.C. speaks of the existence of three roads from Rome to Mutina, the
Flaminia, the Aurelia and the Cassia. A milestone of A.D. 124 mentions
repairs to the road made by Hadrian from the boundary of the territory
of Clusium to Florence, a distance of 86 m.

  See Ch. Hülsen in Pauly-Wissowa, _Realencyclopadie_, iii. 1669.
       (T. As.)


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] The Via Traiana Nova, or the (_viae_) tres Traianae, mentioned in
    inscriptions with the Cassia and Clodia as under the same _curator_,
    are not certainly identifiable.

  [2] Having regard to the military importance of Arretium during the
    Punic wars, it is difficult to believe that no direct road existed to
    this point before 187 B.C.



CASSIANUS, JOANNES EREMITA, or JOANNES MASSILIENSIS (?360-?435), a
celebrated recluse, one of the first founders of monastic institutions
in western Europe, was probably born in Provence about 360, but he spent
the early part of his life in the monastery of Bethlehem with his friend
Germanus, and his affinities were always Eastern rather than Western. In
company with Germanus he visited Egypt, and dwelt for several years
among the ascetics of the desert near the banks of the Nile. In 403 he
repaired to Constantinople, where he received ordination as deacon at
the hands of Chrysostom. At Marseilles (after 410) he founded two
religious societies--a convent for nuns, and the abbey of St Victor,
which during his time is said to have contained 5000 inmates. In later
times his regulations enjoyed a high reputation, and were adopted by the
monks and nuns of Port Royal. He was eventually canonized; and a
festival in his honour long continued to be celebrated at Marseilles on
the 25th of July. Cassianus was one of the first and most prominent of
the Semi-Pelagians, maintaining that while man is by nature sinful, he
yet has some good remaining in him, and that, while the immediate gift
of God's grace is necessary to salvation, conversion may also be begun
by the exercise of man's will. He further asserted that God is always
willing to bestow his grace on all who seek it, though, at the same
time, it is true that he sometimes bestows it without its being sought.
These views have been held by a very large part of the church from his
time, and embrace much of the essence of Arminianism. The style of
Cassianus is slovenly, and shows no literary polish, but its direct
simplicity is far superior to the rhetorical affectations which
disfigure most of the writings of that age. At the request of Castor,
bishop of Apt, he wrote two monumental and influential treatises on the
monastic life. The _De Institutione Coenobiorum_ (twelve books)
describes the dress, the food, the devotional exercises, the discipline
and the special spiritual dangers of monastic life in the East
(gluttony, unchastity, avarice, anger, gloom, apathy, vanity and pride).
The _Collationes Patrum_, a series of dialogues with the pious fathers
of Egypt, deal with the way in which these dangers (and others, e.g.
demons) may be avoided or overcome. At the desire of Leo (then
archdeacon of Rome) he wrote against Nestorius his _De Incarnatione
Domini_ in seven books.

  EDITIONS.--Douay (1616) by Alardus Gazäus, with excellent notes;
  Migne's _Patrol. Lat._ vols. xlix. and l.; M. Petschenig in the Vienna
  _Corpus Script. Eccles. Lat._ (2 vols., 1886-1888). See A. Harnack,
  _History of Dogma_, v. 246 ff., 253 ff.; A. Hoch, _Die Lehre d. Joh.
  Cassian von Natur und Gnade_ (Freiburg, 1895); W. Moeller, _History of
  the Chr. Church_, i. 368-370.



CASSINI, the name of an Italian family of astronomers, four generations
of whom succeeded each other in official charge of the observatory at
Paris.

GIOVANNI DOMENICO CASSINI (1625-1712), the first of these, was born at
Perinaldo near Nice on the 8th of June 1625. Educated by the Jesuits at
Genoa, he was nominated in 1650 professor of astronomy in the university
of Bologna; he observed and wrote a treatise on the comet of 1652; was
employed by the senate of Bologna as hydraulic engineer; and appointed
by Pope Alexander VII. inspector of fortifications in 1657, and
subsequently director of waterways in the papal states. His
determinations of the rotation-periods of Jupiter, Mars and Venus in
1665-1667 enhanced his fame; and Louis XIV. applied for his services in
1669 at the stately observatory then in course of erection at Paris. The
pope (Clement IX.) reluctantly assented, on the understanding that the
appointment was to be temporary; but it proved to be irrevocable.
Cassini was naturalized as a French subject in 1673, having begun work
at the observatory in September 1671. Between 1671 and 1684 he
discovered four Saturnian satellites, and in 1675 the division in
Saturn's ring (see SATURN); made the earliest sustained observations of
the zodiacal light, and published, in _Les Éléments de l'astronomie
vérifiés_ (1684), an account of Jean Richer's (1630-1696) geodetical
operations in Cayenne. Certain oval curves which he proposed to
substitute for Kepler's ellipses as the paths of the planets were named
after him "Cassinians." He died at the Paris observatory on the 11th of
September 1712.

  A partial autobiography left by Giovanni Domenico Cassini was
  published by his great-grandson, Count Cassini, in his _Mémoires pour
  servir à l'histoire des sciences_ (1810). See also C. Wolf, _Histoire
  de l'observatoire de Paris_ (1902); Max. Marie, _Histoire des
  sciences_, t. iv. p. 234; R. Wolf, _Geschichte der Astronomie_, p.
  450, &c.

JACQUES CASSINI (1677-1756), son of Domenico Cassini, was born at the
Paris observatory on the 8th of February 1677. Admitted at the age of
seventeen to membership of the French Academy of Sciences, he was
elected in 1696 a fellow of the Royal Society of London, and became
_maitre des comptes_ in 1706. Having succeeded to his father's position
at the observatory in 1712, he measured in 1713 the arc of the meridian
from Dunkirk to Perpignan, and published the results in a volume
entitled _De la grandeur et de la figure de la terre_ (1720) (see
GEODESY). He wrote besides _Élémens d'astronomie_ (1740), and died on
the 18th of April 1756 at Thury, near Clermont. The first tables of the
satellites of Saturn were supplied by him in 1716.

  See C. Wolf, _Histoire de l'observatoire de Paris_; Max. Marie,
  _Histoire des sciences_, vii. 214; R. Wolf, _Geschichte der
  Astronomie_, p. 451; J.C. Houzeau, _Bibl. astronomique_; J. Delambre,
  _Histoire de l'astronomie au XVIII'e siècle_, pp. 250-275 (unfairly
  depreciatory); J.F. Montucla, _Hist. des mathématiques_, iv. 145, 248.

CÉSAR FRANÇOIS CASSINI, or CASSINI DE THURY (1714-1784), son of Jacques
Cassini, was born at the observatory of Paris on the 17th of June 1714.
He succeeded to his father's official employments, continued the
hereditary surveying operations, and began in 1744 the construction of a
great topographical map of France. The post of director of the Paris
observatory was created for his benefit in 1771, when the establishment
ceased to be a dependency of the Academy of Sciences. Cassini de Thury
died at Thury on the 4th of September 1784. His chief works
are:--_Méridienne de l'observatoire de Paris_ (1744), _Description
géométrique de la terre_ (1775), and _Description géométrique de la
France_ (1784).

  See C. Wolf, _Histoire de l'observatoire de Paris_, p. 287; Max.
  Marie, _Histoire des sciences_, viii. 158; J. Delambre, _Histoire de
  I'astronomie au XVIII'e siècle_, pp. 275-309; R. Wolf, _Geschichte der
  Astronomie_, p. 451; J.J. de Lalande, _Bibliographic astronomique_.

JACQUES DOMINIQUE CASSINI, Count (1748-1845), son of César François
Cassini, was born at the observatory of Paris on the 30th of June 1748.
He succeeded in 1784 to the directorate of the observatory; but his
plans for its restoration and re-equipment were wrecked in 1793 by the
animosity of the National Assembly. His position having become
intolerable, he resigned on the 6th of September, and was thrown into
prison in 1794, but released after seven months. He then withdrew to
Thury, where he died, aged ninety-seven, on the 18th of October 1845. He
published in 1770 an account of a voyage to America in 1768, undertaken
as the commissary of the Academy of Sciences with a view to testing
Pierre Leroy's watches at sea. A memoir in which he described the
operations superintended by him in 1787 for connecting the observatories
of Paris and Greenwich by longitude-determinations appeared in 1791. He
visited England for the purposes of the work, and saw William Herschel
at Slough. He completed his father's map of France, which was published
by the Academy of Sciences in 1793. It served as the basis for the
_Atlas National_ (1791), showing France in departments. Count Cassini's
_Mémoires pour servir à l'histoire de l'observatoire de Paris_ (1810)
embodied portions of an extensive work, the prospectus of which he had
submitted to the Academy of Sciences in 1774. The volume included his
_Éloges_ of several academicians, and the autobiography of his
great-grandfather, the first Cassini.

  See J.F.S. Devic, _Histoire de la vie et des travaux de J.D. Cassini_
  (1851); J. Delambre, _Histoire de l'astronomie au XVIII'e siècle_, pp.
  309-313; _Phil. Mag._ 3rd series, vol. xxviii. p. 412; C. Wolf,
  _Histoire de l'observatoire de Paris_ (1902), p. 234 et passim.
       (A. M. C.)



CASSIODORUS (not _Cassiodorius_), the name of a Syrian family settled at
Scyllacium (Squillace) in Bruttii, where it held an influential position
in the 5th century A.D. Its most important member was FLAVIUS MAGNUS
AURELIUS CASSIODORUS SENATOR (c. 490-585), historian, statesman, and
monk. "Senator" (not a title) is the name used by himself in his
official correspondence. His father held the offices of _comes
privatarum_ and _sacrarum largitionum_ (controller of the emperor's
private revenue and the public exchequer) under Odoacer, and
subsequently attached himself to Theodoric, by whom he was appointed
_corrector_ (governor) of Bruttii and Lucania, and _praefectus
praetorio_. The son at an early age became _consiliarius_ (legal
assessor) to his father, and (probably in 507) _quaestor_, an official
whose chief duty at that time consisted in acting as the mouthpiece of
the ruler, and drafting his despatches. In 514 he was ordinary consul,
and at a later date possibly _corrector_ of his native province. At the
death of Theodoric (526) he held the office of _magister officiorum_
(chief of the civil service). Under Athalaric he was _praefectus
praetorio_, a post which he retained till about 540, after the triumphal
entry of Belisarius into Ravenna, when he retired from public life. With
the object of providing for the transmission of divine and human
knowledge to later ages, and of securing it against the tide of
barbarism which threatened to sweep it away, he founded two
monasteries--Vivarium and Castellum--in his ancestral domains at
Squillace (others identify the two monasteries). The special duty which
he enjoined upon the inmates was the acquisition of knowledge, both
sacred and profane, the latter, however, being subordinated to the
former. He also collected and emended valuable MSS., which his monks
were instructed to copy, and superintended the translation of various
Greek works into Latin. He further amused himself with making scientific
toys, such as sun-dials and water-clocks. As he is stated to have
written one of his treatises at the age of ninety-three, he must have
lived till after 580. Whether he belonged to the Benedictine order is
uncertain.

The writings of Cassiodorus evince great erudition, ingenuity and
labour, but are disfigured by incorrectness and an affected
artificiality, and his Latin partakes much of the corruptions of the
age. His works are (1) historical and political, (2) theological and
grammatical.

  1. (a) _Variae_, the most important of all his writings, in twelve
  books, published in 537. They contain the decrees of Theodoric and his
  successors Amalasuntha, Theodahad and Witigis; the regulations of the
  chief offices of state; the edicts published by Cassiodorus himself
  when _praefectus praetorio_. It is the best source of our knowledge of
  the Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy (ed. T. Mommsen in _Monumenta
  Germaniae Historica: Auctores Antiquissimi_, xii., 1894; condensed
  English translation by T. Hodgkin, 1886).

  (b) _Chronica_, written at the request of Theodoric's son-in-law
  Eutharic, during whose consulship (519) it was published. It is a dry
  and inaccurate compilation from various sources, unduly partial to the
  Goths (ed. T. Mommsen in _Mon. Germ. Hist.: Auct. Ant._ xi. pt. i.,
  1893).

  (c) Panegyrics on Gothic kings and queens (fragments ed. L. Traube in
  _Mon. Germ. Hist.: Auct. Ant._ xii.).

  2. (a) _De Anima_, a discussion on the nature of the soul, at the
  conclusion of which the author deplores the quarrel between two such
  great peoples as the Goths and Romans. It seems to have been published
  with the last part of the _Variae_.

  (b) _Institutiones divinarun et humanarunt litterarum_, an
  encyclopaedia of sacred and profane literature for the monks, and a
  sketch of the seven liberal arts. It further contains instructions for
  using the library, and precepts for daily life.

  (c) A commentary on the Psalms and short notes (_complexiones_) on the
  Pauline epistles, the Acts, and the Apocalypse.

  (d) _De Orthographia_, a compilation made by the author in his
  ninety-third year from the works of twelve grammarians, ending with
  his contemporary Priscian (ed. H. Keil, _Grammatici Latini_, vii.).

  The Latin translations of the _Antiquities_ of Josephus and of the
  ecclesiastical histories of Theodoret, Sozomen and Socrates, under the
  title of _Historia Tripartita_ (embracing the years 306-439), were
  carried out under his supervision.

  Of his lost works the most important was the _Historia Gothorum_,
  written with the object of glorifying the Gothic royal house and
  proving that the Goths and Romans had long been connected by ties of
  friendship. It was published during the reign of Athalaric, and
  appears to have brought the history down to the death of Theodoric.
  His chief authority for Gothic history and legend was Ablavius
  (Ablabius). The work is only known to us in the meagre abridgment of
  Jordanes (ed. T. Mommsen, 1882).

  COMPLETE WORKS.--_Editio princeps_, by G. Fornerius (Paris, 1579); J.
  Garet (Rouen, 1679; Venice, 1729), reprinted in J.P. Migne,
  _Patrologia Latina_, lxix., lxx. On Cassiodorus generally, see
  _Anecdoton Holderi_, excerpts from a treatise of Cassiodorus, edited
  by H. Usener (Bonn, 1877), which throws light on questions connected
  with his biography; T. Mommsen, preface to his edition of the
  _Variae_; monographs by A. Thorbecke (Heidelberg, 1867) and A. Franz
  (Breslau, 1872); T. Hodgkin, _Italy and her Invaders_, iii. p. 280,
  iv. p. 348; A. Ebert, _Allgemeine Geschichte der Litteratur des
  Mittelalters_ i.; Teuffel-Schwabe, _Hist. of Roman Literature_ (Eng
  trans.), § 483; G.A. Simcox, _Hist. of Latin Literature_ (1884); W.
  Ramsay in Smith's _Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography_ J.B.
  Bury's edition of Gibbon's _Decline and Fall_, iv. 180, 522; R.W.
  Church in the _Church Quarterly Review_, x. (1880); J.E. Sandys in
  _Hist. of Classical Scholarship_ (2nd ed., 1906); A. Olleris,
  _Cassiodore, conservateur des livres de l'antiquité latine_ (Paris,
  1891); G. Minasi, _M.A. Cassiodoro ... ricerche storico-critiche_
  (Naples, 1895); and C. Cipolla in _Memorie della r. Accademia delle
  scienze di Torino_ (2nd ser. xliii. pt. 2, 1893); L.M. Hartmann in
  Pauly-Wissowa's _Realencyclopadie_, iii. pt. 2 (1899), with note on
  the musical section of Cassiodorus' _Institutions_ by C. von Jan.



CASSIOPEIA, in Greek mythology, the wife of Cepheus, and mother of
Andromeda; in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere,
mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.).
Ptolemy catalogued 13 stars in this constellation, Tycho Brahe 46, and
Hevelius 37. Its most interesting stars are:--_Nova Cassiopeiae_, a
"new" star, which burst out with extraordinary brilliancy in 1572, when
it was observed by Tycho Brahe, but gradually diminished in brightness,
ultimately vanishing in about eighteen months; _[alpha]-Cassiopeiae_ and
_R-Cassiopeiae_ are variable stars, the former irregular, the latter
having a long period; _[eta]-Cassiopeiae_, a binary star, having
components of magnitudes 3½ and 7½; _[sigma]-Cassiopeiae_, a double
star, one being white and of magnitude 5, the other blue and of
magnitude 7½.



CASSITERIDES (from the Gr. [Greek: kassiteros], tin, i.e.
"Tin-islands"), in ancient geography the name of islands regarded as
being situated somewhere near the west coasts of Europe. Herodotus (430
B.C.) had dimly heard of them. Later writers, Posidonius, Diodorus,
Strabo and others, call them smallish islands off (Strabo says, some way
off) the north-west coast of Spain, which contained tin mines, or, as
Strabo says, tin and lead mines--though a passage in Diodorus derives
the name rather from their nearness to the tin districts of north-west
Spain. While geographical knowledge of the west was still scanty and the
secrets of the tin-trade were still successfully guarded by the seamen
of Gades and others who dealt in the metal, the Greeks knew only that
tin came to them by sea from the far west, and the idea of tin-producing
islands easily arose. Later, when the west was better explored, it was
found that tin actually came from two regions, north-west Spain and
Cornwall. Neither of these could be called "small islands" or described
as off the north-west coast of Spain, and so the Cassiterides were not
identified with either by the Greek and Roman geographers. Instead, they
became a third, ill-understood source of tin, conceived of as distinct
from Spain or Britain. Modern writers have perpetuated the error that
the Cassiterides were definite spots, and have made many attempts to
identify them. Small islands off the coast of north-west Spain, the
headlands of that same coast, the Scillies, Cornwall, the British Isles
as a whole, have all in turn been suggested. But none suits the
conditions. Neither the Spanish islands nor the Scillies contain tin, at
least in serious quantities. Neither Britain nor Spain can be called
"small islands off the north-west of Spain." It seems most probable,
therefore, that the name Cassiterides represents the first vague
knowledge of the Greeks that tin was found overseas somewhere in or off
western Europe.

  AUTHORITIES.--Herodotus iii. 115; Diodorus v. 21, 22, 38; Strabo ii.
  5, iii. 2, 5, v. 11; Pliny, _Nat. Hist_, iv. 119, vii. 197, xxxiv.
  156-158, are the chief references in ancient literature. T.R. Holmes,
  _Ancient Britain_ (1907), appendix, identifies the Cassiterides with
  the British Isles.     (F. J. H.)



CASSITERITE (from the Gr. [Greek: kassiteros], tin), the mineralogical
name for tin-stone, the common ore of tin. It consists of tin dioxide,
or stannic oxide (SnO2), and crystallizes in the tetragonal system. The
crystals are usually 4-sided or 8-sided prisms, striated vertically, and
terminated by pyramids (fig. 1). Twins, with characteristic re-entrant
angles, such as figs. 2 and 3, are common. Certain slender prismatic
crystals, with an acute 8-sided pyramid, are known in Cornwall as
"sparable tin," in allusion to their resemblance to sparable nails,
whilst very slender crystals are termed needle-tin. Occasionally the
mineral occurs in fibrous forms, which pass under the name of
"wood-tin," and these, though not unknown in the matrix, are generally
found as rolled pebbles. By the disintegration of tin-bearing rocks and
vein-stones, the cassiterite passes into the beds of streams as rolled
fragments and grains, or even sand, and is then known as stream tin or
alluvial tin. This detrital tin-ore was probably used as a source of the
metal before the primitive miners had learnt to attack the solid
tin-bearing rocks.

[Illustration: Fig. 1]

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

[Illustration: Fig. 3]

Pure cassiterite may be colourless, or white, as seen in certain
specimens from the Malay Peninsula; but usually the mineral is brown or
even black, the colour being referred to the presence of ferric oxide or
other impurity. Occasionally the tin-stone is red. In microscopic
sections the colour is often seen to be disposed in zones, following the
contour of the crystal. A brown variety, with rather resinous lustre, is
termed "rosin tin." The usual lustre of crystals of cassiterite is
remarkably splendent, even adamantine. The mineral has a high refractive
index, and strong bi-refringence. Certain transparent yellow and brown
specimens, cut as gem-stones, exhibit considerable brilliancy. The
hardness of cassiterite is 6.5, so that it cannot be scratched with a
knife, and is nearly as hard as quartz. Its specific gravity is about 7;
and in consequence of this high density, the tin-stone is readily
separated during the process of dressing, from all the associated
minerals, except wolframite, which may, however, be removed by magnetic
separators.

Cassiterite usually occurs as veins or impregnations in granitic rocks,
and is especially associated with the quartz-mica rock called greisen.
The usual associates of the tin-stone are quartz, tourmaline, apatite,
topaz, beryl, fluorite, lithia-mica, wolframite, chalcopyrite, &c. The
presence of fluorine in many of these minerals has led to the opinion
that the tin has been derived in many cases from an acid or granitic
magma by the action of fluorine-bearing vapours, and that cassiterite
may have been formed by the interaction of tin fluoride and water
vapour. Cassiterite occurs as a pseudomorph after orthoclase felspar in
some of the altered granite of Cornwall, and it has occasionally been
found as a cementing material in certain brecciated lodes.

Among the localities yielding cassiterite may be mentioned Cornwall,
Saxony, Bohemia, Brittany, Galicia in Spain; the Malay peninsula, and
the islands of Banca and Billiton; New South Wales, Queensland and
Tasmania. Fine examples of wood-tin, occurring with topaz, are found in
Durango in Mexico. Deposits of cassiterite under rather exceptional
conditions are worked on a large scale in Bolivia; and it is notable
that cassiterite is found in Liassic limestone near Campiglia Marittima
in Tuscany. Cassiterite has been worked in the York region, Alaska.
     (F. W. R.*)



CASSIUS, the name of a distinguished ancient Roman family, originally
patrician. Its most important members are the following.

1. SPURIUS CASSIUS, surnamed _Vecellinus_ (_Vicellinus, Viscellinus_),
Roman soldier and statesman, three times consul, and author of the first
agrarian law. In his first consulate (502 B.C.) he defeated the Sabines;
in his second (493) he renewed the league with the Latins, and dedicated
the temple of Ceres in the Circus; in his third (486) he made a treaty
with the conquered Hernici. The account of his agrarian law is confused
and contradictory; it is clear, however, that it was intended to benefit
the needy plebeians (see AGRARIAN LAWS). As such it was violently
opposed both by the patricians and by the wealthy plebeians. Cassius was
condemned by the people as aiming at kingly power, and hurled from the
Tarpeian rock. Another account says he was tried by the family council
and put to death by his own father, who considered his proposal
prejudicial to the patrician interest. According to Livy, his proposal
to bestow a share of the land upon the Latins was regarded with great
suspicion. According to Mommsen (_Römische Forschungen_, ii.), the whole
story is an invention of a later age, founded upon the proposals of the
Gracchi and M. Livius Drusus, to which period belongs the idea of
sharing public land with the Latins.

  See Livy ii. 33, 41; Dion Halic. v. 49, viii. 69-80; Cicero, _Pro
  Balbo_, 23 (53), _De Republica_, ii. 27 (49), 35 (60); Val. Max. v. 8.
  2.

The following Cassii are all plebeians. It is suggested that the sons of
Spurius Cassius either were expelled from, or voluntarily left, the
patrician order, in consequence of their father's execution.

2. GAIUS CASSIUS LONGINUS, consul 73 B.C. With his colleague, Terentius
Varro Lucullus, he passed a law (_lex Terentia Cassia_), the object of
which was to give authority for the purchase of corn at the public
expense, to be retailed at a fixed price at Rome. It is doubtful whether
this Cassius (who is often called by the additional name Varus) is
identical with the Varus who was proscribed by the triumvirs, and put to
death at Minturnae (43). According to Orosius he was killed at the
battle of Mutina.

  See Cicero, _In Verrem_, iii. 70, 75, v. 21; Livy, _Epit._ 96; Appian,
  _Bell. Civ._ iv. 28; Orosius v. 24.

3. GAIUS CASSIUS LONGINUS, prime mover in the conspiracy against Julius
Caesar. Little is known of his early life. In 53 B.C. he served in the
Parthian campaign under M. Licinius Crassus, saved the remnants of the
army after the defeat at Carrhae, and for two years successfully
repelled the enemy. In 49 B.C. he became tribune of the plebs. The
outbreak of the civil war saved him from being brought to trial for
extortion in Syria. He at first sided with Pompey, and as commander of
part of his fleet rendered considerable service in the Mediterranean.
After Pharsalus he became reconciled to Caesar, who made him one of his
legates. In 44 B.C. he became _praetor peregrinus_ with the promise of
the Syrian province for the ensuing year. The appointment of his junior,
M. Junius Brutus, as _praetor urbanus_ deeply offended him, and he was
one of the busiest conspirators against Caesar, taking an active part in
the actual assassination. He then left Italy for Syria, raised a
considerable army, and defeated P. Cornelius Dolabella, to whom the
province had been assigned by the senate. On the formation of the
triumvirate, Brutus and he, with their combined armies, crossed the
Hellespont, marched through Thrace, and encamped near Philippi in
Macedonia. Their intention was to starve out the enemy, but they were
forced into an engagement. Brutus was successful against Octavian, but
Cassius, defeated by M. Antonius (Mark Antony), gave up all for lost,
and ordered his freedman to slay him. He was lamented by Brutus as "the
last of the Romans," and buried at Thasos. A man of considerable
ability, he was a good soldier, and took an interest in literature, but
in politics he was actuated by vanity and ambition. His portrait in
Shakespeare's _Julius Caesar_, though vivid, is scarcely historical.

  See Plutarch, _Brutus_, passim, _Crassus_, 27, 29, _Caesar_, 62, 69;
  Dio Cassius xl. 28, xlii. 13, xliv. 14, xlvii. 20; Vell. Pat. ii. 46,
  56, 58, 69, 70, 87; Cicero, _Philippics_, xi. 13, 14, _ad Att._ v. 21,
  xiv. 21, _ad Fam._ xi. 3, 15, 16; Appian, _Bell. Civ._ ii. 111, 113,
  iii. 2, 8, iv. 60-62, 87, 90, 111-113, 132; Caesar, _Bell. Civ._ iii.
  101.

4. QUINTUS CASSIUS LONGINUS, the brother or cousin of the murderer of
Caesar, quaestor of Pompey in Further Spain in 54 B.C. In 49, as tribune
of the people, he strongly supported the cause of Caesar, by whom he was
made governor of Further Spain. He treated the provincials with great
cruelty, and his appointment (48) to take the field against Juba, king
of Numidia, gave him an excuse for fresh oppression. The result was an
unsuccessful insurrection at Corduba. Cassius punished the leaders with
merciless severity, and made the lot of the provincials harder than
ever. At last some of his troops revolted under the quaestor M.
Marcellus, who was proclaimed governor of the province. Cassius was
surrounded by Marcellus in Ulia. Bogud, king of Mauretania, and M.
Lepidus, proconsul of Hither Spain, to whom Cassius had applied for
assistance, negotiated an arrangement with Marcellus whereby Cassius was
to be allowed to go free with the legions that remained loyal to him.
Cassius sent his troops into winter quarters, hastened on board ship at
Malaca with his ill-gotten gains, but was wrecked in a storm at the
mouth of the Iberus (Ebro). His tyrannical government of Spain had
greatly injured the cause of Caesar.

  See Dio Cassius xli. 15, 24, xlii. 15, 16, xliii. 29; Livy, _Epit._
  III; Appian, _B.C._ ii. 33, 43; _Bellum Alexandrinum_, 48-64.

5. GAIUS CASSIUS LONGINUS (1st century A.D.), Roman jurist, consul in
30, proconsul of Asia 40-41, and governor of Syria under Claudius 45-50.
On his return to Rome his wealth and high character secured him
considerable influence. He was banished by Nero (65) to Sardinia,
because among the images of his ancestors he had preserved that of the
murderer of Caesar. He was recalled by Vespasian, and died at an
advanced age. As he was consul in 30, he must have been born at the
latest in the year 3 B.C. Cassius was a pupil of Masurius Sabinus, with
whom he founded a legal school, the followers of which were called
Cassiani. His chief work was the _Libri Juris Civilis_ in ten books,
which was used by the compilers of the _Digest_ of Justinian.

  See Tacitus, _Annals_, xvi. 7-9; Suetonius, _Nero_, 37; Dio Cassius
  lix. 29; Teuffel-Schwabe, _Hist. of Roman Literature_, § 298, 3.



CASSIUS, AVIDIUS (d. A.D. 175), Roman general, a Syrian by birth, lived
during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. He especially distinguished himself
during the Parthian War (A.D. 162-165), at the conclusion of which he
was apparently appointed military governor of Asia, though the actual
extent of his jurisdiction is doubtful. In 172 he was sent to Egypt,
where he put down a dangerous rising of the Bucolici, the robber
herdsmen of the delta of the Nile, after which he returned to Syria. In
175 the emperor Aurelius fell ill, and his wife Faustina, to secure her
position in case of his death, offered her hand and the throne to the
successful general. A rumour of Aurelius's death having reached Syria,
Cassius, without waiting for confirmation, proclaimed himself emperor;
when the report proved false, it was too late for him to draw back, and
he accordingly prepared for war. The senate declared him a public enemy,
although Aurelius even then expressed the hope that he might have the
opportunity of pardoning him. Deploring the necessity for taking up arms
against his trusted officer, Aurelius set out for the east. While in
Illyria, he received the news that Cassius had been slain by his own
officers. The murderers offered his head to Aurelius, who refused to
admit them, and ordered its immediate burial.

  See Dio Cassius lxxi. 2-4, 17, 22-28, 30, 31; Fronto, _Letters_, i. 6;
  Lives of Marcus Aurelius, Verus and Commodus in the _Scriptores
  Historiae Augustae_, and the special biography of Avidius Cassius in
  the same by Vulcacius Gallicanus. The various letters and documents in
  the last-named are generally considered spurious, and the portions of
  the narrative founded on them consequently untrustworthy. See also
  article in Pauly-Wissowa's _Realencyclopädie_, ii. pt. 2 (1896).



CASSIUS, GAIUS, Latin poet, general and politician, called Parmensis
from his birthplace Parma, was one of the murderers of Julius Caesar,
and after his death joined the party of Brutus and his namesake Cassius
the conspirator. In 43 B.C. he was in command of the fleet on the coast
of Asia, but after the battle of Philippi joined Sextus Pompeius in
Sicily. When Pompeius, having been defeated in a naval engagement at
Naulochus by the fleet of Octavian under Agrippa, fled to Asia, Cassius
went over to Antony, and took part in the battle of Actium (31). He
afterwards fled to Athens, where he was soon put to death by Octavian,
whom he had offended by writing an abusive letter (Suetonius,
_Augustus_, 4). Cassius is credited with satires, elegies, epigrams and
tragedies. Some hexameters with the title _Cassii Orpheus_ are by
Antonius Thylesius, an Italian of the 17th century. Horace appears to
have thought well of Cassius as a poet, for he asks Tibullus whether he
intends to compete with the _opuscula_ (probably the elegies) of Cassius
(_Epistles_, i. 4. 3). The story in the Horace scholia, that L. Varius
Rufus published his famous tragedy _Thyestes_ from an MS. which he found
amongst the papers of Cassius after his death, is due to a confusion of
Cassius's murderer, Q. Attius Varus, with the tragedian (Appian, _B.C._
v. 2, 139; Cicero, _ad Fam._ xii. 13; Veil. Pat. ii. 87; Orosius, vi.
19; see also the diffuse treatise of A. Weichert, _De L. Varii et Cassii
Parmensis Vita et Carminibus_, 1836). Cassius Parmensis must not be
confused with Cassius Etruscus (Horace, _Satires_, i. 10. 60), an
improviser, who is said to have used enough paper to furnish his funeral
pyre.



CASSIVELAUNUS, or CASSIVELLAUNUS, a British chieftain, ruler of the
country north of the Thames, who led the native tribes against Julius
Caesar on his second expedition (54 B.C.) (see BRITAIN). After several
indecisive engagements, Caesar took the camp of Cassivelaunus, who was
obliged to make peace on condition of paying tribute and giving
hostages. But these promises were not meant to be kept, and it appears
certain that the tribute was never paid. According to Bede (_Hist.
Eccles._ i. 2), the remains of Cassivelaunus's entrenchment were visible
seven or eight centuries later.

  See Caesar, _B.G._ v. 11-22; Dio Cassius xl. 2, 3; Orosius vi. 9. 6;
  Eutropius vi. 17; Polyaenus, _Strategemata_, viii. 23. For the
  etymology of the name (which is Celtic in origin, and appears later as
  Caswallon) see J. Rhys, _Celtic Britain_, pp. 289-290 (1904); C.I.
  Elton, _Origins of English History _ (1890); and Stock's edition of
  Caesar, _De Bella Gallico_ (1898).



CASSOCK (Fr. _casaque_, a military cloak), a long-sleeved, close-fitting
robe worn by the clergy and others engaged in ecclesiastical functions.
The name was originally specially applied to the dress worn by soldiers
and horsemen, and later to the long garment worn in civil life by both
men and women. As an ecclesiastical term the word "cassock" came into
use somewhat late (as a translation of the old names of _subtanea,
vestis talaris, toga talaris_, or _tunica talaris_), being mentioned in
canon 74 of 1604; and it is in this sense alone that it now survives.
The origin of the word has been the subject of much speculation. It is
derived through the French from the Italian _casacca_, which Florio (_Q.
Anna's New World of Words_, 1611) translates as "a frock, a horseman's
cote, a long cote; also a habitation or dwelling," and it is usually
held that this in turn is derived from _casa_, a house (cf. the
derivation of "chasuble," q.v.). This, however, though possible is
uncertain. A Slav origin for the word has been suggested (Hatzfeld and
Darmesteter, _Dic. gén. de la langue française_), and the Cossack
horseman may have given to the West both the garment and the name. Or
again, it may be derived from _casequin_ (Ital. _casecchino_), rather
than vice versa, and this in turn from an Arabic _kazáyand_ (Pers.
_kasháyand_), a padded jerkin; the word _kasagân_ occurring in Mid. High
Ger. for a riding-cloak, and _gasygan_ in O. Fr. for a padded jerkin
(Lagarde in _Gott. gelehrte Anzeiger_, April 15, 1887, p. 238).

The cassock, though part of the canonical costume of the clergy, is not
a liturgical vestment. It was originally the out-of-doors and domestic
dress of lay-people as well as clergy, and its survival among the latter
when the secular fashions had changed is merely the outcome of
ecclesiastical conservatism. In mild weather it was the outer garment;
in cold weather it was worn under the tabard or chimere (q.v.) sometimes
in the middle ages the name "chimere" was given to it as well as to the
sleeveless upper robe. In winter the cassock was often lined with furs
varying in costliness with the rank of the wearer, and its colour also
varied in the middle ages with his ecclesiastical or academic status. In
the Roman Catholic Church the _subtanea_ (Fr. _soutane_, Ital.
_sottana_) must be worn by the clergy whenever they appear, both in
ordinary life (except in Protestant countries) and under their vestments
in church. It varies in colour with the wearer's rank: white for the
pope, red (or black edged with red) for cardinals, purple for bishops,
black for the lesser ranks: members of religious orders, however,
whatever their rank, wear the colour of their religious habit. In the
Church of England the cassock, which with the gown is prescribed by the
above-mentioned canon of 1604 as the canonical dress of the clergy, has
been continuously, though not universally, worn by the clergy since the
Reformation. It has long ceased, however, to be their every-day walking
dress and is now usually only worn in church, at home, or more rarely by
clergy within the precincts of their own parishes. The custom of wearing
the cassock under the vestments is traceable in England to about the
year 1400.

The old form of English cassock was a double-breasted robe fastened at
the shoulder and probably girdled. The continental, single-breasted
cassock, with a long row of small buttons from neck to hem, is said to
have been first introduced into England by Bishop Harris of Llandaff
(1729-1738). The shortened form of cassock which survives in the
bishop's "apron" was formerly widely used also by the continental
clergy. Its use was forbidden in Roman Catholic countries by Pope Pius
IX., but it is still worn by Roman Catholic dignitaries as part of their
out-of-door dress in certain Protestant countries.

  See the _Report_ of the sub-committee of Convocation _on the Ornaments
  of the Church and its Ministers_ (London, 1908), and authorities there
  cited.



CASSONE, in furniture, the Italian name for a marriage coffer. The
ancient and once almost universal European custom of providing a bride
with a chest or coffer to contain the household linen, which often
formed the major part of her dowry, produced in Italy a special type of
chest of monumental size and artistic magnificence. The cassoni of the
people, although always large in size, were simple as regards ornament;
but those of the nobles and the well-to-do mercantile classes were
usually imposing as regards size, and adorned with extreme richness. The
cassone was almost invariably much longer than the English chest, and
even at a relatively early period it assumed an artistic finish such as
was never reached by the chests of northern Europe, except in the case
of a few of the royal _corbeilles de mariage_ made by such artists as
Boulle for members of the house of France. Many of the earlier examples
were carved in panels of geometrical tracery, but their characteristic
ornament was either _intarsia_ or _gesso_, or a mixture of the two. Bold
and massive feet, usually shaped as claws, lioncels, or other animals
are also exceedingly characteristic of cassoni, most of which are of
massive and sarcophagus-like proportions with moulded lids, while many
of them are adorned at their corners with figures sculptured in high
relief. The scroll-work inlay is commonly simple and graceful,
consisting of floral or geometrical motives, or arabesques. The examples
coated with gilded _gesso_ or blazoned with paintings are, however, the
most magnificent. They were often made of chestnut, and decorated with
flowers and foliage in a relief which, low at first, became after the
Renaissance very high and sharp. The panels of the painted cassoni
frequently bore representations of scriptural and mythological subjects,
or incidents derived from the legends of chivalry. Nor was heraldry
forgotten, the arms of the family for which the chest was made being
perhaps emblazoned upon the front. These chests rarely bear dates or
initials, but it is often possible to determine their history from their
armorial bearings.



CASSOWARY (_Casuarius_), a genus of struthious birds, only inferior in
size to the emeu and ostrich, and, according to Sir R. Owen,
approximating more closely than any other living birds to the extinct
moas of New Zealand. The species are all characterized by short
rudimentary wings, bearing four or five barbless shafts, a few inches
long, and apparently useless for purposes of flight, of running, or of
defence; and by loosely webbed feathers, short on the neck, but of great
length on the rump and back, whence they descend over the body forming a
thick hair-like covering. They possess stout limbs, with which they kick
in front, and have the inner toe armed with a long powerful claw. The
common cassowary (_Casuarius galeatus_) stands 5 ft. high, and has a
horny, helmet-like protuberance on the crown of its head; the front of
the neck is naked and provided with two brightly-coloured wattles. It is
a native of the Island of Ceram, where it is said to live in pairs,
feeding on fruits and herbs, and occasionally on small animals. The
mooruk, or Bennett's cassowary (_Casuarius Bennettii_), is a shorter and
more robust bird, approaching in the thickness of its legs to the moas.
It differs further from the preceding species in having its head crowned
with a horny plate instead of a helmet. It has only been found in New
Britain, where the natives are said to regard it with some degree of
veneration. When captured by them shortly after being hatched, and
reared by the hand, it soon becomes tame and familiar; all the specimens
which have reached Europe alive have been thus domesticated by the
natives. The adult bird in the wild state is exceedingly shy and
difficult of approach, and, owing to its great fleetness and strength,
is rarely if ever caught. It eats voraciously, and, like the ostrich,
will swallow whatever comes in its way. (See EMEU.)



CAST (from the verb meaning "to throw"; the word is Scand. in origin,
cf. Dan. _kaste_, and Swed. _kasta_; "cast" in Middle Eng. took the
place of the A.S. _weorpan_, cf. Ger. _werfen_), a throw, or that which
is thrown, or that into which something is thrown. From these three
meanings come the main uses of the word; for the throwing of dice, with
the figurative sense of a chance or opportunity, as in "at the last
cast"; for the throwing of a fisherman's line in fly-fishing; for hounds
spreading out in search of a lost scent; or, with the further meaning of
a twisted throw or turn, for a slight squint in the eye. "Cast" is
applied to a measure of herrings or other fish, being the amount taken
in two hands to be thrown into a vessel, and similarly to a potter's
measure for a certain quantity of clay; in fishing, to the casting line
of gut with fly attached; to the hard refuse thrown out of the crop of a
bird of prey, and to the coils of earth thrown up by earth-worms. From
the old method, in making calculations, of using counters, which were
thus "thrown" up into a heap, is probably derived the meaning of "cast"
for the "casting up" of figures in an account. Further, the word is
found for a mould for the casting of metals, and more particularly for
the copy of an original statue or relief taken from a mould; similarly,
of fossils, for the mineral filling of the empty mould left by the
organism. Special uses of the word are also found in the theatrical term
for the assignment of particular parts to the actors and actresses in a
play, and in the many figurative senses of a type or stamp, as of
features or characters.



CASTAGNO, ANDREA DEL (1390-1457), Italian painter of the Florentine
school, was born in 1390, probably at Castagno, in the district of
Mugello, and died in August 1457. He imitated Masaccio and the
naturalists of his time in boldness of attitude, but was deficient in
grace and colouring. His name was for about four centuries burdened with
the heinous charge of murder; it was said that he treacherously
assassinated his colleague, Domenico Veneziano, in order to monopolize
the then recent secret of oil painting as practised in Flanders by the
Van Eycks. This charge has, however, been proved to be an untruth;
Domenico died four years after Andrea. The latter is commonly called
"Andrea (or Andreino) degl' Impiccati" (of the Hanged Men); this was in
consequence of his being commissioned in 1435 to paint, in the Palazzo
del Podestà in Florence, the fallen leaders of the Peruzzi and
Albizzi--not (as currently said) the men of the Pazzi conspiracy, an
event which did not occur until 1478, long after this painter's death.
One of his principal works now extant (most of them have perished) is
the equestrian figure of Nicola di Tolentino, in the cathedral of
Florence.



CASTALIA, or FONS CASTALIUS, a celebrated fountain in Greece, now called
the Fountain of St John, which rises in a chasm of Mount Parnassus, in
the neighbourhood of Delphi. It was sacred to Apollo and the Muses, and
its water was used in the religious purifications of the "Pythian
Pilgrims." From its connexion with the Muses it is sometimes referred to
by late Greek writers (e.g. Lucian, _Jup. Trag._ 30) and Latin poets
(e.g. Ovid, _Am._ i. 15. 36) as a source of inspiration, and this has
passed into a commonplace of modern literature. According to some
authorities the nymph Castalia was the daughter of Achelous; according
to others the water of the spring was derived from the Boeotian
Cephissus.



CASTANETS (Fr. _castagnettes_, Ger. _Kastagnetten_, Span.
_castañuelas_), instruments of percussion, introduced through the Moors
by way of Spain into Europe from the East, used for marking the rhythm
in dancing. Castanets, always used in pairs, one in each hand, consist
of two pear or mussel-shaped bowls of hard wood, hinged together by a
silk cord, the loop being passed over the thumb and first finger. The
two halves are then struck against each other by the other fingers in
single, double or triple beats, giving out series of hollow clicks of
indefinite musical pitch. When intended for use in the orchestra the
pair of castanets is mounted one at each end of a wooden stick about 8
in. long, which facilitates the playing. Castanets are also sometimes
used in military bands and are then specially constructed. The two
halves are kept open by a slight spring fixed to a frame attached to the
hoop of a side drum, and the instrument is worked by the drummer with an
ordinary drum-stick. An instance of the use of castanets in opera occurs
in the Habanera in _Carmen_. A quaint description of _castinatts_ is
given in Harleian MS. 2034 (f. 208) at the British Museum (before 1688)
with a pencil sketch which tallies very well with the above. The MS. is
by Randle Holme and forms part of the _Academy of Armoury_. Castanets
([Greek: krotala]) were used by the ancient Greeks, and also by the
Romans (Lat. _crotalum, crotala_) to accompany the dances in the
Dionysiac and Bacchanalian rites.



CASTE (through the Fr. from Span, and Port, _casta_, lineage, Lat.
_castus_, pure). There are not many forms of social organization on a
large scale to which the name "caste" has not been applied in a good or
in a bad sense. Its Portuguese origin simply suggests the idea of
family; but before the word came to be extensively used in modern
European languages, it had been for some time identified with the
Brahmanic division of Hindu society into classes. The corresponding
Hindu word is _varna_, or colour, and the words _gati, kula, gotra,
pravara_ and _karana_ are also used with different shades of meaning.
Wherever, therefore, a writer has seen something which reminds him of
any part of the extremely indeterminate notion, Indian caste, he has
used the word, without regard to any particular age, race, locality or
set of social institutions. Thus Palgrave[1] maintains that the colleges
of operatives, which inscriptions prove to have existed in Britain
during the Roman period, were practically castes, because by the
Theodosian code the son was compelled to follow the father's employment,
and marriage into a family involved adoption of the family employment.
But these _collegia opificum_ seem to be just the forerunners of the
voluntary associations for the regulation of industry and trade, the
frith-gilds, and craft-gilds of later times, in which, no doubt, sons
had great advantages as apprentices, but which admitted qualified
strangers, and for which intermarriage was a matter of social feeling.
The history of the formation of gilds shows, in fact, that they were
really protests against the authoritative regulation of life from
without and above. In the Saxon period, at any rate, there was nothing
resembling caste in the strict sense. "The ceorl who had thriven so well
as to have five hides of land rose to the rank of a thegn; his wergild
became 1200 shillings; the value of his oath and the penalty of trespass
against him increased in proportion; his descendants in the third
generation became gesithcund. Nor was the character of the thriving
defined; it might, so far as the terms of the custom went, be either
purchase, or inheritance, or the receipt of royal bounty. The successful
merchant might also thrive to thegn-right. The thegn himself might also
rise to the rank, the estimation and status of an earl."[2] It has been
said that early German history is, as regards this matter, in contrast
with English, and that true castes are to be found in the military
associations (_Genossenschaften_) which arose from the older class of
Dienstmannen, and in which every member--page, squire or knight--must
prove his knightly descent; the Bauernstand, or rural non-military
population; the Bürgerstand, or merchant-class. The ministry of the
Catholic Church in the West, was, however, never restricted by blood
relation. There is no doubt that at some time or other professions were
in most countries hereditary. Thus Prescott[3] tells us that in Peru,
notwithstanding the general rule that every man should make himself
acquainted with the various arts, "there were certain individuals
carefully trained to those occupations which minister to the wants of
the more opulent classes. These occupations, like every other calling
and office in Peru, always descended from father to son. The division of
castes was in this particular as precise as that which existed in
Hindustan or Egypt." Again, Zurita[4] says that in Mexico no one could
carry on trade except by right of inheritance, or by public permission.
The Fiji carpenters form a separate caste, and in the Tonga Islands all
the trades, except tattoo-markers, barbers and club-carvers are
hereditary,--the separate classes being named matabooles, mooas and
tooas. Nothing is more natural than that a father should teach his son
his handicraft, especially if there be no organized system of public
instruction; it gives the father help at a cheap rate, it is the easiest
introduction to life for the son, and the custom or reputation of the
father as a craftsman is often the most important legacy he has to
leave. The value of transmitted skill in the simple crafts was very
great; and what was once universal in communities still survives in
outlying portions of communities which have not been brought within the
general market of exchange. But so long as this process remains natural,
there can be no question of caste, which implies that the adoption of a
new profession is not merely unusual, but wrong and punishable. Then,
the word caste has been applied to sacred corporations. A family or a
tribe is consecrated to the service of a particular altar, or all the
altars of a particular god. Or a semi-sacred class, such as the Brehons
or the Bards, is formed, and these, and perhaps some specially dignified
professions, become hereditary, the others remaining free. Thus in Peru,
the priests of the Sun at Cuzco transmitted their office to their sons;
so did the Quipu-camayoc, or public registrars, and the _amantas_ and
_haravecs_, the learned men and singers.[5] In many countries political
considerations, or distinctions of race, have prevented intermarriage
between classes. Take, for example, the patricians and the plebeians at
Rome, or the [Greek: Spartiatai, Lakônes] or [Greek: perioikoi], and the
[Greek: Heilôtes] at Sparta. In Guatemala it was the law that if any
noble married a plebeian woman he should be degraded to the caste of
_mazequal_, or plebeian, and be subject to the duties and services
imposed on that class, and that the bulk of his estate should be
sequestered to the king.[6] In Madagascar marriage is strictly forbidden
between the four classes of Nobles, Hovas, Zarahovas and Andevos,--the
lowest of whom, however, are apparently mere slaves. In a sense slavery
might be called the lowest of castes, because in most of its forms it
does permit some small customary rights to the slave. In a sense, too,
the survival in European royalty of the idea of "equality of birth"
(_Ebenbürtigkeit_) is that of a caste conception, and the marriage of
one of the members of a European royal family with a person not of royal
blood might be described as an infraction of caste rule.

Caste in India is a question of more than historical interest. It is the
great obstacle to government in accordance with modern ideas, and to
the work of native religious reformers as well as of Christian
missionaries. By some writers caste has been regarded as the great
safeguard of social tranquillity, and therefore as the indispensable
condition of the progress in certain arts and industries which the
Hindus have made. Others, such as James Mill, have denounced it as fatal
to the principle of free competition and opposed to individual
happiness. The latter view assumes a state of facts which was denied by
Colebrooke, one of the highest authorities on Indian matters. Writing in
1798 he says,[7] after pointing out that any person unable to earn a
subsistence by the exercise of his profession may follow the trade of a
lower caste or even of a higher: "Daily observation shows even Brahmans
exercising the menial profession of a Sudra. We are aware that every
caste forms itself into clubs or lodges, consisting of the several
individuals of that caste residing within a small distance, and that
these clubs or lodges govern themselves by particular rules or customs
or by-laws. But though some restrictions and limitations, not founded on
religious prejudices, are found among their by-laws, it may be received
as a general maxim that the occupation appointed for each tribe is
entitled merely to a preference. Every profession, with few exceptions,
is open to every description of persons; and the discouragement arising
from religious prejudices is not greater than what exists in Great
Britain from the effects of municipal and corporation laws. In Bengal
the numbers of people actually willing to apply to any particular
occupation are sufficient for the unlimited extension of any
manufacture." This was corroborated by Elphinstone,[8] who states that,
during a long experience of India, he never heard of a single case of
degradation from caste; and it is illustrated by the experience of the
Indian army, in which men of all castes unite.[9]

The ordinary notion of modern caste is that it involves certain
restrictions on marriage, on profession, and on social intercourse,
especially that implied in eating and drinking together. How far
intermarriage is permitted, what are the effects of a marriage permitted
but looked on as irregular, what are the penalties of a marriage
forbidden, whether the rules protecting trades and occupations are in
effect more than a kind of unionism grown inveterate through custom, by
what means caste is lost, and in what circumstances it may be
regained,--these are questions on which very little real or definite
knowledge exists. Sir H. Risley regards the absolute prohibition of
mixed marriages as now the essential and most prominent characteristic.
It is very remarkable that the Vedas, on which the whole structure of
Brahmanic faith and morals professes to rest, give no countenance to the
later regulations of caste. The only passage bearing on the subject is
in the Purusha Sukta, the 90th Hymn of the 10th Book of the Rigveda
Samhita. "When they divided man, how many did they make him? What was
his mouth? what his arms? what are called his thighs and feet? The
Brahmana was his mouth, the Raganya was made his arms, the Vaisya became
his thighs, the Sudra was born from his feet." Martin Haug finds in this
a subtle allegory that the Brahmans were teachers, the Kshatriyas the
warriors of mankind. But this is opposed to the simple and direct
language of the Vedic hymns, and to the fact that in the accounts of
creation there the origin of many things besides classes of men is
attributed in the same fanciful manner to parts of the divine person. It
is in the Puranas and the Laws of Manu, neither of which claims direct
inspiration, where they differ from the letter of the Veda, that the
texts are to be found on which all that is objectionable in caste has
been based. Even in the Vishnu Purana, however, the legend of caste
speaks of the four classes as being at first "perfectly inclined to
conduct springing from religious faith." It is not till after the whole
human race has fallen into sin that separate social duties are assigned
to the classes. The same hymn speaks of the evolution of qualities of
Brahma. Sattva, or goodness, sprang from the mouth of Brahma; Rajas, or
passion, came from his breast; Tamas, or darkness, from his thighs;
others he created from his feet. For each one of these gunas, or
primitive differences of quality, a thousand couples, male and female,
have been created, to which the distinct heavens, or places of
perfection of Prajapati, Indra, Maruts and Gandharvas are assigned. To
the gunas are related the yugas, or ages: 1st, the Krita, or glorious
age of truth and piety, in which apparently no distinctions, at least no
grades of excellence were known; 2nd, the Treta, or period of knowledge;
3rd, the Dvapara, or period of sacrifice; 4th, the Kali, or period of
darkness. Bunsen supposes there may be an historical element in the
legend that Pururava, a great conqueror of the Treta age, founded caste.
The yugas are hardly periods of historical chronology, but there is no
doubt that the Vayu Purana assigns the definite origin of caste to the
Treta period. "The perfect beings of the first age, some tranquil, some
fiery, some active and some distressed, were again born in the Treta, as
Brahmans, &c., governed by the good and bad actions performed in former
births." The same hymn proceeds to explain that the first arrangement
did not work well, and that a second was made, by which force, criminal
justice and war were declared to be the business of the Kshatriyas;
officiating at sacrifices, sacred study and the receipt of presents to
belong to the Brahmans; traffic, cattle and agriculture to the Vaisyas;
the mechanical arts and service to the Sudras. The Ramayana hymn
suggests that in the four great periods the castes successively arrive
at the state of _dharma_ or righteousness. Thus, a Sudra cannot, even by
the most rigorous self-mortification, become righteous in the period
proper to the salvation of the Vaisyas. As the hymn speaks in the
Dvapara age, it speaks of the salvation of Sudras as future, and not yet
possible. Wholly in opposition to the story of a fourfold birth from
Brahma is the legend that the castes sprang from Manu himself, who is
removed by several generations of gods and demi-gods from Brahma. Then,
again, the Santiparvan alleges that the world, at first entirely
Brahmanic, was separated into castes merely by the evil works of man.
Castehood consists in the exercise of certain virtues or vices. _Munis_,
or persons born indiscriminately, frequently rise to the caste of
Brahmans, and the offspring of Brahmans sink to a lower level. The
serpent observes: "If a man is regarded by you as being a Brahman only
in consequence of his conduct, then birth is vain, until action is
shown." But this change of caste takes place only through a second,
birth, and not during the life which is spent in virtue. Another
poetical conception of caste birth is expressed in the Harivamsa. The
Brahmans were formed from an imperishable element (Akshara), the
Kshatriyas from a perishable element (Kshara), the Vaisyas from
alteration, and the Sudras from a modification of smoke.

The general result of the foregoing texts is that several contradictory
accounts have been given of the origin of caste, and that these are for
the most part unintelligible. Caste is described as a late episode in
creation, and as born from different parts of different gods, from the
mortal Manu, from abstract principles, and from non-entity. It is also
described as coeval with creation, as existing in perfection during the
Krita period, and subsequently falling into sin. It is also said that
only Brahmans existed at first, the others only at later periods. Then
the rationalistic theories of the Santiparvan upset the very foundation
of caste, viz. hereditary transmission of the caste character.[10] It
seems clear that when the Vedas were composed, many persons who were not
Brahmans acted as priests, and saints, the "preceptors of gods," by
their "austere fervour," rose from a lower rank to the dignity of
Brahmanhood. Originally, indeed, access to the gods by prayer and
sacrifice was open to all classes of the community. As the Brahmans grow
in political importance, they make religion an exclusive and sacred
business. We find them deciding questions of succession to the throne,
and enforcing their decisions. While in the earlier literature there are
several instances of Brahmans receiving instruction from the hands of
Kshatriyas, in the Puranas and Manu death is made to overtake Kshatriyas
who are not submissive to the Brahmans; and in one case Visvamitra, the
son of Gadhi, actually obtains Brahmanhood as a reward for his
submission. It seems certain that many of the ancient myths were
expressly manufactured by the Brahmans to show their superiority in
birth and in the favour of Heaven to the Kshatriyas--a poetical effect
which is sometimes spoiled by their claiming descent from their rivals.
This brings us to a consideration of the theories which have been
started to account for the appearance of Brahmanic caste, as it is
stereotyped in the Laws of Manu. James Mill, who invariably
underestimated the influence on history of "previous states of society,"
suggested that the original division must have been the work of some
inspired individual, a legislator or a social reformer, who perceived
the advantages which would result from a systematic division of labour.
The subordination of castes he accounts for by the superstitious terror
and the designing lust of power which have so frequently been invoked to
explain the natural supremacy of the religious class. Because the
ravages of war were dreaded most after the calamities sent by heaven, he
finds that the military class properly occupy the second place. This
arrangement he apparently contemplates as at no time either necessary or
wholesome, and as finally destroyed by the selfish jealousies of caste,
and by the degradations which the multiplication of trades made
inevitable. Heeren[11] and Klaproth have contended that the division
into castes is founded on an original diversity of race, and that the
higher castes are possessed of superior beauty. The clear complexion and
regular features of the Brahmans are said to distinguish them as
completely from the Sudras as the Spanish Creoles were distinguished
from the Peruvians. "The high forehead, stout build, and light copper
colour of the Brahmins and other castes allied to them, appear in strong
contrast with the somewhat low and wide heads, slight make, and dark
bronze of the low castes" (Stevenson, quoted by Max Müller, _Chips_, ii.
p. 327).[12] This explanation is, however, generally conjoined with that
founded on the tradition of conquest by the higher castes. There is no
doubt that the three castes of lighter colour (traivarnika), the white
Brahmans, the red Kshatriyas, the yellow Vaisyas, are, at least in the
early hymns and Brahmanas, spoken of as the Aryas, the Sanskrit-speaking
conquerors, in contradistinction to the dark cloud of the Turanian
aborigines Dasyus. In fact ârya, which means noble, is derived from
arya, which means householder, and was the original name of the largest
caste, now called Vaisyas. The great Sanskrit scholar, Rudolf von Roth
(1821-1895), in his _Brahma und die Brahmanan_[13] held that the Vedic
people advanced from their home in the Punjab, drove the aborigines into
the hills, and took possession of the country lying between the Ganges,
the Jumna and the Vindhya range. "In this stage of complication and
disturbance," he said, "power naturally fell into the hands of those who
did not possess any direct authority," i.e. the domestic priests of the
numerous tribal kings. The Sudras he regarded as a conquered race,
perhaps a branch of the Aryan stock, which immigrated at an earlier
period into India, perhaps an autochthonous Indian tribe. The latter
hypothesis is opposed to the fact that, while the Sudra is debarred from
sharing three important Vedic sacrifices, the Bhagasata Purana expressly
permits him to sacrifice "without _mantras_," and imposes on him duties
with reference to Brahmans and cows which one would not expect in the
case of a nation strange in blood. But unless a previous subordination
of castes among the conquering race be supposed, it seems difficult to
see why the warrior-class, who having contributed most to the conquest
must have been masters of the situation, should have consented to
degradation below the class of Brahmans. The position of the Sudra
certainly suggests conquest. But are there sound historical reasons for
supposing that Brahmans and Sudras belonged to different nations, or
that either class was confined to one nation? The hypothesis was held in
a somewhat modified form by Meiners,[14] who supposed that instead of
one conquest there may have been two successive immigrations,--the first
immigrants being subdued by the second, and then forming an intermediate
class between their conquerors and the aborigines; or, if there were no
aborigines, the mixture of the two immigrant races would form an
intermediate class. In the same way Talboys Wheeler[15] suggested that
the Sudra may be the original conquerors of the race now represented by
the Pariahs. Most of these explanations seem rather to describe the mode
in which the existing institutions of caste might be transplanted from
one land to another, from a motherland to its colonies, and altered by
its new conditions. Military conquest, though it often introduces
servitude, does not naturally lead to the elevation of the priesthood.
It is unscientific to assume large historical events, or large
ethnological facts, or the existence of some creator of social
order.[16]

As Benjamin Constant[17] points out, caste rests on the religious idea
of an indelible stain resting on certain men, and the social idea of
certain functions being committed to certain classes. The idea of
physical purity was largely developed under the Mosaic legislation; in
fact the internal regulations of the Essenes (who were divided into four
classes) resemble the frivolous prohibitions of Brahmanism. As the daily
intercourse of men in trade and industry presents numberless occasions
on which the stain of real or fancied impurity might be caught, the
power of the religious class who define the rules of purity and the
penalties of their violation becomes very great. Moreover, the Hindus
are deeply religious, and therefore naturally prepared for Purohiti or
priest-rule. They were also passionately attached to their national
hymns, some of which had led them to victory, while others were
associated with the benign influences of nature. Only the priest could
chant or teach these hymns, and it was believed that the smallest
mistake in pronunciation would draw down the anger of the gods. But
however favourable the conditions of spiritual dominion might be, it
seems to have been by no more natural process than hard fighting that
the Brahmans finally asserted their supremacy. We are told that
Parasurama, the great hero of the Brahmans, "cleared the earth thrice
seven times of the Kshatriya caste, and filled with their blood the five
large lakes of Samauta." Wheeler thinks that the substitution of
blood-sacrifices for offerings of parched grain, clarified butter and
_soma_ wine marks an adaptation by the Brahmans of the great military
banquets to the purposes of political supremacy. It is not, therefore,
till the Brahmanic period of Indian history, which ends with the coming
of Sakya Muni, in 600 B.C., that we find the caste-definitions of Manu
realized as facts. These are--"To Brahmans he (i.e. Brahma) assigned the
duties of reading the Vedas, of teaching, of sacrificing, of assisting
others to sacrifice, of giving alms if they be rich, and if indigent of
receiving gifts."[18] The duties of the Kshatriya are "to defend the
people, to give alms, to sacrifice, to read the Veda, to shun the
allurements of sensual gratification." The duties of a Vaisya are "to
keep herds of cattle, to bestow largesses, to sacrifice, to read the
scripture, to carry on trade, to lend at interest, and to cultivate
land." These three castes (the twice born) wear the sacred thread. The
one duty of a Sudra is "to serve the before-mentioned classes without
depreciating their worth."[19] The Brahman is entitled by primogeniture
to the whole universe; he may eat no flesh but that of victims; he has
his peculiar clothes. He is bound to help military and commercial men in
distress. He may seize the goods of a Sudra, and whatever the latter
acquires by labour or succession beyond a certain amount. The Sudra is
to serve the twice born; and even when emancipated cannot be anything
but a Sudra. He may not learn the Vedas, and in sacrifice he must omit
the sacred texts. A Sudra in distress may turn to a handicraft; and in
the same circumstances a Vaisya may stoop to service. Whatever crime a
Brahman might commit, his person and property were not to be injured;
but whoever struck a Brahman with a blade of grass would become an
inferior quadruped during twenty-one transmigrations. In the state the
Brahman was above all the ministers; he was the raja's priest, exempt
from taxation, the performer of public sacrifices, the expounder of
Manu, and at one time the physician of bodies as well as of souls. He is
more liable than less holy persons to pollution, and his ablutions are
therefore more frequent. A Kshatriya who slandered a Brahman was to be
fined 100 panas (a copper weight of 200 grains); a Vaisya was fined 200
panas; a Sudra was to be whipped. A Brahman slandering any of the lower
castes pays 50, 25 or 12 panas. In ordinary salutations a Brahman is
asked whether his devotion has prospered; a Kshatriya, whether he has
suffered from his wounds; a Vaisya whether his health is secure; a Sudra
whether he is in good health.[20] In administering oaths a Brahman is
asked to swear by his veracity; a Kshatriya by his weapons, house or
elephant; a Vaisya by his kine, grain or goods; a Sudra by all the most
frightful penalties of perjury. The Hindu mind is fertile in oaths;
before the caste assembly the Dhurm, or caste custom, is sometimes
appealed to, or the feet of Brahma, or some cow or god or sacred river,
or the bel (the sacred creeper), or the roots of the turmeric plant. The
castes are also distinguished by their modes of marriage. Those peculiar
to Brahmans seem to be--1st, Brahma, when a daughter, clothed only with
a single robe, is given to a man learned in the Veda whom her father has
voluntarily invited and respectfully receives; 2nd, Devas or Daiva, when
a daughter, in gay attire is given, when the sacrifice is already begun,
to the officiating priest. The primitive marriage forms of Rashasas or
Rachasa, when a maiden is seized by force from home, while she weeps and
calls for help, is said to be appropriate to Kshatriyas. To the two
lower castes the ceremony of Asura is open, in which the bridegroom,
having given as much wealth as he can afford to the father and paternal
kinsman and to the damsel herself, takes her voluntarily as his bride. A
Kshatriya woman on her marriage with a Brahman must hold an arrow in her
hand; a Vaisya woman marrying one of the sacerdotal or military classes
must hold a whip; a Sudra woman marrying one of the upper castes must
hold the skirt of a mantle.

How little the system described by Manu applies to the existing castes
of India may be seen in these facts--(1) that there is no artisan caste
mentioned by Manu; (2) that eating with another caste, or eating food
prepared by another caste, is not said by him to involve loss of caste,
though these are now among the most frequent sources of degradation. The
system must have been profoundly modified by the teaching of Buddha: "As
the four rivers which fall into the Ganges lose their names as soon as
they mingle their waters with the holy river, so all who believe in
Buddha cease to be Brahmans, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Sudras." After
Buddha, Sudra dynasties ruled in many parts of India, and under the
Mogul dynasty the Cayets, a race of Sudras, had almost a monopoly of
public offices. But Buddha did not wish to abolish caste. Thus it is
related that a Brahman Pundit who had embraced the doctrines of Buddha
nevertheless found it necessary, when his king touched him, to wash from
head to foot.[21] Alexander the Great found no castes in the Punjab, but
Megasthenes had left an account of the ryots and tradesmen, the military
order and the gymnosophists (including the Buddhist Germanes) whom he
found in the country of the Ganges.[22] From his use of the word
gymnosophist it is probable that Megasthenes confounded the Brahmans
with the hermits or fakirs; and this explains his statement that any
Hindu might become a Brahman. Megasthenes spent some time at the court
of Sandracottus (Chandragupta Maurya), a contemporary of Seleucus
Nicator. All the later Greeks[23] follow his statement and concur in
enumerating seven Indian castes--sophists, agriculturists, herdsmen,
artisans, warriors, inspectors, councillors. On the revival of
Brahmanism it was found that the second and third castes had
disappeared, and that the field was now occupied by the Brahmans, the
Sudras, and a host of mixed castes, sprung from the original twelve,
Unulum and Prutilum, left-hand and right-hand, which were formed by the
crossing of the four original castes. Manu himself gives a list of these
impure castes, and the Ain-i-Akbari (1556-1605) makes the positive
statement that there were then 500 tribes bearing the name of Kshatriya,
while the real caste no longer existed. Most of these subdivisions are
really trade-organizations, many of them living in village-communities,
which trace descent from a pure caste. Thus in Bengal there are the
Vaidya or Baidya, the physicians, who, Manu says, originated in the
marriage of a Brahman father and a Vaisya mother.

As Colebrooke said, Brahmans and Sudras enter into all trades, but
Brahmans (who are profoundly ignorant even of their own scriptures) have
succeeded in maintaining their monopoly of Vedic learning, which really
means a superficial acquaintance with the Puranas and Manu. Though they
have succeeded in excluding others from sacred employment, only a
portion of the caste are actually engaged in religious ceremonies, in
sacred study, or even in religious begging. Many are privates in the
army, many water-carriers, many domestic servants. And they have, like
other castes, many subdivisions which prevent intimate association and
intermarriage. The ideal Brahman is gone: the priest "with his hair and
beard clipped, his passions subdued, his mantle white, his body pure,
golden rings in his ear." But the hold which caste has on the Hindu
minds may, perhaps, be most clearly seen in the history of the Christian
missions and in comparatively recent times. The Jesuits Xavier and Fra
dei Nobili did everything but become Brahmans in order to convert the
south of India--they put on a dress of cavy or yellow colour, they made
frequent ablutions, they lived on vegetables and milk, they put on their
foreheads the sandalwood paste used by the Brahmans--and Gregory XV.
published a bull sanctioning caste regulations in the Christian churches
of India. The Danish mission of Tranquebar, the German mission of the
heroic Schwarz, whose headquarters were Tanjore, also permitted caste to
be retained by their followers. Even the priests of Buddha, whose life
was a protest against caste, re-erected the system in the island of
Ceylon, where the _radis_ or _radias_ were reduced to much the same
state as the Pariahs.[24] Protestant missions have made but little
progress, even in recent years. The number of native converts to
Christianity rose from 1,246,000 in 1872 to 2,664,000 in 1901; these
figures, however, are by themselves rather misleading, for Christianity
appears to have touched the higher classes in India not at all, only the
out-castes.

It is still the general law that to constitute a good marriage the
parties must belong to the same caste, but to unconnected families.
Undoubtedly, however, the three higher castes were always permitted to
intermarry with the caste next below their own, the issue taking the
lower caste or sometimes forming a new class. A Sudra need not marry a
wife of the same caste or sect as himself. In 1871 it was decided by the
judicial committee of the privy council that a marriage between a
zemindar (land-owner) of the Malavar class, a subdivision of the Sudra
caste, with a woman of the Vellala class of Sudras is lawful. Generally
also a woman may not marry beneath her own caste. The feeling is not so
strong against a man marrying even in the lowest caste, for Manu permits
the son of a Brahman and a Sudra mother to raise his family to the
highest caste in the seventh generation. The illegitimacy resulting from
an invalid marriage does not render incapable of caste; at least it does
not so disqualify the lawful children of the bastard. On a forfeiture of
caste by either spouse intercourse ceases between the spouses: if the
out-caste be a sonless woman, she is accounted dead, and funeral rites
are performed for her; if she have a son, he is bound to maintain her.
It is remarkable that the professional concubinage of the dancing-girl
does not involve degradation, if it be with a person of the same caste.
This suggests that whatever may be the function of caste, it is not a
safe guardian of public morality. The rules as to prohibited degrees in
marriage used to be very strict, but they are now relaxed. An act of
1856 legalized remarriage by widows in all the castes, with a
conditional forfeiture of the deceased husband's estate, unless the
husband has expressly sanctioned the second marriage. The later Indian
Marriage Act was directed against the iniquitous child marriages; it
requires a _minimum_ age. In many ways the theoretical inferiority of
the Sudra absolves him from the restraints which the letter of the law
lays on the higher castes. Thus a Sudra may adopt a daughter's or
sister's son, though this is contrary to the general rule that the
adopter should be able to marry the mother of the adopted person. The
rule requiring the person adopted to be of the same caste and _gotra_ or
family as the adopter is also dispensed with in the case of Sudras. In
fact, it is only a married person whom a Sudra may not adopt. As regards
inheritance the Sudra does not come off so well in competition with the
other castes. "The sons of a Brahamana in the several tribes have four
shares or three or two or one; the children of a Kshatriya have three
portions or two or one; and those of a Vaisya take two parts or one."
This refers to the case permitted by law, and not unknown in practice,
of a Brahman having four wives of different castes, a Kshatriya three,
and so on. But all sons of inferior caste are excluded from property
coming by gift to the father; and a Sudra son is also excluded from land
acquired by purchase. It must be recollected, however, that under an act
of 1850, _loss_ of caste no longer affects the capacity to inherit or to
be adopted. In cases of succession _ab intestato_ on failure of the
preceptor, pupil, and fellow-student (heirs called by the Hindu law
after relatives), a priest, or any Brahman, many succeed. Where a Sudra
is the only son of a Brahman, the Sapinda, or next of kin, would take
two-thirds of the inheritance; where he is the only son of any other
twice-born father, the Sapinda would take one-half. Possibly, the rule
of equal division among sons of equal caste did not at first apply to
Brahmans, who, as the eldest sons of God, would perhaps observe the
custom of primogeniture among themselves. On the other hand it was laid
down in the judicial committee in 1869, contrary to the collected
opinions of the Pundits of the Sudder court, that, in default of lawful
children, the illegitimate children of the Sudra caste inherit their
putative father's estate, and, even if there be lawful children, are
entitled to maintenance out of the estate. It had previously been
decided by Sir Edward Ryan in 1857 that the illegitimate children of a
Rajput, or of any other member of a superior caste, have no right of
inheritance even under will, but a mere right to maintenance, provided
the children are docile. It seems then that the Kshatriya and Vaisya
castes, though in one sense non-existent, still control Hindu
succession.

With regard to Persia the _Zend Avesta_ speaks of a fourfold division of
the ancient inhabitants of Iran into priests, warriors, agriculturists
and artificers; and also of a sevenfold division corresponding to the
seven amschespands, or servants of Ormuzd. This was no invention of
Zoroaster, but a tradition from the golden age of Jemshid or Diemschid.
The priestly caste of Magi was divided into Herbeds or disciples, Mobeds
or masters, and Destur Mobeds or complete masters. The last-named were
alone entitled to read the liturgies of Ormuzd; they alone predicted the
future and carried the sacred _costi_, or girdle, _havan_, or cup, and
_barsom_, or bunch of twigs. The Zend word _baresma_ is supposed to be
connected with Brahma, or sacred element, of which the symbol was a
bunch of kusa grass, generally called veda. The Persian and Hindu
religions are further connected by the ceremony called Homa in the one
and Soma in the other. Haug, in his _Tract on the Origin of Brahmanism_
(quoted by Muir, _ubi supra_), maintains that the division in the _Zend
Avesta_ of the followers of Ahura Mazda into Atharvas, Rathaesvas, and
Vastrya was precisely equivalent to the three superior Indian castes. He
also asserts that only the sons of priests (Atharvas) could become
priests, a rule still in force among the Parsis. The Book of Daniel
rather suggests that the Magi were an elective body; and as regards the
secular classes there does not seem to be a trace of hereditary
employment or religious subordination. There is a legend in the Dabistan
of a great conqueror, Mahabad, who divided the Abyssinians into the
usual four castes; and Strabo mentions a similar classification of the
Iberians into kings, priests, soldiers, husbandmen and menials.

At one time it was the universal opinion that in Egypt there were at
least two great castes, priests and warriors, the functions of which
were transmitted from father to son, the minor professions grouped under
the great castes being also subject to hereditary transmission. This
opinion was held by Otfried Müller,[25] Meiners of Göttingen, and
others. Doubts were first suggested by Rossellini, and after Champollion
had deciphered the hieroglyphic inscriptions, J.J. Ampère[26] boldly
announced that there were in Egypt no castes strictly so called; that in
particular the professions of priest, soldier, judge, &c., were not
hereditary; and that the division of Egyptian society was merely that
which is generally found in certain stages of social growth between the
liberal professions and the mechanical arts and trades. No difference of
colour, or indeed of any feature, has been observed in the monumental
pictures of the different Egyptian castes. From an inspection of
numerous tombs, sarcophagi, and funeral stones, which frequently
enumerate the names and professions of several kinsfolk of the deceased,
Ampère concluded that sacerdotal and military functions were sometimes
united in the same person, and might even be combined with civil
functions; that intermarriage might certainly take place between the
sacred and military orders; and that the members of the same natural
family did frequently adopt the different occupations which had been
supposed to be the exclusive property of the castes. The tombs of Beni
Hassan show in a striking manner the Egyptian tendency to accumulate,
rather than to separate, employments. Occasionally families were set
apart for the worship of a particular divinity. An interesting "section"
of Egyptian society is afforded by a granite monument preserved in the
museum at Naples. Nine figures in bas-relief represent the deceased, his
father, three brothers, a paternal uncle, and the father and two
brothers of his wife. Another side contains the mother, wife, wife's
mother and maternal aunts. The deceased is described as a military
officer and superintendent of buildings; his elder brother as a priest
and architect; his third brother as a provincial governor, and his
father as a priest of Ammon. The family of the wife is exclusively
sacerdotal. Egyptian caste, therefore, permitted two brothers to be of
different castes, and one person to be of more castes than one, and of
different castes from those to which his father or wife belonged. The
lower employments, commerce, agriculture, even medicine, are never
mentioned on the tombs. The absolute statements about caste in Egypt,
circulated by such writers as Reynier and De Goguet, have, no doubt,
been founded on passages in Herodotus (ii. 143, 164), who mentions seven
classes, and makes war an hereditary profession; in Diodorus Siculus (i.
2-8), who mentions five classes and a hereditary priesthood; and in
Plato, who, anxious to illustrate the principle of compulsory division
of labour, on which his republic was based, speaks in the _Timaeus_ of a
total separation of the six classes--priests, soldiers, husbandmen,
artisans, hunters and shepherds. Heeren (ii. 594) does not hesitate to
ascribe the formation of Egyptian caste to the meeting of different
races. According to the chronology constructed by Bunsen the division
into castes began in the period 10,000-9000, and was completed along
with the introduction of animal worship and the improvement of writing
under the third dynasty in the 6th or 7th century of the Old Empire. The
Scholiast of Apollonius Rhodius, on the authority of Dicaearchus, in the
Second Book of _Hellas_, mentions a king, Sesonchosis, who, about 3712
B.C., "enacted that no one should abandon his father's trade, for this
he considered as leading to avarice." Bunsen conjectures that this may
refer to Sesostoris, the lawgiver of Manetho's third or Memphite
dynasty, the eighth from Menes, who introduced writing, building with
hewn stone, and medicine; possibly, also, to Sesostris, who, Aristotle
says (_Polit._ vii. 1), introduced caste to Crete. He further observes
that in Egypt there was never a conquered indigenous race. There was one
nation with one language and one religion; the public panegyrics
embraced the whole people; every Egyptian was the child and friend of
the gods. The kings were generally warriors, and latterly adopted into
the sacerdotal caste. Intermarriage was the rule, except between the
swineherds and all other classes. "Every shepherd is an abomination unto
the Egyptians" (Gen. xlvi. 34).

  The comprehensive essay by Sir H.H. Risley in the introductory volume
  of the Indian Census Report for 1901 is the best recent account of
  caste in India. See also, besides the works mentioned in the text, Sir
  Denzil Ibbetson's _Report on the Punjab Census_ (1881); W. Cropke,
  _Things Indian_ (1905) and other books by this author on Indian
  religion and caste; Senart, _Les Castes dans l'Inde_ (1896); Jogendra
  Nath Bhattacharya, _Hindu Castes and Sects_ (1896). There is an
  interesting chapter on the subject in Sidney Low's _Vision of India_
  (1906). See also INDIA, INDIAN LAW, and HINDUISM.


FOOTNOTES:

  [1] _History of Rise and Progress of the English Constitution_, i.
    332.

  [2] Stubbs' _Constitutional History of England_, i. p. 162.

  [3] _History of Peru_, i. 143.

  [4] _Rapport sur les différentes classes de chefs dans la nouvelle
    Espagne_ (1840), p. 223.

  [5] Something like this is to be found in the Russian notion of
    _chin_, or status according to official hierarchy of ranks, as
    modified by the custom of _myestnichestvo_, by which no one entering
    the public service could be placed beneath a person who had been
    subject to his father's orders. Hereditary nobility at one time
    belonged to every servant, military or civil, above a certain rank,
    and a family remaining out of office for two generations lost its
    rights of nobility; but in 1854 the privilege was confined to army
    colonels and state councillors of the 4th class. At one time,
    therefore, the _razryadniya knighi_, or special registers, superseded
    by Peter the Great's _barkhatnaya kniga_, or Velvet Book, contained a
    complete code of social privilege and precedence. Peter's "_tabel o
    rangakh_" contained fourteen classes. The subject is treated of in
    the 1600 articles of the ninth volume of the Russian Code _Svod
    Zakonov_. The Russian Nobility, though deprived of their exemptions
    from conscription, personal taxation and corporal punishment, still
    retain many advantages in the public service.

  [6] Juarros, _Hist. of Guatemala_, Tr. (London, 1823).

  [7] _Life and Essays of H.T. Colebrooke_, i. p. 104.

  [8] _History of India_.

  [9] "The crudities and cruelties of the caste system need not blind
    us to its other aspects. There is no doubt that it is the main cause
    of the fundamental stability and contentment by which Indian society
    has been braced up for centuries against the shocks of politics and
    the cataclysms of Nature. It provides every man with his place, his
    career, his occupation, his circle of friends. It makes him, at the
    outset, a member of a corporate body: it protects him through life
    from the canker of social jealousy and unfulfilled aspirations; it
    ensures him companionship and a sense of community with others in
    like case with himself. The caste organization is to the Hindu his
    club, his trade union, his benefit society, his philanthropic
    society. An Indian without caste, as things stand at present, is not
    quite easy to imagine." (Sidney Low, _Vision of India_, 1906, ch. xv.
    p. 263).

  [10] Muir's _Sanskrit Texts_, vol. i. (1868).

  [11] _Ideen_, i. 610.

  [12] The idea of a conquering white race is strangely repeated in the
    later history of India. The Rajputs and Brahmans are succeeded by the
    Mussulmans, the Turks, the Afghans. There was an aristocracy of
    colour under the Mogul dynasty. But under an Indian climate it could
    not last many generations. The Brahmans of southern India were as
    black as the lowest castes; the Chandalas are said to be descended
    from Brahmans. According to Manu the Chandala must not dwell within
    town; his sole wealth must be dogs and asses; his clothes must
    consist of the mantles of deceased persons; his dishes must be broken
    pots. Surely this vituperative description must apply to an
    aboriginal race.

  [13] _Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft_, Band
    i. (quoted by Muir, _ubi supra_).

  [14] _De Origine Castarum_ (Göttingen).

  [15] _History of India_, vol. i. (1867-1871).

  [16] For a characteristic appreciation of caste see Comte, _Cours de
    philosophic positive_, vi. c. 8. He regards the hereditary
    transmission of functions under the rule of a sacerdotal class as a
    necessary and universal stage of social progress, greatly modified by
    war and colonization. The morality of caste was, he contends, an
    improvement on what preceded; but its permanence was impossible,
    because "the political rule of intelligence is hostile to human
    progress." The seclusion of women and the preservation of industrial
    inventions were features of caste; and the higher priests were also
    magistrates, philosophers, artists, engineers, and physicians.

  [17] _De la religion_, ii. 8.

  [18] The great mass of the Brahmans were in reality mendicants, who
    lived on the festivals of birth, marriage, and death, and on the
    fines exacted for infractions of caste rule. Others had
    establishments called Muths, endowed with Jagir villages. There were
    two distinct orders of officiating priests--the Purohita, or family
    priest, who performed all the domestic rites, and probably gave
    advice in secular matters, and the Guru, who is the head of a
    religious sect, making tours of superintendence and exaction, and
    having the power to degrade from caste and to restore. In some cases
    the Guru is recognized as the Mehitra or officer of the caste
    assembly, from whom he receives Huks, or salary, and an exemption
    from house and stamp taxes, and service as begarree (Steele's _Law
    and Customs of Hindoo Castes within the Dekhan Provinces_, 1826;
    later edition, 1868). Expulsion from caste follows on a number of
    moral offences (e.g. assault, murder, &c.), as well as ceremonial
    offences (e.g. eating prohibited food, eating with persons of lower
    caste, abstaining from funeral rites, having connexion with a
    low-caste woman). Exclusion means that it is not allowed to eat with
    or enter the houses of the members of the caste, the offender being
    in theory not degraded but dead. For some heinous offences, i.e.
    against the express letter of the Shasters, no readmission is
    possible. But generally this depends on the ability of the out-caste
    to pay a fine, and to supply the caste with an expiatory feast of
    sweetmeats. He has also to go through the Sashtanyam, or prostration
    of eight members, and to drink the Panchakaryam, i.e. drink of the
    five products of the cow (_Description of People of India_, Abbé J.A.
    Dubois, Missionary in Mysore, Eng. Trans., London, 1817; edition by
    Pope, Madras, 1862).

  [19] _Manu_. x. 88-90.

  [20] Wheeler ii. 533.

  [21] _Travels of Fah Hian_, c. 27.

  [22] Strabo, _Ind._ sec. 59.

  [23] Arrian, _Indic._ c. 11, 12; Diod. Sic. ii. c. 40, 41; and Strabo
    xv. 1.

  [24] Irving, _Theory and Practice of Caste_ (London, 1859).

  [25] _Manual of Archaeology_.

  [26] _Revue des deux mondes_, 15th September 1848.



CASTEL, LOUIS BERTRAND (1688-1757), French mathematician, was born at
Montpellier on the 11th of November 1688, and entered the order of the
Jesuits in 1703. Having studied literature, he afterwards devoted
himself entirely to mathematics and natural philosophy. He wrote several
scientific works, that which attracted most attention at the time being
his _Optique des couleurs_ (1740), or treatise on the melody of colours.
He endeavoured to illustrate the subject by a _clavecin oculaire_, or
ocular harpsichord; but the treatise and the illustration were quickly
forgotten. He also wrote _Mathématique universelle_ (1728) and _Traité
de physique sur la pesanteur universelle des corps_ (1724). He also
published a critical account of the system of Sir Isaac Newton in French
in 1743.



CASTELAR Y RIPOLL, EMILIO (1832-1899), Spanish statesman, was born at
Cadiz on the 8th of September 1832. At the age of seven he lost his
father, who had taken an active part in the progressist agitations
during the reign of Ferdinand VII., and had passed several years as an
exile in England. He attended a grammar-school at Sax. In 1848 he began
to study law in Madrid, but soon elected to compete for admittance at
the school of philosophy and letters, where he took the degree of doctor
in 1853. He was an obscure republican student when the Spanish
revolutionary movement of 1854 took place, and the young liberals and
democrats of that epoch decided to hold a meeting in the largest theatre
of the capital. On that occasion Castelar delivered his maiden speech,
which at once placed him in the van of the advanced politicians of the
reign of Queen Isabella. From that moment he took an active part in
politics, radical journalism, literary and historical pursuits. Castelar
was compromised in the first rising of June 1866, which was concerted by
Marshal Prim, and crushed, after much bloodshed, in the streets by
Marshals O'Donnell and Serrano. A court-martial condemned him _in
contumaciam_ to death by "garote vil," and he had to hide in the house
of a friend until he escaped to France. There he lived two years until
the successful revolution of 1868 allowed him to return and enter the
Cortes for the first time--as deputy for Saragossa. At the same time he
resumed the professorship of history at the Madrid university. Castelar
soon became famous by his rhetorical speeches in the Constituent Cortes
of 1869, where he led the republican minority in advocating a federal
republic as the logical outcome of the recent revolution. He thus gave
much trouble to men like Serrano, Topete and Prim, who had never
harboured the idea of drifting into advanced democracy, and who had each
his own scheme for re-establishing the monarchy with certain
constitutional restrictions. Hence arose Castelar's constant and
vigorous criticisms of the successive plans mooted to place a
Hohenzollern, a Portuguese, the duke of Montpensier, Espartero and
finally Amadeus of Savoy on the throne. He attacked with relentless
vigour the short-lived monarchy of Amadeus, and contributed to its
downfall.

The abdication of Amadeus led to the proclamation of the federal
republic. The senate and congress, very largely composed of monarchists,
permitted themselves to be dragged along into democracy by the
republican minority headed by Salmeron, Figueras, Pi y Margall and
Castelar. The short-lived federal republic from the 11th of February
1873 to the 3rd of January 1874 was the culminating point of the career
of Castelar, and his conduct during those eleven months was much praised
by the wiser portion of his fellow-countrymen, though it alienated from
him the sympathies of the majority of his quondam friends in the
republican ranks.

Before the revolution of 1868, Castelar had begun to dissent from the
doctrines of the more advanced republicans, and particularly as to the
means to be employed for their success. He abhorred bloodshed, he
disliked mob rule, he did not approve of military _pronunciamientos_.
His idea would have been a parliamentary republic on the American lines,
with some traits of the Swiss constitution to keep in touch with the
regionalist and provincialist inclinations of many parts of the
peninsula. He would have placed at the head of his commonwealth a
president and Cortes freely elected by the people, ruling the country in
a liberal spirit and with due respect for conservative principles,
religious traditions and national unity. Such a statesman was sure to
clash with the doctrinaires, like Salmeron, who wanted to imitate French
methods; with Pi y Margall, who wanted a federal republic after purely
Spanish ideas of decentralization; and above all with the intransigent
and gloomy fanatics who became the leaders of the cantonal insurrections
at Cadiz, Seville, Valencia, Malaga and Cartagena in 1873.

At first Castelar did his best to work with the other republican members
of the first government of the federal republic. He accepted the post of
minister for foreign affairs. He even went so far as to side with his
colleagues, when serious difficulties arose between the new government
and the president of the Cortes, Señor Martos, who was backed by a very
imposing commission composed of the most influential conservative
members of the last parliament of the Savoyard king, which had
suspended its sittings shortly after proclaiming the federal republic.
A sharp struggle was carried on for weeks between the executive and this
commission, at first presided over by Martos, and, when he resigned, by
Salmeron. In the background Marshal Serrano and many politicians and
military men steadily advocated a _coup d'état_ in order to avert the
triumph of the republicans. The adversaries of the executive were
prompted by the captain-general of Madrid, Pavia, who promised the
co-operation of the garrison of the capital. The president, Salmeron,
and Marshal Serrano himself lacked decision at the last moment, and lost
time and many opportunities by which the republican ministers profited.
The federal republicans became masters of the situation in the last
fortnight of April 1873, and turned the tables on their adversaries by
making a pacific bloodless _pronunciamiento_.

The battalions of the militia that had assembled in the bull-ring near
Marshal Serrano's house to assist the anti-democratic movement were
disarmed, and their leaders, the politicians and generals, were allowed
to escape to France or Portugal. The Cortes were dissolved, and the
federal and constituent Cortes of the republic convened, but they only
sat during the summer of 1873, long enough to show their absolute
incapacity, and to convince the executive that the safest policy was to
suspend the session for several months.

This was the darkest period of the annals of the Spanish revolution of
1873-1874. Matters got to such a climax of disorder, disturbance and
confusion, from the highest to the lowest strata of Spanish society,
that the president of the executive, Figueras, deserted his post and
fled the country. Pi y Margall and Salmeron, in successive attempts to
govern, found no support in the really important and influential
elements of Spanish society. Salmeron had even to appeal to such
well-known reactionary generals as Pavia, Sanchez, Bregna and Moriones,
to assume the command of the armies in the south and in the north of
Spain. Fortunately these officers responded to the call of the
executive. In less than five weeks a few thousand men properly handled
sufficed to quell the cantonal risings in Cordoba, Sevilla, Cadiz and
Malaga, and the whole of the south might have been soon pacified, if the
federal republican ministers had not once more given way to the pressure
of the majority of the Cortes, composed of "Intransigentes" and radical
republicans. The president, Salmeron, after showing much indecision,
resigned, but not until he had recalled the general in command in
Andalusia, Pavia. This resignation was not an unfortunate event for the
country, as the federal Cortes not only made Castelar chief of the
executive, though his partisans were in a minority in the Parliament,
but they gave him much liberty to act, as they decided to suspend the
sittings of the house until 2nd January 1874. This was the turning-point
of the Spanish revolution, as from that day the tide set in towards the
successive developments that led to the restoration of the Bourbons.

On becoming the ruler of Spain at the beginning of September 1873,
Castelar at once devoted his attention to the reorganization of the
army, whose numbers had dwindled down to about 70,000 men. This force,
though aided by considerable bodies of local militia and volunteers in
the northern and western provinces, was insufficient to cope with the
60,000 Carlists in arms, and with the still formidable nucleus of
cantonalists around Alcoy and Cartagena. To supply the deficiencies
Castelar called out more than 100,000 conscripts, who joined the colours
in less than six weeks. He selected his generals without respect of
politics, sending Moriones to the Basque provinces and Navarre at the
head of 20,000 men, Martinez Campos to Catalonia with several thousand,
and Lopez Dominguez, the nephew of Marshal Serrano, to begin the land
blockade of the last stronghold of the cantonal insurgents, Cartagena,
where the crews of Spain's only fleet had joined the revolt.

Castelar next turned his attention to the Church. He renewed direct
relations with the Vatican, and at last induced Pope Pius IX. to approve
his selection of two dignitaries to occupy vacant sees as well as his
nominee for the vacant archbishopric of Valencia, a prelate who
afterwards became archbishop of Toledo, and remained to the end a close
friend of Castelar. He put a stop to all persecutions of the Church and
religious orders, and enforced respect of Church property. He attempted
to restore some order in the treasury and administration of finance,
with a view to obtain ways and means to cover the expense of the three
civil wars, Carlist, cantonal and Cuban. The Cuban insurgents gave him
much trouble and anxiety, the famous _Virginius_ incident nearly leading
to a rupture between Spain and the United States. Castelar sent out to
Cuba all the reinforcements he could spare, and a new governor-general,
Jovellar, whom he peremptorily instructed to crush the mutinous spirit
of the Cuban militia, and not allow them to drag Spain into a conflict
with the United States. Acting upon the instructions of Castelar,
Jovellar gave up the filibuster vessels, and those of the crew and
passengers who had not been summarily shot by General Burriel. Castelar
always prided himself on having terminated this incident without too
much damage to the prestige of Spain.

At the end of 1873 Castelar had reason to be satisfied with the results
of his efforts, with the military operations in the peninsula, with the
assistance he was getting from the middle classes and even from many of
the political elements of the Spanish revolution that were not
republican. On the other hand, on the eve of the meeting of the federal
Cortes, he could indulge in no illusions as to what he had to expect
from the bulk of the republicans, who openly dissented from his
conservative and conciliatory policy, and announced that they would
reverse it on the very day the Cortes met. Warnings came in plenty, and
no less a personage than the man he had made captain-general of Madrid,
General Pavia, suggested that, if a conflict arose between Castelar and
the majority of the Cortes, not only the garrison of Madrid and its
chief, but all the armies in the field and their generals, were disposed
to stand by the president. Castelar knew too well what such offers meant
in the classic land of _pronunciamientos_, and he refused so flatly that
Pavia did not renew his advice. The sequel is soon told. The Cortes met
on the 2nd of January 1874. The intransigent majority refused to listen
to a last eloquent appeal that Castelar made to their patriotism and
common sense, and they passed a vote of censure. Castelar resigned. The
Cortes went on wrangling for a day and night until, at daybreak on the
3rd of January 1874, General Pavia forcibly ejected the deputies, closed
and dissolved the Cortes, and called up Marshal Serrano to form a
provisional government.

Castelar kept apart from active politics during the twelve months that
Serrano acted as president of the republic. Another _pronunciamiento_
finally put an end to it in the last week of December 1874, when
Generals Campos at Sagunto, Jovellar at Valencia, Primo de Rivera at
Madrid, and Laserna at Logroño, proclaimed Alphonso XII. king of Spain.
Castelar then went into voluntary exile for fifteen months, at the end
of which he was elected deputy for Barcelona. He sat in all subsequent
parliaments, and just a month before his death he was elected as
representative of Murcia. During that period he became even more
estranged from the majority of the republicans. Bitter experience had
shown him that their federal doctrines and revolutionary methods could
lead to nothing in harmony with the aspirations of the majority of
Spaniards. He elected, to use his own words, to defend and to seek the
realization of the substance of the programme of the Spanish revolution
of 1868 by evolution, and legal, pacific means. Hence the contrast
between his attitude from 1876 to 1886, during the reign of Alphonso
XII., when he stood in the front rank of the Opposition to defend the
reforms of that revolution against Señor Canovas, and his attitude from
1886 to 1891. In this latter period Castelar acted as a sort of
independent auxiliary of Sagasta and of the Liberal party. As soon as
Castelar saw universal suffrage re-established he solemnly declared in
the Cortes that his task was accomplished, his political mission at an
end, and that he proposed to devote the remainder of his life to those
literary, historical, philosophical, and economic studies which he had
never neglected even in the busiest days of his political career.
Indeed, it was his extraordinary activity and power of assimilation in
such directions that allowed him to keep his fellow-countrymen so well
informed of what was going on in the outer world. His literary and
journalistic labours occupied much of his time, and were his chief means
of subsistence. He left unfinished a history of Europe in the 19th
century. The most conspicuous of his earlier works were:--_A History of
Civilization in the First Five Centuries of Christianity_,
_Recollections of Italy_, _Life of Lord Byron_, _The History of the
Republican Movement in Europe_, _The Redemption of Slaves_, _The
Religious Revolution_, _Historical Essays on the Middle Ages_, _The
Eastern Question_, _Fra Filippo Lippi_, _History of the Discovery of
America_, and some historical novels. Castelar died near Murcia on the
25th of May 1899, at the age of 66. His funeral at Madrid was an
imposing demonstration of the sympathy and respect of all classes and
parties.     (A. E. H.)



CASTELFRANCO NELL' EMILIA, a town of Emilia, Italy, in the province of
Bologna, 16 m. N.W. by rail from the town of Bologna. Pop. (1901) 3163
(town), 13,484 (commune). The churches contain some pictures by later
Bolognese artists. Just outside the town is a massive fort erected by
Urban VIII. in 1628, on the frontier of the province of Bologna, now
used as a prison. Castelfranco either occupies or lies near the site of
the ancient Forum Gallorum, a place on the Via Aemilia between Mutina
and Bononia, where in 43 B.C. Octavian and Hirtius defeated Mark Antony.



CASTELFRANCO VENETO, a town and episcopal see of Venetia, Italy, in the
province of Treviso, 16 m. W. by rail from the town of Treviso. Pop.
(1901) 5220 (town), 12,551 (commune). The older part of the town is
square, surrounded by medieval walls and towers constructed by the
people of Treviso in 1218 (see CITTADELLA). It was the birthplace of the
painter Giorgio Barbarelli (Il Giorgione, 1477-1512), and the cathedral
contains one of his finest works, the Madonna with SS. Francis and
Liberalis (1504), in the background of which the towers of the old town
may be seen.



CASTELL, EDMUND (1606-1685), English orientalist, was born in 1606 at
Tadlow, in Cambridgeshire. At the age of fifteen he entered Emmanuel
College, Cambridge, but afterwards changed his residence to St John's,
on account of the valuable library there. His great work was the
compiling of his _Lexicon Heptaglotton Hebraicum, Chaldaicum, Syriacum,
Samaritanum, Aethiopicum, Arabicum, et Persicum_ (1669). Over this book
he spent eighteen years, working (if we may accept his own statement)
from sixteen to eighteen hours a day; he employed fourteen assistants,
and by an expenditure of £12,000 brought himself to poverty, for his
lexicon, though full of the most unusual learning, did not find
purchasers. He was actually in prison in 1667 because he was unable to
discharge his brother's debts, for which he had made himself liable. A
volume of poems dedicated to the king brought him preferment. He was
made prebendary of Canterbury and professor of Arabic at Cambridge.
Before undertaking the _Lexicon Heptaglotton_, Castell had helped Dr
Brian Walton in the preparation of his Polyglott Bible. His MSS. he
bequeathed to the university of Cambridge. He died in 1685 at Higham
Gobion, Bedfordshire, where he was rector.

  The Syriac section of the _Lexicon_ was issued separately at Göttingen
  in 1788 by J.D. Michaelis, who offers a tribute to Castell's learning
  and industry. Trier published the Hebrew section in 1790-1792.



CASTELLAMMARE DI STABIA (anc. _Stabiae_), a seaport and episcopal see of
Campania, Italy, in the province of Naples, 17 m. S.E. by rail from the
town of Naples. Pop. (1901) town, 26,378; commune, 32,589. It lies in
the south-east angle of the Bay of Naples, at the beginning of the
peninsula of Sorrento, and owing to the sea and mineral water baths (12
different springs) and its attractive situation, with a splendid view of
Vesuvius and fine woods on the hills behind, it is a favourite resort of
foreigners in spring and autumn and of Neapolitans in summer. The castle
from which it takes its name, on the hill to the south of the town, was
built by the emperor Frederick II. There are three large churches of the
late 18th century. There are a large royal dockyard and a small-arms
factory; there are also iron works, cotton, flour and macaroni mills.
The value of imports (chiefly coal, wheat, scrap-iron and cheese) for
1904 was £1,239,048, and the value of exports (chiefly macaroni and
green fruit) £769,100. There is also a sponge trade, but the former
coral trade is depressed. The port was cleared by 420 vessels of 477,713
tonnage in 1905. An electric tramway along the coast road to Sorrento
was opened in 1905.



CASTELLESI, ADRIANO (c. 1460?-c. 1521?), known also as CORNETO from his
birthplace, Italian cardinal and writer, was sent by Innocent VIII. to
reconcile James III. of Scotland with his subjects. While in England he
was appointed (1503), by Henry VII., to the see of Hereford, and in the
following year to the more lucrative diocese of Bath and Wells, but he
never resided in either. Returning to Rome, he became secretary to
Alexander VI. and was made by him cardinal (May 31, 1503). A man of
doubtful reputation, Alexander's confidant and favourite, he paid the
pope a large sum for his elevation. He bought a _vigna_ in the Borgo
near the Vatican, and thereon erected a sumptuous palace after designs
by Bramante; and it was here, in the summer of 1503, that he entertained
the pope and Cesare Borgia at a banquet that went on till nightfall
despite the unhealthy season of the year, when ague in its most
malignant form was rife. Of the three, Cardinal Adrian was the first to
fall ill, the pope succumbing a week after. The story of the poisoning
of the pope is to be relegated to the realm of fiction. Soon after the
election of Leo X. the cardinal was implicated in the conspiracy of
Cardinal Petrucci against the pope, and confessed his guilt; but, pardon
being offered only on condition of the payment o£ 25,000 ducats, he fled
from Rome and was subsequently deposed from the cardinalate. As early as
1504 he had presented his palace (now the Palazzo Giraud-Torlonia) to
Henry VII. as a residence for the English ambassador to the Holy See;
and on his flight Henry VIII., who had quarrelled with him, gave it to
Cardinal Campeggio. Adrian first fled to Venice. Of his subsequent
history nothing is known for certain. It is said that he was murdered by
a servant when on his way to the conclave that elected Adrian VI. As a
writer, he was one of the first to restore the Latin tongue to its
pristine purity; and among his works are _De Vera Philosophia ex quatuor
doctoribus ecclesiae_ (Bologna, 1507), _De Sermone Latino_ (Basel,
1513), and a poem, _De Venatione_ (Venice, 1534).

  See Polydore Vergil, _Anglicae historiae_, edited by H. Ellis (London,
  1844); and A. Aubéry, _Histoire générale des cardinaux_ (Paris, 1642).
  (E. Tn.)



CASTELLI, IGNAZ FRANZ (1781-1862), Austrian dramatist, was born at
Vienna on the 6th of March 1781. He studied law at the university, and
then entered the government service. During the Napoleonic invasions his
patriotism inspired him to write stirring war songs, one of which,
_Kriegslied für die österreichische Armee_, was printed by order of the
archduke Charles and distributed in thousands. For this Castelli was
proclaimed by Napoleon in the _Moniteur_, and had to seek refuge in
Hungary. In 1815 he accompanied the allies into France as secretary to
Count Cavriani, and, after his return to Vienna, resumed his official
post in connexion with the estates of Lower Austria. In 1842 he retired
to his property at Lilienfeld, where, surrounded by his notable
collections of pictures and other art treasures, he for the rest of his
life devoted himself to literature. Castelli's dramatic talent was
characteristically Austrian; his plays were well constructed and
effective and satirized unsparingly the foibles of the Viennese. But his
wit was too local and ephemeral to appeal to any but his own generation,
and if he is remembered at all to-day it is by his excellent _Gedichte
in niederösterreichischer Mundart_ (1828). He died at Lilienfeld on the
5th of February 1862.

  Castelli's _Gesammelte Gedichte_ appeared in 1835 in 6 vols.; a
  selection of his _Werke_ in 1843 in 15 vols. (2nd ed., 1848), followed
  by 6 supplementary volumes in 1858. His autobiography, _Memoiren
  meines Lebens_, appeared in 1861-1862 in 4 vols.



CASTELLO, BERNARDO (1557-1629), Genoese portrait and historical painter,
born at Albaro near Genoa, was the intimate friend of Tasso, and took
upon himself the task of designing the figures of the _Gerusalemme
Liberata_, published in 1592; some of these subjects were engraved by
Agostino Caracci. Besides painting a number of works in Genoa, mostly in
a rapid and superficial style, Castello was employed in Rome and in the
court of the duke of Savoy.



CASTELLO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1500?-1569?), Italian historical painter,
was born near Bergamo in 1500 or perhaps 1509, and is hence ordinarily
termed Il Bergamasco. He belongs, however, to the school of Genoa, but
does not appear to have had any family relationship with the other two
painters named Castello, also noticed here. He was employed to decorate
the Nunziata di Portoria in Genoa, the saloon of the Lanzi Palace at
Gorlago, and the Pardo Palace in Spain. His best-known works are the
"Martyrdom of St Sebastian," and the picture of "Christ as Judge of the
World" on one of the vaultings of the Annunziata. He was an architect
and sculptor as well as painter. In 1567 he was invited to Madrid by
Philip II., and there he died, holding the office of architect of the
royal palaces. The date of death (as of birth) is differently stated as
1569 or 1579.



CASTELLO, VALERIO (1625-1659), Italian painter, was the youngest son of
Bernardo Castello (q.v.). He surpassed his father, and particularly
excelled in painting battle-scenes. He painted the "Rape of the
Sabines," now in the Palazzo Brignole, Genoa, and decorated the cupola
of the church of the Annunziata in the same city. In these works he is
regarded by his admirers as combining the fire of Tintoretto with the
general style of Paolo Veronese.



CASTELLO BRANCO, CAMILLO, VISCONDE DE CORREIA BOTELHO (1825-1890),
Portuguese novelist, was born out of wedlock and lost his parents in
infancy. He spent his early years in a village in Traz-os-Montes. He
learnt to love poetry from Camoens and Bocage, while Mendes Pinto gave
him a lust for adventure, but he dreamed more than he read, and grew up
undisciplined and proud. He studied in Oporto and Coimbra with much
irregularity, and since his disdain for the intrigues and miseries of
politics in Portugal debarred him from the chance of a government post,
he entered the career of letters to gain a livelihood. After a spell of
journalistic work in Oporto and Lisbon he proceeded to the Episcopal
seminary in the former city with a view of studying for the priesthood,
and during this period wrote a number of religious works and translated
Chateaubriand. He actually took minor orders, but his restless nature
prevented him from following one course for long and he soon returned to
the world, and henceforth kept up a feverish literary activity to the
end. He was created a viscount in 1885 in recognition of his services to
letters, and when his health finally broke down and he could no longer
use his pen, parliament gave him a pension for life. When, having lost
his sight, and suffering from chronic nervous disease, he died by his
own hand in 1890, it was generally recognized that Portugal had lost the
most national of her modern writers.

Apart from his plays and verses, Castello Branco's works may be divided
into three sections. The first comprises his romances of the
imagination, of which _Os mysterios de Lisboa_, in the style of Victor
Hugo, is a fair example. The second includes his novels of manners, a
style of which he was the creator and remained the chief exponent until
the appearance of _O Crime de Padre Amaro_ of Eça de Queiroz. In these
he is partly idealist and partly realist, and describes to perfection
the domestic and social life of Portugal in the early part of the 19th
century. The third division embraces his writings in the domain of
history, biography and literary criticism. Among these may be cited
_Noites de Lamego_, _Cousas leves e pesadas_, _Cavar em ruinas_,
_Memorias do Bispo do Grão Para_ and _Bohemia do Espirito_.

In all, his publications number about two hundred and sixty, belonging
to many departments of letters, but he owes his great and lasting
reputation to his romances. Notwithstanding the fact that his slender
means obliged him to produce very rapidly to the order of publishers,
who only paid him from £30 to £60 a book, he never lost his
individuality under the pressure. Knowing the life of the people by
experience and not from books, he was able to fix in his pages a
succession of strongly marked and national types, such as the
_brazileiro_, the old _fidalgo_ of the north, and the Minho priest,
while his lack of personal acquaintance with foreign countries and his
relative ignorance of their literatures preserved him from the
temptation, so dangerous to a Portuguese, of imitating the classical
writers of the larger nations. Among the most notable of his romances
are _O Romance de un Homem Rico_, his favourite, _Retrato de Ricardina,
Amor de Perdição_, and the magnificent series entitled _Novellas do
Minho_. Many of his novels are autobiographical, like _Onde está a
felicidade_, _Memorias do Carcere_ and _Vingança_. Castello Branco is an
admirable story-teller, largely because he was a brilliant
improvisatore, but he does not attempt character study. Nothing can
exceed the richness of his vocabulary, and no other Portuguese author
has shown so profound a knowledge of the popular language. Though nature
had endowed him with the poetic temperament, his verses are mediocre,
but his best plays are cast in bold lines and contain really dramatic
situations, while his comedies are a triumph of the grotesque, with a
mordant vein running through them that recalls Gil Vicente.

  The collected works of Camillo Castello Branco are published by the
  Companhia Editora of Lisbon, and his most esteemed books have had
  several editions. The _Diccionario Bibliographico Portuguez_, vol. ix.
  p. 7 et seq., contains a lengthy but incomplete list of his
  publications. See _Romance do Romancista_, by A. Pimentel, a badly put
  together but informing biography; also a study on the novelist by J.
  Pereira de Sampaio in _A Geração Nova_ (Oporto, 1886); Dr Theophilo
  Braga, _As Modernas Ideias na litteratura Portugueza_ (Oporto, 1892);
  Padre Senna Freitas, _Perfil de Camillo Castello Branco_ (S. Paulo,
  1887); and Paulo Osorio, _Camillo, a sua vida, o seu genio, a sua
  obra_ (Oporto, 1908).     (E. Pr.)



CASTELLO BRANCO, an episcopal city and the capital of an administrative
district formerly included in the province of Beira, Portugal; 1560 ft.
above the sea, on the Abrantes-Guarda railway. Pop. (1900) 7288.
Numerous Roman remains bear witness to the antiquity of Castello Branco,
but its original name is unknown. The city is dominated by a ruined
castle, and partly enclosed by ancient walls; its chief buildings are
the cathedral and episcopal palace. Cloth is manufactured, and there is
a flourishing local trade in cork, wine and olive oil. The
administrative district of Castello Branco, which comprises the valleys
of the Zezere, Ocreza and Ponsul, right-hand tributaries of the Tagus,
coincides with the south-eastern part of Beira; pop. (1900) 216,608;
area, 2382 sq. m.



CASTELLÓN DE LA PLANA, a maritime province of eastern Spain, formed in
1833 of districts formerly included in Valencia, and bounded on the N.
by Teruel and Tarragona, E. by the Mediterranean Sea, S. by Valencia,
and W. by Teruel. Pop. (1900) 310,828; area, 2495 sq. m. The surface of
the province is almost everywhere mountainous, and flat only near the
coast and along some of the river valleys. Even on the coast the
Atalayas de Alcalá and the Desierto de las Palmas form two well-defined
though not lofty ridges. The Mijares or Millares is the principal river,
flowing east-south-east from the highlands of Teruel, between the
Sierras of Espina and Espadan towards the south, and the peak called
Peña Golosa (5945 ft.) towards the north, until it reaches the sea a
little south of the capital, also called Castellón de la Plana. The
Monlleo, a left-hand tributary of the Mijares; the Bergantes, which
flows inland to join the Guadalope in Teruel; the Cenia, which divides
Castellón from Tarragona; and a variety of lesser streams, render the
province abundantly fertile. No considerable inlet breaks the regularity
of the coast-line, and there is no first-class harbour. The climate is
cold and variable in the hilly districts, temperate in winter and very
warm in summer in the lowlands. Agriculture, fruit-growing, and
especially the cultivation of the vine and olive, employ the majority of
the peasantry; stock-farming and sea-fishing are also of importance.
Lead, zinc, iron and other ores have been discovered in the province;
but in 1903, out of 129 mining concessions registered, only two were
worked, and their output, lead and zinc, was quite insignificant. The
local industries are mainly connected with fish-curing, paper,
porcelain, woollens, cotton, silk, esparto, brandy and oils. Wine,
oranges and oil are exported to foreign countries and other parts of
Spain. The important Barcelona-Valencia railway skirts the coast,
passing through the capital; and the Calatayúd-Sagunto line crosses the
southern extremity of the province. Elsewhere the roads, which are
generally indifferent, form the sole means of communication. Castellón
(29,904), Villarreal (16,068), the port of Burriana (12,962), and
Peñiscola (3142), a town of some historical interest, are described in
separate articles. The other chief towns are Alcalá de Chisbert (6293),
Almazora (7076), Benicarló (7251), Maella (7335), Onda (6595), Segorbe
(7045), Vail de Uxó (8643), Villafamés (6708) and Vinaroz (8625).



CASTELLÓN DE LA PLANA, the capital of the province described above, on
the Barcelona-Valencia railway, 4 m. from the Mediterranean Sea. Pop.
(1900) 29,904. The broad and fertile plain in which Castellón is built
is watered artificially by a Moorish aqueduct, largely cut through the
solid rock, and supplied by the estuary of the Mijares, 5 m. south-east.
The town is partly encircled by ancient walls; and, although most of its
public buildings are modern, it contains several convents of early
foundation, a curious old bell-tower, 150 ft. high, and a parish church
chiefly noteworthy for a painting in the interior by Francisco Ribalta,
who was born here in the middle of the 16th century. Castellón has a
brisk trade, its manufactures comprising porcelain, leather, silk,
linen, brandy and cork goods. Its harbour, El Gráo de Castellón, about 4
m. east, is annually entered by some 200 small vessels. A light railway,
which traverses the numerous and profitable orange plantations on the
south-west, connects it with the towns of Almazora, Villarreal, Burriana
and Onda. Under its Moorish rulers Castellón occupied a hill to the
north of its present site; its removal to the plain by James I. of
Aragon (1213-1276) gave the town its full name, "Castellón of the
Plain."



CASTELNAU, MICHEL DE, SIEUR DE LA MAUVISSIÈRE (c. 1520-1592), French
soldier and diplomatist, ambassador to Queen Elizabeth, was born in
Touraine about 1520. He was one of a large family of children, and his
grandfather, Pierre de Castelnau, was equerry to Louis XII. Endowed with
a clear and penetrating intellect and remarkable strength of memory, he
received a careful education, to complete which he travelled in Italy
and made a long stay at Rome. He then spent some time in Malta,
afterwards entered the army, and made his first acquaintance with war in
the campaigns of the French in Italy. His abilities and his courage won
for him the friendship and protection of the cardinal of Lorraine, who
took him into his service. In 1557 a command in the navy was given to
him, and the cardinal proposed to get him knighted. This, however, he
declined, and then rejoined the French army in Picardy. Various delicate
missions requiring tact and discretion were entrusted to him by the
constable de Montmorency, and these he discharged so satisfactorily that
he was sent by the king, Henry II., to Scotland with despatches for Mary
Stuart, then betrothed to the dauphin (afterwards Francis II.). From
Scotland he passed into England, and treated with Queen Elizabeth
respecting her claims on Calais (1559), a settlement of which was
effected at the congress of Cateau-Cambrésis. He was next sent as
ambassador to the princes of Germany, for the purpose of prevailing upon
them to withdraw their favour from the Protestants. This embassy was
followed by missions to Margaret of Parma, governess of the Netherlands,
to Savoy, and then to Rome, to ascertain the views of Pope Paul IV. with
regard to France. Paul having died just before his arrival, Castelnau
used his influence in favour of the election of Pius IV. Returning to
France, he once more entered the navy, and served under his former
patron. It was his good fortune, at Nantes, to discover the earliest
symptoms of the conspiracy of Amboise, which he immediately reported to
the government.

After the death of Francis II. (December 1560) he accompanied the queen,
Mary Stuart, to Scotland, and remained with her a year, during which
time he made several journeys into England, and attempted to bring about
a reconciliation between Mary and Queen Elizabeth. The wise and moderate
counsels which he offered to the former were unheeded. In 1562, in
consequence of the civil war in France, he returned there. He was
employed against the Protestants in Brittany, was taken prisoner in an
engagement with them and sent to Havre, but was soon after exchanged. In
the midst of the excited passions of his countrymen, Castelnau, who was
a sincere Catholic, maintained a wise self-control and moderation, and
by his counsels rendered valuable service to the government. He served
at the siege of Rouen, distinguished himself at the battle of Dreux,
took Tancarville, and contributed in 1563 to the recapture of Havre from
the English.

During the next ten years Castelnau was employed in various important
missions:--first to Queen Elizabeth, to negotiate a peace; next to the
duke of Alba, the new governor of the Netherlands. On this occasion he
discovered the project formed by the prince of Condé and Admiral Coligny
to seize and carry off the royal family at Monceaux (1567). After the
battle of St Denis he was again sent to Germany to solicit aid against
the Protestants; and on his return he was rewarded for his services with
the post of governor of Saint-Dizier and a company of orderlies. At the
head of his company he took part in the battles of Jarnac and
Moncontour. In 1572 he was sent to England by Charles IX. to allay the
excitement created by the massacre of St Bartholomew, and the same year
he was sent to Germany and Switzerland. Two years later he was
reappointed by Henry III. ambassador to Queen Elizabeth, and he remained
at her court for ten years. During this period he used his influence to
promote the marriage of the queen with the duke of Alençon, with a view
especially to strengthen and maintain the alliance of the two countries.
But Elizabeth made so many promises only to break them that at last he
refused to accept them or communicate them to his government. On his
return to France he found that his château of La Mauvissière had been
destroyed in the civil war; and as he refused to recognize the authority
of the League, the duke of Guise deprived him of the governorship of
Saint-Dizier. He was thus brought almost to a state of destitution. But
on the accession of Henry IV., the king, who knew his worth, and was
confident that although he was a Catholic he might rely on his fidelity,
gave him a command in the army, and entrusted him with various
confidential missions.

Castelnau died at Joinville in 1592. His _Mémoires_ rank very high among
the original authorities for the period they cover, the eleven years
between 1559 and 1570. They were written during his last embassy in
England for the benefit of his son; and they possess the merits of
clearness, veracity and impartiality. They were first printed in 1621;
again, with additions by Le Laboureur, in 2 vols. folio, in 1659; and a
third time, still further enlarged by Jean Godefroy, 3 vols. folio, in
1731. Castelnau translated into French the Latin work of Ramus, _On the
Manners and Customs of the Ancient Gauls_. Various letters of his are
preserved in the Cottonian and Harleian collections in the British
Museum.

His grandson, JACQUES DE CASTELNAU (1620-1658), distinguished himself in
the war against Austria and Spain during the ministries of Richelieu and
Mazarin, and died marshal of France.

  See Hubault, _Ambassade de Castelnau en Angleterre_ (1856); _Relations
  politiques de la France ... avec l'Écosse au seizième siècle_, edited
  by J.B.A.T. Teulet (1862); and De la Ferrière, _Les Projets de mariage
  d'Elisabeth_ (1883).



CASTELNAUDARY, a town of south-western France, capital of an
arrondissement in the department of Aude, 22 m. W.N.W. of Carcassonne,
on the Southern railway between that city and Toulouse. Pop. (1906)
6650. It is finely situated on an elevation in the midst of a fertile
and well-cultivated plain; and its commercial facilities are greatly
increased by the Canal du Midi, which widens out, as it passes the town,
into an extensive basin surrounded with wharves and warehouses for the
timber used in the upkeep of the canal. The principal buildings are the
law court, the hôtel de ville, and the church of St Michel, dating from
the 14th century; none of these offers any feature of unusual interest.
There are a number of flour-mills, as well as manufactories of
earthenware, tiles and blankets; an extensive trade is maintained in
lime, gypsum, timber, grain, fruits, wine, wool, cattle and farm
implements, and the building of canal boats forms an important industry.
The public institutions include the sub-prefecture, tribunals of first
instance and of commerce, a communal college and a farm school.

Castelnaudary probably represents the ancient town of _Sostomagus_,
taken during the 5th century by the Visigoths, who, it is conjectured,
rebuilt the town, calling it _Castrum Novum Arianorum_, whence the
present name. Early in the 13th century the town was the scene of
several struggles during the war against the Albigenses, between Simon
IV., count of Montfort, and Raymond VI., count of Toulouse, and their
supporters. In 1229 it was deprived of its ramparts, and after these had
been rebuilt, it was captured and burned by the Black Prince in 1355,
but again rebuilt in 1366. In 1632 it was the scene of a cavalry
engagement in which the rebel Henry II., duke of Montmorency, was
defeated and captured by the royal troops.



CASTELSARRASIN, a town of south-western France, capital of an
arrondissement in the department of Tarn-et-Garonne, 12 m. W. of
Montauban on the Southern railway. Pop. (1906) town, 3189; commune,
7496. Castelsarrasin, situated on the left bank of the lateral canal of
the Garonne and about a mile from the right bank of that river, is
surrounded by promenades occupying the site of the old fortifications.
Its chief building is the brick-built church of St Sauveur, which dates
from the 13th century. The administrative buildings are modern. The town
has a sub-prefecture, a tribunal of first instance, and a communal
college. The principal industrial establishment is the metal-foundry of
Sainte-Marguerite, where copper, tin and other metals are worked; there
are also flour-mills, saw-mills and dye-works. Trade is in cattle,
agricultural produce, wine, baskets and game.

The name Castelsarrasin appears in the 13th century, when the village of
Villelongue was replaced by the present bastide. Castrum Cerrucium,
Castel-sur-Azine (from the neighbouring stream, Azine) and Castellum
Sarracenum are suggested derivations, no one of which can be adopted
with certainty.



CASTI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA (1721-1803), Italian poet, was born of humble
parents at Montefiascone, in the states of the church, in 1721. He rose
to the dignity of canon in the cathedral of his native place, but gave
up his chance of church preferment to satisfy his gay and restless
spirit by visiting most of the capitals of Europe. In 1782, on the death
of Metastasio, he was appointed _Poeta Cesario_, or poet-laureate of
Austria, in which capacity he applied himself with great success to the
opera bouffe; but in 1796 he resigned this post, in order that he might
not be hampered by political relations; and he spent the close of his
life as a private gentleman at Paris, where he died in 1803. Casti is
best known as the author of the _Novelle galanti_, and of _Gli Animali
parlanti_, a poetical allegory, over which he spent eight years
(1794-1802), and which, notwithstanding its tedious length, excited so
much interest that it was translated into French, German and Spanish,
and (very freely and with additions) into English, in W.S. Rose's _Court
and Parliament of Beasts_ (Lond., 1819). Written during the time of the
Revolution in France, it was intended to exhibit the feelings and hopes
of the people and the defects and absurdities of various political
systems. The _Novelle Galanti_ is a series of poetical tales, in the
_ottava rima_--a metre largely used by Italian poets for that class of
compositions. The sole merit of these poems consists in the harmony and
purity of the style, and the liveliness and sarcastic power of many
passages. They are, however, characterized by the grossest
licentiousness; and there is no originality of plot--that, according to
the custom of Italian novelists, being taken from classical mythology or
other ancient legends. Among the other works of Casti is the _Poema
Tartaro_, a mock-heroic satire on the court of Catherine II., with which
he was personally acquainted.



CASTIGLIONE, BALDASSARE (1478-1529), Italian diplomatist and man of
letters, was born at Casanatico near Mantua, and was educated at Milan
under the famous professors Merula and Chalcondyles. In 1496 he entered
the service of Lodovico Sforza, duke of Milan, returning to Mantua in
1500 when Lodovico was carried prisoner into France. In 1504 he was
attached to the court of Guidobaldo Malatesta, duke of Urbino, and in
1506 he was sent by that prince on a mission to Henry VII. of England,
who had before conferred on Federigo Malatesta, "the Good Duke," the
most famous mercenary of his age, the order of the Garter. Guidobaldo
dying childless in 1508, the duchy of Urbino was given to Francesco
Maria della Rovere, for whom Castiglione, envoy at the court of Leo X.
(Medici), obtained the office of generalissimo of the Papal troops.
Charged with the arrangement of the dispute between Clement VII.
(Medici) and Charles V., Castiglione crossed, in 1524, into Spain, where
he was received with highest honours, being afterwards naturalized, and
made bishop of Avila. In 1527, however, Rome was seized and sacked by
the Imperialists under Bourbon, and in July of the same year the
surrender of the castle of Sant' Angelo placed Clement in their hands.
Castiglione had been tricked by the emperor, but there were not wanting
accusations of treachery against himself. He had, however, placed
fidelity highest among the virtues of his ideal "courtier," and when he
died at Toledo in 1529 it was said that he had died of grief and shame
at the imputation. The emperor mourned him as "one of the world's best
cavaliers." A portrait of him, now at the Louvre, was painted by
Raphael, who disdained neither his opinion nor his advice.

Castiglione wrote little, but that little is of rare merit. His verses,
in Latin and Italian, are elegant in the extreme; his letters (Padua,
1769-1771) are full of grace and finesse. But the book by which he is
best remembered is the famous treatise, _Il Cortegiano_, written in
1514, published at Venice by Aldus in 1528, and translated into English
by Thomas Hoby as early as 1561. This book, called by the Italians _Il
Libra d'oro_, and remarkable for its easy force and undemonstrative
elegance of style no less than for the nobility and manliness of its
theories (see the edition by V. Cian, Florence, 1894), describes the
Italian gentleman of the Renaissance under his brightest and fairest
aspect, and gives a charming picture of the court of Guidobaldo da
Montefeltre, duke of Urbino, "confessedly the purest and most elevated
court in Italy." In the form of a discussion held in the duchess's
drawing-room--with Elizabetta Gonzaga, Pietro Bembo, Bernardo Bibbiena,
Giuliano de' Medici, Emilia Pia, and Ceretino the Unique among the
speakers--the question, What constitutes a perfect courtier? is debated.
With but few differences, the type determined on is the ideal gentleman
of the present day.

  See P.L. Ginguené, _Histoire littéraire de l'Italie_, vi., vii.; J.A.
  Symonds, _The Renaissance in Italy_ (London, 1875); C. Hare, _Courts
  and Camps of the Italian Renaissance_ (1908); Julia Cartwright, _B.
  Castiglione, the Perfect Courtier_ (1908), with good bibliography.



CASTIGLIONE, CARLO OTTAVIO, COUNT (1784-1849), Italian philologist, was
born at Milan of an ancient family. His principal work was done in
connexion with the Arabic and other Oriental languages, but he also
performed good service in several other departments. In 1819 he
published _Monete cufiche del Museo di Milano_, and assisted Cardinal
Mai in his _Ulphilae partium ineditarum in Ambrosianis palimpsestis
repertarum editio_. A learned _Mémoire géographique et numismatique sur
la partie orientale de la Barbarie appelée Afrikia par les Arabes_
appeared in 1826, and established his reputation. In 1829 he published
by himself the Gothic version of the second epistle of Paul to the
Corinthians; and this was followed by the Gothic version of the epistle
to the Romans, the first epistle to the Corinthians, and the epistle to
the Ephesians in 1834, by Galatians, Philippians, and 1 Thessalonians in
1835, and by 2 Thessalonians in 1839. He died at Genoa on the 10th of
April 1849.

  His _Life_, by Biondelli, appeared at Milan in 1856.



CASTIGLIONE, GIOVANNI BENEDETTO (1616-1670), called in Italy Il
Grechetto, and in France Le Benédette, Italian painter of the Genoese
school, was born in Genoa, and studied for some time under Vandyck. He
painted portraits, historical pieces and landscapes, but chiefly
excelled in fairs, markets and rural scenes with animals. Noah and the
animals entering the Ark was a favourite subject of his. His paintings
are to be found in Rome, Venice, Naples, Florence, and more especially
Genoa and Mantua. He also executed a number of etchings, which are
spirited, free and full of taste; "Diogenes searching for a Man" is one
of the principal of these. The etchings are remarkable for light and
shade, and have even earned for Castiglione the name of "a second
Rembrandt." The _Presepio_ (Nativity of Jesus) in the church of San
Luca, Genoa, ranks among his most celebrated paintings, and the Louvre
contains eight characteristic examples. In his closing years he lived in
Mantua, painting for the court; here he received his name of
"Grechetto," from the classic air of his pastorals, and here he died of
gout in 1670. His brother Salvatore and his son Francesco excelled in
the same subjects; and it is thought that many paintings which are
ascribed to Benedetto are only copies after him, or perhaps originals by
his son or brother.



CASTIGLIONE DELLE STIVIERE, a town of Lombardy, Italy, in the province
of Mantua, 20 m. N.W. of Mantua by road. Pop. (1901) 4122 (town), 5940
(commune). It has an old castle, much altered and restored, especially
by the Gonzaga family of Mantua in the 16th century. During the War of
the Spanish Succession, the French under the duke of Vendôme occupied
it; and during the siege of Mantua in 1796, the Austrians under Würmser
were defeated here by the French under Augereau, who was later created
by Napoleon duke of Castiglione.



CASTIGLIONE OLONA, a town of Lombardy, Italy, in the province of Como,
27 m. N.E. of Milan by rail. Pop. (1901) 1806. The choir of the
collegiate church, erected about 1428 by Cardinal Branda Castiglione,
contains fine frescoes by Masolino of Florence: there are other works by
the same master in the baptistery. The tomb of the cardinal (1443) is
good. The church of S. Sepolcro, in the lower part of the town, has two
large stone figures of saints on its façade (of the end of the 13th
century) and, within, painted wooden figures and the tomb of Guido
Castiglione (d. 1485) with fine sculptures of the school of Amadeo. The
palace erected by Cardinal Castiglione has good terra-cotta decorations.



CASTILE, or CASTILLE (_Castilla_), an ancient kingdom of Spain,
occupying the central districts of the Iberian Peninsula; and bounded on
the N. by the Bay of Biscay, N.E. by the Basque Provinces and Navarre,
E. by Aragon, S.E. by Valencia and Murcia, S. by Andalusia, W. by
Estremadura and Leon, and N.W. by Asturias. Pop. (1900) 3,708,713; area,
55,307 sq. m. The name _Castile_ is commonly said to be derived from the
numerous frontier forts (_castillos_) erected in the middle ages as a
defence against the Moors. The northern part of the kingdom, which was
first freed from Moorish rule, is called Old Castile (_Castilla la
Vieja_); the southern, acquired later, is called New Castile (_Castilla
la Nueva_). These two divisions, with a third known as North Castile,
now rank as military districts or captaincies-general; but the term
"North Castile," which covers the northern extremity of Old Castile, is
not generally used. In 1833 Old Castile was divided into the provinces
of Ávila, Burgos, Logroño, Palencia, Santander, Segovia, Soria and
Valladolid; while New Castile was similarly divided into Ciudad Real,
Cuenca, Guadalajara, Madrid and Toledo. The modern progress of commerce,
communications, &c. in these thirteen provinces is described in the
separate articles upon each of them.

Castile extends for about 300 m. from north to south, and 160 m. from
east to west. It consists of a vast central plateau, with an average
altitude of about 2500 ft. This plateau has a natural frontier of high
mountains on all sides, except on the borders of Leon and Murcia; it is
also bisected by the Sierra de Guadarrama and Sierra de Grédos, which
extend in a south-westerly direction across the central districts, and
form the dividing line between Old and New Castile. Geographically it
includes also the high plains of Leon, towards the north-west, and of
Murcia on the south-east. The existing frontier is marked on the north
by the Cantabrian Mountains (q.v.); on the east by the Sierra de la
Demanda with its offshoots, and by the Serrania de Cuenca; on the south
by the Sierra Morena; and on the west by various minor ranges which link
together the three more or less parallel chains of the Sierra de Grédos,
Sierra de Guadalupe and Sierra Morena. Three great rivers, the Douro,
which traverses Old Castile, with the Tagus and Guadiana, which
respectively drain the central and southern regions of New Castile, flow
westward into Portugal, and finally reach the Atlantic; while the Ebro,
which rises in the north of the kingdom, skirts the north-eastern
frontier on its way to the Mediterranean. These rivers are described
under their own names.

The climate of Old Castile is healthy, but liable to severe cold and
heat. Snow falls early and lies late in the mountains, and there is a
heavy rainfall in the north-west. New Castile has a still more rigorous
climate, for although the mean annual temperature is about 59° Fahr.,
the summer heat in the valleys is peculiarly oppressive, and the
highlands are swept by scorching or icy gales, laden with dust. The
rainfall rarely exceeds 10 in. in a year.

In both the Castiles the central plateau has a naturally fertile soil,
for after rain a luxuriant vegetation appears; but drought is common,
owing to the insufficient volume of the rivers, and the failure of the
Spaniards to extend the fine system of irrigation which the Moors
originated. Certain districts, indeed, in which a layer of heavy loam
underlies the porous and friable surface, are able to retain the
moisture which elsewhere is absorbed. Such land is found in Palencia,
and in the Mesa de Ocaña, where it yields abundant crops; and many of
the northern mountains are well wooded. But vast tracts of land are
useless except as pasture for sheep, and even the sheep are driven by
the severe winters to migrate yearly into Estremadura (q.v.). The normal
Castilian landscape is an arid and sterile steppe, with scarcely a tree
or spring of water; and many even of the villages afford no relief to
the eye, for they are built of sunburnt unbaked bricks, which share the
dusty brownish-grey tint of the soil. Especially characteristic is the
great plain of La Mancha (q.v.).

The transformation of Castile from a small county in the north of what
is now Old Castile into an independent monarchy, was one of the decisive
events in the reconquest of Spain from the Moors. The successful
resistance offered by Asturias to the invaders had been followed by the
liberation of Galicia and Leon, when Ferdinand I. of Castile
(1035-1065), by his marriage with Sancha, widow of the last king of
Leon, was enabled to unite Leon and Castile in a single kingdom, with
its capital at Burgos. New territories were annexed on the south, until,
after the capture of Toledo in 1085, and the consequent formation of a
New Castile, the kingdom comprised the whole of central Spain.
Thenceforward its history is inseparable from that of the whole country;
and it is therefore described in full, together with the language and
literature of Castile, under SPAIN (q.v.).

Castilian, which is the literary language of Spain, and with certain
differences, of Spanish America, is spoken in Old and New Castile,
Aragon, Estremadura, and the greater part of Leon; in Andalusia it is
subject to various modifications of accent and pronunciation. As there
is little, if any, difference of racial origin, character and physical
type, among the inhabitants of this region, except in Andalusia, and, to
a less extent, in Estremadura, the Castilian is justly regarded as the
typical Spaniard. Among the Castilian peasantry, where education and
foreign influence have never penetrated deeply, the national character
can best be studied. Its intense pride, its fatalistic indolence and
ignorance, its honesty and its bigotry, tempered by a keen sense of
humour, are well-known characteristics. Apart from the peasant class,
Castilians have contributed more to the development of Spanish art and
literature than the inhabitants of any other region except, perhaps,
Andalusia, which claims to be regarded as supreme in architecture and
painting. Of the two great Spanish universities, Alcalá de Henares
belonged in all respects to Castile, and Salamanca rose to equality with
Paris, Oxford or Bologna, under the purely Castilian influence of
Alphonso X. (1252-1284).

  For a general description of Castile and its inhabitants, antiquities,
  commerce, &c., see _Castillo la Nueva_, three illustrated volumes in
  the series _España_, by J.M. Quadrado and V. de la Fuente (Barcelona,
  1885-1886), and the _Guia del antiguo reino de Castilla_, by E.
  Valverde y Alvarez (Madrid, 1886), which deals with the provinces of
  Burgos, Santander, Logroño, Soria, Ávila and Segovia. For the history,
  see in addition to the works cited under SPAIN (section _History_),
  _Cronicas de los reyes de Castilla_, by C. Rosell (Madrid, 1875-1877,
  2 vols.); _Coleccion de las cronicas y memorias de los reyes de
  Castilla_ (Madrid, 1779-1787, 7 vols.); and _Historia de las
  communidades de Castilla_ (Madrid, 1897).



CASTILHO, ANTONIO FELICIANO DE (1800-1875), Portuguese man of letters,
was born at Lisbon. He lost his sight at the age of six, but the
devotion of his brother Augusto, aided by a retentive memory, enabled
him to go through his school and university course with success; and he
acquired an almost complete mastery of the Latin language and
literature. His first work of importance, the _Cartas de Echo e Narciso_
(1821), belongs to the pseudo-classical school in which he had been
brought up, but his romantic leanings became apparent in the _Primavera_
(1822) and in _Amor e Melancholia_ (1823), two volumes of honeyed and
prolix bucolic poetry. In the poetic legends _A noite de Castello_
(1836) and _Cuimes do bardo_ (1838) Castilho appeared as a full-blown
Romanticist. These books exhibit the defects and qualities of all his
work, in which lack of ideas and of creative imagination and an
atmosphere of artificiality are ill compensated for by a certain
emotional charm, great purity of diction and melodious versification.
Belonging to the didactic and descriptive school, Castilho saw nature as
all sweetness, pleasure and beauty, and he lived in a dreamland of his
imagination. A fulsome epic on the succession of King John VI. brought
him an office of profit at Coimbra. On his return from a stay in
Madeira, he founded the _Revista Universal Lisbonense_, in imitation of
Herculano's _Panorama_, and his profound knowledge of the Portuguese
classics served him well in the introduction and notes to a very useful
publication, the _Livraria Classica Portugueza_ (1845-1847, 25 vols.),
while two years later he established the "Society of the Friends of
Letters and the Arts." A study on Camoens and treatises on metrification
and mnemonics followed from his pen. His praiseworthy zeal for popular
instruction led him to take up the study of pedagogy, and in 1850 he
brought out his _Leitura Repentina_, a method of reading which was named
after him, and he became government commissary of the schools which were
destined to put it into practice. Going to Brazil in 1854, he there
wrote his famous "Letter to the Empress." Though Castilho's lack of
strong individuality and his over-great respect for authority prevented
him from achieving original work of real merit, yet his translations of
Anacreon, Ovid and Virgil and the _Chave do Enigma_, explaining the
romantic incidents that led to his first marriage with D. Maria de
Baena, a niece of the satirical poet Tolentino, and a descendant of
Antonio Ferreira, reveal him as a master of form and a purist in
language. His versions of Goethe's _Faust_ and Shakespeare's _Midsummer
Night's Dream_, made without a knowledge of German and English, scarcely
added to his reputation. When the Coimbra question arose in 1865,
Garrett was dead and Herculano had ceased to write, leaving Castilho
supreme, for the moment, in the realm of letters. But the youthful
Anthero de Quental withstood his claim to direct the rising generation
and attacked his superannuated leadership, and after a fierce war of
pamphlets Castilho was dethroned. The rise of João de Deus reduced him
to a secondary position in the Portuguese Parnassus, and when he died
ten years later much of his former fame had preceded him to the tomb.

  See also "Memorias de Castilho" in the _Instituto_ of Coimbra;
  Innocencio da Silva in _Diccionario bibliographico Portuguez_, i. 130
  and viii. 132: Latino Coelho's study in the _Revista contemporanea de
  Portugal e Brazil_, vols. i. and ii.; Dr Theophilo Braga, _Historia do
  Romantismo_ (Lisbon, 1880).     (E. Pr.)



CASTILLEJO, CRISTÓBAL DE (1490-1556), Spanish poet, was born at Ciudad
Rodrigo in 1490. In 1518 he left Spain with Ferdinand of Austria,
afterwards emperor, whose private secretary he eventually became. While
residing at Vienna in 1528-1530 he wrote the _Historia de Píramo y
Tisbe_, and dedicated it to Anna von Schaumberg, with whom he had a
platonic love-affair. He seems to have visited Venice, to have been
neglected by his patron, to have fallen ill in 1540, and to have passed
his last years in poverty. He died on the 12th of June 1556, and was
buried at Vienna. Castillejo's poems are interesting, not merely because
of their intrinsic excellence, but also as being the most powerful
protest against the metrical innovations imported from Italy by Boscán
and Garcilaso de la Vega. He adheres to the native _quintillas_ or to
the _coplas de pie quebrado_, and only abandons these traditional forms
when he indulges in caustic parody of the new school--as in the lines
_Contra los que dejan los metros castellanos_. He excels by virtue of
his charming simplicity and his ingenious wit, always keen, sometimes
licentious, never brutal. The urbane gaiety of his occasional poems is
delightfully spontaneous, and the cynical humour which informs the
_Diálogo de las condiciones de las mujeres_ and the _Diálogo de la vida
de la corte_ is impregnated with the Renaissance spirit. Cas